You are on page 1of 16

Aaron Sponseller – Pronunciation LP (Frequent Grammatical Word-Final Consonant Clusters

)

1

Pronunciation Lesson Plan
Frequent Grammatical Word-Final Consonant Clusters CLASS DESCRIPTION This lesson is designed to meet the needs of Japanese adult learners studying in a conversational English course at a university in Japan. The students in this class are all relatively advanced ELLs in terms of reading and writing but may lack oral fluency and basic pronunciation skills. This class has between 20 and 30 students, all in their late teens to early 20s and all majoring in either English literature or English education. Some of the students will participate in an extended study abroad program prior to graduating. This is a 90 minute class. This lesson builds upon a supposed previous lesson that covered initial consonant clusters. Students are familiar with IPA. LINGUISTIC DESCRIPTION The most common syllabic structure of the languages of the world is CV, also called open-syllable. English, however, has “a distinct propensity for consonant clustering” (CelceMurcia, Brinton, & Goodwin, 2010, p. 99). English syllables can: • • • • Consist of a solitary vowel (I, eye) Consist of a vowel and as many as three initial consonants (pie, spy, spry) Consist of a vowel and as many as three final consonants (at, ask, asked) Consist of a vowel with one or more initial consonants and as many as four final consonants (ten, tent, tempt, tempts) • Consist of a vowel with nearly the full range of initial and final consonant cluster possibilities (splints) These consonant clusters may consist of as many as three consonants (CCCV+) in word-initial position and as many as four consonants (+VCCCC) in word-final position. The word strengths, for example, is CCCVCCCC. Unlike word-initial consonant clusters, pronunciation of individual consonants within a word-final consonant cluster is very typically influenced by their placement within the cluster. Pronunciation of word-final consonant clusters exhibit the following: • consonant clusters consisting of two stops ! first stop is unreleased, second is released. (second stop is commonly an inflectional ending) • consonant clusters consisting of a liquid plus a stop ! the final stop is typically unreleased

Otherwise: • • If a noun ends with a voiced sound. Otherwise: • • 2 • (Avery & Ehrlich. plural. the plural is pronounced /z/. Recognize that proper English pronunciation requires mastery of consonant clusters (this would have been emphasized in the previous lesson) 2. If a noun ends with an unvoiced sound. the plural is pronounced /!z/. p. Pronounce a teacher-selected set of words containing consonant clusters 5. /!/. p. the past tense ~ed is pronounced /d/. In this lesson attention will be drawn to the following rules: The Past Tense Rule: • If a verb ends with a /t/ or a /d/. 50)a LESSON OBJECTIVES Students will be able to: 1. 1992. 1992. Understand that the pronunciation of grammatical endings for regular past tense. the past tense is pronounced /!d/. /t!/. or /d!/ (sibilants). whereby the speaker simply drops one of the consonants entirely (typically a middle consonant) in order to more easily produce the cluster • final consonant of a consonant cluster ! may be moved to the front of the following word if that word begins with a vowel sound (resyllabification) There are a few grammatical endings that frequently result in consonant clustering. Possessive Rule: • If a noun ends with /s/.Aaron Sponseller – Pronunciation LP (Frequent Grammatical Word-Final Consonant Clusters) consonant clusters of three or more consonants ! may result in cluster reduction. (Avery & Ehrlich. If a verb ends with a voiced sound. third person singular and possessive very often result in a consonant cluster 3. /!/. Discriminate between contrastive pairs of words (class/clap/clasp/claps) 4. Use these words when speaking English for a communicative purpose RATIONALE Why teach consonant clusters? . the past tense ~ed is pronounced /t/. Pronounce a self-selected set of words containing consonant clusters 6. the plural is pronounced /s/. /z/. 48) The Plural. If a verb ends with an unvoiced sound. 3PS Present Tense.

the error in pronouncing consonant clusters takes the shape of inserting an extra vowel after each consonant. etc.Aaron Sponseller – Pronunciation LP (Frequent Grammatical Word-Final Consonant Clusters) The Japanese language follows an almost entirely open-syllable CV pattern that does not allow for consonant clustering. they employ a repair strategy in which they perceive an epenthetic vowel /u/ which is not actually there. For most inexperienced Japanese speakers of English. Third. p. Learning to discriminate between the CC and CVC minimal pairs seems appropriate. for example. Second. allow for minimal pair work. but seem particularly noticeable when the come in word-final position. et al (1999) demonstrated that when Japanese speakers hear consonant clusters (which.” (for example [class/clap/clasp/claps]) seem a good substitute. #2: The pronunciation of grammatical endings is relevant for several reasons. 3 . The vowels are added throughout the word. See Appendix I for a full listing of the Japanese syllabic library. in so much of their oral practice that the habit of properly producing these clusters may carryover to other clusters not associated with grammatical endings. very problematic for Japanese learners. do not occur in Japanese). as was explained above. however this pattern does not. First. “Contrastive pairs. students already know hundreds of nouns and verbs and thus this information provides them with a large body of vocabulary upon which they can practice the consonant clustering that these grammatical/inflectional endings provide. would typically come out as lipusuchiku. 2010. 298). technically. though it can reasonably be expected that some students will not know some of the student-selected vocabulary produced by their peers. The work of Dupoux. plural. These consonant clusters are. The lone exception is the nasal /n/ which stands on its own as a phoneme. predictably. #4/5: Here the focus is on mastering the pronunciation of vocabulary that has already been acquired. cognizance of these rules may have a greater and more immediate impact upon student pronunciation of consonant clusters because they will be using past tense.. Thompson (2001) referred to this as a “rounding-off vowel” (p. The word lipstick. 102). the rules of pronunciation for these endings are entirely rule-based with few (if any) exceptions. Why these objectives? #1: Learners should be cognizant of the fact that deviating from the consonant cluster by inserting an epenthetic vowel is very likely to diminish the comprehensibility of their speech (Celce-Murcia et al. #3: Discrimination may be the most challenging of all the listed objectives.

Why this context? Many of these students will study or travel abroad extensively. Worksheet for group-discovery of rules for pronouncing plurals. the bottom line is that these students need to be confident in their English pronunciation. some of it may be attributable to the native speaker fallacy. These words are not. (whiteboard would work. grammar and vocabulary memorization. as a less productive use of classroom time than reading.Aaron Sponseller – Pronunciation LP (Frequent Grammatical Word-Final Consonant Clusters) #6: The goal is always to have students use their new language skills to engage in communicative tasks. which are not tested by most university entrance exams. THE LESSON 1) Materials 1. English syllable structure chart (consonant cluster chart) provided in previous class. Projectable image of rules for pronunciation of grammatical endings + handout to take home 5.” Greetings. T: “So for your homework you found ten words with initial consonant clusters. Whatever the root cause(s) may be. OHP or projector of some kind. new vocabulary for the students – they are words the students possess but may struggle to properly pronounce. Some of that may be attributable to a Japanese sociocultural norm that expects perfection. writing. Ok. for the most part. T: “Do you remember what we covered last class?” (initial clusters) Ss: “Initial consonant clusters” T: “That’s right. (See Appendix IV) 2) Warm-up/Introductory Context (10 minutes) As ss file in. These self-generated words were supposed to be words related to the topic “What I did last summer vacation. T briefly chats with students about something topical and relevant. OHP transparency or otherwise editable/annotatable copy of the syllable structure chart that can be projected for entire class to see 4. and a good number of them will become English teachers themselves. now please get out the list of words from last class” T then leads the students in a choral repetition of about 10 words from the last class. 2. 3PS present tense and possessives (Appendix III) (Optional additional materials) a) Master list of verbs (ideally provided to ss early in the term and gradually worked through as the semester progresses) b) Additional list of common final consonant clusters not focused upon in this lesson. too) 3. T asks each s to write one of their self-generated initial cluster words from their homework on the board. My experience when speaking with Japanese learners is that they lack confidence in their spoken English because they feel their pronunciation is inadequate. Another cause may be that English education in many Japanese high schools tends to view oral skills. right?” 4 .

” T: “Very good. A stamp is the sticker you put on a letter before you send it. You can use your dictionaries for this exercise. and swings.Aaron Sponseller – Pronunciation LP (Frequent Grammatical Word-Final Consonant Clusters) Ss: “Yes. What I want you to do is identify what part of speech each of these words is.” T: “Is it a singular noun or a plural noun?” S2: “Singular. As you came into class today I asked you to write one of your words on the board.” TRANSITION: T: “Ok.” T: “That’s right.” (Continue on with swings) 5 .” T instructs ss to get into groups of three.” T: “Good.” T then turns to the board and the choral repetition continues. English often has many consonants next to each other in one syllable. trains.” 3) Presenting Consonant Clusters Part 1: Noticing Patterns of Clustering in Relation to Grammatical Endings (10 min) T: “Ok class. Can trains be any other part of speech?” S3: “It can be a verb. Who trains? I trains? You b?” S5: “He or she or it trains. For example: (Student1 wrote the word stamp on the board) Student2: “what does stamp mean?” T: “Who wrote stamp?” Student1: “I did. with T assisting as appropriate. Each group is assigned one of the consonant cluster boxes from the chart (Appendix II). we have about 25 words here.” T: “That’s right. They can come at the beginning of the syllable – like the words we just practiced – or at the end of the syllable.” Ss: “Japanese syllables are usually consonant +vowel syllables. Ss listen to peers explain the meaning(s) of any of the unknown vocabulary.” T: “And what about trains?” S2: “It’s a noun. it is often a verb. too. Please repeat after me. we did” T: “Great. What tense is trains? S4: “Present tense. Today we’re going to practice final consonant clusters. It looks like almost everybody must have written a word on the board. please get out the English Syllable Structure chart from last class.” T: “And what do we call verbs that go with he/she/it?” S6: “Third person singular verbs. And as you know we call those consonant clusters. T: “I’ll do one of the boxes as an example. so does anybody remember the main difference in pronunciation between Japanese and English – we talked about this a little bit last class. Today we’re going to work on final consonant clusters. When finished T encourages ss to write down and/or ask about any words they do not understand. When they come at the end of the syllable we call them final consonant clusters. Box ‘CCVCC’ has three words: brand. What part of speech is brand?” S1: “It’s a noun.

” T: “Very good” TRANSITION: T: “I have some good news for you guys. This should move along fairly rapidly – the point is to notice that past tense. ss report to T what parts of speech and the grammatical inflections the words in their respective boxes are. T projects and annotates the English Syllable Structure Chart as ss report. past tense and third person singular. T annotates the OHP/Projected image to reflect ss’ observations. 1'/ /" # )'/ /. %*'/ /( 4'/ /. you have 3 minutes to identify the parts of speech in your box” After 3 minutes are up.” Part 2: The Pronunciation Rules for Grammatical Endings (20 min) T projects the following chart of past tense verbs: Chart 1 Unvoiced sound /p/ /t/ /k/ /f/ /s/ / / /$ / /2 / Example words (unvoiced) (w/IPA transcription) hoped /!" #$/ wanted /( )$ '/ talked /$ . %'/ /. There are very strong rules for pronouncing the final consonant clusters we just identified. /'/ breezed /brizd/ judged bathed opened calmed winged called cared /' ' ' / /&. T: “Do you notice any common grammatical endings here?” Ss: “Plurals. Let’s look at the first rule. plural and third person singular appear very often. 3'/ 6 T attempts to elicit the rule from the students by asking a series of guiding questions.Aaron Sponseller – Pronunciation LP (Frequent Grammatical Word-Final Consonant Clusters) T: “Ok.$/ laughed /læft/ passed /pæst/ fished /0 $ / watched /( $ $ / unearthed / ) 32$/ Voiced sound /b/ /d/ /g/ /v/ /z/ /' / /1 / /n/ /m/ /4 / /l/ /r/ Example words (voiced) (w/IPA transcription) lobbed /% &'/ demanded /' *+)' '/ snagged /snægd/ saved /-. . for example: • What is a voiced and unvoiced sound? • Do you notice any difference between the pronunciation of the final ~ed when it comes to voiced and unvoiced consonants that come right before the ~ed? • How does English pronounce the ~ed if it follows right after an unvoiced consonant sound? • How does English pronounce the ~ed if it follows right after a voiced consonant sound? • Are there any exceptions to this rule? • How does English pronounce the ~ed if it follows right after a /t/ or /d/ sound? As ss respond to the questions.

And how many voiced consonants do you have in Japanese?” S3: “Well.” T: “Excellent. voiced sounds in English include /b/. (T projects chart 2) This chart is similar to the chart we just worked on together. and syllables starting with P have a different mark.” T: “That’s right.” T: “Ok. like a circle. For example syllables starting with. W. Z. J. Yes. what do we know about vowels? Are they voiced or unvoiced.” T: “And when it comes to voicing. /d/. /sh/. This time I’d like you to work in your same groups of three. N. ===================END RULE 1=================== T: “Ok. So we can’t really say that /ka/ is unvoiced. R. but this time you will work with your group to figure out the rules for pronouncing the final sounds of these words. /k/ and /a/. Otherwise: If a verb ends with a voiced sound. /s/. you’re right. the past tense ~ed is pronounced /t/. /ch/. /th/.Aaron Sponseller – Pronunciation LP (Frequent Grammatical Word-Final Consonant Clusters) 7 Note: The first question about voiced/unvoiced may be the most difficult for these students to answer. now we have to discover one more rule. /z/. /k/.?” S7: “All vowels are voiced. /t/. can we?” S8: “We can’t… The syllable has two sounds. and Y are all voiced. /n/. /l/ and /r/. /j/. After going through all the elicitation questions T projects the following rule for the class to see and The Past Tense Rule: If a verb ends with a /t/ or a /d/. unvoiced means they don’t. /v/. and /th/. /f/. good job. /g/. sort of. M. But no mark. syllables starting with G. The /k/ is unvoiced and the /a/ is voiced. can anybody tell me the difference between voiced and unvoiced sounds?” S1: “Voiced means your vocal chords vibrate. /m/. the past tense is pronounced /!d/. 3PS present tense verbs and possessives. can you give me an example?” S2: “For example in Japanese we have the unvoiced /ka/ and the voiced /ga/. If a verb ends with an unvoiced sound. too. Unvoiced sounds include /p/. B and D all have the mark [diacritic]… but…” S4: “But some other sounds are only voiced… I mean there is no unvoiced sound that matches it so we just write the character without the mark.” T: “Exactly.” S5: “Yeah. Remember that Japanese syllables always consist of what?” S6: “A consonant followed by a vowel. Like two small dashes. Like this: /ka/ ! か /ga/ ! が (The little mark is a diacritic that marks voicing of the syllables consonant) T: “Ok. the past tense ~ed is pronounced /d/.” Chart 2 Unvoiced sound Example words (unvoiced) (w/IPA transcription) Voiced sound Example words (voiced) (w/IPA transcription) . /ng/. Please look at the following chart of plural nouns. You guys have a very good understanding of voiced and unvoiced. When we write these characters they are exactly the same except the voiced /ga/ gets an extra little mark in the upper right. so elicitation of the answer may play out something along the lines of the following: T: “First of all.

5 5/ /' ' 5 / /. When ss have completed the activity.-6 /3 0-/ /!9 5 5/ /* 3 5/ /$ 3$ 5/ /.” T pronounces each word on the charts twice. let’s put those rules to use and start practicing their pronunciation. /!/. Possessive Rule: If a noun ends with /s/. Please repeat after me.% 2-/ /b/ /d/ /g/ /v/ /z/ /' / /1 / /n/ /m/ /4 / /l/ /r/ robes fads dogs thieves mazes judges clothes pawns farms things balls bars /3" &5/ /0+'5/ /' 75/ /28/5/ /*. what is each group supposed to do?” S1: “We are supposed to look at the chart together and try to figure out the pronunciation rule for plural nouns. The Plural. /t /. T can stop on any given word if it seems class is struggling. 3PS Present Tense. T can extend the amount of time to complete the activity if it seems necessary. Otherwise: If a noun ends with a voiced sound. / /.%" 15/ /# )5/ /0 3*5/ /2845/ /& %5/ /& 35/ 8 T hands out a worksheet (Appendix III) containing the chart (Chart 2) as well as some guiding questions with space for written responses.” T: “Perfect.. . If a noun ends with an unvoiced sound. ===================END RULE 2=================== TRANSITION: T: “Now that we know two very useful rules about common types of consonant clustering. 3PS present tense verbs and possessives. T reveals the rule after ss have answered questions. T: “S1.Aaron Sponseller – Pronunciation LP (Frequent Grammatical Word-Final Consonant Clusters) /p/ /t/ /k/ /f/ /s/ / / /$ / /2 / ropes bats socks reefs houses marshes churches cloths /3" #-/ /&+$-/ /. If ss seem to finish quickly. the plural is pronounced /s/. Go for it!” T monitors the activity and assists where necessary or when asked. T calls on one group at a time asking them to answer each of the questions from the worksheet. we’re going to quickly practice the vocabulary from Chart 1 and Chart 2. or /d!/ (sibilants). the plural is pronounced /!z/. but only modestly and while keeping in mind the rest of the day’s agenda. You have about 5 minutes to try and figure out the rule. with ss chorally repeating. /z/.” 4) Focused Practice Exercises i) Pronunciation Drill & Listening Discrimination (10 min) T: “First. T can bring the activity back to open class before the 5 minutes are up. the plural is pronounced /z/.

we’re going to practice listening for the correct form. Your job is to listen and tell me whether the first or the second pronunciation is correct.” T gives ss about 5 minutes to complete this task. Next. based on the rules we discovered. T goes through the same vocabulary from the charts and pronunciation drill. and then pronounces it a second time as /( $ '/ (incorrect). iii) Guided Practice –Using Self-Selected Words in an Oral Report (~10 min) Next. You’re going to use the rules we just discovered to make the nouns and verbs on your list end with consonant clusters. TRANSITION: T: “You all did pretty well. One pronunciation will be right. Following the example.” T provides an example.] “For the verbs. The report should be about what the s did on their last summer vacation. Please get out your list. I’m going to hold up cards that have a word written on them. For example a group consisting of S1. T first pronounces the word as /( $ $/ (correct). you will first add ~ed to make them past tense. For nouns. Ss should spend the next 5 minutes practicing pronunciation of their words in isolation with their group. For example…” [T projects the verb talk for ss to see. Then you will decide. the other will be wrong. After ss have written their sentences they share read them aloud in small groups. T encourages group mates to listen actively and provide peer feedback if/when they either do not understand what a fellow classmate has said or if they notice a pronunciation error. it should be pronounced /! "!/. I’m going to pronounce the word two different ways. holding up a card with the word WATCHED on it. Next. S2. Ss are encouraged to provide feedback or ask questions if the pronunciation is difficult or incorrect. T instructs ss to create a short report (less than 5 sentences) that employ at least some of the same self-selected past tense verbs and the plural nouns. Each s leads their partners through a simplistic pronunciation drill. how this ~ed should be pronounced. I want you to focus on the nouns and verbs on your list. listening in and monitoring for proper pronunciation of these self-selected words and providing pronunciation modeling as appropriate. such as talk. please add an ~s to make them plural. and S3 would be led through a choral repetition of each ss words by the student who chose those words (ie S1’s words are read by S1 and chorally repeated by S2 and S3). Feedback: T should continuously float around to the different groups.” ii) Controlled Practice (Adding or Augmenting a Word-Final Consonant Cluster) (10 min) T: “For this activity. 9 . Feedback: T should have taken note of the items ss struggled with (if any) and can briefly address them at the end of the activity. we’re going to work on building some consonant clusters together. In the case of talked. Your homework was to bring 10 words that had initial consonant clusters to class – these words were supposed to be about what you did on your last summer vacation.Aaron Sponseller – Pronunciation LP (Frequent Grammatical Word-Final Consonant Clusters) T: “Very nicely done.

but instead of choosing a person to go on a date with you’re going to choose the vacation that sounds like the most fun. I think it’s time we used them to actually have conversations with classmates. Have any of you ever heard of speed-dating?” 5) Communicative Activity – “Speed Dating” (a version of the 4. At the end. such as the following: Classmate Name Your teacher Where…. For example. individually. Ss may have 3 minutes in the first round to exchange information. Ideally the activity will allow all ss to interact with all their classmates. Many speed daters take notes about the people they meet. which questions they want to ask. Today. 2 minutes for the fourth round. they look at their notes and decide which people they might like to go on a real date with. TRANSITION: T: “Ok.000 yen Why…? Short flight from Japan (Question of choice) Hopes to go again next summer T explains to ss the idea of the activity is to ask some basic questions about classmates’ summer vacations. the “What…. after they have met everybody. 2’20” for the third round.?” question could be as simple as “What did you do on that vacation?” or something along the lines of “What did you enjoy the most on that vacation?” T models this in front of class. T then gives the class a few minutes to determine. T designates half of the class as the stationary students and the other half as the rotating students. 2 activity) (20 min) T: “In Speed dating.” T hands out a worksheet with a very simple chart on it. etc. Ss will partner up and exchange information with one another. The people talk one-on-one and rotate every few minutes so they can meet all the other people. there will be 12 rounds. now that you’ve practiced these words both alone and in a sentence/report. 3.? Seoul What…? ate spicy food How…? ~30. listening in and monitoring for proper pronunciation of these self-selected words and providing pronunciation modeling as appropriate. a lot of people gather together in a room. we’re going to play a speed dating game. maximum. Feedback: . 2’40” for the second round. (obviously there is threshold beyond which expecting effective transfer of information would be unreasonable). however the activity may need to be shortened if time is running out. If there are around 25 ss. They should write down names as well as the answers to questions that they can control. leading them through the example already given on the chart while asking ss to identify what the questions were based on the answers written in the boxes. The twist is that each speeddating round will be slightly shorter than the preceding round.Aaron Sponseller – Pronunciation LP (Frequent Grammatical Word-Final Consonant Clusters) 10 Feedback: T should continuously float around to the different groups.

T should intervene in communication only in cases where ss either request it or seem to be struggling mightily.” T: “Ok. With about 5 minutes left in class. listening in and monitoring for proper pronunciation. It is a national capital. etc.” T: “Who took a vacation to Seoul?” S5: “I did. dangerous. For example: S1: “You can eat spicy food in this place. that’s right.” ===================END LESSON=================== 6) Contingency Plan – Where is it? Ss must describe the vacation one of their classmates took without naming the classmate or the country/region. exciting.” S9: “SEOUL!” S1: “Yeah. S5. Homework could be to investigate one of places a classmate went and then come prepared to share something interesting they learned during their investigation. It’s cheap to fly there from Japan. T brings it back to open class and asks ss to share which vacations seemed like the most (fun. T should take note of both good examples (highlights) as well as problems (especially if there is a general pattern in the class).” (activity continues through several rounds like this as time allows/dictates) 11 . please describe a classmate’s vacation.Aaron Sponseller – Pronunciation LP (Frequent Grammatical Word-Final Consonant Clusters) T should continuously float around to the different groups. For example: “Every skyscraper in Seoul is required by law to have a piece of art in front of it for the public to enjoy.). expensive.

S. J. Teaching Pronunciation Hardback with Audio CDs (2): A Course Book and Reference Guide (2nd ed.). (1992)... (2001). (2010). & Mehler. Cambridge UP.Aaron Sponseller – Pronunciation LP (Frequent Grammatical Word-Final Consonant Clusters) REFERENCES Avery.25. Teaching American English Pronunciation (6th printing. E. Thompson. 25(6). P. [1998] Paperback. Dupoux. & Smith.Martin. Oxford University Press. M.Practice through Interaction by Hewings. Japanese speakers. Kakehi. Y. I.. Cambridge University Press. & Ehrlich. Epenthetic vowels in Japanese: A perceptual illusion? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. D. K..). Hirose. (2001). Learner English: A Teacher’s Guide to Interference and other Problems (2nd ed. Celce-Murcia. Pronunciation Plus Student’s Book. J. 1568–1578.. doi:10... USA. & Goodwin.1568 Hewings. Brinton. Pallier. Cambridge University Press. 12 . M.Sharon. (1999).). (1998). M.. M.1037/0096-1523. C.6. In Swan. Goldstein. B.

Aaron Sponseller – Pronunciation LP (Frequent Grammatical Word-Final Consonant Clusters) Appendix I Index of Japanese Syllables 13 .

Aaron Sponseller – Pronunciation LP (Frequent Grammatical Word-Final Consonant Clusters) Appendix II English Syllable Structure Chart 14 (Celce-Murcia et al. 463) .. p. 2010.

%" 15/ /# )5/ /0 3*5/ /2845/ /& %5/ /& 35/ 15 Directions: Try to answer the following questions.Aaron Sponseller – Pronunciation LP (Frequent Grammatical Word-Final Consonant Clusters) Appendix III Worksheet for group-discovery of rules for pronouncing plurals.% 2-/ Voiced sound /b/ /d/ /g/ /v/ /z/ /' / /1 / /n/ /m/ /4 / /l/ /r/ Example words (voiced) (w/IPA transcription) robes fads dogs thieves mazes judges clothes pawns farms things balls bars /3" &5/ /0+'5/ /' 75/ /28/5/ /*. /t /. 3PS present tense and possessives Unvoiced sound /p/ /t/ /k/ /f/ /s/ / / /$ / /2 / Example words (unvoiced) (w/IPA transcription) ropes /3" #-/ bats /&+$-/ socks /. /z/.-6 reefs /3 0-/ houses /!9 5 5/ marshes churches cloths /* 3 5 / /$ 3$ 5/ /.. Do you notice any difference between the pronunciation of the final ~s when it comes to voiced and unvoiced consonants that come right before the ~s? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. / /. or /d!/ sound? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ . 1. How does English pronounce the ~s if it follows right after an unvoiced consonant sound? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. How does English pronounce the ~s if it follows right after a /s/. Remember to pay attention to the phonetic spelling when answering the questions. Are there any exceptions to this rule? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. /!/. 5 5/ /' ' 5 / /. How does English pronounce the ~s if it follows right after a voiced consonant sound? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. using the words in the chart above as your clues.

!# !.!# chomp stomp swamp ! ! *This is just a sample.-)! ! -ft !"!# !"!# !$!# !$!# drift gift lift shift sift sniffed swift thrift !%!# !%!# left theft !&!# !&!# !'!# !'!# craft raft shaft !(!# !(!# puffed stuffed !)!# !)!# !*!## !*!## !+!# !+!# !. I am trying to contact the creator of the list to make sure I have permission to use their work.pdf This resource is reproducible without permission according to the website/worksheet.Aaron Sponseller – Pronunciation LP (Frequent Grammatical Word-Final Consonant Clusters) Appendix IV Additional Word-Final Consonant Clusters not Discussed in Lesson (sample only 16 !"#$%&'(#)(#$#*&'%+)*.com/literacy/word/phonics/clusters/resources/CVCC Word Bank. .pdf I particularly like this list because it lists the words according the vowel that immediate precedes the consonant cluster.!# !.!# blocked knocked locked shocked -mp !"!# !"!# !$!# !$!# blimp limp shrimp !%!# !%!# !&!# !&!# hemp temp !'!# !'!# camp champ clamp cramp damp lamp ramp stamp !(!# !(!# bump dump jump lump stump thump !)!# !)!# !*!## !*!## !+!# !+!# !.!# !. Another great list can be downloaded at: http://firstschoolyears.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/Final-Consonant-Clusters-List. the full file can be downloaded from: http://galofalltrades.!# -ct !"!# !"!# creeked freaked peaked peeked squeaked !$!# !$!# clicked kicked licked nicked picked pricked strict tricked !%!# !%!# ached baked raked !&!# &!# checked wrecked collect connect correct expect reflect !'!# !'!# act cracked fact packed stacked !(!# !(!# ducked plucked sucked !)!# !)!# spooked !*!## !*!## cooked hooked looked !+!# !+!# joked poked soaked !.