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VCE MATHEMATICS

UNITS 1 & 2
MARK BARNES RUTH BAKOGIANIS KYLIE BOUCHER MARK DUNCAN
TRACY HERFT ROBYN WILLIAMS JENNIFER NOLAN GEOFF PHILLIPS
MATHS QUEST
11
Advanced General
Mathematics
CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS
IAN WEBSTER
|
DOUGLAS SCOTT
|
ELENA IAMPOLSKY
|
SONJA STAMBULIC
ROSS ALLEN
|
DAVID PHILLIPS
|
MURRAY ANDERSON
|
ROBERT CAHN
|
KATHY CHAMBERS
MICHAEL HALFPENNY
|
CAROLYN MEWS
|
JOHN SHORT
|
NICK SIMPSON
BORIS SMOLYAR
|
JENNY WATSON
|
BARBARA WOODS
SUPPORT MATERIAL
JOHN DOWSEY
|
DENNIS FITZGERALD
|
EMILY HUI
|
VINOD NARAYAN
SIMONE RICHARDSON
|
PETER SWAIN
|
DAVID TYNAN
CASI O CLASSPAD EDI TI ON
First published 2010 by
John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd
42 McDougall Street, Milton, Qld 4064
Typeset in 10/12pt Times LT
John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 2010
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10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Screenshots Casio. ClassPad is a registered trademark of Casio
Computer Co., Ltd
Title: Maths Quest 11 Advanced General
Mathematics / Mark Barnes . . . [et al.].
Edition: Casio ClassPad edition.
ISBN: 978 1 7421 6222 5 (student book.)
978 1 7421 6290 4 (teacher book.)
978 1 7421 6232 4 (student ebook.)
978 1 7421 6297 3 (teacher ebook.)
Notes: Includes index.
Target Audience: For secondary school age.
Subjects: Mathematics Textbooks.
Mathematics Problems, exercises, etc.
Other Authors/
Contributors: Barnes, Mark.
Dewey Number: 510.712
Contents
Introduction vii
About eBookPLUS ix
Acknowledgements x
CHAPTER 1
Number systems: real and complex 1
1A Review of set notation 1
Exercise 1A 9
1B Subsets of the set of real numbers 10
Exercise 1B 13
1C Properties of surds 14
Exercise 1C 20
1D The set of complex numbers 22
Exercise 1D 24
1E Multiplication and division of complex
numbers 24
Exercise 1E 28
1F Representing complex numbers on an
Argand diagram 29
Exercise 1F 31
1G Factorising quadratic expressions and
solving quadratic equations over the
complex number eld 31
Exercise 1G 36
Summary 38
Chapter review 40
eBookPLUS activities 43
CHAPTER 2
Transformations 44
2A Translations of points and graphs 44
Exercise 2A 49
2B Reections of points and graphs 50
Exercise 2B 52
2C Dilations from axes 53
Exercise 2C 55
2D The ellipse and the hyperbola 56
Exercise 2D 61
2E Successive transformations 62
Exercise 2E 63
Summary 65
Chapter review 67
eBookPLUS activities 70
CHAPTER 3
Relations and functions 71
3A Relations 71
Exercise 3A 73
3B Functions 74
Exercise 3B 77
3C Inverse functions 77
Exercise 3C 80
Summary 81
Chapter review 82
eBookPLUS activities 85
EXAM PRACTICE 1
Based on Chapters 13 86
CHAPTER 4
Algebra 88
4A Review of index laws 88
Exercise 4A 91
4B Standard form and signicant gures 92
Exercise 4B 94
4C Transposition 96
Exercise 4C 99
4D Solving linear equations and simultaneous
linear equations 101
Exercise 4D 111
4E Applications 114
Exercise 4E 119
4F Algebraic fractions 122
Exercise 4F 125
4G Linear literal equations 126
Exercise 4G 128
Summary 129
Chapter review 131
eBookPLUS activities 135
CHAPTER 5
Trigonometric ratios and their
applications 136
5A Trigonometry of right-angled triangles 136
Exercise 5A 141
5B Elevation, depression and bearings 143
Exercise 5B 146
iv Contents
5C The sine rule 148
Exercise 5C 152
5D The cosine rule 154
Exercise 5D 158
5E Area of triangles 159
Exercise 5E 162
5F Trigonometric identities 163
Exercise 5F 165
5G Radian measurement 165
Exercise 5G 166
5H Arcs, sectors and segments 167
Exercise 5H 170
Summary 172
Chapter review 174
eBookPLUS activities 177
CHAPTER 6
Sequences and series 178
6A Describing sequences 178
Exercise 6A 184
6B Arithmetic sequences 186
Exercise 6B 191
6C Arithmetic series 192
Exercise 6C 194
6D Geometric sequences 195
Exercise 6D 199
6E Geometric series 200
Exercise 6E 205
6F Applications of sequences and series 206
Exercise 6F 208
Summary 211
Chapter review 213
eBookPLUS activities 217
CHAPTER 7
Variation 218
7A Direct variation 218
Exercise 7A 224
7B Further direct variation 227
Exercise 7B 231
7C Inverse variation 235
Exercise 7C 241
7D Further inverse variation 244
Exercise 7D 246
7E Joint variation 249
Exercise 7E 252
7F Part variation 255
Exercise 7F 257
7G Transformation of data 259
Exercise 7G 261
Summary 263
Chapter review 264
eBookPLUS activities 269
EXAM PRACTICE 2
Based on Chapters 47 270
CHAPTER 8
Further algebra 272
8A Polynomial identities 272
Exercise 8A 275
8B Partial fractions 276
Exercise 8B 282
8C Simultaneous equations 283
Exercise 8C 287
Summary 289
Chapter review 290
eBookPLUS activities 292
CHAPTER 9
Algebra and logic 293
9A Statements (propositions), connectives and
truth tables 293
Exercise 9A 298
9B Valid and invalid arguments 300
Exercise 9B 307
9C Techniques of proof 310
Exercise 9C 314
9D Sets and Boolean algebra 317
Exercise 9D 324
9E Digital logic 325
Exercise 9E 331
Summary 333
Chapter review 336
eBookPLUS activities 339
CHAPTER 10
Linear and non-linear graphs 340
10A The circle 340
Exercise 10A 342
10B The ellipse 343
Exercise 10B 346
10C The parabola 347
Exercise 10C 350
10D The hyperbola 351
Exercise 10D 356
v Contents
10E Polar coordinates 357
Exercise 10E 359
10F Polar equations 360
Exercise 10F 362
10G Polar graphs 363
Exercise 10G 365
10H Review of complex numbers and polar form
of complex numbers 367
Exercise 10H 372
10I Addition of ordinates, reciprocals and
squares of simple graphs 372
Exercise 10I 378
Summary 380
Chapter review 383
eBookPLUS activities 388
CHAPTER 11
Linear programming 389
11A Graphs of linear inequations 389
Exercise 11A 393
11B Graphs of simultaneous linear
inequations 394
Exercise 11B 398
11C Graphs of systems of linear inequations 399
Exercise 11C 401
11D Maximising and minimising linear
functions 402
Exercise 11D 408
11E Solving linear programming problems 409
Exercise 11E 411
11F Further applications of linear
programming 415
Exercise 11F 417
Summary 420
Chapter review 421
eBookPLUS activities 428
CHAPTER 12
Coordinate geometry 429
12A Distance between two points 429
Exercise 12A 431
12B Midpoint of a line segment 432
Exercise 12B 434
12C Dividing a line segment internally in the
ratio a : b 435
Exercise 12C 438
12D Dividing a line segment externally in the
ratio a : b 439
Exercise 12D 442
12E Parallel lines 442
Exercise 12E 444
12F Perpendicular lines 445
Exercise 12F 446
12G Applications 447
Exercise 12G 451
Summary 454
Chapter review 456
eBookPLUS activities 459
EXAM PRACTICE 3
Based on Chapters 812 460
CHAPTER 13
Vectors 462
13A Introduction to vectors 462
Exercise 13A 465
13B Operations on vectors 466
Exercise 13B 470
13C Magnitude, direction and components
of vectors 471
Exercise 13C 474
13D


i j , notation 475
Exercise 13D 478
13E Applications of vectors 480
Exercise 13E 483
Summary 487
Chapter review 488
eBookPLUS activities 491
CHAPTER 14
Statics of a particle 492
14A Force and tension 492
Exercise 14A 494
14B Newtons rst law of motion 495
Exercise 14B 497
14C Equilibrium forces at an angle 498
Exercise 14C 501
14D Connected bodies in equilibrium 502
Exercise 14D 505
Summary 507
Chapter review 508
eBookPLUS activities 510
CHAPTER 15
Kinematics 511
15A Introduction to kinematics 511
Exercise 15A 518
vi Contents
15B Velocitytime graphs and accelerationtime
graphs 521
Exercise 15B 529
15C Constant acceleration formulas 532
Exercise 15C 535
15D Instantaneous rates of change 538
Exercise 15D 546
Summary 549
Chapter review 551
eBookPLUS activities 555
CHAPTER 16
Geometry in two and three
dimensions 556
16A Review of basic geometry 556
Exercise 16A 560
16B Geometric constructions 562
Exercise 16B 567
16C Polygons 567
Exercise 16C 575
16D Three-dimensional geometry 576
Exercise 16D 578
16E Circle geometry 579
Exercise 16E 582
16F Tangents, chords and circles 584
Exercise 16F 589
16G Geometry in architecture, design
and art 592
Exercise 16G 597
Summary 599
Chapter review 601
eBookPLUS activities 605
EXAM PRACTICE 4
Based on Chapters 1316 606
CHAPTER 17
Univariate data Available on eBookPlus
CHAPTER 18
Bivariate data Available on eBookPlus
Answers 608
Index 673
vii Introduction
Introduction
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics is specically designed for the VCE General
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award-winning Maths Quest series. This resource contains:
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Investigations, often suggesting the use of technology, provide further discovery learning
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viii Introduction
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Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics provides ample material, such as exercises,
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ix About eBookPLUS
Next generation teaching and learning
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x Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
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1
1 Chapter 1 Number systems: real and complex
Review of properties and computation with
natural numbers, integers, and rational numbers
Forms of representation including, for example,
equivalence of decimal and fractional forms
(terminating and innitely recurring decimals
for rational numbers)
Geometric representation of natural numbers,
integers and rational numbers on a number line
Application of rational number arithmetic to
computation in practical situations involving
small and large numbers using scientic
notation
Denition and properties of real and complex
number systems
Irrational numbers and complex numbers as
roots of quadratic equations
Geometric representation of irrational numbers
that are roots of quadratic equations on the real
number line and representation of complex
numbers on an Argand diagram
Operations with irrational numbers of the form
a b n a b a b , where a and b are rational numbers
and n is a positive integer that is not a perfect
square
Operations with complex numbers of the form
a + bi, where a and b are rational numbers and
i
2
=
-
1
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc
10 Quick Questions
AREAS OF STUDY
1A R eview of set notation
1B Subsets of the set of real numbers
1C Properties of surds
1D The set of complex numbers
1E Multiplication and division of complex
numbers
1F Representing complex numbers on an
Argand diagram
1G Factorising quadratic expressions and
solving quadratic equations over the
complex number eld
Number
systems: real
and complex
Review of set notation
Sets contain elements. In this chapter the elements are numbers.
For example, the following are six elements: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
is the universal set the set of all elements under consideration.
So, in this example, = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}.
is the empty or null set. This set contains no elements. = {}.
An upper case letter, such as A, represents a subset of .
In our example, A = {1, 3, 5} and B = {1, 2, 3, 4}.
is read as is an element of. For example, 3 A.
is read as is not an element of. For example, 2 A.
is read as is a subset of. For example, {1, 3} A.
is read as is a superset of. For example, A {1, 3}.
Related symbols, such as , and , are also used.
1A
2
A is the complement of A. This set contains all the elements not in A that are in . For
example, given = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}, if A = {1, 3, 5}, then A= {2, 4, 6}.
A B is the union of A and B. This set contains all the elements in sets A and B. For the
example above, A B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}.
A B is the intersection of A and B. This set contains all the elements in both A and B. For
the example above, A B = {1, 3}.
C \ D is read as C slash D. This set contains all the elements in C that are not in D. If
C = {1, 2, 5, 6} and D = {2, 5}, then C \ D = {1, 6}. This notation is particularly useful in
modifying a given set to exclude a small number of elements.
A Venn diagram may be used to illustrate set notation.

5
1
3
2
4
A B
6
WORKED EXAMPLE 1
= {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12}. C = {4, 8, 12}. D = {2, 6, 10, 12}.
a Illustrate these sets on a Venn diagram.
Then state:
b C c C D d C D e (C D) f C D g C\{2}.
THINK WRITE
a Draw a Venn diagram, and enter the elements in the
appropriate region.
a

12 6
4
8
2
10
C D
b
The set C is the complement of C and contains all
elements not in the set C.
b
C = {2, 6, 10}
c
The set C D is the union of C and D and contains
all elements in sets C and D.
c
C D = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12}
d
The set C D is the intersection of C and D and
contains elements common to sets C and D.
d
C D = {12}
e
The set (C D) is the complement of the union of
sets C and D. It contains elements not in the union of
sets C and D. In this case, there are no elements not
in the union of sets C and D.
e
(C D)=
f
The set C D is the intersection of C and D. It
contains elements common to the sets C and D.
There are no common elements to C and D.
f
C D =
g
The set C\{2} is the set of C without the element 2.
It contains all the elements of the set C but not 2.
g
C\{2} = {6, 10}
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
3 Chapter 1 Number systems: real and complex
The set of real numbers
Non-signed numbers natural numbers and fractions
Numbers were invented to quantify objects in the environment. Huntergatherers used counting
or natural numbers to communicate how many of a particular animal were seen on a hunting
trip. The set of natural numbers is given as N = {1, 2, 3, . . .}.
The set of fractions is given as D. D includes
1
2
,
1
3
,
3
4
,
7
3
,
121
16
, . . . , where fractions greater than 1
may be expressed as an improper fraction or as a mixed number. As
3
3
or
9
3
are also fractions,
N D.
Fractions were invented to divide an object into equal parts or a number of objects into equal
parts. For practical applications in the ancient world, the set of fractions (D) was all that was
needed. Mathematical oddities occurred, such as a proof that 2 could not be expressed as
a fraction, but these were considered more of a philosophical or mystical argument than a
practical use of numbers.
Signed numbers integers and rational numbers
The systematic consideration of the concept of number in algebra, and the numbers required to
solve equations of the form x + 2 = 0 and 3x + 1 = 0, resulted in the invention of integers and
rational numbers.
The set of integers is given by Z = {. . . ,
-
3,
-
2,
-
1, 0,
+
1,
+
2,
+
3, . . .}.
Note: When we are dealing with signed numbers the positive signs are usually omitted, that
is, Z = {. . . ,
-
3,
-
2,
-
1, 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .}.
Z
-
is the set of negative integers: Z
-
= {. . . ,
-
3,
-
2,
-
1}.
Z
+
is the set of positive integers: Z
+
= {1, 2, 3, . . .}.
Therefore, Z = Z
-
{0} Z
+
.
The set of rational numbers is given by Q. These are numbers of the form
p
q
, where p Z and
q Z \{0}.
Consistent with the denition of Q, Z Q.
Q
-
is the set of negative rational numbers.
Q
+
is the set of positive rational numbers.
Therefore, Q = Q
-
{0} Q
+
.
4
Was Q the largest set of numbers that could be mapped on a number line? The Greeks had
shown that 2, one of the solutions of x
2
= 2, was not rational, and further evidence that Q
was not the largest set of numbers that could be mapped onto a number line came from writing
fractions in decimal form.
Rational numbers in their simplest form with denominators such as 2, 4, 5, 8, 10 produce
terminating decimals. Some examples include:
3
8
0 375
7
16
0 4375
89
125
0 712
123
64
1 = = = = . , . , . , .9921875
Rational numbers in their simplest form with denominators such as 3, 6, 7, 9, 11, 13, 14,
15, 17 produce non-terminating recurring or repeating decimals. Some examples include:
1
3
= 0.333 = 0 3 .

,
1
6
= 0.1666 = 0 16 .

,
5
12
= 0.42666 = 0 426 .

17
99
= 0.171717 = 0 17 .

,
3
7
= 0.428571428571 = 0 428571 .

,
17
13
= 1 307692 .

Division by zero
Are
2
0
and
0
0
rational numbers?
2
0
is the solution of 0x = 2, for which there are no solutions.
0
0
is
the solution of 0x = 0, for which there are an innite number of solutions. As neither case gives
a unique rational number solution, then division by zero is not dened. The
0
0
case is sometimes
referred to as the indeterminate case.
WORKED EXAMPLE 2
Using a calculator, express the following rational numbers in decimal form.
a
5
16
b
4
7
c
17
12
THINK WRITE
a Since the denominator is 16, expect a terminating
decimal.
a
5
16
= 0.3125
b 1 Since the denominator is 7, expect a
non-terminating, repeating decimal.
b
4
7
= 0.5714285714
2 Indicate the repeating sequence using dot
notation.
4
7
= 0 571428 .

c 1 Since the denominator is 12, expect a non-
terminating, repeating decimal.
c
17
12
= 0.41666
2 Indicate the repeating sequence using dot
notation.
17
12
= 0 416 .

Irrational numbers
Irrational numbers are given by I. They are numbers that can be placed on a number line and
may be expressed as non-terminating, non-recurring decimals. For example:
-
-
-
+ 2
3
2
5 1 4 5
1
3
3
4
, , , , , .
Irrational numbers cannot be written in the form
p
q
, where p Z and q Z \{0}.
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
5 Chapter 1 Number systems: real and complex
Many irrational numbers in decimal form, such as 2 and , have digits that have no pattern.
For these numbers it is impossible to predict the next digit from the preceding digits. However,
other irrational numbers can be constructed with a pattern; for example:
0.10110011100011110000 and 0.01011011101111
There are two important subsets of the set of irrational numbers: the set of algebraic numbers
and the set of transcendental numbers.
Algebraic numbers are those that are the solution of an algebraic polynomial equation of the
form:
a x a x a x a x a
n
n
n
n
+ + + + +
-
-
1
1
2
2
1 0
,
where a
0
, a
1
, a
2
, , a
n - 1
, a
n
Z. For example, algebraic numbers include 3
1
3
from one of the
solutions of x
3
- 3 = 0 and 2
3
4
from x
4
- 8 = 0.
Transcendental numbers occur in the evaluation of some functions, such as trigonometric
functions. For example, sin (324) and are transcendental numbers. The functions that
produce these numbers are often called transcendental functions.
Real numbers
Finally, the set of real numbers is given as R. R includes all numbers that can be put on a number
line, where R = Q I. The Venn diagram shows the relationships between R, Q, I, Z and N.
N
Z (Integers)
Q (Rational
numbers)
I
(Irrational
numbers)
(Natural
numbers)
R (Real numbers) =
WORKED EXAMPLE 3
For each of the numbers below, using R, Q, I, Z and N, state all the sets for which they are a member.
a
-
5 b
--
17
3
c 3 2 d 27 179 .

e 4.153
f 17.1354 g 1.011011101111 h 32
1
5
i
17
1
4
THINK WRITE
a
-
5 is an integer. a
-
5 is a negative integer (Z
-
). It is also a rational
number (Q) and a real number (R).
b
-
17
3
is a rational number, as it can be written as a
fraction.
b
-
17
3
is a rational number (Q) and a real
number (R).
c 3 2 is an irrational number. c 3 2 is an irrational number (I) and a real
number (R).
d 27 179 .

is a rational number, as it is a recurring
decimal.
d
27 179 .

is a rational number (Q) and a real
number (R).
e 4.153 is a rational number, as it is a terminating
decimal.
e
4.153 is a rational number (Q) and a real
number (R).
6
f 17.1354 is an irrational number as there is no
indication that there is a recurring pattern.
f
17.1354 is an irrational number (I ) and a
real number (R).
g 1.011011101111 is an irrational number. g 1.011011101111 is an irrational number (I)
and a real number (R).
h 32
1
5
can be simplied to 2 and is therefore a
natural number.
h 32
1
5
is a natural number (N). It is also an
integer (Z ), a rational number (Q) and a real
number (R).
i 17
1
4
is an irrational number. i 17
1
4
is an irrational number (I ) and a real
number (R).
WORKED EXAMPLE 4
Express each of the following in the form
a
b
, where a Z and b Z \{0}.
a 0.

6 b
0 23 .

c
0 41 .

d
2 1234 .

THINK WRITE
a 1 Write 0 6 .

in expanded form. a 0 6 .

= 0.666666 [1]
2 Multiply [1] by 10. 10 0 6 .

= 6.66666 [2]
3 Subtract [1] from [2]. 9 0 6 .

= 6
0 6 .

=
6
9
4 State the simplest answer. =
2
3
b 1 Write 0 23 .

in the expanded form. b 0 23 .

= 0.232323 [1]
2 Multiply [1] by 100. 100 0 23 .

= 23.232323 [2]
3 Subtract [1] from [2]. 99 0 23 .

= 23
4 State the simplest answer. 0 23
23
99
.

=
c 1 Write 0 41 .

in the expanded form. c
0 41 .

= 0.41111 [1]
2 Multiply [1] by 10. 10 0 41 .

= 4.11111 [2]
3 Subtract [1] from [2]. 9 0 41 .

= 3.7
4 State the simplest answer. 0 41
3 7
9
37
90
.
.

= =
d 1 Write 2 1234 .

in the expanded form. d 2 1234 .

= 2.1234234 [1]
2 Multiply [1] by 1000.
1000 2 1234 .

= 2123.423423 [2]
3 Subtract [1] from [2].
999 2 1234 .

= 2121.3
4 State the simplest answer. 2 1234
2121 3
999
21213
9999
2357
1111
.
.

=
=
=
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int-1 2 11
Worked example 4
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
7 Chapter 1 Number systems: real and complex
The basic properties of number are assumed to be true if a counterexample cannot be found. For
example, the statement the product of two integers is an integer is accepted as true because a
counterexample has not been found, but the statement the quotient, when dened, of two
integers is an integer is false because a counterexample
2
3

is not an integer.
WORKED EXAMPLE 5
Determine counterexamples for the following.
a The product of two irrational numbers is irrational.
b The sum of two irrational numbers is irrational.
THINK WRITE
a Take a simple irrational number such as 2.
Multiply by another irrational number, say 2.
State your answer.
a
Because 2 2 2 = , which is a rational
number, the statement the product of two
irrational numbers is irrational is shown to be
false.
b 1
Take two irrational numbers
such as 0.101100111000 and
0.010011000111.
Add these numbers.
b 0.101100111000 + 0.010011000111 =
0.111111111111
2
State your answer. Because 0.111111111111 is a rational
number, the statement the sum of two
irrational numbers is irrational has been shown
to be false.
Standard form or scientic notation
Very large or very small numbers are conveniently expressed in standard form, a 10
b
,
where a R and 1 a < 10 and b Z. For example, 1234111 = 1.234111 10
6
and
0.000000000045 = 4.5 10
-
11
.
Precision of answers signicant gures and decimal places
In everyday life, the exact answer to a problem is not always required. For instance, if you were
asked how long it took you to get to school that morning, you would not be expected to give the
answer accurate to hundredths of a second. A reasonable answer to such a question would be in
minutes.
Note: The CAS calculator can
perform some of these calculations
for you. On the Main screen, tap:
Action
Transformation
toFrac
Complete the entry line as:
0.6666666666667
Then press E.
8
The numerical answer to a calculation may be required to be given correct to a set number
of decimal places, and this is done through a process of rounding. To determine the number
of decimal places contained in a number, count the number of digits after the decimal point.
For example, 0.35 has 2 decimal places. For numbers expressed to a given number of decimal
places, remember to round up if the next digit is 5 or more. For example, rounded to 2 decimal
places, 2.234 becomes 2.23 and 2.236 becomes 2.24.
To determine the number of signicant gures contained in a number, count the number of
digits from the rst non-zero digit. For example, 0.035 contains 2 signicant gures. Any zeros
at the end of a number after a decimal point are considered to be signicant. For example, 1.40
has 3 signicant gures. The trailing zeros at the end of a number are not considered to be
signicant. For example, 24 000 has 2 signicant gures.
For numbers expressed to a given number of signicant gures, remember to round. For
example, rounded to 2 signicant gures, 2.234 becomes 2.2 and 2.236 also becomes 2.2.
Some examples are shown in the following table.
Number
2 signicant
gures
3 signicant
gures
2 decimal
places
3 decimal
places
471 860.237 8 470 000 472 000 471 860.24 471 860.238
1.238 9 1.2 1.24 1.24 1.239
1.006 8 1.0 1.01 1.01 1.007
0.016 78 0.017 0.016 8 0.02 0.017
0.001 556 0.0016 0.001 56 0.00 0.002
0.199 1 0.20 0.199 0.20 0.199
WORKED EXAMPLE 6
Calculate the following products and quotients without using a calculator, expressing your
answer in scientic notation correct to 1 signicant gure.
a 8 10
24
3 10
-
10
b
7 10
8 10
17
10

--
THINK WRITE
a 1
Multiply the terms by using the properties
of indices:
a
n
a
m
= a
n + m
.
a 8 10
24
3 10
-
10
= 24 10
14
2
Write the answer in standard form,
correct to 1 signicant gure.
24 10
14
= 2.4 10 10
14
= 2.4 10
15
= 2 10
15
b 1 Multiply the terms by using the properties
of indices:
a
n
a
m
= a
n - m
.
b
7 10
8 10
0 875 10
17
10
27

=
-
.
2
Write the answer in standard form,
correct to 1 signicant gure.
0.875 10
27
= 0.9 10
27
or
= 9 10
26
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
9 Chapter 1 Number systems: real and complex
Recall and apply the denitions of 1. , , , , A, A B, A B and C \D, and how to
illustrate these on a Venn diagram.
Recall and apply the denitions of the following sets of numbers: 2. N, D, Z, Q, I and R
and their relationships.
Rational numbers, expressed as decimals, are either terminating or non-terminating 3.
recurring. Irrational numbers, expressed as decimals, are non-terminating and
non-recurring.
Division by zero is not dened. 4.
Given a non-terminating, non-repeating decimal, use the process to express the number 5.
in the
p
q
form of a rational number.
Do simple calculations in scientic notation by hand and more complex calculations 6.
using a calculator.
Express answers to the stated number of signicant gures or decimal places. 7.
REMEMBER
Review of set notation
1 WE 1 If = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}, A = {1, 2} and B = {2, 3}, show these on a Venn diagram,
and then state the following sets.
a A b A B c A B d A\{2}
e A B f A B g (A B)
2 WE2 Use a calculator to express the following rational numbers in decimal form.
a
213
64
b
15
44
c
16
13
3 WE3 For each number below, using J, Q, I and R state all the sets in which they are a member.
- -
2
16
8
21
16
3
2
7
6 3 16 5 21 7
1
4
1
5
, , , , , , , , . 22 2 567 4 135218976 4 232332333 , . , . , .


4 WE4 Express the following in their simplest rational form.
a 0 24 .

b 1 123 .

c 0 123 .

d 2 1123 .

5 WE5 Find a counter-example, if possible, for the following statements. If a counter-example
is found, the statement is false (F). If a counter-example is not found, accept the statement to
be true (T).
a The product of two integers is an integer.
b The division of an integer by an integer is a rational number.
c The difference of two irrational numbers is irrational.
d The sum of an irrational number and a rational number is irrational.
6 Copy the Venn diagram at right and then shade the region represented by each of the following
sets.
a A b A B
c A B d (A B) \ (A B)
e A B f A B
g (A B)
EXERCISE
1A

A B
10
7 Complete the following table.
Number
3 signicant
gures
4 signicant
gures
2 decimal
places
3 decimal
places
1267.1066
7.6699
8.000 56
0.999 87
0.076 768
0.000 174 95
8 WE6 Calculate the following products and quotients without using a calculator,
expressing your answer in scientific notation to 1 significant figure.
a 1.5 10
16
4 10
12
b 1.2 10
24
3 10
-
10
c 3.2 10
25
2 10
15
d 7 10
14
9 10
-
8
e
8 10
4 10
17
10

-
f
2 5 10 8 10
5 10
12 7
8
.

9 Calculate the following products and quotients using a calculator, expressing your answer in
scientific notation to 3 significant figures.
a 1.4574 10
21
3.6677 10
9
b 8.2583 10
25
9.2527 10
-
7
c
5 7789 10
4 6999 10
17
10
.
.

d
2 578 10 8 775 10 7 342 10
5 878 10
12 7 6
13
. ( . . )
.
+

- -
10 MC The smallest subset of R in which 4 2 27
3
- belongs is:
A Z
+
B Z
-
C Q
+
D Q
-
E I
11 MC The smallest subset of R in which
9
4
4 4567 .

belongs is:
A Z
+
B Z
-
C Q
+
D Q
-
E I
12 MC If = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}, A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {5}, then A \ B is:
A {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} B {5, 6, 7, 8} C
D {6. 7. 8} E {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}
13 MC 3.0102 and 92457 to 4 significant figures are:
A 3.01 and 92450 B 3.010 and 92450 C 3.01 and 92460
D 3.010 and 92460 E 3.0102 and 92457
14 MC 0.23, 0 23 .

and 0.232 233 222 333 respectively belong to the following sets.
A Z, Z, I B Q, Q, I C Q, I, I
D Z, Q, I E Q, Q, Q
Subsets of the set of
real numbers
Notation
Mathematics is a form of communication. While the mathematical concepts can be
unambiguously dened, there are often difculties in communicating these concepts because
of differences in notation. There is no international body that denes notation that is to be used
worldwide. There can be signicant differences between nations and regions. The development
of notations in mathematics may be likened to the chaotic international development of the
eBookplus eBookplus
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WorkSHEET 1.1
1B
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
11 Chapter 1 Number systems: real and complex
English language. Just as with the English language, mathematical notations change with time
and geography.
At the secondary-school level, there is some attempt to standardise the notations used. As
a consequence, students are exposed only to some commonly used notations. At universities,
however, there is a proliferation of notations because international references are used.
How big is the problem? It is more an annoyance than a problem. Consider 2.4, 24 and 2,4.
All represent the same decimal number but in some countries 24 = 2 4. Then again, others
use 2.4 = 2 4.
Some notations for subsets of the set of real numbers
There are different forms of notation for representing subsets.
1. Describing, for example, {integers between and including 1 and 5}
2. Listing, for example, {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
3. Set builder notation, for example, {x: x Z, 1 x 5}, which is read as the set of numbers x
such that x is an element of the set of integers and x is greater than or equal to 1 and less than
or equal to 5.
If x R, it is not necessary to include the nature of x. For example, {x: x 2} represents
the set of real numbers greater than or equal to 2. The two sets above may be represented on a
number line as follows.
2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
x z
2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
x
If x Q, the graph on the number line appears to look like the corresponding graph for x R
because the number line appears to be continuous (although all irrational numbers are missing).
For example, {x: x Q, x 2} would appear to be identical to the graph of {x: x 2} shown
above.
If individual numbers are excluded from a given set, indicate this on a number line by an open
point. For example, {x: x 2}\{3} is represented on a number line below.
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
x
A given set can be stated in more than one way using set builder notation. For example,
{1, 2, 3, 4, 5} can be written as {x: x Z, 0 < x < 6}, {x: 1 x 5} or {x: x Z
+
, x 5}.
4. Interval notation is used for subsets of the set of real numbers. The denition of interval
notation is shown below. These sets are also illustrated on a number line.
a b
[a, b] = {x : a x b}
x
a b
[a, b) = {x : a x < b}
x
a b
(a, b) = {x : a < x < b}
x
a
(

, a] = {x : x a}
x
a
(a, ) = {x : x > a}
x
12
Notes
1. If a terminal point is included, a closed dot is shown on the number line.
2. If the terminal point is not included, an open dot is shown.
3. If the terminal point is

, an arrowhead is shown and the notation uses a round bracket, for


example, [a, ).
WORKED EXAMPLE 7
List the following sets and then express each set using set builder notation. Illustrate each set on a
number line.
a {Integers between
-
3 and 4} b {Integers less than 2}
THINK WRITE
a 1 This set involves integers.
List the set of integers.
Express the set using set builder notation.
a {
-
2,
-
1, 0, 1, 2, 3} = {x: x Z,
-
3 < x < 4}
2 Draw a number line showing arrowheads on
each end. Ensure that the numbers from
-
3 to 4 are shown, using an appropriate scale.
Since, the set of integers is to be represented,
do not join the dots.
2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
x
4 3
b 1
This set involves integers.
List the set of integers.
Express the set using set builder notation.
b
{,
-
2,
-
1, 0, 1} = {x: x Z, x < 2}
2 Draw a number line showing arrowheads on
each end. Ensure that the numbers from
-
3 to 4 are shown, using an appropriate scale.
Since, the set of integers is to be represented,
do not join the dots, but show an arrow on the
left side of
-
3.
2 1 0 1 2 3 4
x z
3
WORKED EXAMPLE 8
Use set builder notation to represent the following sets.
a {Rational numbers greater than 27}
b {Integers between and including both 100 and 300, except for 200}
c {Positive integers less 9 and greater than 50}
d {Real numbers from 1 to 3, including 3}
e {Real numbers that are less than 7 and greater than 2}
f {Positive real numbers that are less than 2 or greater than 7}
THINK WRITE
a The numbers in this set belong to the set of rational
numbers, Q.
a {x: x Q, x > 27}
b The numbers in this set belong to the set of integers,
Z. Exclude 200.
b {x: x Z, 100 x 300}\{200}
c The numbers in this set belong to the set of positive
integers, Z
+
. Express the set of positive integers less
9 and greater than 50 as the union of two sets.
c {x: x Z
+
, x < 9} {x: x Z
+
, x > 50}
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
13 Chapter 1 Number systems: real and complex
d The numbers in this set belong to the set of real
numbers, R, from 1 to 3, including 3.
d {x: 1 < x 3}
e The numbers in this set belong to the set of real
numbers, R, that are less than 7 and greater than 2.
e {x: x < 7} {x: x > 2} or, more simply,
{x: 2 < x < 7}
f The numbers in this set belong to the set of positive
real numbers, R
+
, that are less than 2 or greater than 7.
f {x: x < 2} {x: x > 7} or
R\{x: 2 x 7}
WORKED EXAMPLE 9
Use interval notation to represent the following sets.
a {x:
-
2 < x 3} b {x: x 4}
c {x: 3 < x 5} {x: 4 x < 7} d {x: 3 < x 5} {x: 4 x < 7}
THINK WRITE
a x R. Only the end point 3 is included; therefore,
use a square bracket.
a (
-
2, 3]
b x R. Negative innity is always preceded by a
round bracket when using interval notation.
b (
-
, 4]
c x R. Only the inner end points are included. c (3, 5] [4, 7)
d x R. Only inner end points are included. d (3, 5] [4, 7) = [4, 5]
Set builder notation. For example, { 1. x: x Q,
-
3 < x 17}. If x R, the set does not
have to be stated. For example, {x:
-
3 < x 17}.
Interval notation. For example, ( 2.
-
3, 17] = {x:
-
3 < x 17}, [
-
3, ) = {x: x
-
3}. This
notation can only be used if x R.
All subsets of 3. R can be illustrated on a number line.
REMEMBER
Subsets of the set of real numbers
1 WE7 List the following sets and then express each set using set builder notation. Then
illustrate each set on a number line.
a {Integers between
-
6 and 1}
b {Integers from
-
3 to 4}
c {Integers greater than
-
6 and less than or equal to 4}
d {Positive integers less than 5}
e {Integers less than 5}
f {Integers greater than 2}
g {Negative integers greater than
-
5}
2 WE8 Use set builder notation to represent the following sets.
a {Rational numbers greater than 5}
b {Rational numbers greater than 5 and less than or equal to 20}
c {Positive rational numbers less than 20}
d {Integers between 5 and 20, except for 8 and 9}
EXERCISE
1B
14
e {Positive integers less than 100, except for integers between 40 and 50}
f {Real numbers from 2 to 5, including 2}
g {Real numbers which are less than 5 and greater than 3}
h {Real numbers which are less than 3 and greater than 7}
i {Positive real numbers which are less than 3 and greater than 7}
3 WE9 Use interval notation to represent the following sets; then illustrate the sets on a
number line.
a {x:
-
3 x 1} b {x: x < 2}
c {x:
-
2 < x < 1} d {x: x 2}
e {x: 2 x < 5} {x: 4 x < 6} f {x: x < 5} {x: 4 x < 6}
g {x: 2 x < 5} {x: 4 < x 6} h {x: x > 5} {x: 4 < x 6}
4 MC Which of the following sets is an incorrect representation of the set
{all integers from 1 to 5}?
A {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} B {x: x Z, 1 x 5} C {x: x Z, 1 x < 6}
D Z
+
\{x: x Z, x 6} E [1, 5]
5 MC For the set illustrated on the given number line, which of the following cannot be true?
2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x
4 3 5
A (
-
5, 5] B {x:
-
5 < x 5} C {x: x Q,
-
5 < x 5}
D {Real numbers from
-
5 to 5, not including
-
5} E [
-
5, 5]
Properties of surds
A surd is any irrational number of the form a
n
, where a > 0 and n Z
+
. In this section we will
focus on the surds of the form a, where a Q.
For example, 21 is a surd, but 36 = 6 is a rational number and not a surd.
Simplifying surds
2 cannot be simplied because it does not have a perfect square factor, but 8 can be
simplied since 8 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 = = = = . A surd is not simplied until all perfect
square factors are removed, so the simplied version of 32 is not 2 8 but 4 2.
WORKED EXAMPLE 10
Simplify the following surds. (Assume that x and y are positive real numbers.)
a 384 b 3 405 c
--
1
8
175
THINK WRITE
a 1 Express 384 as a product of two factors where
one factor is the largest possible perfect square.
a 384 64 6 =
2 Express 64 6 as the product of two surds. = 64 6
3 Simplify the square root from the perfect
square (that is, 64 8 = ).
= 8 6
1C
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
15 Chapter 1 Number systems: real and complex
b 1 Express 405 as a product of two factors, one of
which is the largest possible perfect square.
b 3 405 3 81 5 =
2 Express 81 5 as a product of two surds. = 3 81 5
3 Simplify 81. = 3 9 5
4
Multiply together the whole numbers outside
the root (3 and 9).
= 27 5
c 1 Express 175 as a product of two factors where
one factor is the largest possible perfect square.
c
-
1
8
175 =
-
1
8
25 7
2 Express 25 7 as a product of 2 surds.
=
-
1
8
25 7
3 Simplify 25.
=
-
1
8
5 7
4
Multiply together the numbers outside the
square root sign.
=
-
5
8
7
Addition and subtraction of surds
Only like surds may be added or subtracted. Like surds, in their simplest form, have the
same number under the square root sign. For example, 5 3 7 3 5 7 3 12 3 + = + = ( ) and
5 3 7 3 5 7 3 2 3 - = - =
-
( )
.
WORKED EXAMPLE 11
Simplify each of the following expressions involving surds. Assume that a and b are positive real
numbers.
a 3 6 17 6 2 6 + - b 5 3 2 12 5 2 3 8 + - + c
1
2
100 36 5 4
3 2 2
a b ab a a b + -
THINK WRITE
a All three terms are like, since they contain the
same surd ( ) 6 , so group the like terms
together and simplify.
a 3 6 17 6 2 6 3 17 2 6
18 6
+ - = + -
=
( )
b 1 Simplify the surds where possible. b 5 3 2 12 5 2 3 8
5 3 2 4 3 5 2 3 4 2
5 3 2 2 3 5 2 3 2
+ - +
= + - +
= + - + 22
5 3 4 3 5 2 6 2 = + - +
2 Collect the like terms. = + 9 3 2
c 1 Simplify the surds where possible. c
1
2
100 36 5 4
3 2 2
a b ab a a b + -
=
1
2
10 6 5 2
2 2
a a b ab a a b + -
=
1
2
10 6 5 2 + - a b a ab a a b
= + - 5 6 10 ab a ab a a b
2 Add the like terms. = - 11 10 ab a a b
16
Multiplication of surds
Using the property a b ab = , where a, b R
+
, 2 6 12 4 3 2 3 = = = .
Using the distributive property a(b + c) = ab + ac,
2 3 6 2 3 2 6 6 12 6 2 3 ( ) + = + = + = + .
Using an extension of the distributive property,
( ) ( ) 3 1 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 1 3 + - = - + - = - - = - .
When appropriate, the expansion of a perfect square may be used; that is,
(a + b)
2
= a
2
+ 2ab + b
2
and (a - b)
2
= a
2
- 2ab + b
2
. For example,
( ) 3 2 3 2 3 2 2 5 2 6
2
- = - + = -
Denition of the conjugate
The conjugate of a b + is a b - The conjugate of 3 2 5 - is 3 2 5 + . The product of a
conjugate pair is rational if the numbers under the square root are rational. For example,
( )( ) 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 6 6 2 1 + - = - + - = - + - = .
This is a special case of the difference of perfect squares expansion, (a + b)(a - b) = a
2
- b
2
.
WORKED EXAMPLE 12
Multiply the following surds, expressing answers in simplest form.
a 6 12 2 6
b
3
5
70
1
4
10
THINK WRITE
a 1 Simplify 12.
a 6 12 2 6 6 4 3 2 6
6 2 3 2 6
12 3 2 6
=
=
=
2 Multiply the coefcients and multiply the
surds.
= 24 18
3
Simplify the product surd.
=
=
=
24 9 2
24 3 2
72 2
b 1 Multiply the coefcients and multiply the
surds.
b
3
5
70
1
4
10 =
3
5

1
4
70 10
=
3
20
700
2 Simplify the product surd. =
3
20
100 7
=
3
20
10 7
3
Simplify by dividing both 10 and 20 by 10
(cross-cancel).
=
3
2
7 or
3 7
2
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int-1027
Worked example 12
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
17 Chapter 1 Number systems: real and complex
WORKED EXAMPLE 13
Expand and simplify the following where possible.
a 7 18 3 ( ) - b
-
2 3 10 5 3 ( ) - c ( )( ) 5 3 6 2 3 2 + -
THINK WRITE
Method 1: Using the rule
a 1 Write the expression. a 7 18 3 ( ) -
2 Simplify 18. = - 7 3 2 3 ( )
3 Expand the bracket. = +
-
7 3 2 7 3
4 Simplify. = - 3 14 3 7
b 1 Write the expression. b
-
- 2 3 10 5 3 ( )
2 (a) Expand the brackets. = -
- -
2 3 10 2 3 5 3
(b) Be sure to multiply through
with the negative.
=
-
2 30 10 9
3 Simplify. = +
-
2 30 10 3
= +
-
2 30 30
c 1 Write the expression. c ( ) ( ) 5 3 6 2 3 2 + -
2 Expand the brackets.
= + +
-
5 2 3 5 2 3 6 2 3 +
3 6 2
-
3 Simplify.
= - + - 2 15 10 6 18 3 12
= - + - 2 15 10 6 3 2 3 2 3
= - + - 2 15 10 18 2 6 3
Method 2: Using a CAS calculator
a, b
& c
1
2 Write the answers. a
b
c
3 2 1 7 ( ) -
30 2 30 -
( ) 2 3 2 5 6 3 18 2 - - +
On the Main screen complete
the entry lines as:
7 18 3 ( ) -
-
- 2 3 10 5 3 ( )
( )( ) 5 3 6 2 3 2 + -
Press E after each entry.
18
Division of surds
a
b
a
b
= , where a, b R
+
. For example,
6
2
6
2
3 = =
Using the property
a
b
a
b
b
b
ab
b
= =
, where a and b are rational, we can express
answers with rational denominators. For example,
2
6
2
6
6
6
12
6
2 3
6
3
3
= = = =
Using the property of conjugates, binomial surds in the denominator may be rationalised. For
example,
7 2 2
7 2
7 2 2
7 2
7 2
7 2
-
+
=
-
+

-
-
=
- - +
-
=
- 7 14 2 14 2 2
7 2
11 3 14
5
By multiplying the original surd by
7 2
7 2
-
-
, we are multiplying by 1, so the number is
unchanged but is nally expressed in its rational denominator form.
WORKED EXAMPLE 14
Express the following in their simplest form with a rational denominator.
Assume that x and y are positive real numbers.
a
9 88
6 99
b
6
13
c
1
2 6 3
1
3 6 2 3 -
+
+
THINK WRITE
a 1 Rewrite the surds, using
a
b
a
b
=
. a
9 88
6 99
9
6
88
99
=
2 Simplify the fraction under the root. =
9
6
8
9
3 Simplify the surds. =

9 2 2
6 3
4 Multiply the whole numbers in the numerator
and those in the denominator.
= 2
b 1 Write the fraction. b
6
13
2 Multiply both the numerator and the
denominator by the surd 13 or 1.
=
6
13
13
13
=
78
13
c 1 Write the rst fraction. c
=
-
1
2 6 3
2 Multiply the numerator and the denominator
by the conjugate of the denominator.
=
-

+
+
1
2 6 3
2 6 3
2 6 3
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
19 Chapter 1 Number systems: real and complex
3 Expand the denominator. =
+
-
2 6 3
2 6 3
2
( )
4 Simplify the denominator. =
+ 2 6 3
21
5 Write the second fraction.
1
3 6 2 3 +
6 Multiply the numerator and the denominator
by the conjugate of the denominator.
=
+

-
-
1
3 6 2 3
3 6 2 3
3 6 2 3
7 Expand the denominator. =
-
-
3 6 2 3
3 6 2 3
2 2
8 Simplify the denominator. =
- 3 6 2 3
42
9 Add the two fractions together.
Find the lowest common denominator rst.
2 6 3
21
3 6 2 3
42
+
+
-
=
+

+
- 2 6 3
21
2
2
3 6 2 3
42
=
+
+
- 4 6 2 3
42
3 6 2 3
42
10
Add the numerators. =
7 6
42
11
Simplify where appropriate. =
6
6
To simplify a surd, take out all perfect square factors from the number under the root sign. 1.
Like surds have the same number under the root sign when expressed in its simplest form. 2.
Only like surds can be added and subtracted. 3.
Multiplication properties: 4. a b ab a b c ab ac = + = + , ( ) , and
( )( ) a b c d ac ad bc bd + + = + + +
The conjugate of 5. a b a b + - is .
Special expansions: 6.
(a) Expansion of perfect squares: (a + b)
2
= a
2
+ 2ab + b
2
and (a - b)
2
= a
2
- 2ab + b
2
(b) Difference of perfect squares: (a + b)(a - b) = a
2
- b
2
Division properties: 7.
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
b
b
ab
b
= = = ,
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
a b
c d
a b
c d
c d
c d
+
+
=
+
+

-
-

=
- + -
-
ac bc bd
c d
ad
, using the conjugate
of c d + .
REMEMBER
20
Properties of surds
1 WE10 Simplify the following surds.
a 24 b 56 c 125 d 98 e 48
f 300 g 7 80 h
128
4
i
2 18
5
j
-
3 50
10
2 WE11 Simplify the following expressions.
a 7 2 4 3 5 2 6 3 + - - b 2 5 7 6 4 7 + - -
c 3 5 6 3 5 5 4 2 8 5 - + - - d 18 12 75 27 - + +
e 50 72 80 45 - + + f 3 12 5 18 4 27 5 98 - + +
g
2 3
4
3 2
8
5 3
8
5 2
4
- + -
h
2 27
5
3 32
5
5 48
3
5 2
2
- + -
3 WE12 Express the following surds in their simplest form.
a 6 15 b 2 3 5 7 c 4 7 3 14 d
20
3
15
4

4 WE13 Expand, giving your answers in their simplest form.


a 3 5 2 ( ) - b
-
- 2 7 6 ( )
c 2 3 3 3 2 ( ) + d
-
- 4 3 32 3 12 ( )
e ( )( ) 5 3 5 2 - - f ( )( ) 3 3 2 2 5 3 - +
g ( )( ) 18 12 3 2 2 - - h ( ) 5 3
2
-
i ( ) 5 7
2
+ j ( ) 2 3 3 2
2
-
k ( ) 2 12 3 18
2
+ l ( )( ) 5 3 5 3 - +
m ( )( ) 2 5 3 2 5 3 - +
n
( )( ) 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 + -
o ( )( ) 5 5 10 5 5 10 - +
5 WE14 Express the following surds in their simplest form with a rational denominator.
a
18
3
b
2 24
3 3
c
3 88
22
d
5
3
e
4 3
7 5
f
2 8
3 12
g
5
4 2
h
1
5 3 -
i
3
3 2 -
j
2 2
2 5 3 2 +
k
5 3
5 3
-
+
l
5 3
5 3
+
-
m
12 8
12 8
-
+
n
2 5 3
5 2 3
-
-
o
3 5 4
5 4
-
+
p
2 18 24
3 8 54
-
-
6 Express the following surds in their simplest form with a rational denominator.
a
1
2 2 3
1
2 2 3 -
+
+
b
1
3 2 2 3
1
2 2 3 3 -
-
+
c
3 5
3 2 2 3
2 5 1
2 2 3 3 -
-
-
+
d
2 5 3 3
3 5 2 3
3 5 2 3
2 5 3 3
+
-
-
-
+
EXERCISE
1C
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
21 Chapter 1 Number systems: real and complex
Properties of surds
1 WE10 Simplify the following surds.
a b c d e
f g h i j
2 WE11 Simplify the following expressions.
a b
c d
e f
g h
3 WE12 Express the following surds in their simplest form.
a b c d
4 WE13 Expand, giving your answers in their simplest form.
a b
c d
e f
g h
i j
k l
m
n
o
5 WE14 Express the following surds in their simplest form with a rational denominator.
a b c d
e f
g
h
i
j k l
m n o p
6 Express the following surds in their simplest form with a rational denominator.
a b
c d
EXAM TIP
When subtracting fractions, be careful
of the signs. Make sure you subtract the whole
second fraction. Use brackets to help.
[Authors advice]
e
4 2 3 3
4 2 2 3
5 2 2 3
6 2 3 3
+
-

-
+
f
2 5 3 3
3 5 4 3
3 5 4 3
2 5 3 3
+
-

+
+
7 Given that x = - 2 3 2, find each of the following, giving the answer in surd form with a
rational denominator.
a x
x
+
1
b x
x
-
1
c
x x
x
2
2
2
-
+
d
x x
x
2
2
3
+
+
e x
2
- 4x - 14 f 2x
2
- 2x - 9
g Using your answers to e and f, state if 2 3 2 - is a solution of x
2
- 4x - 14 = 0 and
2x
2
- 2x - 9 = 0.
8 Show that 5 2 3 - is a solution of one of the following equations: x
2
- 13x + 10 = 0 or
x
2
- 10x + 13 = 0.
9 Show that 2 1 + is a solution of both of the following equations: x x
2
2 2 1 0 - + = and
x x
2
2 2 3 4 3 2 0 - + + + = ( ) .
10 MC Expressed in its simplest form,
3
5
75
2
3
27
1
2
48 - - =
A 3 B
-
3 C 7 3
D 0
E
-
3 3
11 MC Expressed in its simplest form,
14
7
3 2
2
a b
ab
=
A 2a
B 2a
C 2ab
D 2
2 0
a b
E 2
2
a
12 MC Expressed in its simplest form, ( )( ) 3 3 4 8 2 3 3 8 - - =
A 114 34 6 - B 120 34 6 - C
-
- 78 17 24
D 18 24 2 - E
-
- 18 34 6
13 MC Expressed in its simplest form,
15 21
6 14
=
A
5 3
2 2
B
5 6
2 2
C
5 3
2
D
5 6
4
E
5 6
2
14 MC Expressed in its simplest form,
2 5 3
5 3
+
-
=
A
13 3 15
2
+
B
12 15
2
-
C
18 3 15
2
-
D
12 3 15
2
+
E
13 15
2
+
15 MC Expressed in its simplest form,
3 5 5
3 5 5
3 5 5
3 5 5
-
+
-
+
-
=
A 3 5 B
-
30 5 C 30 5
D 52 30 5 - E
-
3 5
22
The set of complex numbers
The need to invent further numbers became clear when equations such as
x
2
=
-
1 and x
2
=
-
9 were considered. Clearly there are no real solutions,
so imaginary numbers were invented, using the symbol i, where i
2
=
-
1.
The equation x
2
=
-
1 has two solutions, x =
-
i and x = i. As
- - - -
= = = = = 9 9 1 9 1 3 3 9
2 2
i i x , has the solutions x =

3i.
Quadratic equations such as x
2
- 4x + 5 = 0 were investigated further. Using the general
formula for the solution of a quadratic equation, that is, if ax
2
+ bx + c = 0, then
x
b b ac
a
=
-
- 2
4
2
, x
i
i =
-
=

=

=
-
4 16 20
2
4 4
2
4 2
2
2 . If the discriminant, b
2
- 4ac is
negative, the equation has no real solutions, but it does have two complex solutions.
A complex number is any number of the form x + yi, where x, y R.
C is the set of complex numbers where C = {x + yi : x, y R}
Just as x is commonly used in algebra to represent a real number, z is commonly used to
represent a complex number, where z = x + yi.
If x = 0, z = yi is a pure imaginary number. If y = 0, z = x
is a real number, so that. R C. This is represented on the
Venn diagram at right.
Notation
If z = a + bi, the real component of z, Re(z) = a, and the imaginary component of z, Im(z) = b.
For example, if z i = -
-
2 2 3 , Re(z) =
-
2 and Im(z) =
-
2 3 (not
-
2 3i). Similarly,
Re( )
- -
- = 2 2 3 2 i and Im( ) )
- -
- = 2 2 3 2 3 i
Equality of complex numbers
If a + bi = c + di, then a = c and b = d.
For two complex numbers z
1
and z
2
to be equal, their real and imaginary components must be
equal.
WORKED EXAMPLE 15
If (x + 2) + (y - 4)i = (2x + y) + xi, nd x and y.
THINK WRITE
1
Let the real parts be equal and the imaginary parts be
equal to form two equations.
Re: x + 2 = 2x + y [1]
Im: y - 4 = x [2]
2
Rearrange the linear simultaneous equations.
-
x - y =
-
2 [3]
-
x + y = 4 [4]
3
Add equations [3] and [4] to solve for x.
-
2x = 2
x =
-
1
4
Substitute x =
-
1 into equation [2] to nd the value of y. y - 4 =
-
1
y = 3
5
State the answer. x =
-
1, y = 3
1D
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R
C
N
Z
Q
I
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
23 Chapter 1 Number systems: real and complex
Multiplication of a complex number by a real constant
If z = a + bi, then kz = k(a + bi) = ka + kbi.
For example, if z =
-
2 + 3i, then
-
3z =
-
3(
-
2 + 3i) = 6 - 9i.
Adding and subtracting complex numbers
If z
1
= a + bi and z
2
= c + di, then z
1
+ z
2
= (a + c) + (b + d )i and z
1
- z
2
= (a - c) + (b - d)i.
WORKED EXAMPLE 16
If z
1
= 2 3i and z
2
=
-
3 + 4i, nd
a z
1
+ z
2
b z
1
- z
2
c 3z
1
4z
2
.
THINK WRITE
Method 1: Using the rule
a Use the denition for addition of complex
numbers:
z
1
+ z
2
= (a + c) + (b + d)i
a
z
1
+ z
2
= (2 - 3) + (
-
3 + 4)i
=
-
1 + i
b Use the denition for subtraction of
complex numbers:
z
1
z
2
= (a c) + (b d)i
b
z
1
- z
2
= (2 + 3) + (
-
3 - 4)i
= 5 - 7i
c First multiply each complex number by
the constant and then use the denition
for subtraction of complex numbers to
answer the question.
c
3z
1
- 4z
2
= 3(2 - 3i) - 4(
-
3 + 4i)
= 6 - 9i - (
-
12 + 16i)
= 18 - 25i
Method 2: Using a CAS calculator
a, b
& c
1
2
Write the answers. a z
1
+ z
2
=
-
1 + i
b z
1
- z
2
= 5 - 7i
c 3z
1
- 4z
2
= 18 - 25i
Complex numbers are of the form 1. a + bi where i
2
=
-
1.
If 2. z = a + bi, then Re(z) = a and Im(z) = b.
If 3. z
1
= a + bi and z
2
= c + di then z
1
+ z
2
= (a + c) + (b + d)i and
z
1
- z
2
= (a - c) + (b - d)i.
If 4. a + bi = c + di, then a = c and b = d.
REMEMBER
eBookplus eBookplus
Tutorial
int-1028
Worked example 16
After setting the calculator to Cplx
mode, on the Main screen complete
the entry lines as:
2 - 3i W x
-
3 + 4i W y
x + y
x - y
3x - 4y
Press E after each entry.
Note: x and y are substituted for z1
and z2.
24
The set of complex numbers
1 Express the following in terms of i.
a
-
16 b
-
7 c 2 20 +
-
d
-
+ 10 10 e
1 28
2
-
-
2 State the values of Re(z) and Im(z) for the following.
a 3 + 4i b
-
+ 2 2i c ( ( ) ) 2 1 2 1 - + + i
d 8 40 -
-
e
-
6 f 13i
3 WE15 Solve to find x and y in the following.
a (x + 1) + ( y - 1)i = 2 + 3i b (x + 4) - (3 + yi) = 2 + 5i
c (2x + i) + (3 - 2yi) = x + 3i d (x + 2i) + 2(y + xi) = 7 - 4i
e (2x + 3yi) + 2(x + 2yi) = 3 + 2i f (x + i) + (2 + yi) = 2x + 3yi
g (2x - 3i) + (
-
3 + 2y)i = y - xi
4 WE16 If z
1
= 3 4i and z
2
= 2 3i, evaluate the following.
a z
1
+ z
2
b z
1
- z
2
c 2z
1
+ 3z
2
d 2z
1
- 3z
2
e 2 2 2
1 2
z z + f 2 3
1 2
z z +
5 Find the following components.
a Re(2 + 3i + 3(4 - 2i))
b Re( ( )) 3 2 2 2 3 3 + + -
-
i i
c Im(2(2 - 3i) - 3(4 - 2i))
d Im( ( )) 2 3 2 2 2 3 6 - + -
-
i i
6 MC If z
1
= 2 - i and z
2
= 3 - 2i, then Re(2z
1
- 3z
2
) =
A 13 B
-
13 C 5
D
-
5 E 4
7 MC If z
1
= 2 - i and z
2
= 3 - 2i, then Im(2z
1
- 3z
2
) =
A 4i B 4 C
-
4
D
-
8 E
-
8i
8 MC If (2 + xi) + (4 - 3i) = x + 3yi, then the respective values of x and y are:
A 6, 1 B 3, 6 C 6,
-
3
D 6, 3 E 1, 6
Multiplication and division of
complex numbers
Multiplication of complex numbers
If z
1
= a + bi and z
2
= c + di where a, b, c, d R, then
z
1
z
2
= (a + bi)(c + di)
= ac + adi + bci + bdi
2
= (ac bd) + (ad + bc)i
Note that this is an application of the distributive property.
EXERCISE
1D
1E
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
25 Chapter 1 Number systems: real and complex
WORKED EXAMPLE 17
Simplify
a 2i(2 - 3i) b (2 - 3i)(
-
3 + 4i).
THINK WRITE
a Expand the brackets. a
2i(2 - 3i) = 4i - 6i
2
= 6 + 4i
b Expand the brackets as for binomial
expansion and simplify.
b
(2 - 3i)(
-
3 + 4i) =
-
6 + 8i + 9i - 12i
2
= 6 + 17i
The conjugate of a complex number
If z = a + bi, then its conjugate, z z a bi , is = - .
The sum of a complex number and its conjugate z z a bi a bi a + = + + - = 2 , which is a real
number.
The product of a complex number and its conjugate
zz = (a + bi)(a - bi)
= a
2
- (bi)
2
= a
2
+ b
2
, which is a real number.
\
WORKED EXAMPLE 18
If z
1
= 2 + 3i and z
2
=
-
4 - 5i, nd
a z z
1 2
+ b z z
1 2
+
c z z
1 2
d z z
1 2
.
THINK WRITE
Method 1: Using the rule
a 1
Determine the conjugate of each
complex numbers using the
denition: if z = a + bi, then its
conjugate, z, is z a bi = - .
a
z
1
= 2 + 3i
= - z i
1
2 3
z
2
=
-
4 - 5i
= +
-
z i
2
4 5
2 Evaluate z z
1 2
+ . z z i i
i
1 2
2 3 4 5
2 2
+ = - + +
= +
-
-
( ) ( )
Alternatively, on the Main screen,
complete the entry lines as:
2i(2 - 3i)
(2 - 3i) (
-
3 + 4i)
Press E after each entry.
26
b 1 To evaluate z z
1 2
+ , rst evaluate
z
1
+ z
2
.
b z
1
+ z
2
= (2 + 3i) + (
-
4 - 5i)
=
-
2 - 2i
2 Evaluate z z
1 2
+ . z z
i 1 2 2 2
+
= +
-
c Evaluate z z
1 2
using binomial expansion.
c
z z
1 2
= (2 - 3i)(
-
4 + 5i)
=
-
8 + 10i + 12i - 15i
2
= 7 + 22i
d
Evaluate z
1
z
2
rst and then evaluate z z
1 2
.
d
z
1
z
2
= (2 + 3i)(
-
4 - 5i)
=
-
8 - 10i - 12i - 15i
2
= 7 - 22i
z z
i 1 2 7 22 = +
Method 2: Using a CAS calculator
Division of complex numbers
If z
1
= a + bi and z
2
= c + di where a, b, c, d R, then using the conjugate

z
z
a bi
c di
1
2
=
+
+

=
+
+

-
-
a bi
c di
c di
c di
=
- + -
-
ac adi bci bdi
c di
2
2 2
( )

=
+ - -
+
( ) ( ) ac bd ad bc i
c d
2 2

=
+
+
-
-
+
ac bd
c d
ad bc
c d
i
2 2 2 2
WORKED EXAMPLE 19
Express each of the following in a + bi form.
a
4
2
- i
b
3
3
- 4i
i
c (3 - 2i)
-1
d
2 3
2
- i
i +
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Worked example 19
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
On the Main screen, complete the entry lines
as:
2 + 3i W x
-
4 5i W y
conjg(x) + conjg(y)
conjg(x + y)
conjg(x) conjg(y)
conjg(x y)
Press E after each entry.
Note: conjg can be typed directly onto the
screen or can be found by tapping:
Action
Complex
conjg
27 Chapter 1 Number systems: real and complex
THINK WRITE
Method 1: Using the rule
a Divide each term of the numerator by 2. a
4
2
2
1
2
-
= -
i
i
b Multiply the numerator and denominator
by i and then divide each term of the
numerator by 3. Write the answer in the
required form a + bi.
b
3 4
3
3 4
3
-
=
- i
i
i
i
i
= -
-
4
3
i
c 1 Express (3 - 2i)
-
1
as a reciprocal.
c
( ) 3 2
1
3 2
1
- =
-
-
i
i
2
Multiply the numerator and the
denominator by the complex
conjugate of the denominator.

=
-

+
+
1
3 2
3 2
3 2 i
i
i
=
+
-
3 2
9 2
2
i
i ( )

=
+
-
3 2
9 4
2
i
i

=
+ 3 2
13
i
3 Write the answer in the required
form a + bi.

= +
3
13
2
13
i
d 1 Multiply the numerator and the
denominator by the complex
conjugate of the denominator.
d
2 3
2
2 3
2
2
2
-
+
=
-
+

-
-
i
i
i
i
i
i

=
- - +
-
4 2 6 3
4
2
2
i i i
i

=
- 1 8
5
i
2 Write the answer in the required
form a + bi.

= -
1
5
8
5
i
Method 2: Using a CAS calculator
On the Main screen, complete the entry lines
as:
4
2
-i
3 4
3
- i
i
(3 - 2i)
-1
2 3
2
-
+
i
i
Press E after each entry.
28
Multiplication of complex numbers: 1.
If z
1
= a + bi and z
2
= c + di where a, b, c, d R, then
z
1
z
2
= (a + bi)(c + di)
= ac + adi + bci + bdi
2
= (ac - bd) + (ad + bc)i
If 2. z = a + bi, then its conjugate, z, is z a bi = - , where the sum and product are both
real.
z z a + = 2 and
zz a bi
a b
= -
= +
2 2
2 2
( )
Division of complex numbers: 3.
If z
1
= a + bi and z
2
= c + di where a, b, c, d R, then using the conjugate

z
z
a bi
c di
1
2
=
+
+

=
+
+

-
-
a bi
c di
c di
c di
=
- + -
-
ac adi bci bdi
c di
2
2 2
( )

=
+ - -
+
( ) ( ) ac bd ad bc i
c d
2 2

=
+
+
-
-
+
ac bd
c d
ad bc
c d
i
2 2 2 2
REMEMBER
Multiplication and division of complex numbers
1 WE17 & 19 Evaluate the following, giving the answer in its simplest a + bi form.
a 2i(2 + 3i) b (2 - 3i)(1 + i) c (
-
2 - i)(1 - 3i)
d (2 - 3i)
2
e (6 + 7i)(6 - 7i) f
3 4
5
-
-
i
i
g
3 4
3 4
+
-
i
i
h
1 2
2
+
+
i
i
i
( ) 2
1 2
2
+
+
i
i
j (3 + 2i)
-
1
k (3 + 2i)
-
2
l
1
2 3
1
2 3 -
+
+ i i
m
( )
( )
3 2
2
2
2
-
-
i
i
n
2 3
1
2 3
+ +
+
i
i
o
3
3
3
3
-
+
+
+
-
i
i
i
i
p
2
3 2
3
2
-
+
-
+
-
i
i
i
i
2 WE18 If z
1
= 4 - 3i and z
2
= 3 - 4i, evaluate the following, giving the answer in its
simplest a + bi form.
a z
1
b z z
1 2
c z z
1 2
d z
1
2
e 2
2
i z f
( )
z z
1 2
2
+
EXERCISE
1E
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
29 Chapter 1 Number systems: real and complex
g z
1
1
-
h
z
z
1
2
i
z
z
1
2
1

-
j
z
z
1
2
2

k z
z
1
1
1
+ l
z
z
z
z
1
1
2
2
-
3 If z
1
= a + bi and z
2
= c + di, prove that:
a z z
1 2
= z z
1 2
b z z
1 2
+ = + z z
1 2
c
z
z
z
z
1
2
1
2
=

4 Find x and y in each of the following.


a (x + yi)(2 + i) = 3 + 6i b
x yi
i
i
+
+
= +
1 2
1
5 Solve for z.
a (4 + 3i)z = 2 - i b (2 - 3i)z =
-
3 - 2i
6 For each of the following, state z and find z
-
1
, then state z
-
1
in terms of z.
a z = 4 + 5i b z = a + bi
7 MC Expressed in a + bi form, ( )( ) 2 3 3 3 3 2 - - = i i
A 24 13 3 - i B 12 13 3 - i
C
( ) 6 3 6 13 3 + - i
D ( ) 6 3 6 13 3 - - i E 12 5 3 - i
8 MC Expressed in a + bi form,
( )
( )
2 3 3
3 3 2
-
-
=
i
i
A
24
31
5 3
31
- i B
12
31
5 3
31
- i C
24
31
13 3
31
- i
D
24
23
5 3
31
- i E
212
23
5 3
23
- i
9 MC Expressed in a + bi form, (1 + i)
2
+ (1 + i)
-
2
=
A
5
2
i
B
9
4
7
4
- i C 0
D
9
4
9
4
- i
E
3
2
i
10 MC If (2x + yi)(3 - 2i) = 4 + 5i, then the respective values of x and y are:
A
2
13
23
13
and B
1
13
23
13
and C
7
13
23
13
and
D
1
5
23
5
and E
2
5
23
5
and
Representing complex
numbers on an Argand
diagram
Whereas real numbers can be represented on a number line, complex numbers with their real
and imaginary components require a plane.
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1F
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Complex sums and differences
30
The Argand diagram or Argand plane has a horizontal axis Re(z) and a vertical axis Im(z). The
complex number z = a + bi is represented by the point (a, b). Because of the similarities with the
Cartesian plane a + bi is referred to as the Cartesian or rectangular form.
The complex numbers 2 + 3i, 4,

3i and

2 4i are shown on the Argand plane below.


Re(z)
Im(z)
4
2
2
4
2 4i
2 4 2 4
4
2 + 3i
3i
WORKED EXAMPLE 20
a Express the following in their simplest form: i
0
, i, i
2
, i
3
, i
4
, i
5
.
b Use the pattern in these results to nd the simplest form for: i
8
, i
21
and i
-
63
.
c Illustrate the points from part a on an Argand plane, and state their distance from the origin and
the angle of rotation about the origin to rotate from one power of i to the next.
THINK WRITE/DRAW
a
Use the fact that i
2
=
-
1 and your knowledge of
index laws to simplify each term.
a
i
0
= 1
i
1
= i
i
2
=
-
1
i
3
= i
2
i =
-
i
i
4
= i
2
i
2
= 1
i
5
= i
4
i = i
b The pattern repeats as shown in part a. b
i
8
= (i
4
)
2
= 1
i
21
= (i
5
)
4
i
= i
i
-
63
= (i
-
15
)
4
i
3
= i
3
=
-
i
c 1
Rule up a pair of labelled, scaled axes for
the Argand plane.
Place each of the points from part a onto
the plane and label them.
c
Re(z)
Im(z)
2
1
1
2
1 2 1 2
i
0
, i
4
i, i
5
i
2
i
3
2
Determine the distance of each point from
the origin.
All points are 1 unit from the origin.
3 State the angle of rotation about the origin
to rotate from one power of i to the next.
The angle of rotation about the origin to rotate
from one power of i to the next is 90 in an
anticlockwise direction.
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
31 Chapter 1 Number systems: real and complex
Complex numbers are represented as an ordered pair on a complex plane or Argand 1.
diagram.
For an Argand plane, the horizontal axis is Re( 2. z), and the vertical axis is Im(z).
REMEMBER
Representing complex numbers on an Argand
diagram
1 Plot the following points on an Argand plane.
a 2 + 3i b 2 - 3i c
-
2 + 3i
d
-
2 - 3i e
-
3i f 2
2 WE20a Give the following in their simplest form.
a i
7
b i
37
c i
-
4
d i
-
15
e (2i)
6
f (
-
2i)
8
g
-
(2i)
9
h
-
(
-
2i)
-
9
3 a If z = 3 + 2i, state z and calculate z
-
1
.
b Plot z, z, and z
-
1
on an Argand plane.
c What transformation plots z onto z
-
1
?
d What is the relationship between the origin and the points representing z and z
-
1
?
4 a If z = 2 + 3i, calculate iz, i
2
z, i
3
z and i
4
z.
b Plot z, iz, i
2
z, i
3
z and i
4
z on an Argand plane.
c State a transformation that will plot the point i
n
z onto i
n + 1
z for n Z
+
.
5 a If z = 1 + i, calculate z
-
2
, z
-
1
, z
0
, z
2
, z
3
and z
4
.
b Plot z
-
2
, z
-
1
, z
0
, z, z
2
, z
3
and z
4
on an Argand plane.
c State the rotation required and the change in distance from the origin required to plot the
point z
n
onto z
n + 1
for n Z.
d State the rotation required and the distance from the origin required to plot the point z
0

onto z
n
for n Z
+
.
e State, using the results above, the following powers of z in their simplest Cartesian form.
i z
5
ii z
-
3
iii z
10
iv z
17
v z
-
13
.
Factorising quadratic expressions
and solving quadratic equations over
the complex number eld
In the introduction to complex numbers, a quadratic equation of the form ax
2
+ bx + c = 0,
where a R\{0}, b, c R, was solved using the quadratic formula x
b b ac
a
=
-
- 2
4
2
. The
expression under the square root sign is called the discriminant, and is represented by , where
= b
2
- 4ac. The discriminant can be used to determine the nature of the solutions. It can also
be used to determine possible methods for factorising a quadratic expression.
The table overleaf gives the method for factorising a quadratic expression and the nature of
the solutions of a quadratic equation for given values of , where a, b, c Q\{0}.
EXERCISE
1F
1G
32
Values of the discriminant
Factorising methods for an
expression
Nature of solution(s) of an
equation
= 0 A perfect square.
State the answer.
One rational solution
is a perfect square Factorise over Q or complete
the square.
Two rational solutions
> 0 and is not a perfect
square
Complete the square. Two irrational solutions
< 0 Complete the square. Two complex solutions
Factorising quadratic expressions over the complex
number eld
Just as in previous years, where factorising over R implies that all the coefcients must be
real numbers, factorising over C implies that all the coefcients must be complex numbers.
As factors over C are required in this section, the variable label will be z. In worked
example 21 below, the factors for the expressions in parts a and b are factors over both R and
C, but the factors for the expression in part c are factors over C only. It is still correct to say that
2z
2
+ 3 does not factorise over R.
If c = 0 and a, b R\{0}, then factorise az
2
+ bz by taking out the common factor z(az + b).
If b = 0 and a, c R\{0}, then factorise az
2
+ c using the difference of squares to
factorise.
WORKED EXAMPLE 21
Factorise each of the following quadratic expressions over C.
a 2z
2
+ 6z
b 2z
2
- 6
c 2z
2
+ 3
THINK WRITE
Method 1: Using the rule
a
Factorise 2z
2
+ 6z by taking out the
highest common factor.
a
2z
2
+ 6z = 2z(z + 3)
b 1
Factorise 2z
2
- 6 by taking out the
highest common factor.
b
2z
2
- 6 = 2(z
3
- 3)
2 Factorise further using the difference
of two squares.
= - + 2 3 3 ( )( ) z z
c 1 Factorise 2z
2
+ 3 by taking out the
common factor of 2.
c
2 3 2
3
2
2 2
z z + = +

2
Factorise further using the difference
of two squares. Let
3
2
3
2
2
=
-
i
.
= -

2
3
2
2 2
z i
= -

2
3
2
3
2
z i z i
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
33 Chapter 1 Number systems: real and complex
3 Rationalise the denominators by
multiplying the relevant terms by
2
2
.
= -

2
6
2
6
2
z i z i
Method 2: Using a CAS calculator
a, b
& c
WORKED EXAMPLE 22
Factorise each of the following quadratic expressions over C.
a z
2
- 6z + 9 b z
2
- 4z - 60 c 2z
2
- 6z - 6 d
-
2z
2
- 3z - 5
THINK WRITE
a 1
Calculate the value of the discriminant to
determine the nature of the factors.
a
= b
2
- 4ac
= (
-
6)
2
- 4(1)(9)
= 0
2
Since = 0, the expression is a perfect square. z
2
- 6z + 9 = (z - 3)
2
b 1
Calculate the value of the discriminant to
determine the nature of the factors.
b
= b
2
- 4ac
= (
-
4)
2
- 4(1)(
-
60)
= 256
2
Since = 256, which is a perfect square, then
the factors will be rational.
z
2
- 4z - 60 = (z - 10)(z + 6)
c 1
Calculate the value of the discriminant to
determine the nature of the factors.
c
= b
2
- 4ac
= (
-
6)
2
- 4(2)(
-
6)
= 84
2 Since = 84, which is not a perfect square but
is positive, use the difference of two squares to
nd two factors over R.
2z
2
- 6z - 6 = 2(z
2
- 3z - 3)
= - +
( )

- -
( )

2 3 3
2
3
2
2
3
2
2
z z
= -
( )
-

2
3
2
2
21
4
z
= - -
( )
- +
( )
2
3
2
21
2
3
2
21
2
z z
d 1
Calculate the value of the discriminant to
determine the nature of the factors.
d
= b
2
- 4ac
= (
-
3)
2
- 4(
-
2)(
-
5)
=
-
31
On the Main screen, tap:
Action
Transformation
rFactor
Complete the entry lines as:
rFactor(2z
2
+ 6z)
rFactor(2z
2
6)
rFactor(2z
2
+ 3)
Press E after each entry.
34
2 Since =
-
31 which is not a perfect square but
is negative, use the difference of two squares to
nd two factors over C.
- -
- - = + +
( )
2 3 5 2
2 2
3
2
5
2
z z z z
= + +
( )

+ -

= +
( )
-
-
2
2
2
3
4
3
4
2
5
2
9
16
3
4
z z
z
22
31
16
3
4
2
31
16
2
3
4
2
2
+

= +
( )
-

= +
-
-
z i
z --
( )
+ +
( )
31
4
3
4
31
4
i z i
Solving quadratic equations over the complex
number eld
Two methods can be used to solve quadratic equations over the eld complex number:
1. Factor rst and use the null factor property to state solutions
2. Use the formula for the solution of a quadratic equation.
The null factor property states that if ab = 0, then a = 0 or b = 0 or a = b = 0. From worked
example 22 d,
- -
- - = + -

+ +

2 3 5 2
3
4
31
4
3
4
31
4
2
z z z i z i ,
so the solutions of
-
2z
3
- 3z - 5 = 0 are from
z i + - =
3
4
31
4
0 and z i + + =
3
4
31
4
0. The solutions are z i =
-
3
4
31
4
.
If az
2
+ bz + c = 0, where a C \{0}, b, c C, the formula for the solution of the quadratic
equation is z
b b ac
a
=
-
-
2
4
2
.
WORKED EXAMPLE 23
Solve the following using the formula for the solution of a quadratic equation.
a 2z
2
+ 4z + 5 = 0 b 2iz
2
+ 4z - 5i = 0
THINK WRITE
Method 1: Using the rule
a 1 Use the quadratic formula
z
b b ac
a
=
-
-
2
4
2
to solve over C,
where a = 2, b = 4, c = 5.
a z
i
=
-
=

=

=

-
-
-
-
-
-
4 16 40
4
4 24
4
4 4 6
4
4 2 6
4
2
2
Express the answer in the form a + bi. =
-
1
6
2
i
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Worked example 23
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
35 Chapter 1 Number systems: real and complex
b 1 Use the quadratic formula
z
b b ac
a
=
-
-
2
4
2
to solve over C,
where a = 2i, b = 4, c =
-
5i.
b z
i
i
=
-
- -
4 16 4 10
4
2
=
-
=

=

=

-
- -
- -
-
4 16 40
4
4 24
4
4 4 6
4
4 2 6
i
i
i
i
i
i i ( )
--
4
2
Express the answer in the form a + bi. = i
6
2
= +
-
+
6
2
6
2
i i or
Method 2: Using a CAS calculator
a
&
b
Quadratic expressions can be factorised. Quadratic equations can be solved. 1.
Quadratic expressions of the form 2. az
2
+ c can be factorised using the difference of
squares method.
Quadratic expressions of the form az
2
+ bz can be factorised by taking out z as a
common factor.
Quadratic expressions of the form az
2
+ bz + c can be factorised by completing the
squares method.
Quadratic equations of the form 3. az
2
+ bz + c = 0 can be solved by either factorising and
using the null factor property or by using the quadratic formula.
The formula for the solution of 4. az
2
+ bz + c = 0, where a C\{0}, b, c C, is
z
b b ac
a
=
-
- 2
4
2
.
The discriminant, 5. = b
2
- 4ac, can be used to determine the number (one or two) and
the nature of the solutions, particularly if they are rational, irrational or complex only.
Real solutions of a quadratic equations can be represented on a number line, whereas 6.
complex solutions can be represented on an Argand diagram.
REMEMBER
On the Main screen, tap:
Action
Advanced
solve
Complete the entry lines as:
solve(2z
2
+ 4z + 5 = 0, z)
solve(2iz
2
+ 4z - 5i = 0, z)
Press E after each entry.
36
Factorising quadratic expressions and solving
quadratic equations over the complex number
eld
1 WE 21 Factorise the following quadratic expressions over C.
a 2z
2
- 6 b 2z
2
- 3 c 3z
2
+ 6
d 2z
2
+
1
2
e z
2
- 4z f 6z
2
- 2z
g 2 2 2
2
z z - h
-
4z
2
- 3z
2 Factorise the following quadratic expressions over C without using the completion of the
square method.
a z
2
+ 8z + 16 b 2z
2
- 8z + 8 c 2z
2
+ 3z - 2
d z
2
+ 2z - 3 e 2z
2
- 2z - 24 f
-
12z
2
+ 10z + 12
3 WE 22 Factorise the following quadratic expressions over C using the completion of the
square method.
a z
2
+ 4z + 14 b z
2
+ 10z + 16 c 2z
2
+ 5z - 3
d z
2
+ z - 3 e z
2
+ 8z + 16 f z
2
+ 2z + 3
g 2z
2
- 5z + 2 h 2z
2
+ 8z + 16 i
-
2z
2
+ 5z + 4
j
-
4z
2
+ 4z - 1
4 WE 22 Factorise the following quadratic expression, and then solve the given quadratic
equation.
a 3z
2
- 2 = 0 b 2z
2
+ 5 = 0
c 2z
2
- 7z = 0 d z
2
- 6z + 5 = 0
e z
2
- 5z + 6 = 0 f 2z
2
- 5z + 3 = 0
g z
2
- 4z + 2 = 0 h 2z
2
+ 5z + 4 = 0
i z
2
- 6z + 5 = 0 j
-
3z
2
- 2z - 1 = 0
5 WE 23 Solve the following quadratic equations over C using the formula for the solution of a
quadratic equation.
a z
2
- 10z + 25 = 0 b z
2
- 10z + 5 = 0
c z
2
+ 4z + 7 = 0 d 2z
2
- 7z + 6 = 0
e 3z
2
- 7z + 7 = 0 f
-
2z
2
+ 4z - 6 = 0
6 Expand the following.
a (z - (2 + 3i)) (z - (2 - 3i))
b (z - (2 + 3i))
2
c (z - 2 + 3i) (z - 3 - 2i)
7 Solve the following quadratic equations over C, using the formula for the solution of a
quadratic equation.
a iz
2
- 6z + 5i = 0
b (2 + i)z
2
- iz - (2 - i) = 0
c
-
3iz
2
- (1 + i)z + 5i = 0
8 MC Using the smallest set from Q, I and C, the solutions of 2z
2
- 5z + 6 = 0 and
5z
2
- 11z + 5 = 0, respectively, belong to the sets:
A C, C B C, Q C C, I
D I, I E I, Q
EXERCISE
1G
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
37 Chapter 1 Number systems: real and complex
9 MC The factors of z
2
+ 6z + 11 and 2z
2
- 4z + 3, respectively, are:
A ( )( ), z i z i z i z i + - + + - -

- +

3 2 3 2 2 1
2
2
1
2
2

B ( )( ), z i z i z i z i + - + + - -

- +

3 2 3 2 1
2
2
1
2
2

C ( )( ), z i z i z i z i - - - + - -

- +

3 2 3 2 2 1
2
2
1
2
2

D ( )( ), z i z i z i z i + - + + + -

+ +

3 2 3 2 1
2
2
1
2
2

E ( )( ), z i z i z i z i - - - + + -

+ +

3 2 3 2 2 1
2
2
1
2
2

38
SUMMARY
Review of set notation
Recall and apply the denitions of , , , , A, A B, A B, and C \ D, and how to illustrate these on a
Venn diagram.
Recall and apply the denitions of the following sets of numbers: N, D, Z, Q, I, and R and their relationships.
Rational numbers, expressed as a decimal, are either terminating or non-terminating, recurring.
Irrational numbers, expressed as a decimal, are non-terminating and non-recurring.
Division by zero is not dened.
Given a non-terminating, non-repeating decimal, use the process to express the number in the
p
q
form of a
rational number.
Do simple calculations in scientic notation by hand and more complex calculations using a calculator.
Express answers to the stated number of signicant gures or decimal places.
Subsets of the set of real numbers
Set builder notation. For example, { x: x Q,
-
3 < x 17}. If x R, the set does not have to be stated. For
example, {x:
-
3 < x 17}.
Interval notation. For example, (
-
3, 17] = {x:
-
3 < x 17}, [
-
3, ) ={x: x
-
3}. This notation can only be
used if x R.
All subsets of R can be illustrated on a number line.
Properties of surds
To simplify a surd, take out all perfect square factors from the number under the root sign.
Like surds have the same number under the root sign when expressed in its simplest form.
Only like surds can be added and subtracted.
Multiplication properties: a b ab a b c ab ac = + = + , ( ) and
( )( ) a b c d ac ad bc bd + + = + + +
The conjugate of a b a b + - is
Special expansions:
Expansion of perfect squares: ( 1. a + b)
2
= a
2
+ 2ab + b
2
and (a - b)
2
= a
2
- 2ab + b
2
Difference of perfect squares: ( 2. a + b)(a - b) = a
2
- b
2

Division properties:
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
b
b
ab
b
= = = ,
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
a b
c d
a b
c d
c d
c d
ac ad bc b +
+
=
+
+

-
-
=
- + - dd
c d -
, using the conjugate of c d + .
The set of complex numbers
Complex numbers are of the form a + bi where i
2
=

1.
If z = a + bi, then Re(z) = a and Im(z) = b.
If z
1
= a + bi and z
2
= c + di then z
1
+ z
2
= (a + c) + (b + d )i and z
1
z
2
= (a c) + (b d )i.
If a + bi = c + di, then a = c and b = d.
Multiplication and division of complex numbers
Multiplication of complex numbers:
If 1. z
1
= a + bi and z
2
= c + di where a, b, c, d R, then
z
1
z
2
= (a + bi)( c + di)
= ac + adi + bci + bdi
2
= (ac bd) + (ad + bc)i
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
39 Chapter 1 Number systems: real and complex
If 2. z = a + bi, then its conjugate, z , is z = a - bi where the sum and product are both real.
z + z = 2a and zz = a
2
- (bi)
2
= a
2
+ b
2
Division of complex numbers:
If z
1
= a + bi and z
2
= c + di where a, b, c, d R, then using the conjugate

z
z
a bi
c di
1
2
=
+
+

=
+
+

-
-
a bi
c di
c di
c di
=
- + -
-
ac adi bci bdi
c di
2
2 2
( )

=
+ - -
+
( ) ( ) ac bd ad bc i
c d
2 2

=
+
+
-
-
+
ac bd
c d
ad bc
c d
i
2 2 2 2
Representing complex numbers on an Argand diagram
Complex numbers are represented as an ordered pair on a complex plane or Argand diagram.
For an Argand plane, the horizontal axis is Re( z), and the vertical axis is Im(z).
Factorising quadratic expressions and solving quadratic equations over the complex number field
Quadratic expressions can be factorised. Quadratic equations can be solved.
Quadratic expressions of the form az
2
+ c can be factorised using the difference of squares method.
Quadratic expressions of the form az
2
+ bz can be factorised by taking out z as a common factor.
Quadratic expressions of the form az
2
+ bz + c can be factorised by completing the square method.
Quadratic equations of the form az
2
+ bz + c = 0 can be solved by either factorising and using the null factor
property or by using the quadratic formula.
The formula for the solution of az
2
+ bz + c = 0, where a C \{0}, b, c C, is
z
b b ac
a
=
-
- 2
4
2
.
The discriminant, = b
2
- 4ac, can be used to determine the number (one or two) and the nature of the
solutions, particularly if they are rational, irrational or complex only.
Real solutions of a quadratic equation can be represented on a number line, whereas complex solutions can
be represented on an Argand diagram.
40
CHAPTER REVIEW
40
SHORT ANSWER
1 For each of the following, state all the sets (from Z,
Q, I, R and C) in which they are a member.
a
-
4
b
-
16
3
c
-
2
7
8
d 3 3
e 27
1
3
f 5
4
g 2 h
-
3.221
i 3.21683947. . . (no pattern)
j
-
+ 3 2 5 k
1 1234 .

l i
2
m 2 5 +
-
n 0.172117722111777222. . . (pattern continues)
o -
3
3 p 4i q 3 + 7i r 4 + 0i
2 Express each of the following repeating decimals in
its simplest rational number form.
a 0 24 .

b 1 123 .

c 1 123 .

3 Calculate
8 10 6 10
3 10
4 5
8

-
, giving your answer in
scientific notation, correct to 1 significant figure.
4 Use interval notation to represent each of the
following sets, then plot each on a separate number
line.
a {x: x > 2}
b {x: 3 < x 4}
c {x: 4 x 10} {x: 8 < x < 12}
d {x: 4 x 10} {x: 8 < x < 12}
5 Use set builder notation to represent each of the
following sets, then plot each on a separate number
line.
a {7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12}
b {integers between 3 and 8}
c {rational numbers between 1 and 2}
d {rational numbers greater than 5, except
for 10}
e {real numbers greater than 4 and less than 5}
f {real numbers less than 4 or greater than 6}
6 Simplify the following surds.
a 80 72 50 45 + - -
b 5 2 5 10 ( ) +
c ( )( ) 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 - +
d ( ) 3 3 2 2
2
-
e
4 3 2
2 3 2
-
+
f
2 3 2
3 2
3 2 2
3 2
+
-
-
+
+
7 By substituting for x, show that 3 1 - is a solution
of z z
2
2 3 2 0 - + = , but is not a solution of
z z
2
4 3 6 0 - + = .
8 Find each of the following components of a
complex number.
a Im( ) 2 8 +
-
b Re(( ) ( )) 2 3 2 - + + i i
c Im( ( ))
-
- 2 3 2 6i
9 Find x and y.
a ( ) ( ) 3 2 1 + + - = + yi i x yi
b ( ) ( ) x y x y i i + + + = + 2 2 9 6
10 If z
1
= 2 - 4i and z
2
= 2 + 3i, express each of the
following complex numbers in a + bi form.
a 2 3
1 2
z z +
b
z
1
c
z z
1 2
d
z
z
1
1
1
-
e z z
1 1
1
+
-
f
z
z
z
z
1
2
2
1
-
11 Find z in its simplest form.
a
z
i
i
2
3 3
-
= - b
2
3 3
-
= -
i
z
i
12 Plot the following complex numbers on an Argand
diagram.
a 2 3i
b i
29
c i
-
29
d i(2 + 3i) e
2 3 + i
i
13 Factorise the following quadratic expressions over C.
a z
2
+ 7 b 2z
2
+ 3
c 4z
2
+ 5z d 16z
2
+ 4z - 6
e z
2
+ 4z - 2 f z
2
+ 3z + 3
g 2z
2
+ 3z + 4
EXAM TIP
Be careful with the signs. Make sure
you subtract the whole second fraction.
[Authors advice]
EXAM TIP
Make sure you take the coefcient of
the squared term rst.
[Authors advice]
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
41 Chapter 1 Number systems: real and complex
14 For each of the following quadratic equations,
factorise the corresponding quadratic expression,
then solve the equation.
a 2z
2
+ 5 = 0
b z
2
+ 4z + 5 = 0
c 3z
2
+ 5z + 2 = 0
15 Solve each of the following quadratic equations
using the formula for the solution of a quadratic
equation.
a z
2
+ 6z + 10 = 0
b 2z
2
+ 4z + 5 = 0
c 3z
2
- 5z + 4 = 0
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1 The numbers 27.366, 0.027356 and 273460.123
expressed to 3 significant figures are:
A 27.4, 0.0274 and 273000
B 27.3, 0.0273 and 273000
C 27.4, 0.027 and 273000
D 27.37, 0.027 and 274000
E 27.37, 0.027 and 273460.12
2 Which of the following is a rational number?
A
0 14
1 167
.
.


B
4
0
C
0
0
D
7
11
E
-
4
9
3 The numbers 999, 0.000105 and 0.496 expressed to
2 significant figures are:
A 1000, 0.00011 and 0.5
B 1000, 0.00010 and 0.5
C 99, 0.00011 and 0.49
D 99, 0.00010 and 0.49
E 1000, 0.00011 and 0.50
4 R\[3, 6) can also be written as:
A (
-
, 3] (6, )
B (
-
, 3) [6, )
C (
-
, 3) [6, )
D R\{x: 3 < x 6}
E (
-
, 3] (6, )
5 {x: 4 x 6} {x: 5 < x < 7} and
{x: 4 x 6} {x: 5 < x < 7} can also be written as:
A (5, 6], [4, 7)
B [4, 7], (5, 6)
C [4, 7), (5, 6]
D [5, 6), (4, 7]
E R,
6 In its simplest form,
5
3
3
5
+ =
A
5 3 0 6 . .

+
B
5
3
3
5
+
C
15
3
15
5
+ D
2
15
E
2 15
15
7 In its simplest form, 2 54 3 27 4 48 5 24 - + -
is:
A 3 7 12 - B 7 3 4 6 +
C 3 3 12 6 - D 4 3 7 6 -
E 7 3 4 6 -
8 In its simplest form,
3 3 3 1 3
3
3
4
3 1
+ + + +
-
( ) is:
A 4 5 3 + B 2 3 3 +
C 3 5 3 + D 5 7 3 +
E 4 3 +
9 In its simplest form,
( )( ) ( )
( )
3 2 3 2 3 2
5 3 2
3 2
2
- + + + +
+
-
is:
A 31 4 6 + B 31
C 11 2 6 + D 9 4 6 +
E 31 12 6 +
10 If z
1
= 2 - i and z
2
= 1 - 2i, then Re (z
1
z
2
) + Im (z
1
z
2
) =
A 4 B
-
5 C
-
5i D
-
4 E 5
11 If z
1
= 2 + i and z
2
=
-
i, then Re Im
z
z
z
z
1
2
1
2

=
A 0 B
-
1 C 1 D
-
3 E 3
12 i
n
+ i
n + 1
+ i
n + 2
+ i
n + 3
, n Z, in its simplest form
is:
A 1 B
-
1 C 0 D i E
-
i
13 When the complex numbers 1 2
5
1 2
+
-
i
i
, ,
i i
i
i
3
2
1 7
3
( ),
-
+
+
+
and
1
5
2 4 3 ( )( ) + + i i are plotted
on an Argand diagram, the number of distinct
points shown would be:
A 1 B 2 C 3 D 4 E 5
42
14 The equation z
2
- 2z - 3 + 4i = 0 is best described
as having:
A two rational solutions
B two real solutions
C two complex solutions
D one complex solution
E one real solution
15 The equation 3z
2
+ 2z + a = 0, where a R, has
two distinct real solutions if:
A a < 3 B a > 3 C a 3
D a <
1
3
E a >
1
3
16 The equation 3z
2
+ az + 2 = 0, where a R, has
two distinct real solutions if:
A a > 2 6
B 0 2 6 < < a
C a 2 6
D
a a < >
-
2 6 2 6 ,
E
-
< < 2 6 2 6 a
EXTENDED RESPONSE
1 a Plot z i = + 1 3 on an Argand plane.
b If O is the origin, show using trigonometry, that the angle made by Oz with the positive real axis is 60.
c Calculate the distance Oz.
d Calculate z
-
1
, z
0
, z, z
2
and z
3
, then plot them on the same Argand diagram used in a.
e State the rotation about the origin and the change in distance from the origin to plot z
n + 1
given z
n
.
f State the rotation about the origin and the distance from the origin, to plot z
n
given z
0
= 1.
g State, using the results above, the following powers of z in their simplest form.
i z
4
ii z
6
iii z
9
iv z
-
2
v z
-
9
2 If the solutions of a quadratic equation are
-
1 and 2, then a quadratic equation giving these solutions is
(z + 1)(z - 2) = 0. A quadratic expression that produces these factors is (z - 2)(z + 1) = z
2
- z - 2, but this is not
the only expression whose corresponding quadratic equation has the solutions
-
1 and 2.
a If the coefcients of a quadratic equation with solutions
-
1 and 2 are integers, give an example of
another quadratic expression whose corresponding quadratic equation would have the solutions
-
1 and 2.
State all quadratic expressions that satisfy the conditions above.
b In each case, nd a quadratic expression with the coefcient of z
2
= 1 that, when expressed as a
quadratic equation, gives the solutions:
i z =
-
2, z = 3 ii z z = + = - 4 3 4 3 ,
iii z = 4 + 2i, z = 4 - 2i iv z z = + = - 3 2 3 2 3 ,
v z = 3 + 2i, z = 2 - i
c Note that the quadratic expressions in b ii and b iii have integer coefcients. If the coefcients of a
quadratic equation are integers and a and b below are integers, then state the other solution.
i z a b = + 3 ii z = a + bi
d z = 2 + 3i is a solution of z
2
+ bz + c = 0 where b, c Z.
i State the other solution, then nd the values of b and c.
ii Substitute z = 2 + 3i into z
2
+ bz + c = 0, then nd the values of b and c.
e If z
2
- 2z + 3 = 0, nd the solutions using the formula for the solution of a quadratic equation, then
factorise z
2
- 2z + 3.
f If 2z
2
+ 4z + 3 = 0, nd the solutions using the formula for the solution of a quadratic equation, then
factorise 2z
2
+ 4z + 3.
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc
Test Yourself
Chapter 1
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
43 Chapter 1 Number systems: real and complex
eBookplus eBookplus ACTIVITIES
Chapter opener
Digital doc
10 Quick Questions: Warm up with ten quick
questions on the set of complex numbers. (page 1)
1A Review of set notation
Tutorial
WE4 int-1211: Watch how to express a recurring
decimal fraction. (page 6)
1 B Subsets of the set of real numbers
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 1.1: Identify irrational numbers and
simplify surds. (page 10)
1 C Properties of surds
Tutorial
WE 12 int-1027: Watch how to multiply surds and
express answers in their simplest form. (page 16)
1 D The set of complex numbers
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 1.2: Multiply and divide surds
and represent complex numbers on an Argand
diagram. (page 22)
Tutorial
WE 16 int-1028: Watch how to add and subtract
complex numbers. (page 23)
1 E Multiplication and division of complex
numbers
Tutorial
WE 19 int-1029: Watch how to express the quotient of
complex numbers in the form a + bi. (page 26)
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 1.3: Identify subsets of complex
numbers using mathematical notation and add and
simplify surds. (page 29)
1 F Representing complex numbers on an
Argand diagram
Interactivity
Complex sums and differencs int-0968: Consolidate
your understanding of how to represent complex
numbers on an Argand diagram. (page 29)
1 G Factorising quadratic expressions and
solving quadratic equations over the
complex number field
Tutorial
WE23 int-1030: Watch how to solve quadratic
equations over the complex number eld. (page 34)
Chapter review
Digital doc
Test Yourself: Take the end-of-chapter test to test
your progress. (page 42)
To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to
www.jacplus.com.au
2A Translations of points and graphs
2B Reections of points and graphs
2C Dilations from axes
2D The ellipse and the hyperbola
2E Successive transformations
2
44
AREAS OF STUDY
Sketching relations in the Cartesian plane
from descriptions, equations or formulas and
identifying their key features
Graphical representation of circles, ellipses,
parabolas and hyperbolas, and sketching their
graphs
Identifying asymptotes
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc
10 Quick Questions
Transformations
Translations of points and graphs
Introduction to transformations
Under a transformation of the Cartesian plane, each point (x, y) maps onto its image point (x , y ).
In this chapter, the transformation T
r
will be dened by the rule (x, y) (x , y ) and the
following transformations will be considered: translations, reections and dilations. For each
transformation and combination of transformations, points and their images as well as rules and
their image rules will be considered.
Some simple relations
The following relations with the given rules and properties will be dealt
with in this and subsequent chapters.
1. Linear (straight lines)
y = mx + c, where m is the gradient and (0, c) is the y-intercept
x = a, a vertical line with the gradient undened
2. Quadratic (parabolas)
y = ax
2
+ bx + c
x -intercepts (if they exist) are found by solving ax
2
+ bx + c = 0.
(0, c) is the y-intercept.
The equation of the axis of symmetry is: x
b
a
=

2
.
The turning point has an x-coordinate of x
b
a
=

2
and
the y-coordinate is found by substitution of the x-coordinate
into the rule.
If a > 0 the shape is (upright) and if a < 0 the shape is (inverted).
2A
x
y
y = mx + c
x = a
a
(0, c)
x
y
y = ax
2
+ bx + c
y =

ax
2
+ bx + c
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
45 Chapter 2 Transformations
3. Inverse (hyperbolas)
y
x
=
1

Horizontal asymptote y = 0, the x-axis
Vertical asymptote x = 0, the y-axis
4. Circle
x
2
+ y
2
= a
2
Centre (0, 0) and radius a
5. Exponential
y = a
x
, a > 0
Horizontal asymptote y = 0
Common point of (0, 1) for any a value
Translations
Under a translation given by T
h, k
, (x, y) (x + h, y + k), x = x + h, y = y + k:
h is a translation in the x direction (horizontally)
k is a translation in the y direction (vertically).
T
1, 2
represents a translation of 1 unit to the right and 2 units up for all points in a plane.
T
1,

2
represents a translation of 1 unit to the left and 2 units down for all points in a plane.
Points under translations
WORKED EXAMPLE 1
The point A (3, 1) maps onto A under the translation T
1, 2
. Find the coordinates of A.
THINK WRITE
The translation T
1, 2
indicates that A is moved 1 unit to the
right and 2 units up. Write this using mapping notation to
nd the coordinates of A.
(x, y) (x + 1, y + 2)
(3, 1) (4, 3)
A (4, 3)
WORKED EXAMPLE 2
Find a translation that maps A(3,

1) onto A(2, 3).


THINK WRITE
1
Use mapping notation to determine the translations. (3,

1) (2, 3)
(3,

1) (3 1,

1 + 4)
2
State the answer. A is translated 1 unit to the left and 4 units
up, that is, T
1, 4
.
x
y
asymptote
x = 0
y = 0
asymptote
y =
1
x
x 0
y
x
2
+ y
2
= a
2
a
a
a a
x
y
y = 0
asymptote
y = a
x
(0, 1)
46
WORKED EXAMPLE 3
A translation is dened by the rule (x, y) (x 2, y + 3). If the image point is A(5, 6), nd the
coordinates of the original point A.
THINK WRITE
1
State the image equations. 5 is the image of x
under translation of

2 units. 6 is the image of y


under translation of 3 units.
x = x 2
= 5
y = y + 3
= 6
2
Solve for x and y. x = 7, y = 3
3
State the answer. If the image point is A(5, 6), and the translation
is dened by the rule (x, y) (x 2, y + 3), the
original point is A(7, 3).
Rules under translations
WORKED EXAMPLE 4
Find the image rule for each of the following, given the original rule and translation.
a y = x, T
2,

3
b y = 2x
2
, T
4, 5
c y = f (x), T
h, k
THINK WRITE
a 1 State the image equations. a x = x 2
y = y 3
2 Find x and y in terms of x and y. x = x + 2
y = y + 3
3 Substitute into y = x. y = x
y + 3 = x + 2
y = x 1
4 Express the answer without using
the primes.
Given y = x under translation T
2,

3
, the equation of
the image (or image rule) is y = x 1.
5
b 1
State the image equations. b
x = x 4
y = y + 5
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Worked example 4
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
Illustrate these transformations on
a graph.
int-1032
47 Chapter 2 Transformations
2
Find x and y in terms of x and y. x = x + 4
y = y 5
3 Substitute into y = 2x
2
. y = 2x
2
y 5 = 2(x + 4)
2
y = 2(x + 4)
2
+ 5
4 Express the answer without using
the primes.
Note: In rst form of the answer,
the turning point is (

4, 5), which
was the answer expected as
(0, 0) (

4, 5).
Given y = 2x
2
under translation T
4, 5
, the equation of
the image (or image rule) is
y = 2(x

+ 4)
2
+ 5
or y = 2x
2
+ 16x + 37
5
c 1 State the image equations. c
x = x + h
y = y + k
2 Find x and y in terms of x and y. x = x h
y = y k
3 Substitute into y = f (x). y k = f (x h)
y = f (x h) + k
4
Express the answer without using
the primes.
Given y = f (x) under translation T
h, k
, the equation of
the image (or image rule) is y = f (x h) + k.
WORKED EXAMPLE 5
Find the image of x
2
+ y
2
= 1 under T
h, k
.
THINK WRITE
1 x
2
+ y
2
= 1 is a circle with centre (0, 0) and a radius of 1.
State the image equations.
x = x + h
y = y + k
2 Find x and y in terms of x and y. x = x h
y = y k
3 Substitute into x
2
+ y
2
= 1. (x h)
2
+ (y k)
2
= 1
4 Express the answer without using the primes. Given x
2
+ y
2
= 1 under translation T
h, k
,
the equation of the image (or image rule)
is (x h)
2
+ (y k)
2
= 1.
Illustrate these transformations on
a graph.
48
WORKED EXAMPLE 6
Given the rule and its image rule under a translation, state a possible translation and its abbreviated
version in the form T
a, b
.
a y = x, y = x + 1 b y = x
2
, y = (x 2)
2

+ 1 c y = x
2

+ 1, y = x
2

+ 2x 4
THINK WRITE
a 1 The original rule is y = x and its image is
y = x + 1. We need a point on each graph for
comparison. Substitute a value for x, say
x = 0, into both rules.
a
y = x
When x = 0, y = 0
(0, 0)
y = x + 1
When x = 0, y = 0 + 1
(0, 1)
(0, 0) (0, 1)
2 State the required translations in the form
T
a, b
. That is, no translation on the x-axis and
translation of 1 unit up on the y-axis.
T
0, 1
: no translation on the x-axis and
translation of 1 unit up on the y-axis.
b 1 The original rule is y = x
2
and its image is
y = (x 2)
2
+ 1. We need a point on each
graph for comparison. Determine the turning
points of each equation.
b
y = x
2
has a turning point at (0, 0).
y = (x 2)
2
+ 1 has a turning point of (2, 1).
(0, 0) (2, 1)
2 State the required translations in the form T
a, b
.
That is, translation of 2 units to the right on the
x-axis and translation of 1 unit up on the y-axis.
T
2, 1
: translation of 2 units to the right on
the x-axis and translation of 1 unit up on the
y-axis.
c 1 The original rule is y = x
2
+ 1 and its image
is y = x
2
+ 2x 4. We need a point on each
graph for comparison. Determine the turning
points for each equation.
c
y = x
2
+ 1 has a turning point at (0, 1).
y = x
2
+ 2x 4
= (x + 1)
2
5
The turning point is at (

1,

5).
(0, 1) (

1,

5)
2 State the required translations in the form T
a, b
.
That is, translation of 1 unit left on the x-axis
and translation of 6 units down on the y-axis.
T
1,

6
: translation of 1 unit left on the x-axis
and translation of 6 units down on the
y-axis.
The rules, graphs and basic properties of lines, parabolas, hyperbolas, circles and 1.
exponentials as listed under the heading Some simple relations are starting points for
the rules in this chapter.
Translations: 2. T
h, k
, where x = x + h, y = y + k
T
h, k
is a translation h in the x direction (horizontally) and a translation k in the
y direction (vertically).
Note: T
h, k
is an abbreviated version of a translation; however, your description of the
translation must be explained in words.
Use 3. x = x + h, y = y + k to nd:
(i) image points and image rules after a translation, given a point or a rule and the
translation
(ii) original points and original rules before a translation, given an image point or an
image rule and the translation
(iii) the translation, given a point and its image or a rule and its image.
REMEMBER
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
49 Chapter 2 Transformations
Translations of points and graphs
1 WE 1 Given the coordinates of A and the translation, find the coordinates of the image, A.
a A(1, 2), T
3, 4
b A(1,

2), T
3, 4
c A(

1, 2), T
3,

4
d A(

1,

2), T
3,

4
2 WE 2 Given a point and its image, state the possible translation in words as well as using
T
a, b
notation.
a A(2, 3), A(4, 5) b A(2,

3), A (4,

2)
c A(

1,

4), A (

3, 1) d A(

2,

4), A (

1,

7)
3 WE 3 Given the translation and the coordinates of the image, A, find the coordinates of A.
a T
2, 3
, A (4, 1) b T
1, 2
, A (

2, 1)
c T
3,

2
, A (

2,

3) d T
2,

3
, A (

5,

2)
4 WE 4 Find the image rule for each of the following, given the original rule and translation.
For parts a to e, sketch the graphs on the same axes using the original rule and its image.
a y = x, T
1,

3
b y = 2x, T
1,

2
c y =

x, T
2,

2
d y = 2x + 1, T
1,

2
e y = x
2
, T
1, 2
f y = 2x
2
, T
2,

1
g y = x
2
+ 2, T
3, 4
h y =

2x
2
, T
2, 3
i y = f (x), T

3, 2
j y = f (x), T

1,

2
k y =

2x
2
, T
h, k
l y =

3x, T
h, k
5 WE 5 a Sketch on the same set of axes, x
2
+ y
2
= 4 and its image under the translation T
1,

1
,
translated 1 unit in the positive x direction and 1 unit in the negative y direction.
b Sketch on the same set of axes, y
x
=
1
and its image under the translation T
2,

1
(2 units
right and 1 unit down). State the equations of the asymptotes.
6 WE 6 Given a rule and its image rule under a translation, state a possible translation.
a y = 2x, y = 2x + 3 b y =

x
2
, y =

(x + 4)
2
3 c y = x
2
+ 2x + 1, y = x
2
+ 4x 1
7 Given a rule and its image rule under a translation and a point to consider, state a possible
translation.
a x
2
+ y
2
= 9, (x 1)
2
+ (y + 3)
2
= 9. Consider the centre (h, k).
b (x + 1)
2
+ (y 2)
2
= 4, x
2
+ y
2
2x + 2y 2 = 0. Consider the centre (h, k). Complete the
square on both x and y for the image circle.
c y
x
y
x
= =

+
1 1
1
2 , . Consider the point of intersection of the asymptotes.
8 Using the property that under a translation T
h, k
, y = f (x) y k = f (x h), state a possible
translation in words and in the form T
a, b
, given a rule and its image rule.
a y = 2
x
, y = 2
x
+ 3 b y = 2
x
, y = 2
x + 1
+ 7
c y = 2
x
+ 1, y = 2
x + 3
5 d y = 2
x + 3
4, y = 2
x 2
+ 1
9 MC Under T
2,

1
, the image of (2, 3) and the point whose image is (2, 3) are:
A (4, 2), (0, 4) B (0, 4), (4, 2) C (4, 2), (4, 2)
D (4, 2), (6, 1) E (0, 4), (0, 4)
10 MC Under T
2, 1
, the image equation of y = x
2
and the equation whose image equation
is y = x
2
are:
A y = (x + 2)
2
+ 1, y = (x 2)
2
1
B y = (x 2)
2
1, y = (x + 2)
2
+ 1
C y = (x 2)
2
+ 1, y = (x + 2)
2
1
D y = (x + 2)
2
1, y = (x 2)
2
+ 1
E y = (x + 2)
2
+ 1, y = (x + 2)
2
1
EXERCISE
2A
50
11 MC The translations which map (3, 4) onto (2,

4) and y = x
2
+ 1 onto y = (x 2)
2
+ 2 are,
respectively:
A T
1,

8
and T
2,

1
B T
1,

8
and T
2,

1
C T
1,

8
and T
2,

2
D T
1,

8
and T
2,

2
E T
1,

8
and T
2,

1
12 MC The translations which map y = 2
x
onto y = 2
x 1
+

1 and y
x
y
x
= =
+

1 1
1
1 onto are,
respectively:
A T
1,

1
and T
1,

1
B T
1,

1
and T
1,

1
C T
1,

1
and T
1,

1
D T
1,

1
and T
1,

1
E T
1,

1
and T
1,

1
Reections of points and graphs
On the diagram, A is the image of the point A under reection in the
line L. L is called the mediator.
M
y = 0
represents reection in the line y = 0, the x-axis.
M
x = 0
represents reection in the line x = 0, the y-axis.
To determine the rule for each reection, consider the
diagram at right.
M
y = 0
: (x, y) (x,

y) gives point B.
M
x = 0
: (x, y) (

x, y) gives point C.
Similarly, for reection in the lines
y = x and y =

x, consider the diagram


at right.
M
y = x
: (x, y) (y, x) gives point E.
M
y =

x
: (x, y) (

y,

x) gives point F.
Note: M is used to represent reections since a reection is a mirror image about its specied
axis or line.
WORKED EXAMPLE 7
Find the coordinates of the image of (2,

3) under the following reections.


a M
y = 0
(reection in the x-axis) b M
x = 0
(reection in the y-axis)
c M
y = x
(reection in the line y = x) d M
y =

x
(reection in the line y =

x)
THINK WRITE
a A reection in the x-axis, M
y = 0
, means (x, y) (x,

y).
a
(x, y) (x,

y)
(2,

3) (2, 3)
b A reection in the y-axis, M
x = 0
, means (x, y) (

x,

y).
b
(x, y) (

x,

y)
(2,

3) (

2,

3)
c A reection in the line y = x, M
y = x
, means
(x, y) (y, x).
c
(x, y) (y, x)
(2,

3) (

3, 2)
d A reection in the line y =

x, M
y =

x
, means
(x, y) (

y,

x).
d
(x, y) (

y,

x)
(2,

3) (3,

2)
2B
L
A
A
x
y
B(x, y)
C(x, y) A(x, y)
y
y
x x
x
y
D(x, y)
E(y, x)
x
y
y = x
y x
x
y
D(x, y)
y
x
y
y =

x
x
F(

y,

x)
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
51 Chapter 2 Transformations
WORKED EXAMPLE 8
a Find the image equation of y = 2x + 1 under the following reections.
i M
y = 0
(reection in the x-axis) ii M
y =

x
(reection in the line y =

x)
b Find the image equation of y = 4(x 1)
2
under the following reections.
i M
x = 0
(reection in the y-axis) ii M
y = x
(reection in the line y = x)
THINK WRITE
a i 1 A reection in the x-axis, M
y = 0
, means
(x, y) (x,

y).
a i
x = x,
y =

y
2
Transpose to make x and y the subjects.
x = x
y =

y
3 Substitute to nd the image equations. y = 2x

+ 1

y = 2x

+ 1
4
State the image equation without the primes. y =

2x

1
ii 1
A reection in the line y =

x, M
y =

x
, means
(x, y) (

y,

x).
ii
x =

y,
y =

x
2
Transpose to make x and y the subjects.
x =

y
y =

x
3
Substitute to nd the image equations.
Make y the subject.
y = 2x

+ 1

x =

2y

+ 1
= + y x
1
2
1
2
4 State the image equation without the
primes.
y x = +
1
2
1
2
b i 1 A reection in the y-axis, M
x = 0
, means
(x, y) (

x,

y).
b i
x =

x,
y = y
2
Transpose to make x and y the subjects.
x =

x
y = y
3
Substitute to nd the image equations.
y = 4(x

1)
2
y = 4(

x

1)
2
4
State the image equation without the primes.
y = 4(

x

1)
2
ii 1
A reection in the line y = x, M
y = x
, means
(x, y) (y, x).
ii
x = y
y = x
2
Transpose to make x and y the subjects.
x = y
y = x
3
Substitute to nd the image equations.
y = 4(x

1)
2
x = 4(y

1)
2
4
State the image equation without the
primes.
The image equation is x = 4(y

1)
2
. If
the equation is required with y as the
subject,
( ) , y
x
= 1
4
2
y
x
y x = = + 1
4
1
2
1 or
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Worked example 8
52
Reections: 1. M
y = f (x)
, where y = f (x) is the equation of the mediator.
Use simple diagrams to nd the rules of 2. M
x = 0
, M
y = 0
, M
y = x
, and M
y =

x
, where
M
x

= 0
is a reection in the y-axis, M
y = 0
is a reection in the x-axis, M
y = x
is a reection
in the line y = x and M
y =

x
is a reection in the line y =

x.
Note: The above notation is an abbreviated version of a reection; however, your
description of reections must be explained in words.
Use the image rules to nd: 3.
(i) image points and image rules after a reection, given a point or a rule and the
reection
(ii) original points and original rules before a reection, given an image point or an
image rule and the reection
(iii) the reection, given a point and its image or a rule and its image.
REMEMBER
Reections of points and graphs
1 WE 7 Find the coordinates of the image of (

2, 4) under the following reflections.


a M
y = 0
(reflection in the x-axis)
b M
x = 0
(reflection in the y-axis)
c M
y = x
(reflection in the line y = x)
d M
y =

x
(reflection in the line y =

x)
2 WE 8 Find the image rules of the given rules under the following reflections. In each
case, sketch, on the same set of axes, the graphs of the relations before and after the reflection.
a y = 3x, M
y = x
b y =

2x, M
y =

x
c y = 2x + 3, M
y = 0
d y = 2x
2
, M
y = 0
e y =

3x
2
, M
x = 0
f y =

1
4
x
2
, M
y = x
g y = x
2
+ 1, M
y =

x
h y =
1
x
, M
x = 0
i y
x
M
y x
=
+
=
1
1
,
j y
x
M
x
= +
=
1
1
0
, k y
x
M
y x
=

+
=
1
1
1, l y
x
M
y x
=

+
=

2
1
3,
m y = 2
x
, M
y = 0
n y = 2
x
+

3, M
x = 0
o
y x M
y x
=
=
,
p
y x M
y x
= +

2,
3 MC Under M
y = 0
, the image of (2, 3) and the point whose image is (2, 3) are, respectively:
A (2,

3) and (2,

3) B (2,

3) and (

2, 3) C (

2, 3) and (

2, 3)
D (

2, 3) and (2,

3) E (

2,

3) and (

2,

3)
4 MC Under M
y = x
, the image equations of y x y
x
= =

and
1
1
are, respectively:
A y x x y
x
= = +
2
0
1
1 ( ) and B y x x y
x
= = +
2
0
1
1 ( ) and
C y x x y
x
= =
2
0
1
1 ( ) and D y x x y
x
= =
+
2
0
1
1
( ) and
E y x x y
x
= =
2
0
1
1 ( ) and
EXERCISE
2B
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
53 Chapter 2 Transformations
Dilations from axes
A dilation of factor k from the y-axis (or parallel to the x-axis) is
represented by D
k, 1
, with a rule (x, y) (kx, y). As shown on the diagram,
the x-coordinate has been transformed by a dilation factor k, k R
+
,
while the y-coordinate is unchanged.
Similarly, D
1, k
, represents a dilation of factor k from the x-axis (or parallel
to the y-axis), with a rule (x, y) (x, ky).
D
2, 3
, represents a dilation of factor 2 from the y-axis and a dilation of factor 3 from the x-axis,
with a rule (x, y) (2x, 3y).
WORKED EXAMPLE 9
Find the image of (4,

2) under the following dilations.


a D
2, 1
(dilation factor of 2 from the y-axis)
b
D
1
1
2
,

(dilation factor of
1
2
from the x-axis)
c
D
1
2
3 ,
(dilation factor of
1
2
from the y-axis and 3 from the x-axis)
THINK WRITE
a A dilation factor of 2 from the y-axis, D
2, 1
, means
(x, y) (2x, y).
a
x = 2x
y = y
(x, y) (2x, y)
(4,

2) (8,

2)
b A dilation factor of
1
2
from the x-axis,
D
1
1
2
,
, means
(x, y) (x,
1
2
y).
b
x = x
y =
1
2
y
(x, y) (x,
1
2
y)
(4,

2) (4,

1)
c A dilation factor of
1
2
from the y-axis and 3 from the
x-axis,
D
1
2
3 ,
, means (x, y) (
1
2
x, 3y).
c
x =
1
2
x,
y = 3y
(x, y) (
1
2
x, 3y)
(4,

2) (2,

6)
WORKED EXAMPLE 10
Find the image equation of y = x
2
under the following dilations.
a D
2, 1
(dilation factor of 2 parallel to the x-axis)
b
D
1
2
3 ,

(dilation factor of
1
2
parallel to the x-axis and 3 parallel to the y-axis)
THINK WRITE
a 1
A dilation factor of 2 parallel to the
x-axis (i.e. from the y-axis), D
2, 1
, means
(x, y) (2x, y).
a
x = 2x
y = y
2C
x
y
y
kx x
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Worked example 10
54
2 Transpose to make x and y the subjects. x =
1
2
x
y = y
3 Substitute to nd the image equations. y = x
2
=

y
x
2
2
4 State the image equation without the
primes.
The image equation is y x =
1
4
2
.
b 1
A dilation factor of
1
2
parallel to the
x-axis and 3 parallel to the y-axis
(i.e. from the x-axis),
D
1
2
3 ,
, means (x, y) (
1
2
x, 3y).
b = x x
1
2
y = 3y
2 Transpose to make x and y the subjects. x = 2x
y y =
1
3
3 Substitute to nd the image equations. y = x
2
=
1
3
2
2
y x ( )
4 State the image equation without the primes. The image equation is y = 12x
2
.
WORKED EXAMPLE 11
Find the original point if the image point under D
2, 3
(dilation factor of 2 from the y-axis and 3 from
the x-axis) is (6,

9).
THINK WRITE
1
A dilation factor of 2 from the y-axis and 3 from
the x-axis, D
2, 3
, means (x, y) (2x, 3y).
x = 2x
y = 3y
2
Transpose to make x and y the subjects. This
means that the original point will have an
x-value
1
2
that of the image point and a y-value
1
3

that of the image point.
x =
1
2
x
y =
1
3
y
3 Multiply the x-value of the image point by 2 and
the y-value of the image point by 3 to nd the
original point.
(x, y)
1
2
1
3
x y ,

(6,

9) (3,

3)
The original point is (3,

3).
WORKED EXAMPLE 12
Find the original equation, if the image equation under the dilation D
3, 1
(dilation factor of 3 parallel
to the x-axis) is y = 3x
2
+ 1.
THINK WRITE
1
A dilation factor of 3 parallel to the x-axis
(i.e. from the y-axis), D
3, 1
, means (x, y) (3x, y).
x = 3x
y = y
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
55 Chapter 2 Transformations
2
The image equation is y = 3x
2
+ 1. Reintroduce
the primes and substitute the values for x and y
to nd the original equation.
y = 3x
2
+ 1
y = 3(3x)
2
+ 1
3 Simplify and state the original equation. The original equation is y = 27x
2
+ 1.
Dilations: 1. x = mx, y = ny under D
m, n
, with a dilation factor of m from the y-axis
(or parallel to the x-axis) and a dilation factor of n from the x-axis (or parallel to the
y-axis).
Note: D
m, n
is an abbreviation for the dilations; however, you must express the dilations in
words.
Use the image rules to nd: 2.
(i) image points and image rules after a dilation, given a point or a rule and the
dilation
(ii) original points and original rules before a dilation, given an image point or an
image rule and the dilation
(iii) the dilation, given a point and its image or a rule and its image.
REMEMBER
Dilations from axes
1 WE 9 Find the coordinates of the image point for the given point under the given dilation.
a (2, 3), D
2, 1
b (

2, 5), D
1, 3
c (4,

3), D
2, 3
d (

2,

6),
D
1
2
2 ,
e (

6, 4),
D
2
3
3
4
,
2 WE 10 For the given equation under the given dilation, nd the image equation.
a y = x, D
2, 1
b y = x + 1, D
1, 2
c y = x + 1, D
2, 1
d y = 0, D
1, 2
e y = 0, D
1, 4
f x = 2, D
2, 1
g x = 2, D
1, 5
h x = 0, D
2, 4
i y = x
2
, D
2, 1
j y = x
2
, D
1, 2
k y = x
2
1, D
2, 3
l y = 2
x
, D
1, 2
m y = 2
x
, D
2, 3
n y
x
=
1
, D
1, 2
o y
x
=
1
, D
2, 2
p y = (x 1)
2
, D
2, 3
q y = (x + 2)
2
+ 1, D
2, 2
r y = 3(x 1)
2
+ 2, D
3, 2
s y = 2

x
, D
2, 3
t y = f (x), D
a, b
3 WE 11 Find the coordinates of the original point, given the image point under the given
dilation.
a (3, 5), D
1, 2
(dilation factor of 2 from the x-axis)
b (3, 5), D
2, 1
(dilation factor of 2 parallel to the x-axis)
c (

2, 3), D
2, 2
(dilation factor of 2 from the x- and y-axes)
d (

2,

3), D
2, 3
(dilation factor of 2 parallel to the x-axis and 3 parallel to the y-axis)
4 WE 12 Find the original equation, given the image equation under the given dilation.
a y = x, D
2, 1
(dilation factor of 2 parallel to the x-axis)
b y = x
2
, D
1, 2
(dilation factor of 2 from the x-axis)
c y = 2
x
, D
2, 2
(dilation factor of 2 from the x- and y-axes)
d y
x
=
1
, D
2, 3
(dilation factor of 2 parallel to the x-axis and 3 parallel to the y-axis)
EXERCISE
2C
56
5 MC Under D
3, 2
(dilation factor of 3 from the y-axis and 2 from the x-axis), the image of
(3,

2) and the point whose image is (3,

2) are, respectively:
A (9,

4) and (

1, 1) B (9,

4) and (1,

1) C (

1, 1) and (9,

4)
D (1,

1) and (9,

4) E (9, 4) and (1, 1)


6 MC Under D
2, 3
(dilation factor of 2 parallel to the x-axis and 3 parallel to the y-axis), the
image rule of y = f (x) and the rule whose image rule is y = f (x) are, respectively:
A
y f
x
y f x =

= 3
2
1
3
2 ( ) and
B
y f x y f
x
= =

1
3
2 3
2
( ) and
C
y f
x
y f x =

=
1
3 2
3 2 ( ) and
D
y f x y f
x
= =

3 2
1
3 2
( ) and
E
y f
x
y f x =

= 3
2
3 2 ( ) and
The ellipse and the hyperbola
Note: Further work on the ellipse and the hyperbola is presented in chapter 10.
The ellipse
An ellipse is a conic section that is closely related to the circle.
Consider the image of the circle x
2
+ y
2
= 1 under the
dilation D
a, b
, x = ax, y = by, so x
x
a
y
y
b
=

,
x y
x
a
y
b
2 2
2 2
1 1 + =

= , therefore the image


equation is
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 + =
.
This is the standard form or general equation for an ellipse, with centre at (0, 0), x-intercepts
(

a, 0) and y intercepts (0,

b). Pronumeral a is called the semi-major axis and b the semi-minor


axis.
The ellipse has two axes of symmetry. The longer axis is called the major axis and its length is
equal to 2a. Hence, a is the length of the semi-major axis. The shorter axis of symmetry is called
the minor axis and its length is equal to 2b. Hence, b is the length of the semi-minor axis.
The hyperbola
Consider the image of the hyperbola y
x
=
1
under
the dilation D
1
2
1
2
,
.
= = x x y y
1
2
1
2
,
, so
x x y y = = 2 2 , .
y
x
y
x
= =

1
2
1
2
,
therefore the image rule is y
x
=
1
2
.
The point
1
2
1
2
,

is on the line y
x
=
1
2
and 1 unit from the origin.
If y
x
=
1
2
is rotated clockwise through 45,
1
2
1
2
,

maps
onto (1, 0) and the asymptotes x = 0 and y = 0 become
y = x and y =

x.
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 2.1
2D
x
y
b
a 1
1
1
1
b
a
x
y
1 1
x
y
y =
b

a
a
a
x y =
b
a
x
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
57 Chapter 2 Transformations
This rectangular hyperbola (rectangular because the asymptotes are at right angles) has the
equation x
2
y
2
= 1.
This equation under the dilation D
a, b
becomes
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 =
. This is the standard form
or general equation for the hyperbola with centre (0, 0), x-intercepts or vertices (

a, 0)
and asymptotes y
b
a
x =

.
If the centre of the hyperbola is at (h, k) then the equation becomes
( ) ( )
,
x h
a
y k
b

=
2
2
2
2
1
which has vertices (h a, k) and asymptotes ( ) ( ). y k
b
a
x h =

WORKED EXAMPLE 13
Find the image equation of
x y
2 2
9 4
1 + = under the following transformations. In each case,
sketch the graph of the original ellipse and its image.
a T
2,

3
(translation 2 units right and 3 units down)
b M
y = x
(reection in the line y = x)
THINK WRITE/DRAW
a 1
Translation of 2 units right
and 3 units down, T
2,

3
, means
(x, y) (x + 2, y 3).
a
x = x + 2
y = y 3
2 Transpose to make x and y the subjects. x = x 2
y = y + 3
3 The original equation
x y
2 2
9 4
1 + = is
an ellipse with centre (0, 0).
Substitute to nd the image equations.
x y
2 2
9 4
1 + =


+
+
=
( ) ( ) x y 2
9
3
4
1
2 2
4 State the image equation without the
primes.
The image is an ellipse with centre
(2,

3).
The image equation is
( ) ( )
.
x y
+
+
=
2
9
3
4
1
2 2
Centre: (2,

3).
5 Sketch the original ellipse by plotting
key points.
Sketch the image graph by plotting
key points.
Some key points are:
(0, 0) (2,

3)
(

3, 0) (

1,

3)
(3, 0) (5,

3)
(0,

2) (2,

5)
(0, 2) (2,

1)
x
y
= 1 +
2 4 6 6 4
(2,

3)
2
2
2
4
4
6
6
x
2
9
y
2
4
= 1 +
(y + 3)
2
4
(x 2)
2
9
b 1 Reection in the line y = x, M
y = x
,
means (x, y) (y, x).
b
x = y
y = x
2 Transpose to make x and y the
subjects.
y = x
x = y
58
3 The original equation
x y
2 2
9 4
1 + = is an
ellipse with centre (0, 0).
Substitute to nd the image equations.
x y
2 2
9 4
1 + =

=
( ) ( ) y x
2 2
9 4
1
4 State the image equation without the
primes.
The image is an ellipse with centre
(0, 0).
The image equation is
x y
2 2
4 9
1 + = .
Centre: (0, 0).
5 Sketch the original ellipse by plotting
key points as for part a, then sketch
the image ellipse using key points.
Key points are:
(0, 0) (0, 0)
(

3, 0) (0,

3)
(3, 0) (0, 3)
(0,

2) (

2, 0)
(0, 2) (2, 0)
x
y = x
y
3 3
3
2
2
3
= 1 +
x
2
9
y
2
4
= 1 +
x
2
4
y
2
9
WORKED EXAMPLE 14
Find the image equation of
x y
2 2
4 9
1 = under the following transformations.
In each case, nd the equation of the asymptotes and sketch on separate axes
the graph of the original hyperbola and its image showing the asymptotes.
a T
2, 4
(translation left 2 units and 4 units up)
b M
y = x
(reection about the line y = x)
THINK WRITE
a 1
Translation of 2 units left and 4 units up,
T
2, 4
, means (x, y) (x 2, y + 4).
a
x = x 2
y = y + 4
2
Transpose to make x and y the subjects. x = x + 2
y = y 4
3 The original equation
x y
2 2
4 9
1 = is
an hyperbola with asymptotes
y x =

3
2
and vertices at (

2, 0).
Substitute to nd the image equations
and the image asymptotes and image
vertices (h a, k).
The image equation:
x y
2 2
4 9
1 =


=
( ) ( ) x y 2
4
4
9
1
2 2
The equations of the image asymptotes:
y x =

3
2
= +

y x 4
3
2
2 ( )
The image vertices:
(h a, k) = (

2 2, 4)
= (

4, 4) and (0, 4)
eBookplus eBookplus
Tutorial
int-1034
Worked example 14
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
59 Chapter 2 Transformations
4
State the image equation and its
asymptotes without the primes.
The image equation:
( ) ( ) x y +
=
2
4
4
9
1
2 2

Asymptotes:
y x = +

4
3
2
2 ( )
= + +

y x
3
2
2 4 ( )
y x y x = + = +

3
2
7
3
2
1 or
5 Sketch the original graph by plotting
x y
2 2
4 9
1 = with asymptotes y x =

3
2

and vertices (

2, 0).
x
1 2 1 2
y =
3
2
x
y =
3
2
x
6 Sketch the image graph by plotting
( ) ( )
,
x y +

=
2
4
4
9
1
2 2
with asymptotes
y x = + +

3
2
2 4 ( ) and vertices
(

4, 4) and (0, 4).


x
y
2 4 6 2
2
4 (4, 4) (0, 4)
4 6
y = + 1
+ 7
3
2
x
y =
3
2
x
2
6
8
4
6
8
b 1
Reection in the line y = x, M
y = x
, means
(x, y) (y, x).
b
x = y
y = x
2 Transpose to make x and y the subjects. x = y
y = x
3 The original equation
x y
2 2
4 9
1 = is an
hyperbola with asymptotes y x =

3
2
and
vertices at (

2, 0). Substitute to nd the


image equations and the image asymptotes
and image vertices (h a, k).
The image equation:
x y
2 2
4 9
1 =


=
( ) ( ) y x
2 2
4 9
1
The equation of the image asymptotes:
y x =

3
2
=

x y
3
2
The image vertices: (0,

2)
60
4
State the image equation and its
asymptotes without the primes.
The image equation:
y x
2 2
4 9
1 =

=
x y
2 2
9 4
1 +
Asymptotes:
x y =

3
2
=

y x
2
3
5 Sketch the original graph by plotting
x y
2 2
4 9
1 = with asymptotes y x =

3
2
and
vertices (

2, 0).
x
y
2
2
2
2
4
y =
3
2
x
y =
3
2
x
4
6 Sketch the image graph by plotting

=
x y
2 2
9 4
1 + with asymptotes y x =

2
3
and vertices (0,

2).
x
y
2 4 2
2
4
y =
2
3
x y =
2
3
x
2
4
4
Ellipse: 1.
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 + =
, centre (0, 0), x-intercepts (

a, 0), y-intercepts (0,

b). a > b where


a is the semi-major axis and b is the semi-minor axis.
Ellipse: 2.
( ) ( )
,
x h
a
y k
b

=
2
2
2
2
1
centre (h, k).
Hyperbola: 3.
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 =
, centre (0, 0), vertices (

a, 0),
asymptotes y
b
a
x =

.
Hyperbola: 4.
( ) ( )
,
x h
a
y k
b

=
2
2
2
2
1
centre (h, k), vertices (h a, k), asymptotes
( ) ( ). y k
b
a
x h =

REMEMBER
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
61 Chapter 2 Transformations
The ellipse and the hyperbola
1 For each of the following ellipses, state the coordinates of the centre and the values of the
semi-major and semi-minor axes. Sketch the graph of the ellipse.
a
x y
2 2
25 9
1 + = b
( ) ( ) x y
+
+
=
5
25
3
9
1
2 2
c x
y
2
2
4
1 + = d
( ) ( ) x y +
+

=
2
4
2
16
1
2 2
2 For each of the following hyperbolas, state the coordinates of the centre and the vertices. Find
the equations of the asymptotes; then sketch the graph.
a x
2
y
2
= 1 b
x y
2 2
9 16
1 = c
x
y
2
2
4
1 =
d (x 3)
2
(y + 2)
2
= 1 e
( ) ( ) x y +

=
2
4
4
16
1
2 2
f
( ) ( ) x y +

=
2
16
4
9
1
2 2
g

x
2
+ y
2
= 1 h

+ =
x y
2 2
9 16
1 i
y x
2 2
9 16
1 =
j

(x + 4)
2
+ (y 2)
2
= 1 k

+
+

=
( ) ( ) x y 2
4
4
16
1
2 2
l

+
+

=
( ) ( ) x y 2
16
4
4
1
2 2
3 WE 13 Find the image equation of
x y
2 2
16 9
1 + = under the following transformations. In each
case, sketch the graph of the image ellipse.
a T
2,

4
(translation 2 units left and 4 units down)
b M
y = x
(reection about the line y = x)
c D
2
1
3
,
(dilation factor of 2 from y-axis and
1
3
from the x-axis)
4 WE 14 Find the image equation of
x y
2 2
9 36
1 = under the following transformations. In each
case, nd the equation of the asymptotes and sketch on separate axes the graph of the image
showing the asymptotes.
a T
1, 2
b M
y = x
c D
1
3
1
2
,
5 Find two pairs of values of a and b for which

+ =
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1
has the same asymptotes as
x y
2 2
9 4
1 = .
6 MC
( ) ( ) x y
+
+
=
1
9
2
4
1
2 2
is defined for:
A

2 x 4,

4 y 0 B

4 x 2, 0 y 4 C

1 x 3,

5 y 1
D

3 x 1,

1 y 5 E

3 x 3,

2 y 2
7 MC The equations of the asymptotes of
( ) ( ) x y

+
=
2
4
4
8
1
2 2
are:
A y x y x = = +

2 4 2 2 2 4 2 2 , B
y x y x = = +

2
2
4 2
2
2
4 2 ,
C y x y x = + + = +

2 4 2 2 2 4 2 2 , D y = 2x 8, y =

2x
E y = 2x + 8, y =

2x
EXERCISE
2D
62
Successive transformations
Finding the nal image rule under successive
transformations
WORKED EXAMPLE 15
Under the translation T
2, 3
followed by the reection M
y =

x
:
a nd the coordinates of the nal image of the point (2,

3)
b nd the nal image equation of y = x
2
.
THINK WRITE
a 1 Determine a single rule that replaces
the successive transformations.
a
( , ) ( , ) ( ,
,
x y
T
x y
M
y x
y x

=

+
2 3
2 3 3 ++ 2)
2 Use this rule to state the image
point.
(x, y) (

y 3,

x + 2)
(2,

3) (

3) 3,

2 + 2)
(2,

3) (0, 0)
b 1
Set up the image equations. b
x =

y 3
y =

x + 2
2
Transpose to make x and y the
subjects.
y =

x 3
x =

y + 2
3
Substitute the values of x and y to
nd the image equation.
y = x
2

x 3 = (

y + 2)
2
4 Transpose to make y the subject
of the image equation.
As (

y + 2)
2
= (y 2)
2
therefore the image equation is (y 2)
2
=

x 3
or y x =

2 3
WORKED EXAMPLE 16
Find a transformation for each of the following.
a y = f (x) y = 2 f (x) b y = f (x) y = f (2x) c y = f (2x) y = f (2x 2)
d y = f (2x) y =

f (2x) e y = f (

x) y = f (

x + 2) 2
THINK WRITE
a
x = x, y = 2y
a
D
1, 2
(dilation factor of 2 from the x-axis)
b
2x = x or x =
1
2
x, y = y b D
1
2
1 ,
(dilation factor of
1
2
from the y-axis)
c
2x = 2x 2 or x = x + 2, y = y
c
T
2, 0
(translation 2 units right)
d x = x, y =

y
d
M
y = 0
(reection about the x-axis)
e

x + 2 =

x or x = x + 2, y = y 2
e
T
2,

2
(translation 2 units right and 2 units down)
Find a single rule to replace successive transformations and use it to nd nal image
points or equations.
REMEMBER
2E
eBookplus eBookplus
Interactivity
int-0969
Successive
transformations
eBookplus eBookplus
Tutorial
int-1035
Worked example 15
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
63 Chapter 2 Transformations
Successive transformations
1 Find the rule of a single transformation which replaces the following successive
abbreviated transformations, given the original is (x, y).
a D
2, 1
, then T
3, 4
b T
3, 4
, then D
2, 1
c M
y = x
, then T
3, 4
d T
3, 4
, then M
y = x
e D
2, 3
, then T
3, 4
f T
3, 4
, then D
2, 3
g T
3, 4
, then T
4, 3
h D
2, 1
, then D
3, 2
i M
y = x
, then M
x = 0
j M
y = x
, then M
y =

x
, then M
y = 0
k T
2,

3
, then D
3, 2
, then M
y = 0
l M
y = 0
, then T
2,

3
, then D
3, 2
m D
3, 2
, then M
y = 0
, then T
2,

3
2 Under a transformation, T
r1
, (x, y) (2x + 1,

3y + 2). Under a transformation,


T
r 2
, (x, y) (

2y + 2,

3x + 2). Find the rule of a single transformation that replaces the


following successive transformations.
a T
r1
, then T
r2
b T
r2
, then T
r1
c T
r1
, then T
r1
d T
r 2
, then T
r 2
3 WE 15 Find the final image of (

2, 3) under the following successive transformations.


a D
2, 3
, then T
2, 4
b M
x = 0
, then T
1,

2
c T
2,

3
, then D
2, 3
d T
1,

2
, then D
2, 2
, then M
y =

x
4 WE 15 Find the final image equation for y
x
=
1
under the following successive
transformations.
a T
2, 4
, then D
2, 3
b T
1,

2
, then M
x = 0
c D
2, 3
, then T
2,

3
d D
2, 2
, then T
1,

2
, then M
y =

x
5 Find the transformation for each of the following.
a y = x
2
y = (x 2)
2
+ 3 b y = (x 1)
2
y = 4(x 1)
2
c y = 2x
2
y =

2x
2
d y = 3
x
y = 3

x
e y = 3
x
y = 3

x + 4
f y = 3
2x
y = 3
2x + 1


2
g y
x
y
x
= =

1 1
h y
x
y
x
= =

1
2
1
2 5
i y
x
y
x
=
+
=
+
5
1
5
2
j x y
x y
2 2
2 2
1
4 25
1 + = + = k
x y
x y
2 2
2 2
4 25
1 1 + = + =
l x
2
y
2
= 1 (x + 4)
2
(y 3)
2
= 1 m
x y
x y
2 2
2 2
9 16
1 1 = =
n y = 4x
2
y = (2x 1)
2
o

+ = + = x y
x y
2 2
2 2
4
9 16
1
6 WE 16 Find a transformation for each of the following.
a y = f (x) y =

f (x) b y =

f (x) y =

f (

x)
c y =

f (

x) y =

f (

x + 1) d y =

f (

x + 1) y =

2 f (

x + 1)
e y =

2 f (

2x + 1) y =

2 f (2(

x + 1)) f y =

2 f (2(

x + 1)) y =

2 f (

2x + 5) + 4
7 State the successive transformations starting with the first equation and finishing with the
second. There is more than one correct order for the transformations.
a y = x y =

2x + 4 b y = x
2
y =

2(x + 1)
2
3
c y
x
y
x
= =

+
1 2
3
4 d y = x
2
y = (2x + 3)
2
e y = 2
x
y =

4x + 3
f y = 2
x
y = 3(2
3x 5
)
EXERCISE
2E
64
g y = f (x) y = 4 f (2x 1) + 3 h y = f (x) y = 2f (

2x 1) 4
i y = x
6
y =

2x + 4)
6
+ 7
8 Sketch the graphs of the following using successive transformations, starting with the first
equation.
a y = x
2
, y =

2(x 2)
2


1 b y = x
2
, y = (2x 1)
2
c
y
x
y
x
= =

1 2
2 3
4 ,
d y = 2
x
y =

2
x + 3
+

4
e y = 2
x
y = 3(2
2x + 3
) f y = 2
x
y =

3(2
2x + 3
) + 1
9 MC Under successive transformations, y = f (x) y = f (2x) y = f (

2x) y = f (

2x 2).
The transformations, in order, are:
A D
2, 1
, M
y = 0
, T
2, 0
B D
1
2
1 ,
, M
x = 0
, T
2, 0
C D
1
2
1 ,
, M
x = 0
, T
1, 0
D D
1
2
1 ,
, M
y = 0
, T
1, 0
E D
1
2
1 ,
, M
x = 0
, T
1, 0
10 MC Under the sequence of transformations, T
1, 2
, M
y = x
, D
2, 3
the final image rule
for y
x
=
1
is:
A
y
x
=

6
4
6
B
y
x
=
+

6
4
3
C
y
x
=

+
6
4
3
D
y
x
=
+

1
3 4
1
( )
E
y
x
=
+
+
1
3 4
1
( )
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WorkSHEET 2.2
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
65 Chapter 2 Transformations
SUMMARY
Translations of points and graphs
The rules, graphs and basic properties of lines, parabolas, hyperbolas, circles and exponentials as listed under
Some simple relations on page 44 are starting points for the rules in this chapter.
Translations: T
h, k
, where x = x + h, y = y + k
T
h, k
is a translation h in the x direction (horizontally) and a translation k in the y direction (vertically).
Note: T
h, k
is an abbreviated version of a translation; however, your description of the translation must be
explained in words.
Use x = x + h, y = y + k to nd:
image points and image rules after a translation, given a point or a rule and the translation 1.
original points and original rules before a translation, given an image point or an image rule and the 2.
translation
the translation, given a point and its image or a rule and its image. 3.
Reflections of points and graphs
Reections: M
y = f (x)
, where y = f (x) is the equation of the mediator.
Use simple diagrams to nd the rules of M
x = 0
, M
y = 0
, M
y = x
, M
y =

x
, where M
x

=

0
is a reection in the y-axis,
M
y = 0
is a reection in the x-axis, M
y = x
is a reection in the line y = x and M
y =

x
is a reection in the line y =

x.
Note: The above notation is an abbreviated version of a reection; however, your description of reections
must be explained in words.
Use the image rules to nd:
image points and image rules after a reection, given a point or a rule and the reection 1.
original points and original rules before a reection, given an image point or an image rule and the 2.
reection
the reection, given a point and its image or a rule and its image. 3.
Dilations from axes
Dilations: x = mx, y = ny under D
m, n
, with a dilation factor of m from the y-axis (or parallel to the x-axis)
and a dilation factor of n from the x-axis (or parallel to the y-axis).
Note: D
m, n
is an abbreviation for the dilations; however, you must express the dilations in words.
Use the image rules to nd:
image points and image rules after a dilation, given a point or a rule and the dilation 1.
original points and original rules before a dilation, given an image point or an image rule and the dilation 2.
the dilation, given a point and its image or a rule and its image. 3.
The ellipse and the hyperbola
Ellipse:
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 + = , centre (0, 0), x-intercepts (

a, 0), y-intercepts (0,

b). a > b where a is the semi-major


axis and b is the semi-minor axis.
Ellipse:
( ) ( )
,
x h
a
y k
b

=
2
2
2
2
1 centre (h, k).
66 66
Hyperbola:
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 = , centre (0, 0), vertices (

a, 0), asymptotes
y
b
a
x =

.
Hyperbola:
( ) ( )
,
x h
a
y k
b

=
2
2
2
2
1 centre (h, k), vertices (h a, k), asymptotes
( ) ( ) y k
b
a
x h =

Successive transformations
Find a single rule to replace successive transformations and use it to nd nal image points or
equations.
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
67 Chapter 2 Transformations
CHAPTER REVIEW
SHORT ANSWER
1 A translation that maps (

2, 3) onto (4, 1) also maps


y = x
2
onto its image. Find the equation of the image.
2 Given a rule and its image rule, state the translation
in the form T
a, b
and express it in words.
a y = x
2
, y = (x + 2)
2
4
b y
x
y
x
= =
+
+
1 1
1
1 ,
c
y x y x = = +

, 2
d x
2
+ y
2
= 4, (x 2)
2
+ (y + 5)
2
= 4
e y = 5
x
, y = 5
x + 3
4
f y = x
2
, y = x
2
+ 4x 2
3 Find the image of the given point under the given
reflection.
a (

2, 0), M
x = 0
b (0,

3), M
y = 0
c (2,

3), M
y = x
d (

3, 2), M
y =

x
4 Find the image rule for the given rule under the
given reflection. Sketch the graphs of the given rule
and the image rule on the same set of axes.
a y = 2x, M
x = 0
b y = 2x
2
, M
y = 0
c y = 4x
2
, M
y = x
d y
x
M
y x
=
+
=

1
1
,
e y = 2
x
+

1, M
y = 0
f x
2
+ (y + 1)
2
= 9, M
y = 0
g
y x M
y x
=
=
,
h
y x M
x
=

=
,
0
5 Find the coordinates of the original point, given the
coordinates of its image and the dilation.
a (2, 3), D
2, 1
b (

6, 3), D
1, 3
c ( , ),
,

4 4
1
2
1
4
D
6 For the given equation under the given dilation,
find the image equation.
a y = x
2
, D
2, 2
b y
x
D =
1
2 3
,
,
c y x D = ,
, 4 1
d y = (x + 1)
2
+ 2, D
3, 2
7 For each of the following ellipses, state the
coordinates of the centre, the semi-major and semi-
minor axes; then sketch the graph.
a
x
y
2
2
4
1 + =
b
( ) ( ) x y
+
+
=
2
9
4
4
1
2 2
c
( ) ( ) x y
+
+
=
4
4
2
16
1
2 2
d
( ) ( ) x y
+
+
=
1
2
2
3
1
2 2
8 For each of the following hyperbolas, state the
coordinates of the centre and the vertices. Find the
equations of the asymptotes; then sketch the graph.
EXAM TIP
Sketch the centre, asymptotes and
vertices; then make sure you sketch the graph in the
correct quadrants. [Authors advice]
a
x y
2 2
4 16
1 = b ( )
( )
x
y

= 2
1
4
1
2
2
c

+ =
x y
2 2
4 16
1 d

+
+ =
( ) x y 3
4 4
1
2 2
9 Given a point and an equation, find the coordinates
of the image point and the image equation under
the given successive transformations.
a (x, y) (2x 2, 3y 3), (2,

3), y = x
2
b (x, y) (2x 2, 3y + 3), (

3, 2), y = x
2
c (x, y) (

2x + 2,

3y 3), (

2,

1), y
x
=
1
d (x, y) (

y 2,

2x + 4), (

2,

3), y
x
=
1
10 Find the rule of a transformation that replaces the
successive transformations in the given order.
a T
2, 3
, D
2, 1
b D
2, 1
, T
2, 3
c D
2, 2
, T
2,

3
, M
y = x
d M
y = x
, D
2, 2
, T
2,

3
e T
2,

3
, M
y = x
, D
2, 2
11 Find the transformation for each of the successive
transformations.
a y y y
y y
x x x
x
= = =
= =


3 3 3
7 3
1 2 3
4
( ) 77 3
7 3
2
5
2 2
( )
( )


+
=
x
x
y
b
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
= = =
=
+

1 1 1
2
1
2 1
1
1 2 3
c y f x y f x y f x
y f x
= = =
=

( ) ( ) ( )
( )
1 2
3 4
2 2
2 3 =
= + +


y f x
y f x
2 3
2 3 2 2
5
( )
( )
68
12 Starting with the first equation, graph the second
equation using successive transformations.
a y = x y =

2x

+ 3
b y = x
2
y =

2(x

1)
2
+ 6
c
y x y x = = +

2 2 1 2
d y = 3
x
y =

2(3

2x + 2
)
e x y
x y
2 2
2 2
1
1
4
2
9
1 + =
+
+

= ,
( ) ( )
f x y
x y
2 2
2 2
1
4
2
9
1 =

= ,
( )
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1 The translation that maps (

2, 4) onto (4,

1) maps
(3, 5) onto:
A (1, 1) B (9, 0) C (5, 2)
D (9, 2) E (5, 0)
2 Which of the following correspond to an equation
and its image under the translation T
2,

1
?
A y = x, y = x 3 B y = 2x, y = 2x 5
C y = x
2
, y = x
2
5 D y
x
y
x
= =

1 1
2
1 ,
E y = 2
x
, y = 2
x 1
2
3 Under a translation, y
x
=
1
maps onto y
x
=
+
+
1
2
3.
The equations of the asymptotes for the image are:
A x = 0, y = 0 B x = 2, y =

3
C x =

2, y = 0 D x =

2, y = 3
E x = 2, y = 3
4 Under a reflection, y = x
2
maps onto y =

x
2
. The
image of (

2, 3) under this reflection is:


A (2, 3) B (

3, 2) C (

3,

2)
D (2,

3) E (

2,

3)
5 The image equation of y x = + 1 1 under M
y = x

is:
A y = x
2
+ 2x B y = x
2
+ 2x + 2
C y = x
2
D y = x
2
+ 2x 2
E y = x
2
2
6 Under a dilation (x, y) (ax, by), the image
equation of y = f (x) is:
A
y
b
f
x
a
=

1
B
y bf
x
a
=

C y = bf (ax) D
y af
x
b
=

E y
b
f ax =
1
( )
7 (6,

4) is the image point under D


3
1
2
,
. The original
point is:
A (2,

2) B (18,

8) C (2,

8)
D (18,

2) E (

8, 2)
8 The translation that maps
( ) ( ) x y +
+
+
=
2
9
3
16
1
2 2

onto
x y
2 2
9
7
16
1 +
+
=
( )
is:
A T
0,

7
B T
2, 4
C T
2, 10
D T
2,

10
E T
2,

4
9 The equations of the asymptotes of
( )
( )
x
y

=
2
4
1 1
2
2
are:
A y = 2x 3, y =

2x + 5
B y x y x = = +

1
2
1
1
2
3 ,
C y x y x = + =

1
2
2
1
2
,
D y x y x = = +

1
3
1
2
2 ,
E y = 2x + 3, y =

2x 5
10 The coordinates of the vertices of
( ) ( ) x y

+
=
1
4
3
9
1
2 2
are:
A (

1,

3), (3,

3) B (

1, 3), (3, 3)
C (

3,

3), (1,

3) D (

3,

3), (

1,

3)
E (

3,

3), (

1, 3)
11 The rule of a single transformation that replaces
T
2, 3
, then D
2, 1
, then M
y = x
is (x, y)
A (y

3, 2x 4) B (y +

3, 2x + 4)
C
y x

3
1
2
1 ,
D (

y +

3,

2x + 4)
E (y

3, 2x 2)
12 Under the transformations T
r1
: (x, y)
(2x + 1,

2y + 2) and T
r 2
: (x, y) (

y + 2, 2x), the
rule for T
r1
followed by T
r 2
is (x, y)
A (2y + 4, 4x + 2) B (

2y + 5,

4x + 2)
C (

2x + 1, 4y + 4) D (

y + 2, 2x)
E (2y, 4x + 2)
13 Under successive transformations,
y x y x y x = = = +
1 2
2 2 1, the
transformations 1 and 2 are:
A D
2, 1
and T
1, 0
B D T
1
2
1
1
2
0 , ,
and
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
69 Chapter 2 Transformations
C D T
1
2
1
1
2
0 , ,
and D D T
2 1 1
2
0
,
,
and
E D
1, 2
and T
1, 0
14 Under successive transformations
y f x y f x
y f x
= =
= + +


( ) ( )
( ) ,
1
2
2 2
2 2 2 3
the transformations 1 and 2 are:
A D
2, 2
and T
1, 3
B D T
1
2
2
1 3
,
,
and
C D T
1
2
2
1 3
,
,
and D D
2, 1
and T
1, 0
E D T
2
1
2
1 3
,
,
and
15 Which of the following sequences of successive
transformations does not produce the rule
y = 2
x
y =

3(2
2x 3
) + 1?
A M D D T
y = 0 1 3 1
2
1
3
2
1
, , ,
,
, ,
B M D T
y = 0 1
2
3
3
2
1
, ,
, ,
C D M T
y 1
2
3
0 3
2
1 , ,
, ,
=
D D M D T
y 1 3 0 1
2
1
3
2
1
,
, ,
, , ,
=
E D T M
y 1
2
3
3
2
1
0
, ,
, ,
=
EXTENDED RESPONSE
1 a State the translation that maps x
2
+ y
2
= 1 onto (x 1)
2
+ (y + 2)
2
= 1.
b By completing the square on both x and y, express x
2
+ y
2
+ 2x + 4y 13 = 0 in the form
(x h)
2
+ (y k)
2
= r
2
. State the coordinates of the centre and the radius.
c Find the translation that maps x
2
+ y
2
= 1 onto x
2
+ y
2
+ 2x 2y 7 = 0.
2 a State the translation that maps
x
y
2
2
4
1 = onto
( )
( ) .
x
y
+
=
1
4
3 1
2
2
b By completing the square on both x and y, express 9x
2
4y
2
+ 18x 8y 31 = 0 in the form
( ) ( )
.
x h
a
y k
b

=
2
2
2
2
1 State the coordinates of the centre and the semi-major and semi-minor axes.
c Find the translation that maps 9
2
y
2
+ 2x 3 = 0 onto x
2
y
2
+ 4x + 2y 1 = 0.
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Test Yourself
Chapter 2
70
eBookplus eBookplus ACTIVITIES
Chapter opener
Digital doc
10 Quick Questions: Warm up with ten quick
questions on transformations. (page 44)
2A Translations of points and graphs
Tutorial
WE4 int- : Watch how to determine the rule for
the image achieved after translations using a CAS
calculator. (page 46)
2B Reflections of points and graphs
Digital doc
WE8 int-1212: Watch how to nd the image
equations following transformations. (page 51)
2C Dilations from axes
Tutorial
WE 10 int-1033: Watch how to nd the image
equation after dilations. (page 53)
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 2.1: Sketch and interpret nonlinear
graphs. (page 56)
2D The ellipse and the hyperbola
Tutorial
WE 14 int-1034: Watch how to nd the image equation
of an ellipse after transformations. (page 58)
2E Successive transformations
Interactivity
Successive transformations int-0969: Consolidate
your understanding of the effects of successive
transformations. (page 62)
Tutorial
WE 15 int-1035: Watch how to determine the
coordinates and image equations after various
transformations. (page 62)
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 2.2: Sketch graphs and identify
transformations. (page 64)
Chapter review
Digital doc
Test Yourself: Take the end-of-chapter test to test
your progress. (page 69)
To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to
www.jacplus.com.au
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
1032
3A Relations
3B Functions
3C Inverse functions
3
71 Chapter 3 Relations and functions
Sketching relations in the Cartesian plane
from descriptions, equations or formulas and
identifying their key features
Sketching the graph of an inverse function from
the graph of a simple function
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10 Quick Questions
AREAS OF STUDY
Relations and
functions
Relations
A relation is a set of ordered pairs. The following are examples of relations in listed notation.
A {(1, 2), (2, 3), (3, 4), (4, 5)} and B {(1, 1), (1, 2), (2, 1), (3, 2)}
The set of rst elements from each ordered pair is the domain. A typical domain element is often
represented by x.
The set of second elements from each ordered pair is the range. A typical range element is
often represented by y.
For relation A, the domain {1, 2, 3, 4} and the range {2, 3, 4, 5}. Alternatively, using set
builder notation, the domain {x: x Z, 1 x 4}, which reads as the set of x-values, such
that x is an integer between 1 and 4 inclusive, and the range {y: y Z, 2 y 5}, which reads
the set of y-values, such that y is an integer between 2 and 5 inclusive.
For relation B, the domain {1, 2, 3} and the range {1, 2}.
Some relations have a rule that relates the domain elements with the range elements. For
relation A, the rule is y x + 1 and using set builder notation A {(x, y): x Z, y x + 1},
which reads as the set of coordinate pairs, (x, y), such that the domain is an element of integer
numbers and the rule for y is y x + 1. Note that a relation may be uniquely dened using the
domain and rule.
For relation B, there is no obvious rule, so listing is the only method for representing this
relation.
Graphs of relations
WORKED EXAMPLE 1
Graph the following relations and state the range.
a {(x, y): x Z
+
, y x + 1} b {(x, y): x [

1, 2), y x
2
}
c {(x, y): x
2
+ y
2
4}
3A
eBookplus eBookplus
Tutorial
int-1036
Worked example 1
72
THINK WRITE
a 1
The graph of y x + 1 is linear. The domain
of the relation is x Z
+
, which is all positive
integers. Create a table of values, starting with
the smallest value of x. A small number of
points will sufce.
a The smallest positive integer is 1.
x x + 1 y
1 1 + 1 2
2 2 + 1 3
3 3 + 1 4
4 4 + 1 5
2
Determine the range. The range is y 2, where y Z
+
.
3
Draw a pair of axes, showing an appropriate
scale and plot the points. Do not join the dots
as x Z
+
. Place an arrow on the last point
to indicate that the pattern continues in that
direction.
x
y
y = x + 1
2
0
4 6
2
4
6
b 1
The graph of y x
2
is parabolic. The domain
of the relation is x [

1, 2), so the graph is


continuous over the interval. The square bracket
indicates that there should be a closed circle at
x

1 and the round bracket indicates that there


should be an open circle at x 2. Create a table
of values to determine the points on the graph.
b
x x
2
y

1 (

1)
2
1
0 (0)
2
0
1 (1)
2
1
2 (2)
2
4
2
Draw a pair of axes, showing an appropriate
scale and plot the points. Join the dots.
x
y
y = x
2
2 3 1 1
0
4 5
2
1
3
4
5
3
Determine the range. The smallest y-value is 0
and the highest is 4, which has an open circle
and is therefore not included.
The range is: y [0, 4).
c 1
x
2
+ y
2
4 is a circle with centre (0, 0) and a
radius of 2. The domain is not explicitly stated
and therefore x [

2, 2] is implied. Draw a
pair of axes, showing an appropriate scale and
sketch the circle as described.
c
x 0
y
x
2
+ y
2
= 4
2
2
2 2
2
Determine the range. The range is: y [

2, 2].
A relation is a set of ordered pairs. 1.
The domain of a relation is the set of rst elements of a set of ordered pairs. 2.
The range of a relation is the set of second elements of a set of ordered pairs. 3.
REMEMBER
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
73 Chapter 3 Relations and functions
Relations
1 For each of the following relations, state the domain and range.
a {(2, 3), (4, 7), (6, 8)} b {(2, 1), (3, 1), (4, 1)}
c {(2, 2), (2, 3), (2, 5)} d {(1, 2), (1, 3), (2, 2), (3, 2)}
e {(x, y): x Z
+
, y 2x 1} f {(x, y): x Z, x 5, y

x}
g {(x, y): x Z, 4 x < 21, y x 4} h {(x, y): x [2, 7), y x + 1}
i {(x, y): x [2, 4), y x
2
} j {(x, y): x (

1, 1), y x
2
}
k {(x, y): x (

2,

1), y x
2
} l {(x, y): y x
2
+ 3}
m {(x, y): y

x
2
+ 3} n {(x, y): x
2
+ y
2
9}
o {(x, y): (x 2)
2
+ y
2
4} p {(x, y): x [0, 3), x
2
+ y
2
9}
2 WE1 Sketch the graph of each of the following relations. State the domain and range.
a {(1, 2), (1, 3), (2, 2), (3, 2)} b {(2, 2), (2, 3), (2, 5)}
c {(x, y): x Z, x 5, y

x + 2} d {(x, y): x [

2, 3], y

x
2
}
e {(x, y): y (x 1)
2
+ 3} f {(x, y): y

2(x 1)
2
2}
g {(x, y): x (

2, 1], y

2(x + 1)
2
+ 3} h {(x, y): (x 2)
2
+ (y + 1)
2
9}
i {(x, y): (x + 2)
2
+ (y 2)
2
5} j {(x, y): x [0, 2), x
2
+ y
2
9}
k {(x, y): x [0, 1), (x 2)
2
+ (y + 1)
2
9} l {(x, y): y [0, 3), x
2
+ y
2
9}
m {(x, y): x [0, 2), y 0, x
2
+ y
2
9} n {(x, y): y 3, (x + 2)
2
+ (y 2)
2
9}
3 For each of the following graphs, state the domain and range.
a b c
x
y
10
5
5
10
5 10 5 10
x
y
10
5
5
10
5 10 5 10
x
y
10
5
5
10
5 10 5 10
d e f
x
y
10
5
5
10
5 10 5 10
x
y
10
5
5
10
5 10 5 10
x
y
10
5
5
10
5 10 5 10
g h i
x
y
10
5
5
10
5 10 5 10
x
y
10
5
5
10
5 10 5 10
x
y
10
5
5
10
5 10 5 10
EXERCISE
3A
74
j k l
x
y
10
5
5
10
5 10 5 10
x
y
10
5
5
10
5 10 5 10
x
y
10
5
5
10
5 10 5 10
4 MC The domain and range of ( )
( )
x
y
+ +

1
3
4
1
2
2
are, respectively:
A [

1, 1] and [

2, 2] B [

2, 0] and [1, 5] C [

2, 0] and [

5,

1]
D [0, 2] and [1, 5] E [0, 2] and [

5, 1]
5 MC The domain of
( ) ( ) x y
+
+

1
4
2
16
1
2 2
is:
A R\(

1, 3) B R\(

1, 3]
C R\[

1, 3) D R\[

1, 3]
E R\{

1, 3}
Functions
A function is a relation that does not repeat the rst element in any of its ordered pairs. That is,
for any x-value, there is only one y-value. So, a function is a relation that is either one-to-one
(11) or many-to-one (many1).
A one-to-one function has one x-value for a given y-value, whereas a many-to-one function
has more than one x-value for a given y-value.
In general terms, a relation can be AB. To test for A, you can use a horizontal-line test. If the
line crosses the graph once, A 1; if it crosses more than once, A many. To test for B, you can
use a vertical-line test; again, if the line crosses once, B 1, and if it crosses more than once,
B many. For a relation to be a function, B must always equal 1. Graphs of one-to-one and
many-to-one functions are shown below.
y
Vertical line
test (B = 1)
Horizontal
line test
(A = 1)
x
1
1
11 function
y
Vertical line
test (B = 1)
Horizontal
line test
(A = 2)
x
1
2 1
Many1 function
A graph of a relation also represents a function if a vertical line does not cut the graph
more than once.
We have seen that listing or set builder notation can be used to state a function, but there is an
additional mapping notation for functions only.
f: X Y, f (x) .............. For this mapping notation, f is the label for the mapping or function.
X is always clearly expressed as the domain. Y, the co-domain, is a set that is large enough to
contain the range, so the range co-domain. f (x) or y is the image of x under the mapping.
f (x) ............... or y f (x) is the rule for f.
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WorkSHEET 3.1
3B
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
75 Chapter 3 Relations and functions
WORKED EXAMPLE 2
Explain why each of the following is an invalid use of mapping notation.
a f R R f x
x
: , ( )
1
b f: R
+
R
+
, f (x) x 1
c f: R R, f (x)

x
THINK WRITE
a The domain is not specied. a
The function not dened when x 0
and this needs to be stated clearly in the
mapping notation.
b The range is not a subset of the co-domain. b f
1
2
1
2

_
,



. The range co-domain.
c
f (x) is not a function.
c The graph is not a function since it
is one-to-many. Mapping notation
cannot be used if the relation is not a
function.
WORKED EXAMPLE 3
Find the range for the following functions.
a f: R
+
R, f (x) 4x 1
b f: R R, f (x)

x
2
4x + 5
c f: R R, f (x) 2
x
1
THINK WRITE
a 1
f (x) 4x 1 is linear. The domain
is x R
+
or x (0, ).
a
When x 0, f (0) 4(0) 1
=

1
2
f (0)

1, but (0,

1) is not
included and therefore this
lower end of the range must be
represented using a round bracket.
State the range.
The range: y (

1, ).
b 1 f (x)

x
2
4x + 5 is an inverted
parabola over the set of real
numbers. Use x
b
a

2
to
determine the x-value of the
turning point, as this can be used
to indicate the maximum y-value
of the graph.
b x

( ) 4
2
2
2
Substitute this x-value into f (x) to
determine the maximum y-value.
f (

2)

4 + 8 + 5 9
3
State the range. The range: y (

, 9].
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int-1037
Worked example 3
76
c 1 c
2
Use the graph and the information
described above to state the range.
The range is: y (

1, ).
WORKED EXAMPLE 4
If f: R R, f (x) 2x
2
4x + 1, nd
a f (x
2
) b f (2x + 1)
THINK WRITE
a
To nd f (x
2
), substitute x
2
for x
and simplify.
a
f (x) 2x
2
4x + 1
f (x
2
) 2(x
2
)
2
4(x
2
) + 1
2x
4
4x
2
+ 1
b
To nd f (2x + 1), substitute
2x + 1 for x and simplify.
b
f (x) 2x
2
4x + 1
f (2x + 1) 2(2x + 1)
2
4(2x + 1) + 1
= 2[4x
2
+ 4x + 1] 8x 4 + 1
= 8x
2
+ 8x + 2 8x 4 + 1
= 8x
2
1
REMEMBER
A function is a relation that does not repeat the rst element in any of its ordered pairs. 1.
That is, for any x-value, there is one y-value.
A function can be one-to-one or many-to-one. 2.
The graph of a function cannot be crossed more than once by any vertical line. 3.
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
Use a CAS calculator to draw this
graph.
f (x) 2
x
1 is an exponential
graph over the set of real numbers.
As x

, 2
x

1, y

1 is an
asymptote.
Alternatively, on the Main screen,
complete the entry line as:
Dene f (x) 2x
2
4x + 1
f (x
2
)
f (2x + 1)
Press E after each entry.
77 Chapter 3 Relations and functions
Mapping notation for functions: 4. f: X Y, f (x) ..............., where X is the domain, Y is
the co-domain (range Y) and f (x) is the image of x.
When required, the range can be determined from the domain and the rule. 5.
Functions
1 WE2 Explain why the following are an invalid use of mapping notation.
a f R R f x x : , ( ) + 5 b f R R f x
x x
x
: , ( )
+
2
c f: [1, 5] R
+
, f (x) 4 x
d f R R f x x : , ( )
+

e f: R
+
R
+
, f (x) x
3
3
x
f f: R R, x 2
2 WE3 Find the range for the following functions.
a f: [2, 5) R, f (x) 3x 2 b f: R R, f (x) x
2
+ 2x + 3
c f: R R, f (x) 3
x
+ 2 d f: (2, 4] R, f (x) 3 2x
e f: R R, f (x)

2x
2
+ 8x + 1 f f: R R, f (x) 4 2
x
g f: (1, 3) R, f (x) x
2
+ 4x + 2 h f: (1, 3) R, f (x) x
2
4x + 2
i f: [1, 3) R, f (x)

2
x
+ 2 j f: R R, f (x) 3
x
+ 2
k f R f x x : [ , ) , ( ) 4 5 + l f R R f x
x
: \{ } , ( ) 1
2
1

m f R f x
x
: ( , ) , ( )

2
1
2
n f R R f x
x
: , ( )
+

1
2 1
o f R R f x
x x
x
: \{ } , ( ) 0
2

+
3 For f (x) x
2
5x + 6, find:
a the factors of f (x) and the solutions of f (x) 0 b WE4 f (x
2
1) in its simplest form.
4 The solutions of f (x) 0 are 2 and 6. Find the solutions of:
a f (x
2
x) 0 b f (2
x
2) 0.
5 MC Which of the following is a valid use of mapping notation?
A f R R f x
x
: , ( )

1
1
B f R R f x
x
: , ( )
+ +

+

1
1
2
C
f R f x x : [ , ) , ( ) 4 4

D f: R R, x 2
E
f R R f x
x
: , ( )
+
+
1
1
2
6 MC The ranges for f R f x x : [ , ) , ( ) 4 5 + and f R f x
x
: ( , ) , ( )

2
1
2
are:
A [3, ), (

, 0) B [ , ), ( , ) 5 0

C [3, ), (2, )
D [ , ), ( , ) 5 0 E [ , ), ( , ) 5 2
Inverse functions
Under a mapping f, X maps onto Y. Under an inverse mapping f

1
,
Y maps onto X. The following statements result:
1. f

1
can only exist if f is a one-to-one function.
2. Domain f

1
range f.
3. Range f

1
domain f.
4. If x and y are interchanged, the rule for f

1
is obtained from the rule for f.
EXERCISE
3B
3C eBookplus eBookplus
Interactivity
int-0970
Inverse functions
78
5. If x and y are interchanged, the graph of f

1
can be obtained from the graph of f by reecting
in the line y x.
x
y = x
f (x)
f

1
(x)
y
2
1
3 1
1
2
3
2 3 2 1
3
x
y = x
y
1 2 3
(2, 1)
(1, 2)
3 2 1
2
1
2
1
3
3
It is possible to consider inverse relations. For example, the rule for the inverse of y x
2
, a
many-to-one function is x y
2
, a one-to-many relation. However, if we are to start with a
function f and nish with a function f

1
, then f has to be a one-to-one function.
WORKED EXAMPLE 5
If f: (

1, 2] R, f (x) 2x + 4, nd the domain, range and rule of f

1
(x), and sketch the graphs
of f and f

1
on the same set of axes.
THINK WRITE
1
First, determine if the inverse function, f

1
(x),
exists.
f (x) is linear and a 11 function, so f

1
(x) exists.
2
Determine the range of f (x). The domain is
x (

1, 2], so substitute the end values of x to


determine the range.
f (

1)

2 + 4 2
f (2) 4 + 4 8
Therefore, the range of f (x) is y (2, 8].
3
The domain of f (x) the range of f

1
(x). The
range of f (x) the domain of f

1
(x).
State the domain and range of f

1
(x).
Domain f (x): x (

1, 2]
range of f

1
(x) is y (

1, 2]
Range of f (x): y (2, 8]
Domain of f

1
(x) is (2, 8]
4
To determine the rule of f

1
(x), let f (x) y
and interchange x and y. Then make y the
subject.
Let y 2x + 4
x 2y + 4

2y 4 x
y x
1
2
2
5 Fully dene the rule for the inverse function. f R f x x


1 1
2 8
1
2
2 : ( , ] , ( )
6
Sketch the graphs over the required domains,
showing the line y x.
y
y = x
x
2
4
6
8
2
6
8
f(x) = 2x + 4
f

1
(x) = x 2
4
2 4 6 8
0
2
4 6 8
1
2
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
79 Chapter 3 Relations and functions
WORKED EXAMPLE 6
If f: (

1] R, f (x) x
2
+ 2x + 2, nd the domain, range and rule
of f

1
(x), and sketch the graphs of f and f

1
on the same set of axes.
THINK WRITE
1 First, determine if the inverse
function, f

1
(x), exists. Since
f (x) x
2
+ 2x + 2 is an upright
parabola, it is necessary to locate the
turning point using x
b
a

2
.
x

2
2
1
Since the turning point occurs at x

1, and the domain is


x (

1], f (x) is a 11 function and f

1
(x) exists.
2
Determine the range of f (x). The
domain is x (

1], so substitute
the end value of x to determine the
range (this value is at the turning
point).
x

1
f (

1) 1 2 + 2
1
The point (

1, 1) is the minimum point on the graph.


3
The domain of f (x) the range
of f

1
(x). The range of f (x) the
domain of f

1
(x).
State the domain and range
of f

1
(x).
Domain f (x): x (

1]
range of f

1
(x) is y (

1]
Range of f (x): y [1, )
Domain of f

1
(x) is [1, )
4
To determine the rule of f

1
(x), let
f (x) y and interchange x and y.
Then make y the subject.
Let y x
2
+ 2x + 2
y (x + 1)
2
+ 1
Interchange x and y
x (y + 1)
2
+ 1
x 1 (y + 1)
2
y x 1 1
5 Since f (x) x
2
+ 2x + 2, and
x (

1] (left side of the


parabola), then f

1
should be
y x

1 1. Fully dene the rule


for the inverse function.
f R f x x



1 1
1 1 1 : [ , ) , ( )
6
Sketch the graphs over the required
domains, showing the line y x.
1
y
x
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
5
4
2 3 4 5
1
0
2 3 4 5
y = x
1
f

1
(x) =

1
f(x) = x
2
+ 2x + 2
x 1
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Tutorial
int-1038
Worked example 6
80
7
The inverse function of 1. f, f

1
, exists if f is a one-to-one function.
For 2. f

1
, domain range of f, range domain of f and the rule is found by
interchanging x and y in the rule for f.
To graph 3. f

1
from the graph of f, or f from the graph of f

1
, reect in the line y x.
REMEMBER
Inverse functions
1 WE5 For each of the following functions f, determine the domain, range and rule of f

1
.
Sketch the graphs of f and f

1
on the same set of axes.
a f: [0, ) R, f (x) 3x 2 b f: [1, 3) R, f (x) 2x 4
c f: (

1, 2] R, f (x)

2x + 4 d f: (

, 2] R, f (x) 2x + 1
e f: (

2, 2] R, f (x)

2x 2 f f: [

4, 2) R, f (x)

x 3
2 WE6 For each of the following functions f, determine the domain, range and rule of f

1
.
Sketch the graphs of f and f

1
on the same set of axes.
a f: (1, ) R, f (x) x
2
2x + 2 b f: (

2] R, f (x) x
2
+ 4x + 5
c f: (1, ) R, f (x)

x
2
+ 2x + 3 d f R f x x x : [ , ) , ( )
1
2
2
2 2 3 + +

e f R f x x : ( , ) , ( )

+ 2 2 f f R f x x : ( , ) , ( )
1
2
2 1 1 +
g f R f x x : ( , ) , ( )


+ + 2 2 1 h f R f x x : ( , ) , ( )


+ 3 3 2
3 For each of the following functions f, determine if f

1
exists. For those that exist, find the
domain, range and rule of f

1
.
a f R R f x
x
: \{ } , ( ) 0
1
b f R R f x
x
: \{ } , ( ) 0
1
2

c f R R f x
x
: \ , ( )
1
2
1
2 1

d
f R f x
x
: ( , ) , ( )
( )
2
1
2
2

4 MC For f: [1, ) R, f (x) 2x


2
4x + 4, the domain and rule of f

1
are:
A [ , ), ( ) 2 2
1
2
1

f x
x
B [ , ), ( ) 3 1
2
2
1
+

f x
x C [ , ), ( ) 2 2 1
1

f x x
D [ , ), ( ) 3 1
1
2
1

f x
x
E [ , ), ( ) 2 1
2
2
1
+

f x
x
EXERCISE
3C
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WorkSHEET 3.2
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
To view the graph and its inverse on
a CAS calculator, open the Graph
& Tab screen. Complete the
entry lines as:
y1 x
2
+ 2x + 2 x

1
y2

1 x 1
y3 x
Tick each of the equations and tap $.
81 Chapter 3 Relations and functions
SUMMARY
Relations
A relation is a set of ordered pairs.
The domain of a relation is the set of rst elements of a set of ordered pairs.
The range of a relation is the set of second elements of a set of ordered pairs.
Functions
A function is a relation that does not repeat the rst element in any of its ordered pairs. That is, for any
x-value, there is one y-value.
A function can be one-to-one or many-to-one.
The graph of a function cannot be crossed more than once by any vertical line.
Mapping notation for functions: f : X Y, f (x) ............... where X is the domain, Y is the co-domain
(range Y) and f(x) is the image of x.
When required, the range can be determined from the domain and the rule.
Inverse functions
The inverse function of f, f

1
, exists if f is a one-to-one function.
For f

1
; domain range of f, range domain of f and the rule is found by interchanging x and y in the rule
for f.
To graph f

1
from the graph of f, or f from the graph of f

1
, reect in the line y x.
82
CHAPTER REVIEW
SHORT ANSWER
1 For each of the following relations, state the
domain and range. Sketch the graph.
a {(2, 3), (2, 4), (3, 3)}
b {(x, y): x Z, y

x}
c {(x, y): x Z
+
, y 2
x
}
d {(x, y): (x 1)
2
+ (y 2)
2
4}
e {( , ):
( ) ( )
} x y
x y
+

1
4
2
16
1
2 2
f {( , ):
( ) ( )
} x y
x y

1
4
2
16
1
2 2
2 For the graphs of the relations below, state the
domain and range.
a
x
y
10
5
5
10
5 10 5 10
b
x
y
10
5
5
10
5 10 5 10
c
x
y
10
5
5
10
5 10 5 10
d
x
y
10
5
5
10
5 10 5 10
e
x
y
10
5
5
10
5 10 5 10
f
x
y
10
5
5
10
5 10 5 10
3 Explain why each of the following are an invalid
use of the mapping notation.
a f R R f x
x
x
: , ( )
+
2
2
1
b f : R
+
R
+
, f (x) x
2
1
c f R R f x : , ( ) 2 3
4 Find the range for each of the following functions.
a f : [3, 4) R, f (x) x 4
b f : R R, f (x) (x 4)(x 2)
c f : R R, f (x) e
x
4
d
f R f x x : [ , ) , ( ) 4 5 +
e f R f x x : [ , ] , ( )

2 2 4
2
f f : R R, f (x)

2x
2
+ 4x 1
g f R R f x
x
: \{ } , ( ) 2
3
2
1

+
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
83 Chapter 3 Relations and functions
h f : (2, ) R, f (x) log
2
(x)
i f R R f x
x
: , ( )
+
1
1
2
EXAM TIP
Make sure you state the range taking
the domain restriction into account.
5 For f (x) x
2
3x + 2:
a nd the factors of f (x) and the solutions of
f (x) 0
b nd f (x
2
+ 1), the factors of f (x
2
+ 1) and the
solutions of f (x
2
+ 1) 0.
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1 The ranges of ( , ): [ , ], x y x
x y
+

2 0
4 9
1
2 2
and
( , ): x y
x y
2 2
4 9
1

are:
A [

3, 3], [

3, 3] B [

3, 3], R C [

3, 0], R
D [0, 3], R E [

3, 0], [

3, 3]
2 The implied domains for {(x, y): x 2
y
} and
{( , ): } x y y x 25
2
are:
A (0, ), [

5, 5]
B [0, ), (

5] [5, )
C R, [

5, 5]
D [0, ), [

5, 5]
E (0, ), (

5] [5, )
3 Which of the following is not a proper use of
mapping notation?
A f : [2, 3] [3, 4], f (x) x + 1
B f : (2, 3) [3, 4], f (x) x + 1
C f f x x : ( , ] ( , ], ( ) 2 3 7 8
1
2
6 +
D f : [2, 3] R

, f (x)

x + 1
E f : [2, 3] R
+
, f (x)

x + 3
4 The ranges of f R R f x x : , ( )
+

+ 4 and
f: R R, f (x) x
2
+ 2x + 1 are:
A (

, 2), [0, ) B (

2), [0, )
C (

, 0], [0, ) D (

, 2), R
+
E (

2), R
+
5 If under the mapping f : R

R,
f x
x
( )

1
1
2
, and f x ( )
1
3
, then x is:
A

9
8
B
1
24
C

2
D 2 E

2
6 Which of the following equations represents a
function for which an inverse function exists?
A ( , ): [ , ], x y x
x y
+

0 2
4 9
1
2 2
B ( , ): [ , ], x y y
x y
+

0 3
4 9
1
2 2
C ( , ): [ , ), x y x
x y

2
4 9
1
2 2
D ( , ): [ , ), x y y
x y

0
4 9
1
2 2
E ( , ): [ , ), ( , ], x y x y
x y

2 0
4 9
1
2 2

7 For f : (

, 2] R, f (x) x
2
4x + 1, the domain
and rule of f

1
are:
A ( , ], ( )


+ 2 2 3
1
f x x
B [ , ], ( )


+ 3 2 3
1
f x x
C [ , ], ( )


+ + 3 2 3
1
f x x
D ( , ), ( ) 3 2 3
1

f x x
E ( , ), ( ) 3 2 3
1
+

f x x
EXTENDED RESPONSE
1 For each of the following functions f, find the domain, range and rule of f

1
. Sketch the graphs of f and f

1
on
the same set of axes.
a f : [0, ) R, f (x) 2x + 1
b f : (

2, 4] R, f (x)

2x + 1
c f : [1, ) R, f (x) x
2
2x + 3
d f : (

, 0) R, f (x) x
2
2x 1
e
f R f x x : [ , ) , ( ) 2 2
f f R f x x : ( , ] , ( )


1 1
g f R f x
x
: [ , ] , ( )

3 0 2 1
9
2
h f R f x
x
: [ , ) , ( )
+
3 2
9
1
2
EXAM TIP
Make sure you write the equation of
the asymptotes.
84
2 The perimeter for a new seal enclosure is to have a maximum side length of 8 m.
The width is to be twice the length (x).
a Draw a diagram of the enclosure and label the sides.
b Dene a rule that gives the perimeter, P, of the new enclosure.
c What is the largest value that x can be?
d State the domain and range.
e Write in function notation the rule for the perimeter.
f Dene a function for the area of the enclosure, A(x).
g If the maximum area allowed is 18 m
2
, nd the dimension of the enclosure.
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc
Test Yourself
Chapter 3
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
85 Chapter 3 Relations and functions
eBookplus eBookplus ACTIVITIES
Chapter opener
Digital doc
10 Quick Questions: Warm up with ten quick
questions on relations and functions. (page 71)
3A Relations
Tutorial
WE1 int-1036: Watch how to graph relations and state
their range. (page 71)
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 3.1: Use set notation to identify
the domain and range of relations and functions.
(page 74)
3B Functions
Tutorial
WE3 int-1037: Watch how to determine the determine
the range for functions given in function notation.
(page 75)
3C Inverse functions
Interactivity
Inverse functions int-0970: Consolidate your
understanding of graphs of inverse functions.
(page 77)
Tutorial
WE6 int-1038: Watch how to nd the domain and
range of an inverse function. (page 79)
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 3.2: Identify types of relations and
their domain and range. (page 80)
Chapter review
Digital doc
Test Yourself: Take the end-of-chapter test to test
your progress. (page 84)
To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to
www.jacplus.com.au
86
EXAM PRACTICE 1
CHAPTERS 1 TO 3
SHORT ANSWER 20 minutes
1 Simplify 3 72 4 12 300 + . 2 marks
2 Sketch the graph of f : [

3, 3] R, where
f (x) [2x + 1]. 3 marks
3 Let f : R R, where f (x) x 2 and let
g: R\{2} R, where g x
f x
( )
( )

1
.
Sketch the graphs of f (x) and g(x) on the same set
of axes. Label all key features. 4 marks
4 Show that if z
1
a + bi and z
2
c di, then
z
z
1
2
equals
ac bd bc ad i
c d
+ +
+
( )
2 2
. 3 marks
MULTIPLE CHOICE 10 minutes
Each question is worth 1 mark.
1 If z
1
4 3i and z
2
1 + 2i, then z
1
z
2
equals:
A 5 i
B 4 6i
C 2 5i
D 10 + 5i
E

2 + 5i
2 Point A (x, y) is translated by
a
b

1
]
1
and then reflected
in the y-axis to the image B. The coordinates of
point B are:
A (

x + a, y + b)
B (

x a, y + b)
C (x + a,

y + b)
D (x + a,

y b)
E (

x a,

y b)
3 The points z
1
and z
2
are shown on the Argand
diagram below.
Re (z)
Im (z)
z
2
z
1
M
L
K
H
J
Which point represents z
1
z
2
?
A H B J C K
D L E M
4 The graph of {(x, y): y x 2 } is transformed by
a dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis. The image of
this transformation can be represented by the rule:
A {(x, y): y 2x 2 }
B ( , ): x y y x

1
2
2
C ( , ): x y y x

1
2
2
D {(x, y): y x 4 }
E {(x, y): y 2 x 2 }
5 The graph of f is shown below.
x
y
Which one of the following represents f

1
?
A
x
y
B
x
y
C
x
y
D
x
y
E
x
y
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
87 Exam practice 1
EXTENDED RESPONSE 30 minutes
1 Graphic designer Rhonda has been contracted by Wacky World to design a new logo for their T-shirts. Her
first design is shown below.
To allow Rhonda to have the exibility to change her designs, she determines a function that models her
design. For her design, 1 cm represents 1 unit on the Cartesian plane.
x
y
y
1
y
2
B
C
1 cm
O
A
Graph 1
She nds that part of her design follows the rule y 2x 3 .
a For the rule y
1
2x 3 , determine the coordinates of:
i A ii B iii C 1 + 1 + 2 = 4 marks
The second part of the design is dened by y
2
, which is determined by transforming y
1
onto the image of y
2

as shown in Graph 1 above.
b Describe a transformation that maps the graph of y
1
to y
2
. 1 mark
c Use set notation to determine the rule for y
2
.

3 marks
d In the context of this problem, determine the feasible domain and range. Write your answer using
function notation. 1 + 1 = 2 marks
2 Rhonda inserts another W in the design. The second W is smaller than the first. Rhonda uses the method
of finding a rule to describe part of the W and then applies transformations to complete the design. Using
Graph 1, her new design for W will include points ABC.
a The coordinates of B are (0, 1). Describe a transformation that maps B to the image B. 2 marks
The second W includes the original point A.
b Determine a rule that describes the line that passes through points A and B. 3 marks
c The point C lies on the line found in part c. If C has coordinates x,
4
3

_
,

, nd the exact value of x.


2 marks
d Rhonda is going to place the second smaller W above the rst W. The position of B will become
(

1, 3). Write down in matrix form, the combination of transformations that map B to its new position.
2 marks
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc
Solutions
Exam practice 1
4A Review of index laws
4B Standard form and signicant gures
4C Transposition
4D Solving linear equations and
simultaneous linear equations
4E Applications
4F Algebraic fractions
4G Linear literal equations
4
88
AREAS OF STUDY
Applications of arithmetic involving natural
numbers, integers, rational numbers and real
numbers
Substitution and transposition in linear relations,
such as temperature conversion
The solution of linear equations, including
literal linear equations
Developing formulas from word
descriptions, and substitution of values into
formulas
The construction of tables of values from a
given formula using technology
Linear relations dened recursively and simple
applications
The algebraic and graphical solution of
simultaneous linear equations in two variables
Solution of worded problems involving a linear
equation or simultaneous linear equations in
two variables
The construction of a table of values from a
given formula using technology
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc
10 Quick Questions
Algebra
Review of index laws
Index, power or exponent
2
3
Base number
You learned in earlier years that 2
3
means multiply two by itself three times, that is,
2 2 2 = 8. The index indicates the number of times the base is multiplied by itself.
In general,
3 3 3 3 3 81
4
Index form Expanded form B

= =
aasic numeral


a a a a
m
m
=

times
In summary, the index laws are:
Multiplication: a
m
a
n
= a
m + n
Division: a
m
a
n
=
a
a
m
n
= a
m - n
Raising to a power: (a
m
)
n
= a
m n
Raising to the power of zero: a
0
= 1
Raising to the power of one: a
1
= a
4A
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
89 Chapter 4 Algebra
Products and quotients: (a b)
m
= a
m
b
m
;
a
b
a
b
n
n
n

=
Negative powers: a
-
m
=
1
a
m
Fractional powers:
a a a
m
n
m
n n
m
= =
( )
When simplifying expressions and equations with indices, we generally use a combination of
these laws.
WORKED EXAMPLE 1
Simplify
3 2
5
4 3 2 2
8
x y x y z
x yz

.
THINK WRITE
1 Add the indices of x and the indices of y
and multiply the constants together in the
numerator.
3 2
5
6
5
4 3 2 2
8
6 5
8
x y x y z
x yz
x y z
x yz

=
2
Subtract the indices of x, y and z in the
denominator from those in the numerator.

=
-
6
5
2 4 0
x y z
3 Simplify to write answer with positive indices
and use the rule z
0
= 1.

=
6
5
4
2
y
x
When numbers with an index are then raised to another index, the indices are multiplied.
WORKED EXAMPLE 2
Simplify
a x
-
3
y
2
(2x
2
y
-
1
)
3
b ( ) a b
a b
a b
4 3 2
7 2
3 4
--
--
.
THINK WRITE
a 1
Remove the brackets by multiplying the
indices.
a
x
-
3
y
2
(2x
2
y
-
1
)
3
= x
-
3
y
2
2
3
x
6
y
-
3
2
Add the indices of x and y. = 8x
3
y
-
1
3 Simplify to write answer with a positive
index.
=
8
3
x
y
b 1 Remove the brackets by multiplying the
indices.
b ( ) a b
a b
a b
4 3 2
7 2
3 4
-
-

=
- -
-
a b
a b
a b
8 6
7 2
3 4
2 Change the division sign to a
multiplication sign and write the
reciprocal of the second term.
=
- - -
a b a b
a b
8 6 3 4
7 2
1
90
3 Add the indices of a and b in the
numerators.
=
- -
a b
a b
5 10
7 2
4
Subtract the indices of a and b in the
denominator from those in the numerator
and simplify to positive indices.
= a
-
12
b
-
8
=
1
12 8
a b
WORKED EXAMPLE 3
Simplify
a 2
n - 1
6
2n
3
n + 1
b 2
n
4
1 - n
16
2n - 1
.
THINK WRITE
a 1
Change the 6 into 2 3. a
2
n - 1
6
2n
3
n + 1
= 2
n - 1
(2 3)
2n
3
n + 1
2
Remove the brackets by multiplying the
indices.
= 2
n - 1
2
2n
3
2n
3
n + 1
3
Add indices of numbers with base 2 and
add indices of numbers with base 3.
= 2
3n - 1
3
3n + 1
b 1
Change all numbers to a base of 2. b
2
n
(2
2
)
1 - n
(2
4
)
2n - 1
2
Remove the brackets by multiplying the
indices.
= 2
n
2
2 - 2n
2
8n - 4
3
Simplify by adding indices of numbers
with base 2.
= 2
7n - 2
WORKED EXAMPLE 4
Simplify each of the following, expressing the answer with a positive index.
a 128 64
7 4
b
x y x y
2 6 3 3 5

THINK WRITE
a 1
Write the expression.
a
128 64
7 4

2 Write using fractional indices.


= 128 64
1
7
1
4
3 Write 128 and 64 in index form with a base of 2.
= ( ) ( ) 2 2
7
1
7
6
1
4
4 Multiply the powers.
= 2 2
1
6
4
5 Simplify and write the answer.

=
=
2 2
2
1
3
2
5
2
b 1 Write the expression.
b
x y x y
2 6 3 3 5

2 Write the expression using index notation.



= ( ) ( ) x y x y
2 6
1
3
3 5
1
2
eBookplus eBookplus
Tutorial
int-1039
Worked example 3
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
91 Chapter 4 Algebra
3 Remove the brackets by multiplying the
powers.

= x y x y
2
3
2
3
2
5
2
4 Collect terms with the same base by
subtracting the powers.

=
- -
x y
2
3
3
2
2
5
2
5 Simplify the powers.

=
- -
x y
5
6
1
2
6 Rewrite with positive powers.

=
1
5
6
1
2
x y
A combination of the laws below can be used to simplify indicial equations.
a
0
= 1 a
1
= a a
a
m
m
-
=
1
a
m
a
n
= a
m + n
a a
a
a
a
m n
m
n
m n
= =
-
(a
m
)
n
= a
m n
a a a
m
n
m
n n
m
= =
( )
(a b)
m
= a
m
b
m
REMEMBER
Review of index laws
1 WE 1 Simplify the following expressions.
a
12
3
2
a b
a
b
8
2
3 4
a b
ab
c
-
-
a b
ab
2 4
3
2
d
-
-
3
6
3 2
2
a b
a b
e 2 3
3
2
1
4
2 1
a b a b
-
f 8 4
1
3
1
2
3 2
5
2
a b a b
-
-

2 WE 2 Simplify the following expressions.


a
( ) x y
x y
3 2 2
4 2
2
b
( ) 2
4
2 3
2 3
xy
x y
c
( )
( )
3
4
3 2 2
2 2 4
x y
x y
d
2
2
2 2 3
3 3
( )
( )
x y
x y
e
( ) m n
mn
- -
3 2 2
2
f
( )
( )
2
2
1 2 3
2 2 4
m n
m n
- - -
-
g
( )
( )
5
3
3
2 2
2 2 3
1
2
m n
m n
m
n
-
-
h
( )
( ) ( )
-
-
-

2
5
2
3 3
2 1 3
2
2
v w
v w
w
vw
i
( )
( ) ( )
4
3
2
1 2 2
2 2 3
2
2 2 2
v w
m n
w
v w
-
-
- -

j
( )
( ) ( )
-
-
-
-
-

3
2
9
2
1 2 3
2 1 2
2
3 2
v w
v w
w
v
3 MC Expressing ab in index form gives:
A ab
3
2
B ab
-
3
C
( ) ab
-
3
2
D ab
1
8
E
( ) ab
1
8
EXERCISE
4A
92
4 WE3 Simplify.
a 2
n - 1
4
n + 1
16
n
b 3
n + 2
9
n - 1
27 c
5 3
75
3 1 n n
n
- +

d
27
16
4
3
2
1

+
-
n
n
e
6
2 3
2
n
n n +
-
f 72
m - 2
4 3
2m
5 WE4 Simplify each of the following, expressing your answer with positive indices.
a 9 81
3
b x x
2
3
1
6
c x x
5
2
1
3
4

( )
d ( ) ( ) xy x y
3 3 2
e 2 4 8
5
4
1
2
2
3

- -
f 27 9 3
1
4
2
3
5
4
- -

g
x x
3
4
2
3 4
3
3
8
( )

( )
h
( ) 64
4
6
4
3
2
m
m
-
i
1
4
x
-
j
( ) x
x
+
+
1
1
2
k
x
x
x
+ +
+
2
2
l ( ) y y - - 4 4
Standard form and signicant gures
Standard form
Standard form (or scientic notation) involves a practical use of indices. A very large or very small
number can be expressed in standard form as a more convenient way of writing it. This notation
involves expressing the number as a number between one and ten multiplied by a power of 10.
a 10
n
, where 1 a < 10
A computer may complete a basic operation in approximately 0.000 000 000 8 seconds. It is
easier to write a number such as this in standard form as 8 10
-
10
seconds.
Likewise, a light year is a measure of distance equal to 9 460 528 400 000 000 kilometres. In
standard form, this number can be expressed as 9.460 528 4 10
15

Standard form is not only a more economical means of expressing these numbers, it also
makes calculations involving these numbers easier through the use of index laws.
To write a number in standard form :
Move the decimal point so that the number appears to be between 1 and 10
Count the number of decimal places the decimal point has been moved (positive if moving
left or negative if moving right)
Multiply by the power of 10 equal to this number.
The sign of the power will be positive if the magnitude of the original number is greater
than 10
The sign of the power will be negative if the magnitude of the original number is between
0 and 1.
WORKED EXAMPLE 5
Solve
350 000 0 04
70
.
and express as a basic numeral.
THINK WRITE
1 Express the problem in standard form.
350 000 0 04
70
3 5 10 4 10
7 10
5 2
.
.
=

-
4B
eBookplus eBookplus
Tutorial
int-1040
Worked example 5
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
93 Chapter 4 Algebra
2 Simplify the numerator using index laws where possible. =

14 10
7 10
3
3
Divide using index laws where possible. = 2 10
2
4
Express as a basic numeral. = 200
Signicant gures
Often we will be interested in all the gures in a particular number.
Signifcant fgures are counted from the frst non-zero digit (19). For example, 0.0092 has
two signicant gures (9 and 2).
Any zeros at the end of the number after the decimal point are considered to be signifcant.
For example, 0.250 has three signicant gures (2, 5 and 0), whereas 0.025 has two
signicant gures (2 and 5).
The trailing zeros at the end of a number are not considered signifcant. For example, 1200
has two signicant gures (1 and 2).
All zeros between two non-zero digits are always signifcant. For example, 102.587 has
6 signicant gures (1, 0, 2, 5, 6 and 7).
WORKED EXAMPLE 6
State the number of signicant gures in the following numbers.
a 3.205 60 b 20.01 c 0.0034 d 35 000
THINK WRITE
a Signifcant fgures are counted from the frst non-
zero digit (19). There are two zeros after the
decimal point, which are to the right of a non-zero
digit and so all digits are signicant.
a 3.205 60 has 6 signicant gures.
b Signifcant fgures are counted from the frst non-
zero digit (19). All zeros between two non-zero
digits are always signicant. All digits in this case
are signicant.
b 20.01 has 4 signicant gures.
c Signifcant fgures are counted from the frst non-
zero digit (19). The frst non-zero digit in this case
is 3. Only 3 and 4 are signicant.
c 0.0034 has 2 signicant gures.
d The trailing zeros at the end of a number are
not considered signicant. Only 3 and 5 are
signicant.
d 35000 has 2 signicant gures.
Calculations involving signicant gures
When performing calculations associated with signicant gures, the following rules apply.
When adding or subtracting numbers, count the number of decimal places to determine
the number of signicant gures. The answer cannot contain more places after the decimal
point than the least number of decimal places in the numbers being added or subtracted.
When multiplying or dividing numbers, count the number of signifcant fgures. The answer
cannot contain more signicant gures than the number being multiplied or divided with
the least number of signicant gures.
94
WORKED EXAMPLE 7
Evaluate, expressing your answer to the appropriate number of signicant gures:
a 345.87 + 20.1 b 23.020 0.023.
THINK WRITE
a 1
This question involves addition; therefore,
nd the least number of decimal places of the
numbers in the question.
a 345.87 has 2 decimal places.
20.1 has 1 decimal place.
The answer will have 1 decimal place.
2
Add the numbers. 347.87 + 20.1 = 367.97
3
Round the answer to 1 decimal place. 368.0
4
Interpret this answer. The answer has 1 decimal place and
4 signicant gures.
b 1
The question involves multiplication; therefore,
nd the least number of signicant gures of
the numbers in the question.
b 23.020 has 5 signicant gures.
0.023 has 2 signicant gures.
The answer will have 2 signicant gures.
2
Multiply the numbers. 23.020 0.023 = 0.529 46
3
Express the answer to 2 signicant gures. 0.53
To write a number in standard form: 1.
Move the decimal point so that the number appears to be between 1 and 10.
Count the number of decimal places the decimal point has been moved
(left: +; right: ).
Multiply by the power of 10 equal to this number.
The number of signicant gures in a number can be determined by considering each 2.
of the following rules:
Signifcant fgures are counted from the frst non-zero digit (19).
Any zeros at the end of the number after the decimal point are considered to be
signicant.
The trailing zeros at the end of a number are not considered signifcant.
All zeros between two non-zero digits are always signifcant.
When performing calculations associated with signicant gures, the following rules 3.
apply:
When adding or subtracting numbers, count the number of decimal places to
determine the number of signicant gures. The answer cannot contain more places
after the decimal point than the least number of decimal places in the numbers being
added or subtracted.
When multiplying or dividing numbers, count the number of signifcant fgures. The
answer cannot contain more signicant gures than the number being multiplied or
divided with the least number of signicant gures.
REMEMBER
Standard form and signicant gures
1 Express the following in standard form.
a 360 400 b 213.457 c 1 023.98
d 0.0324 e 0.000 100 31 f 570 201 009
EXERCISE
4B
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
95 Chapter 4 Algebra
2 WE5 Solve by expressing the numbers in standard form and simplifying using index laws.
Express your answer as a basic numeral.
a
28 000
350
b
420 000
1400
c
11200 000
2800
d
80 000 000
16 000
e
3100 000
1550
f
7 500 000
1500
g
0 000 24
0 3
.
.
h
0 000 018
0 06
.
.
i
0 000 056
0 0350
.
.
j
0 000 84
0 0021
.
.
k
5 800 000
0 02 .
l
130 000
0 0026 .
m
0 0066
11 000
.
n
0 000 095
190 000
.
o
18 000 0 0045
900
.
p
4900 0 00175
35
.
q
750 000 00 0 000 025
1250
.
r
25 600 000 0 000 000 004
0 0064
.
.
3 MC 10.0673 expressed in standard form is:
A 1.006 73 10 B 10.0673 10
-
4
C 0.100 673 10
-
2
D 0.100 673 10
2
E 1.006 73 10
-
1
4 WE6 Specify the number of significant figures in the following:
a 0.023 b 10.21 c 3045
d 210.50 e 10.10 f 34 700.002
g 0.120 10 h 7620 i 190.00
j 0.000 002 k 4730.90 l 2 800 000
5 WE 7 Calculate the following to the correct number of significant figures.
a 2.456 + 0.9 b 12.340 + 1.02 c 120.350 - 2.04
d 0.2507 - 0.120 e 1.903 230.576 f 28.1 2.1020
g 403.5 5.1 h 2.01 0.05080
6 MC The solution to 130.70 - 28.9913 with the correct number of significant figures is:
A 101.71 B 101.7090 C 101.7
D 101 E 101.709
7 MC The solution to 32.3695 1.870 with the correct number of significant figures is:
A 17.3 B 17 C 17.309
D 17.31 E 17.3100
8 Complete the following calculations, expressing your answer to the appropriate number of
significant figures.
a It is 1.35 kilometres from Janes house to school. Her average step length is 0.7 metres.
How many steps does it take for Jane to walk to school.
b If a container of sugar cubes has a mass of 250 g when full (excluding the mass of the
container), how many sugar cubes would be required to ll the container if they each have
a mass of 3.24 g?
9 The outer skin of a human cell, the cell membrane, is approximately 0.000 000 008 4 metres
thick. If the radius of the cell (including the cell membrane) is 0.000 004 2 metres, what
fraction of the radius does the cell membrane constitute?
10 An Olympic size swimming pool contains 2 500 000 litres of water. The average daily water
usage for a family of four is 625 litres. How long would it take for a family to use the volume
of water equivalent to an Olympic size pool.
96
11 The Earth has a mass of approximately 5970 yottagrams (where a yottagram, Yg, is 10
21
kg).
The mass of the Moon is 73500 zettagrams (where a zettagram, Zg, is 10
18
kg). What
percentage of the mass of the Earth is the mass of the Moon?

Transposition
A formula is an equation or a rule that denes the relationship between two or more variables.
If a formula describes a relationship between two variables, both of which are to the power of 1,
and does not contain terms that include a product or quotient of those variables, then such a
relation is said to be linear.
The graph that represents a linear relation is a straight line, which is where the term linear is
derived from. For example:
x - 4y - 7 = 0 and y =
-
3x + 6
are linear relations, whereas
x + y - xy = 3 or x
2
+ y = 29 or
x
y
= 7
are not (as explained previously).
Linear relations are often found in practical situations. For example, the formula for the
circumference of a circle, C = D, and the formula for the conversion of temperature from
degrees Celsius to degrees Fahrenheit, F =
9
5
C + 32, both describe linear relations. If we wanted
to nd many values of C given various values of F, it would be more convenient to have the
corresponding formula the formula that would have C on one side and everything else on the
other side of the equals sign.
The variable that is by itself is called the subject of the formula (that is, a formula
describes its subject in terms of all other variables). In the formula I = 20R, I is the subject.
To make R the subject, we need to rearrange the formula. Such a rearrangement is called
transposition.
4C
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
97 Chapter 4 Algebra
To transpose the equation I = 20R
divide both sides of the equation by 20.
I R
20
20
20
=
Simply.
I
R
20
=
Write the subject on the left-hand side. R
I
=
20
To rearrange or transpose a formula, we need to perform the same inverse operations to
both sides of the equation until the desired result is achieved.
WORKED EXAMPLE 8
Transpose the formula 4x = 2y - 3 to make y the subject.
THINK WRITE
1
Write the given formula. 4x = 2y - 3
2
Add 3 to both sides of the equation. 4x + 3 = 2y - 3 + 3
4x + 3 = 2y
3 Divide each term on both sides of the equation by 2.
4
2
3
2
2
2
x y
+ =
4 Simplify both sides of the equation.
2
3
2
2
3
2
x y
y x
+ =
= +
To transpose the above formula, we use the same methods as those employed for solving
linear equations. The only difference is that in the end we do not obtain a unique (or specic)
numerical value for the required variable, but rather an expression in terms of other variables.
Most of the relations that describe real-life situations are non-linear. Consider, for example,
any formula for area or volume. A few examples are the area of a circle A = r
2
(non-linear,
since it contains r to the power of 2); the area of a triangle A =
1
2
bh (non-linear, since it contains
the product of two variables); and the volume of a cube V = s
3
(non-linear, since s is cubed).
Non-linear formulas can be transposed by performing identical inverse operations to both
sides of the equations.
The inverse of x
2
is x, the inverse of x is x
2
and so on.
WORKED EXAMPLE 9
Transpose each of the following formulas to make the pronumerals indicated
in brackets the subject.
a A =
4
3
r
2
(r) b P
ab ac
d
a ==
-
( ) c m pq rs s == - ( )
THINK WRITE
a 1 Write the equation. a A =
4
3
r
2
2 Multiply both sides of the equation
by 3.
3 A =
4
3
r
2
3
3A = 4r
2
eBookplus eBookplus
Tutorial
int-1041
Worked example 9
98
3
Divide both sides by 4.
3
4
4
4
3
4
2
2
A r
A
r

=
=
4 Take the square root of both sides.
Note: From an algebraic point of view
we should write in front of the root.
However, since r represents a physical
quantity (radius of a sphere in this
case), it can take only positive values.
3
4
3
4
2
A
r
r
A

=
=
b 1 b
2 Write the answer. a
dP
b c
=
-
Note: Capital P should be used in the answer.
c 1
Write the equation. c m pq rs = -
2 The inverse of x is x
2
so square
both sides.
m
2
= pq - rs
3
Subtract pq from both sides. m
2
- pq = pq - rs - pq
m
2
- pq =
-
rs
4 Divide both sides by
-
r.
m pq
r
rs
r
s
m pq
r
2
2
-
=
=
-
-
-
-
-
5 Multiply the numerator and
denominator by
-
1 (optional).
s
pq m
r
=
-
2
Transposition is the rearrangement of terms within a formula. 1.
Relations can be transposed by performing identical inverse operations to both sides of 2.
the equation that describes the relation.
The subject of the formula is the variable that is by itself on one side of the equals sign 3.
while all other variables are on the other side.
REMEMBER
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
On the Main screen, tap:
Action
Advanced
solve
Complete the entry line as:
solve p
a b a c
d
a =
-

,
Then press E.
99 Chapter 4 Algebra
Transposition
1 WE8 Transpose each of the following formulas to make the pronumeral indicated in
brackets the subject. (Where two pronumerals are indicated, perform a separate transposition
for each.)
a 5y + 4x = 20 (x, y) b 3x - 4y + 12 = 0 (y)
c m = 3a - 14 (a) d 5p = 2 - 3k (k)
e
1
2
a =
3
4
b (a, b) f 10 - 3a = 2a - b (a, b)
g a = 3b - 0.5c (c) h
2 3
5
( ) a
b
-
= (a)
i 5(3 - 2d) = 6(f + 4) (d, f ) j
7 4
3
5 2
4
( ) ( ) a b b a -
=
-
(a, b)
k
3
2
2 3
3
1
a b a
+
+
=
-
( )
(a, b) l
2
5
6
3 6
10
x x y
- =
-
(x, y)
2 WE9 Transpose each of the following formulas to make the pronumerals indicated in
brackets the subject. (Where two pronumerals are indicated, perform a separate transposition
for each.)
a v
2
= u
2
+ as (a, u) b S = 4r
2
(r)
c
1 1 1
1 2
1
R R R
R R = + ( , )
d
A A
r
r = +

0
1
100
( )
e s
t
u v t u = +
2
( ) ( , )
f
T
L
g
L g = 2 ( , )
g C a b b = +
2 2
( ) h s = ut +
1
2
at
2
(a)
i P = I
2
R (I, R)
j
R
mv mv
t
m v =
-
2 1
1
( , )
Questions 3 to 6 refer to the following information.
A gardener charges a $40 xed fee for each visit plus $12 per hour of work.
3 MC Which of the following graphs represents the above information, where C represents the
total cost of a visit and t the time the gardener worked (in hours)?
A
0
12
40
C
t
B
0
(4, 76)
40
t
C
C
0
40
C
t
D
0
(5, 100)
40
C
t
E
0
40
12
t
C
4 MC Which of the following represents the relationship between t and C?
A C + 40 - 12t = 0 B 12t + C = 40 C 12t + 40 - C = 0
D t = 12C + 40 E 40 + 12t + C = 0
EXERCISE
4C
100
5 MC When the relationship between t and C is transposed to make t the subject, it is then
written as:
A t
C
=
+ 40
12
B 12t + 40 = C C t
C
=
-12
40
D t
C
= +
40
3
10
E
C
t
12
3
1
3
- =
6 MC If the total bill came to $79, for how long did the gardener work?
A 3 h B 3 h 15 min C 3 h 30 min
D 3 h 45 min E 4 h
Questions 710 refer to the following information. The volume of a square-based pyramid
with the side of the base s and the height h is given by the formula V =
1
3
s
2
h.
7 MC The side length of the base of a square-based pyramid with the height h and volume V is
given by:
A
s
v
h
= 3
B
s
h
V
=
3
C
s
h
V
=
3
D
s
V
h
=
3
E
s
V
h
=
3
8 MC The height of a square-based pyramid with the side of the base 5 cm and volume
75 cm
3
is:
A 8 cm B 9 cm C 10 cm
D 11 cm E 12 cm
9 MC If both the side of the base and the height are doubled, the volume is:
A doubled B tripled C increased by 4 times
D increased by 6 times E increased by 8 times
10 MC If the side of the base of a pyramid is doubled, but its volume remains unchanged, the
height:
A becomes twice as large B becomes
1
2
of the original size
C becomes
1
4
of the original size D becomes 4 times as large
E becomes
3
4
of the original size
11 The sum of the interior angles of a regular polygon is given by S = (n - 2) 180, where n is
the number of sides.
a Transpose the formula to make n the subject.
b Use the appropriate formulas to complete the following table:
Polygon Number of sides (n) Sum of interior angles (S)
Triangle 3
Hexagon 6
Dodecagon 12
Nonagon 9
Heptagon 7
1080
540
360
1440
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
101 Chapter 4 Algebra
12 The sum of n terms of an arithmetic sequence is given by the formula S
n
a n d = + -
2
2 1 [ ( ) ],
where a is the rst number of the sequence and d is the common difference.
a Transpose the formula to make a the subject and hence nd the rst term in a sequence
that has n = 26, d = 3 and S = 1079.
b Transpose the formula to make d the subject and hence nd the common difference of an
arithmetic sequence with 20 terms, a = 18 and S =
-
20.
Solving linear equations and
simultaneous linear equations
A linear equation is an equation that contains a pronumeral (unknown value) raised to the power
of 1. Such an equation may also be called an equation of the rst degree. Examples of linear or
rst degree equations include:
2x - 4 = 8, y = 7x - 12 and y
x
=
+ 5
3
.
Equations of the type:
y
x
y x = =
1
, , 2x
2
- 4 = 8, x
2
+ y
2
= 4 and y = x
3
- 8
are not linear since they contain pronumerals that are raised to powers other than 1; in these
cases,
-
1,
1
2
, 2, 2 and 3, respectively.
A linear equation is an equation that contains a pronumeral raised to the power of 1. It
may also be called an equation of the rst degree.
Solving linear equations
When we are asked to solve an equation, we are to nd the value of the pronumeral so that when
it is substituted into the original equation, it will make the equation a true statement.
Equations are solved by performing a number of inverse operations to both sides of the
equation until the value of the unknown is found.
When solving equations, the order of operations process, BODMAS (i.e. Brackets Of
Division, Multiplication, Addition, Subtraction) is reversed. We may therefore apply the
SAMDOB process (BODMAS in reverse). This means that the operations of subtraction and
addition are taken care of rst, followed by multiplication and division. Brackets are dealt with
last.
WORKED EXAMPLE 10
Solve the following equations.
a 2x - 3 = 4 b 10
3
2
5 - =
x
THINK WRITE
a 1
Write the given equation. a
2x - 3 = 4
2
(Optional step.) Rule up a table with two
columns to the side of the equation. In the rst
column, note each of the operations performed
on x in the correct order. In the second column,
write the corresponding inverse operation. The
arrows indicate which operation to begin with.
Operation Inverse
2 2
- 3 + 3
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 4.1
4D
102
3
Solve the equation by making x the subject.
Add 3 to both sides of the equation.
2x - 3 = 4
2x - 3 + 3 = 4 + 3
2x = 7
4 Divide both sides of the equation by 2.

2
2
7
2
x
=
5 Simplify.
x = 3
1
2
(or 3.5)
b 1 Write the given equation. b

10
3
2
5 - =
x
2
(Optional step.) As in part a above.
Operation Inverse
- 3 - 3
2 2
+ 10 - 10
3 Solve the equation by making x the subject.
Subtract 10 from both sides of the equation.
10
3
2
5
10 10
3
2
5 10
3
2
5
- =
- - = -
=
-
-
x
x
x
4 Multiply both sides of the equation by 2.

-
-
- -
=
=
3
2
2 5 2
3 10
x
x
5 Divide both sides of the equation by
-
3.

-
-
-
-
=
=
3
3
10
3
10
3
x
x
6 Simplify. = 3
1
3
Step 2 in worked example 10 is an optional step that may be used initially to help you become
familiar with the process of solving equations.
The answers may be checked by substituting the values obtained back into the original
equation or using a CAS calculator.
If the pronumeral appears in the equation more than once, we must collect terms containing
the unknown on one side of the equation and all other terms on the other side.
WORKED EXAMPLE 11
Solve for x in the equation: 2x - 4 = 4x + 6.
THINK WRITE
1
Write the given equation. 2x - 4 = 4x + 6
2
Transpose 4x to the LHS of the equation by subtracting
it from both sides of the equation.
2x - 4x - 4 = 4x - 4x + 6
-
2x - 4 = 6
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
103 Chapter 4 Algebra
3
Add 4 to both sides of the equation.
-
2x - 4 + 4 = 6 + 4
-
2x = 10
4 Divide both sides of the equation by
-
2.
-
- -
=
2
2
10
2
x
5
Simplify. x =
-
5
If the equation contains brackets, they should be expanded rst. In some cases, however,
both sides of the equation can be divided by the coefcient in front of the brackets instead of
expanding.
WORKED EXAMPLE 12
Solve for x in 2(x + 5) = 3(2x - 6).
THINK WRITE
Method 1: Using the rule
1
Write the given equation. 2(x + 5) = 3(2x - 6)
2
Expand each of the brackets on both sides of
the equation.
2x + 10 = 6x - 18
3
Transpose 6x to the LHS of the equation
by subtracting it from both sides of the
equation.
2x - 6x + 10 = 6x - 6x - 18
-
41x + 10 =
-
18
4
Subtract 10 from both sides of the equation.
-
4x + 10 - 10 =
-
18 - 10
-
4x =
-
28
5
Divide both sides of the equation by
-
4.
-
-
-
-
=
4
4
28
4
x
6
Simplify. x = 7
Method 2: Using a CAS calculator
1
2
Write the answer. Solving 2(x + 5) = 3(2 x - 6) for x, gives x = 7.
On the Main screen, tap:
Action
Advanced
solve
Complete the entry line as:
solve (p = 2(x + 5) = 3(2x - 6), x)
Then press E.
104
If an equation contains a fraction, we should rst remove the denominators by multiplying each
term of the equation by the lowest common denominator (LCD).
WORKED EXAMPLE 13
Find the value of x that will make the following a true statement:
x x +
= -
2
3
5
2
.
THINK WRITE
Method 1: Using the rule
1
Write the given equation. x x +
= -
2
3
5
2
2
Determine the LCD of 2 and 3. LCD of 2 and 3 is 6.
3 Multiply each term of the equation by the
LCD.
x x + 2
3
6 5 6
2
6 = -
4 Simplify both sides of the equation.
6 2
3
30
6
2
( ) x x +
= -
2(x + 2) = 30 - 3x
5
Expand the bracket on the LHS of the
equation.
2x + 4 = 30 - 3x
6
Add 3x to both sides of the equation. 2x + 3x + 4 = 30 - 3x + 3x
5x + 4 = 30
7
Subtract 4 from both sides of the equation. 5x + 4 - 4 = 30 - 4
5x = 26
8 Divide both sides of the equation by 5.
5
5
26
5
x
=
9 Simplify. x = 5
1
5
(or 5.2)
Method 2: Using a CAS calculator
1
2
Write the answer.
Solving
x x +
= -
2
3
5
2
for x, gives x =
26
5
or 5
1
5
.
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
On the Main screen, tap:
Action
Advanced
solve
Complete the entry line as:
solve
x x
x
+
= -

2
3
5
2
,
Then press E.
105 Chapter 4 Algebra
Sometimes in equations containing fractions, a pronumeral appears in the denominator. Such
equations are solved in the same manner as those in the previous examples. However, care must
be taken to identify the value (or values) for which the pronumeral will cause the denominator to
be zero. If in the process of obtaining the solution the pronumeral is found to take such a value,
it should be discarded.
Even though the process of identifying the value of the pronumeral that causes the
denominator to be zero is at this stage merely a precaution, this process should be practised as it
will prove useful in future chapters.
WORKED EXAMPLE 14
Solve the following equation for x:
2 3
2
1
1 x x x
+ =
-
.
THINK WRITE
Method 1: Using the rule
1 Identify the values of x that will cause the
denominator to be zero.
Note: Once the equation has been solved,
values that cause the denominator to be zero
will be discarded.
First fraction: x = 0
Second fraction: 2x = 0
x = 0
Third fraction: x - 1 = 0
x = 1
x cannot assume the values of 0 and 1, since this will
cause the fraction to be undened.
2 Write the given equation.
2 3
2
1
1 x x x
+ =
-
3 Determine the LCD of x, 2x and x - 1. LCD of x, 2x and x - 1 is 2x(x - 1).
4 Multiply each term of the equation by the
LCD.
2
2 1
3
2
2 1
1
1
2 1
x
x x
x
x x
x
x x - + - =
-
- ( ) ( ) ( )
5 Simplify both sides of the equation. 4 1 6 1
2
2 1
1
x x
x
x x
x
x x
x
( ) ( ) ( ) -
+
-
=
-
-
4(x 1) + 3(x - 1) = 2x
6 Expand the brackets on the LHS of the
equation.
4x - 4 + 3x - 3 = 2x
7x - 7 = 2x
7
Collect like terms onto the LHS by
subtracting 2x from both sides of the
equation.
7x - 2x - 7 = 2x - 2x
5x - 7 = 0
8
Add 7 to both sides of the equation. 5x - 7 + 7 = 0 + 7
5x = 7
9 Divide both sides of the equation by 5. 5
5
7
5
x
=
10
Simplify.
Note: The value of 1.4 is a valid solution.
x = 1
2
5
(or 1.4)
eBookplus eBookplus
Tutorial
int-1042
Worked example 14
106
Method 2: Using a CAS calculator
1
2 Write the answer. Solving
2 3
2
1
1 x x x
+ =
-
for x, gives
x =
7
5
or 1
2
5
.
Simultaneous equations
It is impossible to solve one linear equation with two unknowns. There must be two equations
with the same two unknowns for a solution to be found.
Such equations are called simultaneous equations.
Graphical solution of simultaneous equations
If two straight lines intersect, the point of their intersection belongs to both lines and hence the
coordinates of that point (x, y) will represent the solution of two simultaneous equations that
dene the lines.
When we are solving simultaneous equations graphically, the accuracy of the solution is
highly dependent on the quality of the graph. Therefore, all graphs must be drawn on graph
paper as accurately as possible.
It is good practice to verify any answer obtained from a graph by substituting it into the
original equations, or to check using a CAS calculator.
WORKED EXAMPLE 15
Solve the following pair of simultaneous equations graphically:
a x + 2y = 4 b y + 3x = 17
x - y = 1 2x - 3y = 4
THINK WRITE
a 1 Rule up a set of axes. Label the
origin and the x and y axes.
a (See graph at step 7 on page 107.)
2
Find the x-intercept for the
equation x + 2y = 4, by making
y = 0.
x-intercept: when y = 0,
x + 2y = 4
x + 2 0 = 4
x = 4
The x-intercept is at (4, 0).
3
Find the y-intercept for the
equation x + 2y = 4, by making
x = 0. Divide both sides of the
equation by 2.
y-intercept: when x = 0,
x + 2y = 4
0 + 2y = 4
2y = 4
y = 2
The y-intercept is at (0, 2).
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
On the Main screen, tap:
Action
Advanced
solve
Complete the entry line as:
solve
2 3
2
1
1 x x x
x + =
-

,
Then press E.
107 Chapter 4 Algebra
4 Plot the points on graph paper and
join them with the straight line.
Label the graph.
(Refer to the graph at step 7.)
5
Find the x-intercept for the
equation x y = 1, by making
y = 0.
x-intercept: when y = 0,
x - y = 1
x - 0 = 1
x = 1
The x-intercept is at (1, 0).
6
Find the y-intercept for the
equation x - y = 1, by making
x = 0. Multiply both sides of the
equation by
-
1.
y-intercept: when x = 0,
x - y = 1
0 - y = 1

-
y = 1

-
y
-
1 = 1
-
1
y =
-
1
The y-intercept is at (0,
-
1).
7
Plot the points on graph paper and
join them with the straight line.
Label the graph.
1
1
1
2
2 4
(2, 1)
y
x
x y = 1
x + 2y = 4
0
8
From the graph, read the coordinates
of the point of intersection.
The point of intersection between the two graphs is
(2, 1).
9
Verify the answer by substituting
the point of intersection into the
original equations.
Substitute x = 2 and y = 1 into x + 2y = 4.
LHS = 2 + 2 1 RHS = 4
= 2 + 2
= 4
LHS = RHS
Substitute x = 2 and y = 1 into x - y = 1
LHS = 2 - 1 RHS = 1
= 1
LHS = RHS
In both cases LHS = RHS; therefore, the solution set
(2, 1) is correct.
b 1 b Rearrange both equations to make y
the subject. To do this, on the Main
screen, complete the entry lines as:
solve(y + 3x = 17, y)
solve(2x - 3y = 4, y)
Press E after each entry.
108
2
3
4
Write the answer. The point of intersection between the two graphs is
(5, 2).
Parallel lines
If two equations have the same gradient, they represent parallel lines. Such lines will never meet
and so never have a point of intersection (that is, there is no solution).
The following pair of equations, y = 2x + 3 and y = 2x + 5 dene two
parallel lines; hence, there is no solution. The graph at right demonstrates
that the straight lines never intersect.
Coincidental lines
If two lines coincide, then there are an innite number of solutions.
For example, consider the two straight lines given by the equations
y = 2x + 1 and 4x - 2y =
-
2.
Rearranging the second equation 4x - 2y =
-
2
we obtain the same line. 4x - 4x - 2y =
-
4x - 2

-
2y =
-
4x - 2
-
-
-
- -
= -
2
2
4
2
2
2
y x
y = 2x + 1
y

=

2
x

+

5

y

=

2
x

+

3

5
3
y
x
0
y

=

2
x

+

1

4
x


2
y

=

2

y
x
0
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
On the Graph & Tab screen,
complete the function entry lines as:
y1 =
2 2
3
( ) x -
y2 = 17 - 3x
Tick the equation boxes and tap $.
To nd the point of intersection, tap:
Analysis
G-Solve
Intersect
109 Chapter 4 Algebra
The two equations when graphed represent the same line they coincide. Therefore, every
point on the line will represent the solution as there is not one unique point that satises both
equations.
Algebraic solution of simultaneous equations
When using algebra to solve simultaneous equations, the aim is to obtain one equation with one
unknown from two equations with two unknowns by various algebraic manipulations. This can
be done in two ways substitution and elimination as outlined below.
Substitution method
The method of substitution is easy to use when at least one of the equations represents one
unknown in terms of the other.
To solve simultaneous equations using the method of substitution:
1. Check that one of the equations is transposed so that one of the unknowns is expressed in
terms of the other.
2. Substitute the transposed equation into the second equation.
3. Solve for the unknown variable.
WORKED EXAMPLE 16
Use the method of substitution to solve the simultaneous equations y = 2x + 3 and 4x - y = 5.
THINK WRITE
1
Write the equations one under the other, and number
them.
y = 2x + 3 [1]
4x - y = 5 [2]
2 Substitute the expression for y (2x + 3) from
equation [1] into equation [2].
Note: By substituting one equation into the other, we
are left with one equation and one unknown.
Substituting (2x + 3) into [2]:
4x - (2x + 3) = 5
3 Solve for x.
(a) Expand the brackets on the LHS of the equation.
(b) Simplify the LHS of the equation by collecting like
terms.
(c) Add 3 to both sides of the equation.
(d) Divide both sides of the equation by 2.
4x 2x - 3 = 5
2x - 3 = 5
2x - 3 + 3 = 5 + 3
2x = 8
2
2
8
2
x
=
x = 4
4
Substitute 4 in place of x into [1] to nd the value of y. Substituting x = 4 into [1]:
y = 2 4 + 3
5
Evaluate. = 8 + 3
= 11
6
Answer the question. Solution: x = 4, y = 11 or solution
set (4, 11).
7 Verify the answer by substituting the point of
intersection into the original equations or use a CAS
calculator.
The answer was checked using a CAS
calculator and found to be correct.
If neither of the equations give one unknown in terms of the other, we can still use a method of
substitution by rst transposing one of the equations.
110
Elimination method
As the name suggests, the idea of the elimination method is to eliminate one of the variables.
This is done in the following way.
1. Choose the variable you want to eliminate.
2. Make the coefcients of that variable equal in both equations.
3. Eliminate the variable by either adding or subtracting the two equations.
Once this is done, the resulting equation will contain only one unknown which then can be
easily found.
WORKED EXAMPLE 17
Use the elimination method to solve the following simultaneous equations.
2x + 3y = 4
x - 3y = 2
THINK WRITE
1
Write the equations one under the other, and number
them.
2x + 3y = 4 [1]
x - 3y = 2 [2]
2
Add equations [1] and [2] to eliminate y.
Note: y is eliminated since the coefcients of y in both
equations are equal in magnitude and opposite in sign.
[1] + [2]:
2x + 3y = 4
+ (x - 3y = 2)
3x = 6
3 Divide both sides of the equation by 3.
3
3
6
3
x
=
x = 2
4
Substitute the value of x into equation [2].
Note: x = 2 may be substituted in either equation.
Substituting x = 2 into [2]:
x - 3y = 2
5 Solve for y.
(a) Subtract 2 from both sides of the equation.
(b) Divide both sides of the equation by
-
3.
2 - 3y = 2
2 - 2 - 3y = 2 - 2
-
3y = 0
-
- -
=
3
3
0
3
y
y = 0
6
Answer the question. Solution: x = 2, y = 0 or solution
set (2, 0).
7
Verify the answer by substituting the point of
intersection into the original equations or using a CAS
calculator.
The answer was checked using a CAS
calculator and found to be correct.
If there is no pair of equal coefcients, we can make them the same by multiplying or dividing
one or both equations by an appropriate number.
WORKED EXAMPLE 18
Solve the following simultaneous equations using a CAS calculator.
2x + 3y = 4
3x + 2y = 10
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
111 Chapter 4 Algebra
THINK WRITE
1
2
Answer the question.
Solution: x =
22
5
, y =
-
8
5
or
22
5
8
5
,
-

.
A linear equation is an equation that contains a pronumeral raised to the power of 1. It 1.
may also be called an equation of the rst degree.
Linear equations are solved by using inverse operations. When solving linear equations 2.
the order of operations process, BODMAS, is reversed.
If the pronumeral appears more than once, the terms containing the unknown are 3.
collected onto one side of the equation and the numbers onto the other.
If the equation contains brackets, either expand, or divide both sides by the coefcient 4.
in front of the bracket.
If an equation contains fractions, multiply each term of the equation by the LCD. 5.
Simultaneous linear equations can be solved either graphically or algebraically.
Graphical method: 6.
Draw the straight lines representing the equations and fnd the coordinates of the
point of intersection.
Algebraic methods: 7.
(a) Substitution: Transpose one of the equations so that one of the unknowns is
expressed in terms of the other and substitute into the second equation.
(b) Elimination: Equate the coefcients of one unknown and eliminate it by either
adding or subtracting the two equations.
REMEMBER
Solving linear equations and simultaneous linear
equations
1 WE 10 Solve the following equations.
a x + 3 =
-
16 b 3 - 2x = 10 c
-
0.2x = 10
d
-
-
=
6
7
5
x
e
x
4
1
2
=
f
3
4
11 20
x
+ =
EXERCISE
4D
On the Main screen, tap:
)
{N
Complete the entry line as shown.
Then press E.
112
g
-
-
+ =
2
4
3 7
x
h
x -
=
9
7
5 i
6
13
5
-
=
x
j
11 2
5
7
x +
= k 6
2
15 - =
x
l
- -
- = 17
2
3
20
x
2 WE 11 Solve for x.
a 2x = 7 + 9x b 15x + 22 =
-
7x c 12 - 17x =
-
5x
d 3x + 4 = x - 6 e
-
5x + 2 = 3x + 18 f 5x - 3 =
-
3 - 5x
g 2x - 7 =
-
2x + 1 h 15x + 2 = 13x - 10 i 8 - 3x = 4 - x
j 13 - 3x = 4 - 6x k
-
9 + 11x =
-
3 - x
3 WE 12 Solve for x.
a 4(x - 20) = 16 b
-
(5 + 6x) = 13
c
-
2(2x - 7) = 3x d 8(2x + 1) =
-
2(7 - 3x)
e 4(x + 3) = 2(7 - 4x) + 5 f 5(2x - 4) - 3 + 7(2 - x) = 0
4 WE 13 For each of the following, find the value of x that will make the statement true.
a
x x +
=
+ 4
3
2 1
2
b
x
x
7
12 - =
c x
x
+ - =
2
6
3 0 d
7 1
4
2 3
5
x x -
=
-
e
7
3
3 2 3
2
5
8
x x x
=
-
+
( )
f
3 2
4
7
3
2 1
2
1
6
x x x -
+
-
-
+
=
g
7
5
4
2 3 6
3
-
- =
- x x ( )
h
4 6 2
9
5
3 7
6
( ) ( ) -
= -
+ x x
5 WE 14 For each of the following:
a state which value (or values) of x will cause the equation to be undened
b solve for x.
i
2
1
1 4
x x x +
- = ii
3
1
4 2
3 x x x -
+ =
iii
2 3 6
1 1
1
1
4
1
( )
( )( )
x
x x x x
-
- +
+
+
=
-
iv
5
2
7
4
1
x x
- =
v
3 7 4
2
4
( ) x
x
-
-
=
-
vi
15
4
11
8
3
3 x x x
- =
-
-
6 WE 15 Solve the following pairs of simultaneous equations graphically. Verify your answer
with a CAS calculator.
a 3x + y = 6, x - 2y = 2 b
-
x + 3y = 3, 2x + 3y = 12
c x = y + 2, 2y - x = 0 d 3x + 2y =
-
6, y = 1 - x
7 MC The pair of simultaneous equations y = 5 - x and y =
-
x - 1 has:
A 1 solution B 2 solutions C no solutions
D an innite number of solutions E none of these
8 MC The pair of simultaneous equations 2x - 2y = 4 and y - x + 2 = 0 has:
A 1 solution B 2 solutions C no solutions
D an innite number of solutions E none of these
9 Complete the following statements.
a If two lines with different gradients go through the origin, then the solution to the
pair of simultaneous equations dening those lines is _______________
(give coordinates).
b If two lines have the same gradients but different y-intercepts, then the pair of
simultaneous equations dening such lines will have _______________ solution(s).
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
113 Chapter 4 Algebra
c If two lines are dened by the equation y = mx + c and have the same value of c but
different values of m, then the solution to the pair of simultaneous equations will be
_______________ (give coordinates).
10 WE 16 Solve the following pairs of simultaneous equations by the method of substitution.
a y = 2x + 3
6x + y = 11
b x = y
6x - 2y = 10
c y = 3x - 6
y = 16 + 5x
d x =
-
y
3x - 6y = 36
e 2y - 6 = x
7x + 3y =
-
25
f x = 5 - 4y
2y - 3x = 13
11 WE 17 Use the method of elimination to solve each of the following:
a 2x + y = 3
4x - y =
-
9
b x - y = 7
y + x =
-
1
c 3x - 2y =
-
1
3x - 6y =
-
9
d x + 3y = 7
5x - 3y =
-
19
e 2x + 4y = 24
-
6x + 4y = 8
f 2x - y = 0
2x - 4y =
-
9
12 MC Nathan is solving a pair of simultaneous equations 2x - 3y = 5 [1] and 3x + 4y = 10 [2]
using the elimination method. To eliminate one of the variables, he could multiply equation [1]
and equation [2] by:
A 2 and 3 respectively B 3 and 4 respectively C 3 and 2 respectively
D 5 and 10 respectively E 4 and 2 respectively
13 WE 18 Solve each of the following pairs of equations using the elimination method.
a 2x - 3y = 8
3x + 4y =
-
5
b x - 2y =
-
4
3x + y = 9
c
2
3
x +
1
3
y = 5
2x - y =
-
3
d 2y - x =
-
10
x + 3y =
-
5
e 5y - 2x = 4
6x + y = 4
f
1
5
x +
3
5
y = 5
2y + x = 20
14 MC Without solving the equation
4
3
2
1
1
x x x -
+
+
= we know that x will not be equal to:
A 3 B
-
1 C 0 D 0 or
-
1 E
-
1 or 3 or 0
15 MC To solve
3 1
2
5
4 2
3
( ) x x -
- =
-
, each term of the equation could be multiplied by:
A 2 B 3 C 4 D 5 E 6
16 MC To solve the equation
2
3
4
x
= , the operations that must be performed are:
A both sides by 2, then by 3 B both sides by
2
3
C both sides by
2
3
D both sides by 3, then by 4
E both sides by 4, then by 2
Question 17 refers to the diagram at right.
1
[1]
[2]
1
0
1
2
2
3
y
x
17 MC a The equation of line [1] is:
A y =
2
3
x - 2 B y = 2x - 2 C y =
1
2
x - 2
D y = 2x + 1 E y = 2 + 2x
114
b The equation of line [2] is:
A y =
2
3
x + 2 B y =
2
3
x + 3 C y =
-
2
3
x - 2
D 3y = 2x + 6 E 3y + 2x = 6
c The point of intersection of the two lines has the coordinates:
A
3
2
1
2
,
( )
B
2
1
2
,

C (2, 1) D
3
2
1 ,

E
2
3
2
,

18 Find the value of z, such that the solution to the following equation is x = 1.
3
2 1
8
2 1 x
z
x
x
x x -
-
+
=
- + ( )( )
19 Solve the following equation.
5
2 2
4
1
6
2 x x x -
=
-
+
-
20 Find the values of x, y and z in the following three simultaneous equations with three
unknowns.
2x + 3y - z =
-
7 3x + 2y + z = 2 x - 4y + 2z = 15
Applications
Linear equations can often be used to help us in problem solving. This is usually done in the
following way.
1. Identify the unknown and choose any convenient pronumeral (usually x) to represent it.
2. Use the information given in the problem to compose an equation in terms of the pronumeral.
3. Solve the equation to nd the value of the pronumeral.
4. Interpret your result by relating the answer back to the problem.
WORKED EXAMPLE 19
If the sum of twice a certain number and 5 is multiplied by 3 and then divided by 7, the result is 9.
Find the number.
THINK WRITE
1
Assign the pronumeral x to the unknown value. Let x = the unknown number.
2
Build the equation according to the information given.
(a) Twice the number this means 2, so write this. 2x
(b) The sum of twice the number and 5 this means
2x + 5, so add this on.
2x + 5
(c) The sum is multiplied by 3 this means 3(2x + 5).
Add this on.
Note: We include brackets to indicate the order of
operations.
3(2x + 5)
(d) The result is divided by 7 this means
3 2 5
7
( ) x +
.
Add this on.
3 2 5
7
( ) x +
(e) The result is 9 which means that all of the
previous computations will equal 9. Write this.
3 2 5
7
9
( ) x +
=
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc
Investigation
Comparing production costs
4E
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
115 Chapter 4 Algebra
3
Solve for x.
(a) Multiply both sides of the equation by 7.
3 2 5
7
7 9 7
( ) x +
=
3(2x + 5) = 63
(b) Divide both sides of the equation by 3 since they
are both divisible by 3.
3 2 5
3
63
3
( ) x +
=
2x + 5 = 21
(c) Subtract 5 from both sides of the equation. 2x + 5 - 5 = 21 - 5
2x = 16
(d) Divide both sides of the equation by 2.
2
2
16
2
x
=
(e) Simplify. x = 8
4
Answer the question. The unknown number is 8.
Sometimes the problem contains more than one unknown. In such cases one of the unknowns is
called x and the other unknowns are then expressed in terms of x.
WORKED EXAMPLE 20
Sarah is buying tulip bulbs. Red tulip bulbs cost $5.20 each, while yellow tulip bulbs cost $4.70 each.
If 22 bulbs cost Sarah $107.40, how many of each type did she buy?
THINK WRITE
1
Dene the variables.
Note: Since there are 22 bulbs altogether, the number of
yellow tulip bulbs is 22 - the number of red tulip bulbs;
that is, 22 - x.
Let x = the number of red tulip bulbs.
Let 22 - x = the number of yellow tulip
bulbs.
2
Write an expression for the cost of the red tulips.
Note: One red tulip costs $5.20; therefore x red tulips
cost 5.20 x.
Total cost of red tulip bulbs
= 5.20 x
= 5.2x
116
3
Write an expression for the cost of the yellow tulips.
Note: One yellow tulip costs $4.70; therefore 22 - x
tulips cost 4.70 (22 - x).
Total cost of yellow tulip bulbs
= 4.70 (22 - x)
= 4.7(22 - x)
4
Formulate an equation relating the total cost of the red
and yellow tulips and the expressions obtained in steps
2 and 3.
The total cost of the red and yellow tulip
bulbs is $107.40.
Also the total cost of red and yellow tulip
bulbs is 5.2x + 4.7(22 - x).
Therefore, 5.2x + 4.7(22 - x) = 107.4
5
Solve the equation.
(a) Expand the brackets on the LHS of the equation. 5.2x + 103.4 - 4.7x = 107.4
(b) Collect the like terms on the LHS of the equation. 0.5x + 103.4 = 107.4
(c) Subtract 103.4 from both sides of the equation. 0.5x + 103.4 - 103.4 = 107.4 - 103.4
0.5x = 4
(d) Divide both sides of the equation by 0.5.
0 5
0 5
4
0 5
.
. .
x
=
(e) Simplify. x = 8
6 Interpret the answer obtained. There are 8 red and 14 (that is, 22 - 8)
yellow tulip bulbs.
7
Answer the question. Sarah purchased 8 red and 14 yellow tulip
bulbs.
WORKED EXAMPLE 21
A train (denoted as train 1) leaves station A and moves in the direction of station B with an average
speed of 60 km/h. Half an hour later another train (denoted as train 2) leaves station A and moves in
the direction of the rst train with an average speed of 70 km/h. Find:
a the time needed for the second train to catch up with the rst train
b the distance of both trains from station A at that time.
THINK WRITE
1
Dene the variables.
Note: Since the rst train left half an hour
earlier, the time taken for it to reach the
meeting point will be x + 0.5.
Let x = the time taken for train 2 to reach train 1.
Therefore, the travelling time, t, for each
train is:
Train 1: t
1
= x + 0.5
Train 2: t
2
= x
2
Write the speed of each train. Train 1: v
1
= 60
Train 2: v
2
= 70
3
Write the distance travelled by each of the
trains from station A to the point of the
meeting.
(Distance = speed time.)
Train 1: d
1
= 60(x + 0.5)
Train 2: d
2
= 70x
4
Equate the two expressions for distance.
Note: When the second train catches up with
the rst train, they are the same distance from
station A that is, d
1
= d
2
.
When the second train catches up with the rst train,
d
1
= d
2
.
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
117 Chapter 4 Algebra
5
6
Substitute 3 in place of x into either of the
two expressions for distance, say into d
2
.
Substitute x = 3 into d
2
= 70x
d
2
= 70 3
7
Evaluate. = 210
8
Answer the questions. a The second train will catch up with the rst train
3 hours after leaving station A.
b Both trains will be 210 km from station A.
Simultaneous equations are used to solve a variety of problems containing more than one
unknown. Here is a simple algorithm that can be applied to any of them:
1. Identify the variables.
2. Set up simultaneous equations by transforming written information into algebraic sentences.
3. Solve the equations by using the substitution, elimination or graphical methods.
4. Interpret your answer by referring back to the original problem.
WORKED EXAMPLE 22
Find two consecutive numbers that add up to 99.
THINK WRITE
1
Dene the two variables. Let x = the rst number.
Let y = the second number.
2 Formulate two equations from the information given
and number them.
Note: Consecutive numbers follow one another and
differ by 1. Hence, if x is the rst number, the next
number will be x + 1 that is, y = x + 1.
x + y = 99 [1]
y = x + 1 [2]
3 Substitute the expression (x + 1) from equation [2] for y
into equation [1].
Substituting (x + 1) into [1]:
x + x + 1 = 99
4
Solve for x.
(a) Simplify the LHS of the equation by collecting like
terms.
2x + 1 = 99
(b) Subtract 1 from both sides of the equation. 2x + 1 - 1 = 99 - 1
2x = 98
(c) Divide both sides of the equation by 2.
2
2
98
2
x
=
x = 49
Solve the equation. On the Main screen, tap:
Action
Advanced
solve
Then complete the entry line as:
solve(60(x + 0.5) = 70x, x)
Then press E.
118
5
Substitute 49 in place of x into equation [1] to nd the
value of y.
Substituting x = 49 into equation [2]:
y = x + 1
6
Evaluate. y = 49 + 1
= 50
7
Verify the answer by checking that the two values are
consecutive and that they sum 99.
49 and 50 are consecutive numbers.
49 + 50 = 99
The obtained values satisfy the problem.
8
Answer the question. The two consecutive numbers that add up
to 99 are 49 and 50.
WORKED EXAMPLE 23
Two hamburgers and a packet of chips cost $8.20, while one hamburger and two packets of chips
cost $5.90. Find the cost of a packet of chips and a hamburger.
THINK WRITE
1
Dene the two variables. Let x = the cost of one hamburger.
Let y = the cost of a packet of chips.
2 Formulate an equation from the rst sentence
and call it [1].
Note: One hamburger costs $x, two
hamburgers cost $2x. Thus, the total cost of
cost of two hamburgers and one packet of
chips is 2x + y and it is equal to $8.20.
2x + y = 8.20 [1]
3
Formulate an equation from the second
sentence and call it [2].
Note: One packet of chips costs $y, two
packets cost $2y. Thus, the total cost of two
packets of chips and one hamburger is x + 2y
and it is equal to $5.90.
x + 2y = 5.90 [2]
4
5
Answer the question and include appropriate
units.
A hamburger costs $3.50 and a packet of chips costs
$1.20.
It is extremely important to be consistent with the use of units while setting up equations.
For example, if the cost of each item is expressed in cents, then the total cost must also be
expressed in cents.
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
Solve for the simultaneous equations. On the
Main screen, tap:
)
{N
Complete the entry line as shown.
Then press E.
119 Chapter 4 Algebra
To solve worded problems using linear equations, follow these steps:
Identify the variables. 1.
Set up an equation by transforming the written information into an algebraic statement 2.
or statements.
Solve the equation. 3.
Interpret the result by relating the answer back to the original problem. 4.
To solve problems involving simultaneous equations, follow these steps:
Identify and dene the variables. 5.
Transform written information into algebraic statements. 6.
Solve the pair of equations graphically or algebraically using the methods of 7.
substitution or elimination.
Interpret the result by relating the answer back to the problem. 8.
Always make sure the numbers in the equations are in the same units. 9.
REMEMBER
Applications
1 WE 19 The average of three consecutive odd numbers is
-
3. Find the largest number.
2 Half of a certain number is subtracted from 26 and the result is then tripled, and the answer
is 18. Find the number.
3 The sum of one-third of a number and 5 is 27. Find the number.
4 WE20 Fiona is buying tulip bulbs. Red tulip bulbs cost $6.40 each, while yellow tulip bulbs
cost $5.20 each. If 28 bulbs cost Fiona $167.20, how many of each type did she buy?
5 A rectangle is 2.5 times as long as it is wide. Find the dimensions of the rectangle if its
perimeter is 56 cm.
6 In an isosceles triangle, two sides of equal length are together 8 cm longer than the third side.
If the perimeter of the triangle is 32 cm, what is the length of each side?
7 In a scalene triangle the first angle is 3 times as large as the second, while the third angle is 20
smaller than the second. Find the size of each angle; hence, name the triangle according to its
angles sizes.
8 All items at a clothing store have been reduced by 15%. If Stephanie purchased a shirt at the
reduced price of $84.15, what was its original price?

EXERCISE
4E
120
9 MC a If 7 times a number subtracted from 52 gives 3, then the number is:
A
-
7 B 7 C 8 D 6 E 7
6
7
b The sum of one-quarter of a number and 10 is 15. The value of the number is:
A 100 B 50 C 40 D 20 E 10
10 a I am 3 times as old as my cousin Carla, who is 3
1
3
times as old as my daughter Nina. If our
total ages are 43 years, how old is my cousin?
b Another cousin, Zara, is Carlas older sister. Zara is as many times as old as my daughter
Nina as the number of years that she is older than Carla. How old is my other cousin?
11 Simon is only 16 years old, but he has already lived in four different countries because of his
fathers job. He was born and spent a few years of his early childhood in the USA, then the
family moved to Germany, where he stayed one year longer than he had in the USA. After
that, he lived in London for twice as long as he had in Germany. Finally, they came to live in
Melbourne. So far, he has been in Australia for 2 years less than he lived in America.
a At what age did Simon leave his country of birth?
b For how long did Simon live in each country?
12 In the storeroom of a fruit shop there were two boxes of apples, one of Golden Delicious and
the other of Jonathans, which were to be sold at $2.80 and $3.50/kg, respectively. The apples,
however, were accidentally mixed together and, instead of sorting them out, the owner decided
to sell them as they were. So as not to make a loss, he sold the mixed apples at $3.10/kg. How
many kilograms of each type of apple were there if together they weighed 35 kg?
13 WE21 Alex and Nat are going for a bike ride.
Nat can ride at 10 km/h, while Alex can
develop a maximum speed of 12 km/h if he
needs to. Nat leaves home at 10 am, while
Alex stays behind for 15 minutes and then
sets out to catch up with Nat. When will
Alex reach Nat, assuming that both of them
are riding at their maximum speed?
14 Samuel is paddling with a constant speed towards a
certain place he has marked on his map. With the
aid of a current (which has a speed of 2 km/h) it
takes him only 1 h 20 min to reach his destination.
However, on the way back he has to paddle against the
current and it then takes him 4 h to reach his starting
point. Find Samuels speed on the still water.
15 One administrative assistant can type 1.5 times as fast
as another. If they both work together, they can finish
a certain job in 6 hours. However, the slower one
working alone will need 15 hours to finish the same
job. How many hours will the quicker assistant alone
need to complete the job?
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
121 Chapter 4 Algebra
16 Maya needs to renovate her house. She has enough money to pay a plumber for 28 days or
a carpenter for 21 days. For how many days can she pay the renovators if they both work at
the same time? If Mayas next pay cheque will come in 2 weeks, can she afford to hire both
specialists until then?
17 In a particular school a number of VCE students obtained a tertiary entrance score higher than
99.4 and 15% more students obtained a score higher than 99.0, but lower than 99.4. If there
were 43 students whose tertiary entrance scores were above 99.0, how many of those obtained
a score above 99.4?
18 WE22 Find two consecutive numbers that add up to 89.
19 When three times the first number is added to twice the second number, the result is 13. Four
times the difference of those numbers is 44. Find the numbers.
20 Half of the sum of two numbers is 6 less than the first number. One-third of their difference is
one less than the second number. Find the numbers.
21 Five times the first number is twice as large as four times the second number. When the
difference of the two numbers is multiplied by 20, the result is 3. Find the numbers.
22 A rectangles length is 2 cm more than its width. If the perimeter of a rectangle is 24 cm, find
its dimensions and, hence, its area.
23 In the rectangle at right, find the values of x and y.
Hence, determine the perimeter.
24 The sides of an equilateral triangle have the following lengths: (x + y) cm, (2x - 3) cm and
(3y - 1) cm. Find the perimeter of the triangle.
25 The perimeter of a rhombus ABCD is 10 cm longer than the perimeter of an isosceles triangle
ABC. Find the length of AC, the diagonal of a rhombus, if it is 2 cm smaller than its side.
26 A table consists of 2 columns and 5 rows. Each of its cells is a rectangle with length x cm and
width y cm. The perimeter of the table is 70 cm and the total length of interior lines is 65 cm.
a Draw a diagram to represent the above information.
b Find the dimensions of each cell and comment on its shape.
27 Phuong conducts a survey. She asks 72 people whether or not they use the internet at home.
There were three times as many people who answered Yes as those who answered No.
Find the number of people in each category and hence help Phuong to complete the following
statement: According to the survey _______________ (insert fraction) of the population uses
the internet at home.
28 WE23 At the end of the day, two shop assistants compare their sales. One sold 5 toasters and
2 sandwich-makers for a total of $149.65, while the other sold 3 of each for a total value of
$134.70. Find the price of each item.
29 In an aquatic centre, pool and spa entry is $3.50, while pool, spa, sauna and steam room
entry is $5.20. At the end of the day, a cashier finds that she sold 193 tickets altogether and her
takings are 40c short of $800. How many of each type of ticket were sold?
30 Spiro empties his piggy bank. He has 42 coins, some of which are 5c coins and some of which
are 10c coins, to the total value of $2.50. How many 5c coins and how many 10c coins does he
have?
31 Maya and Rose are buying meat for a picnic. Mayas family likes lamb more than pork, so she
buys 3 kg of lamb and only half as much pork. Roses family have different tastes, so she buys
4.5 kg of pork and one-third as much lamb. If Maya spends $13.50, which is $8.25 less than
Rose spends, what is the cost of 1 kg of each type of meat?
(2x 1) cm
(x + 2) cm
(5 + y) cm
10 cm
122
32 Bella and Boris are celebrating their 25th wedding anniversary. Today, their combined age
is exactly 100. If Boris is 4 years older than Bella, how old was his bride on the day of their
wedding?
33 Interpreting Pty Ltd translates each English text into both French and Japanese. It takes a
French interpreter 0.6 hours to translate a page of any scientific text and 1 hour to translate a
page of fiction. A Japanese interpreter needs 0.95 hours to translate scientific text and 1.5 hours
for fiction. If the French interpreter works 8 hours a day, while the Japanese interpreter is
prepared to take some of her work home and spend up to 12.5 hours per day altogether, what
is the maximum number of pages of each type of text that can be translated each day by
Interpreting Pty Ltd?
34 Sasha is making dim sims and spring rolls for his guests. He is going to prepare everything first
and then cook. On average it takes 0.2 hours to prepare one portion of dim sims and 0.25 hours
to prepare one portion of spring rolls. He needs 0.05 hours and 0.15 hours to cook each portion
of dim sims and spring rolls respectively. If he spends 2 hours on preparation and 51 minutes
on cooking, how many portions of dim sims and spring rolls does Sasha make?
Algebraic fractions
Algebraic fractions are fractions that contain a pronumeral. Performing operations involving
these fractions involves the same rules as those for numerical fractions.
Addition and subtraction
Fractions can only be added or subtracted when they have a common denominator.
WORKED EXAMPLE 24
Simplify
a
x x
2 5
+ b
x
x 2
3
+ .
THINK WRITE
a 1
Find the lowest common denominator. a 2 5 = 10
Lowest common denominator = 10
2 Multiply the rst term by
5
5
and the second
term by
2
2
.
5
5 2
2
2 5
+
x x

= +
5
10
2
10
x x
3 Add the numerators.
7
10
x
b 1
Find the lowest common denominator. b
Lowest common denominator = 2x
2 Multiply the rst term by
x
x
and the second
term by
2
2
.
x
x x
2
2
6
2
+
3 Add the numerators.
x
x
2
6
2
+
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 4.2
4F
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
123 Chapter 4 Algebra
WORKED EXAMPLE 25
Simplify
a
3 2
1 x x
-
-
b
2
3
2
3
a
x x + -
--
.
THINK WRITE
Method 1: Using the rule
a 1
Find the lowest common denominator. a
Lowest common denominator = x(x - 1)
2 Multiply the rst term by
x
x
-
-
1
1
and
the second term by
x
x
.
3 1
1
2
1
( )
( ) ( )
x
x x
x
x x
-
-
-
-
3 Add the numerators.
3 1 2
1
( )
( )
x x
x x
- -
-
4 Expand and simplify the numerator.
x
x x
-
-
3
1 ( )
b 1
Find the lowest common
denominator.
b
Lowest common denominator = (x + 3)(x - 3), or
x
2
- 9
2 Multiply the rst term by
x
x
-
-
3
3
and
the second term by
x
x
+
+
3
3
.
2 3
9
2 3
9
2 2
a x
x
x
x
( ) ( ) -
-
+
+
-
3 Add the numerators.
2 3 2 3
9
2
a x x
x
( ) ( ) - + +
-
4 Expand the numerator.
2 6 2 6
9
2
ax a x
x
- + +
-
Method 2: Using a CAS calculator
a
&
b
1 a
&
b
2 Write the answer. a
3 2
1
3
2
x x
x
x x
-
-
=
-
-
b
2
3
2
3
2 2 6 6
9
2
a
x x
ax x a
x +
-
-
=
- - -
-
eBookplus eBookplus
Tutorial
int-1043
Worked example 25
On the Main screen, tap:
Action
Transformation
combine
Complete the entry lines as:
combine
3 2
1 x x
-
-

combine
2
3
2
3
a
x x +
-
-

Press E after each entry.


124
Multiplication and division
When multiplying, cancelling vertically or diagonally helps to simplify expressions before
multiplying top and bottom. This may involve factorising expressions to identify common
factors.
WORKED EXAMPLE 26
Simplify
a
3
4
20
9
2
x
x

b
x
y
y
x
2
2 2
4
6
2
5 20
+

+
.
THINK WRITE
Method 1: Using the rule
a 1
Cancel common factors between
numerators and denominators then
simplify.
a
Common factors: 3, x, 4
3
4
20
9 1
5
3
2
x
x
x
=
2 Multiply numerators together and
denominators together.
=
5
3
x
b 1 Factorise the denominator.
b
x
y
y
x
2
2 2
4
6
2
5 4
+

+ ( )
2 Cancel common factors and
simplify.
1
3
1
5 y

3 Multiply numerators together and
denominators together.
1
15y
Method 2: Using a CAS calculator
a
&
b
1 a
&
b
2 Write the answers. a
3
4
20
9
5
3
2
x
x
x
=
b
x
y
y
x y
2
2 2
4
6
2
5 20
1
15
+

+
=
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
On the Main screen, complete the
entry lines as:
3
4
20
9
2
x
x

x
y
y
x
2
2 2
4
6
2
5 20
+

+
Press E after each entry.
125 Chapter 4 Algebra
To add or subtract algebraic fractions, rst nd a common denominator and solve by 1.
adding or subtracting the numerator.
If the pronumeral is in the denominator, you can generally nd the common 2.
denominator by multiplying the denominators together.
When multiplying or dividing, cancel down before multiplying through numerators 3.
and denominators.
REMEMBER
Algebraic fractions
1 WE24 Simplify the following expressions.
a
a a
7
3
4
+ b
2
3
5
4
b b
+ c
d d
5
4
3
-
d
3
2
4
3
g g
- e
h
h 5
4
+ f
2
3
5
2
k
+
g
m
m 7
2
-
h
1
3
2
3 n
n
-
2 Simplify the following expressions.
a
2 3
2 p p
+
+ ( )
b
3
2
5
5 q q
+
+ ( )
c
4
1
3
2 ( ) ( ) r r +
+
-
d
1
3
7
4 ( ) ( ) s s -
-
+
e
3
2 3
2
1 ( ) ( ) t t +
-
-
f
3
2 3
5
8 ( ) v
v
-
+
g
3
2
5
2
w
w
-
- ( )
h
5 1
3
3
2
( ) ( ) x x -
+
+
3 WE25 Simplify the following expressions.
a
3
3
7
3 ( ) ( ) y y +
-
-
b
1
2
5
2 ( ) ( ) z z +
+
-
c
1
3 2
4
2 ( ) ( ) -
+
- x x
d
3
1
2
3 ( ) ( ) -
+
+ y y
e
2
3
5
3
2
( ) ( ) a a +
+
+
f
1
3 2
7
3 2
2
( ) ( ) b b -
-
-
4 MC When simplifying the expression
2
3
2
3 3
2
( ) ( ) x x -
-
-
, the lowest common denominator
is:
A x - 3 B 3(x - 3) C (x - 3)
2
D 3(x - 3)
2
E 3(x - 3)
3
5 MC Simplifying
2
2
4 4 1
2
2
3 3
2
2 2
a a
a b
a a
a b
-

- +
( )
gives:
A
2
2 1
2
a
b a ( ) -
B
4
2 1
2
a
b a ( ) -
C
2
2 1
2
a b
a ( ) -
D
-
-
2
2 1
2
a
b a ( )
E
-
+
2
2 1
2
a
b a ( )
EXERCISE
4F
126
6 MC Simplifying
9 2 3
2
2 3
-

+ e
e
e
e
( )
gives:
A
3
2
- e
B
3
2
- e
e
C
e e ( ) 3
2
-
D
3
2
+ e
E
3
2
+ e
e
7 WE26 Simplify the following expressions.
a
2
2
2 2
10
3
2
x
x
x
x +

+ ( )
b
3
3 5
2 5
8
2
b
b
b
b ( )
( )
+

+
c
d
d
d
d
2
3 2
5
3
12
2 10
+

+
d
9 2
3
2
2
-

+
e
e
e
e ( )
e
g g g
g
2
2
2
6
3
4
( ) -

-
f
7 2
2
12
7 14
2
3 2
h h h
h h
( ) +

+
8 Simplify the following expressions.
a
( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )
j j
j
j j
j
- +
+

- +
+
-
3 2
3 7
12 3 7
2 2
2 2
b
2 1 2
5 5
15 5 2
3 1
2
3 3
( ) ( )
( )
( )( )
( )
k k
k
k k
k
+ -
+

+ -
+
c
2 3
6 1
3
2 2 3
2
2
m m
m
m
m m
- -
-

- ( ) ( )
d
-
+

-
( ) n
n
n
n
1
6
9
1
2
2 2
e
p p
p
+

+ 3
7
3 3
21
( )
f
( )( ) ( ) q q
q
q
q
- +
+

-
+
2 3
5
2
3 15
2
g
3
2 3 5 2
15
3 2
2
2
3
r
r r
r
r ( ) ( ) + +

+
-
h
3 4
18 27
2 4
4 9
2
2
( )
( )
s
s
s
s
-
-

-
-
-
Linear literal equations
Literal equations are those that are written in terms of pronumerals
such that no unique numerical solution will be possible, but rather
an expression containing these pronumerals. An equation such
as mx - n = p could be described as a linear literal equation in x, as it is linear and contains
pronumerals rather than numbers. (Note, that in this case x is dened as the variable.)
A solution to a literal equation can be determined algebraically by the use of inverse operations
just as a numerical equation can. The difference is that the solution will be a general one that
is, in terms of the pronumerals.
In the example above, the solution to this equation will be obtained by isolating x as the subject
as follows:
mx - n = p (add n to both sides of the equation)
mx = p + n (divide by m on both sides of the equation)

x
p n
m
=
+
Note that literal equations always contain at least one pronumeral (apart from the variable), but
they may also contain numerals.
WORKED EXAMPLE 27
Solve for x.
a
ax
b
c d - = b
m
x a
n
x ( ) -
=
3
THINK WRITE
a 1 Add c to both sides. a
ax
b
c d - =
ax
b
d c = +
4G
eBookplus eBookplus
Interactivity
int-0971
Linear literal equations
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
127 Chapter 4 Algebra
2
Multiply both sides by b. ax = b(d + c)
3
Divide both sides by a. x
b d c
a
=
+ ( )
b 1 Multiply both sides by x - a. b
m
x a
n
x ( ) -
=
3
m
n x a
x
=
- 3 ( )
2
Multiply both sides by x. mx = 3n(x - a)
3
Expand. mx = 3nx - 3na
4
Collect x terms. 3nx - mx = 3na
5
Factorise. x(3n - m) = 3na
6 Divide both sides by 3n - m. x
na
n m
=
-
3
3
Solving simultaneous literal equations requires the same method as numerical linear equations,
namely, substitution or elimination methods. The solutions will be in terms of the pronumerals.
WORKED EXAMPLE 28
Solve for x and y.
ax - by =
-
4
2ax - 3by = 6
THINK WRITE
1
Assign a number to each equation. ax - by =
-
4 [1]
2ax - 3by = 6 [2]
2
Multiply equation [1] by 2. Assign a number to the new
equation.
2ax - 2by =
-
8 [3]
3
Subtract equation [2] from equation [3] to eliminate the
x term.
by =
-
14
4
Solve for y.

y
b
=
-
14
5
Substitute this value of y into equation [1] and solve for x. ax + 14 =
-
4
ax =
-
18

x
a
=
-
18
6 State the solution.

x
a
y
b
= =
- -
18 14
,
Solve linear literal equations by using inverse operations to obtain an equation with the 1.
variable as the subject.
Solve simultaneous literal equations using elimination or substitution methods. 2.
The solutions for literal equations will be in terms of the pronumerals. 3.
REMEMBER
eBookplus eBookplus
Tutorial
int-1044
Worked example 28
128
Linear literal equations
1 WE27 Solve for x.
a
x
b
c = b
2x
w
y = c
2( ) x m
n
p
-
=
d
x r
s
t
+
= 3 e
d
x
f g - = f
3
4
k
x l
l
+
+ =
g ax b
c
+ =
1
h 2bx - c = 4a i a(b - x) = b - a
j
1
x
m
n
m - = k r x s
b
( ) - =
1
l nx - p(x - q) = n(x + p)
m
1 1
x d
e
f x d +
+ =
+ ( )
n
bx
n
cx
m
n + = o
c x
x
d
x
e
x
+
+ =
2 3
p x
dx
e
x f - = -
2 MC The solution to
x
a
y
b
c - = in terms of x is:
A
abc ya
b
-
B
a c a
b
( ) -
C
ac c ay
b
( ) -
D
a cb y
b
( ) +
E
ac c ay
b
( ) +
3 WE28 Solve the following simultaneous equations.
a ax + by = a
2
+ b
2
ax - by = a
2
- b
2
b ax + by = a
2
- ab + 2b
2
ax - by = a
2
- ab - 2b
2
c
x
a
y
b
x
a
y
b
+ =
- =
1
3
d
x
a
y
b
a b
a
x
a
y
b
a b
a
+ =
+
+
+ =
+
1
2 2
e
x
a
by
a b
a
x
b
y
a b
ab
+ =
+
+ =
+
2
2 2
f ( )
( )
a b x
y
b
b a x
y
b
- + =
- + =
4
3
0
g a x by ab b
bx
y
a
b b
a
2 2
2
2
2
+ = -
+ =
-
h
x
a
by
b
a
- =
-
x
b
ay
a b
b
+ =
-
4 The sum of n terms of an arithmetic sequence is given by the formula S
n
a n d = + -
2
2 1 [ ( ) ],
where a is the rst number of the sequence and d is the common difference.
a Transpose the formula to make a the subject and hence nd the rst term in a sequence
which has n = 26, d = 3 and S = 1079.
b Transpose the formula to make d the subject and hence nd the common difference of an
arithmetic sequence with 20 terms, a = 18 and S =
-
20.
EXERCISE
4G
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
129 Chapter 4 Algebra
SUMMARY
Review of index laws
a
0
= 1
a
1
= a
a
a
m
m
-
=
1
a a a
m n m n
=
+
a a
a
a
a
m n
m
n
m n
= =
-
(a
m
)
n
= a
m n
a a a
m
n
m
n n
m
= =
( )
(a b)
m
= a
m
b
m
Standard form and significant figures
The number of signicant gures in a number can be determined by considering each of the following
rules:
Signifcant fgures are counted from the frst non-zero digit (19). 1.
Any zeros at the end of the number after the decimal point are considered to be signicant. 2.
The trailing zeros at the end of a number are not considered signicant. 3.
All zeros between two non-zero digits are always signifcant. 4.
When performing calculations associated with signicant gures, the following rules apply:
When adding or subtracting numbers, count the number of decimal places to determine the number of 1.
signicant gures. The answer cannot contain more places after the decimal point than the least number
of decimal places in the numbers being added or subtracted.
When multiplying or dividing numbers, count the number of signicant gures. The answer cannot 2.
contain more signicant gures than the number being multiplied or divided with the least number of
signicant gures.
Transposition
Transposition is the rearrangement of terms within a formula.
The subject of the formula is the variable that is by itself on one side of the equation, while all other
variables are on the other side.
Solving linear equations and simultaneous linear equations
Linear equations can be solved by using inverse operations. When solving linear equations, the order of
operations process, BODMAS, is reversed.
Simultaneous linear equations can be solved either graphically or algebraically.
Graphical method: 1.
Draw the straight lines representing the equations and nd the coordinates of the point of intersection.
Algebraic methods: 2.
(a) Substitution: Transpose one of the equations so that one of the unknowns is expressed in terms of the
other and substitute into the second equation.
(b) Elimination: Equate the coefcients of one unknown and eliminate it by either adding or subtracting
the two equations.
130
Applications using linear equations
To solve worded problems using linear equations, follow these steps:
Identify the variables. 1.
Set up an equation by transforming the written information into an algebraic statement or statements. 2.
Solve the equation. 3.
Interpret the result by relating the answer back to the original problem. 4.
Applications using simultaneous equations
Identify and dene the variables. 1.
Transform written information into algebraic statements. 2.
Solve the pair of equations graphically or algebraically using the methods of substitution or elimination. 3.
Interpret the result by relating the answer back to the problem. 4.
Always make sure the numbers in the equations are in the same units. 5.
Algebraic fractions
To add or subtract algebraic fractions, rst nd a common denominator and solve by adding or subtracting
the numerator.
If the pronumeral is in the denominator, you can generally nd the common denominator by multiplying the
denominators together.
When multiplying or dividing, cancel down before multiplying through numerators and denominators.
Linear literal equations
Linear literal equations are equations that have a variable, such as x, with constants and coefcients that are
either numbers or pronumerals.
To solve linear literal equations, use the inverse operations to obtain an equation with the variable as the
subject in terms of the other pronumerals.
The solution will be in terms of the pronumerals.
Simultaneous linear literal equations can be solved using elimination or substitution methods. The solutions
will be in terms of the pronumerals.
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
131 Chapter 4 Algebra
CHAPTER REVIEW
SHORT ANSWER
1 Simplify 5 3
2
5
4
3
1
3
2 2
x y x y
- -
-
( ) .
2 Write the following in standard form and simplify:
a 450 000 120 000 000
b 0.000012 0.34
c 245 17 000
3 Calculate the following to the correct number of
significant figures.
a 3.2418 + 103.27
b 1.0065 1 200
4 Transpose each of the following formulas to make
the pronumeral, indicated in brackets, the subject.
(If two pronumerals are indicated, make a separate
transposition for each.)
a 6x - 12y + 15 = 0 (x)
b
7 3 4
5
8 7
3
3
( ) ( ) -
=
+
-
d e
(d, e)
5 Solve for x.
2 3
5
6 3
4
2
7
3
x x x -
-
-
= +
-
6 a Find the equations of the two lines shown on the
diagram.
0
1
2
4
8
y
x
b Find the coordinates of the point of intersection
(the diagram is not drawn to scale).
7 Solve the following simultaneous equations.
a 6x + 2y = 12
x - 2y = 2
b 8y - 24 = 4x
7x + 3y =
-
25
c 15 - 3x - 3y = 30
2x + y =
-
4
8 Before opening the store, a cashier makes sure
that his register contains at least $5 in change. He
counts a number of 10c coins, twice as many 5c
coins and 4 times as many 20c coins to the total
value of exactly $5. How many coins of each type
does he count?
9 A building company charges a $2300 set fee plus
$500 a day while it is working on a project within
the time limits that are specified by a contract.
If the project is completed earlier than the set time,
the company will still charge $500 for each of
the remaining days. However, if the project is not
completed by the due date, the company will pay
a $135 penalty for each extra day until the work is
done. From the given information, construct a set of
formulas for the total cost of work, T, the number
of days it takes to complete the job according to the
contract, n, and the number of extra days, e.
10 Jessica is 3 years older than Rebecca. In 5 years she
will be 3 times as old as Rebecca was 2 years ago.
Find the girls present ages.
11 Simplify the following:
a
5 4
2
6
3
m m -
-
+
b
1
3 4
4
x x -
-
c
3
1 2
2
3 1 ( )( ) ( )( ) x x x x + -
+
- +
12 Simplify
3 2 3
4 1
12 1 3
2
2
4
2 5
( )( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
.
g g
g
g g
g
- +
-

- +
-
13 Simplify
25 15
2 8
9
4 16
2
2
w
w
w
w
-
-

-
- ( )
.
14 Solve for x.
a
b ax
g
mn
-
= b
px w x
k
pk
-
+ =
3
15 Solve the following simultaneous equations for x
and y:
a 2ax - by = 1 + 2b
2
b
bx
y
a
b
a
- =
5
2
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1
3
2
4
3
m
n

is equal to:
A
9
5
7
m
n
B
27
6
12
m
n
C
3
3
3
m
n
D
6
5
7
m
n
E
9
6
12
m
n
2 The number of significant figures in 20.034 is:
A 2 B 3 C 4
D 5 E 6
132 132
3 The solution to 1303.45 + 23000 with the correct
number of significant figures is:
A 24303.5 B 24303.50 C 24300
D 24303 E 24000
4 The solution to 25.69 2.5040 with the correct
number of significant figures is:
A 64.3 B 64.33 C 64
D 64.373 E 64.3730
5 If A
B
=
+ 2 3
4
is transposed to make B the subject,
then:
A B = 2A -
3
2
B B
A
=
+ 4 3
2
C B = 2A - 3 D B = 4A -
3
2
E B = 4A +
3
2
Questions 6 and 7 refer to the shape
at right.
6 Using
=
22
7
,
the perimeter of a certain shape is
given by P = x + x + x +
11
7
x
. When transposed
to make x the subject, x is:
A
7
32
P
B
32
7P
C 7P - 14 D
7
14
P
E
7 3
11
( ) P -
7 If the perimeter of the above shape is 8 cm, then x
is equal to:
A
4
7
cm B 42 cm C 4 cm
D 3
2
11
cm E 1.75 cm
8 The solution to the equation
2
3
5 1
x
- =
-
is:
A 1 B 2 C 3
D 5 E 6
9 To solve 12
3
4
6 - =
x
, the following operations
could be performed to both sides of the equation:
A Add 12; multiply by 4; divide by
-
3
B Multiply by 4; divide by
-
3; subtract 12
C Multiply by
-
4; divide by 3; subtract 12
D Subtract 12; multiply by 4; divide by
-
3
E Multiply by 4; subtract 12; divide by
-
3
10 An equation that is the same as 2(3x - 1) = 5x + 3
is:
A 6x = 5x + 1 B 11x = 5
C x - 2 = 3 D
-
2 = 11x + 3
E 11x - 2 = 3
11 The value for x that satisfies the equation
1 2
3 4
2
-
+ =
x x
is:
A 4 B 3 C
3
4
D
-
4 E
-
3
12 The value for x that satisfies the equation
6
1
8 4
x x x +
- =
is:
A 12 B 6
C 2 D
-
2
E
-
6
13 The sum of solutions of the pair of simultaneous
equations y + x = 12 and 2y - x = 6 is:
A 36 B 12
C 20 D 24
E 18
14 If y = 3x - 4 and y = 5 + 4x, then the values of x and
y, respectively, are:
A
-
9 and
-
31 B 9 and 31 C
-
31 and
-
9
D
-
9 and 31 E 9 and
-
31
15 The point of intersection
of the two lines in the
graph at right is:
A (1, 3) B (1
1
2
, 3
1
2
) C (1
1
5
, 3
1
5
)
D (1
1
9
, 3
1
9
) E (2, 3)
16 Which statement below is not true for the pair of
simultaneous equations y + x = 22 and 3x - y = 26?
A The sum of the numbers is 22.
B Three times the rst number is 26 larger than
the second number.
C Three times one number is 26 smaller than the
other number.
D The difference between 3 times one number
and the other is 26.
E When one number is subtracted from 22, the
other number is obtained.
2
1
2
4
5
y
x
0
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
133 Chapter 4 Algebra
17 If 3 times a number subtracted from 6 gives 9, then
the number is:
A 5 B
-
1 C 1
D
1
3
E 3
18 The perimeter of a regular hexagon is 12.6 cm
more than the perimeter of a square with the same
side length. The length of the side of a hexagon is:
A 2.1 cm B 3.15 cm C 1.26 cm
D 12.6 cm E 6.3 cm
19 When half a number is subtracted from 8, the result
is the same as adding double that number to 2. The
equation that matches this information is:
A 2 8
2
2 x
x
- = + B 8 2 2
2
- = + x
x
C 8
2
2 2 - = +
x
x D
x
x
2
8 2 2 + = +
E
x
x
2
8 2 2 - = +
20 The sum of two numbers is 42 and their difference
is 4. The smaller of the numbers is:
A 23 B 17 C 18
D 19 E 24
21 Ben is 1 year short of being twice as old as Esther.
If their ages total 20 years, Ben is:
A 11 B 12 C 13 D 14 E 15
22 When
5 1
3
3
2
( ) ( ) x x
x
-
-
+
is expressed as
ax bx c
x
2
6
+ +
, then a, b and c, respectively, are:
A 10, 13 and 9 B 10,
-
13 and 9
C
-
10, 13 and
-
9 D 10,
-
13 and
-
9
E 10, 13 and
-
9
23 Simplifying
9 2 3
2
2 3
-

+ e
e
e
e
( )
gives:
A
3
2
- e
B
3
2
- e
e
C
e e ( ) 3
2
-
D
3
2
+ e
E
3
2
+ e
e
24 The solution to x
mx
x p - = -
2
3 in terms of x is:
A
6
m
B
6p
m
C
-
6
m
D
-
6p
m
E
6
p
EXTENDED RESPONSE
1 Adrian has begun a new job as a car salesperson. His fortnightly wage is calculated in two parts: a set amount
of $600 plus 2% of sales made each fortnight.
a Write the rule describing Adrians fortnightly wage.
b How much can Adrian expect to earn if his sales in a particular fortnight are:
i $20 000
ii $65 000
iii $100 000?
c How much must Adrian make in sales to obtain a fortnightly wage of:
i $1300
ii $1800
iii $2400?
Brett, also a salesperson in the motor vehicle industry, is paid a fortnightly salary of $860 regardless of
sales made.
d Compare Adrians fortnightly wage to Bretts fortnightly salary.
e Write the rule describing Bretts fortnightly salary.
f How much would Adrian have to make in sales in one fortnight to obtain the same amount as Brett
earns?
2 Joseph has $15 000 to invest. He does not want to keep all of his eggs in the one basket, so he decides to split
the money in the following ways. He puts some of his money in the bank, which offers an interest rate of 6%
p.a., and the remainder into a building society, which offers an interest rate of 11% p.a. If Joseph plans to take
a trip to Queensland, costing $1200, and he wants to pay for the trip using only the interest earned from his
investments after 1 year, how must he split his $15 000?
134
3 Michael wishes to rent a car for a long weekend. The cost, C, of renting a Toyota Corolla from company A is
given by
C = 25 + 0.08n, and the cost of renting from company B
C = 40 + 0.05n, where n is the number of kilometres travelled.
Number of km
0
40
25
C
C
o
s
t

(
$
)
n
[2]
[1]
a Which company, A or B, does line [1] represent?
b What could the numbers 25 and 40 represent?
c What does the point of intersection of lines [1] and [2] represent?
d Find the coordinates of the point of intersection.
e If Michael decides to travel along the Great Ocean Road, which is about 350 km each way, from which
company, A or B, should he rent so that he pays less?
f Next long weekend, Michael is planning to go to Phillip Island, which is about 150 km each way. From
which company should he rent this time?
g Explain to Michael how he can decide from which company to rent, if he knows the approximate
distance he intends to travel, without doing any calculations.
h Write the formula for d, the difference between the cost of renting the car from the two companies
(A or B).
i Write the difference equation which corresponds to the equation in part h.
j Use the difference equation to generate a table of values for distances from 0 to 1000 km inclusive,
with increments of 100 km. Hence, nd the distance for which the cost of renting from company A will
exceed the cost of renting from company B by more than $10.
4 Novak Novelties manufactures a variety of childrens 3-D puzzles. The director of the company has asked
his assistants Caitlin, Bridget and Emese to prepare a report on production costs, expenses and returns on the
puzzles. Each puzzle costs the company $15 to produce. In addition, the company has monthly overheads of
$21 000. The selling price of each puzzle is $45.
a Write an equation describing the expenses; that is, the total cost, C, of producing n puzzles each month.
b Write an equation describing the selling price of n puzzles.
c Plot and label the graph of the equation obtained in part a. Does it commence at the origin? Explain.
d Plot and label the graph of the equation obtained in part b on the same axis. Does it commence at the
origin? Explain.
e The point of intersection of the two lines on your graph is called the break-even point. Explain what this
means in terms of the given problem.
f Find the coordinates of the break-even point (point of intersection).
g Shade the portion between the two lines to the left of the break-even point. Explain what this portion
represents.
h Shade the portion between the two lines to the right of the break-even point. Explain what this portion
represents.
Prot may be dened as the selling price minus the total cost.
i Write an equation describing the prot obtained, P, after selling n puzzles.
j Determine whether a prot or loss is made when:
i 400 ii 600 iii 800 iv 1000 puzzles are sold in a particular month.
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc
Test Yourself
Chapter 4
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
135 Chapter 4 Algebra
eBookplus eBookplus ACTIVITIES
Chapter opener
Digital doc
10 Quick Questions: Warm up with ten quick
questions on algebra. (page 88)
4A Review of index laws
Tutorial
WE3 int-1039: Watch how to simplify expressions
involving indices. (page 90)
4B Standard form and significant figures
Tutorial
WE5 int-1040: Watch how to simplify an expression
involving the product and quotient of numbers in
standard form. (page 92)
4C Transposition
Tutorial
WE 9 int-1041: Watch how to solve equations for
specic pronumerals. (page 97)
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 4.1: Transpose simple equations, and
use transposition to solve worded problems.
(page 101)
4D Solving linear equations and simultaneous
linear equations
Tutorial
WE 14 int-1042: Watch how to solve equations
involving fractions. (page 105)
Digital doc
Investigation: Comparing production costs.
(page 114)
4E Applications
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 4.2: Transpose equations with
algebraic fractions and apply this method to more
complex worded problems. (page 122)
4F Algebraic fractions
Tutorial
WE 25 int-1043: Watch how to simplify algebraic
expressions involving fractions. (page 123)
4G Linear literal equations
Interactivity
Linear literal equations int-0971: Consolidate your
understanding of how to solve linear literal
equations. (page 126)
Tutorial
WE 28 int-1044: Watch how to solve literal
simultaneous equations. (page 127)
Chapter review
Digital doc
Test Yourself: Take the end-of-chapter test to test
your progress. (page 134)
To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to
www.jacplus.com.au
5A Trigonometry of right-angled triangles
5B Elevation, depression and bearings
5C The sine rule
5D The cosine rule
5E Area of triangles
5F Trigonometric identities
5G Radian measurement
5H Arcs, sectors and segments
5
136
AREAS OF STUDY
Right-angled triangles and solutions to problems
involving right-angled triangles using sine,
cosine and tangent
The relationships sin
2
( ) + cos
2
( ) = 1,
cos ( ) = sin (90 ) and sin ( ) = cos (90 )
Two-dimensional applications including angles
of depression and elevation
Exact values of sine, cosine and tangent for 30 ,
45 and 60
Solution of triangles by the sine and cosine
rules
Areas of triangles, including the formula
A = s s a s b s ( ) s s s s a s a s ( ) a s a s b s b s ( ) a s a s b s b s ( ) b s b s cc b s b s a s a s ( ) ( ) a s a s a s a s ( ) ( ) a s a s a s a s b s b s b s b s ( ) ( ) b s b s b s b s
Circle mensuration: radian measure, arc length,
areas of sectors and segments
Applications, for example, navigation and
surveying in simple contexts
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc
10 Quick Questions
Trigonometric
ratios and their
applications
Trigonometry of right-angled
triangles
Trigonometry, derived from the Greek words trigon (triangle) and metron (measurement), is
the branch of mathematics that deals with the relationship between the sides and angles of a
triangle. It involves nding unknown angles, side lengths and areas of triangles. The principles
of trigonometry are used in many practical situations such as building, surveying, navigation and
engineering. In previous years you will have studied the trigonometry of right-angled triangles.
We will review this material before considering nonright-angled triangles.
sin ( ) =
opposite side
which is abbreviated to sin ( ) =
O
H
hypotenuse
cos ( ) =
adjacent side
which is abbreviated to cos ( ) =
A
H
hypotenuse
tan ( ) =
opposite side
which is abbreviated to tan ( ) =
O
A
adjacent side
The symbol (theta) is one of the many letters of the Greek alphabet used to represent the
angle. Other symbols include (alpha), (beta) and (gamma). Non-Greek letters may also be
used.
5A
(A)
B
C A
(O)
(H )

Hypotenuse
Opposite
Adjacent
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
137 Chapter 5 Trigonometric ratios and their applications
Writing the mnemonic SOHCAHTOA each time we perform trigonometric calculations
will help us to remember the ratios and solve the problem.
Pythagoras theorem
For specic problems it may be necessary to determine the side lengths of a right-angled
triangle before calculating the trigonometric ratios. In this situation, Pythagoras theorem is
used. Pythagoras theorem states:
In any right-angled triangle, c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
.
WORKED EXAMPLE 1
Determine the value of the pronumerals, correct
to 2 decimal places.
THINK WRITE
a 1 Label the sides, relative to the marked
angles.
a
x
O
4
H
50
2 Write what is given. Have: angle and hypotenuse (H)
3 Write what is needed. Need: opposite (O) side
4 Determine which of the trigonometric
ratios is required, using SOHCAHTOA.
sin ( ) =
O
H
5 Substitute the given values into the
appropriate ratio.
sin (50) =
x
4
6
Transpose the equation and solve for x. 4 sin (50) = x
x = 4 sin (50)
7 Round the answer to 2 decimal places. = 3.06
b 1 Label the sides, relative to the marked
angle.
b
7
A
H
24 25
h
2
Write what is given. Have: angle and adjacent (A) side
3
Write what is needed. Need: hypotenuse (H)
4 Determine which of the trigonometric
ratios is required, using SOHCAHTOA.
cos ( ) =
A
H
5 Substitute the given values into the
appropriate ratio.
cos (2425 ) =
7
h
c
a
b
a
x
4
50
b
7
h
24 25
138
6
7
Round the answer to 2 decimal places. = 7.69
WORKED EXAMPLE 2
Find the angle , giving the answer in degrees and minutes.
THINK WRITE
1 Label the sides, relative to the marked angles.
12
A
O 18

2 Write what is given. Have: opposite (O) and adjacent (A) sides
Need: angle
3 Write what is needed.
4 Determine which of the trigonometric ratios is
required, using SOHCAHTOA.
tan ( ) =
O
A
5 Substitute the given values into the appropriate
ratio.
tan ( ) =
18
12
6
12
18

Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad


Solve for h. On the Main screen,
complete the entry line as:
solve cos( ( , ) , dms 24 25
7
=

h
h
Then press E.
To calculate tan
1
, on the Main screen, complete
the entry lines as:
tan

1
18
12
toDMS(
Press E after each entry line.
Note: toDMS can be located by tapping:
Action
Transformation
toDMS
139 Chapter 5 Trigonometric ratios and their applications
7 Write the answer to the nearest minute.
= tan

1
18
12
= 56 19
Exact values
Most of the trigonometric values that we will deal with in this
chapter are only approximations. However, angles of 30, 45 and
60 have exact values of sine, cosine and tangent. Consider an
equilateral triangle, ABC, of side length 2 units.
If the triangle is perpendicularly bisected, then two congruent
triangles, ABD and CBD, are obtained. From triangle ABD it
can be seen that BD creates a right-angled triangle with angles of
60 and 30 and base length (AD) of 1 unit. The length of BD is
obtained using Pythagoras theorem.
Using triangle ABD and the three trigonometric ratios the
following exact values are obtained:
sin (30) =
1
2
sin (60) =
3
2
cos (30) =
3
2
cos (60) =
1
2
tan (30) =
1
3
3
3
or
tan (60) =
3
1
3 or
Consider a right-angled isosceles triangle EFG whose equal sides are of
1 unit. The hypotenuse EG is obtained by using Pythagoras theorem.
(EG)
2
= (EF)
2
+ (FG)
2
= 1
2
+ 1
2
= 2
EG = 2
Using triangle EFG and the three trigonometric ratios, the following exact
values are obtained:
sin (45) =
1
2
2
2
or

cos (45) =
1
2
2
2
or
tan (45) =
1
1
or 1
WORKED EXAMPLE 3
Determine the height of the triangle shown in surd form.
D C A
B
60
30
2
2 2
3
1
F
G
E
45
2
1
60
8 cm
h
140
THINK WRITE
1 Label the sides relative to the marked angle.
60
8 cm
h
O
A
2 Write what is given. Have: angle and adjacent (A) side
3 Write what is needed. Need: opposite (O) side
4 Determine which of the trigonometric ratios is
required, using SOHCAHTOA.
tan ( ) =
O
A
5 Substitute the given values into the appropriate
ratio.
tan (60) =
h
8
6 Substitute exact values where appropriate.
3
8
=
h
7
Transpose the equation to nd the required value.
h = 8 3
8 State the answer. The triangles height is 8 3 cm.
For any right-angled triangle: 1.
sin ( ) =
O
H
cos ( ) =
A
H
tan ( ) =
O
H
To determine which trigonometric ratio to use when 2.
solving a right-angled triangle, follow these steps:
(a) Label the diagram using the symbols , O, A, H.
(b) Write what is given.
(c) Write what is needed.
(d) Determine which of the trigonometric ratios is required,
using SOHCAHTOA.
(e) Substitute the given values into the rule and solve.
Pythagoras theorem, 3. c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
, may also be used to solve
right-angled triangles.
Angles of 30 4. , 45 and 60 have exact values for sine, cosine
and tangent.
30 45 60
sin ( )
1
2
1
2
2
2
=
3
2
cos ( )
3
2
1
2
2
2
=
1
2
tan ( )
1
3
3
3
=
1 3
(A)
B
C A
(O)
(H )

Hypotenuse
Opposite
Adjacent
c
a
b
REMEMBER
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
141 Chapter 5 Trigonometric ratios and their applications
Trigonometry of right-angled triangles
1 Copy and label the sides of the following right-angled triangles using the words
hypotenuse, adjacent, opposite and the symbol .
a

b
Adjacent
c
Opposite
d

2 WE 1 Find the value of the pronumerals, correct to 2 decimal places.


a
x
40
10
b
x
3214'
7.5
c
x
478'
17
d
x
6238'
684
e
x
1425'
1.03
f
x 78
3.85
g
x
2747'
504
h
x
y
3848'
17
3 WE 2 Find the angle , giving the answer in degrees and minutes.
a
7
10

b
5
12

c
28
20

d
6.8
2.1

e
11.7
4.2

f
48
30

g
53.2
78.1

h
1.74
3.26

EXERCISE
5A
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 5.1
Labelling right-
angled triangles
eBookplus eBookplus
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SkillSHEET 5.2
Using trigono-
metric ratios
eBookplus eBookplus
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SkillSHEET 5.3
Degrees and
minutes
142
4 WE 3 An isosceles triangle has a base of 12 cm and equal angles
of 30. Find, in surd form:
a the height of the triangle
b the area of the triangle
c the perimeter of the triangle, giving your answers in simplest surd form.
5 Find the perimeter of the composite shape at right,
in surd form. The length measurements are in metres.
6 A ladder 6.5 m long rests against a vertical wall and makes an angle of 50 to the horizontal
ground.
a How high up the wall does the ladder reach?
b If the ladder needs to reach 1 m higher, to the nearest minute, what angle should it make
to the ground?
7 A 400-m-long road goes straight up a slope. If the road rises 50 m vertically, what is the angle
that the road makes with the horizontal?
8 An ice-cream cone has a diameter of 6 cm and a sloping edge of 15 cm. Find the angle at the
bottom of the cone.
9 A vertical flagpole is supported by a wire attached from the top of the pole to the horizontal
ground, 4 m from the base of the pole. Joanne measures the angle the wire makes with the
ground and finds this is 65. How tall is the flagpole?
10 A stepladder stands on a floor, with its feet 1.5 m apart. If the angle formed by the legs is 55,
how high above the floor is the top of the ladder?
11 The angle formed by the diagonal of a rectangle and one of its shorter sides is 60. If the
diagonal is 8 cm long, find the dimensions of the rectangle, in surd form.
12 In the figure at right, find the value of the pronumerals,
correct to 2 decimal places.
13 In the figure at right, find the value of the pronumerals,
correct to 2 decimal places.
14 In the figure at right, find the value of the pronumeral x,
correct to 2 decimal places.
15 An advertising balloon is attached to a rope 120 m long. The rope
makes an angle of 75 to level ground. How high above the ground is
the balloon?
16 An isosceles triangle has sides of 17 cm, 20 cm and 20 cm. Find the magnitude of
the angles.
30 30
12 cm eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 5.4
Composite
shapes 1
26
14
60
eBookplus eBookplus
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SkillSHEET 5.5
Composite
shapes 2 a
d
50
7
30
b c
b
a
14
70
48
x
6
33
58
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
143 Chapter 5 Trigonometric ratios and their applications
17 A garden bed at right is in the shape of a trapezium. What
volume of garden mulch is needed to cover it to a depth of
15 cm?
18 A gable roof has sloping sides of 8.3 m. It rises to a height
of 2.7 m at the centre.
a What is the angle of slope of the two sides?
b How wide is the roof at its base?
19 A ladder 10 m long rests against a vertical wall at an angle of 55 to the horizontal. It slides
down the wall, so that it now makes an angle of 48 with the horizontal.
a Through what vertical distance did the top of the ladder slide?
b Does the foot of the ladder move through the same distance? Justify your answer.
Elevation, depression and bearings
Trigonometry is especially useful for measuring distances and heights which are difcult or
impractical to access. For example, two important applications of right-angled triangles involve:
1. angles of elevation and depression, and
2. bearings.
Angles of elevation and depression
Angles of elevation and depression are employed when dealing with directions which require us
to look up and down respectively.
An angle of elevation is the angle between the horizontal and an
object which is higher than the observer (for example, the top of a
mountain or agpole).
An angle of depression is the angle between the horizontal and
an object which is lower than the observer (for example, a boat at
sea when the observer is on a cliff).
Unless otherwise stated, the angle of elevation or depression is measured and drawn from the
horizontal.
Angles of elevation and depression are each measured
from the horizontal.
When solving problems involving angles of elevation and
depression, it is best always to draw a diagram.
The angle of elevation is equal to the angle of depression since
they are alternate Z angles.
4 m
12 m
120
2.7 m
8.3 m 8.3 m
5B
Angle of elevation
L
i
n
e

o
f

s
i
g
h
t

L
i
n
e

o
f

s
i
g
h
t
Angle of depression

D
E
D and E are alternate angles
D = E
144
WORKED EXAMPLE 4
From a cliff 50 metres high, the angle of depression of a boat at sea is 12. How far is the boat from
the base of the cliff?
THINK WRITE
1 Draw a diagram and label all the given
information.
Include the unknown length, x, and the angle of
elevation, 12.
12
12
50 m
x
2 Write what is given. Have: angle and opposite side
3 Write what is needed. Need: adjacent side
4 Determine which of the trigonometric ratios is
required (SOHCAHTOA).
tan ( ) =
O
A
5 Substitute the given values into the appropriate
ratio.
tan (12 ) =
50
x
6 Transpose the equation and solve for x. x tan (12 ) = 50
x =
50
12 tan ( )

7 Round the answer to 2 decimal places. = 235.23


8 Answer the question. The boat is 235.23 m away from the base of
the cliff.
Bearings
Bearings measure the direction of one object from another.
There are two systems used for describing bearings.
True bearings are measured in a clockwise direction,
starting from north (0 T).
Conventional or compass bearings are
measured:
rst, relative to north or south, and
second, relative to east or west.
The two systems are interchangeable.
For example, a bearing of 240 T is the same
as S60W.
When solving questions involving direction,
always start with a diagram showing the basic
compass points: north, south, east and west.
Compass bearing
equivalent is S30E
150 T
N
True bearing equivalent True bearing equivalent
N20W
is 340 T
S70E
is 110 T
20
20
N
S
E W
N
S
E W
S60W
240 T
60
N
S
E W
N
S
E W
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
145 Chapter 5 Trigonometric ratios and their applications
WORKED EXAMPLE 5
A ship sails 40 km in a direction of N52W. How far west of the starting point is it?
THINK WRITE/DRAW
1 Draw a diagram of the situation, labelling each of
the compass points and the given information.
52
N
x
S
E W
4
0

k
m
2 Write what is given for the triangle. Have: angle and hypotenuse
3 Write what is needed for the triangle. Need: opposite side
4 Determine which of the trigonometric ratios is
required (SOHCAHTOA).
sin ( ) =
O
H
5 Substitute the given values into the appropriate
ratio.
sin (52 ) =
x
40
6 Transpose the equation and solve for x. 40 sin (52 ) = x
x = 40 sin (52 )
7
Round the answer to 2 decimal places. = 31.52
8 Answer the question. The ship is 31.52 km west of the starting point.
WORKED EXAMPLE 6
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Tutorial
int-1045
Worked example 6
A ship sails 10 km east, then 4 km south. What is its bearing from
its starting point?
THINK WRITE
1 Draw a diagram of the situation, labelling
each of the compass points and the given
information.
10 km
4 km
N
S

2 Write what is given for the triangle. Have: adjacent and opposite sides
3 Write what is needed for the triangle. Need: angle
4
Determine which of the trigonometric ratios is
required (SOHCAHTOA).
tan ( ) =
O
A
5 Substitute the given values into the appropriate
ratio.
tan ( ) =
4
10
6 Transpose the equation and solve for , using the
inverse tan function.
= tan

1

4
10

7 Convert the angle to degrees and minutes. = 21.801 409 49


= 2148
146
8 Express the angle in bearings form. The bearing
of the ship was initially 0 T; it has since rotated
through an angle of 90 and an additional angle
of 2148. To obtain the nal bearing these values
are added.
Bearing = 90 + 2148
= 11148 T
9 Answer the question. The bearing of the ship from its starting point is
11148 T.
Angles of elevation and depression are each measured from the horizontal. 1.
The angle of elevation is equal to the angle of depression since they are alternate Z 2.
angles.
True bearings are measured in a clockwise direction, starting from north (0 3. T).
Conventional or compass bearings are measured rst, relative to north or south, and 4.
second, relative to east or west.
Whenever solving problems involving angles of elevation and depression or bearings, 5.
you should always draw a diagram and label all the given information.
Set up a compass as the basis of your diagram for bearings questions. 6.
REMEMBER
Elevation, depression and bearings
1 WE 4 From a vertical fire tower 60 m high, the angle of depression to a fire is 6. How far
away, to the nearest metre, is the fire?
2 A person stands 20 m from the base of a building, and measures the angle of elevation to the top
of the building as 55. If the person is 1.7 m tall, how high, to the nearest metre, is the building?
3 An observer on a cliff top 57 m high observes a ship at sea. The angle of depression to the ship
is 15. The ship sails towards the cliff, and the angle of depression is then 25. How far, to the
nearest metre, did the ship sail between sightings?
4 Two vertical buildings, 40 m and 62 m high, are directly opposite each other across a river. The
angle of elevation of the top of the taller building from the top of the smaller building is 27.
How wide is the river? (Give the answer to 2 decimal places.)
5 To calculate the height of a crane which is on top of a building, Denis measures the angle
of elevation to the bottom and top of the crane. These were 62 and 68 respectively. If the
building is 42 m high find, to 2 decimal places:
a how far Denis is from the building b the height of the crane.
6 A new skyscraper is proposed for the Melbourne Docklands region. It is to be 500 m tall. What
would be the angle of depression, in degrees and minutes, from the top of the building to the
island on Albert Park Lake, which is 4.2 km away?
7 From a rescue helicopter 2500 m above the ocean, the angles of depression of two shipwreck
survivors are 48 (survivor 1) and 35 (survivor 2).
a Draw a labelled diagram which represents the situation.
b Calculate how far apart the two survivors are.
8 A lookout tower has been erected on top of a mountain. At a distance of 5.8 km, the angle
of elevation from the ground to the base of the tower is 15.7 and the angle of elevation to
the observation deck (on the top of the tower) is 15.9. How high, to the nearest metre, is the
observation deck above the top of the mountain?
EXERCISE
5B
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
147 Chapter 5 Trigonometric ratios and their applications
9 From a point A on level ground, the angle of elevation of the top of a building 50 m high
is 45. From a point B on the ground and in line with A and the foot of the building, the
angle of elevation of the top of the building is 60. Find, in simplest surd form, the distance
from A to B.
10 Express the following conventional bearings as true bearings.
a N35W b S47W c N58E d S17E
11 Express the following true bearings in conventional form.
a 246 T b 107 T c 321 T d 074 T
12 MC a A bearing of S30E is the same as:
A 030 T B 120 T C 150 T D 210 T E 240 T
b A bearing of 280 T is the same as:
A N10W B S10W C S80W D N80W E N10E
13 WE 5 A pair of canoeists paddle 1800 m on a
bearing of N20E. How far north of their
starting point are they, to the nearest metre?
14 A yacht race consists of four legs. The first
three legs are 4 km due east, then 5 km south,
followed by 2 km due west.
a How long is the nal leg, if the race
nishes at the starting point?
b On what bearing must the nal leg be
sailed?
15 WE 6 A ship sails 20 km south, then 8 km
west. What is its bearing from the starting
point?
16 A cross-country competitor runs on a bearing
of N60W for 2 km, then due north for 3 km.
a How far is he from the starting point?
b What is the true bearing of the starting point from the runner?
17 Two hikers set out from the same campsite. One walks 7 km in the direction 043 T and the
other walks 10 km in the direction 133 T.
a What is the distance between the two hikers?
b What is the bearing of the rst hiker from the second?
18 A ship sails 30 km on a bearing of 220, then 20 km on a bearing of 250. Find:
a how far south of the original position it is
b how far west of the original position it is
c the true bearing of the ship from its original position, to the nearest degree.
19 The town of Bracknaw is due west of Arley. Chris, in an ultralight plane, starts at a third town,
Champton, which is due north of Bracknaw, and flies directly towards Arley at a speed of
40 km/h in a direction of 110 T. She reaches Arley in 3 hours. Find:
a the distance between Arley and Bracknaw
b the time to complete the journey from Champton to Bracknaw, via Arley, if she increases
her speed to 45 km/h between Arley and Bracknaw.
20 From a point, A, on the ground, the angle of elevation of the top of a vertical tower due north
of A is 46. From a point B, due east of A, the angle of elevation of the top of the tower is 32.
If the tower is 85 m high, find:
a the distance from A to the foot of the tower
b the distance from B to the foot of the tower
c the true bearing of the tower from B.
148
21 A bird flying at 50 m above the ground was observed at noon from my front door at an angle
of elevation of 5. Two minutes later its angle of elevation was 4.
a If the bird was ying straight and level, nd the horizontal distance of the bird:
i from my doorway at noon
ii from my doorway at 12.02 pm.
b Hence, nd:
i the distance travelled by the bird
in the two minutes
ii its speed of ight in km/h.
The sine rule
When working with nonright-angled triangles, it is usual
to label the angles A, B and C, and the sides a, b and c, so that side a
is the side opposite angle A, side b is the side opposite angle B and
side c is the side opposite angle C.
In a nonright-angled triangle, a perpendicular line, h, can be drawn
from the angle B to side b.
Using triangle ABD we obtain sin (A) =
h
c
. Using triangle CBD
we obtain sin (C) =
h
a
.
Transposing each equation to make h the subject, we
obtain: h = c sin (A) and h = a sin (C). Equate to get
c sin (A) = a sin (C).
Transpose to get
c
C
a
A sin ( ) sin ( )
=
In a similar way, if a perpendicular line is drawn from angle A to side a, we get
b
B
c
C sin ( ) sin ( )
=
From this, the sine rule can be stated.
In any triangle ABC:
a
A
b
B
c
C sin ( ) sin ( ) sin ( )
= =
Notes
1. When using this rule, depending on the values given, any combination of the two equalities
may be used to solve a particular triangle.
2. To solve a triangle means to nd all unknown side lengths and angles.
The sine rule can be used to solve nonright-angled triangles if we are given:
1. two angles and one side length
2. two side lengths and an angle opposite one of these side lengths.
WORKED EXAMPLE 7
In the triangle ABC, a = 4 m, b = 7 m and B = 80. Find A, C and c.
THINK WRITE
1 Draw a labelled diagram of the triangle ABC and
ll in the given information.
b = 7
c
a = 4
B
C
80
A
5C
a
b
c
B
A C
D
c a
h
b
C A
B
h

c
= sin (A) and
h

a
= sin (C)
b
a c
A C
B
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
149 Chapter 5 Trigonometric ratios and their applications
2
Check that one of the criteria for the sine rule has
been satised.
The sine rule can be used since two side lengths
and an angle opposite one of these side lengths
have been given.
3 Write the sine rule to nd A. To nd angle A:
a
A
b
B sin ( ) sin ( )
=
4 Substitute the known values into the rule.
4 7
80 sin ( ) sin ( ) A
=

5 Transpose the equation to make sin (A) the


subject.
4 sin (80) = 7 sin (A)
4 80
7

=
sin ( )
sin ( )

A
sin ( )
sin ( )
A =
4 80
7

6 Evaluate. A = sin

1

4 80
7

sin ( )

= sin

1
(0.562 747 287)
= 34.246 004 71
7 Round the answer to degrees and minutes. = 3415
8 Determine the value of angle C using the fact that
the angle sum of any triangle is 180.
C = 180 (80 + 3415)
= 6545
9 Write the sine rule to nd c. To nd side length c:
c
C
b
B sin ( ) sin ( )
=
10 Substitute the known values into the rule.
c
sin ( ) sin ( ) 65 45
7
80

=
11 Transpose the equation to make c the subject. c =
7 65 45
80
sin ( )
sin ( )

12 Evaluate. Round the answer to 2 decimal places


and include the appropriate unit.
=
7 0 911762043
0 984807753
.
.
=
6 382334305
0 984807753
.
.
= 6.480 792 099
= 6.48 m
The ambiguous case
When using the sine rule there is one important issue to consider. If we are given two
side lengths and an angle opposite one of these side lengths, then two different triangles
may be drawn. For example, if a = 10, c = 6 and C = 30, two possible triangles could be
created.
a = 10
c = 6
A
30
C
B
a = 10
c = 6
A
30
C
B
150
In the rst case, angle A is an acute angle, while in the second case, angle A is an obtuse
angle. The two values for A will add to 180.
The ambiguous case does not work for each example. It would be useful to know, before
commencing a question, whether or not the ambiguous case exists and, if so, to then nd both
sets of solutions.
The ambiguous case exists if C is an acute angle and a > c > a sin (C), or any equivalent
statement; for example, if B is an acute angle and a > b > a sin (B), and so on.
WORKED EXAMPLE 8
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Tutorial
int-1046
Worked example 8
In the triangle ABC, a = 10 m, c = 6 m and C = 30.
a Show that the ambiguous case exists.
b Find two possible values of A, and hence two possible values of B and b.
THINK WRITE
Method 1: Using the rules
a 1 Check that the conditions for an
ambiguous case exist, i.e. that C is an
acute angle and that a > c > a sin (C).
a C = 30 so C is an acute angle.
sin (C) = sin (30) = 0.5
a > c > a sin (C)
10 > 6 > 10 sin (30)
10 > 6 > 5
This is correct.
2 State the answer. This is an ambiguous case of the sine rule.
Case 1
b 1 Draw a labelled diagram of the
triangle ABC and ll in the given
information.
b
a = 10
c = 6
A
30
C
B
2 Write the sine rule to nd A. To nd angle A:
a
A
c
C sin ( ) sin ( )
=
3 Substitute the known values into the
rule.
10 6
30 sin ( ) sin ( ) A
=

4 Transpose the equation to make


sin (A) the subject.
10 sin (30) = 6 sin (A)
10 30
6

=
sin ( )
sin ( )

A
sin ( )
sin ( )
A =
10 30
6

5 Evaluate angle A, in degrees and


minutes.
A =

sin
sin ( )
1
10 30
6

A = 5627
6 Determine the value of angle B, using
the fact that the angle sum of any
triangle is 180.
B = 180 (30 + 5627)
= 9333
7 Write the sine rule to nd b. To nd side length b:
b
B
c
C sin ( ) sin ( )
=
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
151 Chapter 5 Trigonometric ratios and their applications
8 Substitute the known values into the
rule.
b
sin ( ) sin ( ) 93 33
6
30

=
9 Transpose the equation to make b the
subject and evaluate.
b =
6 93 33
30
sin ( )
sin ( )

= 11.98 m
Case 2
b 1 Draw a labelled diagram of the
triangle ABC and ll in the given
information.
b
a = 10
c = 6
A
30
C
B
2 Write the alternative value for angle
A. Subtract the value obtained for A in
Case 1 from 180.
To nd the alternative angle A:
If sin (A) = 0.8333, then A could also be:
A = 180 5627
= 12333
3 Determine the alternative value of
angle B, using the fact that the angle
sum of any triangle is 180.
B = 180 (30 + 12333)
= 2627
4 Write the sine rule to nd the
alternative b.
To nd side length b:
b
B
c
C sin ( ) sin ( )
=
5 Substitute the known values into the
rule.
b
sin ( ) sin ( ) 26 27
6
30

=
6 Transpose the equation to make b the
subject and evaluate.
b =
6 26 27
30
sin ( )
sin ( )

= 5.35 m
Method 2: Using a CAS calculator
1 Draw a labelled diagram of the triangle ABC
and ll in the given information.
a = 10
c = 6
A
30
C
B
2
3
Convert the angles to degrees and minutes. A = 5627 or A = 12333
In part a it was shown that the ambiguous
case of the sine rule exists. Therefore, on the
Main screen, complete the entry line as:
solve
10 6
30
0 180
sin( ) sin( )
,
a
a a =

|
Then press E.
152
4
Calculate the size of the angle B given each
angle A.
If A = 5627, B = 180 (30 + 5627)
= 9333
If A = 12333, B = 180 (30 + 12333)
= 2627
5
6 Write the answers. If B = 9333, b = 11.98 m
If B = 2627, b = 5.35 m
Hence, for this example there were two possible solutions as shown by the diagram below.
a = 10
c = 6
A
30
C
B
a = 10
c = 6
A
30
C
B
The sine rule states that for any triangle ABC: 1.
a
A
b
B
c
C sin ( ) sin ( ) sin ( )
= =
When using this rule it is important to note that, depending on the values given, any 2.
combination of the two equalities may be used to solve a particular triangle.
The sine rule can be used to solve nonright-angled triangles if we are given: 3.
(a) two angles and one side length
(b) two side lengths and an angle opposite one of these side lengths.
The ambiguous case exists if 4. C is an acute angle and a > c > a sin (C).
REMEMBER
The sine rule
1 WE 7 In the triangle ABC, a = 10, b = 12 and B = 58. Find A, C and c.
2 In the triangle ABC, c = 17.35, a = 26.82 and A = 10147. Find C, B and b.
3 In the triangle ABC, a = 5, A = 30 and B = 80. Find C, b and c.
4 In the triangle ABC, c = 27, C = 42 and A = 105. Find B, a and b.
EXERCISE
5C
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
To nd the side length b, on the Main screen,
complete the entry line as:
solve
b
b
sin( ( , )) sin( )
,
dms 93 33
6
30
=

solve
b
b
sin( ( , )) sin( )
,
dms 26 27
6
30
=

Press E after each entry.


153 Chapter 5 Trigonometric ratios and their applications
5 In the triangle ABC, a = 7, c = 5 and A = 68. Find the perimeter of the triangle.
6 Find all unknown sides and angles for the triangle ABC, given A = 57, B = 72 and a = 48.2.
7 Find all unknown sides and angles for the triangle ABC, given a = 105, B = 105 and C = 15.
8 Find all unknown sides and angles for the triangle ABC, given a = 32, b = 51 and A = 28.
9 Find the perimeter of the triangle ABC if a = 7.8, b = 6.2 and A = 50.
10 MC In a triangle ABC, A = 40, C = 80 and c = 3. The value of b is:
A 2.64 B 2.86 C 14
D 4.38 E 4.60
11 WE 8 In the triangle ABC, a = 10, c = 8 and C = 50. Find two possible values of A, and
hence two possible values of b.
12 In the triangle ABC, a = 20, b = 12 and B = 35. Find two possible values for the perimeter of
the triangle.
13 Find all unknown sides and angles for the triangle ABC, given A = 27, B = 43 and c = 6.4.
14 Find all unknown sides and angles for the triangle ABC, given A = 100, b = 2.1 and C = 42.
15 Find all unknown sides and angles for the triangle ABC, given A = 25, b = 17 and a = 13.
16 To calculate the height of a building, Kevin measures the angle of elevation to the top as 48.
He then walks 18 m closer to the building and measures the angle of elevation as 64. How
high is the building?
17 A river has parallel banks which run directly eastwest. Kylie takes a bearing to a tree on the
opposite side. The bearing is 047 T. She then walks 10 m due east, and takes a second bearing
to the tree. This is 305 T. Find:
a her distance from the second measuring point to the tree
b the width of the river, to the nearest metre.
18 A ship sails on a bearing of S20W for 14 km, then changes direction and sails for 20 km and
drops anchor. Its bearing from the starting point is now N65W.
a How far is it from the starting point?
b On what bearing did it sail the 20 km leg?
19 A cross-country runner runs at 8 km/h on a bearing of 150 T for 45 mins, then changes
direction to a bearing of 053 T and runs for 80 mins until he is due east of the starting point.
a How far was the second part of the run?
b What was his speed for this section?
c How far does he need to run to get back to the starting point?
20 From a fire tower, A, a fire is spotted on a bearing of N42E. From a second tower, B, the fire
is on a bearing of N12W. The two fire towers are 23 km apart, and A is N63W of B. How far
is the fire from each tower?
21 MC A boat sails on a bearing of N15E for 10 km, then on a bearing of S85E until it is due
east of the starting point. The distance from the starting point to the nearest kilometre is, then:
A 10 km B 38 km C 110 km
D 113 km E 114 km
22 MC A hill slopes at an angle of 30 to the horizontal. A tree which is 8 m tall is growing at
an angle of 10 to the vertical and is part-way up the slope. The vertical height of the top of
the tree above the slope is:
A 7.37 m B 8.68 m C 10.84 m
D 15.04 m E 39.89 m
154
23 A cliff is 37 m high. The rock slopes outward at an angle of 50 to the horizontal, then cuts
back at an angle of 25 to the vertical, meeting the ground directly below the top of the cliff.
Carol wishes to abseil from the top of the cliff to the ground as shown in the diagram. Her
climbing rope is 45 m long, and she needs 2 m to secure it to a tree at the top of the cliff.
Will the rope be long enough to allow her to reach the ground?
25
50
rope
rock
37 m
The cosine rule
In any nonright-angled triangle ABC, a perpendicular line can be drawn from angle B to side b.
Let D be the point where the perpendicular line meets side b, and the length of the perpendicular
line be h. Let the length AD = x units. The perpendicular line creates two right-angled triangles,
ADB and CDB.
Using triangle ADB and Pythagoras theorem, we obtain:
c
2
= h
2
+ x
2
[1]
Using triangle CDB and Pythagoras theorem, we obtain:
a
2
= h
2
+ (b x)
2
[2]
Expanding the brackets in equation [2]:
a
2
= h
2
+ b
2
2bx + x
2
Rearranging equation [2] and using c
2
= h
2
+ x
2
from equation [1]:
a
2
= h
2
+ x
2
+ b
2
2bx
= c
2
+ b
2
2bx
= b
2
+ c
2
2bx
From triangle ABD, x = c cos (A), therefore a
2
= b
2
+ c
2
2bx becomes
a
2
= b
2
+ c
2
2bc cos (A)
This is called the cosine rule and is a generalisation of Pythagoras theorem.
In a similar way, if the perpendicular line was drawn from angle A to side a or from angle C
to side c, the two right-angled triangles would give c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
2ab cos (C) and
b
2
= a
2
+ c
2
2ac cos (B) respectively. From this, the cosine rule can be stated:
In any triangle ABC
a
2
= b
2
+ c
2
2bc cos (A)
b
2
= a
2
+ c
2
2ac cos (B)
c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
2ab cos (C)
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5D
D
c
b x x
b
a
h
C A
B
b
a c
A C
B
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
155 Chapter 5 Trigonometric ratios and their applications
The cosine rule can be used to solve nonright-angled triangles if we are given:
1. three sides of the triangle
2. two sides of the triangle and the included angle (the angle between the given sides).
WORKED EXAMPLE 9
Find the third side of triangle ABC given a = 6, c = 10 and B = 76, correct to 2 decimal places.
THINK WRITE
Method 1: Using the rule
1 Draw a labelled diagram of the triangle ABC
and ll in the given information.
b
a = 6 c = 10
A C
B
76
2
Check that one of the criteria for the cosine
rule has been satised.
Yes, the cosine rule can be used since two
side lengths and the included angle have been
given.
3
Write the appropriate cosine rule to nd
side b.
To nd side b:
b
2
= a
2
+ c
2
2ac cos (B)
4
Substitute the given values into the rule. = 6
2
+ 10
2
2 6 10 cos (76)
5
Evaluate. = 36 + 100 120 0.241 921 895
= 106.969 372 5
b = 106 9693725 .
6
Round the answer to 2 decimal places. = 10.34 correct to 2 decimal places
Method 2: Using a CAS calculator
1 Draw a labelled diagram of the triangle ABC
and ll in the given information.
b
a = 6 c = 10
A C
B
76
2
Write the appropriate cosine rule to nd side b. b
2
= a
2
+ c
2
2ac cos (B)
3
4
Since b represents the side length of a triangle,
then b > 0.
b = 10.34, correct to 2 decimal places.
On the Main screen, complete the entry line
as:
solve(b
2
= 6
2
+ 10
2
2610cos(76), b)
Then press E.
156
Note: Once the third side has been found, the sine rule could be used to nd other angles if
necessary.
If three sides of a triangle are known, an angle could be found by transposing the cosine rule
to make cos A, cos B or cos C the subject.
cos (A) =
b c a
bc
2 2 2
2
+
cos (B) =
a c b
ac
2 2 2
2
+
cos (C) =
a b c
ab
2 2 2
2
+
WORKED EXAMPLE 10
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Worked example 10
Find the smallest angle in the triangle with sides 4 cm, 7 cm and 9 cm.
THINK WRITE
Method 1: Using the rule
1 Draw a labelled diagram of the triangle, call it
ABC and ll in the given information.
Note: The smallest angle will be opposite the
smallest side.
a = 4 c = 7
b = 9
A C
B
Let a = 4
b = 7
c = 9
2 Check that one of the criteria for the cosine
rule has been satised.
The cosine rule can be used since three side lengths
have been given.
3 Write the appropriate cosine rule to nd
angle A.
cos (A) =
b c a
bc
2 2 2
2
+
4 Substitute the given values into the rearranged
rule.
=
7 9 4
2 7 9
2 2 2
+

5 Evaluate. =
49 81 16
126
+
=
114
126
6 Transpose the equation to make A the subject
by taking the inverse cos of both sides.
A = cos
1

114
126

= 25.208 765 3
7 Round the answer to degrees and minutes. = 2513
Method 2: Using a CAS calculator
1 Draw a labelled diagram of the triangle ABC
and ll in the given information.
a = 4 c = 7
b = 9
A C
B
2 Write the appropriate cosine rule to nd the
angle A.
a
2
= b
2
+ c
2
2bc cos (A)
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
157 Chapter 5 Trigonometric ratios and their applications
3
4
Round the answer to degrees and minutes. A = 25.2088
= 2513
WORKED EXAMPLE 11
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Worked example 11
Two rowers set out from the same point. One rows N70E for 2000 m and
the other rows S15W for 1800 m. How far apart are the two rowers?
THINK WRITE
1 Draw a labelled diagram of the triangle, call it
ABC and ll in the given information.
B
C
A
2000 m
1800 m
N
15
70
2
Check that one of the criteria for the cosine rule
has been satised.
The cosine rule can be used since two side lengths
and the included angle have been given.
3
Write the appropriate cosine rule to nd side c. To nd side c:
c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
2ab cos (C)
4
Substitute the given values into the rule. = 2000
2
+ 1800
2
2 2000 1800 cos (125)
5 Evaluate. = 40 000 000 + 3 240 000 7 200 000

0.573 576 436


= 11 369 750.342
c = 11369 750 342 .
= 3371.906 04
6 Round the answer to 2 decimal places. = 3371.91
7 Answer the question. The rowers are 3371.91 m apart.
In any triangle ABC: 1.
a
2
= b
2
+ c
2
2bc cos (A)
b
2
= a
2
+ c
2
2ac cos (B)
c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
2ab cos (C)
REMEMBER
On the Main screen, complete the entry line as:
solve(4
2
= 9
2
+ 7
2
497cos(a), a)
| 0 a 180
Then press E.
158
The cosine rule can be used to solve non 2. right-angled triangles if we are given:
(a) three sides of the triangle
(b) two sides of the triangle and the included angle (that is, the angle between the two
given sides).
If three sides of a triangle are known, an angle could be found by transposing the cosine 3.
rule to make cos A, cos B or cos C the subject.
cos (A) =
b c a
bc
2 2 2
2
+
cos (B) =
a c b
ac
2 2 2
2
+
cos (C) =
a b c
ab
2 2 2
2
+
The cosine rule
1 WE 9 Find the third side of triangle ABC given a = 3.4, b = 7.8 and C = 80.
2 In triangle ABC, b = 64.5 cm, c = 38.1 cm and A = 5834. Find a.
3 In triangle ABC, a = 17, c = 10 and B = 115. Find b, and hence find A and C.
4 WE 10 Find the smallest angle in the triangle with sides 6 cm, 4 cm and 8 cm.
5 In triangle ABC, a = 356, b = 207 and c = 296. Find the largest angle.
6 In triangle ABC, a = 23.6, b = 17.3 and c = 26.4. Find the size of all the angles.
7 In triangle DEF, d = 3 cm, e = 7 cm and F = 60. Find f in exact form.
8 WE 11 Two rowers set out from the same point. One rows N30E for 1500 m and the other
rows S40E for 1200 m. How far apart are the two rowers?
9 Maria cycles 12 km in a direction N68W, then 7 km in a direction of N34E.
a How far is she from her starting point?
b What is the bearing of the starting point from her nishing point?
10 A garden bed is in the shape of a triangle, with sides of length 3 m, 4.5 m and 5.2 m.
a Calculate the smallest angle.
b Hence, nd the area of the garden. (Hint: Draw a diagram, with the longest length as the
base of the triangle.)
11 A hockey goal is 3 m wide. When Sophie is 7 m from one post and 5.2 m from the other, she
shoots for goal. Within what angle, to the nearest degree, must the shot be made if it is to score
a goal?
12 An advertising balloon is attached to two ropes 120 m and 100 m long. The ropes are anchored
to level ground 35 m apart. How high can the balloon fly?
13 A plane flies in a direction of N70E for 80 km, then on a bearing of S10W for 150 km.
a How far is the plane from its starting point?
b What direction is the plane from its starting point?
14 Ship A is 16.2 km from port on a bearing of 053 T and ship B is 31.6 km from the same port
on a bearing of 117 T. Calculate the distance between the two ships.
15 A plane takes off at 10.00 am from an airfield, and flies at 120 km/h on a bearing of N35W. A
second plane takes off at 10.05 am from the same airfield, and flies on a bearing of S80E at a
speed of 90 km/h. How far apart are the planes at 10.25 am?
EXERCISE
5D
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
159 Chapter 5 Trigonometric ratios and their applications
16 Three circles of radii 5 cm, 6 cm and 8 cm are positioned so that
they just touch one another. Their centres form the vertices of a triangle.
Find the largest angle in the triangle.
17 For the given shape at near right, determine:
a the length of the diagonal
b the magnitude (size) of angle B
c the length of x.
18 From the top of a vertical cliff 68 m high, an observer notices a yacht at sea. The angle of
depression to the yacht is 47. The yacht sails directly away from the cliff, and after 10 minutes
the angle of depression is 15. How fast does the yacht sail?
Area of triangles
The area of any triangle is given by the rule Area =
1
2
bh where b is the
base length and h is the perpendicular height of the triangle.
However, often the perpendicular height is not given directly and
needs to be calculated rst. In the triangle ABC, b is the base length
and h is the perpendicular height of the triangle.
Using the trigonometric ratio for sine:
sin (A) =
h
c
Transposing the equation to make h the subject, we obtain:
h = c sin (A)
Therefore, the area of triangle ABC becomes:
Area =
1
2
bc sin (A)
Depending on how the triangle is labelled, the formula could read:
Area =
1
2
ab sin (C) Area =
1
2
ac sin (B) Area =
1
2
bc sin (A)
The area formula may be used on any triangle provided that two sides of the triangle and the
included angle (that is, the angle between the two given sides) are known.
WORKED EXAMPLE 12
Find the area of the triangle shown.
THINK WRITE/DRAW
1 Draw a labelled diagram of the triangle, call it
ABC and ll in the given information.
c = 7 cm
A C
B
a = 9 cm
120
Let a = 9 cm, c = 7 cm, B = 120
2 Check that the criterion for the area rule has
been satised.
The area rule can be used since two side lengths
and the included angle are known.
5 cm
6 cm
8 cm
x
B
10
8
7
60
150
5E
b
h
c
b
a
h
C A
B
7 cm 9 cm
120
160
3 Write the appropriate rule for the area.
Area =
1
2
ac sin (B)
4 Substitute the known values into the rule. =
1
2
9 7 sin (120)
5 Evaluate. Round the answer to 2 decimal places
and include the appropriate unit.
= 27.28 cm
2
Note: If you are not given the included angle, you will need to nd it in order to calculate the
area. This may involve using either the sine or cosine rule.
WORKED EXAMPLE 13
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Worked example 13
A triangle has known dimensions of a = 5 cm, b = 7 cm and B = 52.
Find A and C and hence the area.
THINK WRITE
1 Draw a labelled diagram of the triangle, call it
ABC and ll in the given information.
b = 7
A C
B
a = 5
52
Let a = 5, b = 7, B = 52
2 Check whether the criterion for the area rule
has been satised.
The area rule cannot be used since the included
angle has not been given.
3 Write the sine rule to nd A. To nd angle A:
a
A
b
B sin ( ) sin ( )
=
4 Substitute the known values into the rule.
5 7
52 sin ( ) sin ( ) A
=

5 Transpose the equation to make sin (A) the


subject.
5 sin (52) = 7 sin (A)
5 52
7

=
sin ( )
sin ( )

A
sin ( )
sin ( )
A =
5 52
7

6 Evaluate.
A = sin

1

5 52
7

sin ( )

= 34.254 151 87
7 Round the answer to degrees and minutes. = 3415
8 Determine the value of the included angle, C,
using the fact that the angle sum of any triangle
is 180.
C = 180 (52 + 3415)
= 9345
9 Write the appropriate rule for the area.
Area =
1
2
ab sin (C)
10 Substitute the known values into the rule. =
1
2
5 7 sin (9345)
11
Evaluate. Round the answer to 2 decimal places
and include the appropriate unit.
= 17.46 cm
2
.
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
161 Chapter 5 Trigonometric ratios and their applications
Herons formula
If we know the lengths of all the sides of the triangle but none of the angles, we could use the
cosine rule to nd an angle, then use
1
2
bc sin (A) to nd the area. Alternatively, we could use
Herons formula to nd the area.
Herons formula states that the area of a triangle is:
Area =
s s a s b s c ( )( )( )
where s is the semi-perimeter of the triangle; that is,
s =
1
2
(a + b + c)
The proof of this formula is beyond the scope of this course.
WORKED EXAMPLE 14
Find the area of the triangle with sides of 4 cm, 6 cm and 8 cm.
THINK WRITE
1 Draw a labelled diagram of the triangle, call it
ABC and ll in the given information.
8 cm
4 cm
A
C
B
6 cm
Let a = 4, b = 6, c = 8
2 Determine which area rule will be used. Since three side lengths have been given, use
Herons formula.
3 Write the rule for Herons formula. Area =
s s a s b s c ( )( )( )
4
Write the rule for s, the semi-perimeter of the
triangle.
s =
1
2
(a + b + c)
5 Substitute the given values into the rule for the
semi-perimeter.
=
1
2
(4 + 6 + 8)
=
1
2
(18)
= 9
6 Substitute all of the known values into Herons
formula.
Area =
9 9 4 9 6 9 8 ( )( )( )
7 Evaluate.
=
9 5 3 1
=
135
= 11.618 950 04
8 Round the answer to 2 decimal places and
include the appropriate unit.
= 11.62 cm
2
If two sides of any triangle and the included angle (that is, the angle between the two 1.
given sides) are known, the following rules may be used to determine the area of that
triangle.
Area =
1
2
ab sin (C) Area =
1
2
ac sin (B) Area =
1
2
bc sin (A)
REMEMBER
162
Alternatively, if the lengths of three sides of a triangle are known, Herons formula may 2.
be used to nd the area of the triangle:
Area =
s s a s b s c ( ) ( ) ( )
where s is the semi-perimeter of the triangle; that is,
s =
1
2
(a + b + c)
Area of triangles
1 WE 12 Find the area of the triangle ABC with a = 7 cm, b = 4 cm and C = 68.
2 Find the area of the triangle ABC with a = 7.3 cm, c = 10.8 cm and B = 10440.
3 Find the area of the triangle ABC with b = 23.1 m, c = 18.6 m and A = 8217.
4 Find the exact area of the triangle DEF with d = 6, e = 9 and F = 60.
5 Find the exact area of the triangle QPR with p = 12, r = 10 and Q = 45.
6 WE 13 MC In a triangle, a = 15 m, b = 20 m and B = 50. The area of the triangle is:
A 86.2 m
2
B 114.9 m
2
C 149.4 m
2
D 172.4 m
2
E 181.7 m
2
7 WE 14 Find the area of the triangle with sides of 5 cm, 6 cm and 8 cm.
8 Find the area of the triangle with sides of 40 mm, 30 mm and 5.7 cm.
9 Find the area of the triangle with sides of 16 mm, 3 cm and 2.7 cm.
10 Find the area of the equilateral triangle with sides 4 cm. Leave your answer in simplified surd
form.
11 MC A triangle has sides of length 10 cm, 14 cm and 20 cm. The area of the triangle is:
A 41 cm
2
B 65 cm
2
C 106 cm
2
D 137 cm
2
E 1038 cm
2
12 A triangle has a = 10 cm, c = 14 cm and C = 48. Find A and B and hence the area.
13 A triangle has a = 17 m, c = 22 m and C = 56. Find A and B and hence the area.
14 A triangle has b = 32 mm, c = 15 mm and B = 38. Find A and C and hence the area.
15 A piece of metal is in the shape of a triangle with sides of length 114 mm, 72 mm and 87 mm.
Find its area using Herons formula.
16 A triangle has the largest angle of 115. The longest side is 62 cm and another side is 35 cm.
Find the area of the triangle.
17 A triangle has two sides of 25 cm and 30 cm. The angle between the two sides is 30. Find:
a its area
b the length of its third side
c its area using Herons formula.
18 The surface of a fish pond has the shape shown in the diagram at right.
How many goldfish can the pond support if each fish requires
0.3 m
2
surface area of water?
19 Find the area of this quadrilateral.
EXERCISE
5E
2 m
4 m
5 m
1 m
4 m
5 m
8 m
60
3.5 m
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
163 Chapter 5 Trigonometric ratios and their applications
20 A parallelogram has diagonals of length 10 cm and 17 cm. An angle between them is 125. Find:
a the area of the parallelogram b the dimensions of the parallelogram.
21 A lawn is to be made in the shape of a triangle, with sides of length 11 m, 15 m and 17.2 m. How
much grass seed, to the nearest kilogram, is needed if it is sown at the rate of 1 kg per 5 m
2
?
22 A bushfire burns out an area of level grassland shown
in the diagram. What is the area, in hectares,
of the land that is burnt?
200 m
400 m
2

k
m
1
.
8

k
m
Road
R
i
v
e
r
23 An earth embankment is 27 m long, and has a cross-section
shown in the diagram. Find the volume of earth needed to
build the embankment.
24 MC A parallelogram has sides of 14 cm and 18 cm, and an angle
between them of 72. The area of the parallelogram is:
A 86.2 cm
2
B 118.4 cm
2
C 172.4 cm
2
D 239.7 cm
2
E 252 cm
2
25 MC An advertising hoarding is in the shape of an isosceles triangle, with sides of length
15 m, 15 m and 18 m. It is to be painted with two coats of purple paint. If the paint covers
12 m
2
per litre, the amount of paint needed, to the nearest litre, would be:
A 9 L B 18 L C 24 L D 36 L E 42 L
Trigonometric identities
An identity is a relationship that holds true for all values of a pronumeral or pronumerals.
The sine and cosine functions are related functions and the following identities exist between them.
The Pythagorean identity
Think of a triangle within the unit circle. We know that the hypotenuse
is 1 unit.
sin ( ) =
a
1
cos ( ) =
b
1
a = sin ( ) b = cos ( )
2 m
5 m
80
100
130
50
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5F
x
a
b
y
0
1

164
So the triangle formed has a height of sin ( ) and a base length of cos ( ).
Pythagoras theorem then tells us that
a
2
+ b
2
= 1
2
sin
2
( ) + cos
2
() = 1
Note: sin
2
( ) = (sin ( ))
2
and cos
2
( ) = (cos ( ))
2
The Pythagorean identity is sin
2
( ) + cos
2
( ) = 1.
WORKED EXAMPLE 15
Find the value of sin ( ) given cos ( ) =
5
13
and 0 < < 90.
THINK WRITE
1 Write the Pythagorean identity. sin
2
( ) + cos
2
( ) = 1
2 Substitute the known value cos ( ) =
5
13
.
sin
2
( ) +
5
13
2

= 1
3 Solve to nd the required value. sin
2
( ) +
25
169
= 1
sin
2
( ) =
144
169
sin ( ) =
12
13
4 Write the nal answer. As is in the rst quadrant sin ( ) =
12
13
.
Complementary angles
In the diagram at right we can see that:
cos ( ) =
b
c
sin ( ) =
a
c
cos ( ) =
a
c
sin ( ) =
b
c
So for our diagram cos ( ) = sin ( ) and sin ( ) = cos ( ).
We also know that + = 90, so = 90 .
By substituting this into cos ( ) = sin ( ) and cos ( ) = sin ( ) we get cos ( ) = sin (90 )
and sin ( ) = cos (90 ).
WORKED EXAMPLE 16
Find the value of cos (70) given sin (20) = 0.342.
THINK WRITE
1 Write the equation with the required
complementary angle formula.
cos ( ) = sin (90 )
2 Identify the value of . = 70
3 Substitute the angle into the equation and
simplify.
cos (70) = sin (90 70)
= sin (20)
= 0.342
a
b
c

Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad


165 Chapter 5 Trigonometric ratios and their applications
The Pythagorean identity is sin 1.
2
( ) + cos
2
( ) = 1.
cos ( 2. ) = sin (90 ) and sin ( ) = cos (90 ).
REMEMBER
Trigonometric identities
1 WE 15 Find the value of sin ( ) given cos ( ) =
4
5
and 0 < < 90.
2 Find the value of cos ( ) given sin ( ) =
12
13
and 0 < < 90.
3 Find the value of cos ( ) given sin ( ) =
6
10
and 0 < < 90.
4 Find the value of sin ( ) given cos ( ) =
2
7
and 0 < < 90.
5 Use your knowledge of exact values to show that the Pythagorean identity is true for = 30.
6 WE 16 Find the value of sin (12) given cos (78) = 0.208.
7 Find the value of cos (42) given sin (48) = 0.743.
Radian measurement
In all of the trigonometry tasks covered so far, the unit for measuring
angles has been the degree. There is another commonly used
measurement for angles, the radian. This is used in situations
involving length and areas associated with circles.
Consider the unit circle, a circle with a radius of 1 unit. OP is the
radius.
If OP is rotated anticlockwise, the point P traces a path along
the circumference of the circle to a new point, P
1
.
The arc length PP
1
is a radian measurement, symbolised by
c
.
Note: 1
c
is equivalent to the angle in degrees formed when the
length of PP
1
is 1 unit; in other words, when the arc is the same
length as the radius.
If the length OP is rotated 180, the point P traces out half the
circumference. Since the circle has a radius of 1 unit, and C = 2r, the arc
PP
1
has a length of .
The relationship between degrees and radians is thus established.
180 =
c
This relationship will be used to convert from one system to another.
Rearranging the basic conversion factor gives:
180 =
1 =

180

To convert an angle in degrees to radian measure, multiply by

180

.
Also, since = 180, it follows that 1
c
=
180

.
To convert an angle in radian measure to degrees, multiply by
180

.
EXERCISE
5F
5G
P
OP = 1 unit
O
P
P
1
OP = 1 unit
O

P P
1 O
circumference
1

2
180
166
Where possible, it is common to have radian values with in them. It is usual to write radians
without any symbol, but degrees must always have a symbol. For example, an angle of 25 must
have the degree symbol written, but an angle of 1.5 is understood to be 1.5 radians.
WORKED EXAMPLE 17
Convert 135 to radian measure, expressing the answer in terms of .
THINK WRITE
1 To convert an angle in degrees to radian measure,
multiply the angle by

180
.
135 = 135

180

=
135
180
2
Simplify, leaving the answer in terms of .
=
3
4

WORKED EXAMPLE 18
Convert the radian measurement
4
5

to degrees.
THINK WRITE
1 To convert radian measure to an angle in degrees,
multiply the angle by
180

.
4
5
4
5
180

=
720
5

2 Simplify.
Note: The cancels out.
= 144
If the calculation does not simplify easily, write the answers in degrees and minutes, or radians
to 4 decimal places. If angles are given in degrees and minutes, convert to degrees only before
converting to radians.
180 1. =
c
To convert an angle in degrees to radian measure, multiply by 2.

180

.
To convert an angle in radian measure to degrees, multiply by 3.
180

.
REMEMBER
Radian measurement
1 WE 17 Convert the following angles to radian measure, expressing
answers in terms of .
a 30 b 60 c 120 d 150
e 225 f 270 g 315 h 480
i 72 j 200
EXERCISE
5G
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SkillSHEET 5.6
Changing
degrees to
radians
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
167 Chapter 5 Trigonometric ratios and their applications
2 WE 18 Convert the following radian measurements into degrees.
a

4
b
3
2

c
7
6

d
5
3

e
7
12

f
17
6

12
h
13
10

i
11
8

j 8
3 Convert the following angles in degrees to radians, giving answers to 4 decimal places.
a 27 b 109 c 243 d 351 e 7
f 6342 g 13821 h 2748 i 32653 j 472
4 Convert the following radian measurements into degrees and minutes.
a 2.345 b 0.6103 c 1 d 1.61 e 3.592
f 7.25 g 0.182 h 5.8402 i 4.073 j 6.167
Arcs, sectors and segments
Arc length
An arc is a section of the circumference of a circle. The length of the arc
is proportional to the angle subtended at the centre. For example, an
angle of 90 will create an arc which is
1
4
the circumference.
We have already dened an arc length as equivalent to radians if the circle
has a radius of 1 unit.
Therefore, a simple dilation of the unit circle will enable us
to calculate the arc length for any sized circle, as long as
the angle is expressed in radians.
If the radius is dilated by a factor of r, the arc length is also dilated by a
factor of r.
Therefore, l = r, where l represents the arc length, r represents the radius and represents
an angle measured in radians.
WORKED EXAMPLE 19
Find the length of the arc which subtends an angle of 75 at the centre of a circle with radius 8 cm.
THINK WRITE/DRAW
1 Draw a diagram representing the situation and
label with the given values.
r = 8
l = r
75
2 Convert the angle from 75 to radian measure by
multiplying the angle by

180

.
75 = 75

180

=
75
180

5H
eBookplus eBookplus
Interactivity
int-0972
Sectors

r = 1
Dilation by factor of r

c
r
168
3
Evaluate to 4 decimal places. = 1.3090
4 Write the rule for the length of the arc. l = r
5 Substitute the values into the formula. = 8 1.3090
6 Evaluate to 2 decimal places and include the
appropriate unit.
= 10.4720
= 10.47 cm
Note: In order to use the formula for the length of the arc, the angle must be in radian measure.
WORKED EXAMPLE 20
Find the angle subtended by a 17 cm arc in a circle of radius 14 cm:
a in radians b in degrees.
THINK WRITE
a 1 Write the rule for the length of the arc. a l = r
2
Substitute the values into the formula. 17 = 14
3 Transpose the equation to make the
subject.
=
17
14
4
Evaluate to 4 decimal places and include
the appropriate unit.
= 1.214 285 714
= 1.2143
c
b 1 To convert radian measure to an angle in
degrees, multiply the angle by
180

.
b 1.2143
c
= 1.2143
180

2
Evaluate. = 69.573 446 55
3
Convert the angle to degrees and
minutes.
= 6934
Area of a sector
In the diagram at right, the shaded area is the minor sector AOB, and
the unshaded area is the major sector AOB.
The area of the sector is proportional to the arc length. For
example, an area of
1
4
of the circle contains an arc which is
1
4
of the
circumference.
Thus, in any circle:
area of sector
=
arc length
area of circle circumference of circle
A
r
r
r

2
2
= where is measured in radians.
A
r r
r
=

2
2
=
1
2
r
2

The area of a sector is: A =


1
2
r
2

A
B
O
Major
sector
Minor
sector
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
169 Chapter 5 Trigonometric ratios and their applications
WORKED EXAMPLE 21
A sector has an area of 157 cm
2
, and subtends an angle of 107. What is the radius of the circle?
THINK WRITE
1 Convert the angle from 107 to radian measure by
multiplying the angle by

180

.
107 = 107

180

=
107
180

2 Evaluate to 4 decimal places. = 1.8675


3 Write the rule for the area of a sector.
A =
1
2
r
2

4 Substitute the values into the formula. 157 =


1
2
r
2
1.8675
5 Transpose the equation to make r
2
the subject.
2 157
1 8675

.
= r
2
r
2
= 168.139 016 5
6 Take the square root of both sides of the equation. r

= 12.966 842 97
7 Evaluate to 2 decimal places and include the
appropriate unit.
= 12.97 cm
Area of a segment
A segment is that part of a sector bounded by the arc and the chord.
As can be seen from the diagram at right:
Area of segment = area of sector area of triangle
A =
1
2
r
2

1
2
r
2
sin ( )
=
1
2
r
2
( sin ( ))
Note: is in radians and is in degrees.
The area of a segment: A =
1
2
r
2
( sin ())
WORKED EXAMPLE 22
eBookplus eBookplus
Tutorial
int-1049
Worked example 22
Find the area of the segment in a circle of radius 5 cm, subtended by an angle of 40.
THINK WRITE
1 Convert the angle from 40 to radian measure
by multiplying the angle by

180

.
40 = 40

180

=
40
180

2 Evaluate to 4 decimal places. = 0.6981


3 Write the rule for the area of a segment. A =
1
2
r
2
( sin ( ))
4 Identify each of the variables. r = 5, = 0.6981, = 40
5 Substitute the values into the formula. A =
1
2
5
2
(0.6981 sin (40))
6 Evaluate.
=
1
2
25 0.0553
= 0.691 25
7 Round to 2 decimal places and include the
appropriate unit.
= 0.69 cm
2
r
Segment

170
Arc length: 1. l = r
Area of a sector: 2. A =
1
2
r
2

Area of a segment: 3. A =
1
2
r
2
( sin (( ))
where r = radius, = angle (measured in radians) and = angle (measured in degrees).
REMEMBER
Arcs, sectors and segments
1 WE 19 Find the length of the arc which subtends an angle of 65 at the centre of a circle of
radius 14 cm.
2 Find the length of the arc which subtends an angle of 153 at the centre of a circle of radius 75 mm.
3 Find the length of the arc which subtends an angle of 135 at the centre of a circle of
radius 10 cm. Leave answer in terms of .
4 An arc of a circle is 3.5 cm long, and subtends an angle of 41 at the centre of the circle. What
is the radius of the circle?
5 An arc of a circle is 27.8 cm long, and subtends an angle of 205 at the centre of the circle.
What is the radius of the circle?
6 An arc of a circle is 4 cm long and subtends an angle of 60 at the centre of the circle.
What is the radius of the circle? Write your answer in terms of .
7 WE 20 Find the angle subtended by a 20 cm arc in a circle of radius 75 cm:
a in radians b in degrees.
8 Find the angle subtended by an 8 cm arc in a circle of radius 5 cm:
a in radians b in degrees.
9 An arc of length 8 cm is marked out on the circumference of a circle of radius 13 cm. What
angle does the arc subtend at the centre of the circle?
10 An arc of length 245 mm is marked out on the circumference of a circle of radius 18 cm. Find
the angle that the arc subtends at the centre of the circle.
11 The minute hand of a clock is 35 cm long. How far does the tip of the hand travel in
20 minutes?
12 A childs swing is suspended by a rope 3 m
long. What is the length of the arc it travels if it
swings through an angle of 42?
13 Find the area of the sector of a circle of radius
17 cm with an angle of 56.
14 Find the area of the sector of a circle of radius
6.2 cm with an angle of 256.
15 Find the area of a sector of a circle of
radius 6 cm with an angle of 100. Write your
answer in terms of .
16 WE21 A sector has an area of 825 cm
2
, and subtends an angle of 70. What is the radius of the
circle?
17 A sector with an area of 309 cm
2
is part of a circle of radius 18.2 cm. Find the angle in the sector.
EXERCISE
5H
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
171 Chapter 5 Trigonometric ratios and their applications
18 Find the area of a sector of a circle of radius 30 cm if the sector has an arc length of 18 cm.
19 A garden bed is in the form of a sector of a circle of radius 4 m. The arc of the sector is 5 m
long. Find:
a the area of the garden bed
b the volume of mulch needed to cover the bed to a depth of 10 cm.
20 The minute hand on a clock is 62 cm long. What area does the hand sweep through in
40 minutes?
21 A sector whose angle is 150 is cut from a circular piece of cardboard whose radius is 12 cm.
The two straight edges of the sector are joined so as to form a cone.
a What is the surface area of the cone?
b What is the radius of the cone?
22 WE 22 Find the area of the segment in a circle of radius 25 cm subtended by an angle of 100.
23 Find the area of the segment of a circle of radius 4.7 m that subtends an angle of 8520 at the
centre.
24 A segment of a circle subtends an angle of 75 at the centre. The area of the segment is
100 cm
2
. Find the radius of the circle.
25 In a circle of radius 15 cm, a sector has an area of 100 cm
2
. Find the angle subtended by the sector.
26 Two circles of radii 3 cm and 4 cm have their centres 5 cm apart. Find the area of the
intersection of the two circles.
27 MC The angle subtended by a 28 cm arc in a circle of radius 20 cm in radians is:
A 0.71 B 40.93 C 80.21 D 1.4 E 0.4
28 MC The area of the segment in a circle of radius 12 cm, subtended by an angle of 60 is:
A 6.52 cm
2
B 30.31 cm
2
C 26.08 cm
2
D 15.24 cm
2
E 13.04 cm
2
29 Two irrigation sprinklers spread water in circular paths with radii of 7 m and 4 m. If the
sprinklers are 10 m apart, find the area of crop that receives water from both sprinklers.
30 MC The length of the arc which subtends an angle of 50 at the centre of a circle with
radius 10 cm is:
A 8.73 cm B 0.87 cm C 10.43 cm D 6.25 cm E 0.63 cm
172
SUMMARY
Trigonometry of right-angled triangles
For any right-angled triangle:
sin ( ) =
O
H
cos ( ) =
A
H
tan ( ) =
O
A
Pythagoras theorem, c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
may also be used to solve right-angled
triangles.
c
a
b
Angles of 30 , 45 and 60 have exact values of sine, cosine and tangent.
30 45 60
sin ( )
1
2
1
2
2
2
=
3
2
cos ( )
3
2
1
2
2
2
=
1
2
tan ( )
1
3
3
3
=
1
3
Elevation, depression and bearings
Angles of elevation and depression are each measured from the horizontal.
The angle of elevation is equal to the angle of depression since they are alternate Z angles.
True bearings are measured in a clockwise direction, starting from north (0 T).
The sine rule
The sine rule states that for any triangle ABC:
a
A
b
B
c
C sin ( ) sin ( ) sin ( )
= =
When using this rule, it is important to note that, depending on the values given, any combination of the two
equalities may be used to solve a particular triangle.
The sine rule may be used to solve nonright-angled triangles if we are given:
(a) two angles and one side length
(b) two side lengths and an angle opposite one of these side lengths.
The ambiguous case exists if C is an acute angle and a > c > a sin (C).
The cosine rule
In any triangle ABC:
a
2
= b
2
+ c
2
2bc cos (A)
b
2
= a
2
+ c
2
2ac cos (B)
c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
2ab cos (C)
The cosine rule can be used to solve nonright-angled triangles if we are given:
(a) three sides of the triangle
(b) two sides of the triangle and the included angle (that is, the angle between the two given sides).
(A)
B
C A
(O)
(H )

Hypotenuse
Opposite
Adjacent
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
173 Chapter 5 Trigonometric ratios and their applications
If three sides of a triangle are known, an angle could be found by transposing the cosine rule to make cos A,
cos B or cos C the subject.
cos (A) =
b c a
bc
2 2 2
2
+
cos (B) =
a c b
ac
2 2 2
2
+
cos (C) =
a b c
ab
2 2 2
2
+
Area of triangles
If two sides of any triangle and the included angle (that is, the angle between the two given sides) are known,
the following rules may be used to determine the area of that triangle.
Area =
1
2
ab sin (C)
Area =
1
2
ac sin (B)
Area =
1
2
bc sin (A)
Alternatively, if three side lengths of a triangle are known, Herons formula may be used to nd the area of a
triangle:
Area = s s a s b s c ( )( )( )
where s is the semi-perimeter of the triangle; that is,
s =
1
2
(a + b + c)
Trigonometric identities
An identity is a relationship that holds true for all values of a pronumeral or pronumerals.
The Pythagorean Identity states that sin
2
( ) + cos
2
( ) = 1.
Sine and cosine are called complementary functions since:
cos ( ) = sin (90 ) and
sin ( ) = cos (90 )
Radian measurement
180 =
c
To convert an angle in degrees to radian measure, multiply by

180

.
To convert an angle in radian measure to degrees, multiply by
180

.
Arcs, sectors and segments
Arc length: l = r
Area of a sector: A =
1
2
r
2

Area of a segment: A =
1
2
r
2
( sin ())
Where r = radius, = angle (measured in radians) and = angle (measured in degrees).
174
CHAPTER REVIEW
SHORT ANSWER
1 A stepladder stands on a floor with its feet 2 m
apart. If the angle formed by the legs with the floor
is 60, how high above the floor is the top of the
ladder?
2 Two buildings, 15 m and 27 m high, are directly
opposite each other across a river. The angle of
depression of the top of the smaller building from
the top of the taller one is 30. How wide is the
river?
3 In the triangle shown at right
find the exact length of side m.
4 A triangle has sides of length 12 m, 15 m and 20 m.
If Q is the largest angle find cos ( ).
5 A triangle has two sides of 20 cm and 25 cm. The
angle between the two sides is 45. Find its area.
6 A triangular garden area is bound by three straight
edges of lengths 4 m, 5 m and 7 m. Find the exact
area of the garden.
7 Find the value of cos ( ) given sin ( ) =
3
8
and
0 < < 90.
8 a Convert the following angles to radian measure,
expressing answers in terms of .
i 80
ii 125
iii 640
b Convert the following radian measurement into
degrees.
i

20
ii
15
8

iii 7
9 A paddock is in the shape of a sector with radius of
75 m and an angle of 60. Find:
a the amount of fencing needed to enclose the
paddock
b the area enclosed by the paddock.
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1 In the triangle, the value of , to the
nearest degree, is:
A 37 B 39
C 51 D 52
E 53
2 A ladder 4.5 m long rests against a vertical wall,
with the foot of the ladder 2 m from the base of the
wall. The angle the ladder makes with the wall, to
the nearest degree, is:
A 24 B 26 C 35
D 64 E 66
3 A person stands 18 m from the base of a building,
and measures the angle of elevation to the top of
the building as 62. If the person is 1.8 m tall, how
high is the building, to the nearest metre?
A 11 m B 18 m C 36 m
D 22 m E 34 m
4 A bearing of 310 T is the same as:
A N40W B N50W C S50W
D S50E E N50E
5 In triangle ABC, a = 10, b = 7 and B = 40. A
possible value for C, to the nearest degree, is:
A 37 B 52 C 68
D 73 E 113
6 Two boats start from the same point. One sails due
north for 10 km and the other sails south east for
15 km. Their distance apart is:
A 10.62 km B 14.83 km C 17.35 km
D 21.38 km E 23.18 km
7 A triangle has sides measuring 5 cm, 8 cm and
10 cm. The largest angle in the triangle, to the
nearest degree, is:
A 52 B 82 C 98
D 128 E 140
8 The area of the triangle with a = 10 m, b = 8 m and
C = 72 is:
A 12.36 m
2
B 76.08 m
2
C 10.15 m
2
D 38.04 m
2
E 123.10 m
2
9 A garden bed is in the shape of a triangle, with
sides of length 4 m, 5.2 m and 7 m. The volume of
topsoil needed to cover the garden to a depth of
250 mm is:
A 2.32 m
3
B 2.57 m
3
C 2.81 m
3
D 3.17 m
3
E 3.76 m
3
10 When 75 is converted to radian measure, the value
of the angle, expressed in terms of , is:
A
12
5

12
C
5
24

D
5
12

E
7
12

45 30
x
12 cm

4
5
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
175 Chapter 5 Trigonometric ratios and their applications
11 When 5.321 is converted to degrees and minutes,
the value of the angle is:
A 30527 B 30452 C 519
D 142 E 15226
12 An arc in a circle of radius 5 cm is 3.5 cm long.
The angle, to the nearest degree, subtended at the
centre by the arc is:
A 35 B 40 C 50
D 68 E 82
13 A sector has an area of 40 cm
2
, and an angle of 30.
The arc length of the sector, to 2 decimal places, is:
A 1.64 cm B 2.66 cm C 4.83 cm
D 6.47 cm E 12.36 cm
14 The area of the shaded region
in the figure at right to the
nearest cm
2
is:
A 800 cm
2
B 846 cm
2
C 898 cm
2
D 952 cm
2
E 983 cm
2
15 A clock has a minute hand 75 cm long. The area
that it sweeps when passing through 48 minutes, to
2 decimal places, is:
A 0.90 m
2
B 1.35 m
2
C 1.41 m
2
D 1.88 m
2
E 2.01 m
2
120 40 cm
EXTENDED RESPONSE
1 Three circles of radii 2 cm, 3 cm and 4 cm are placed so that they just touch each other.
A triangle is formed by joining their three centres. Find:
a the three angles of the triangle
b the area of the triangle, correct to 3 decimal places
c the shaded area correct to 3 decimal places.
2 A farmer owns a large triangular area of flat land, bounded on one side by an
embankment to a river flowing NE, on a second side by a road which meets the
river at a bridge where the angle between river and road is 105, and on the third
side by a long fence. Find:
a the length of the river frontage, correct to 3 decimal places
b the area of the land correct to 3 decimal places.
The farmer decides to divide the land into two sections of equal area, by
running a fence from the bridge to a point on the opposite side.
c On what bearing must the fence be built?
d What is the length of the fence, correct to 3 decimal places?
Road
N
3.2 km
River
Fence
105
42
45
33
176
3 a A four-wheel-drive vehicle leaves a camp site and travels across a flat sandy plain in a direction of S65E,
for a distance of 8.2 km. It then heads due south for 6.7 km to reach a waterhole.
i How far is the waterhole from the camp site?
ii What is the bearing of the waterhole from the camp site?
b A search plane sets off to nd the vehicle. It is on a course that takes it over points A and B, two
locations on level ground. At a certain time, from point A, the angle of elevation to the plane is 72.
From point B, the angle of elevation is 47. If A and B are 3500 m apart, nd the height of the plane off
the ground.
4 Christopher lives on a farm. He has decided that this year
he will plant a variety of crops in his large but unusually
shaped vegetable garden. He has divided the vegetable garden
into six triangular regions, which he will fence off as shown in
the diagram at right. Christopher needs to calculate the
perimeter and area of each region so he can purchase the
correct amount of fencing material and seedlings.
a Separate each of the regions into single triangles and label
each with the information provided.
b Use the appropriate rules to determine all unknown
lengths and relevant angles.
c How much fencing material is required to section off the
six regions?
d If fencing material is $4.50 per metre (and only sold by
the metre) what will the cost be?
e Calculate the area of each region and hence determine the
total area available for planting.
A
B
D
E
F
C
95 64
80
58
38
85 m
43 m
68 m
52 m
56 m
124 m
1
2
3
4
5
6
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc
Test Yourself
Chapter 5
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
177 Chapter 5 Trigonometric ratios and their applications
eBookplus eBookplus ACTIVITIES
Chapter opener
Digital doc
10 Quick Questions: Warm up with ten quick
questions on trigonometric ratios and their
applications. (page 136)
5 A Trigonometry of right-angled triangles
Digital docs
SkillSHEET 5.1: Practise labelling right-angled
triangles. (page 141)
SkillSHEET 5.2: Practise using trigonometric ratios.
(page 141)
SkillSHEET 5.3: Practise degrees and minutes.
(page 141)
SkillSHEET 5.4: Practise composite shapes 1.
(page 142)
SkillSHEET 5.5: Practise composite shapes 2.
(page 142)
5B Elevation, depression and bearings
Tutorial
WE6 int-1045: Watch how to determine the bearing
of a ship from its starting point. (page 145)
5C The sine rule
Tutorial
WE8 int-1046: Watch how to show the ambiguous
case of the sine rule exists and apply it. (page 150)
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 5.1: Use trigonometry to nd two
unknowns in right-angled triangles; solve worded
problems of elevation, depression and bearings.
(page 154)
5D The cosine rule
Tutorials
WE 10 int-1213: Watch how to nd the smallest angle
in a triangle. (page 156)
WE 11 int-1047: Watch how to calculate the distance
between two rowers. (page 157)
5E Area of triangles
Tutorial
WE 13 int-1048: Watch how to nd the area of a
triangle given two side lengths and an angle.
(page 160)
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 5.2: Solve more complex right-angled
triangle problems with two unknowns, worded
problems of elevation and depression and apply the
sine and cosine rules to non-right angled triangles.
(page 163)
5G Radian measurement
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 5.6: Practise changing degrees to
radians. (page 166)
5H Arcs, sectors and segments
Interactivity
Sectors int-0972: Consolidate your understanding of
how to calculate the area of a sector. (page 167)
Tutorial
WE 22 int-1049: Watch how to nd the area of a
segment. (page 169)
Chapter review
Digital doc
Test Yourself: Take the end-of-chapter test to test
your progress. (page 176)
To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to
www.jacplus.com.au
6A Describing sequences
6B Arithmetic sequences
6C Arithmetic series
6D Geometric sequences
6E Geometric series
6F Applications of sequences and series
6
178
AREAS OF STUDY
Sequences and series as maps between the
natural numbers and the real numbers, and the
use of technology to generate sequences and
series and their graphs
Sequences generated by recursion: arithmetic
(t
n + 1
t
n
+ d ), geometric (t
n + 1
= rt
n
) and xed
point iteration (for example, t
1
2, t
n + 1
t
n
2
,
t
1
= 0.5, t
n + 1
= 0.8t
n
(1 t
n
))
Practical applications of sequences and series,
such as nancial arithmetic, population
modelling and musical scales
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc
10 Quick Questions
Sequences
and series
Describing sequences
Sequences of numbers play an important part in our everyday life. For example, the following
sequence:
2.25, 2.37, 2.58, 2.57, 2.63, . . .
gives the end-of-day trading price (for 5 consecutive days) of a share
in an electronics company. It looks like the price is on the rise, but is it
possible to accurately predict the future price per share of the company?
The following sequence is more predictable:
10 000, 9000, 8100, . . .
This is the estimated number of radioactive decays of a medical
compound each minute after administration to a patient. The compound
is used to diagnose tumours. In the rst minute, 10 000 radioactive decays
are predicted; during the second minute, 9000, and so on. Can you predict
the next number in the sequence? Youre correct if you said 7290. Each
successive term here is 90% of, or 0.90 times, the previous term.
Sequences are strings of numbers. They may be nite in number or
innite. Number sequences may follow an easily recognisable pattern
or they may not. A great deal of recent mathematical work has gone
into deciding whether certain strings follow a pattern (in which case
subsequent terms could be predicted) or whether they are random (in
which case subsequent terms cannot be predicted). This work forms
the basis of chaos theory, speech recognition software for computers,
weather prediction and stock market forecasting, to name but a few
uses. The list is almost endless.
6A
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
179 Chapter 6 Sequences and series
Sequences which follow a pattern can be described in a number of different ways. They may
be listed in sequential order, they may be described as a functional denition, or they may be
described in an iterative denition.
1 Listing in sequential order
Consider the sequence of numbers t: {5, 7, 9, . . .}. The numbers in sequential order are rstly
5 then 7 and 9 with the indication that there are more numbers to follow. The symbol t is the
name of the sequence and the rst three terms in the sequence shown are t
1
5, t
2
7 and t
3
9.
The fourth term, t
4
if the pattern were to continue, would be the number 11. In general, t
n
is the
nth term in the sequence. In this example, the next term is simply the previous term with the
number 2 added to it, with the rst term being the number 5.
Another possible sequence is t: {5, 10, 20, 40, . . .}. In this case it appears that the next term is
twice the previous term. The fth term here, if the pattern continued, would be t
5
80. It can be
difcult to determine whether or not a pattern exists in some sequences. Can you nd the next
term in the following sequence?
t: {1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, . . .}
Here the next term is the sum of the previous two terms, hence the next term would be 5 + 8
which is equal to 13, and so on. This sequence is called the Fibonacci sequence and is named
after its discoverer, Leonardo Fibonacci, a thirteenth century mathematician.
Here is another sequence; can you nd the next term here?
t: {7, 11, 16, 22, 29, . . .}
In this sequence the difference between successive terms increases by 1 for each pair. The
rst difference is 4, the next difference is 5 and so on. The sixth term is thus 37 which is 8 more
than 29.
2 Functional denition
A functional denition is expressed in the form:
t
n
2n 7, n {1, 2, 3, 4, . . .}
Using this denition the nth term can be readily calculated. For this example t
1
2 1 7

5,
t
2
2 2 7

3, t
3
2 3 7

1 and so on. We can readily calculate the 100th term,


t
100
2 100 7 193, simply by substituting the value n 100 into the expression for t
n
.
Look at the following example:
d
n
4.9n
2
, n {1, 2, 3, . . .}
For this example, in which the sequence is given the name d, d
1
4.9 1
2
4.9,
d
2
4.9 2
2
19.6. Listing the sequence would yield d: {4.9, 19.6, 44.1, 78.4, . . .}.
The 10th term would be 4.9 10
2
490.
Here is another example:
c
n
cos (n) + 1, n {1, 2, 3, . . .}
Here the sequence would be c: {0, 2, 0, 2, . . .}.
3 Iterative denition
An iterative denition is expressed in the form:
t
n + 1
3t
n
2; t
1
6
This denition looks complicated, but is actually straightforward. You may have already come
across this idea on a spreadsheet. The word iteration means the calculation of the next term from
the previous term using the same procedure. The symbol t
n + 1
simply means the next term after
the term t
n
. In the above example the rst term, t
1
, is 6 (this is given in the denition) and so the
next term, t
2
, is 3 6 2 16, and the following term is 3 16 2 46. In each and all cases
the next term is found by multiplying the previous term by 3 and then subtracting 2. We could
write the sequence out as a table:
180
n t
n
Comment
t
1
6 Given in the denition
1 t
2
3t
1
2 Using t
1
to nd the next term, t
2
3 6 2
16
2 t
3
3t
2
2 Using t
2
to nd the next term, t
3
3 16 2
46
3 t
4
3t
3
2 Using t
3
to nd the next term, t
4
3 46 2
136
An example of this sequence using notation found in a spreadsheet would be:
A1 6 (the rst term is equal to 6)
A2 3 A1 2 (the next term is 3 times the previous term minus 2).
You could then apply the Fill Down option in the Edit menu of the spreadsheet from cell A2
downwards to generate as many terms in the sequence as required. This would result in the next
cell down being three times the previous cell, less 2. The iterative denition nds a natural use
in a spreadsheet environment and consequently much use is made of it. A drawback is that you
cannot nd the nth term directly as in the functional denition, but the advantage is that more
complicated systems can be successfully modelled using iterative descriptions and hence are
more interesting and relevant.
WORKED EXAMPLE 1
a Find the next three terms in the sequence, b: {14, 7,
7
2
, . . .}.
b Find the 4th, 8th and 12th terms in the following sequence: e
n
n
2
3n, n {1, 2, 3, . . .}.
c Find the 2nd, 3rd and 5th terms for the following sequence: k
n + 1
2k
n
+ 1, k
1

0.50.
THINK WRITE
a 1
In this example the sequence
is listed and a simple pattern is
evident. From inspection, the next
term is half the previous term and
so the sequence would be
14, 7,
7
2
,
7
4
,
7
8
,
7
16
.
a
The next three terms are
7
4
,
7
8
,
7
16
.
2
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
On the Main screen, complete the
entry lines as:
14
ans 0.5
Press E repeatedly to generate the
sequence.
181 Chapter 6 Sequences and series
b 1 This is an example of a functional
denition. The nth term of the
sequence is found simply by
substitution into the expression
e
n
n
2
3n.
b e
n
n
2
3n
2
Find the 4th term by substituting
n 4.
e
4
4
2
3 4
4
3
Find the 8th term by substituting
n 8.
e
8
8
2
3 8
40
4
Find the 12th term by substituting
n 12.
e
12
12
2
3 12
108
5
6
On the Main screen, tap:
Action
List Create
seq
Complete the entry line as:
seq(n
2
3n, n, 1, 12, 1)
Then press E.
Note: Scroll through the numbers in
the sequence to nd the 4th, 8th and
12th terms.
An alternative method to the one
above for generating a sequence is
shown.
On the Sequence screen, complete
the sequence as shown.
To create the table, tap #.
To nd the required terms, tap r.
182
c 1 This is an example of an iterative
denition. We can nd the 2nd, 3rd
and 5th terms for the sequence
k
n + 1
2k
n
+1, k
1

0.50 by
iteration.
c
k
n + 1
2k
n
+ 1,
k
1

0.50
2
Substitute k
1

0.50 into the


formula to nd k
2
.
k
2
2 0.50 + 1
0
3
Continue the process until the value
of k
5
is found.
k
3
2 0 + 1
1
k
4
2 1 + 1
3
k
5
2 3 + 1
7
4
Write the answer. Thus k
2
0, k
3
1 and k
5
7.
5
Logistic equation
The logistic equation is a model of population growth. It gives the rule for determining the
population in any year, based on the population in the previous year. Since we need the previous
term in order to be able to generate the next term of the sequence, then the logistic equation is an
example of an iterative denition. It is of the general form:
t
n + 1
at
n
(1 t
n
),
where 0 < t
0
< 1 and a is a constant.
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
Again, on the Sequence screen,
complete the sequence as shown,
tapping V to type the sequence.
To create the table, tap #.
To enlarge the table, tap r.
183 Chapter 6 Sequences and series
Depending on the value of a, sequences generated by use of the logistic equation could be
convergent, divergent, or oscillating. A string of numbers that converges to (settles at) a certain
xed value is called a convergent sequence. Sequence t
n
can converge to only one possible
number, x, called the limit of the sequence. This can be written as t
n
x. (The symbol is read
as tends to, or approaches.) A sequence whose terms grow further and further apart is called
divergent. That is, a sequence is divergent if t
n
, or t
n

as n . Finally, a sequence
whose terms tend to uctuate between two (or more) values is called oscillating. An oscillating
sequence is neither convergent nor divergent.
WORKED EXAMPLE 2
Given that a 2 and t
0
0.7, use the logistic equation to generate a sequence
of 6 terms, and state whether the sequence is convergent, divergent, or oscillating.
If the sequence is convergent, state its limit.
THINK WRITE
Method 1: Using the rule
1
Write the logistic equation, replacing a with
its given value (that is, 2).
t
n + 1
at
n
(1 t
n
)
2t
n
(1 t
n
)
2
To nd t
1
, substitute the value of t
0
(that is,
0.7) in place of t
n
and evaluate.
t
1
2t
0
(1 t
0
)
2 0.7 (1 0.7) 0.42
3
To nd the next term, t
2
, substitute the value
of t
1
(that is, 0.42) in place of t
n
and evaluate.
t
2
2t
1
(1 t
1
)
2 0.42 (1 0.42)
0.4872
4
Continue the iterative process four more
times, each time substituting the value of the
previous term into the logistic equation to
nd the next term.
t
3
2t
2
(1 t
2
)
2 0.4872 (1 0.4872)
0.499 672 3
t
4
2t
3
(1 t
3
)
2 0.499 672 3 (1 0.499 672 3)
0.499 999 8
t
5
2t
4
(1 t
4
)
2 0.499 999 8 (1 0.499 999 8) 0.5
t
6
2t
5
(1 t
5
)
2 0.5 (1 0.5) 0.5
5
The terms of the sequence are growing closer
and closer to each other, nally settling at 0.5.
The sequence is convergent; the limit of the sequence
is 0.5.
Method 2: Using technology
1
eBookplus eBookplus
Tutorial
Worked example 2
int-1051
On the Sequence screen, complete the
sequence as shown, tapping V to type the
sequence.
184
2
Note that instead of saying the limit of the sequence is 0.5 in the previous example, we could
simply write t
n
0.5.
A sequence is a string of numbers or expressions which may follow a recognisable 1.
pattern.
A sequence can be described in a number of ways. 2.
(a) As a list for example: t
n
: {1, 7, 2, 6, . . .}
(Note: t
3
2)
(b) As a function for example: t
n
2n n
2
, n {1, 2, 3, . . .}
(Note: t
5
2 5 5
2
15)
(c) As a recursive or iterative formula for example: t
n + 1
2t
n
3, t
1
6
(Note: t
2
2 6 3 9)
The 3. logistic equation is a model of population growth and is an example of an iterative
denition. It is of the general form:
t
n

+

1
= at
n
(1 t
n
),
where 0 < t
0
< 1 and a is a constant.
A sequence that converges to (settles at) a certain xed number, 4. x (the limit of the
sequence) is called convergent. This can be written as t
n
x. A sequence whose terms
grow further and further apart is called divergent. That is, a sequence is divergent if
t
n
, or t
n

as n . A sequence whose terms uctuate between two (or


more) values is called oscillating. An oscillating sequence is neither convergent nor
divergent.
REMEMBER
Describing sequences
1 WE 1a For each of the following sequences, write a rule for obtaining the next term in the
sequence and hence evaluate the next three terms.
a {1, 4, 7, . . .} b {1, 0,

1,

2, . . .}
c {1, 4, 16, 64, . . .} d {3,
3
2
,
3
4
, . . .}
e {2,

5, 8,

11, 14, . . .} f {2, 5, 9, 14, 20, . . .}


g {3, 4, 7, 11, 18, . . .} h {2a 5b, a 2b, b,

a + 4b, . . .}
i {1, 0,

1, 0, 1, . . .} j {1.0, 1.1, 1.11, . . .}


k {1024,

512, 256,

128, . . .}
EXERCISE
6A
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
To create the table, tap #.
To nd the required terms, tap r.
Note: The rst term is when n 2, thus the
terms are n 1.
185 Chapter 6 Sequences and series
2 WE 1b Find the first, fifth and tenth terms in the following sequences.
a t
n
2n 5, n {1, 2, 3, . . .} b t
n
4 3
n 2
, n {1, 2, 3, . . .}
c t
n
n
n

+1
, n {1, 2, 3, . . .} d t
n
17 3.7n, n {1, 2, 3, . . .}
e t
n
5
1
2

_
,

n
, n {1, 2, 3, . . .} f t
n
5
1
2
3

_
,

( ) n
, n {1, 2, 3, . . .}
g t
n
(

1)
n
+ n, n {1, 2, 3, . . .} h t
n
3
n
2

n
, n {1, 2, 3, . . .}
i t
n
n
2
n + 41, n {1, 2, 3, . . .} j t
n
a + (n 1)d, n {1, 2, 3, . . .}
k t
n
ar
n 1
, n {1, 2, 3, . . .}
3 WE 1c Using a CAS calculator, or other method, find the third, eighth and tenth terms in the
following sequences.
a u
n + 1
u
n
+ 2, u
1
3 b u
n + 1
u
n
2, u
1

1
2
c u
n + 1
3u
n
, u
1
0.85 d u
n + 1

2u
n
, u
1

3
e u
n + 1

3
4
u
n
, u
1

4
3
f u
n + 1
u
n
7, u
1
14
g u
n + 1

u
n
+ 2, u
1
3 h u
n + 1
u
n
+ (

1)
n
u
n
, u
1
3
i u
n
2u
n 1
, u
1

1
4
j u
n + 1
au
n
+ a, u
1
a
k u
n + 2
u
n + 1
+ u
n
, u
1
1, u
2
1 l u
n + 1

u
n
2
2, u
1
3
4 WE2 Given the following values of a and t
0
, use the logistic equation to generate a sequence
of six terms. State whether the sequence is convergent, divergent, or oscillating. If the sequence
is convergent, state its limit.
a a = 0.8, t
0
= 0.5 b a = 0.4, t
0
= 0.6 c a = 1.1, t
0
= 0.9
d a = 1.9, t
0
= 0.4 e a = 2.1, t
0
= 0.5 f a = 2.5, t
0
= 0.3
g a = 3, t
0
= 0.2 h a = 3.4, t
0
= 0.7 i a = 4.2, t
0
= 0.1
j a = 4.5, t
0
= 0.8
5 Study the pattern in each of the following sequences and where possible write the next two
terms in the sequence, describing the pattern that you use.
a 5, 6, 8, 11, . . . b 4, 9, 12, 13, 12, 9, . . . c 9, 8, 9, 0, . . .
d 6, 12, 12, 6, 1
1
2
, . . . e 5, 8, 13, 21, . . . f 1, 3, 7, 15, . . .
g 1, 3, 2, 4, 3, . . .
6 MC a Which of the following functional definitions could be used to describe a
sequence {3, 1,

1, . . .}?
A t
n
n 2, n {1, 2, 3, . . .} B t
n
2n 5, n {1, 2, 3, . . .}
C t
n
5n 2, n {1, 2, 3, . . .} D t
n
5 2n, n {1, 2, 3, . . .}
E t
n
2(5 n), n {1, 2, 3, . . .}
b Which of the following recursive denitions could be used to describe a sequence
{20,

10, 5, . . .}?
A t
n + 1
t
n
30, t
1
20 B t
n + 1

t
n
2
, t
1

20 C t
n + 1
t
n

t
n
2
, t
1
20
D t
n + 1
t
n
10, t
1
20 E t
n + 1

t
n
2
, t
1
20
c Which of the following sequences is generated by the denition t
n
n

6 12
2
2
,
n {1, 2, 3, . . .}?
A {

3, 6, 15, . . .} B {

3, 6,

12, . . .} C {

3, 6, 21, . . .}
D {

3, 6, 12, . . .} E {

3, 6, 18, . . .}
7 Write the iterative definition for each of the following sequences.
a {7, 5, 3, 1,

1, . . .} b {12, 6, 3, 1.5, . . .} c {12, 12.6, 13.2, . . .}


d {2, 11, 56, 281, . . .} e {4,

12, 36, . . .} f {2, 4, 16, 256, . . .}


186
8 In the township of Grizabella, the population of stray cats in any given year is given as p
n + 1
.
This can be calculated using the formula p
n + 1
1.3p
n
(1 p
n
), where p
n
is the number of cats
(in hundreds) in the preceding
year. If in 2005 there were 28 stray
cats in Grizabella township,
calculate:
a the expected number of stray
cats for 2006 and 2007
b the limiting number of stray
cats that Grizabella township
can sustain.
9 In the neighbouring township of
Macavity, the size of the population
of stray cats follows the logistic
equation
p
n + 1
0.3p
n
(1 p
n
),
where p
n + 1
and p
n
refer to the
population size (in hundreds) in
any given year and in the preceding
year respectively. It is known that
in 2005, there were 62 stray cats in
the township. By generating and
examining the sequence of numbers
using the above equation, decide
what will happen in the long run
to the population size of stray cats
in Macavity township. (That is,
will the population of cats keep
increasing, decreasing, or settle at a
particular value?)
Arithmetic sequences
At a racetrack a new prototype racing
car unfortunately develops an oil
leak. Each second, a drop of oil hits
the road. The driver of the car puts
her foot on the accelerator and the
car increases speed at a steady rate
as it hurtles down the straight. The
diagram below shows the pattern
of oil drops on the road with the
distances between the drops labelled.
10 metres
18 metres
26 metres
34 metres
42 metres
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History of mathematics
Leonardo
Fibonacci
6B
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
187 Chapter 6 Sequences and series
The sequence of distances travelled in metres each second is {10, 18, 26, 34, 42, . . .}. The
rst term in the sequence, t
1
, is 10 and as you can see, each subsequent term is 8 more than the
previous term. This type of sequence is given a special name an arithmetic sequence.
An arithmetic sequence is a sequence where there is a common difference between
any two successive terms.
We can list the sequence in a table as in table A. From this table we can see that it is possible
to write a functional denition for the sequence in terms of the rst term, 10, and the common
difference, 8, and thus:
t
n
10 + (n 1) 8
2 + 8n, n {1, 2, 3, . . .}
We can readily get a general formula for the nth term of an arithmetic sequence whose rst
term is a and whose common difference is d (see table B).
Table A Table B
n t
n
t
n
n t
n
1 10 + 0 8 10 1 a + 0 d
2 10 + 1 8 18 2 a + 1 d
3 10 + 2 8 26 3 a + 2 d
4 10 + 3 8 34 4 a + 3 d
n 10 + (n 1) 8
10 + 8n 8
2 + 8n
2 + 8n n a + (n 1) d
(a d) + dn
In general then:
The nth term of an arithmetic sequence is given by
t
n
a + (n 1) d (a d ) + nd, n {1, 2, 3, . . .}
where a is the rst term and d is the common difference.
If we consider three successive terms in an arithmetic sequence, namely x, y and z, then since
y x the common difference, d, and z y d, it follows that:
y x z y y
z x

+
2
The middle term of any three consecutive terms in an arithmetic sequence is called an
arithmetic mean and is the average of the outer two.
That is, y
z x

+
2
for any 3 consecutive terms, x, y, z of the arithmetic sequence.
WORKED EXAMPLE 3
Show that the following sequences are arithmetic.
a

7
4
,

11
8
,

1, . . . b x
2
4x, 3x
2
7x, 5x
2
10x, . . .
THINK WRITE
a 1
To show that a sequence is arithmetic you
need to show that the difference between any
two successive terms is a constant. Find the
difference between the rst and the second
terms.
a
t
2
t
1

11
8

_
,

7
4

+ 11 14
8

3
8
188
2 Find the difference between the second and the
third terms.
t
3
t
2

_
,

11
8

3
8
3 Compare the differences and draw your
conclusion.
t
2
t
1
t
3
t
2

3
8
The sequence is arithmetic.
b 1
Find the difference between the rst two terms. b
t
2
t
1
3x
2
7x (x
2
4x)
2x
2
3x
2
Find the difference between the second and the
third terms.
t
3
t
2
5x
2
10x (3x
2
7x)
2x
2
3x
3
Compare the differences and draw your
conclusion.
t
2
t
1
t
3
t
2
2x
2
3x
The sequence is arithmetic.
WORKED EXAMPLE 4
State which of the following are arithmetic sequences by fnding the difference between successive
terms. For those which are arithmetic, nd the next term in the sequence, t
4
, and consequently nd
the functional denition for the nth term for the sequence, t
n
.
a t: {4, 9, 15, . . .}
b t: {

2, 1, 4, . . .}
THINK WRITE
a 1
To check that a sequence is arithmetic, see if a
common difference exists.
a 9 4 5
15 9 6
2
There is no common difference, as 5 6. Since there is no common difference the
sequence is not arithmetic.
b 1
To check that a sequence is arithmetic, see if a
common difference exists.
b 1

2 3
4 1 3
2
The common difference is 3. The sequence is arithmetic with the
common difference d 3.
3
The next term in the sequence, t
4
, can be found
by adding 3 to the previous term, t
3
.
t
4
t
3
+ 3
4 + 3
7
4
To nd the functional denition, write the
formula for the nth term of the arithmetic
sequence.
t
n
a + (n 1) d
(a d) + nd
5
Identify the values of a and d. a 2 and d 3
6
Substitute a

2 and d 3 into the formula


and simplify.
t
n
(

2 3) + n 3
t
n
3n 5
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
189 Chapter 6 Sequences and series
WORKED EXAMPLE 5
Find the missing terms in this arithmetic sequence: {41, a, 55, b, . . .}.
THINK WRITE
1
The rst three successive terms are 41, a, 55. Write the
rule for the middle term of the three successive terms of
an arithmetic sequence.
For x, y, z: y
x z

+
2
2
Identify the variables. x 41; y a; z 55
3
Substitute the values of x, y and z into the formula in
step 1 and evaluate.
a
+ 41 55
2
48
4
Find the common difference. (The second term is now
known.)
d t
2
t
1
48 41
7
5
Find the value of b by adding the common difference to
the preceding term.
b 55 + 7
62
6
State your answer. So a 48, b 62
WORKED EXAMPLE 6
Find the 16th and nth terms in an arithmetic sequence with the 4th term 15 and 8th term 37.
THINK WRITE
Method 1: Using the rule
1
Write the formula for the nth term of the
arithmetic sequence.
t
n
a + (n 1) d
2
Substitute n 4 and t
4
15 into the formula
and label it equation [1].
t
4
: a + 3d 15 [1]
3
Substitute n 8 and t
8
37 into the formula
and label it equation [2].
t
8
: a + 7d 37 [2]
4
5
Solve the simultaneous equations: subtract
equation [1] from equation [2] to eliminate a.
Divide both sides by 4.
[2] [1]:
a + 7d a 3d 37 15
4d 22
d
22
4
5
1
2
6 Substitute d 5
1
2
into equation [1], and solve
for a.
Substituting d 5
1
2
into [1]:
a + 3 5
1
2
15
a 1
1
2
eBookplus eBookplus
Tutorial
int-1052
Worked example 5
190
7 To nd the nth term of the arithmetic
sequence, substitute the values of a and d into
the general formula and simplify.
t
n

1
1
2
+ (n 1) 5
1
2

3
2
+ (n 1)
11
2

3 11 11
2
n
8
To nd the 16th term, substitute n 16 into
the formula, established in the previous step
and evaluate.
t
n
n

11 14
2
, n {1, 2, 3, . . .}
If n 16, t
16
11 16 14
2


81
Method 2: Using technology
1
Write the two equations that represent t
4
and t
8
. t
4
: a + 3d 15 [1]
t
8
: a + 7d 37 [2]
2

3
Write the answer. If a

3
2
and d
11
2
,
t
n
n

11 14
2
t
16
81
An arithmetic sequence is one where successive terms have a common difference. This 1.
common difference is given the symbol d. Thus t
n + 1
t
n
d for all values of n. The
rst term in the sequence is given the symbol a.
If 2. x, y, z are successive terms in an arithmetic sequence then y is called an arithmetic
mean and is given by y
x z

+
2
.
That is, the middle term is the average of the outer two terms.
An arithmetic sequence can be written as 3. a, a + d, a + 2d, . . . and so the nth term t
n
is:
t
n
a + (n 1)d using the function notation, or
t
n + 1
t
n
+ d, t
1
a using the iterative notation.
REMEMBER
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
To solve equations [1] and [2] simultaneously,
on the Main screen complete the entry line as
shown.
Then press E.

191 Chapter 6 Sequences and series
Arithmetic sequences
1 WE3 Show that the following sequences are arithmetic.
a {

12,

7,

2, . . .} b {

0.12, 3.48, 7.08, . . .}


c {

3
8
,
3
8
,
9
8
, . . .} d {2.3,

1.7,

5.7, . . .}
e {
5
9
,

1
9
,

7
9
, . . .} f {18,

18,

54, . . .}
g {5
2
3
, 7
4
15
, 8
13
15
, . . .} h {x + 9, 2x + 7, 3x + 5, . . .}
i {3x
2
4x, 5x
2
2x, 7x
2
, . . .} j {3(2 x), 2(2 x), 2 x, . . .}
2 WE4 State which of the following are arithmetic sequences by finding the difference between
successive terms. For those which are arithmetic, find the next term in the sequence, t
4
, and
consequently find the functional definition for the nth term for the sequence, t
n
.
a t
n
: {3, 5, 7, . . .} b t
n
: {4, 7, 11, . . .}
c t
n
: {3, 6, 12, . . .} d t
n
: {

3, 0, 3, . . .}
e t
n
: {

2,

6,

10, . . .} f t
n
: {
2
7
,
11
14
,
9
7
, . . .}
g t
n
: {
3
4
,
3
2
,
3
1
, . . .} h t
n
: {
3
4
,
3
2
,
9
4
, . . .}
i t
n
: {
1
4
,

3
2
,

13
4
, . . .}
j t
n
: {2 + 3, 4 + 1, 6 1, . . .}
3 Find the term given in brackets for each of the following arithmetic sequences.
a {4, 9, 14, . . .}, (t
21
) b {

2, 10, 22, . . .}, (t


58
)
c {

27,

12, 3, . . .} (t
100
) d {2,

11,

24, . . .} (t
2025
)
4 Find the functional definition for the nth term of the following arithmetic sequences:
a where the rst term is 5 and the common difference is

3
b where the rst term is 2.5 and the common difference is
1
2
c where the rst term is

3 and the common difference is 3


d where the rst term is 2x and the common difference is 5x.
5 Find the nth term in the arithmetic sequence where the first term is 6 and the third term is 10.
6 Find the nth term in the arithmetic sequence where the first term is 3 and the third term is 13.
7 WE5 Find the missing terms in this arithmetic sequence: {16, m, 27, n}
8 Find the missing terms in the arithmetic sequence below.
x 3y, _______________,

3x + 5y, _______________, . . .
9 WE6 Find the 4th term and nth term in the arithmetic sequence whose first term is 6 and
whose 7th term is

10.
10 If t
10
100 and t
15
175, find the first term, the common difference and
hence the nth term for the arithmetic sequence.
11 If t
10

1
2
and t
13

3
4
, find the first term, the common difference and
hence the nth term for the arithmetic sequence.
12 Insert four evenly spaced numbers between 8 and 36.
13 For the arithmetic sequence {22, m, n, 37, . . .}, find the values for m and n.
14 For the following arithmetic sequences, find the iterative definition and use it in a CAS
calculator to generate the first 50 numbers in the sequence.
a t
n
: {3, 7, 11, . . .} b t
n
: {

3, 0, 3, . . .}
c t
n
: {

2,

6,

10 . . .} d t
n
: {
2
7
,
11
14
,
9
7
, . . .}
e t
n
: {
3
4
,
3
2
,
9
4
, . . .} f t
n
: {
1
4
,

3
2
,

13
4
, . . .}
g t
n
: {2 + 3, 4 + 1, 6 1, . . .}
EXERCISE
6B
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Digital doc
SkillSHEET 6.1
Using elimination to
solve simultaneous
equations
192
15 The first three terms in an arithmetic sequence are 37, 32, 27 and the kth term is

3. Find the
value for k.
16 Find the value of x such that the following forms an arithmetic progression:
. . . x, 3x + 4, 10x 7 . . .
17 MC For the following sequence t: {4, 11, 18, . . .}, the difference between the 4th and the
10th term is:
A 35 B 42 C 49 D 56 E 63
18 MC The tenth term in an arithmetic sequence is 12 and the third term is

2. The first term in


the sequence is:
A

7 B

3 C

5 D

8 E

6
19 The ratio between the first term and the second term in an arithmetic sequence is
3
4
. The ratio
between the second term and the third term is
4
5
.
a Calculate the ratio of the third term to the fourth term.
b Find the ratio of the nth and the nth + 1 term in the sequence.
Arithmetic series
Often we have a sequence of numbers and we wish to know their sum. For an example, we return
to the oil drops on the racetrack from the start of the previous section on arithmetic sequences.
The distance covered by the car each second illustrated the concept of an arithmetic sequence.
The total distance covered by the car is the sum of the individual distances covered
each second. So after one second the car has travelled 10 m, after 2 seconds the car has
travelled 10 + 18 m 28 m, after three seconds the car has travelled a total distance of
10 + 18 + 26 m 54 m, and so on.
10 metres
18 metres 26 metres 34 metres 42 metres
130 m
88 m
54 m
28 m
A series, S
n
, is the sum of a sequence of n terms t
1
+ t
2
+ t
3
+ . . . + t
n
.
Thus:
S
1
t
1
S
2
t
1
+ t
2
S
3
t
1
+ t
2
+ t
3
S
n
t
1
+ t
2
+ t
3
+ . . . + t
n 2
+ t
n 1
+ t
n
.
For an arithmetic sequence, the sum of the rst n terms, S
n
, can be written in two ways:
1. The rst term in the arithmetic sequence is a, the common difference is d, and the last term
that is, the nth term in the sequence is l.
S
n
a + (a + d ) + (a + 2d ) + . . . (a + (n 3)d ) + (a + (n 2)d + a + (n 1)d
a + (a + d ) + (a + 2d ) + . . . (l 3d ) + (l 2d ) + (l d ) + l [1]
2. We can write the sum S
n
in reverse order starting with the nth term and summing back to the
rst term a:
S
n
l + (l d ) + (l 2d ) + . . . + (a + 2d ) + (a + d ) + a. [2]
6C
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
193 Chapter 6 Sequences and series
If we add equation [1] and equation [2] together and recognise that there are n terms each of
which equal (a + l ) we get:
2S
n
(a + l ) + (a + l ) + . . . n times
n(a + l )
and so: S
n
a l
n
+
2
( )
or since l is the nth term, l a + (n 1)d, so S
n
a a n d
n
+ +
2
1 [ ( ) ]
S
n
a n d
n
+
2
2 1 [ ( ) ]
The sum of the rst n terms in the arithmetic sequence is given by
S
n
a l
n
+
2
( )
where a is the rst term and l is the last term; or alternatively, since l a + (n 1)d, by
S
n
a n d
n
+(
2
2 1 ( ) )
where a is the rst term and d is the common difference.
If we know the rst term, a, the common difference, d, and the number of terms, n, that
we wish to add together we can calculate the sum directly without having to add up all the
individual terms.
It is worthwhile also to note that S
n + 1
S
n
+ t
n + 1
. This tells us that the next term in the series S
n + 1

is the present sum S
n
plus the next term in the sequence t
n + 1
. This result is useful in spreadsheets
where one column gives the sequence and an adjacent column is used to give the series.
WORKED EXAMPLE 7
Find the sum of the rst 20 terms in the sequence t
n
: {12, 25, 38, . . .}.
THINK WRITE
Method 1: Using the rule
1
Write the formula for the sum of the rst n
terms in the arithmetic sequence.
S
n
a n d
n
+(
2
2 1 ( ) )
2
Identify the variables. a 12, d 25 12 13, n 20
3
Substitute values of a, d and n into the
formula and evaluate.
S
20
20
2
2 12 19 13 ( ) +
S
20
2710
Method 2: Using technology
1
eBookplus eBookplus
Tutorial
int-1053
Worked example 7
On the Sequence screen, complete the
sequence as shown, tapping V to type the
sequence.
To create the table, tap #.
194
2
3
Write the answer. S
20
2710
The sum of the rst 1. n terms of an arithmetic sequence is S
n
a n d
n

2
2 1 ( ( ) ) + and
so to nd S
n
the values for a and d need to be found for the sequence whose series is
required.
In general, 2. t
n + 1
S
n + 1
S
n
.
REMEMBER
Arithmetic series
1 WE 7 Consider the following sequences and find the sums of the terms as indicated.
a t
n
: {1, 2, 3, . . .}. Find S
10
, S
50
, S
100
.
b t
n
: {1, 3, 5, . . .}. Find S
5
, S
10
, S
20
.
c t
n
3n + 7, n {1, 2, 3, . . .}. Find S
5
, S
10
, S
n
.
d t
n

4n + 15, n {1, 2, 3, . . .}. Find S


5
, S
10
, S
n
.
e t
n + 1
t
n
+ 5.5, t
1
2.5. Find S
5
, S
10
, S
20
.
f t
n + 1
t
n
+ , t
1
2. Find S
5
, S
10
, S
20
.
g The rst term is 4 and the common difference is 3. Find S
4
, S
16
, S
64
.
h The rst term is 14 and the common difference is

3
1
2
. Find S
4
, S
9
, S
14
.
i The rst term is 50 and the 10th term is

40. Find S
10
.
j The 5th term is 10 and the 8th term is 16. Find S
5
, S
50
, S
500
.
2 a Find the sum of the first 50 positive integers.
b Find the sum of the rst 100 positive integers.
3 a Find the sum of all the half-integers between 0 and 100.
Note: The sequence of half-integers is {
1
2
,
1
1
2
,
2
1
2
,
3
1
2
, . . .}
b Compare your answer with that for question 2b.
4 Find the sum of the first 12 terms of an arithmetic sequence in which the second term is 8 and
thirteenth term is 41.
5 A sequence of numbers is defined by t
n
: {15, 9, 3,

3, . . .}.
a Find the sum of the rst 13, 16 and 19 terms in the sequence.
b Find the sum of all the terms between and including t
10
and t
15
.
EXERCISE
6C
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
To nd the required terms, tap r.
195 Chapter 6 Sequences and series
6 A sequence of numbers is defined by t
n
2n 7, n {1, 2, 3, . . .}. Find
a the sum of the rst 20 terms
b the sum of all the terms between and including t
21
and t
40
c the average of the rst 40 terms.
Hint: You need to nd the sum rst.
7 Find the equation that gives the sum of the first n positive integers.
8 a Show that the sum of the first n odd integers is equal to the perfect square n
2
.
b Show that the sum of the rst n even integers is equal to n
2
+ n.
9 A sequence is 5, 7, 9, 11, . . . How many consecutive terms need to be added to obtain 357?
10 Consider the sum of the first n integers. For what value of n will the sum first exceed 1000?
11 a Find the sum of all integers divisible by 3 which lie between 200 and 400.
b Find the sum of all integers divisible by 6 which lie between 200 and 400.
12 The first term in an arithmetic sequence is 5 and the sum of the first 20 terms is 1240. Find the
common difference, d.
13 The sum of the first four terms of an arithmetic sequence is 58, and the sum of the next four
terms is twice that number. Find the sum of the following four terms.
14 The sum of a series is given by S
n
4n
2
+ 3n. Use the result that t
n + 1
S
n + 1
S
n
to prove
that the sequence of numbers, t
n
, whose series is S
n
4n
2
+ 3n is arithmetic. Find both the
functional and iterative equations for the sequence, t
n
.
Geometric sequences
A farmer is breeding worms
which he hopes to sell to
local shire councils for use in
the decomposition of waste
at rubbish dumps. Worms
reproduce readily and the
farmer expects a 10% increase
per week in the mass of worms
that he is farming. A 10%
increase per week would mean
that the mass of worms would
increase by a constant factor of
(1 +
10
100
) or 1.1.
He starts off with 10 kg of
worms. By the beginning of
the second week he will expect
10 1.1 11 kg of worms,
by the start of the third week
he would expect
11 1.1 10 (1.1)
2
12.1 kg
of worms, and so on. This is
an example of a geometric
sequence.
A geometric sequence is the sequence where each term is obtained by multiplying the
preceding term by a certain constant factor.
The rst term is 10 and the common factor here is 1.10 which represents a 10% increase on
the previous term. We can put the results of the above example into a table.
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 6.1
6D
196
From this table we can see that
t
2
1.1 t
1
, t
3
1.1 t
2
and so on. In general:
t
n + 1
1.1 t
n
The common factor or common ratio
whose value is 1.1 for this example can be
found by dividing any two successive
terms:
t
t
n
n
+1
.
A geometric sequence, t, can be written in terms of the rst term, a, and the common ratio, r.
Thus:
t: {a, ar, ar
2
, ar
3
, . . . , ar
n 1
, . . .}
The rst term t
1
a, the second term t
2
ar, the third term t
3
ar
2
and consequently the nth
term, t
n
is ar
n 1
.
For a geometric sequence:
t
n
= ar
n 1
where a is the rst term and r the common ratio, given by
r
t
t
n
n

++1
If we consider three consecutive terms in a geometric sequence, x, y and z, then
y
x
r
z
y

where r is the common factor.
Thus the middle term, y, called the geometric mean, can be calculated in terms of the outer
two terms, x and z.
For a geometric sequence . . . , x, y, z, . . . :
y
2
xz
WORKED EXAMPLE 8
State whether the sequence is geometric by fnding the ratio of successive terms: t
n
: {2, 6, 18, . . .}. If
it is geometric, nd the next term in the sequence, t
4
, and the nth term for the sequence, t
n
.
THINK WRITE
1 Find the ratio
t
t
2
1
.
t
t
2
1
6
2

3
2 Find the ratio
t
t
3
2
.
t
t
3
2
18
6

3
3
Compare the ratios and make your conclusion. Since
t
t
t
t
2
1
3
2
3 , the sequence is
geometric with the common ratio r 3.
4
Since the sequence is geometric, to nd the fourth term,
multiply the preceding (third) term by the common
ratio.
t
4
t
3
r
18 3
54
5
Write the general formula for the nth term of the
geometric sequence.
t
n
ar
n 1
n t
n
t
n
1 10 (1.1)
0
10
2 10 (1.1)
1
11
3 10 (1.1)
2
12.1
4 10 (1.1)
3
13.31
n 10 (1.1)
n 1
10 (1.1)
n 1
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
197 Chapter 6 Sequences and series
6 Identify the values of a and r. a 2; r 3
7
Substitute the values of a and r into the general
formula.
t
n
2 3
n 1
WORKED EXAMPLE 9
Find the nth term and the 10th term in the geometric sequence, where the rst term is 3 and the
third term is 12.
THINK WRITE
1
Write the general formula for the nth term in the
geometric sequence.
t
n
ar
n 1
2
State the value of a (the rst term in the sequence) and
the value of the third term.
a 3; t
3
12
3
Substitute all known values into the general formula. 12 3 r
3
1
3 r
2
4
Solve for r (note that there are two possible solutions). r
2

12
3
4
r

2
5
Substitute the values of a and r into the general
equation. Since there are two possible values for r, you
must show both expressions for the nth term of the
sequence.
So t
n
3 2
n 1
, or t
n
3 (

2)
n 1
6
Find the 10th term by substituting n 10 into each of
the two expressions for the nth term.
When n 10, t
10
3 2
10 1
(using r 2)
3 2
9
1536
or t
10
3 (

2)
10 1
(using r

2)
3 (

2)
9

1536
WORKED EXAMPLE 10
The fth term in a geometric sequence is 14 and the seventh term is 0.56.
Find the common ratio, r, the rst term, a, and the nth term for the sequence.
THINK WRITE
1
Write the general rule for the nth term of the
geometric sequence.
t
n
ar
n 1
2
Use the information about the 5th term to
form an equation. Label it [1].
When n 5, t
n
14
14 a r
5 1
14 a r
4
[1]
3
Similarly, use information about the 7th term
to form an equation. Label it [2].
When n 7, t
n
0.56
0.56 a r
7 1
0.56 a r
6
[2]
eBookplus eBookplus
Tutorial
int-1054
Worked example 10
198
4 Solve equations simultaneously: Divide
equation [2] by equation [1] to eliminate a.
[ ]
[ ]
2
1
gives
ar
ar
6
4
0 56
14

.
5
Solve for r. r
2
0.04
r

0 04 .

0.2
6
Since there are two solutions, we have to
perform two sets of computations. Consider
the positive value of r rst. Substitute the
value of r into either of the two equations, say
equation [1], and solve for a.
If r 0.2
Substitute r into [1]:
a (0.2)
4
14
0.0016a 14
a 14 0.0016
8750
7
Substitute the values of r and a into the
general equation to nd the expression for the
nth term.
The nth term is:
t
n
8750 (0.2)
n 1
8
Now consider the negative value of r. If r

0.2
9
Substitute the value of r into either of the two
equations, say equation [1], and solve for a.
(Note that the value of a is the same for both
values of r.)
Substitute r into [1]
a (

0.2)
4
14
0.0016a 14
a 14 0.0016
8750
10 Substitute the values of r and a into the
general formula to nd the second expression
for the nth term of the sequence.
The nth term is:
t
n
8750 (

0.2)
n 1
11 Write the two equations that represent
t
5
and t
7
.
t
5
: 14 = a r
4
[1]
t
7
: 0.56 = a r
6
[2]
12
13 Write the answer. When r

0.2 and a 8750,


t
n
= 8750 (

0.2)
n 1
When r 0.2 and a 8750,
t
n
= 8750 (0.2)
n 1
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
To solve equations [1] and [2] simultaneously,
on the Main screen complete the entry line as
shown.
Then press E.
199 Chapter 6 Sequences and series
A geometric sequence is one where each successive term is obtained by multiplying 1.
the preceding term by the constant number. This number is called the common ratio
and is given the symbol r. Thus
t
t
r
n
n
+

1
for all values of n.
The rst term in the sequence is given the symbol a.
If 2. x, y, z are successive terms in the geometric sequence then y is called a geometric
mean and is given by y
2
xz.
A geometric sequence can be written as 3. a, ar, ar
2
, . . . and so the nth term t
n
is:
t
n
ar
n 1
using the function notation, or
t
n + 1
rt
n
, t
1
a using the iterative notation.
REMEMBER
Geometric sequences
1 WE8 State which of the following are geometric sequences by finding
the ratio of successive terms. For those which are geometric, find the
next term in the sequence, t
4
and the nth term for the sequence, t
n
.
a t
n
: {3, 6, 9, . . .} b t
n
: {4, 12, 36, . . .}
c t
n
: {3, 6, 12, . . .} d t
n
: {4, 6, 9, . . .} e t
n
: {

3, 1,

1
3
, . . .}
f t
n
: {2,

6, 18, . . .} g t
n
: {
2
7
,
6
14
,
9
14
, . . .} h t
n
: {
3
4
,
3
2
,
3
1
, . . .}
i t
n
: {
3
4
,
3
2
,
9
4
, . . .} j t
n
: {
1
4
,

3
2
, 9, . . .} k t
n
: {2, 4
2
, 8
3
, . . .}
2 For each of the following:
i show that the sequence is geometric
ii find the nth term and consequently the 6th and the 10th terms.
a t: {5, 10, 20, . . .} b t: {2, 5, 12.5, . . .}
c t: {1,

3, 9, . . .} d t: {2,

4, 8, . . .}
e t: {2.3, 3.45, 5.175, . . .} f t: {
1
2
, 1, 2, . . .}
g t: {
1
3
,
1
12
,
1
48
, . . .} h t: {
3
5
,

1
5
,
1
15
, . . .}
i t: {x, 3x
4
, 9x
7
, . . .} j t
x x x
: { , , , . . .}
1 2 4
2 3
3 WE9 Find the nth term and the 10th term in the geometric sequence where:
a the rst term is 2 and the third term is 18 (Why are there two possible answers?)
b the rst term is 1 and the third term is 4 (Why are there two possible answers?)
c the rst term is 5 and the fourth term is 40
d the rst term is

1 and the second term is 2


e the rst term is 9 and the third term is
1
81
. (Why are there two possible answers?)
4 Find the 4th term in the geometric sequence where the first term is 6 and the 7th term is
3
32
.
5 Find the nth term in the geometric sequence where the first term is 3 and the fourth term
is 6 2.
6 For the geometric sequence 3, m, n, 192, . . . , find the values for m and n.
7 Consider the geometric sequence t: {16, m, 81, n, . . .}. Find the values of m and n, if it is
known that both are positive numbers.
EXERCISE
6D
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Fibonacci sequences
200
8 For the geometric sequence a, 15, b, 0.0375, . . . , find the values of a and b, given that they are
positive numbers.
9 WE 10 The third term in a geometric sequence is 100 and the fifth term is 400. Find the
common ratio, r, the first term, a, and the nth term for the sequence.
10 If t
2

1
2
and t
5

27
16
, find the first term, a, the common factor, r, and hence the nth term for the
geometric sequence.
11 Find the value of x such that the following sequence forms a geometric progression:
x 1, 3x + 4, 6x + 8.
12 Insert three terms in between 8, _, _, _,
1
32
such that the sequence of numbers is geometric.
13 The difference between the first term and the second term in a geometric sequence is 6. The
difference between the second term and the third term is 3.
a Calculate the difference between the third term and the fourth term.
b Find the nth term in the sequence.
14 The first two terms in a geometric sequence are 120, 24, and the kth term is 0.0384. Find the
value for k.
Geometric series
When we add up or sum the terms in a sequence we get the series for that sequence. If we look
at the geometric sequence {2, 6, 18, 54, . . .} where the rst term t
1
a 2 and the common
ratio is 3 we can quickly calculate the rst few terms in the series of this sequence.
S
1
t
1
2
S
2
t
1
+ t
2
2 + 6 8
S
3
t
1
+ t
2
+ t
3
2 + 6 + 18 26
S
4
t
1
+ t
2
+ t
3
+ t
4
2 + 6 + 18 + 54 80
In general the sum of the rst n terms is:
S
n
t
1
+ t
2
+ t
3
+ . . . + t
n 2
+ t
n 1
+ t
n
.
For a geometric sequence the rst term is a, the second term is ar, the third term is ar
2
and so
on up to the nth term which is ar
n 1
. Thus:
S
n
a + ar + ar
2
+ . . . + ar
n 3
+ ar
n 2
+ ar
n 1
[1]
If we multiply equation [1] by r we get:
rS
n
ar + ar
2
+ ar
3
+ . . . ar
n 2
+ ar
n 1
+ ar
n
[2]
Note that on the right-hand side of equations [1] and [2] all but two terms are common,
namely the rst term in equation [1], a, and the last term in equation [2], ar
n
. If we take the
difference between equation [2] and equation [1] we get:
rS
n
S
n
ar
n
a [2] [1]
(r 1)S
n
a(r
n
1)
S
a r
r
r
n
n

( )
;
1
1
1 (r cannot equal 1)
We now have an equation which allows us to calculate the sum of the rst n terms of a
geometric sequence.
The sum of the rst n terms of a geometric sequence is given by:
S
a r
r
r
n
n

( )
;
1
1
1
where a is the rst term of the sequence and r is the common ratio.
6E
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
201 Chapter 6 Sequences and series
WORKED EXAMPLE 11
Find the sum of the rst 5 terms (S
5
) of these geometric sequences.
a t
n
: {1, 4, 16, . . .} b t
n
2 (2)
n 1
, n {1, 2, 3, . . .} c t
n + 1

1
4
t
n
, t
1

1
2
THINK
WRITE
Method 1: Using the rule
a 1
Write the general formula for the
sum of the rst n terms of the
geometric sequence.
a
S
a r
r
n
n

( ) 1
1
2
Write the sequence. t
n
: {1, 4, 16, . . .}
3
Identify the variables: a is the
rst term; r can be established by
nding the ratio; n is known from
the question.
a 1; r
4
1
4; n 5
4
Substitute the values of a, r and n
into the formula and evaluate.
S
5
5
1 4 1
4 1
1024 1
3
341

( )
Method 2: Using technology
a 1
2
On the Spreadsheet screen, type the
initial value of 1 in cell A1.
Complete the entry line in cell A2
as:
4 A1
Then press E.
To nd the terms in the sequence
highlight A2 to A5 and tap:
Edit
Fill Range
202
3
4
5
6
Write the answer. If t
n
: {1, 4, 16, . . .} then, S
5
341.
b 1
Write the sequence. b
t
n
2(2)
n 1
, n {1, 2, 3, . . .}
2
Compare the given rule with the
general formula for the nth term of
the geometric sequence t
n
ar
n 1
and
identify values of a and r; the value of
n is known from the question.
a 2; r 2; n 5
3 Substitute values of a, r and n into
the general formula for the sum and
evaluate.
S
5
5
2 2 1
2 1
2 32 1
1
62

( )
( )
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
Tap OK.
To sum the sequence, in cell B1,
tap:
Action
List-Calculation
sum
Highlight cells A1 to A5 and then
press E.
The answer will appear in cell B1.
203 Chapter 6 Sequences and series
c 1 Write the sequence. c t
n + 1

1
4
t
n
, t
1
=

1
2
2
This is an iterative formula, so the
coefcient of t
n
is our r; a t
1
; n is
known from the question.
r
1
4
; a

1
2
; n 5
3
Substitute values of a, r and n into
the general formula for the sum and
evaluate.
S
5
1
2
1
4
1
4
1
2
1
1024
5
1
1
1

_
,

1
]
1
1

_
,

3
4
341
512
The innite sum of a geometric sequence where r < 1
When the constant ratio, r, is less than 1 or greater than

1, that is, {r:

1 < r < 1}, each


successive term in the sequence gets closer to zero. This can readily be shown with the
following two examples.
g: {2,

1,
1
2
,

1
4
, . . .} where a 2 and r

1
2
h: {40,
1
2
,
1
160
, . . .} where a 40 and r
1
80
In both the examples, successive terms approach zero as n increases. In the second case
the approach is more rapid than in the rst and the rst sequence alternates positive and
negative. A simple investigation with a spreadsheet will quickly reveal that for geometric
sequences with the size or magnitude of r < 1 the series eventually settles down to a near
constant value. We say that the series converges to a value S

which is the sum to innity of


all terms in the geometric sequence. We can nd the value S

by recognising that as n
the term r
n
0, provided r is between

1 and 1. We write this technically as

1 < r < 1 or
r < 1. The symbol r means the magnitude or size of r. Using our equation for the sum of
the rst n terms:
S
a r
r
r
n
n

( )
;
1
1
1
Taking

1 as a common factor from the numerator and denominator:


S
a r
r
n
n

( ) 1
1
As n , r
n
0 and hence 1 r
n
1. Thus the top line or numerator will equal a when
n :
S
a
r
r

<
1
1 ;
We now have an equation which allows us to calculate the sum to innity, S

of a geometric
sequence.
The sum to innity S

of the geometric sequence is given by:


S
a
r
r

<
1
1 ;
where a is the rst term of the sequence and r is the common ratio whose magnitude is
less than one.
204
WORKED EXAMPLE 12
a Find the sum to innity for the sequence t
n
: {10, 1, 0.1, . . .}.
b Find the fourth term in the geometric sequence whose rst term is 6
and whose sum to innity is 10.
THINK WRITE
a 1
Write the formula for the nth term of the
geometric sequence.
a
t
n
ar
n 1
2
From the question we know that the rst term,
a, is 10 and r 0.1.
a 10, r 0.1
3 Write the formula for the sum to innity. S
a
r
r

<
1
1 ;
4
Substitute a 10 and r 0.10 into the formula
and evaluate.
S

10
1 0.1
S


10
0 9 .

100
9
11
1
9
b 1 Write the formula for the sum to innity. b S
a
r
r

<
1
1 ;
2
From the question it is known that the innite
sum is equal to 10 and that the rst term a is 6.
Write down this information.
a 6; S

10
3 Substitute known values into the formula. 10
6
1

r
4
Solve for r. 10(1 r) 6
10 10r 6
10r 4
r 0.4
5
Write the general formula for the nth term of
the geometric sequence.
t
n
ar
n 1
6
To nd the 4th term substitute a 6, n 4 and
r 0.4 into the formula and evaluate.
t
4
6 (0.4)
3
0.384
The sum of the rst 1. n terms in a geometric sequence is:
S
a r
r
n
n

( ) 1
1
with r 1
or S
a r
r
n
n

( ) 1
1
with r 1
When the magnitude of 2. r is less than one, that is,

1 < r < 1, the sum of a geometric


sequence to innity, S

is given by:
S
a
r

1
REMEMBER
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int-1055
Worked example 12
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
205 Chapter 6 Sequences and series
Geometric series
1 WE 11 Consider the following sequences and find the terms indicated.
a t
n
: {1, 2, 4, . . .}. Find S
5
, S
10
, S
20
.
b t
n
: {1, 3, 9, . . .}. Find S
5
, S
10
, S
20
.
c t
n
3(

2)
n 1
, n {1, 2, 3, . . .}. Find S
5
, S
10
, S
20
.
d t
n

4(1.2)
n 1
, n {1, 2, 3, . . .}. Find S
1
, S
10
, S
20
.
e t
n + 1
2t
n
, t
1

3
2
. Find S
1
, S
5
, S
10
.
f t
n + 1

1
2
t
n
, t
1

2
3
. Find S
1
, S
5
, S
10
.
g The rst term is 3000 and the common ratio is 1.05. Find S
4
, S
16
, S
64
.
h The rst term is 1400 and the common ratio is

1.1. Find S
4
, S
9
, S
14
.
i The rst term is 20; every other term is obtained by multiplying the preceding term by 5.
Find S
5
, S
10
.
j The rst term is

2; every other term is obtained by multiplying the preceding term by

1
2
.
Find S
5
, S
10
.
2 Consider the following geometric sequences and find the terms indicated.
a The rst term is 440 and the 12th term is 880. Find S
6
.
b The 5th term is 1 and the 8th term is 8. Find S
1
, S
10
, S
20
.
3 Find the sum of the first 12 terms of a geometric sequence in which the
second term is
8
3
and the fifth term is 9.
4 What minimum number of terms of the series 2 + 3 +
4
1
2
+ . . . must be taken to give a sum in
excess of 100?
5 The sum of the first four terms of a geometric sequence is 312, and the sum of the next four
terms is 625 times that number. Find the sum of the following four terms.
6 Find the sum of all powers of 2 between 500 and 50 000.
7 Find the sum of all powers of 4 between 500 and 50 000.
8 WE 12a Find the sum to infinity for the following geometric sequences.
a t
n
: {1,
1
2
,
1
4
, . . .} b t
n
: {1,

1
2
,
1
4
,

1
8
, . . .}
c t
n
: {1,
1
3
,
1
9
, . . .} d t
n
: {1,
2
3
,
4
9
, . . .}
e t
n
: {1,

2
3
,
4
9
,

8
9
, . . .}
9 For the infinite geometric sequence {
1
2
,
1
4
,
1
8
, . . .}, find the sum to infinity. Consequently, find
what proportion each of the rst three terms contributes to this sum as a percentage.
10 For the infinite geometric sequence {1,
1
4
,
1
16
, . . .}, find the sum to infinity. Consequently, find
what proportion each of the rst three terms contributes to this sum as a percentage.
11 For the infinite geometric sequence {1,
3
4
,
9
16
, . . .}, find the sum to infinity. Consequently, find
what proportion each of the rst three terms contributes to this sum as a percentage.
12 A sequence of numbers is defined by t
n
3
1
2
1

_
,

n
, n {1, 2, 3, . . .}.
a Find the sum of the rst 20 terms.
b Find the sum of all the terms between and including t
21
and t
40
.
c Find the sum to innity, S

.
13 A sequence of numbers is defined by t
n
: {9,

3, 1, . . .}.
a Find the sum of the rst 9 terms.
b Find the sum of all the terms between and including t
10
and t
15
.
c Find the sum to innity, S

.
EXERCISE
6E
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Fibonacci series
206
14 The first term of the geometric sequence is 5 and the fourth term is 0.078 125. Find the sum to
infinity.
15 The sum of the first four terms of a geometric sequence is 30 and the sum to infinity is 32. Find
the first three terms of the sequence.
16 For the geometric sequence
5 3 5 3 + ,
, . . ., find the common factor, r, and the sum of
the infinite series, S

.
17 If 1 + 3x + 9x
2
+ . . .
2
3
, find the value of x.
18 WE 12b The first term in a geometric sequence is 4 and S

6. Find
the common factor, r.
19 If the common ratio for a geometric sequence is 0.99 and the sum to infinity
is 100, what is the value of the first and second terms in the sequence?
20 Show that x
n
1 always has a factor (x 1) for n {1, 2, 3, . . .}.
21 A student stands at one side of a road 10 metres wide, and walks
half-way across. The student then walks half of the remaining
distance across the road, then half the remaining distance again
and so on.
a Will the student ever make it past the other side of the road?
b Does the width of the road affect your answer?
Applications of sequences
and series
This section consists of a mixture of problems where the work
covered in the rst ve exercises is applied to a variety of situations.
The following general guidelines can assist you in solving the
problems.
1. Read the question carefully.
2. Decide whether the information suggests an arithmetic or geometric sequence. Check to see if
there is a constant difference between successive terms or a constant ratio. If there is neither,
look for a simple number pattern such as the difference between successive terms changing in
a regular way.
3. Write the information from the problem using appropriate notation. For example, if you are told
that the 5th term is 12, write t
5
12. If the sequence is arithmetic, you then have an equation to
work with, namely: a + 4d 12. If you know the sequence is geometric, then ar
4
12.
4. Dene what you have to calculate and write an appropriate formula or formulas. For example,
if you have to nd the 10th number in a sequence which you know is geometric, you have an
equation: t
10
ar
9
. This can be calculated if a and r are known or can be established.
5. Use algebra to nd what is required in the problem.
WORKED EXAMPLE 13
In 1970 the cost of 1 megabyte of computer memory was $2025. In 1980 the cost for the same
amount of memory had reduced to $45 and by 1990 the cost had dropped to $1.
a What was the cost of 1 megabyte of memory in the year 2000?
b How much memory, in megabytes, could you buy for $10 in the year 2010 based on the current
trend?
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6F
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Interactivity
int-0973
Applications of
sequences and series
eLesson
eles-0080
The Fibonacci sequence
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
207 Chapter 6 Sequences and series
THINK WRITE
a 1
Present the given information in a table. a
Year 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
Cost
($)
2025 45 1 ? ?
2
Study the table. The information suggests
a geometric sequence for the cost at each
ten-year interval. Verify this by checking
for a constant ratio between successive
terms.
45 2025
1
45
and 1 45
1
45
so the three
terms form a geometric sequence with
common ratio r
1
45
.
3
To nd the cost in the year 2000, nd
the fourth term in the sequence by
multiplying the preceding (third) term by
the common ratio.
t
4
t
3
r
t
4
1
1
45

1
45
0.022 . . .
4
Interpret the result and clearly answer the
question.
In the year 2000 one would have paid about
2 cents for a megabyte of memory.
b 1
If the cost of 1 megabyte can be found in
the year 2010 then the amount of memory
purchased for $10 can be determined. To
nd the predicted cost in the year 2010
the fth term in the sequence needs to be
determined.
b
t
5
t
4
r

1
45

1
45
=
1
2025
of a dollar per megabyte
2
Take the reciprocal of t
5
to get the amount
of memory per dollar.
The amount of memory per dollar is
2025 megabytes.
3
Find the amount of memory that can be
purchased for $10.
So $10 would buy 10 2025
20 250 megabytes.
WORKED EXAMPLE 14
Express the recurring decimal 0.131 313 13 . . . as a proper fraction.
THINK WRITE
1
Express the given number as a geometric series. 0.131 313 . . . 0.13 + 0.001 3 + 0.000 013 . . .
2 State the values of a and r. a 0.13 and r
0 0013
0 13
.
.
0.01
3
Find the sum to innity, S

.
Write the formula for the sum to innity.
S
a
r

1
4 Substitute values of a and r into the formula and
simplify.
S
S

0 13
1 0 01
0 13
0 99
.
.
.
.
5
Multiply both numerator and denominator by 100
to get rid of the decimal point.
S

13
99
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Worked example 14
208
To solve problems, use the following guidelines.
Identify the type of the sequence by checking whether there is a common difference, or 1.
a common ratio.
Translate given information into mathematical statements, using appropriate notation. 2.
Dene what you have to nd and write appropriate formula(s). 3.
Use algebra to nd what is required. 4.
REMEMBER
Applications of sequences and series
1 WE 13 In 1970 the Smith family purchased a small house for $60 000. Over the following
years, the value of their property rose steadily. In 1975 the value of the house was $69 000 and
in 1980 it reached $79 350.
a Assuming that the pattern continues through the years, nd (to the nearest dollar) the
value of the Smiths house in i 1985, ii 1995.
b By what factor will the value of the house have increased by the year 2010, compared to
the original value?
2 An accountant has been working with the same company for 15 years. She commenced on a
salary of $28 000 dollars and has received a $2500 increase each year.
a What type of sequence of numbers does her annual income follow?
b How much did she earn in her 15th year of employment?
c How much has she earned from the company altogether?
d What was her percentage increase at the end of i her rst and ii her fourteenth year of
employment?
3 A chemist has been working with the same company for 15 years. He commenced on a salary
of $28 000 dollars and has received a 4% increase each year.
a What type of sequence of numbers does his annual income follow?
b How much did he earn in his 15th year of employment?
c How much has he earned from the company altogether?
d What was his increase in salary at the end of i his rst and ii his fourteenth year of
employment?
4 A biologist is growing a tissue culture in a Petri dish.
The initial mass of the culture was 20 milligrams.
By the end of the first day the culture was a mass of
28 milligrams.
a Assuming that the daily growth is arithmetic, nd
the mass of the culture after the second, third,
tenth and nth day.
b On what day will the culture mass rst exceed
200 milligrams?
c Assuming that the daily growth is geometric, nd
the mass of the culture after the second, third,
tenth and nth day.
d On what day will the culture mass rst exceed
200 milligrams?
5 Logs of wood can be stacked so that there is one more log on each descending layer than on
the previous layer. The top row has 6 logs and there are 20 rows.
a How many logs are in the stack altogether?
EXERCISE
6F
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
209 Chapter 6 Sequences and series
b The logs are to be separated into two equal piles. They are separated by removing logs
from the top of the pile. How many rows down will workers take away before they
remove half the stack?
6 As I was going to St Ives
I met a man with seven wives.
Every wife had seven sacks,
Every sack had seven cats,
Every cat had seven kits.
Kits, cats, sacks and wives,
How many were coming from St Ives?
7 Thoughtful Frank has 100 movie tickets to give away to people at a local shopping centre. He
gives the first person one ticket, the next person two tickets, the third person three tickets and
so on until he can no longer give the nth person n tickets. How many tickets did the last lucky
person receive? How many tickets did Frank have left?
8 Kind-hearted Kate has 200 movie tickets to give away to people at the shopping centre. She
gives the first person one ticket, the next person two tickets, the third person four tickets and so
on following a geometric progression until she can no longer give the nth person 2
(n 1)
tickets.
How many tickets did the last lucky person receive? How many tickets did Kate have left?
9 The King of Persia, so the story goes, offered Xanadu any reward to secure the safety of his
kingdom. As his reward, Xanadu requested a chessboard with one grain of rice on the first
square, two grains on the second, four on the third and so on until the 64th square had its share
of rice deposited.
a Find the total number of grains of rice that the king needed to supply.
b If each grain of rice weighs 0.10 grams, how many kilograms of rice does this represent?
(Note: There are 10
3
grams in 1 kilogram.)
10 As legend has it, the King of Constantinople offered Xanadus cousin Yittrius any reward to
secure the safety of his city. This Yittrius accepted: she requested a chessboard with one grain
of rice on the first square, three grains of rice on the second square, five grains of rice on the
third square and so on until the 64th square had its share of rice deposited.
a Find the total number of grains of rice that the king needed to supply.
b If each grain of rice weighs 0.10 gram, how many kilograms of rice does this represent?
(Note: There are 10
3
grams in 1 kilogram.)
11 A student is 3.0 m from the door to a classroom and decides that he will take a 1.0 m step
followed by a step of half that distance, and half again and so on until he gets to the classroom
door. Show that he will never get any closer than one metre from the door.
12 A hiker walks 36 km on the first day and
2
3
that distance on the second. Every day thereafter
she walks
2
3
of the distance she walked on the day before. Will the hiker cover the distance of
100 km to complete the walk and on what day will she complete the task?
13 WE 14 Recurring decimals can be expressed as rational numbers. Find the fraction equivalent
of the following recurring decimal numbers by writing the decimal number as a sum of infinite
terms.
a 0.1111 . . . 0.1 + 0.01 + 0.001 + . . . b 0.333 333 333 . . .
c 0.5757 . . . d 2.343 434 . . .
e 3.142 142 142 . . . f 21.2121 . . .
g 16.666 . . .
14 In 1990, 100 students enrolled for a hypocorisma subject at a local university. Each subsequent
year for the next decade the enrolment increased by 20%.
a Find the number of students enrolled in hypocorisma in 1995.
b Over the course of the decade nd the total number of students who had enrolled in
hypocorisma.
Note: This is a variation on the original
riddle, which asks How many were
going to St Ives.
210
15 For tax purposes, the value of a computer used for a business depreciates by 8.5% of the initial
cost each year. For economic reasons the business sells its computers when they first depreciate
to less than half their initial value. After how many years will a computer used by this business
be sold?
16 The side lengths of a right-angled triangle form the successive terms of an arithmetic sequence.
The perimeter of the triangle is 72 m. What are the side lengths of the triangle?
17 A circular board is divided into a series of concentric
circles of radius 1 cm, 2 cm, 3 cm and 4 cm as shown at
right.
a Find the areas of each of the successive shaded
regions and show that they form an arithmetic
progression.
b A dart is red at the board at random and hits the
board. What is the probability of striking each of the
four regions of the board?
(Note: The probability of striking a region = area of
region total area.)
18 A bullet is fired vertically up into the air. In the first second it has an average speed of 180 m/s;
that is, it travels 180 m up into the air during the first second. Each second its speed diminishes
by 12 m/s. Thus during the 2nd second the bullet has an average speed only 168 m/s and
accordingly travels 168 m further up into the air.
a Find an equation for the average speed of the bullet for the nth second that it is in the air.
b Find the time when the average speed of the bullet is equal to zero.
c Find the maximum height of the bullet above where it was red.
19 Coffee cools according to Newtons Law of Cooling in which the temperature of the coffee
above room temperature drops by a constant fraction each unit of time. The table below shows
the temperature of a cup of coffee in a room at 20 C each minute after it was made.
Remember to subtract the room temperature from the
temperature of the coffee before you do your calculations.
Time (min) Temperature (C)
1 80.0
2 74.0
3 68.6
The person who made the coffee will drink it only if it has a
temperature in excess of 50 C. What is the minimum time after
the cup of coffee has been made before it becomes undrinkable?
20 Two arithmetic sequences, t
n
and u
n
, are multiplied together. That is, each term is multiplied by
the other to form a new term.
t
n
2n 3, n {1, 2, 3, . . .} and
u
n
3n, n {1, 2, 3, . . .}
Show that the new sequence of numbers t
1
u
1
, t
2
u
2
, t
3
u
3
, . . . is an arithmetic series
and hence nd the arithmetic sequence for that new series.
(Hint: For a sequence, a
n
, with a series A
n
, a
n
A
n
A
n 1
)
1 cm
2 cm
3 cm
4 cm
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
211 Chapter 6 Sequences and series
SUMMARY
Describing sequences
A sequence is a string of numbers or expressions. It may contain a nite or innite number of terms and may
or may not follow a recognisable pattern.
A sequence can be described in a number of ways.
As a list 1. t
n
: {1, 7, 2, 6, . . .} (note that t
3
2)
As a function: 2. t
n
2n n
2
, n {1, 2, 3, . . .} (note that t
5
2 5 5
2

15)
As a recursive or iterative formula: 3. t
n + 1
2t
n
3, t
1
6 (note that t
2
2 6 3 9)
The logistic equation is a model of population growth of the general form:
t
n

+

1
at
n
(1 t
n
),
where 0 < t
0
< 1 and a is a constant.
A convergent sequence is a sequence whose terms settle at a certain xed number, x, called the limit of the
sequence. This can be written as t
n
x. A sequence whose terms grow further and further apart is called
divergent. That is, a sequence is divergent if t
n
, or t
n

as n . A sequence whose terms uctuate


between two (or more) values is called oscillating.
Arithmetic sequences
An arithmetic sequence is one whose successive terms have a common difference. This common difference
is given the symbol d. Thus t
n + 1
t
n
d for all values of n. The rst term in the sequence is given the
symbol a.
If x, y, z are successive terms in an arithmetic sequence then the middle term ( y) is called an arithmetic mean
and is equal to the average of the two outer terms (x and z):
y
x z

+
2
An arithmetic sequence can be written as a, a + d, a + 2d, . . . and so the nth term, t
n
, is:
t
n
a + (n 1)d using the function notation, or
t
n + 1
t
n
+ d, t
1
a using the iterative notation.
Arithmetic series
The sum of the rst n terms of the arithmetic sequence is given by
S
n
a n d
n
+
2
2 1 ( ( ) )
In general, t
n + 1
S
n + 1
S
n
.
Geometric sequences
A geometric sequence is one in which each successive term is obtained by multiplying the preceding term by
a constant number. This number is called the common ratio and is given the symbol r. Thus
t
t
r
n
n
+

1
for all
values of n. The rst term in the sequence is given the symbol a.
If x, y, z are successive terms in an arithmetic sequence then y is called a geometric mean and is given by
y
2
xz.
A geometric sequence can be written as a, ar, ar
2
, . . . and so the nth term, t
n
, is
t
n
ar
n 1
using the function notation, or
t
n + 1
rt
n
, t
1
a using the iterative notation.
212
Geometric series
The sum of the rst n terms in a geometric sequence is given by
S
a r
r
n
n

( ) 1
1
with r 1
or S
a r
r
n
n

( ) 1
1
with r 1
When the magnitude of r is less than one, that is,

1 < r < 1, the sum of a geometric sequence to innity S

is
given by S
a
r

1
.
Applications of sequences and series
To solve problems, use the following guidelines.
Identify the type of sequence by checking whether there is a common difference, or a common ratio. 1.
Translate given information into mathematical statements, using appropriate notation. 2.
Dene what you have to nd and write appropriate formula(s). 3.
Use algebra to nd what is required. 4.
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
213 Chapter 6 Sequences and series
CHAPTER REVIEW
SHORT ANSWER
1 Write the iterative definition for each of the
following sequences:
a {7, 11, 19, 35, 67, . . .}
b {

2, 5, 26, 677, . . .}
2 For the arithmetic sequence where t
3
10 and
t
6
478, find
a the functional rule for the nth term in the
sequence
b the iterative rule for the sequence.
3 A car at a racetrack starts from rest and travels
0.5 m in the 1st second and 1.0 m in the 2nd second
following an arithmetic progression in the distances
covered each subsequent second.
a How far will it travel during the 10th second?
b After 10 seconds of motion, how far will it
have travelled in total?
c To the nearest whole second, how long will it
take to travel 1000 m (1 km)?
4 At Bugas Heights a radiation leak in a waste
disposal tank potentially exposes staff to a
1000 milli-rem h dose on the first day of the
accident, a 800 milli-rem h dose on the second day
after the accident and a 640 milli-rem h dose on the
third day following the accident.
a Assuming a geometric sequence, nd the amount
of potential exposure dose by the 10th day.
b Find the total potential exposure dose in the
rst 5 days.
5 The infinite sum of a geometric sequence is 99 and
the first term is 10. Find the common ratio for the
sequence.
6 Find the sum of the following expressions:
a 1 +
1
4
+
1
16
+
1
64
. . . b 1
2
3
+
4
9

8
27
. . .
7 Find the fraction equivalent of the following
recurring decimals:
a 0.222 222
b 2.454 545 454
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1 Consider the sequence t
n + 1
2t
n
+ 4; t
3
12. The
second term in the sequence is:
A 10 B 6 C 28
D 4 E 8
2 A series is listed as 3, 10, 21, 36, . . . The next term
in the series is:
A 51 B 52 C 53
D 54 E 55
3 The 23rd term in the sequence of numbers
{7, 3,

1, . . .} is:
A

88 B

81 C

74
D

83 E 90
4 Consider the arithmetic sequence 52, a, 41, b. The
numerical value of the expression a 3b is:
A

60 B

64
1
2
C

67
1
2
D

71 E 72
1
2
5 Consider the arithmetic sequence x 2y, 3x 4y,
4x 7y, . . . An expression for y in terms of x is:
A y x B y

x
C y

2x D y 2x
E y

3x
6 A car is accelerating such that in the 1st second
it travels 2.0 metres, in the 2nd second it travels
3.5 metres, in the 3rd second it travels 5.0 metres,
and so on for a total of 15 seconds. The total
distance travelled by the car is:
A 630 m B 93.75 m
C 187.5 m D 375 m
E 315 m
7 The sum of the first four terms in an arithmetic
sequence is 70. The sum of the first six terms is 63.
The sixth term of the sequence is equal to:
A

14 B

7
C 0 D 7
E 14
8 For a geometric sequence, the 4th term is 5 and
the 7th term is

625. The second term in the


sequence is:
A

2.5 B

1.25
C 0.25 D

0.25
E 0.20
9 The sum of an infinite geometric sequence is 5.6
with the common ratio equal to 0.20. The sum of
the first four terms of the geometric sequence is
closest to:
A 5.0 B 5.2
C 5.4 D 5.6
E 5.8
214
10 The sum of the first 10 terms of a geometric
sequence is 400. The next term in the sequence
is 3 times the previous term. The first term in the
sequence is:
A
17
731
B
400
1473
C
100
7381
D
200
781
E
10
387
11 The sequence t
n
81
1
3
1

_
,

n
and the series
S
n
1 0.1n are combined to form the ratio
t
s
n
n
.
When n 9 the value of the ratio is:
A
1
27
B
1
270
C
1
243
D
1
81
E
10
81

EXTENDED RESPONSE
1 Consider a square of side length 2 units.
a What is the perimeter of the square?
b Each of the four midpoints form the vertices of a new square inscribed within the original square. Find
the perimeter of this new square.
c Repeat the process to nd the perimeter of a third square inscribed within the second.
d Give an expression for the perimeter of the nth square.
2 Consider the following iterative definitions:
a t
n + 1
t
n

3
4
, t
1

1
8
b t
n + 1
at
n
, t
1
b
2

c t
n + 1
3t
n
2
1.5, t
1
0.5
If each of these denitions is used to generate a sequence of numbers:
i decide whether the sequence is arithmetic, geometric or neither, and
ii nd its fourth term.
3 In January 2004, Rachel and Nathan inherited a small trout farm from their Uncle Michael. They were told
that in any given year the trout population, p
n + 1
, could be easily calculated using the formula
p
n + 1
0.5p
n
(1 p
n
), where p
n
is the number of trout (in thousands) in the preceding year. They were also told
that on the day of their inheritance the farm housed 800 fish.
a Use the above formula to predict (to the nearest whole number) the size of the sh population on Rachel
and Nathans farm for the next three years; that is, for
i January 2005
ii January 2006
iii January 2007.
b What will happen to the size of the sh population if it continues to change according to the above
formula? How long will it take?
After extensive research, Rachel and Nathan decided to modernise their newly acquired farm. A new
feeding system and other improvements were installed, and were completed within the rst two years
(that is, by January 2006). As a result, in any given year the trout population, p
n + 1
, could now be
calculated using the formula p
n + 1
1.6p
n
(1 p
n
), where p
n
is the number of trout (in thousands) in the
preceding year.
c Use this new formula, and the gure obtained in part a ii (that is, the trout population in January 2006) as
your starting point to predict the size of the trout population for January 2007 and January 2008.
d Do Rachel and Nathan still run the risk of losing all of their trout stock? Explain your answer.
e Will the size of the trout population ever reach and increase beyond the initial number of 800 sh? Give
reasons for your answer.
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
215 Chapter 6 Sequences and series
4 On an island in the Pacific Ocean the population of a
species of insect (species A) is increasing geometrically
with a population of 10 000 in 1990 and an annual
growth rate of 12.0%. Another species of insect
(species B) is also increasing its population, but
arithmetically with numbers 15 000 in 1990 and an
annual increment of 1000 per annum.
a Using a spreadsheet or other method, determine the
difference in the numbers of the two species during
the last decade of the twentieth century (that is, up
to 1999).
b In what year will the rst species be greater in
number than the second species, assuming that
growth rates remain xed?
A scientist has a mathematical model where the species
can cohabit provided that they have equal numbers in
the year 2000.
c If the growth rate in species A is to remain
unchanged, what would the annual increment in
species B need to be to achieve this?
d If the annual increment in species B is to remain
unchanged, what would the growth rate in
species A need to be to achieve this?
5 a A series is given by the equation
S
n
2n
2
+ 3n.
Show that the sequence is arithmetic and give the
expression for the nth term in the sequence, t
n
.
b A series is given by the equation S
n
an
2
+ bn. Show that the sequence is arithmetic and give the
expression for the nth term in the sequence, t
n
, in terms of a and b.
6 a Australian Heating is a company that produces heating systems. The number of heating systems produced
annually is modelled by an increasing geometric sequence. The number of heating systems produced in
each of the first 3 years is shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Annual production of heating systems.
Year 1 2 3
Number of heating systems produced 2000 2200 2420
i Show that the common ratio r of this sequence is 1.1.
ii What is the annual percentage increase in the number of heating systems produced each year?
iii How many heating systems will be produced in year 5?
iv The number of heating systems produced annually continues to follow this pattern. In total, how
many heating systems will they produce in the rst 10 years of operation?
v The geometric sequence in Table 1 can also be produced using an iterative denition of the form
P
n + 1
bP
n
+ c, where P
1
2000 and P
n
is the number of heating systems produced in the nth year.
Determine the values of b and c.
b The purchase and installation of a basic heating system with ve outlets costs $3500. Each additional
outlet costs an extra $80.
i Determine the cost of installing a heating system with eight outlets.
ii A customer has $4400 to spend on a heating system and outlets. Determine the greatest number of
outlets that can be bought with this heating system.
216
iii Australian Heating recommends that a house with 20 squares of living area should have 12 heating
outlets. Using this recommended ratio, determine the cost of installing a heating system for a house
having 35 squares of living area.
c The number, S
n
, of heating systems sold in the nth year is dened by the iterative denition:
S
n
1.2S
n 1
200, where n 5 and S
3
2224
i Use this denition to determine how many heating systems were sold in the rst year.
ii What percentage (correct to 1 decimal place) of heating systems produced during the rst three years
was sold within the three years?
[VCAA 2004]
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc
Test Yourself
Chapter 6
EXAM TIP
Remember an iterative formula of the form:
T
n
aT
n 1
+ b will have a value of b 0 if the sequence
is geometric and a 1 if the sequence is arithmetic.
[Assessment report 2004]
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
217 Chapter 6 Sequences and series
eBookplus eBookplus ACTIVITIES
Chapter opener
Digital doc
10 Quick Questions: Warm up with ten quick
questions on sequences and series. (page 178)
6A Describing sequences
Tutorial
WE 2 int- : Watch how to determine the
behaviour of the sequence using a CAS calculator.
(page 183)
Digital doc
History of mathematics: Learn about the
mathematician Leonardo Fibonacci. (page 186)
6B Arithmetic sequences
Tutorial
WE 5 int-1052: Watch how to nd the missing terms
in an arithmetic sequence. (page 189)
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 6.1: Practise using elimination to solve
simultaneous equations. (page 191)
6C Arithmetic series
Tutorial
WE 7 int-1053: Watch how to nd the sum of the rst
20 terms in an arithmetic sequence. (page 193)
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 6.1: Complete and determine
arithmetic series. (page 195)
6D Geometric sequences
Tutorial
WE 10 int-1054: Watch how to nd a specic term in
a geometric sequence. (page 197)
Digital doc
Spreadsheet 036: Investigate Fibonacci sequences.
(page 199)
6E Geometric series
Tutorial
WE 12 int-1055: Watch how to nd the sum to innity
of a geometric sequence and a term given the sum to
innity and the rst term. (page 204)
Digital docs
Spreadsheet 036: Investigate Fibonacci series.
(page 205)
WorkSHEET 6.2: Solve more complex problems
with arithmetic series, complete and determine
geometric series and apply geometric series theory
to a worded problem. (page 206)
6F Applications of sequences and series
Interactivity
Applications of sequences and series int-0973:
Consolidate your understanding of sequences and
series. (page 206)
eLesson
eles-0080: The Fibonacci sequence (page 206)
Tutorial
WE 14 int-1056: Watch how to express a recurring
decimal as a proper fraction. (page 207)
Chapter review
Digital doc
Test Yourself: Take the end-of-chapter test to test
your progress. (page 216)
To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to
www.jacplus.com.au
1051
7A Direct variation
7B Further direct variation
7C Inverse variation
7D Further inverse variation
7E Joint variation
7F Part variation
7G Transformation of data
7
218
AREAS OF STUDY
Numerical, graphical and algebraic approaches
to direct, inverse and joint variation
Transformation of data to establish relationships
between variables, for example, x
2
,
1
x
to linear
Modelling of given nonlinear data using the
relationships y kx c y k y k y
k
x
c = + y k y kx c x c y k y k y k y k = + = +
2
= + = + x c x c x c x c, , yy cc = + = + where k is a
positive real number
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc
10 Quick Questions
Variation
Direct variation
We often need to look at variables related to an everyday situation, and then work out the
relationship between them. This is called mathematical modelling. The variables may be
recorded in a table or illustrated graphically. Once a relationship has been formulated, it is
interesting to see how one variable changes with respect to changes in the other.
This change is called a variation and depends on the relationship that exists between
the variables.
In this chapter we shall consider four types of variation: direct, inverse, joint and part
variation. We shall also look at the transformation of data in order to establish relationships
between variables.
Consider the following example. Leon has agreed to sponsor his friend who is participating
in the 40-hour famine. He will sponsor his friend $1.20 per hour. The amount Leon has to
pay depends on the number of hours his friend goes without food. This information may be
represented graphically, or placed in a table, as shown.
n, number of hours without food 1 2 3 4 5
C, total cost of sponsorship ($) 1.20 2.40 3.60 4.80 6.00
The table shows the amount to be paid for up to 5 hours. (If necessary, it could be extended to
40 hours, assuming that Leon can pay for each hour his friend goes without food and his friend
can go without food for the specied time.)
From the table, we can see that as the number of hours increases, the total cost of sponsorship
also increases (as expected). The ratio between the cost, C, and the number of hours, n, is the
7A
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
219 Chapter 7 Variation
same for each pair of values, that is:
1 20
1
2 40
2
3 60
3
4 80
4
6 00
5
1 20
. . . . .
. . = = = = =
Hence, the relationship between the two variables can be written as:
C
n
C n = = 1 20 1 20 . . or
C = 1.20n is an equation of a straight line with gradient 1.20.
The line passes through the origin. Graphically, the relationship
can be represented as shown at right.
Summarising our observations, we can say that the following
is true for the given information.
1. The ratio between any pair of corresponding values is
constant.
2. The graph which represents the data is a straight line passing through the origin.
3. The gradient of the line is equal to the ratio between the variables.
4. As one variable increases, the other variable also increases.
In cases like this, we can say that one of the variables is directly proportional to (or varies
directly as) the other. The ratio between any two corresponding variables is constant and is
called the constant of proportionality (or constant of variation) and is denoted by the symbol k.
Hence, for the example on the previous page:
C is directly proportional to n
or C varies directly as n
Using mathematical notation this is written as:
C n
where the symbol means is directly proportional to or varies directly as.
The ratio between corresponding values of C and n is constant and in our example is equal
to 1.20
C
n
=

1 20 . . So the constant of proportionality (or constant of variation), k, is 1.20. The


relationship between variables can be expressed as C = 1.20n.
Generally, for any two variables x and y, where y varies directly as x, (that is, y x), there
exists a relationship between them such that
y
x
= k or y = kx, where k is a constant. The graph
of the relationship is a straight line passing through the origin with the gradient k the constant
of variation.
If y x
then y = kx
where k is the constant of variation and k R.
From the denition, it follows that the existence of the direct variation between two variables
can be established either numerically or graphically, as shown in the following example.
WORKED EXAMPLE 1
For the given data, establish whether direct variation exists between x and y using:
a a numerical approach (clearly specify k, the constant of variation, if applicable) and
b a graphical approach.
C($)
n (hours)
6.00
4.80
3.60
2.40
1.20
0 1 2 3 4 5
220
c Conrm your result using a CAS calculator.
x 4 7 8 10
y 5.2 9.1 10.4 13
y
x
THINK WRITE/DRAW
a 1 Find the ratio
y
x
for each of the
four pairs of values.
One variable varies directly as the
other if the ratio between any two
corresponding values is constant.
a Ratio =
y
x
First pair:
5 2
4
1 3
.
. =
Second pair:
9 1
7
1 3
.
. =
Third pair:
10 4
8
1 3
.
. =
Fourth pair:
13
10
1 3 = .
2
Compare each of the four ratios and
answer the question.
Since all four ratios are the same (that is, 1.3),
y varies directly as x.
3
Copy and complete the table.
x 4 7 8 10
y 5.2 9.1 10.4 13
y
x
1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3
b 1
2
Plot the information from the table
onto a set of axes.
Join the given points and see if a
straight line is obtained.
Note: For a direct variation to exist
between two variables x and y, a
straight line passing through the
origin (0, 0) must be obtained.
b
y
x
13
10.4
0 10
9.1
5.2
8 7 4
The given points t perfectly on a straight line. If
the straight line is extended it will pass through the
origin. Therefore y varies directly as x.
3
Calculate the gradient using any two
points on the straight line. Answer the
question.
Note: The gradient of the straight line
will equal k, the constant of variation,
if direct variation exists between the
variables x and y.
Let (x
1
, y
1
) = (4, 5.2) and let
(x
2
, y
2
) = (10, 13)
m
y y
x x
=
-
-
2 1
2 1
=
-
-
13 5 2
10 4
.
=
7 8
6
.
= 1.3
The gradient of the straight line is equal to k, the
constant of variation.
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
221 Chapter 7 Variation
c 1 c
2
3
The relationship is one of direct variation.
If we know that one variable varies directly as the other, it is possible to establish the value of k,
the constant of variation, and hence determine the value of any variable given its corresponding
value.
On the Statistics screen, enter the
data into the table. Label the
columns x and y.
To draw the scatterplot of the data,
tap:
SetGraph
Settings
Set:
Type: Scatter
XList: main\x
YList: main\y
Freq: 1
Mark: square
Set
y
To check the linear relationship, tap:
Calc
Linear Reg
Set:
XList: main\x
YList: main\y
Freq: 1
OK
222
WORKED EXAMPLE 2
If it is known that m n, nd: a the constant of variation b the missing values.
n 3 6 9
m 10 18 20
THINK WRITE
a 1
Write the rule for k. Since m n, then
m = kn and hence k
m
n
= .
a
k
m
n
=
2
Obtain a pair of values where both m and
n are known.
Select n = 9, m = 18
3
Substitute these values into the given
equation and obtain a value for k.
k =
18
9
= 2
4
Answer the question.
Note: To obtain k, we can use only
corresponding values; that is, those in
which one value is underneath the other in
the table.
The constant of variation is 2. Therefore
m
n
= 2 or m = 2n.
b 1
Find the unknown value by substituting
its given corresponding pair into the
equation
m
n
= 2.
b
From part a
m
n
= 2
2
First pair: substitute n = 3.
Transpose the equation to make m the
subject.
First pair
m
3
2 =
m = 2 3
= 6
3
Second pair: substitute m = 10.
Transpose the equation to make n the
subject.
Second pair
10
2
n
=
10 = 2 n
2n = 10
n =
10
2
= 5
4 Third pair: substitute n = 6.
Transpose the equation to make m the
subject.
Third pair
m
6
2 =
m = 2 6
= 12
5 Final pair: substitute m = 10.
Transpose the equation to make n the
subject.
Final pair
20
2
n
=
20 = 2 n
2n = 20
n =
20
2
= 10
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
223 Chapter 7 Variation
6 Copy and complete the table.
n 3 5 6 9 10
m 6 10 12 18 20
A similar approach may be applied to solving worded problems which involve direct variation.
WORKED EXAMPLE 3
If the distance, d km, travelled by a person varies directly as the time, t hours, and
it is known that the person travelled 12 km while walking for 2.5 hours, nd:
a how far he will travel in 3 hours
b how long he must walk in order to travel 6.72 km.
THINK WRITE
a 1
Write the rule for k. Since d t, then
d = kt and hence k
d
t
= .
a
k
d
t
=
2
Substitute the given values for d and t into
the equation and solve for k.
k =
12
2 5 .
= 4.8
The constant of variation is 4.8. Therefore,
d
t
= 4 8 .
3
Substitute t = 3 into the equation
d
t
= 4.8.
When t = 3,
d
3
= 4.8
4
Transpose the equation to make d the
subject.
d = 4.8 3
= 14.4
5
Answer the question and include the
appropriate unit.
He will travel 14.4 km in three hours.
b 1
Substitute d = 6.72 into the equation
obtained in part a; that is,
d
t
= 4.8.
b From part a:
d
t
= 4.8
When d = 6.72,
6 72 .
t
= 4.8
2
Transpose the equation to make t the
subject.
6.72 = 4.8 t
4.8t = 6.72
t =
6 72
4 8
.
.
= 1.4
3
Convert the answer to hours and minutes
by multiplying the decimal part of the
answer by 60.
1.4 hours = 1 h + (0.4 60) min
= 1 h 24 min
4
Answer the question. In order to travel 6.72 km, he must walk
for 1 h 24 min.
Although we were not actually asked to nd the constant of variation, k, it was a necessary step
in order to solve the problem.
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Worked example 3
224
For any two variables 1. x and y, where y varies directly as x (or y is directly proportional
to x), the following properties exist:
(a) the ratio between any pair of corresponding values is constant and equal to k, the
constant of proportionality (or constant of variation)
(b) the graph, which represents the variables x and y, is a straight line passing through
the origin with the gradient equal to k
(c) as one variable increases, the other variable also increases.
The notation used to express 2. y varies directly as x is given by:
y x
or y = kx where k R
When solving problems involving direct variation follow these steps: 3.
(a) establish a ratio relating the given variables and determine the value of k, the
constant of proportionality
(b) use the ratio and k to determine the value of any variable given its corresponding
value.
REMEMBER
Direct variation
1 WE 1 For the given data in each of the following tables, establish whether direct variation
exists using:
i a numerical approach (clearly specify k, the constant of variation, if applicable) and
ii a graphical approach.
a
x 2 3 4 5
b
a 3 4 5 6
y 3 4.5 6 7.5 b 1
4
3
1
2
3
2
y
x
b
a
c
p 1 4 6 8
d
m 2 3 8 10
r 2 8 14 16 n 1 1.5 4 5
r
p
n
m
e
s 1 2 5 9
f
u
-
5
-
4 7 8
t
-
3
-
6
-
15
-
18 v
-
10
-
8 14 16
t
s
v
u
2 MC Which of the following represents direct variation between x and y?
i
y
x 0
ii
y
x 0
iii
y
x 0
EXERCISE
7A
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
225 Chapter 7 Variation
iv
y
x 0
v
y
x 0
vi
y
x 0
A ii only B ii and iv C iii only D i, v and vi E None of the above
3 Sam and Nicholas collected some data for their statistics project and arranged them in a
table as follows.
n 0 1 2 7 10 18 19 20
C 20 35 50 125 170 290 305 320
Nicholas wants to see if direct variation exists between the two variables n and C and
suggests using either a numerical or graphical method. However, Sam argues that by simple
inspection of the table, he knows that C is not directly proportional to n.
a Is Sam right about his conclusion?
b Explain how he could arrive at his conclusion without plotting the data, or without nding
ratios of corresponding values of C and n.
4 WE2 For each of the following, it is known that y x. Find:
a the constant of variation
b the missing values.
i
x 4 5 10
ii
x 4 7 9
y 18.4 23 27.6 y 18 36 40 45
iii
x
-
2 3 5
iv
x
-
3
-
2 1
y
-
2.2
-
1.1 9.9 y
-
7.5
-
2.5 2.5 12.5 30
v
x 4 6
vi
x 3 5 6
y 10.4 20.8 41.6 72.8 y
2
3
10
3
8
vii
x 2 5 9
viii
x 2 3 4
y
-
1 2 4.5 y 1 1.5
7
4
Questions 5 to 7 refer to the following information.
Given that n m:
m 4 9 12
n 2
1
3
3
5 MC The gradient of the line which represents the relationship between m and n is:
A
2
1
3
B 3 C
1
3
D 4 E
4
3
6 MC The relationship between m and n cannot be written as:
A
m
n
= 3 B
n
m
=
1
3
C 3n = m D m n =
1
3
E n m =
1
3
7 MC The missing values of n when m = 4 and m = 12 are:
A 12, 36 respectively B
4
3
, 4 respectively C 1, 3 respectively
D 16, 48 respectively E
16
3
, 16 respectively
226
8 MC a b and a = 21 when b = 15. When a = 49, b is equal to:
A 68.6 B 70 C 34.3 D 35 E 17.5
9 WE3 A long-distance truck driver finds that when he is driving from Melbourne to Sydney,
the distance he travels is directly proportional to time. It takes him 2 hours and 36 minutes to
travel 234 km. Find:
a how far he will travel in 3 hours b the time taken to travel 117 km
c the speed of the truck.
10 The directions on the Anti-Bacterial Clean & More bottle recommend that you dilute half a
cup of the cleaner in 5 litres of warm water.
a Complete the following table.
Volume of water (L) 1 2 3 4 5 10 15 20 30
Amount of cleaner (cups)
1
2
b The cup on the bottle has only one graduation (at
1
2
cup). Explain which amounts of water
will be convenient to use with this detergent.
11 The perimeter, P, of a certain shape is directly proportional to the side length, s, and P = 12 cm
when s = 4 cm.
a Find the perimeter of the shape when its side length is 12.3 cm.
b Find the length of the side when the perimeter of the shape is 88.2 cm.
c Name the shape.
12 Mila is going to polish all the floors in her unit,
except for the kitchen, laundry and bathroom,
where she has tiles. The plan of Milas unit is
shown.
a Find the area of the oor that is to be polished.
b A particular type of varnish is sold in 3 L cans.
If one can covers 34.5 square metres of oor,
how many litres are necessary to polish the
oors twice? How many 3 L cans should Mila
purchase?
c If each can of varnish costs $12.60, how much
money will be wasted? (That is, nd the cost of
the left-over varnish.)
Entrance
10 m
3 m 3 m 2 m
Living Dining
Backyard
Bathroom
Bedroom
2
Bedroom
1
C
o
r
r
i
d
o
r
Kitchen
L
a
u
n
d
r
y
4 m
3 m
2 m
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
227 Chapter 7 Variation
13 The graph at right shows the relationship between the acceleration,
a (in m/s
2
), of a certain body and the force, F (in newtons), acting on
that body.
a Show that force varies directly as acceleration.
b Find the constant of proportionality of the two variables.
c Write the equation of the relationship.
d Find the force necessary to produce an acceleration of 4 m/s
2
.
e Find the acceleration which is produced when a force of
1000 newtons is acting on the body.
14 Mark is reading a book about world famous explorers and travellers. In one of the chapters, he
comes across a distance shown as 26 miles and wishes to convert this distance to kilometres.
Mark remembers that 5 miles is approximately equivalent to 8 km.
a Find the appropriate equivalent of 26 miles in kilometres. In reality, 5 miles is equivalent
to 8.045 km.
b Now, nd the new equivalent of 26 miles in kilometres.
c Compare the difference between the two values.
d Express the difference as a percentage of the real distance.
15 If (2, a) and (a, 12.5) belong to a direct proportional relationship, what are the values of a and
hence what is the constant of proportionality.
Further direct variation
In the previous section, we considered cases of direct variation between two variables raised
to the power of 1. Graphically, those relationships were represented by straight lines. In other
words, we dealt only with examples of direct linear variation.
However, variation is not necessarily linear. There are many cases of direct variation where
variables are raised to powers other than 1.
In such cases, instead of writing y x we write the variation statement according to the
information provided in the given problem. For example, if it is known that y varies directly as
the square of x, we write y x
2
. If y varies directly as the square root of x, we write y x .
After the variation statement is written, we proceed in the same manner as with cases of direct
linear variation.
1. Write the equation of variation.
2. Substitute known values to nd the constant of proportionality, k.
3. Find all unknown values as required in the given problem.
WORKED EXAMPLE 4
For the following:
a ll in the x values of the table
b establish whether y varies directly as the square
root of x by:
i calculating the ratio
y
x
ii plotting the graph of y versus x.
x 1 4 9 16
x
y 2.5 5 7.5 10
y
x
THINK WRITE
a 1
Evaluate each of the x values.
a
1 1 4 2 = =
9 3 16 4 = =
F (N)
a (m/s
2
)
1600 (2,1600)
2
7B
228
2 Substitute the x values into the table.
x 1 4 9 16
x
1 2 3 4
y 2.5 5 7.5 10
y
x
b i 1
Find the ratio
y
x
for each of the
4 pairs of values.
b i
Ratio =
y
x
First pair:
2.5
1
= 2.5
Second pair:
5
2
= 2.5
Third pair:
7.5
3
= 2.5
Fourth pair:
10
4
= 2.5
2
Compare each of the 4 ratios and
answer the question.
Since all 4 ratios are the same (that is,
2.5) y varies directly as x.
3
Copy and complete the table.
x 1 4 9 16
x
1 2 3 4
y 2.5 5 7.5 10
y
x
2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
ii 1
2
Plot the information from the table
onto a set of axes.
Join the given points and see if a
straight line is obtained. Answer the
question.
Note: For a direct variation to exist
between two variables x and y,
a straight line passing through the
origin (0, 0) must be obtained.
ii
y
10
1
7.5
5
2.5
x
0 2 3 4
The given points t perfectly on a straight
line. If the straight line is extended it will
pass through the origin.
Therefore y varies directly as x.
WORKED EXAMPLE 5
For the given data, establish the rule relating the variables x and y then graph the relationship using
a CAS calculator.
x 3 6 7 10
y 28.8 115.2 156.8 320
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
229 Chapter 7 Variation
THINK WRITE/DISPLAY
1
2
3
Write down the rule for x and y. y = 3.2x
2
4
WORKED EXAMPLE 6
The volume of a sphere, V, is directly proportional to the cube of its radius, r. If a sphere with radius
3 cm has volume 113.04 cm
3
, nd:
a the constant of proportionality, to 3 decimal places
b the volume of a sphere with radius 10 cm
c the radius of a sphere which has a volume of 33.493 cm
3
, to 3 decimal places.
On the Statistics screen, enter the data into the
table. Label the columns x and y.
Find the rule that ts the data. To do this, tap:
Calc
Power Reg
Set:
XList: main\x
YList: main\y
Freq: 1
Copy Formula: y1
OK
Graph the rule. On the Graph & Tab screen,
equate the rule to y1, and tap $.
Adjust the window accordingly.
230
THINK WRITE
a 1
Write the variation statement. a
V r
3
2
Write the equation of variation. V = kr
3
3
Substitute V = 113.04 and r = 3 into
the equation to nd the constant of
proportionality, k.
113.04 = k (3)
3
113.04 = 27k
4
Transpose the equation to make k the subject. k =
113 04
27
.
5
Evaluate. Round the answer to 3 decimal
places.
= 4.187
6
Rewrite the equation of variation by
substituting the value for k.
V = 4.187r
3
b 1
Write the equation obtained in part a. b
V = 4.187r
3
When r = 10,
2
Substitute r = 10 into the equation. V = 4.187 103
3
Evaluate and include the appropriate unit. V = 4.187 1000
= 4187 cm
3
c 1
Write the equation obtained in part a. c
V = 4.187r
3
2
Substitute V = 33.493 into the equation. When V = 33.493,
33.493 = 4.187r
3
3
Transpose the equation to make r
3
the
subject.
r
3
33 493
4 187
=
.
.
4
Solve for r.
r =
33 493
4 187
3
.
.
5
Evaluate. Round your answer to 3 decimal
places and include the appropriate unit.
r = 2.000 cm
Sometimes we are interested in knowing how the change in one variable (for example doubling
or tripling) will affect the other.
WORKED EXAMPLE 7
The area, A, of a square varies directly as the square of its side, s. Find the effect
on the area when the side of the square is:
a doubled b halved.
THINK WRITE
a 1
Write the variation statement. a
A s
2
2
Write the equation of variation. A = ks
2
3
If we double the side of the square, it will
be twice as large as the original size (that
is 2s). Therefore, substitute 2s into the
equation in place of s and simplify.
Note: A
new
is used to make it distinct from
the original A.
A
new
= k(2s)
2
= k 4s
2
= 4ks
2
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int-1058
Worked example 7
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
231 Chapter 7 Variation
4 Rewrite the equation in terms of the
original area A.
A
new
= 4A
5
Interpret the result. When the side of a square is doubled, the area
is quadrupled.
b 1
Repeat steps 1 and 2 from part a. b
A s
2

A = ks
2
2
If we halve the side of the square, the
new side will be
S
2
. Substitute
S
2
into the
equation of variation in place of s.
Note: A
new
is used to make it distinct from
the original A.
A
new
= k
S
2
2

3
Simplify.
= k
S
2
4
=
1
4
ks
2
4
Rewrite the equation in terms of the
original area A.
A
new
=
1
4
A
5
Interpret the result. When the side of a square is halved, the area
is divided by 4 (that is, one quarter of the
original area).
There are many cases of direct variation, where variables are raised to powers other than 1.
To solve these problems, follow these steps:
Write the statement of variation. 1.
Write the equation of variation. 2.
Substitute known values to nd the constant of proportionality, 3. k.
Find all unknown values as required in the given problem. 4.
REMEMBER
Further direct variation
1 WE4 For each of the following:
a Fill in the x values of the table.
b Establish whether y varies directly as the square root of x by
calculating the ratio
y
x
and plotting the graph of y versus x.
i
x 1 4 9 16
x
y 3 6 9 12
y
x
EXERCISE
7B
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc
Spreadsheet 133
Transforming data
232
ii
x 1 9 25 49
x
y 5 15 25 35
y
x
iii
x 4 16 36 64
x
y 1 2 3 7
y
x
2 For each of the following:
a Fill in the x
2
values of the table.
b Establish whether y varies directly as the square of x by calculating the ratio
y
x
2
and
plotting the graph of y versus x
2
.
i
x 1 2 3 4
x
2
y 2 8 18 32
y
x
2
ii
x 1 3 5 6
x
2
y 0.5 4.5 12.5 18
y
x
2
iii
x 2 4 6 8
x
2
y 1 4 9 12
y
x
2
iv
x 1 2 4 6
x
2
y
1
6
2
3
8
3
6
y
x
2
3 For each of the following:
a Fill in the x
3
values of the table.
b Find the ratio of
y
x
3
and hence deduce whether or not y x
3
.
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
233 Chapter 7 Variation
i
x 1 2 3 4 5
x
3
y
1
4
2 7 16 32
y
x
3
ii
x 2 3 5
x
3
y 24 81 375
y
x
3
iii x 2 4 6
x
3
y
2
3
16
3
18
y
x
3
iv x 1 2 4 6
x
3
y 5 40 300 1080
y
x
3
4 WE5 Determine whether y varies directly as x, square of x or square root of x using a CAS
calculator:
x 1 4 16 36
y 0.3 0.6 1.2 1.8
5 If n m:
m 1 4 25
n
1
2
3
4
1
a nd the constant of variation
b write the relationship as an equation
c nd the missing values.
6 MC a b
2
and a = 16 when b = 8. When a = 1, b =
A 1 B 2 C 4 D
1
4
E 16
7 MC m n and m = 3 when n = 4. When n = 64, m =
A 32 B 24 C 16 D 12 E 8
8 MC p s
3
and s = 6 when p = 72. When p = 9, s =
A 1 B 2 C 3 D 4 E 5
234
9 For each of the following write:
a the variation statement
b the equation of variation (use k as the constant of proportionality).
i The total surface area of a sphere, A, varies directly as the square of its radius, r.
ii The volume of a cube, V, is directly proportional to the cube of the length of its side, s.
iii The kinetic energy, E, of a moving body is directly proportional to the square of its
velocity, v.
iv The radius of a circle, r, varies directly as the square root of its area, A.
v The distance to the horizon, d, varies directly as the square root of the height, h, above
the sea level.
10 WE 6 The total surface area of a spherical balloon is directly proportional to its radius
squared. If a balloon with a radius of 10 cm has a total surface area of 1256 cm
2
, what is:
a the constant of proportionality, to 2 decimal places?
b the total surface area of the balloon when it has a radius of 12.5 cm?
c the radius of the balloon when it has a total surface area of 2826 cm
2
?
11 A set of measuring cups consists of 4 cylindrical cups that nestle
inside each other. The height of all 4 cups is the same and their radii
differ by 5 mm. The capacity of each cup is directly proportional to
the square of its radius. The smallest cup has a radius of 3 cm and
holds 113.04 mL of water. Find:
a the constant of proportionality
b the capacities of the other 3 cups.
(Note: 1 mL is equivalent to 1 cm
3
.)
12 In a clock, the period, T, of the motion of the pendulum
that is, the time the pendulum takes to swing back and forth is
directly proportional to the square root of its length, l. If a 0.9 m long
pendulum completes one full cycle of motion in 1.9 seconds, what is the
length of the pendulum with a period of 2.5 seconds? What is the period
of the motion of a pendulum which is exactly 2 m long? (Express the
answers correct to 2 decimal places.)
13 For a particular type of square-based pyramid, its volume, V, varies
directly as the cube of the side of its base, s. A square-based pyramid has
a volume of 9 cm
3
and the side of its base is 3 cm. Find:
a the formula connecting the two variables
b the volume of a pyramid with a base area of 25 cm
2
, correct to
2 decimal places
c the length of the side of its base,
if the volume is 576 cm
3
.
d From studying measurement
we know that the volume of any
square-based pyramid with a
base of size s and a height h is
given by the formula
V =
1
3
s
2
h. Compare this formula
with the one obtained in part a
and comment on a particular
feature of the pyramids in
question.
6 cm
5 mm 5 mm
5 mm
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
235 Chapter 7 Variation
14 WE7 For a constant resistance, R, the voltage of an electric circuit, V, is directly proportional
to current, I. Find the effect on the voltage when the current is:
a doubled b tripled c halved.
15 For each of the following, find the effect on m, when n is:
i doubled ii tripled iii quadrupled iv halved.
a m n
2
b m n
3
c m n
16 For each of the following, determine the effect on x when y is:
i quadrupled ii divided by 4.
a y x
2
b y x
(Hint: In each case write the equation of variation and transpose it to make x the subject rst.)
17 The area of a circle varies directly as the square of its radius.
a Find the effect on the area if the radius is:
i doubled ii tripled iii multiplied by 8
iv multiplied by 10 v halved vi divided by 3.
b If a circle with radius 7 cm has an area of 154 cm
2
, use your answers to part a to nd the
area of the circles with the following radii: 56 cm, 70 cm,
2
1
3
cm, 14 cm, 3.5 cm, 21 cm.
18 Copy and complete the following statements:
a If y x, when x is multiplied by any number n, y is
b If y x
2
, when x is multiplied by any number n, y is
c If y x , when x is multiplied by any number n, y is
d If y x
3
, when x is multiplied by any number n, y is
19 (2, b) and
b
b
3
4 ,

belong to the same relation in which the second element varies directly as
the square of the rst.
a Find the value of b, a positive real number.
b Find the constant of variation.
c Find the value of a in a pair (3, a) which belongs to the same relation.
Inverse variation
Consider the following example. Stan used to collect basketball cards. Eventually he became
bored with this hobby and decided to give all of his 120 cards to his classmates. If Stan
distributed the whole collection between his 2 best friends, Mark and Eugene, they would each
receive 60 cards. If he included another friend, Ashley, they would each receive 40 cards and
so on. The more people who shared Stans collection, the fewer cards each person received.
There are 25 people in Stans class, including himself. If he were to distribute 120 cards between
all of his classmates, each student would receive 5 cards. This information can be represented
graphically or as shown in the table.
n 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 15 20 24
C 120 60 40 30 24 20 15 12 10 8 6 5
(Note that only factors of 120 are included in order to avoid
fractional answers).
It is obvious that as the number of students, n, who are to
share the collection increases, the number of cards, C, that each
student receives, decreases.
The product of the two variables is constant for each pair and
equal to 120 the size of the collection. That is: 1 120 =
2 60 = 3 40 = 4 30 = 5 24 = 6 20 = 8 15 = 10 12 =
120 and so on.
7C
120
60
40
20
10
C
n
30
24 20 8 6 15 10 12 12345
236
Hence, the relationship between two variables can be written as:
C n = 120, or

C
n
=
120
.
The graph of the relation is a hyperbola which has the C and n axes as its asymptotes.
Summarising our observations, we can say that the following is true for the given information:
1. An increase in one variable causes a decrease in the other.
2. The product of the two corresponding variables is a constant.
3. Neither variable is equal to 0.
4. The graph which represents the data is a hyperbola.
If we calculate the values of
1
n
for each of the values in our table, we will then be able to draw
a graph of C against
1
n
.
n 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 15 20 24
1
n
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6
1
8
1
10
1
12
1
15
1
20
1
24
C 120 60 40 30 24 20 15 12 10 8 6 5
As you can see, the graph of C versus
1
n
is a straight line
directed from, but not passing through, the origin. (Note that
we exclude the origin itself, hence the open circle at (0, 0),
since the number of cards per person when shared between
0 students is undened.)
Hence, we can deduce that C varies directly as
1
n
, that is, as
the reciprocal of n.
In cases like this, we say that one variable varies inversely as
(or is inversely proportional to) the other. The product of any
two corresponding variables is constant and is called a constant
of proportionality, k.
Hence, C is inversely proportional to n (or C varies inversely as n, or directly as the reciprocal
of n). It is written as C
1
n
.
The product of any two corresponding values of C and n is constant and equal to 120, that is
Cn = 120. Therefore the constant of variation k = 120.
Therefore, the relationship between the two variables can be written as C =
120
n
.
Generally, for any two variables x and y, where y varies inversely as x, that is, y
1
x
, there
exists a relationship between them such that y =
k
x
or yx = k, where k is a constant, called
the constant of proportionality (or the constant of variation). The graph of the relationship is a
hyperbola whereas the graph of y against
1
x
is a straight line directed from, but not passing
through, the origin, and having the gradient k (where x 0). As with direct variation
(Section 7A), the existence of inverse variation can be established either numerically, or
graphically.
Summarising this:
If y
1
x
C
120
60
30
5
1 0
1

24
1

2
1

4 n
1


Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
237 Chapter 7 Variation
then y =
k
x
where k is the constant of variation and k R\{0}, x R\{0}.
WORKED EXAMPLE 8
For the data represented in the table below, establish whether an inverse variation exists between x
and y using:
a a numerical approach (clearly specify k, the constant of variation, if applicable)
b a graphical approach.
x 1 2 3 4 5
y 20 10
6
2
3
5 4
xy
THINK WRITE/DISPLAY
a
1
Find the product of xy for each of the
5 pairs of values.
Note: One variable varies inversely as
the other if the product between any
2 corresponding values is constant.
a
Product = xy
First pair: 1 20 = 20
Second pair: 2 10 = 20
Third pair: 3
6
2
3
= 20
Fourth pair: 4 5 = 20
Fifth pair: 5 4 = 20
2
Compare each of the ve products
and answer the question.
Since the product of the corresponding values
is the same in each case (that is 20), y varies
inversely as x.
3
Copy and complete the table.
x 1 2 3 4 5
y 20 10
6
2
3
5 4
xy 20 20 20 20 20
b 1
Calculate the values of
1
x
.
Place these values into a table.
b
x 1 2 3 4 5
1
x
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
y 20 10 6
2
3
5 4
2
On the Statistics screen, enter the
1
x
and y values into the table. Label the
columns x and y.
238
3
4
5
Answer the question. The graph of y against
1
x
is a straight line
directed from, but not passing through, the
origin, hence an open circle at the point (0, 0).
Therefore y
1
x
.
As for cases involving direct variation, if we know that one variable varies inversely (or
indirectly) as the other, it is possible to establish the value of k, the constant of variation, and
hence determine the value of any variable given its corresponding value.
WORKED EXAMPLE 9
For the data in the table below given that y
1
x
, nd:
a the constant of proportionality b the missing values.
x 2 4
y
24 8 6
THINK WRITE
a 1
Write the variation statement. a y
1
x
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
To nd the rule that ts the data, tap:
Calc
Linear Reg
Set:
XList: main\x
YList: main\y
Freq: 1
Copy Formula: y1
OK
To graph the rule, open the Graph &
Tab screen. Enter the rule as y1.
Tap $.
Adjust the window accordingly.
239 Chapter 7 Variation
2 Write the equation of variation. y =
k
x
3
Hence, write down the rule for k. Obtain
a pair of values where both x and y are
known. Substitute these values into the
given equation and obtain a value for k.
Note: To obtain k, we can use only
corresponding values; that is, those in
which one value is underneath the other in
the table.
k = xy
When x = 4, y = 6.
k = 4 6
= 24
The constant of variation is 24.
Therefore, xy = 24 or y =
24
x
.
b 1
Find the unknown value by substituting its
given corresponding pair into the equation
xy = 24.
First pair: substitute y = 24.
Transpose the equation to make x the
subject.
b
From part a xy = 24
First pair: x 24 = 24
24x = 24
x =
24
24
x = 1
Second pair: substitute x = 2.
Transpose the equation to make y the
subject.
Second pair: 2 y = 24
2y = 24
y =
24
2
y = 12
Third pair: substitute y = 8.
Transpose the equation to make x the
subject.
Third pair: x 8 = 24
8x = 24
x =
24
8
x = 3
2
Copy and complete the table.
x 1 2 3 4
y 24 12 8 6
Inverse variation can be applied in many practical situations. The approach to solving word
problems involving inverse variation is similar to that for direct variation.
Steps to solve word problems involving inverse variation.
1. Write the statement of variation.
2. Write the equation of variation.
3. Use any pair of variables whose values are known to establish the constant of variation.
4. Find all other required values.
WORKED EXAMPLE 10
Marina is buying prizes for the competitions which are to be held during
Maths Week. She has enough money to buy 24 pens valued at $2.50 each.
a Pens of better quality are sold at $4 each. How many of these
can she buy?
b If she wishes to buy enough identical prizes for 100 students, what would be
the maximum cost of each prize?
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Worked example 10
240
THINK WRITE
a 1
Dene the variables. Write the statement
of variation. This is an example of inverse
variation since the amount of money
is xed and as the price increases, the
number of prizes which can be bought
decreases.
a
Let p = the price of each prize.
Let n = the number of prizes.
n
1
p
2
Write the equation of variation. n =
k
p
3
Obtain a pair of values where both p and
n are known. Substitute these values into
the given equation. Transpose the equation
and solve for k.
When p = 2.5, n = 24
24 =
k
2 5 .
24 2.5 = k
k = 60
4
Rewrite the equation of variation by
substituting the value of k.
n =
60
p
5
Substitute p = 4 to nd the corresponding
value of n.
When p = 4, n =
60
4
= 15
6
Answer the question. Marina may purchase 15 pens at $4 each.
b 1
Write down the equation obtained in part a. b
n =
60
p
2
Substitute n = 100 to nd the
corresponding value of p.
When n = 100, 100 =
60
p
3
Transpose the equation to make p the
subject.
100 p = 60
100p = 60
4
Evaluate. p =
60
100
= 0.60
5
Answer the question. The maximum cost of each item would have to
be $0.60 or 60c.
For any variables 1. x and y, where y varies inversely (or indirectly) as x, the following
properties exist:
(a) one variable increases as the other decreases
(b) neither variable is equal to 0
(c) the product of any pair of corresponding values is constant and equal to k
(d) the graph which represents the relationship is a hyperbola.
The notation used to express 2. y varies inversely as x is given by:
y
1
x
or y =
k
x
where k R\{0} and where x R\{0}
REMEMBER
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
241 Chapter 7 Variation
Inverse variation
1 WE8a For the data represented in the tables below, establish whether an inverse variation
exists between x and y using a numerical method and give the constant of proportionality.
a
x 1 2 3 4
b
x 1 3 6 9
y 12 6 4 3 y 18 6 3 2
xy xy
c
x 1 2 3 4
d
x 2 4 5 6
y 28 14
9
1
3
7 y 5 2.5 2
1
2
3
xy xy
e
x 4 5 6 10 12
f
x
4
5
2
3
1
2
1
4
2
10
y 15 12 10 8 5 y 5 6 8 16 25
xy xy
2 WE8b For the data represented in the tables below, establish whether an inverse variation
exists between x and y using a graphical method.
a
x 2 4 8 10
b
x 1 4 5 8
y 60 30 15 12 y 40 10 8 6
c
x
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
d
x
1
4
1
2
2 4
y 5 7.5 10 12.5 y 20 10 5 2.5
e
x 3 5 8 10
f
x
2
3
3
5
1
4
1
y 13 8 5 4 y 18 20 48 12
3 MC If the relationship between m and n is such that m
1
n
and m = 6 when n =
1
2
, then
which of the following belongs to the same relationship?
A (3,
1
4
) B (12, 1) C (3, 1) D (3, 6) E (
1
12
, 1)
4 MC The expression y
1
x
could be represented by:
i
y
x
ii
y
0 x
iii
y
0 x
i v
y
0
x
1


v
y
0
x
1


vi y
0
x
1


A i and iii B iii only C ii and vi D iii and v E iii and iv
EXERCISE
7C
242
5 WE9 Given that y
1
x
, for each of the following find:
a the constant of proportionality
b the missing values.
i
x 2 2.5 3
ii
x 4 10
y 6 2.4 y 30 15 12
iii
x 1 4 6
iv
x 1 3
y 16
5
1
3
y 13
8
2
3
6
1
2
v
x
1
5
1
4
1
2
2
vi
x 4 32 48
y 20 5 y 16 8 4
vii
x 8 20 30
viii
x 3 4 30
y
1
4
1
10
1
60
y
6
2
3
2
4
3
Questions 6 to 8 refer to the following table, representing the relationship u
1
v
.
v 4 5 8
u 15 10 7.5 3
6 MC To obtain a straight line graph directed from, but not passing through, the origin, we
should plot the values from the table with:
A v on the horizontal axis and u on the vertical axis
B u on the horizontal axis and v on the vertical axis
C v on the horizontal axis and
1
u
on the vertical axis
D
1
u
on the horizontal axis and v on the vertical axis
E
1
v
on the horizontal axis and u on the vertical axis.
7 MC The gradient of the straight line is:
A 4 B 15 C
15
4
D
4
15
E 4 15
8 MC Consider the second and third pairs of the relationship and complete the following
statement: Compared to the value of v in the third pair, the value of u in the second pair is:
A twice as large
B twice as small
C 4 times as large
D 15 times as small
E 60 times as large
9 WE 10 Annette is buying prizes for the competitions which are to be held during Science
Week. She has enough money to buy 40 items valued at $3.20 each.
a Items of better quality are sold at $4.00 each. How many of these can she buy?
b If Annette wishes to buy sufcient identical prizes for 80 students, what would be the
maximum cost of each prize?
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
243 Chapter 7 Variation
10 A team of 5 bricklayers is about
to start on a new project.
According to the schedule,
they have 12 days to
complete their job.
a If one of the bricklayers
gets sick just before they
start, how many days
would the remaining
4 bricklayers need to
complete the job?
b It takes the sick
bricklayer 5 days to get
better. He then goes
back to work. In how
many days will the team
complete their job under
these circumstances?
c Now imagine that when
the bricklayer got sick,
his mates invited another
workman to help. When
the sick bricklayer
returned to work 5 days
later, they decided to
keep working as a team
of 6. How long, to
the nearest day, will it
take to complete the job
in this case?
11 A gardener has enough fertiliser to use on a rectangular flower bed measuring 4 m by 9 m.
a Would there be enough fertiliser to use on another bed if it is 3 m longer, and 3 m
narrower?
b Would there be enough fertiliser to use on a bed which is twice as short and twice as wide
as the rst one?
c What is the side length of the square bed which requires exactly the same amount of
fertiliser as the rst one?
12 The frequency of sound, f, is inversely proportional to the wavelength, l.
a A signal generator emits waves of frequency 1000 Hz and wavelength 0.34 m. Find the
frequency of waves whose wavelength is:
i 200 m ii 800 m.
b If the constant of proportionality is the speed of sound, v, state the value of the speed
of sound and write the equation which relates the frequency, speed and wavelength of
sound.
13 When a force is applied to an object, its acceleration, a, varies inversely with its mass, m.
When the mass of the object is 20 kg, the corresponding acceleration is 5 m/s
2
.
a Find the effect on the acceleration when the mass of the object is:
i doubled
ii tripled
iii halved.
b The constant of variation is the force, F newtons. Find the magnitude of the force applied
to the object in question.
244
14 From Physics, we know that the work done, W
d
, when a certain object is pushed can be
calculated by multiplying the force, F, applied to it by the distance, d, it was pushed; that is,
W
d
= Fd. Which of the three variables should be fixed as a constant so that the other two would
vary inversely?
15 Before use, 1 mL of Betadine sore throat mouthwash must be diluted with water to produce
20 mL of ready-to-use solution.
a How many millilitres of water are required?
Instead of diluting the mouthwash each time it is needed, Irene decided to prepare a large jar
of the solution using the whole bottle.
b If a bottle contains 15 mL of concentrated Betadine, how much water is required?
c What is the total volume of the solution?
At a certain stage the solution contains 190 mL of water.
d How many millilitres of Betadine are there in the solution at that stage?
e What percentage of the solution is used?
16 In a tape recorder, the speed of rotation of a reel varies inversely
as its diameter; that is, the reel with a lot of tape on it rotates
slower than the one with the small amount of tape.
If the reel with the large amount of tape has a speed of
70 revolutions per minute, what is the speed of the other reel at
that moment?
17 The speed of a gear wheel, s, varies directly as the reciprocal
of its number of teeth, t.
a In the gear train shown, the rst gear drives all the others.
It has 20 teeth and makes 300 revolutions per minute.
Gears 2 and 4 are the same and have 8 teeth each while
gear 3 has 40 teeth. Find the speed with which gears 2, 3
and 4 rotate.
b If the process were reversed and the fourth gear became the
driving one, what would be the speeds of gears 1, 2 and 3,
given that the new driving gear rotated with the same speed
as the old one; that is, 300 revolutions per minute?
Further inverse variation
In the section on further direct variation, we saw that direct variation exists between variables
raised to powers other than 1. The same is true for inverse variation. We will concern ourselves
mainly with powers of 2, 3 and
1
2
(square roots). It should be understood that there could be
inverse variation relationships with variables raised to any other power.
WORKED EXAMPLE 11
The electrical resistance, R, of a wire varies inversely as the square of its diameter, d. If a wire with
diameter of 4 mm has the resistance of 4 ohms, nd:
a the resistance of a wire with diameter 1.2 cm in exact form
b the diameter of the wire, correct to 2 decimal places, when the resistance is 8 ohms.
THINK WRITE
a 1
Write the variation statement. a
R
1
2
d
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WorkSHEET 7.1
7D
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
245 Chapter 7 Variation
2
Write the equation of variation.
R =
k
d
2
3
Substitute R = 4 and d = 4 into
the equation to nd constant of
proportionality, k.
When d = 4 and R = 4,
4 =
k
4
2
4 =
k
16
4
Transpose the equation to make k the
subject and evaluate.
4 16 = k
k = 64
5
Rewrite the equation of variation by
substituting the value for k.
R =
64
2
d
6
Convert d = 1.2 cm into mm. 1.2 cm = 1.2 10
= 12 mm
7
Substitute 12 mm into the equation in
place of d.
When d = 12, R =
64
12
2
8
Simplify and include the appropriate unit. =
4
9
ohms
b 1
Rewrite the equation obtained in part a. b From part a, R =
64
2
d
2
Substitute R = 8 into the equation. 8 =
64
2
d
3
Transpose the equation to make d
2
the
subject.
8d
2
= 64
d
2
=
64
8
= 8
4
Solve for d by taking the positive square
root of both sides.
d =
8
5
Simplify and include the appropriate unit.
= 2
2
= 2.83 mm
When two variables are inversely proportional, an increase in one variable causes a decrease in
the other. The size of the increase/decrease depends on the type of relationship.
WORKED EXAMPLE 12
If
y
x
m
x
p
x

1 1 1
2
, ,
, nd the effect on y, m and p, when x is doubled.
THINK WRITE
1
Write the given variation statement for each. y
1
x
, m
1
2
x
, p
1
x
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int-1060
Worked example 12
246
2
Write the equation of variation for each.
Note: k does not necessarily represent the
same numerical value. It is just conventional
to denote the constant of variation with k.
y =
k
x
m =
k
x
2
p =
k
x
3
Substitute 2x into the equations in place of x
to nd the new values of y, m and p.
y
new
=
k
x 2
=
1
2

k
x
m
new
=
k
x ( ) 2
2
=
k
x 4
2
=
k
4

1
2
x
p
new
=
k
x 2
=
1
2

k
x
4
Rewrite the equations in terms of the original
y, m and p.
y
new
=
1
2
y
m
new
=
1
4
m
p
new
=
1
2
p
5
Interpret the result. When x is doubled, y is halved, m is divided by 4
(a quarter of the original or is decreased by a factor
of 4) and p is divided by
2
(or is decreased by a
factor of
2
).
Inverse variation exists between variables, raised to powers other than 1. 1.
When two variables are inversely proportional, an increase in one variable causes 2.
a decrease in the other. The size of the increase/decrease depends on the type of
relationship.
REMEMBER
Further inverse variation
1 Copy and complete the given tables and hence deduce whether inverse variation exists for
each of the following.
EXERCISE
7D
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
247 Chapter 7 Variation
a
x 1 2 3 4
b
x 2 3 4 5
x
3
x
3
y 60 7.5
20
9
15
16
y 15 4.4 1.875 0.96
x
3
y x
3
y
c
x 2 4 5 6
d
x 1 3 5 7
x
3
x
3
y 130
4
1
16
2
2
25
1
11
64
y 343
12
19
27
2
93
125
1
x
3
y x
3
y
2 For each of the following, plot y against
x
and decide whether inverse variation exists
between y and the square root of x.
a
x 1 4 9 25
b
x 1 4 9 16
y 60 30 20 12 y 30 15 10 7.5
c
x 4 9 16 36
d
x 4 16 25 49
y 45 30 20 15 y 10 5 4
2
6
7
3 Determine whether m varies inversely as
n
, n, n
2
or n
3
by plotting corresponding graphs.
A CAS calculator may be used to create appropriate tables of values and then to plot the data.
n 16 36 64
m 1296 256 81
4 If p is inversely proportional to the cube of q, find:
a the constant of proportionality
b the missing values.
q 2 3 6
p 15
5
8
8 4
17
27
5 Write each of the following as:
a a variation statement
b an equation with the constant of variation p.
i The current, I, is inversely proportional to the resistance, R.
ii The force, F, varies inversely as the square of the distance, d, between 2 magnetic poles.
iii The resistance, R, varies inversely as the square of the diameter of the wire, d.
iv The number, n, of oscillations of a pendulum is inversely proportional to the square
root of its length, l.
v The time of a journey, t, varies directly as the reciprocal of an average speed, v.
vi The light intensity, I, is directly proportional to the reciprocal of the square of the
distance from the source of light, d.
6 WE 11 The intensity of the light, I, varies inversely as the square of the distance between the
observer and the source of light, d. If I = 5.5 units when d = 7 m, find:
a the distance of the observer from the source of light, correct to 2 decimal places, when its
intensity is 12 units
248
b the intensity of light observed from a distance of 1.75 m.
7 The intensity of sound, I, is inversely proportional to the area of the source of sound. If I = 0.5 W/m
2

when the sound passes through the rectangular opening measuring 2 m by 5 m, what is:
a the intensity of the sound for
i a square opening with a side length of 70 cm?
ii a rectangular opening with a length of 3 m and a width that is half of its length?
b the length of the side of a square opening if the sound passing through it has an intensity
of
5
9
W/m
2
?
8 The period, T, of the motion of the particle oscillating on the end of an elastic string is
inversely proportional to the square root of the stiffness of the string, k. When an object of
mass 2 kg is suspended from a string with the stiffness of 10 N/m, it oscillates with the period
of
2
7

seconds. Find:
a the period when the same object oscillates on the end of the elastic string with the
stiffness of 25 N/m
b the stiffness of the string, if the time needed for one oscillation is
32
7

.
9 Three friends A, B and C stand in a straight line
1 m apart from each other. A and C are both 2 m from the speaker.
If the intensity of sound varies inversely as the square of the distance
of the person from the source of sound, nd:
a the distance of person B from the sound
b the ratio
I
I
B
A
(or
I
I
B
C
), where I
A
, I
B
, I
C
is the intensity of sound
perceived by A, B and C respectively.
10 WE12 For a certain type of prism with a fixed volume, the height, H,
varies inversely as the square of the side of the base, s.
Find the effect on the height of the prism if the side of its base is:
a doubled b halved c quadrupled d divided by 4.
A
1 m 1 m
2

m
2

m
C B
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
249 Chapter 7 Variation
11 MC a If y
1
x
and y = 12 when x = 4, what is the effect on y when x is tripled?
A y is tripled. B y is divided by 3. C y is quadrupled.
D y is divided by 4. E y is unchanged.
b The value m varies inversely as the square root of n, and m = 10 when n = 4. When n is
halved, m will be:
A halved B doubled C multiplied by
2
D divided by
2
E none of these answers.
c If p is inversely proportional to the square of s, then for the value of p to be divided by 4,
the corresponding value of s should be:
A quadrupled B divided by 4 C doubled
D halved E squared
Joint variation
Up to now, we have considered relationships between two variable quantities. However, in real
life there are many situations that involve more than two variables. In such situations, where one
variable is directly proportional to the product or quotient of other variables, we say that joint
variation takes place. The variation statement is written as before, except that there will be more
than one variable on the right-hand side of the statement. For example, if one quantity, x, varies
directly as the product of two other quantities, y and z, it is said that x varies jointly as y and z
and is written as x yz, or x = kyz, where k is a constant.
WORKED EXAMPLE 13
a From the table below, state whether x varies
jointly as y and z.
y 1 2 3 4
z 2 3 4 5
x 10 30 60 100
b Establish whether
x
y
z

from the table


below.
y 1 1 2 3
z 1 2 3 4
x 5 6 8 9
THINK WRITE
a 1
Write the statement of variation. a
x yz
2
Write the equation of variation. x = kyz
3
Transpose the equation to make k the
subject.
x
yz
kyz
yz
=
k
x
yz
=
4
Substitute the values x, y and z into
the equation to nd the constant of
proportionality, k.
k k k k =

10
2 1
30
3 2
60
3 4
100
4 5
5
Evaluate k for each corresponding value of
x, y and z.
=
10
2
=
30
6
=
60
12
=
100
20
= 5 = 5 = 5 = 5
6
Compare each k value. k = 5 for each corresponding value of
x, y and z.
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Investigation
The effect of
changing one
variable on
another
7E
250
7
Answer the question. x varies jointly as y and z, that is x = 5yz.
b 1
Write the statement of variation. b
x
y
x
2
Write the equation of variation. x =
ky
z
3
Transpose the equation to make k the
subject.
z
y
x
ky
z
z
y
=
xz
y
= k
k =
xz
y
4
Substitute the values of x, y and z into
the equation to nd the constant of
proportionality, k.
k k k k =

=

=

=
5 1
1
6 2
1
8 3
2
9 4
3
5 Evaluate k for each corresponding value of
x, y and z.
=
5
1
=
12
1
=
24
2
=
36
3
= 5 = 12 = 12 = 12
6
Compare each k value. k is not consistent for each corresponding
value of x, y and z.
7
Answer the question.
x is not
y
z
.
WORKED EXAMPLE 14
The volume of a cone, V cm
3
, varies jointly as the square of its radius, r cm, and the height, h cm.
When r = 5 cm and h = 10 cm, V = 261.8 cm
3
, nd:
a the volume of a cone, when the radius is doubled and the height remains unchanged, to 2 decimal
places
b the height of the cone, when r = 12 cm and V = 2714.3 cm
3
, to 2 decimal places.
THINK WRITE
a 1
Write the statement of variation. a
V r
2
h
2
Write the equation of variation. V = kr
2
h
3 Substitute the known values of V, r and h
into the equation.
261.8 = k 5
2
10
= k 2
5
10
4
Simplify the RHS of the equation. 261.8 = 250k
5
Transpose the equation to make k the
subject.
261 8
250
250
250
.
=
k
6
Evaluate. k =
261 8
250
.
= 1.0472
7
Rewrite the equation of variation with
1.0472 in place of k.
V = 1.0472r
2
h
8
Write the values of r and h to be used and
substitute them into the given equation.
Substitute r = 10, h = 10 into V.
V = 1.0472 10
2
10
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
251 Chapter 7 Variation
9
Evaluate. = 1.0472 100 10
= 1047.2
10 Give the answer to 2 decimal places and
include the appropriate unit.
V = 1047.20 cm
3
b 1
Write the equation found in part a. b
V = 1.0472r
2
h
2
Write the values of r and V to be used and
substitute them into the given equation.
When r = 12 and V = 2714.3, h = ?
2714.3 = 1.0472 12
2
h
3
Simplify the RHS of the equation. 2714.3 = 1.0472 144h
= 150.797h
4
Transpose the equation to make h the
subject. Evaluate.
2714 3
150 79
150 797
150 797
.
.
.
.
=
h
h =
2714 3
150 797
.
.
= 17.999 7
5
Round the answer to 2 decimal places and
include the appropriate unit.
h = 18.00 cm
WORKED EXAMPLE 15
The electrical resistance, R, of a wire varies jointly as its length, l, and the
reciprocal of the square of its diameter, d. Find the percentage change in the
resistance if the length of the wire is increased by 25% and its diameter is
decreased by 20%.
THINK WRITE
1
Write the statement of variation. R
1
2
d
2
Write the equation of variation.
R =
kl
d
2
3 Write the values of the new length and
diameter.
Note: If we treat the original l and d as one
(1), then an increase of 25% (that is, 0.25)
would make the new value 1.25, whereas a
decrease of 20% (that is, 0.20) would make
the new value 0.80.
l
new
= l + 25%l d
new
= d - 20%d
= l + 0.25l = d - 0.20d
= 1.25l = 0.80d
4
Substitute the new values of l and d into the
given equation and call the new resistance R
new
.
R
new
=
k l
d
1 25
0 80
2
.
( . )
5
Simplify the RHS of the equation.
=
k l
d
1 25
0 64
2
.
.
=
1 953 125
2
. kl
d
6
Replace
kl
d
2
with R. R
new
= 1.953 125R
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int-1061
Worked example 15
252
7
Convert the decimal to a percentage by
multiplying it by 100%.
R
new
= 195.3125% of R
8
Interpret the result. The resistance has increased by 95.3125%, which is
almost double the original R.
Joint variation occurs when one variable is directly proportional to the product, or 1.
quotient, of other variables.
Regardless of the number of variables in the joint variation relationship, there is only 2.
one constant of variation, k.
REMEMBER
Joint variation
1 WE 13a For each of the following state whether x varies jointly as y and z.
a
y 1 2 3 4
b
y 2 3 4 5
z 2 3 4 5 z 1 4 4 5
x 4 12 24 40 x 6 36 48 75
c
y 2 3 5 6
d
y 4 6 8 10
z 1 2 3 4 z 2 4 5 6
x 1 3 8 12 x 2 6 10 15
2 WE 13b For each of the following establish whether
x
y
z

.
a
y 1 2 3 4
b
y 1 2 3 4
z 2 4 6 8 z 5 4 3 2
x 2 2 2 2 x 4 10 20 40
c
y 2 4 6 8
d
y 2 3 5 6
z 1 2 3 5 z 2 3 4 5
x 6 6 6 6 x 3 4 5 6
3 If it is known that m n
2
p:
a nd the constant of variation
b ll in the table at right.
4 If v
u
w
and v = 2, when u = 4 and
w = 36, what is k, the constant of variation?
Hence, ll in the table.
5 Write the equation of variation for each of the following.
a Power, P, varies directly as the square of the voltage, V, and inversely as the resistance, R.
b Power, P, varies jointly as the resistance, R, and the square of the current, I.
EXERCISE
7E
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Spreadsheet 060
Joint variation
n 3 5 6 10
p 3 6 9
m 6 18 126 450
u 3 4 5 10
w 4 16
v 9 5 6 6
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
253 Chapter 7 Variation
c Kinetic energy, E, is directly proportional to the square of the velocity, v, and the mass, m.
d Force of a circular motion, F, varies directly as the mass, m, and inversely as the radius, R.
e Frequency of a sound, f, varies directly as the square root of the tension, t, and inversely
as the square root of the mass per unit length, m.
6 WE14 The volume of a cylinder, V cm
3
, varies jointly as the square of its radius, r cm, and the
height, h cm. When r = 12 cm and h = 15 cm, V = 6785.84 cm
3
, find:
a the volume of the cylinder, when the radius is tripled and the height remains unchanged,
to 2 decimal places
b the height of the cylinder, when r = 7 cm and V = 1328.7 cm
3
, to 2 decimal places.
7 The change in potential energy,
U, varies jointly as the mass of
the object, m, and the change in
the height, h. When an object
which weighs 10 kg is lifted from
the floor to a vertical distance of
1.4 m, the object gains 140 J of
potential energy.
a Find the gain in the potential
energy when an object twice
as heavy is lifted to the height
of 1 m.
b Find the mass of the object
which gains 220.5 J of
potential energy when lifted to the height of 3.5 m.
c To what height should an object of mass 250 g be lifted, so that the change in its potential
energy reaches 75 J?
8 The energy expenditure, in joules, for various activities varies jointly as the weight, in
kilograms, of the person partaking in the activity and the time, in minutes, spent on the activity.
For instance, a girl weighing 52 kg will expend 615 J of energy when playing badminton for
half an hour.
a Alex weighs 102 kg. If he plays badminton for 2 hours, how much energy will he use?
b If Alex wants to expend 2091 J of energy, what length of time must he play for?
c Alex diets for a few months and as a result weighs considerably less. If he still wishes to
expend the same amount of energy as in part b, should his play time be longer or shorter
than before?
d Select the correct alternative in the following sentences.
i If two people engage in the same activity for the same period of time, the heavier
person will expend (more/less) energy.
ii If two people of different weight expend the same amount of energy while playing
badminton, the heavier person must play for a (longer/shorter) time.
9 WE15 The variable m varies directly as the square root of n and inversely as the square of p.
When n = 16 and p = 3, then m = 2.4.
a Write the equation which describes the
relationship between m, n and p.
b Find the value of m when n = 9 and p = 6.
c Find the value of p, which is a positive
number, when n = 441 and m = 4.536.
10 The resistance of any wire, R ohms, is directly
proportional to its length, l m, and inversely
proportional to its cross-section area, A m
2
. A
copper cable which is 800 m long and has a
254
cross-section area of 5 mm
2
(5 10

-
6
m
2
), has a resistance of 2.848 ohms.
a The constant of proportionality is called the resistivity of the material. Find the resistivity
of the copper cable.
b Find the resistance of a 4 km long copper cable which has a cross-section area of 16 mm
2
.
Questions 11 to 13 refer to the following information.
The volume of a right cone, V, varies jointly as the square of its radius, r, and its height, h.
The original cone has r = 10 cm and h = 20 cm.
11 MC A second cone has a radius which is double that of the rst cone and a height which is
half that of the rst cone. The volume of the second cone compared to the volume of the rst
cone will be:
A the same B halved C doubled D divided by 4 E quadrupled
12 MC If the volume of the original cone is approximately 2094 cubic units, then the constant
of variation is close to:
A but less than 1 B but greater than 1 C 10
D but less than 10 E but greater than 100
13 MC If the radius of the original cone is halved, what should the height be, so that the
volume remains unchanged?
A 5 cm B 10 cm C 20 cm D 40 cm E 80 cm
14 MC The frequency of a string of a musical instrument,
F, varies jointly as the square root of the tension, t, in the
string, the reciprocal of the length of the string, l, and the
reciprocal of the square root of the mass per unit length,
m. The equation that describes the relationship between
the 4 variables could not be written as:
A
F
k
l
t
m
=
B
Fl k
t
m
=
C
F
k
t
l m
= D
Fk
l
t
m
=
E
Fl
k
t
m
=
15 WE 15 The electrical resistance, R, of a wire varies
jointly as its length, l, and the reciprocal of the square
of its diameter, d. Find the percentage change in the
resistance if the length of the wire is increased by 30%
and its diameter is decreased by 15%.
16 When Casey rides his motorbike in
circles, the force of circular motion,
F, varies directly as the square of its
velocity, v, and inversely as R, the
radius of the circle. Find:
a the percentage change in force
when, while riding along the
same track, Casey:
i increases his velocity by 10%
ii decreases his velocity by 10%
b the percentage change in force
when Casey is riding around a
circle whose radius is 25% larger than that of the original
c the percentage increase in the radius, required to maintain the size of the original force,
when the velocity is increased by 15%.
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SkillSHEET 7.1
Percentage
increase and
decrease
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
255 Chapter 7 Variation
17 Coulombs Law states that the force between two charges at rest, F, is directly proportional to
the product of the charges, q
1
and q
2
, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance
between the charges, r.
a Write the equation which represents this relationship.
b What effect will the following changes have on the size of the force, F?
i The distance between the charges is doubled.
ii The distance between the charges is halved.
iii One of the charges is doubled.
iv Both charges are doubled.
Part variation
So far in this chapter, we have considered relationships in which one quantity varied as a
product or quotient of other quantities. However, relationships may also consist of two or
more parts added together. In this situation, we say that part variation takes place. When part
variation occurs, each of the parts will have its own constant of variation.
If the relationship between two variables x and y is such that y varies partly as x and is
partly constant, it is written as y = ax + b and is called part linear variation.
WORKED EXAMPLE 16
My telephone bill consists of 2 parts: a xed charge of $32 (paid whether any calls are made or not)
and a charge proportional to the number of calls made. Last quarter I made 296 calls and my bill
was $106.
a Find the equation of variation.
b Find the amount to be paid when 300 calls are made.
THINK WRITE/DISPLAY
a 1
Dene each variable to be used. a
Let A = the total amount to be paid, in dollars
Let n = the number of calls
2
Write the equation of variation. A = k n + 32
3
Substitute the values for A and n into
the equation.
When n = 296 and A = 106,
106 = 296k + 32
4
5
Rewrite the equation substituting
1
4
in
place of k.
So A =
1
4
n + 32
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WorkSHEET 7.2
7F
To solve the equation for k, on the
Main screen, tap:
Action
Advanced
solve
Complete the entry line as:
solve(106 = 296k + 32, k)
Then press E.
256
b 1
Substitute n = 300 into the given
equation.
b
When n = 300,
A =
1
4
(300) + 32
2
Evaluate. =
1
4
300 + 32
= 75 + 32
= 107
3
Answer the question and include the
appropriate unit.
The amount to be paid when 300 calls are made
is $107.
WORKED EXAMPLE 17
The variable y varies as the sum of two quantities, one of which varies directly
as x and the other inversely as x
2
. When x = 1, y =
-
17 and when x = 2, y = 1.
a Find the equation for y in terms of x. b Find y when x = 5.
THINK WRITE
a 1
Write the variation statement. a y x +
1
2
x
2
Write the equation of variation. Let a
represent the constant of variation of x
and let b represent the constant of
variation of
1
2
x
.
y = ax +
b
x
2
3
Substitute the rst set of values for x and y
into the equation and label it [1].
When x = 1, y =
-
17.
-
17 = a + b [1]
4
Substitute the second set of values for x
and y into the equation and label it [2].
When x = 2, y = 1.
1 = 2a +
b
4
[2]
5 To obtain the values of a and b, solve the
equations simultaneously.
(a) Multiply equation [2] by 4 and label it
equation [3].
[2] 4:
4 = 8a + b [3]
(b) Subtract equation [1] from equation [3]. [3] - [1]:
4 = 8a + b
-(
-
17 = a + b)
21 = 7a
(c) Divide both sides of the equation by 7.
21
7
7
7
=
a
3 = a
a = 3
6
Substitute a = 3 into equation [1]. Substituting a = 3 into [1]:
-
17 = 3 + b
7
Solve for b. Subtract 3 from both sides of
the equation.
-
17 3 = 3 3 + b
-
20 = b
b =
-
20
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int-1062
Worked example 17
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
257 Chapter 7 Variation
8 Substitute the values of a and b into the
equation of variation.
y = 3x -
20
2
x
9
Verify the answer obtained using a
CAS calculator.
b 1
Write the equation obtained in part a. b
y = 3x -
20
2
x
2
Substitute x = 5 into the given equation.
When x = 5, y = 3(5) -
20
5
2
3
Evaluate. = 15 -
20
25
= 15 - 0.8
= 14.2
4
Answer the question. When x = 5, y = 14.2.
Part variation occurs if the relationship consists of two or more parts, added together. 1.
When part variation occurs, each of the parts will have its own constant of variation.
If the relationship between two variables 2. x and y is such that y varies partly as x and is
partly constant, it is written as y = ax + b and is called linear variation.
REMEMBER
Part variation
1 Write an equation defining each of the following relationships.
a y varies as the sum of two quantities, the square of x and a constant.
b l varies partly as the square root of m and partly as the cube root of n.
c y varies partly as the reciprocal of x and partly as a constant.
d y varies as the sum of two quantities, the cube of x and the square of z.
2 WE 16 My telephone bill consists of two parts: a fixed charge of $48 (paid whether any calls
are made or not) and a charge proportional to the number of calls made. Last quarter I made
400 calls and my bill was $232.
a Find the equation of variation
b Find the amount to be paid when 440 calls are made.
3 Lana and Michael are planning their engagement party. They found that the cost of the party
consists of two parts: a fixed charge for renting the reception hall and hiring the band, and a
charge for food proportional to the number of people who are invited. They were told that if
100 people were invited, the cost would be $4500, while if 150 people were invited, the cost
would be $5750.
a Determine the cost of the xed charge.
b Find the equation which relates the total cost of the party, C, and the number of people, n.
c Find the cost if 120 people are invited.
d Represent the situation graphically.
4 Janus knows that the cost of producing French bread at home (using a breadmaker) consists
of two parts: a fixed part, which represents the cost of the breadmaker, and the cost of the
ingredients, which is proportional to the number of loaves made. It costs him $243 to make
20 loaves and $299 to make 100 loaves.
EXERCISE
7F
258
a Find the cost of the breadmaker.
b Find the cost of our and other ingredients necessary to produce each loaf.
c Find the cost of making 500 loaves.
d If Janus sells the French bread to the local cafe at $2.50 per loaf, nd the number of
loaves that he must produce in order to make a prot.
5 The cost of a health program, not including the cost of vitamins and other supplements, is
partly constant and partly varies with the number of weeks a customer wishes to stay on the
program. It costs $501 for 12 weeks and $633 for 18 weeks.
a Find the cost of being on the program for 16 weeks.
b Find the number of weeks a customer was on the program, if she paid a total of $721.
c If every new client must pay an initial joining fee and then pay a health consultant for
each weekly visit, state the amount of the joining fee and the amount charged by the
consultant for each visit.
6 MC The relationship between two variables, m and n, is described by a linear variation. If
m = 10.5 when n = 3, such a relationship could be represented by:
A
m n = +
2
1
2
1
B m
n
= +
9
7
1
2
C
m n n = +
2
1
2
D
n m = +
2
5
6
5
E m - 3 = 2.5n
7 The relationship between the velocity of the body, v, and the time, t, is described by part linear
variation. The velocity of the body moving in a straight line with uniform acceleration is
20 m/s after 5 seconds and is 26 m/s 3 seconds later. Find:
a the equation of linear variation
b the initial velocity
c the velocity when t = 28
d the time when the velocity is 34 m/s.
8 WE17 The variable y varies as the sum of two quantities, one of which varies directly as the
square of x and the other inversely as x. When x = 2, y = 11, and when x = 4, y = 47.5.
a Find the equation for y in terms of x.
b Find y when i x = 5 ii x =
1
3
.
9 The variable y varies as the sum of two quantities, x
2
and a constant. When x = 2, y = 5 and
when x = 1, y = 2.
a Find the equation for y in terms of x by rst nding the values of the two constants.
b Find y when x =
1
3
.
10 The variable m varies partly as n and partly as the cube of n. When n = 2, m = 14 and when n =
-
1,
m =
-
5.5. Find the equation defining this relation and hence find the value of m when n = 4.
11 The variable y varies partly as the reciprocal of x and partly as a constant. When x = 5, y = 6
and when x = 10, y = 4.5.
a Find the equation for y in terms of x.
b Find y when x = 12.
c Find x when y = 30.
12 MC The relationship between two variables p and r is given by the following formula:
r a p
b
p
= +
. The variable r = 6.25 when p = 4 and r =
-
17 when p = 1.
a The value of a is:
A 6 B
-
20 C
20
3
D
-
23 E
-
3
b The value of b is:
A 6 B
-
20 C
20
3
D
-
23 E
-
3
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SkillSHEET 7.2
Removing a
fraction
from a linear
equation
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
259 Chapter 7 Variation
c When p = 25, r is equal to:
A 30.92 B 32 C 29.08
D 34 E 30
d If r is equal to 59.77, p is equal to:
A 36 B 49 C 64
D 81 E 100
13 The owner of a fancy dress store is making Halloween hats of a conical
shape. The area of the material needed varies partly as radius of the hat
and partly as the square of the radius. To make a hat with a radius of
8 cm, 703.36 cm
2
of cardboard is needed, while for a hat of radius
10 cm, 942 cm
2
of cardboard is needed.
a Find the equation which connects the two variables.
b Find the area of the cardboard required to make a Halloween hat of
radius:
i 9 cm ii 11 cm.
Transformation of data
As shown in the rst section of this chapter, when one quantity varies
directly as the other, the graph representing the relationship is a straight
line passing through the origin. We also observed that when graphed,
the data may sometimes give the curves of a parabola, hyperbola,
cubic and so on. However, when data are transformed appropriately,
they will produce the graph of a straight line. By analysing the transformation which the
values undergo, in order to produce a straight line graph, it is possible to establish relationships
between the variables.
WORKED EXAMPLE 18
The following table shows the values of the total surface area, TSA, of spheres and their
corresponding radii, r.
Radius (r) (cm) 1 2 3 4 5
TSA (cm
2
) 12.57 50.27 113.1 201.06 314.16
Graph the values given in the table and comment on the shape of the graph. Using the graph, or
otherwise, nd the equation which relates total surface area of the sphere, TSA, and its radius r.
THINK WRITE/DISPLAY
1
7G
eBookplus eBookplus
Interactivity
int-0974
Transformation
of data
On the Statistics screen, enter values and
label list1: radius and list2: tsa.
260
2
3
Comment on the graph obtained. The graph is not a straight line, passing through the
origin, so direct variation does not exist between
the two variables. Hence, there is no direct variation
between the radius and the total surface area of the
sphere.
4
Make assumptions about the graph obtained. The graph resembles a parabola, so it is reasonable
to assume that area is directly proportional to the
square of the radius.
5
Write the variation statement for the
assumption made.
TSA r
2
6
Write the variation equation. TSA = kr
2
7
Transpose the equation to make k the subject. k =
TSA
r
2
8
9
Comment on the result obtained. The ratio is constant for each corresponding pair
(when rounded to 2 decimal places).
Hence, TSA r
2
TSA = kr
2
TSA = 12.57r
2
10 Alternatively, once the values of r
2
have been
calculated, rule up a table of values and plot
TSA versus r
2
.
r
2
1 4 9 16 25
TSA 12.57 50.27 113.1 201.06 314.16
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
To nd the rule of the data and to graph it,
tap:
Calc
Power Reg
Set:
XList: main\radius
YList: main\tsa
Freq: 1
Copy Formula: y1
OK
Open the Graph & Tab screen and tap $.
Test the assumption by nding the values of r
2
and check that the ratio
TSA
r
2
is constant.
On the Spreadsheet screen, label column A: r,
column B: tsa and column C: tsa / r
2
.
Enter the data in columns A and B.
In cell C2, complete the entry line:
= B2/(A2)^2
Then press E.
To ll down, highlight C2 to C6 and tap:
Edit
Fill Range
OK
261 Chapter 7 Variation
11 Comment on the graph obtained.
TSA
r
2
300
200
100
014 9 16 25
The graph is a straight line, passing through the
origin.
12 Establish the value of k by substituting
any pair of values from the table into the
equation of variation and write the equation
relating the two variables.
TSA = kr
2
When r = 1, TSA = 12.57, k = ?
12.57 = k 1
12.57 = k
k = 12.57
TSA = 12.57r
2
If the data when plotted give a curve, aim to transform them in such a way that a 1.
straight line is produced.
Once this has been achieved, establish the relationship between the variables by 2.
analysing the transformation.
REMEMBER
Transformation of data
1 WE 18 The data in the table at right follow a
particular variation relationship.
a Graph the values given in the table and
comment on the shape of the graph.
b Using the graph, or otherwise, nd the equation which relates the two variables, x and y.
2 The data in the table below follow a particular variation relationship.
x 1 2 4 5 10 12.5
y 100 50 25 20 10 8
a Plot the graph of y versus x and comment on its shape.
b Plot the graph of y versus
1
x
and
1
2
x
and hence establish
the relationship between the two variables.
c Find the equation which relates the two variables, x and y.
3 The following table shows the volumes, V, of 6 spheres, to the nearest cm
3
, with various
diameters, D.
D (cm) 22 26 30 34 38 42
V (cm
3
) 5575 9203 14 137 20 580 28 731 38 792
a Graph the values given in the table and comment on the shape of the graph.
EXERCISE
7G
x 1 2 3 4 5
y 1.76 7.04 15.84 28.16 44
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Spreadsheet 133
Transformation of data
262
b Using the graph, or otherwise, nd the equation which relates the volume of a sphere,
V, to its diameter, D. (Give the value of the constant of variation correct to 4 decimal
places.)
4 The data in the table below follows a particular variation relationship.
x 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
y 5 5.60 5.95 6.20 6.40 6.56 6.69 6.81 6.91 7
a Graph the values given in the table and comment on its shape.
b If the relationship between the two variables x and y is given by the formula
y = a log
10
(x) + b, determine the values of the constants a and b.
5 MC The graph represents the relationship between m and n. It is
likely that:
A n m B n m
2
C n m
3

D n
m

1
E n
m
6 MC If s t
2
, the relationship between s and t could be shown by:
A
s
t 0
B
s
t 0
C
t
s 0
D
s
t 0
E
s
t 0
7 As part of her Science project, Julia tested the reaction
times of 10 people (the subjects), using the experiment
outlined below.
Julia holds a 30-cm ruler from the end labelled 30 cm.
The subject, whose reaction time is being recorded, keeps
his or her ngers open at the other end of the ruler, level
with the 0-cm mark of the scale. Subjects close their
ngers on the ruler as soon as they see that it has been
released. The distance, d cm, that the ruler falls is noted
and the reaction time, t, is calculated according to a certain
formula. The table shows the reaction times calculated for
the 10 subjects, using the distances the ruler fell before
each had closed their ngers on it.
Person 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
d (cm) 3 7 15 5.5 12 21 4.5 6 11 17
t (s) 0.0779 0.1191 0.1743 0.1055 0.1559 0.2062 0.0955 0.1102 0.1492 0.1855
a Use a CAS calculator to plot values of t against d and comment on the result.
b Use a CAS calculator to plot the graphs of t versus d
2
and t versus
d
and comment on
the results.
c Analyse the graphs obtained in part b and hence nd the rule which relates reaction time,
t, with the distance, d.
d Use the equation from part c to calculate the reaction time if the distance the ruler falls is
20 cm.
n
m 0
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
263 Chapter 7 Variation
SUMMARY
Direct variation
For any two variables x and y, where y varies directly as x:
The ratio between any pair of corresponding values, 1.
y
k
, is constant and equal to k, the constant of
proportionality (or constant of variation).
The graph, which represents the variables 2. x and y, is a straight line passing through the origin with the
gradient equal to k.
As one variable increases, the other variable also increases. 3.
The notation used to express y varies directly as x is given by: y x.
There are many cases of direct variation, where variables are raised to powers other than one, that is, y x
n
.
Inverse variation
For any two variables x and y, where y varies inversely as x:
One variable increases as the other decreases. 1.
Neither variable is equal to 0. 2.
The product of any pair of corresponding values, 3. xy, is constant and equal to k.
The graph which represents the relationship is a hyperbola. 4.
The notation used to express y varies inversely as x is given by y
k
x
= , where k R\{0} and x R\{0}.
Inverse variation exists between variables raised to powers other than one, y
1
x
n
.
Joint variation
Joint variation occurs when one variable is directly proportional to the product, or quotient, of other
variables.
Regardless of the number of variables in the joint variation relationship, there is only one constant of
variation, k.
Part variation
Part variation occurs if the relationship consists of two or more parts, added together. When part variation
occurs, each of the parts will have its own constant of variation. For example, y ax
b
x
= +
2
, where a and b
are constants.
If the relationship between two variables x and y is such that y varies partly as x and is partly constant, it is
written as y = ax + b, where a and b are constants and is called a part linear variation.
Solving variation problems
To solve any type of variation problem, follow these steps:
Write the statement of variation. 1.
Write the equation of variation. 2.
Substitute known values to nd the constant of proportionality, 3. k.
Find all unknown values as required in the given problem. 4.
Transformation of data
If data when plotted give a curve, aim to transform them in such a way that a straight line is produced. Once
this is achieved, establish the relationship between the variables by analysing the transformation.
264
CHAPTER REVIEW
SHORT ANSWER
1 Work done, W joules, on a mass by a certain force
is directly proportional to the distance, d m, the
mass is moved. When a 3 kg mass is moved a
distance of 4 m, the work done is equal to
84 joules. Find:
a the constant of proportionality
b the work done, when the same mass is moved a
distance of 12 m
c the distance the mass was moved, if the work
done on the 3 kg mass is 136.5 joules.
2 The total surface area, TSA cm
2
, of a cube is
directly proportional to the square of its length, l m.
If a cube of length 4 cm has a total surface area of
96 cm
2
, find:
a the constant of proportionality
b the total surface area of a cube of length 12 cm
c the length of a cube which has a total surface
area of 384 cm
2
.
3 The table below represents the relationship y
x

1
.
Find:
x 5 6 12
y 19.2 8
a the constant of proportionality
b the missing values.
4 The intensity of sound, I, is inversely proportional
to the area of the source of sound. If I = 0.6 W/m
2

when the sound passes through the rectangular
opening measuring 4 m by 8 m, find:
a the intensity of the sound for:
i a square opening with a side length of 2 m
ii a rectangular opening with a length of 7 m
by 3 m
b the length of the side of a square opening, if
the sound passing through it has an intensity of
1.2 W/m
2
.
5 Power, P, is the rate of doing work. It varies directly
as the work done, W, and inversely as time, t.
a What type of variation is involved?
b Write the statement of variation.
c What will be the effect on P, when time during
which the work is done, is:
i doubled?
ii tripled?
d From question 1 we know that W varies
directly as the distance, d. What would be the
effect on P if the mass is moved over twice the
distance in:
i twice the time? ii half the time?
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1 If m n and (n
1
, m
1
) and (n
2
, m
2
) represent
corresponding values, which of the following
equalities is not true?
A n
1
m
1
= n
2
m
2
B n
1
m
2
= n
2
m
1
C
m
n
m
n
1
1
2
2
=
D
m
m
n
n
2
1
2
1
= E
n
n
m
m
1
2
1
2
=
2 Variable a is directly proportional to b, and a = 12
when b = 48. When b = 10, a will equal:
A 40 B 5
C 2.5
D 2 E 1
3 If y is directly proportional to x and x is quadrupled,
then the value of y is:
A doubled B tripled
C quadrupled
D halved E divided by 4
4 Which of the following tables represent the
relationship between x and y, such that y
x
?
A
x 4 9
B
x 4 16
y 6 12 y 6 16
C
x 9 16
D
x 4 25
y 12 16 y 8 10
E
x 9 25
y 9 20
5 Which of the following relationships could be
represented by this graph?
m
n 0
A m n B m
n
C m n
2
D m n and m n
2
E none of these
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
265 Chapter 7 Variation
6 The total surface area, TSA, of a particular
3-dimensional shape is directly proportional to the
square of the side, s, and TSA = 24 when s = 2.
When s = 11, the total surface area is:
A 66 B 726
C 132
D 121 E 847
7 If a b
3
and b is doubled, then the value
of a will be:
A multiplied by
1
2
B unchanged
C multiplied by 2 D multiplied by 4
E multiplied by 8
8 The graphs which show an inverse variation
between the variables a and b are:
i
b
a 0
ii
b
a
1


iii
b
a 0
A i only B ii only C i and ii
D ii and iii E iii only
9 If m varies inversely as n, which of the following
statements is false?
A The graph of m versus n is a hyperbola.
B The product of any 2 corresponding values of
m and n is constant.
C The quotient
m
n
of any two corresponding
values is constant.
D The graph of m against
1
n
is a straight line.
E For any corresponding values
n
n
m
m
1
2
2
1
= .
10 If y varies inversely as x and x is tripled, then the
value of y is:
A multiplied by 3 B divided by 3
C divided by
1
3
D multiplied by 9
E divided by 9
11 The variable r varies inversely as the square of s and
is represented by the vertical axis. For the resulting
graph to be a straight line, directed from the origin,
the horizontal axis must be represented by:
A s B s
2
C
1
s
D
1
2
s
E
1
s
Questions 12 and 13 refer to the table below.
m 4 9 16
p 6 4 3
12 The table of values represents the variation
relationship:
A p m B p
1
m
C p m
2
D p
1
2
m
E p
1
m
13 The gradient of the straight line shown in the
diagram is equal to:
p
1
m
A 3 16 B 3 4 C
3
16
D
3
4
E none of these
14 The variable y varies jointly as x, the square root
of z and as the reciprocal of the square of w.
The equation which does not describe the above
variation relationship is:
A y
kx z
w
=
2
B kx z w y =
2
C kx
yw
z
=
2
D
z
yw
kx
=
2
E w kxy z
2
=
15 The variable x varies jointly as the square of b and
the cube of c. When b is doubled and c is halved, x is:
A halved B doubled C divided by 8
D quadrupled E multiplied by 8
16 The height of a cylinder, h, is directly proportional
to its volume, V, and inversely proportional to the
square of its radius, r. When V = 15.7 and r = 1, the
height is equal to 5. The constant of proportionality
k is closest to:
A 3 B
1
3
C 9
D
1
9
E 5
266
17 Which of the following graphs represents a part
linear variation between x and y?
i
y
x
ii
y
x
iii
y
x 0
A i only B ii only C iii only
D i and iii E i, ii and iii
18 m and n are related by a part nonlinear variation.
The equation which could represent such a
relationship is:
A m = 2 - 3n B m = 6 + n + 2n
C m + n = 12.5 D m = n - 0.5n
2
E m
n
n
n = +
3
2
19 The table below shows the corresponding values
of x and y, such that y ax
b
x
= +
2
.
x 1 2
y
-
11 6
The respective values of a and b are:
A 3,
-
20 B 20,
-
3 C 5,
-
16
D 5, 16 E 16,
-
5
20
p 2 7 10 5
t 12 147 300 75
When plotted, the data from this table produce the
graph shown above right. The transformation which
should be applied to the data, in order to produce a
straight line passing through the origin is:
t
p 0
A squaring each value of p
B squaring each value of t
C taking the square root of each value of p
D taking the reciprocal of each value of p
E none of the above transformations
21 For a particular set of data, plotting y against
x

produced a straight line passing through the origin.
Before the transformation, the graph representing
the data would have been:
A
y
x 0
B
y
x 0
C
y
x
D
y
x
E
y
x
EXTENDED RESPONSE
1 A compound microscope contains 2 lenses: an objective lens and
an eyepiece lens. The angular magnification, M, of such a microscope
varies directly as the distance between the two lenses, L, and
inversely as the product of the focal length of the objective lens, f
o

and focal length of the eyepiece lens, f
e
. M = 2.508
when L = 12 cm, f
o
= 52 cm and f
e
= 2.3 cm.
a Find, correct to the nearest whole number, the constant of
variation, k, and hence deduce the formula which relates the
4 variables.
b Use the formula to nd the angular magnication of a
microscope with L = 10 cm, f
o
= 48 cm and f
e
= 3.5 cm, correct
to 3 decimal places.
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
267 Chapter 7 Variation
2 Solids expand when they are heated. The length of a steel rod, l, after it has been heated is partly constant and
partly varies directly as the change in temperature, T , that took place during the heating process. A 20 m
long rod expands by 4.8 mm after it has been exposed to a 20 degrees change in temperature.
a State the length of the rod, in metres, after it has been heated.
b Find the equation which relates the length of the expanded steel rod, l, to the change in temperature, T.
c If the constant of variation represents the product of the length of the rod before it has been heated and
the coefcient of thermal expansion, l, nd the value of l for the steel. Write the value obtained in
scientic notation.
3
x 1 4 9 16 25
y
3
20
2
2
5
12
3
20
38
2
5
93
3
4
For the data in the above table, plot:
i y versus x
ii y versus x
2
iii y versus x.
a From the plotted data determine which variation is being represented.
b Use the table of values or the appropriate graph from part a to nd the relationship between x and y.
4 The data in the table below follow a particular variation relationship.
p 1 2 4 6 8 10
V 114 57 28.5 19 14.25 11.4
a Plot the graph of V versus p and comment on its shape.
b Using the graph or otherwise, nd the equation which relates the two variables p and V.
c Use the result obtained in part b to complete the following sentence which describes this particular
variation relationship, also known as Boyles Law.
For a given mass of gas at constant temperature, the volume, V, varies _____________ with the
pressure, p.
5 The magnification, M, produced by a lens is related jointly to the distance of the object from the lens, u cm,
and the distance of the image from the lens, v cm.
Table A shows the values of magnication of the image of the object, when u varies and v is xed.
Table B shows the values of magnication of the image of the object, when v varies and u is xed.
Table A
u 1 2 4 5
M
-
40
-
20
-
10
-
8
Table B
v 6 10 12 20 24
M
-
1
2
-
5
6
-
1
-
1
2
3
-
2
a Plot the values from table A and comment on the shape of the graph.
b Use the graph to select the most appropriate relationship between the variables M and u, from the
following: M u
2
, M u or M
1
u
.
c Test your assumption either numerically or graphically.
If your assumption proved to be incorrect, repeat b and c; otherwise proceed to d.
d Plot the values from table B and comment on the shape of the graph.
268
e Complete the following statement: M varies ______ as v.
f If it is known that M, u and v are related by joint variation and the constant of variation is
-
1, deduce the
formula which connects the 3 variables. (Hint: Make magnication, M, the subject.)
6 The kinetic energy, E, of a car is related to the speed, v, the car travels and the mass, m. Table A shows values
of kinetic energy, E, for several cars of different mass for a certain fixed value of speed.
Table A
E (joules) 695 556 772 840 850 124 927 408 1 000 692
m (kg) 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600
a Plot the graphs of m versus E, m versus E
2
and m versus
1
E
.
From your graphs decide on the type of variation that exists between E and m.
b Prove your answer to part a using a numerical method.
Table B shows values of speed, v, for the cars with different mass, m, for a certain xed value of kinetic
energy.
Table B
v (m/s) 29.3 27.8 26.5 25.4 24.4
m (kg) 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600
c Plot the graph of m versus v. What type of variation does the shape of the graph suggest?
d Plot the graphs of m versus
1
v
, m versus
1
2
v
, m versus
1
v
.
From your graphs, write the variation statement for the relationship between m and v.
e Complete the following statement: E varies _____ as m and _____ as _____ of v.
f If m = 2000 kg when v = 30.2 m/s and E = 912 040 J, nd the constant of variation, k, and hence write
the formula relating m, v and E.
g Use your formula to nd the value of kinetic energy when the car weighing 2100 kg travels with the
speed of 135 km/h. (Hint: Convert the speed into metres per second rst.)
7 The electrical resistance, R, of a wire varies jointly as its length, l, and the reciprocal of the square of its
diameter, d.
a Write the statement of variation.
b Find the constant of proportionality and complete the table of values below.
R 12 15 20
l 0.8 0.5 3.75 1
d 4 3 2 5
k
c Use the results obtained in parts a and b to nd the equation which relates the electrical resistance of the
wire to its length and diameter.
d i If l is doubled and d remains the same, what happens to the value of R?
ii If l remains the same and d is doubled, what happens to the value of R?
iii If both l and d are doubled, what happens to the value of R?
e i If l is decreased by 20% and d is decreased by 60%, determine whether the value
of R increases or decreases and by what amount.
ii If l is decreased by 10% and d is increased by 20%, determine whether the value
of R increases or decreases and by what amount.
f If l is decreased by 75%, what change must be made to d for R to remain unchanged?
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc
Test Yourself
Chapter 7
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
269 Chapter 7 Variation
eBookplus eBookplus ACTIVITIES
Chapter opener
Digital doc
10 Quick Questions: Warm up with ten quick
questions on variation. (page 218)
7A Direct variation
Tutorial
WE3 int-1057: Watch how to calculate distance
travelled and the travel time of a person whose
distance travelled varies directly with time.
(page 223)
7B Further direct variation
Tutorial
WE7 int-1058: Watch how to calculate the effect on
the area of a square when the sides are doubled and
halved. (page 230)
Digital doc
Spreadsheet 133: Investigate transforming data.
(page 231)
7C Inverse variation
Tutorial
WE10 int-1059: Watch how to use variation to
determine costs of prizes. (page 239)
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 7.1: Use provided data to establish
direct variation, provide data from a proposed direct
variation, solve worded problems, establish direct
variation graphically, use provided data to establish
inverse variation and provide data from a proposed
inverse variation. (page 244)
7D Further inverse variation
Tutorial
WE12 int-1060: Watch how to nd the effect on
dependent variables when independent variables are
doubled. (page 245)
Digital doc
Investigation: The effect of changing one variable on
another. (page 249)
7E Joint variation
Tutorial
WE15 int-1061: Watch how to nd the percentage
change in resistance if wire length is varied.
(page 251)
Digital docs
Spreadsheet 060: Investigate joint variation.
(page 252)
SkillSHEET 7.1: Practise percentage increase and
decrease. (page 254)
WorkSHEET 7.2: Determine both direct and inverse
variation numerically and graphically and solve
more complex worded problems. (page 255)
7F Part variation
Tutorial
WE17 int-1062: Watch how to nd the equation given
how one variable varies with another. (page 256)
Digital doc
SkillSHEET 7.2: Practise removing a fraction from
a linear equation. (page 258)
7G Transformation of data
Interactivity
Transformation of data int-0974: Consolidate your
understanding of transformation of data. (page 259)
Digital doc
Spreadsheet 133: Investigate transforming data.
(page 261)
Chapter review
Digital doc
Test Yourself: Take the end-of-chapter test to test
your progress. (page 268)
To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to
www.jacplus.com.au
270
EXAM PRACTICE 2
CHAPTERS 4 TO 7
SHORT ANSWER 20 minutes
1 Simplify
2
3 1
5
2 1 ( ) ( ) x x -
-
+
. 3 marks
2 Solve the following pair of simultaneous equations
for x and y.
ax + by = c
x y = d 3 marks
3
1
2 1 ( ) -
and
1
2 2 ( ) +
are the first two terms in an
arithmetic sequence. Determine the value of the
common difference. 3 marks
4 A circular pendant is being made for a necklace. It
is to be made using two different materials.
Copper plate

Gold metal
The diagram above shows the two different
sections for the pendant. If the area of gold metal
is
A = - 2 3 3
cm
2
and the angle =

3
and
sin ( ) =
3
2
, show that the radius is
2 3
.
4 marks
MULTIPLE CHOICE 10 minutes
Each question is worth 1 mark.
1
2x
5.2
3.4
The value of x in the triangle above is closest to:
A 20.42
B 24.58
C 40.83
D 49.17
E 98.34
2 The relationship between m and n is such that
m
1
n
, when n =
1
3
the value of m = 7.2. If
m = 9.8, the value of n will be closest to:
A 0.245 B 0.454 C 2.204
D 3.267 E 4.083
3
7
6
25 cm
The diagram above shows the dimensions of a
decorative glass insert for a door. The glass panel
is divided into four equal sections. Each section
of glass is stained a different colour. The area, in
cm
2
, of each section is closest to:
A 204.53 B 286.34 C 490.87
D 818.12 E 1145.37
4 Tina starts her new fitness schedule. On the first
day she walks 2 km. The next day she walks 3 km.
On day 3, she walks 4.5 km and on day 4 she walks
6 km. If Tina continues to increase the distance
she walks in this pattern for 7 more days, the total
distance, in km, she would have walked would be:
A 54.5 B 87.5 C 97.5
D 99.5 E 104.5
5 During her weekly grocery shopping, Sian buys
2 loaves of bread and 3 litres of milk for $10.50. The
next week she buys 3 loaves of bread and 4 litres
of milk for $14.95. The next week, Sian is having
a barbecue for her friends. The amount of money it
will cost Sian to buy 5 loaves of bread will be:
A $8.00 B $10.50 C $10.60
D $14.25 E $22.25
6 The volume of a cylinder varies jointly as the
square of the radius and the height. The radius is
decreased by 20% and the height is increased by
10%. The percentage change in the volume is a:
A 4.4% increase
B 12.0% decrease
C 29.6% decrease
D 70.4% increase
E 88.0% increase
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
271 271 Exam practice 2
EXTENDED RESPONSE 30 minutes
1 Theo is raising money for a childrens charity. He plans to cycle from Melbourne to Sydney along the coastal
road, a total distance of 1110 km.
Before he begins, Theo plans his rest stops each day. On the rst day he plans to cycle for 50 km before
stopping for a rest. He then plans to stop for a rest after every 25 km he cycles.
a If he continues to follow this plan for the total distance between Melbourne and Sydney, determine the
number of rest stops he will need. 2 marks
Theo plans to cycle 100 km each day. After 500 km, he suffers an injury to his foot and can only manage to
cycle 85% of the previous days total distance.
b If the daily distance cycled by Theo continues to follow this pattern, will he reach Sydney? Justify your
answer with appropriate calculations. 3 marks
2 After his first 300 km, Theo has a rest day. He decides to walk to the lookout on top of the hill behind
the hotel he is staying in. He leaves his hotel and sets out on a bearing of 030T and walks the 3.5 km to
the lookout.
a Determine how far north Theo is from the hotel. Write your answer in exact form. 2 marks
After walking 3.5 km to the lookout, Theo decides to follow another path down the hill. He sets out on a
bearing of 135T and walks 4.5 km to the road.
Lookout
3.5 km
Hotel
4.5 km
135
30

b Show that equals 75. 1 mark
c Determine the minimum distance, in km, Theo has to walk to return to the hotel. Write your answer
correct to 2 decimal places. 2 marks
Theo would like to determine the vertical distance the lookout is from the hotel. He takes some
measurements during his hike. He determines the angle of elevation from his point A to the top of the
lookout is 15.20. He walks 2 km towards the hill to point B and determines the angle of elevation to the
top of the lookout to be 32.35. The diagram below represents Theos measurements.
Lookout
15.20
A
B 2 km x km
y km
32.35
d If the distance from point B to the vertical base of the lookout is dened as x and the vertical height of
the lookout is dened as y, show that y = 2 tan (15.2) + x tan (15.2). 2 marks
e Determine the height, in m, of the lookout. Write your answer correct to the nearest metre. 3 marks
eBookplus eBookplus
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Solutions
Exam practice 2
8A Polynomial identities
8B Partial fractions
8C Simultaneous equations
8
272
AREAS OF STUDY
The solution of simultaneous equations arising from the intersection of a line with a parabola, circle or
rectangular hyperbola using algebra
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc
10 Quick Questions
Further algebra
Polynomial identities
Before discussing the denition of a polynomial identity, it is important to remember some basic
denitions.
An algebraic expression is made up of terms.
In the term ax
n
, a is referred to as the coefcient of x
n
.
A constant is a term with no variable beside it.
For example 2x
3
+ 3 is an algebraic expression made up of two terms. The coeffcient of
x
3
is 2. The constant is 3.
A polynomial identity is an identity of the form:
k
n
x
n
+ k
n - 1
x
n - 1
+ k
n - 2
x
n - 2
+ . . . . . + k
1
x + k
0
, n N
where k
n
, k
n - 1
. . . are constants and n is an element of the set of natural numbers N.
The degree of a polynomial is given by the highest value of n. Hence a polynomial of degree 1
is linear, of degree 2 is a quadratic, of degree 3 is a cubic, of degree 4 is a quartic and so on.
WORKED EXAMPLE 1
Which of the following are polynomials? Give reasons for your answers.
a x
3
+ 2x
2
+ 1 b x +
1
x
c (2x + 6)
5
THINK WRITE
a In order for x
3
+ 2x
2
+ 1 to be a polynomial,
the powers must all be greater than or equal to
0, which they are. The highest power of x is 3.
a
x
3
+ 2x
2
+ 1 is a polynomial of degree 3 since it has
descending powers of x and these powers are all
greater than or equal to zero, i.e. n N.
b In order for x +
1
x
to be a polynomial, the
powers must all be greater than or equal to 0,
which they are not.
b This is not a polynomial since the second term has
a power of
-
1.
8A
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
273 Chapter 8 Further algebra
c In order for (2x + 6)
5
to be a polynomial, the
powers must all be greater than or equal to 0,
which they are. The highest power of x is 5.
c This is a polynomial of degree 5, since when
expanded, it has n N.
Two polynomials are said to be equal if each x-value generates the same y-value. Polynomials are
identical if they are of the same degree and corresponding coefcients are equal. Therefore, if:
ax
3
+ bx
2
+ cx + d = 2x
3
- 4x + 8
then a = 2, b = 0, c =
-
4 and d = 8.
If two polynomials are known to be equal, then the process of equating coeffcients can be
used to solve problems.
WORKED EXAMPLE 2
If 5x
3
+ 2x
2
- 7x + 1 = (2 a + b)x
3
- ax
2
-(b - c) x + 1, then nd the values of a, b and c.
THINK WRITE
Method 1: Technology-free
1
If 5x
3
+ 2x
2
- 7x + 1 =
(2a + b)x
3
- ax
2
- (b - c)x + 1, then the each
corresponding term must be equal. Equate the
terms.
5x
3
= (2a + b)x
3


5 = 2a + b [1]
2x
2


=
-
ax
2
2 =
-
a

-
2 = a [2]
-
7x =
-
(b - c)x

-
7 =
-
(b - c)
7 = b - c [3]
2
Solve these equations using substitution. Substituting a =
-
2 into equation [1] gives
2(
-
2) + b = 5
b = 9
Substituting b = 9 into equation [3] gives
9 - c = 7
c = 2
3
Write the answer. a =
-
2, b = 9 and c = 2
Method 2: Technology-enabled
1
2
Write the answer. a =
-
2, b = 9 and c = 2
On the Main screen, using the soft keyboard, tap:
)
{N
Enter the equations as shown.
Then press E.
274

WORKED EXAMPLE 3
Determine values of a and b if m
4
+ 4 = (m
2
+ am + 2)(m
2
+ bm + 2).
THINK WRITE
1
The right-hand side must frst be expanded. m
4
+ 4 = m
4
+ bm
3
+ 2m
2
+ am
2
+ abm
2
+ 2am +
2m
2
+ 2bm + 4
= m
4
+ (b + a)m
3
+ (4 + ab)m
2
+ (2a + 2b)m + 4
2
Equate the coefcients.
The coefcients of m
3
, m
2
,
and m are zero.
0m
3
= (b + a)m
3
0 = b + a [1]
0m
2
= (4 + ab)m
2
0 = 4 + ab [2]
0m = (2a +2b)m
0 = 2a + 2b [3]
3
Solve for a and b. From equation [1],
b =
-
a
Substitute b =
-
a into equation [2]
0 = 4 - a
2
a
2
= 4
a = 2
a = 2 or a =
-
2
and
b =
-
2 b = 2
4
Write the answer. When a = 2, b =
-
2 and when a =
-
2, b = 2.
WORKED EXAMPLE 4
If x - 4 is a factor of x
3
- 6x
2
+ 2x + 24, nd the other factor.
THINK WRITE
Method 1: Technology-free
1
Since the expression x
3
- 6x
2
+ 2x + 24 is
cubic, the other factor must be a quadratic,
hence it is of the form ax
2
+ bx + c.
x
3
- 6x
2
+ 2x + 24 = (x - 4)(ax
2
+ bx + c)
RHS = ax
3
+ bx
2
+ cx - 4ax
2
- 4bx - 4c
= ax
3
+ (b - 4a)x
2
+ (c - 4b)x - 4c
2
Equate the coefcients. x
3
= ax
3
1 = a [1]
-
6x
2
= (b - 4a)x
2

-
6 = b - 4a [2]
2x = (c - 4b)x
2 = c - 4b [3]
3
Solve for a, b and c. Substitute a = 1 into equation [2]
-
6 = b - 4a
b =
-
2
Substitute b =
-
2 into equation [3]
2 = c - 4b
c =
-
6
eBookplus eBookplus
Tutorial
int-1063
Worked example 4
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
275 Chapter 8 Further algebra
4 Substitute the values for a, b and c into
ax
2
+ bx + c and write the answer.
When a = 1, b =
-
2 and c =
-
6 then the quadratic factor
of x
3
- 6x
2
+ 2x + 24 is x
2
- 2x - 6.
Method 2: Technology-enabled
1
2
Write the answer. The quadratic factor of x
3
- 6x
2
+ 2x + 24 is x
2
- 2x - 6.
A 1. polynomial identity is an identity of the form
k
n
x
n
+ k
n - 1
x
n - 1
+ k
n - 2
x
n - 2
+ . . . . . + k
1
x + k
0
, n N
where k
n
, k
n - 1
. . . are constants and n is an element of the set of natural numbers N.
The degree of a polynomial is given by the highest value of 2. n.
Polynomials are identical if they are of the same degree and corresponding coeffcients 3.
are equal.
If two polynomials are known to be equal, then the process of equating coeffcients can 4.
be used to solve problems.
REMEMBER
Polynomial identities
1 WE 1 For each of the following expressions:
i state whether or not it is a polynomial
ii if yes to i then give its degree.
a 2x
4
+ 1 b
2
3
x
+ x
2
+ 3 c (3x
2
+ 2)
3
d
x x
x
3
2 +
2 WE 2 Find the values of a, b and c if
(2a + b) x
3
+ (b - c) x
2
+ (a + 2c) x + 5 = 3x
3
- 5x
2
+ 10x + 5.
3 Find the values of a, b and c if
x
3
+ 2x
2
- 13x + 16 = (x - 2)(ax
2
+ bx + c) + 6.
4 Find constants a, b given that
2x
3
- 5x
2
+ 10 = (x - 2)
2
(2x + a) + bx + c.
5 WE 3 Determine the values of a and b if
m
4
+ 25 = (m
2
+ am + 5)(m
2
+ bm + 5).
6 If x
2
= a(x + 1)
2
+ b(x + 1) + c, find the values of a, b and c.
7 If ax
3
+ bx
2
+ cx + d = (2x - 1)
2
(mx + n), express b in terms of c and d.
EXERCISE
8A
On the Main screen, tap:
Action
Transformation
factor
Complete the entry line as:
factor(x
3
- 6x
2
+ 2x + 24)
Then press E.
276
8 WE 4 If x - 2 is a factor of x
3
+ 3x
2
- 16x + 12, find the other factor.
9 If x + 1 is a factor of x
3
- x
2
+ x + 3, find the other factor.
10 If 2x + 1 is a factor of 2x
3
+ 7x
2
- 7x - 5, find the other factor.
Partial fractions
When a function is expressed as one polynomial divided by another,
f (x) =
g x
h x
( )
( )
, it is often desirable to express this using partial fractions.
This enables the function to be graphed more easily and also helps with the process of
integration (which you will learn about in Mathematical Methods CAS).
Proper fractions
If g(x)and h(x) are both linear functions, then the function can be expressed as a proper fraction
in the form:
f (x) = A
b
h x
+
( )
.
WORKED EXAMPLE 5
Express
4 5
3
x
x
++
--
in the form A
b
x
++
-- 3
.
THINK WRITE
Method 1: Technology-free
1
Express the numerator as 4(x - 3) + b; the
value of b must be 17.
4 5
3
4 3 17
3
x
x
x
x
+
-
=
- +
-
( )
2
Write the answer in the form
A
b
x
+
- 3
.
= +
-
4
17
3 x
Method 2: Technology-enabled
1
2 Write the answer in the form
A
b
x
+
- 3
.
4 5
3
4
17
3
x
x x
+
-
= +
-
8B
eBookplus eBookplus
Interactivity
int-0975
Partial fractions
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
On the Main screen, tap:
Action
Transformation
propFrac
Complete the entry line as:
propFrac
4 5
3
x
x
+
-

Then press E.
277 Chapter 8 Further algebra
Consider the case where g(x)

is a polynomial of degree 1 and h(x) is a polynomial of degree 2.
In this case the function,
f x
g x
h x
( )
( )
( )
=
, is a proper fraction, since the numerator has a smaller
power than the denominator.
For every linear factor (ax + b) in the denominator, there will be a partial fraction of the form
f x
A
ax b
( ) =
+
.
For every repeated linear factor of the form (ax + b)
2
in the denominator, then the partial
fractions will be of the form
f x
A
ax b
B
ax b
( )
( ) ( )
=
+
+
+
2
. On occasions when it is impossible
to express the partial fractions in the form
f x
A
ax b
B
ax b
( )
( ) ( )
=
+
+
+
2
, they can be written as
f x
A
ax b
B
ax b
C
ax b
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
=
+
+
+
+
+
2
.
WORKED EXAMPLE 6
Express
x
x x
++
-- --
3
3 40
2
in partial fraction form.
THINK WRITE
Method 1: Technology-free
1
Factorise the denominator x
2
- 3x - 40.
x
x x
x
x x
+
- -
=
+
- +
3
3 40
3
8 5
2
( )( )
, x R\{
-
5, 8}
2
The denominator has two linear factors so
there will be two partial fractions of the
form
A
x
B
x ( ) ( )
.
-
+
+ 8 5
x
x x
A
x
B
x
+
- +
=
-
+
+
3
8 5 8 5 ( )( )
3
Express the sum of the two fractions on the
right as a single fraction.
x
x x
A x B x
x x
+
- +
=
+ + -
- +
3
8 5
5 8
8 5 ( )( )
( ) ( )
( )( )
4
Equate the numerators and simplify. x + 3 = A(x + 5) + B(x - 8)
x + 3 = Ax + 5A + Bx - 8B
x + 3 = (A + B)x + 5A - 8B
5
Equate the coeffcients to solve for A and B. x = (A + B)x
1 = A + B
1 - B = A [1]
3 = 5A - 8B [2]
Substitute equation [1] into equation [2].
3 = 5(1 - B) - 8B
13B = 2
B =
2
13

A =
11
13
6
Substitute the values for A and B and
write the answer in the form
A
x
B
x ( ) ( ) -
+
+ 8 5
.
x
x x x x
+
- -
=
-
+
+
3
3 40
11
13 8
2
13 5
2
( ) ( )
,
x R\{
-
5, 8}
278
Method 2: Technology-enabled
1
2
Write the answer in the form
A
x
B
x ( ) ( )
.
-
+
+ 8 5
x
x x x x
+
- -
=
-
+
+
3
3 40
11
13 8
2
13 5
2
( ) ( )
,
x R \ {
-
5, 8}
WORKED EXAMPLE 7
Express
2 1
2 1
2
x
x x
--
-- ++ ( )( )
in partial fractions.
THINK WRITE
Method 1: Technology-free
1 The denominator has one linear factor and
one repeated linear factor so there will be
three partial fractions of the form
A
x
B
x
C
x ( ) ( ) ( )
.
-
+
+
+
+ 2 1 1
2
2 1
2 1 2 1 1
2 2
x
x x
A
x
B
x
C
x
-
- +
=
-
+
+
+
+ ( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
,
x R\{
-
1, 2}.
2 Express the sum of the three fractions on
the right as a single fraction.
2 1
2 1
2
x
x x
-
- +
=
( )( )

A x B x x C x
x x
( ) ( )( ) ( )
( )( )
+ + - + + -
- +
1 2 1 2
2 1
2
2
3
Equate the numerators and simplify. 2x -1 = A(x
2
+ 2x + 1) + B (x
2
- x - 2) + C (x - 2)
2x -1 = Ax
2
+ 2Ax + A + Bx
2
- Bx - 2B + Cx - 2C
2x -1 = (A + B)x
2
+ (2A - B + C)x + A - 2B - 2C
4
Equate the coeffcients to solve for A, B
and C.
0x
2
= (A + B) x
2
0 = A + B
A =
-
B [1]
2x = (2A - B + C)x
2 = 2A - B + C [2]
-
1 = A - 2B - 2C [3]
eBookplus eBookplus
Tutorial
int-1064
Worked example 7
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
On the Main screen, complete the entry line
as:
x
x x
+
- -
3
3 40
2
Highlight the equation and tap:
Interactive
Transformation
expand
Partial Fraction
OK
279 Chapter 8 Further algebra
5
Substitute equation [1] into equations [2]
and [3].
-
3B + C = 2
-
3B - 2C =
-
1
6
Solve these equations simultaneously. 3C = 3
C = 1
Hence,
-
3B + 1 = 2

-
3B = 1

B =
-
1
3

A =
1
3
7
Substitute the values for A, B and C and
write the answer in the form
A
x
B
x
C
x ( ) ( ) ( )
.
-
+
+
+
+ 2 1 1
2
2 1
2 1
1
3 2
1
3 1
1
1
2 2
x
x x x x x
-
- +
=
-
-
+
+
+ ( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
,
x R\{
-
1, 2}
Method 2: Technology-enabled
1
2
Write the answer in the form
A
x
B
x
C
x ( ) ( ) ( ) -
+
+
+
+ 2 1 1
2
.
2 1
2 1
1
3 2
1
3 1
1
1
2 2
x
x x x x x
-
- +
=
-
-
+
+
+ ( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
,
x R\{
-
1, 2}
Sometimes the denominator may consist of an irreducible quadratic (a quadratic which cannot
be factorised using real numbers). These types of functions need to be expressed in partial
fractions of the form:
f x
A
ax b
Bx C
cx dx e
( ) =
+
+
+
+ +
2
.
WORKED EXAMPLE 8
Express
5 9 10
8
2
3
x x
x
++ ++
--
in partial fractions.
THINK WRITE
Method 1: Technology-free
1
Factorise the denominator.
5 9 10
8
5 9 10
2 2 4
2
3
2
2
x x
x
x x
x x x
+ +
-
=
+ +
- + + ( )( )
On the Main screen, complete the entry line
as:
2 1
2 1
2
x
x x
-
- + ( )( )
Highlight the equation and tap:
Interactive
Transformation
expand
Partial Fraction
OK
280
2 The denominator has a linear factor and
an irreducible quadratic factor so the
partial fractions will be of the form
A
x
Bx C
x x -
+
+
+ + 2 2 4
2
.
5 9 10
8 2 2 4
2
3 2
x x
x
A
x
Bx C
x x
+ +
-
=
-
+
+
+ +
x R\{2}.
3
Express the sum of the two fractions on
the right as a single fraction.
5 9 10
8
2 4 2
2
2
3
2
x x
x
A x x Bx C x
x x
+ +
-
=
+ + + + -
-
( ) ( )( )
( )(
22
2 4 + + x )
4
Equate the numerators and simplify. 5x
2
+ 9x + 10 = A(x
2
+ 2x + 4) + (Bx + C) (x - 2)
= Ax
2
+ 2Ax + 4A + Bx
2
- 2Bx + Cx - 2C)
= (A + B) x
2
+ (2A - 2B + C) x + 4A -2C
5
Equate the coeffcients to solve for A, B
and C.
5x
2
= (A + B)x
A + B = 5
B = 5 - A [1]
9x = (2A - 2B + C)x
9 = 2A - 2B + C [2]
10 = 4A - 2C [3]
6
Substitute equation [1] into equation [2]
and then subtract equation [3] to solve for
A, B and C.
Substituting [1] into [2]
2A - 2(5 - A) + C = 9
4A - 10 + C = 9
4A + C = 9
Subtracting equation [3]
3C = 9
C = 3
A = 4
B = 1
7 Substitute the values for A, B and C and
write the answer in the form
A
x
Bx C
x x -
+
+
+ + 2 2 4
2
.
5 9 10
8
4
2
3
2 4
2
2
3 2
x x
x x
x
x x
x R
+ +
-
=
-
+
+
+ +
, \{ }
Method 2: Technology-enabled
1
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
On the Main screen, complete the entry
line as:
5 9 10
8
2
3
x x
x
+ +
-
Highlight the equation and tap:
Interactive
Transformation
expand
Partial Fraction
OK
281 Chapter 8 Further algebra
2 Write the answer in the form
A
x
Bx C
x x -
+
+
+ + 2 2 4
2
.
5 9 10
8
4
2
3
2 4
2
2
3 2
x x
x x
x
x x
x R
+ +
-
=
-
+
+
+ +
, \{ }
Improper fractions
In the case where g(x) has a higher power than h(x) the function f x
g x
h x
( )
( )
( )
= is an improper
fraction. In this case, division of polynomials needs to be performed frst either by long division
or synthetic division.
WORKED EXAMPLE 9
Express
x x
x
2
5 2
1
++ --
--
as a partial fraction.
THINK WRITE
Method 1: Technology-free
1
The degree of the denominator is less than
the degree of the numerator, so division
must be performed rst.
x - 1 is the divisor.
2
Divide the numerator by the denominator
using long division.
)
x x x
x x
x
x
x
- + -
-
-
-
+
1 5 2
6 2
6 6
4
6
2
2
3
Express the answer as partial fractions.
x x
x
x
x
x R
2
5 2
1
6
4
1
1
+ -
-
= + +
-
, \{ }
Method 2: Technology-enabled
1
2
Write the answer.
x x
x x
x
2
5 2
1
4
1
6
+ -
-
=
-
+ + ,
x R\{1}
eBookplus eBookplus
Tutorial
int-1065
Worked example 9
On the Main screen, complete the entry line
as:
x x
x
2
5 2
1
+ -
-
Highlight the equation and tap:
Interactive
Transformation
expand
Partial Fraction
OK
282
For rational functions of the form f x
g x
h x
( )
( )
( )
= :
If g (x) and h (x) are both linear functions, then the function can be expressed in the
form
f x A
b
h x
( )
( )
= +
.
Where the numerator is a linear function and the denominator is a quadratic which can
be factorised, then the partial fraction will be of the form f x
A
ax b
B
cx d
( ) =
+
+
+
.
When the denominator has repeated linear factors of the form (ax + b)
2
then the partial
fractions will be of the form f x
A
ax b
B
ax b
( )
( ) ( )
=
+
+
+
2
.
On occasions when it is impossible to express the partial fractions in the form
f x
A
ax b
B
ax b
( )
( ) ( )
=
+
+
+
2
, they can be written as
f x
A
ax b
B
ax b
C
ax b
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
=
+
+
+
+
+
2
.
When the denominator contains an irreducible quadratic then the partial fractions will
be of the form
f x
A
ax b
Bx C
cx dx e
( ) =
+
+
+
+ +
2
.
In the case where g (x) has a higher power than h (x) the function is an improper
fraction so division of polynomials needs to be performed either by long division or
synthetic division.
REMEMBER
Partial fractions
1 WE5 Express each of the following as the sum of two terms.
a
2 3
1
x
x
-
+
b
4 7
2
x
x
+
-
c
x
x
+
-
7
2 1
d
3 4
2 2
x
x
-
+
2 WE6 Express each of the following as partial fractions.
a
x
x x
+
+ -
6
1 4 ( )( )
b
x
x x
-
- +
5
5 6
2
c
2 1
8 9
2
x
x x
-
+ -
d
3 2
2 9 7
2
x
x x
+
- +
3 WE7 Express each of the following as partial fractions.
a
x
x
-
+
1
2
2
( )
b
x
x x
-
- +
4
6 9
2
c
2 14
1 3
2
x
x x
+
- + ( )( )
d
3 5
2 1
2
x
x x
-
- + ( )( )
4 WE8 Express each of the following as partial fractions.
a
x x
x x x
2
2
3 18
1 2 5
+ +
+ - + ( )( )
b
x
x x x
2
2
5
3 1
+
+ + ( )
c
2
5 5 2
2
( )( ) x x x - + -
d
x x
x
2
3
5 1
27
+ -
-
5 WE9 Express each of the following as partial fractions.
a
x x
x
2
3 1
2
+ +
+
b
x x
x
3
2 3
4
+ -
-
c
3 2 4 5
6
3 2
2
x x x
x x
+ - +
+ +
d
x
x
3
3
2 1
+
-
EXERCISE
8B
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 8.1
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
283 Chapter 8 Further algebra
Simultaneous equations
It is impossible to solve one linear equation with two unknown variables. There must be two
equations with the same two unknowns for a solution to be found. Such equations are called
simultaneous equations.
There are several different ways to solve simultaneous equations. In this section we consider
algebraic solutions of simultaneous equations arising from the intersection of a line with a
parabola, circle or rectangular hyperbola.
WORKED EXAMPLE 10
Solve simultaneously: y = x and y = x
2
+ 3x + 1.
THINK WRITE
Method 1: Technology-free
1
Write the equations and label them [1]
and [2].
y = x [1]
y = x
2
+ 3x + 1 [2]
2
Substitute equation [1] into equation [2]. Substituting [1] into [2]:
x
2
+ 3x + 1 = x
3
Transpose to make the RHS equal 0 and
simplify.
x
2
+ 3x + 1 - x = 0
x
2
+ 2x + 1 = 0
4
Factorise. (x + 1)
2
= 0
5
Solve for x. x + 1 = 0
x =
-
1
6
Substitute
-
1 instead of x into equation [1]. Substituting
-
1 into [1]:
y =
-
1
7
Write the answer. Solution set: (
-
1,
-
1)
Method 2: Technology-enabled
1
2
Write the answer. Solving y = x and y = x
2
+ 3x +1 for x
and y gives x =
-
1 and y =
-
1.
That is, (
-
1,
-
1).
8C
On the Main screen, using the soft
keyboard, tap:
)
{N
Enter the equations as shown.
Then press E.
284
WORKED EXAMPLE 11
Solve simultaneously: y = x + 1 and x
2
+ y
2
= 4.
THINK WRITE
Method 1: Technology-free
1
Write the equations and label them [1]
and [2].
y = x + 1 [1]
x
2
+ y
2
= 4 [2]
2
Substitute equation [1] into equation [2]. Substituting [1] into [2]:
x
2
+ (x + 1)
2
= 4
3
Expand (x + 1)
2
, using the perfect square
identity and transpose to make the RHS = 0.
x
2
+ x
2
+ 2x + 1 - 4 = 0
2x
2
+ 2x - 3 = 0
4
Solve for x, using the quadratic formula. a = 2, b = 2, c =
-
3
x =
- -

=
+
=

=

=
-
-
-
-
2 2 4 2 3
2 2
2 4 24
4
2 28
4
2 2 7
4
2
( )
--
1 7
2
5
Write the two values of x separately. x x
1 2
1 7
2
1 7
2
=
+
=
-
- -
,
6
Substitute
-
+ 1 7
2
instead of x into
equation [1] and simplify.
y
1
1 7
2
1
1 7
2
2
2
1 7 2
2
1 7
2
=
+
+
=
+
+
=
+ +
=
+
-
-
-
7
Substitute
-
- 1 7
2
instead of x into
equation [1] and simplify.
y
2
1 7
2
1
1 7
2
2
2
1 7 2
2
1 7
2
=
-
+
=
-
+
=
- +
=
-
-
-
-
eBookplus eBookplus
Tutorial
int-1066
Worked example 11
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
285 Chapter 8 Further algebra
8 Write the answer. (Make sure the values of
x and y are matched properly; that is, x
1
is
placed with y
1
and x
2
with y
2
.)
Solution set:
-
+ +

1 7
2
1 7
2
, ,
-
- -

1 7
2
1 7
2
,
Method 2: Technology-enabled
1
2
Write the answer. Solving y = x + 1 and x
2
+ y
2
= 4 for x and y gives
x =
+
-
( )
7 1
2
and y =
-
-
( )
7 1
2
or
x =
- 7 1
2
and y =
+ 7 1
2

That is,
- -
+
-

( )
,
( ) 7 1
2
7 1
2
or
7 1
2
7 1
2
- +

,
.
WORKED EXAMPLE 12
Solve simultaneously: y = 2x - 1 and y
x
==
--
2
3
.
THINK WRITE
Method 1: Technology-free
1
Write the equations and label them [1] and
[2].
y = 2x - 1 [1]
y
x
=
-
2
3
[2]
2
Substitute equation [1] into equation [2]. Substituting [1] into [2]:
2 1
2
3
x
x
- =
-
On the Main screen, using the soft
keyboard, tap:
)
{N
Enter the equations as shown.
Then press E.
286
3 Solve for x:
(a) Multiply both sides of the equation by
(x - 3).
(b) Expand and make the RHS = 0.
(c) Identify the values of a, b and c.
(d) Substitute the values of a, b and c into the
quadratic formula and simplify.
(2x - 1)(x - 3) = 2
2x
2
- 7x + 1 = 0
a = 2, b =
-
7, c = 1
x =

-
-

=
-
=

7 7 4 2 1
2 2
7 49 8
4
7 41
4
2
( )
4
Write the two values of x separately. x x
1 2
7 41
4
7 41
4
=
+
=
-
,
5
Substitute
7 41
4
+
into [1] and simplify. y
1
2
7 41
4
1
7 41
2
2
2
5 41
2
=
+

-
=
+
-
=
+
6
Substitute
7 41
4
-
into [1] and simplify. y
2
2
7 41
4
1
7 41
2
2
2
5 41
2
=
-

-
=
-
-
=
-
7
Write the answer (leave it in surd form). Solution set:
7 41
4
5 41
2
+ +

, ,
7 41
4
5 41
2
- -

,
Method 2: Technology-enabled
1
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
On the Main screen, using the soft keyboard,
tap:
)
{N
Enter the equations as shown.
Then press E.
287 Chapter 8 Further algebra
2 Write the answer. Solving y x y
x
= - =
-
2 1
2
3
and for x and y gives
x y
x y
=
-
=
-
-
=
+
-
( ) ( )
41 7
4
41
5
4
41 7
4
and
or and ==
+ 41 5
4
That is,
-
-
-
-

+ +

( )
,
( )
,
41 7
4
41
5
4
41 7
4
41 5
4
or

.
Simultaneous equations, arising from the intersection of a line with a parabola, circle or a
rectangular hyperbola, can be solved using algebra as follows:
Transpose one of the equations (it is better to choose a linear equation) to make either 1.
x or y the subject and substitute into the other equation.
Simplify the resulting equation (if properly simplifed, it will result in a quadratic 2.
equation).
Solve the quadratic equation to fnd the value(s) of one variable. 3.
Substitute the value(s) of the frst variable into either of the two equations (preferably 4.
into the transposed one) and solve for the second variable.
Write the solution set. 5.
REMEMBER
Simultaneous equations
1 WE 10 Solve each of the following simultaneously.
a y = x, y = x
2
+ 5x + 4 b y =
-
x, y = x
2
+ 3x + 4
c y = 2x, y = x
2
+ 4x + 1 d y = 3x, y = x
2
+ 8x + 6
e y =
-
2x, y = x
2
- 2x - 1 f y = x + 5, y = x
2
4x + 11
g y + x = 1, y = 3x
2
+ 2x - 1 h 2x + 3y = 6, y
x
=
2
2
- 4
i 2x - 4y = 12, y =
-
2x
2
+ x + 6 j 2y + 6x = 4, y = 4 - 3x
2
2 WE 11 Solve each of the following simultaneously.
a y = x, y
2
+ x
2
= 1 b y =
-
x, y
2
+ x
2
= 1
c y = 2x, x
2
+ y
2
= 4 d y = 1 - x, 4 = y
2
+ x
2
e x + y = 2, x
2
+ y
2
- 9 = 0 f y - x - 3 = 0, (x + 3)
2
+ y
2
= 16
g y = 1 -
x
2
, (x - 2)
2
+ y
2
- 1 = 0 h y + 2 = 3x, (x - 1)
2
+ (y + 3)
2
= 4
i 2x + 4y = 4, x
2
+ (y + 1)
2
= 25 j 6x - 3y = 12, (x - 2)
2
+ (y - 1)
2
- 36 = 0
3 WE 12 Solve each of the following simultaneously.
a y = 2x, y =
2
1 x -
b y = x + 1, y =
4
2 - x
c y = 3x - 4, y =
4
1 2 - x
d y = 1 - 2x, y =
1
2 x +
-1
EXERCISE
8C
eBookplus eBookplus
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SkillSHEET 8.1
Using substitution
to solve simultaneous
equations
288
e 2y - x = 6, y - 3 =
2
1 x -
f 2x + 4y - 8 = 0, y + 1 =
3
2 - x
g x - 3 = 2y, y =
2
1 x -
h x = 2y - 4,
2
3x
-1 - y = 0
i 4x - 3y = 12, 4 -
1
3 2 x -
= y j x + y = 5,
1
4 3 - x
= y + 2
4 MC Which of the following represent the solution to the pair of simultaneous equations
x + y = 6 and y = 3x
2
+ 12x + 10?
i
-
( )
1
3
1
3
6 ,
ii (
-
1, 7) iii (
-
1, 1) i v (
-
4, 10)
A i only B i and ii C ii and iv D ii and iii E i and i v
5 Buttons are to be attached to a shirt as shown on the diagram
at right.
If we draw a set of axes through the centre of the button,
the position of the two holes can be described as the points of
intersection of the line y = x with the circle x
2
+ y
2
= 1. The
other two holes are positioned at the points of intersection of
the line y =
-
x with the same circle. Find the coordinates of the
four holes. Give the answer correct to 2 decimal places.
y = x
y
2
+ x
2
= 1
y = x
eBookplus eBookplus
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WorkSHEET 8.2
288 Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
289 Chapter 8 Further algebra
SUMMARY
Polynomials
A polynomial identity is an identity of the form:
k
n
x
n
+ k
n - 1
x
n - 1
+ k
n - 2
x
n - 2
+ . . . . . + k
1
x + k
0
, n N
where k
n
, k
n - 1
. . . are constants and n is contained within the set of natural numbers N.
The degree of a polynomial is given by the highest value of n.
Polynomials are identical if they are of the same degree and corresponding coeffcients are equal.
If two polynomials are known to be equal, then the process of equating coeffcients can be used.
Partial fractions
For rational functions of the form f x
g x
h x
( )
( )
( )
= :
If g(x) and h(x) are both linear functions, then the function can be expressed in the form f x A
b
h x
( )
( )
= + .
Where the numerator is a linear function and the denominator is a quadratic which can be factorised, then the
partial fraction will be of the form f x
A
ax b
B
cx d
( ) =
+
+
+
.
When the denominator has repeated linear factors of the form ( ax + b)
2
then the partial fractions will be of
the form f x
A
ax b
B
ax b
( )
( ) ( )
=
+
+
+
2
. On occasions when it is impossible to express the partial fractions in
the form f x
A
ax b
B
ax b
( )
( ) ( )
=
+
+
+
2
, they can be written as f x
A
ax b
B
ax b
C
ax b
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
=
+
+
+
+
+
2
.
When the denominator contains an irreducible quadratic then the partial fractions will be of the form
f x
A
ax b
Bx C
cx dx e
( )
( )
=
+
+
+
+ +
2
.
In the case where g(x) has a higher power than h(x), the function is then an improper fraction so division of
polynomials needs to be performed either by long division or synthetic division.
Simultaneous equations
Simultaneous equations, arising from the intersection of a line with a parabola, circle or a rectangular
hyperbola, can be solved using algebra as follows:
Transpose one of the equations (it is better to choose a linear equation) to make either x or y the subject and
substitute into the other equation.
Simplify the resulting equation (if properly simplifed, it will result in a quadratic equation).
Solve the quadratic equation to fnd the value(s) of one variable.
Substitute the value(s) of the frst variable into either of the two equations (preferably into the transposed
one) and solve for the second variable.
Write the solution set.
290
CHAPTER REVIEW
SHORT ANSWER
1 Determine the values of a and b where
x
4
+ 7x
3
+12x
2
+ x - 1 = (x
2
+ ax + 1)(x
2
+ bx - 1).
2 x - 2 is a factor of x
3
+ x
2
- 11x + 10; find the other
factor.
3 Express
x
x x
-
- -
22
8 20
2
as partial fractions.
4 Express
x x x
x
3 2
2
2 1
2
- + -
-
as partial fractions.
5 Find the coordinates of the points of intersection of
the line y = 5x with the hyperbola
y
x
=
-
15
2
.
6 Find the coordinates of the points of intersection of
the line y = x with the parabola y = 4 - x
2.
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1 If 2x
3
+ 7x
2
- 16x + 6 = (2x - 1)(ax
2
+ bx + c), then
the values of a, b and c are:
A a = 1, b = 4, c = 6 B a =
-
1, b =
-
4, c = 6
C a = 1, b = 4, c =
-
6 D a = 1, b =
-
4, c = 6
E a = 1, b = 4, c =
-
5
2 If 2x
2
- 5x - 3 = a(x - b)(x - c) then the values of
a, b and c are
A a = 2, b = 3, c = 1 B a = 1, b = 3, c = 1
C a = 2, b = 3, c =
1
2
D a = 2, b = 3, c =
-
1
2
E a = 1, b = 3, c =
1
2
3 If
4 2
2 4 2 4
x
x x
A
x
B
x
+
+ -
=
+
+
- ( )( )
, then:
A A = 1, B = 3 B A = 3, B = 1
C A = 1, B = 4 D A = 4, B = 1
E A = 2, B = 3
4 If
5 12
2 4 2 4
2
3 2 2
x x
x x x
A
x
Bx C
x x
+ +
+ +
= +
+
+ +
, then the
values of A, B and C would be:
A A = 1, B = 2, C = 3 B A = 1, B = 3, C = 2
C A = 1, B = 2, C = 5 D A =
-
3, B = 2, C = 5
E A = 3, B = 2, C =
-
5
5 A solution to the pair of simultaneous equations
y = 1.5x and y
x
=
-
+
23
20 4
2 71
( )
. is:
A
5
2
3
2
,

B
5
2
9
4
,

C
3
2
15
4
,

D
3
2
9
4
,

E none of these
6 The equation y = 1 -
x
4
and (y - 1)
2
+ (x - 3)
2
= 9
are solved simultaneously. When one of the
equations is substituted into the other and the
resultant equation is transposed to the form
ax
2
+ bx + c = 0, the values of a, b and c are:
A
17
6
,
-
6, 18
B
17
6
,
-
6, 0
C
1
16
,
-
6, 0
D
1
16
,
-
6, 9 E
17
16
,
-
6, 9
EXTENDED RESPONSE
1 Find the coordinates of the points of intersection of the line y = x with:
a the hyperbola y
x
=
-
+
2
3 1
6
b the circle (y + 1)
2
+ x
2
- 4 = 0.
In each case give the answer correct to 2 decimal places.
2 Consider the design, shown on the diagram at right:
If we take the point of intersection of the straight lines to be an origin, the design
can be described by the following system of equations:
y = x
y =
-
x
y =
1
x
y =
-
1
x
y = 0
x = 0
x
2
+ y
2
= 4
A
B
C I
R N
D H
S M
E
F
G
P
T
K
J
L
Q O
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
291 Chapter 8 Further algebra
As can be seen from the diagram, there are 20 points of intersection (not counting the centre point).
a What is the radius of a circle described by the equation x
2
+ y
2
= 4?
b Using the answer to a, state the coordinates of points A, F, K and P.
c Find the coordinates of point I by solving an appropriate pair of simultaneous equations algebraically.
Leave the answer in a surd form.
d State the coordinates of points C, R and N using symmetry.
e Find the coordinates of point H by solving algebraically an appropriate pair of simultaneous equations.
f Using the symmetry of the design and your answer to part e, write the coordinates of points D, S and M.
g State the points of intersection of the hyperbola y
x
=
1
and the circle.
h Find the coordinates of the points in question g by solving an appropriate pair of equations graphically,
using a table of values or one of the iteration methods. Give the answer correct to 2 decimal places.
i State the points of intersection of the hyperbola y
x
=
-
1
and the circle.
j Choose a method and use it to nd the coordinates of the points in question i. Give the answer correct to
2 decimal places.
3 A section of a roller coaster track is shown at right. It consists
of three parts with the following equations:
AB:
h d = + -
3
16
2
10
BC: h d d = - +
3
16
2
3 16
CDE: h = 0.02d
3
- 1.25d
2
+ 25d - 147.56
where h is the height of the track above the ground level and
d is the horizontal distance from A.
a Find the coordinates of point B, by solving a pair of
simultaneous equations algebraically.
b The track is closest to the ground when it is 8 metres horizontally from A. What is its height at that
point?
c Find the horizontal distance(s) from A, when the car is 6 metres above ground level.
d Use a CAS calculator to fnd the coordinates of point C.
e By using a table of values or otherwise, fnd the
coordinates of point D.
f Point E is 30 metres horizontally from A and is the
highest point of this section of the track. Find the
maximum height of the track.
g The track runs alongside the amusements pavilion. The
roof of the pavilion follows the rule h = 0.4d + 4. As seen
from the diagram, the car, while on this section of the
track, will be level with the roof four times. Find the
height of the car above the ground at each of these four
points.
h
d
Distance
H
e
i
g
h
t

(
m
)
A
B
C
D
E
eBookplus eBookplus
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Test Yourself
Chapter 8
292
eBookplus eBookplus ACTIVITIES
Chapter opener
Digital doc
10 Quick Questions: Warm up with ten quick
questions on further algebra. (page 272)
8A Polynomial identities
Tutorial
WE4 int-1063: Watch how to nd the quadratic factor
of a cubic given the linear factor. (page 274)
8B Partial fractions
Tutorials
WE7 int-1064: Watch how to express a linear
function divided by a cubic as a partial fraction.
(page 278)
WE9 int-1065: Watch how to express a cubic divided
by a linear function as a partial fraction. (page 281)
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 8.1: Use the bisection and secant
methods as well as the null factor law to solve
simple and complex simultaneous equations, and
apply learning to worded problems. (page 282)
Interactivity
Partial fractions int-0975: Consolidate your
understanding of how to determine partial fractions.
(page 276)
8C Simultaneous equations
Tutorial
WE11 int-1066: Watch how to solve simultaneously a
linear and an elliptical equation. (page 284)
Digital docs
SkillSHEET 8.1: Practise using substitution to solve
simultaneous equations. (page 287)
WorkSHEET 8.2: Practise fnding solutions to linear
and non-linear simultaneous equations. (page 288)
Chapter review
Digital doc
Test Yourself: Take the end-of-chapter test to test
your progress. (page 291)
To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to
www.jacplus.com.au
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
9A Statements (propositions), connectives
and truth tables
9B Valid and invalid arguments
9C Techniques of proof
9D Sets and Boolean algebra
9E Digital logic
9
293 Chapter 9 Algebra and logic
Propositions, connectives and truth tables
Tautologies, validity and proof patterns
The application of proof to number patterns and
algebra
Electronic gates and circuits
Laws and properties of Boolean algebra
Boolean algebra and its application to circuit
simplication
eBookplus eBookplus
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10 Quick Questions
AREAS OF STUDY
Algebra
and logic
Statements (propositions),
connectives and truth tables
Older than calculus (17th century), algebra (9th century) and even geometry
(300 years before Christ) is the study of logic. Some of the material
described in this section was developed by Aristotle, one of the most famous
of the ancient Greek philosophers, yet it is still used today by people as
diverse as mathematicians, lawyers, engineers and computer scientists. All of
our modern digital technology owes its birth to the application of the
principles of logic; every meaningful computer program ever written has
relied on the principles you will learn in this chapter.
Furthermore, logic can be seen as the study of argument. You will
be able to analyse logically the arguments of teachers, politicians and
advertisers to determine if they should convince you of their ideas,
programs and products.
Statements
A statement is a sentence which is either true or false. For example, This book is about
Mathematics is a true (T) statement, while The capital of Australia is Perth is a false (F)
statement.
Some sentences are not statements at all. Go to the store is an instruction, How old are
you? is a question, See you later! is an exclamation, You should see the latest Spielberg
movie is a suggestion.
To determine whether a sentence is a statement, put the expression It is true that . . . (or It is
false that . . .) at the front of the sentence. If it still makes sense, then it is a statement.
9A
294
Beware of some near-statements such as I am tall, or She is rich, because these are
relative sentences; they require more information to be complete. They can be turned into
statements by saying I am tall compared to Mary or She is rich compared to Peter.
In some books, statements are called propositions.
WORKED EXAMPLE 1
Classify the following sentences as either statements, instructions, suggestions, questions,
exclamations or near-statements.
a Germany won World War II.
b Would you like to read my new book?
c The most money that Mary can earn in one day is $400.
d When it rains, I wear rubber boots.
e Hello!
f You will need to purchase a calculator in order to survive Year 11 Mathematics.
g Do not run in the hallways.
h You should read this book.
i I am short.
THINK WRITE
a Put the phrase It is true that . . . in front of the
sentence. If the new sentence makes sense, it is
classed as a statement.
a This is a (false) statement.
b Put the phrase It is true that . . . in front of the
sentence. If the new sentence makes sense, it is
classed as a statement.
b This is a question.
c Put the phrase It is true that . . . in front of the
sentence. If the new sentence makes sense, it is
classed as a statement.
c This is a statement. We cannot at this time
determine if it is true or false without
further information.
d Put the phrase It is true that . . . in front of the
sentence. If the new sentence makes sense, it is
classed as a statement.
d This is a (presumably true) statement.
e Put the phrase It is true that . . . in front of the
sentence. If the new sentence makes sense, it is
classed as a statement.
e This is an exclamation.
f Put the phrase It is true that . . . in front of the
sentence. If the new sentence makes sense, it is
classed as a statement.
f This is a (true) statement.
g Put the phrase It is true that . . . in front of the
sentence. If the new sentence makes sense, it is
classed as a statement.
g This is an instruction.
h Put the phrase It is true that . . . in front of the
sentence. If the new sentence makes sense, it is
classed as a statement.
h This is a suggestion.
i Put the phrase It is true that . . . in front of the
sentence. If the new sentence makes sense, it is
classed as a statement.
i This is a near-statement because it
requires additional information to
be complete. It can be turned into a
statement by saying I am shorter than
Karen.
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
295 Chapter 9 Algebra and logic
Connectives and truth tables
Two (or more) statements can be combined into compound statements using a connective. For
example, the statement The book is new and about Mathematics is a compound of the single
statements The book is new, The book is about Mathematics.
Notice the connective and which is used to join them. Two main connectives and and
or are used in compound sentences. Other connectives are not, if . . . then . . ., if . . . and
only if . . ..
The truth of a compound statement is determined by the truth of the separate single
statements.
Considering this example, there are 4 cases;
Case 1: The book is new is true. The book is about Mathematics is true.
Case 2: The book is new is true. The book is about Mathematics is false.
Case 3: The book is new is false. The book is about Mathematics is true.
Case 4: The book is new is false. The book is about Mathematics is false.
This list can be summarised using a truth table.
Let p = The book is new and
q = The book is about Mathematics.
What about the third column? This represents the truth
value of the compound statement p and q. To determine this
truth value we need to examine the logical denition of the
connective and. For the compound statement to be true, both
single statements must be true. If either is false then the whole
statement is false. Therefore, we can complete the truth table for
and (using the common symbol to represent and).
Similarly, the truth table for or, using the symbol , is
shown.
The implication here is that it takes only one (or both) of
the statements to be true for a statement such as Mary went to
the store or the library to be true. If she went to the store then
certainly she went to the store or the library. Similarly, if she
went to the library in this example she could have gone to both.
p q p q
T T T
T F F
F T F
F F F
p q p and q
T T
T F
F T
F F
p q p q
T T T
T F T
F T T
F F F
296
There are some compound statements where it is not possible for both statements to be true
at the same time. For example: John is fteen or sixteen years old. Clearly, in this case John
cannot be both 15 and 16. This is an example of exclusive-or.
Also be careful not to confuse the logical use of and with the English common usage. For
example, the sentence Boys and girls are allowed in the swimming pool after 6.00 pm is made
up of the compound sentences Boys are allowed . . . and Girls are allowed . . .. In reality, what
is being said is that either boys or girls or both are allowed, so logically, the sentence should be
Both boys and girls are allowed in the swimming pool after 6.00 pm.
In some textbooks and is called the conjunction and or is called the disjunction.
WORKED EXAMPLE 2
Determine the truth table for the compound statement:
The suspect wore black shoes or was a female wearing a skirt.
THINK WRITE
1
Identify and label the individual statements. p = The suspect wore black shoes.
q = The suspect was female.
r = The suspect wore a skirt.
2
Form a compound statement. Clearly p is separate
from q and r.
p or (q and r) Note: Use brackets to
p (q r) indicate the separation.
3
Create a truth table. Since there are three
statements and each can have two values (T or F),
there are 2 2 2 = 8 rows in the table. The
(q r) column is completed by looking at the q
and r columns.
p q r (q r) p (q r)
T T T T T
T T F F T
T F T F T
T F F F T
F T T T T
F T F F F
F F T F F
F F F F F
4
The last column is completed by just looking at the
p column and at the (q r) column.
As can be observed in the last column, p dominates the table. Regardless of the truth of q
and r, the entire statement is true if p is true (rows 14). Otherwise, if p is false then both q
and r must be true (row 5).
Negation
Another connective is the negation, or not, and is denoted by the symbol ~. This is merely the
opposite of the original statement.
If p = It is raining, then ~p = It is not raining.
Be careful when negating English sentences. For example, the negation of I am over 21 isnt
I am under 21, but I am not over 21. Can you see the difference?
WORKED EXAMPLE 3
Complete the truth table for the compound statement p ~p.
THINK WRITE
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297 Chapter 9 Algebra and logic
Set up a truth table. Since there is only one statement here
(p), we need only two rows, either p or not p.
p ~p p ~p
T F T
F T T
Note: The compound statement in worked example 3 is always true! An English sentence
equivalent to this statement could be I will be there on Monday or I will not be there on
Monday.
Equivalent statements
Two statements are equivalent if their truth tables are identical. Each row of the truth tables must
match. If there is even one difference then the statements are not equivalent. The symbol is
used to indicate equivalence, as in p q. This is read as p is true if and only if q is true.
WORKED EXAMPLE 4
By completing truth tables, show that ~( p q) (~p ~q).
THINK WRITE
1 Set up a truth table. Since there
are two statements, we need
2 2 = 4 rows.
p q ~p ~q ( p q) ~( p q) (~p ~q)
T T F F T F F
T F F T F T T
F T T F F T T
F F T T F T T
2
Complete the ~p, ~q columns by
negating p and q separately.
3
Complete the (p q) column.
4
Negate the (p q) column.
5
Find (~p ~q) using columns 3
and 4.
6
Observe that the nal two
columns are equal in every row.
Note that the equivalence operators, p & q, have a truth
table of their own, as shown at right.
This clearly demonstrates that p q is true when the truth value
of p equals the truth value of q.
i.e. if both p & q are true or
if both p & q are false
A statement (sometimes called a proposition) is a sentence which is either true or false. 1.
Logical connectives are and, or, not, if . . . then, and equals (see the table at the 2.
end of the chapter).
Each logical connective has a truth table (see the table at the end of the chapter). 3.
A compound statement is made up of two or more statements connected with logical 4.
connectives.
Two (compound) statements are equivalent if they have identical truth tables. 5.
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Worked example 4
p q p q
T T T
T F F
F T F
F F T
298
Statements (propositions), connectives
and truth tables
1 WE 1 Classify the following sentences as statements (propositions), instructions, suggestions,
exclamations, opinions or near-statements. If they are statements, then indicate whether they
are true (T), false (F) or indeterminate without further information (T/F).
a That was the best Hollywood movie of 2009.
b That movie won the most Oscar nominations in 2009.
c When the power fails, candles are a good source of light and heat.
d Why did you use that candle?
e Collingwood hasnt won a Grand Final for almost 15 years.
f Collingwood hasnt won a Grand Final because they have too few good players.
g Please go to the store before it closes.
h The store closes at 6.00 pm.
i A dingo is considered to be a native Australian mammal.
j Mary is tall for her age.
2 Break up the following compound statements into individual single statements.
a The car has 4 seats and airconditioning.
b The Departments of Finance and Defence were both over budget in 2006.
c Bob, Carol, Ted and Alice went to the hotel.
d To be a best-seller a novel must be interesting and relevant to the reader.
e Either Sam or Nancy will win the trophy.
f You can choose from ice-cream or fruit for dessert. We have vanilla or strawberry
ice-cream.
g There are some statements which cannot be proved to be true or false.
h Most of my friends studied Mathematics, Physics, Engineering or Law and Arts.
EXERCISE
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3 Convert the following pairs of simple sentences into a compound sentence. Be sure to use
and and or carefully.
a John rode his bicycle to school. Mary rode her bicycle to school.
b The book you want is in row 3. The book you want is in row 4.
c The weather is cold. The weather is cloudy.
d Many people read novels. Many people read history.
e In a recent poll, 45% preferred jazz. In a recent poll, 35% preferred classical music.
f Two is an even number. Two is a prime number.
4 MC For the compound statement p q (p and q), the number of different ways for this
statement to be true is:
A 0 B 1 C 2 D 3 E 4
5 MC For the compound statement p q (p or q), the number of different ways for this
statement to be true is:
A 0 B 1 C 2 D 3 E 4
6 As you saw in worked example 4, if there is a compound statement with two single
statements, p and q, then there are 2 2 = 4 rows in the truth table. List all the different rows
for compound statements made up of:
a 3 single statements
b 4 single statements
c 5 single statements.
You should be able to develop a pattern of
completing the Ts and Fs in a logical sequence.
7 WE2 Write the following compound sentences
in symbolic form (p, q, r), and determine the truth
table.
a The Sydney ight was on time; the Perth ight
was fully booked.
b John, Zia and David passed General
Mathematics.
300
c Either Alice and Renzo, or Carla, will have to do the dishes. (Note use of commas.)
d The committee requires two new members. One must be a female, the other must be
either a student or a professor.
8 Find the truth table for the compound statement p ~p.
9 WE3 Complete the truth tables for the following compound statements.
a p ~q b ~p ~q c ( p q) r
d p ~q e ~p ~q f ( p q) r
10 Let p = It is raining, q = I bring my umbrella. Write a sentence for the following
compound statements.
a p q b p q c ~p q
11 Let p = Peter likes football, and q = Quentin likes football. Write a sentence for the
following compound statements.
a p q b p q c p ~q
12 WE4 By completing truth tables show that ~( p q) (~p ~q).
13 Determine if the compound statement ~( p q) is equivalent to ~p ~q.
14 Determine if the following compound statement pairs are equivalent.
a ( p q) ~p b ( p q) ~p
( p q) ~p p ~p
15 Determine if the brackets in an expression alter the truth table by comparing:
( p q) r with p (q r ).
16 Repeat question 15 with the following statement pairs.
a Compare ( p q) r with p (q r).
b Compare ( p q) r with p (q r).
c Based upon the results of questions 15 and 16, what might you conclude about the effect
of brackets on a compound expression?
Valid and invalid arguments
The purpose of the logical connectives and, or, and not is to form statements, true or false,
in order to evaluate the truth, or otherwise, of something called an argument. An argument is a
set of one or more propositions (statements). Before we can evaluate arguments we need one
more connective: the implication (or conditional) statement.
Implication
Consider the following classical statement: If it is raining
then I bring my umbrella. This is the combination of the two
statements It is raining and I bring my umbrella, connected by
two words: If and then. Each of the two statements has individual
truth values; either could be true or false. The rst statement is
called the antecedent, the second is called the consequent, and in
symbolic form this is written as p q.
This is called implication because the rst statement implies the
second; it is also called conditional, because the outcome of the
second statement is conditional on the rst.
How can we determine the truth table of p q? This is not as
simple as employing a mere denition.
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Referring to our example, consider the question Under what conditions would p q be a lie?.
1. If it is indeed raining and I bring my umbrella then, clearly p q is true.
2. If it is raining and I dont bring my umbrella, then I lied to you! Thus, p q is false.
3. What if it is not raining? I have told you nothing about what
I would do in that case. I might either bring my umbrella,
or I might not. In either case you cannot say I lied to you,
so p q is true.
To summarise, then, the truth table at right may be constructed:
This leads us immediately to ask the question: Is p q the same
as q p?
WORKED EXAMPLE 5
Determine by using truth tables if ( p q) (q p).
THINK WRITE
1 Set up a truth table for p, q and p q. This is shown in
the 3rd column.
p q p q q p
T T T T
T F F T
F T T F
F F T T
2
Exchange the roles of p and q to determine the truth
table for q p. This is shown in the last column.
3
Clearly, they are not equivalent.
This is a most important result; it is a result that people (who think they are arguing logically)
often mistake for a valid statement. Again, referring to the original implication; If I bring my
umbrella, then it is raining says a much different thing from the original statement and is called
its converse. In this example, it seems to be making the argument that my bringing the umbrella
can control the weather!
Converse, contrapositive and inverse
As we have just seen, there are alternative forms of p q, such as the converse. These, and their
relationship to p q are shown in the table below.
Name Symbol Relationship to p q
Implication p q (assumed) True
Converse q p False
Contrapositive ~q ~p True
Inverse ~p ~q False
Often the contrapositive is a more realistic way of stating an implication than the original
statement is. Be careful, however, not to use the converse or inverse as they are (generally) false
when p q is true.
Arguments
An argument is a series of statements divided into two parts the premises and the conclusion.
The premises are a series of statements intended to justify the conclusion. For example, consider
the following argument:
A terrier is a breed of dog. Premise
Rover is a terrier. Premise
Therefore, Rover is a dog. Conclusion
Generally, an argument will have only one conclusion and (usually) two premises.
p q p q
T T T
T F F
F T T
F F F
302
Conclusion and premise indicators
To help identify the conclusion, look for words or phrases like:
therefore, accordingly, hence, thus, consequently,
it must be so that, so, it follows that, implies that
What follows one of these conclusion indicators is the conclusion; by default everything else is a
premise. There are also premise indicators:
because, given that, since, seeing that,
may be inferred from, owing to, for, in that
WORKED EXAMPLE 6
Identify the premises and conclusions for each of these arguments.
a A Commodore is a model of a Holden car.
My car is a white Commodore.
Therefore, my car is a Holden.
b Military defence depends upon adequate government funding.
Adequate government funding depends on a healthy economy.
A healthy economy depends upon an intelligent scal policy.
Military defence depends upon an intelligent scal policy.
c Pregnant mothers should not smoke.
Cigarettes can harm the foetus.
d The weather report on Channel 9 is accurate.
I will bring an umbrella tomorrow, because the weather report on Channel 9 predicts
rain for tomorrow.
THINK WRITE
a Examine each sentence looking for
the conclusion indicators, or examine
the sequence of the sentences.
a A Commodore is a model of a Holden car.
My car is a white Commodore.
Therefore, my car is a Holden.
Premise
Premise
Conclusion
b Note how the sequence of statements
connects one with the next.
The last is therefore the conclusion.
b Military defence depends upon adequate
government funding.
Adequate government funding depends on
a healthy economy.
A healthy economy depends upon an
intelligent scal policy.
Military defence depends upon an
intelligent scal policy.
Premise
Premise
Premise
Conclusion
c In this case the sentences have been
reversed. This is a common mistake.
c Pregnant mothers should not smoke.
Cigarettes can harm the foetus.
Conclusion
Premise
d Again, the order of statements
is somewhat confused. Can you
re-write this argument in a more
logical fashion?
d The weather report on Channel 9 is
accurate.
I will bring an umbrella tomorrow.
The weather report on Channel 9 predicts
rain for tomorrow.
Premise
Conclusion
Premise
In some books, statements are called propositions and arguments are called inferences.
Categorical propositions and the deductive argument
The standard argument consists of two premises and a conclusion:
All dogs are mammals. Premise
Rover is a dog. Premise
Therefore, Rover is a mammal. Conclusion
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303 Chapter 9 Algebra and logic
Note: Observe the use of the key word All. (Beware of arguments that use the key word
some, as in Some journalists are hard-working. This is a weaker form of argument, the study
of which is beyond the scope of this course.)
The rst premise is called a categorical statement or proposition, and this form of argument
can be called the classical deductive argument. However, as we shall see, there are many cases
where we will not have a valid deductive argument, even if everything looks correct: these
situations are called fallacies. As an example, consider the following argument:
All dogs are mammals. Premise
Rover is a mammal. Premise
Therefore, Rover is a dog. Conclusion
Clearly, no one should be convinced by this argument. Both premises might be true, but
the conclusion does not follow logically from them and we would say that this is an invalid
argument. This is an example of a formal, or structural fallacy.
Some categorical propositions can be turned into implications. For instance, the statement
All dogs are mammals can be written as If it is a dog, then it is a mammal. This says exactly
the same thing.
Beware of certain statements such as If it is sunny tomorrow, I will go to the beach. This
is not the same as saying On all sunny days I will go to the beach. The key word here is
tomorrow this restricts the statement so that the key word all cannot be used. However, the
implication can still be used in a valid argument:
If it is sunny tomorrow, I will go to the beach (after checking the weather tomorrow).
It is sunny.
I will go to the beach.
This is certainly a valid argument. At this point,
we can dene a symbolic form for this kind of deductive
argument: p q

p
q
In other words, we start with an implication, which we assert to be true, then follow by stating
that the antecedent is true, and argue that the conclusion is true. Can you see how the Rover
argument ts into this pattern? Note that this is only one form of (potentially) valid argument.
WORKED EXAMPLE 7
Determine if the following arguments are valid.
a All mathematics books are interesting. b If I study hard, I will pass Physics.
This is a book about mathematics. I passed Physics.
Therefore, this book is interesting. I must have studied hard.
c Some history books are boring. d If I dont study, I will fail Physics.
This book is about history. I didnt study.
Therefore, this book is boring. I will fail Physics.
THINK WRITE
a 1
Change the rst statement to: If . . . then . . .. a If it is a mathematics book, then it is
interesting.
2
(a) Assign each statement a symbol. p = It is a mathematics book.
q = It is interesting.
(b) Put the argument into symbolic form. p q
p
q

3
Determine if it is a valid form. Yes, this is a valid form for an argument.
304
b 1 (a) Assign each statement a symbol. b p = I study hard.
q = I will pass Physics.
(b) Put the argument into symbolic form. p q
q
p

2
Determine if it is a valid form. No, this is not a valid form for an
argument.
c Consider the rst statement. Note the use of the word
some.
c The use of the word some means that
the statement cannot be put into this
form.
Thus, the entire argument is not valid.
d 1
(a) Assign each statement a symbol. d
p = I dont study.
q = I will fail Physics.
(b) Put the argument into symbolic form. p q
p
q

2
Determine if it is a valid form. Yes, this is a valid form for an argument.
Note: Even if the statements are expressed in negative form; I dont study I will fail
Physics, it is still possible to have a valid argument. Can you devise a positive argument which
is the equivalent to the one in part d?
It is important to note that an argument may be valid even if the truth of the component
statements cannot be established. Consider the following (nonsense) argument:
All fribbles are granches.
An hommie is a fribble.
Therefore, an hommie is a granch.
We certainly cannot establish the truth of the two premises (let alone know what fribbles,
granches or hommies are), but presuming they are true, the argument is valid. Furthermore,
consider the argument:
If it is a dog then it can do algebra.
Rover is a dog.
Therefore Rover can do algebra.
This is a valid form of argument, but one (or more) of the premises is (are) false. In this case
we do not have a sound argument and would certainly not use it to convince anyone of the
mathematical ability of dogs. In other words, All sound arguments are valid, but all valid
arguments are not necessarily sound.
Valid forms of argument
There are many valid forms of argument. We shall limit our discussion to the most important
ones, tabulating ve of them below.
Argument form and name Example
p q
p
q

Modus ponens
If Mary is elected, then she must be honest.
Mary was elected.
Mary must be honest.
This is our standard form.
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Argument form and name Example
p q
p
q

Disjunctive syllogism
Either John or Jemma was born in Canada.
John was not born in Canada.
Jemma was born in Canada.
Note that the roles of p and q can be interchanged here.
p q
q r
p r

Hypothetical syllogism
If it is raining I will bring my umbrella.
If I bring my umbrella then I will not get wet.
If it is raining I will not get wet.
Many statements (p, q, r, ) can be linked together this way to
form a valid argument.
p q
q
p

Modus tollens
If I study hard I will pass Physics.
I did not pass Physics.
I did not study hard.
This is a valid form of a negative argument.
p q r s
p r
q s

Constructive dilemma
If we holiday in France we will have to practise speaking
French, and if we holiday in Germany, we will have to practise
German.
We will holiday in France and Germany.
We will have to practise speaking French and German.
There are several other forms more complex than these which are beyond the scope of this course.
Proving the validity of an argument form
It may not be satisfactory to merely declare that the ve arguments in the previous table are
automatically valid. There is a way to mathematically establish their validity using a truth table.
The procedure is as follows.
Step 1. Set up a single truth table for all the premises and for the conclusion.
Step 2. Examine the row (or rows) in the table where all the premises are true.
Step 3. If the conclusion is true in each of the cases of step 2, then the argument is valid.
Otherwise it is invalid.
WORKED EXAMPLE 8
Establish the validity of the modus ponens argument, namely: p q
p
q

THINK WRITE
1
Set up a truth table for each of the premises, namely
p and p q and the conclusion q. Note that p and
q are set up rst, in the usual way, and that p q is
completed from them in the usual way.

p q p q
T T T
T F F
F T T
F F T
306
2 Find the rows where all the premises are true. The premises are all true in the 1st row
only.
3
Compare with the conclusion column (q). The conclusion is also true, so the
argument is valid.
WORKED EXAMPLE 9
Show that the following argument is invalid.
p q
q
p

THINK WRITE
1 Set up a truth table, for each of the premises, namely
q and p q and the conclusion p. Note that p and
q are set up rst, in the usual way, and that p q is
completed from them in the usual way.
p q p q
T T T
T F F
F T T
F F T
2 Find the rows where all the premises are true. The premises are all true in the 1st row
and 3rd row.
3 Compare with the conclusion column ( p). The conclusion is true in the 1st row, but
false in the 3rd, so the argument is invalid.
This is a common error in logical argument, and is called afrming the consequent.
In conclusion, if an argument ts exactly one of the ve given forms, then it is immediately
assumed to be valid; otherwise it must be established to be valid using truth tables.
The implication 1. p q has the following alternative forms:
(a) implication (assumed true)
(b) converse (False)
(c) contrapositive (True)
(d) inverse (False).
An argument consists of one or more statements called 2. premises and a statement called
a conclusion.
An argument is valid if the conclusion is true when all the premises are true. 3.
A valid argument is sound if all the premises are true. 4.
An invalid argument (sometimes referred to as a 5. fallacy) occurs when the premises
might be true but the conclusion does not follow logically from them.
Among others, there are ve valid deductive argument forms: 6.
(a) modus ponens
(b) disjunctive syllogism
(c) hypothetical syllogism
(d) modus tollens
(e) constructive dilemma.
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307 Chapter 9 Algebra and logic
Valid and invalid arguments
1 WE5 Establish the validity of the contrapositive; namely, determine using truth tables if
( p q) (~q ~p).
2 Establish the truth table for the inverse; namely, show that (p q) is not equivalent to
(~p ~q).
3 Let p = It is bread and q = It is made with flour. Write out the implication, converse,
contrapositive and inverse in sentences.
4 MC The contrapositive of the statement If a child is playing quietly, then it is doing
something bad is:
A If a child is playing quietly then it is not doing something bad.
B If a child is not playing quietly then it is not doing something bad.
C If a child is not doing something bad then it is not playing quietly.
D If a child is doing something bad then it is not playing quietly.
E If a child is doing something bad then it is playing quietly.
5 MC The inverse of the statement If you are not careful, then you will get hurt is:
A If you are careful, then you will not get hurt.
B If you do not get hurt, then you are careful.
C If you get hurt then you are not careful.
D If you do not get hurt then you are not careful.
E If you are not careful, then you will not get hurt.
6 WE6 Identify the premises and conclusion in the following arguments.
a All cats are uffy.
My pet is a cat.
My pet is uffy.
b Two is the only even prime number.
Prime numbers are divisible by themselves and 1.
All even numbers are divisible by themselves and by 2.
c Growing apples depends on good water.
Growing apples depends on good irrigation.
Good water depends on good irrigation.
7 WE 7 Determine which of the following are valid arguments.
a If you are a mathematician, you can do algebra.
You are a mathematician.
You can do algebra.
b All footballers are t.
David is not a footballer.
David is not t.
c If it is a native Australian mammal, then it is a marsupial.
A wombat is a native Australian mammal.
A wombat is a marsupial.
d Some TV shows are boring.
Neighbours is a TV show.
Neighbours is boring.
e All musicians can read music.
Louise can read music.
Louise is a musician.
8 Look again at the arguments in question 7 which were not valid. If possible, turn them
into valid arguments. Assume that the rst statement in each argument is always correct.
9 MC Which of the following statements about logic is false?
A An argument must have a conclusion.
B An argument consists of premises and a conclusion.
C An If . . . then . . . compound statement is called a conditional statement.
D A, B and C are all false.
E A, B and C are all true.
EXERCISE
9B
308
10 WE8 Establish the validity of the disjunctive syllogism argument, namely p q

p
q
11 Establish the validity of the three remaining valid forms of argument, namely:
a hypothetical syllogism p q
q r
p r

b modus tollens p q
q
p

c constructive dilemma p q r s
p r
q s

12 The following are valid arguments. Determine which of the five forms of argument were
used.
a Either you clean up your room or you will not watch any television tonight.
You did not clean up your room.
Therefore you will not watch any television tonight.
b If you help your mother with the dishes, I will take you to the football game tomorrow.
I didnt take you to the football game.
Therefore you didnt help your mother with the dishes.
c If you study statistics, then you will understand what standard deviation means.
You studied statistics.
Therefore you will understand what standard deviation means.
13 MC Consider the following valid argument.
If John plays for us on Saturday, then we will win.
If we win on Saturday, then we will come in rst place on the ladder.
If we come in rst place on the ladder, then we play our rst nal at home.
Therefore, if John plays for us on Saturday, then we play our rst nal at home.
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309 Chapter 9 Algebra and logic
This is an example of:
A modus ponens B disjunctive syllogism
C hypothetical syllogism D modus tollens
E constructive dilemma
14 WE9 a Determine the validity of the following argument, using truth tables.
p q
p
q

b Show that the following is an example of this argument.


If elected with a majority, my government will introduce new tax laws.
My government was not elected with a majority.
Therefore, my government will not introduce new tax laws.
15 A common argument is of the form:
If you work hard, then you will become rich.
You dont work hard.
Therefore, you will not become rich.
a Put this argument in symbolic form.
b Show that it is an invalid form of argument. (This is called denying the antecedent.)
16 Determine the validity of the following arguments.
a p q
r q
p r

b p q
r p
r

c p q
p
q

17 Determine the validity of the following


arguments.
a All dogs have ve legs.
All ve-legged creatures are called chickens
Therefore, all dogs are chickens.
b All dogs have ve legs.
All chickens have ve legs.
Therefore, all dogs are chickens.
c If you deposit money in the bank, then you
will earn interest.
You didnt earn any interest.
Therefore, you didnt deposit any money in
the bank.
d If I wanted an easy course to study, I would
choose Human Development and if I wanted
an interesting course to study, I would choose
General Mathematics.
I can choose an easy course, and an
interesting one.
Therefore, I will study Human Development and General Mathematics.
e If the team plays well, either the offence was good or the defence was good.
The defence wasnt good and the team did not play
well.
Therefore, the offence wasnt good.
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310
Techniques of proof
As mentioned at the beginning of this chapter, logic is not only used to establish the validity
of arguments, but its techniques are used to establish the truth (or otherwise) of mathematical
statements. For example, it is not satisfactory to say that Pythagoras theorem is true; it must be
proved to be true as well. The tools of logic are also the tools of proof.
Tautologies
A tautology is a compound statement which is always true. While this might seem like a useful
thing, in arguments such statements are to be avoided, as they contribute nothing towards an
argument. An example of a tautology is:
The game will be won or lost in the last 30 minutes.
A statement like this, while perhaps favoured by sports announcers, is of no value in
establishing the truth of whether a particular team will win. A tautology is more useful as a
technique of proof.
To establish if a compound statement is a tautology, construct a truth table from its component
parts. If the compound statement is always true, then it is a tautology.
WORKED EXAMPLE 10
Consider the statement:
If John and Jim are qualied lawyers, then John is a qualied lawyer.
Establish whether or not this statement is a tautology.
THINK WRITE
1
Dene symbols for each part of the statement. Let p = John is a qualied lawyer.
Let q = Jim is a qualied lawyer.
2
Convert the statement to its symbolic form. ( p q) p
3
Set up a truth table.
p q p q (p q) p
T T T T
T F F T
F T F T
F F F T
4
Establish whether or not the statement is a tautology. The last column shows all T, therefore
the statement is a tautology.
As can be seen, the original statement would contribute very little to any argument as to
the qualications of either John or Jim as lawyers. The opposite of a tautology is a self-
contradictory statement; one which is always false. It too has little use in arguments. However,
the concept of a tautology can be used in establishing validity or, in mathematical language,
proving arguments.
Proof using tautologies
An argument is valid under the following condition: If all the premises are true then the
conclusion is true. Let p and q be the premises of an argument and r be the conclusion. If
( p q) r is a tautology, then the argument is valid, or proved.
Note that p, q and r can be, themselves, compound statements. In fact, this method is exactly
the same as that presented in the previous section, but is a more mechanical technique.
9C
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311 Chapter 9 Algebra and logic
WORKED EXAMPLE 11
Establish the validity of the modus tollens argument, namely p q

~
~
q
p
THINK WRITE
1
Set up a standard truth table for
p and q.
2
Determine the truth table for p q.
3
Form the truth table of the and
of both statements, namely;
p q ~q (column 4).
p q p q p q ~q (p q ~q) ~p
T T T F T
T F F F T
F T T F T
F F T T T
4
Form the truth table of the
implication using the 1st
two statements along with
the conclusion, namely:
(p q ~q) ~p (column 5).
5
Determine the validity of the
argument.
Since the last column is always true, this is a tautology and the
original argument is valid.
The other valid forms of argument can also be established using the same technique. This is left
as an exercise.
Mathematical proofs using valid argument forms
Any of the valid forms of argument can be used to prove theorems in mathematics. While this
can be a tedious way of proving things, it certainly will establish them beyond doubt.
WORKED EXAMPLE 12
Prove the following: If two straight lines have equal gradients, then they do not intersect.
THINK WRITE
1
Find a property of lines with equal gradients. If lines have equal gradient then they are
parallel.
This is a well-known result from linear
graphs.
2
Find a property of parallel lines. If lines are parallel then they do not
intersect.
This is a well-known result from geometry.
3
Dene p, q and r from compound statements.
Create a symbolic form of steps 1 and 2.
Let p = Two lines have equal gradients.
Let q = Two lines are parallel.
Let r = Two lines do not intersect.
Step 1: If p then q, or p q.
Step 2: If q then r, or q r.
4
Determine a conclusion from the valid argument form
(hypothetical syllogism).
p q
q r
p r

312
5 Write the conclusion. If two straight lines have equal gradients,
then they do not intersect. QED
Whenever a theorem is proved, state quod erat demonstrandum (QED). This means It is
demonstrated, but could also mean quite easily done!
Proof by contrapositive
As mentioned in the section on logical connectives, an alternative to p q is its contrapositive
~q ~p. If we can establish that the contrapositive statement is true, then the original
implication is true.
WORKED EXAMPLE 13
Prove, using the contrapositive, that: If n
3
is odd, then n is odd (where n is any integer).
THINK WRITE
1
Write the statement in symbolic form. Let p = n
3
is odd; q = n is odd.
2
Write the contrapositve as a statement. ~q ~p; If n is not odd then n
3
is not
odd.
3
Prove the truth of the contrapositive. If n is not odd, it is even (or 0) and can be
represented by 2x, where x is any integer.
Let n = 2x
then n
3
= (2x)
3
= 8x
3
.
This relies on the fact that multiplying anything by 2
results in an even number.
But 8x
3
= 2 2 2 x
3
and, hence, must
be even.
Since 8x
3
= n
3
is even it is not odd.
Since the contrapositive statement is
shown to be true, the original argument,
namely that if n
3
is odd, then n is odd, is
also proved. QED
Proof by contradiction
Another method of proof involves assuming the statement that we are trying to prove is false.
Then this leads to an apparent contradiction, so we assume that the statement is true.
WORKED EXAMPLE 14
Prove, by contradiction, that the product of two negative numbers (non-zero)
is positive.
THINK WRITE
1
Assume that the statement is false. Let a and b be two negative numbers.
Assume that a b is negative.
2
Determine the magnitude of the product. Invoke the
assumption that the product is negative.
The magnitude of a b = | ab |
= | a | | b |
ab =

| a | | b |
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Worked example 14
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
313 Chapter 9 Algebra and logic
3 Consider the case c =

a, so that c is positive, and


a positive number is being multiplied by a negative
number.
cb =

| c | | b | since c is < 0 and b > 0


| c | = | a | since c =

a
cb =

| a | | b | substitution
4
Now from steps 2 and 3, the two expressions are equal.

| a | | b | = ab = cb from steps 2 and 3
a = c divide both sides by b
5
This is a contradiction, since c =

a. Contradiction implies that the original


statement is true. QED
The contradiction must be as a direct result of the assumption of the original statement being
false. In the above case, this occurred in steps 2 and 3, leading to two different expressions for
the same thing (

|a| |b|). This proof technique is based upon the logical argument form:
(p ~q) (r ~r) (p q)
where p q (or more specically q) is the statement you are trying to prove, and (r ~r) is
the contradiction that arises by assuming q was false (~q). This method of proof is also called
indirect proof, or reductio ad absurdum (reducing to an absurdity).
Proof by counter-example
Perhaps the simplest method of proof is that by assuming the statement to be true, an example
arises which shows that the statement is false. Therefore the original statement cannot be true.
WORKED EXAMPLE 15
Prove, by counter-example, that the statement the square root of x
2
is x

is false.
THINK WRITE
1
Consider a single case; let x

= 8. x
2
= 64
2
Invoke the rule for square roots. The square root of 64 is 8.
3
Substitute back. The square root of x
2
is x, thus the
original statement is false.
Remember, you need only a single example where the statement is false and hence, by
extension, the entire statement is false. In the above example, the proof relied on the fact that
there were two answers, not one as implied in the statement.
There are many other methods of proof, but the ones you have seen in this chapter will provide
you with a toolbox of techniques for proving a large number of mathematical statements.
Proof by mathematical induction
Mathematical induction is a method of proof, although it is considered less effective than the
ones you have already learned. It is used to prove formulas, results and similar things where
there is a sequence of results for different values.
For example, the sum of the series 1 + 2 + 3 + . . . + n
n n
=
+ ( )( ) 1
2
has different results depending
on the value of n.
We will use the method of induction on the above proof.
Step 1
Show that the result is true for n = 1 (or in
some proofs n = 0).
If n = 1, then the sum = 1 and
( )( ) n n +
=

=
1
2
1 2
2
1
314
Step 2
Assume it is true for any value n. Assume: 1 + 2 + 3 + + n
n n
=
+ ( )( ) 1
2
Step 3
Prove it true for n + 1 (add one more term
to the series).
This step is as a result of adding with
common denominators.
This step is as a result of the common
factor of (n + 1) in the numerator.
Let m = n + 1, so m + 1 = n + 2
(1 + 2 + 3 + . . . + n) + (n + 1)

=
+
+ +
( )( )
( )
n n
n
1
2
1

=
+ + + ( )( ) ( ) n n n 1 2 1
2

=
+ + ( )( ) n n 1 2
2

=
+ ( )( ) m m 1
2
Step 4
Clearly, this is the same formula as the one
we assumed true.
( )( ) m m+1
2
= 1 + 2 + 3 + . . . m
= 1 + 2 + 3 + . . . (n + 1)
The logic behind induction is that we can keep on increasing the value of n by one at a time,
until all (possible) values have been proved. Thus the statement is proved for all values!
A tautology is a compound statement which is always true. 1.
An argument with premises 2. p, q, r and conclusion c is valid if the compound
statement p q r . . . c is a tautology (that is, is always true).
A mathematical argument can be proved using (among others): 3.
(a) a valid deductive argument form
(b) contrapositive (prove ~q ~p, which proves p q)
(c) contradiction (prove that the opposite statement is false)
(d) counter-example (prove false by nding an example)
(e) mathematical induction.
REMEMBER
Techniques of proof
1 WE 10 Determine if the following statement is a tautology.
If she plays well she will win, or she will lose.
2 Modify the sentence in question 1 to:
If she plays well she will win, or if she plays poorly she will lose.
Determine if this sentence is a tautology.
3 Modify the sentence in question 1 to:
Either she plays well and wins or she will lose.
Determine if this sentence is a tautology.
4 WE 11 Using tautology, establish the validity of the hypothetical syllogism argument, namely:
p q
q r
p r

EXERCISE
9C
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
315 Chapter 9 Algebra and logic
5 Using tautology, establish the validity or otherwise of the following arguments.
a

p q
q r
p r

b p q
q r
p r

c p q
q
p
d

p q
p
q

6 Express the following arguments in symbolic form.


a If you are a loser, then you didnt train hard
enough.
If you didnt train hard enough, you were
distracted.
Therefore, if you are a loser, then you were
distracted.
b If it is not raining, then I will wash my car.
It is raining.
Therefore, I will not wash my car.
c If it is cloudy, then I do not bring my
umbrella.
I did bring my umbrella.
Therefore, it is not cloudy.
d If the hard drive isnt working, then the
program will not work.
If the program is not working, then the printer will not work.
Therefore, if the hard drive isnt working the printer will not work.
7 MC The missing truth values in each column in the following table are (from left to right):
p q p q q p ~p ~q ~q ~p
T T T T T T
T F F F
F T F F
F F T T T T
A F, T, T, F B F, F, T, T C T, F, T, F D T, T, T, T E T, T, F, T
8 WE 12 Using a valid argument, prove the following mathematical result.
If a number, x, is even, then x
2
is even.
9 Using a valid argument, prove that 24
2
is even.
10 WE 13 Prove, using the contrapositive, that:
If n
2
is odd then n is odd.
11 Prove the following results using the contrapositive.
a If ax = bx and x 0, then a = b.
b If n
2
> 4, then n > 2.
c If n
2
is divisible by 2, then n is divisible by 2.
12 WE 14 Prove, by contradiction, that the product of a negative number and a positive number
is negative.
13 Prove, by contradiction, that there is no smallest positive real number (a, such that a > 0).
14 Prove, by contradiction, that 2 is irrational.
15 Prove, by contradiction, that there is no largest positive integer (n, such that n > 0).
16 WE 15 Prove, by counter-example, the statement that x
2
= 4 has only one solution is false.
316
17 Prove, by counter-example, the fact that all prime numbers are odd.
18 Consider the formula p = n
2
+ n + 11. Let n = 1, 2. . .
n = 1, p = 13 n = 2, p = 17 n = 3, p = 23 n = 4, p = 31 n = 5, p = 41
It seems that: If n is a positive integer, then p is a prime number.
Prove, or disprove, this statement.
19 Consider the two lines PQ, and RS shown below. A third line crossing both of them,
called a transversal, forms two angles a and b. Investigate a proof for the statement that:
If a + b = 180, then PQ is parallel to RS.
Q P
S R
a
b
20 Consider any triangle ABC as shown in the figure below. Let the longest side of the
triangle be labelled x and the other two sides be labelled y and z. Investigate a proof for the
statement that:
x y + z.
C A
B
y z
x
21 Examine some well-known results in mathematics. Can you prove them by induction? Here
are some ideas to get you started. Some will work, some wont.
a The odd number series 1 + 3 + 5 + . . . + (2n 1) = n
2
.
Hint: How many odd numbers are there in this series?
b (1 + x)
n
(1 + xn) for n 1 and x > 0
c Pythagoras theorem
d Prove (n)(n + 1) is an even number for any integer value of n.
e 2
n
n
2
for all integers 4
f Let a, b and c be three consecutive integers. Prove (a + b + c)
3
is always divisible by 3.
g Prove the quadratic formula. Given ax
2
+ bx + c = 0, prove that the roots are
x
b b ac
a
=

2
4
2
.
h Prove that a polygon of n sides can be composed of n 2 triangles.
Hint: Start with n = 3.
i 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + . . . + 2
n
= 2
n + 1
1
j 4
n
n
4
for all integers 2
22 a Can you (reasonably) predict what type of
proof is likely to be solvable by induction?
b What are the limitations of the proofs, in
terms of values of n which can be used?
c In some scientic research,
particularly medicine, the concept of induction
is used as follows:
If I treat Patient 1 with Drug X, she is cured.
If I treat Patient 2 with Drug X, she is cured.
If I treat Patient n with Drug X, she is cured.
d What conclusion(s) is the researcher trying to draw? Comment on its (their) validity.
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
317 Chapter 9 Algebra and logic
23 Express your thoughts on the usefulness or otherwise of proof by induction, paying attention
not only to mathematical proofs but those used in areas such as science, commerce and
politics.
Sets and Boolean algebra
Many of the rules of logic that we have seen thus far can be collected
into a single set of rules and procedures called Boolean algebra, named after the 19th century
English mathematician, George Boole. Boole is also responsible for the introduction of sets into
mathematics.
Sets and their properties
A set is a collection of objects (or members) that have something in common. Sets can be
numbers, such as the set of integers from 1 to 10,
A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}
or people, such as the set of Australian Prime Ministers,
B = {Barton, Deakin, . . ., Keating, Howard, Rudd}
or things, such as the set of suits in a deck of cards,
C = {Diamonds, Hearts, Clubs, Spades}
Sets can be nite, containing a xed number of members, such as set A above, with
10 members, or innite, such as the set of positive integers, N = {1, 2, 3, . . .}. Finally, a set with
no members is called a null set. An example is the set of female Australian Prime Ministers,
F = { } or .
Implicit in sets is the concept that there are objects in the set and objects not in the set. If an
object x is in set A, we could write x A, while if object y is not in set A we would write y A.
Sets can be displayed visually using a Venn diagram as
shown at right. The area inside the circle represents the set
with its members A = {2, 4, 6, 8}. The white area outside the
circle represents all objects not in the set. In future we will not
generally show the members in the set, but state its rule. What
could be the rule for the set in this gure?
The rectangle itself represents the universal set, the set of all possible members (some are in
A, some are not) and is denoted by the symbol . In this example the universal set could be all
the integers.
As in arithmetic, there are a series of operations and properties which enable us to manipulate
sets. Consider two sets, A and B, and the possible operations on them.
Intersection:
Symbol:
The area in common between two sets is
known as the intersection and is shown
here in grey.
A B
A intersection B or in both A and B
A B

Union:
Symbol:
The area in either A or B is the union, and
is shown here in red.
A B
A union B or in either A or B or both
A B

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9D
A
2
8
6
4

(Continued )
318
Negation:
Symbol:
The area not in A is the negation or
complement, and is shown here in blue.
A
Complement of A or A-prime or not
in A
A

Given these operations, we can now look at the rules of sets, comparing them to the rules of
arithmetic. For some laws we will need three sets.
Name Symbolic form Description
Corresponding
arithmetic
Commutative
Law
1. A B = B A
2. A B = B A
Order of a single operation is not
important.
a + b = b + a
a b = b a
Identity sets 1. A = A
2. A = A
The null set has no effect on
union; the universal set has no
effect on intersection.
a + 0 = a
a 1 = a
Complements 1. A A =
2. A A =
Inverse a + (

a) = 0
a
a
=
1
1
Associative Law 1. A (B C)
= (A B) C
2. A (B C)
= (A B) C
The placement of brackets has no
effect on the nal result when the
operations are the same.
a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c
a (b c) = (a b) c
Distributive Law 1. A (B C)
= (A B) (A C)
2. A (B C)
= (A B) (A C)
Bracketed expressions can
be expanded when different
operations are involved.
a (b + c) = a b + a c
(Note that there is only
one of these laws in
arithmetic.)
Closure Consider sets A, B and S.
If A, B S, then
A B S
A B S
Performing operations on a set
will create a result which still
belongs to the same class of
sets (S).
If a and b are real
numbers, then:
a + b is a real number
a b is a real number.
It is important to note that union () acts similarly to addition, while intersection () is
similar to multiplication, except in the complements, where their roles are reversed.
While the commutative laws are self-evident, the remaining laws can be demonstrated using
Venn diagrams. Closure is a concept which, for now, will have to be taken for granted. For
example, closure applies for integers with the operations of addition and multiplication. It
does not apply for division (for example
1
2
), as the result (0.5) is not an integer even though 1
and 2 are.
WORKED EXAMPLE 16
Using Venn diagrams, establish the complements rules, namely:
a A A = b A A =
THINK WRITE
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
319 Chapter 9 Algebra and logic
a 1 Draw a Venn diagram, indicating A and A. a
A A'

2
Demonstrate A A = . Since means either, it is clear that a
member is either in A or in A which is by
denition equal to .
b 1
Refer to the Venn diagram in part a 1 . b Since means both, it is clear that there
are no members in both A and A, so the
set is null or .
2
Demonstrate A A = .
Boolean algebra
By replacing the set symbols with Boolean ones, we get the laws of Boolean algebra, which are
exactly the same as those for sets.
Set name Set symbol Boolean name Boolean symbol
Intersection and

Union or +
Complement not
Universal set everything I
Null set nothing O
Thus the set laws become:
Name Set law Boolean law
Commutative
Laws
1. A B = B A
2. A B = B A
A + B = B + A
A

B = B

A
Identity 1. A = A
2. A = A
A + O = A
A

I = A
Complements 1. A A =
2. A A =
A + A = I
A

A = O
Associative 1. A (B C) = (A B) C
2. A (B C) = (A B) C
A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C
A

(B

C) = (A

B)

C
Distributive 1. A (B C)
= (A B) (A C)
2. A (B C)
= (A B) (A C)
A + (B

C) = (A + B)

(A + C)
A

(B + C) = A

B + A

C
Closure Whatever applies to sets also applies to Boolean algebra.
Only the rst distributive law may require some explanation. Do not confuse the Boolean +
sign with addition!
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History of mathematics
George Boole
320
WORKED EXAMPLE 17
Establish the distributive law, namely, A + (B

C) = (A + B)

(A + C), using a Venn diagram.


THINK WRITE
1
Consider the left-hand side term (B

C ), which is the
intersection of B and C.
A B
C
2
Now, create the union with A, namely A + (B

C). In
this gure, the red shading shows the new area added.
The nal result is the region which has either colour.
A B
C
3
Now, consider the 1st term of the right-hand side,
namely (A + B).
A B
C
4
Now, consider the 2nd term of the right-hand side,
namely (A + C ).
A B
C
5
Now, consider the intersection of the two regions
in steps 3 and 4, which produces the region
(A + B)

(A + C). The purple area is the resultant


region.
A B
C
6
Compare the two results. Clearly the area in step 2 equals the area in
step 5, thus A + (B

C) = (A + B)

(A + C ).
deMorgans Laws and additional results
There are two further important results in Boolean algebra involving the negation of the union
and intersection operations. These rules, called deMorgans Laws, can be proved using the
results from Boolean algebra, or can be demonstrated using Venn diagrams.
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
321 Chapter 9 Algebra and logic
deMorgans First Law states:
(A + B) = A

B
deMorgans Second Law states:
(A

B) = A + B
These laws can be interpreted as saying that the complement of union is intersection and the
complement of intersection is union.
WORKED EXAMPLE 18
Prove the rst of deMorgans Laws; namely, that the complement of the union
of 2 sets is the intersection of their complements using:
a the rules of Boolean algebra and
b Venn diagrams.
THINK WRITE
a 1
State the requirements of proof in Boolean
algebra terms. Since (A + B) is the
complement of (A + B), then A

B must
satisfy both the Complement Laws.
a
If (A + B) = A

B then the two


complement laws must be satised.
Therefore, we must show that:
(A + B) + (A

B) = I 1st Complement
Law [1]
(A + B) . (A

B) = O 2nd Complement
Law [2]
1st Complement Law
2
Simplify the left side of equation [1].
(a) This is as a result of the 1st Distributive
Law.
(b) This is as a result of the 1st Commutative
Law.
(c) This is as a result of the 1st Complement
Law.
Note: The term (I + B) represents the union of
B with I, which is everything. Similarly, the
term (A + I ) represents the union of A with I,
which is everything.
LHS = (A + B) + (A

B)
= (A + B + A)

(A + B + B)
= (A + A + B)

(A + B + B)
= (I + B)

(A + I )
= I

I
= I
= RHS QED
3
Complete the simplication.
4
Simplify the left side of equation [2].
(a) This is as a result of the 2nd Commutative
Law.
(b) This is as a result of the 2nd Distributive
Law.
(c) This is as a result of the 2nd Commutative
Law.
Note: The term A

A is the intersection of A
and its complement, which is nothing or O.
Similarly, B

B = O.
2nd Complement Law
LHS = (A + B)

(A

B)
= (A

B)

(A + B)
= A

A + A

B
= A

B + A

B
5
Complete the simplication. Note that the
intersection and the union of O with any set
must be O, since there is nothing in O.
= O

B + A

O
= O + O
= O
= RHS QED
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Worked example 18
322
b 1
Draw a Venn diagram representing the left-
hand side of the equation; that is (A + B).
(a) Draw a rectangle with two large, partly
intersecting circles. Label one of the circles
as A the other as B.
(b) Identify the portion required.
Note: A + B, that is, A B, represents the
portion inside the two circles. Therefore,
its complement (A + B) is represented by
the portion outside the two circles.
(c) Shade the required portion.
b
A
(A+B)'
B

2
Draw a Venn diagram representing the right-
hand side of the equation; that is, A

B.
(a) Draw a rectangle with two large partly
intersecting circles. Label one of the circles
as A the other as B.
B A

(b) Identify the portion required.


Note: A, the complement of A, represents
the portion outside the two circles and the
non-intersecting part of circle B

B, the
complement of B, represents the portion
outside the two circles and the non-
intersecting part of circle A.
A

B (that is A B), is represented


by the common shaded portion. A

B is
represented by the portion outside the two
circles.
(c) Shade the required portion.
AA A

BB B

A
B
BB
AA

3
Comment on the Venn diagrams obtained. The Venn diagrams obtained are identical,
therefore, deMorgans rst Law,
(A + B) = A

B, holds true.
The results above establish the rst of deMorgans Laws. The 2nd Law can be proved in a
similar fashion.
Based upon the rules for Boolean algebra, some important additional results can be tabulated.
Rule Explanation
A + A = A The union of any set with itself must still be itself.
A

A = A The intersection of any set with itself must still be itself.


A + I = I The union of any set with everything must be everything I.
A

O = O The intersection of any set with nothing must be nothing O.


Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
323 Chapter 9 Algebra and logic
Rule Explanation
A

(A + B) = A Consider that only the part of (A + B) which intersects with A must be just
A itself.
A + (A

B) = A Consider the fact that A

B is within A, if B A, or is A if A B so that its


union with A must be just A itself.
These results are easily established with Venn diagrams, and are left as an exercise.
At this point it is worth noting that the key operations of sets and Boolean algebra are intimately
related to those of deductive logic. These can be summarised by adding columns to an earlier table.
Set name Set symbol Logic name
Logic
symbol
Boolean
name
Boolean
symbol
Intersection and and

Union or or +
Complement not ~ not
Universal set everything I
Null set nothing O
There are no logical equivalents to everything or nothing.
Let us use the rules of Boolean algebra to prove an earlier result.
WORKED EXAMPLE 19
The following pair of logical statements were established to be equivalent:
( p q) ~p
p ~p
Establish this fact using Boolean algebra.
THINK WRITE
1
Write the rst logic statement and equate
it with its corresponding statement using
Boolean algebra.
( p q) ~p = (P + Q) + P
2
Simplify the right-hand side of the equation. = (P + P) + Q 1st Commutative Law
= (I) + Q
= I + Q Identity Law
= I
3
Write the second logic statement and equate
it with its corresponding statement using
Boolean algebra.
p ~p = P + P Complements
4
Simplify the right-hand side of the equation. = I
5
Comment on the results obtained. The two statements are both equal to I and therefore
equivalent to each other. QED
324
A set is a collection of objects with some attribute in common. 1.
Sets can be related using intersection, union, and complement (see the table at the 2.
end of the chapter).
Sets follow the following mathematical laws (see the table on page 319): 3.
(a) Commutative
(b) Identity and complements
(c) Associative
(d) Distributive
(e) Closure.
Boolean algebra uses all the rules and properties of sets, but replaces the symbols (see 4.
the table at the end of the chapter).
deMorgans Laws relate various operations as follows: 5.
(A + B) = A

B
(A

B) = A + B
REMEMBER
Sets and Boolean algebra
1 WE 16 Demonstrate the 2nd Associative Law, namely:
A (B C) = (A B) C
using Venn diagrams.
2 WE 17 Demonstrate the 2nd Distributive Law, namely:
A (B C) = (A B) (A C) or A

(B + C ) = A

B + A

C
using Venn diagrams.
3 MC Which of the following statements about sets is false?
A The symbol represents the union of two or more sets.
B All sets must have at least one member.
C Some sets can have an innite number of members.
D A member cannot be in both set A and set A at the same time.
E The set represented by the symbol has no members.
4 Write the following sets using the notation A = {. . .}.
a A = the set of all even positive integers less than 20
b B = the set of all positive integers divisible by 4
c C = the set of all even prime numbers
d D = the set of court cards in a deck of playing cards
e E = the set of integers, less than 0, which are square numbers
f F = the set of integers less than 10
5 Which of the sets in question 4 are finite?
6 Demonstrate, using a Venn diagram, the intersection of the following two sets:
A = the set of two-digit positive odd numbers
B = the set of two-digit square numbers.
List the members of the intersection on the diagram.
7 Demonstrate, using a Venn diagram, the intersection of the following two sets:
A = the set of two-digit positive even numbers
B = the set of two-digit palindromes (numbers which are the same backwards and forwards).
List the members of the intersection on the diagram.
EXERCISE
9D
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
325 Chapter 9 Algebra and logic
8 Demonstrate on a Venn diagram the regions defined by:
a A B b A B c A (B C ).
9 The laws of sets can be demonstrated with specific sets.
Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}, B = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}, C = {1, 4, 9}
Consider the 1st Distributive Law: A (B C ) = (A B) (A C ).
a Find the set represented by the expression (B C).
b Find the set represented by A (B C ).
c Find the set represented by (A B).
d Find the set represented by (A C ).
e Find the set represented by (A B) (A C ) and show that this is the same set as that
in the answer to part b.
10 Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}, B = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}, C = {1, 4, 9}
a Find the set represented by the expression (B C ).
b Find the set represented by A (B C ).
c Find the set represented by (A C ).
d Find the set represented by (A B).
e Find the set represented by (A B) (A C ) and show that this is the same set as that
in the answer to part b.
11 WE 18a Using the rules for Boolean algebra, prove the 2nd of deMorgans Laws:
(A

B) = A + B
12 Simplify the following logical expressions, using the rules of Boolean algebra.
a A + A

B + A

B b (A + B + A) + B
c A + A

B d A

(A + C)
13 WE 18b Show, using Venn diagrams, that:
a (A + B)

A = A b (A + B)

B = A
c A + B

A = A + B.
14 WE 19 Determine, using Boolean algebra, if the following two statements are equivalent.
( p q) ~p
p ~p
15 Prove the following using Boolean algebra or Venn diagrams.
a A + B + A + B = I b (A + B)

B = O
c (A + B)

(A + B) = A d A

B + C

(A + B) = A

B + C
Hint: Use the results from question 13 to shorten your proofs.
Digital logic
The contribution of logic and Boolean algebra to the design of
digital computers is immense. All digital circuits rely on the application
of the basic principles we have learned in this chapter. Computer
software is constructed using logic gates based on some of the rules
of logic laid down by Aristotle.
Digital truth values
Digital circuits consist of electrical current owing through wires which
connect the various components. The computer recognises the presence
of electricity as True and the absence of electricity as False.
Furthermore, it is the accepted convention that we denote the presence
of electricity by 1 and the absence by 0. (In some systems the value of
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Truth tables
326
1 is given to positive electricity and 0 to negative
electricity.) Thus we have the basic conversion rule
which we will apply here as shown in the table.
The so-called onoff values come from the notion
of a switch: if the current ows through, the switch is
on; otherwise it is off as with a light switch.
Gates
A gate is an electrical component that controls the ow of
electricity in some way. It is similar to a gate on a farm, which
sometimes lets the sheep through and sometimes doesnt. The
simplest possible gate is the switch itself. It has two states, on
and off, as shown in the gures at right. When drawing a switch
on a diagram it is conventional to show the off position. By combining switches in certain
congurations, we can create simple logic circuits.
WORKED EXAMPLE 20
Consider the pair of switches arranged (in parallel) as
shown in the gure at right. Assume there is electricity at P.
What positions of the two switches, x and y, will allow a
current to ow through?
THINK WRITE
1
List the possible positions for each switch. Switch x can
be either off or on (0 or 1) independently of y, so there
are 2 2 = 4 possible positions.
2
Consider x = 0, y = 0. There will be no current at
Q. Otherwise, if x = 1 there will be a current at Q.
Similarly, if y = 1 there will be a current at Q. If both
x = 1 and y = 1 there will be a current at Q.
Note: We can consider this as the truth table for this
circuit.
x y Q
0 0 0
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 1
Because of the similarity of this truth table to the Boolean operator + (or), we can symbolise
this circuit as Q = x + y.
In theory, a computer could be constructed from nothing more than thousands (millions,
billions . . .) of switches. However, the design of a logic circuit would be a long, time-consuming
process. Furthermore, it is not clear who turns the switches on or off. Hence, logic gates were
constructed as black box components which could be combined, quickly, to perform relatively
complex operations.
A gate consists of one or two inputs and one output. The inputs are wires which are either
off (0) or on (1). Similarly, the output is either 0 or 1. Inputs require a continuous source of
electricity in order to remain at either 0 or 1.
The following table shows the gates we will use. Note that inputs are always on the left,
output on the right.
Name Symbol Truth table Comments
NOT
Input Output
0 1
1 0
Equivalent to
Boolean not.
Logical
value
Digital
value
Spoken
value
False 0 Off
True 1 On
On
Off
P
x
y
Q
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
327 Chapter 9 Algebra and logic
Name Symbol Truth table Comments
OR
A
B
Input A Input B Output
0 0 0
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 1
Equivalent to
Boolean or.
NOR
A
B
Input A Input B Output
0 0 1
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 0
Equivalent to
Boolean or
followed by a
not.
AND
A
B
Input A Input B Output
0 0 0
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 1
Equivalent to
Boolean and.
NAND
A
B
Input A Input B Output
0 0 1
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 0
Equivalent to
Boolean and
followed by a
not.
NAND and NOR gates, although without equivalent Boolean
expressions, are convenient ways of combining AND (or OR)
with NOT. For example, a NAND gate is equivalent to the
combination shown at right.
Very sophisticated circuits can be constructed from combinations of these 5 gates, and the
truth table of the output for all possible inputs can be determined.
WORKED EXAMPLE 21
Determine the truth table for the output Q, in terms of the
inputs a, b and c.
THINK WRITE
1
Working from left to right, determine the truth table for
the output d in terms of inputs a and b.
a
d
b
c
Q
a
b
c
Q
328
2
Use the truth table for an AND gate.
a b d
0 0 0
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 1
3
Now consider the output d to be the input to the OR
gate, combined with c to determine the truth table at Q.
Note that the 1st four rows correspond to step 2 for the
case of c = 0, while the 2nd four rows correspond to
step 2 for the case of c = 1.
a b d c Q
0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0
1 1 1 0 1
0 0 0 1 1
0 1 0 1 1
1 0 0 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
An alternative approach is to start with all inputs (a, b and c) and lay out a blank truth table for
these three inputs.
Add columns for each gate as required.
A blank truth table
for three inputs.
a b c
0 0 0
0 0 1
0 1 0
0 1 1
1 0 0
1 0 1
1 1 0
1 1 1
The completed truth
table.
a b c d Q
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 1
0 1 0 0 0
0 1 1 0 1
1 0 0 0 0
1 0 1 0 1
1 1 0 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
It should be clear that this truth table is equivalent to the one in step 3 of worked example 21,
with the rows in different order. Furthermore, this circuit of an AND and an OR gate is logically
equivalent to the statement (a b) c, or in Boolean algebra terms (a

b) + c.
An application Burglar alarms
Logic circuits can be used to design a burglar alarm. Typically, the owner turns a switch on to
arm the alarm and a burglar entering the building effectively turns another switch on or off
setting the alarm ringing.
Consider the alarm circuit in the gure at right. The rst
switch (S1) is set by the owner, while the second (S2) is
accidentally set by the burglar.
a
b s2
s1
Q
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
329 Chapter 9 Algebra and logic
WORKED EXAMPLE 22
Determine the truth table for the burglar alarm above, and describe the alarms
mechanism.
THINK WRITE
1
Dene the inputs, S1 and S2. Both
switches are shown in the off position in
the gure.
S1: off = 0, on = 1
S2: off = 0, on = 1
2
Set up the truth table for S1, S2, a, b and Q.
Note that a = S1 and b = ~S2.
S1 S2 a b Q
0 0 0 1 0
0 1 0 0 0
1 0 1 1 1
1 1 1 0 0
3
Describe the mechanism by examining
each row of the truth table.
Note that the logical equivalent of this
circuit is S1 ~S2 or, in Boolean terms,
S1

S2.
1st row: S1 = 0 implies that the
alarm is off or disabled.
2nd row: S1 = 0, the alarm is still disabled.
3rd row: S1 = 1 and S2 = 0 sets off the alarm (Q = 1).
4th row: S1 = 1 and S2 = 1, the alarm is on or enabled.
The owner sets the alarm mechanism by closing S1; the
burglar sets off the alarm by opening S2.
This is the most common form of burglar alarm, with a wire running through, say, a window.
When the burglar opens or breaks the window, current stops owing through the wire effectively
turning off S2. Several windows can be protected with a single wire going from window to
window, or with a separate mechanism for each window.
Simplifying logic circuits
In some cases an apparently complex circuit can be reduced to a simpler one.
WORKED EXAMPLE 23
Find a circuit equivalent to the one shown at right.
THINK WRITE
1
Determine the truth table of the circuit.
Start by determining the output at c.
Note that the inputs to the AND gate are
inverted by the two NOT gates.
a b c
0 0 1
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 0
Boolean expression = (a

b)
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Worked example 22
a
c
b
Q
330
2
Complete the truth table by determining the
output at Q. This is just the negation of c.
a b c Q
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 1
1 0 0 1
1 1 0 1
3
Write out the Boolean expression for Q, by
working backwards from Q.
Q = c (but c = a

b)
= (a

b)
4
Simplify, using the rules for Boolean
algebra.
Q = a + b 2nd deMorgans Law
= a + b double negative
5
Create the equivalent circuit. In this case it
is a single OR gate.
a
Q
b
The original, more complicated circuit might have been used because of availability or cost of
components. Otherwise, it would be advantageous to use the circuit in step 5.
Often, one has to design the logic circuit, given a Boolean expression.
WORKED EXAMPLE 24
Determine the logic circuit for the Boolean expression Q = (a + b)

(a + c).
THINK WRITE
1
Determine the number of independent inputs. There are three inputs: a, b and c.
2
Reduce the original Boolean expression to simpler,
component parts.
This last expression is as simple as possible.
Let u = b and v = c
Q = (a + u)

(a + v)
Let w = a + u
Let x = a + v
Q = w

x
3
Begin with the last, simplest expression.
This is an AND gate with w and x as inputs, Q
as output.
w
Q
x
4
(a) Using w = a + u, add an OR gate with a and u as
inputs, w as output.
(b) Using x = a + v, add an OR gate with a and v as
inputs, x as output.
Note that input a has been duplicated for each OR gate.
a
u
v
w
x
a
Q
5
(a) Using u = b, and v = c, add two NOT gates to
complete the circuit.
(b) The two a inputs must be connected.
What would be the truth table for Q?
a
c
b
u
v
Q
w
x
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
331 Chapter 9 Algebra and logic
In digital logic, the truth values are replaced with the presence or absence of electricity. 1.
The presence of electricity 2. = 1 = True; the absence of electricity = 0 = False.
Gates implement the logical connectives AND, OR, NOT as well as NOR, NAND (see 3.
the table in the summary at the end of the chapter).
All the rules of logic, sets and Boolean algebra can be used to design and simplify 4.
digital circuits.
REMEMBER
Digital logic
1 WE20 Consider the pair of switches arranged (in series) as
shown at right. Assuming that there is electricity at P, when
is there current at Q for various positions of the switches
x and y?
2 MC The Boolean equivalent of the circuit in question 1 is:
A Q = x + y B Q = x y C Q = x

y
D Q = x + y E Q = (x

y)
3 Consider the three switches arranged as shown at right.
a Assuming that there is electricity at P, when is there
current at Q, for various positions of the switches x, y
and z?
b Write a Boolean expression equivalent to this circuit.
4 Consider the circuit depicted at right which represents
a light xture in a hallway connected to two switches,
x and y. The light is on whenever there is a direct connection
between P and Q.
a Determine the truth table for this circuit.
b What would be an application for this?
5 MC A Boolean expression for Q in question 4 in terms of x and y is:
A x + y B x

y C (x + y)

(x + y)
D x

y + x

y E (x + y)

(x + y)
6 Modify the circuit in question 4 so that the light comes on only when either (or both) of
the two switches is in the on position.
7 WE21 Determine the truth table for the output Q, in
terms of the inputs a, b and c for thecircuit at right.
8 Determine the truth table for the output Q, in terms of the
inputs a, b and c for the circuit at right.
9 MC The Boolean equivalent to the circuit in question 8 is:
A [a

( b + c)] B a + (b

c) C (a + b)

(a + c)
D Both A and B are connect E A, B and C are all connect
10 WE22 a Determine the truth table for the output Q, in terms
of the inputs a, b and c.
b Hence, show that this circuit is equivalent to the one in
question 8.
EXERCISE
9E
Q P x y
P x y
z
Q
y
x
P
Q
a
Q b
c
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Truth tables
a
b Q
c
b
a
Q
c
332
11 Determine the truth table for the output Q, in terms of
the inputs a, b, c and d.
12 Burglar alarms revisited: Consider the modification to
the alarm system in worked example 22, used to protect a safe.
If there is a 1 at R, the alarm rings.
If there is a 1 at Q, the safe can be unlocked.
a Determine the truth table for this circuit.
b Hence, describe the operation of this circuit.
13 WE23 a Use deMorgans laws to show that a

b = (a + b).
b Hence, construct a logic circuit equivalent to an AND gate.
14 Show how a single NAND gate can be the equivalent of a NOT gate.
15 WE24 Determine the logic circuit for the Boolean expression Q = a

(b + c).
16 The designer of the circuit in question 15 does not have any NOT gates available.
Re-design the circuit using NOR and/or NAND gates to replace the NOT gate.
17 Design a logic circuit for the Boolean expression Q = a

b + a

c, without using any


NOT gates.
18 A conditional circuit: Up until now, we have not seen
a digital equivalent, or even a Boolean equivalent, of the
important logical expression a b. The truth table for
the conditional statement is shown at right.
a From the following list of statements, nd the one which
has the same truth table as a b.
i a

b ii a

b
iii a + b iv a + b

b
b Design a logic circuit equivalent to a b.
c Design a logic circuit equivalent to b a.
d Find a Boolean statement equivalent to (a b)

a.
e Find a Boolean statement equivalent to the modus ponens argument, namely:
a b
a
b

and simplify, as much as possible, using the result


from part d.
f Design a circuit equivalent to the Boolean statement
from part e, and show that the output is always 1.
Thus you have established the validity of the modus
ponens argument.
a
b
c
d
Q
Q
R
a
s1
s2
b
a
c
a b a b
0 0 1
0 1 1
1 0 0
1 1 1
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Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
333 Chapter 9 Algebra and logic
SUMMARY
Statements (propositions), connectives and truth tables
A statement (sometimes called a proposition) is a sentence which is either true or false.
Logical connectives are and, or, not, If . . . then, and equals (see the table at the end of this summary).
Each logical connective has a truth table (see the table at the end of the chapter).
A compound statement is made up of two or more statements connected with logical connectives.
Two (compound) statements are equivalent if they have identical truth tables.
Valid and invalid arguments
The implication p q has the following alternative forms:
Implication (assumed true) 1.
Converse (False) 2.
Contrapositive (True) 3.
Inverse (False) 4.
An argument consists of one or more statements called premises and a statement called a conclusion.
An argument is valid if the conclusion is true when all the premises are true.
A valid argument is sound if all the premises are true.
An invalid argument (sometimes referred to as a fallacy) occurs when the premises might be true but the
conclusion does not follow logically from them.
Among others, there are 5 valid deductive argument forms:
Modus ponens 1.
Disjunctive syllogism 2.
Hypothetical syllogism 3.
Modus tollens 4.
Constructive dilemma. 5.
Techniques of proof
A tautology is a compound statement which is always true.
An argument with premises p, q, r. . . and conclusion c is valid if the compound statement p q r . . . c
is a tautology (that is, is always true).
A mathematical argument can be proved using (among others):
A valid deductive argument form 1.
Contrapositive (prove 2. ~q ~p, which proves p q)
Contradiction (prove that the opposite statement is false) 3.
Counter-example (prove false by nding an example) 4.
Mathematical induction. 5.
Sets and Boolean algebra
A set is a collection of objects with some attribute in common.
Sets can be related using intersection, union, complement (see the table on the next page).
Sets follow the following mathematical laws (see also, the table on page 319):
Commutative 1.
Identity and Complements 2.
Associative 3.
Distributive 4.
Closure. 5.
Boolean algebra uses all the rules and properties of sets, but replaces the symbols (see the table on page 334).
deMorgans Laws relate various operations as follows:
(A + B) = A

B
(A

B) = A + B
334
Digital logic
In digital logic, the truth values are replaced with the presence or absence of electricity.
The presence of electricity = 1 = True; the absence of electricity = 0 = False.
Gates implement the logical connectives AND, OR, NOT as well as NOR, NAND, XOR (see the table
below).
All the rules of logic, sets and Boolean algebra can be used to design and simplify digital circuits.
Logic name
Logic
symbol
Set
symbol
Set
name
Boolean
symbol Truth table Digital gate
And Intersection

p q p q
T T T
T F F
F T F
F F F
Or Union +
p q p q
T T T
T F T
F T T
F F F
Not ~ Complement
p ~p
T F
F T
If . . .
then . . .
n/a n/a n/a
p q p q
T T T
T F F
F T T
F F F
n/a
Equal = Equivalent =
p q p q
T T T
T F F
F T F
F F T
n/a
NAND n/a n/a n/a n/a
p q p NAND q
T T F
T F T
F T T
F F T
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
335 Chapter 9 Algebra and logic
Logic name
Logic
symbol
Set
symbol
Set
name
Boolean
symbol Truth table Digital gate
NOR n/a n/a n/a n/a
p q p NOR q
T T F
T F F
F T F
F F T
XOR n/a n/a n/a n/a
p q p XOR q
T T F
T F T
F T T
F F F
336
CHAPTER REVIEW
SHORT ANSWER
1 Write the following compound statements in
symbolic form.
a Melpomeni and Jacques purchased new
bicycles.
b Either it is cold or it is warm and sunny.
c The dinner was late, expensive and poorly
cooked.
2 Determine the truth table for (p q) (~p ~q).
3 Write the converse, contrapositive and inverse of
the following statement:
If a politician is intelligent, she sends her
children to good schools.
4 Establish the validity of the following argument:
If the bicycle is not red then it is an Italian
bicycle.
If a bicycle is not an Italian bicycle then it is
green.
My bicycle is red.
Therefore the bicycle is not Italian.
5 Prove that x

1
=
1
x
, provided x 0.
6 Prove, by contradiction, that x > x, when
0 < x < 1.
7 Let A = the set of all positive prime numbers less
than 100.
Let B = the set of all positive two-digit numbers
with the digit 1 in them.
Let C = the set of all positive two-digit numbers
whose sum of digits = 7.
List the following sets:
a A B
b A (B C)
c A B C.
8 Prove, using the rules of Boolean algebra, that
(A + A

B)

(B + B

C) = B.
9 Design a logic circuit equivalent to the Boolean
expression Q = [A

(B

C)] + [A

(B

C)].
10 By simplifying the expression for Q in
question 9, design a circuit with fewer components.
(Hint: Consider using NAND or NOR gates.)
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1 The sentences The capital of Australia is
Canberra, Australia is part of the Southern
Hemisphere and Australias population is over
20 million are examples of:
A statements B instructions
C suggestions D exclamations
E near-statements
2 If there is a compound statement with 6 single
statements; p, q, r, s, t and v, then how many rows
will there be in the truth table?
A 6 B 8 C 12
D 36 E 64
3 The truth table at right
represents
A p q
B p q
C p ~q
D ~p q
E p ~q
4 The sentence I like either ham or steak with eggs
for breakfast can be symbolised as:
A h (s e) B h (s e)
C h (s e) D h (s e)
E h (s e)
5 The inverse statement to: If I buy a new coat then
I am happy is:
A If I dont buy a new coat then I am not happy.
B If I am not happy then I wont buy a new coat.
C If I am happy then I will buy a new coat.
D If I dont buy a new coat then I am happy.
E If I am happy then I wont buy a new coat.
p q ?
T T T
T F T
F T F
F F T
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
337 Chapter 9 Algebra and logic
6 The following argument:
If a lawyer is honest then you should hire him.
You shouldnt hire John Smith.
John Smith is not honest.
is an example of which valid form?
A Modus ponens
B Disjunctive syllogism
C Hypothetical syllogism
D Modus tollens
E Constructive dilemma
7 The following argument is an example of which
valid form?
If I study hard I will pass my exams.
I did not pass my exams.
I did not study hard.
A Modus ponens B Disjunctive syllogism
C Hypothetical syllogism D Modus tollens
E Constructive dilemma
8 The statement If she sinks that putt she will either
win or lose the tournament is a tautology because:
A it makes no sense B it is always true
C it is always false D it is no use in an argument
E none of these
9 By proving ~q ~p, you have proved p q is an
example of proof by:
A counter-example B contradiction
C contrapositive D deduction
E induction
10 The shaded area in
the figure at right
represents:
A A
B A
C A
D A
E (A )
11 If I = the universal set, O = the empty set and
A = any set, then A

I is:
A A B I C O
D A E none of these
12 The Boolean
expression equivalent
to the circuit at right is:
A Q = (a

b ) + (c

d) B Q = (a

b)

(c + d)
C Q = [(a + b)

c + d] D Q = [(a

b) + c] + d
E Q = a

[b + (c + d)]
13 The Boolean equivalent to the circuit shown below
is:
A (x + y) + z
B (x + y)

z
C x

(y + z)
D x

(y

z)
E x

(y + z)
A B

a
Q
b
c
d
x
y
z
EXTENDED RESPONSE
1 Other valid argument forms: In exercise 9B you learned ve
valid forms of argument. There are several others, including the destructive
dilemma. Consider the following argument.
If we want to reduce greenhouse gases, we should use more nuclear power,
and if we wish to reduce nuclear accidents we should use conventional
power.
We will either not use nuclear power or not use conventional power.
Therefore, we will either not reduce greenhouse gases or we will not reduce
the risk of nuclear accidents.
a Put each statement into symbolic form.
b Set up the truth table for the three statements.
c Determine if the argument is valid by nding the rows in the truth table
where all premises are true and comparing them with the conclusion.
d Use this technique to determine the validity of the following argument.
a b
b c
d a
c
d

e Can you devise an example of this argument form?


338
2 Implication versus equivalence: The statements a b (implication) and a b (equivalence) are quite
different logically. Implication is If . . . then . . ., while equivalence is If and only if . . . then . . ..
a Write the truth tables for each of the statements.
b Determine the two implications that must be true for the equivalence to be true.
c Consider the following implication: If a positive integer is even, then it is divisible by 2. Determine if
this is also an equivalence.
d Determine if all equivalences are also implications.
e Consider the following implications. Determine if they are also equivalences.
i If a positive integer is odd, then it is not divisible by 2.
ii If a number is positive then its square root is also positive.
iii If a number is positive then its square is also positive.
iv If a triangle has three equal sides, then it has three equal angles of 60 each.
v If a polygon is a square then it is a rectangle.
vi If x is odd, then x
3
is also odd.
vii If two statements p and q are true, then p q is true.
viii If two statements p and q are true, then p q is true.
ix If two statements p and q are true, then p q is true.
x If an argument is sound then it is also valid.
3 Consider the logic circuit at right.
a How many inputs are there? Name them.
b How many outputs are there? Name them.
c Write a truth table for the given logic circuit.
d i What occurs when w = 1, x = 0 and y = 1?
ii What occurs when w = 0, x = 0, y = 1 and z = 0?
e Does input z have any effect on the other inputs?
f i Write the Boolean expression for Q.
ii Simplify the expression obtained in part i using the rules for Boolean algebra.
g i Write the Boolean expression for R.
ii Simplify the expression obtained in part i using the rules for Boolean algebra.
h Use parts f and g to nd a simplied circuit to the original one given.
4 Consider the logic circuit at right. It consists of two inputs,
a and b, and four outputs, Q, R, S, and T.
a Determine the outputs when a = b = 0.
b Determine the outputs when a = 0 and b = 1.
c Repeat for the remaining possible values of a and b.
d Show that Q = 1 only when a = b = 0.
e Can you describe the pattern for this circuit, which is called a 2-bit decoder?
f The circuit has two NOT gates and four AND gates for the 2-bit decoding of a and b. How many gates
would be required for a 3-bit, 4-bit and n-bit decoder?
w
x
y
z
R
Q
Q
R
S
T
a
b
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc
Test Yourself
Chapter 9
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
339 Chapter 9 Algebra and logic
eBookplus eBookplus ACTIVITIES
Chapter opener
Digital doc
10 Quick Questions: Warm up with ten quick
questions on algebra and logic. (page 293)
9A Statements (propositions), connectives
and truth tables
Tutorial
WE4 int-1067: Watch how to complete the truth
table. (page 297)
9B Valid and invalid arguments
Tutorial
WE9 int-1068: Watch how to use a truth table to
show an argument is valid. (page 306)
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 9.1: Draw truth tables, explain and
establish valid and invalid arguments and solve a
worded problem. (page 309)
9C Techniques of proof
Tutorial
WE14 int-1069: Watch how to prove by contradiction
that the product of two negative numbers is positive.
(page 312)
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 9.2: Complete more complex
truth tables, solve worded problems and apply
understanding of tautologies, valid and invalid
arguments. (page 317)
9D Sets and Boolean algebra
Digital doc
History of mathematics: Learn about mathematician
George Boole. (page 319)
Tutorial
WE18 int-1070: Watch how to prove the rst of
deMorgans laws. (page 321)
9E Digital logic
Interactivity
Truth tables int-0976: Consolidate your understanding
of truth tables using logic. (page 325)
Tutorial
WE22 int-1071: Watch how to determine a truth table
for a burglar alarm. (page 329)
Digital docs
Spreadsheet 137: Investigate truth tables. (page 331)
Investigation: A computer storage device.
(page 332)
Investigation: Binary addition. (page 332)
Chapter review
Digital doc
Test Yourself: Take the end-of-chapter test to test
your progress. (page 338)
To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to
www.jacplus.com.au
10A The circle
10B The ellipse
10C The parabola
10D The hyperbola
10E Polar coordinates
10F Polar equations
10G Polar graphs
10H Review of complex numbers and polar
form of complex numbers
10I Addition of ordinates, reciprocals and
squares of simple graphs
10
340
Sketching relations in the Cartesian plane
from descriptions, equations or formulas and
identifying their key features
Sketching relations in the Cartesian plane from
rules and tables of values
Polar coordinates and polar graphs
Graphical representation of circles, ellipses,
parabolas and hyperbolas; sketching graphs,
including focus-directrix properties
Sketching graphs by addition of ordinates;
identifying asymptotes
Sketching the graph of reciprocal and square
relations from the graph of a simple relation
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc
10 Quick Questions
AREAS OF STUDY
Linear and
non-linear
graphs
The circle
The circle belongs to the family of conics. That is, a circle is a curve
produced by the intersection of a plane with a cone.
A circle is the path traced out by a point at a constant distance
(the radius) from a xed point (the centre).
Consider the circles shown below right. The rst circle has its centre at
the origin and radius r.
Let P (x, y) be a point on the circle.
By Pythagoras: x
2
+ y
2
r
2
.
The equation of a circle with centre (0, 0) and radius r is:
x
2
+ y
2
r
2
If the circle is translated h units to the right, parallel to the x-axis
and k units upwards, parallel to the y-axis, then:
The equation of a circle with centre (h, k) and radius r is:
(x h)
2
+ (y k)
2
r
2
10A
r
x
x
y
y
P(x, y)
x
(y k)
(x h)
y
P(x, y)
h
y
k
x
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
341 Chapter 10 Linear and non-linear graphs
WORKED EXAMPLE 1
Sketch the graph of 4x
2
+ 4y
2
25, stating the centre and radius.
THINK WRITE
1
Express the equation in standard form by dividing both
sides by 4.
x
2
+ y
2
r
2
4x
2
+ 4y
2
25
x
2
+ y
2

25
4
x
2
+ y
2

5
2
2

_
,

2
State the coordinates of the centre. Centre (0, 0)
3
Find the length of the radius by taking the square root
of both sides.
r
2

5
2
2

_
,

r
5
2
Radius 2.5 units
4
Sketch the graph.
2.5
2.5 2.5
2.5
x
y
WORKED EXAMPLE 2
Sketch the graph of (x 2)
2
+ (y + 3)
2
16, clearly showing the centre and radius.
THINK WRITE
1
Express the equation in standard form by expressing
16 as 4
2
.
(x h)
2
+ (y k)
2
r
2
(x 2)
2
+ (y + 3)
2
4
2
2
State the coordinates of the centre. Centre (2,

3)
3
State the length of the radius. r
2
4
2
r 4
Radius 4 units
4
Sketch the graph.
7
3
2
1
2 6
x
y
4
342
WORKED EXAMPLE 3
Sketch the graph of the circle x
2
+ 2x + y
2
6y + 6 0.
THINK WRITE
1
Express the equation in standard form using the
completing the square method twice.
(x h)
2
+ (y k)
2
r
2
x
2
+ 2x + y
2
6y + 6

0
(x
2
+ 2x + 1) 1 + (y
2
6y + 9) 9 + 6 0
(x + 1)
2
+ (y 3)
2
4 0
(x + 1)
2
+ (y 3)
2
4
(x + 1)
2
+ (y 3)
2
2
2
2
State the coordinates of the centre. Centre (

1, 3)
3
State the length of the radius. r
2
2
2
r 2
Radius 2 units
4
Sketch the graph.
3 1
1
3
5
1
x
y
Circle graphs:
x 1.
2
+ y
2
r
2
centre (0, 0) radius r
( 2. x h)
2
+ (y k)
2
r
2
centre (h, k) radius r
REMEMBER
The circle
1 WE 1 Sketch the graphs of the following, stating the centre and radius of each.
a x
2
+ y
2
49 b x
2
+ y
2
4
2
c x
2
+ y
2
36 d x
2
+ y
2
81
e 2x
2
+ 2y
2
50 f 9x
2
+ 9y
2
100
2 WE 2 Sketch the graphs of the following, clearly showing the centre and the radius.
a (x 1)
2
+ (y 2)
2
5
2
b (x + 2)
2
+ (y + 3)
2
6
2
c (x + 3)
2
+ (y 1)
2
49 d (x 4)
2
+ (y + 5)
2
64
e x
2
+ (y + 3)
2
4 f (x 5)
2
+ y
2
100
3 WE 3 Sketch the graphs of the following circles.
a x
2
+ 4x + y
2
+ 8y + 16 0
b x
2
10x + y
2
2y + 10 0
c x
2
14x + y
2
+ 6y + 9 0
d x
2
+ 8x + y
2
12y 12 0
e x
2
+ y
2
18y 19 0
f 2x
2
4x + 2y
2
+ 8y 8 0
EXERCISE
10A
eBookplus eBookplus
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SkillSHEET 10.1
Completing
the square
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
343 Chapter 10 Linear and non-linear graphs
4 MC The graph of (x 2)
2
+ (y + 5)
2
4 is:
A
2
5
x
y
B
2
5
x
y
C
2
5
x
y
D
2
5
x
y
E
2
5
x
y
5 MC The centre and radius of the
circle (x + 1)
2
+ (y 3)
2
4 is:
A (1,

3), 4
B (

1, 3), 2
C (3,

1), 4
D (1,

3), 2
E (

1, 3), 16
6 Find the equation representing
the outer edge of the galaxy as
shown in the photo at right, using
the astronomical units provided.
The ellipse
Another member of the family of conics is the ellipse.
A conic may be generally dened as a curve, where the ratio of the
distance from any point, P (x, y) on the curve to a xed point (the focus,
F), to its distance from a xed straight line (the directrix) is a constant
(the eccentricity, e).
The ellipse opposite has:
1. a centre (0, 0)
2. eccentricity: 0 < e < 1
3. two foci at F (ae, 0) and F(

ae, 0)
4. two directrices with equations x
a
e
and x
a
e

5. a semi-major axis, a
6. a semi-minor axis, b (when a > b).
From the denition:

FP
PD
e
FP ePD
(FP)
2
e
2
(PD)
2
(square both sides)
10B
eBookplus eBookplus
eLesson
eles-0079
Elliptical paths
x
a

e
y
a

P(x, y)
D
a ae
b
b
ae a
F' F
344
(ae x)
2
+ (0 y)
2

e x
a
e
2
2

_
,

a
2
e
2
2aex + x
2
+ y
2
e
2 x
a
e
x
a
e
2
2
2 +

_
,

1
]
1
1
a
2
e
2
2aex + x
2
+ y
2
e
2
x
2
2aex + a
2
x
2
e
2
x
2
+ y
2
a
2
a
2
e
2
x
2
(1 e
2
) + y
2
a
2
(1 e
2
)
x
y
e
2
2
2
1
+

a
2
x
a
y
a e
2
2
2
2 2
1

( )
1

x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
+ 1 where b
2
a
2
(1 e
2
)
The equation of an ellipse with centre (0, 0), foci (

ae, 0), directrices,


x
a
e


and 0 < e < 1 is:
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 +
where b
2
a
2
(1 e
2
)
If the ellipse is translated h units to the right, parallel to the x-axis, and k units upwards,
parallel to the y-axis, then:
The equation of an ellipse with centre (h, k),
foci (

ae + h, k), directrices
x
a
e
h +

and 0 < e < 1 is:


( ) ( ) x h
a
y k
b

2
2
2
2
1
where b
2
a
2
(1 e
2
)
WORKED EXAMPLE 4
Sketch the ellipse
( ) ( ) x y +
+

1
25
2
16
1
2 2
, giving the coordinates of the foci and the equations of the
directrices.
THINK WRITE
1
Express the equation in standard form.
( ) ( ) x h
a
y k
b

2
2
2
2
1
( ) ( ) x y +
+

1
25
2
16
1
2 2
( ) ( ) x y +
+

1
5
2
4
1
2
2
2
2
2
State the coordinates of the centre. Centre (h, k)
h

1 and k 2
Hence, centre is (

1, 2).
h + a
h a
k b
k
k + b
h
(ae+h, k) (ae+h, k)
F' F
y
x
x = + h
a

e
x = + h
a

e
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
345 Chapter 10 Linear and non-linear graphs
3
State the values of a and b. a 5 and b 4
4
Calculate the eccentricity. Since b
2
a
2
(1 e
2
)
then 4
2
5
2
(1 e
2
)
16 25(1 e
2
)
16 25 25e
2
25e
2
9
e
2

9
25
e
3
5
5
Find the coordinates of the foci. Foci (

ae + h, k)
ae
5
3
5

ae 3
ae + h 3 + (

1)
2

ae + h

3 + (

1)

4
Hence, foci are (2, 2) and (

4, 2).
6
Find the equations of the directrices. Directrices are x
a
e
h +


a
e
a
e
a
e
h

_
,

+ +

5
3
5
25
3
25
3
1
22
3
( )
and

+ +
a
e
h
25
3
1 ( )


28
3
Hence, equations of directrices are
x
22
3
or 7
1
3

and x

28
3
or

9
1
3
.
7
Sketch the graph.
x
y
2
6
2
1 2 4 4
6
F' F
1

3
9
1

3
7
346
Equations Features Graph
Ellipse (0 < e < 1)
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 +
where b
2
a
2
(1 e
2
)
( ) ( ) x h
a
y k
b

2
2
2
2
1
where b
2
a
2
(1 e
2
)
Major axis length 2a
Minor axis length 2b
Centre (0, 0)
Foci (

ae, 0)
Directrices
x
a
e


Centre (h, k)
Foci (

ae + h, k)
Directrices
x
a
e
h +

x
a

e
y
a

P(x, y)
D
a ae
b
b
ae a
F' F
h + a
h a
k b
k
k + b
h
(ae+h, k) (ae+h, k)
F' F
y
x
x = + h
a

e
x = + h
a

e
REMEMBER
The ellipse
1 Sketch the following ellipses, showing the coordinates of the foci and the equations of the
directrices.
a
x y
2 2
100 49
1 +
b
x y
2 2
25 4
1 +
c
x y
2 2
64 36
1 +
d
x y
2 2
121 81
1 +
e
x
y
2
2
16
1 +
f x
2
+ 4y
2
4
2 WE4 Sketch the following ellipses, showing the coordinates of the foci and the equations of
the directrices.
a
( ) ( ) x y
+
+

1
9
2
4
1
2 2
b
( ) ( ) x y +
+

5
25
2
16
1
2 2
c
( ) ( ) x y +
+
+

5
49
1
25
1
2 2
d
( ) ( ) x y
+

2
169
3
25
1
2 2
e
( ) x
y

+
5
36
1
2
2
f x
2
+ 9(y + 2)
2
9
3 MC Which of the following statements is not true of the graph of
x
y
2
2
4
1 + ?
A The centre is at (0, 0).
B a 2, b 1
EXERCISE
10B
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
347 Chapter 10 Linear and non-linear graphs
C
e
3
2
D The foci are (
3
, 0) and (

3, 0).
E The directrices are y
4 3
3
and y

4 3
3
4 MC The equation of the ellipse at right is:
A
( )
( )
x
y
+
+
3
9
2 1
2
2
B
( ) x y +
+
3
9 2
1
2 2
C
( ) x y +
+
3
9 4
1
2 2
D
( ) x
y

+
3
9
1
2
2
E
( ) x y +

3
9 4
1
2 2
5 In order to program a gemstone cutting machine, a jeweller
requires an equation for the edge of the stone based on the
coordinate system shown at right (centred at the stones
centre). What is the equation required?
The parabola
The parabola is also a conic, as shown at right. The eccentricity, e, for a
parabola is equal to one. Hence, the distance from any point P (x, y) on the
curve to the focus is equal to the distance of that point from the directrix.
The parabola opposite has:
1. a vertex (0, 0)
2. eccentricity: e 1
3. focus at F (a, 0)
4. directrix with equation x

a
From the denition:

FP
PD
e

FP
PD
1
FP PD
(FP)
2
(PD)
2
(Square both sides.)
(a x)
2
+ (0 y)
2
(x

a)
2
(a x)
2
+ (0 y)
2
(x + a)
2
a
2
2ax + x
2
+ y
2
x
2
+ 2ax + a
2

2ax
2
+ y
2
2ax
y
2
4ax
The equation of a parabola with vertex (0, 0), focus (a, 0),
directrix, x

a and e 1 is:
y
2
4ax
x
y
6
3
2
0
x
y
1.4
1.0
eBookplus eBookplus
Digital doc
WorkSHEET 10.1
10C
x
y
a a
F
P(x, y)
D
x
y
h + a h a
k
F(h + a, k)
h
348
If the parabola is translated h units
to the right (parallel to the x-axis)
and k units upwards (parallel to the
y-axis), then:
The equation of a parabola with
vertex (h, k), foci (a + h, k),
directrix, x

a + h and e 1 is:
(y k)
2
4a(x h)
WORKED EXAMPLE 5
Sketch the parabola y
2
8x showing the vertex, the coordinates of the focus and the equation of the
directrix.
THINK WRITE
1
Express the equation in standard form. y
2
4ax
y
2
8x
2
Give the coordinates of the vertex. Vertex (0, 0)
3
Find the value of a. 4a 8
a 2
4
Find the coordinates of the focus. Focus (a, 0)
Focus at (2, 0)
5
Find the equation of the directrix. Directrix at x

a
x

2
6
Sketch the graph.
2 2
x = 2
(2, 0)
x
y
F
WORKED EXAMPLE 6
Sketch the parabola (y 1)
2
12 (x + 2) showing the vertex, the coordinates of the focus and the
equation of the directrix.
THINK WRITE
1
Express the equation in standard form. (y k)
2
4a(x h)
(y 1)
2
12 (x + 2)
Hence h

2 and k 1.
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
349 Chapter 10 Linear and non-linear graphs
2
Give the coordinates of the vertex. Vertex (h, k)
Hence, vertex is (

2, 1)
3
Find the value of a. 4a 12
a 3
4
Find the coordinates of the focus. Focus (a + h, k)
a + h 3 + (

2)
1
Focus at (1, 1)
5
Find the equation of the directrix. Directrix at x

a + h

a + h

3 + (

2)

5
x

5
6
Sketch the graph.
2 1 1 5
x
x = 5
y
F(1, 1)
(2, 1)
WORKED EXAMPLE 7
Sketch the parabola y
2

12 (x 5) showing the vertex, the coordinates of


the focus and the equation of the directrix.
THINK WRITE
1
Write the equation. y
2

12(x 5)
2
Express the equation in standard form. (y k)
2
4a(x h)
Hence h 5 and k 0.
3
Give the coordinates of the vertex. Vertex (h, k)
Hence, the vertex is (5, 0).
4
Find the value of a. 4a

12
a

3
5
Find the coordinates of the focus. Focus (a + h, k)
a + h

3 + 5
2
Focus at (2, 0).
6
Find the equation of the directrix. Directrix at x

a + h

a + h 3 + 5
8
x 8
7
Sketch the graph.
Note: The parabola is facing in the opposite direction to that in the previous worked example. Why?
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Tutorial
int-1072
Worked example 7
(2, 0)
5 8
x
x = 8
y
F
350
Equations Features Graph
Parabola (e 1)
y
2
4ax Vertex (0, 0)
Focus (a, 0)
Directrix x

a
x
y
a a
F
P(x, y)
D
(y k)
2
4a(x h) Vertex (h, k)
Focus (a + h, k)
Directrix x

a + h
x
y
h + a h a
k
F(h + a, k)
h
The distance between the vertex and the focus a. The distance between the focus and
the directrix 2a.
REMEMBER
The parabola
1 WE 5 Sketch the following parabolas, showing the vertex, the coordinates of the focus and the
equation of the directrix.
a y
2
4x b y
2
16x c y
2
20x
d y
2
24x e y
2
6x f y
2
10x
g y
2
9x h y
2
7x
2 WE 6 Sketch the following parabolas, showing the vertex, the coordinates of the focus, and
the equation of the directrix.
a y
2
8(x 3) b y
2
4(x 1) c y
2
12 (x + 1)
d y
2
16(x + 4) e (y 1)
2
4(x 2) f (y 3)
2
12 (x 5)
g (y + 3)
2
20(x + 1) h (y + 6)
2
8(x + 3) i (y 2)
2
4x
j (y 7)
2
12x k (y + 5)
2
6x l (y + 4)
2
10x
3 WE 7 Sketch the following parabolas, showing the vertex, the coordinates of the focus, and
the equation of the directrix.
a y
2

4x b y
2

8x
c y
2

10x d y
2

6x
e y
2

12 (x + 1) f y
2

20(x + 3)
g y
2

14(x 2) h y
2

2 (x 4)
i (y 1)
2

8(x + 3) j (y 2)
2

16(x + 5)
k (y + 2)
2

18(x 1) l (y + 5)
2

10(x + 2)
4 MC The equation of the parabola at right is:
A y
2
4x B y
2
4(x 1)
C y
2
4(x + 1) D y
2
8(x + 1)
E y
2
12 (x 1)
EXERCISE
10C
2
6 4
x
y
F F
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
351 Chapter 10 Linear and non-linear graphs
5 MC Which one of the following statements is not true of the graph of the parabola
(y + 1)
2

4x?
A The focus is to the left of the y-axis. B The vertex is at (0,

1).
C The focus has coordinates (

1, 0). D The directrix is at x 1.


E It has the same directrix as y
2

4x.
6 Match each of the following graphs with its equation.
a

3 x
y
b

3
2
6 x
y c

2
3
x
y
F
d

1
5 x
y
F
i y
2

12(x 2) ii y
2
12x iii (y 2)
2

12x iv (y 2)
2
12(x + 3)
7 Find the Cartesian equation of each of the following parabolas and sketch each graph.
a Focus at (2, 0) Directrix x

2 b Focus at (2, 0) Directrix x

3
c Focus at (4, 0) Directrix x 2 d Focus at (6, 0) Directrix x

2
e Focus at (

2, 0) Directrix x 4 f Focus at (

4, 0) Directrix x

1
g Focus at (1, 2) Directrix x

1 h Focus at (

2, 3) Directrix x 2
The hyperbola
Another member of the family of conics is the hyperbola. However, its eccentricity is greater
than 1 (see the diagram below).
x
y
F'
a
a
ae ae
b
b
y = x
b

a
y = x
b

a x =
a

e
x =
a

e
a

e
D P(x, y)
F
The hyperbola above has:
1. a centre (0, 0) and vertices at (

a, 0)
2. eccentricity: e > 1
3. two foci at F (ae, 0) and F (

ae, 0)
4. two directrices with equations x
a
e
and x

a
e
5. two asymptotes with equations y
bx
a
and y
bx
a

where b
2
a
2
(e
2
1).
From the denition:

FP
PD
e
FP ePD
(FP)
2
e
2
(PD)
2
[Square both sides]
(ae x)
2
+ (0 y)
2
e x
a
e
2
2

_
,

10D
352
a
2
e
2
2aex + x
2
+ y
2

e x
a
e
x
a
e
2 2
2
2 +

_
,

1
]
1
1
a
2
e
2
2aex + x
2
+ y
2
e
2
x
2
2aex + a
2
a
2
e
2
a
2
e
2
x
2
x
2
y
2
a
2
(e
2
1) x
2
(e
2
1) y
2
a
2
x
y
e
2
2
2
1

[Divide both sides by (e


2
1)]

x
a
y
a e
2
2
2
2 2
1

( )
1 [Divide both sides by a
2
]

x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1 where b
2
a
2
(e
2
1)
The equation of a hyperbola with centre (0, 0), vertices (

a, 0), foci (

ae, 0), vertices (

a, 0),
directrices, x

a
e
, asymptotes, y

_
,

b
a
x and e > 1 is:
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1
where b
2
a
2
(e
2
1)
If the hyperbola is translated h units to the right, parallel to the x-axis, and k units upwards,
parallel to the y-axis, then:
The equation of a hyperbola with centre (h, k),
vertices at (

a + h, k), foci (

ae + h, k), directrices,
x
a
e
h +

, asymptotes, y k
b
a
x h

( ) and
e > 1 is:
( ) ( ) x h
a
y k
b

2
2
2
2
1 where b
2
a
2
(e
2
1)
WORKED EXAMPLE 8
Sketch the hyperbola
x y
2 2
9 4
1 indicating the coordinates of the centre, vertices and foci,
the equations of the directrices, and the equations of the asymptotes.
THINK WRITE
1 Express the equation in standard form by expressing 9
and 4 as perfect squares.
x
a
y
b
x y
x y
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
1
9 4
1
3 2
1



2
State the coordinates of the centre. Centre (0, 0)
x
y
F' F
h
k + b
k b
h ae h + ae
h a h + a
k
b

a
y = (x h) + k
b

a
y = (x h) + k
x = + h
a

e
x = + h
a

e
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
353 Chapter 10 Linear and non-linear graphs
3 State the values of a and b and give the coordinates of
the vertices.
a 3 and b 2, vertices (

3, 0)
4
Calculate the eccentricity by using
b
2
a
2
(e
2
1).
Since b
2
a
2
(e
2
1)
then 2
2
3
2
(e
2
1)
4 9(e
2
1)
4 9e
2
9
9e
2
13
e
2

13
9
e
13
3
5
Find the coordinates of the foci. Foci are ( ae, 0)
ae 3
13
3


13
Hence, foci are (

13, 0).
6
Find the equations of the directrices. Directrices are at x
a
e
.
a
e

_
,

3
13
3
9
13
9 13
13
Hence, the equations of the directrices are
x

9 13
13
.
7
Find the equations of the asymptotes. Asymptotes
y
b
a
x
x

2
3
Hence, the equations of the asymptotes are
y x
2
3
and
y x

2
3
.
8
Sketch the graph.
2
3
3
13
x
y
F' F
2
13
x =
13
9 13
x =
13
9 13
y = x
2

3
y = x
2

3
354
WORKED EXAMPLE 9
Sketch the hyperbola
( ) ( ) x y +

1
16
2
9
1
2 2
.
THINK WRITE
1
Express the equation in standard form.
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
x h
a
y k
b
x y
x

+
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
1
1
16
2
9
1
1
44
2
3
1
2
2
2

( ) y
2
State the coordinates of the centre. Centre (h, k)
h

1 and k 2
Hence, the centre is (

1, 2).
3
State the values of a and b and give the coordinates of
the vertices.
a 4 and b 3, vertices (

5, 2) and (3, 2)
4
Calculate the eccentricity by using
b
2
a
2
(e
2
1).
Since b
2
a
2
(e
2
1)
then 3
2
4
2
(e
2
1)
9 16(e
2
1)
9 16e
2
16
16e
2
25
e
2

25
16
e
5
4
5
Find the coordinates of the foci by substituting
a, e, h and k into (

ae + h, k).
Foci (

ae + h, k)
ae 4
5
4

5
ae + h 5 + (

1) and

ae + h

5 + (1)

6 4
Hence, the foci are (4, 2) (

6, 2).
6
Find the equations of the directrices by substituting
a, e and h into x
a
e
h

.
Directrices, x

+
a
e
h
a
e
a
e
h

_
,


+ +

4
5
4
16
5
16
5
1
11
5
( )
and

+ +
a
e
h
16
5
1 ( )

21
5
Hence, the equations of the directrices are
x
11
5
and x

21
5
.
7
Find the equations of the asymptotes by substituting
a, e, h and k into y k
b
a
x h

( ) .
Equations of asymptotes:

y k
b
a
x h

( )
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Worked example 9
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
355 Chapter 10 Linear and non-linear graphs

y x
x

+

2
3
4
1
3
4
1
[ ( )]
( )
y x + 2
3
4
1 ( ) and

y x +

2
3
4
1 ( )
4(y 2) 3(x + 1) and
4(y 2)

3(x + 1)
4y 8 3x + 3 and
4y 8

3x 3
3x 4y + 11 0 and
3x + 4y 5 0
Hence, the equations of the asymptotes are
3x 4y + 11 0 and 3x + 4y 5 0.
8
Sketch the graph.
2
5
5 6 3 1 4
x
y
F F'
1
1
3x 4y + 11 = 0
3x + 4y 5 = 0 x =
21

5
x =
21

5
Equations Features Graph
Hyperbola (e > 1)
x
a
y
b
2
2
2
2
1
where b
2
a
2
(e
2


1)
Vertices (

a, 0)
Foci (

ae, 0)
Directrices
x
a
e


Asymptotes
y
b
a
x

x
y
F'
a
a
ae ae
b
b
y = x
b

a
y = x
b

a x =
a

e
x =
a

e
a

e
D P(x, y)
F
( ) ( ) x h
a
y k
b

2
2
2
2
1
where b
2
a
2
(e
2


1)
Vertices (

a + h, k)
Foci (

ae + h, k)
Directrices
x
a
e
h +

Asymptotes
y k
b
a
x h

( )
x
y
F' F
h
k + b
k b
h ae h + ae
h a h + a
k
b

a
y = (x h) + k
b

a
y
=
(x h) + k
x = + h
a

e
x = + h
a

e
a distance between vertices 2
REMEMBER
356
The hyperbola
1 WE 8 Sketch the following hyperbolas, showing the coordinates of the centre, vertices and
foci, the equations of the directrices and asymptotes.
a
x y
2 2
16 9
1
b
x y
2 2
144 25
1
c
x y
2 2
4 4
1
d
x y
2 2
9 9
1 e
x y
2 2
64 36
1 f 4x
2
9y
2
36
2 WE 9 Sketch the following hyperbolas.
a
( ) x y

1
16 9
1
2 2
b
( ) x y +

3
144 25
1
2 2
c
x y
2 2
9
2
9
1
+

( )
d x
2
(y 3)
2
4 e
( ) ( ) x y +

1
64
2
36
1
2 2
f 4(x 5)
2
9(y + 3)
2
36
3 For the following hyperbolas, find:
i the eccentricity
ii the foci
iii the equations of the directrices
iv the equations of the asymptotes.
a
2
3 3 x
y
2
b
1
5 5 x
y
1
c
2
5 5 x
y
2
4 MC Given that a hyperbola has vertex points of (4, 0) and (

4, 0), with asymptotes of y


1
2
x
and y

1
2
x
, the equation of the hyperbola is:
A
x y
2 2
4 2
1
B
x y
2 2
4 2
1 +
C
x y
2 2
64 16
1
D
x y
2 2
16 4
1
E
y x
2 2
2 4
1
5 MC The equations of the asymptotes of the hyperbola with foci (

2.5, 0) and a distance of


4 units between the two vertices are:
A y

1
4
x B y

3
4
x C y

8
5
x
D y

5
4
x
E y

x
6 MC The equation of the graph at right is:
A
x y
2 2
64 9
1
B
x y
2 2
16 12
1
C
x y
2 2
16 9
1
D
x y
2 2
16 9
1 +
E 3x
2
4y
2
12
EXERCISE
10D
5 5
4 4
F' F
x
y
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
357 Chapter 10 Linear and non-linear graphs
7 Find the equation of the hyperbola with eccentricity 2 and foci (

3 2
, 0).
8 Find the equation of the hyperbola with vertices (

5, 0) and directrices at x

4.
9 A boomerang manufacturers
specifications for a particular model
of boomerang appear at right. Find an
equation for the dashed curve drawn
through the boomerangs.
Polar coordinates
In the Cartesian coordinate system, a point, P, is located by using
(x, y) coordinates. The same point can be located by stating the
distance of the point from the origin, the radius, r, and the angle,
, it makes with the positive x direction. These are known as polar
coordinates. We write the polar coordinates of point P as [r, ].
Note: may be given in degrees or radians.
WORKED EXAMPLE 10
Plot the following polar coordinates.
a [2, 60] b [

3
2
3
,

]
THINK WRITE
a 1
Draw the positive x direction.
a
2
x
y
60
[2, 60]
2
Rotate 60 anticlockwise.
3
Extend the line 2 units.
b 1
Draw the positive x direction.
b
[3, ]
x
y
2

2
Rotate
2
3

anticlockwise.
3
Extend the line 3 units in the opposite
direction.
Note: [

3,
2
3

] is the same as [3,


5
3

]. Why?
Can you nd another set of coordinates for the
same point?
y
x
20
30 30
20
F F'
10E
r
x
x
y
y
P(x, y)

358
From the initial polar coordinates diagram, by trigonometry:
x r cos ( )
y r sin ( )
Hence, we can convert polar coordinates to Cartesian coordinates.
WORKED EXAMPLE 11
Convert [2,
2
3

] to Cartesian coordinates.
THINK WRITE
1
Find the x-coordinate. x r cos ( )
2 cos
2
3

_
,

2
1
2
x

1
2
Find the y-coordinate. y r sin ( )
2 sin
2
3

_
,

2
3
2
y
3
3
State the Cartesian coordinates. Hence, the Cartesian coordinates are
(

1,
3
).
4
From the initial polar coordinates diagram, by trigonometry:
tan ( )
y
x
By applying Pythagoras theorem:
r
x y
2 2
+
Hence, we can convert Cartesian coordinates to polar coordinates.
[2, ]
x
y
2
3
2

Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad


Alternatively, on the Main screen, using the
soft keyboard, tap:
)
-
Complete the entry line as shown.
Then press E.
Note: The angle symbol can be found
in 9 K.
359 Chapter 10 Linear and non-linear graphs
WORKED EXAMPLE 12
Convert (3,

4) to polar coordinates.
THINK WRITE
1
Find r. r x y
2 2
+

3 4
2 2
+

( )

9 16 +

25
r 5
2
Find . tan ( )
y
x

4
3
( in 4th quadrant)
Note that as tan ( ) is negative, is in the fourth
quadrant.
tan

_
,

1
4
3
so

538 or (360 538)


538 or 30652
Hence, the polar coordinates are [5, 30652].
3
State the polar coordinates (choose 30652
in this case).
x
r
y
4
3

Cartesian coordinates (x, y)


Polar coordinates [r, ]
where x r cos ( ) and y r sin ( )
and r x y
2 2
+ and tan ( )
y
x
.
r
x
x
y
y
P(x, y)

REMEMBER
Polar coordinates
1 WE 10 Plot the following polar coordinates on the same graph.
a [2, 0] b [5, 180] c [0.5, 270] d [3, 90]
2 Plot the following polar coordinates on the same graph.
a
1
3
,

1
]
1
b
1
3
,

1
]
1

c
1
2
3
,

1
]
1
d
1
5
3
,

1
]
1
3 Locate each of the following points on the same graph.
a [3, 45] b [4, 100] c [1, 300] d [2.5,

30]
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Worked example 12
EXERCISE
10E
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SkillSHEET 10.2
Converting
radians to
degrees
360
4 WE11 Convert the following to Cartesian coordinates. (See below for a graphics calculator
approach.)
a [2, 45] b [5, 30] c [3, 60] d [2.7, 90]
e [1.5, 120] f [12, 210] g 2 6
2
. ,

1
]
1
h [7.8, ]
i
10
3
,

1
]
1
j
9 1
5
3
. ,

1
]
1
k [25, 5.8
c
] l [1.6, 4
c
]
5 WE12 Convert the following Cartesian coordinates into polar coordinates. (See below for a
CAS calculator approach.) Express in parts ae in degrees and the rest in radians.
a (5, 0) b (0, 4.3) c (

30, 0) d (0,

9)
e (6, 6) f (

4, 3) g (

5,

12) h (6,

8)
i (

1,
3
) j (

2,

2) k (2, 3,

2) l (5, 6)
Polar equations
A polar equation is an equation written in terms of r and/or .
Using the conversions for x and y into polar coordinates,
x r cos ( )
y r sin ( )
we can change Cartesian equations into polar equations.
WORKED EXAMPLE 13
Convert the following Cartesian equations into polar equations.
a x
2
+ y
2
25 b y + 2x c 2x 3y 5 d x
2
+ y
2
+ 6x 8y 0 e
x y
2 2
16 9
1 +
THINK WRITE
a 1
Substitute the polar expressions for
x and y.
a x
2
+ y
2
25
Since x r cos ( )
and y r sin ( )
(r cos ( ))
2
+ (r sin ( ))
2
25
2
Expand and simplify.
(Use the identity cos
2
( ) + sin
2
( ) 1.)
r
2
cos
2
( ) + r
2
sin
2
( ) 25
r
2
(cos
2
( ) + sin
2
( )) 25
r
2
25
r 5
3
Alternatively, since x
2
+ y
2
25
represents a circle of radius 5 units
then the polar equation must be r 5.
x
y
5
5 5
5
b 1
Substitute the polar expressions for
x and y.
b
y 2x
Since x r cos ( )
and y r sin ( )
then r sin ( ) 2r cos ( )
2
Divide both sides by r cos ( ) and
recall the identity
sin ( )
cos ( )
tan ( )

.
sin ( )
cos ( )

2
tan ( ) 2 since
sin ( )
cos ( )
tan ( )



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WorkSHEET 10.2
10F
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
361 Chapter 10 Linear and non-linear graphs
3
Isolate . tan

1
(2)
6326 or 1.107
c 1
Substitute the polar expressions for
x and y.
c
2x 3y 5
Since x r cos ( )
And y r sin ( )
then 2r cos ( ) 3r sin ( ) = 5
2
Simplify. r (2 cos ( ) 3 sin ( )) 5
r

5
2 3 cos ( ) sin ( )
d 1
Substitute the polar expressions
for x and y.
d
x
2
+ y
2
+ 6x 8y 0
Since x r cos ( )
and y r sin ( )
r
2
cos
2
( ) + r
2
sin
2
( ) + 6r cos ( ) 8r sin ( ) 0
r
2
(cos
2
( ) + sin
2
( )) + r(6 cos ( ) 8 sin ( )) 0
2
Note that cos
2
( ) + sin
2
( ) 1. r
2
+ r(6 cos ( ) 8 sin ( )) 0
3
Divide both sides by r. r + 6 cos ( ) 8 sin ( ) 0
Hence, r 8 sin ( ) 6 cos ( ).
e 1
Substitute the polar expressions
for x and y.
e
x y
2 2
16 9
1 +
Since x r cos ( )
and y r sin ( )
( cos ( )) ( sin ( )) r r
2 2
16 9
1 +
2
Simplify.
r r
2 2 2 2
16 9
1
cos ( ) ( )
+
sin
9 16
144
1
2 2 2 2
r r cos ( ) sin ( ) +

r
2
(9 cos
2
( ) + 16 sin
2
( )) 144
r
2
2 2
144
9 16

+ cos ( ) sin ( )
Similarly, polar equations can be changed to Cartesian form.
WORKED EXAMPLE 14
Convert the following polar equations into Cartesian equations.
a r 4 cos ( ) b tan ( ) = 2 c r
2
1 sin + ( )
THINK WRITE
a 1
Find r
2
by multiplying both sides of the
equation by r.
a r 4 cos ( )
r
2
4r cos ( )
2
Substitute the Cartesian expressions
for r and .
Since r
2
x
2
+ y
2
and x r cos ( )
then x
2
+ y
2
4x
362
3
Simplify by completing the square.
x
2
4x + y
2
0
x
2
4x + 4 4 + y
2
0
(x 2)
2
+ y
2
4
Note: This is the equation of a circle of radius
2 units and centre (2, 0).
b 1
Substitute tan ( ) .
y
x
b tan ( ) 2
As tan ( ) =
y
x
y
x
, 2
2
Simplify by making y the subject. y 2x
c 1
Simplify the equation by multiplying
both sides of the equation by
(1 + sin ( )).
c

r
+
2
1 sin ( )
r(1 + sin ( )) 2
r + r sin ( ) 2
2
Substitute the Cartesian expressions
for r and .
Since y r sin ( )
r + y 2
3
Make r the subject. r 2 y
4
Find r
2
by squaring both sides. r
2
(2 y)
2
5
Substitute for r
2
. Since r
2
x
2
+ y
2
x
2
+ y
2
(2 y)
2
6
Expand and simplify.
Note: This is the equation of a parabola.
4 4y + y
2
x
2
4 4y
4y 4 x
2
y
x
1
4
2
Cartesian coordinates (x, y)
Polar coordinates [r, ]
where x r cos ( ) and y r sin ( )
also r x y +
2 2
and tan ( ) .
y
x
r
x
x
y
y
P(x, y)

REMEMBER
Polar equations
1 WE 13 Convert the following Cartesian equations into polar equations.
a x 3 b y 2
c x
2
+ y
2
9 d x
2
+ y
2
36
e y 5x f y x
g 3x 4y 1 h 5x + y 7
i x
2
+ y
2
10x + 6y 0 j x
2
+ y
2
+ 6x + 8y 0
k x
2
+ y
2
12y 0 l x
2
+ y
2
2x 0
m
x y
2 2
9 4
1 +
n
x y
2 2
4 25
1 +
EXERCISE
10F
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
363 Chapter 10 Linear and non-linear graphs
2 WE 14 Convert the following polar equations into Cartesian equations.
a r 2 b r 5
c r 6 sin ( ) d r 2 cos ( )
e tan ( ) 3 f tan ( )

4
g

4
h

3
4
i r cos ( ) 4 j r sin ( )

1
k r 4 sin ( ) 2 cos ( ) l r 6 sin ( ) + 8 cos ( )
m
r
+
3
1 sin ( )
n
r

4
1 cos ( )
Polar graphs
Polar equations can be graphed using polar coordinates. This is often a better alternative
than converting polar equations to the sometimes more complicated Cartesian equation
form.
When using polar equations, is assumed to be measured in radians.
WORKED EXAMPLE 15
Sketch the graph of the Spiral of Archimedes, r for 0 2. The Spiral of Archimedes curve
is named after the Greek mathematician who rst investigated its properties.
THINK WRITE
1
Construct a table of values for 0 2
using increments of

6
and nd the
corresponding r values to 2 decimal places.
0

6

2
2
3
5
6

r 0 0.52 1.05 10.57 2.09 2.62



7
6
4
3
3
2
5
3
11
6

2
r 3.14 3.67 4.19 4.71 5.24 5.76 6.28
2
Sketch the graph using a protractor and
ruler to plot each of the points from the
table. Remember r is the distance from the
centre (the origin).
The circular protractor on a Mathomat is
ideal for this.
O
2

11

10G
364
WORKED EXAMPLE 16
Sketch the graph of r for 0 < < 4 using a CAS calculator.
THINK WRITE
WORKED EXAMPLE 17
Sketch the graph of r 8 for 0 2.
THINK WRITE/DISPLAY
1
Construct a table of values for 0 2
and nd the corresponding r values to
2 decimal places.
0

6

2
2
3
5
6

r 8 8 8 8 8 8

7
6
4
3
3
2
5
3
11
6

2
r 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
2
Sketch the graph using a protractor and
ruler to plot each of the points from the
table. Remember r is the distance from the
centre (the origin).
8
8
8 8
3

eBookplus eBookplus
Tutorial
Worked example 17
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
On the Geometry screen, tap:
Function
Polar
Complete the entry line as:
r:
min 0
max 4
OK
Adjust the window size if required.
Compare the graphs of worked examples 15
and 16.
int-1076
365 Chapter 10 Linear and non-linear graphs
3
WORKED EXAMPLE 18
Sketch the graph of r 2 sin ( ) for 0 2 using a CAS calculator.
THINK WRITE
Polar graphs may be plotted by using a table of values and sketching by hand, or by using a
CAS calculator.
REMEMBER
Polar graphs
1 WE 15, 16 Using a graphics calculator or other method, sketch the graph of each of the
following polar equations for 0 4.
a r b r

c r 2 d r

1
2

2 WE 17 Using a graphics calculator or other method, sketch the graph of each of the following
polar equations for 0 2.
a r 2 b r 4 c r 1.5
d r

2
EXERCISE
10G
On the Graph & Tab screen, tap:
Type
r Type
Complete the entry line as:
r1 8 0 2
Tick the r1 box and then tap $.
On the Graph & Tab screen, tap:
Type
r Type
Complete the entry line as:
r1 2sin( ) 0 2
Tick the r1 box and then tap $.
366
3 WE 18 Using a CAS calculator or other method, sketch the graph of each of the following
polar equations for 0 2.
a r sin ( ) b r 1.5 sin ( ) c r

3 sin ( ) d r 4 sin ( )
e Hence, predict the graph of r

5 sin ( ). Check your prediction on the


CAS calculator.
4 Using a CAS calculator or other method, sketch the following polar equations
for 0 2.
a r cos ( ) b r 2 cos ( ) c r 3 cos ( )
d r

4 cos ( )
e Hence, predict the graph of r

0.5 cos ( ). Check your prediction on the


CAS calculator.
5 Using a CAS calculator or other method, sketch
r 3 sin ( ) + 4 cos ( )
for 0 2.
a Comment on the shape of the curve.
b State:
i the y-intercepts ii the x-intercepts
iii the length of the diameter iv the length of the radius
v the coordinates of the centre vi the Cartesian equation of the curve.
6 Using a CAS calculator or other method, sketch
r 5 sin ( ) + 12 cos ( )
for 0 2.
a Comment on the shape of the curve.
b State:
i the y-intercept(s) ii the x-intercept(s)
iii the length of the diameter iv the length of the radius
v the coordinates of the centre vi the Cartesian equation of the curve.
7 Using a CAS calculator, plot the graph of r 1 cos ( ) for 0 ( ) 2. Hence, investigate
the graphs:
a r cos ( ) 1 b r 1 sin ( )
c r 4(sin ( ) 1).
8 Using a CAS calculator, plot the graph of r 1 + 2 sin ( ) for 0 2. Hence, investigate
the graphs of the type r b + a sin ( ) where a > b.
a r 1 + 3 sin ( ) b r 1 + 6 sin ( )
c r 2 + 6 sin ( ) d r 1 + 2 cos ( )
e r 1 2 sin ( ) f Hence, predict the graph of r 1 3 cos ( )
9 Using a CAS calculator, plot the graph r sin (2 ) for 0 2. Hence, investigate the
graphs:
a r sin (3 ) b r sin (4 )
c r cos (2 ) d r 2 sin (3 )
e r

2 sin (3 ) f Hence, predict the graph of r 4 cos (3 )


10 Compare and comment on the graphs of the polar equations
r 2 4 sin ( )
and
r

2 4 sin ( )
Maths Quest 11 Advanced General Mathematics for the Casio ClassPad
367 Chapter 10 Linear and non-linear graphs
11 Use a graphing program (or CAS calculator) to investigate graphs of the following polar
equations. Replace a and b with actual values (such as 1, 2, 3, 4 and so on) and hence comment
on the effect of a and b on each graph.
Equations Name of graph
a r a + b sin ( ) Limacon
b r a sin (b ) Four leaf rose
c r 2a(1 + cos ( )) Cardioid
d r
a

Hyperbolic spiral
e r
acos (
cos (
2

)
)
Right strophoid
f r
2
a
2
cos (2 )
You may need to plot two graphs here,
namely
r a cos ( ) 2 and r a

cos ( ) 2
Lemniscate of Bernoulli
g r
2a
sin ( )
Quadratix of Hippias
Review of complex numbers and
polar form of complex numbers
Review of complex numbers
Points to remember
A complex number is made up of real and imaginary parts.
Addition and subtraction is performed by adding or subtracting the real and imaginary parts
separately.
Multiplication and division by a constant is performed by multiplying or dividing the real
and imaginary parts by that constant.
When multiplying two complex numbers, proceed as if you were multiplying two binomial
brackets; to square a complex number, use the perfect square identity.
The conjugate of a complex number is obtained by changing the sign of the imaginary
component; the product of a conjugate pair is a real number.
WORKED EXAMPLE 19
If w 1 3i and z 2 + 4i write down
a w + z b z w c 2w d
1
2
z
e wz f z
2
g z h w

w.
THINK WRITE
a Add the real and imaginary parts separately. a
w + z 1 3i + 2 + 4i
3 + i
b Simplify and add the real and imaginary parts
separately.
b
z w 2 + 4i (1 3i)
1 + 7i
10H
368
c When multiplying complex numbers by a constant,
multiply the real and imaginary parts by that
constant.
c
2w 2(1 3i)
2 6i
d Simplify by multiplying the real and imaginary parts
by the constant.
d
1
2
1
2
2 4
1 2
z i
i
+
+
( )
e When multiplying two complex numbers, proceed as
if you were multiplying two binomial brackets.
e
wz (1 3i)(2 + 4i)
2 + 4i 6i + 12
14 2i
f To square a complex number, use the perfect square
identity.
f
z
2
(2 + 4i)
2
4 + 16i 16

12 + 16i
g The conjugate of a complex number is obtained by
changing the sign of the imaginary component.
g z i 2 4
h The product of a conjugate pair is a real number. h
w w i i

+
+

( )( ) 1 3 1 3
1 9
10
Polar form of complex numbers
As seen previously, for the Cartesian coordinates (x, y) the polar coordinates are [r, ] where
x r cos ( ) and y r sin ( )
Hence, for the complex number in Cartesian form z x + yi, then
z = r cos ( ) + r sin ( )i
or
z = r(cos ( ) + i sin ( ))
This is abbreviated to z rc