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Cargo calculations

The volume of cargo on board can be determined by means of soundings or ullage measurements and calibration tables (tank tables) The purpose of the cargo calculations is to convert the observed volume into weight Calculation of trim, stability, freeboard, shear forces, bending moments is based on weights On the B/L the quantity of cargo is stated as a weight (Metric Tons , Long Tons, Short Tons, Pounds, etc. )

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When making the stowage plan a lot of information has to be gathered, a lot of factors have to be taken into account Cargo calculations are important because they are the link between the available space and the weight to be loaded

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Cargo calculations on board of a gas carrier 4 .

etc. ) . freeboard. Short Tons. Long Tons. Pounds. stability. bending moments is based on weights On the B/L the quantity of cargo is stated as a weight (Metric Tons .Cargo calculations The volume of cargo on board can be determined by means of soundings or ullage measurements and calibration tables (tank tables) The purpose of the cargo calculations is to convert the observed volume into weight Calculation of trim. shear forces.

Cargo calculation maximum filling limits IMO specifies maximum filling limits as follows: Vl = 0. at this temperature liquid and gas are in equilibrium. Liquefied gas is always transported at the boiling temperature. Boiling temperature is determined by the pressure in the tank.98 V dr/dt Vl is the max volume to which the tank can be loaded V is the total volume of the tank Dr is the density of the cargo at ref. highest temperature = smallest density) Dt is the density of the cargo at the loading temperature PS. temperature Reference temperature = boiling temperature at relief valve setting pressure (the highest temperature that can be reached during the voyage. Boiling temperature rises with the pressure and the pressure will never get higher than the relief valve setting. .

582 = 0.582 @ -42°C Vl =0.25+1.25 bar Ref. 1. Saturated Vapour Pressure.98 V 0.25 bara for propane) = -37°5C Density of liquid propane dr = 0.5765 @ -37°5C Density of liquid propane dt = 0.97 V Thus tanks can be filled to 97% . vessel loading propane at –42°C.Cargo calculation maximum filling limits Example: Fully ref.25barg (bar gauge = relative pressure) Absolute pressure: 0. temperature (corresponding to SVP. Relief valves set at 0.5765 / 0.0 = 1.

Gallon = 1 U. Barrel = 1 Imperial Gallon= 1 Cubic feet = 1 Cubic meter = 3.28981 U.54596 Litre 28. Barrel 8 . Barrel = 1 U.S.S.78541 Litre 158.S.S.3169 Litre 6.S.987 Litre 42 U. Gallons 4.Units of volume 1 U.

907185 Metric Ton 2240 Pounds 0.Units of weight 1 Long Ton 1 Short Ton 1 Long Ton 1 Pound = = = = 1.01605 Metric Ton 0.453592 Kilogram 9 .

Units of density Density True is the relation between mass (weight) and volume and apparant density Relative density and specific gravity Litre weight API .

Temperature conversion Degrees Celsius: C° Degrees Fahrenheit: F° Degrees Kelvin: K° 0°C = 32°F & 100°C = 212°F => °F=(°C-32)x 5/9 °C = (°F x 9/5) + 32 11 .

Cargo calculations The relationship between the volume and the mass/weight can be expressed by: Density True density Apparent density Specific gravity Litre weight API gravity 12 .

API. litre weight.) Density and volume change in function of the temperature The weight of a cargo is of course independent of the temperature but the weight in air (apparent weight) the 13 weight in vacuum (true weight) .Cargo calculations The relationship between the volume and the mass or weight can be expressed by the density (specific gravity. relative density etc.

Density Fundamentaly Density: Unit of mass per volume [kg/m3 or kg/litre ] When calculating cargo True density: Weight per unit of volume in vacuum Apparant density: Weight per unit of volume in air 14 .

Mass Mass is the only SI unit not based on the fundamental atomic properties or the speed of light Reference standard is a small platinum cylinder with a mass of 1 kg made in 1880 and kept under inert conditions at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures near Paris 15 .

81m/sec2 16 .81m/sec2 Weight = Mass x 9.Cargo calculations Mass (massa )is a measure of the quantity of material in a body and is constant regardless of geographical location. altitude or atmospheric conditions Weight is the force with which a body is attracted to the earth and varies from place to place with « g ». the acceleration of gravity Standard ???? “g” = 9.

Cargo calculations All commodities are sold by weight and this means weight in air. The term « weight » in general practice has been accepted as being the value secured when an object is weighed in air This weight or « weight in air » is often converted to « weight in vacuum » by the application of an air buoyancy correction (vacuum factor) 17 .

18 .

19 .

Principle of Archimedes Physical law of buoyancy. 20 . stating that any body completely or partially submerged in a fluid (gas or liquid) at rest is acted upon by an upward. discovered by the ancient Greek mathematician and inventor Archimedes. or buoyant. force the magnitude of which is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body.

Principle of Archimedes 21 .

As the ship is loaded. it sinks deeper.Principle of Archimedes A ship that is launched sinks into the ocean until the weight of the water it displaces is just equal to its own weight (). displacing more water. and so the magnitude of the buoyant force continuously matches the weight of the ship and its cargo. 22 .

i. hydrogen) 23 .Principle of Archimedes P = Weight F = Force of Archimedes The ship floats if P = F If P > F => Submarine (ballast) If P < F => Air balloon (hot air or a very light gas f.

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The bathescafe sinks because his own weight (light weight + ballast) > the weight of the water it displaces The Zepplin flies because his own weight (hydrogen gas is very light) < the weight of the air displaces. 25 .

kg/lit).Density and kg/m3 in air Density is defined as « mass per unit volume ». weighed in the absence of air Density varies as temperature changes and is therefore expressed at a specific temperature (15°C) Density is sometimes referred to as « true density » or « density in vacuum » and will consequently give us « true mass » . density is the weight of a unit volume of the substance. expressed in direct terms of mass and volume (kg/m3. In simple language.

Density and kg/m3 in air The conversion between true density and apparent density can be carried out with table 56. m3 Calculations of quantity by means of kg/m3 will give apparent mass (weight) instead of true mass (weight) 27 . The most commonly encountered HC fluids need a negative correction of 1.1 kg/m3.

Specific gravity and API Relative density and (American Petroleum Institute) API-gravity are commonly used in British and American publications. 28 . Relative density replaces the widely known term « specific gravity » which has been formerly used in the oil industry.Relative density.

60/60F 29 .5 API gravity at 60F 131.Relative density.5 Rel. Specific gravity and API Mass of a given volu me of substance at 15C Relative Density15/15C Mass of an equal volume of pure water at 15C Mass of a given volu me of substance at 60F Specific gravity 60/60F Mass of an equal volume of pure water at 60F 141. Dens.

Specific gravity and API True weight a given volu me of substance at 15C Relative Density15/15C True weight equal volume of pure water at 15C True weight a given volu me of substance at 60F Specific gravity 60/60F True weight an equal volume of pure water at 60F 30 .Relative density.

Relative Density – Specific Gravity Apparent Relative Density – Apparent Specific Gravity Relative density 15°/20° = Weight in vacuum of a given volume prod. at 15°C/ Weight in air H2O same volume at 20°C 31 . at 15°C/ Weight in vacuum H2O same volume at 20°C Apparent Relative Density 15°/20° = Weight in air given volume of prod.

grav. 60/60°F to density at 60°F by the following relationship Density substance at 60°F [kg/m3] = spec. spec. grav.i. 60/60°F x 999.) is expressed as a ratio and no physical units are involved.Relative density. It is possible to convert f. grav.04 [kg/m3] (density H2O at 60°F) . Specific gravity and API It should be noted that relative density (spec.

99796 0.56 (60°F) 20 25 50 True Density Apparent density 0.True and apparent density of water at different temperatures T°C 4 15 15.99913 0.99904 0 99823 0.98702 1.99707 0.99805 0.98807 33 .99717 0.99604 0.99888 0.00000 0.

Litre weight Weight in AIR of 1 litre of substance at a given temperature 34 .

5°C = Rel. 60/60°F = Rel. 20/20°C = Rel.99905 ( vacuum factor X litre weight ) / 0. Dens.99707 ( vacuum factor X litre weight ) / 0. Dens. 25/25°C = Rel.99823 ( vacuum factor X litre weight ) / 0. 25/4°C = Rel. Dens.99913 35 . Dens. Dens. Dens. 15/15°C = ( vacuum factor X litre weight ) / 0.00000 ( vacuum factor X litre weight ) / 1. 15.Conversion factors Rel. Dens. 20/4°C = Rel.99903 ( vacuum factor X litre weight ) / 1.00000 ( vacuum factor X litre weight ) / 0.5/15.

00122 1.00108 1. vacuum factors Liter weight 1.00161 36 .9 Liter weight 0.Approx.7 - 1.0 Liter weight 0.8 Liter weight 0.00139 1.

ASTM 54 .LPG 37 .

Volume and density corrections Weight = volume x density Only true if volume and density are known at the same temperature 3 solutions 1) Correct the volume to the temperature of the density VCF = Volume correction factor Volume correction to 60°F or 15°C 2) Correct density to the temperature of the volume DCC = Density correction per degree centigrade 3) Correct both to the same reference temperature. 60°F or 15 °C 38 .

Volume and density corrections Both factors are based on the same physical phenomenon. Fluids or solids expand when heated but the mass or weight remains unchanged => the density decreases Relation between change in temperature and change in volume is expressed by the coefficient of volume expansion 39 .

Relation between density and temperature Coefficient of volumetric expansion is not linear – see curve. Curve is described by the ASTM-VCF tables. For a small temperature range curve can be replaced by tangent line. Inclination of this line is better known as the DCC coefficient DCC = Density correction per degree 40 centigrade .

00079 0.00114 0.00063 0.00070 0.Examples of DCC factors Acetone Caustic Ethanol Glycerine i-pentane Latex Soda (50%) - 0.00100 41 .00097 0.

**Volume correction factor
**

The

VCF factor (VCF) converts a volume or a density of a fluid at ambient temperature to a reference or standard temperature (15°C or 60°F) VCF factors are published in special tables – ASTM-tables

ASTM

= American Standards on Technical Measurements

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Example ASTM tables

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ASTM tables

Table No Table 5A Table 5B Table 5D Description Correction of observed API gravity to API gravity at 60°F (gen. crude oils) Correction of observed API gravity to API gravity at 60°F (gen. Products) Correction of observed API gravity to API gravity at 60°F (gen. Lub. Oils) Correction of volume to 60°F against API gravity at 60°F (gen. crude oils) Correction of volume to 60°F against API gravity at 60°F (gen. products) VCF for individual and special applications Correction of volume to 60°F against API gravity at 60°F (gen. lub. oils)

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Table 6A

Table 6B Table 6C Table 6D

products) VCF for individual and special applications 45 .ASTM tables Table No Table 23A Table 23B products) Table 24A Table 24B Table 24C Description Correction of observed relative density to relative density 60/60°F (sen. crude oils) Correction of volume to 60°F against relative density 60/60°F (gen. crude oils) Correction of observed relative density to relative density 60/60°F (gen. Correction of volume to 60°F against relative density 60/60°F (gen.

crude oils) Correction of observed density to density at 15°C (gen. products) VCF for individual and special applications Correction of volume to 15°C against density at 15°C (gen. lub. products) Correction of volume to 15°C against density at 15°C (gen.ASTM tables Table No Table 53A Table 53B Table 54B Description Correction of observed density to density at 15°C (gen. oils) Table 54C Table 54D Vol XI and XII contain 58 conversion tables 46 .

EXXON BUNKER COLCULATION TOOL 47 .

Zo bekom je het gross observed volume.Cargo calculations going from total observed volume to weight in air using VCF Met ullage en trim ga je in tanktabellen en vind je het geobserveerde volume. dan komt hier nog een vacuumfactor bij. Dit is zonder rekening te houden met temperatuur of densiteit. Vervolgens doe je een aanpassing voor de temperatuur en de densisteit. We bekomen zo ons volume. Als we nu nog een omzetting naar vacuum moeten doen. 48 . je vindt zo de VCF factor. Vervolgens ga je met trim en dip nog eens in de tabellen en heb je berekend hoeveel water er onder je lading zit. Enkel met vacuum werken als men de hoeveelheden aan de wal bekend maakt. Hiervoor wil niemand betalen en ze wordt dus met het geobserveerde volume vermindert. deze moet je met de gross observed volume vermeerderen. voor de rest verder werken in air.

or semi refrigerated gas carriers temperatures are very low.Cargo calculations on board of a gas carrier Calculations are somewhat different from the calculations on board of an oil. being the floater and the perforated tape (in case of a mechanical ullaging device) 49 .or chemical carrier On board of a fully. These low temperatures have an influence on the volume of the tank itself and on the the ullaging equipment.

Consequently a not negligible part of the cargo is gaseous All the above mentioned facts make a gas calculation somewhat more complicated 50 .Cargo calculations on board of a gas carrier In a loaded gas tank an equilibrium exists between the cargo in the liquid phase and the cargo in the gas phase.

Cargo calculations on board of a gas carrier On discharge one normally retains sufficient cargo on board to keep the tanks cooled fore the next loading quantity loaded/discharged = quantity o/b on arrival .quantity o/b at departure Therefore calculations before AND after every loading or discharge operation 51 .

LNG . transportation and reception facilities LNG-carriers use the boil-off during loaded and ballast voyages as ship’s fuel Commercial quantification is usually done on the basis of the calorific value of the cargo delivered. Calorific calculations are based on liquid volume and density at tank conditions 52 .calculations LNG is traded within long-time projects with dedicated production.

Vapour flow from other shore tanks Liquid vaporisers Vapour return line from the ship => Exact vapour quantity is difficult to calculate. 53 .Shore measurements versus ship measurements Shore tank measurements are not as accurate as ship measurements Shore tanks have a greater cross-section => greater relative error During cargo handling operations a certain pressure has to be maintained in the shore tanks => vapours of different origins can be used.

54 .43 % (only for propane and butane in fully ref. therefore. The weight-in-air of the liquid change in the shore tank is evaluated from measurements before and after transfer and 0. use a simplified approach.Shore measurements versus ship measurements Vapour quantification ashore is difficult Some terminals. condition) of the weight-in-air of the liquid transferred is subtracted or added to account for the vapor weight replacing the liquid transferred.

trade where shore figures are used) Some customs authorities require the ship’s tanks to be calibrated by an approved classification society or by suitable independent cargo surveyors (custody transfer) 55 .Shore measurements versus ship measurements It is common practice to use ship’s figures to determine cargo volumes (contrary to crude or chem.

Shore measurements versus ship measurements On loading it is important to take account of the density of the remaining cargo (liquid heel in each tank). If this is appreciably different from the cargo to be loaded => the density in the tanks after loading may be affected An independent cargo surveyor will be appointed to verify ship & shore volume measurements (ship-shore difference) 56 .

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Cargo calculations on board of a gas carrier Liquefied gas cargoes are carried as boiling liquids in equilibrium with their vapour in closed containment systems The vapour phase above the liquid cargo must be calculated and included in the total cargo quantity 60 .

Quantity of cargo in liquid phase Quantity of cargo in vapour phase 61 .Cargo calculations on board of a gas carrier Total quantity of cargo is equal to the sum of : 1. 2.

Liquid cargo calculation volume determination Innage or sounding is measured on gas tankers. ullage on other tankers .

Mechanically operated float gauges 63 .

Mechanically operated float gauges 64 .

Sonic systems .

Sonic systems .

67 .

Liquid cargo calculation volume determination A calibration table is provided for each cargo tank. no list) Therefore corrections must be applied to obtain a CORRECTED SOUNDING 68 . giving for each sounding the corresponding volume this table has been drawn up under ambient conditions with the vessel being in upright position (no trim.

Liquid cargo calculation volume determination Corrections: temperature corrections Tape correction Float correction not upright ship corrections Trim correction List correction 69 .

Liquid cargo calculation volume determination Low temperatures have an influence on the ullaging equipment. being the floater and the perforated tape (in case of a mechanical ullaging device) the volume of the tank itself 70 .

Liquid cargo calculation volume determination Tape correction or dip correction: The float gauge tape passes through the cold vapour space Depending on the temperature it will contract It will therefore indicate a lower liquid level then actually present Tape correction should be added to the liquid level read 71 .

Liquid cargo calculation volume determination Float correction: The zero of the float gauge is determined by the manufacturer Immersion of the float depends upon the cargo density If cargo temp. and density are different from that assumed by the manufacturer’s zero determination a small correction for float immersion is required 72 .

Liquid cargo calculation volume determination List correction depending on the actual list depending on the position of the liquid indicator on the cargo tank list is indicated in degrees 73 .

liquid level and ships bottom are both horizontal.Liquid cargo calculation volume determination In an upright position. No correction has to be applied 74 .

Liquid cargo calculation volume determination Depending upon the position of the liquid indicator a list correction has to be applied 75 .

Volume in the tank has not changed A B C A’ B’ C’ List = 0° A=B=C List = 5° A’ > A B’ = B C’ < C 76 .

Liquid cargo calculation volume determination Trim correction depending on the trim position of the ship depending on the position of the level indicator on the cargo tank trim is expressed in metres (centimetres) 77 .

the liquid level is parallel to the keel. No trim correction in this condition 78 .Liquid cargo calculation volume determination If the ship is even keel.

**Liquid cargo calculation
**

volume determination

If the ship is not even keel, the horizontal liquid surface is not parallel to the keel anymore. The liquid level will be different depending on the place of measurement

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**Liquid cargo calculation
**

volume determination

Sounding observed actual sounding

list trim Dip or tape correction float

**corrected sounding liquid volume
**

80

**Liquid cargo calculation
**

volume determination

Shrinkage factor:

The cargo tank is calibrated at ambient temperature (mostly 20°C) If cold cargo is loaded, the tank will have a lower temperature and therefore a smaller volume Different corrections are applied to liquid and vapour phases because of different temperatures

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**Liquid cargo calculation
**

volume determination

Liquid volume

x shrinkage factor

actual liquid volume

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**Liquid cargo calculation
**

mass determination

observed sounding

dip and float correction

actual sounding

list and trim correction

corrected sounding

liquid volume at temperature

shrinkage factor

observed volume

ASTM D 1250 - table 54 B VCF correction (old) ASTM D 2598 - table 53 B density at cargo temperature density tables from an official surveyor (f.e. SGS) density at cargo temperature

standard volume x density at 15°C

1

liquid mass

2

liquid mass

83

3

liquid mass

Cargo calculations going from total observed volume to weight in air using VCF .

liquid volume due to low temperatures in the tank. the total tank volume has to be corrected.Vapour cargo calculation volume determination Vapour volume = total tank volume . by using the shrinkage factor for the mean (or weighed ) temperature in the tank 85 .

Used to obtain the shrinkage factor for the complete tank 86 .Weighed average tank temperature Weighed average tank temperature = ((liquid height x liquid temp.) + (gas height x gas temp.))/Total height of the tank.

vapour and liquid are not in equilibrium in the tank therefore gas density cannot be obtained from the tables we will use the ideal gas law and Avogadro’s law 87 .Vapour cargo calculation mass determination Due to cargo operations.

Vapour cargo calculation mass determination Basis: The ideal gas law P1V 1 P 2V 2 T1 T2 The gas in a standard situation (P = 1013mbar en T = 288K) is compared with the gas in the tank atmosphere 88 .

or other specified particles. 6. a standard scientific unit for measuring large quantities of very small entities such as atoms. 89 . which is the number of atoms determined experimentally to be found in 12 grams of carbon-12.0221367 x 1023.Some definitions MOLE = also spelled MOL. in chemistry. molecules. The mole designates an extremely large number of units.

Avogadro proposed that equal volumes of gases under the same conditions contain the same number of molecules. 90 . .MOLE or MOL Carbon-12 was chosen arbitrarily to serve as the reference standard of the mole unit for the International System of Units (SI). or Avogadro's constant. in honour of the Italian physicist Amedeo Avogadro (1776-1856). a hypothesis that proved useful in determining atomic and molecular weights and which led to the concept of the mole. The number of units in a mole also bears the name Avogadro's number.

equal volumes of different gases contain an equal number of molecules.Avrogadro’s law Under the same conditions of temperature and pressure.0221367 x 1023 The volume occupied by one gram-mole of gas is about 22.645l/mol at 15°C or 288K 91 . The volume occupied by 6. 22.4 l at standard temperature and pressure (0°C. 1 atmosphere) and is the same for all gases.4 l/mol at 0°C or 273K becomes 23.

I Dv Ts Tv Ts Pv M m Dv Tv Ps I Purpose = to calculate the vapour density at the observed temperature Starting point = the ideal gas law A volume gas = number of moles X the volume of 1 mole = 22.4l/mol if temp. Ps.Vv Ts Tv Ps 1013mbar Ts 288K (15C) Vs n.n Pv.Vs Pv.M m/Dv M m molecular weight in kg/mol Dv density of the gas M m.645 if temp.645l/mo l Pv absolute pressure in the tanks Tv temperature in the tank expressed in K Vv n.Ps.n. 273K(0°C) or 23.I n aantal mol I 23. 288K A volume gas also = (number of moles x mulecular mass)/ vapour density 92 .

1 kg/kmol 288K 1100mbar 44.645m3 / kmol dv = 2.097kg / kmol dv x x 243K 1013mbar 23.4 kg/m3 93 .1bar relative = 1.1bar absolute Mm = 44.952m3 Temp = -30°C = (273K-30°C = 243K) Pressure = 0.Example Volume vapour in the tank = 29.

Vapour cargo calculation weight determination Vapour volume x vapour density = vapour weight 94 .

cargo calculation weight determination Liquid weight + vapour weight = total cargo weight 95 .

097 511 kg/M3 .5° P -43°C -38°C 59 mbarg 44.temp Gas temp Vapour space pressure Molecular weight Density at 15°C Propane 10.data Product Innage Trim List Liq.Cargo calculations .020 + 2m 0.

893.99791 97 .88M3 9. Shrinkage –43°C Shrinkage –38°C -127mm + 46mm + 1mm 0mm 9.441.75M3 0.Ship’s calibration tables Trim correction List correction Level gauge correction Float immersion correction Corrected innage Volume at calibration temp 100% at calibration temp Volume vapour space at cal.451.940m 5.99773 0. temp.63M3 4.

INNAGE corrections Trim correction Innage –127mm List correction Innage +46mm 98 .

145 6.216.441.88m3 0.52 m3 1.785 T 99 .8 m3 511 kg/ m3 3.Liquid Calculation Liq. temp.99773 5429.176. Shrinkage factor Volume liquid at –43°C VCF –43°C -> 15°C Volume at 15°C Density at 15°C (vac) Mass 5. at cal.vol.

180. at –38° Dens.75 m3 0.389 kg/ m3 10.temp Thermal factor Vol.398 T 0.99775 3.99791 4442.vapour at calib.23 T 100 .187.45 m3 2.Vapour Calculation Vol.613 T 3. at –38°C (see slide) Mass Vapour Total Mass Weight in air factor (ASTM 54) Weight in air 4451.

Vapour density calculation = 2.389 kg/M3 101 .

. this method allows flow rate and density to be continuously recorded at the flow temperature and.Dynamic Flow Measurement Some modern terminals are being equipped with sophisticated liquid and vapour flow metering with associated in-line sampling. mass flow rate can be provided and integrated to give total mass 102 transferred. However. by combining these outputs electronically. The equipment presently is expensive and requires complicated proving arrangements.

Ultrasonic flow measurement 103 .

Quantity calculations on board of LNG carriers The quantity discharged is measured by an ultrasonic flow measurement device Ultrasonic meters have no moving parts.important advantages over conventional mechanical meters such as positive displacement meters (PDs). orifice plates and vortex meters 104 . turbines. they suffer no pressure loss and they provide maintenance-free operation .

The signal travels faster when moving with the flow stream rather than against the flow stream. Measuring principle – Doppler effect 105 . The difference between the two transit times is used to calculate the flow rate.Quantity calculations on board of LNG carriers Ultrasonic flow measurement uses the transit time principle. whereby opposite sending and receiving transducers are used to transmit signals through the flow.

Operating principle 106 .

Custody Transfer Systems on land) • No moving parts => very reliable 107 .Metering Unit on board of the Excalibur • Ultrasonic type flow meter and gas chromatograph • Applied extensively on land based plants (incl.

Gas Chromatography Used to establish chemical composition of the gas and the derived values such as density and caloric value of the sample 108 .

Cargo documentation B/L is the most important cargo document Enables the cargo receiver to assess if the proper quantity has been discharged Before departure from the loading terminal the shipmaster should ensure that the B/L quantities accurately represent the cargo loaded The master should be sure that cargo calculation records made at loading and discharge are properly prepared 109 .

110 .

111 .

112 .

113 .

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The Bill of Lading has three functions. the name of the ship and the name of the cargo receiver. It is: The shipmaster's receipt for cargo loaded A document of title for the cargo described in it Evidence that a Contract of Carriage (such as a voyage charter party) exists 118 . It details the type and quantity of cargo loaded.Bill of Lading A Bill of Lading is a document signed by the shipmaster at the port of loading.

the shipmaster agrees to the quantity of cargo loaded In some circumstances. 119 . By signing the Bill of Lading. the shipmaster may be expected to issue a Letter of Protest at the loading port.Bill of Lading By signing the document. where the Bill of Lading quantities do not match the ship's figure. the shipmaster attests to the apparent good order and condition of the cargo loaded.

Bill of Lading Whoever possesses the Bill of Lading rightfully owns the cargo. Should a cargo be sold before it reaches its destination. 120 . The old practice of issuing three original Bills of Lading has been largely superseded and now it is common to find only one being issued. the Bill of Lading must be endorsed by the original cargo buyer to show the new cargo owner.

as an alternative to presenting the original Bill of Lading to the ship master. Accordingly.Bill of Lading Due to delays in banking or trading chains. a receiver may issue a Letter of Indemnity (LOI) to the ship. 121 . an endorsed original is not always to hand at the discharge port.

B/L 122 .

123 .

Certificate of Quantity A Certificate of Quantity is issued by the loading terminal as. 124 . the shipper and the cargo quantities declared as loaded may be verified by an independent cargo surveyor. However. the quantities as stated on the Bill of Lading remain the official record of the cargo as loaded. The certificate is of assistance to the shipmaster in determining the quantities to be inserted in the Bill of Lading. or on behalf of.

Certificate of Quantity 125 .

126 . Again. It is issued by the loading terminal as. the data contained in the document assists the shipmaster in signing the Bill of Lading. or on behalf of. the shipper or may be issued by an independent cargo inspection service.Certificate of Quality A Certificate of Quality provides the product specification and quality in terms of physical characteristics (such as vapour pressure and density) and component constituents.

Certificate of Quality 127 .

Unlike the previous two certificates. carrier and cargo receiver is similar. It may be required by financial authorities in the importing country so that they may assess import taxes or grants. countersigned by the customs authorities.Certificate of Origin A Certificate of Origin is a document issued by the manufacturer or shipper. 128 . which attests to the country in which the cargo was produced. it is not complementary to or supportive of the Bill of Lading but its distribution to shipper.

129 .

Its purpose is to provide an agreed statement of facts relating to the timing of events and delays during the ship's port call and is used to facilitate demurrage claims.Time Sheet The Time Sheet records all salient port-times. 130 . from a ship's port entry until final departure. The Time Sheet is usually prepared by an independent cargo surveyor or the ship's agent and is checked and countersigned by the shipmaster and the shore terminal.

Time sheet 131 .

NOR 132 .

Cargo Manifest A Cargo Manifest is usually prepared by the ship's agent at the loading port or by the shipmaster and lists all cargoes according to the Bills of Lading. The appropriate preparation of the Cargo Manifest is controlled by the SOLAS & FAL convention. Its purpose is to provide readily available data for customs authorities and ships' agents in the discharge port. 133 .

134 .

135 .Certificate of tank fitness A Certificate of Tank Fitness is usually issued by a specialist chemist from a cargo surveying company and is issued where particular tank cleanliness conditions are required prior to loading.

Certificate of Inhibitor Addition An Inhibitor Information Form is issued by the loading terminal or by the cargo manufacturer. 136 .

Inhibitor addition 137 .

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