THE

MYSTICAL HYMNS
OF

ORPHEUS.

THE

MYSTICAL HYMNS
OF

ORPHEUS.
TRANSLATED FROM THE GREEK,
AND DEMONSTRATED TO BE THE

Enbutations btjiclj ken use8 in t i ~6Iensinian t iRRpstnirs,

BY THOMAS TAYLOR.

-

LONDON:

B E R T R A M DOBELL,
'7'7 CHARING CROSS ROAD, W.C.
AND

REEVES AND TURNER,
WELLINGTON STREET, STRAND.

MDCCCXCVI.

ADVERTISEMENT.

t o the recent edition of Thomas Taylor's translation of cc Iamblichus on the Mysteries of the Egyptians," &c., it was promised that other of Taylor's translations should be reprinted if due encouragement were given t o the enterprise. That work having met with a fair measure of success, the publishers, in fulfilment of their promise, have undertaken the present reprint, which they hope will not be less welcome than the former. " The Mystical Initiations ; or, Hymns of Orpheus," as the work was originally called, was first published in 1787. A second edition, cc with considerable emendations, alterations, and additions," was published in 1824. Of this second edition the present reprint (being the third issue of the work) is an almost exact facsimile. The original was printed at the Chiswick Press, and is a fine specimen of the work of that excellent establishment. It is hoped that the present edition will,

IN the ' Advertisement ' prefixed

As in the case of Iamblichus. . ." the present work is a faithful reprint of the original text without alteration or addition. Duke of Sussex.' bear comparison with the edition of 1824. and his very superior literary attainments.'" . as regards its 'get up.ADVERTISEMENT. It is perhaps worth while to add that the second edition of the book was dedicated to cc Prince Augustus Frederick. as a testimony of the greatest respect for his private and public virtues. .

opyiaaOeis EU 4i~r)Spots. Elvat. which originated from Orpheus.rots ~ P Q K L O ~ A$iao$apw S rcXe~as peraSovros* U S apa Op@evs o KaXXionas Kara T O Dayyatov opos U T O T U S p~~arpos aivuc9eis €@a rav api9pw oucLau ai3iov Iamblicus de Vit. by the second. however. it was promulgated mystically and symbolically . T h a t this theology. enigmatically.INTRODUCTION. indeed. who. THEGrecian theology. a w a i 6c ELQLY ai O p $ i ~ a i sapa3ocecs. was not only promulgated by him. for their transcendent genius. and through images . a yap Op$evs 6i arop- . and scientifically by the third. was derived from Orpheus is clearly testified by those two great philosophic lurninaries Iamblichus l and Proclus 2. By the first of these illustrious men. 135. Pythag. but also by Pythagoras and Plato. For by nepi 9ewv DuSayopas o TU M v q u a p ~ wTOUTO e$epu%ov. will always be ranked by the intelligent among the prodigies of the human race. IIuSayopcios o Tipaios Ererat rats ~u3ayopeiwv apxacs. p.

being initiated by Aglaophemus in the mystic wis- dom which Orpheus derived from his mother Calliope. was delivered by him synoptically. but when. p. then such of his disciples as happened to live when it was thus degraded and deformed found it necessary to unfold it more fully.I v S a y o p a s paE o Yp y i a o b s i s ev A i a ~ 9 p o r ssobs @paxborr. "that what Orpheus delivered mystically through arcane narrations. this theology became corrupted through the negligence and confusion of its votaries. in consequence of the commencement of a degraded and barren period. v. men who. though it was scientifically disseminated by Plato. this Pythagoras learned when he celebrated orgies in the Thracian Libethra. lib. them we are informed. The men by whom this arduous task was accomplished were the last of the disciples of Plato . yet conformably to the custom of the most ancient philosophers. though they lived in a base ~ p~rov Xoywv p v o ~ t r w s ~ ~ U ~ E ~ rW au Kr a E I .viii INTRODUCTION." This sublime theology. in the mountain Pangaeus. 291. and in such a way as to be inaccessible to the vulgar. Proclus in Tim. A y X ~ o # a p o v rehe7as p e s a ~ t 8 o v ~ o s q. .v m p k BEWV QO$LUY papa EaXXtoa~s 77s pvpos ETIVVC~~. in order t o prevent its becoming utterly extinct.

if it be admitted (and i t must by every intelligent reader). are so far from elucidating. and intellect to craft. the following epitome of this theology. to which it is as perfectly foreign and hostile as wisdom is to folly. and who having happily fathomed the depth of their great master's works. that the theology of Orpheus is the same as that of Pythagoras and Plato. that they darken.INTRODUCTION. luminously and copiously developed their recondite meaning. my elucidations of the present mystic hymns are principally derived : for I know of no other genuine sources. because these theories. I n the first place. From this golden chain of philosophers. and pollute the Grecian theology. That the philosophic reader therefore may be convinced of the truth of this observation. and benevolently communicated it in their writings for the general good. is subjoined. ix age. by mingling with i t other systems. this theology celebrates the immense principle of things as . derived from the abovementioned sources. however ingenious they may be. confound. as they have been justly called. possessed a divine genius. Hence I shall not take any notice of the theories of Bryant and Faber and other modern mythological writers .

x INTRODUCTION. But Orpheus. by the former of these names indicating its transcendent simplicity. who transcends the intelligible unities. . H e also denominates the ineffable. and by the latter its subsistence as the object of desire to all beings. Plat. as far as t o the first cause. which is in reality ineffable." And this according t o a wonderful analogy. it even apologizes for attempting to give an appropriate name to this principle. as Proclus well observes 3. 23. e. and ascribes the attempt to the imbecility of human nature. or order of beings. which striving intently to behold it. and does not therefore think fit to connumerate it with any triad. the In. something superior even t o being itself . indicating the generation. gives the appellation of the most simple of its conceptions t o that which is beyond all knowledge and all conception. p. For all things desire good. Time. Hence Plato denominates it the one and the good. of which it is nevertheless ineffably the source . i. Cratyl. as exempt from the whole of things. manifests every thing prior to Heaven (or the intelligible and a t the same time intellectual order) by names. Indeed. " availing himself of the license of fables.

are most vital. Hence the first of bodies. But as there is a difference in things. from the immense principle of all. as Proclus elsewhere observes. yet xara axeasv." And in this way the celebrated Theogony of Orpheus and other Grecian theologists is to be understood. For. and as goodness is union. and the first of beings are Gods. that is. the whole of things. and some are more excellent than others. As the first cause then is the one. the best and the most profoundly united in all its parts which can possibly be conceived : for the Jirst good must be the cause of the greatest good. For as being is the highest . a profound union can no otherwise take place than by the extremity of a superior order coalescing through intimate alliance with the summit of one proximately inferior.INTRODUCTION. through habitude or alliance. xi ineffable evolution into light of all things. and this is the same with the good. though they are essentially corporeal. and this in proportion to their proximity to the first cause. the universality of things must form a whole. the best production must be that which is most united. "where there is generation there also time has a subsistence. or lives. The highest of souls are after this manner intellects.

or according t o participation. That is. Now that which is superessential. or as participated by something else. its first subsistence must be according t o a superessential characteristic. as the object of desire t o intellect. or according to hyparxh. The first of these is analogous to light when viewed subsisting in its fountain the sun . Zfe. the second to the light immediately proceeding from the sun. But in the first being life and intellect subsist according t o cause : for every thing subsists either according to cause. or openly in its own order (or according to what it is). consisting of being. considered as participated by the highest or true being. and the third t o the splendour communicated to other natures by this light. which are the three . The first procession therefore from the first cause will be the intelligible triad. as perfective and connective of its nature. constitutes that which is called intelligible.xii INTRODUCTION. and intellect. and as the plenitude of being itself. as that which is deified. It is divine indeed. but it is intelligible. every thing may be considered either as subsisting occultly in its cause. of things after the$& cause. So that every true being depending on the Gods is a divine intelligible.

like rays t o light. are all in all. For as it is the nearest of all things t o the one. and are at the same time united with the first God. For whatever partakes of life partakes also of being : but the contrary is not true. on account of its superessential characteristic. xiii highest things after the first God. we must not suppose that any essential distinction takes place. but must consider this appellation as expressive of its ineffable perfection. when it is called a triad. since it is the characteristic of higher natures t o extend their communications beyond such as are subordif e is prior to intellect. and therefore being is above life . -All the Gods indeed. But Z all intellectual natures are vital.INTRODUCTION. and of which being is prior t o lye. Hence. but is involved in unproceeding union. its union must be transcendently profound and ineffably occult. and Z'e to intellect. because nate. but all vital But in this natures are not intellectual. considered according t o their unities. all things may be considered as subsisting according to cause : and consequently number here has not a proper subsistence. And hence they are all established \ . and absorbed in superessential light. or the radii of a circle to the centre. intelligible triad.

but ether and chaos 5 are celebrated as the two principles immediately posterior to this one. in their ineffable principle (as Proclus in Parmenid. or the highest order of divinities. so that they are all as much as possible superessential. and hence it appears to the eye of intellect as one simple indivisible splendour. however. 4 Vid. iii. beaming from an unknown and inaccessible fire. 252. bound and i n j n i t y . and therefore having a perpetual subsistence. as we are informed by Damascius *. as being a whole. as follows : " Time [as we have already observed] is symbolically said to be the one principle of the universe . concerning the intelligible Gods.xiv INTRODUCTION. The intelligible triad therefore. possesses an inconceivable profundity of union both with itself and its cause . without at the same time being earth itself. in the Pbilebus. from existing wholly according to the superessential. beautifully observes). The Orphic theology. p. tom. For the nature of the earth. like the roots of trees in the earth. And being. Wolfiii Anecdot. ti These two principles are called by Plato. is superior t o the partial natures which it produces. . Grrec. is. just as trees are eminently of an earthly nature.

but that the This Orphic egg is the same with the mixture from bound and i n j n i t y . or a cloud : because from these Phanes leaps forth into light. For indeed they philosophize variously concerning the middle triad. But Phanes here represents intellect. T o conceive him however besides this. And this is the first triad of the intelligible Gods. But sometimes the middle triad is considered according t o the three-shaped God. while conceived in the egg : for the middle always represents each of the extremes. 7 ws vouv is omitted in the original. But they call the third triad Metis as intellect 7 . And here you may perceive that the egg is that which is united . or a white garment. Ericapaeus as power. XV simply considered. and Phanes as father. . is represented under the symbol of an egge. mentioned by Plato in the Philebus. as in this instance. as father and power.INTRODUCTION. But for the perfection of the second triad they establish either a conceiving and a conceived egg as a God. ~ T T O T is ~ erroneously printed instead of TOTE. where the egg and the three-shaped God subsist together. contributes nothing to Orpheus. See the third book of my translation of Proclus oh the Theology of Plato.

his arcane and ineffable nature is from hence sufficiently evinyed. Likewise the middle triad subsists according t o the egg. And this is the common and familiar Orphic theology. the latter of these having a dispersed subsistence . But that delivered by Hieronymus and Hellanicus is as follows. They are silent however concerning the principle prior to these two. naturally endued with the heads of a bull and a lion. as vet united .xvi INTRODUCTION. water and earth. from which earth was secretly drawn forth : so that water and earth are established as the two first principles . 1 . three-shaped and really multiform God is the separating and discriminating cause of that which is intelligible. and which is generated from them. According to them water and matter were the first productions. but the former conglutinating and connecting the latter. but the third according t o the d o d who separates and distributes the whole intelligible order. but in the middle having the countenance of TO rpirov is I conceive erroneously omitted in the original. But the third principle posterior t o these two. as being ineffable : for as there are no illuminations about him. is a dragon.

which is the same as Nature. besides this. whose limits she binds in amicable conjunction. and chaos. is established by the theology as the original . and Hercules .INTRODUCTION. was the principle : but in this Time is neglected. together with the one principle who is delivered in silence. infinite . that it subsists as male and female. and that he is called tundecaying Tinte. t h a t neglecting the two first principles. they denominate this third principle as established according t o essence . delivering this second triad analogous t o the first : this be- b . because this first of all possesses something effable and commensurate t o human discourse. and Erebus. xvii the God himself. for the purpose of exhibiting the generative causes of all things. cloudy and dark . moist . For in the former hypothesis. and assert. the highly reverenced and undecaying Time. and the principle becomes a dragon. posterior t o the two. " I likewise find in the Orphic rhapsodies. the father of zether and chaos. and incorporeal Adrastia. They add likewise that he has wings on his shoulders. It likewise calls triple aether. But as it appears t o me. which is extended throughout the universe. that Necessity resides with him. the third principle.

bearing golden wings on his shoulders. this theology celebrates as Protogonus. and among these parturient. And such is the information . invested with the all-various forms of wild beasts. which are many as well as two. as that was paternal. not according t o a simple but intellectual subsistence : but its middle infinite chaos. residing in the middle of this triad : And the third among these is an incorporeal God. ing potential. and on this account denominates him Pan. Hence the third procession of this triad is dark Erebus : its paternal and summit &her. correspond t o power. W h a t then is the third intelligible triad ? I answer. because from these the third intelligible triad proceeds. the duad of the natures of male and female which it contains. and the multitude of all-various seeds. the egg . and the egg itself is the paternal principle of the third triad : but the third God of this third triad. but in his inward parts naturally possessing the heads of bulls. the disposer of all things and of the whole world. considered as a progeny or procession. This last then must be considered as the intellect of the triad. but the middle progeny.xviii INTRODUCTION. and calls him Jupiter. upon which heads a mighty dragon appears.

But in the writings of the Peripatetic Eudemus. the whole intelligible order is passed over in silence. Eudemus therefore commences his genealogy from Night. containing the theology of Orpheus. since she is reverenced even by Jupiter himself. a .INTRODUCTION. 10 tire70 yhp . a11 the printed editions of Homer read Zpp60i. "that he feared lest he should act in a manner displeasing t o swift Night lo. for he asserts that Homer begins from Ocean and Tethys. and incapable of verbal enunciation. t h a t Night is according t o Homer the greatest divinity. For the poet says of Jupiter. concerning the genealogy of the intelligible principles of things." So that Homer begins his genealogy of the Gods from Night. But it appears t o me that Hesiod. signifies by Chaos the incomprehensible and perfectly united nature of t h a t SO Damas. xix which this theology affords us. when he asserts that Chaos was first generated. but instead of )&lot. It is however apparent. cius . as being every way ineffable and unknown. from which also Homer begins : though Eudemus is far from making the Homeric genealogy consistent and connected. u + YUKT~ 90jj u ~ S 6 d p ~ >&rot.

So that Love is to be placed for the third monad of Tqv is printed instead of l2 r~v. in explaining the name of Jupiter. . whereas. as we have evinced in our notes on that dialogue. Indeed if this be not admitted. when considered according to this exposition. Eaq*th. Heaven. that this divinity is the artificer of the sensible universe . following the Orphic doctrine concerning the Gods. Unless perhaps Chaos is the second of the two principles : but Earth 12. the whole is a mere chaos. the Theogony of Hesiod must be perfectly absurd and inexplicable. cannot be the visible Heaven and Rurth: for Plato in the Cratylus. plainly shows. and Love form the triple intelligible. that T ~ is V again erroneously printed in the Excerptic of Wolfius for yqv. which is intelligible : but that he produces Earthl1 the first from thence. &c. As the whole of the Grecian theology is the progeny of the mystic traditions of Orpheus. Tartarus. according to modern interpretations. and more unconnected than any of the impious effusions of methodis- tical rant. agreeably to Homer. for he delivers the generation of Gods who are the parents of Jupiter.xx INTRODUCTION. &c. will be found to be beautifully consistent and sublime . I only add. and consequently Saturn. Heaven. ? " Shall we say that he means literally that Jupiter is the father of dl the Gods ? But this is impossible . more wild than the delirious visions of Swedenborg. For why does he call Jupiter. He can therefore only mean that Jupiter is the parent of all the mundane Gods : and his Theogony. "father of gods and men. ( r a r v p avspwv T E 9 e u v T E ) . it is evident that the Gods which Hesiod celebrates by the epithets of E a ~ t h . as a certain principle of the whole procession of the Gods. are much superior to the mundane deities.

And. but the former for bound. placing the latter for infizity. from these he produces a great number of other Gods.INTRODUCTION. Erebus as male. But Acusilaus appears to me t o establish Chaos for the first principle. as entirely unknown. considered according t o its convertive nature . Love. according to the history of Eudemus. he says l3 that &ther. But Tartarus for the middle. But from the mixture of these. with whose very interesting narration the doctrine of the Chaldeans concerning the intelligible order accords. and after this. but ~ e t i or the third. but Love in the middle. and Counsel are generated.7 ~ 1 in the original should doubtless be @t)oc. But Earth for the first. as being first established in a certain firm and essential station. And he places B t h e r as the summit. two principles. forming three intelligible hypostases. Thus far Damascius. as delivered by Johannes Picus in his Conclul . as in a certain respect exciting and moving forms into distribution. . and the same as highly reverenced intellect. xxi the intelligible order. according to its naturally s Counsel as middle subsistence . and Night as female. for it is thus denominated by Orpheus in his rhapsodies.

uoepoi. " The intelligible coordination (says he) is not in the intellectual coordination.xxii INTRODUCTION. in abysso prime unitatis. et ey~oupioi. sed est super omnem intellectualem hierarchium. as we have already observed. the supermundane. and must consist of being. tom. viz. lye. the intellectual. voqror K a i ~oepoi. or subsists principally according to l4 Vid. sions according to the Opinion o f the Chaldean Theoloffists14. i. imparticipably concealed in the abyss of the first unity. 8eoi YOI)TOL. l5 i. and the mundane 15. and intellect . et sub caligine primarum tenebrarum imparticipaliter abscondita. But from this triad i t may be demonstrated. and return. but is above every intellectual hierarchy. that all the processions of the Gods may be comprehended in six orders. For the intelligibk. i. Pici Opera. must hold the first rank. aroXv~oc sive vrepoupavroi. proceed. 54. at the same time that i t is characterized. the intelligible order. p. V)TEPKOCT~LO . the intelligible and at the same time intellectual. and under the obscurity of the first darkness. u t dixit Amasis Bgyptius. must abide. the liberated." Coordinatio intelligibilis non est in intellectuali coordinatione. e. as Amasis the Egyptian asserts. e.

But as in consequence of the existence of the sensible world. which must likewise be triple. it is necessary that there should be some demiurgic cause of its existence. But sincefabrication is nothing more than procession. and which is denominated supermundane. the Demiurgus will be t o the posterior orders of Gods what the one is t o the orders prior t o the D e m i u r g u ~and consequently he will be that secondarily which the first cause of all is primarily.INTRODUCTION. xxiii causally permanent being. and in the last hypostasis of the intellectual triad. For all forms in this hypostasis subsist according t o all-various and perfect divisions . that which is both intelligible and intellectual succeeds. And in the . this cause can only be found in intellect. After this he must produce an order of Gods similar t o the intelligible and intelkctuaZ order. And in the third place the intellectual order must succeed. but must principally subsist according t o lfe. But in the next place. and which are denominated liberated Gods. Hence his first production will be an order of Gods analogous t o the intelligible order. . which is triply convertive. or intelligence. and forms can only fabricate when they have a perfect intellectual separation from each other.

as fanatics and corrupters of the doctrine of Plato. a p ~ w v the ) Egyptians darkness bejoncl all intellectual conception. and which can be no other than the mundane Gods. all things originate froin an immense principle.teZZectual order. but celebrated it as a ~ui$rpt~ovres. though it is perfectly ineffable. that he who can read and understand the incomparable work of Proclus on Plato's theology will discover how ignorantly the latter Platonists have been abused by the moderns.rpis TOUTO .xxiv INTRODUCTION. to which through the imbecility and poverty of human conception we give a name. and is allotted the boundary of all universal hypostases. According t o the theology of Orpheus therefore. a thrice unknown darkness. in the contemplal6 "Of the first principle (says Damascius. For the Demiurgus is chiefly characterized according t o diversity. in MS. last place. rcppc said nothing. a y u w ~ r o v . and this in a manner so perfectly agreeable to the Orphic and Chaldaic theology. mores v a c p 7a~av U O ~ C ~ L UKOTOS Y. and in the reverential language of the Egyptians." a p w r T v apXTv avvpvqtcacwv. is a thrice u n k n o m darhess16. All these orders are unfolded by Plato in the conclusions which the second hypothesis of his Parmenides contains . a procession correspondent t o the in.

e. Orpheus. Had they properly disposed their attention t o this transcendency. in the conclusion of his first hypothesis in the Parmenides. i. was forgotten. infinity." The peculiarity also of this theology. and superluminous blossoms. When the ineffable transcendency of the first God. this oblivion was doubtless the cause of dead men being deified by the Pagans. which was considered (as I have elsewhere observed) t o be the grand principle in the Heathen theology. nor conceived by opinion. xxv tion of which all knowledge is refunded into ignorance. of deiform processions from itself. by its most ancient promulgators. and even essence itself. nor spoken of. source of their existence. and Plato. and of which they may be called superessential ramifications. " it can neither be named. and in which its transcendency consists is this. Hence. nor be known or perceived by any being. they would have perceived it t o be so immense as t o surpass eternity.ISTRODUCTION. as Plato says. and that these in reality . all which are eternally rooted in the unfathomable depths of the immensely great. but the principle o principles. self-subsistence. that it does not consider the highest God t o be simply f the principle of beings. Pythagoras.

and is as much as possible irreprehensible . For there is no occasion t o fear that our progressioli will be through an unsubstantial void. the same inquiry should again be made respecting that. and mzcch less to pass beyond the dignity of' the Jirst principles o f things. "This therefore is one and the best extension [of the soul] t o [the highest] God. belong t o those venerable natures which are as it were first unfolded into light from the arcane recessess of the truly mystic unknown cause of all. Nor should we stop in our ascent till we find this t o be the case. t h a t by ascribing t o him the most '7 I n Epictet. t o know firmly." H e adds.xxvi INTRODUCTION. " It is requisite that he who ascends to the principle of things should investigate whether it is possible there can be any thing better than the supposed principle. than which we have no longer any more venerable. as Simplicius l7 beautifully observes. till we arrive at the highest conceptions. For. For it is not possible f o r our conceptions to take such a mighty leap as to equal. and if something more excellent is found. viz. by conceiving something about the first principles which is greater than and surpasses their nature. .

we ascribe nothing t o him which is suitable t o his dignity. is not to be accused as the cause of this impiety. they never would have presumed t o equalize the human with the divine nature. and the most holy and primary names and things.INTRODUCTION. of the first principles of things. and consequently would never have worshiped men as Gods. however. each of . but their forgetfulness of the sublimest of its dogmas. The following additional information also respecting the Orphic theology will greatly contribute t o an elucidation of these Mystic Hymns : According t o this theology. i."^^ If it is not possible. It is sufficient. xxvii venerable excellencies we can conceive. who is concealed in the superluminous darkness of occultly initiating silence ? Had the Heathens therefore considered as they ought this transcendency of the supreme God and his immediate offspring. Their theology. t o procure our pardon [for the attempt] that we can attribute t o him nothing superior. therefore. however. t o form any ideas equal t o the dignity of the immediate progeny of the ineffable.e. and the confusion with which this oblivion was necessarily attended. how much less can our conceptions reach the principle of these principles.

I believe. being ineffably united to each other and the highest God. and all are in each.x xviii INTRODUCTION. and has not. and is analogous t o the sphere of the fixed stars. each of the planets is fixed in a luminous etherial sphere called an oXo. who are the satellites of the leading divinity of the sphere. as I have elsewhere observed. This doctrine. their conjunction with each other is a union of unities. or wholeness 18. and subsist conformably t o his characteristics. . because it contains a multitude of partial animals coordinate with it. the Gods is in all. because it is a part with a total subsistence. But another and a still more appropriate cause may be assigned of each of the celestial Gods being called by the appellations of so many other deities. according to the Orphic theology. which is this. is not clearly delivered by any other ancient writer than Proclus. In consequence of this analogy. which. because each being a superessential unity.rq9. each of these planetary spheres contains a multitude of Gods. been noticed l8 Each of these spheres is called a wholeness. And hence it is by no means wonderful that each is celebrated as all. is one of the grand keys t o the mythology and theology of the ancients. that.

For these also revolve and have a wandering of such a kind as that which he a little before mentioned of the seven planets. the whole sphere has the relation of a monad. all which Plato comprehends in what is here said." (See vol. in his admirable commentaries on the Timaeus of Plato. book iv. 2 8 0 ) . just as the fixed stars are governed by the whole circulation [of the inerratic sphere]. "In each of the celestial spheres. the visible star has the government. " Each of the planets is a whole world. 270. Of all these. "Theye are other divine animals following the circulations of the planets. p. But the following are the passages in which this theory is unfolded by Proclus.INTRODUCTION.) And in another part of the same book (p. however. For they revolve in conjunction with and make their apocatastases together with their principals. the leaders of which are the seven planets. 281. For in each a number analogous t o the choir of the fixed stars subsists with appropriate circulations. but the cosmocrators [or planets] are the leaders of the multitude in each. of my translation of this work. xxix by any other modern author than myself." And still more fully in p. comprehending in itself many divine genera invisible to us. ii. .

however. but the other more partial. the extremes being manifest . but that in each of the latter there are invisible stars. the one more total. The intermediate natures. they are said t o be wholenesses. which is allotted an exempt transcendency. also. and earth is the wholeness of terrestrial. are concealed from our sense. one of them through its transcendently luminous essence. i t is necessary that each intermediate wholeness should entirely possess certain partial animals coordinate with itself. require a twofold prefecture. some about the sun. If. And in this the fixed stars differ from those in the planetary spheres. partial souls [such as ours] are disseminated about them. -- . through which.xxx INTRODUCTION. For if the inerratic sphere has a multitude coordinate with itself. For the planets. likewise. so that in each there is both the wholeness and a leader. the inerratic sphere]. in the same manner as the inerratic sphere is of celestial animals. . But that in each of these there is a multitude coordinate with each. which is the wholeness of them . you may infer from the extremes. which revolve together with their spheres . that the former have one monad [viz. being secondary t o the fixed stars. and the other through its alliance t o us.

theologists also teaching us these things when they say that there are Gods in each prior to daemons. and others o which the b o o h o f theologists and thez~rgists are full. They likewise celebrate the Jupiter who is f there. Thus. who give completion to its peculiar circulation. who with watchful eye surveys The sacred pole. from all which it is evident. 283) we may perceive at one view why the .INTRODUCTION. that each of the spheres is a world . they assert concerning our mistress the Moon. daemons give completion to the herds of which they are the leaders." From this extraordinary passage (as I have observed irl a note on it in my Proclus. the solar Pan. Osiris. too. and others about each of the rest. and also Diana. and the Gods that are there. that the Goddess Hecate is contained in her. some of which are under the government of others. in speaking of the sovereign Sun. they celebrate Bacchus as being there. The Sun's assessor. that each of the planets is truly said t o be the leader of many Gods. Thus for instance. p. and prior t o souls. it is evidently well said. xxxi others about the moon.

and Isis. Vesta. in the Moon a lunar one. in the Sun they all possess a solar property. just as a mult. Proserpine.itude . too. Vesta. why the Moon seems t o be the same with Rhea. for more particular orders proceed from such as are more general. why any one divinity is celebrated with the names and epithets of so many of the rest. in short. and in short every deity. while earth becomes the oeneral receptacle of the illuminations of all b the Gods. we may perceive the truth of that divine saying of the ancients. Sun in the Orphic Hymns is called Jupiter. Vulcain. each sphere at the same time conferring on these Gods the peculiar characteristic of its nature . Minerva. and Bacchus the Sun. for instance. established about the one divinity of the earth. Juno." as Proclus shortly after observes.xxxii INTRODUCTION. For from this sublime theory it follows that every sphere contains a Jupiter. that all things are full of Gods . Neptune. Diana. " Hence. Ceres. and so of the rest. Mars. Venus. and the sublunary from the celestial . " there is a terrestrial Ceres. Mercury. From this theory. Apollo. and. why Apollo is called Pan. as likewise a terrestrial Jupiter and a terrestrial Herrnes. so that. Ceres. Venus. the mundane from the supermundane. Juno. &c.

that the following Hymns were written by Orpheus and that they were used in the Eleusinian Mysteries. and the fourth. Mars. . scientific and divine. Mercury. will. Ceres. I say. In the next place. if we unite this with the preceding theory. the second. there is nothing in the ancient theology that will not appear admirably sublime and beautifully connected. viz. and in short. xxxiii of celestial Gods proceeds about the one divinity of the heavens. defensive . in an earthly manner.INTRODUCTION. Apollo. Vulcan. Minervzt. For there are promessions of all the celestial Gods into the b Earth: and Earth contains all things. Juno. and that the first triad of these is cEemiurp*corfabricative. Diana. the third. vivi$c. elevating and harmonic. that all the other mundane Gods subsist in the twelve abovementioned. which Heaven comprehends celestially. I think. Hence we speak of a terrestrial Bacchus and a terrestrial Apollo." And if t o all this we only add. accurate in all its parts. Venus. Vesta. all the mundane in the supermundane Gods. Neptune.. Jupiter. and openings prophetic of futurity. who bestows the all-various streams of water with which the earth abounds.

" H e adds. from whcnce. Graec. lib. because their authority is of little value on this subject. 114. t o the intelligent reader. from the following arguments. tom. says t h a t they were sung in the sacred rites pertaining t o Ceres. who also says that they were few and short . who in his Attics (cap. Biblioth. And t h a t Lycomedes alludes. 25. in what he here says. it appears t h a t they were no other than those which are now extant20. 37) observes. i. first from Pausanias. as Fabricius lg justly observes. i. lg 20 I omit t h e testimonies of Cyril contra Julian. But that they were used in the Eleusinian Mysteries is evident from the testimony of ~ ~ c o r n e d ewho s . and the Eleusinian were the mysteries of Ceres.xxxiv INTRODUCTION. and of Suidas. be evident. For that hymns were written by Orpheus is testified by Plato in the eighth book of his Laws. "that i t is not lawful t o ascribe the invention of beans t o Ceres. which honour was not paid t o the Homeric hymns. and by Fausanias in his Boeotics. though they were more elegant than those of Orpheus . p. " and he who has been initiated in the Eleusinian Vid. p. t o these hylnns is manifest. .

(8vara p u ~ r ~ b w 8 ~ 7 r )1 p9~ . ayr wra. as we are informed by Proclus 22. . except beans and aromatics. Besides. t o this. lib. or has read the poems called Orphic. 23 In Plat. poias T E Kal p ~ X w v . that beans were forbidden in the Eleusinian mysteries 21 . K U L yap ~ a EXtvoivc i aacx~u8ai Kai K U ~ O L K L ~ X O U W V . 353. is comprehended towether with Juno in Ceres. Theol. and Vesta. et in Comment. Again. p.yrcrq fcab r~p~w~ara).rar ~ X E T ~ Agreeably the Orphic Hymns are called in the Thryllitian manuscript reXera~. Edit. But Earth is Vesta. calls them the most holy L. Trajec. iv. many of the hymns are expressly thus called by the author of them.INTRODUCTION. the greatest and most vene~able o f all others. informs us. And Proclus." Now Porphyry De Abstinentia. xxxv mysteries.and Scaliger justly observes. that reher17 signifies a rnystic sacriJice.KUL K U a p W V . See the Additional Notes. will know what I mean. teletai 23. that they contain nothing but such invocations as were used in the mysteries. Suidas b informs us. and in the Orphic Hymn t o Earth the sacrificer is ordered to fumigate from every kind of seed. Thus the 21 IIapayyo)lezai ~ W V opvi9ov. whenever he speaks of the Eleusinian mysteries. in Alcibiad.

e g ~ e h e ~ q aybav v : of the hymn t o the Stars. . t o be present at the very learned labours of the most holy telete : And in the conclusion of the Hymn to Latona the sacrifice is called an all-divine tekte (Paov' err ~ a v O e ~T ov ~x~T~ asvlikewise ).xxxvi INTRODUCTION. to impart b to the mystics : And in a similar manner most of the other hymns 24. 24 For a confirmation of this I refer the reader to the conclusions of the following hymns. Thus the conclusion of the Hymn to Heaven entreats that divinity t o confer a blessed life on a recent mytic: the conclusion of the Hymn t o the y illumir~ationa pleasant Z ' e Sun. viz. hymn vi. conclusion of the hymn to Protogonus invokes that deity t o be present at the h o b telete. ~ or t o invoke the respective divinities t o bless the mystics or initiated persons. xviii. the greater part of the hymns will be found t o have either the word T E A ~in T them. in that of the Hymn t o Amphietus Bacchus. And in short.

lxxxiii. e. xxxvii Farther still. lxxi. lviii. Demosthenes. our instructor in the most holy teletai. lxxvii. who is said by Orpheus. xliii. lxi. lxxix. is particularly remarkable : for in the third line the poet says : i. and lxxxv. liv. lxxvi. 1. as well as Proclus : and I think it may be concluded with the greatest confidence from all that has been said.rat PYV* i. xxiv. " You have appointed these holy ntystics in the tclete. lii. And what is asserted in the eighty-fourth hymn. has the following remarkable passage : K a b T ~ a Vr a p a r q ." . and t o the following lines in that hymn : xxiii. and to inspect all the actions of men. xlviii.r o v . xxxiv. lvi. in his first Oration 'against Aristogiton. lvii. lxxviii. to be seated by the throne of Jupiter. which is to Vesta. e. lx. " Let us reverence inexorable and venerable Justice. xliv. which is one of the Orphic hymns.INTRODUCTION. that he alluded to the Hymn to Justice. xxxv." Here Demosthenes calls the mysteries most holy. xli. xxv. liii. lxxiv.

" The Eleusinian mysteries also. 530.UEV pr/aXa T ~ Aqp~rpos' S r a 8~ pitcpa ~ C P Q I t#ov~s rr]s a v q s Svyarpos. This too. the principal reason of which appears t o be this.ros. But the rape of Proserpine. indicating by this the union of the soul with the darkness of a corporeal nature. p. Aristo- phanis. . lib. as is well known. I suppose. Alex. Stroma. Interp. the descent of souls. e. and the less t o Proserpine24 and the latter preceded the former. Sylburg. Grec. YVKTL rqs $ v ~ q s au~roXqva r o TOV aupa. were celebrated at night. t o take place at midnight. 26 De Diis e t Mundq cap. Clem. And the descent of souls into the realms of generation is said. who sits by the throne of king Jupiter. " I sing the all-seeing eye of splendid Justice. as we are informed by S a l l ~ s t ~ ~ . and from her celestial abode beholds the life of nlultiform mortals.xxxviii INTRODUCTION. i. that the greater mysteries pertained t o Ceres. is what Clemens Alexandrinus27 means when 25 Hgav T a . signifies. ad Plut. which was exhibited in these mysteries. by Plato in the tenth book of his Republic. iv. iv.

From all which I think it may be safely concluded. is evident from the hymn t o Silenus. I n the last place. and were not written by Orpheus. that these Hymns not only pertain to mysteries. but that they were used in the celebration of the Eleusinian. in which Silenus. Satyrus. e. are implored to be present a t the noctsurnal orgies : O p y a v v ~ r i @ scAesais a~ ayiais ava$aivwv. xxxix he says. or some poet who lived in . which i were called by way of eminence ( ~ a eEoXqv) the mysteries.INTRODUCTION. thus signifying that the compression [i. and Satyrs. " that the mysteries were especially performed by night. together with the Naiads. &c. Bacchic Nymphs. it is requisite to speak of the author of these Hymns." And that the sacrifices enjoined in the Orphic Hymns were performed by night. to vindicate them against those who contend that they are spurious. without any other note of distinction. but either by Onomacritus. and in addition to the evidence already adduced of their genuine antiquity. confinement] of the soul by the body was effected a t night.

since Orpheus must necessarily. or as I may say Solonically . at that time. And first. only change the dialect. 169. Gesner observes. Kust. the decline and fall of the Roman empire. which. was his practice with respect t o the Oracles. xxxiv. that Onomacritus would dare t o invent all that he wrote. the Thracian Orpheus. "that i t ought t o be no objection t o their antiquity. used the Doric dialect . with respect t o the dialect of these Hymns. cap. " that the 01128 De Vita Pythag. " t h a t it does not appear probable t o him. For though according t o Iarnblichus 28. have been much celebrated. or might arbitrarily add or take away what he thought proper. as we are informed by Herodotus. preserving the sentences and a great part of the words." Gesner adds. and a great variety of his verses must have been in circulation. who is more ancient than those noble poets Homer and Hesiod. might either.xl INTRODUCTION. yet the Athenian Onomacritus. p. who according t o the general opinion of antiquity is the author of all the works now extant ascribed t o Orpheus. and teach the ancient Orpheus t o speak Homerically." And he concludes with observing. .

Gesner is certainly right in asserting that Onomacritus would not dare t o invent all that he wrote. t h a t it is unreasonable in the extreme t o suppose that he in the least interpolated or altered the wenuine works of Orpheus. used. which Orpheus. as we have demonstrated they were. according t o Diodorous Siculus. 29 . is it probable t h a t such a forgery These letters are the old Etrurian or Eolian. and are perhaps more ancient than the Cadmian or Ionic. and afterwards publish it as Orphic. though he might b change the dialect in which they were originally written. but I add. or that the fraud would not have been long ago discovered by some of the many learned and wise men that flourished after Onomacritus . For is it t o be supposed that the Orphic Hymns would have been used in the Eleusinian mysteries. In this extract.ISTRODUCTION. if they had been spurious productions. and t h a t the detection of this fraud would not have been transmitted so as t o reach even the present times? Or indeed. xl i jection of the Doric dialect ought t o be of no more weight against the antiquity of the present works than the Pelasgic letters 29.

Hermias. if not immediately.xlii INTRODUCTION. will any man who is a t all familiar with the writings of Proclus. in confutation of such an . though not in the Doric dialect. he did not either add t o or diminish. I think. With respect t o those who contend that the works which are at present extant under the name of Orpheus were written during the decline and fall of the Roman empire. that though Onomacritus altered the dialect. profundity. had access t o the genuine writings of Orpheus. I trust every intelligent reader will deem it almost needless t o say. could have existed a t all. for it is impossible he should have committed such a fraud without being ultimately. as well as Onornacritus. detected. or in any respect adulterate the works of Orpheus. would have transmitted t o us so many verses as Orphic. and were equally capable with himself of changing them fro111 one dialect into another? Even a t a late period of antiquity. a t a period when other learned men. when at the same time they were the productions of Onomacritus ? W e may therefore. confidently conclude. and Olympiodorus. and sagacity. for a moment believe t h a t men of such learning.

xliii opinion. e." 30 . the poet says. nisi allocutio ad Musacurn. that it is an insult t o the understanding of all the celebrated men of that period. So infatuated. Thus in the the hymns the son o conclusion of the Hymn t o the Nereids. by whom these writings have been quoted as genuine productions. he says in a note (p. and wisest of mankind. except his speech t o Musaeus 30. by this stupid opinion was Tyrwhitt. the most sagacious.INTRODUCTION. and particularly t o such among them as rank among the most learned. t h a t in his edition of the Orphic poem ITepr A~8wv(On Stones). however. KaXhiony cuv pvrpc. i. But so far is this from being true." This speech or address t o Musaeus is the exordium t o the Hymns. and of Proserpine. 2%) "there is nothing in the hymns peculiarly adapted t o the person of Orpheus. that the author of this work expressly calls himself in two of f Calliope. Kac AnoXXwvc avatcri. Tpas yap ?rpwrai T E X E T ~ U av~ikitare uepuqv Euc~povB a ~ ~ oKai i o ayuvs Q ~ p ~ ~ ~ o v ~ i r ] s . I n Hymnis nihil est ad personam Orphei peculiariter accommodatum. Of holy Bacchus. " For you at first disclos'd the rites divine.

from general assent. and which calumniated writings far beyond the little sphere of its knowledge t o comprehend. his country. KahThis blunder of Tyrwhitt X L O T ~ ovv ~ T T ~ L . the original author of these Hymns. and from whose wisdom. the Muses' king. Of fair Calliope. the first of prophets.xliv INTRODUC1TION. from whom I spring. who taught the Greeks their sacred rites and mysteries. the institutor of their life and morals . himself the offspring of a Muse . scarcely a vestige of his life is t o be found amongst the immense ruins of time. and the prince of poets. and condition ? This alone may be depended on. For who has ever been able to affirm any thing with certainty of his origin. his age. he celebrates Calliope as his mother. in the very same words as in the Hymn t o the Nereids." And in the Hymn t o the Muses. is certainly a most egregious specimen of the folly of pervicacious adherence to an opinion which had ignorance and prejudice only for its source. As to Orpheus himself. who was the founder of theology among the Greeks. that there formerly lived a person named Orpheus. . And of Apollo bright.

and that he lived eleven. signifies. and the great men who have a t different periods flourished under this venerable name. the space of seven years : for unless this is admitted. But the Greek word yevea. however. 54. or gene: ration. who flourished a t the time when the kingdom of the Athenians was dissolved. p. generations. is a fatal period.INTRODUCTION. Orpheus lived either seventy-seven or sixty-three years. or as others say nine. the divine muse of Homer and the sublime theology of Pythagoras and Plato flowed. Poet. the latter of which. The first and genuine Orpheus is said t o have been a Thracian. is a summary of t o us by the what has been trans~i~itted ancients concerning the original Orpheus. and especially to 31 *. Suid. how is it possible that the period of his life can have any foundation in the nature of things? If this signification therefore of the word is adopted. 32 Syntag. xlv as from a perennial and abundant fountain. . Vid. The following. and according t o the opinion of many was a disciple of Linus 31. according to Gyraldus 32. Some assert that he was prior to the Trojan war. if we may believe astrologers.

Others. Others again assert. and not being able t o detain her. because he was the cause of Inen relinquishing an association with them. was torn in pieces by Ciconian women. having conceived such a hatred of the sex. according t o Pausanias. 011 account of his violent death. Hence in the vision of Herus Pamphilius.xlvi @seat b INTRODUCTION. according t o fabulous tradition. the soul of Orpheus. after the death of Eurydice. Our poet. rather than t o be born again of a woman . where it was customary t o evocate the souls of the dead. Some report t h a t it arose from his being engaged in puerile loves. being destined t o descend into another body. that he was destroyed by women intoxicated with wine. a place in Thesprotia. having recalled Eurydice t o life. The cause of his destruction is variously related by authors. on which account Plutarch affirms the Thracians were accustomed t o beat their wives. as it proved t o be to Aristotle and Cicero. that on the death of Eurydice. in order that they might revenge the death of Orpheus. is said t o have chosen t h a t of a swan. he destroyed . in the tenth book of Plato's Republic. men. wandering t o Aornus.

as among the following hymns there are nine t o t h a t deity. which is very improbable. xlvii himself . with golden lyre. according to Pausanias. and hence the authors of initiation into these mysteries were called Orpheotelest~. Great Orpheus rests. Others again. because he first introduced sacred rites and religion into Greece. by the Muses on his death : Here by the Muses plac'd. under different appellations. as he asserts. nightingales bringing forth their young on his tomb. composed. the sacred mysteries called Threscian derived their appellation from the Thracian bard. because his mother Calliope had not determined justly between Venus and Proserpine concerning the young Adonis. whose melody exceeded every other of this species. ascribe his laceration t o his having celebrated every divinity except Bacchus. Many affirm. that he was struck by lightning . and Diogenes confirms this by the following verses. Again. Others report that he was delivered by Venus herself into the hands of the Ciconian women. Besides. accord- .INTRODUCTION. destroy'd by heavenly fire.

retired for some days into the mountains. is this. p. OPUSC. in consequence of this. and branches of every kind of trees. 45. having expected their return for a. and from hence gave rise t o the fable 34. called Orpheus.Mythol. they appeared t o bring down the very woods. tuning his lyre conformably t o the orgies of Bacchus. long time. Orpheus. ing t o Lucian. Orpheus brought astrology and the magical arts into Greece. and entreated him t o invent some method of drawing them from the mountains. in my opinion. 33 Vid. who descended from the mountains. 34 The true meaning of the fable however. B u t the most careless . and as t o his drawing to him trees and wild beasts by the melody of his lyre. drew the mad nymphs from their retreats. bearing a t first ferulae. having violently taken away cattle and other necessaries of life.xlviii INTRODUCTION. and fearing the worst for their wives and daughters. But the citizens. says he. But t o the men who were eyewitnesses of these wonders. thak Orpheus by his sacred doctrines tamed men of rzcstic and savage dispositions. P a l ~ p h a t u 33 s accounts for it as follows : "The mad Bacchanalian Nymphs.

it was brought to Lesbos and buried. found that the lyre drew trees and wild beasts by its harmony.INTRODUCTIOK. says Lucian. impelled by the winds. to which the chords of his lyre. d . he earnestly desired to possess i t . But his lyre was suspended in the temple of Apollo. which when separated from his body by the Thracian women. gave a responsive harmony. singing as it were his funeral oration. a n d to which the following lines allude : ' Macbeth shall never vanquished be. readers must be struck with the similitude of the latter part of this fable to what took place a t the wood of Birnam in Shakspeare's Macbeth . has not been noticed by any of the commentators of Shakspeare. Afterwards. together with his lyre. I n this manner. and Philostratus relates. the son of Pittacus the tyrant. xlix So great indeed was the renown of Orpheus. however. carried down the river Hebrus into the sea. that his head gave oracles in Lesbos. that he was deified by the Greeks. where i t remained for a considerable space of time. until Great Birnam wood t o high Dunsinane hill Shall come against him. was." This coincidence. when Neanthus.

of his mystic doctrine] was received by the Les- . as it appears to me. on which he began to play. he confounded the chords . As however he was a rude and unlearned youth. e. But in the midst of his transports. But Neanthus. on account of his perfect erudition. and fixed another similar to it in the temple. roused by the sound. the neighbouring dogs. yet pleasing himself with the sound. having concealed the lyre in his bosom. he took the Orphic lyre. because.1 INTRODUCTION. But the principal part of his melody [i. and having corrupted the priest privately with money. is reported to have been destroyed in various ways. The former part of this fable is thus admirably explained by Proclus. and fancying he produced a divine harmony. fell on the unhappy harper and tore him in pieces. he thought himself to be the blessed successor of Orpheus. "Orpheus (says he). considering that he was not safe in the city in the day. in his Commentaries (or rather fragments of Commentaries) on the Republic of Plato. departed from it by night. men of that age participated partially of the Orphic harmony : for they were incapable of receiving a universal and perfect science.

in the opinion of Gyraldus the Argonautics.INTRODUCTION. flourished in the time of Pisistratus. of whose mysteries he was the priest." The second Orpheus was an Arcadian. a Ciconian. H e wrote Decennalia ( 6 e / c a e ~ v ~ ~and a ) . I have no doubt. but which according to Cicero 35 some ascribe to &crops the Pythagorean. when separated from his body. perhaps. He composed fabulous figments (called pv~ O T O L L ~ Land ) epigrams. the head of Orpheus. The fourth Orpheus was of Crotonia . li bians. about the fiftieth Olympiad. Fables of this kind. and is said t o be more ancient than Homer and the Trojan war. are related of Orpheus no otherwise than of Bacchus. or. with other writings called Orphical. . i. Decr. de Nat. a city of Thrace. which are now extant under the name of Orpheus. according to others. the same with Onomacritus. But the last 35 In lib. therefore. is said t o have been carried t o Lesbos. The third Orpheus was of Odrysius. and on this account. ancl is. from the Thracian Bisaltia. but Uionysius in Suidas denies his existence. near the river Hebrus. who changed the dialect of these hymns.

says he. e. as being in want of." i. and alliance with each other of the Gods who preside over these manias. or pertaining t o the mysteries. and this by a necessary consequence. conspiration. Orpheus was Camarinaeus. and adhering to. and Love. For we learn that he was most telestic. the prophetic. whose descent into Hades is so universally known. T h e telestic. and was excited by Apollo . 36 . how Orpheus appears t o have applied himself t o all these [i. according t o Gyraldus. and the amatory. and the same. as he himself acknowledges t o MuSEUS. Apollo. For there is an abundant union. extending t o him divine benefits. on which account he is said t80 have been the soil of Calliope. the poetic. and rendering hiin perfect.lii INTRODUCTION. Hence he appears t o have been possessed by all the manias. e. t o the four kinds of mania 36]. Bacchus. what Hermias excellently remarks in his Scholia on the Phaedrus of Plato. and besides this. of the Muses. a most excellent versifier . each other. H e was likewise most amatory. and most prophetic. viz. t h a t he was most poetic. I shall only add t o this historical detail respecting Orpheus. " You may see.

to elucidate what is obscure. but because I conceive it t o be necessary to the poetry of the English language. which is certainly. with regard to retaining the meaning of the author. where languages differ so much as the ancient and modern.INTRODUCTION. H e who is anxious t o effect this will every where endeavour t o diffuse the light and fathom the depth of his author. I should immediately relinquish my partiality for rhyme. the most perfect method perhaps of transferring the poetry of the former tongue into that of the latter is by a faithful and animated paraphrase. as these Orphic Hymns must evince in an eminent degree. and t o amplify ' . not because most agreeable to the general taste.. it is requisite t o observe. that I have adopted rhyme. faithful. calling it forth when latent. liii With respect to the following translation. Indeed. and expanding it when condensed. far more difficult than blank verse. and animated. when well executed. with respect to preserving the fire of the original . Could this be obtained by any other means. which requires something as a substitute for the energetic cadence of the Greek and Latin hexameters.

and a perpetual fountain of wisdoln and delight. Presuming.liv INTRODUCTION. they diFuse their sweets with full blown elevance . i11 which he has found an inexhaustible treasure of intellectual wealth. he will consider himself to be well remarcled for his lal~orious undertaking. what in modern language would be unintelligibly concise. If i t shall appear that the translator has possessed some portion of this light. and the theology of the Greeks. Thus. yet when literally translated into h ours lose much of their propriety and force. must expand their elegance by the superve~liligand enlivening rays of a light derived from inystic lore . as in a prolific soil. In their native tongue. though extremely beautiful in the drreek lanwage. and has dirused i t in the following work. by the powerful breath of genius. and. and exhibit them to others in a different language. therefore. most of the compound epithets of which the following hymns chiefly consist. have been for the greater part of his life the only study of his retired leisure. and he who would preserve their theoh logical beauties. C - . The philosophy of Plato. scatter abroad their latent but copious sweets.

if he has succeeded. . he desires no other reward. than the praise of the liberal .that such a pursuit must be a great advantage t o the present undertaking. and no other defence. if he has failed. than the decision of the candid and discerning few. and feeling the niost sovereign contempt for the sordid drudgery of venal composition.

.

.THE MYSTICAL HYMNS OF ORPHEUS.

.

and solar light. for an account of Theurgy. Of these works. For a. from my sacred song What rites most fit to sacrifice belong. and of the utility or power they possess in the universe. see Book the Second of my translation of Porphyry's excellent Treatise on Abstinence from Animal Food . of my translation of Iam blichus on the Mysteries. Jove I invoke. the earth. Lucian. And the tcaSappoc contained the means of expiating and becoming pwrijeed from guilt. V.THE LEARN. and that he composed aapaAvaeis. The Greek Scholiast on Aristophanes (in Ranis) observes. and the stars of night. and also on what account they were anciently performed. copious developement of sacrifices. or the art pertaining t o divine operations. which are unfortunately lost. His ~eXerai.or Mysteries. T E X E T ~ Land K a Sappo~. and the accompanying notes. The moon's pure splendour. 0 Musaeus. both individuals and cities how by religious ceremonies they might be liberated from the punishment attendant on the crimes which they had committed. the napa)lvm~s or ~ a ~ a X w ~ taught t s . . and others. that according to Sophocles he uttered oracles . and Sect. that Muszeus was the offspring of the Moon and Eumolpus . see the latter of the abovementioned works. are mentioned by Plato. Likewise.

and of lovely mien. And the great Saviours. The huntress Dian. To Juno sacred. Fair-hair'd Latona. great Pluto's queen . And the chaste Muses I address my pray'r . and t o Mem'ry fair. I n the translation of many of these hymns. and Hercules the strong. and Vulcan. and Daylight I implore. Justice and Piety august I call. The Corybantes and Curetes armed I call3. whose power can shake the solid ground. With Hebe young. honour'd by the heav'nly choir. the theme of Delphic praise . And Bacchus. in order t o preserve the meaning of the author. And Pluto. the king of all : Th' Idaean Gods. and bright Phcebus' rays. Far darting God. and Dione's pow'rs. And much fam'd Nymphs. With ancient Night. Prophetic Themis with sagacious eyes. God of fire. as well as in this and the following line. The various Year. and the Hours. Ceres abundant.4 T H E MYSTICAL H Y M N S Thee. And thee. Th' illustrious power who sprung from foam to light. Neptune. . Impetuous Mars. And you to whom the cares of births belong. the angel of the skies. sons of Jove. potent in the realms of night . ruler of the sea profound. Dark-hair'd. and Pan the God of all. the Graces. And Faith and Dice source of blameless laws adore. chaste Proserpine. I have been obliged to employ an Alexandrine line.

is to be assumed as a power providentially attending t o secondary natures . Hid in a veil of dark celestial blue. Or deep beneath the solid ground retire. Vig'rous Eternity. and is the offspring of Melissus and Amalthea. extracted from the Scholia of Hermeas on the Phaedrus of Plato. The beauteous I d a and Adrastia sprung From the same sire. and she is the sister of Ida. 4 This divinity is one among others in this Exordium to whom there is no hymn in these Orphic Telets. Illustrious Providence. And sweet-tongu'd Victory. the noble train Of dzmon forms. Melissus. but Amalthea must be considered according to the unchanging and the uneffeminate. and endless Time. and Bacchus's associates all .OF ORPHEUS. I call great Ocean. or fire. The white Leucothea of the sea I call. But the following particulars respecting this Goddess. therefore. with success elate . Or live in air. and Adrastia 4 great. And daemons good and bad that o'er mankind preside . and the beauteous train Of Ocean's daughters in the boundless main : The strength of Atlas ever in its prime. And Semele. Saturn and Rhea. ' ' Adrastia is a divinity seated in the vestibules of Night. The splendid Stygian pool. . earth. are given on account of their great importance. Hence Adrastia was generated from unchangeable Providence. and placid Gods beside. end because they illustrate a part of the Orphic theology. who fill th' etherial plain . and great Thetis too. in water. Palaemon bounteous.

of the mundane and the supermundane. legislatively promulgating the divine laws. because her legislative decrees are inevitable. and Winds in mighty columns pent. however. She differs. the mother of the pow'rs on high. but Night sits in tho middle of the cave. And the justice which is there is said t o be the daughter of the Law and Piety which are there.6 THE MYSTICAL H Y M N S Great Esculapius. Hence she is said to be seated with brazen drumsticks in her hands. supermundane. however. likewise imparted t o the attendants of the Gods. are said to have nurtured Jupiter in the cavern of Night. is likewise comprehensive of Law. in the Adytum of Night. therefore. from the justice which is there. But divine law is imparted by Adrastia t o the Gods also: for the order which is in them is derived from this Goddess. On this account she is called Adrastia. But Adrastia herself. whom fierce battles please . and mundane laws. For Phanes indeed is seated within the cave. viz. Thunders. and contains in herself a t once the centres of all laws. and through the sound produced by her cymbals t o render all things obedient to her laws. Mensis. divine. It is. before the cave of Night. and peculiarly t o each. who is the offspring of Melissus and Amalthea. and Adrastia sits in the vestibules. With dreadful roaring struggling hard for vent . prophesying to the Gods. after the same manner as the legislative differs from the judicial characteristic. never doom'd to die. therefore. of those of Fate. and pure Adonis. This Goddess." . For Plato represents him fabricating and promulgating laws. comprehends in transcendent union. the theologist [Orpheus] directly asserting that which Plato says about Jupiter. And dread Minerva. skill'd to cure disease. and those of Jupiter: for there are Jovian and Saturnian. and in common t o all. These. Attis.

Perszea 6. I. and these sacred rites . Pleas'd with dark ghosts that wander thro' the shade . ~ e. Trivia. 10. who is to be understood by this epithet. and celestial frame. And drawn by bulls. he observes : EUPMKW. p. For these t' accede with joyful mind. lovely dame. In stags rejoicing. wat'ry. p. These with propitious aid I suppliant call. See more concerning this epithet in Gyrald. my verse invites. EINODIAN Hecate 5. cites this line. that Diana. never doom'd to fail. ii." Diodorus informs us. '\ Y . and also the Moon Hecate. nightly seen. Syntag. huntress.aXXa K a LT ~ ZeXququ E K ~ T i. on which. Allegor. hail ! The world's key-bearer. 268. Sepulchral. To this libation. 3. solitary goddess. v . Diac. was :very much worshiped by the Persians. 361.'' 1 find that Orpheus calls Fortune Artemis or Diana. Of earthly. and Hymn 71. ad Hesiodi Theog. unconquerable queen. TOY O p $ ~ aK U L T ~ Y T V X ~APTEPLY Y ?rpocayopEuoura. and that this Goddess was called P e r s m in his time. T O HECATE.End and Beginning (greatest this to all). in a saffron veil array'd.

and in the hymn to the Curetes. T O THE GODDESS PROTHYRLSEAg. the herdsman. and being as i t were the gate-keeper of life. alluding t o this circumstance. on mountainswand'ring. which. alluding to her presiding over gates. THE FUMIGATION F R O M STORAX. 0 VENERABLE Goddess. hear my pray'r. indicating the benefit which he conferred on the vulgar part or herd of mankind. hear The suppliants who with holy rites thy power revere. appears t o be the true meaning of the fable of his drawing to him trees afid wild beasts by the melody of his lyre . As Orpheus by his sacred doctrines tamed men of a rustic and savage disposition . as we have before observed. The sex. nurse. I n all the editions of these hymns. hence. nymph. though I did not perceive the propriety of doing so in the former edition of this translation. prior to that of Hermann.8 T H E MYSTICAL H Y M N S Leader. And to the herdsman7 with a fav'ring mind draw near 8. For labour pains are thy peculiar care. I n a hymn which was first discovered by me among the Har- . but iB is certainly better t o separate it from that exordium. he calls himself here. view relief. as in a mirror. this hymn forms a part of the exordium to Mus a u s . when stretch'd upon the bed of grief. This is a n epithet of Diana. In thee.

in the Britieh Museum. Benignant nourisher .OF ORPHEUS. i s See the whole of this hymn in the original. For the second line of this hymn. And solemn festivals are thy delight. from the manner of it. Who bring'st relief in labour's dreadful hour . was. Hecate is called Prothyrcea. venerable pow'r. as the soul's sure rest. Thine is the task to loose the virgin's zone. and which. And make the infant race thy constant care.or a Conzmon Hymn. To helpless youth benevolent and kind . For thou alone canst give relief to pain. and also a translation of i t at the end of my Collectafiea. endued vith gentle mind. and accept my pray'r. The sex invoke thee. which is entitled T p v o sK o r v o s . 9 Guard of the race. With births you sympathise. great Nature's key Belongs to no divinity but thee. I have no doubt. blessed Dian. . Thou dwell'st with all irnmanifest to sight. leian MSS. When rack'd with labour pangs. And thou in ev'ry work art seen and known. Which art attempts to ease. tho' pleas'd to see The numerous offspring of fertility. and sore distress'd. written by Proclus. Hear. Assisting Goddess. but tries in vain.

the supercelestial place. speaking about Jupiter. that " she possesses the truth 'of the Gods. T H E F U M I G A T I O N W I T H TOKCHES. What Hermeas afterwards adds on this subject is too important t o be omitted. preserv'd me from his wrath . too. e.T H E MYSTICAL H Y M N S T O NIGHT." and lo To her. in the Phzedrus. indicates concerning this Goddess. says. + * In the original aAq0euu. Night. prediction wholly true was giv'n. i. as we are informed by Hermeas (in Phaedr. . From whom at first both Gods and men arose lo. source of sweet repose. the great tamer both of Gods and men. NIGHT.J is omitted in this place. To whom I fled." F o r Orpheus. intelligible and at the same time intellectual.) obscurely indicates the whole order of the series of Night. from her subaistence at the summit of the intelliigble and at the same time intellectual order. but evidently ought to be inserted. is absorbed in the intelligible. which. For the Chaldean Oracles call the intelligible Gods swift. The first subsistence of the Goddess Night is a t the summit of that divine order which is denominated by Chaldean theologists voq~osKai voepos. speaking about Night. hence Homer divinely denominates Night swifl. She is also said to prophesy to the Gods. This order is denominated by Plato. f As Night. and is as follows :-'' Theologists likewise peculiarly establish Truth in the supercelestial place. For. For he swift Night was fearful t o offend. and in which he says the plain o f Truth is situated. Sleep says.parent Goddess. Homer.

but perceive them only? I n answer to this it may be said.i. that it is necessary contact should exist. e. as far as to a certain thing. that the supercelestial place is without colour ? Is i t in the same manner as we say. For he there indicates this principle by negations . but to become situated in. are souls not said to see Heaven. however. But how does Plato say. Why. and be conjoined with it. whom we also call Venus. II Hear. therefore. e. . blessed Venus 11. yet are not conjoined with the natures above Heaven. In Sleep's deep silence dwelling Ebon night ! But Plato says he s h d l d a ~ e to speak concerning it. deck'd with starry light. He is also concordant in what he says about the supercelestial place. the source of all things. is above that intellectual order which is denominated Heaven]. The he is going to assert something afi~matively dread. but inferior to others . Why. and he is said to be united through Night as a medium. But there is no reason whatever for this supposition : for Venus in the hymn to her is called vvmcpia. For the Goddess Night is superior to certain orders. that Hermann is of opinion that the line Nut ysvsois m u " Night." is an interpolation. but this is alone asserted of Jupiter. except that he absolutely denies all things of the first principle : but of the supercelestial place he denies some things. is lest we should be led to something unappropriate and vile in such like doctrinal concerns. so Night is supercelestial [i. r w v . and affirms others. with what he asserts in [the first hypothesis of] the Parmenides. however. q u Kai Kurprv ~aXeawpcv. because about it.OF ORPHEUS. about the first principle of things. as far as to this ? Because neither are the Gods under Jupiter said to be united to Phanes . and +rXoravV V X € uepuI)). and as the first principle of things is superessential.

Hesiod. indeed. since colours are certain illuminations. in what is here asserted. for all the rest Were lost in wonder a t th' unhop'd for light. since the saxre thing is possessed both by nature and soul? May we not say that Plato. And through the privation of colour. of Heaven. which is visible. and to make the sentence in- . For TOL here. what * will there be transcendent in the supercelestial place. since Orpheus says that Night is united to him : No eye but that of sacred Night alone Beheld Protogonus . For night also is opposed to day. Homer. for Heaven and Earth first proceeded out of Phanes. For of the Gods which abide within Phanes. and the Centimani [or Gods with a hundred hands]. Plsto manifests that the place of the Nights is above the kingdom of the Heaven . + TL. and disposes what he says conformably to them? For after the order of Nights there are three orders of Gods. nature and soul are colourless ? But what is there admirable in asserting this ? And if we admit this. and Heaven is first illuminated by the divine light of Phanes. being above Heaven. because the latter is illuminated and coloured. the Cyclops. Hence Night and all the supercelestial place. that it is above the order of the Cyclops. the proper names of whom Plato denies of the supercelestial place.12 T H E MYSTICAL H Y M N S Dreams and soft ease attend thy dusky train. Orpheus. they are very properly said to be without colour. and Musiens]. But that which is visible and illuminated is coloured. that figure is first unfolded into light in these. Which glitter'd from th' immortal Phanes' skin. but through theprivation of figure. Pleas'd with the length'ned gloom and feastful strain. i t is necessary to read terrogatory. viz. Heaven is the first that becomes visible from him . very much follows the beforementioned theologists [vie. For theology says.

i x ' d . obscurely indicates this order. Hence theology denominates them hundred-handed:for through the hands we touch. And in their forehead one round eye was f I n the Parmenides. are the first principles and causes of the figures which subsist every where. and the every where existing figure. the touch pervades through the whole body. and that which is mixed $ [from both these]. the circular. But these Cylops. when he speaks of the straight. Hence i t is evident. and Arges. For Vulcan is the cause of corporeal figures. the friend of mirth. make. For this triad * is perfective of figures. 145. for these first come into contact. as being the first causes of figures.O F ORPHEUS. of the psychical and intellectual figure . that the supercelestial place i s above the order of the Cyclops. and of every mundane figure . But by the privation of contact Plato manifests that this place is above the Centimani. with all the fabrication of things. as will be evident from a perusal of the first hypothesis of the Parmenides. that they are m a m d artijicers. l . Dissolving anxious care. Plato. as it were. With darkling coursers riding round the earth. who taught Pallas and Vulcan all things : [says Orpheus]. W e must not therefore wonder on hearing that Vulcan and Minerva are the causes of figures. $ The words K ~ 70 L ~ L K T O V are omitted in the original. Steropes. Farther still. and distinguish all things. but ought to be inserted. taught Minerva and Vulcan the various species of figures. t Hesiod Theog. likewise. but Minerva. Hence theology says. and the Cyclops of divine. These the first manual artists were. the Cyclops. and that the divinities. Theology The triad of the Cyclops consists of Brontes. .

as follows : "Superior illuminate subordinate natures with the light of Truth. since it is both one and bring. however. For what Orpheus calls Night. he indicates the negative conclusions according to the superessential one. Gyges. introducing three of them from being. Here likewise the first number is unfolded into light. but the exempt principle of the intellectual Gods (for the Nights are principles with which principle is co-ordinate) . as having a6out it the genus of t m e science. and as being truly existing essence. Plato very properly preserves the triadic. but the boundary of what are properly called the * This triad consists of Cottus. that Plato denominates without colour. Whose drowsy pow'r divides the nat'ral day . And what the former says negatively is without fulsehood. viz. and is triadic according to each of these. who is the boundary of the intelligible. [says Orpheus. and Briareus. For. calls these hundred-handed.14 T H E MYSTICAL H Y M N S Goddess of phantoms and of shadowy play. But Plato adduces negatively what he found celebrated affirmatively by the theologist. again adduces three affirmations. of the Centimrtni is of a guardian nature. The triad *. who is the king of the supermundane. which is the first principle of things . Plato also. We must extend the eye of intellect therefore to these four . . the one. both in the negative and affirmative conclusions. Or it may be said that. Phanes. Prediction without falsehood was to Night Of all things giv'n. therefore. but the affirmative according to being.] that the latter celebrates. and being the causes of it. symbolically. having celebrated the supercelestial place by three negations. Jnpiter. as touch- ing all the fabrication of things. since this order is a triadic one. I n the next place Hermeas enumerates the different kinds of Truth.

I Instead of an' a v m v in t h i s place. Be present. which nought withstands. Desir'd by all. intellectual Gods . remote from mortal sight . and the principle of all things fills the intelligible Gods. and hence the essence of it is said t o be from supermundane natures. with the divine light proceeding from himself " f. it is obviously necessary to read vno. benevolent. * For unep here. and the Sun. it is requisite to read an' aurov. Invests the world with adamantine bands. For dire Necessity. Jupiter illuminates supermundane essences with intellectual light. Goddess. . whom all alike revere. Again. who is the king of sensible natures. Thus the Sun imparts supermundane light to sensibles . Phanes illuminates the intellectual Gods with intelligible light .O F ORPHEUS. But each of these illuminates the beings that are under * it with the truth. By Fate's decree you constant send the light To deepest hell. with friendly aid Dispel the fears of twilight's dreadful shade. and all things. which i t possesses from an order placed above that which i t illuminates. Blessed. to thy suppliant's pray'r.

T H E F U M I G A T I O N F R O M FRANKINCENSE. whose all-various frame. " Heaven is the boundary and guardian of all things. Etherial. T O HEAVEN. whose mighty frame no respite knows. Hear. GREATHeav'n. For ever blessed. as we are informed by Damas- l3 The dogma that subordinate natures are causally oontained in such as are supreme. Abode of Gods. Father of all. and encircling folds The dire necessity of nature holds. whose guardian pow'r surrounds Th' eternal world with ever during bounds l2. Azure and full of forms. For ever whirling round this earthly ball . from whom the world arose . l2 cius r e p i apxwv.T H E MYSTICAL H Y M N S IV. bounteous parent. Whose ample bosom. All-seeing. source of Saturn and of time. earthly 13. source and end of all. no power can tame." o r o v Op+eos Oupavos oupos K a i savswv $ u X a t e i v a i /3ovlerac. and such as are supreme in . And crown his wishes with a life divine. deity sublime. Propitiozds on a novel mystic shine. According t o Orpheus.

T H E FUMIGATION F R O M SAFFRON. ruler of the sky. e. in Tim. serene. splendid flow'r . For in enumerating the Orphic traditions concerning Phanes. in the Earth] Heaven subsists terrestrially . Great portion of the Stars and lunar light.OF O R P H E U S . and Bacchus. The world's best element. Whose vivid blasts the heat of life inspire. "For Heaven is in Earth. K a L EV Oupavy ry (lege P7). Heaven. but there [in the heavens] Earth subsists celestially. Jupiter. e. and may thy frame Be ever innocent. EUTL yap K ~ EY L I 7 7 Oupavos. 0 hear my suppliant pray'r. For Orpheus wleo calls the Moon celestial earth. With starry radiance shining. with dazzling lustre briglit. p. C K E L OV~CIVLWS q I'v' K C I L yap oupaviav Kal r ~ (lege v yyv 7 7 1 ~ ) ZEX~V Op ~ $V ~ v s~ p o m v Y O ~ E U C T E Y . T O ETHER. Saturn. Night. And here indeed [i." . 292. EVER 0 the subordinate by participation. and tame. but is also said by Proclus.KCZL &vravOa . i. rais'd on high In Jove's dominions. untam'd Ether. light-bearing pow'r. ethereal shining fire. t o be Orphical. he observes. is originally Egyptian. and Earth in Heaven.UEV o OvPavos XBOYLWS. All-taming pow'r. And of the Sun.

But Jupiter. in Metaph. and the second. subsist. conformably t o the doctrine of Pythagoras. hear my pray'r. says Syrianus. Arist. was represented by Orpheus under the symbol of an egg. and was symbolically represented by Orpheus as adorned with the heads of a ram. or ether. the first principle of all things is the one. as related by Syrianus. as being the primordial cause of all animal life. who subsists a t the extremity of the intelligible triad.T H E MYSTICAL H Y M N S THE FUMIGATION F R O M MYRRH. who is hence denominated Protogonus. or chaos. to i n j n i t y . 14 IVPhanes. glorying in thy golden wings. and after this. 114. a serpent. and the exemplar of the universe. From whom the race of Gods and mortal springs. which is called by the Chaldean theologists the intelligible triad. the first. or Protogonus. animul itself. Afterwards. Bull-roarer 15. is denominated Phanes. Twofold. and is therefore vous voqsos. According to Orpheus. ether and chaos. and wand'ring thro' the air . And of these principles. . The whole of this first and occult genera of the Gods. 0 MIGHTY first-begotten. a bull. is analogous to bound. or intelligible intellect. p. because he is the first visible deity. on the exclusion of which by the Goddess Night. eggborn. the two principles. is denominated by Plato in t h e Timaeus TO auro~wov. among which the first apparent God is the king and father of the universe. the first and occult genera of the Gods subsist. and a lion. who. or the good itself. the God Phanes came forth.

speaking of the intelligible monad. "It is by no means wonderful if this monad comprehends the whole intellectual pentad. Commentary on the Parmenides of Plato. "that the Persian deity Mithra. viz." For the crashing noise indicates the same thing as the roaring of Protogonus. or the summit of the intelligible order. And this is conformable to what is asserted respecting ideas in the Chaldzan oracles. viz.~ o a r ethe ~ . " The intellect of the father made a crashing noise. as it appears to me. motion. roaring signifying the procession of ideas to the formation of the world.Ericapous. as well as the hull. All-spreading splendour. in the Fifth Book of his MS. a t the extremity of which Protogonus subsists. i. therefore. alludes to this verse. all-shining flow'r. informs us. evidently. As Porphyry. permanency. same- . e. Ineffable. is the demiurgus and lord of generation. he says. And Proclus. in his treatise De Antro Nympharum. and hence he is said by Orpheus to have absorbed Phanes prior to his fabrication of the world . understanding with unwearied counsel omniform ideas. is in the intellectual what Phanes is in the intelligible order of Gods . celebrated pow'l. l6 This line in the original is. the reason is obvious why Protogonus is called in this hymn b u l l . For. 'Tis thine from darksome mists to purge the sightl6. occult. or the demiurgus of the universe. pure and holy light . essence. the theologist indicating by this his participation of all the primary paradigmatic causes of things which subsist in Phanes.

With joyful aspect on these rites divine And holy T e l i t e propitious shine. For all things are there without separation. is said to puvge the sight from dark mists. being indicated by darkness. . ness. the intelligible. is because the primary causes of things which in the deities prior to him subsist in ineffable union. and difference. since through this union all these are after a manner one. is very properly called dark-eyed splendour . Protogonus. I n which passage the two last words form a part of the above Orphic line. ever blessed king. or Phanes. without division. but intellect by t h e eye and splendour : for it is the province of intellect to see and unfold into light. But the reason why Protogonus. thee I sing. On waving pinions thro' the world you fly. dark-eyed splendour 17. and in the most profound union . according to a dark mist. are by him first unfolded into intelligible light. Priapus. all-prudent. Genial. as the theologist asserts. all being in all. who is intelligible intellect. call'd the glory of the sky.20 THE MYSTICAL HYMNS Hence. from its occult subsistence. Phanes." A8iaK P ~ T W V a a w u v O V T W V K ~ T U mcoroEurav opi~hqv.

Pure sacred lights. THE F U M I G A T I O N F R O M AEOMATICS. pure and fiery bright. glittering. being celestial. joyful. WITHholy voice I call the stars on high. TO THE STARS. Hail. is said t o be both etherial and earthly. These sacred rites regard with conscious rays. and daemons of the sky. And aptly rule for men a path divine. ever wakeful fires ! Propitious shine on all my just desires. dear progeny of Night. v II.OF ORPHEUS. And end our works devoted to your praise. the reason of which I have explained in the note to that hymn. In whirling circles beaming far your light . And heaven and earth's compose your lucid frames : With course unwearied. . Refulgent rays around the heav'ns ye throw. Eternal fires. With flames significant of Fate ye shine. In seven bright zones ye run with wand'ring flames. For ever shining thro' the veil of Night. are here said t o consist of heaven and earth. 18 As Heaven. Celestial stars. the source of all below. it is obvious why the Stars. in the hymn to that divinity.

says of this divinity : 19 2 7 s G'aao peiXi~o6wposaX~&~atcov Siac~i~s IIaiTwv P X a g ~ v u ~E v . " From thy bland dance repelling deadly ill. golden Titan." 20 The hand is a symbol of power. dancing19 in thy four-yok'd car. Health far diffusing. Salubrious Paeon blossoms into light. And to all eyes the object of delight : Lord of the Seasons. Sonorous. T O THE SUN. IIXyuas appoviqs aavaaTpovos Evpea ~oupov. denominating one the right hand. HEAR. the other the left. THE FUMIGATION FROM FRANKINCENSE AND MANNA. unwearied in diffusing light. Plat. beaming light from far. Native.~ ~ V ' ~ T E T ~v O yC ~E i~ Vv . And with thy left the father of the night. e.T H E MYSTICAL HYMNS VIII. whose eternal eye With matchless sight illumines all the sky. 380. . lib. and th' extended world With streams of harmony innoxious fills. in Theol.20 Proclus. With thy right hand the source of morning light. i. 6. Hence Proclus. says that those who are skilled in divine concerns attribute two hands to the Sun . p. in his most elegant hymn to the Sun.

O F ORPHEUS. Bearer of fruit. Father of ages. Bright eye. the reason is obvious why the sun is called Jupiter. but the good man's guide. borne by lucid steeds. and the eye of right. Plat. whom ev'ry power reveres. For what Jupiter is in the intellectual that the Sun is in the sensible order of things. pure and fiery bright . lover of the stream. in Theol. as we have shown in the Introduction. bearing light. The world's commander. informs us. that round the world incessant flies. 289. Agile and vig'rous. Doom'd with fair fulgid rays to set and rise . venerable Sun. 5. Fiery and bright around the heav'ns you run. in Tim. lib. 071 ~ X t o vpev E T E C T ~ Q ETOLS OXOLS o ~ ~ ~ I L L L O U P Y 22 . which processions are the satellites of the leading divinities of these spheres. Immortal JoveZ1. a solar Jupiter being one of his attendants. and of life the light: As all the celestial spheres are replete with processions from all the supermundane deities. But there is also another reason for this appellation. the king of the universe. O'er all his steps propitious you preside. Source of existence. Foe to the wicked. and o'er all supreme. Agile and warm. 21 Proclus. Dispensing justice. Orpheus. Hence Proclus. guide of prosp'rous deeds. With various-sounding golden lyre 'tis thine To fill the world with harmony divine. in the words of KO US L. calls the sun ~ a a i X ~ uTOU s savTos. p. The world's great master. Faithful defender22. almighty lord of years.flute-playing. Of steeds the ruler.

because as these till the ground. When in the glittering car of day you ride. that the ancient priests of Ceres. 24 . who is the queen of generation. THE F U M I G A T I O N F R O M AROMATICS. IX. and wand'ring thro' the gloom of Night. so the Moon governs all those parts which surround the earth. Comlnentary on the Gorgias of Plato. on account of her increase and diminution . . and fashioned him as its guardian. of the sublunary regions." And Olympiodorus. The Moon is called in this hymn both Q E X I ) and ~ ~ pqv?." (bvha~a avrov E T E V ~ KE E ~ . a bull. says that the Moon. is drawn by two bulls. Bull-horn'd24. Goddess queen. commanding him to govern all things. but by bulls. i. . HEAR. according t o ancient theologists. called the Moon. the former of which words signify the Moon in the language 23 W e are informed by Porphyry. H e adds.24 THE MYSTICAL H Y M N S With sounding whip four fiery steeds you guide. diffusing silver light. e. in his treatise De Antro Nymph. "And Taurus is the exaltation of the Moon. Propitious on these mystic labours shine. by two. in his MS. And bless thy suppliants with a life divine.E V G E TE T~GLY avacueiv. I "That the Demiurgus established the Sun over the whole of the universe. TO THE MOON^^.

many houses. are of a n allotment pertaining to daemons. many cities.rvhich has many mountains. Proclus. so with respect to names. through the heav'ns you ride : of the Gods . as the knowledge of divine natures is different from that of partial souls like ours. For. but men Mene . and the latter is the appellation given to her by men..OF O R P H E U S . and adumbrated images as it were of true beings. admirably remarks as follows : " The first. and with circuit wide Night's torch extending. which only partial1y unfold their signification. most principal. after the same manner I think the science that is with us representing intellectual production fabricates resemblances of other things." This difference of names arises from the difference between divine and human knowledge. in the last chapter of his first book on the Theology of Plato. But the second names. . and a t another intellectually. divisible images of things indivisible. as it is well observed by the Platonic philosophers. a t one time energizing divinely. are unfolded by scientific men. On this difference of names. and truly divine names are established in the Gods themselves. which are logically devised. bat others are human. we may say that those names which are the third from the truth. and which subsist intellectually. For as the demiurgic intellect establishes resemblances about matter of the first forms contained in himself. which the Immortals call Selene. e. And again. With stars surrounded. as is evident from the following Orphic fragment : Mqcaro 6' aXXvv yaiav aaeipirov. and also . and produces temporal images of things eternal. which are imitations of the first. some are divine. " But he (Jupiter) fabricated another boundless earth. and generating moving images of their inward spectacles. vvre Zehqvqv i. exhibiting the whole essence of that which is named . and which receive the ultimate resemblance of divine natures.

t h a t Bassareus Bacchus. In fire. and in the celestial orbs . thus also the intellectual science of divine concerns. but the other Proserpine.26 THE MYSTICAL HYMNS Female and male 2 4 with silv'ry rays you shine. most probably derived from some MS. representing that which is void of composition in them. that Trie- tericus Bacchus. p. I n the orb of Venus. on the Theology of Plato (lib. the other in vivifying and governing the orb with which that power is connected. this Erato. this Euterpe. has the following remarkable passage. and thus fashioning names ultimately exhibits images of divine natures. in the orb of the earth. that Bacchus Silenus. I n the orb of Mars. and the latter Tethys. I n water they denominate the former power Ocean. this Clio. and this Aurora. 4. or some other of the latter Platonists ." See more on this subject in the additional notes to my translation of the Cratylus of Plato. now tending to decline. that . I n the sphere of the Sun. this Melpomene. by the compositions and divisions of sounds. of the Gods themselves. that Lysius Bacchus. 25 Ficinus. this Terpsichore. they call the gnostic power Pluto. and that which is united. the other Thalia. that Sebazius. '' The professors (says he) of the Orphic theology consider a twofold power in souls. I n the orb of Saturn. I n air. And as the theurgic art through certain symbols calls forth the exuberant and unenvying goodness of the Gods into the illumination of artificial statues . that which is simple. through composition. unfolds the occult essence of the Gods. I n the sphere of Mercury. the one consisting in knowledge. they call the gnostic power Liknitan Bacchus. I n the sphere of Jupiter. through variety . and this Juno. For it generates every where name as if it were a statue of the Gods. that Phanes. Commentary of Proclus. that thundering Jove. for unfortunately he does not acquaint us with the source of his information. Thus. And now full-orb'd. through multitude . I n the soul of the lunar sphere. 128).

But in the soul of the world they call the gnostic power Bacchus Eribromus. the soul of the ruling deity is of the female. and the intellect is of the male characteristic. that is about the splendour of one invisible Sun. Hence both Thcologists and Socrates. and a prudent life : Fair lamp of Night. p." aavras Kiaovua . I n the eighth sphere. splendid queen of night. its ornament and friend. it is by no means wonderful that the Moon is called in this hymn "female and male. Mother of ages. All-seeing pow'r. and that she gives perfection to the imperfec26 tion of matter. As in each of the celestial spheres." The greater part of this passage is preserved by Gyraldus in his Syntagma de Musis. for the purpose of informing us that the powers of the Muses are. In peace rejoicing. as the inspective guardian of physical progression and generation.'' Proclus. call her Lueina. this Polymnia. but the animating power Calliope. and by Natales Comes in his Mythology. and in order that we may consider the nine Muses. in Plat. Theol. as revolving round one Apollo. this Urania. "That she excites all physical productive powers or forms into energy. that Pericionius. informs us respecting Diana. From all which the Orphic theologists infer. intoxicated with the nectar of divine knowledge . the foe of strife. fruit-producing Moon. 403. Whose amber orb makes Night's reflected noon: Lover of horses. therefore.OF ORPHEUS. who among the mundane divinities is the Moon. bedeck'd with starry light. as it were. but without mentioning the original author. Lover of vigilance.26 Amphietus. that the particular epithets of Bacchus are compared with those of the Muses. and nine Bacchuses. in the Theaetetus. Who giv'st to Nature's works their destin'd end.

as we are informed by Herodian. Vide Selden. TOUS $ U ~ ~ K O U S XOYOUS c i s E u c p y L a v . de Diis Syriis. Come. Shine on these sacred rites with prosp'rous rays. bright. with chaste and splendid light. prudent.28 THE MYSTICAL H Y M N S Queen of the stars 27. blessed Goddess. Come. The epithet in the Orphic hymn is zshaaglopos. e. all-wise Diana. p. hail ! Deck'd with a graceful robe and ample veil. K a c ysvvqaews E $ O ~ O U . tcai T O ~ U T O T E X E S (lege T O areXes) 7 7 s VATS ~ ~ X ~ i o v8u 1 0aK * ULA o ~ i u v avrqv oire %EOXOYOL. r ~ s ws T ? / S@ J c T L K ~ ) s T ~ O O ~ O U . moony-lamp. starry. 248. This Goddess likewise was called by the Africans Urania. I n the original aorpapX?/. 27 . bringing to aperfeot end. K a c o EV @ E U I T ? ] T ~ . i. J ~ w ~ p a KUXOUQLV. And pleas'd accept thy suppliants' mystic praise. This appellation was first given to the Moon by t h e Phcenicians.

p. and inspires all things . through which she directs and governs mundane beings. as we are informed by Proclus.' from whom all life is derived. is the last of the demiurgic causes of this sensible world. For. and the boundary of the extent of incorporeal essences. so that through her the most inanimate beings participate of a certain soul. "But she governs the whole world by her powers. ancient and divine. 4. F o r [according to the Chaldean Oracle] 'Immense Nature is suspended from t h e back of the Goddess . Heav'nly. she pervades without impediment through. Being however such. we call divine bodies Gods. and that which is inseparable from the subjects of its government.O F ORPHEUS. both that which is intellectual. but she has not immediately the subsistence of a. deity. NATURE. art is thine . 28 Nature. In ev'ry part of thy dominions seen. being suspended from thence. Hence. THE FUMIGATION FROM AROMATICS. but ruling over generation [or the sublunary realms] through the heavens . containing the heavens in the summit of herself. and such things as . venerable queen. says he. and every where weaving together partial natures with wholes. all-parent. abundant. 0 much mechanic mother. H e adds. A n d she is a goddess indeed in consequence of being deified . in Tim. and is full of productive powers and forms. she proceeds from the vivific Goddess [Rhea]. as being the statues of Gods.

she every where weaves together partial natures with wholes. reduce whatever is discordant and different in the universe into union and consent. artist. Nature therefore. all taming. being held together by the causes of forms which she contains. therefore. are given t o Nature. that it is the f eveyy thirtg. honour'd. from her connecting and uniting power. is in perfect conformity to the symbolical theology of Orpheus. with unremitting force. first-born. and even of deity itself. kc." Hence Nature is represented in this hymn as turning the still traces of her feet with a swift wwhling. from that wisdom and virtue of which she is the presiding deity. "that one of the conceptions which we form of Nature is. ever still the same. in his Commentary on the Second Book of Aristotle's Physics. connecting. and that in consequence of this. all-wise pro&dence. Nocturnal. are corruptible remain perpetually in the world. of intellect. powerful dame. Minerva fashioned t h e variegated veil of Nature. Thy feet's still traces in a circling course. By thee are turn'd. her operations ainply symbolize with the traces of feet. it is well observed by Simplicius. Bor since she is the last of the demiurgic causes. starry. as we also learn from Proclus. has an evident agreement with Minerva . which evince her agreement with Minerva. and at the . as indicating the cha~acteristic or hyparxis of divinity. and do not refuse to say the nature of soul. ever splendid light. shining. according to the Orphic theology. But the reason why the epithets of much-mechanic. Again. Immortal. Hence. and from her plenitude of seminal productive powers. and supremely bright. according t o the Orphic theology..30 THE MYSTICAL HYMNS Untam'd. All ruling." Nature. is because. character o we employ the name of it in all things. whose divine arts. said to be without a father. as Proclus in the above extract informs us.

all various nam'd. life-bearing queen. and self-produced essences. and whatever it contains. are aptly connected together from things irzjnite and $nitc. Theol. says. 132. "Nature and the whole world. To all things common. Finite and infinite alike you shine 2R . or self-perfect. published a treatise on Nature. and in all things known. i. Pure ornament of all the Pow'rs divine. Mingling. And when Nature in this hymn is said to be incommunicable and alone. Thyself the father whence thy essence came . as we are informed by Diogenes Laertius. . Lib.O F ORPHEUS. yet a t the same time are uvroreX~ts vaouraaets. though they proceed by an app~ros~ ~ ~ a vor u iineffable s unfolding into light from the first principle of things. 29 Philolaus. of which this was the beroupy appoxer) e t anetpwv T E Kai ginning: $vats 6~ EV ~ ( ~ ~epatvovrwv. F o r so far as the pvinciple of all things he is incomrnunicabb. according to this theology. and that these two intelligible principles were produced the first of all things by the highest God." Hence Socrates. e. r a EY avry ravra. p. Kar 0710s K O ~ ~ O S KUL . Without a father of thy wondrous frame. And for commanding grace and beauty fam'd. same time the father of her own being." Proclus. And bond connective of the earth and skies. since it is impossible that there should be more than one principle of all things. Yet incommunicable and alone. in Plat. 3. this must be considered as indicating the characteristic of the great first principle of all. in the Philebus of Plato. "that all beings consist of bound and injhity. Leader.. cites the above passage of Philolaus. all-flourishing. supremely wise. For all the Gods.

32 T H E MYSTICAL H Y M N S Justice. Like swift descending streams. it cannot receive the whole of divine infinity a t once. with steady course. no respite know 30. earthly. Sweet to the good. But since. On an eternal hinge. Father of all. great nurse. but bitter to the bad : All-wise. Again. By thee the world. So that the corporeal world is in a continual state of flowing 30 a . i t can alone be connected by a certain indivisible power imparted to i t by divinity. whose general sway The waters of the restless deep obey. hence it can only derive it gradually and partially. unremitting force. impetuous. since from a natural appetite. all-spermatic mind : Mature. from its material imperfection. from whose fertile seeds And plastic hand this changing scene proceeds. in a momentary succession. and is on this account continually sepa. moving. As the world has a n extended and composite essence. as it were by drops. And to maturity whate'er may spring. and mother kind. You to decay and dissolution bring. but in a way adapted to its temporal nature . Is whirl'd with matchless. in vital impulse seen. supreme in might. All-parent pow'r. divine. all-sagacious queen. whose parts in rapid flow. A rich increase of nutriment is thine . Eternal. provident. the nature of such an appetite and motion must originate from a divine intellect and goodness. for the pious glad. it is perpetually moved in an orderly manner towards good. all-bounteous. blessed. Etherial.rated from itself. Abundant.

Ol? ORPHEUS.

Thron'd on a circling car, thy mighty hand Holds and directs the reins of wide command : Various thy essence, honour'd, and the best, Of judgment too, the general end and test.

Intrepid, fatal, all-subduing dame, Life everlasting, Parca, breathing flame. Immortal Providence, the world is thine, And thou art all things, architect divine. 0, blessed Goddess, hear thy suppliants' pray'r, Anci make their future life thy constant care ; Give plenteous seasons and sufficient wealth, And crown our days with lasting peace and health.
and formation, bub never possess real being ; and is like the image of a lofty tree seen in a rapid torrent, which has the appearance of a tree without the reality ; and which seems to endure perpetually the same, yet is continually renewed by the continual renovation of the stream.

T H E M Y S T I C A L HYMNS

XI.
TO PAN 31.
THE F U M I G A T I O N F R O M V A R I O U S ODOURS.

STRONG past'ral Pan, with suppliant voice I call,
Heav'n, sea, and earth, the mighty queen of all, Immortal fire ; for all the world is thine, And all are parts of thee, 0 pow'r divine. Come, blessed Pan, whom rural haunts delight, Come, leaping, agile, wand'ring, starry light. Thron'd with the Seasons, Bacchanalian Pan, Goat-footed, horn'& from whom the world began ; Whose various parts, by thee inspir'd, combine In endless dance and melody divine. In thee a refuge from our fears we find, Those fears peculiar t o the humankind.
Pan, as we are informed by Damascius, first subsists at t h e extremity of the intelligible order, being there no other than the celebrated Protogonus or Phanes ; but, according to his mundane subsistence, he is the monad or summit of all the local Gods and daemons. I n the statues of him his upper parts resemble those of a man, but his lower parts those of a brute [viz. of a goat] indicating by this, that in the universe rationality has dominion over irrationality. As, therefore, according t o his first subsistence, he is the primary exemplar of the universe ; the reason is obvious why in this hymn he is celebrated as all things.
3l

O F ORPHEUS.

35

Thee, shepherds, streams of water, goats rejoice, Thou lov'st the chase and Echo's secret voice : The sportive Nymphs thy ev'ry step attend, And all thy works fulfill their destin'd end. 0 all-producing pow'r, much-fam'd, divine, The world's great ruler, rich increase is thine.
All-fertile Pean, heavenly splendour pure, In fruits rejoicing, and in caves 32 obscure. True serpent-horned Jove 33, whose dreadful rage, When rous'd, 'tis hard for mortals to assuage.

A cave, as we are informed by Porphyry D e Antr. Nymph. is an apt symbol of the material world ; since it is agreeable a t its first entrance on account of its participation of form, but is involved in the deepest obscurity to the intellectual eye, which endeavours to discern its dark f oundation. Hence, like a, cave, its exterior and superficial parts are pleasant, but its interior parts are obscure; 'nd its very bottom darkness itself.
32

already observed, first subsists a t the extremity of the intelligible order, and is the same with Protogonus or Phanes. This being the case, in the intellectual order he is analogous to Jupiter the Demiurgus, by whom, according to Orpheus, Phanes was absorbed. Hence, as Jupiter is said to be the mingler of all things by Orpheus, as we learn from 10. Diac. Allegor. in Hasiod, p. 305, horns are an occult symbol of the mingling power of the Demiurgus of the world. For the literal meaning of the word K E ~ ~ G T ~used S , in this hymn, is horned serpent ; and one of the heads of Protogonus is that of a serpent. And the word K E p a n q s is, as Gesner observes, derived from the verb Kepavvvpc, t o mingle.
33

Pan, as we have

36

THE MYSTICAL H Y M N S

By thee the earth wide-bosom'd, deep and long,
Stands on a basis permanent and strong. Thyunwearied waters of the rolling sea, Profoundly spreading, yield to thy decree. Old Ocean, too, reveres thy high command, Whose liquid arms begird the solid land. The spacious air, whose nutrimental fire And vivid blasts the heat of life inspire ; The lighter frame of fire, whose sparkling eye Shines on the summit of the azure sky, Submit alike to thee, whose gen'ral sway All parts of matter, various form'd, obey. All natures change thro' thy protecting care, And all mankind thy lib'ral bounties share ; For these, where'er dispers'd thro' boundless space, Still find thy providence support their race. Come, Bacchanalian, blessed pow'r, draw near, Enthusiastic Pan, thy suppliants hear, Propitious to these holy rites attend, And grant our lives may meet a prosp'rous end ; Drive panic fury too, wherever found, From humankind to earth's remotest bound.

O F ORPHEUS.

X I I.
TO HERCULES.
HEAR, strenuous Hercules, untam'd and strong,
To whom grand works and powerful hands belong, Titan untam'd, rejoicing and benign, Of various forms, eternal and divine. Father of Time, the theme of gen'ral praise, Ineffable, adored in various ways, Magnanimous, in divination skill'd, And in thyathletic labours of the field. 'Tis thine, strong archer, all things to devour, Supreme, all-helping, all-producing pow'r. To thee mankind as their deliv'rer pray, Whose arm can chase the savage tribes away. Unweary'd, earth's best blossom 34, offspring fair, To whom calm peace and peaceful works are dear.
Since, according to Orpheus, there is an intellectual which is the source of the sensible world ; the former containing in a primary and causal manner what the latter comprehends secondarily and sensibly ; hence the former contains an intellectual heaven and earth, not like the material existing in place, and conversant with the circulations of time; but subsisting immaterially in the stable essence
34

of eternity. I n this divine world another sun and moon and stars shine with intellectual light ; for every thing there is perfectly lucid, light continually mingling with

the reason is obvious why Hercules is called " Earth's best blossom. and great Craeus. derives the sublunary orders of the Gods . is called " blossom of Earth . in Tim. p. and among these (vid. because they took revenge on the great starry Heaven . this illustrious earth generated celestial sons. and the Sun in the sensible world. which are also surnamed Titans." And we shall find that Saturn. in hymn 79. From this heaven and earth resident in the intellectual Phanes. " Young blossom of Earth ." Now as Hercules is celebrated in this hymn as the Sun." and the Titans. having an illustrious form. according to Proclus. with primogenial fires 35 you shine. and the Sun is the same with Hyperion." since he is no other than Protogonus in the intelligible and intellectual worlds. " She produced seven beautiful pure virgins with voluble eyes. Orpheus. 295). and fair-haired Mnemosy ne and blessed Thea . Hence." and Themis. Or in conformity to the Orphic theory mentioned in the Introduction. in the following hymn. and strength of heart are thine : light. and robust Phorcys. and seven sons. it may be said that he is celebrated with solar epithets. and Rhea the mother of king Jupiter. and Jupiter. Phanes. The daughters are Themis and prudent Tethys. is denominated by Orpheus Hercules and Time. And various names. together with Dione. and Saturn. he enumerates the following progeny of the intellectual earth. in hymn 37. all of them kings. and Ocean. we see the reason why Hercules in this hymn is said "to shine with primogenial fires . as being one of the satellites of the Sun. 35 I n the editions of Gesner and Hermann we have in this place pohcurv. and Phcebe.38 THE MYSTICAL HYMNS Self-born. and in the edition of Eschenbach $oXtcri . but ." Again. Moreover. and these are Cseus. " The illustrious progeny of Heaven and Earth. as we are informed by Athenagoras. Procl. and Hyperion. and covered with downy hair.

divine." . The mitigations of disease convey. Come. and noxious fate disarm. Dismiss thy darts. Thyself a God. thou reign'st in heav'n's abodes. And bears. Twelve glorious labours to absolve is thine . shake the branch with thy almighty arm. Supremely skill'd. the silent gloomy night . conformably to the above translation. From east to west. With arms unshaken. Scaliger also in his version has '' Ignibu' primigenis florms. the true reading is. infinite. $Xoyicri. untam'd. I have no doubt. and to our rites incline . Bnd drive disastrous maladies away. amidst thyimmortal Gods. Come. blessed pow'r. endu'd with strength divine.OF ORPHEUS. Thy mighty head supports the morning light.

hear. and Prometheus wise. Propitious hear.T H E MYSTICAL H Y M N S XIII. from which the world arose. Endu'd with various counsel. to suppliant pray'rs inclin'd . Hence matter's flowing forms thro' thee that die. various speech is thine . The sacred rites benevolent attend. By thee restor'd. ETHERIAL father. mighty Titan 36. No parts peculiar can thy pow'r enclose. THE F U M I G A T I O N FROM STORAX. Diffus'd thro' all. And grant a blameless life. 3 V a t u r n is one of the Titans produced by t h e intellectual Earth. Blossom of earth and of the starry skies. as is evident from Note 34. 0 mighty Saturn. Strong and ineffable thy pow'r contains . a blessed end. on the hymn t o Hercules. T O SATURN. of a subtle mind. Obsteteric pow'r and venerable root. Great sire of Gods and men. Husband of Rhea. pure and strong. whom all revere . 0 best of beings. To whom increase and decrement belong. their former place supply. From which the various forms of being shoot . Father of vast eternity. . The world immense in everlasting chains. divine.

Daughter of various-form'd Protogonus 38 divine. i. e. and Jupiter. signifying nothing more by the word $owing than that fontal power by which she contains in transcendent union the divisible rivers of life. T H E F U M I G A T I O N F R O M AROMATLCS. the former of which collects intellectual multitude into one. is called Rhea . 266). Theol. and definitely unfolds all the genera of the Gods. with an intelligible and prolific power.XIV. that this Goddess. which she imparts t o Jupiter. So that she is filled from Saturn. ILLUSTRIOUS Rhea. Proclus likewise in p. between Saturn. and together with Jupiter unfolding the total and partial orders of the Gods. hence. this Goddess produces in herself the demiurgic causes of the universe . says Proclus (in Plat. p. who subsists a t the extremity of the intellectual order. according to the Orphic and Platonic theology. Saturn and Jupiter. 37 Rhea. she is called Ceres. but the latter scatters and divides it . but imparts her diffusive power abundantly to secondary natures. 38 Phanes or Protogonus. as we are informed by Proclus . Hence. 267 of the same work informs us. but considered as producing Jupiter. the Dcmiurgus of the universe. who subsists a t the summit. is one of the zoogonic or vivific principles of the universe. Since this Goddess then is a medium between the two intellectual parents of the universe. having a maternal rank among the paternal orders. On this account Plato assimilates her prolific abundance to the flowing of waters . she calls forth the causes latent in Saturn to the procreation of the universe . when considered as united to Saturn by the most exalted part of her essence. to my pray'r incline. filling his essence with a vivific abundance. according to Orpheus.

in the demiurgic order. but also among the intellectual Gods . from which Rhea proceeds. The Phanes. and in the next line drum-beating. Hence. or a certain modulated sound. Iamblichus (De Myst. in his Epistle to Anebo : " Some of those who suffer a mental alienation energize enthusiastically on hearing certain cymbals or drums. Saturn's blessed queen. Drum-beating. terrible and strong. in Tim. Hence i t is pmharily intellectual. Brass-sounding39. This order. Cap.42 TIIE MYSTICAL H Y M N S Who driv'st thy sacred car with speed along. and is celebrated by Plato in the Phaedrus under the appellation of Heaven. 111. the reason is obvious why she is said in this hymn to be the daughter of Protogonus. as Rhea is one of the progeny of the intellectual Earth resident in Yhanes. and is Kara q c a i v through proximity and alliance. p. the latter. 291. however. and is adapted to excite the affections. whose mighty arm can wield Th' avenging bolt and shake the clreadful shield. of a splendid mien. participates of the former. 39 The reason why Rhea is here called brass-sounding. and that the melody of pipes produces or . and those who are inspired by the mother of the Gods. Drawn by fierce lions. Hence. Sect. and among the supermundane and mundane Gods. as we have before observed. says Porphyry. Mother of Jove. as subsisting between the intelligible and intellectual orders. subsist in that divine order which is denominated by the Chaldean theologists voqros teal v o ~ p o s . fury-loving. and Earth. intelligible and at the san2e time intellectual.honour'd. such as those who are Corybantically inspired. not only subsists among the intelligible. is in consequence of the enthusiastic energy of which she is the source. 9) beautifully observes as follows : "That music is of a motive nature. those who are possessed by Sabazius. And in a similar manner Night and Heaven : for the peculiarities of these are received through all the middle orders." On this passage.

but by others occasions this fury to cease . and such as are m o r e effeminate. and the work of our a r t . all these appear to me to be adduced in a way foreign to enthusiasm. to the motions in the universe itself. but the males that are thus inspired are very few in number. and others of the like kind . With respect. so that whatezer has but a casual similitude to directly pa~ticipates o f them. and lilcewise how the differences of these accord with the several dispositions of the soul. There is also an alliance in these sounds and melodies to the proper orders and powers of the several Gods. and a plenitude of a more excellent essence and power. Conformably therefore to such like adaptations of melodies to the Gods. the Gods themselves become present. heals the disordered passions of the soul. such as are the melodies of Olympus. and to the harmonious sounds which proceed from the motions. on this account the inspirations of them entirely differ from each other. For they are physical and human. " We must rather." I n Cap. For there is not any thing which intercepts . however. but nothing whatever of a divine nature in them presents itself to the view. and the solutions of ancient divine anger. and that of Sabazius appropriately pertains to Bacchic inspiration.OF ORPHEUS. to the Mother of the Gods. And mankind's horrid howlings thee delight. those who are precedaneously inspired by her are women . also he observes. changes the temperaments or dispositions of the body. however. and by some melodies causes a Bacchic fury. on which account also it in a remarkable degree . This enthusiasm. 10. therefore. A perfect possession likewise immediately takes place. and that unstable and variable melody is adapted to ecstasies. the purifications of souls. 43 Thou joy'st in mountains and tulnultuous fight. "that since the power of the Corybantes is in a certain respect of a guardian and efficacious nature. say that sounds and melodies are appropriately consecrated to the Gods. has a vivijc and replenishing power.

gave hirn a stone wrapped in swaddling bands. this fable adumbrates the creation of the world. Such is the fable. See more on this most interesting subject in my translation of this work of Iamblichus on the Mysteries. therefore. as narrated by Phurnutus. who was secretly educated. a t length obtained the government of the world. which are the same with the Orphic dogmas . Deceitful saviour 40. Mythol. liberating dame.4 4 4 THE MYSTICAL HYMNS War's parent. is only to be derived from Platonic. being the same with Rhea. his mother Rhea. (Vid. who was a Stoic philosopher. were very deficient in theology. a t the same time informing Saturn that what she gave him was her offspring. From this all things are produced. or the source of life to all things. Comment. without such a foundation for their support. Opusc. Jupiter according to him] was then nourished in the world.) According to Phurnutus also. differs from all other mania. and is the middle deity of the intellectual triad. e. in Parmenidem) motion and permanency. and derive their proper aliment. is very foreign from its true meaning. and at length prevailed. But the stone devoured by Saturn is the earth. and Jupiter." I n this extract the reason why Iamblichus says that the enthusiasm of the Mother of the Gods has s vivijc power is because she is a vivific Goddess. p. ' 0 When Jupiter was born (says the fable). in the place of Jupiter. though they greatly excelled in ethics. which consists of Saturn. alluding to its firmly occupying the middle place : for beings could not be permanent. But the Stoics. in order to deceive Saturn. mighty. of majestic frame. the development of the fable is as follows : Rhea is the fontal cause of all life. L L For a t that time (says he) Nature [i. Rhea. and conformably to these. and Jupiter. Saturn immediately devoured the stone ." This explanation of the fable by Phurnutus. But the peculiarities of t h e vivific order are (as Proclus demonstrates in MS. 147. the former unfold- . The true solution of the fable.

Drive dire disease to earth's remotest bound. lib. repi apxwv. aerial-form'd. and nevertheless a t the same time she remains firmly and cubically established. Th' etherial gales. Goddess. blessed and divine. The same thing is also demonstrated by him in Plat. Damascius also.O F ORPHETJS. Rhea. i. pleas'd with wand'rings. WS €a1ITUU K~Y~S€~CT~ KKTU T C Z S &U~~EQELS. Come. KUL ou8sv ~ T T O Y E G T W ~I T U ~ ~ ~ W Kar S K U ~ L K W S . And the secret education of Jupiter indicates his being nurtured in the intelligible order : for this order is denominated by ancient theologists occult. as being moved t o every thing. because eight is a cubic number. therefore. or number eight. according to divisions or distributions of her essence. . proceed from thee. is fabulously said to have given Saturn a stone instead of Jupiter. and the latter firmly establishing this life exempt from its proper rivers. considered as firmly establishing her offspring Jupiter. a t the same time that they proceed from. wherever found. v. observes. ing into light the fountains of life. Ty Peq 7 oy6oas I T p O C T V K E l . from whom the earth And spacious heav'ns derive their glorious birth. who exists in unproceeding union. e. Bring rich abundance ." Damascius uses the word cubically. With peace attended on our labours shine . " T h e ogdoad. abide in their causes. 45 Mother of Gods and men. the stone indicating the Jimt establishment of Jupiter in Saturn. For all divine progeny. pertains to Rhea. Theol. and. the deeply spreading sea. in Saturn.

it appeared to me t o be obvious. Hence mother Earth and mountains swelling high Proceed from thee. too. T O JUPITER 41. Jupiter as the principle of the universe contains it in himself : for all things . Whose pow'r almighty shakes this earthly ball . much-honour'd. For a copious development of the nature of this divinity. the deep and all within the sky. sceptred Jove . commanding. that by the head mind must be indicated. 0 JOVE. he is the end of all.THE MYSTICAL H Y M N S xv. of which the head is the d2 61a receptacle. THE F U M I G A T I O N F R O M STORAX. For all things to produce with ease thro' mind 42 is thine. Our pray'rs and expiations. 41 What I have here translated t h ~ omind. Saturnian king. Hence. Jove supremely great. king divine. ' is in the original crvv K E @ U X ~ Y as . All-parent. principle and end of all 43. 43 Jupiter is the principle of all things in the universe. descending from above. so far as he is the Demiurgus. see the additional notes. Magnanimous. but so far as he is the final cause. To thee our holy rites we consecrate.

heav'n's exalted plains . I n conformity to this. not having the smallest conception of what the Greek theologist meant by the belly of Jupiter. which are likewise t o be found in the Treatise de Mundo (ascribed t o Aristotle) . ruler of the skies. and in fair connection lies I n Jove's vast belly. p.O F ORPHEUS. being full of ideas. I n the last line of these verses. Hence with the universe great Jove contains Extended ether. the belly being the middle part of the body. occultly signifies to us. With all that Nature's ample realms contain. Proclus cites other Orphic verses. in Tim. . arm'd with light'ning. says. wide-bosom'd earth renown'd. Ocean immense. and all that e'er shall be. previous t o which he observes. So that the poet. All that is past. The barren sea. thund'ring Gad. somewhere in his voluminous mythological treatise. 95. flow from their principle. as comprehending all middles in himself. Occultly. " that it excited no other idea of Jupiter than that of an enormous glutton. as the theologist Orpheus says. by asserting that all things are contained in the belly of Jupiter. and the boundless main. A certain modern. and Tartarus profound . Loud-sounding. Fountains and rivers. the following Orphic verses are cited by Proclus. Ev'n Nature trembles at thy imighty nod. that the Demiurgus." I n the same place also. in answer to one who rightly conceived that the latter part of the above Orphic lines contained a grand image of the maker of the universe. comprehended through these all things in himself. And Gods and Goddesses of each degree . but also the middle of all things. that this deity is not only the beginning and end. the belly of Jupiter is indicative of all that subsists as a middle in the universe .

Fire. Form'd from the starry bearns. Jove's wondrous frame Lives in the rage of ever-restless flame. Jove is a king. Eschenbach. conformably t o the order of Stephens. and his ear refin'd Hears ev'ry voice and sounds of ev'ry kind. Shap'd like a bull's. stable. night and day. and Gesner. earth. His eyes the Sun and Moon with borrow'd ray : His mind is truth. etherial. and scatter boundless light ! Round which his pendent golden tresses shine. These in his mighty body Jove confin'd. unconscious of decay. For in Jove's royal body all things lie. water. . See how his beauteous head and aspect bright Illumine heav'n. Jove the strong basis of the earth contains. as follows : Jove is the first and last. The first begetter's pleasing Love and Mind . and yet a maid divine. Jove is the breath of all . On either side two radiant horns behold. And Jove's the moon. by no restraint confin'd .48 THE M Y S T I C A L H Y M N S Source of abundance. And all things f l o w from Jove's prolific mind : One is the power divine. high thund'ring king. And one the ruler absolute. And the deep splendour of the starry plains. full of light. And East and West in opposition lie. alone. 0 various-form'd. His body boundless. For Jove's a man. purifying king. in all things known. I n Jove the male and female forms combine. and bright with glitt'ring gold . and the sky . Royal. from whom all natures spring . The lucid paths of all the Gods on high. from Jove all beings spring. With these verses I have connected others. the solar light . Thus are his head and mind immortal bright. with light divine. Middle and head. Jove is the sea's strong root. fair regent of the night.

as containing in the unfathomable depths of his essence the causes of every thing which the sensible universe contains." Thus too. And thro' the world the ruler of the skies. but as that from which all things are ineffably unfolded into light. 49 Propitious hear my pray'r. his holy feet secure . and necessary wealth. and a square. Egypt. Pow'rful t o tame. Hence. not as contai~li~lg all things ~ l u l t i t u d i nonsly in itself. For these. Upborne on natal rapid pinions. the ineffable principle of things is said to be all things prior to all. to Jove belong. Th' extended region of surrounding air Forms his broad shoulders. according to Orpheus. tom. or the Demiurgus. he is every thing which is contained in the sensible world. is. and all things before all. And into beauteous light from thence reveal'd. says of Jupiter. also. The distant realms of Tartarus obscure. conformably t o this doctrine. With peace divine. by a causal priority. Earth's utmost bounds. therefore. e. ii. 6 c Jove is a circle. these causes infinitely transcending the effects which they produce. Pherecydes Syrus. and bosom fair . flies. as we learn from Kircher (in mdip. p. all things. back. Whose roaring waves the solid globe surround. And form his basis permanent and strong.OF ORPHEUS. His middle zone's the spreading sea profound. Thus all things Jove within his breast conceal'd. give Mameless health. with a force endu'd. Jupiter. Within Earth's roots. His sacred belly earth with fertile plains And mountains swelling to the clouds contains. Strong are his members. Centre and line. but ne'er to be subdu'd. trigon. . 89)' i.

With aspect kind. Aerial-form'd. the swelling sea And rolling rivers roar when shook by thee.THE MYSTICAL HYMNS XVI. With sounding blasts of wind. And universal sway alone is thine. Mother of show'rs and winds. T O JUNO 44. THE FUMIGATION F R O M AROMATICS. from thee alone." See more concerning this divinity in the additional notes. Jove's blessed queen. mortal life is known : All natures share thy temp'rament divine. . Which nourish life. The cooling gales thy pow'r alone inspires. an epithet perfectly agreeing with the attributes ascribed t o her in this hymn. which ev'ry life desires. the vivi$c Goddess. p. 0 ROYAL Juno. fam'd almighty queen. Theol. 483. says. Proclus also in Plat. rejoicing and serene. "that Juno is the source of the procreation of the soul. blessed Goddess. divine. of majestic mien. as we are informed by Proclus. The race of mortals is thy constant care. Come. Juno is called by the Orphic theologists. Producing all things. Thron'd in the bosom of cerulean air. {uoyovos %a.

XVII.

THE FUMIGATION F R O M MYRRH.

HEAR, Neptune, ruler of the sea profound,
Whose liquid grasp begirds the solid ground; Who, at the bottom of the stormy main, Dark and deep-bosom'd hold'st thy wat'ry reign. Thy awful hand the brazen trident bears, And Ocean's utmost bound thy will reveres. Thee I invoke, whose steeds the foam divide, From whose dark locks the briny waters glide ; Whose voice, loud sounding thro' the roaring deep, Drives all its billows in a raging heap ; When fiercely riding thro' the boiling sea, Thy hoarse command the trembling waves obey. Earth-shaking, dark-hair'd God, the liquid plains (The third division) Fate to thee ordains. 'Tis thine, cerulean daemon, to survey, Well-pleas'd, the monsters of the ocean play. Confirm earth's basis, and with prosp'rous gales Waft ships along, and swell the spacious sails ; Add gentle Peace, and fair-hair'd Health beside, And pour abundance in a blameless tide.
See the nature of this divinity unfolded in the additional notes.
45

T H E MYSTICAL H Y M N S

XVIII.

T O PLUTO.
A HYMN.

PLUTO, magnanimous, whose realms profound Are f i x ' d beneath the firm and solid ground, In the Tartarean plains remote from sight, And wrapt for ever in the depths of night. Terrestrial Jove 46, thy sacred ear incline, And pleas'd accept these sacred rites divine. Earth's keys 47 to thee, illustrious king, belong, Its secret gates unlocking, deep and strong. 'Tis thine abundant annual fruits to bear, For needy mortals are thy constant care. To thee, great king, all-sov'reign Earth's assign'd, The seat of Gods and basis of mankind.
46 Pluto, says Proclus, in Plat. Theol. p. 368, is called terrestrial J u p i t e ~because , he governs by his providence the earth and all it contains.
47 Proclus, in the Excerpta from his Commentary on the Cratylus of Plato, informs us that initiators into the Mysteries, in order that sensibles might sympathize with the Gods, employed the shuttle as a signature of separating, a cup of viviJic, a sceptre of ruling, and a KEY of guardian powep: Hence Pluto, as the guardian of the earth, is here said to be the keeper of the earth's keys.

OF ORPHEUS,

53

Thy throne is fix'd in Hades' dismal plains,
Distant, unknown to rest, where darkness reigns ; Where, destitute of breath, pale spectres dwell, In endless, dire, inexorable hell ; And in dread Acheron, whose depths obscure, Earth's stable roots eternally secure. 0 mighty d ~ m o n whose , decision dread, The future fate determines of the dead, With captive Proserpine, thro' grassy plains, Drawn in a four-yok'd car with loosen'd reins, Rapt o'er the deep, impell'd by love, you flew Till Eleusina's city rose to view : There, in a wondrous cave obscure and deep, The sacred maid secure from search you keep, The cave of Atthis, whose wide gates display An entrance to the kingdoms void of day. Of works unseen and seen thy power alone To be the great dispensing source is known. All-ruling, holy God, with glory bright, Thee sacred poets and their hymns delight, Propitious to thy mystics' works incline, Rejoicing come, for holy rites are thine.

THE M Y S T I C A L H Y M N S

XIX. T O THUNDERING JUPITER.
THE F U M I G A T I O N F R O M STORAX.

0 FATHER Jove, who shak'st with fiery light The world, deep-sounding from thy lofty height. From thee proceeds th' etherial lightning's blaze, Flashing around intolerable rays. Thy sacred thunders shake the blest abodes, The shining regions of th' immortal Gods. Thv pow'r divine the flaming lightning shrouds With dark investiture in fluid clouds. 'Tis thine to brandish thunders strong and dire, To scatter storms, and dreadful darts of fire; With roaring flames involving all around, And bolts of thunder of tremendous sound. Thy rapid dart can raise the hair upright, And shake the heart of man with wild affright. Sudden, unconquer'd, holy, thund'ring God, With noise unbounded flying all abroad ; With all-devouring force, entire and strong, Horrid, untam'd, thou roll'st the flames along.
Rapid, etherial bolt, descending fire, The earth, all-parent, trembles at thine ire ;

The sea all-shining, and each beast, that hears
The sound terrific, with dread horror fears : When Nature's face is bright with flashing fire, And in the heav'ns resound thy thunders dire. Thy thunders white the azure garments tear, And burst the veil of all-surrounding air. 0 Jove, all-blessed, may thy wrath severe, Hurl'd in the bosom of the deep appear, And on the tops of mountains be reveal'd, For thy strong arm is not from us conceal'd. Propitious to these sacred rites incline, And to thy suppliants grant a life divine, Add royal health, and gentle peace beside, With upright reas'ning for a constant guide.

I CALL the mighty. . And grant the mortal life a pleasing end. Lightning thro' lucid clouds with crashing noise. Flaming. fiery-bright. dreadful-sounding. Pure. all-parent. with angry voice. T H E F U M I G A T I O N F R O M FRANKINCENSE A N D MANNA. Aerial. light. splendid. great and strong : Come. etherial light. JUPITER. to whom resentments dire belong. and benevolent these rites attend. Untam'd. holy. holy pow'r.THE M Y S T I C A L HYMNS XX.

flashing fire. XXI. Loud-sounding. thro' heav'ns resplendent plains Who wander. THE F U M I G A T I O N F R O M M Y R R H . parents of prolific rains . With rapid course along the skies ye sail. AERIAL Clouds. whose wat'ry frames are hurl'd. round the mighty world.OF ORPHEUS. In Air's wide bosom bearing thunders dire : Impell'd by each sonorous stormy gale. By winds impetuous. Who nourish fruits. With gentle gales your wat'ry frames I call. On mother Earth with fruitful show'rs to fall. lion-roaring. . T O THE CLOUDS.

Whose ample waves in swift succession go. and of clouds obscure. T H E F U M I G A T I O N FROM FRANKINCENSE A N D MANNA. Send. blessed queen. And lash the rocky shore with endless flow : Delighting in the sea serene to play. . with gentle gales. and the wat'ry way. Hid in a veil obscure from human sight : Great Ocean's empress. In ships exulting. wanil'ring thro' the deep. and source of fountains pure. Great nurse of beasts. with eyes cerulean bright. hear my pray'r. And make benevolent my life thy care . 48 See the nature of this divinity unfolded in the additional notes.T H E MYSTICAL H Y M N S XXII. TETHYS I call. the earth to sweep . And pleas'd. And waft them safely o'er the stormy seas. 0 venerable Goddess. to ships a prosp'rous breeze. Mother of Venus.

struggle hard for vent. When blust'ring winds in secret caverns pent. blessed Nereus. Send to thy m y s t i c s necessary wealth. source of all. to thee. 0 THOU who dost the roots of Ocean keep In seats cerulean. and ever tranquil health. much-farn'd. daemon of the deep. By thee excited. . And Earth's wide bounds belong. whose pow'r can make The sacred basis of blest Ceres shake. listen to my pray'r. With fifty nymphs (attending in thy train.XXIII. THE FUMIGATION F R O M MYREH. Fair virgin artists) glorying thro' the main : The dark foundation of the rolling sea. Come. Great daemon. With gentle peace. And cease to shake the earth with wrath severe .

Leaping and wand'ring thro' the liquid sea. wat'ry dolphins. With other Nymphs of different degree. Well-pleas'd to sport with bacchanalian play . from whom I spring. Of holy Bacchus and of Proserpine. resident in caves Meg'd deep in ocean. who thro' the main Delight to follow in the Triton's train. Give plenteous wealth. sporting thro' the waves . Nymphs beauteous-ey'd. DAUGHTERS of Nereus. Of fair Calliope. the Muses' king. Bright. . sonorous and gay. And of Apollo bright. Whose forms half wild are nourish'd by the deep. For you at first disclosed the rites divine.THE MYSTICAL H Y M N S XXIV. T O THE NEREIDS. THE FUMIGATION F R O M AROMATICS. Rejoicing close behind their cars to keep . and bless our mystic rites. whom sacrifice delights. Fifty inspir'd Nymphs.

and though not a deity. wondrous and sublime : For all things Nature first to thee consign'd. Repub.O F ORPHEUS. says Proclus. All-honour'd. And decorate with forms all-various and divine. With all that shall be in succeeding time. 0 father. First-born. whose sagacious mind Knows all that was and is of ev'ry kind. 97. is a certain angelic intellect of the order of Neptune. So vast thy wisdom. to thy mystics' rites attend. prudent. whom Fate decrees to keep The keys which lock the chambers of the deep. xxv. Proteus. p. Pure sacred matter to transmute is thine. And grant a blessed life a prosp'rous end. by whose illustrious pow'r alone All Nature's principles were clearly shown. though inferior to the primary Gods. is immortal . '9 . T O PROTEUS 49. in Plat. And in thy essence omniform confin'd. PROTEUS I call. comprehending in himself all the forms of things generated in the universe.

All-parent. Come. Around thy orb the beauteous stars are hurl'd With rapid whirl. and grateful shoot. THE FUMIGATION FROM EVERY KIND O F SEED. See the additional notes. 50 According to the Orphic theology. crown'd with ev'ry grace . listen to my pray'r. all-destroying force . With fertile Seasons in thy train draw near. 0 MOTHER Earth. Sweet to the smell. blessed. Earth is the mother of every thing of which Heaven is the father. From whose wide womb as from an endless root. mature. Deep-bosom'd. blessed Goddess. Fruits many-form'd. and with prolific rains. . Whose frameswith matchless skill and wisdom shine. blessed. EXCEPT BEANS A N D A R O M A T I C S . Eternal. eternal and divine.T H E MYSTICAL HYMNS XXVI. And with propitious mind thy suppl-iantshear. bounding. centre of the world. th' immortal world's strong base. whose prolific pow'rs Produce a store of beauteous fruits and flow'rs. pleas'd with grassy plains. Endu'd with fertile. of Gods and men the source. All-flow'ry daemon. All-various maid. And make increase of fruits thy constant care .

rejoicing in the drum. All-taming. MOTHER of Gods. from thy protecting care. Thou sway'st the sceptre of the pole divine. The Mother of the Gods is the same with Rhea . XXVII. TO THE MOTHER O F THE GODS. by lions drawn along. much fam'd. Vesta and source of wealth thy name we find To mortal men rejoicing to be kind . Divinely honour'd.51 And the world's middle seat. blessed. propitious to our rites. in t h e second book of his Commentary on Euclid. Phrygian Saviour. swift and strong. and regard my pray'r. Thron'd on a car. For ev'ry good to give thy soul delights. is thine. . and 51 Proclus. mighty pow'r. Come. come. Saturn's great queen. and needy mortals share Their constant food. From thee the sea and ev'ry river flows. great nurse of all. draw near. From thee at first both Gods and men arose . that the pole of the world is called by the Pythagoreans the seal of Rhea. informs us.OF ORPHEUS. THE F U M I G A T I O N F R O M A V A R I E T Y O F ODORIFEROUS SUBSTANCES. Hence earth is thine. By bull-destroying lions.

H e is likewise the inspective guardian of gyrnlzastic exercises . in his admirable Commentary on the First Alcibiades. and hence he is said to be the son of Maia . gives us the following information respecting Mercury. and a prudent mind. And pleas'd. With joyful aspect on our incense shine. " Mercury is the source of invention. or carved statues of - . ancient. Celestial messenger of various skill. life-supporting maid. give thy suppliant aid . Inspiring fury . Angel of Jove. which is implied by Maia. 5Vroclus. T O MERCURY 52. and this he acomplishes. of which two excellent editions have been recently published by Cousin and Creuzer. HERMES. Prefect of contests. leads invention into light.64 THE MYSTICAL HYMNS Celestial. accept the sacrifice divine. and hence herntce. ruler of mankind. b y unfolding the will of his father Jupiter . and Maia's son divine . which as the reader will easily perceive greatly elucidates some parts of this hymn. H e bestows too mathesis on souls. Whose pow'rful arts could watchful Argus kill. because search. draw near. T H E FUMIGATION F R O M FRAXKINCENSE. as the angel o r messenger of Jupiter. and to my pray'r incline. With heart almighty.

the end of which is a genuine intellectual apprehensi~n of divine natures. H e presides. conclude my life with peace. reasoning. because the invention of geometry.'. and thy suppliant hear . Dire weapon of the tongue. governing the different herds of souls. leading us to an intelligible essence from this mortal abode. Give graceful speech. And in necessities to mortals kind.' . and prophet of discourse : Great life-supporter. and hence h e is honoured as hupatos. were placed in the Palaestrre . and language is referred t o this God. to rejoice is thine In arts gymnastic. the lyrist among the celestial constellations . Hermes. and the source of gain. which men revere. over every species of erudition. 65 With winged feet 'tis thine thro' air to course. blessed. He is likewise the supplier of recollection. Of various speech. and of disciplines. whose aid in works we find. Assist my works. With pow'r endu'd all language to explain. and memory's increase. 0 friend of man. and dispersing the sleep and oblivion with which they are oppressed. and in fraud divine. Whose hand contains of blameless peace the rod. therefore. of nzusic. Of care the loos'ner. Mercury. Corucian.OF OEPHEUS. Be present. profitable God.

Jove's holy offspring. Horn'd. whose frame proceeds From Jove's ineffable and secret seeds. 0 venerable Goddess. Sweet to the smell. Pluto's honour'd wife. whom grassy plains delight. Avenging Goddess. 139. and pleasing to the sight : 53 Proclus. Mother of Bacchus.uovvoyevelav ELWOE to gist [Orpheus] is accustomed gotten. subterranean queen.T H E MYSTICAL H Y M N S XXIX. and to these rites incline : Only-begotten 53. lib. 0 vernal queen. in Tim. T O PROSERPINE. of a bounteous mind. p. essence bright." ?rpocayopevetv. sonorous. bearing heav'nly light. See the additional notes. and alone desir'd by those of mortal kind. the parent of the vine. With fruits abounding. Persephone divine. source of life : 'Tis thine in earth's profundities to dwell. Associate of the Seasons. . The Furies' source. A HYMN. Fast by the wide and dismal gates of hell. divine. All-ruling virgin. says. blessed queen. And many-form'd. fair-hair'd. 2. of a beauteous mien. DAUGHTER of Jove. Come. "that the theolocall Proserpine only-heIcai y a p o B ~ o X o y o sr q v K o p q v .

cap. informs us. the festival of Proserpine was celebrated on the sixth of the Nones of October. says Sallust (De Diis e t Mundo. Earth's vig'rous offspring of a various hue : Espous'd in autumn 54. together with Pluto. and that she supplies the extreme parts of the universe with life. This is perfectly conformable to what is said in the above hymn. governs terrestrial concerns. Hear. Proclus. free from noisy strife. according to thy will. 55 . To thy fair palace and the blissful plains Where happy spirits dwell. life and death alone To wretched mortals from thy pow'r is known : For thine the task. ~a0080s ECL m u $UXWY. Theol. and crown my life With blest abundance. Hence the reason is obvious why Proserpine is said in this hymn to have been espoused in autumn. Dismiss me willing to the realms beneath. and all that lives to kill 55. Life to produce." r e p 1 your TTV EvavrLav Lqpcptav q 71s Kopqs 54 upray? . Last in extreme old age the prey of Death. t h a t according to the Eleusinian mysteries. and this rape signifies the descent of souls. 4) is fabled t o have taken place about the opposite equinox . and imparts soul t o those who by her power are rendered inanimate and dead. and Pluto reigns. send a rich increase Of various fruits from earth. Proserpine. 371. blessed Goddess. According to Lydus De Mensibus. with lovely Peace : Send Health with gentle hand. and the recesses of the earth . p. in Plat. "The rape of Proserpine.Whose holy form in budding fruits we view.u~Oohoyci~a~ y~v~(~O oa 6 1 7 7 .

ineffable. with ivy crown'd. Surrounded with thy choir of nurses fair. THE F U M I G A T I O N F R O M S T O R A X . Rural. BACCHWS I call loud-sounding and divine. Inspiring God. whom the leaves of vines adorn. Endu'd with counsel prudent and divine : Omadius. And listen gracious to my mystic pray'r. TO BACCHUS 56. Of Jove and Proserpine occultly born In beds ineffable . 0 firstborn. and Euion 57 pure : Bull-fac'd and martial. a twofold shape is thine : Thy various names and attributes I sing. SOcalled from the voice of the Bacchants. Give me in blameless plenty to rejoice . Racchic king. two-form'd. . 56 57 See the additional notes. bearer of the vine. Whom with triennial off'rings men adore. all-blessed pow'r.T H E MYSTICAL H Y M N S XXX. obscure. Immortal dsemon. thrice begotten. Two-horn'd. hear my suppliant voice.

who in the supermundane are the same as the Curetes in the i~telleetualorder. Preserving rites mysterious and divine : Come. Who move in rhythm to the sounding lyre : Who traces deaf when lightly leaping tread. Theol." And in hymn xxxviii. XXXI. lib. strong defenders. Arm-bearers. in consequence of both these triads being of a guardian characteristic. who with dancing feet And circling measures armed footsteps beat : Whose bosoms Bacchanalian furies fire. in Plat. 58 The Corybantes. the Curetes are celebrated a's being also the Corybantes . LEAPING Curetes. p. are said by Proclus. . "to be the guards of Proserpine. A HYMN. rulers dread : Fam'd Deities the guards of Proserpine 58.OF ORPHEUS. And with glad mind the herdsman's life defend. and benevolent this hymn attend. 6. T O THE CURETES. and subsisting in profound union with each other. 383.

371) of three zoogomic monads . the same things are manifested through other names. p. 59 The supermundane vivific triad consists (as we are informed by Proclus in Plat. likewise [i. whose illustrious kind. Ineffable. and shady mountains thee delight : In arms rejoicing. Theol. Blessed and fierce. e. in his Exposition of the Chaldaic Dogmas. who joy'st in caves to rove : 0 warlike Pallas. also. which is definitive of life . Psellus. and Minerw.. noble race of Jove. the middle monad Soul. the summit of essence]." Conformably to this. and these are Diana. For by the Barbarians. the rocky height. ONLY-BEGOTTEN. '$And of these (says he) the highest or first is arranged according t o hyparxis p. are accustomed to call the first Coric Diana. Theologists. the second P~oserpine. and the third Virtzce. who with furies dire And wild the souls of mortals dost inspire. and effable we find : Magnanimous and fam'd. e. v ?f ~ E atcporBs Y E K Q T ~ ]K U ~ E L T U L * . Proserpine. I mean that they are thus denominated by the primary leaders of the Grecian theology. and the third Coric Miiinerva. For they call the first monad Hecate. And groves. says : TWY 8~ S S r ) o ~ o u ~ (LpXuY. the second acqording t o power. A HYMN. the Chaldean theologists].THE MYSTICAL H Y M N S XXXII. and the third according t o vivijc intellect.

because the divinities of which it consists are principles and rulers. And hence i t appears. in line thirteen. 0 much-form'd. unmarried.. ap)(tKv. Female and male. Gymnastic virgin of terrific mind. rous'd to ire. that Runkenius was mistaken in asserting that these epithets were misplaced. for this arises from her union with Diana. according to Phurnutus. is obvious why Minerva in this hymn is said to delight in caves. the following explanation of the battles of the Gods is inserted from p. but wisdom by the good. 373 of the Fragments of the Commentary of Proclus on the Republic of Plato : 1L The divided progressions of all things and their . Minerva is called "female and male. ~ u l i n g Soul . and why the Moon in the hymn to her is called aavco$e ~ovpq. but its real meaning is known only to a few. divine : O'er the Phlegrean giants61. impetuous ." The supermundane order is also called by Proclus apxttcq. inspir'd." as well as the Moon . the summit is called Hecate . the arts of war are thine. a dragon is of a vigilant and guardian nature.and the extremity. Of the zoogonic principles. As the fable of the giants is well known. the middle. e. 7 8~ ~LEQOTTS. ruling Virtue. therefore. We may likewise hence see the reason why. groves. The reason. kind : Mother of arts.O F ORPHEUS. dragoness 60. a n d shady mountaias ." allwise virgin.$ J U X ~ ] " apX(K?)* 1] 8~ ~ T E ~ U T W ~ ape71 ~S." It is easy to perceive the agreement between Minerva. understood As fury by the bad. since. blessed. and a dragon . i. Dire Gorgon's bane. Thy coursers driving with destruction dire. who is characterized by divine wisdom and providence. rocks.

but the genus of similitde is allotted an order contrary to dissimGitude. perceiving such contrariety in the Gods themselves and the first of beings. And thus in all the orders of being is such a contrariety of genera diversified. and the subordinate gene~a~tion some supply a generative abundance to inferior natures.logy. is opposed t o eficacious powers. therefore. and about this establishing their proper essence. but others bound the progressions.some are the cause4 of conve?. according to an orderly progression. Hence. Hence some of them are the leaders of union to secondary natures.72 THE MYSTICAL H Y M N S Sprung from the head of Jove. as the first principles of things are separated from each other. according to the same ana. all the divine genera and true beings are divided from each other. and which are full of life and motion. Again. and about this determining their subsistence. and is a cause productive of multitude and progression. some bind to themselves the cause of separate good. the kindred communion of sameness receives a division according t o species opposite t o the separations of diference. any longer wonderful. therefore. which establishes things in themselves. all-victorious queen. I s it. e. but others impart the power of separation . too. some being suspended from the unifying monad bound. obscurely signified this to their pupils through battles ? the divine genera. in' . and that of equality to inequality. convolving the multitude of progressions t o their proper principles . Purger of evils. and subsisting according to those principles which are expanded above wholes. Hence permanency. but others of the good which is consubsistent with the beings that receive it. Just. essential separations supernally originate from that division of first operating causes [i. of splendid mien. they dissent from each other . but others receiving in themselves a never failing power from that in$nity which is generative of wholes.sion. which is perfectly arcane . from the principles. but others impart an immutable and undeJiled purity. from bound and infinity]. if the authors of fables.

but that their progressions into the universe. and the connective t o the separating. I think. and partibly preside over material natures. With supplicating voice both night and day. the objects of their providential exertions not being able to receive in an unmingled manner the powers proceeding from thence. and without confusion their multiform illuminations. viz. Hear me. W e may also. that the Gods themselves are impartibly connascent with each other. then. 0 Goddess. and those which are expanded above t o those that preside over partial natures : and hence fables. concealing the truth. after a manner. and so many. being perpetually united t o each other. For those powers which elevate to causes are. become divisible. that the last orders which are suspended from divine natures. when to thee I pray. those that unite to those that multiply the progression of things . being the modes according to which the mystic rumours of theologists refer war to the Gods themselves :-other poets. minutely dividing those powers which presubsist uniformly and impartibly in their first operating causes. Such. . and their communications are separated in their participants. in which the divine genera are divided conformably to the first principles of wholes. and as being proximate to the subjects of their government.OF ORPHEUS. which are involved in matter. participate themselves of all-various contrariety and separation. total genera to such as fabricate partihly . and subsist uniformly in each other. and are thus filled with contrariety . as being generated remote from first causes. and those who have explained divine concerns through a divinely inspired energy. assert that such powers fight and war with each other. but a t the same time containing in themselves the causes of the union and separation of all things. opposed to those that are the sources of generation. deed. adduce another mode of solution . W e may likewise say. have ascribed wars and battles t o the Gods according to the first of those modes we related.

in his elegant hymn t o Minerva. indivisible energy. and a wholeness prior to parts * are adapted to those fabricators that have a. were vanquish'd by thy might. and the daring band Of earth-born giants." * 'CVhotehas a triple subsistence . Strove with thy sire. On this account. i. Kai XOOVLWV Ziapaaaau Beupaxa +vXu yiyavrwv. subsistence prior to the world. Propitious times. says of this victory of Minerva over the Giants : H ao+iqs ?rEraaaau SEOCLPEUS ~~Xeuvas. for i t is either prior to parts. that in impious fight. i. For union. or it is the aggregake of parts ." Proclus.74 THE MYSTICAL HYMNS And in my latest hour give peace and health. 0 much implor' d. divisibly adproduce the den~iurgic minister the affairs of the universe. " The God-trod gates of wisdom by thy hand Are wide unfolded. e. is the cause of the parts which it contains . as i t appears to me. See my translation of Proclus's Elements of Theology. or it subsists in a part. art's parent. and are the proximate fathers of material natures. and necessary wealth. And ever present be thy vot'ries aid. B u t the Titans and Giants powers into multitude. e. and the Giants of Jupiter. blue-ey 'd maid. . they assert that the Titans were the antagonists of Bacchus.

OF ORPHEUS. immortal fame. Thee I invoke. and joyful shouts are thine. T H E F U M I G A T I O N F R O M MANNA. whose might alone car1 quell Contending rage and molestation fell. May deeds illustrious thy protection claim. With adverse breasts to dreadful fury fir'd. mighty Goddess. and thy suppliant bless. . And find. With sparkling eyes. Come. 'Tis thine in battle to confer the crown. XXXIII. by men desir'd. elated with success . 0 POWERFUL Victory. The victor's prize. the mark of sweet renown . T O VICTORY. Victory divine ! And glorious strife. led on by thee. For thou rul'st all things.

Grunian G2. whom Memphian tribes revere. of the fabrication of the last of things]. a certain Chaldaic triad. and the God of health.umupyias. Python-destroying 6% hallow'd. golden-lyr'd. is a town of Myrinaeus. BLEST Psean. Comment. sumptuously built of white stone. o ~ o vX U X G U L Kr~ r s rptas ~ $ o p o s 7 7 s araKTous r a q s G~. " t h a t Typhon is the cause of the all-various sub- . come.T H E MYSTICAL H Y M N S IV. thee I sing. Illustrious pow'r. And in another part of the same Commentary he says. Delphian king : 62 Grynsus. as i t were. o TU@WV. T O APOLLO. which is the inspective guardian of the whole of a disordered fabrication [i. 13. e. which is conjoined with Heaven. fruitful source of wealth : Spermatic. the field from thee Receives its constant rich fertility. and Python being the progeny of Tartarus and Earth. propitious to my pray'r. Titanic.) form. in Phzdon. and is likewise a temple of Apollo. THE F U M I G A T I O N F R O M MANNA. Echidna. Smynthian. according t o Strabo. o IlvOwv. EXLBYU." OTL Taprapou Kai ~ T T S ~ ~U{VYOU(T?)S S TY Ovpavq. and a most ancient oracle and temple. (says Olympiodorus in MS. lib. c3 "Typhon. Lycorian Phoebus. Slayer of Tityus.

0 . and all beneath the sky . Pow'r far diffus'd. whose oracles are sure. also. And Python is the guardian of the whole of prophetic production. And ev'ry part of this terrestrial ball Abundant. Hear. and be present with benignant mind . Whose locks are gold. silent night . blessed . that he is the cause of the disorder and obstruction pertaining to things of this kind. Bacchian. arm'd with arrows dread : Far-darting. 0 Delian king. in consequence of the latter being adverse [to the prophetic energy of the former]. Who omens good reveal'st. terranean winds and waters.rroXXwv avrov avaipa evavnovpevov. Apollo destroyed Python. Hence. and hence the upper parts of her are those of a virgin. but the lower those of a serpent. . For thou survey'st this boundless ether all.OF ORPHEUS. and divine. and thy piercing sight Extends beneath the gloomy.uavritcTs 0x7s a v a ~ o ~ c w sa ' p ~ ~ v o8e v rr)s m p i rausa a ~ a F i a sT E K ~ L avri+pu~ews ainov Xeyeive 6ro Kat A. 77 Rural. twofold. and course oblique is thine. tiai TWV aXXwv ~ O L X B ~ W Y piaiov titvqrrews airiose q 6e Ai~iGvasrpwpos atria Kai ~ohacrT L K ~ XO~LKWV T E Kai a X q w v #JUXWV* 810 r a PEY a v u nap>svosa r a 6e K ~ T W EFLY O$EWBTS* o 8~ IIV%WY$poupo~ 7 7 s . But Echidna is a cause revenging and punishing rational and irrational souls . and of the violent motion of the other elements. and the Muses' head. light-bearer. Though i t will be better to say. Noble and lovely. and precepts pure . Hear me entreating for the human kind. whose light-producing eye Views all within.XEY TU@WY T ~ ? ST U V T O L ~ STWY vlroyeiwv avcvparwv tiac vcTarov.

ov i. according to the Orphic theology. his admirable Commentary on the T i m ~ u s p. The stable roots. deepfix'd by thee. 63 and p. t o have received the principles of fabrication. and then three material worlds. to have solved all his doubts. I I w s 6e1. which according to the Chaldeztns are three. e. the region immediately beyond which consists of the etherial worlds. if i t be lawful so to speak. ' tcac ~ w p i s ~ ~ a 5. is the sphere of the fixed stars. too. and. 0 Nurse supreme of all t h e pow'rs divine. and Jupiter is said by the theologist [Orpheus] to have thus addressed Night : 64 Ma~a 9 e w v vrar7.78 THE MYSTICAL HYMNS Beyond the darlmess.u/3por~. . after this. three etherial. which last consist of the inerratic sphere. The starry-eyed darkness. is said to have betaken himself to the Oracle of Night. and the sublunary region. one empyrean and the first . which are transmitted t o us by Proclus i n . to have been there filled with divine conceptions. Nut a. "The artificer of the universe (says he). 96. profound. ImmortaI Night ! how with unconquer'd mind Must I the source of the Immortals fix? And how will all things but as one subsist. Y e t each its nature separate preserve? To which interrogations the Goddess thus replies : . i I I w s 6~ p o i EV 7 1 T a ~ a v r ecai. the seven planetary spheres. For they assert that there are seven corporeal worlds.u'a3avarwv apxrv tcpa~epoq5pova 9 ~ a 9 a.TWS rase q5paaeis . starry-ey'd 6 4 . prior t o his whole fabrication. Night. B u t that. are found. there is an etherial world beyond the sphere of the fixed stars is evident from the following mystic particulars respecting the Oracle of Night. beyond which Apollo is here said t o fix his roots. calls upon the father Jupiter to undertake the fabrication of the universe .

K a c o v ~ w6 e r w v p ~ v?rXavwp~vwv OVK BEEL T O ~ E ( T O Y . Conformably to this. T U T'OUPUYOS E F E $ ~ Y W T ~ . informs us. in which the wholeness of the Sun subsists.) And Proclus. p. In Ether's wide. 334) says : "The orb of the Sun revolves in the starless. and comprehends in itself all the multitude of which it is the cause. one which is subservient t o the etherial profundity . ~ a i rqv o h o r q ~ u UVTOV (solis) rqv EV 701s U T E ~ K O U ~ ~ O ~ I Sa p a 6 ~ G w Kauiv* E K E L yap o q X i a ~ o sKoapoa. Ovpavov. i. the other zonaic. For there a solar world and a total light subsist. 264. T ~ L W Y BE TUV K O U ~ W Y Kara ras T E X E U T L K ~ SV T O ~ E U E ~ S . e. as the Oracles of the Chaldeans affirm. From all this. 79 The world's wide bounds. the wholeness of the Sun is in the supermundane order. W e also learn from Psellus. e. Then in the midst of Ether place the Heav'n. ~ o X vT ~ Sa~havovsv$yXorepas. the Emperor Julian (in Orat. therefore. because it has a perpetual subsistence." 0 6 i u ~ o sE T L rqs avaurpou qkperac.OF ORPHEUS. are thine. being one of the seven spheres. Hence he is riot the middle of the planets. I n which let Earth of infinite extent. ~v 6e SaXaauav. in Tim. all-flourishing. Thyself of all the source and end divine. But by the wholeness ( O X O T ~ S )Proclus means the sphere in which the visible orb of the Sun is fixed. but of the three worlds [i. " that according to the most mystic assertions. All things receive enclos'd on ev'ry side. ~v 6e T E yatau aaecpirov. of the three etherial worlds]." 0 1 ye p u u ~ r x w r a ~ oTWY i Xoywv. p. and Stars the crown of Heav'n be fixt. that according t o the Chaldeans there are two solar worlds . v. ws ai T E XaXGaiwv &poi Xeyovui. according t o the telestic hypothesis. Kal T O oXov Gus. much above the inerratic sphere. The Sea. ineffable embrace . EV 6e TE TElpEU TUVTU. it . These etherial worlds pertain t o the supermundane order of Gods. and which is called a wholeness. (See his concise Exposition of Chaldaic Dogmas.

were discovered by them. vi. K U l €51 Gesner well observes. " As trees by their summits are firmly established in the earth. 61a rqv npos T O EU aouyxvrov yg. This harmony of the spheres is admirably unfolded by Simplicius in his Commentary on the second book of Aristotle's Treatise on the Heavens. Comment. lib. being derived from Orpheus and Pythagoras to Plato. Kar EKasov avrwv was E ~ X L U L E Y . but also of the other stars. Tars eavrwv atcporr)criv ev~ppr{wrai r y EYL. after the same manner divine natures are by their summits l o o t e d in the one. are the Gods. of which this divinity is the source. for this signifies that Gods are inserted by him in the etherial worlds. in Parmenid. through an unconfused union with the one itself. as follows : '' The Pythagoreans said. according to the Orphic and Chaldaic theologists. harmonizing lyre 65 : is evident why Apollo in this hymn is said to f i x his roots beyond the starry-eyed darlmess. since not only the ratios of the intervals of the sun and moon.'' ~ a S a m p yap r a G~v6parats eavrwv ~opv$ais EPLBPVVTUl T y yr)tVU TU KUT'EKE~YC&S. however. but particularly adumbrates according to the Orphic and Pythagoric doctrine. is not only indicative of the harmony of the universe.) beautifully observes. that an harmonic sound is produced from the motion of the celestial bodies . roots being indicative of s u m i t s (a~porvres) and such. t h a t the comparison and conjunction of the musical and astronomical elements are most ancient. or the melody caused by the revolutions of the celestial spheres. and Venus and Mercury. the celestial harmony. The lyre of Apollo. TOY UUTOV T P O T O Y Kai 7a S ~ i a . and all that pertains to them is through this earthly ." Simplicius 65 . Hence Proclus (in MS.80 THE MYSTICAL H Y N N S 'Tis thine all Nature's music to inspire With various-sounding. and each of thern is a unity and one. in his notes on this hymn.and they scientifically collected this from the analogy of their intervals .

which is the lowest of all. now the highest chord . that a more ancient. Now the reason why the Dorian melody is assigned to the Spring. in which the highest chord next t o the chin of the musician is the longest. i.O F ORPHEUS. a Perhaps the objection of Aristotle to this assertion of the Pythagoreans may be solved as folloms." But Gesner observes. as we learn froin Plutarch in his Treatise De Musica. nor is every thing sensible commensurate to every thing. This is evident from dogs. and as it were archetypal. thereThe following quotations from Nicomachus (Harm. 6) illustrates the meaning of the hypate and nete. the appellation of the gravest sound. lib. hypate. and the Dorian measure represents the intermediate seasons. but from the lunar motion.:or t h e highest and lowest string. appellation is derived from the ancient triangular lyre. and the intense cold of the other. Gesner proceeds in observing. the most acute sound is called nete. How ~ n u c hmore. is derived . nete the Summer. and gratefully tempering the fervent heat of the one. Spring and Autumn. or the lowest. 66 . according to the philosophy of those men : all things are not commensurate with each other. considered as placed between Winter and Summer. Divinely warbling. that hypate signifies the Winter. Hence it is with great propriety attributed t o the Spring. a copy of which was found among the pictures lately dug out of the ruins of Herculaneuin . and which are not smelt by men. 81 Now the last string thou tun'st to sweet accord 66. even in the sublunary region. in the lyre of Apollo : '' From the motion of Saturn (says he) the most remote of the planets. p. and consequently (says he) the sound is the most grave. is because that measure wholly consists in temperament and moderation. who scent animals a t a great distance. that three seasons of the year are so compared together in a musical ratio. adds.

Responsive yields a Dorian melody. in consequence of the sonorific nature of the air. it is neither percussive nor destructive. such a one will perceive things invisible t o others. and perfects the sense which is coordinate with them. is a certain energy of the motion of their impassive sound. but the sound of them is not heard by our ears ? To this we reply. With respect t o divine and immaterial bodies. but i t excites the powers and energies of sublunary sounds. Pythagoras. or their figures. for we do not see their magnitudes. is i t true t o say that t h e sound of divine bodies is not audible by terrestrial ears? But if any one. and celestial from terrestrial natures. i t is evident that neither will the sound which is there be passive. purified. if any sound is produced by them. either through a good allotment. But the sound which is with us. the sun himself not being seen by us. or their surpassing beauty. and t h a t which is audible in them. should have his terrestrial body exempt from him. fore. or through a perfection arising from sacred operations. t h a t neither do we see the stars themselves . may very properly doubt why the stars are seen by our visive sense. however. however. and the senses which i t contains. now touch'd by thee. Perhaps too. but we see. and his luminous and celestial vehicle. as it were. air is not passive there.82 THE MYSTICAL H Y M N S Th' immortal golden lyre. and will hear things inaudible by others. as understanding the harmonic proportions in numbers. in things which are separated by so great an interval as those which are incorruptible from the corruptible. neither mill it be wonderful. like Pythagoras. Some one. who is reported t o have heard this harmony. that the visive . or through probity of life. Neither do we see the motion through which the sound is produced . however. of the heavenly bodies. I f then. seems to have said t h a t he heard the celestial harmony. such an illumin~ition of them as that of the light of the sun about the earth. It has also a certain analogy t o the sound which concurs with the motion of terrestrial bodies.

mix'd by thee in equal parts. raised cornmon altars t o Jupiter and the Sun. This claims the highest. quotes the following lines from Orpheus : i. " 67 According to the Pythagoric and Platonic theology. but that the other senses should not be adapted for this purpose. as we are informed by the Emperor Julian. so the latter illuminates the supennundane order with intellectual light. "Jupiter is the God of all. Hence we cannot wonder that the same thing is here asserted of Apollo which Orpheus elsewhere asserts of Jupiter. which is perfectly conforlnable to that of Orpheus. Apollo is in the supermundane what Jupiter is in the intellectual order. ernittiny shrill sounds from winds and air-mingled voices. advance Summer and Winter in alternate dance . And changing seasons from thy music flow : Hence. For Johan. e. as being more immaterial. Diaco. subsisting rather according to energy than according to passion. there is such a wonderful agreement between these two divinities. Shrill winds emitting thro' the syrinx fam'd 67 . For as the former illuminates mundane natures with superrnundane light. in his most excellent Oration to the Sovereign Sun." . The Dorian measure tunes the lovely spring : Hence by mankind Pan royal. and the mingler of all things. should be thought worthy to receive the splendour and illumination of the celestial bodies. in Hesiod. and very much transcending the other senses. All Nature's tribes to thee their diffrence owe. that the Cyprian priests.OF ORPHEUS. Indeed. sense. that the lowest string. Theog. two-horn'd nam'd.

Hear me. of which every visible species is nothing more than an impression. And Dian fair.84 THE MYSTICAL H Y M N S Since to thy care the figur'd seal's consign'd68. 69 See the additional notes. DARK-VEIL'D Latona. blest. and in these rites rejoice. as well as the former. Offspring prolific. considered as the Demiurgus. Which stamps the world with forms of ev'ry kind. may be said to possess the figured seal. Caeantis great. the God of light. And save thy mystics with a suppliant voice. and what these forms are intellectually in the Demiurgus they are according to a superntzmdane characteristic in Apollo . Twin-bearing Goddess. a mighty mind is thine. much invoked queen. 68 I n the preceding note we have mentioned the profound union which s~ibsistsbetween Apollo and Jupiter. therefore. blest pow'r. of Jove divine : Phcebus proceeds from thee. . hence the latter divinity. whom winged darts delight . xxxv. THE FUMIGATION FROM MYRRH. As Jupiter. of a noble mien . comprehends in himself the archetypal ideas of all sensible forms.

and thyself a maid. O'er births presiding 70. THE F U M I G A T I O N F R O M MANNA. XXXVI* T O DIANA. 0 queen. Wand'ring by night. because she is the inspective guardian of natural progression and generation. She in Ortygia's honour'd regions born. and fav'rably attend. 70 . 403. To labour pangs imparting ready aid : Dissolver of the zone. glorying in the silvan war : Swift in the course. And to this Telete divine a f i r d a pleasing end. Hear me. In Delos he. celebrated queen. in Plat. of a noble mien : In darts rejoicing. Bacchian and Titan. Torch-bearing Goddess. Jove's daughter. Theol. which lofty mounts adorn. Fierce huntress. HEAR me. and on all to shine. Dictynna divine. rejoicing in the field : I n the original X o x ~ t a . informs us that this epithet is given by theologists t o Diana. p. in dreadful arrows skill'd. See more concerning this divinity in the additional notes. and Proclus. and wrinkled care.OF ORPHEUS.

86

THE MYSTICAL H Y M N S

Of manly form, erect, of bounteous mind, Illustrious dzemon, nurse of humankind : Immortal, earthly, bane of monsters fell, 'Tis thine, blest maid, on woody mounts to dwell : Foe of the stag, whom woods and dogs delight, In endless youth you flourish fair and bright. 0 universal queen, august, divine, A various form, Cydonian pow'r, is thine. Dread guardian Goddess, with benignant mind, Auspicious come, t o mystic rites inclin'd ; Give earth a store of beauteous fruits to bear, Send gentle Peace, ar,d Health with lovely hair, And to the mountains drive Disease and Care.

O F ORPIIEUS.

TO THE TITANS.
THE F U M I G A T I O N F R O M FP1ANKINCENSE.

0 MIGHTY Titans, who from Heav'n and Earth
Derive your noble and illustrious birth, Our fathers' sires, in Tartarus 71 profound Who dwell, deep merg'd beneath the solid ground: Fountains and principles from whom began Th' afflicted miserable race of man 72 :
"Tartarus (says Olympiodorus in MS. in Comment. on Phzdon.) is a Deity who is the inspective guardian of the extremities of the world, just as Pontus [the sea] is the guardian of the middle, and Olympus of the summits of the universe. And these three are to be found not only in the sensible world, but also in the demiurgic intellect, in the supermundane, and the celestial order." 0 7 1 o Taprapos egrt ras rexarlas TOW ~ o c p o v EnicKorrwv, ws o ~IOVTOS 7as
p e g o r ~ ~ a sus , o O X v p ~ o s ras atcpor~ras* E ~ T L V OUY T P E L S ~upeivOUK EV r y aic~Syrypovy r y 6~ ~ o c p yaXXa , K a i ev ry Gyptovpyr~y vy, Kai EV r y K O U , U L ~ (lege v a c p ~ o c p i q Gratcocpy, ) K U l EV T q OUPUVlLt).

The reasons why the Titans are said in this hymn to be the fountains and priliciples of mankind depends on the following arcane narration, for the sources of which I refer the reader to my Treatise on the Eleusinian and Bacchic Mysteries : Dionysius, or Bacchus, while he was yet a boy,
72

by t h e Titans, tllrougb the stratagems of Juno, in a variety of sports, with which that period of life is so
was engaged

88

THE MYSTICAL H Y M N S

Who not alone in earth's retreats abide, But in t h e ocean and the air reside ; Since ev'ry species from your nature flows,
Which, all-prolific, nothing barren knows. Avert your rage, if from thy infernal seats One of your tribe should visit our retreats.
vehemently allured ; and among the rest, he was particularly captivated with beholding his image in a mirror; during his admiration of which he was miserably torn in pieces by the Titans ; who, not content with this cruelty, first boiled his members in water, and afterwards roasted then1 by the fire. But while they were tasting his flesh thus dressed, Jupiter, excited by the steam, and perceiving the cruelty of the deed, hurled his thunder a t the Titans ; but committed his members to Apollo, the brother of Bacchus, that they might be properly interred. And this being performed, Dionysius (whose heart during his laceration was snatched away by Minerva and preserved), by a new regeneration, again emerged, and he, being restored to his pristine life and integrity, afterwards filled up the number of the Gods. But in the mean time, from the exhalations formed from the ashes of the burning bodies of the Titans mankind were produced. The reader who is desirous of having a complete develop~nentof this fable will find it in my abovementioned Treatise on the Mysteries. Suffice it to say a t present, in elucidatiorl of this Orphic hymn, that (as Olympiodorus beautifully observes in MS. Comment. in Phsdon.) we are composed from fragments, because through falling into generation, i. e. into the sublunary region, our life has proceeded into the most distant and extreme division ; but from Titannic fragments, because the Titans are the ultimate artificers of things, and the most proximate to their fabrications. Of these Titans, Bacchus, or the mundane intellect, is the nzonad, or proximately exempt producing cause.

OF ORPI-IEUS.

XXXVIII.
TO THE CURETES73.
T H E FUMIGA'I'ION F R O M F R A N K I N C E N S E .

BRASS-BEATING Salians, ministers of Mars, Who wear his arms the instruments of wars ;
Whose blessed frames, heav'n, earth?and sea compose, And from whose breath all animals arose : Who dwell in Samothracia's sacred ground, Defending mortals through the sea profound. Deathless Curetes, by your pow'r alone, The greatest mystic rites to men at first were shown. Who shake old Ocean thund'ring to the sky, And stubborn oaks with branches waving high. 'Tis yours in glittering arms the earth to beat, With lightly leaping, rapid, sounding feet ; Then ev'ry beast the noise terrific flies, And the loud tumult wanders thro' the skies.
7 V h e first subsistence of the Curetes is in the intellectual order, as we have before observed, in which they form a triad characterized by purity. They are also the guards of that order. But in the supermunda~~e order, they are the Corybantes. Hence they are celebrated in this hymn as the Corybantes as well as the Curetes. As they are likewise celebrated as Winds in this hymn, it follows that in t h e sublunary region tbey are the divinities of such winds as are of a purifying nature.

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T E E MYSTICAL H Y M N S

The dust your feet excites, with matchless force
Flies to the clouds amidst their whirling course ; And ev'ry flower of variegated hue Grows in the dancing motion form'd by you ; Immortal daemons, to your pow'rs consign'd, The task to nourish and destroy mankind,

When rushing furious with loud tumult dire,
O'erwhelm'd, they perish in your dreadful ire ; And live replenish'd with the balmy air, The food of life, committed to your care. When shook by you, the seas with wild uproar, Wide-spreading, and profoundly whirling, roar. The concave heav'ns with echo's voice resound, When leaveswith rustling noise bestrew theground. Curetes, Corybantes, ruling kings, Whose praise the land of Samothracia sings ; Great Jove's assessors ; whose immortal breath Sustains the soul, and wafts her back from death; Aerial-form'd, who in Olympus shine The heavenly Twins 74 all-lucid and divine : Blowing, serene, from whom abundance springs, Nurses of seasons, fruit-producing kings.
7* I have before observed that the Curetes and Corybantes are celebrated in this hymn as one and the satne, on account of the profound union subsisting between the two. Hence the progression of these two orders into the heavens forms the constellation called the Twins.

e. Martial and blest. and pleas'd with gloomy night : Hence fancy's terrors are by thee allay'd. THE F U M I G A T I O N F R O M F R A N K I N C E N S E . And. and the extremity of every divine order being of a convertive nature. hear me when I pray. unseen by mortal sight. Perhaps. he is the last monad of the Curetic triad. TO CORYBAS 75. many-form'd. divine. Ceres' body pure Became a dragon's savage and obscure : Avert thy anger. to these rites I call . by fix'd fate. converts his brothers to a superior order of Gods. Each of thy brothers killing. Preventing fears. For slaughter.OF ORPHEUS. All-various king. XXXIX. for he is called Curete. blood is thine. in this hymn as one of the Curetes . when applied to the Gods. THEmighty ruler of this earthly ball For ever flowing. who lov'st the desert shade. T5 Corybas is celebrated . he is said to have killed each of his brothers. i. drive fancy's fears away. signifies s segregation from secondary and a conversion to primary natures. therefore. Hence Corybas slaughters. Twofold Curete. By thee transmuted.

Ceres. which all desire. Goddess of seed. 0 UNIVERSAL mother. who is the centre of t h e intellectual triad. Harvest and threshing are thy constant care. t h e vivific Goddess. the source of wealth 76. Lovely delightful queen. source of wealth. and various nam'd Great nurse. fair. blessed and divine. Ceres fam'd. according t o the Orphic theology. T H E F U M I G A T I O N F R O M STORAX. And gave to men what nature's wants require. TO CERES. mother of all things. See the additional notes. i. With plenteous means of bliss. Who joy'st in peace . i. Nurse of all mortals. which is to be found in Diodorus Siculus. r vp q r aavTuv. . Ceres is the same with Rhea. Who dwell'st in Eleusina's holy vales retir'd. 12. to nourish corn is thine. August." It must be observed that. : 713 The following Orphic verse. whose benignant mind First ploughing oxen to the yoke confin'd . of fruits abundant. "Earth. all-bounteous. e.THE MYSTICAL HYMNS XL. perfectly accords with what is said in this and the firsb line. ~ Ar)pqrqp T~OVTO~OTE~~U. by all desir'd.

round thy throne to ride. with summer's rich increase Swelling and pregnant. leading smiling Peace . earthly. holy Proserpine. And join with these a needful store of wealth. in glory bright. Bright Goddess. and fruits of lovely green. nurse divine. In verdure flourishing. And. Thy daughter loving. venerable. Assessor of great Bacchus. . bearing light : Rejoicing in the reapers' sickles. Whose nature lucid. much-producing queen. A car with dragons yok'd 'tis thine to guide. Come with fair Concord and imperial Health. pure. Only-begotten. come. orgies singing. kind. Prolific.OF ORPHEUS. All flowers are thine. we find.

dismal and obscure . Bacchus. . THE FUMIGATION FROM AROMATICS. attending leader of the way . The holy marriage of terrestrial . while oppress'd with grief you rove. Come.94 THE MYSTICAL H Y M N S T O THE CERALIAN MOTHER. much invok'd. Who widely wand'ring once. with fav' ring mind. Discovering Proserpine thy daughter pure In dread Avernus. A sacred youth while thro' the earth you stray. Thy mystic suppliun t bless. and to these rites inclin'd. In Eleusina's valleys found'st relief. From whom both men and Gods immortal came . CERALIAA queen. oppress'd with grief. of celebrated name.Tove Relating.

which are f e~niniuepeculiarities. e. i. This mixture of t h e male and female in one and the same divinity is no unusrlal thing in the Orphic theology. which are of a masculine characteristic. Pleas'd with the well crown'd Cytl~eria fair . Or if the land of Cyprus is thy care. so t h a t Misa is Bacchus. sacred queen. sperrrlatic God. Of various names. 79 i. benevolent attend. : Twofold Iacchus 78. because this divinity comprehends in himself stable power and sameness. Illustrious. Or if exulting in the fertile plains With thy dark mother Isis. male and female seen. Performing with thy mother sacred rites . where she reigns. near the flood Of sacred Egypt. 1 CALL Thesmophorus 77. 77 7-t . who bears the leafy rod Misa. And in perfection these our labours end. With nurses pure attended. and the measures of life and prolific powers. thy divine abode : Wherever resident. The legislator. e. Or if in Phrygia most thy soul delights. The temple of Ceres Eleusina. TO MISA. is well known that Iacchus is a rnystic appellation of Bacchus. whether to rejoice is thine In incense offer'd in the fane divine Yg . ineffable. pure.XLII. T H E FURTIGATION F R O M S T O R A X . Misa is also said to be both male and female.

t h e Seasons. and lawful Right. DAUGHTERS of Jove and Themis. p. When these also are reverenced. in Tim. by statues and sacrifices. and we do not introduce any thing new by thinking it proper to direct our attention t o the invisible powers of these prior to those t h a t are visible. delivering the divine names of Day and Night. of my translation of that work) venerates the invisible periods [subsisting under one first time]. Plato. Justice.T H E BIYSTICAL H Y M K S TO THE SEASONS T H E FUMIGATION F R O M A R O M A T I C S . Whose balmy breath exhales in lovely flow'rs . and the invocations and self manifestations of Month and Year. and Months. boolr iv. Seasons bright. mankind are also supplied with the benefits arising from the periods of the Seasons. and which are the causes of those that are visible. Hence they are not to be surveyed superficially. Years." Conformably to what Proclus here says. as histories inform us. 247. 80 b g Sacred rumour (says Procl. in the same manner as the Stars and the Sun . viz. and also the causes t h a t constitute. in the Laws proclaims that all these are Gods. and of the other divinities in a similar manner . vivid. likewise. and blessed Peace. but in divine essences. but a preternatural disposition of every thing about the earth is the consequence of the worship of these being neglected. Vernal and grassy. viz. holy pow'rs. which the laws of sacred institutions and the oracles of Apollo order us to worship and honour. " t h a t a preternatural dispositioii of every thing about the earth is the .

And joyful round her form the solemn dance. And make these novel mystics' life your care. Circling. and in the streets of Jerusalem : for then had we plenty of victuals and were well. All-colour'd Seasons. to burn incense to the Queen of Heaven. Give earth a store of blameless fruits to bear. 44. and on our incense shine . But since we left off to burn incense to the Queen of Heaven. as we have done. and saw 720 evil. A flow'ry veil delightful to the view : Attending Proserpine. 17. With Ceres triumphing. When in a band harmonious they advance. in Egypt. said t o the prophet Jeremiah. and our princes. rich increase your care. Propitious come. when back from night The fates and graces lead her up to light . chirp. v. . and Jove divine. we. "But we will certainly do whatsoever thing goeth out of our mouth. 97 consequence of the worship of these powers being neglected. and to pour out drink-offerings unto her. and have been consumed by the sword and by famine. we have wanted aU things. and to pour out drink-offerings unto her.OF ORPHEUS. in the cities of Judah. 18. and our fathers." The inhabitants of Patros. for ever flourishing and fair : Invested with a veil of shining dew. our kings." Jeremiah.

I call. Semele. Now I invoke thee. and fright'ned into light. whom Jove's thunder bright Forc'd immature. regent of the sky . of beauteous mien. The mighty offspring. which thy soul delights . . Constant attending on the sacred rites. T o bless thy mystics. When thy son's wondrous birth mankind relate. Born from the deathless counsels. secret. lenient and serene. And secrets pure and holy celebrate. high. TO SEMELE. THE FUMIGATIOK FROM STORAX. Mother of Bacchus. Thee. Whom Proserpine permits to view the light. great Cadmean queen. CADMEAN Goddess.T H E MYSTICAL HYMNS XLIV. lovely flowing locks are thine. And feast triennial. joyful and divine. And visit mortals from the realms of night. universal queen. Of Jove Saturnian. Deep-bosom'd.

X LV. loud-sounding God. . mad. begot from thunder. who dwell'st with humankind. Whoin swords and blood and sacred rage delight : In heaven rejoicing. with much rejoicing mind. bearer of the rod : By Gods rever'd. TO DIONYSIUS BASSAREUS TRIENNALIS 81. Bull-fac'd. Bassarian God. various-nam'd.OF ORPHEUS. Furious inspirer. blessed Dionysius. Bacchus fam'd. of universal might. Propitious come. 81 So called because his rites were performed every third year. A HYMN. COME.

and in these rites rejoice. regard thy suppliant's voice. on the Moon. LICKNITAN Bacchus. Concerning Liknitus. and the 82 i. . The Fan-bearer. following Bacchuses. blessed God. Thee I invoke to bless these rites divine : Florid and gay. And born the dread of all the pow'rs divine. see note 25. TO L I C K N I T U S 82 BACCHUS. T H E F U M I G A T I O N F R O M MANNA. bearer of the vine.100 THE MYSTICAL HYMNS XLVI. Come. Propitious come. Goddess of delight. 'Tis thine mad footsteps with mad Nymphs to beat. e. Dancing thro' groves with lightly leaping feet : From Jove's high counsels nurst by Proserpine. And of fair Venus. of Nymphs the blossom bright.

BACCHUS Pericionius. hear my pray'r.OF ORPHEUS. And bless thy suppliants with rejoicing mind. When burning thunders shook the solid ground. Propt by thy grasp indissolubly stroilg. . and KLOULS. Come. Who mad'st the house of Cadrnus once thy care. With matchless force his pillars twining round. T O BACCHUS PERICIONIUSS3. F U M I G A T I O N F R O M AROMATICS. s3 So called from PE~L. a little pillar. In flaming. THE . mighty Bacchus. XLVII. to these rites inclin'd. sounding torrents borne along.

the Dionysian God Might burst the bands of his conceal'd abode. 85 " Ippa . "But the power of Sabazius (says Iamblichus de Myst. all beautiful and bright.-placing a testaceous vessel on her head. sect. within thy thigh divine. Inserting Bacchus. illustrious father. And come to sacred Tmolus. THE F U M I G A T I O N F E O M A R O M A T I C S . Symp. KaL r a v r q v a$iam T ~ Y+ W V ~ V . And sounding God. and the solutions of ancient divine anger. who is the soul of the universe. x. O T ~ Y o p y i a ~ o u ~ riy If~y. 671) even now call the Bacchuses Sabbi. 124). p. HEAR me. or perhaps on account of the most rapid lation of the universe.) appropriately pertains to Bacchic inspiration. of which she is the cause. 4. Great Saturn's offspring. Zappovs KaL vvv ETL ~ o h h o i T O U S PUKXOUS KUXOVQL. 5. iii. lib.T H E MYSTICAL H Y M N S XLVIII. his delight. and is thus called by the theologist [Orpheus]. Where Ippa g5 dwells. p. perhaps because her intellectual conceptions are essentialized in the most vigorous motions. 84 "Many (says Plutarch. bearer of the vine. That when mature. and they utter this word when they celebrate the orgies of the God " [Bacchus]. (says Proclus in Tim. and Sabazius nam'd . cap. ii. the purifications of souls. demon fam'd." See the note on this passage in my translation of that work.

t o the region of ideas. r a x a 8~ K ~ 8ia L T ~ V o. ~ a r 6pa~ovri avrci. Kai ~poehOwv.r a x a pev ori €V ~K/L~lOTaTaiS KLVqCTEUlV E V V O ~ C E l S aU7r)S OVUlOVTCCl. X L K ~ O V (lege X I K I V O V ) E T L rqs ~ e @ a X q s% p ~ v q . and to the fountain of her nature. Kar ~ E O E K T O S aurg ~ E Y O ~ E V O Sc. and receives the mundane intellect. Kai T ~ V Iaqv. Kai rqv eavrqs ~ q y q v * ~ ~ e i y e r ayap r ~pos rqv pyrepa rwv Sewv.OF ORPHEUS. and becoming participsble by her. v 0 8~ aT0 T O U pqpov rov Aios a p o ~ i ~ ieis u aurqvmqv yap E K E L ~ ~ u q v u p ~ v o s . from which all the series of souls is derived. it elevates her to the intelligible. the most august of all. Ippa is said to have received Dionysius when he was brought forth from Jupiter. For there it was united with Jupiter . e. but proceeding from thence. Come aid thy mystics. ~?EXETUL TOY e y ~ o ~ p i o vouv. Blest Phrygian God. flap cavrys ~ E L O T ~ y T~ ~v . For with the most divine part of herself. also. Hence." H pcv yap I ~ a a rov aavros ovaa $ u ~ q . which proceeds into her from the thigh of Jupiter. aepia~pe$aaa. receives Dionysius [or Bacchus]. a+' r / ~~ a g a r u v +VXWV 9 mipa* 610 K U L ~ u X h a p ~ u u e u 6 a Kai i I r r a XEYETUL TLKTOVTL KUl Ty All. > ~ o X o y y . ~ TiO V O ~ T O Y avrqv avayci. .$vrarqv TOU T ~ V T O S $opav qs ~ a r i v7 airia. ~ r a rqs i vocpas o u ~ ~ i a s V T O ~ O X ~Kar . and encircling the fig leaves that bind her temples with a dragon. she becomes the receptacle of an intellectual essence. T O ~pasiaiov u ~ o 8 e ~ c r a Aiot vvaov' rci. and to mount I d a [i. Kai OUT^ K E K X ~ ~ E Taps V ~ rci. when on thee they call. For she hastens to the mother of the Gods. and an intelligible nature].

Compos'd of sacred.T H E MYSTICAL H Y M N S XLIX. With holy aspect come. GREAT nurse of Bacchus. Whether on Ida's holy mountain seen. mighty queen. and bless these rites. T O IPPA. loud-resounding fires. Or if to dwell in Tmolus thee delights. Hear me. The mystic rites of Bacchus' nightly choirs. T H E FUMIGATION F R O M STORAX. For holy Sabus' secret rites are thine. terrestrial mother. to my pray'r incline. .

O F ORPHEUS. 0 various-form'd. Lysian Euion Bacchus. Bromian. When fav'ring men. To these our rites. medicinal. Rejoicing come. various-nam'd. and fruits abundant bear. joyful God. . blest Bacchus. Born of two mothers. A HYMN. Lenaean pow'r. Jove's son. fam'd. secret. Sounding. Fertile and nourishing. incline. Fair-hair'd Euion. honour'd and divine . or when on Gods you shine . magnanimous. Lysian. benignant pow'r. insanely raging with the leafy rod. whose liberal care Augments the fruit that banishes despair. HEAR me. desir'd by all mankind. Of Gods the offspring. holy flow'r : Mortals in thee repose from labour find. God of wine. B e present to thy mystics' sz~ppliant pray' r. Delightful charm. holy.

EL^. THE F U M I G A T I O N F R O M AROMATICS. in Schol. v ~ o v p y orov ~ CK Zep~XqsAiovvuou' 810 Kai raps TY V ~ ~ T L . they ascend into generation [or the sublunary realms]. " that some of them excite the irrational nature." . others nature herself. i. Seen and unseen. NYMPHS. who from Ocean fam'd derive your birth. and dews. But this Bacchus [of whom they are the offspring] supplies the regeneration of the whole sensible world.106 THE MYSTICAL HYMNS T O THE NYMPHSs6. Holy. And caves and dens. and others preside over bodies. And gentle course thro' flow'ry vales to glide . Who dwell in liquid caverns of the earth . and winding streams your care. who nourish flow'rs : Earthly. who swiftly soar thro' air.rravros rov alaeyrov. H e adds. who in meadows dwell. e. whose depths extend to hell. rejoicing. as "Nymphs (says Hermeas. oblique. TOUTEUTL r y y~ueuei ~n~Pe@pcauiv* ovros 6e o Aiovvuos T ~ TS U~LY~EVEISLC vaapxei ~S .) are Goddesses who preside over regeneration. and are ministrant to Bscchus. Nurses of Bacchus. Hence they dwell near water." NupGal 6~ eiu~veeopoi 9eai 77s ~ a h i y y e v ~ c r ~ a s . secret-coursing pow'rs. the offspring of Semele. who joy with wand'rings wide. Fountains. Fructiferous Goddesses. in Phzedrum.

And to mankind abundant favour bear . With Bacchus and with Ceres hear my pray'r. Nurses of fruits. In cold rejoicing. whom woods delight : Nymphs od'rous. and the balmy gale . unconscious of decay. and to cattle kind. Propitious listen to your suppliant's voice. thro' ocean wand'ring unconfin'd. and benignant in these rites rejoice . and stridulous. whose streams exhale The breeze refreshing. insane. and beasts of prey. continued health. 0 Nysian nymphs. Come. Inspir'd. And pour in lasting streams. whom oaks delight. . Give plenteous seasons and sufficient wealth. Sportive.OF ORPHEUS. With goats and pastures pleas'd. Lovers of spring. rob'd in white. Pzeonian virgins bright . 107 With Pan exulting on the mountains' height.

and is the father of the Gods . and proceeds from him and the intellectual orders of Gods. Protogonus . T O TRIETERICUS 87. the reason is obvious why Trietericus is called in this hymn Ericapseus. he is their offspring. or intellect of the Sun. From his causal subsistence. in Protogonus. therefore. This word. Trietericus Bacchus is the gnostic power. but as proceeding from them. Bull-horn'd. divine. blest. and the former the sensible world with supermundane light . From fire descencied. as indicative of a divinely inspired energy. and Trietericus. Hence as the Sun is to the sensible world what Protogonus. which literally signify insanity.T H E MYSTICAL H Y M N S LII. subsists causally in Protogonus. From whom initial ceremonies spring. or Phanes. bearer of the vine . Nysian king. Lenaean. For Protugonus is intelligible intdlect (vovs voqros). which we have before cited. and others of a similar kind. for the latter illuminates those orders with intelligible. . are to be considered according to their recondite meaning. raging. or the solap intellect. e. is t o the intellectual orders . BACCHUS phrenetic 88. and also why he is said to be both the father and the offspring of Gods. According to the fragment preserved by Ficinus. THE F U M I G A T I O N F R O M AROMATICS. he is the father of the Gods . in consequence of this analogy. much nam'd. i.

pure and fiery bright. Apollo golden-ray'd 90. or t h e mzcndame intellect. Of Gods the father and the offspring fam'd. or Protogonus. Bearing a sceptre. His words are. captor. ineffable. When the triennial band thou dost inspire. Jove's secret flow'r : Ericapaeus. conceiving that Trietericus is the same with Bacchus. Prudent. and As according to the Orphic theology Trietericus is the intellect of the Sun. contains in itself intellect causally. Hermann. Hermsnn. Born of two mothers. Itaque pro XpvaeyXvr reposui Svpuey~qs. u t nomen addatur. mountain-wand'ring 89. " Vocabulum ?ra~av postulat. Orphic. 89 The reason why Trietericus Bacchus is called " Loze '" in this hymn is from the profound union subsisting between Phanes. crown-bearer. of a fiery light. wand'ring in the night . Triple. Jupiter. all-mysterious pow'r. leader of the choir. p. quo a b Apolline distinguatur Bacchus. Nurst in Mount Mero. cloth'd with skins of deer. this divinity is with great propriety celebrated in this hymn as ApoZZo golden-my'd (aaiav ~ p v c r e y ~ ~ s ) But . Omadian. 109 Liknitan Bacchus. and Bacchus. Whose dancing feet phrenetic furies fire. substitutes S v p c r ~ y ~ for ~ s XpvacyXvs . Love. not knowing who Trietericus is in the Orphic theology. first-begotten nam'd.OF ORPHEUS. and Phanes is intelligible intellect. whom all revere. For the first subsistence of Love. ." Vid. B o t t h e intelligible order to which Phanes belongs being absorbed in the superessential. according to the Orphic theology. 317. Amphietus bright . is in Phanes .

is said t o be blind. according to his first subsistence.1'10 T H E MYSTICAL H Y M N S Great annual God of grapes. For again. in Tim. virginlike. and Ericapzus. All the causes. as he says.UTTLS v * yap av Kai ovris eariv ws +rlgl* K a i . Ppopios T E peyas Kai { € U S o r a v o ~ r y s K~ U L EY T ~ I &1 TTV ~ a p a 8 c i y p a ~ i ~ y . and Phanes. M ~ ~ TL~ s WTOS ~ E Y E T W P . Hence Love. bZessed pow' r. ii. celebrates the demiurgic cause in Phanes. ~ a ev i aAAqXors ErTLV. the great Bromius. as having e superintellectual energy. Come. long before us. was. nahar yap o 9eohoyor EY ye r y + a v ~ r T i ~ 6~provpyiV K ~ V airiav avvpvrpEv' E K E L yap yv re Kar ?rpoqv omrep e + q Kai auros. and are in each other. in order that he might have as i t were the fountains of the twofold fabrication of things. Phanes] in Jupiter. Propitious come. and antecedently existed. Bassarian. lovely. consequently is superior to essential intellect and intellectual vision.K ( L L EPWS aoXur~p?nqs* sums r e o Aiovv~os Kai $avvs Kai ~piKETaios.o v v e ~ w s ovopa{erai* r a v r a apa p~rei)lyxr)v aAXqXwu r a atria. participate of. with ivy crown'd. he likewise is. it is no longer wonderful tha't Trietericus should be called Love. . and much pleasing Love. H e also celebrates the paradigmatic cause [i. This being premised. e. 102. POT there. Meetis the Jirst generator. He is also continually denominated by him Dionysius. says Proclus. lib. and in these rites rejoice. or all-seeing Jupiter. p. regard thy mystics' v o i c e . as he says. "For the theologist [Orpheus]. renown'd. therefore.

And make prolific holy fruits thy care. .OF ORPHEUS. Who laid asleep in Proserpine's abode. Accept the pious incense and the pray'r. Come blessed. TERRESTRIAL Dionysius. When briskly dancing with rejoicing pow'rs. Which rous'd again by thee. And on this sacred Telete propitious shine . hear my pray'r. horned. annual God. Thy nurses round thee mystic anthems sing . fruitful. Her sacred seat. LIII. in graceful ring. didst lull to drowsy rest The rites triennial and the sacred feast. T O AMPHIETUS BACCHUS. THE F U M I G A T I O N F R O M EVERY A R O M A T I C E X C E P T FRANKINCENSE. Thou mov'st in concert with the circling hours. and divine. Rise vigilant with Nymphs of lovely hair : Great Amphietus Bacchus.

august. . Silenus. SATYRUS. Daemons wild-form'd. Phrenetic pow'r. the source of lawful rites. rouse to sacred joy thy pupil king91. honour'cl by the pow'rs divine . whom vigilance delights . Surrounded by thy nurses young and fair. triumphant pow'r. THE F U M I G A T I O N F R O M M A N N A . Naiads and Bacchic Nymphs who ivy bear. and bless the rites divine. the sacred choir. And Brumal Nymphs with rites Lenaean bring . Our orgies shining thro' the night inspire. GREAT nurse of Bacchus.T H E MYSTICAL HYMNS LIV. AND THE PRIESTESSES OF BACCHUS. And bless. reverenc'd as the best : Holy. With all thy Satyrs on our incense shine. Come. And by mankind at the triennial feast Illustrious daemon. T O SILENUS. to my pray'r incline. 91 Silenus is so called because be was the foster father or nurse of Bacchus.

Crafty. g2 K . See the additional notes. Goddess of marriage. 0 pow'r divine. secret. Sea-born. Mother of Loves. charming to the sight. fav'ring queen. But she is the cause of all the harmony and analogy in the universe. and the stormy main. The triple Fates are ruled by thy decree. Awful attendant of the Brumal God. from whom necessity first came. Producing. illu~trious. connecting end comprehending the powers of all the mundane elements. according to her first subsistence. whom banquetings delight . Illustrious born.OF ORPI-IEUS. night-loving. A HYMN. Venus. apparent and unseen . Source of persuasion. T O VENUS. and obeys thy nod. 'Tis thine the world with harmony to join92. nightly. HEAV'NLY. of an awful mien . and of the union of form with matter. encircling all. ranks among the supermundane divinities. Earth fruit-producing. contain. all-connecting dame. laughter-loving queen. And all productions yield alike to thee : Whate'er the heav'ns. For all things spring from thee. Thy sway confesses.

. And ev'ry tribe of savage monsters dire In magic chains to bind thro' mad desire. Cyprus-born. Yleas'd by the sandy banks renown'd of old. Or if in Cyprus thy fam'd mother fair. Or o'er th' Egyptian plains thy car to guide. and near its sacred flood. Great sceptre-bearer of the Gods. For thee I call. all-attractive.114 THE MYSTICAL H Y M N S Spousal. most-desir'd. Near where the sea with foaming billows roars. and to my pray'r incline. Fashion'd of gold . with holy. MTherenymphs unmarried praise thee ev'ry year. Or pleas'd in od'rous Syria to preside. and thee divine. life-giving. Fertile and fam'd. To drive thy rapid two-yok'd car of gold . reverent mind. Or if rejoicing in the azure shores. and to men inclin'd. 'tis thine Mortals in necessary bands to join . Lupercal. Adonis pure to sing. kind. to my pray'r inclin'd. Prolific. Come. Whether exalted in the heav'ns you shine. The loveliest nymphs. The circling choirs of mortals thy delight. who in the chorus join. to fix thy blest abode . Or beauteous Nymphs with eyes cerulean bright. Come.

The desert loving. celebrates hirn as frequently called Adonis . ever flourishing and bright . Sweet plant of Venus. Joy to diffuse. LVI. all-charming t o the sight. Adonis. At stated periods doom'd to set and rise With splendid lamp. adorn'd with copious hairs. by all desir'd. And to thy mystics earth's productio~zsbear. MUCH nam'd. with providential care. And shine again thro' heav'ns illustrious round . 'Tis thine to sink in Tartarus profound. Of splendid form. Much form'd. and with many other parts of t h e hymn. reverenc'd with tears. hear my pray'r. all-graceful pow'r. Rejoicing in the chase. deck'd with tender hair.OF ORPHEUS. T O ADONIS. Come. the fair-hair'd Proserpine. and best of daemons. 94 g3 Proclus. 9' Adonis (says Harmeas. timely pow'r. Eubulus. T H E F U M I G A T I O N FROhZ A R O M A T I C S . in his very elegant hymn t o the Sun. is thine. Love's delightful Aow'r : Descended from the secret bed divine Of Pluto's queen. and this perfectly agrees with what is said in this and the preceding verse. the glory of the skies? Two horn'd and lovely. in his Scholia on the P ' l ~ z d r u s '$ . aliment divine. Female and male.

TO THE TERRESTRIAL HERMES. to regions void of day. of a lovely mien : Who constant wand'rest thro' the sacred seats Where Hell's dread empress.UEin the earth. blessed pow'r. And in Necessity's dread path. p. Proserpine. 0 Bacchic Hermes. I call. progeny divine Of Dionysius. Gave thee for ever flowing souls to guide." s ? r e i 8 q T W Y EY y y ~ U O ~ E Y W v o v o 6 e a r r o ~ r ) sAaov~s E $ E Q T ~ ) Q E . whom Fate decrees to dwell Near to Cocytos. 202. Paphian queen. To wretched souls the leader of the way. thro' Tart'rus dark and wide. the fam'd stream of hell. whose bourn To none that reach it e'er permits return. When Fate decrees. retreats . And grant thy mystics' works a happy end.THE MYSTICAL H Y M N S LVII. For Proserpine. Dark-eyelash'd Goddess. . And of celestial Venus. Or lulls to slumb'rous rest the weary eye . parent of the vine. THE F U M I G A T I O N F R O M STORAX. HERMES. Thine is the wand which causes sleep to fly. Come. the sacrifice attend. of Plato) presides over every thing t h a t grows and perishes tcac Y U?TO~~WCTKO.

Darting. and with what monads does it leap forth ? There are three hypostases among the intelligible and occult Gods . " Love is neither to be placed in the first nor among the last of beings. is characterized by the good. as illustrative of t h e Orphic dogmas respecting this God. the source of sweet delight. I CALL. Not in the first. and that it should be posterior to the beautiful. and residing in that place where. because the lover participates of Love. With Gods and mortals playing. and charming to the sight. therefore. that Love should be established between the object of love and the lover. and the first.OF ORPHEUS. but the second is characterized by wisdom. and wing'd. where. impetuous fierce desire. But there are three monads according 95 . and the third by the beautiful. wand'ring fire : The following development of the nature of the Divinity Love is extracted from the admirable Commentary of Proclus on the First Alcibiades of Plato. the most beautiful of intelligibles abides. great Love. but prior to every nature endued with love. the paternal monad abides . Holy and pure. understanding the good itself. indeed. It is requisite. nor yet among the last. where the first intelligence flourishes . Where then does i t first subsist? How does it extend itself through the universe. as Timeus says. LVIII. according to the [Chaldean] Oracle. because the object of Love is superior to Love . THE FUMIGATION F R O M A R O M A T I C S .

in a liberated and undefiled manner . and spreading seas . establishing all things with transcendent union in good. and lastly. but among others. also. faith proceeds through the universe. and among others. and love. as governing and assimilating . according to a multiplied and divided mode. the air. calling all things upwards t o divine beauty. truth. e. they order Theurgists to conjoin themselves to divinity through this triad. And among some it subsists ineffably. Intelligibles themselves. but truth unfolds all the knowledge in beings. but first unfolding themselves into light in the ineffable order of the Gods. in a manner entirely motive. and a t the same time intellectual. ' that all things are governed by and abide in these.118 THE MYSTICAL H Y M N S Agile and twofold. subsisting uniformly according to cause in intelligibles. and congregates them into the nature of the beautiful. vivific.] I mean faith. supernally descends from intelligibles to mundane concerns. it subsists intellectually and paternally . This triad thence proceeds through all'the orders of the Gods. Love. and effective : here. establishes all things in good . there. indeed. do not require the amatory medium. therefore. every where combining its powers with the peculiarities of the Gods. on this account. Here again. on account of their ineffable union. there. as endued with a perfective and forming power. [i. It also unfolds itself differently in different orders. And faith. Zove corlverts all things. For it is the binder and conciliator of natures posterior and prior t o itself . there also Love abides. keeper of the keys Of heav'n and earth. proceeds through all things. to these intelligible causes.' And. And lastly. in the summit of that order which is called intelligible. as the cause of connecting and binding . and imparts to all things by its light a union with the intelligible itself. Hence the [Chaldean] Oracles assert. But where there is a union and separation of beings. Truth. incomprehensibly. and with transcendent union . illuminating all things with knowledge. indeed. but the converter of subsequent to . and elsewhere.

I n the Gods. and residing in all things . it unites intelligible intellect t o the first and secret beauty. in daemons a secondary one . if it connects all things. But in natures posterior to intelligibles. Lastly. "The [Chaldean] Oracles. but accompanied by much separation. and hence. and filling subordinate from superior natures. and with itself. On this account the [Chaldean] Oracles are accustomed to call the fire of this Love a copulator : for proceeding f r o ~ nintelligible intellect. congregating and collecting tegether that which desires and that which is desired. Again. But Diotima calls Love a g~eatdemon. And. it has a primary subsistence . i. it imparts by illu mination an indissoluble bond to all things perfected by itself: for a bond is a certain union. e. Love usurps a middle situation between each. prior. but that which loves is in the third order from the beloved object. But among the intelligible and occult Gods. indeed. because it every where fills up the medium between desiring and desirable natures. and the elevating and perfecting cause of imperfect natures. by a certain life better than intelligence. IIoipaivwv rrpa7rZQeaaiv auoppa~ov OKUV EpuTa.OF ORPHEUS. therefore. speak of Love as binding. for he says of intelligible intellect. and in partial souls a subsistence through a certain third procession from principles. Hence [Orpheus] the theologist of the Greeks calls this Love blind. that which is the object of Love vindicates to itself the first order . and d ~ m o n with s Gods . it also copulates us with the governments of daemons. By which th' all parent Goddess life sustains. i t binds all following natures with each other. indeed. Of all that Ceres' fertile realms contains. in the Gods . I n his breast feeding eyeless rapid Love. but it conjoins us with both Gods and daemons. Hence it conjoins all the Gods with intelligible beauty.

being exempt from all partial genera .120 THE M Y S T I C A L H Y M N S Or dismal Tartarus is doom'd to keep. And this triple order appears similar to the triple power of intellect. (Vol. or the sounding deep . indeed. of myplato. iv." See more concerning this Divinity in the notes on the speech of Diotima in the Banquet of Plato. with universal sway.) . Widely extended. their perfection. and which is. For thee all Nature's various realms obey. For one intellect subsists as imparticipable. regard these mysticfiles. of which also the souls of t h e Gods participate as of s better nature . i t subsists above essence : for every genus of Gods is superessential. Come. But in dzmons it subsists according to essence : and in souls according to illumination. but another as participated. Who rul'st alone. And far avert unlawful mad desires. and another is from this ingenerated in souls. blessed pow'r.

in Theog. 791. we shall find that the poet expressly calls them the Fates . draw near. and listen to my pray'r . perhaps because the Gods swear by it. And what strengthens the illustration still more. TO THE FATES. Infinite Fates. indeed. 96 . Gesner confesses he is ignorant what the poet means by the X L . in which Orpheus places the Fates. invisible) abide . DAUGHTERS of darkling Night. But it is not wonderful that the water is called white . Who in the heavenly lake 96 (where waters white Burst from a fountain hid in depths of night. since Hesiod. the whole seems impenetrably obscure . LIX. And thro' a dark and stony cavern glide. And from hence it appears. as likewise of the dark caveyn. that the heavenly lake is the same with the Stygian pool . much nam'd. v. speaks of the Stygian waters as falling into the sea with silvery whirls. or heavenly lake. Fulgentius asserts that the Fates dwell with Pluto. which is called heavenly.O F ORPHEUS. THE F U M I G A T I O N F R O M AROMATICS. but on comparing this hymn with the sixty-ninth. A cave profound. and places them in an obscure cavern by the holy water of Styx. A t first sight. which is to the Furies. U U ~ ovpavia.

with Glory for your guide. trifling. prescrib'd by ancient law. gay. To these acceding. well born. Unchang'd. Untam'd. For Jove and Fate our ev'ry deed descry. benignant. Lachesis. At Justice. wand'ring in the night. Your pow3r extends to those of mortal birth . Till all-complete your heav'n appointed round. Regard the incense and the holy pray'r . Fate is Jove's perfect and eternal eye. When in the plain of Fate you joyful ride In one great car. A race presumptuous. all-destroying. you yourselves conceal. invisible to mortal sight . For Fate alone with vision unconfin'd Surveys the conduct of the mortal kind. Hope. Atropos. . Of pow'r immense. and Care's concluding bound. Fates all-producing. To men with hope elated. in a purple veil To sense impervious. hear. Propitious listen to these rites inclin'd. wide coursing round the boundless earth. fam3d. And far avert distress. gentle pow'rs.122 THE MYSTICAL H Y M N S From whence. and just without a flaw. Come. aerial. with placid mind. and Clotho nam3d. born but to decay. The terms absolv'd.

and Esculapius in Apollo. dark-ey'd. illustrious Graces. From Jove descended. T O THE GRACES 97. delightful to mankind. belongs to you : Various. whom joys delight : Mothers of mirth. and your mystics' bless with bounteow mind. much invok'd in pray'r . THE FUMIGATION FROM STORAX. mighty nam'd. Circling. 97 I n the same manner as Bacchus subsists in Jupiter. Thalia and Aglaia fair and bright. in his golden Treatise on the Gods and the Worlcl. Desir'd by mortals. so the Graces subsist in Venus. HEAR me. for ever flourishing and fair. LX. and Eunomia fam'd. as we are informed by the philosopher Sallust. And blest Euphrosyne. pure. . Come.OF ORPHEUS. all lovely to the view. Pleasure abundant.

T H E BTYSTICAL H Y M N S

LXI.
TO NEMESIS.
A HYMN.

THEE, Nemesis, I call, almighty queen,
By whom the deeds of mortal life are seen : Eternal, much rever'd, of boundless sight, Alone rejoicing in the just and right : Changing the counsels of the human breast For ever various, rolling without rest. To ev'ry mortal is thy influence known, And men beneath thy righteous bondage groan ; For ev'ry thought within the mind conceal'd Is to thy sight perspicuously reveal'd. The soul unwilling reason to obey, By lawless passion rul'd, thine eyes survey. All to see, hear, and rule, 0 pow'r divine, Whose nature equity contains, is thine. Come, blessed, holy Goddess, hear my pray'r, And make thy mystics' life thy constant care : Give aid benignant in the needful hour, And strength abundant to the reas'ning pow'r ; And far avert the dire, unfrienclly race Of counsels impious, arrogant, and base.

b

OF OORPHEUS.

LXII.
T O JUSTICE.
T H E FUMIGATION F R O M FRANKINCENSE.

THEpiercing eye of Justice bright I sing, Plac'd by the sacred throne of Jove the king,
Perceiving thence, with vision unconfin'd, The life and conduct of the human kind 98. To thee revenge and punishment belong, Chastising ev'ry deed unjust and wrong. Whose pow'r alone dissimilars can join, And from thy equality of truth combine : For all the ill persuasion can inspire, When urging bad designs with counsel dire, 'Tis thine alone to punish ; with the race Of lawless passions, and incentives base ; For thou art ever to the good inclin'd, And hostile to the men of evil mind. Come, all-propitious, and thy suppliant hear, Till fates' predestin'd fatal hour draws near.
The first four lines of this hymn are, a's I have observed in t h e Introduction, cited by Demosthenes in his first Oration
98

against Aristogiton.

T H E MYSTICAL H Y M . N S

LXIII.
T O EQUITY.
T H E F U M I G A T I O N F R O M FRANKINCENSE.

0 BLESSED Equity, mankind's delight, Th' eternal friend of conduct just and right : Abundant, venerable, honour'd maid, To judgments pure dispensing constant aid,
And conscience stable, and an upright mind ; For men unjust by thee are undermin'd, Whose souls perverse thy bondage ne'er desire, But more untam'd decline thy scourges dire. Harmonious, friendly pow'r, averse to strife, In peace rejoicing, and a stable life : Lovely, convivial, of a gentle mind, Hating excess, to equal deeds inclin'd : Wisdom and virtue, of whate'er degree, Receive their proper bound alone in thee. Hear, Goddess Equity, the deeds destroy Of evil men, which human life annoy ; That all may yield to thee of mortal birth, Whether supported by the fruits of earth, Or in her kindly fertile bosom found, Or in the realms of marine Jove profound.

LXIV.
T O LAW.
THEholy king of Gods and men I call,
Celestial Law, the righteous seal of all: The seal which stamps whate'er the earth contains, And all conceal'd within the liquid plains : Stable, and starry, of harmonious frame, Preserving laws eternally the same. Thy all-composing pow'r in heav'n appears, Connects its frame, and props the starry spheres ; And unjust Envy shakes with dreadful sound, Toss'd by thy arm in giddy whirls around. 'Tis thine the life of mortals to defend, And crown existence with a blessed end ; For thy command alone, of all that lives, Order and rule to ev'sy dwelling gives. Ever observant of the upright mind, And of just actions the companion kind. Foe t o the lawless, with avenging ire, Their steps involving in destruction dire. Come, blest, abundant pow'r, whom all revere, By all desir'd, with fav'ring mind draw near ; Give me thro' life on thee to fix my sight, And ne'er forsake the equal paths of right.

T H E MYSTICAL H Y M N S

LXV.

T O MARS 99.
THE F U M I G A T I O N F R O M FRANKINCENSE.

MAGNANIMOUS, unconquer'd, boist'rous Mars, In darts rejoicing, and in bloody wars ;
Fierce and untam'd, whose mighty pow'r can make The strongest walls from their foundations shake : Mortal-destroying king, defil'd with gore, Pleas'd with war's dreadful and tumultuous roar. Thee human blood 100, and swords, and spears de-

light, And the dire ruin of mad savage fight.
"Mars, as we are informed by Proclus, in Plat. Repub. p. 388, is the source of division and motion, separating the contrarieties of the universe, which he also perpetually excites, and immutably preserves in order that the world may be perfect and filled with forms of every kind. Hence, also, he presides over war. B u t he requires the assistance of Venus, that he may insert order and harmony into things contrary and discordant.
99
loo " The slaughter which is ascribed to Mars (says Hermias, i n Plat. Phsdr.) signifies a divulsion from matter through rapidly turning from it, and no longer energizing physically, but intellectually. F o r slaughter, when applied to the Gods, m a y be said t o be an apostacy from secondary natures, just as slaughter in this terrestrial region signifies a privation of t h e present life."

STRONG. is that power which perpetually presides over t h e 101 I . Stay furious contests. For arms exchange the labours of the field . Unweasy'd fire. all-di ffusive pow'r. therefore. F o r n. Whose works with woe embitter human life . and of art divine. Encourage peace. and was produced by Vulcan for the purpose of fashioning a corporeal nature. mighty Vulcan.OF ORPHEUS. And give abundance. deathless. supreme. and avenging strife. all substance to devour : Vulcan is that divine power which presides over the spermatic and physical productive powers which the universe contains : for whatever Nature accomplishes by verging t o bodies. a portion of the world is thine : All-taming artist. with flaming torrents bright : Strong-handed. Pure element. To lovely Venus and to Bacchus yield. with benignant mind. Vulcan. by moving Nature. and using her as a n instrument in his own proper fabrication. T O VULCAN lol. LXVI. that Vulcan effects in a divine and exempt manner. bearing splendid light. to gentle works inclin'd. 'Tis thine. THE: F U M I G A T I O N F R O M F R A N K I N C E N S E AND MANNA.atura1 heat has a Vulcanian characteristic.

and stop their dreadful rage. Diffus'd thro' mortal bodies. heal mankind. T H E F U M I G A T I O N F R O M MANNA. GREAT E s c u ~ ~ skill'd ~~us to . Moon. in Plat. Hear. as I have before observed. 388. cities. (EY $ v ~ u i s )which occultly signifies his operating in natures (arrr TOV ev Tars $voaur).130 T H E MYSTICAL HYRINS Ether. This deity. and Stars. tribes belong. And still preserve our nature's vital flame. light pure and clear. he operates with bellows. This deity. For these thy lucid parts to men appear. fluctuating nature of bodies . in his very elegant hymn to the Sun. as Proclus observes. subsists in Apollo. says Io2 . All-ruling Pzan. and hence. requires the assistance of Venus. Whose arts medic'nal can alone assuage Diseases dire. And all propitious on the incense shine : Suppress the rage of fire's unweary'd frame. p. and thus cause the pulchritude of the world. T O ESCULAPIUS lo2. also. as well as Mars. blessed pow'r. rich and strong. Proclus. Repub. in order that he may invest sensible effects with beauty. Sun. says Olympiodorus. LXVII. To thee all dwellings. to holy rites incline. and physician kind .

i. " From thy bland dance repelling deadly ill. Orpheus. Zqs 6' aao peiXi~oi?wpos aX~~itca~ Siaa~iqs ov IIaiqwv ~ X a a r q u ~ E v . God of light . as he wrote these hymns for the Mysteries. or. abundant.OF ORPHEUS." I n the hymn t o Apollo. And to the mortal life afford a prosp'rous end. lenient God. as Esculapius subsists in Apollo. e. Health far diffusing. 0 pow'r all-flourishing. Husband of blameless Health. IIXqaas appoviqs aavaaqpovos wpea Koapov. bright. prays f o r the welfare of all mankind. the minister of woe : Come. the constant foe Of dread disease. Convey the means of mitigating pain. the initiating priest. and th' extended world With streams of harmony innoxious fills. 103 . Hence. that Esculapius springs into light from the bland dance of the Sun. human health defend 103. Salubrious Paeon blossoms into light. Apollo's honour'd offspring. regard my suppliant pray'r. Bring gentle Health. t h e poet very properly invokes the healing God t o defend human health. blessed saviour. adorn'd with lovely hair .~ 6' Y EXETU~~EU VYEL~P. And raging deadly pestilence restrain. 131 Strong. or the health of all men.

And far avert disease of ev'ry kind. universal queen. Dost govern all things. And ev'ry house is flourishing and fair. gen'ral queen. And men without thy all-sustaining ease Find nothing useful. Nor man to much afflicted age arrive. Each dsedal art thy vig'rous force inspires. alone resists thy will. life's bane. nothing form'd to please. from thee for ever flows To mortal life from agony repose . of countenance serene. Mother of all .132 THE MYSTICAL H Y M N S LXVIII. And ever hates thy all-preserving skill. T O HEALTH. by thee diseases dire. life-bearing Health. . not Pluto's self can thrive. of beauteous mien. from our life retire . Of bliss destructive. prolific. For thou alone. And all the world thy helping hand desires. Without thy aid. Hear me. Assist thy mystics with propitious mind. 0 MUCH desir'd. O fertile queen. Pluto. If with rejoicing aspect thou art there. T H E F U M I G A T I O N F R O M MANNA.

THE F U M I G A T I O N F R O M AROMATICS. to the Pates. in secret who retire. VOCIFEROUS Bacchanalian Furies hear ! Ye I invoke. whom all revere . Nor do these powers only afflict the vicious. This illustrates what is said in the seventeenth and three following lines of this hymn. Nightly. profound. dread pow'rs. lo4 i. Near where Styx flows impervious to the sight. but even such as convert themselves to an immaterial essence : for these through their connection with matter require a purification of this kind. To mankind's impious counsels ever nigh. suffocate them . and Megara dire : Deep in a cavern merg'd. . Fateful. as i t were. such punishment being finally the means of purification. Alecto. T O THE FUItIES lo4. severe and strong." Ai roivai peponwv ayKreipai. involv'd in night. Revenge and sorrows dire to you belong. " t h a t the Furies are the bonds of men. and fierce to punish these you fly. Hid in a savage vest. T h e Chaldean Oracle observes.OF ORPHEUS. See the note on Hymn lix. e. and in these. Tisiphone. as Pselllls explains it. the powers t h a t punish guilty souls bind them to their material passions.

To me. in deepest hell. The boundless tribe of mortals you descry. And far avert your all-destructive ire. our transport to obtain. who for ever dwell. Wisdom and virtue may attempt in vain.134 T H E MYSTICAL HYMNS Terrific virgins. Aerial. And justly rule with Right's impartial eye. Endu'd with various forms. And pleasing art. and to our rites incline. Unless with these you readily conspire. Fates many-form'd. Suppress your rage. And swiftly coursing. snaky-hair'd. however. divine. rapid as the mind. and inserted them in hymn lx. 105 . it appears that they properly belong to this hymn t o the Furies. and unseen by human kind. In vain the sun with wing'd effulgence bright 1 0 4 In vain the moon far darting milder light. and therefore I have not transferred them. Ruhnkenius thinks that this and the five following lines should be transferred from hence to the hymn to the Graces . t o the Graces. and Hermann adopting this opinion has omitted them in the present hymn. Come.

whom lovely locks adorn : Whose piercing sight with vision unconfin'd Surveys the deeds of all the impious kind. in Attic. whose glittering eyes are bright With dreadful. radiant. HEAR me. mighty nam'd. LXX. Holy and pure. and horrid to the human sight. THE F U M I G A T I O N F R O N AROMATICS. from Jove terrestrial born. Dark-colour'd queens. punishing the race (With wrath severe) of deeds unjust and base. Fateful. 28) was the first that represented the Buries with snakes in their hair. cap. T O THE FURIES. illustrious Furies. for prudent counsel fam'd . With snaky tresses 106." On this passage I have observed in a note in my translation of Pausanias as follows : Those who are of opinion that the Orphic hymns are spurious compositions will doubtless imagine that their opinion is indisputably Io6 . life-destroying light : Eternal rulers. On Fate attendant. Terrific pow'rs. And Proserpine.OF ORPHEUS. To whom revenge and tortures dire belong . wancl'ring in the night : LLEschylus(says Pausanias. terrible and strong.

Very much so. in the above hymn. confirmed by the present passage : for the Furies. being a man religiously fearful of disclosing any particulars belonging to the mysteries. that he infers Eschylus was the first that represented them to be so. . and we have shown. he means t h a t no one prior to Eschylus openly represented the Furies with snakes i n their hair. 1 s it. are called o@ioa)loaayoi. I f this be the case. as the Mysteries were instituted long before Eschjlus. E T E A E C T B ya ~p S . which Pausanias informs us was not the case with their statues . be remembered.o v ~ follows : ~ i l r e opoia 701s E K E L r a E Y % U ~CTOL E GOKEL . theyefore. Tell me. Cynic. EU X ~ y ~ i i6ou s * ouv ?rpocrEpXerai r i s 6q60uxovoa. For ye I call with holy suppliant voice. w I < v v i c r ~r ~a EX~ucrivi. and in these rites rejoice. that they were used in the Eleusinisn Mysteries. do not the present particulars appear to you to be similar to those which take place in the Mysteries 1 Cyn. KTN. here comes a certain torch-bearer with a d ~ e a d f uand l threatening countenance. they must have been written posterior t o the time of Eschylus. Kai a x s i X q r i ~ o v ~ p o c r ~ X ~ x o v u3 a *a p a r o u Epivvus E ~ T L V i. and consequently. that the Furies in the Mysteries were of a terrible appearance. or snaky-haired. which appears to me to be more probable. either Pausanias is mistaken in what he asserts of Eschylus i n this place. See then. + o p ~ p o v ri. It must. in the Introduction to these Hymns. if what Pausanias asserts be true. The passage is a s poi. or. e. it is evident that the terrible aspects of the Furies were not invented by him : and i t is more than pro- . however. and i t is from this circumstance of the statues of these divinities not being dreadful in their appearance. Hence. There is also a passage in the Cataplus of Lucian which very much corroborates my opinion.136 THE MYSTICAL HYMNS Hither approach. one of the Puries ? It is evident from this passage. it may be said. for you are initiated in the Eleusinian Mysteries. that Eschylus was accused of inserting in his tragedies things belonging to the Mysteries .

it is evident that the snaky tresses of the Furies were not the invention of Eschylus. on which she took one of the snakes from her hair and threw it a t him. But through the commiseration of the Gods. " it is fabulously reported that Tisiphone became enamoured of a certain beautiful youth. whose name was Cytheron. He. and that her love for him being very ardent. t e r r i j c to the sight. the mountain which was before called Asterius was from him denominated Cytheron. did not deign to answer her ." "Fabulati sunt antiqui neque has quidem severissimas Deas Cupidinis vim potuisse deritare. e. I bable that this dreadful appearance was principally caused by the snakes in their hair. Furies ~~OPEPWBES. Who from dread Pluto's venerable queen. A t is formidandurn aspectum veritus. saffron-veil'd. Melinoe. being terrified a t her formidable aspect. THE FUMIGATIOhT F R O M AROMATICS. terrene. however. The present h j m n too calls the i. cujus desiderium cum ferre non posset. For he informs us that Menander says. CALL. Near where Cocytus' mournful river flows . which occasioned his death. But from what Natales Comes narrates from Menander.LXXI. T O MELINOE. verba de congressu ad illum proferenda cnravit. Mixt with Saturnian Jupiter. she contrived the means of conversing with him. Tisiphonem :in amorem cujusdam pueri formosi Cytheronis nomine incidisse. quando scriptum reliquit Mznander in rebus fabulosis. in one of his plays. arose. neque responso quidem dig- .

. qui prius Asterius dicebatur. And bless thy mystics. 216. quo illa unum e suis draconibus e capillis convulsum in eum conjecit. From Pluto dark. under Pluto's semblance. with terrors dire . quem serpens intra nodos constringens interemit. Hence. expel wherever found The soul's mad fears to earth's remotest bound . Terrestrial queen. and the rites divine. iii. As none of the ancient tragedians. from Jove etherial bright. ubi Deorum misericordia mons ab illo dictus fuit. Now darkly visible.138 T H E MYSTICAL HYMNS When. therefore. Perspicuous now they meet the fearful sight. p." lib. nam fecit. Jove divine Deceiv'd with guileful arts dark Proserpine. and taken by Menander from him. men by night inspire When seen in spectred forms. were the inventors of the fables which are the subjects of their dramas. Mythol. Natalis Comit. partly black thy limbs and partly white. With holy aspect on our incense shine. involv'd in night. Thy colour'd members. but derived them from authors more ancient than themselves. it is not a t all probable that this fable was invented by Eschylus.

lib. LXXII. of the sublunary world]. 81) particularly disposes in an orderly manner the sublunary part of the universe. mighty nam'd. Physic. and governs. "But the power of Fortune (says Simplicius. places in order. in Aristot. This divinity. I n her other hand she holds the horn of Amalthea. with propitious mind And rich abundance. to my pray'r inclin'd : Placid and gentle Trivia. according to the Platonic. And on this account we venerate the fortunes . and enables them to confer on sublunary effects that particular good which their nature and merits eminently deserve. to beneficent purposes. Imperial Dian l07. e. Her rudder too is fixed on a globe. born of Pluto fam'd. which is full of fruits. ii. '07 Fortune. congregates all sublunary causes. in conjunction with other primary causes. and happening contrary to expectation. APPROACH.OF ORPHEUS. is that divine power which disposes things differing from each other. Fortune. too. because she governs things sailing on the sea of generation [i. Hence she is represented guiding a rudder. and which being essentially disordered. directs. because she directs that which is unstable in generation. Or i t may be defined to be that divine distribution which causes every thing to fill up the lot assigned to it by the condition of its being. p. which is the same with the Orphic theology. T H E F U M I G A T I O N F R O M FRANKINCENSE. because she is the cause of obtaining all divine fruits. queen Fortune. T O FORTUNE. in which the nature of what is contingent is contained.

Be present. While others mourn thy hand averse to bless. is called Diana. nor does any thing evil subsist 3-om divinity.140 THE MYSTICAL HYMNS Mankind's unconquer'd endless praise is thine. and require. in this hymn. because being very remote from divine union. which we a9. in order to obtain it. widely wand'ring pow'r divine ! In thee our various mortal life is found. Hence we speak of two Fortunes. and others are o f a punishing or revenging characteristic. but the other EVIL. to thy vot'ries kind. B u t of things that are good. one of which we denominate GOOD.for every attainment 9-espects something good. who possess the characteristics of this Divinity. which prepares us to ~eceivepunishment or ~evenge. for each of these divinities governs the sublunary world. In all the bitterness of deep distress. And some from thee in copious wealth abound.e aecuston~ed to call evils." Prom this beautiful passage. Goddess. And give abundance with benignant mind. of cities and houses. and of those natures superior to the human. every fortune is good . we are in danger of being deprived of its participation. and which is the cause of our obtaining precedaneous good . Sepulch'ral. it is easy t o see why F o r tune. and of each individual . . See the original of the above admirable extract from Simplicius in the notes to my Pansanias. the assistance of the Goddess Fortune. some are precedaneous. Indeed.

the Damon. 'Tis thine alone. because the Sun. mighty ruling D ~ m o n dread. is the generator and guardian of human life ." H e adds " that by the two former they signified the Sun and Moon . T O THE DIIEMON108. as we are informed by Macrobius (in Saturnal. life-giving. heat. Mankind from thee in plenteous wealth abound. i. terrible and strong. LXXIII. When in their dwellings joyful thou art found. THEE. T H E F U M I G A T I O N FROM FRANKINCENSE. I call.O F ORPHEUS. that is. and the source of all : Great Jove. And grant to life a glorious blessed end. much wand'ring. God of him who is born. But by Fortune they indicated the Moon. Mild Jove. and ~Vecessity. Disperse the seeds of life-consuming care. Love. The needful means of bliss by thee suppress'd. 19). lib. endu'd with boundless might. cap. and on this account he is believed to be the dzmon. "the Gods that preside over man a t the time of his birth are these four. With fav'ring mind the sacred rites attend. and light. To keep the keys of sorrow and delight. because . who is the source of spirit. hear my pray'r. Fortune. lo8 According to the Egyptians. 0 holy blessed father. To whom revenge and tortures dire belong. Or pass thro' life afflicted and distress'd.

And Bacchus' nurse. I she presides over bodies which are tossed about through the variety of fortuitous events. Amidst the fury of th' unstable main. of great Cadmus born. . Goddess ! in distress. destin'd thy domain to keep : In waves rejoicing.T H E MYSTICAL H Y M N S LXXIV. in his very elegant hymn t o the Sun. Proclus. And safe conduct them to their destin'd end. invokes that divinity as a blessed demon. powerful Goddess. Thou hear'st with pity touch'd his suppliant pray'r. and strength is vain. When art no more avails." Conformably t o this. Hear. Resolv'cl his life to succour and to spare. T H E FUMIGATION F R O M A R O M A T I C S . Be ever present. TO LEUCOTHEA. Leucothea. CALL. When rushing billows with tempestuous ire O'erwhelm the mariner in ruin dire. For ships from thee alone deliv'rance find. guardian of mankind . whom ivy leaves adorn. in the mighty deep Vast-bosom'd. Waft ships along with prosp'rous success : Thy mystics thro' the stormy sea defend.

Come. guardian pow'r. whom mortal tribes desire. With joyful aspect to my pray'r incline. doom'd to keep Thy dwelling in the widely spreading deep .OF ORPHEUS. Propitious come. Thy nystics thro' the earth and sea attend. and bless the rites divine . T H E F U M I G A T I O N F R O M MANNA. LXXV. . And from old Ocean's stormy waves defend : For ships their safety ever owe to thee. 0 NURS'D with Dionysius. And far avert the deep's destructive ire. Who wand'rest with them thro' the raging sea.

sweetly speaking Nine . To those whose breasts your sacred furies fire. p. DAUGHTERS of Jove." He adds "that Jupiter is said to be the father. Sources of blameless virtue to mankind. and Mnemosyne the mother of the Muses. in Hesiod Op.THE MYSTICAL HYMNS LXXVI. . who lead to sacred light The intellect refin'd from error's night . For mystic knowledge from your nature flows. Who form to excellence the youthful mind : Who nurse the soul." See more concerning the Muses in t h e additional notes. 'l'HE F U M I G A T I O N FROM FRANKINCEWSE. and divine. Commanding queens. Renown'd. log " The Muses (says Proclus. because the learner ought to possess both intelligence a n d memory. loud-sounding. Much form'd. the objects of supreme desire. the latter of which Mnemosyne imparts. 6) derive their appellation from investigation : for they are the sources of erudition. Pierian. TO THE MUSES109. And to mankind each holy rite disclose. and give her to descry The paths of right with reason's steady eye. and the former Jupiter.

With fav'ring aspect on your mystics shine. And warm my bosom with your sacred fire. With thee who gav'st me to behold the light. Urania heav'nljr bright. . venerable. Euterpe. Polymnia fam'd. and Erato who charms the sight. various pow'rs divine. With thee. Melpomene from skill in music nam'd : Terpsichore. Bring glorious.OF OR'PHEUS. Clio. ardent. minist'ring delight : Thalia flourishing. lovely. fam'd desire. Come.

blessed pow'r. so that the Goddess of Memory is very properly said by Orpheus to conjoin the soul with intellect. THEconsort I invoke of Jove divine. th3 mystics' mem'ry make To holy m'tes. 'Tb thine to waken from lethargic rest All thoughts deposited within the breast . sweetly speaking Nine. 11° . T O MNEMOSYNE. Free from thyoblivion of the fallen mind. pleasant. to which the soul tends through reminiscence . and the forms or ideas it contains. All-powerful. By whom the soul with intellect is join'd 110. and strong. Come. OR THE T H E FUMIGATION FROM FRANKINCENSE. Source of the holy. vig'rous to excite The mental eye from dark oblivion's night." (aye6 yap ?I pvqpr) apos T O pvqpovevrov. Reason's increase and thought to thee belong. and Lethe's fetters break.T H E M Y S T I C A L 11YMNS LXXVII. vigilant.) But the object of memory t o the soul is intellect. "Memory (says Plotinus) leads t o the object of memory. And nought neglecting.

with gen'ral voice. Of mortal life the minister divine. And all the nations of the deep rejoice. Blushing Aurora. Soon as thy splendours break the bands of rest. Angel of Titan. Mankind in thee eternally delight. For all the culture of our life is thine. and beasts. birds. whom with constant round Thy orient beams recall from night profound : Labour of ev'ry kind to lead is thine. and to these rites incline : Thy holy light increase. Come. THE F U M I G A T I O N FROM M A N N A . and unconfin'd Dzfluse its radiance on thy mystics' mind. TO AURORA. reptiles. 0 Goddess. . with pleasing sleep oppress'd . Men. And none presumes to shun thy beauteous sight.OF ORPHEUS. HEAR me. And eyes unclose. whose emerging ray Leads on the broad refulgence of the day . XVIII. blessed pow'r. whose celestial light Beams on the world with redd'ning splendours bright.

See the note on Hymn XII. Giv'n from the deep recesses of the fane In sacred Pytho. TO THEMIS. ILLUSTRIOUS Themis. From thee Apollo's oracles arose. Be present. where renown'd you reign. For the God's honours to disclose is thine. Majestic virgin. first from thee alone Prophetic oracles to men were known.T H E MYSTICAL HYMNS LXXIX. T H E FUMIGATION FROM FRANKINCENSE. Mankind from thee first learnt perfective rites. I l l Themis is one of the progeny of the intellectual Earth resident in Phanes. Honour'd by all. to Hercules. of celestial birth. of form divinely bright. And from thy pow'r his inspiration flows. to my pray'r inclin'd. All-beauteous virgin . And bless thy Teletce with fav'ring mind. wand'ring in the night. . Goddess. And Bacchus' nightly choirs thy soul delights . And holy mysteries and rites divine. young blossom of the earth 111. Thee I invoke.

BOREAS. with . And Thrace awhile desert. de AnimB. without which partial causes cannot make bodies properly adapted animated. i. And wipe from moisture Ether's splendid eye. ~espiration winds. Cold icy pow'r. expos'd to snow : The air's all-misty dark'ning state dissolve." " .OF' ORPHEUS. but the total and univemal causes respect to life. T O BOREAS Il2. T H E F U M I G A T I O N F R O M FRANKINCENSE. With pregnant clouds whose frames in show'rs resolve. lib. in Aristot. LXXX. terrific. Orpheus (says Simplicius. whose wintry blasts. approach.) appears to have called the aptitude of bodies. and fav'ring blow. tear The bosom of the deep surrounding air . Serenely temper all within the sky.

THE FUMIGATION F R O M FRANKINCENSE. . aerial. Vernal and grassy. Zephyrs unseen. and form'd from air. For these. who give to weary'd labour rest. T O ZEPHYRUS. SEA-BORN.T H E MYSTICAL HYMNS LXXXI. With blameless gales regard my suppliant pray'r. blowing from the west. light-wing'd. To ships delightful through the sea profound . Pursue with prosp'rous fate their destin'd course. and of murm'ring sound. Sweet gales. impell'd by you with gentle force.

~ ~ ~ ~ . And fruitful rains on earth all-parent send. swift-whirling pow'rs. T H E F U M I G A T I O N F R O M FRAhTKINCENSE. With humid clouds the principles of show'rs . For show'ry clouds are portion'd to your care.~ whose ~ lightly . Hear. blessed pow'r. TO THE SOUTH WIND. these holy rites attend.OF ORPHEUS. benevolent. LXXXII. Approach.leaping ~ ~ feet ~ With rapid wings the air's wet bosom beat. l l T ~ gales. To send on earth from all-surrounding air.

whose waves surround. in the unapparent. " And of the divine Titannic hebdomads (says Proclus. but t o have assaulted their father. according to its first subsistence. But others both abide in and proceed from their principles. through transcendency of power. OCEAN I call. v. he hurled them into Tartarus. and proceeding into another order. is one of the offspring of the first intellectual Earth. dividing themselves from his kingdom. Sire incorruptible. Or rather. as the two first triads. From whom at first both Gods and men arose . p. rejoicing in progression. And earth's all-terminating circle bound : Ocean. 292) Ocean both abides and proceeds. For when the other Titans proceeded t o assault their father Heaven. lib. uniting himself to his father [Heaven] and not departing from his kingdom. But all the rest of the Titans. being dubious of their rectitude. the profundity of the earth. Ocean prohibited them from obeying the mandates of their mother. therefore. are said to have given completion to the will of Earth. as I have before observed in the note on the hymn to Hercules." H e concealed them. as Ocean and Tethys. " But Ocean (says Orpheus) remained within his place of 113 . T H E F U M I G A T I O N F R O M AROMATICS. whose nature ever flows. in Tim.THE MYSTICAL H Y M N S LXXXIII." "For (says Orpheus) as soon as Heaven understood that they had an implacable heart and a lawless nature. of all the celestial genera. some alone abide in their principles.

that which fell from Olympus. is a very remarkable Orphic fragment. 153 Hence every river. he :remained peaceably a t home. After much fluctuation of thought. he reigns over the Titans. And the leader of these is the mighty Saturn." As the latter part of what is here said from Proclus. mighty sire. But the other Titans are induced to separation and progression. hence the spreading sea. or leaving these. .~ U C ~ ~ E U TWY E L Y OU~UVLOV O X v p ~ o v . Greatest cathartic of the pow'rs divine : abode. K a L TOY E K E 1 TEPLEHElY OVPQYOU. and was there arranged. I shall give the original for the sake of the learned reader.K ~ K E L ~ P O Y L C - TLTUYWY~ TOY d€ OKEUPOU T?/Y X ~ & U arraoav T ~ Y p e ~ q v * uaLecu yap aurov EY r o t s 6 ~ u r r e ~ i o c s p€16p01~701s PETa TOY OXV. Hear. who were obedient to their dear mother. Kac roc ye ore o Kpovos vneprepos EGTL TOV 0K ~ U U O U . as the theologist says. however. For he says. and unjustly mutilate him in conjunction with Saturn. though he evinces that Saturn is superior to Ocean. but still more so with his brethren. and a t the same time proceeds together with Tethys.UTOY. and is not to be found in the Collection of the Orphic remains by either Gesner or Hermann. " that Ocean dwells in the divine streams which are posterior to Olympus. and whether he should deprive his father of strength. stay quietly a t home. and that he environs the Heaven which is there. but that Ocean obtained all the middle allotment. ~ E ~ T ~ W K 0C ~ UE O ~ O Y O? S~ahiu XEYWY TOY ~ E Y KPOYOY ourov ~ a r a A a p ~ a v s c v TOY ~ E P T U . for she is conjoined with him according to the first progeny. and not the highest Heaven. being angry with his mother. and that there being throned. and the other brethren." H e therefore abides. considering to what he should direct his attention.OF ORPHEUS. but as the fable says. And earth's pure bubbling fountains spring from thee. by saying that Saturn himself received the celestial Olympus. for boundless bliss is thine.

and J u n o evolves according to the all-various mutations of visible natures. speaking of the nine deities mentioned by Plato in the Timaeus. in p. And be for ever to thy mystics kind. middle essences in physical [or such as pertain t o soul]. Phorcys distributes spermatic productive principles . with placid mind. intellectual essences in intellectual. according to their subZulutry allotment. fountain of the pole. us 6~ $vatu o puoos. But Tethys establishes every thing in its proper motion . Jupiter perfects things apparent from such as are unapparent. Saturn alone divides intellectually . says : " Heaven terminates. 7ETay/4€VOY. Ocean a t the same time collectively moving all things. Whose waves wide spreading and circumfluent roll.154 T H E MYSTICAL HYMNS Earth's friendly limit. " . Earth corroborates. . aXX' o v TOY arcporasov. rov ~pacoovra 70V O V ~ U / ~ TKUl O VEKE1 . Rhea vivifies . Approach benevolent. and Ocean moves all generation. and such as are corporeal in psychical inotion . for they originally proceed from the intellectual order. 298. Proclus also.

and the mother of prolific powers . Hence some say that Vesta is denominated from essence. Leipsic. and being the cause of sameness to all things. h a euaras. p. (aao 7 7 s euoras*. . possessing a n undefiled virginity. But Juno imparts progression. however. together with her own proper perfection. DAUGHTER of Saturn. surveying her vivific and motive power. But Vesta abides in herself. possesses according t o participation the power of the other. lege ovuras) looking to her proper hyparxis.) For all " My manuscript has rurtas*but the edition of this work. and through this communion she generates maternally such things as Jupiter generates paternally. in Cratyl. and an indissoluble essence. The true reading however is doubtless ovcras. 83) in conjunction with Rhea. produced Vesta and Juno. 1820. B u t others. T O VESTA lI4. say that she is thus denominated as beifig the cause of impulsion. venerable dame. who are coordinate with the demiurgic causes. She is also the vivifying fountain of wholes. Who dwell'st amidst great fire's eternal flame .O F ORPHEUS. by the very learned Professor Boissonade. Each of these divinities. and on this account she is said to have proceeded together with Jupiter the Demiurgus . and a multiplication into things secondary. For Vesta imparts from herself to the Gods an uninclining permanency and seat in themselves. which she derives from Juno. (ws wuews ovuav airrav. Saturn (says Proclus. THE FUMIGATION F R O M AROMATICS.

Hence Philolaus. Vesta. does not manifest essence. possess the sameness of their revolutions from her . ii. p. For the Divinities prior to Saturn have not a subsistence i n themselves and in another. for he there observes. "that the Pythagoreens supposing the decad t o be a perfect number. is the Divinity of the E a r t h . however. were willing to collect the bodies that are moved in a circle into the decadic number. de Ccelo. and this is still more evident from what Simplicius says in his Commentary on Arist." What is here said by Proclus about a subsistence in self and in anothe~. the house of Jupiter. and measure of nature. and particularly such as are coordinate with each other. and the poles and centres are always allotted from her their permanent rest. Hence they say. divine natures are in all. and hence this Goddess proceeds into light after the mighty Saturn. and divine. holy. and the basis. "that there is a fire in the middle a t the centre. Mystics much blessed. but this originates from Saturn. but the abiding and firm establishment of essence in itself . the seven planets. coherence. Each. in a fragment preserved by Stobsus (Eclog. it is necessary to add. likewise. t h a t the inerratic sphere." Hence it appears that they are greatly mistaken who suppose the Pythagoreans meant the Sun by the fire a t the centre . 51).156 THE MYSTICAL HYMNS In sacred rites these ministers are thine.the reader will find explained in the notes on my translation of the Parrnenides of Plato. according to her mundane allotment. the mother of the Gods. and subsist in each other. and as such she is celebrated in the present hymn. of the demiurgic and vivific orders participates the form by which it is characterized from Vesta. I n addition t o the above admirable development of the nature of Vesta by Proclus. says. participate of. which is the Vesta of the universe. this our earth. Phys. lib. and . The orbs of the planets. that this Goddess. And a subsistence in self is the peculiarity of Vesta. but in another of Juno. therefore.

as being itself a n instrument of time : for it is the cause of day and night. And this is confirmed by their calling the earth one of the inst~untents of time :for the stars are thus detiominated by Plato in the Timaeus. as he (i.ws ev TOVTOLS* OL d~ A ~ OBPOVOY* S US aXXoi $aaivS avrpov 6s T ~ V yqv ~Xeyov. p. T O p€V 7TVp EY Tq pEG(t) $a01 T q Y ~ ~ / L L O V W L K ~~Y U V U / L L V . a stay. e.OF ORPHEUS." I n that part of this remarkable passage. in his Denarius Fythagoricus. the seven planets. the antichthon complete the decad. but he was evidently mistaken. 157 In thee the Gods have fix'd their dwelling place. Strong." He then adds : 0 1 6e y v q ~ ~ e u r ~ p amwv ov peraqovrcs. " B u t those who more genuinely participate of the Pythagorean doctrines say that the fire in the middle is a demiurgic power. as Aristotle relates in the present treatise. ws opyavov K a i auTTv TOV ~povov* qp~puv yap EGTLY avrq. and the fire in the centre of the earth. . Hence some call it the tower of Jupiter. i airia. Aristotle) narrates in his Pytha. ~ a VUKTWV. avros ev rois ~~u~ayoperocs 8iqyqcraro' OL 66 Aios GuXa~qv. given by Simplicius. ~ a TO i ~ U X O ~ E Y O Yaurqs avcyEipovaave 61 o. it appears that t h e abovementioned decad of t h e Pythagoreana consists of the inerratic sphere. From this account. however. e. And according to others i t is the throne of Jupiter. that the Pythagoreans asserted that the earth exists as one of the stays. i. thinks we should read ~ ~ v r p o for v avrpov . and in this manner Aristotle understands the assertions of the Pythagoreans. But others denominate it the guardian of Jupiter. Meursius. or pev Z~vos aupyov auro K ~ X O U ~ Y US . the earth a cavern. and exciting whatever i t contains of a frigid nature. the earth. For a little before both Aristotle and Simplicius inform us. in which it is said that the Pythagoreans called the earth a carern. it is necessary for avrpov t o read agrpov. stable basis of the mortal race.EK T0U p ~ a o v o X ~ v T ~ Y YTY T ~ E $ O V G ~ V . 19. nourishing the whole earth from the middle. They called.gorics.

158 T H E M Y S T I C A L HYMNS Eternal. and those perfect natures in the universe which are perpetually moved with undeviating sameness. p. but laughter is a sign of their energy in wholes. But when we make a division into things celestial and sublunary. On which account. accord each just desire. Laughing"5 and blessed. and the latter to the tears of the Gods. 384) must be defined to be their exuberant energy in the universe. And when we reason concerning the generations and corruptions of sublunary natures themselves. "The laughter of the Gods (says Proclus. And gentle health and needful good inspire. and which now rise into existence. Homer very properly calls their laughter unextinguished." He adds. and the communication of all good from the Gods is never failing. in his hymn to the Sun. however. whence a certain poet. we must refer the former t o the laz~ghte~*. those who preside over sacred institutions order both these t o be celebrated a t stated times. in Plat. and then perish . but that they laugh without ceasing. when we divide demiurgic productions into Gods and men. Hence in the mysteries also. but tears to the formation of men and animals. much form'd. For tears are symbols of their providence in mortal and frail concerns. and of lovely mien . Zaughiny. ever florid queen. we attribute laughter to the generation of the Gods. after the same manner. Accept these rites." . But the Gods. do not assert that the Gods always weep. Polit. and the cause of the gladness of all rnun115 dane natures. blossom'd into light. "fables. again. we must assign Zaughfer to the former and tears to the latter. I think. says Mankind's laborious race thy tears excite. But as such a providence is incomprehensible.

Mankind thy genuine brothers justly deem. With fav'ring aspect to my pray'r incline. LXXXV. Thy pleasing gentle chains preserve the soul. Tamer of cares. And e'en the dreadful cares of death control. sustain'd by mother Earth . and Lethe with oblivious stream. SLEEP. For Death. O'er all extended. . 'Tis thine all bodies with benignant mind In other bands than those of brass to bind. And save thy mystics in their works divine. to weary toil repose. And from whom sacred solace in affliction flows. T H E F U M I G A T I O N F R O M A POPPY. and by all things known. king of Gods. and men of mortal birth. Sov'reign of all.OF ORPHEUS. For thy dominion is supreme alone. T O SLEEP.

T O THE DIVINITY OF DREAMS. Angel of future fates. blest pow'r of dreams divine. which all desire. Reveal what rites the Gods immortal please. Sacred and pure. to holy rites inclin'd . T H E FUlCIIGATION F R O M A R O M A T I C S . and whisp'ring to the mind. When stealing soft. Thro' sleep's sweet silence. Great source of oracles to human kind. What methods best may mitigate our woes . And what the means their anger to appease . Whose life thy dreams admonish and defend. Thy pow'r awakes th' intellectual sight . and the gloom of night. And silently reveals their future fates. To silent souls the will of heaven relates. For these with pleasing hope thy dreams inspire : Bliss to anticipate. For ever tranquil is the good man's end. swift wings are thine. . Forever friendly to the upright mind.THE MYSTICAL HYMNS LXXXVI. THEE I invoke. Thy visions manifest of fate disclose.

however. Signs only present to the worthy mind. 116 Hermann's edition of these Orphic Teletai ends with a hymn t o Mars. Nor omens ill disclose of monstrous kind. 0 Death. But from the wicked turn'd averse t o bless. No means to check approaching ill they find.OF ORPHEUS. Pensive with fears. the angel of distress . I. which is found among the hymns ascribed t o Homer . t h a t it was written by any one rather than by Orpheue. Come. . whose presence ends. T O DEATH l16. blessed pow'r. Thy form unseen. whose empire unconfin'd Extends to mortal tribes of ev'ry kind. THE F U M I G A T I O N F R O M MANNA. HEAR me. both he and Ruhnkenius being of opinion that it is more Orphic than Homeric. On thee the portion of our time depends. should say. the signatures reveal Which heav'n's decrees mysteriously conceal. Whose absence lengthens life. LXXXVII. and to the future blind.

liberates the body from the soul . it is truly liberated from the body . For nought escapes thy all-destructive rage. from the predominance of an intellectual nature.I 62 T H E MYSTICAL H Y M N S Thy sleep perpetual bursts the vivid folds By which the soul attracting body holds 117 : Common to all. Nature. or Auxiliaries to the Perception of Intelligibles. But when. as to the immediate cause of its support. in the next sentence. may be loosened from the soul. by the death which is universally known. nature also dissolves : and that which the soul binds. Nature. but the soul binds herself to the body." The meaning of this twofold death is as follows : Though the body. remain connected with body. the soul will continually verge to another body. "That which nature binds. indeed. but the soul liberates herself from the body. of ev'ry sex and age. the soul likewise dissolves. viz. universally known. "7 . os p ' ~ p e O ~ a ~ 9uXoatGos ~ p u e p q seai/3acvep~v. "To restrain the impetuous force of anger. therefore. For can it for a moment be supposed that Orpheus would pray that he might be able Bvpov r'au pevos ofv KariaXEpcv. indeed. bound the body to the soul . in which the body is liberated from the soul . Nor does the one entirely follow the other. the one. the soul is separated from material affections. but the other peculiar to philosophers." And again. yet while material passions and affections reside in the soul. in which the soul is liberated f rotn the body. though the body at the same time verges and clings to the soul. and as long as this inclination continues. Hence there is a twofold death . which excites him to engage in horrid war ! " What is said in this and the preceding line is well explained by Porphyry in his excellent treatise entitled At$oppai apos r a voyTa.

Not youth itself thy clemency can gain. No suppliant arts thy dreadful rage control. In thee the end of nature's works is known.O F ORPHEUS. And human life to age abundant spare. No vows revoke the purpose of thy soul. by thee untimely slain. 0 blessed pow'r. . Vig'rous and strong. In thee all judgment is absolv'd alone. regard my ardent pray'r.

.

the father of those who genuinely preserve the proper form of life. with which the preceding hymns are replete. as I could not have done otherwise without omitting some part of them. The following translation. which. and which is so very rare that it is not to be found either in the Bodleian Library or the British Museum. and which has been recently published with very valuable critical notes by the most learned Professor Boissonade. in any of the public libraries of Great Britain. They form the greater part of the Scholia of Proclus on the Cratylus of Plato. was made by me many years ago from a manuscript of this work. however. but is. as having . Such therefore. on account of their great importance. Heber. JUPITERis not said to be. I have given the translation of these Scholia in the order in which they occur in the original. I was unwilling to do.ADDITIONAL NOTES. but of those who are never a t any time able to convert themselves to a divine nature. nor. I believe. which is a copy of an original in the possession of Mr. THE following Additional Notes are given for the purpose of elucidating the Orphic theology. such as Hercules and the Dioscuri . he never is nor is said to be the father. a work inestimably valuable to the student of the Grecian theology.

for there the first fathers of wholes subsist. But this order proceeds through the three Nights.166 A D D I T I O N A L NOTES. Phanes Protogonus. . therefore. where it first separates itself from the fathers. who are superior t o the one fabrication are called Gods of Gods. Prior. intelligible intellect. therefore. according to Orpheus. and of souls that embrace an intellectual and Jovian life. and unfolds every demiurgic genus of the Gods from all the abovementioned ruling and royal causes. thus calls the realms of generation. however. the leader of the Titannic orders. the divinities who compoae the middle of that order of Gods which is denominated intelligible and a t the same time intellectual. The paternal cause originates supernally from the intelligible and occult Gods . in the Politicus. The fathers. This king. the extremity of the intelligibIe order. the whole of a visible nature. The intellectua'l order of the gods. as of Hercules. is triply father. and changes the kingdom of the Synoches for a distributive government of wholes. is supernally bounded by the king2 of the total divine genera. to other fabricators ( b ~ p t o v p y o r it ) unfolds Jupiter. Jupiter is said to be peculiarly the father of some. Farther still. e. of gods. but i t proceeds through all the intellectual Gods into the demiurgic order. partial souls. Jupiter. but proximately from Saturn. who immutably preserve a Jovian and ruling life during their converse with the realms of generation. is called by the blessed immortals that dwell on lofty Olympus. and the celestial orders. into the Titanic or Saturnian series. been partakers of a certain energy above human nature.since he calls Jupiter t h e demiurgus and father. however. 3 That is. have again fallen into the sea of dissimilitude1. and who has a paternal transcendency with respect to all the intellectual Gods. 2 That is. who is allotted the unical strength of the whole demiurgic 1 Plato. -of these Jupiter is said to be the father. F o r Timzus celebrates this order as a t the same time fabricatice and paternal . i. but the demiurgus is the father of Gods and men. and for honour among men have embraced error towards the Gods.

4. and who produces and gives s~tbsistencet o all nnapparent and apparent natures. but he produces the species and the genera of beings into the order of sensibles. ~ L ~ K P L V O V TOLS ~ L ~ ~ U ~ T L ~ VK T W EXovTa S rrpo~epov'aeLpas 6' e $ ~ ~ a 3 v e~ oa v rep&ohov TOV U O U ~ O VE L S (XUTOV avqprqpevas.a Y O P 7 l V 8€ ~c~h€CTaal. and who are suspended from him. G ~ ~ I . And he is indeed intellectual. as leader and king. H e also says that all the multitude of mundane Gods is collected about him. Hence Orpheus 4 represents him fabricating every celestial race. 167 series. T ~ 5 Iliad. according to the order in which he ranks. making the sun and moon and the other starry Gods. apa ?ravrT q o r ~ ~ a a ~~Xeuaa oa Atos r p o s 6wpa vscdat. I give the original for the sake of the learned reader. e. following Orpheus. U C T C KEXEVCE I ~ E O U S . He is likewise filled with the Gods above himself. but imparts from himself a progression into being t o all mundane natures. rous ahhous aFpyous %SOUS. together with the sublunary elements. and 4 As what is here said from Orphelis concerning Jupiter is very remarkable.A D D I T I O N A L NOTES. " B u t Jupiter orders Themis to call the Gods to council . xx. KaL rlh~ov ToLouvra KaL u r h q v r ) ~Kab . and is no where else t o be found. abides in and is perfected by him. 78. celebrates him as the common father of Gods and men. H e likewise represents him presiding over the Gods who are distributed about the whole world. and diversifying the latter with forms which before had a disordered subsistence. . 8~ ~ E / .~coupyouvra pev aurov r q v oupavLav rrauav yeveav 1rapa8~6ocrc. For all the mundane Gods are coriverted t o Jupiter through Themis. KaL 6 ~ a 0 e u p o 0 e ~ o u v Tau6 ~ a T O L S eyKocr~ O L ~ C O L ~Sa r a ' t ~ a G~avopas v r q s ev r y r r a v r ~ rrpovobas. and she directing her course every where commands them to go to the house of Jupiter 5. {€US i. and as the supreme of rulers. $LO KaL Op+rus 6qp~. O U ~ Y O V V T$6 C CTU U S T O U E ~ ~ V ~ O ~ V L X E L KCLL ~ ." All of them therefore are excited according to the one will of Jupiter. Homer too. and in the character of a legislator assigning distributions of proviclence in the universe according to desert to all the mundane Gods.

7 Ibid. e. And though Juno speaks to him as one who is of the same order. who governs the infernal realms :" Yet Jupiter is called father by both these divinities . TPlTaTOS 8' A'tal]~ EVEPOlQlV UV(LQQWV '.UEV U ~ E X ~ E Oous I . abiding after his accustomed manner . iv. and excites them to providential energies about secondary natures. is prior to the Saturnian 6 8 See the 14th line. ZEUS Kal EYW. " Thus spoke Saturnian Jupiter. and this because he comprehends in himself the one and impartible cause of all fabrication . Iliad." Jupiter however is separate and exempt from all mundane natures . "For I also am a divinity. e. 58. and excited inevitable war.168 ADDITIONAL NOTES. K a L yap €yo Beos E L ~ LYEYOS * 8e POL € Y ~ E YO ~ E V UOL. whence also the most total and leading of the other Gods. as Timreus says. ~ T L S i. TEKE P E ~ V . of inflected council. i. and the third is Pluto. according to two coordinations. endowed me with the greatest dignity. the poet says. he a t the same time. Jupiter and I." And though Neptune says. 187. whom Rhea bore. For both Neptune and Juno celebrate him by this appellation. though they appear to have in a certain respect equal authority with Jupiter. . when he begot me. within J u p i t e ~ as . rpets' yap T'EK KPOVOU EL. and Saturn. i. through a progression from the same causes. " For we are three brothers from Saturn. KUL p e xpea/3urarvv TEKETO K ~ O Y O S~ ~ K U X O ~ 8. e. Jupiter too again sephates them within himself. become 810s evdou 6. xv. 9 Iliad. 32. yet call hitn father.

that he is the demiurgus and father of the universe. he is not an intellect consubsistent with soul. and with life. gives subsistence to souls. he also. For he it is who produces mundane intellects and souls. so that the Jupiter who ranks at the summit of this triad is different from and inferior to the demiurgus. 169 triad lo. at the same time that this goddess gives animation to the universe. who adorns all bodies with figures and numbers. advises Jupiter to employ things of this kind in the fabrication of the universe. together with other Gods. e. and that he fills all things both with other goods. that he is a n all-perfect imparticipablell intellect. in Orpheus. Hence. vie. For Night also. "For my will (says Jupiter in the Timaeus) is a greater and more principal bond. and which immediately subsists after the intellectual order . and the indissoluble union from life. Very properly therefore do we say that the demiurgus in the Timgeus is the mighty Jupiter. i. and comprehends on all sides the vivification of Juno. let us survey how from names Socrates unfolds the mystic truth concerning this divinity.The proximate bond indeed of mundane natures is that which subsists through analogy . Timzus then says that it is difficult to know the essence of the 10 For the Saturnian triad belongs to that order of Gods which is called supermundane. and an indissoluble friendship and bond.ADDITIONAL NOTES. &c. For he says. and inserts in them one union. a bond. 11 That is. but the more perfect bond is derived from intellect and soul." Firmly adhering therefore t o this conception respecting the mighty Jupiter. connectedly contains the three fathers . Hence Timzus calls the communion of the elements through analogy. But a more venerable bond than these subsists from the dttmiurgic will. But when your power arouud the whole has spread A strong coercive bond. . animals were generated bound with animated bonds.

containing intelligibles in intellect. . . For the demiurgus comprehends in himself unitedly every thing p. the impartible. and that which subsists between these . H e is also the ruler and king of all things : and is exempt from the three demiurgi. So far likewise as Jupiter receives the whole of Saturn. and calls forth intelligible causes. and that which is characterized by unity in this energy. which manifests his power and energy.1'70 A D D I T I O N A L NOTES. For Parmenides characterizes him by sameness and difference. The former too is a symbol of the Saturnian and paternal series . in a multiplied manner : and this especially takes place about the demiurgus who expands intellectual forms. and evolves them to the fabrication of the universe. he gives subsistence to a triple essence. According to Homer.roli$c 12. Again. of which 6ia manifests the cause th~ough which. considered as a divine form or idea. but introducing sense to the worlds. as Socrates says in the 1% And the duad. and the most mystic tradition and the oracles of the Gods say that the duad is seated with him. he scatters as from a fountain. in short. and corporeal life. he gives a formal subsistence to these. intellectual." These oracles likewise call him twice beyond. the partible. the first causes of which in the universe the demiurgus unica-lly comprehends. psychical. For thus they speak: " H e possesses both . and separates them from forms of a prior order. But by his demiurgic powers and energies. they celebrate him through the duad. but h v a signifies vivijication. and from each other. but the latter of the vivific and maternal Rhea. but according to the Rhea which he contains in himself. demiurgus. is the source of fecundity. and Socrates now says that it is not easy t o understand his name. and which gives subsistence to mundane natures. and twice theye (&s E T E K E ~ V U K a i Fis e ~ ~ i )And. two tubs are placed near him . and this is paternal goodness . our soul knows partibly the impartible nature of the energy of the Gods. For they. Very properly therefore is his name twofold.

For he gives establishes the i~~tellectual subsistence to twofold orders. as being coordinated with . . the second defensive. in the same manner as the causes of mortal offspring. that his sceptre consists of four and twenty measures. and supernally perfect the productions and 13 i. or that they expose their progeny to the view. Mars . or that they sustain a division of their proper essence in giving subsistence to things subordinate . must we suppose that they generate with motion or mutation. and that this is adapted to him who duad in himself. Vesta. divide the kingdom of their father. as Plato says in the Phaedrus and Laws.ADDITIONA4L NOTES. they produce by their very essence posterior natures. Diana. and who are divided into four triads. and comprehending the uniform cause of it. and that which is divisible about bodies. Vulcan . and the twelve mundane Gods. but Jupiter the demiurgus a t once. The twelve Gods who first subsist in the tiberated or supercelestial order. and of all fabrication . No one however should think that the Gods in their generations of secondary natures are diminished . the soul of the world gives life to altermotive natures. Apollo. e. intellectual. The first of these triads is fabricative. evinces that images receive partibly the unical causes of paradigms. without division. 171 Gorgias. comprehend on all sides their progeny. externally to themselves. but a ~ u l e r as above the demiurgic triad. Neptune. as is shown by Proclus in the sixth book of his Theology. But the demiurgus simply imparts to all things life divine. Plato therefore. by considering his name in two ways. but that abiding in themselves. whence also the theologist Orpheus says. and Mercury. And he is a king indeed. and the fourth anagogic or elevating. Minerva. reigns over the three. for to these it becomes the fountain and principle of motion. but he connectedly contains the three demiurgi. and unically governs them. Nor in short. the celestial and the supercelestial . Juno. psychical. Jupiter. Ceres. Farther still. Venus. He is therefore the cause of the paternal triad. as ruling over s twofold twelve l3. being proximately established the fathers . the third vivific.

as unfolding into light that which is occult. and an empire which proceeds every where instead of that which stably abides in itself. Why does Socrates apprehend the name of king Saturn insolent. when it is said that Gods are the sons of more total Gods. for they thus denominate immoderation and repletion . For there is nothing irrational and without measure in the natures superior to us. must i t be supposed that they are disjoined from more ancient causes. ov. But we must conceive that their progressions are effected through similitude . but converts the multitude of them to union . and multiplies its intellectual powers. and dividing that which is impartible in the Saturnian monad . and they say that Satiety brought forth hsolence (vpptv $acrtv TLKTEL KOPOS). expanding that which is contracted. that according to the poets satiety ( ~ o p o s )is the cause of insolence. a demiurgic instead of a paternal dominion. and as emitting a second more partial kingdom. Nor again. is very properly said to be the son of Saturn. and being filled from him with total intellectual good. both in hymns and in invocations. being the demiurgic intellect. and that there is one communion of essence. all those Gods that rank in the second order being established in such as are more ancient . and looking to what does he to be v ~ p i u ~ ~ ~ assert this? We reply.172 ADDITIONAL NOTES. and efficacious production to the subordinate. Jupiter theref ore proximately establishing a communion with this divinity. And after this manner we must understand that Jupiter is said t o be the son of Saturn. For Jupiter. between the sons of Gods and their fathers . and an indivisible continuity of powers and energies. H e there- . and are cut off from a union with them : or that they receive the peculiarity of their hyparxis through motion. and an indefiniteness converting itself to bound. instead of that which is more total. superior and more uniform. vigour. but elevates their all-various evolutions t o impartible sameness. and the more ancient imparting much of perfection. which increases indeed its proper intellections. energies of their offspring. proceeds from another intellect.

appears according to the fabulous pretext. the illustrious Ericapeus. Saturn being allotted the fourth royal order. and whom on this account they call Phanes. after which. which are superior to the possession of sovereign dominion. Jupiter. to have received the sceptre insolently from Heaven. the oracles given to him by Night manifestly call him not the first. Night succeeded Ericapeus.A D D I T I O N A L NOTES. "Ancient theologists (says Syrianus. is the one or the good. and prior to these the mighty father of Night and Heaven. with respect to Jupiter. that principle which is most emiuently the first. Chaos transcends the habitude of sovereign dominion : and. For t o him who suddenly hears it. beginning with Phanes and ending in Bacchus. do we not pass it over in silence. Bacchus. and to have given it to Jupiter ? For Night receives the sceptre from Phanes . I n the next place succeed the first and occult genera of the Gods. Heaven. 173 fore who looks without attention to the name of Saturn will consider it as signifying insolence. who first reigned over the Gods after mother Night. According to these theologists therefore. who distributed the world to Gods and mortals. in the hands of whom she has a sceptre : To Night Heaven succeeded. Why therefore." . Saturn. Night. differently from the other kings. and who first possessed royal authority. it manifests satiety and repletion. according to Pythagoras. but the fifth immortal king of the Gods. are those two principles B t h e r and Chaos. and producing the same sceptre supernally as far as to the last kingdom. since a name of this kind is expressive of insolence. as not being auspicious and adapted to the Gods? May we not say that the royal series l4 of the Gods. in his Commentary on t h e fourteenth book of Aristotle's Metaphysics) assert that Night and Heaven reigned. 14 This royal series consists of Phanes. in which first shines forth the father and king of all wholes.

is called intellect. that from this he mighb evince the name is adapted t o the God. and concedes dominion to Jupiter. and according to the power of cause. and the apparent absurdity which they contain to scientific conceptions. " Hear me. but parts. I place over you a king. Whether therefore you are willing to speak of intelligible and occnlt . For the father (Jupiter) establishes him in the royal throne. the dianoetic part of the soul ? May we not say. and the evolution of forms which he contains . the orders of intelligibles. that it is because he looks to the multitude of intellectual conceptions in him. according to which he fabricates not only wholes. and that it'bears an image of the insolence which is ascribed t o him in fables. When Saturn. as the fable says. The g ~ e a t when . who is the last king of the Gods. dianoetically energizing: and this in consequence of looking to his partible and divided intellections.174 A D D I T I O N A L NOTES. puts into his hand the sceptre. Heaven derives from Night the dominion over wholes . Plato therefore seeing this succession. But Saturn alone perfectly deprives Heaven of the kingdom. receives the kingdom from Jupiter. ye Gods. i t worth while to mention the appearance of insolence in the name. however. cutting and being cut off." says Jupiter to the junior Gods. and making the world. which in Saturn is called by theologists insolent ( u ~ p t a r r ~ thought ~). must not be considered as belonging to interval. he represents the demiurgic intellect as reasoning. since also in the Timaeus. but not according to partible transcendency. but s s subsisting intellectually. Jupiter has the order of the dianoetic part : and when again. we must say that he is so called according t o analogy with reference t o a certain other intellect of a higher order. Saturn is called the dianoetic part. and makes him the king of all the mundane Gods. A t the same time he teaches us t o refer mythical devices to the truth concerning the Gods. and Bacchus. But why does Plato now call Saturn Giavoia. ascribed to the Gods.

and the source of all-various separation and diversifying power. and to be the satiety of a divine intellect. of which the first asserting this God to be the plenitude of intellectual good. But the third. rchea~oupyoc 6e V G V S 7 vrr'ovpavbos a$cs. immaterial and separate. of power proceeding to the most partial natures. Saturn w i l l be as the dianoetic part to all these. or of t h a t which imparts perfection16 ( r e X ~ a i o v p y o s vovs).A D D I T I O N A L NOTES. e ~ $ a v r o p i ~ o vovs s o Oupavos. Socrates therefore n o w indicates both these interpretations. is approved. vovs V O ~ T O S o Gavqs. is ejected as insolent. but the term a certain. is in like manner rejected. U V Y E K T L K O S vous rl yq. and the fourth the Subcelestial Arch. because the division and separation of wholes into parts receives its beginning from the Titans. The second also. and an undeviating life. Whence also he is said to be the leader of the Titannic race. and fills himself wholly with excited intelligibles. H e likewise converts his progeny. And perhaps Plato here primarily delivers twofold interpretations of the name of the Titans. For the term great is a symbol of power pervading to all things . and the supplier of all intellectual life . . which is celebrated in the P h ~ d r u sviz. For the one interprets this name from the Titans extending their powers t o all things. the second Heaven. The name Saturn is now triply analysed. or of that which connectedly contains ( a u v s ~ ~ i ~ o s vavs). and after producing them 15 Of these intellects the first is Phanen. from its conveying an image of the satiety and repletion which are reprobated by the many. which Iamblicus and Amelius afterwards adopted. and as the leader of undefiled intelligence. which exhibits the imperfect and the puerile. and converted to himself. or of that which unfolds into light ( E K # ~ Y T O ~ I K O S vous). by asserting of the king of the Titans that he is a certain great dianoetic power. but the other from something inseetile (rapa T O r c aropov). For he produces united intellection into multitude. but he is an intelligible exempt from coordination with sensibles. the third Earth. which celebrates this God as full of purity. 175 intellect. . For king Saturn is intellect.

For the demiurgus of the universe. " The intellect of the father riding on attenuated rulers. and provides for subordinate natures. being himself an intellect subsisting about an immaterial intellect. the impartible. into ths apparent. And it appears to me. and Proserpine. indeed.176 A D D I T I O N A L NOTES. give subsistence to all the progressions of the Curetes. and the undefiled which he possesses. For the not corning into contact with matter. For all these. and are conjoined with them through intellections. yet he orderly arranges sensibles." says the hymn t o them. are signified by purity. and t o ride on all the others. and producing that which is occult in it. Jupiter. He contains. like Rhea. that he does not require a Curetic guard. and an exemption from habitude. Purity. through their progressions into secondary natures. with reference to all the intellectual Gods. For all the intellectual adhere to the intelligible genus of Gods. indicates this impartible and imparticipable transcendency of Saturn. as with reference t o the intelligible genus of Gods. the cause of these uniformly in himself. though he is a divine intellect. But Saturn being firmly established in himself. For the maker of the world is an intellect of intellect. energizing about i t as the intelligible. " For the fire which is beyond the first (says the Chaldean Oracle) does not incline its power downwards. and which transcend wholes. he is said to comprehend the first fountain of the Amilicti. that as Saturn is the summit of those Gods that are properly called intellectual. however. But Saturn is intelligible. into light again embosoms and firmly establishes them in himself. is established above the guardianship of the Curetes. and such his undefiled union with the intelligible. and hastily withdrawing himself from all subordinate natures. Hence. he is intellect. therefore. . For this purity. in the Oracles. Such. But the mighty Saturn is essentialized in separate intellections." 13ut the demiurgus is suspended and proceeds from Saturn. " Y e who understand the supermundane paternal profundity. require the immutable defence of the Curetes. is the transcendency of this God with respect to all coordination with things subordinate.

and as establishing himself in the paternal silence. e. Hence he is ~opovovs." For he conrolves all the hebdomad of the fountains16. H ~ tcparaiov E ?rucv. from his unical and intelligible summit. uniform. or it is moved. together with the environed flower of fire. as with reference to the intellectual Gods. AVTOV yap E K ~ P W C K O V ~ ~~ ~€ V l h 1 T~ € K€paVUOl. "From him leap forth the implacable thunders. 177 they become refulgent with the furrows of inflexible and implacable fire. or i t is both. every intellect either abides. and is then intellectual .ua ?roXwv ~ u p i w r ETEKELV~. The first of these is Phanes . and intelligible. Again. and the strong spirit which is beyond the fiery poles. and as being the leader of the whole intellectual series. as giving subsistence to the undefiled order. and is then intelligible. M . and at the same time intellectual. the three Curetes. Jupiter. as an immaterial and pure intellect. ~01 Kai ? r p q ~ r ~ p o 8 o ~oX?roi ~ o i aap$eyytos ~ X K V S * IIarpoy~vovsE ~ a r ~Ks ~ ." NOVSsarpoy ~ ~ U L OEL TO PX O V P E Y O S L ~ V Y T ~ P G I Y A~vap?r~o aurpanrovacv v ~~ELX~KT nvpos OV O~KOLI. Saturn. and the prester-capacious bosoms of the all-splendid strength of the father-begotten Hecate. vLn e f i ~ o r su p o s aveos. For he is. as being better than motion . a p i u r ~ h h ~ ~ r o s . He is therefore pure intellect. and connectedly contains all the fountains. converting and uniting all of them to himself. and gives subsistence to it.A D D I T I O N A L NOTES. which consists of Saturn. i. therefore. is a father. uncut into fragments. as the Oracles say. 16 That is of the whole intellectual order. Rhea. He is also celebrated as the father of fathers. and undistributed. and is then intelligible. and being separate from all things with immaculate purity. and the separating monad Ocean.

from his impartible. however. the second. but united t o the first intelligibles . in which he is also firmly established . and the third. to other orders of the Gods . is an intellect understanding himself indeed. and the intelligible and a t the same time intellectual such as are intellectual only. Saturn. the father of Saturn. This God too is connectire. which is both moved and permanent. however. Plato delivers t o us the production of all secondary natures by Heaven. He is. but others both abide and proceed. and causes the sympathy and connection of the whole world to be one. a8nd hebdomads equal in number to the monads. and shows us how this divinity leads upwards .178 ADDITIONAL NOTES. For each of them compresses and connects all the multitude which i t contains. which he retains in himself . For connecting precede separating causes . and triads. just as Orpheus calls the first cause Time (~povos)nearly homonymously with Saturn (~povos). only analogous to this cause. unical. by abiding in intelligible union. and on this account he is father. For he produces twofold monads. For connection is second to unifying power. But this deity is denominated according to the similitude of the apparent Heaven. and are separated from their father. which is alone moved. paternal. therefore. the once is allied to the one. Heaven. is Heaven. These things. is Saturn . and connectedly contains all the intellectual orders. and proceeds from it. just as Saturn is of a separating peculiarity . and beneficent subsistence in the intellectual orders. he gives subsistence to those divine orders which proceed into the universe. And after all these. which he is said to have concealed after they were unfolded into lightr. calling him once beyond (aaaE ~ r r e ~ e ~ v aFor ). some of which abide only in him. according to one union gives subsistence to the Titannic series. I n the Phedrus. and prior to this. But the Oracles of the Gods characterize this deity by the epithet of t 7 ~ eonce (T~J a a a t ) . will be investigated more fully elsewhere. Whence also Heaven being the Synocheys ( a v v o ~ e v s ) of wholes. has been considered by some as the same with the one cause of all things.

since all things are there united. What then are the things on high which it beholds? I s it not evident that they are the supercelestial place. and all the intelligible extent ? An extent comprehending. an essence without colour. those who discowme on sublime afairs. and which are arranged nearer to the one. and this according t o the highest union and separation. t o which looking it is intellectual . therefore. He likewise teaches us what its summit is. With respect to the term p~rewpohoyor. without figure. the one cause of all eternal natures. and by Phanes downwards. who live intellectually. investigating the truth of things from names. and all the intellectual series . bounded by aether upwards. what the profundity of ita whole order. For if it sees things on high. And he who energizes there. Heaven. just as it is intelligible to the natures which proceed from it. as Plato would say. in short. and without the touch. and who do not gravitate to earth. but sublimely tend to a theoretic life. and what the boundary of the whole of its progression. He also clearly appears here to consider the order of Heaven as intelligible and at the same time intellectual. but. we must now consider it in a manner adapted to those who choose a n anagogic life. For that which is called Earth there maternally gives subsistence to such things as Heaven. For all between these two gives completion to the intelligible order. therefore. Here. . and there is prior to it the intelligible genus of Gods. which is coordinate t o that Earth. he declares its energy with respect to things more elevated and simple. is expanded above the Saturnian orders. or one who discourses about things o n high.ADDITIONAL NOTES. produces paternally. intelligible animals. as the followers of Orpheus would say. the perfective and defensive orders : and. e. and a t the same time each is separated peculiarly . being of a connective nature. But Plato now calls this both singularly and plurally . may be properly called ~~rcwpoXoyos.i. 179 and convolves dl things to the intelligible. and the occult principles of these . aud prior to this. i t energizes intellectually. and produces from himself all the Titannic race .

for instance. Gvvapers o {evs. and for his life. therefore." Saturn also imparts to Jupiter the principles of fabrication and of providential attention to sensibles. now celebrates Heaven for another more perfect energy. but as Orpheus 17 says with a divinely inspired month. o conversion alone to himself in Saturn. is the leader of every good to the intellectual Gods. therefore. Let no one however think. and is filled with the goods which are thence derived. that there is providence alone in Jupiter. and is 17 ws 6' TOV yLveraL Opc#wzvs e v e e uropar~ ~ Xeyei. since. ouarrcp . Saturn is replete not only with the intelligibles coordinated with him. but also with the highest and occult intellections. as. as Plato says in the Timaeus. embosoms all his powers. Heaven himself also fills all secondary natures with his proper goods. and an elevation alone to the intelligible in Hea. and understanding himself. Bor to be conjoined to more elevated natures is a greater good than t o be converted to oneself. and the father supernally committed t o him the connecting and guarding the causes of eternal animal. For Jupiter no otherwise provides for mundane natures than by looking to the intelligible .ven. he becomes united to first intelligibles. Kac navra voepws. KaL ~ ~ K O X T L < E Tragas ~L avrov ras qv CKCLVOS V O ~ T W S . but guards all things by his own most vigorous powers. which is converted t o his own exalted place of survey. KaL K ~ T ~ T T T L TOV V ~ L T~OYOVOV a u ~ o u +aq~a. Hence also the theologist (Orpheus) says "that he was nursed by Night 18.180 ADDITIONAL NOTES. intellect understanding ideas in animal itself. the intelligible is nutriment. which is without habitude to mundane natures . that on this account the abovementioned energies are distributed in the Gods . thought it requisite that as many and such as it there perceived should be contained in the universe . Plato." If. " Jupiter swallows his progenitor Phanes. But he intellectually perceives himself. having celebrated Saturn for his intelligence. and becomes all things intellectually which Phanes is intelligibly.

according t o intellectual circulation. from which also he receives his appellation. by abiding in the one prior to it.ADDITIONAL NOTES. and that on this account they require connective causes . For there is no fear that the Gods will be dissipated.sand Heaven by habitude to things more excellent . For the connective is signified through bounding the intellectual Gods . viz. and by being established in the summit of intelligible~ . For his giving subsistence to a pure and the Saturnian intellect represents his energy on the other part. and convertive. The power which guards wholes subsists through the termination and security of an intellectual essence. Por as that which is moved in a circle is moved about its own centre. such as the connective. and each possessing all energies. But all these are adapted to Heaven. one transcends more in this. And i t appears to xne that Heaven possesses this peculiarity according to analogy to the intelligible eternity and the intelligible wholeness. so Heaven energizes about its own intelligible. For this is to behold things on high. through convertive energy. 181 converted to the jntelligibles which he contains . to be converted to them. seeing. but Saturn by a conversion to himself. and each is particularly characterized according to that in which it transcends. and intellectually energizing natures. For Timeus particularly characterizes eternity by this. Plato in the Phsdrus calls circulation. But as there are many powers in Heaven. a y ~ v A o p ~ r r . and Socrates says that Heaven surveys things on . and another in a different energy. and that on this account they stand in need of the saving aid of guardian causes. since the connective bounds the multitude which he contains. and hence his name is now thus analyzed. Thus Jupiter is characterized by providence. But all the Gods subsisting in all. whence also he is injEected counsel. guardian. to things on high. or that they will sustain mutation. and through this t o be connected and defended. but now Socrates a t once manifests all the powers of Heaven. And the convertive power subsists through converting. you will find that this name is appropriately adapted to all these. and this his intelligence.

but as a pure intellect he is exempt from a fabricative energy ~roceedinginto matter. and on this account Socrates says.ness. Parmenides signifies each of these orders through whole. Saturn alone appears to have received the government from his fakher. therefore. For that of eternity is intelligible. (~al OCTU T 7 J ~ E O ~ P E ~ / ~ O QLYg Y L X E P L € L ~ ~ T T (TbJY LL AUTEPWY). As. For so far as he is a Titan. and Jupiter of the demiurgic order. the one through intelligible. and connects all things posterior to itself. but so far as he does not give himself to material fabrication. the supercelcstial place. it is said by the circulation of itself. he is cut off from the demiurgus Jupiter. that it sees things on high. separates his kingdom from that of Heaven . neither being able to speak . Hence also the demiurgic genus is again separated from him. of which Socrates here makes mention. As there are three fathers and kings. celebrate it as unknown. Mythologists therefore celebrate the sections of Heaven and Saturn. to lead all things to the supercelestial place. Section therefore is on both sides of him. and such things as are comprehended in the god-nourished silenco of the fathers. But the cause of this is. by violence. some characterize i t by ineffable symbols . in like manner both Timaeus and Socrates characterize them by a conversion t o more excellent natures. that Heaven is of the connective. guards. Saturn of the Titannic. but only that i t stably abides. progressions and multiplications of powers. high. on which account Timzeus does not say that it looks t o its intelligible. and to have transmitted it to Jupiter. after giving it a name. but others. to the supercelestial place to which Heaven extends his intellectual life. But the conversion as well as the wholeness is different. Again. the Titannic genus rejoices in separations and differences.182 ADDITIONAL NOTES. Saturn. and t h e other through intellectual wholeness . But the conversion of Heaven is intellectual. viz. Whence also in the Phzdrus. he is cut off from the connective causes. however. and through this converts. and the summit of the first intelligibles. therefore. as a dividing God. With respect.

if they could be named. But the natures which are beyond this. That is Phanes. is the cause of our inability to give them a name . intelligible intellect. both from our gnostic and recollective life. that is denominated : and theurgy ascends as far as to this order. his memory. therefore. or in the language of Plato animal itself. For we are alone naturally adapted to be conjoined to them. Socrates very properly restrains the diacourse about them. these natures being ineffable and incomprehensible. and. 19 avro<wov. known. would not remotely signify them. in short. For in the P h ~ d r u s supercelestial place. which assert that there are certain more ancient causes beyond Heaven. because the first of beings cannot become known by the exercise of memory and through phantasy. and apprehended by knowledge. And proceeding somewhat higher than this. they have been able to manifest the boundary lg of the intelligible Gods by name alone. Socrates therefore says. But he says this. Theologists. and through these we receive the sensation of their u~iknownnature. nor as not thinking it worth while to menhe himself celebrates the tion them. and a t the same time unknown. Since that God who closes the paternal order is said by the wise to be the only deity among the intelligible Gods. or the dianoetic part. of their hyparxis or power. . with the flower of intellect and the hyparxis of our essence . and through the analogy of things apparent to them. Since. the natures prior to Heaven are allotted such a transcendency of uniform subsistence that some of them are said to be effable. 183 of its form or figure. for they are not naturally adapted to be known through names.ADDITIONAL NOTES. that what in them is exempt. and a t the same time ineffable. they signify through analogy alone. therefore. not as disbelieving in the fables. because it requires a certain wonderful employment to separate the effable and ineffable. or opinion. likewise. in consequence of names not being able to represent their hyparxis . through their alliance to the one. H e accuses.

and manifests every thing prior to Heaven by names." For it is perfectly impossible that it could be produced without s cause . H e is silent indeed with respect to both the fathers21of intelligibles. appears to have ascended as far as to the Goddess Night. who i~ the demiurgus. or because. that he may indicate the order of true beings. as far as to the first cause. and Mars . . and the transcendency of the more total to the more partial . is evident from the verse. But he does not introduce Saturn as either energizing or saying anything but as truly ayKuX o ~ q n s in . Orpheus greatly availed himself of the license of fables. Neptune. however. and does not in short name the first. Homerg0 does not ascend beyond the Saturnian order. but he does not say what that is which gave subsistence to Chaos. " Chaos of all things was the first produced. for they are perfectly ineffable.184 A D D I T I O N A L NOTES. H e also denominates the ineffable. that a subsistence according t o Time may be the same with a subsistence according to cause . the son of Saturn. But Hesiod venerates many of the divine natures in silence. in the same manner as generation with an arranged progression. as delivering the generation of true beings. consequence of being converted t o himself. 21 That is to say. H e also calls the divinities coordinate with him Juno. Time . and the coordinate . he thus denominates the ineffable. he calls Jupiter. and bound which is called by Orpheus cether. who transcends the intelligible unities. and he denominates Jupiter the father of men and Gods. And with 20 Homer. the exempt. the &-st cause. but evincing that Saturn is the proximate cause of the demiurgus. For that what is posterior to the first proceeds from something else. or the summit of the intelligible and at the same time intellectual order. whether because Time presubsists as the cause of all generation.

she is Ceres: for here the things begotten are similar to the begetters. and unworthy the dianoetic conceptions of Plato. for passing by the natures prior to Heaven. And on this account Plato now thinks Hesiod deserves to be mentioned. Socrates very properly assimilates fontal and Saturnian deities to streams . For on high she is Rhea. according t o the image of rivers. Ceres. we ought to receive with caution what is now said concerning effiuxions and motions. the natures which are coordinate with the one. For this also is indicated concerning them by the Oracles. he passes by in silence. through appropriate images. but below. and are nearly the same. and according to those which subsist between. that they are in a perpetual flux. he unfolds through genealogy. for they are eternally stable themselves. and in a certain respect is not the same. after the fontal deities. But since it is lawful to interpret things divine analogously. who eternally devolve streams of good." And Socrates himself. in the Phsdrus. in so doing jesting and a t the same time acting seriously. as being ineffable. Vesta .A D D I T I O N A L NOTES. J u n o . but according to those which are subordinate. it is false to assert of intellectual and divine natures. respect to the two coordinations. i n which nearly the whole business i s ineffable and unknown. calls the intellectual perception of them pvqcis and e r o m E ( a . in conjunction with Jupiter. according to things which are more excellent in the coordination. and are the sources of stability to other things. . Hence. to things below. the deities who subsist as principles are 22 That ie to say. Again. For Socrates does not descend to the material flowing of Heraclitus . But according to Orpheus. " they possess mystic silence. The theology of Hesiod from the monad Rhea produces. for this is false %. Ceres is in a certain respect the same with the whole of vivification. because good is always derived as it were in streams from on high. which likewise add. but those alone which are coordinate with the indefinite duad.

. and causing them to have a never failing subsistence. middle. is so called from causing a perpetual influx of good. and 23 Gesner. from which all life. Pei~ TOL vocpwv paKapwv aqyq re. of whom the great Saturn is the father. perfecting their powers. to energies acc~mmoda~ted natures . and through being the cause of divine facility. and to all never failing powers. and last orders . For first receiving the powers of all things in her ineffable bosoms. But those divinities who are peculiarly denominated total intellectual Gods. She likewise moves all things according to the measures of divine motions. "Rhea23 is the fountain and river of the blessed intellectual Gods. divine. and converts then1 to herself ." For this divinity gives subsistence to the infinite diffusion of all life. as being coordinate to Saturn. but moving all to their things from himself. since the life of the gods is attended with ease (Be01 peia 3ir)vr~s). and mundane is generated." says the Oracle concerning Saturn. But Tethys imparts permanency to t h e natures which are moved by Ocean. yevcqv enc Tau apoxeci rpoxaouaav. Rhea. 7~pov i. intellectual. through swiftness of intellect. has inserted these lines among the Orphic fragments. and to his proper principles.e. For after the fountain of a river the place where iD hegins to flow is surveyed. in his edition of the works of Orpheus. IIavrwv yap ~ p w r v Gvvapeis ~ o X r r o i a i va$paarois AeEapevq. psychical. therefore.186 ADDITIONAL NOTES* celebrated. But concerning the vivific fountain Rhea. are properly called fontal. and bounds the separations of the first. establishing all things in herself. Ocean is the cause t o all the Gods of acute and vigorous energy. For "from him leap forth the implacable thunders. the Chaldaan Oracles thus speak. she pours running generation into every thing. converting himself to himself. misled by Patricius.

celebrates their sublunary orders. thongh it iinparts to secondary natures a participation of good. and appropriately in each of these. yet a t the same time retains with itself that which is undefiled. 187 stability to the beings which are excited by him to the generation of secondary natures. or intelligence. She is also t l ~ e source of purity of essence to those beings who perpetually desire to produce all things . are fontal Gods. and those which under the earth separate the kingdom of Hades from the dominion of bTeptune. inferior measures of these goods. but the leaping forth and percolating through Tethys. indeed. such of them as are nearer their source are purer. both those which are apparent on its surface. according to their first subsistence. For every thing which is imparted from superior to subordinate natures. but establishing in itself that which in each of these is genuine and exempt. as it were. being. But their last processions are their divisible allotnients about the earth . And vigour of energy.)through Ocean . unmingled. but such as are more imperfect are transferred to things of a subject order. Both Ocean and Tethys. is percolated. Saturn is conjoined both to Rhea and Jupiter. is present with more ancient natures. Hence Socrates now calls them the fathers of streams. exhibiting the same powers among the Gods who rank as principles or rulers. it also illuminates from itself to beings of a subordinate rank. as sustaining every thing in the divine essences which. Thus. whether i t be essence. Timieus. leaps forth and percolates.A D D I T I O N A L NOTES. but the progeny of Heaven and Earth. for instance. life. For each of first causes. J u s t as with respect t o streams of water. with which also it fills soul . intellect is filled with life. among those of a liberated. and those of a celestial characteristic . But they also proceed into other orders of Gods. but the more remote are more turbid. but t o the . however. and pure from participation. therefore. calling them fathers of Saturn and Rhea. and intelligence. And such of these as are primary are established in themselves.

former as father to prolific power. and last. and a connascent cooperation in their productions. and Jupiter. concerning which also the Homeric Neptune says. xv. and. as in the intelligible triad. For an according coarrangement of the Gods. Rhea. TEKE PELT 26. middle. And Rhea bore us. is twofold. between father. being a fontal God. is the king of things first. and life and salvation are imparted to all things through him. 24 Proclus here means that there is the same analogy between Saturn. Ocean is said t o have married Tethys. conformably t o the generation of subordinate natures. being as i t were Diatethys. but Jupiter of the derniurgic. This last divinity. 187. . ~peis yap T ' EK Kpovov ELPEY U B E X ~ ~ E Oovs L . and intellect. end the like. the one exempt and coordinated with Saturn. And the first Jupiter indeed. is called by theologists marriage. however. Saturn is the monad of the Titannic order of the Gods. but to the latter as father t o intelligible 24 intellect. and by taking away the first two syllables Tethys 25. and Jupiter Juno. in short. and convolving the extremity of them . Tethys is denominated from leaping forth and straining or cleansing. power. as being the demiurgus of wholes. As brother Gods we three from Saturn came. 26 Iliad. concerning whom Socrates also had just said. but the other being connumerated with the sons of Saturn. and allotted a Saturnian summit and dominion in this triad . that he is the ruler and king of all things . ranking with the intellectual fathers.188 ADDITIONAL NOTES. as establishing a comtnunion with her.

is united to him.A D D I T I O N A L NOTES. but having also something in itself abiding. 176. and vivifies summits. and the vivific from the demiurgic. and is monadically called Jupiter. governs the third part of the whole of things. through which he divides his own kingdom from that of Heaven. that together with her he might animate the extremities of the universe. Whence also ancient rumour calls Ocean the God who separates the apparent 27 Iliad. 28 See the Theogony of Hesiod. And the third is triadically denominated terrestrial Jupiter. and guards the middle of the two orders . conjoining himself with the Synoches. and receives the scythe 28 from his mother. 189. and Neptune. and on this account he both arms others against his father. fabricates. Hence this last is said to have ravished Proserpine. For it is fit that he who bounds the first and second orders should be arranged in the middle of the natures that are bounded. v. and who is coordinate with the three sons of Saturn. The first of these also preserves. A triple distribution all things own. and Hades. Pluto. The Titannic order dividing itself from the connecting order of Heaven. the Titannic from the connecting ( r w v ovvoxtxwv). Saturn is the leader of the separation. But the second is called dyadically. who ranks as a principle. xv. things of a second rank. But every where this God is allotted a power of this kind. and the third those of a third order. . but so far as rejoicing in a coordination with Heaven. But Ocean is coordinated with those that abide in the manners of the father. He is also the summit of the three. 189 But the ruling Jupiter. and connascent with that order. marine Jupiter. but the second. and separates the genera of the Gods. according to that of Horn er. so far as a Titan being connumerated with the Gods that subsist with Saturn . &c. has the same name with the fontal Jupiter.

but Neptune according t o power. And through the Saturnian order. that the sun and the other stars rise from the ocean. Thus Jupiter subsists according to being. but through that of Ocean. but each receives a different character of subsistence.190 A D D I T I O N A L NOTES. . indeed. who. that the extremes fabricate in conjunction with Proserpine things first and last . but through the other. of the first triad of the supermundane. the middle being coarranged with generative cause from his own allotment. Jupiter indeed is the father. yet one is so essentially. the summit. i t comprehends every thing separated from the fathers . another vitally. is Jupiter. and a t the same time proceeding. and Pluto according to intellect. every thing subservient to the paternal cause. without Proserpine. every thing conjoined with the connecting Gods. indeed. through union with the whole demiurgic intellect having the same appellation with it. but filling Pluto. And all. part of Heaven from the unapparent. and another intellectually. For the female is the cause of progression and separation. Of the demiurgic triad 29 which divides t h e whole world. W h a t is now said therefore by Plato. And though all these divinities are the causes of the life of all things. this order abiding. and whole fabrication of the first Jupiter. Or if you had rather so speak. but the male of union and stable permanency. are in all. is for this reason not mentioned here by Plato. and distributes the indivisible. and which has the relation of father. Whence also the theologist Orpheus says. through the Saturnian order. one. which subsists irnmediately after the intellectual order. and that which binds together both the extremes . and on this account poets say. comprehends all the Titannic order through these two conjunctions . he comprehends every maternal cause. Hence violence is said to have been offered to Proserpine by Jupiter . and Pluto tile intellect. But Neptune is allotted the middle. but she is said to have been ravished by Pluto (610 K a c ' 29 That is. being filled indeed from the essence of Jupiter. but Neptune the power. For of the whole of this triad.

terrestrial. he is called earthshaker. who frees souls from generation. if you divide that which is generated into the fiery. and vivific of things last. He is also the guardian of the earth. But the second is from communion with the first. who receives souls descending into generation . . And atnong those who are allotted the kingdom of Saturn. also. and excites it to generations. if also you divide the whole world. For so Horn. For Neptune is the trident-bearer . middle. the middles belong to Neptune. But the third analysis of his name is from his energy in externals. /3~alc. this triad every where distributes the first. According to every division. planetary. Neptune is an intellectual demiurgic God.-or again. But the middle is said to be the cause of motion to all things. Iliad. and hollow. in whom the circle of sameness is fettered . but Hades is an intellectual demiurgic God. and the west. (7 E U K L V ~ T O SBaXaara) are assigned to him. and sublunary spheres . middle. Por a Jupiter of this kind is the proximate intelligible of Neptune. therefore. and from souls coming into generation. And the first analyzation of his name is from the allotmenti over which he presides. that of mid-heaven. the middle allotment. and more he knows. And if you Iook to the centres. and the Tritons and Amphitrite are the familiars of this God.~66ai. and that which subsists between. and subterranean parts. and last differences of things fabricated in demiurgic boundaries. and the agile sen. such as the east. and the extremes to Pluto. Hence. The name Neptune is now triply analyzed. $aar T ~ KOPTU Y U'JTO PEP TOU Ohtor 191 TOU TXOUTWYOS ap~a{euBat). or the earth into its summits. as being athe origin of motion. the summits are Jovian. For he is motive of nature. as for instance into the inerratic. since the sea is analogous t o generation. UTO But Jove was born the first.ADDITIONAL NOTES.

effecting a circle without a beginning and without an end. put on our rags. as the Chal- . who. and on this account consider death to be dreadful. however. as Ulysses did of his ragged vestments. though Hades to some appears to be . dark. and the paternal cause. and into a life posterior to generation. convolves itself to being. Men who are lovers of body badly refer to themselves the passions of the animated nature. as being the cause of corruption.192 ADDITIONAL NOTES. referring the name of Pluto. imitating in its energy the circle. The truth. evil : for neither is death evil . to the wealth of prudence. Intellect. For. into a life of generation. ) but it is invisible. and the like. very properly converts ends to beginnings. as intellect. which is Jovian. and the convolutions of souls about generation. attended with perturbations ( E ~ P C L B O S and better than the apparent . and no longer like a wretched mendicant. and is an impediment to intellectual energy. as some improperly explain it. which is Neptunian. and dreadful. however. For Hades is not. he converts the ends to the beginnings of the souls of the stars. but also in every fabrication of bodies. frees them from generation. of all periods . but Hades into the invisible. and live in Hades a life according to nature. is. in every triad of beings. These Socrates now reprobates. into s life prior to generation.-which circle also he perpetually convolves. since a life in conjunction with body is contrary to nature. purifying souls after death. together with the indigence of body. Thus for instance. 3s our whoIe period receives a triple division. which is Plutonian . badly analyze the name of Pluto into wealth from the earth. not only in souls. Some. such as is every thing intelligible. but that of Hades to an intellect knowing all things. And hence Jupiter is the guardian of the life of souls prior to generation. bringing the two names to the same signification . who is characterized by intellect. through fruits and metals. therefore. that it is much better for man to die. and in short. Hence i t is necessary to divest o~irselves of the fleshly garments with which we are clothed. For this God is a sophist. Pluto.

when compared with Jupiter. Venus derives her origin from foam . Who. are nourished. c b Things divine cannot be obtained by those whose intellectual eye is directed to body . Hence. so likewise Ceres must be analyzed not only into corporeal nutriment . when considered with reference to the Gods. that the series of this beneficent energy extends as far as to corporeal nutriment. when they view with the eye of intellect Gods prior to themselves . the pleasure arising from this in coition is Venus. For the characteristic of love shines forth first of all in the Gods . according to the material conceptions of the multitude." Neptune. not only into the obvious wealth from the earth. is said t o know all things. for instance. dean Oracle says. according to them. who apply themselves to things in a more intellectual manner. as it is said in the Phzdrus. and the like. but beginning from the Gods themselves it is requisite to conceive her to be the supplier of aliment. or according to a divinely inspired energy. But nutriment. As it is necessary to analyze Pluto. and foam corresponds to seed. From sportive conceptions about the Gods. Gods. . first to the Gods themselves.A D D I T I O N A L NOTES. is said to know czar~y things . though Neptune is more total than Hades. and with those of every other divinity. therefore. and in the last place. it is possible for those to energize entheastically. is the communication of intellectual plenitude from more exalted natures to those of an inferior rank. but Hades. and when they are perfected and view intelligible beauties. is so stupid as not to survey primary and eternal natures. Thus. afterwards to the natures posterior to the Gods . such as justice itself. however. but also into the wealth of wisdom. compared with sot~ls to whom he imparts knowledge. and this is the case with the medicinal and prophetic powers of Apollo. prior to such as are last and corruptible ? I will therefore unfold the divine conception respecting Venus. but those only c m arrive a t the possession of them who stript of their garments hasten to the summit. temperance itself.

These divinities too are united with each other through a similitude of subsistence : for they both proceed from generative powers . and this goddess likewise proceeds from foam. They say then that the first Venus was produced from twofold causes. B u t the Venus that proceeds from Dione governs all the coordinations in the celestial world and the earth. For whence could that which congregates different genera. through a kindred conjunction. receive its subsistence except from the syltochical power of Heaven? Prom the foam. See the Tlleogony of Hesiod. therefore. as Orpheus says. and imparting it to the intellectual orders . according to one desire of beauty. cooperating with her progression. the one as that through which 31. and is as it were its highest flower. and separates from generation. according to the causes of their production. and the other from Jupiter the demiurgus. binds them to each other. According to Orpheus. is the supplier of an unpolluted life. and that which swims upon all life. that which is full of prolific light and power. and its foam. leads upwards to intelligible beauty. the universally extended progression of such a life . Ceres is the same with Rhea. . For she that proceeds from the genitals of Heaven is superrnundane. one from that of the connectedly containing power of Heaven.194 A D D I T I O N A L NOTES. after the same manner with the more ancient Venus. its profundity. who according to the fable cut off the genital parts of Heaven. of his own prolific parts thrown into the sea. but Heaven as the maker and cause unfolding the goddess into light. Heaven produced this Goddess. the greatest purity of nature. in conjunction with Dione . their orders and their powers. For he says. These goddesses therefore differ from each other. from his own generative abundance. as Orpheus evinces. B u t the second Venus Jupiter produces from his own generative powers. and perfects their generative progressions. as calling forth the prolific power of the father. But the sea signifies an expanded and circumscribed life . that subsisting on high in unproceeding union 31 This cause is Saturn.

Hence Ceres is with great propriety called by 32 This Orphic fragment is not to be found in Gesner's or Hermann's collection of the Orphic remains.A D D I T I O N A L NOTES. indivisibly. The goddess who was Bhea. For thus he speaks. or whether she is the first progeny of Rhea. For as Saturn supplies her from on high with the cause of being . and receiving the most ancient and ruling order from the whole vivific Rhea (77s ohqs ~ w o y o v o v peas). She stably convolves too. therefore. and imparts to him the power of vivifying wholes. so Ceres from on high. and from her own prolific bosoms. But possessing herself the middle of all vivific deity. and contains all secondary fountains.e. who leads forth all the light of virtue. who pours forth the whole order of souls . Ceres. This goddess too comprehends Vests and Juno: in her right hand parts Juno. But she leads forth the uniform causes of prior natures to the generation of others. pouring upon all things vitally. pours forth vivification to the demiurgus. s 195 with Saturn. when she bore Jove became Ceres. and comprehending the middle centres of whole vivification (77s OATS {uoyovias). thus subsisting. she is Rhea. i. and uniformly. but that by emitting and generating Jupiter. . But Hesiod says that Ceres is the daughter of Rhea. she is Ceres. It is however evident that these theologists harmonize : for whether this goddess proceeds from union with Saturn to a secondary order. she fills all supermundane natures with t h e rivers of all-perfect life. and comprehends the one bond of the first and last powers of life. she governs the whole fountains which she contains. Prior however to all this. she unfolds to us the demiurgic intellect (Jupiter). but in her left hand parts Vesta. she is still the same.

bring forth their offspring in imitation of this twofold and eternal generation of Ceres. Again. f aliment. Night however is t h e cause of aliment intelligibly 34 : for that which is intelligible is. so far as she comprehends in herself the cause of Juno. But Ceres first of all separates the two kinds of aliment in the Gods. and is wholly absorbed in the intelligible. . and this from supernal natures to such as are last : fop virtue is the perfection of souls. vol. therefore. our sovereign mistress (8eanoiva) not only generates life. v. the aliment of the intellectual orders of Gods. and a t the same time the supplier o Por. 34 Because Night subsists a t the summit of the inteltigitle and at the same time intellectual order. Plato 33 mother. according t o the oracle".~ a orra8ovs' i Mqaaro 6' apapoaivv. 33 36 These verses likewise are not in Gesner's and Hermann's collection. and tenacious neetap red Are too the objects of her bounteous care. Who gathers honey with resounding hum. the conjunction of the demiurgic intellect with See p. Kai epv8pou veKrapos ap8pove Mqaaro 6' ayXaa €pya peXiaaawv e p r ~ o p ~ w v i. but that which gives perfection to life . but as containing Vests in her essence. Ceres. But the paradigm of this goddess is Night: for in~mortalNigAt is called the nurse o f the Gods. Kai a. For. or follow.u$i~oXovs. or surround : Ambrosia. of my translation of Plato. a t the same time that they send forth their young into the light. 521. they extend to them milk naturally produced as their food. she is a mother. Last to the bee her providence extends. whether they Or Gods precede. She cares for pow'rs ministrant. Hence mothers who are connected with the circulations of time.196 A D D I T I O N A L NOTES. she is the supplier of aliment. 35 That is. according to one of the Cbaldean Oracles. as Orpheus says : Mqaaro yap rpo~oXovs. e.

They also give subsistence to intellects who are carried in souls. and her allotment in the sublunary region is the air. and who together with them give completion to the whole fabrication of things. and partial. the supermundane and mundane. and coenergizes with the orders posterior to itself. For it is present with the mother prior to itself. she is divided from the demiurgus. all the genera of souls. just as again the intelligence of Jupiter is said to be first participated by Juno. to contain a royal intellect and a royal soul. For he contains uniformly the paternal and maternal cause of the world . knows my mind prior to Juno. in conjunction with the demiurgus and father. the world participates of intellectual souls. by which the world is nourished (77s KOG37 Iliad. As now I love thee. demoniacal. but water of natulre.And this love indeed is legal. in the Philebus. Through this ineffable union therefore of these divinities. 328. This Goddess therefore produces from herself. angelic. says Jupiter in Homer.A D D I T I O N A L NOTES. F o r no other divinity. just as $re is an image of intellect. beginning from on high. ) with Proserpine posterior to s )and with Juno coordiitself. according t o which also soul is called a spirit ( a v s v p a ) . Hence Jupiter is said to be enamoured of Juno. but the other two appear to be illegal. 197 the vivific causes is triple : for it is conjoined with the fountains prior t o itself : is present with its kindred coordinate natures . providentially ( a p o v o ~ r t ~ w . After a certain manner too. the celestial and sublunary. pervades t o the last of things . the divine. xiv. For air is a symbol of soul. The series of our sovereign mistress Juno. nate to itself with an arnato~yenergy (~pauprwr). convertiwely ( e n r a r p c n r i ~ w s. but in a certain respect she is united to him : for Jupiter is said. and the fountain of souls is said to be in Jupiter . .

Of these Goddesses the last possesses triple powers. For he calls the thick cloud produced by Juno the setting of the sun. according to an hyparxis transcending the other . Proserpine . evinces the conversion of rational souls to her which proceed from her . Juno. she is called Diana by Orpheus . the first in an exempt manner and intellectually. through which all nutriment and increase are produced. But Socrates now delivers these three vivific monads in a consequent order. the second the sister. i. She also possesses a first. and last empire. and the third the daughter of the demiurgus. On this account also the voice of rational animals is especially dedicated to this Goddess. "Fair-eyed venerable Juno sent the sun to the streams of the ocean. porpo@ov $weus).e."-is from the same conception. and that voice is air that is struck. But she is called Core ( w o p ~ through her essence. viz. For ~Xiou 8' aKapaWa T E ~ $ E U ET' uKEavoio /300ais Torvia ~ p v poas. the third in a manner adapted to a principle and leader ( a p ~ i ~ Kac ws~~E~OYLKWS). but according t o her middle Proserpine . Hence Homer.198 ADDITIONAL NOTES. And according to her summit. represents J u n o suspended with two anvils under her feet : for the air is allotted two heavy elements beneath itself. Ceres. if any one frequently repeats the name of the Goddess. indeed. and impartibly and uniformly comprehends three monads of ) the purity of Gods. But earth is the image of body. and according to the extremity of the order Minerva. All of them however are partakers of the whole of fabrication. through its gross and material nature. The assertiorl likewise that the end of this name will be conjoined with the beginning. the second in a fontal manner. Likewise. and her undefiled transcendency in her generations. obscurely signifying this. middle. and a t the same time in a way adapted to a principle ( a p ~ c ~ o and s ) . calling the first the mother. who made the horse of Achilles to become vocal.

end together with Jupiter generates Bacchus. in conjunction with Pluto. Hence she is called Proserpine. subsisting on high. she is particularly beheld according t o the middle peculiarity . you will find the peculiarities of Hecate and Minerva . Core therefore. And according to her extremities indeed. the second Soul. thus obscurely signifying the ablation of slaughter (61a T O ~piveivr a el67 Kai ~ w p ~ t a aXh$iwv. and t o beget the Furies in the subterranean regions. for i t is this which proceeding every where imparts vivification to the last of things. and the third Virtue. she is said t o be a virgin. that of Soul . but the other is the middle of them. Hence in the Proserpine conjoined with Pluto. while the peculiarity of the middle shines forth. but here subsists according t o a mundane peculiarity.ADDITIONAL NOTES. tv ws TOV @ovov r q v avaipactv aivinope- 38 Proclus says this conformably to the theology of the Chaldeans. and among the supermundane Gods. and together with him orderly distributes the extremities of the universe. but according to a middle power. and to remain undefiled: but according to her middle. in herself possessing the peculiarities of the extremes. which in the supermundane Core was of a ~uling nature. and that which is characteristic of ruling soul. She therefore is also called Core. the dominion of EIecate is established . 39 That is. . the first monad of the vivific triad is Hecate. and which is generative of wholes. either through judging of forms and separating them from each other. For according to that theology. For the one is the connective unity of the three vivific principles . Proserpine is denominated. uniformly extends this triple order of divinities . who impartibly presides over partible fabrication. and according to intellectual conversion that of Virtue 38. but these extremes subsist in her occultly. of a supermundane nature : for the ruling are the supermun- dane Gods. because she especially associates with Pluto. 199 powers of this triple vivific order. but after another manner than the supermundane and ruling Core. But beneath. to be conjoined with Hades.

Phereiphatta. according to which she is allotted an hyparxis in the vivific triad of the supernlundane Gods . For there being established. according t o generation. At the same time.o ~ c p EUTLV E U T V X E ~ T T ~ T O $OYOS S KaL t9avaros rois U ~ L O U . and embraces its virginity. vov). On this account also she is called Proserpine. and is exempt from all communion. the first is especially adapted to the progression of the goddess. however. But she looks to the fountain of virtue. the goddess is said to be a lover of virginity. according to a contract with generation. Hence Core also. as the Oracle says. the undefiled. whether we call this deity Hecatic. . likewise. through a conversion t o things on high. according to which Core is said to remain a virgin. is adapted to Proserpine . according to the 40 That is. since that which was ravished by Pluto is the middle . and progression. U E ~ O TO LW SO U ) . according to which she is perfective of works ( T E X E ~ L O V ~ ~ she O S ) is said to be the inspective guardian of virtue. or Diana with Orpheus. the Corybautes. and through the third she is said to hate the impulses arising from generation. and not by the names of the extremes . to such as are worthy of i t (v 6ia T O XWPL{ELV ras $vxas TEXEWS E K T W Y cwparwv aia 7 1 s r p o s r a avw E T L O T P O @ ~ S . Plato delivers three peculiarities of her. the mundane. but through the second. or through separating souls perfectly from bodies. as Theurgists say. but according to wisdom and counsel to Minerva. But the name $ E ~ E @ U T T U . And through the first of these indeed. For the virginity which is there does not proceed forth. and the anagogic. but abiding gives subsistence to Diana. conjunction. the extremes a t the same time being firmly established i n themselves.200 A D D I T I O N A L NOTES. Of these three. all the appellations by which she is distinguished are adapted to the perfection of soul. she is filled with undefiled powers from the Gods called Amilicti40. which is the most fortunate slaughter and death. With respect to our sovereign mistress Diana. and to supermundane virtue.

is said to remain a virgin . and to bring forth. And she gives perfection indeed to souls through a life according to virtue . flower-producing daughters . For as he says of the terminations of the other Gods. Venus and Bacchus] being lovers of sport. she is said to proceed forth. though she inspects the fruits arising from it. and that they avenge and H 6' a p a E K a n ) Gai6os peAq a v o & ~ v d o u c r a Aqrous EVGAOKCLFOLO ~opq c. the mundane Hecate. is evident to those that are in the least degree conversant with the writings of Orpheus. but according to the prolific power of Proserpine. that they are terrible.ipoue/3r]oar' oAvpu. if we should elsewhere call the Diana contained in Core Hecate.' 201 Diana and Minerva. They say too. and t o be conjoined with the third demiurgus. from which i t appears that Latona is comprehended in Ceres. But that there is a great union between Diana. but t o mortal animals she i~npartsa restitution to form. So that i t is nothing wonderful. and the mundane Hecate. For the former of these is characterized according to her stability.ov. "nine azure-eyed. . She appears also to be averse to the generations and progressions of things. But that which is generative is allotted in her a middle order. but the latter according t o her convertive energy. which she contains. that Orpheus 41 calls Diana Hecate. that she aspires after virginity. since the form of her is comprehended in the vivific fountain. The wise man venerates the last and mundane progressions of the Gods." since the Diana and the Minerva which she contains preserve their virginity always the same. though. and despises all material sexual connexion. e. and she understands fontal virtue. as Orpheus says. and together with Jupiter gives subsistence to Core. To which we may also add. gives subsistence to supermundane and anagogic virtue. as Plato says. and Core. they are sports through these Gods [i.A D D I T I O N A L NOTES. but to introduce perfections to them.

i. we must understand that the peculiarity of a partial intellect is in common presented t o our view. and thus give perfection to souls . from wine. For the word oiovv. and that this divinity is benevolent to those whose manners are orderly. whatever it may be. which produce ~ X U K U Supia. calls the God G L ~ O L ~ V C T O beginning S. the causes of these things. as for instance Orpheus. but t h a t she is baneful to those who mingle their life with insolence and ignorance. he venerates the terminations of Bacchus and Venus. and who live according to intellect . therefore. as for instance. Socrates calls love in common great. and exhibiting relaxation. but others austere. Thus also in the Phaedrus. so that Socrates now looking to this. from the last of his gifts. their houses. Hence of statues. is nothing else than intellectual form separated from a total intellect. as we have said.-in like manner. until she has entirely subverted them. at . " Take all the members of wine (that are distributed) in the world and bring them to me." But if the God is thus denominated.UOL EVELKE. lovers o f sport. both that which is divine and that which is a lover of body. that Justice follows Jupiter. and in consequence of this becoming participated. and preparing us t o understand that all things look t o the best end. . as well as his last. punish. they make some of them laughing and dancing. e. which. certainly his first and rniddle energies will be thus called. sweetness of sensation. particular and alone. That theologists frequently call Bacchus wine. the avenger of the divine law.rra~ypoves. analogously t o the mundane allotments of the Gods. are ~tXo. oivou raws ~ E X K V O C T ~ WX ~ P E . astonishing and terrible to the view. and recall corporeal molestation. For because the terminations of these divinities strengthen the infirmity of the mortal nature.202 A D D I T I O N A L NOTES. and cities . manifests all the powers of the God. on this account the Gods. such as. every where purifying our conceptions concerning the Gods. By this epithet wine.

but others in a nearer degree. according t o which she is present with Core. theologists especially celebrate two powers of our sovereign mistress Minerva. And on this account. since in the laceration of Bacchus by the Titans. But three orders of this Goddess are delivered by theologists . many souls from one soul. in body. according t o . the peculiarity of which is to be separated from the rest. which she establishes herself in her father Jupiter. and bounds and converts all the progression of that Goddess t o herself. and unvanquished by matter. the heart of the God [i. wine indicates. Since therefore every partial fabrication is suspended from the Dionysiacal monad. Plato also in the Timaeus. analogously celebrates Minerva as philopolernic and philosophic. F o r all these are the progeny of intellect . and all sensible forms from their proper totalities . and energizes according to all things with invariable sameness.A D D I T I O N A L NOTES. the indivisible essence of intellect] is said to have alone remained undistributed. Wine therefore energizes in things analogously to its subsistence in them . the defensive and the perfective. and some things participate of the partial distribution of intellect in a more distant. And the third is Eiberated. but in intellectual natures according to an intellectual energy and fabrication . and the latter filling all things with intellectual light. such as a solar. e. but a partial and participated intellect is indeed all things. the one fontal and intellectual. and subsists in unproceeding union with him. on this account theologists call both this God and all his fabrications wifie. and converting them to their cause. lunar. the former preserving the order of wholes undefiled. according to which she perfects and guards the whole . which distributes participated mundane intellects from total intellect [or the intellect which ranks as a whole]. but this according to one form. or mercurial form. This therefore. according to a false opinion and imagination . signifying an intellect such as and particular (crqparvwv ~ o v oiov ~ a r i w a vovv). Again. 203 For an all-perfect intellect is all things. but the second ranks among the supermundane Gods. indeed. after the manner of an image.

for there is nothing more than TO KOV TOY K O U ~ O Y ill this place. is mingled from intellect and necessity. and all material causes being in subjection to the will of the father. the former because she causes intellect to rule over necessity. she is the source of this supply. through this power vanquishing matter. and eternally guards and defends it. excites and establishes it in the port of its father. is the leader of the Curetes. binding together all the mundane summits. But the true readiug is undoubtedly TOV K O V ~ O V . and the latter. For the visible region. and circulsr7y invests i t with her powers. . and giving subsistence to all the allotments in the heavens. says Timaeus. as well as those divinities she is adorned with empyrean arms. Hence. and t o those which proceed into the sublunary region. Hence she is called Victory and Heath. which she first imparts to the Curetic order. She watchfully surveys therefore all the fabrication of her father. exempt preserves the world " 42 In the very learned Professor Boisuonade's edition of this work. according to this power. the latter being obedient to the former. and connects and converts it to him . as with a veil . Now therefore Socrates celebrates her guardian power. if the universe is said to be indissoluble. because she perpetually whole. raises the universe to the participation of Jupiter. whence also. and unfolds dancing through ry thtnical motion.204 A D D I T I O N A L NOTES. For Proclus. through the whole of time. world. and form over matter. and my manu- script has very erroneoualy 70 KQKOV. alludes to the following . and i f i t moves in measured motion. but her perfective power through that of Mimerra. preserves the demiurgic series immovable. It is this Goddess therefore who arranges necessity under the productions of intellect. according to one reason and order. She is the cause therefore of orderly and measured motion. For Minerva. and vanquishes all material indefiniteness. through the name of Patbas. it is this goddess who supplies its permanency. perfect. through which she represses all disorder. She also guards reason as i t proceeds from intellect. in what he here says. as Orpheus says. and afterwards to the other Gods.

The last word. from age. and through an intellectual dance as it were. and free from disease. instead of ev ohov e[ a. rov K O C ~ ~ O V ] E K T ~ V ~ T O ..touse. and also from what Plato previously says. EV oAov e t a G a v ~ o v~cXeovK ~ C LL Y ~ P I O V K a b avouov ~ V T O V [i.ge. however. there is a very erroneous omission in this passa. 6 ~ q a s voepas XopeLas owvarreLv T O L S ~ C L O T E ~ O LuaL S .rocc. exempt from age and free from disease. av.rravrov. 111 all the editions of Plato's works. And then the passage will be in English. consisting of all wholes. 43 T ~ 3S eov THE END. establish. the Demiurgus] fashioned the world one perfect whole.$ oXov a.A D D I T I O N A L NOTES. evr8pvatv uat 4povpe~v EV QVTOLS: But after the word ~ ~ ~ L < E Lit v .HANSON & CO. e. it is necessary to read ev ohov e. p~-. words of Plato in the Tiinzeus.is necessary either to add or conceive t o be implied r a 6evrepa. "Through this cause. For from the text of Proclus. and from this reasoning process he [i.~tear by BALLANT-YXE. Edinburgh ngrd Londogz . is wanting in the Professor's edition. to connect. It is the property therefore of this Goddess to elevate and disfribute. 6 ~ 6e a ~ q aLTLav v Kat TOV Aoyirt+~ov . e. and defend inferior natures in such as are more divine 43.rravTwv." The whole of this sentence is in my manuscript as follows : OLKELOV ovv r a v q s uat TO avayeLv Kat p e p ~ c e ~uab v.

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