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2188145 Project Management

2188145 Project Management

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Project Management

Afshin Ahmadi Afshin.Ahmadi@yahoo.com

WHAT IS A PROJECT?
 A project is a unique endeavor to produce a

set of deliverables within clearly specified time, cost and quality constraints. Projects are different from standard business operational activities as they:
    

Are unique in nature. Have a defined timescale. Have an approved budget. Have limited resources. Involve an element of risk.
Achieve beneficial change.

Why Projects Fail
 Failure to align project with organizational

objectives  Poor scope  Unrealistic expectations  Lack of executive sponsorship  Lack of project management  Inability to move beyond individual and personality conflicts  Politics

Why Projects Succeed!
 Project Sponsorship at executive level  Good project charter  Strong project management  The right mix of team players  Good decision making structure  Good communication  Team members are working toward common

goals

Why Project Management?
 Today’s complex environments require

ongoing implementations  Project management is a method and mindset…a disciplined approach to managing chaos  Project management provides a framework for working amidst persistent change

Project Management: Official Definition
 Project Management is the skills, tools and

management processes required to undertake a project successfully. It incorporates:
A set of skills.  A suite of tools.  A series of processes.

Project management components

Project Management: Unofficial Definition
Project management is about organization Project management is about decision making Project management is about changing people’s behavior Project management is about creating an environment conducive to getting critical projects done!

Laws of Project Management
 No major project is ever installed on

time, within budget, or with the same staff that started it. Yours will not be the first.  Projects progress quickly until they become 90% complete, then they remain at 90% complete forever.  When things are going well, something will go wrong.  When things just cannot get any worse, they will.
Project Planning and Implementation. by Abraham Shtub, Jonathan F. Bard, and Shlomo Globerson Copyright © 1994 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Laws of Project Management
 When things appear to be going better, you 

  

have overlooked something. No system is ever completely debugged. Attempts to debug a system inevitably introduce new bugs that are even harder to find. A carelessly planned project will take three times longer to complete than expected A carefully planned project will take only twice as long. Project teams detest progress reporting because it vividly manifests their lack of progress.

Planning the Project

Planning the Project
 The Project Life Cycle  Organizing the Project Team  Project Plans

Planning the Project: The Project Life Cycle
Stages: • Initiation • Planning • Execution and controlling • Closure

Planning the Project: The Project Life Cycle
 Initiation

Planning the Project: The Project Life Cycle
 Planning

Planning the Project: The Project Life Cycle
 Execution and Controlling

Planning the Project: The Project Life Cycle
 Closure

Planning the Project: Organizing the Project Team
 Project Leader  The Team  Work Methods and Procedures  Work Plan

Planning the Project: Project Plans
 Estimating Time Accurately  Scheduling Simple Projects  Gantt Charts – Scheduling Projects with Dependent

Stages  Critical Path Analysis and PERT – Scheduling Complex Projects  The Planning Cycle – A Planning Process for MiddleSized Projects  Planning Large Projects and Programs

Planning the Project: Project Plans
Estimating Time Accurately
 Time estimates drive the setting of deadlines

for delivery of projects, and hence people's assessments of your reliability.  They often determine the pricing of contracts and hence their profitability.

Planning the Project: Project Plans
Estimating Time Accurately
 Other high urgency tasks to be carried out which will have        

priority over this one Accidents and emergencies Internal meetings Holidays and sickness in essential staff Contact with other customers, perhaps to arrange the next job Breakdowns in equipment Missed deliveries by suppliers Interruptions Quality control rejections

Planning the Project: Project Plans
Scheduling Simple Project
 Examples might be coordinating delivery of

resources for a workshop session, implementing a small marketing plan, or delivering a simple software enhancement.

Planning the Project: Project Plans
Sequential and Parallel Activities
 An essential concept behind project planning and

Critical Path Analysis is that some activities are dependent on other activities being completed first.  These dependent activities need to be completed in a sequence, with each stage being more-or-less completed before the next activity can begin. We can call dependent activities 'sequential' or 'linear'.  Other activities are not dependent on completion of any other tasks. These may be done at any time before or after a particular stage is reached. These are nondependent or 'parallel' tasks.

Planning the Project: Project Plans
Gantt Chart
Gantt Charts are useful tools for analyzing and planning complex projects. They:  Help you to plan out the tasks that need to be completed  Give you a basis for scheduling when these tasks will be carried out  Allow you to plan the allocation of resources needed to complete the project, and  Help you to work out the critical path for a project where you must complete it by a particular date.

Planning the Project: Project Plans
Gantt Chart
To draw up a Gantt diagram, follow these steps:  1. List all activities in the plan  2. Head up graph paper with the days or weeks through to task completion  3. Plot the tasks onto the graph paper  4. Schedule Activities  5. Presenting the Analysis

Planning the Project: Project Plans
Gantt Chart
1. List all activities in the plan  For each task, show the earliest start date, estimated length of time it will take, and whether it is parallel or sequential. If tasks are sequential, show which stages they depend on.

Planning the Project: Project Plans
Gantt Chart

Planning the Project: Project Plans
Gantt Chart
2. Head up graph paper with the days or weeks through to task completion 3. Plot the tasks onto the graph paper  Plot each task on the graph paper, showing it starting on the earliest possible date. Draw it as a bar, with the length of the bar being the length of the task.

Planning the Project: Project Plans
Gantt Chart

Planning the Project: Project Plans
Gantt Chart
4. Schedule Activities  Now take the draft Gantt Chart, and use it to schedule actions. Schedule them in such a way that sequential actions are carried out in the required sequence. Ensure that dependent activities do not start until the activities they depend on have been completed.

Planning the Project: Project Plans
Gantt Chart
5. Presenting the Analysis  The final stage in this process is to prepare a final version of the Gantt Chart. This should combine the draft analysis with your scheduling and analysis of resources. This chart will show when you anticipate that jobs should start and finish.

Planning the Project: Project Plans
Gantt Chart

Planning the Project: Project Plans Critical Path Analysis and PERT Charts
 Critical Path Analysis and PERT are powerful tools

that help you to schedule and manage complex projects.  As with Gantt Charts, Critical Path Analysis (CPA) helps you to plan all tasks that must be completed as part of a project. They act as the basis both for preparation of a schedule, and of resource planning.

Planning the Project: Project Plans Critical Path Analysis and PERT Charts
 The benefit of using CPA over Gantt Charts is that Critical Path

Analysis formally identifies tasks which must be completed on time for the whole project to be completed on time, and also identifies which tasks can be delayed for a while if resource needs to be reallocated to catch up on missed tasks.  A further benefit of Critical Path Analysis is that it helps you to identify the minimum length of time needed to complete a project.  The disadvantage of CPA is that the relation of tasks to time is not as immediately obvious as with Gantt Charts. This can make them more difficult to understand for someone who is not familiar with the technique.

Planning the Project: Project Plans Critical Path Analysis and PERT Charts
Drawing a Critical Path Analysis Chart  1. List all activities in the plan  2. Plot the activities as a circle and arrow diagram

Planning the Project: Project Plans Critical Path Analysis and PERT Charts
1. List all activities in the plan  For each activity, show the earliest start date, estimated length of time it will take, and whether it is parallel or sequential. If tasks are sequential, show which stage they depend on.

Planning the Project: Project Plans Critical Path Analysis and PERT Charts

Planning the Project: Project Plans Critical Path Analysis and PERT Charts
2. Plot the activities as a circle and arrow diagram  Critical Path Analyses are presented using circle and arrow diagrams.  In these, circles show events within the project, such as the start and finish of tasks. Circles are normally numbered to allow you to identify them.

Planning the Project: Project Plans Critical Path Analysis and PERT Charts
Figure 2: Simple Circle and Arrow Diagram

Planning the Project: Project Plans Critical Path Analysis and PERT Charts
 Where one activity cannot start until another has

been completed, we start the arrow for the dependent activity at the completion event circle of the previous activity. An example of this is shown below:

Planning the Project: Project Plans Critical Path Analysis and PERT Charts
 A different case is shown below

Planning the Project: Project Plans Critical Path Analysis and PERT Charts
 Figure 5: Full circle and arrow diagram for the computer project

we are using as an example

Planning the Project: Project Plans Critical Path Analysis and PERT Charts
Crash Action  You may find that you need to complete a project earlier than your Critical Path Analysis says is possible. In this case you need to take action to reduce the length of time spent on project stages.

Planning the Project: Project Plans Critical Path Analysis and PERT Charts
 As with Gantt Charts, in practice project

managers tend to use software tools like Microsoft Project to create CPA Charts. Not only do these ease make them easier to draw, they also make modification of plans easier and provide facilities for monitoring progress against plans. Microsoft Project is reviewed at the top of our left hand title bar.

Planning the Project: Project Plans Critical Path Analysis and PERT Charts
PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique)  PERT is a variation on Critical Path Analysis that takes a slightly more skeptical view of time estimates made for each project stage.  Use the formula below to calculate the time to use for each project stage:

Planning the Project: Project Plans Critical Path Analysis and PERT Charts
Critical Path Analysis is an effective and powerful method of assessing:  What tasks must be carried out  Where parallel activity can be performed  The shortest time in which you can complete a project  Resources needed to execute a project  The sequence of activities, scheduling and timings involved  Task priorities  The most efficient way of shortening time on urgent projects.

Planning the Project: Project Plans
The Planning Cycle
A Planning Process for Middle-Sized Projects  Planning using this cycle will help you to plan and manage ongoing projects up to a certain level of complexity – this will depend on the circumstance. For projects involving many people over a long period of time, more formal methodologies and approaches are necessary .

Planning the Project: Project Plans
The Planning Cycle

Planning the Project: Project Plans
The Planning Cycle
The stages in this planning process are: 1. Analysis of Opportunities: The first thing to do is to do is to spot what needs to be done. You will crystallize this into a formal aim at the next stage in the process. There are a number of techniques that will help you to do this:

Planning the Project: Project Plans
The Planning Cycle
 � SWOT Analysis  This is a formal analysis of your strengths and weaknesses, and

of the opportunities and threats that you face.  � Risk Analysis  This helps you to spot project risks, weaknesses in your organization or operation, and identify the risks to which you are exposed. From this you can plan to neutralize some risks.  � Understanding pressures for change Alternatively, other people (e.g. clients) may be pressing you to change the way you do things. Alternatively your environment may be changing, and you may need to anticipate or respond to this.

Planning the Project: Project Plans
The Planning Cycle
2. Identifying the Aim of Your Plan Once you have completed a realistic analysis of the opportunities for change, the next step is to decide precisely what the aim of your plan is.  What do I want the future to be?  What benefit do I want to give to my customers?  What returns do I seek?  What standards am I aiming at?  What values do I and my organization believe in?

Planning the Project: Project Plans
The Planning Cycle
 You can present this aim as a 'Vision

Statement' or 'Mission Statement'. Vision Statements express the benefit that an organization will provide to its customers.  Mission statements give concrete expression to the Vision statement, explaining how it is to be achieved.

Planning the Project: Project Plans
The Planning Cycle
3. Exploring Options  By this stage you should know where you are and what you want to do. The next thing to do is to work out how to do it. The Creativity Tools section of this site explains a wide range of powerful creativity tools that will help you to generate options.

Planning the Project: Project Plans
The Planning Cycle
4. Selecting the Best Option Once you have explored the options available to you, it is time to decide which one to use. If you have the time and resources available, then you might decide to evaluate all options, carrying out detailed planning, costing, risk assessment, etc. for each. Normally you will not have this luxury.

Planning the Project: Project Plans
The Planning Cycle
5. Detailed Planning By the time you start detailed planning, you should have a good picture of where you are, what you want to achieve and the range of options available to you. You may well have selected one of the options as the most likely to yield the best results.

Planning the Project: Project Plans
The Planning Cycle
6. Evaluation of the Plan and its Impact Once you have worked out the details of your plan, the next stage is to review it to decide whether it is worth implementing. Here you must be objective – however much work you have carried out to reach this stage, the plan may still not be worth implementing. Depending on the circumstances, the following techniques can be helpful in evaluating a plan:

Planning the Project: Project Plans
The Planning Cycle
 � PMI (Plus/Minus/Interesting)

This is a good, simple technique for 'weighing the pros and cons' of a decision. It involves listing the plus points in the plan in one column, the minus points in a second column, and the implications and points of uncertainty of the plan in a third column. Each point can be allocated a positive or negative score.  � Cost/Benefit Analysis This is useful for confirming that the plan makes financial sense. This involves adding up all the costs involved with the plan, and comparing them with the expected benefits.  � Force Field Analysis Similar to PMI, Force Field Analysis helps you to get a good overall view of all the forces for and against your plan. This allows you to see where you can make adjustments that will make the plan more likely to succeed.

Planning the Project: Project Plans
The Planning Cycle
 � Cash Flow Forecasts

It allows you to assess the effect of time on costs and revenue. It also helps in assessing the size of the greatest negative and positive cash flows associated with a plan. When it is set up on a spreadsheet package, a good Cash Flow Forecast also functions as an extremely effective model of the plan.  � 6 Thinking Hats 6 Thinking Hats is a very good technique to use to get a rounded view of your plan and its implications. It provides a context within which you can examine a plan rationally, emotionally, optimistically, pessimistically and creatively.

Planning the Project: Project Plans
The Planning Cycle
 7. Implementing Change

Once you have completed your plan and decided that it will work satisfactorily, it is time to implement it. Your plan will explain how! It should also detail the controls that you will use to monitor the execution of the plan.  8. Closing the Plan Once you have achieved a plan, you can close the project. At this point is often worth carrying out an evaluation of the project to see whether there are any lessons that you can learn. This should include an evaluation of your project planning to see if this could be improved.

Project Schedule Tools
 Many tools available

Microsoft Project  Many more specialized software  www.dotproject.net  Excel  Most important Features:  Monitor tasks  Gantt views of project

 

one page views for executives rollout and more complex views for work teams

   

Critical Paths Inputs from multiple teams that roll up to project manager Dependencies Resources assigned to tasks

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