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ATHENIAN
RED FIGURE VASES
The Archaic Period
a handbook

JOHN BOARDMAN

5zB illustrations

Cntyr

cnt{ \irncd

by Euphto t)t. Dcdit

dni SarP",/ S(

,,

THAMES AND HUDSON

CONTENTS

IN I IIOI)UCTION
I

llli FIRST GENERATION

Ilr, rcd ligure technique; lnvention irnd Experiment; llr( l)ionecrs; Cup painters; Aspects ofthe Pottery Trade
I

IIII LATE ARCHAIC PAINTERS

89

llrc I(lcophrades Paintcr and the Bcrlin Paintcr;


( )llrcr pot paintcn; Cup paintcrs

MAN Ary .opy ofthis book s{rcd by thc poblishcr

NERISTS AND OTHERS

179

dr)r ,t nru1l rrot by rvry oftradc or othcru,isc be lcur. rcv,lcl, hired out or othcnvLse citLrlrted rvithout t|c prblishcrh prrr cor*cnt iu rrLy forrrr of b! i,rs or.o!er orhcr rhlr tlrrt iD $rrich it r prrblishcd rrd wnhout r sunllrr cortditiott i,r(h,di,ig dres. Nords bcnrs n),posed o. x tbscqucnt purrhrser.

pipcrbr.k i\ sol.l sul,lc.t b thc

(or itlo.

,rs

N'l.rrrrrcrists; Pot paintcrs; Cup painters

SIIAPES AND DATES (;IJNERAL DECORATION


('()11vefltions; lnscriptions; Florals and Ornamcnt; Arrimals and Monsters

20tl

2t2

(lr r97J Thinrcs rnd

Hu(l$r

Lrd, London

S(]ENES OF REALITY
All lt4lhts llcserved. N{) l,rt olthis publicrtion rrrv bc rcpLodrced or mnsuncd n rny lLrur or bv au) ,,,erns, elr.rR,1)i. or rrcL:hnical, iDchrlirg
photocopy, rccordnrg or rn), othcr irfonrrrti,),r

216

stonge

rxl

ren

pcrmissi(,i
l\rtN

icvrl

systcnr,

lvitho!t prior
thc publisJrcr.

livcryday life; Fighting; Entertainment, public and l)rivatc; Sport; Commerce and industry; Religion; llisrorical figures
S

wririDg

Ulu

o-ioo-tror:ll

, (; |hi.s

(]ENE S OF MYTH

?,23

P,i,itc(l )rnl l)(,!1nl in Sinlr.rt,,)i.1,\ (1.:

l'hc Gods; Herakles; Theseus; Other heroes; Thc Trojan Cycle; Other figures

Abbrcviations
Notcs and bibliographics List ofillustrations Index ofartists and grouPs Index of mythological subjccts
General index

23J

2j6
242

Chapter One

249 250
252

INTRODUCTION

ll, ,,1 ligrrrc tcchniquc ofvasc painting lvas ilrvcntccl in Athcus by abour . l rl, r1 .l tir)]c wheD thc black figurc tcchniquc rvas blrclv pest its printc arrrl , ,, r ,., r lr-ll othcr inlportxnt stuclios ofvlsc paintinc were flourishing in rhc t , , , rr or lr1, t}om drc wcsrcnr colonies to Ionil. At the cnd of the helf ecrr,,,\ ,'r rrorc rliscussed ln this book, Athenian red 6gurc stood alorc as rhc
1,,,1 1,,,r, Ll

L u,rrl,.rrxrion ofL'erlicr xrtisrs. Thlt this affcctcd rhc srxtLls ofthc priitur in , , r\ \(r'rr\ likcly to judgc lronr what \\,e can lcan1 of the Pionecrs. In \rl, r, 1lr. onlv conrpcriror was black hgrrc, which remeincd picntiful, but ,l I i,,1 rr (luillity rapidly rftcr 5oo and is no longcr rvorth cotsiclcratiorr xltcr | , .1 ( l)t orr l)aDathcDaic vases.
,,,

,,,1r rrrr;or fisrrlc-dccorated style ofvrsc peinting in Grcccc, and irs painters lnd solvcd problcnrs irr dr.ullhtsnlanship which werc- bcyoncl cvcn

\lrlr,,Lrgh Athens, espccielly in tlrc finc' though fragmcntary dcdicllr,lns r 1rL Acropolis, r'crrains a prilnc solrrcc forrcd figurc, thc cxport tr:lde, Ll, \ 1() Ittrlv, hrs cnsurcd lor us the glcatcst nul11bcr of complete vescs, ',,,r , r . rr thcrcforc ro bc sought in thc nruscums ofltaly and thc Wcst rathcr r'' (,rt'(.r itsclt. Thc very widc distribution, far beyolcl thc Grcck world, L r L rrr tl)irt thc pottery, with the possibilitics of its closc detinq, offcrs l, r,, , rlevidcncc ofgrclt irnportlnce for non-Classical cLlltLtrcs, and is also a , ,, ,, l rr, lrr ,r tor of thc Atheniatl pottcry tradc or o rher Athcnilln intcrcsts. Here ,1 I , ( r) this b()ok thcsc rnartcrs lrc touchcd upoD, bnt the rnaiD attractrons 1,, .,rLril,, erc thc iDsight it givcs to thc opcration ofe conununily ofcrxfts-

i, , rl .r rrnjor (ircck city, thc infornation ofhisrorical, sociel end mytho, rl r.rlrrc givcn by thc figure scencs, and, not least, rhc irrtrillsic quality of rl, .,,,r1, ol-thc fincr artists. Thc black fiqure artist ExeLias (working abour t , t,,1 h.rri raised rhc crafr ofvrsc painring to thc status ofa me.ior rrt, and , ,, rli( lrirtrds ofsonic, it rcmaincd throtgh the Archaic pc oc{ urltil ovcr ,l , r l,\ lllc ilt ofprillters on wood or w111.
I r.rc intclests end clullitv rvhich this volurrc sccks to docurlrcnt;llLl

'1, r . lor rlrc rtuc{cnt, connoisscur ofxncicnt art or iover offinc clrlrvinq. It , , , , r ,l to thc handbook on Athcniln black tisure v;rscs (,411/r-FI) u,hich rvls I rl lr lrrrl irr r974, and attetnpts ln thc s.rrnc r,vly to proviclc i tcxt u,hich .l r 1,,r thc dcvclopnlcnt ofstylc es r,vcll ls ol{cring sorlc guidc to rrndcl-

strr)dinla xrr(l cni(Jvrr)q thc fiqttrc sccucs. Somc tnatters havc bccn dcrlt rvith

rlrc:rcly in :11i1:lt .r rrcccl bc onlv bricfly rehearsccl hcre. Thc picturcs erc plcntitirl, though snmll. choscrr ro illtrstrittc stylc, shapes lrrd clccorerion as ftrli-v ls possiblc. For r firllcr:rpprccilrliorr ofthc finct vasc\ thc readcr lllust tLlnl to lifc-sizc or cnJ:rrgccl photogrephs iu thc rnore c-\Pcrlsivc tlt books, or io thc vilscs thcnrsclvcs iD public collcctiotrs. l havc uscd clrawiugs ofvescs wherc sonrc details or wholc sccrlcs:rrc bcrtcr prescntcd lhis lvay, inchlclillg lcvcral

'',,,1 . r,rl, rc1.rtionships rlltv bc dcfincd arc sonlctirrcs clcrr, sonrcrillcr n()1. It r , r l.Lrrd it nccessl: y to poilt out thxr hc ltadc't distitrction bctrvecr u ,,., ,r r l, rirrtcr encl a vesc in his manncr; lr:rdthat"lrraDncr",',irrriteriorr". l,,l,,r rrrrt . school ", " circlc", "uroup", " influcncc ", "kiuship", ulc rror. mr r,,, rbrrlery, synonyrrrs.' Not:rll \rLrdLrlts wrll bc.rLrl( ro lollurr .rll thcsc

of llcezlcy's, hithcrro unpublishcd, $/hcrc lhe tllickcllcd pcrrcil lincs cu inLlicxtc Lrsc of'rclic'f linc' contour Inisscd in phorographs. Sonlc of rhc oldcr drlr,r,irfis uscd :trc c(]1]vcnient btlt llrily lre dcfictivc ill dcrai]. Most fietircs ancl sccncs on v.rscs clurllor bc caught corllplete end without disrortion in .t siusle cenrcrt shot. This is no scrious fault ofdcsign sirrcc in lifc cycs and herrds \.ur rr^\i't,' lrrll lrc'\'r,l rh, rrlr"l. pr,rrrr... Thc conrcnt of this book covcrs thc Archaic period, dou'n to rhc,+7o's, with a shott sc,lucl following somc Archalc srylcs into thc Eerly (iJassicel. Thesc cheptcrs incvitably rcly hcaviJy orr thc writirlgs ofSil John 13cazlcy rvho, on his dcath in r97o, had cerued atr ittternational rcputrliorl and authorily rrr this sub.ject urrrivallcd in the history of Classical schohrship. I have scldotlr dcvi:rted lronr thc ordcr of iris lists or hesitatingl,v cluericd corlclusiorls which hc rvas hirlsclf ah,va,vs rcad,v to rcvisc in thc light ofneu' cviclcnce or c-xpcricttcuThcrc is no place fo: dogtua ir Classic:rl archacologl,, lor clinging to convcnicnt rsscrtiors, or to thc sliak ilr-hisl()Iicrl rrcncralisations which nrey sltisll, thc stuclcnt rrorc rcrdil-v than they satisty thc cviclclce. Thc subjcct nroves too quickly. No snu1l part of Beazlcy's brilliarrcc wes his hurnility:
brrt lrc suili'recl fools Dol i1t xll.

Thc p:inciplcs of ittriburiol of vlses to pailltcrs wcrc dcntonsoared by llcirzlc,v in scvcril of his errlicr articlcs, frorl rglo on, bascd oll lllcthoLls
rpplicd to Itrliru paintirrg by Morclli:rucl orhcr ninetccnth-century scholars. It dcpcrcls on obscrverion aucl cotDplrison oidctails anal,omy, clrcss rvhich, col)rbincd r,vith study of posc, corrposition and chc indeful;rblc 'style', makcs ilttributior oi thc morc idiosyncratic arrists possiblc cvcD for bcgill1lcrs. Horv objcctivc is this? It rnight not satisf-v thc ncw archac'ologist, but $'c necd no. bc;rsheurccl thet u'e carr usc otlr cycs:rs cllccrively as our illsrrlrlllcrlts. Tllc
cohcrcucc ofe qroup ofvxses attributccl to onc hllld [-ly Beazlcy can bc dcrlonsrreted Ly conrputcr rnalysis ofdctail (llbcit sulrjcctivcly chosen) but thc p-tirr of rccordurg the tcns of lhousancls of Athertitu vlscs ibr i con)P[ter to d.'tL-ct thc prinrcrs woulcl rlot bejusli6ccl lry the results, x]though it can be clorrc lor:r sinslc monurrrcnt rvith rcperirive ligurcs by dillcrent hands (as ir thc Pcrscpolis rclicii, rvhcrc thc cyc cotrld lclrievc thc satuc rcsults yct quickcr).

\\ l! r{ I rc l;rtcl u,ork attrib[fecl to I pxir]tcr sltows sotrrc coersclinl i,l ,l i ,,r. s t lr is ;rr r iudic:r rion of drc ftiline cycsieh t ofntiddlc ;rgc, or thc ,,vor k ! L t, rli ()r rrrrirrtor? Euphr.olios, th( \ouns p.rinrcr. rrr l.rrti yc:rr. rr orkcrl ,r'1. ,.1,,)rr.r. And rvls ntoved to mlkc a dcdication for good h,:lrh,lr rl, \, ,,1,,r1is. lhls u,c'canjuclgc'trorr i:rsc:-iptions. Did others'put dorvn thcir Ir' 1,,. ,src.rriily?Atanyratc, lvho r,vas thc ntorc itllporlallt in a r,vorkshop, I r , , ,ir l,r)lt(]r2lr is thc poftcr who requircs thc pcrruancut instellatioD ofe lrl, t,rri\rr,rr(,rndnodoubtntillyorltostartislscouldprectiscbor)rcrlfis. \ lr r lrr'r l)oinr, rc'fi-rrcd to i tcrrDittcltly in this book and in ABll-1, n..ry l, ,, , ,, rLrl lrcrcr the possitrlc non-Athcniarl contributior) to thc devclop_ r,, i ,,1 ,,l liqlrrc it Athcns. Somc dcbt to lonie nriqht sccnr plursiblc lr thc I r ,, I r\t (ircck inflrrctcc'in orltcr arts, bLrr stylisrically it is impossiblc to | , , , \, ( l)l in thc rlraftcl oltthc ntac:utdcr lud squarc pattc'rns \vhich had a ,. , r, lrr:ror \ jn E:rsr (lrcccc, arc nrct in Athenian black figurc, rarcly, but , I l,,L rr lcq tl lrllv irt rcd llgurc lt-ortr about ; oo, as \\,c shall scc. T]lc pallltctrc 1 ,, , ., , rr crlu:rl1y clusivc. Thc rolc of rhc nletic popuhtior in rbc arrrsrre ,l ,t \rlrcrrs src|rs qencrlllv itdDliftccl, but wc caDrlot point to atl), singlc rr lrosc trrililg ciocs ltot sccrll to bc thoroughly Athenian, aithough I l,,,,,,,1t,l sorlc with foreigrr nanrcs (as Sky,thcs) sccnls ro irdicrtc a fi.csll ,,, 1 A1tcrrIptstoshowtharrhcKlcophr:rclcsPaintcrwlsaCorinrhiarr,r,rr , ,,,1.,,1 .l.lc elonc, alc ullikcly to bc convirrcinq. Spelling coulci provc t r, rL.rtinq thc iouicisius Golucholv perrrcr, spc]lirrg odditics by IL rrr lro c:rrr Atticisc his uarrc ro Philties) or chc l]rygos painrcr (.p,krr , rr(.Sr\.thiilninArisrophatrcs).Thcrrlrrnt'sercinthcDtselvcssuqqcstrvu l ,,, 1 , r ,Lll toqcrltcr, cffcctivcly cournh.r rrquntcntr b.rred urr thr pro\:ci usc . , , ) n.ur)c\ in a icr,v Circck loblc i1n1ilics_ Wc have sonrc hundrcd and

Therc rre othcr spccill proble[rs in thc srud,v of red figurc pc,ltcr lvorL, rvhcrc ntotc nrechrnical cornprrisons rtrighr bc possiblc. Pottc, signxturcs hclp, ard thc stucly of profi1c' dctails pituecrccl by Protissor Bloesch Tht reJationships of pottcr lo plinlcr, :rncl rhc critcria by rvhich nlastcr/ptrpil or
8

, i ) 1lr.s. I haifar lcast bclr nenrcs which erc decidcdJy not appropnatc , \ru r.rr tirrrilics ofuppcr or lou,cr (so far as can bc juclgcd) class. Soruc ,,, ,, rr ,,tlro lrntl or racc Lydos, Skythcs, Sikanos, Sikelos, Syriskos, I L. Ilr|lx, l{ercs, Mvs: othc'rs bclr rrrrucs approprjatc clscwhcrc or , r,,r)) lirrcisu nalncs c.q. Arnlsis, Brygos, Midas, phirtias, Isncnos, r l,l ,,, | .rr(l thc Hcrnl neltlcs collttitoocsr in Eist (lrcccc: scveral sccnl
|

r,' r.rrrlcs ,ofpottcrs

aDd pirinters on v:rscs studicd iu ,4BFFI and this

l' ,, , r,,\ ( rrusry forcierler' - Svriskos), Eucnporos (,good tr.adcr,), ,,,. , ,,,., (pIofiteblc'), Paidikos ('bov nrad'), priepos, Srlrikros (TiDy), ,). ',, ,1, L),.(nr()LrrtaiD_eocl But it is hir.d to cutcgor-isc, and thcsc rre senrplcs
9

,,r' edoptcd

nenrcs Epikrctos ('nerv :rcquired' a shvc

nanlc),

c-\plarl:ttiorls, llor- is cl)otlqh lllillht lcqLlirc or chirllgc nrctics or slilvcs vct known xboLrt ll()w utrrl rvltctr their nanrc\, c\ccpt tlrut it rves cesicr lbr lhenr dren fbr cirizc'ns. Look :rr thc lisl ofkelos nrnrcs fr otrr rhc sxruc virsc\, whcrc you find h:rrclly e sinqlc nantc ofthis t,vpc, ro .judgc thc dil-lircncc ill !rxtLls ilnd origills bcrrvccrl thc artisrrls elrcl

o ly. Thi\ i\ rr()l tl)( flir.c lo irltclttPt indivicluel

Chapter Two

thcir c)r1ostlrcs. This is l pcriod tbt r,vhlch, lor thc llrsr time iu Greek rrt, wc nlev h:r\'"c iitcrlrv rcfcrcDccs lo thc \\,ork artcl stvlcs oa p:Lintcrs nol v;1sc Peilltcrs bul rva11 paintcrs. Thc tnaitr influcrtce of tltc grcat llLlralists on vlsc p:rinti[t ir l:rtcr then Ar'chiic, btlt thclc irc a fcw l:rtc collllllcllts on their Prc.lcaessors Plir,v s:rys that belorc- Polygnotos, thcrclore Lntc Archaic, thc parrrrcr Kinrorr of Klconli introducccl fbreshortcnirrq lrrd tlucc-cltllrrcr faccs (if l)lrnv undcrstood thc
lurld

THE FIRST GENERATION

tcrlt aright, rnd ifu,c turdcrsttttd Pliny)

and rcaiistic totrcllcs irr drcss

rniltoruy (vcirrs). Thc sort ofllLlc forcshortcli g ofrvholc linrbs rvhich a larcr critic \\,ould havc lloticcd is nol chlracleristic of Archaic rccl fignrc, so cithcr thc vasc prirrrcrs wcrc filling short of 1{itllon's achicvclucnt or wc dillc Kirrorr rerhcr too carlv. Hc rvls sr,r1rposed to hlvc improvcd orl rhe Nork of Eurnaros. an Athcnian in u,ltonr sorttc hlvc scen Eultlares, fathcr ofAllrcnor, an Athcnian sculptol who workcd xbout 53o jIo. Lackiog errv rccold of nrejor rvall p:rintings ofthcse ,vea: s in Athcrls wc cllllllot Pretencl thal any nlrrral srylc wxs vct iulltLcrrriel. IJLrt rccclll discovcties of Atchaic (ireek plintirrq in tonrbs in lta1,v (P;rcsrLrm lr.r]) md Lycia (Elrrrrli Ir..zl), shou]d wern us thet it is in this rncdiunr, rvith llrgcr 6gttrcs end the grcalcr rcalistu of ;r p:rle backgrornld, thit \\,c drould expcct rnljor edvanccs irl conlposlliorr ro bc lchlcved. It is to l diflcrcnt ilrt, howevcr, thlt rvc shlll tuln fbl all cxplenatiorl ofthc inception of rcd figtre irsclt'.

,,irr cxccutcd in the'black figurc ' techniquc. Thls mclnt black-peintcd ,l r, ir rrllc\ witlr inciscd li:rear detail and edclccl rcd ald rvhitc frrr dctails ofhait. ,l' ,,r lcrtelc flcsh. Thc tcchniquc hld sltisficd Corinth for even Jouscr, bur rr rr rs irr rnen) weys rcstlicllvc and iu othcr palrs of (;rcccc, :rotabl,v rhc ' l,r ,ls rnd scvct!h-ccrltrrry Attica, outline drarvn flqur-cs vu,ere prcfcrrccl, ,, r, r Iickcd out rvirh brolcl urasscs of colour. It rvrs probablv Oorinth's

lr

lrr red figure technique 1,,, lr.r lv onc hurldrcd yeers ail rhc figruc dccoration on Adrcniar
I

pottcr.y

r r rg succcsscs rvirlr hcr porrcrv which ensurcd that bl;rck ligurc u,oulcl prc' rl. lrLrt thc outline drarvn srylcs rvcrc by uo mcaus fbrgoftcn. Thc fincst oithe \ I , rrr.rr bl.rck fisure arrists \{er. at $()rk irr rhc rhircl quartcr of the sixth
rr Lrr',".

,, ,r l)rorrrcss rves inrpossiblc, dcclinc inevitable, end this is rlldc clcar by lr i,)llowinli half ccntur,v ofbleck 6gnrc. Uur fiis dicl uor nlcxD rhc cnd of I Lrr prir)titlq on vasc's sincc by etrout 53o u<; ar1 aitcrltetivc tcchllicluc,'red
I , r rc this wxs:rn csscnlilllv Athctrien lchicvcrtrcnt virtuellv irll thc figurc,l, , r )r.rtcc1vlscs in thc (lrcck rvorlcl ofthc flfrh and fourrh ccrrru cs lrc Athcni.ru ,,1 lisurc, but lor rhc Athcns-inspired South Iralier scltools rvhich starr work

Thc_v eclricvccl thc

hcishts, and thc lirnits, ofwhat rhe techniquc coulcl

rrl", rvrs iuvented in Athcrrs, lncl rhis rcviteliscd rhc crafi. Unlikc bleck

t,1l,,t,dltrltt t ' 'liat tltL p rtt!, I rtl11t, t'th t'itrtt. tlr 't''lr, t tn,- , q 'tt,tttlltt1, rrrl tht r,,1 l, it I' r ' th,t rtttt \ttirl ,1, t ltl'

R,/ hvr.,,t

ltt.t,nr plt,t

"141t,,1

t re sccorcl halfofthc fifth ccnrur,v. li) rhc vicwcr thc cllcct of rhc chrngc is rclclil,v scizcd. Rcd figutc is thc , r,.rsc of black fiqure. Figtrrcs and piittcrtls arc rcscrvcd in thc colour ofdtc ',,1 .lirv sround rvith lincrr dc'tail pairrrcd r-rpon thclll a:rd rhc beckgror-rrrcl trllLrl ir rvirh bhck, whcrc bcforc thc backgror.rnd r,ves p1:rin, thc clctail in, r',, r1 .rucl thc Iisurcs bl;rck. Thc proccls nrxy prob:rblv bc bcst undcrstoor.l Lry , ', r'ibrnq rhc prcpar aljon ofa rcd fiqln e vasc, bclbr c wc trrrrl ro thc edv:rrtirgc\ r,l lirnitarlons of thc tcchniquc, end its origurs. Thc portcr lilrcls ovcr thc r r.r () the printcr in il cilicd, lcathcr herd, ncar brittlc condition, but still ,, rlilcd. Thc piintcr ttrty drcn sk*ch thc outliucs ofthc inrenclccl clccor.rrr,,r, , r tlrc surfice rvith e blturt instrtrncrt rvhich lc-eves light lurror,vs, or p()ssil)l\i , r.rrcorl rvhich wolllcl burn out in thc firire. Thc-se itrc subscqucrrrly covcrccl l,r peint or suriitcc prcplrxtion but thc furror,r,s urc gcncrelly still clclc(tlblc

',

II

lincs rvc're rctlrri: cd, bcc:ruse it rves fairly rurrn,v and il a 6uc liIrc so littlc slt orr drc vesc ther thc rc'strit rvrs pllc br ou,rr or honcv-colottr_cc1, not bl:rck. This had rroublcd bhck frgurc :rrtists to(), arld soon a lrcr rhe lrid sixth ccrtul )' il diBcrulrt nrixrurc of peint:rncl rncens ofepplyi:rg it r,vcrc inverrrcd ro prodtrcc l 'rclici linc' of irtcnsc bleck l,hich stoocl proutl of rhc' r,:rsc' sLrrl-ucc. Thc bl;rck figurc ilrtists uscd this to cliviLlc thc toDqllcs of clccorillivc friezcs aucl firt spears or st;rfls. Thc red ligurc ur tjsts usccl it, hcsitantl,v at lirst, shrrPcrrirg the outlirrcs of 6gurcs (rvhcrc nrely black fiqtrrc ullisls inciscd), sincc othct u,isc rhc thrrrnt l pairrr did not llwiys lclvc r clcerly detincd cclgc, ucl ior enatouricll or clrcss

oticr qivc c',idcrcc lirr poses or cotuprrsitiotrs altcrcd irr tlrc paintirrg. Thc outli:rcs ilrc lllcr Llrilu,n in r linc or blncl ol black paiut, thcn thc dcteils ofdrc llgLlrcs, lcrvingrrrl rrrinor rouchcs oilclclccl colour firr thc cuc1, lncl lltc brckgroturcl is fillcd irr. Florlls;lrcl bordc'r pattcrns rvlll elreetlv h:rvc bccrr ellor,vccl fur, lrtl thc pot is rcad,v ibr frrirg. The ordiuary blaclt brorvn gloss prtint \rJ:ls not vcrv c'iicctivc rvhcrt firtc
l-51

lrrcl

...
:... '

''ll

''l

clctails. Bur the-\ soon :rlsr> rccorlnisccl thc velue of r,r,hal hatl bcor thc liult oi thc thinncr pllnr erd rhcy nsctl it still fbr nriror linear-dcteils, picking orrr thcir figur es in lincs of vlr ,ving intclsir,v, es \vcll as ;1rcxs of rvash or nrottlccl cllicts on :rnilrrl skins. (Scc rhc fig. on p. Io.) llclici linc is so iruporrerrr in earl-v rccl 6gurc rlret, elthough pottiig rcchrriclr.rcs lrc rot dcscribccl in thls volurnc, r rvord about it is callcd for. Scholrrrs hrvc lonr: spccllletcd abotrt horv thc rclir.'t lirrc'u'rs ntlc{c slllcc rhc slip l..ritlf must havc bccn vcry drick :rnd not c'nsy lo rurr olFa brush. Il can bc sccr) thrl thc

1,,)l

tit.l rt l\1t:tnt

1., TMb Nhtrry rt llb

nli

linc oltcr sr:rrts solid, cncls r,virh r longitudintl gtoovc. This sulely i:nplics;t hcrvy'bristlc rip, rve11 fid b1'rrost cercfirJl,v prcprrccl slip peirrr. When lir1l thc Iinc is solid; cnrpryirr!1, thc bristle has Do ptirt oD ltt Lrppcr cdgc to fill irr bchirrcl thc- lllc drervn b,v tirc tip. Mr Noble, to whortt rvc orvc nllrch in drc cltlclclxtion ancl clcrl1orsrretion of (ircck potriD!l tcchniqLlcs, sLrggcslcd th:rr x s-vrittSiJ clcvlce of rc:uc sort was uscd. llut (lrcck tcchnicirl irr_lislry is chlr-actc:iscd bY lroublc-, rlot tricks. Thc nozzle would rcqr.lirc vcly dillicult co-ordirrrtion "i prcslLlrc:1nd movcttrcrt ltrtcl cerrnot c\plairr thc rcllcflto-!lroovc Phclrorltcrlon sltislictorily. Nor is it clsy ro bclieve th:rt black figurc arrists hed invr'Dtccl sttch an iDstrurrrc1ll rrrcrcly to drrrv pettcrn Lror_dcrs lnd spcats, or tllat it hecl velLlc

in:urv orher-clafi.
Thcrc rvcrc other obvious aclvtntlgcs irr thc nerv tcchrricluc. The bhck f-iqlrrc qraver rney hevc becn casicr-lo usc thall l brudr firr rrtirriarurlst dctlil, but rn all othcr rcspccts thc brush oflcrcci i1cutcr ticcLlolll- Thc 6gtrrcs rvcrc now litclikc, or et lcrsl closcr to lile than thc unrcllislic bl;rck, ancl lgrirr't .r black grouncl thcy stooLl sharplv dcfrnccl or the vesc. ID othcl irll\ rlrc claims of pattcrn and of anatorrricel pleusibility u,crc bccoruing lrlorc caslly rcconcllccl but rhe rnlcom pronlising !wo-dinlensionel clualiry of irhck figtrrc, luxtaposrng frorrrll rnd profilc palts ofrhc body, cotrld not lccr.)lnllroclrte thc lrcr'l, irltercst rrs cllcctivel,v rs brushwork, cspcci:l]ly whctl lincs of clilfc'rerrt
t2 . t'tukt \t.l..lint S
ito

t-t

Sith

in

Tr.6ury

lriE( rt D.lthi

rr)tcl)sil) c()ul(l be rlsctl. 'I hc linlitario s oithc new lechDiLluc wcrc llol' Lowcver, incorsi(lcr.rl)lc. Ihc sirnplc [rlrck =rnale, whitc fcnralc, scx dillcrcrrrirtior] wes qorrc xDd clctiils ol_ drcss or hair stylc do not alw]ys prove dccisir c, rvhilc thcrc rvus:t lctrtlcncy to dcPict gods alld hcrocs es yollnger ltlld so bclrdless. Thcrc r,r,li sonrc lnitial dil1rcultv throtrgh not a11owirlg fbr the tlrickllcss ofrhe colrrour Lrrc,lost lo thc 69r.1rc n'hcn thc b:rckgrouncl is 61lcd rI, and this produccs sonlc urduly skinny fillgers- Wlrh no colour llld lcss pattenl conrpositrons ofovcrlapptng figures u'ou1d be cotllusing, so thcrc is a tcrlclcncy to kJep ligurcs apr: r. Thcsc wcre al1 lirnitttions applrcnt to rhc peinter, rvhich he ticcd and o\,4'rcanlc in dillcrcnt u'irys. Alrothc'r, trot ePparcnl to lri]lr, \\'rs

ellct ofthc bleck grountl rvhich rer:rovcd all possibillry ofr-cnclcring clepth oificld and lr,hich. rn this cr:rti, llrcal1t thar evcD rhc sirrplest Pcr'lPcctivc wes rlot iltcmptccl. Thc figurcs st:rnd spor-lighted oll il lllrro\v stxqc' Murrlisls of thc Classicll p".icr.l r0,"." nol hxnrircrc'd in rhis rvly bccxtlsc thc\ rrseri r
thc

r r: Lltc r ccl 6gurc utist tcnclcrs irr roundcd olrtlitles. C)bvioos cxxtnl)lc\ , r.rlnrcrlt oistotDlch ntusclcs. or thc tDiDor lLrsclcs atortncl lIrccs;rrr,l ,,r, 1,, ,, tlre trsc o1-hook motiti lirr collar boncs or:rnklcs, u,hiclr ,g.,rrr ,l,tl, r, rl rr.r\scs rnd hed bccr usccl spl:ilgly by bllck ligLrrc:rrti\rs. Wr Ir, r l) \ ( r'\pcctccl sonlc xtt.'n]pts at shrdirlg to rcrrdcr rciicf, brrr this:rPpc.rr.r ',lr r,lr .rrtrl in e very ruclirtrcutary fcrrlt (bctween Antlios' storlrrclr l.:;], or by rhc shicld rim on lz6El). When palrctrc lclvcs, lrowr t() \l)ow a ccntrc rib, tllc ctlcct is to ntekc thcrrr look ntorc likc tltc , lr t rr rr rrri.r ofgravcstonc o: architecturc, and rvhcn a ccntrc pallllcttc lcxl , 1,,'r,,1 to ovcrlap its eucirclinlr tcnciril 139 rj the tht.cc-dimensior;rl c1li.cr r l, r lrt, r .rl (llov'r ohv-rvrtion ofanatonly pattc'rDs had becn a prosrcsrive .lr r , , rrrtrc of sixtlr-certury sculpture, no lcss practiscd irr rclicfwork rvhcr.c
1., r,l

r,

r"hitc backgrouicl lnd in rhcir u'ork lay thc possibilitics of proglcss, btrt th':'ir'

p:rllltilrgs hxvc ]1ot sttrvivcd cxccpt itl ancicllt rcports o1 Rollltll copics lrr thc lii-,.rlr.*tl.r'y thcrc nrey hev.'bcc'll lcss clivcrlacncc bctu'ccrl thc aPpcar:rncc of black 6gurc lnd tuqor paittting, so txr xs lve canjudgc' Rccl 6gurc'reprcsenls a positivc brcak rvith peillting tr:lditjons, :rnd r'r'as clilTcrently iirsPilcd, xs wc
shall scc.

rlirrr()lt! poscs and compositions cou)d bc exccrrtcd then in fr.c'c st:rlclscizcs and exploits dresc rrcw trcDds ,,, , ,, r ,lrrrictl thc bl;Lck ligurc altisr, ar)c1 in so:ne rcspccts hc sccrlls cvcn to l,,l r,t il is orr vlrsc-s thitt we first scc that accllrxtc obscrvatioD ofthc cffcct r, , l,,,,lr oi-thc drift ofwcight or to oncleg rvhich, in thc c'arly filth ccnttry, , r, l, rlr.rllrnerk of rlte sculptor's qreduation fronr thc Arch:ric to the Ear11, i , I S() u'c cul obscrve herc rlrc dcvcloprtrcnr ofa craft rvhich rvas to bc in

,,,. ,,,r1.\ llrc dlauqhtsnrall ofrcd Eglrrc

Outlirc cltarving ill vnsc pailltin!5 had bccn practiscd inrcrnlittently irr sixth-ccltlu v Alhcns, tllosl [ccclltly b,v lhc A1]llsis Pamtcl, but rhc eppcllellcc oi or.ttlured ft,,rtt."s ,rg,ri,rtt bl;rck ground \\'as rlcw, although thcrc ere I fcrv " nrid-scr,ctth-ccutur y Crclan vascs r,r'hich arlticipatc thc eH':ct 1ll a prirrritirt rvry. Ir [right be cDottgh to cxplarll thc ncrv figurcs ill tcrnls of'sirnplc ple sibiliiy - Scjr is pele rcJlethcl then bltck, l)ut to cxplairr thc clark backg*""rd u,c havc to look tto furthcr than x coglllllc art form ah'vays closcly lillkcd r'vith thrt oflinc drerving md possibly ptacrisccl by the saue artists relicfsculpturc' It u,as corurlou pr".tic.: fo. thc rclief blckgrounds to bc pailltcd dlrk red or' bluc, lcaving rl,. figtt.", irr rhe whitc nltrble, rvilh only lcaturcs or clrlpcly pickccl out ii, w"rl,ci of.,rlo,-,.. Rccl figure rrrinus thc eddcd colours gives thc .samc cffcct. Shallou rclicf sclrlplLrrc wxs plrpular in Athclls, uotably orl tlrc grxvc slclei, tnd il wxrj colllillg to occuPv lrlorc important Positiorls oll

rl, , rr.rrtl lt en imporrant pcriod oftrensition in Grc'ek ert. It is fortunxtc L l, lir\l()riirrr rhet artists ofdisriDction chose ar rhis rinrc to ply thcir trirclc ,,, I \ Llr.rs pollcrs'Lluxrtcr.
lrv,,n t ion and Experimenl

lr.,i1cirrgr. Sonrc ofir is harclly nlol c th:1r1 carcful lirrc drawing relrclcred irr lorv rclicf. md on a fcw stclli whcrc the Egurcs arc only Pf,intccl thc dlrk b;rcksroLlr)d ls kupl, :rs for rhc rulcts lr'3]. On the Siphnien Trcesury at I)c1phi wc ir... p,.-'.t r.cl . *t.ntr \ ( P rr rr of [.rur rclicf liiezes which c.llr be closcly detccl to littlc bcfbrc izi n r: ancl givc ln exccllcrrr idel of rhc figurc work wllich cerr leadily bc mrrchcd on thc clrliest red 6gurc vascs lt 4l. Thc conrp:trison r'villr sculpture rn:r,v go clccper, hou'cver, end it rlight bc t'iir to rcild irr sorllc ofthc

ao,r","ntio,,,

cotlscious ittlitetion of Iclicf r'volk- Thtts' Dlucll ofthc lincxr clct;il in rcd ftgurc scenrs to indi'atc col]tolrr rithcr th:rll t() clelirltt ercas: rvhat thc black figurc artist would dclilrc in streight intcrsrerirrq

.rit.".l figut" ntotc

,',1 ,,rrc sidc rcd fiEurc, onc side bl:rck figure [-z]; anolhcr hrs bleck figr-rre ,, ,L rrtegrouncl) orlrhelipl6l;oticcupc-\tcriorsh:rrcsrechniqucs,theothcr , I , liglrrc only within. Thc blrrck fiqrrrc work can bc rccognrsc'd on a rLr r, , ol othcr wholly black 6gurc vascs atrribllred by ljcazlcy to thc I r 1,1, ,lLr l)rrintcr (,4BIH 6es_ t61, r65 Q. Hc chlrgccl his mind rrrorc tharr r ,l,,,ut t,,hcthcr irl tict t\\,o artists or_only onc wes involvcd, decidilg r, , ., L)r two! but this is a solution lvhicit nt:uty othcr scholxrs havc found it lil , r l();raccpt. Onc gencr;Ll arlluntc11t ageinst it is that thc first rccl 6,;ur. I ,r , ,,rrrlcl haldJy hevc startcd his carccr r,vith thc r.rerv tcchniquc, and rhc l' .r irl fiqrrrc by oul printcr is so vcry rrruch a sirrplc nc'eativc ofbhck I rlr rt hc nrusl hlve bccr I black figure p:rinrcr by trairrurg, rxthcr thrn, ,r , r rLrr;rlisr r,r,ho lvould plobably havc worked ou e pllc backgr.ouncl urrd
rrlr,,rLr ]lrcising
1,,

\.r)r)rir)rs P,rrNrr,R (workirrr r. 53o 5t5) is thc firsr knorvrr pr.lclirlorlcr trrll rcd lirure techniquc, namcd fbr tllc portcr lbr rvhonr hc rvorkcd. 1r,,,, r' llirrtrl lz to] rvc havc at lcast fourtccn amphorac alld tu,o cups, i11d L I 'i rlrL rc rlso clisplay thc bJ:rck figurc techniquc - six anrphorlc arc 'bilin-

ll

rl

dctlil. Thc dilllculty er-iscs whcn conlpalrlsoll:j:rrc attcl]lptcd r,r , r sinriler sccncs cxecuted in thc two tcchniqucs. Tltrec ofthc bili:rqull
IJ

t4

alnphoric prcscrrt virrlrirlly thc sarnc sccrrc on cach side. On rhe Boston amplror;r rvirh Flcreklcs und l bull thc corrcsporldcnce is closc: [6] and ABI:H fig. rd4. On Lhc othcr vuscs thc cliffercnccs:rrc so qrcat thlt eirhcr a dilfercnt hend u':rs nt rvork, or our urlisl w;rs very dclibcratcly covcring his traces atrd
dcrnonstrating diffcrcnccs. The rcd figure on orhcr bilillgu:I1s so closcly ntltches the black figrrre of thc ' Lysippidcs Pei:rtcr'(.4BFH 6gs. r6z-3) that idcrlrir) scems assurccl; so thc Audokidcs l)atntcr did paint black figurc, bur did hc p-rint all thc black figure ol his bilingual vascs? As in rll such problcms ofattribution thc arrswcr lies in stucly of derail and in stttdv of themc lnd cornposiri.n On thc lattcr scorc identity is almost total similar prcoccttPatiolr wlth certrlll Herekles sccncs and similar lreatnlent of thc[r (tlcw rvays lvith thc lion, especiall,v knecling, lying or rhrowing [7, ro]; with Kcrbcros; ii'asting rvith Athcue: ,4I|IH 6gs. r6i 3). \Vith the details of clrawing thc ans\\'cr i\ les\ clclrl. Mxnv featurcs rre ;rlikc hclmcts, rrccs, alrirnals, ornarncnls b!1t thc l1rinor anatonrica] dctxils which so oftcn provc dccisivc in attribLltion Prcscllt problcrns. Knec caps ere favotrrcd for display of pattcrn. On thc black figtLr.r thcy are rcndcred usuxlly as a swcl1i1g Cupid's-bor,v shapc: on thc rccl flqurrcs by trvo lorlg hooks [,s, 9]. llut on [8] thc red figure kncc rcsembles thc black figure and whcn wc rcflcct on thc dilierencc of rcchrriclttc thc divcrgcnce ir cxpl:rincd. In black figure thcrc was )1o grcet difiiculty in scratching i slnglc

.',l,lr'rl lccl, and free usc ofincision to outlrnc black arces of hair. Frout tlrc sr;u t tlr, '.rLrccr r'ycs ofbleck fisurc men arc rcpllcccl by rhc uniscx llrlouci sh;rpc. l, ,r \lrll tiorrt:rl, with the pupil bercly shiftc'd towards rhc front. Thc Altlok irlcs l'rnl.r rs Llnccrtain ebout hou, ntuch usc to makc ofanltonric:rl clctlils MLrr lr lr, ,, lrit\, vct on thc Ncw York lnrphora, onc ofthc carlicst, lvc scc thc lullv l, lrr'l lrcd trcatrrent of thc stornech. I)rcss Lrlls to S-cllrvins hcnts, rtr,t rl,t. tllrL ziqzaq lolds oflatcr rcd figurc, and hc is not vct sure ibout )cttirrg tlrc l,,,,lr .r)r)tourS show through. Thc drcsscd meles arc still closc to thc dnrrvrrrr: , r r, bllck 6gurc mastcr E-xckias in wholt wc ntay recognisc thc Andokirlcs I' rtir''s rcrchcr. Hc copies sotnc of his subjccrs too, such as thc Aj:rx:urd '\, lr llcs phyins: f zl end,4BFHfig. ioo. 'We nriEhl wondcr what part Exckies l, , r,,l irr thc iuvcntion ofrcd frgurc. Hc was an i:rnovetor irr rcchnicl-rcs lncl .lrr1,,'s. but his bJack 6Eurc ncvcr clrops irlto outlinc drau,irls as rcaclily as rhat , .,,rrrc ofhls contcnrporrrics, end rechnical introvlrtiort nccd not qo hud il ,, ),1 \\ irh hish artistry. I rc Ardokiclcs Paintcr's themes show lcss e clrangc in subjcct than in mood ,r rrlr ltrllcr crrrphasis on iudivicl-ral figurcs. They rargc f'rorrr treditional rnyth, ,, ' r , lrics likc Hcrakles holding a bundle of spirs urcl clriving a bull to sacrificc I rl () scrrrc sccncs likc thc l3aigncuscs ofl4l. Thcse are drarvn cxceptionally ,, , r r pr cparc'd rvhitc grolurcl tlot thc rcd cJl,v alorc. Hc used rvhitc qroulld i,, l)..k figlrlcs orr rhc lip ofthc Nerv York anphora [6], but hcrc thc bodics

,', ,',

LlrLursclvcs lnorc as thcy rvould havc lppcarcd rn black figrrrc or thc Si-\
rtlLrc

,lrr

tirr

xl1

short linc ch:rnging dircction ofcurve four tintcs. With a stilfbrush it was almost irlpossiblc, hcncc the fr;rgnrcntation of thc plttcrn inro tr,vo long hooks r,r,hich also morc closcly rcscmblcd thc trcarmerrt of musclcs above artd bclow thc cap in reliefsculprure. Oncc thc solution rvts for-rld both typcs could appclr on onc vxsc. Then look at ears. Thc black 6gure ears show lobe and antitrlgtts es tuo lill cr-1rvcs. Thcre is thc sanre problcm of tcchnique ill rcd figrrc, so, l1tl-rough the arca ofthc long lobe is the saD1e, thc divisiorr is usually omitted or bercly hintcd at [3] rvhilc the inncr merkings ofthc car arc rendcrcd in short lincs. This may all sccnr rn cxcrcisc in trivitlitics but no cxcusc is rcquired for trying to cstablish thc identity and achicvenent of rhe invcntor of rcd figure, and thcsc arc criteria on \\,hich Paintcr attribution is bascdThe ornancr-rt on the viscs is all still black figurc and the influclce of thc oldcr techniquc is sccn in the llvish use of pattcrn ol dress, thc xlnount of r6

Ir,,,,rrvcrttoredfiqureiLnddccorxtcsilbhck6gurencck;urrphor:rtbrAncio',1,

and his rvork hc shoulcl hiivc startcd pairrrrrrg rccl figurc about j3o. Apart lror1r the ll r,l.r|.st cLlp l5l, r,vhich is eerly, nrost ofhis bilinguals arc latcr (abolrr s20) \\ i .r rr()r c conscious denronstrition of rhc rival stylcs drarlaticellv juxtlI , , , r I on thc Pelcrnro cr-rp, whcrc thc tcchniquc chanees in nrid fiqurc (,4tsFH I , ra,r, bctwccll body and shicld. I rLr,. irrc othcr biJinguisrs aud inlovetors to be considcrcd hcrc. [rsrax r r r sl siens two alabastra madc by Hilinos and his hlnd is r-ccosniscd on , ,, r \.r\cs rncludins :rrnphorac nredc by thc porrcr. Andok-idcs (.r bilirrgual r 1l rrrrl Melor. Hc shor,r,s morc inlcrcst in snlallcr shapcs. His clrccr bcsnr 'rr r r \lors; lhc rcd 6gurc is lhcacly bcyond thl. expclilllcnttl lDd sho$trrL I r r( (()lrtour through clrcss rvith less emph:rsis or1 col()ur or pattcrn. Thc L,r rl [urtcrns ol1 his l'ases erc sti]l blrck figurc, or carJicst rccl figurc rvirh tin | | (rtcs er1cl spiky lotuscs Irz]. His \\ork irr drc trvo lcchDiques is closcly r, ,lrcLl, thc incised lircs in bhck figurc bcine brirtlc and 6nicky- Hc rvls l
rLst
.,. lrut rvidr thc figures confircd to thc ncck, rhe body b1ack, in whet nrighr ,,,q.rrdccl:rs thcncw stylc. The black figurc,,r,ork (,4,B1;H figs. I68-7r) hrs

ll (()rrrplrisorls bcrrvccn the Siphnian Trcasury lriczcs [1.4]

that thcy arc rcscrvcd i:r thc nclv manncr.

,rr, rlrirg of thc fcbrilc clcga[cc of the Antlsis Printcr, whorn l]crzlcy r ,, r,llrt rniqhr havc bccD his reacher, bur the ellecr is partly cluc to his coI-

17

sciolrs:rttcnrpl t() trilrrslirlc n)rllc ofthc ncw rcd fiqurc nrilnl)ers jrlto thc nldcr tcchDiqUc. Lr lcrl figLrtc hc r'vlts bclrel at drcss than anlltollry, ovcrdoing thc' bclly contorrriru lirr his lilling \vtrlior on ll5l and quite firiling thc thrccqu.rtcr vicw though hc lr-ics to rwist thc trailing lbot to:r liolltal aspcct. Hc is
free

.{} .l'
alt .l' .l t at D alt

u'ith incision lol bltir end \vcllpolrs, and uscs addcd rvhitc fbr soltlc clclails
a bo\\'stlilllr- Hc uscd a rvhitc tcchniquc (scc ,4B FH p. l o6) : thc Six Prectiscd

likc t:rils or \\,lcrths, atrd aclclcd cley rclicf tbr

:t!

ground in black fi gurc u,o: k lrr cl ir is his r,vhite sroutrcl vlscs rvhich indicatc thit hc wxs prlitlting still iu ebout jro/ioo. Hc l)ay not htvc stavcd rvith red figttrc to the cnc1. His relrgc of subjccts is r-rnambilious l)iouysiac, Apo1linc, lvarriors irr :rction ol 1e-rvirr,j homc, rvith e tbndncss fbr:rrchcrs Ir.2, i-;1. Anothcr important bilinguist is Paseas (forttrerly callccl thc Kerberos Paintcr), whosc-florr/I is J20 J ro Ir 6, r 71. His rccl figurc work' nrailrly on cups and pl.tes, is canonlcal for cup peintcrs ofthc pcriod, with ncat, rethcl bighcadcd fignlcs, thcir cycs oftcn nlrrorv, sct higb fortards, ancl hc shows a rcsiclual illterest in colour al1d pattern This s]rorvs wcll on thc BostoD plitc (,'1BFH Ir 6] which gavc hinr his sobriquct bc'forc hls truc nalrc wes discovcrcd p. r06), or on the Oxford Platc \\ircrc Miltiades is praisccl (thc lctlcrs escaPc ihc c,r,,,cr") lncl wherc'scholxls havc sought to ltssocietc thc llourted archcr irr northcrn drcss lr7] \\ith thc youDecr Milriedes, latcr victor at MarxthoD, rvho rn thesc ycars was opcrxtinq irr Thr:rcc. Mjltiaclcs is only nanlcd ls kalos herc, but hc wls no lonqcr:r youth lrnd this is not Thracien drcss, although it rnight havc passcd as such in Athcr-rs. Prscts'bleck fiqttrc is on $'hitc ground pl:rclucs rraclc lor dedication on thc Acropolis (ABI-H fig. r7z) and it is for iri, .olour r'vork and relatiouship ro Psiax rhxt hc is namcd hcrc- On a rccl figure plaquc- hc uses white srouncl also, 11ot, xs thc Andokidcs Parntcr did, fo:' 111 the frgurcs, bttrjust for thc rvoIllcn who arc bclrrg lllildc lovc lo vigorously by nten those flcsh is lcft in thc rratural rcd Thc sttb.jcct rnay sccttr odd for:r clcdicatory lrlxque, ,vct il rcctrrs on onc frorn thc AcroPolis I I B], whe:-c thc semc rvhitc-rcd scx colouring is uscd, but the beckgroulrcl is not blackccl ur and it is sonrcwhat lercr- T'his cxtreme colorrr rcalisrll dld not, applrcndy, catch on, but ir is rrndcniably cllectivc whcrc thc scx contrlst, xs in thcsc sccllcs, is signific'rrrt lucl cxciting. We nright havc cxpcctcd rnorc expcrittlctlt widr purcly olltlirrc driwinlj ol1 l rcd o[ \\,ltitc gronud, bul cxrensivc use ofthis tcchnicll]e is to be rcscrvcd fbl tl-rc frtih century. Fronl rllc c:tlly ycars of rccl figurc therc is a c[p irr Adolphscck Ir9l which offcrs simplc oullinc in the vcry cerlicst rcd figurc rnxnller on thc oLrtsicle, lll ordinary black figurc gol goncioll u'ithiu, rnd rrlhcr l:rtcr thc (;otha cup 15rlhas outlincd figurcs on while srouncl outsidc;rnd Pionccr rccl fignrc within. Stray cxPerilncnls iPpcar o1l ln Acropohs cup lragrncnr r,vith rccl figulc, thc beckgrouncl coral-rcc1 irstced ofblack (arrd so I parallcl usc to tlrat with black figurc irr Exekias' hnrous cup , AB1;H fig. t o1-). alcl a pllquc lvhcre whlre grouttcl is used in a sirlrilar manucr.
r8

il .t , t
.l al

'j .l It ]t 'a l> a a


a

!) !l !a tl tl It i) l&

\>

B(lly n

\nud (Typ. A) I'f th. A

dokidrs l,rnttuL Ajd.\

.rd

A illa

pttry

tt

)tt u thr,1 ( l ypt A)

lry th(

dokid5 Pdinnr.

lvhik frcnd.ff"r.t

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t.1 t

B.lLy dnphoro

('l ytt A) hy th.

doLid\

Pdldl

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l,y ttu

dohid.\ Pnnn.t

I 8.'111..a-thi, fyf .4

1')

ttr 4tl,l d I ttt't lvh {r.d\p

7 Btlly d tth.ht I I yrt

.,1)

lty

rtu lndokitL: Pantd.. Ilodllh\

dhd

ttu I

id1

tklh,

rn\nln(Ty[ A)ht

ttu

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kmL\

Pni kt. H1rkl^

dtir(

d lrull

toidifia'.H.JI.l

Paintr. Lltrtklc

9.t Btlly

nnpho'1l

(7yr A)
Ana:ot:

hy

lt A

dokid.l

and

9: RttLta rl 9 t

Bdlt rnl,hatu ( 1yt( A) l)t P!in\. Dit ty\\

nt

liax

o B(lly dnphont

l7

yp.

hy

tht

dokidt\ Prntur. Hcrakl

atd ttu

Lttt

), ,Aldbn\io \ir

&l br l,'it1!

!4

Annli\;

t, , B.llyn

ph.td (Typ. A) by P\id\ Sdtlr dttd Diony\o\

)i Plit(

hy Pdntlt.

Hudkl( a d K.rhcro!. ll/. tu

tE L'otik ll,rjtr' ll' i.

,, \. rl)crc xrc r:irrioLl! c\itrnplcs of prinlitive rcd figulc l:ol, vrrrre ,,rr L L \.r\cs othcrwi\c dccor:ltc.l its ordlrrery I:rrc sixrh ccnttrry lrl.rrL r , ir( (;()r LcLrow Paturt,r is placcd hcrc bl llclzlc,v, tlqhrlv I rhirrk. lirr t,. ,. rrr.rtorryofhisfrgLrrcsonoirochoei [:r]:rrrcluscofcolotrr',:rltlr,lrclr , ,, L , \r'( r to owc sollrcthirlil to thc Piolrccr-s, arrcl sorrrc scholrrrs pIt'lir r ' .l , lirr his \\ork. Hc Lrscs trvo alphrbcts ou his v:tscs Atlc, :urtl I,,r,,.,,' .r L r,l,rdcs r circLurlst lcc \\()rth r rnorlcrt's t]lotlgllt. MLlah clsc rrl \ l, , tlrcsc \c11rs rclicfsculpturc, erchitcctLuc isderrroDstr.il)l\.Ifii.tc(l | \\t)rl,of loDi.lD or islrtncl rrrtists. irrd wc hrvc thc cviclcncc of irrscribcLl L r Llr( Acropolis lirr thcir phlsicrl plcscncc irr Arhcns. Thcrc hrd bccn i r 1.]lt irflrrcncc o| vrsc prirrtinlr loo lhrolrqh thc si-\th ccrltr.rly. Is rcLl r ' Lrrorhc| oithe ilifis 6onr rlrc Ersr? Ir wxs ccrtxinly rlot iDvcltcd llrcrc, , ,1,bt ro Artic bl:rck fiqurc conr.crliors is 1'rcltccrly clcrl. Thc cosnlor , h.rr-uctcl of tLrc Allrcns portcrs' qlr:lrtcl seerns rcvcrlc(l jn borrorvccl ;, l, L ,,r ()nl:rrlcnt r-lthcr thrul arly positi\rc irtflLtcncc ,ltr st,vlc'rnd in Athcns r p.riDtrllg tr;rclitiorr ues, b-v 5:o, too slr-()nlal) roota.l lrrcl itttlcccl c]L,ntr, r r rhe (lrcek \\'orld t() aaaolrlnroclltc Druch rxdicrl churlrlc of lir.rq
r

.r t rti\ts (scc Chlptcr ()rc) r !,l1rtl\: ft)rciqD in thcir rrt.

. Lr()rr.

If \\'c rnlY

suspcct ol- cvcn provc nor)-Athcrrien blood

in

somc

rhis llceLl u()t rlrlkc

Lrs

lo()k lor arrvthirrg

llr) Pioneers I l,.rirtcrs of tl)c I)ionccr (iloup:rrc

possiblv thc nrost intcrcstinq of illl thlrt

,, l, L1 irthcAthcnspottcriLlu.utcr'rotllrcr-clvftrrthcir:lrtisticnrcrits.but , i rrir .hxrilctcr lrrd cohcrcucc irs il lrrorp. It is is rhorgh, tor rhc hrst rrnr. r. histolv of Wcstcrn lrrt, \\'c c:ln hclc disccm I corrsciorrs rlrovcnrcrrt, i1
,

, rllcil
Lu

rLr,rrlcric ofarrlsts. Sircc wc kno* ll() rn()lc ll)oul thcnl th:u1 wc aln lcxrll Lr thcir v]scs, \\'ilh Dot ] scr'.rp ofhc]l, lro|r rn1 lncicnt $,r'ircr. rhc rccor( (1on of thcir cillccr\, corrDroD PuIPosc, cvcrr riva]rics, caD bc lirkcn as a rrr ph ofurchrreol,lqic:r1 r crclr ch, thou rrh thcl c rIc Il;urv :rrchlcologi\ts \! ho ,tlrt not r ccoqnisc it irs strclr. llrc pcculirrirics \\,hi.h nrrrk thcm out fi-om thcir plcdcccssols, rnd rrlrnv

il

succcss()l-s, llc l-cldilv dchncd. Thcl' wcrc aorlsLlnunrtc :u tists. Ia l, lel cllls Stnikros'not.l qood dmulahtsnl:rn' this is tnrc onlv ilr thc con'\r ofthc qrouf. AlrhoLrgh tlrci cilr'licst \\'or k concs onlv ebout e .lccrLlc iLr'r'thc invcntioo ofrcd liqurc it rnust bc rcrncrrlbcrccl th;rt thc ilr\.crrtors l)Ll

t,v.
,

..:

\l)crlrncnrcrsl flcscDtcd irl thc l:rst sccriou, \\'cr-c still ilt \\,or-k, but rvhilc thcv 'r'rc nrekilrg proglcs\ il rlrc'nrcch:rnics'ofrhc ncw tcchrliqnc, thc Pionccrs I rri scizcd upon thc csscrlcc ofu,hlt rccl llgurc cou1cl o11i'r, rcfinirg it in dteil ,l dr-r,,r'ing :rrrrl cornposition, to achicvc a quxlitv ofruoocl itnd nrrrrtivc u hi.h ,' crrt frr bcvolLl whrt a Psiax or Pasces c()uld corlccivc, lrld u hic h rr:ts r ar ricrl L,ir ()nlv picccrncxl bl clillerent errists iD thc slrccccdinq qcDCr:ltiorl- Thc,v prc29

().ht.htu l\1i td' H ,t

Ii'rlccl puin

rir rg

bit

v:rscs, r1l var ictics

ferhcr, Poilias, ccrtaiDl_v thc scrrlptor whosc nlntc is lbuncl on bescs 6.orn thc or two unatr.jbrrrccl vescs of tlrc ()roup ('cluircto Euthyrliclcs';'Errtltyrnidcs chlirc,) lnd e r,,onran drirkcl orr u vesc bv Phirrtias ro:rsts hirn ('soi tcncli Euthyrrrir-lci k:rloi, [.1g. I l). On tirc sarnc vilsc a yolnq nrll holclins r lyrc is labcllcd Euthylridcs l3,s..u]. Lr rhc crrcll lstl ccs lt sccllts \\,'rol1g to rcjcct iclc.Dtificariolt, l)ut wc tust not cxpcct portr-llitllrc. Snrikros rves a peinrcr ofthc Ciroup LlDfbrtuDtlcly his ltarrc u,xs rl conlnloo onc but hc ldcntilies hinrscii-rs -r LlrnL(r on ,,r)c ui hr\ u\\rt vascs [-;.u.2], so it shoulcl bc tiic srnrc llr:tn ir thc ptrty drlwn by Euphronios anrl sinrilerlv nlrncd lhcarl dttails, /t,/il. Slrik:.os is nerrcd roo in rr oirscu:.e lroto (tppercntly rccording i1 corllrncr)t b\.hi:rr) or e vrsc rc-ltr ELlphrol)ios, irnd hc is dcsigrutcd kllos on rnothcr.'l-he (iroup shrrc irrrcr.cst:rnd edlrir-erion ofthc younq bc:rutics of tltc dry Philiedcs, Antirs, elcl cspeci;rily Lcrgr-os hrr rvho:l orc o1.[uphronios'chirkiuq girls spius ll cLrp:,rin tanc]c htirsso I latrgcol Lcerrc' l:7 lcfil. Thc tluriJy ofLcrglos, thc darling ofrhc Group, Iivcd in rhc dcnrc Kcratncis, so lhc l:rcl ltey hevc bccn :r fenrilirr figrrrc et plrtics in thc Pottcr'\'qLliirtcr. With:r'Snrikrgs klios' nt:lt. \,c txkc it that sc,rl.lofour,Lr-ctsr, \vcrc of thc s;rrrc lishioneirlc jct? A l)llayllos is n:rrrrcd lrnong thc ;lthlercs ()lr t\\.o vilscs by Euthytrliclcs, otrc b1 lrhiDtils, iltd on tu,o othcrs (or]c by Euplrronios?) surely tltc firnous Phrr'llos of l(rororr rvho tluglrt at irlrtr is ;rrrd r,r'on tlrrcc viclorics nr lhc l)vrhiarl Canres, lrrd rvas rveli cnouqh knotvu ilr Allrcrls ft) havc I st:ttuc otr rhc Acropolis. Sosius rvas a poltcr lff thc Croup rrtl ir Sosies ol Sosls is nentcd ol) vilscs bv phintias, Euth!,trridcs ald orltcrs. A Sorius roo is nrnrccl;ls i l)uggcr on l v;rsc qr.allito fbuDd in thc Agorr in Athcns, brrt rhc rccidcrrrs ofsurvival hevc sparccl us thc llcccssitv to rcsrorc thc uanrc of

h,"-dlilj, bur elso dccor]tcd cups:tn.l pl:rtcs, its rcll lt ltoIltc rvith thc vi'qnettc rN rvirh drc bload canvas. Thcv wcre litcr:rtc aucl gerrul.lus. Tlrc,,,siqriccl thcir rvorks liccly, idc'nrificcl thc sucsts i1) rhc s1'lrposir thcy dcpic.tcd, rhrcw irr rlrottocs:Itcl challcnqcs, cvcn lct thcir- ligurcs s1)cuk irt nodcnr citrto(rl stylc. 'As nt'vcr Etrphronios ('hos onclcpote Euphronros') boests Euthynrid.s urr | 71.2] bcsidc ouc ofhls nrorc arrrbitious arrrtortricel sturlics ofrrrn i,, ,r,,,u,r,,. lrrcl rvc erc at olrcc itltroduccd to i1D atllr()spltcl.c of Lct-t lleDk rivllry_ Eutilv_ rrri,lL'. r'r.,.. l.r.rrrd rr.rrr. .,rr.l r" .ri, \r,-.1.r1..r(. !,,r1(.ulrL,..irl. rlt. r,.rrrrL.or lr

ofcr:rtcr !, thc Typc A lrnphor-ac, psykrcr

s,

,, ,,, .rrtl thc usc ofrclicl lirrc csrrblishccl lbr nrost oLltliocs orr tirrcr rrrs" ,,, rl, L,,,lLlcl irnutollri.:ll or clrcss rllnrkirg. Enthyrlliclcs tlscs :rllll()'il ()\''r , I r, rhirr puirtt for ruosl:1llet()ll)i(xl t'llccts. In thc dlcss lllc crrrrtr';rst ol 1,,,,1 tiril lclicflrnt's is rvcll cxploircrl, the closc-sct thilr rvrv,v llrres lirr tlrt ,1' l,rl oi cltltons bcing lcgttlrr'. but Euthlrlidcs trscj thirrncd !rrcs:rlv) t ,1, r , lrcrvicr lblds ofhirl:rrir itncl skirts. The ziszrq hcnrlirrcs ot drr\s irrc ,' ,, rLr nl()rc rcilislic S-cur \,es wilhoLlt losillg anv ofthc dccor:rtivc cllirt r I ,,1 or sphvrng folds. Thc ftlrthc'r hcrrrlinc. srcrl tionl irlsidc, ir tr'itr.rll,v . , ,, .,.rliopcd atLlvc or scric\ ofctlrvcs. Evcs dlop l()w:ll c1s thc tcilr (tl.t.

Acropolis. Errthvnriclcs hinrsclf is grcc-tcd

, ' r
,' r r,

,,r rllr opcninq slightlv hcrc, end lhc lourrd ptrpil is sct rt lhc cctrllc, or ri.rrd ol:ccDtrc. Evcleshcs:rIc r/t'r'iqrr(rrr oll lhc iincst rvork Vrrictics ol_ r rrrrttcr ofiDdividull irll'cl1tron. Sttlficc it lo obscIvc thll tlle Piorrccrs r, rr liqurcs clo s,h:rt thcl' rvill. trrrltarlrpcred bv tllc rcchniquc arld corr,,,r' rvhich clict:rrcd thc ligidin of thc doll-likc stilI-joirrtc'cl bhck lisulcs L'r rr lhc ccntut-Y. Ill thcjr rvork \vc scc llo\v 111 sllllPlc linc drelr'tttg.' r,t ! ic\\: oi fiont or-back rorso l;-3.:l cen bc rcrrdclccl phusibly, hor'r' , L |,rttcrrls allrl cvcll bc lorcshortcrlccl in e rtrdirtlcnterv \\'it,v to heilihtcl) , tlrct. Wlrolc linlbs, ho\\,.'\,cr', itrc rcndcrccl er firll lcngth, u'hcthc: profilc, .rl. or irr xn attclllpted thrcc-qtlaltcr', elld lhclc ls llo tmc lirlclr fireL,

oilirtbs, :rlrhottgh b-v totrll,v obsculius rhc shirr or rhigh irr rcclirrrrrg ri \. ,rld sho\\'ing toP or ul)c1cr vicws offcct, thc lrtist qocs solllc w.r\ ill , srinq rhc rhilcl clinrcusion: c.g. l.:7, ":9, Ji.r]. fhcrc is sonlclllitrs morc ,..( to propcr linca: tbrcshortcnirrg in thc:ctrclcrirrg ofobjccts likc shlclds. I rlr rcr .onvcrltion flt srlnding frgurc's, strllgcstint t thrl-e-qurrlcr or L rrrrnq vicrv with orc lcq irr profilc, onc fiontxl, rvc h:rvc (cspccielly u'hcr r,,,
r rng

thc;racusr-r_ irs Errphronios,

llr.r-.r,
ofthc

rnd xt iuly rerc rhc grallito


, |

l)eintcr or ofblack lisurc. IJrrt rclicf blobs firr hair rinqlcts, srrpcs arrd llorxls in figur-c sccncs rre usccl on sorrrc ofthe frncr vescs, end Euphrorlos urcl Euthy_ miclcs hevc coril-r-ccl btncls on thcir cups. Thc incisiDe of h:rit. cortrours rs
3o

bcst parDtirs oirhc vcers ebout 5:,o 5oo;rncl crrt r:orrvellcntly L.rc. suDtrn:rrirccl- SoDrc:rpply cqrrllllY norv t(r the r,,trr,..rtrpt'rrr r cupy..,r111.,,.,.,,u1r" discrrsscd. Thc Pior)ccrs havc lost rllost itltercst irr colour i1r;d o ly EuPIrr,IIos show! nlllch aoltccln still rvitlt p;rrtcrn on clrcss, in thc spirir of tlte A,,doki.l",

. r. '

r'

(,

, r |

,rr|,

'I..rru

r.L.\

.r)

l.

scenrs satislhcrorily

rr lrr,

lr..u, bc

lltcr.

rkc.r .r,rr

.li..rv..

rrpt orlv l gclrcl:rtioll lrrtcr (irt tllc'Clritirn bo-v) Look rt Euphrtrrrios' ,rrrc l?l. r ieitl rncl scc hou'ltc rs bcgrnnitrg to obscrvL'thc shilL ofhips entl r ,rr,r r,',hich sLrch :l Posc dclrl;urds. Agirln wc scc al link bctuccn lirrc clrlrrlrrg r'r,l rculpturc, this tirnc with satllprulc irl lhc rourld ofe lillcr clalc, llld Dlry l,(.ulrtc ol1 whrt othcr lrts thcsc llrcll lllllv hirve praclisccl. ID th(- clrcLrrrstatrtccs it is ocltl to obsclvc rhcir contillrrilrq dilcnlrlla ovcr rc .rthchnlcnl ofe Prolilc hcid to I tiolrlal torso: lnll esPccilllv ovcr chl rr I rr* qir-1's trrcest in fiont vicrv, it prol)lcn1 rvhlch thc rnclrlcst lattcr-Lla) 1vrll. ruftltisr solvcs stLcccsslirll,v rvirh :r ciIclc elld dot. Ihc vasc pllirrtcrs arc oilscsscd ..iill r,r,ith thc protrlc Vie,.v, aDd whcrl both brt'asts:trc sho(11 tllcv ll1:l-v P"irrt l tc \iulc \\ity I.?7, -;d.rl, ol: oLll\villLls l-;.9.r1, or do$'nlvlrds, or th. ]xsr Lrrdignity inu,erds. Florxl p:rttcrn olfcI:s Do grc:rt v:trictv. EurhYllticlcs llld Philrties still tlsc sonlc L,1d black figulc lotus alrd Prlnrcllc chlirls ll0.2l. thc lotLrses lotitllY cmlcirtcd. rnd thin bucl ;rnd llot cr tiiczcs. Ill.ick opclr pirlrlrcttes i:r scrolls, cilcttltrscl ibcd
L (

,,

1,r'oii1c

lcg is rch-rcd) iur xnticiPlltior of u'her frcc sttncling sculptnrc rvill

or olc up onc-clorvrl! arc colllurorrct. Thc rcd figtlrc florillr, sinliler-ly al rerlucd (but not orlc-r.r p onc dorvu) h lvc o Pclr p:llnlcttc'i. Thcl c x rc fcrv o th cr vlrit t iL'r,

lr

Y
\(ir rr ()l
1r

lllalr r(cirll :lr.ltit..tru.rl

rc sh;rpcd scrolls ([uplrrorrios, Pczzino Ciroup). I hc Sosi:rs Pi]n tcr pir lrl crtc,i ((11rtc lirtc) hevc pointcd lcrvcs l5ol. (lcnrrc lcrvcs do not ovcrhp rhcir torclrils (Phinri.is clocs, oncc | 79. t]). Euphronios sivc's us thc rccl figurc lorus wirh shlr p otrtcr pcrels uncl ]s$'orc1-liLerurrrrclr.rtrrirhtrr,,-l..LtPrlnrcrtcsto
iLll l.l:1, but EuLh ynritlcs' Lrruscs ur-c lcss aoruprct. LotLLs bv nor." is a nr isnc,r rrcr. lr1 1 , rru 1 ..illt,.r. \\ rll l(r\( l',,t.r r.,rl . (r Ur.r( \ )(( trnl,. r L,, lrr r.r ELrl,HnoNr{)s l:: .10, l:ronriyitctl (r'. Suo 5o5) siqnccl rt lcrsr six v.rscs irs

f:ltrenls

prLncttcs rn hc:rrts (Errtlt

_l.ir

ridcs),

pail]tcr rud tc , letc: iD his crrccr rud tbr othcr p:ritrrcrs ortril]lt,L)Dcsirtros), as pottcr. Nolre of ltis survi\iDq l:itscs scclJts lcss rltrD pcr-tccr, llrcl this is trot thc rcsult of ltrv rchrchrrcc oischoliirs to look lor his h;rnc1 ir lcsscr rvorkl. He likcs big crirters, cspcciirllv rhc aitl)\ crrtcr, but dccorrtccl othcr.shitpc,j too, inclLrclinq cups for thc porrcr Krchrvlior. His olr'n potting clrccr nrey hrtvc slarlccl xl the selrc tjtrlc ls his puillti]lq. d,.sprtr thc 1rt.k ot vqr.1n1111 .1114 11r. tlict that two ofhis calyx cl iltcrs wcrc l)1adc by Euxithcos. It his bccn s1]gttc,stcd that e ncw intcrcst in neck lnrphorac rvith trvisrccl hrndlcs is clue tri hjnt. Ocrtainly his rrcilll)tcr1t of ru,o rvhich hlvc survivccl is spccill and looks foru,lrd kr inrportant srr,lcs ofthc e:rrJy fifth cerrrurv onc ,,vith black bocly :rncl picturcs only orr thc Dcck; lhc orhcr \\,ith black lcck end sinrrlc 6qurcs on clrhcr sidc in thc licc bleck flcld wirhout grorrnd lincs. T'his is l ticetnrcnt copiccl by othcrs ercl to bc pcrfcctcd b,v rhc l]cr-lirl Peirtcr..

I rbyln qiant shotlld be lifted bodily to rcrnovc hi,r fronr his strcr)Eth rcst()r'r)q rLothcr Earth, but -Er-rphronios wlnts lo rlreke the most ofbig figurcs (nr .r hiq \.r\c, contrxsting Herakles'nert coiffurc ofreliefringlets and triDr bcirr(1 willr rc Lrrlcouth giart, cycs rollrng, tceth bared, hair and bcarcl lvild (rdrlly IIke ,,rlrcr represcntxtiorN ofLibyanr- Thc giarrr's right arm is alrcrdy pilrirlvscd. r r tingcrs lirrrp. His lc'g doublcd bcnclth hinr lcavcs us a glimpsc ofthc solc ,il his foot, f, view of which Euphronios sccrrs fond- Noticc his usc ofthiuncrl l, rirlt for thc giant's hair, in the furrows ofhis bclly nrusclcs, on the lionskin. I hc distraught rvomcn rrc at rcduced scalc rnorc bccausc thcy arc lcss imporrant ,rrrl hlvc to bc uprighr on the shillow iiieze thlr becausc thc utist uIldcrslood

l,rrspcclivc.
,

.rn

Thc Ncu,York crarcr oflcrs another first rvith rvingcd Slecp and l)cath ying lronr rlrc Trojan battlc6cld thc body of Sarpedon lzz, Frotttispiccc].

Llcrlin crarer [-2,1] givcs us Euphronios' sludics ofPosture rendercd in linc but less so oD anolhcr Pxris cratcr, fragl-trcntary, with soII1cwhet 'rLccessfully; ,u krvlrdiy poiscd rcvellers tumbling ovcr slippely $'incskins. This sort of ,lr ru,ing c;rn frcczc thc dcliberate action ofdlncc, fight or sport morc Plxusibl,v
I lre

Llr.ur rhc unrchcarsccl upsct.

l.
t,

,rl
His stylc is ' chssic' ftrr rhc pcriod, rvirh lcrv dccidetl oclclirics. His hclcls :rr.c rlccp irorn lrort ro buck, with ncxt, cahn lirturcs. Eycs tcud to be narror,v and thc tiucly l:rshccl orlcs tcnd to opcn to\':lrds thc tcar duct. Lip corrlours erc

h'

rcncrous, clrs hcuvy lobcd rvith c:rrclul inncr lnerkillgs on larqcr heads. Hair coutours lrc inciscd or rcscrved. Thc frngcrtips, oftcn with n:rils nrerkccl, runr up sherpl,v aud rhc fluscrs lrc thin ind britlc. On the boclv he likcs to conrolrr evcrl nlinor:rrcas, likc thc nrusclcs bc-sidc the klcc ceps. Ankic boncs are triallglcs rvith cloublc front lirres. Hc cnjo,vs the texturc ofpettcrl, \\,hcther ir bc drc bllck and r,vhirc ofpamclncd cloaks, Arnazon drcss anci firr.nishirrs, or. thc thinnc'd pxint oD liollskilr or hair, rvhcn drervn in scprr:rtc locks, or thc
cup on l-z 51. llis mastcrpicccs, thc cratcrs, clisplay originality ofthctnc und cortrposruou. On rhe Peris clltcl Heraklcs'fichr rvith Ant:rios is e rrcw crcarion [2J1. ThL,
32

There arc othcr n)ajestic trcahncn!s of myth - Hcraklcs 6ghting Amazons volute crater izgl, u-ith Gcryon on on.: crp [26], gods attetding Pclcus end Ihctis on atothcr. But everyday Iifc had bcconrc no less inspiring a source for Lhc Pionccrs witncss thc chastisemerlt for r,vhat, I wordcr oll Irol (in llcazlcy's drawings) and tl-rc ladici party ou lz7l. Onc girl hcrc toasts Lcxqros, is praised by Euphronios on r dozcr) orher vases which probably bclong 'r'lro 10 thc dccadc JrJ 5o5. Thc grarldcst party of thcmall lvasona cratcr, ftllgrrcnts of lvhich :Irc now in Munich [25], and herc Snrikros is named [/rrad htdil\, blil. Surxnos [3r, J2] (.. 5Io Joo) si!1ls two sramnoi and r twlsty-h:rndled ,LDlphorr es paintcr, and on the forn1cr hc praiscs the bcaury of Alltits: ln .rlli-crion for vese shapes lnd a boy which he shares rvith Ettphronios emong thc l'ronccrs. Anothcr stllnlnos! a psykter and two pclikei are attributcd to hirll. l1_rhe associations ofthc namc on vases refer to onc min hc sccnrs ro have been .r playbov artist. i3cazlc1, callcd hirn an'irnitator ofEuphrolios'. Two putrrls ofcomplrison wc hxve observcd, ancl tr-ray add xn ir)lcrest in patlcrn arrd the licc ficld singlc 6gures on thc:lrnphora. The dilfcrcnccs, apart frorr somc hck ol. entcrprisc in compositiou, are in thc drawing which, though prccrsr, ,kinrps ears, has bonclcss llvkwerd hands, dwells herc atd there on a head or bod1,, thcl hurries over drcss. His saryrs are his best crcations, heavily moustachecl and bcardcd, belding, thcir Doscs lcss snLrb than broken. EuirlyMl)us l-lt 7l is Euphronios' r ival but no doubt llso liicnd inrhc l'ionccr Group: sligh tJy.jur-rior in years, pcrhaps, but no imirator:rnd his cqual in invcntion and draughrsmanship, with a subtly diffcrenr epproach to iris:rrr. His tricndly 'as ncvcr Etphronios' is inscribccl bcside a lor'rr /c.firrr of lincar
,rrr ;r
u:1

rtr_c.c, sortrctiDtcs lirvish usc of thinDcd plint lot en;rtorrrical dcr:ril lcnrli lris fleru c rvork :r dccidcdly rrorc sculptur l1 :rir-. Hc rvus fi.cc with inscriptions too, rrlrning hirrscll scven tirles, his firllcr (l)ollias tlrc sculptor ) rhricc, rvith otllcr ruotocs and lcgcrrds: an c)i!r.ovcrt (conrprre thcir rlrtrcs Etrthvnriclcs 'qood spirit', Euphronios 'good scusc'!) : choosv in his ;rflctrorrr, enrins Mcgaklcs:ls bc:rrrtilirl, but idcrrtilyiDg r]rtny othcr con tcnr pol.trtus on

:lrl:Lloirv l l r.rl .rrr(l hrs

Lrc

[ur]rymidcs hed his inrit:Ltors too. rnLl wc shitll rcturtr to rhcm, but lhcrc rlso rnestcrs rl,hosc wolk is rclercd ro his. I)ttr^'rus l-i8 1:l (r. 5-t5 5to) rrqht u,cll bc his scnior, xnd wc hlvc rlrc:rcly rcnr:rrkcd his ilscribcd conrpli

ll.nt to thc yor'1n!lcr'1n

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r,7

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His figurcs arc hcevicr, nrcatier than Euphronios'. Hc usuelJy inciscs thc hair outlirc and evoids rclicfringlcts. Lr qcnc:-al he rclics morc ou liuc than plrttcl-lr. Thcrc erc lir,r, lashcd c,vcs, sintpler cars rvith e ccntr.c tick or hook, thc loosc flcsh of thc scrotLun is narkcd, the lcct ionq and llxl, firlgers rlrbbcry. The cloaks staucl up in stilFlblds et thc b.ck ofrhc rlcck. In the llorals thcrc erc liwcr lotuscs, thcil utcnlbcrs scptr:rtcd. Hc sccnrs to hevc prctirr-cd rhc Jlrgc bclly amphorac (Typc A) t'br his rvork ro cmtcr-s, aDd thc onc volutc crarcr t'rom his hand conlirlcs fisurcs to rhc neck, not body (contrast Euphronros l z91). Thc nlxstcrpicces:rre ir Munich. On l-lJl Heoor lnus, rvatchccl by his plr-cuts. Prlts ofEgures erc oftcu allolvcd to overlep thc bordcr (ls on l3.r]) but lrcrc thc uppcr bordcr is lcs heppily brokcn. Lcss than pcrltcr, too, is tirc rvry Hcctor's profilc hcadjoins his fronral body, but on thc brck ofrhc vtsc rvc hrvc rhe proudly succcssfirl disp)ay oftlrrec cluarrcr fronr and blck (r,r,c could htvc wishctl lrim siruilar succcss with thc lcft Icg r.rf thc dancc'r or thc risht). Thc lerdcr ofrhc rcvcls is on thc lcft, hbcllcd'komarchos'. On l;41 e nrilclly protcstins Hclcn is carricd oli'by Thcscus. Koronc trics ro dreg hcr b:rck (hcr rrarrrc rnd Hclcn's r,r,erc hitnsposcd accidcntilllv by thc artisr) rnd peirirltoos
looks round to the orlrcr siclc ofthc vlsc r,r,hcrc an olcl nlaD and two qirls rcact rppropli:Lrcl), to thcir agcs aud se-x.

rlrs scalc'hc is probabl,v at his mosr cffectivc. His rnorc Prccior-ls work apPcars rru thc- big amphoric. On l4-r ] Apo11o :trrd Alrcrnis rcsctrc thcir ntothcr I cr(l lr onr Tit-vos. Hc was l giant, xnd shown as such in bl;rck frgurc, bu! Phrrr.r.'\ rrakcs hinr vnxllcr thiul thc dcirics, \\'ho then hiLvc borh divirrity and staturc (nr rhc'ir sidc, aDd tllis wcakcDs thc llirretivc. IJur with art xlhlctc oll thc olhcr :idc ofthc vese hc nlakcs a goocl try et e thrcc-quertcr lc!i. The Terquinia vasc ot{crs all thc dctailirrg oflocks, sidc-bums, llshcs and fingcr ruils f4o]. Phrnri-rs nlrkcs his lrlrrk bcrlcr i hcads xnd drcss. Hylsrs (.. j l o) signs a hydria xnd lcaves his namc also on a kaJpis l1 1, 111, thc old and rlcw vcrsions of thc $'atcr jar, both of which hc shor,r,s on hls k.ripis 1111, whcrc girls draw w:ttcr it lhc fountaill (>f Dioiysos ('krene l)ronyri;r'). His f-igurcs havc a dcgree of Euthymidcan wcillhr alrd are as wcll corlrposcd llrhough soDlcwh.t lcss dctxiled- Best arc his lrluin!! Anllzons,:r grorlp ski]ful11, sct in thc rcctengular field, but hc hes l)ot learncd how to acljust thc
tr

l'lritias, Philries, Phirrris) aud thrcc ils pottcr (ru,o arc'cocklc-sltcll vlscs, rlrc )rhcr x cup fbr a rccl ligtLre rrtist of c1-litlity la9]). Hc is r nrorc finicky.rlti't tlr;rn Eurhvmiclcs, likcs rclicf rirglcrs aud dctails of rrlils, krruckles, soles of ict, end soruetimcs:r lirdcler_plttern xlong thc brcast bonc. Like Psiax, he Lrrciscs sorrrc irurcr rnusclc and dress lincs, witlrout paillting thcrrr. Conlparcd rlirh Etidr,vmidcs his 6gurcs rre less plausiblc lrnd alerl, thc drcss too is stiffcr rrrl lacks the swccping folds. Hc lovcs drawing vases and we have studie' of -r \ rdc sclccrion of shapcs ill syrlposix, fotlntliu sccrlcs xnd olce in r vasc shop. A cup rvhich hc dccoratcs 1-or Dciniadcs has somcching ofe:Llly Epiktctos l,r:1. Anorhcr sigDcd clrp is 139] with:r finc ccr)lxur erd puzzlilg ilsslult. At

llnlpcrcr's back to hcr lcii arrn.

[.lr.rr

Thc I)rxatos P,e.rr.rrrn [15-z] is anothcr r,vith Euthyntidcatl essocriltr,)n\, hc rvorks rr b]lck figure too, in at conlPctcnt fussy stylc ap;rroeching Psiax.

Euthvnridcs' corrtribution to thc sroup of rrvisty h:rncl1ccl umphorlc \\rith sinqlc figurcs has :l sxtvr rrld a youth. With rhc u,rcstlcr.s on a psykter 136l hc rlakcs his bid 1br I thrcc-qu:rltcr lcg but thc fiontel ottlin.', disphccd kl1cc ud pro6lc loot fhil hinr. Frontal laccs hld bccn savcd ii)r sr.otcsques hithcrlo, and thcy still orrll.succccd whr-rc clisrortcd fcettlrcs xrc c:rllccl for. as lbr thc piper' [3-51 (conrp:rrc Etrphronios' toper [25]).
31

Hc oftcn uses bltck 6!!ure florals on his recl figurc vascs, u-hclc drc fieurcs srand ti!lhr-lippcd arld cxplcssiolrless in compositiorrs lvhich rcca11 thc dullcr black ligurc ofthc da-v, but u'ith jnclivldual ftgurcs r,vhicl-r sccnr ltraight coPics of Euthyrnidcs. Tl.rc drinkinq and \ "crlchirr!, cll) l psyklcr rlrd k;rlpis 116, 17] rrrc rnorc cfll'ctivcly porrrlycd xnd show sorr)c origirrxlity of posc. Thcy erc irvour irc shepcs for thcsc studics of contcrnporary 1ifc. Thc'rc rrc l lcrv odrer indiviclutl picccs ofrllcrit u hich bclolg here. Phinti.Lr pottcd a cup for anothcl, no less talcntcd, arrist to dccorttc [19]. Gorgos portcd xrlothcr [1E], r,vith a ,vouth holdiDg a harc r,vithin, in I sty]c vcry like thc Phinti:rs cup, arld a Dotablc rryth sceDe on onc sidc which shows a fi11c scrtsc of drrnretic dct;ril Achiilcs fights Mctnnou whose sPc:rr h:rs pierced Achillcs' shiclcl rncl so is ncffectivc, and wllosc nlorhcr l-os, tlistr lughr, has torn hcr drcss
3J

A Sosias was ntclttioncd otr various l)ioncer potter Sosixs makcs a finc cr-tp [5ol for a paintcr, thc SosiAS pAtNrEt, a latc Pioneer (r- J Io joo). Thc cxtcrior presenls anunusual nlassiltg offisures for this technique, with Hcrrkles lcd into thc fulJ assenrbiy,,i-Oly,,rp,,r, bristling with details of attribures ind drcss_ Undcr a handlc is an ourlinccl heed of thc Moon ( ?). With , Achillcs binds patroklos, arrn. Hcrc thc p.rinrcr is absorbcd wirh pattcnl on armour, cap, the mosr rrivial details ofanacorny. Pattoklos, squatting on his shield, bracing his left 1cg against the bordcr, rs an unusuai lnd catly study in distraction and pain. Borh tnen arc intcnt, rvide_ eycd, and thc artist xnticipates hlcr, nlorc accuritc rendc ng of rhc eycs by opening thcrn rcalistically, with the pupil forward. This shows ivhat can happcn rvhcn an artist tnomcntarily abandons what he has bccn raught and kroks around him. lt elso, for its rarity, shows how sma11a part still direit obscrvation rvas playine. The Sosias Paintcr used touches of whitc on the bandagc r11d lor pxtroklos, barcd tccth, and outside the cup hc rendcrcd in relicf th! pomcgranatcs heid by:r soddess. Elsewherc we have scen the pionecrs ,," ..ti"f fii ringlets or occasional florals, but they gcnerally avoided colour and other rcliefaiis. Onc vlsc, ciosc_in style and spirit to their work, has rrorc of the cxperitncntal about it - thc Golna cur (r. -5oo) 15r]. Within, rhe rcd 6gure lover anrl hi lacl are xccompanicd by a dog drawn Ir thr Srx re.hniquc white ptint on thc black grouud, with painted and incised dctails. Outiide, rhe synrposiasts are outline drxwl on:r whitc ground, with black handlc p"lr.rrcites. Thcse arc tcchniques which had been devclopcd by black figurc artisis, and wc mighr now consider whether thc Pioneers evcr praclised thi old tcchnique. The'bikaios Painter wc rnighr regard alrrost as a convett fronl thc old to rhc new, not traincd originally in red figurc. Thc only examplcs of what misht be pronccr black 6gurc.(or in relatcd tcchnique) appcar whire wc mighr bcst expect them on ollicial work where the old tcchnique was rcq.rircd,r, "ppr.rprr"t" Panathcnaic vascs and votivc plaques for the Acropolis (ancl sJe bciow lor work on white ground). Thc matcrial is fragncntary end certainty inrpossibJe, bur trvo p1;rc1ues, dccorated wirh outline figures, p:rrt incised, on a lvhite ground, arc worth a sccond look. Onc, with en Athcna [52], was dcdicated by Pollias, Eurhyrnidcs' sculptor fatlrcr, and in a styic compatible with his son;s y9i\t.Th" othcr [iJ], a larger slab, shows a storlnills w:rrrior with a satyr shicld blazon rcpearcd by Euthymides, and inscribcd ,Mcgaklcs kalos,. The Mcgakles has bccn crascd and Claukytcs substirutccl, no d-oubt aftcr thc ostracirn of Megakles in ,1116 r r:: he is c]scwhere praiscd by Eurhyrnidcs and Phintias. Quire apart from their own possible black figurc work, by challcngc xnd cxamplc thc Pioneers influenced an impoltant sc-ries of all-biack_Cguie vases ofthe last ycars ofthe ccntury thc Leasros Group (ltsFH pp. tiol).
vascs. The 36

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vlscs'"vhich survivc lrorll tlrt lir'r L ,,r ()l frxctjcc il1 thc Ircw tcchniquc are cups. Thc Arrtirl'itlcr l)rirrt' ,, r ' l'r,, necrs hed prcfcrcd thc largcr sh.pcs, xn d on thcsc, u'ith tlrcir Irrli' l' ' tt Lr.s, thc Ir('w drer,r'irre sLills coulcl be rnost c1li'ctivcly tlisplrrl'tri 'rrIl .l 1,,1,, (1. Mur-v Pionccr ctlPs irc lxrllc arld sho$ry Picccs 'Prrtrrtlc r rr1''' I , ltr ,lt,itrt) r slylc wilh il bricf follorvi:r g. For ordinuy trrclc pLrrPt)s'\ llr( ,,1 liqurc rncaut ctlps. Thcsc do not clispl:ry thc verictY of forltts rrtrl ttr , l,, I llqurc Liltlc Mastcrs- Thccarlicstrcclftgurectlpsercof fvpc A'e1'c , ,r r licil churuatcristic dccorarion (llthough thcre arc sonlc rvillloLtt cvcs , .l ' ,,1 .r11 cycs ]rc on Typc A) a sh:rpe invenrcd lor black 6gurc pcrhaps by t ' '. .rrrri dcriving its rrnbrokcu bod-v profilc arrd schcnrc ofdccor;rriorr rvith ,,,rn er crr'licr rraditiorr in Eest C} cccc. Thc earlv rcd fiuurc c,vc cups. rls ,., I tr rrc lhc sanlc oFscr, l:1ll fcct as thcir bllck figtrrc contcnlporarics (,4/iFH , j. l7(9), lookirlg likc r fltr picrcccl clisc bencath hs in thc Liltlc Mlrltcrs).

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Jt

5, l rtPt tldqft Ly litthf ti&\

ofthc schclnc of dccor:rtiorl for red ftgurc c,vc'cups has L r ,lclr)y clcfincd by []eazlcy. Ir splrrs mainly thc i.zo's end jlo's, l)ut tlrc lu r\ not thcrl foreottc[, it lr:rs a bricfsurvivx] inlo Lllc Archric (Colnrer , Arrriphon Painrcrs) lnd thc schcmc wxs bcins uscd iu bhck figurc rvtll , r,, lhc irfrh century. Thc carliest arc mostl,v bilingtllls rvirh l bleck frgr-Lr' ,,,1,r irsidc thc cup, usullly a silrplc ligurc sulrjcct':rld rccl figttrc ottrsi'ic ,, r, ,rrc clrly:rll rccl-figulc cups too, arld on all thcsc thc ustlxl dccor"rti')n ,, 'ins1c figurcs btween thc cvcs, u'ith palntcttcs b,v thc h:rndlcs. Larcr thc ,,,,.tt.,",rJ.y",,r"ychugcplaccs('prllrctc-eyc'cups, lrs|6dl) dcstlolinq ,, rrrrsk likc cffect, rvhich clisappeers conrplctcly rvhcrcvcr thc cYcs arc
lrL ilcvclopmcnt

'{
,4^

,,,' l6r], but latcr thc lceves scplrrtc lrcl oPcn, lrrd r'r'hilc thc hc:tlt ofthc oltor paintccl l cd it is rlow bl:rckc.L ill wirh e snrlrll rcscrvccl 1, rLrr crtc: rvas :rt ltrst ,'rrtlc. l'hc 1."",.s lr".^..1y laivell ccnrlc spirlcs. A varicty oflornscs or btrds ,rr bc ett:rc1tcd. Thc cvcs thctllsclvcs co,lrc to losc rhc boldly lnerked tcar pupil' ,1r rr:t. scluarc oflat tllc inncr corncr, lncl terld to losc thc rvlrite riuq ru thc li, as cnps olT-vpc also orr latcr lbrnr irr its 1181, lirpcars l'hc eyc schcmc ,rlrc,c t1i.'o,.rtlirr.- r,.iris irr e flor,r'ills curvc dolvn lo e shrllor'r'stcp on tlrc llrlng rrumpet foot, while withln thc cup,just below thc 1ip, rhcrc is:r shlrp
,rdgc.

, rrrsclvcs rcplacccl by eniutlls, gerrcraJl-v sphirrxcs or u'jnscd horscs {931 l hc ptltncttcs on the bilirlgtlrls ere al:rtost al\\'llYs closcd likc cnortrlolts

t)n both rhcsc ctrP shxpcs, and with incrcasing 6cquencl', cvt's rrrey bc ,Jrr)ittcd xltogclhcr rnd thc 6gurcs fill each side in lorrg friczcs, r'r'ith or wirhorrr
1,,,r.11c

pelrrietrcs, or the dticoratiolt nlev bc conFrlcd to thc intc'lior, tllc ,,trrsidelcfi bleck. Thc quality of portillll rlrt.l gloss paint ltld inrprovcd irr
JJ

5t

1'lt,pt ty t: th)\ti&, lY. J,

-rlhcsc yclrs .rnLl tltc uppc;rl of pl:rrn b1:rck ereas wils Lrctter apprcciirtccl and achicvcd. ()nc othcr (lrp shrpc should bc nrentioned sincc ir bcconrcs incrc';rsnull,poptrlrr Tvpc (i. This has I concavc lip, rnorc rbmptly ollser rhan that ofr bleck flsurc bend r:up, and rhc lirrc ofthe borvi runs don,n rhc squat srcnl to e rnouldinq on thc. ilartish t'bot. Some havc this f<rot and bocly brrr e strliqht 1ip- fhe gcncrll crcct is hcevier, ntorc scrviccablc then thc dclicarc stcnturcrl cup. Typc Cl's cur bc decoratcd oursidc ls wcll es in, but ofien insiclc only, end arc nrost popular tll bleck. Thc fcu' cups painrcd by thc Pionccr s lrc of rhc i.iczc typc, w.ithorr cycs, tivirg lirllcr value to rltc 6qurc contfrritioD Thcy rre .Lt -Il), r Lru I.ttcr thall thc nlairr run of thc cyc crrps and olli:r othcr variations 1o the cup pattcrn, such xs thc sr.vord like ccntrc le:lf to thc palntctes on Phirrries' cr1p, ovcrlapping irs tcndril 1391. One or rlvo ofthc specialist crtp peiritcrs spcnr ptrt of thcir ti11rc, ancl not elu,ays carly in thcir carccrs, paintinq Iargcr shapcs (C)1ros, Epiktctor, end thcrc are lesscr artists (or lcss proliiic) rvhosc rvork cen rc:rdily bc rchtcd to rhat ofrhe Pionccrs. llut gcncrallv rhc cups crllcd lor;r djllererrr idiom, lcss rclilnt on subtlc intcnsitics of detail. rrorc o1r cconolnical and tcllinE linc. They oBirccl lcss rooltr lor the scr nrytholosicxl tablcuux ancl rhcir It'r.tiurr.,t rry rlrc (Jr\,,rrt rg,.d d-pt.rr.rr' ,,f lrt.rrrr,r r. ur p.r1v \\1(.. itr rvhich thc ncw liccncc in graphic display of postucs and xcriori, novcl irl Eguretivc art, wxs full,v cxploitcd. On thc cLlps,"r,c can as rc:idiJy nlceslrrc rllc pronlisc drat thc Dcw tcch iquc hcld for thc rcprescnratjoD of ectiolt xnd crl) (rtion Thcrc arc f;w rcchrlical pcculiaritics ro bc obscrvcd. Tl.ic finc'coral-rccl ground had bccr used ftrr bllck fieurc first by Exckias, is sirniiarl_v usccl outsidc rcd fiEurc cups by Sk)thcs, lnd eppcars on ercls ofsonle all-rcc1-figurc crLps, usuellv frllins thc irrrcrior round drc londo, es l.:6], and on rhc zorlc bclorv thc figulc sccnc outsidc (and :rbovc ir if thcrc is a Typc C lip). It lcrrt l:r cxtra lichllcss to thc coloLrr tcxtnrc of thc vxsc, but wrs rcscrvcd lbt cups arrd e fcu, orlicr small vascs in thc Archlic pcriod. Cup p:rintcrs, likc the p:lirlturs r)f latger pots, uscd rclicfblobs fbr hair lurks ,,r rtlrct clolils on florr l' .ind qr:rpcs, but onlv r:Lrcly ol1 this slttaller scelc. Wholc rclicf figures xppcitr oD :r cr-rp m:rdc fbr dc-dicarion on the Acropolis by rhc Ercrqides Plirtcr lrool mcl ,.virh horscs, lvith clcrails irr rccl fisurc. Thcr c had beer cerlicr Ersr Circck cups dccor;Ltcd in this r:tan:rcr. Gilding is sorlretin)e! tdrlittcd on rninor relicf dctails of wreerhs lld the likc. OLros (.. j2j joo) is probably thc rost irlrcrcsrirrs of thc clrp prrrltur\
,1, \

()iiorr to Mcrrnon lasts lhrouqh his carccr alld thc kak)s inscriptiorrs iirr hirrr
cu1'ts.

l,l,.lr on neerlv halfhis

l.
.,

llrs carlier big


Lrsth

vascs are amphorac

Lrrnos showing Hcraklcs fighring Achcloos, whcre hc givcs thc llronstcr 'r i'..:rr rathcr than thc usual bull's body, etrcl is cxplicit aboul thc brcakinq r)l-il\ l,,,rrr [5a]. Panrphaios nodcllcd budding horns by the hand]cs ofthc vasc l<r rrpharire thc thcme. Larer arc othcr anphorac, one fbr Euxitircos, nlorc t'L,,rrccr in style and partern arrd ofthc new Type C shlpc. Thc psyktcr l5 dl is , ,lrccrfi-rlly decorativc vasc of nlulnnlcr dolphin-ridcrs, cach singing 'on rt l,,Lphin' ('epi dclphinos'), who would apPcar sca-bound when thc vasc wes

cnes-Pam phaios workshoP

ofthc distinctive shlpe madc rrr th'' fbr rhc Etruscarr rnarkct 156], rntl thc

".r"t".. \rrtirncnes Pajnter. His red 6gurc work on cuPs, cxcePt for sct-picccs on solllc 1,rqcr vesscls, is characterised by ajudicious cconomy of linc ln thc anatomy, 1,,ns curving foreircad-nosc line with tight lips, down-curviDIl to givc arr air

.,

, i,,

Thc black 6gure tondos of Oltos'carly cups [6r] rccall

'h'

ofthc

l-l;6-5l,forhisrangclncllonqcarec-rilndforhisrluelity,rvhichfellslirrlcshorr bcst irt this class. Hc r,r,ls a bnsy eltlst, kno$.r to hevc rvorkcd tor ar

long and slim, ears a sinlple whorl. As on thr: l'Lrintiai cup, Oltos will sollctirlrcs fill his frieze with large rcclining {igurcs' lLr llorels hc favours distinctive lotus lyPcs, cro\\'ted willl palnlettc leaves, or ., rplcr, with plain ballooning centrcpic.cs (on cups). Somc palmette lcaves . rc poinrcd or ribbed, and hc has a few torldos of palmettes only (as did Psiax) ' ( )1r his largcr cups for Euxitheos he puts a floral betrcath thc sccncs IJJ], as irJ Euphronios. The onc of which I show dctails gives a masterly and original ,.'rdcring ofthe assembly ofgods on Olympus with relling detail ofgcsturc, , l.rnce and drcss. Yet ir is the brisk warrior and athlctc 6gurcs ofhis eye cups ,rr which his individuality is betrer apptcciated. His other favourite sublecrs. l)urt lrorr thc Dionysiac and occasionrl bawdry, arc hcroic Heraklcs,
,,1 snrug chccrfulncss. Feet arc

lcest six clilLrrcrt poftcrs including thc cup specixlisr I(achrvlion c:rrlv jD his cxrccl, Errxirheos (rvlro also scrvcd Erlphro ios) rathcr ]:rtcr. iltd thc N ikosther cs-Panr phr ios u,orkshop. He givcs Lrs his rranrc on lu,o cr.rps nraLle bv Euxitheos but rvcll ovcr one hunclccl othcrs car) bc aft brttcd ro hinr. His
5a)

llrcscus, Troy. ln nrany respccts Oltos provides a link or clclncnt ofcontinuity ar a lowcr l, \'cl bctwccrl rhe stylcs ofearlicst rcd figurc lJcazlcy thoughr he might lr:rvc l,ccn r pupil ofthc Andokides Paintcr a nd thc Pionccrs. Orr r nc)<t cup paintcr, t,,,,*rricri 166-76, cot,ul (r. 5:zo 49o) has a sinriler background, since early iIr
57

Y
his c:rrccr irc p:rirrtcil .r r:rlyx cratcr for the pottcr Andokidcs, but hc secrrs subscqucntly to h:rve prcti'rrcd spccialisilg in the srnallcr vases, including platcs [77, 7d, rollr] a lhvouritc Archaic shapc which was bcing uscd by Paseas ancl Psiax:rs wcll as by othcr cup paintcrs. He u,orked for scvcral pottcrs in.ludnrg Ilischylos and the Nikosrhcncs-Pamphlios workshop, and is free with his signaturc - on nearly halfthc hundrcd or nrorc vascs survlvrng A Hipparchos (probably nor tftr Hipparchos rhc vxses sccnr too ]arc, rhc man too old or dead) wts his t'ivouritc boy. He signs onc plltc as borh pottcr and painrer (to dcdicate on thc Acropolis), so he wes vcrsatilc, anC hc collaboretcd on one cup with rhc Eucrgides Plinter. His eerlicst cups are bilinguel eye cups, as [66], but nor as pritrritivc as Oltos' first - nonc wirh rcd palrnetrc hcarts, no hesitancy in usc of rclicf lincs. Hc was a nlaster of thc circle it is his tondos and platcs wc rcrncmber and he rathcr fxvorlrcd cups dccorarcd only within. Thc dclicacy antl accuracy ofhis line evcn in niliaturisc work shor.r, how far yct how qlickly progrcss in cornmand ofthe brush had gone sinc,: thc Andokrdes Prinrer's fir:t attcrnprs. His black figurc shows a surcncss and a discipline which lerv practitioners of the old technique could still mustcr [66]: his red 69ure an cxquisitc balancc of line and detail, with rcsrraincd usc of colour and pattcrn. Hcads and limbs arc rnore accurately proportioned than Oltos'and he will usc the murcd, prlcr paint wherc others dash on the relief linc. His figurcs have rha! sculprural

1,, I rrrrrinq tlqurc hrd scrvcd uscfull,v fbr such frcltls Nor" r rLrlrtL ,. r,,r lirrcclinr:, sclLlrtlin!5, scatccl 6gurcsercuscd,ecliol:rlldoir-jcttv''rrt'l , , ,l rlt tr) ,,cc&. lJtus wc scc rhc sanlc stoopirlg, tu/islinq figtrlc tr:t tl 1i'r '' irl ,r I r ;o]. irDd ru'() sclt:indtllgcrs I tlrrn r,r'ilh:r chlrlllbc: pot, r sirl tt'rl' , 1 r L. (iock horsc ridcrs arc collllll()llcr rhan cock riclcrs ill (irtcL rrt
r

plausibility rvhich wc scc in rhe bcst early red figure and lleazley's nruchquored'you cannot draw better you..rn only drau drfferenrly .I,rs rro less thar justice to the [jrcatesr draughtsman of carly red 6gure. But hc was no sobersidcs. His myth sccnes are fcw, and seldorn highly original, but his dcpiction ofthe comrnonplacc, of(itizens rr phy, .rr hcd or b,.rrd 6hc s:rme thing for Grccks, who reclincd on beds for feasrs), and his contriburion to thc development of thc satyr as a psycho)ogical substitutc study for nran, plus a varicty of new cro[ic imagery, represcnr a considerablc advancc on what black 6gurc (wc think of the Amasis Paintcr 6rs0 bcgan to offcr and set a significant new rnood in the subjcct-lnatter of Greek art, no less important than the new ltarrative of thc Pionecrs. His tondos are worth sorrre ettcntion a favouritc subjcct for thc cxcrci5c of the aesthctics of geometry in composition. In black figure rhc primitive
58

,, r rlre (lustlc Ashb,v pletc Irolt'rl hc rrr:ry havc prclcrrcd to clirrrirr'rt' rlr'' ',., r,,rrs in his srudy oi lorvl lrrd boy. I r, i rtl oihis c.rrc:cr is crriqnetic. He plints oncc tirr l']ythorr (rr cLrp ol llrc lirqLrlc (ih:rlcidisrng shapc [7-5]) who wls po!lcr for I)orrlis' l Lrt' \ | Lr .r1li\t, :rucl is thottglrr to hlvc bccll afectccl by l)onris' sty1c; :rrld orrcc , ' ,r()\c1ros. :r potcr lor Earl-v Cllssical trlisls. I clotlbt whcthcr hc crrrrld \\ (Jr kcd vcly llluch lltcr thln ebout 49o, illd his rleruc r'r'ill givc us llr{)rc r l, i irr thc rlcxl chrptcr'. \ l( \\ otlrcl cr.lp peinters, rnainlv carll', cu irc placcd hcrc, thcir '"votk in (. s:; srs) who nlxyhrvc ',,,g ,lcgrccs rc'latccl to Epiktctos. Pnrton'ros portcr Flischvlos, , ,,1 .*ilLtrir,"1y lor thc Paillts cyc cups, nreinl,v biJirrgtral, r ,,1 r urq plLrnrp littlc erhlctcs with pigc()tl chcsts drlrvll iu t su'c'epiur: curvc ,rirlr tin,v crrs: plcitsing, unilnlbilior-ls stull [79, 6o]. Thc THALIAR(iH()s l' ' r.r r r H rs Iccolanisccl as the :r: tisr ofthc toPs oisonlc pol\rdcr-box pv_ridcs [8 t ] ,, lJorvtrotN-Evtl Patrlrn givcs so11lc\\r1:rr skclchicr btlr livelv vctsi<'ns of rllrlctc 1,921, \vilr_riol rrc] kornirsl fiqtrrcs ofthc bcrtcr ciuly ctlp P:lirltcrs, rl, thr S(rHrutLllllr PAINruR lE4l rcrldcrs rhcrlr *'irh lcss lssuratlcc rbout ,,1,()rfion .lld clctails. Thc l)El.os PAlNTlilt [6ilhes nlorc ofthc lirreet skil]s ,t il1t,rr.i,,.l Phcidippos irrcl a pirticLllrrl)/ dcliclrc bleck figtrrc hlrd tir L r,1os. Ancl thc WrNi:nlsrrt P.tlNtut rcdeeus sonc Poor draughtsmanship . Llr u.it flt5]. Finally. thc Htscurlos PAINTER, nxlncd for the potter who had , ..,, crrrployed Epiktctos irlrd PhcidipPos, who offcrs a eioocl cxamPlc of r ( P ,, rl, ,r full pll:ncitc complcx by the handlcs and intent, compctcllt-figurcs; still ,,,rzlcd, Lhough, wirh tirc propcr forcdrorrcning ofe shicld and dla\ irrq r , ,,tilc plus puri:rl-fr-ontal vicrv [.961. His hlnc] is xlso scerr oIr e llrgcr v)se of r rrcu, shlpc thc bcll crarcr. Srrrrrris(r.52o io5), ' thc Sc-vthirtn ', is a loner l6E gll Hc signs fbur cups, l,,r.r scorc oforhers altrlbtrlccl to hirn and two stilndlcls' His firvotlritc boy is tYpe, btt rccl figure lnside with 1,il-vkos. His bilirrgu:r]s arc not of lhe usllil]
.1

nright add thar his gods arc 1,,,.poscly ptirrts rncl1 \\rorse thrn thcy arc'. Wc equaJly brtttish as thc rn:ry look villain rnd merr hcro ,,,, 1,.,,"i ti,"r', hls lhcscus purishine whet rlighr bc jrrrerrdccl fcrr Skirol by his clilF fgol' Hc rnprrts a pcrky charrn ('vcn t; his xnirlitls, but it is in his cxprcsivcly inclividrral t,rccs th.rt his oll_-bcrt hutuour is c;lllqh!, er)d his dr:rr'r'ing, lf lot ambitit'Lrr. is rr)rupclcnt

,i,,.t fig,.,.. on a;orirl-led ground ourside thrct'ruc knowlr' Urrlikc rhc ,,,rjority oi Clrcck :rrtists Skythcs scells x conlic by itrrcDtion l)cazlcy is l,.r'',ys rpoteblc ancl will bc cited otrcn in rhis book: of Skythcs 't'htr

lrld canonicrl. If hc

r,vas

of forcigu birrh or beckground, bttr


59

ParNun w:rs reelly Skythcs in larcr ycers. tsoth praisc Epilykos (who is, incidcntaliy, arr arhlcrc on a phinrias vase) and thc,riood i, tirc r"r,c i921, b,rr the lrcdicus Pxinrcr is rather morc crude xrrd txslclcss. Nikosthenes and his youngcr plrtncr alld successor palnlphaios rlradc an iutportant scrics ofblack figurc vascs, many in original shapcs for Athc:rs, mainly for thc cxporr nriuker (,jllFHpp. 64f.). Thcir ied fig.,.c is l.ss c*.,ri,rg, bur Pamphaios nradc xlrlpllorae ofthc Nikosrhcnic rype for Oltos [56], thcre
ar.:

Athcri,rrr rr,rirurrr, lris vic,,v ofAthcns'life encl myth irieht havc bcen cliffcrcnt crrotrqlr to slrorv ir hrs u,ork. Scythians irad bccome Lrmiliar in Athens somc twcDty ycxrs lrctirrc. If his lrltrnc is not:l truc indicetioD ofhis dcscetrt 1r rirv il lc:rst bc e sobriquct dcnoting a rxlher ortll view of lifc Tu,o black figurl, plequr.s or thc Acropolis arc sisned by a Skyrhes, alnrosr ccrtainly the sarnc arrtlst ut a llrorc rcvcrcnt rnood. Bcrzley wondcrcd \^,hethcr the pEl)rEUs

l r, t,,

, l,rtition of stock thenrcs. His quality, :ls with many sucll scc()ll(l I rl(' r,,lr proliiic trtists, is givclt a\vay by incompetcnce or hck ol-tlct;rrl rrr L r :uch as ears ancl hands or thc body shown lhrough drcss, erltl sorrrt orlil

,,,,,rlronslikcshrllowhcads.TheEpernlosPAIN'IER[]oJ,7o6liPcstiPikl.l()\ . rotrgh coPics ofthc rrr.rslrr ', , rrril.rr rvey, indecd some ofhis cups look like I 'r',lc qcncrrlly is far wcaker than thc Euergides Painlcr's xlrd hc rrr,ry Ix' ,, ,, ,lcr run sirce he paints sonlc cyc cuPS with fan palmcttcs. Orr lro6l lrrs \ r I ( rpo fiuds ' rhc winc is sweet' (' hcdus hoinos'). ',( \ rrul cups in the lnanner ofrhc Eucrgides Painter, xnd one or two [ry l] ir rr. ,r\ r.rthcr uuusual singlc-r,vord iuscriptions. Onc is 'paidikos', rvhiclr irr
,

rhis artist, tottts dc .fortt- His othcr cups trc not of thc cariicst no cye cups (unlcss his early phasc is as thc Dclos paintcr, which l3cazlcy consiclercj) and hc is forrd of enirnals besidcs the handlcs (wirgccl horscs, eriliins, sphinxc$.

stands (copying en Etrusc.u.r shepe, but not a dcmonstrably Nikosthcnic modcl this time) carrying sphinxcs Iio3] ud a winged goddcis with heads ir the round end cotrbininq rcd 6gures, Six and outlinc tcchniqucs. Thcsc arc, lbr

but unsubtlc themcs [99], poorly but explicirly cxecured. The,EuERcrDEs PATNTER lroo 4l (r. 5r5_5oo) is narned lor the portcr fbr , whom hc nosr often worked (he also painted for Chelis). He coliaboratcd with Epiktetos orr one cup, doing thc cxterior, and hc sharei Epiktctos, admirxrron ofHipparchos, but all therc is ofthc oldcr mf,ster in his work is thc corrrruon range ofthcrrcs. His bcst u,ork sccms to bc on a cup he ma<jc for dcdicatioD on the Acropolis Ilot], sllowing Athcna bcsidc a vase paintcr, who is parnting thc interior ofa cup, orr a pottcr's wheel, ald trrerxlworkcrs. This iooks like i dcliberetc dcdicatiol [ry thc pamtcr, or rnore probably by thc potrer, Eucrgidcs, who t1lay havc doDe some Dlctalwork on thc side. The artisan arcas werc closc togethcr ir1 Athcns, and both cralts callcd for skill rvith furrraccs. W. h.rvu r.r.,rrd hi, r rccpriorrrl , up l,o r lh( A, ropoli. wirlr p.rrr_r,.het l-i5rrru, lrool..rnd hc nuy rJso bc rrsponsibJc lor rwo remarkablc hemicylindrical

",rj-lpikr.ro, workcd [or t]rcm bur their reqular red figure irtisr we krlow as thc Nr(os_ THENFS PATNTER (rlol thc same ts thc lllack figurc.N pxnlrcr,). Hc piur)ls f93 dl standard cyc cups, though not thc very;arliest, some .pa)nrccte_cycs, and cups rvith fi-iezcs, tirc bcst, alter which hc was firsr r.rarired, bcins his London cup rvith Slccp and l)cltlr. Thcre is rlso a red figurc Nikosthenic pyxis [97]. Thc stylc is brisk and adequ:lte, r]rc fisures iarhcr hcavy and sornerirlres ill-proportioncd, filling spacc in a rather old_fashioned b1;rck hgurc ruuncr, and clinging to black fignru subsrdiary ol n.tlltuDt. Orhcr rrroclucts of dre workshop, still busy until at lcr\r jro, errncd thcir u-ry wirh.,rieinal

solrc big kanrharoi end an odd spouted cup [981. ti"rh Otros

Exccution hcrc varies from whar looks like rather unskiiJed- copyitg ro c,r..6o

\cr '! as lhough it wcre thc porter's nlrnc, but rnore likcly his [icknamc (;rouP oF IJI Pattrtros Alanasrna (r' J20 joo) thc best vases are u hit( ., , ,r Lrrd :rud are signed by the polter Pasiadcs. Hc was not thc paintcr too \in':t l, .,rqns anolher vasc as paintcr (a whirc grouncl lckythos). This Paslaurs t , nirr,rr lvas a cut ibovc the Eucrgidcs Pailrter, to wholn hc is otherwirc , ,,.1,,, rclttcd (also in edrliration of Hipparchos) and lhesc arc chxrming. r, rt vlscs whcre thc prettincss of Archaic dctail is not overpowcrcd by a ,, I' ground. The rcsc of thc Group, mainiy rccl figure, is coarscr' Thc sccne ,,r tlrc elabtstron Iio7] is'rollcd out'in rhe phologlaph. It hls nor bccn easy in this survcy ofcup paintcrs to discerll major pxintcrhAvc l,t,ltcf qroups. Paintcrs wcrc sometincs footloosc, somc porte cs nlxy i,,.,, l"rg" c\ttblishmcnts, and at eny r:ttc pottcr siglraturcs xrc still t'w 'nd ,, ,1t cr atiribution by shapc not es well dcvelopcd a study es paintcr lttrillutiorl' \(i tllcle rrc 1lo ncJt divisions alld we arc gratcful wherc Peilltcr, portcr irnd I..rlos sig aturcs rcpcat oftcn enough, with some collgtuctrce ofsryle and thcme, () rcvc;l et lcrsr a tcmporery trcnd in the potters' quartcr. A flw olher pottcrs ,lcscrvc special menti;n, arld thcir errrploymcnt of pxintcrs Hcrmaros signccl L,,ur cups ts potter tlld his HlftMAlos PAINTER []08 lol llso workcd, probably I rlcr, lor the potrer Kachrylion Hc is a good paintcr with rathcr hexvy-headcd .lccpv-looking 6gures of Oftan physique, using dcviccs like doublc c'dgcs to ,lrto;r tops, rccalling Paintcrs of larger pots, cvcn thc Pioncers Kachryliorr ,lrc, crnpltyccl Okos and he:nadc Euphronios'two lircat cups He must havc l,ccn rn irlfluenti:rl figure to comrrand snch quality. (lhelis was anothci inrportant pottcr worki,l!! about 5I 5-Joo, :rnd ekhotrglr lcw signaturcs survivc hi! paillters arc known to havc irlcludccl Oltos alrd thc Iitrcrgiclcs Paintcr. Two of his signxturcs appcxr on cuPs by thc (lHFLIS l',rrNrtr Ii r r ], on onc of which parr of thc Paintilg is by Okos' Thc Tu'rr-ra l)arNTen also workcd for both Chclis and Kachrylion, but st:rrtcd his carccr ..rrlicr. He is xt tincs :I good xrtisr, best on a cup in Berlin Ir I z] rvhosc interi'rr ollcrs srudies of sclf-lovc by boy and girl, end lovc-nrakin!! hclped out by a
,
1,,

iirtcxt of vasc paiuring fltlst mcan 'boyish' rarhcr tban 'chi]dish': thc ,r r is 'prosagoreuo' 'l grect [you]'. Thcy appcar also on a nunlbcl of ', , ,,',." i,, closely relatcd style. On onc of thcse ' paidikos ' is written r'virh
ir!
lrLs

r
l)ArNlrir (Jt l-r, I i trl: nuntcd froru ll oftcn rcpcatcd kiljos llirnlc) r,r,as thc e:uly Aporl(rr)otros Ir i6 t.9l who lcavcs his uatur, orr tw() cups. It scc]lls _of probrblc, tojuclgc frorrr the clistilrctivc featurcs wirh srlrall, d"cp_s.t ey.r, lo,,g nosc lincs ancl, frrr cxanrplc, sonrc Gcorgc Bcrn:rrd Shar,r, styl" I.,ca.i,,. Sorr," lrIL.r' , lnok rrr.rrrl, r,J 1r pr.,l\,jr,ror,. ur po* lr rol. \,,rrr. n. rlr,.-.rrlr , pp. havc a sprced clouble line round thc tondo, which is lot othcr$,isc rl cilrlv fceturc. Thc Eu,rvrxos PATNl.LR is anorhcr crrclidatc 1br idcntiry rvith Apollo'_ doros ard_has an oriqiral way ,,virh tondos thc Thcscus-Siris (iroup lrt5l end :r profilc head oi thc Moon ot an unpaintcd disc. 'fhc.Anrnostos Parrrr rnn (,if bld hc, is ncver dull, llcazlcy) nrir:ht bc crcusc'cl his surrrrlarl, draughtsrnarship for.thc shcer vcrvc ofhis'figrrrcs, rror
phirsc

slippL'r (v, ic[1cri bl rhc uirl) T]ris is cxccutcd wirh thc qrcrtest car-c, Lsirr!. lclicfheir locks irrrl tlckline dillicult posrures wirh ncar.strcccss. Thcrc rcnreir to bc rrnrccl u fc'rr,, othcr paintcrs, mairly ofrhc l:rst clccadc of thc si\th ccl)ttt-y, \\,ho wor.k still il1 rhe tr.rdrnon.rfrlrr r.rrl\ eups r.rthcr rhen l,iththcncr,,,ficcclortrltrrltrtooclot'sorlcLontctnpor.tr).trtirr,uhontt,r.hlvc to corrsider in thc ltc\t chiptcr. Bcrzlcy was Iot srtrc rvtrcthcr thc E|rr>tor,ros

and his dos

rvitlronr sonrc skill in posturc and conrposirion. I show his rnorc sobclr works a bov flshiDe, rvith lobstcr-pot errcl a slrv ocroPlrs, xncl myth t9_2rl_ Thc [] ParNrr.l or rut, At;onA ClHAlnr,{s Cups shou,s a dcvotior to-lr,rr.r,,t ei.li t:.u I e,d a skill lt drar,vr,e rhcm *'hich is distirrtrr r. errd.r.orrr,rol ft,r rrrs ocriocl.] (Jthcrs arc less rc:rdi1y cherlctcrisctl l.rLr h.rvc sorlr. fl(.r\rn,j pil\\.r{cs elrd thcnrcs: thc Krss P,ltNrrn Iru3], the CiarurNr.lr parNnrr 1rrj1,',1r" i^r.,,0,, ParN lr.r Ir z5l. Thc Htr;rsrsouros ]r,rrNrll is a corncdi:rn likc Skyrhcs, rrrnrccl lbr thc pottcr of thc Ncr,v York cup lvith thc wc:uy old Hcbrciv e.r,tlcnr,,,,

I !, ,r,!' l,f (l/n\. Hdrlll irJ l,/r./ru. /L ji

th(nL\ uf \rr\'r\ rnJ lr,urhs wrrl) lrots or u,ilcskins, or silglc rvirrior igur-cs. Ihc Pllrros Parn Ltr erci od)crs reach I dcgrcc of absrrlc:tiou u,ith thcsc ol Typc O cups dccoratcd insidc oniy, thar has aLnost:rn appeal ofits olvn rf[cr thc'tlisciplirc of nrost u,ork irr rhcsc ycars Irzt]. Bur tirc;rroportion oircd fisurc rvork of rhis qurlity is ilr lowcr thrn rhei of bl;rck 6'qurc,.
Aspects of the Pottery Trade
iuscriplions on vrscs for- clctcrrnining nuurcs of poft"., ui.,.,ur"r, p",,,,"., h:rs bccn cliscussccl in Alll:H pp. r rl., rnd soruc ti,attLr.cs of thc "rrj ilscripuons pcculi:rr to rcd liqrlr_c will bc nrcntiorcrl lercr. For thi\ and thc,iucccccling
61.

sccllls dcsclvcd. and ltrcntio..d rhc rllenV Epclcian cups eftcr thc Eucrgiclc,s Painter. ()fothcrs lirtlc ncccl bc sri11, lcss illusrratcd I u r:Si. Thcy copl,ihcir 7, I brrtlrs. qrntrrlTr f,,Jlor,rinq rlru Epiktct:ur rlnuc oi sub.jecri, rcp""ti,ig rrock
as

A fcrv ofthesc p:riurcrs h:rvc bccn scconcl rltc. Of thc third rltc, llclzlcy,s ' Coarscr Wing', wc have pronrolcd thc Nikosthencs-prnrphaios workshop,

Ii:6].

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117

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pcriod thcsc hrvc bcc,r srlpplernented by a detailcd study ofthe potter work ol. the signcd:rnd unsigncd vascs, a ficld in which profcssor Bloesch has bccrr prominent, but it clnnot bc said as yet to have nrade a profound differencc to our view of lilc iD the potters' quarter. It is clcar enotgh, now that paintcrs, srgnatures arc iDore cornnlon, that painrcrs could and often did movc frorl] onc pottcr to another, so an account based oD potter traditions might not rr l in step with one based on painter traditions. Siguaturcs ofany sort;mairr rarc, but we may observc that some Jo pcr cent ofEarly Archaic vases with paintcr sign:rtures also cary potter signatures, while only r5 per cent ofpotterisignccl vases are signed also by painters (zz per cent, ignoring Nikoschenes anci Pamphaios: barely two hundred signaturcs in ail are invoivcd). Whilc several potters etrrploycd both black figure and red figure artists, o:., .. like Andokidcs, moved from black figure into red figure, ir is;tlblc that rhc bcst potters from about J2o on specialised in rcd figure or black figurc, not both. Anothcr element of spccialisation, alrcady noicd, is the domi'nance ol the cup shape for rcd figure work. Tlis mexnt that most full di[ner scrvrccs werc bound to be largely or partly black figure (except on pioncer-stockcd tables) until about 5oo when a greater propoition oflarger shapes bcgan to bc decorated in the new technique. The reason for this spc,iialisation is iot quirc c1ear. It might havc bcen, for instancc, a matter oi differcnt proportion;rl dernand from the overscas market, especially Etruria, which a"-nirlr-o.r. ,r.rorc important source for conrplete early red figure vases. Certainly, outsidc Athens, carly red figurc was particulirly weliome in Etruria, which at any rate tcnded to attract only thc bettcr vases. Other ntatk(]ts, for thc Grceks iD South Italy, in Grcece itself, and probably cven in Athens, apart fronr thosc supplying dedications for rrajor sanctuaries, were motc conscrvarive in thcir tastes, and continued cven into the fifth century ro handle more ofthc chcapcr black figurc vascs. Since rhe potters' quartcr was by this time well awarc ofthc value ofthe Etruscan markct, and had designed special lincs for it, rhis trray lrc responsibJe in somc degrec for thc plcthora of rcd figure cups. The pioneer vases which atrcst in thcir inscriptions the close rciationshlp bctwccn thc irrtisrs ofthe Group and Athcnian society, also went rnainly to Etruria, wherc thc point_of-thc inscriptions must have been lost, together with the topical value of the-kalos namcs, praising current beauties. It -has bceir suggested that manysets ofvases were ordercd for particular fcasts, where thcy wc'r-e admircd, then disposed of through a secondhand market to Etruria. ihis gives more point to.rhc kalos names and topical allusions, bur possibly the vaseiwere long on in the potters'quarter bcfore s"rle or choicc for shipnrent, .public -display and it is oftcn a paintcr who shows aJJcgirnce ro a particuJlr yourh in his kalos inscriptions, whcre we would expect nrorc divcrsity ifdifeicnt Drtrorls wcre putting ordcls. And if thc kalos were thc prtron. we would cipecr longer_

Chapter Three

THE LATE ARCHAIC PAINTERS

| , .

,r

!1.

,1,r 1,,r thc developing use of white ground for certain vases! and is othcrr., , \l)rcsscd by more iealistic draughtsmanshiP in terms of both dctajl :nd 1,,,., ,,,,t ., growing realisation ofhow objects m the round can be depicted ,,, r,, ,,lv ii,r"". tryl.. This is accompanied by a significantly new mnge of fLgurc 1,1 ,,,', .,.,,c. which reprcscnt much morc of a break with the black rr r,lrrr,,r, rntl a growirlg mxrket for Athenian red 6gure both within Grcece
usc oF colour and pattern on dress, inherited from black figurc, now ,,,r(. rlthough thcre is occasional gilding and rclief detail, xs for reliet rrr' l, ti irr hair. The relicfline remains important, both for outlincs and for its Lrr ( {rrtrast with thinDer paint on drcss or anatomy, but the bctter paintcrs scler:tive in its use for oulline while the lesscr use for thc 6gurc ,1, l' ''r rrrq ir weakcr mix which produces good black lines but lacks the body , ,,1 , r ispncss ofthe true relieflinc. The falling ofin attention to minor details ,,t ,,rrtLrnry (cars, eyclashes, knee caps, etc.), which hclped identify the work r,,lividual Pionecrs, is replaced by a deeper interest in the pose and

,,tlcr. What foilows generally involvcs a simplification of technique,

rrcration ofred figure artists explored almost all the new tcchniqLrc

rrr,lrr t lrc West.

,,,,,r1,osition of the whole figurcs. L,rcsllortcning is still mainly conEned to the trcxtment ofobjects (shiclds),
rL,r

lived kalos
88

nan-rcs.

(gcnerally with of fcct, r,, l,r' rlistinguished from the simplc head-on views, but wholc limbs are still ,,,,,r, thcir full extcnt and only r shift in musclc line or knce cxp suElgests r r t lr ing other than profilc or frontal views. Thinned paint is sonctimcs uscd ,,, ,,,,liciic shading, ai on shiclds [266], but the ellcct is not proPerly undcntood' I lrc tincst dress ii rer-rdcrcd in nrultiple stacks of folds with neat zigzag hcn)lr rlr, but in gcneral the Patterns xrc less angular, except in thc hands ofthc ,,,'rrr,rgir,ativ-c. Close-sci lincs oftcn cover chitons, and donc in black p'rint ,,,r thirncd. Sometirnes they help express the body forms, but incptly, by rLr)rrirlg to the tip ofa breast instcad of contouring it On broadcr areas of ,l,,.rks iincs begin to btcak into long arcs, and eveirtually hooks or'ticks'ttr .rLqqcst the broken hanging curvcs. During this period eyes opcn propcr)y
lLrLL, rucccss in this case). There arc some good forcshortcned vicws

,o\ rnd

v..y iarely norv ofheads in thrcc-quartcr vicw

89

pcriod thcsc hrvc bcc,r srlpplernented by a detailcd study ofthe potter work ol. the signcd:rnd unsigncd vascs, a ficld in which profcssor Bloesch has bccrr prominent, but it clnnot bc said as yet to have nrade a profound differencc to our view of lilc iD the potters' quarter. It is clcar enotgh, now that paintcrs, srgnatures arc iDore cornnlon, that painrcrs could and often did movc frorl] onc pottcr to another, so an account based oD potter traditions might not rr l in step with one based on painter traditions. Siguaturcs ofany sort;mairr rarc, but we may observc that some Jo pcr cent ofEarly Archaic vases with paintcr sign:rtures also cary potter signatures, while only r5 per cent ofpotterisignccl vases are signed also by painters (zz per cent, ignoring Nikoschenes anci Pamphaios: barely two hundred signaturcs in ail are invoivcd). Whilc several potters etrrploycd both black figure and red figure artists, o:., .. like Andokidcs, moved from black figure into red figure, ir is;tlblc that rhc bcst potters from about J2o on specialised in rcd figure or black figurc, not both. Anothcr element of spccialisation, alrcady noicd, is the domi'nance ol the cup shape for rcd figure work. Tlis mexnt that most full di[ner scrvrccs werc bound to be largely or partly black figure (except on pioncer-stockcd tables) until about 5oo when a greater propoition oflarger shapes bcgan to bc decorated in the new technique. The reason for this spc,iialisation is iot quirc c1ear. It might havc bcen, for instancc, a matter oi differcnt proportion;rl dernand from the overscas market, especially Etruria, which a"-nirlr-o.r. ,r.rorc important source for conrplete early red figure vases. Certainly, outsidc Athens, carly red figurc was particulirly weliome in Etruria, which at any rate tcnded to attract only thc bettcr vases. Other ntatk(]ts, for thc Grceks iD South Italy, in Grcece itself, and probably cven in Athens, apart fronr thosc supplying dedications for rrajor sanctuaries, were motc conscrvarive in thcir tastes, and continued cven into the fifth century ro handle more ofthc chcapcr black figurc vascs. Since rhe potters' quartcr was by this time well awarc ofthc value ofthe Etruscan markct, and had designed special lincs for it, rhis trray lrc responsibJe in somc degrec for thc plcthora of rcd figure cups. The pioneer vases which atrcst in thcir inscriptions the close rciationshlp bctwccn thc irrtisrs ofthe Group and Athcnian society, also went rnainly to Etruria, wherc thc point_of-thc inscriptions must have been lost, together with the topical value of the-kalos namcs, praising current beauties. It -has bceir suggested that manysets ofvases were ordercd for particular fcasts, where thcy wc'r-e admircd, then disposed of through a secondhand market to Etruria. ihis gives more point to.rhc kalos names and topical allusions, bur possibly the vaseiwere long on in the potters'quarter bcfore s"rle or choicc for shipnrent, .public -display and it is oftcn a paintcr who shows aJJcgirnce ro a particuJlr yourh in his kalos inscriptions, whcre we would expect nrorc divcrsity ifdifeicnt Drtrorls wcre putting ordcls. And if thc kalos were thc prtron. we would cipecr longer_

Chapter Three

THE LATE ARCHAIC PAINTERS

| , .

,r

!1.

,1,r 1,,r thc developing use of white ground for certain vases! and is othcrr., , \l)rcsscd by more iealistic draughtsmanshiP in terms of both dctajl :nd 1,,,., ,,,,t ., growing realisation ofhow objects m the round can be depicted ,,, r,, ,,lv ii,r"". tryl.. This is accompanied by a significantly new mnge of fLgurc 1,1 ,,,', .,.,,c. which reprcscnt much morc of a break with the black rr r,lrrr,,r, rntl a growirlg mxrket for Athenian red 6gure both within Grcece
usc oF colour and pattern on dress, inherited from black figurc, now ,,,r(. rlthough thcre is occasional gilding and rclief detail, xs for reliet rrr' l, ti irr hair. The relicfline remains important, both for outlincs and for its Lrr ( {rrtrast with thinDer paint on drcss or anatomy, but the bctter paintcrs scler:tive in its use for oulline while the lesscr use for thc 6gurc ,1, l' ''r rrrq ir weakcr mix which produces good black lines but lacks the body , ,,1 , r ispncss ofthe true relieflinc. The falling ofin attention to minor details ,,t ,,rrtLrnry (cars, eyclashes, knee caps, etc.), which hclped identify the work r,,lividual Pionecrs, is replaced by a deeper interest in the pose and

,,tlcr. What foilows generally involvcs a simplification of technique,

rrcration ofred figure artists explored almost all the new tcchniqLrc

rrr,lrr t lrc West.

,,,,,r1,osition of the whole figurcs. L,rcsllortcning is still mainly conEned to the trcxtment ofobjects (shiclds),
rL,r

lived kalos
88

nan-rcs.

(gcnerally with of fcct, r,, l,r' rlistinguished from the simplc head-on views, but wholc limbs are still ,,,,,r, thcir full extcnt and only r shift in musclc line or knce cxp suElgests r r t lr ing other than profilc or frontal views. Thinned paint is sonctimcs uscd ,,, ,,,,liciic shading, ai on shiclds [266], but the ellcct is not proPerly undcntood' I lrc tincst dress ii rer-rdcrcd in nrultiple stacks of folds with neat zigzag hcn)lr rlr, but in gcneral the Patterns xrc less angular, except in thc hands ofthc ,,,'rrr,rgir,ativ-c. Close-sci lincs oftcn cover chitons, and donc in black p'rint ,,,r thirncd. Sometirnes they help express the body forms, but incptly, by rLr)rrirlg to the tip ofa breast instcad of contouring it On broadcr areas of ,l,,.rks iincs begin to btcak into long arcs, and eveirtually hooks or'ticks'ttr .rLqqcst the broken hanging curvcs. During this period eyes opcn propcr)y
lLrLL, rucccss in this case). There arc some good forcshortcned vicws

,o\ rnd

v..y iarely norv ofheads in thrcc-quartcr vicw

89

with thc pupils prrshcd to thc front, and rolrndcr {.ogglc cyes are rescrvcd by nrauy pairrrcrs lirr rlrc fcrocity, mock or_rcal, ofsatyrs and Heraklcs.
Subsidier), clccorrtion chanEcs in chrractcr and inrportancc. l]lack pattcrns are r.rrcr now all is rcd figurc. There is a snall range of iloral bar-rds for the larger vlscs arcl occasion:rl claborate cups - circumscribcd palnrcttcs, uprielrt or or1 thcir sidcs, or sct o[r1iquc1y iD p:rirs. Sonrc peintcrs kccp handle p:rlnrcttc cornplcxcs on cups (as I)ouris). Some still ettach cxolic lotuscs. Cup tondos arc bordered allain now, r,vith nracandcr anc{ squarc patterns lvhich appear also as gror:nd lines or bordcrs otr largcr vxscs end lckytl-roi. These dcrai]s oftcn

\ rlt, !.ulptor

corltcrnporaries. This

is Archeic xrt full-bl()wrr. Wlr'rl

t,,11,,tr\ r\ n()st:rlgix aDd rhc nrorc sober novclty of Clessicisrn.

llrr Kl{)ophrades Painter and the Berlin Painter llr, rL rl)c two srcat pot peinters ofthc carly filth
r\\,',,r,.rr((

Pyrhol, M;rkron rvith Hicro , Ilrygos aDd his paintcr. If ar.rythiDq, nrost ertists, cspccially pottcrs! rrc lc'ss fi-cc with thcir sigr.ratures, yct rherc arc

carry valr.rablc clucs to thc idcrrrity of pailtcrs or workslrops. ln thc flrst quartc'r of rhc filth ccnrury rcd fiqurc pl ocluctioll 1t1ust roLlshly hevc doublccl lftcr its siolv ;rnd spccialist stert. Thc lLlll ,angc ofpottcry shf,pcs is now dccorated in thc tcchnicluc'. Thcrc arc no inportant new sllapcs, silrply rc'fincrnents of old oncs, such as thc tcat stllall Nolan ncck amphorae, orchangcs in proportiorrs. Paintcrs ccrtxinly spccialisc morc and thc pot prinrcN and .up pxintcrs arc distincr elrhough not totally cxclusivc groups. Thc clivisions rnust dcpcnd ntorc upon thc pottcrs ernploying thctr, whcrc silniltr specialisation is apparcl)t- Loyllty ofpainter to pottcr is by no rncens rbsolutc, cspccillly in car)y carccrs, but rhcrc erc sonrc stablc texnrs - Doulis with

cerrrury, ergtrrttrly the rccl figure artists whosc works xnd crrccrs wc cenjudgc.'1'hcir' , probably bcst xpPrecirtcd whcrr ' \ L r)( nts uud vcr,v clillcrcnt qurlitics xrc rlr r Lr, ,onrpercd and contrasted', irr thc tcrDls of an cxantitliriorl Dtpcr. lt, r.l, r rr lro dcvotcd severxl rnonographs and xrticlcs to thc'111, nltdc so rc r ,r, , ()rrpxrisorls ofthc Klcophradcs Pxintcr: 'Hc nr.ly bc srid to Play a I r r,l ,,t I l()rcr)tinc to thc Bcrlin Paintcr's Sienese'; ofthc trvo: 'Thc painlcr of I r , , I I i, r lin l)xirltcrl ancl thc pairltcr ofpower.' Carry thc conparison bcyond r, rrr ,,t rlr:rLrghtsmanship or mood, to considcrltion of sulljcct, pcriods of .r.tivity xrld inflncncc,:rnd the contrast ofintcllccturl forcc as wcll r , rr \ l){ conlcs the strongcr. So u,e shall consiclcr thcnr togethcr first, thcrl

I r!

suspcctcd encient fbrgcrics of signarures (Epiktctos, Douris). ln thc subject-mattcr of the sccncs olt the vascs thc most conspicuous cl-rlnge is in thc numbcr and variery ofgcnrc scenes, by no nreans confined to thc syn-rposion and palaistra. Thc myth scenes show lar grcatcr diversiry. Mxny

stock scencs are abandoncd irnd replaccd not by new convcntions but by original compositions which generally have il short vogue within a wotkshop or are pcculiar to sinqlc paiDtcrs r,vhosc own intcrcsts for insurncc thc I(lcophracles Paintcr and Troy arc nlorrl rcadiiy now pcrccivcd. ln thcsc ycirrs Athcns was scttling to its rlcw co[stitution deviscd by Klcisrhcncs lftcr thc ryrannv ofl)cisistrltos and his sons had been ovcrlhrowrl. This ch;rnrtc, from tyrerrny to ncar deruocracy, is rlarkcd in art probably only ir sornc chaDgc of rryth svmbolisrtr (scc Chaptc'r Einht). In 49o thc Pcrsr.rrrs were dcfc.rtcd at Marathon and thc irunreDse popula ty of Nikc (Victory) oD Athcnian vescs lronr this tirtrc on is slrrcly not unconllcctcd. Itr 4lto and 479 Pcrsians occupicd and sacked Athcns. lu itsclf, dlis sccrus to have donc no rnorc, pcrhaps, thalr obligc thc potters, likc orhcr cralisnleD aDd citizcns, to rctluild, rlthough we nlay detect a nlyth-bon1 corltnlcnt by x rnorc scusitir,c artist, like thc Klcophrldcs Paintcr again. Therc are orhcr chlnges or novcltics in subjcct-ruttcr, bclonging rathcr to rhc ncxt period and only indircctly rllected by thc Pcrsiin Wars, being rathcr reflectivc ofAthcns'ucw rnood of Enrpirc. Thcsc were hcctic lncl exciting ycars for thc vase peintcrs end it is sed
that wc'arc denied nrorc th:rn qlirnpscs
9o

ll,,rlr .rrri\ts \\,crc trxiDed in thc Pionccr School ofthc latc sixlh ccntury r ,, rl,l lr.rltll,v bc othcrrvisc - aDd o\\'e morc to thc aulhority ofEuthyrliclcs rr ,l l'l r rrr,rr thrrn !o thc n)ore academic and probably senior Euphronios. Thc l.l , 1, rr.r,lc: l'lintcr renrrils closcr to thc Pionccrs in borh stylc and tuood, r t.r r,r,rr-c hctvy with powcr, Archlic still both in thc static conrposition\ ,,t rrrr rrr rncl thc p:rlaistra, and in thc vigour of battle or darrcc. Thc Berlirr l' r r r r liqurcs arc lighter. rrorc exquisitely dralvn, with a subtlcr and r l,,lLr,,l Lrst of rclicf linc fot conrour, concentratirlg ou thc indiviclual or 1,1,,, ,,ri,r spccitl skill in cornbining two figurcs 1n onc contour, rathcr thirn

r l).rl.llc crrCCIS.

I , r , ,,rr|()\itiors. The Klcophraclcs Paintcr- sccrns closcr to the Pionccrs too r. l' rrr.rirr pcriod ofhis activity and prcfcrcnce for thc large cratcrs which rlr,, trr,rrucrl, while thc Bcrlin P:rinter has a slight)y diffcrcnt intcr-cst irr r,r lr.Ll)cs (ircluclir)g rhc bell and colurrn cr:lter) and a much qlcatcr onc , ,, rll( ! \'xscs, cspccirlly arrphorac, or1 which ll-rost ofhis latcr peintinq is , , ( ,'nrl)iuing rheir carccrs in tcrrns ofsbepc popularity the ovcrllp is not r,, ,l rrr,l r.rrr only ir prrt be exp)aincd by thc Klcophredcs Paintcr's (or his ,,, | 1... " .',,tr*r\,tltv( \i(\!puirrl.
l,,lr,,r,cofsubjcctborhs!art,andtosonrcdcgreemaintxill,aconccrrrwilh

r rr ,lrtron.ri I)ionysiac, kornos or rthlctc scclrcs, with the Bcrliu Peirrtcr , !,!,r iIt l()rc of his latcr work lo triviel qcnrc occnsions. Yct cvcn itr tltc | | ,rr\ r.tt \(crrcs thcre is x conhast, thc Klcophradcs Peintcr's satyrs rrc lustv
,r ,L

ofwhrt

nc'w ground \\,:rs beillc brokcn

, r r, I nrvth thc diffcrcnce is yet rnorc rrarked. The Bcrlin Paintcr rt rr,, r r," rrLrr llc gocs for thc Olynpi.ns and, in a true blue lvay, for thc Attic
t)r

,r,r, rt. lvhilc the Berlin Paintcr's rareJy raisc norc thau at cycbror,v, enri

t'_uvouritcs Atlrtn.r urrd Ilcrrllcs, l)cnrctcr

uith.r liir

:.urrlc ofstocL

nl)th

sccr)cs

arrcl 'I ript<;lcnros, Nikc, rogcthcr to whlch hc contributcs clclicecy ()l-

figurc study rrrhcr thlrl originelity of narrarive. Thc Klcophradcs Peinrcr's stock scerlcs:rrc closc to the Pionccr rcpertory, but hc adds a series oforiginal studics of Trojan sccncs, mainly from the Iliad, which sccm ro fulfil what Exckies had promised in syrtpathctic undersranding ofhow nryth can servc as thc rnirror to life. Whcrc thc Bcrlin Paiuter is introspectivc in :r spccial way, allowing us to sharc his plc.rsurc in perfcct line or isolatcd mood, the Klcophrades Paintcr invitcs us to reflcct with hinr on thc dilcrurnas ofrnan and hero
xs docs r1o othcr Grcek vasc painter: a robust intclicctux], a poct ofthe sragc rathcr than rbe drawins-roorn and many would aslrcc that wc coltlc llo: where closcr to thc quality of Ciassical Greccc than in its stage poerry, with its
lr ur
r

r rlr.ri of thc Pi(xrccrs, latcr turning morc to pelikai, stamnoi encl kulpir[s L , rr lr rvork can rcadily bc mistakcn for that of his nastcr, Iurhyrrri(l( \, , ;,,, r.rLlr thc Typc A aorphorae with thcir black pattcrn borclcrs lr-:91. tlrc trrr,'Lr |ointed anphora in Munich Il3z], and xnothcr rcccntly irc(lLrirc(l il
I

Ir , tso',i ind later (and scc thc Boot Painter). His red figurc plttcrn w{)rk is r Lrtl((1, llrainly upriliht Palmettes, alternatc oncs cncloscd, or ol)li(lut' I'l

ll,rlrr()rcofhisvolutecratersisuniclueinhavingtwolriczcsorlitsrrcr'li. l,t\1 \\1)rk comcs rftcr Joo, with rhcPariscups Ihtad dttails,llil cclcl]r rlllrri ll, r Lllr's.rrrd Theseus and several calyx crxtcrs but thcrc arc rnlstcrpicccs still

llr

rorrr. p.,thor..,xplor.rrro.r ot lrulr.rtrir v rh rouglt m yth. J tr"d rrrot I bcuirrrrt rrg

with thc Homerrc pocms, which inspircd both our artist and his coDtcrnporiuy, Acschylus. Thc statucsque strength of his figurcs has lcd sorne scholars to bclicve that he was a Pcloponnesian, pcrhaps a Corinthian, by trairung, but his carly rvork in Athcns is purely Piorcer, and if he lxtcr gives promisc o[what Early Classical sculpturc in thc Pcloponnese will achic'vc, rhis mty lrcan no morc than thilt hc rcflects thc birth ofa ncw style, which Athcnian scu]ptors wcrc seldorr to prxctisc, and their vasc pailters thcrcforc ncvcr to clevelop as the artists ofthc Pcloponnesc could. Bur rhis is part ofanothcr story, arld wc may tu r now to scparatc coDsideration of thc two nlastcrs' carccrs_ Thc KJeophradcs Painter [tzg-qzl is nanred .ftcr the potcr whosc signature appcars on onc ofhis t\\,o Pxris cups, which are amon!! the larqcsr cups rvc knorv, sonrc lo crll. rviclc. I'hc fhshior for thcsc cxccpttrnrlly lergc vcsscls was st:lrlcd lry thc lJionccr-s rvith rhcir 'plrrdc cups'. They :rrc .lrirr inrprrcticrl, cspccialJy.,virh thcil shrll6q, borvls, a1d tl)cy scc;r ro hirvc bccp
irrrcndccl sinr p1y es ficlcls lor linc dr;ru,rrg, rrd r,vcrc rhcrcfbrc louncl lppropr i.rtc for thc cxpor t rnlrkct rnci tirr clcdicrrior irr slurctuarics rt hornc. Thc signulu:-c of thc portcr, wltich appcers tlso r)tr tt Icilst tw() orhcl.v:rscs (inclrrdinq cLlps fbr rhc p:rirtcr I)ouris) l);rrlcl Klcophradcs' tithcr, Altrrsis. srrrclv thc tintous bl:rck

1,, ri, rrs paircd, with vcry rare lotuscs. Ofbordcr or ground iinc pirtlcnrs lr( lr. sir]rple key or maeandcr, intcrupted rathcr than brokcn (es by thc ll, rllr l'.lilltcr) by a box or cross ilr squarcs, and has other favouritc rDilcllrr(lcr t,,rrr, .rossing or composed of T's [132, 133]. He had learnt to paint bJack trj tL, r(x):rl1d uscs thc tcchnique for subsidiary fiiczcs on somc ofhis crrly ,, l, r()frc 1nd on :r later loutrophoros Ir4r], a ritual shape, wherc thc okl r, I rr,lLrc was lppropriare. He also dccorated in blackfigurc somc Panxthcnric rr,1,l .r.rc, some stxndilrd latc sixth-century neck amphorxc and perhaps a tr. ', rry placluc. A latc cup has a figure friezc round the tondo, an ciabor.uion rrr, t ,,rr.rsionally in the work ofother paintcrs (as Douris) as it had bccn ir1
l,l
L,

L liqurc.

ligurc pottcr/peintcr. This is au inrport:rrt itlcntificrrron of :r lhrrily in thc pt ofi'ssiorr. Thc l( lcc>plrr aclcs l)rinter'. ,r r\ n n.rnlc t\ rr)r lno\\ n. Ile \r .r\ lur long

dcscribcrl by schollrr as'Epikrcros ll'bccausc this siqnr!Lrrc rppcarccl nvicc on en unclisringuislrccl pclikc I r 4.: l, .rnd rvls so rccorclccl in rhc lirsr prirrrinq t)fthis book; bur thc r,,,ritr'r h;rs subscqucntly bccn eblc to provc thit thc silrnir!urcs rtrc nrodcrn fLrqcrics, rtrcl so thc prinlcr.rctrrrts to rtnonvlrity. Hc sccnts.t! lny rrrc ro h;rvc bccr) a rcticcnt rtrtist, lcirnin!j his lcctcrs 1utc, it rray bc, sircc thc:-c is sorrc touscnsc on iris clrly rvor ks, nenrinE no prcty yonths, but rvrlting kelos or kirlos ci ('you rrrc handsorrrc') erorryrrously. His cithlroclc rcciring cpic thc worcls 'ls oncc irr Tityrs . . .' issr.rc fronr his rtrouth is cxccpriorll Ii 7,!1.

,,rlr,rPuintcrshadstoppcd,butnotobsessively.Theearsoncarlyfigureshave , .rr()rrq forward projection (lobc aDd tragus) simplified latcr to a tighter , rr, li Eyes soon open at the inner corncr with the Pupils wcll forward, and ,,1r, r plirlted as a brown - not black - circle and dot. Nostrils often have a

',

I lrs tiqure drawing has sonlc distinctive features, cspecially in cornplnson rlr rlrc lJcriin Paintcr. Hc continues incisingE hair contours long after most

i, I S curvc and lips may be outlined lending a somcwhrt disdainful expressionllr, rlccp recurvcd hook of the Pioneer collar boncs gives place to straight
,,,

hundrcd
92

His painting carccr besirls by 5o5, cnds soon after 47j, rnd over
vases hevc been attribLrtcd

onc'

to llirtr. Thc vxse

shapcs

hc decoratcs erc

on smaller figurcs sometimcs with il distinctive semicircle dip xt thc jorrr. ', l,l)l(s xre ignored, the line from navcl to pubis is usuilly black, not brown. r\ ri, I s lrc simplc hooks, and although he shrinks from forcshortcni]1ss cxccpt ,, \r()Ilach patterns or shields, hc observes well any relaxed stancc. Thc r,,lrrlitv ofhis Egures does not render them intmobile although it is morc thc
93

,, I, :::'r "' fr izl " r,,,,;;:;,: ,:l: , . .,,r* 1., i,:; I ;:,.";,;li lll",:ll;;l;:,i;,;:l

L\il r\ .

1,r,,r,,1,).

(lL.r. j ,,1 rl)(. l)rorrvsi

r'r

rri,'rr ,rppc rr' rrr.rrr

,r1

rigrrr.1,,

rcjcur or A1l)rJ. ,rul,,,,rJ """ rrr y DC l)l\,'wrr itrr,.rrlurr tlru A ,:: ,,,,r,,.rcr1,cJ,..,,,r.,r',,;;:ji';[:,']"]]:' , .rnd or[, 1. rrr.r) hc ,rrriqn,. Ihc r.rrI rhc.x, lr.rrrgc b.,;..,;';i,,iiJ'i"l',b"'*"""Airx.rrrdHc,ror.rr,dp",,ibt; n..,o*,,,,ir,,,r.i,r",r],rlllli,'"1#]?'11"i", t? trrt qrcar V,rrrrzro (,rs 'rot rtr.rcll ,1,.,rr.],i , i,,",,1"1'.]-ltyrqd(prrred'r\rr(\(rL,forcor,in.,. Ir"j.rn worrrrn r;gr'.ri"g i,,.1';' l"rrIo('r'r'rp( 6'*p 'rr - b'rt ,'orrr '".croo. clrc l'" o'/v .,,.,q"o,' rrr bv rroj rn'r: ,.,. r,",.. i,i"",',i".-,]lr'f i ,f::'l: I "i,J -_.""iii I urrrrtr\co,r( rr\.uc hv h(.r grrnd_ 'orr.: rrrd hop,.. Acrru.r,. ...p.l6.. ru,,,i,,,r ,*.,i r,.;,; ,;"';;iiJ,:11i,.,,1,1:"::,,l,lo frcr,,.r: rrr..r,,, ,,,o ,,.",,,.,,
1 -.:ii,, ;J,:'i:l_l,,,ilr:l::l, l;: ?l;1",; rncrr i lll" l,l, il,, ll; l:,"1:l :, Jr-on)c. rrd tookrd ba, k trorn S.,t,rni. to ..,. ,t,.i, , ,, b;;,;,;,;" il,:,crr rnd nor rl'|u L'' .," ", no' i'li]]"'ii'vr\c rrrJ\ r(prc\(rir 't'' n^'' ,1,. t,..'o" oT *,,, '';;'";;';;'i cd,r.,, pJ,,r(l,A,,, ror ;.;; ;. :l ";, ::l: "'.1' l :' ""c^ cvcrt iforri) i,,,,,),t, I;;,,;;;.';;i'l'(iorr'tttov'tts(in('e.i,rrlr,t('dbvLircct.. *"" n n'' crcek fto,', H,.r,",. o,i. .. p rrti. ,hr iy pr", a. ,-l ," rl rrlir, ll Icpe'rftdl) rertttncd..r.w(.rni{hrr,,rh(. "r,,,..1
l

Hc prdirr l)rorrysi.rc rpd l , rrlr. sc,rrc rrr,t .rrtrtrri. l.rrL.r. w,rir ., i,,,,dr,.*,i,, ;,',, .;;;;,lli"i1, '',t,i..r' )(orrrpo\;,inn\ \ro, k,)v(r, \,1.,,(.\.rrc rro,rr rJr, r,ior,c..rru;;;;;r.'i": I hc5( rr\ .,,).1 iJcr.'kl.*. [,rrr hi' p, , i rl .'.r,;.' .,i, ;. 'r,i,'i, l]llllls ri.,j .,r,,r,j,,rrJ *c,,... n 'r) sc,:r(,. ',i Hi\,,.,r,ncn, i,t rl,( t. ,1*;",;,;Jl,,lli:,y^o]

i;:j,;*li:IT iiil:ll

],

,,,, , ,
r
rr

1,.,

,,,,,.

i ,r,

lr,,ii. hodics arc orhcrrvisc

rhc l:rccr N,,l.urr lr6ol,.rrrd thc crrl!:rrrphLrr:rc .l.r1r jr4i. r.<r..r-..rt rrlrr,.lr .,,, .,,,,,1r.,,.;;;,;i', ; ,.,1;',,.," ,,lrr,tr.l,.urtr(,d i, tl,. l.,t\rc,),,r,)(r.,t,lLr.lrrr._*,11,..
rr\Lr

rrrclLrding

ot
.,

i:l'"

"'l:'"""

ll r l, r , orrrpositions appctr or1 crarcrs, starnnoi, a clirros,ind, ,r,t,.,,,,11y, ,,,, ,,, ,. rrrplrorr rvith I brrsy Anrlzononrachy Irir9J. lt, l,,r.,rls v;rry littlc, wirh neat circurrrsc.it.d 1r,iu,"rt", whiclr urc bl.rck irr lr l,l rrr.rrrrcr, ou his carjicsr work, .rud lorus.s'who"c ..,,;,;.;;,..., '.. ir\i,l. rrrto lcloil_prlrrLrr-, ,.rrrlr L.l,,nqr1j119 ",r*rf:. .,,i,.. f, r , r , ', f,.,. ,, r,i'.'rr,,ll ul,rcr\ i,. bl.r. k vr,c.. rlru ( ,r n p of rh,. Fl.rr.rl Nol rrrr, tr,,rrr I I ,,r)1, rlrc Euchariclcs aud l)uruit paintcrs.)' His ,r*_",ri". i"i.t* .. rrft1\. lrorr...rer. .rr,.drrri,t..ltvc. l.. ",,a ' ,f,, ,,,.,,.,,r,f.i._.f,""r..i ,,,,, , ,,trtn pairccl, rnd rotally intcrnrprcd ";,f, by b,ru.l X,, 1r.lu....ii"*s) ".
,

rtr, b.rt l,rrl ,,,,r.,,r,;;, ,.,;,i,..'i , ..1 '-',..): ll,t',,t,..,,,rnr , , t,.r.rl(r..,t rt\l.r,l t,,i. It,.l.tdllr!,rlr,.or r*,,u1 n.lri r.rll_rr,,l,,lr,,r, .rrd hr,lri;ri. krlpiiics, *,en r"ty,fr"i .,,.r,ri,,, ,,i,,,,, t,,,,,. ]il ll llll'lr+rlbUt , , rrlr|111,*1,. th!.) ruo t.rD lcnd thcntsclvcs to sinuic-figrrrc srLrrlrL.s .

] '

rll) Ii:ir frf .t,

1,,1,,,.

Lrur

ifr.. ti],. t',

rri,,.,,

.,

:,f , 1r.".i.",-i1."crnr') or,Hrr\J'h.inr,r. No orher r;i",.1' l,llnr,r rppru.rLlr(\,r'.,',r" ,,,,lli'll] iould lrardll h.,vc 61611, ;1 6.',..,. "r." 1h, tsq111,, f,,,i,,,,..r,,, r'u\T "',"1','lt't' t'r'drtc([ r'r irh u..rrly rhr.r v,r\(\. nro\r lrrrrrdrcd "r *rr;.r, ,u.1.,,,['":"Jlr\ ) belon' tn tlrc rc.rr.;ro,n rL,.rbour 4\o Jbuur Joo rr,, l.*;i,,i,,..,1r'r,.clrl\ prc'cr''t' problertr' r'' which u' c'rrr r(|tIrI) '1'|(I rl i-,,;i]'::]::" *t,i,r, rrrvc ".'.'I':;";r; i.d,..hor rr. r,-, \rrrr ofd,rib,rrr, ,;,, ,_';r; f.,,fr,,,s tt *"'.* ,' ,1,.,,1, a]1 ;i;;,:,. \,,r.,) .rrrf Jror.rc ^;, ,l;,il,i:;,1 .r,d lL.l vrhoi- ,- ,lil 1'] ur ,r,c\ r,,cr \ orL, r/.r. /odJ rr,,.,r(y ;,,;;1,,:;';;:i,;111-,1:,,,:.,,1: 11., rr'rrrv \^(rc ttor irtttt.rrorr or pic.r.'. hrrr rl,"y.'r.,'.,r h;.;;,,;;'r: ':' ',h,.rol rrrtr i. lo.r. arrd .opi,'' .' ,n.r.,i..,", a,., r,,,,,,.',,,'i.': j]'--.1r,.'n-1 r,r rro l,l'l', r!.ii \ \rr(rrr(rv lh trrdrropwrrcr..l*,,,,,,,..,"t wiclr k.rl,^rrrrrrr.r ,,,'.t.. '('lrc('rll Ir" otrri'u * ltcrrru of a".r'"i() "l;"]:': n ott u h1t r' (c'l'rrr)iv hr\ wt'rk' Hi' ,.rtrcrr r1rc .,.,,,,,, ,o,,,i,,u.1, ' sid, of rrr.v.,\..i.\(.. ,,,,.,]]Y1" i:"j ::',rrtirtr '""',-"'S:l zrLr. .rrd (l.rrrvrrr,.du. H.rrklr.r.rrrd Apollo;1751, ,ro. ,',--,i r)utubrc r,.drl,riorr orsub.idi.,r) onr.u,r,.rr.,,.,n..,.i,t Lrir,],"rj,,rll," .\\rrj) Lulll rrrrphor.r,...,r,rrr,,*rri,,,,,,,.1'].n','''",,,' 1h... ,,rc rrrrplrorrc: r.,r,.ly rd r rjp,, i;;'l:'r,; ,,,,"llii'il'1'^.,r'n''^h'r'., rrp' 4'tt,rt r.tot . )L.ck .unphor-lr ltat, tajl, 94 ",f,..;.,ljv,n"

d('5rn,(ri,n

,,

/t

.,r).,rorrv.brf., pr,f..rcr,,, r"r.r", ,",,1,,1.,iip1,t,... ".i'.,.. *.,,;,.,1r ,'rr lronr.rl,. rri.rrrqlc, irr rlr,. lirrr.rrp.rrrrrrr.,l,ilr,*tr. lrrp..,rr,l rr,-rrrr.rchr, .,.,t, , '' -ly' r \poll,'. r,.111y111..6. lr5o jr. wnor,: ti;,,t,, ;;,: ,,iii ,;;,' ,".. u clt mrrr.lgcd in rhrce_cluarrer vicw iionr front or brck, .ll i i.]l:i. :r. n,,lr"lllr,,r1 1.., ^,;,1,-],: ot b(.ll) p.rrr..rrrerrh,.r,iduufrlr(rrrc,rr.rn,,rrr,.rr,rirrt] l "r\tJs. l 'ot lll Ltr(l( (.lrnt1r{\ .rrC u,OrD by t]re wOInett, and thCrc arc 1i.w , rn(\ tJl dr(\\. Wc.er I.,rr., u,\ \ lr)(.\ irr I,r.,r,r . or rlr,.rrr.,rrrrt ,r,rucl,.. tr,,r, let'i :rrd right, o, clo:rks. O,, ;.,11 ;r".; ifr.r.',, l!]lli*.Irn,,,, r' \r( haic sr:rckcd folds ro all-ovcr. vcrrrr-.rls or E.rrJy tll.rssrr.rl "'r,.r,l g..,"pr rii".,i.rf. -r,,,ii..,i".'rfr,,*, Lr rtlr;r lcvcl, if wavy, hcm)inc. In his l.rrtr s ork rhu rlrcsr iir ',.r tlr,.,i,.r'r.: ll,rl,rrl,rtrrr,.rrr.,.,r,,t

urr ir,i.,. Lrrt \ (.,(u tll(. rrli,.r lr.rtr rinqler,,rrrrl ,1, rrrlirre of cyelashcs orr rhc rnorc .1"b,r.,,c. w.rrlr, ,. irrri.-fi ,r"

rrrc\,'opy rr\. rrrd r.rrL.tr. Hr. re.lrnrqrre i, rrrrpr..._ ' ," l:,ll l.::l,l:,1,,11", rre,(hr.r)..qu.rbl,..,-rd ll.rwing. rror drv liku trorrn... rr,r u.r, ll,,LlroIls. lll'., lrkc Klrophr.rdL., tsu rzl..l r. ,r ; r llr.t H.rrr

,., .ir,i,ur U\cd,pJrt.rrl)

lirrcs .rrr

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\r

lr Lrsrr

rvhich arc tcrincd'Mxnllcrist'arrd which erc consitlcrcd rrr tlr, rrcrt

,lr.,t,rri

llrr choicc oF subjcc!s rcquircs lirtlc furthcr cotnnlcrtt. WIltrc rttrt'rr r' , ,Ll thc 6qures erc surc, clcglnt, ancl only on thc cxllicst, rrclr l'iorrttr , ,. iri his), passionlite lrl;]. His syll.rpatllellc trcatllrcrrt ol .trrirrr'rl stLr'li'r' r,, ,,rrrspicttotts eise\\'hcre in rcd figure cxccPt fi)r tltc fivotrrerl lr"r'st, rt tcllirrq ",, rlrobscrving[38Sl.TLrcsinglcfigurc'sorp.iredfiqurcs;rrcthcrrr()st I I r )oit Inenlor.rblc \l'orks erc his nanlc vasc in ljcr'lir) [ r;4] '"vhcrc, boltily Iir| r, L qurc, he combitrcs threc ligurcs in orlc contour - Hcrlllcs h;rstcllillq lr:r\t , ,'r ,Lrp rDdjug, a s:rtyr (Oreinlirchos) r,vith e lyre turllins au'.y, ir f'r\\rr , t ll,q lo rhe noisc lttd ttrovcttrcnl erotlncl hinr; aucl e morc fcccl)rlY rcvcllcd ,', ,lrLrrl irr Besel It46] with a rnegnificcntly accoutrcd Athcna on onr:"s]dc
,

, ,,

ttio Nold n ryh lbytllt:B(tli t\iitt('.

r,,,rqos [18] wxs car]y lvork of lhe l3erlin Pai1ltc1, and Martirl llobcrlson lLl,L,r:rtcci rhc argunretrt, aclding dre lirrc cuP Pottcd [iy Phintirs [49],.rnd rh(l t,,Lrrtinrr out hou,: appropriarc it rvonlcl bc if Ciorgos r'r'erc plirrtcr too irr I rr oithc lnvariablc gortorrcion shield dcviccs which lppcer on bl;rck fig;urc l'Lr.ttl)cnxic lnrphorer' ;rttributcd (with e hesit:rtion I sh:rrc) ro thc llcrlin l'. L )tcr arrd his other linc rccl ligurc Gorgons. Bcazlcy cvcDtually ecceprc.l thc ( ,)rqos cuP, not thc Phintias o1le. I hevc not takcn accoullt of this in thc ,,,cding lincs on dre ertist's carccr becausc I find it dilhcult to conbirr. -r . r.cr rs e brilliant cup plinrcr ofabout 5to 5oo with what scenrs to l,c e
lr,rr,r,s

\ possibility u.hich urould rcvise or.rr vicw ofhis cdrly cerccr tlrd potentirl ,r bc bricfly discusscd. Miss Talcotr suggcstcd that the cup sillncd by

jug tbr hcr firvouritc Hcrakles on the othc-r, in his Nunlber Oncs, , tlrc lionskin txil buttonccl Lrp.
rq hcr

,lrcss)

not chlractcristic of the l3crlin Pairlter's sce1les, and (as Rotlcllsoll 'rnrsclfhrs pointcd our) Gorgos writcs di1{crcntly (teiling his R's). The crsc
rr'llliliDS Opcrl.

,,rrsistcrlt devclopmcnt as a pot Pxilltcr iD later dccadcs, while thc Clorgos cr-tp a clcgrcc of subtlcty in narretivc (Mcl1non's trappccl spcer, Eos'torn

t;o /'l1lr,'/'1

tlt,

&tlrrl'

tt,t \tlt

Other pot painters


Not ill thc rcd 6gurc pot pjintcls ofthc Piorrccr ycars hed bccn qrcat irrj\t\' ll)c NI(oxqNos PalNtttt wes an adcquetc black ligure plintc'r ofthc Lcrgros (;roup who misguidedly took to red 6gure, parnting Typc A arnphorac (errd ,,,,.' of Ty1'r" 11, the old shapc rcvivcd now), sonlc of Panathcneic shrpc, rl.clriai, and sornc cr:ttcrs. Of thcsc thc Panathcnaic arc inrcrcsting tbr ihcir ,,rrruption ofthc usual sccDc with Athcna, charlging her posc and thc otdcr o[_ rhc colurtns {r6zl, or substitutirrg a Hcrnlcs or pricst. His satyr athlctcs ()rr lr6;l nright also be conccivcd in a ntockirlg spirit (their trliner Lrscs ;r lilrsc phellos in plecc ofl cale) or rcfcr to a sxtyr play (Acschylus' 1-vr,?rri1rl,k). llc
ir

rs e

distinctivc rvay of drar,ving chiton slccvcs end sotlctinrcs fails ro nrrkc his

Itt
t(t ()i othr ht lht
Rtrlin

P.ittt

Y
ditpcrv lircs crrtl ,,vhcrc thcy should. Hc wcnr on paintirrq bl:rck fi:lurr, iDclutliIlq l).rulthcn:rics, u,hilc his pLrpil, thc Eu(-HAnTDES Parurlr, carricd oD
scvcrrl ofhis tricks ofdrarvirq in rcd 6gurc, likc thc cars wirh big rorurd lobcs, e bcrrcr stylc rvhiah luns on to thc 47o's. Hc prefers thc n611, popular shapcs lt64 7lrcck anrphorac, stamDoi, rnd the revivcd column crater, but has morc anlbitiolrs work on celvx cratcrs whcre, likc his master, hc rlrly put fiqures ol) the lorl cr bo,,vl I r 66] es wcll as on rhe straight sides. Thc stylc is still enEulrr. rnd abmpt but his attcl-rrpts on the suLrjccts ofhis bcftcrs lrc far tltolc sLlcccssful. (lolumr cratcrs had not Lrccn rlruch in favoLrr in thc lxst qllerrer ofthc sixth ccnlurv, bLrt fronr et,out Joo thcy nlcrcirsingly scrve as sloutcr arld morc scrviccilble rnixins bo\\,ls thal thc othcr crater typcs. The_v erc rlthcr oldfashiorecl in rppcararlce, with Lrasc rays, and thc nccks black, or widl r rorv ot thin bleck brrds, or jvv, or rarely lvith a row ofsilllorcttc animels or figrucs. ln conrnron wirh thc trcrtnlcnt ofsccncs on othcr sh;rpcs, such as peJikai, thc decorativc p:rnc1 framcs ere gradually abatdoncd,:rnd thc figurcs sct in frcc ficld or on a ground linc. They do lot gcllcrally irrrract thc bcst r,r,ork. Mvsov Ii68 7zl w:ls:l coluntn clelcr spc'cix]ist. He nray have startcd rr,,itlr cups bcfbre Joo one namcs Lclqros- His sign;rturc, as potter xnd pailltur, is on a snall colunrn crater dcdicared on thc AcropoJis [i68] and sho,,rrng Athene or cithcr sidc, probebly a gift ofthe artisl- Sorne sct,piccc myth sccrlcs show sonre originality of thcmc and solid, coltrpctcnt 6sures rcminiscenr ol' Phrntirs- Thc notablc scencs arc ofCrocsus on his fitncrxl pyre Ir 7l ], rvhich is a rare illustrltioll of a rccent historicll liqurc alreacly bccoming rnyth; ;r touching srudy ofbewildcrcd old agc in a rcscr.rc of Airhra lrTz]; satvrs brcak in!! r1p r tomb Ir69]; Hcreklcs brcaking up Ncreus' housc. Morc charactcliscic, perheps, arc his mrny othcr Dionysiac, kornlst and athlcrc studics srnallish hcads, rtthcr tieht-lippcd, with slirn sherp noscs. Hc is not alwavs surc about irlatonry noticc Apollo's back and chcst or I I 7: ], and in comnrorr with scvcral othct xrtists of his renk he ovcr cntph;Lsiscs thc spinc rr,,ith u doublc lirc. Wc mav suspccl a conscrvxtivc rcsistancc to new srylcs ofdrlu ing and the nerv moocls exprcsscd by his bcttcrs, but his following rvill provc lnorc
in interesting.

rL,

lrrll rlre

Typc C rmphorac. His hclds tcnd ro carry poinred, dr()opnrg

lips. The GERAS PArNrtrR [17g i]il,^ poorer xrtist, spccialises in pcJikri. , I , , r rllv of rhc 'rnodern' v:rriety wirh no frarlres to the picrllrcs. Hc oflils ir , ,,.L,icr.rblc nlrqe of Heraklcs scencs! ncw :rn(1 old, an.l sonlc Llrlrr\!rrl ,1,, rL\rl. sccrcs with saryrs. Hls nanrc vesc shows Hcraklcs cndgelliug ()ld \,, L( icr ls). A contcrlrporary, thc MAt scH PArN I r.R, shou,s il nrorc intcl c\U n{ ,r r()ntiLtion oithc hcro xrld dcrnur lr8;1.'fhc ARGos PArNrFft is likc thc r,, \ I)rlrrrer. I pick oLrr one of the oddiries ofGreek vasc printing frorn iris ,1. r r.Lrc stLrdy of e citrncl Ii.!;1. And thc SIltl.N PATNTIII offers cxr-eful blrt ,L lirlLrrc work irlchrding his rather hackneyed name vrse Ir.91] on thc back rr rirlr ;rrc thrcc oddl), fcaturcd Erotcs (thc lcedcr is cellcd Hinreros). Lrc lvszxrt-wrcz PalNlLu is lnorc prctcrrtioLrs [18J 7], rvirh stilFbut wcll-

,,1r,

,, rl,()scLl sccncs of r1r,vth, oftcn on larqc vxscs, urhich bid frrr thc narr.rtivu tl r ol, sxy, thc Kleophrrclcs P:lirrter, bur toteJly lack his subtlcty. Thc florels ,,1 r\ rrnre vese [-rt6l recx]I the hter Berlin Paintc'r (but noticc horv ccurre I L, s ovcrlep tcndrils) and sorne ofhis u,ork is Early Olassical. His hcads tcncl
l,rq. block-likc noscs wirh dccp-scr cycs, alrd hc experimcnts with frontel

, ,1 t rrcc-quar-tcr vic\vs off:tccs- Thc Trort.os Panvr* is rathcr sirnilar Irdd l rlro toncl ofclaboratc dress borders xnd pattcrns, norc livcly, lcss prucisu. I r, lr,rli--open rrouths of many ofhis figurcs look r:rther silly ard onc is nrorc ,,, r rcd ior Triptolcmos' b:rlarce on f rEgl then impressed by his divinirl. \ 'crrcs ofvases, inclndinq both thc fincr cratcr!, xrld thc conlmon pclikai , , \1.lmr)oi, has bccn callcd by l)cazlcy thc SyLEUs SrtlurNt;r a1ld prcscnts
L

1,,,,l,1crrs ofidcntity with fbur stylistic ruclci which mighr indicatc dilicrcDr ,r r. r or dillerent stages in thc carccr ofouc or two:rrtists. Thc D:rilcs arc thc l' L,,,t.r of thc Munich Amphora lr g r ], the Callatin Painter [ -r 9.2 ], thc' l)iogencs
l,,L

l',,,rrcr 1r93, r941, thc Sylcus Paintcr Ir95 8]. Sh.rrcd stylistic lceturcs xIc
l,lc lincs on rhe brcasr bonc, paralicl end rhcn divcrgcnt, arrd the invcrtcd r lrich runs across and undcr thc cross strokcs of thc chcst lbr melcs. Thc

rrn.urcdisclosctothcPionecrsstillilrnarrrrcrbutnotquxliry.Thel)iogencs

l'

A nurIbcr of othcr sccorrd-]ine pai tcrs succurub to dre irtcrcst in coluntrr ofthe shepcs ftvourcd by their scliors. Thc H,rnnow P,rtr,rtrn [173 5] is trrore than orclitarily compercnt, fond of ncck anlpllorae, borror,ving from contcmporlry bl:rck figurc the clccor.rnorr for thc neck of Ir7-71, which xp]rroxilllAtcs ro Penarhcnaic s1upc. Hc clcerly admired ald rnay hlvc copicd dtc Bcrlin Paintcr. Hc rarely vcnturcs outsiclc senrc scorcs into myrh lnd lhc satyrs in Hcphaistos' forgc Ir74lmly illustrarc
craters, but also dccor:rtc a l'u1ler relgc it satyr play. Thc FryrNc

,Lcr is rhc bcst ofthc scrics, still sharply Archaic in definition ofalaronly ,,,1 Llrcss. Thc Sylcus Paintcr docs sccrn to prcsclrt r nc$, pcrsonrlity, with r , rr.r-illtcrcst in a good rxngc offloral p.ttcrns, cap:rlllc cvcn ol1rccellin!a thc ll rlrn Pxinrer's lerer work it single 6gures, but with some narrativc powcr ,,,, rrr :rr-list whosc i111:t!iination outprcccl his skill. llul thc battles on thc fat I , rrcd anlphorx in Brusscls [196] havc some forcc xnd shorl good undcrSyrrsr<os Groue, mainly of thc 47o's and littlc earlicr, prcscnts a problcruIlcazlcy took thc Copcnhagcn Pernrcr ftgg 20I] and rhe ' ',\r\kos Printer lzoz q)lts brothers 'hard to tell rp.rt', and faccd by rrvo r , sl,vphoi in a privatc coJlcctiorl prcfcrrcd to invcnt e third, 'P. S. Parntcr' , i, 106]. Probably al1 go togcthcr, thc Ciopcnhlgcn Paintcr rcprcscrrrirrq
rL.rr

r r,lirrg of ncrv ,, r lr9.9l.


ihc

1'roscs.

Hc sollrctinrcs

Llscs

lhinrlcd painr xs cycshxdolv for

ANc

ParNrrn has a more engaging rangc ofsccncs

I t 7G6], cspccially of satyrs, includins thcir lamily lifc and irrrrodtcrng chilcl satvrs to Grcck arr (he is rlarncd from rhc group olnlr77l), and ofsatyrs or wolrlcn cnsaqed rvith phalloi or phallos birds Ir76]. He dccoratcs sevcrrl ol

II3

nrol-c x.r(lcnric work, lrajnly on stilrrrroi oicllstil]crivc arrcl Lurplcilsant profllc (broed nronthccl, hu nch-shoulcl ered : liggl), thc othct vuscs, ofrrrixccl rtrerrt

(ircltLclirg vcrv good) ollc'rrng a widcr rrngc. The rumc Syriskos c()n1cs fiorll

e pottcr who r11.dc a krlucklcbonc vrsc (lstragllos) fbr rhc peir]tcr Izo4]. l]trt thc pottcr Pistoxenos, rvho seenrs to h:rvc spccieliscd iu skyphoi of variout

t,vpcs (inclucling onc fbr Epiktctos r,rhiclr plrccs his cerly cereer), nrade thc rwo skyphoi lirr our artist ('t). S. P:li11tcr'), and o11 cach wc rcad'Pistoxcnos S,vr iskos cpoicscn ' lz o 5, zo6l. Thrs is a puzzle- Thet thc'1, erc skyphoi is cnotrgl: t() irldicirtc th:lt it is llrr'Pjsto-tcnos lt rvork. Was Sl,riskos e nicknarlc, :rn elias

stranscr'? Thc skvphoi rrc lincly plintccl, llrcldy Er:1y Classicel, but rhc drarvirg bcrreys scvcr:rl fc'eturcs linking thcn witlr other veses ofthc qroup thc llor'ils (palrrcttcs r,,,ith pointccl cc' trc lc'evcs er)d thc lotulcs), thc blobbv trertmcllt ofh:rir. A:roteblc sccnc on i stitrrrno\ is of :l lcccnt hisloricrl cvcrrtIr99] thcrlrLrrdcrofrhetyrantHipp:rrchos(5r4lc) Dot ln,vth but.r1 :rct f(x \\hiah thc slaycrs hlcl rccluirccl hcloic strlus. A f!^xtrrre ofthc groLlp is sorlrc odd shapcs thc kntrcklcboDc, thc Ialc scltlilt lckythoi, hcacl v;rscs, a rourcl arytr:rl1os, :rnd thc usc (es on somc of thcsc) ot' r,r,hitc qround for outlinc fir:rrrc rvork. Thls ilppc'ers on elebesrra of thc eroup too, end rclercd is rhc plcntii'ul (sonre forty known) Ciroul or. rHr, Nrr:rio ALAIASTRA (of drc ,1lto's) with ncgro 6gures Izod], rvhich though simpic, arc by rro mcans rcpctitivc. It is l nc'gro, rvbitc groturcl, tllrt thc Syriskos PriDtrr pr,lts or) x hced v:rsc. Thcrc arc othcr, li1er elitblstrl lvltlt Arnazorrs [.zo9l. l'hc alablstra lcad us ro considcretior oforhcr smrll vrscs, crspccirlly lckvtltoi. Thc shapc r,r,rs e-,<tremcly popnJrr in black figtrrc lncl thcrc r,es rn cnorrlrolrs output ln rllc old rcch iquc throlrgh the 6rst quartcl ofthc frfth ccrttry, atcl letcr (,4Bit1i pp. ra611.). Whitc grourd lves used on nr:rny oithc vrscs arrd, cspcciall_v rl thc lr,orkshop of thc Sappho ancl I)iosphos l)eirrtcrs, u,c lintl ligurcs on rhc whitc grouud rcndcrc'd iD t rllixturc ofbilck ligurc:rnd outlinc techniqnc. Aplrt fiorr this scnri-outlinc lvork rhcrc is somc in purc outlinc, flnkcd by pxlmetes. Thcsc Sidc-Palncttc iekythoi ([z r o] Diosphos Workshop) prcscnt x technique rvhich can bc irnmcdiatcly rchtcd to thc outlirlc drru,ilq on r.r,hitc ground practisccl b,v ,rrtisls otlrcru,isc conrrnittccl to rcd ligurc, ofrvhich rvc shall sce morc ol1 clrps. Thc associxtiorrs ofthc shepc rvirh black figurc rctirldccl usc of rhc ncw tcchnicluc upon it. ()nc Piouccr, thc (;Ar.rs PArNlrR [-zrr], has lcft us tu,o, but of tl-rc p:rintcrs urcntioncd irr rhis clrrptcr orlv rhc tserlin Peinter fivourcd thc shapc. Thc trtists to Lrc lliurrccl uow erc in8ucnccd by him. A popular subject was Nikc, whom wc scc rlso on lck,vthoi end othcr srrrll v:rscs bv rhc Durulr PAtNTTR [:07, ,zi:], a nrrnor xr tlst othcrwisc morc closcly rchtcd k) thc lek,vthos pNntcrs, u,ho er lris bcst h:rs somc plccisc chann, lncl a distirrctll, surlrnary way u'ith drcss on his lcsscr' rvork; and bv thc TrlrroNos ParrLtu rvho hld an c,vc lbr drcss and hcm plttclni, rnd rvhosc Orlorcl 1ck-vrhos rvith enothcr Nikc is a fittiug cncl pr. cc

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Cup painters
Through thc Late Archaic pcriod, and cspccially in thc first decade ofthc fifth century, xt least hxlfthc production ofred 6gurc vascs in Athelrs was accounted lor by cups. This is a srulllcr proportion than the production ofthc lrtcr sixtlr century, whcn black 6gure artists still supplied most of thc largcr vases, but still considcrably greater thxtr in later ycars, whcn red fisure xrtists answered all nccds, e)though thcre r,vas a growirtn production ofplain black vascs, and
cspecially of black cups. Thc old eye cup shapc, Typc A, is virtually dcad. The elcgent Type B and the heavier Typc C with a concave d1n are the popular forms, and a nrrnor

roundcd bowl on a spl:rying foot with a mouldine at its top, rccalling featurcs ofthe black figure Droop cup (,4BFH pp. 6 r i) whosc long career was not yet over. Thc old schemc of decoration with eycs is quite gone exccpt for vcry fcw cxamples by thc Colmar and Anriphon Painters early in thc century [242]. Even rhc palmettc scrolls, with or withoul lotus tcrnintls, bccome less cominon_ But thc tondos are regularly edgcd witl-r a m:leander pxttern now, soincrinlcs distinctiveJy dcsigncd by diiferent painters, and the srmc pattern quite oftcn tppcars bclow the lieurc liezes. Thc adoption of these pattern borders is a convenient signal for thc advcnt of what wc choosc to call Late Archaic, but thcrc is, of course, no sLldden brcak, and just ils wc have had to trace in rhe last chapter thc work of somc plirrrcrs wcll into the frfth century (as Epiktctos), so hcrc several will pr.risu Lceqros and declarc thc start of their carccrs bcforc the turrr of thc ccntury. Indeed, beforc we tum to thc more prolific great nanlcs, an isolated mastcrpiecc of littlc bcfore 5oo can providc a link. It is I supcrb cup in Bcrlin [zr4], signed by PErrHrNos (we havc a scrap ofxnothcr, carlier cup sirned by him) tnd praisiug Athcnodotos, whorn wc shall mcct again- We havc the ncw pattcrns in and out, a macander echoccl by thc pattern ofl)cleus' Iockcd hlnds .s hc grasps Thetis, urpcrturbed by hcr snakes and lion which aftack hi1n. Outsidc are lovcrs, more forward where thcir own sex is conccricd. limbs showinq clcar through dress, with a display ofsprcading folds and ziezaE hcn)s recalling Phintias or thc Sosias Painter. There arc onc or two points of tcchniquc to bc mcntioned bcforc we turn to the lnajor cup paintcrs. Cor.ll-rcd for dccoratior ofbands in or outsidc cups is srilJ uscd, sparingly. Thcre are, howcvcr, from about 5ro on, a numbcr of cups r,vhich ernploy whitc sround for the intcrior, occasionally for the cxte or too. On thcsc thc dccorarion is in outliDc, using thc same thick and thin paintcd Iincs with increasing use of added washcs or red es tirne passcs. Wc havc noticcd thc technique on lckythoi (but no earlicr), r,vherc outlinc and
r32

varicty, thc Acrocup [275] with a straight rirn and cithcr a shallow or

iigurc can bc rrrixcd and ir had bccolllc coll1Ir1only uscd as a beckgrourrtl t,,r bh& 6gurc on lckythoi aDd olhcr shapcs. P:rmphlios made a cup wirh rr l,L.r,li figurc ridcr on thc white ground tondo. Of the salnc date is I cu;r rrrtr rior with an outlinc l)ionysos facing a black figure sttyr [zi5]. Thc cLrp ir r, ,.rrly es any lckythos wirh comparab)c decoration, thc style stil1 Pioncct, .rrr,1 the lttribution to EuphroDios could be correcl, l:ut is not sure Thc Clothir , rr1, hecl whitc ground o;tside only [Jr]. The mair scries bcgins with cups of ,.,'lr, ()ncsinros (Proto-Panaician alld rhe rclated Elcusis P:rinter fzr7] who ,trll praises Lcagros) ar-rd his kin [zi6], xnd coniinucs in our pe-riod with , ..,'tiplcs by thc Brygos Painter [2IE] and l)ouis amorg orhen lzTjl''fhc ( , )rrr nroDesf schemc is to havc a black border to the toido, solllctimcs wjth a ,r,r'lhrthcr in lo flanc lhc flgurc or figurcs. lt bccomcs commorlcr to tlll thc , irL rior with whitc. and the inner line border is thcn normlrl. If. ground linc l rrccded it is usually an ovolo. A vcry few kcep the rcd 6gr-lrc tondo but fiIl rlrr zonc round it with white to the lip. Exreriors are usually red figure, solrcrrrrrcs all black, occxsionally white ground I'hesc :rre cxquisite cups, usually avoiding the trivirl in tlrcir subjcctrrr.rttcr.rnd oftelt intendcd f<rr dedication, showing deitics or liyth scellcs' llrcrc is e distinguished succcssion in thc Early Classical. Anothcr dedicttory lr,r\tcrpicce is riprcscnted by a cup fragnrcnt frorr-r thc Acropolis (no z47) ,rl,c."ihc lines an<J Egures are in flat, low rcliei all gilt cxccpt for flcsh and ,,lrlcd whitc. ONpstr,ros [zzz 35] signs onc cup [2.:td] made for hinr by Euphronios, r lrosc own paintirg .arci'r was by then over. Solnc ten other cups made by l,trphronios ire painred by Oncsitnos or artjsts ofhis studio, so we cln rcgard rlrii as a single workshoP or bench within a worksbop While Onesjnros' !rvlc is readily dcfinable froll-t his signcd vasc thc callicr stagcs ofhis clrcer problematic, silcc his style dcvelops fron-r a 6ne late sixth-ccntury ',:ruein ,i,,r.rp oi.rp, relatcd to Pionecr work (rccall Euphronios the painter's cups)' it""ri.y ."rr" to agrec with earlier scholars that works asscublcd for a l';rnaitios Paintcr wcrc by Onesimos, xnd that l-re cmcrgcs from a late si)'th( cntury Proto-Panaitian Group. Thc associations arc still opcD to djscussion' Mo.st of the Proto-Panaitian cups [zzo, zztf ctrry the ncw nacandcr krrdcrs, in and out. Thcy are frcc with kalos natres (anothcr Pioneer trait) r)iurling Lcallros, Athcnodotos (as docs Peithir-ros), Epidrornos and Paneirior .,,r,<rr'rg'oth.ir. Tl-rc ,tyle is 'reduccd' Pionccr with sornc elaborarion offclturcs .,,,d ar-ratomy on largcr figurcs, somc drooping nrouth corners, dress ard lirulr r rrngcmeots (noticc' thc odd Frontal tocs for a reclining figure Izzol) ofthcir ,l:ry. Subjccts arc almost cxclusivcly kon-ros and athletics. Thc Pluraitian vases, uainly of5o5-485, rcduce thc use ofnracander outsidc r,vhich is t gcneral tcndcncy io this pcriod, away from the Archaic florrls xnd bordcrs on itp, a,rd they confcss devorions sinril:tr to lhosc of their ftrrcstylc hel c, r Lrnrlers to Lcagros aDd Athenodotos Tbcre is a robust narrativc
l,l.r, L

r33

T
rn{ tr{rr(\. \kLltrillv (ollrposc(l encl b:rlanccd oD thc brorcl arc ()l li_r] r\ rtru b(\r rr:rrrrplc rvilh pairs ofThescus cDCouDrcrs oursiclc, l1l.,..,l .rnn t ,(,r,lu ,,\,ri.. \\ Ilr vorrr,,: llrr*.r,.,rrpporr_,1 br .r rrr.rrrrrrr rl.l.,r). ri.(r\t'rL rlr( ...'r,tr_rrot.r A,r.l,lltritc. ,rrr,r {rlrcrr.r Lt( *nLtJi.\.. \\.r\tr.r ltrL,r\, rd rlr, fr,lr ,-.irr-. v,rid,lltpr\\\to ,,t l,.y,.rrd. .rrr rrr.rlr.rrr.rr|r ,,.rrirrq o.il,,l.' ll( L'ullv\llrrnr]. ,,1 r.rl rirrrrc uhi,h r.,rh..r r,r .r\.rrrr,r .,||v .,rr-ll L)rrr- rr.rr.nrrrr,rrr.rr,r 1,,,,,t.r. ,i,t.i,., ,,,.,i.,,,,,..",:i, ra,, ,l:ll:,ly],: , l. ,.rt)r\. lv( lri, fi,,rrrr,.rr, rL.l\u\(..rr( r\.Ir.r r,, rlr..rr fi.r,,,r.,,1,, ::l:,' \\lrn IrrIILIII(.III lr,r. { r. rnrl]i,.rllr ]tc t,t,,\(- .r! .r\. 6., ) l,to ,.cr ,,,i.,,, u, clc'ar li,clr st.tc,lc,ts ,,f,r,,,st .,,rti"J p.,rc,,, , t.,von,,t.,._Ar. ir",rlr,,* ir"af. vicrv, u,ich clistnltivc brokcn V shouidcr bllclci ."."..,;r,". iir.,',i"ufrf" spinc'. Hc is bolclcr u,ith frontel f:rccs "ra.",r,"rr1r,r.".., therr fri, [::7j profiJcs us.allv ir:rs. suiky drcDpirq linc "rra ",, rroutl, .,r.n"rr. fi.,"frr._r".,, fit" "i
\\ irlr
lr rh(-

,l r

,,L

,, rlll-v avoiding nruch nryth. Thc llonn Pxintcr [2J7] stil] irrcises sorrrc ll:rir rlrncs:rndhassomcOltanpro6lcsanclHorrls. l'hc(lolrnarPtirrrcr[.2i6,:lfI lr rcr ()ncsinros' afcclion for Lcagros ancl I):rneitios lncl solllc ofhis lltcr ctrP\

i h:r vc bcen decor:rtcd for thc pottcr Euphronios. Both pril rers (rrlcl Llcez lc\ \ !\ rot surc ibolrt separetillg rhcrll) lcllievc e ccrtain prcllillcss: nolic(. tllc
,,,
,
r

l, lrnrirlq, llorels aud circunrstanrill dctlil of the dccr hunr on [.2-771. 'rrll lr , Lrkc cxprcssiorr if dtrll clrcs on [,u;.9]. ihc ANrn'noN P,lrNrEn Iz39 4-3]isarlorcsubstantiil figurc, nenrcd firl tlrc I (i\ {)l xrl uDusr.ral slcnclcr srand l.:391. His work rcsc'nrblcr thc Pantitlll hrrt r, r.rvicr, duller, sorrtetirncs silllply cruclcl aud pcrrlrits us to lpPrc( irt(
)r( \inlos' clclic:rc,v rhc bcrtcr. Konrests, rthJctcs aud rvarriors arc his sublcrt'. ,,,'1,- ruyth, and he sharcs t,ith Oncsitnos aclmiratiou lcrr L,vkos rrrd r\rr\t.rrchos. This, lnd his trsc of 'rccdr'!o interrtlpt rondo nracandcrs l.:43], 1, , c his./Jorrir rvidr trrarurc Orrcslrnos ir1 lhc 4llo's. His figurcs hlvc big heads, ,, .ur:rtont,v chrll but pJlusiblc rvidr tor sos split lcngthrvisc by I bleck (brokcn) L rerhcr th:rn clividcd tt chcsr levcl. Olcl-feshioncd are his occesional ttrc .,f ,,i:iorr ro outlinc heir, u,hidr otheru'isc oftcn looks curly rvirh:r hclvill' , llopccl cdgc (en cfcct cnhenced by e borclcr ot n ot-clui tc-r clief trlobs of
r

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r\o L\rio\ ..,r(i tt,,ll,.|l . M.,,.rn,l..r Lrnrd. t.. . rr \n||t,.r.l !\ drn1,p,.,r, .rrr.l riL,i,l:l r"r rrr..rrrrl,1r.l L,r ..e.rtr. .,,r,r1,..r, l:1 rl ,,', ,k,.,, ., :'r,.,... ,r,r,.1,r. r ( \(r\ .. D.rtft. DrL..r, f.rl,L r\. ( ru\\.\ (rr ( II...III,.r ..1rr.,r,.,. R,rr,rr lr{ \.. n,.r.... ol tuacanclcr arc prcfcrrcd row to thc sropt ((r,r\c li,r"..u,,n,,r,j t,,itr. Lr".a"ay. Lrr rh,.Lrrrl cr.cn \ rrvr subjcts has u.rrc<l, ard ii,"1, r.","pf,,_a I]]: l*:',,, rrrd,rrlrl,r.....,rer.rl rr..rrrrrr, ..\(.r\t\\ l'\'ttor\,tt(tr ,..r1\\t.,2_l'. llr..ficr,r,* thultt\r'lr(s. cr tD tirc ,1[1s. 1,,,)1, ]lt,rrc bovish, with slirtr _fiaau r.,s, s,uell f..eturcs Lr('rrc,rlh LrLr\lr) hrn{ctl h.rir Thcrc is:r lightncss to thc iccrrcs rvhich llcvcr bccorrrcs nrcrcly trir,ial, Lrut rvhethcr this crin rcprescnt tirc 1"r.,r".i.*i,, rf_r" l)roto-Prnritien rr.list r.cnl:lins dililcLrlt to rllinn "i
LIoNN ard
x qirl's brclsts are shou,n prt,pcllr : rhc ourlinc runrrutq rnhr thc arrrr observcd ltaturc Izz1r, ,r5l i,cf.,r. rhc p..,i,f. : fri..,r, ,, ,, Lrof, , "i,t,- .I.hc Durrsl rvcrc irnposcd on thc body utrrcalisrir.rlly. L_rouris) on rirc girl,s .r.p,'rr [.,zrJ ,r.rrlurlrrr rlor,.pruLrbll1,.,.,,.,, , r\L flur. i,,,th,r T.lr,l(r. r(.rlrslr( oLr\crv.rtruD o1 drr.ril notebl\r in body hair aDd gcrritils. Thc vascs u,]uch arc asscmblcd around Olrcsirnos, sigut d r-up Jrra, ,i,r 3rl aiff". t._r, thc tor rgoin,; sJigh rlr. rn ,rylr. su blcct erd drrc. p"r"iri"l ir"ilf i^ior,'t r,, ,,.,* 1'rit is lrrr

rl)d at lilst

tLrrrr),xndsonrccyecupschcmcsrvithsrr:r1lundcr-lundlcpxlmettcs[2rr2l.Hc ,r r .r proliiic arlist rDd thcrc arc Itlany unassigncd cttps in his lllrllncr or 1 rtcrl to his rvork. Thc (lat;tt P,qtNrlt c:rrl bc 1larIlcd bcsidc hillr [.2441. lh vgos'si!lnalLrrc as Potter ilppcalrs orr ovcr I dozen cups, on rhc cclgc ofrhe L\c o) on lhe plain undcr-haDdle. Altlrosr all wcrc dccoratccl try thc lllvcos l'\rN1Lr 12r8, zq5 6tlor artists ofhis circlc, thc ll1:lstcr l)cinq thc rlrost pro_ t l rL rv ith rvcll ovct rrvo hu uclrcd vascs toN attributcd to hilrl. Hc dccorilcs lc-$ , ,Lir cr shapcs, inclucling skyphoi [-24d, z5 g], hcrd kanthrroi :rrrd rhyta [.2,5 7, z5 t],
t

l,ig k:rlathoiclj:rr *,ith a sPout l.z 6r I arrd scvcrel lek,vthoi [219]. His crrps arc I r;.cs l)'s and Typc C's, thc lornrer intludiuq sonrc rvith I disrinctivc conc 1,,,,r. thc l.rttcr usuellr, ornittiug rhc nlaculdcr basc linc. Arourlcl thc tondos rc nr:rcrndcr is usurlly sropt, oflcn intcrruptccl by cr()ss in squere or knobbcd

\, \ Hc pxirlts a ti'rv r,vhitc eround cup irrreliors (l:r,!]: cxtcrior l2i6l), :rrrd . ,' lritc grorrnd lckvrhos. Flis st-v1c dcrivcs iiorlr th.t of rhc early Onesiuros, end his rrr;rirr period of Lrrk lics irr thc 43o's :Irrd 47o's, thc latcr vascs beinq tttainl-v snrlll cups rvith 'r l,ri trlres irlsidc only:rncl thc lckythoi. Thcrc is wcakness iD his lercr rvork, but riris prinre his vigour ancl ittvcntiott arc unp:lral1c1cd. What ls somcrirrr'r
rissccl

in subtlcry of linc is morc than

Thcrc rre sontc lcsscr artists to bc rncntiotlcd bcforc orrr lcxt nrlstcr. Thc Clt,vau parr.r r.rs;rrc carlv, rvorking fiolr bcflrc loo i., if.r" +f,o,., ,lr,

ti4

ti'rrrr,r.1.., r.rlr\r.r.,inr,.r,r.rrrlr,,i r,,ihr. rlr.:i,rr., i,,.,,f,i.,*.r,.1.,,,,p",,.,.

brtscr.l on obscrvation lnd quitc indcpcnclcnt of thc stock cpcrtory offigurcs in lclion or quicr. His is'onc ol thc firsl, orlc oflhc only, ,c.rl childrcn in vtsc peinting' (tsctzlcy) [:,s91 eud jn nrenv of his sccrrcs. l..rrrc end myth, wc r:etch rhis srrrc clclincation of rhc vlrtyine agcs of nr'n .rnd u,onrcn for cxarrrplc el1 thc 6gtrrcs orr thc Prianr skyphos Iz;rSl Fot thc I3J

,',Lllrrcs ar1cl

1l1tclc up lor in cxPrcssivcllcss of ur posc. Of all Archaic artists hc dcnlonstl :ltcs best thc ncl cour-

'rrnd of posc

Y
Sappho on rhc bila spoutccl.jar (r vcry larc rvork, if lris at el1) hc cxpei|rcnts wjth r thlec-qunrtL'r ficc l.:611. Whlt qreatcr paintcr.s )ikc thc Klc,ophraclcs l);rintcr:rchicvcdthcycxccr-ltcdill:rr)L,r<.rnr\unti,,n.tl t.ltt,r r Ihisrrrihythc llr_vgos ['rintcr is lt his nrost ch:rr:rcrcristic in his irvourirc syrlrposiorr or ;rthlcte sccncs rvhcrc hc coulcl c)icrcisc his colulltaDd et Dortravill oathL, cvcrv-

dev qcstulc or situ;rtion.

rhis ticshncss. His hcuds erc not casilv

rlilrrow cvesl io:rq nosc

k islrgurbJc that Grcck art rrcvcr.iuitc rccilptulcld tbrsotten thc fltt tops, hiEh brou,s ovcrliuc. The rtrouths lrc elr,"ays cxprcssivc, bcllc,$iu{

sonq, pu1i.:cl at thc pipcs, or risht-lippcd. His nrcD erc oftcD b:rldirre, .rir.ll hairy, ;tncl tvpicelly Brvean irr-c thc srul)blc hcad ercl bcurcl ofthc scnilc. His rrsc oi thinnccl pliDt approrches rcxl piulting, end qoes bcvoncl vericd lircrr cilicts. C)r hb vescs encl thosc ofhis companions thcre erc scvcral cxrnrplcs of shudrne suggcsting thc rourducss ofshiclds: l:1d] cl. lz68l_ A fi-rture oi..,,,r. ()nLlos is thc sphyirrg compositiorl oFrwo-fiqurc sroupst l2+ 5l ci l'u,5-t].

!gLIrcs, though l]r'y.gerr,.rr.'hc:rvicr sct, thc fi'xttlrcs oftcrr rrrort li!.lrtlr .1 r, lrcd (str.righ r. not rrchccl br or,r,s), but clrclullv obscr vccl ertd \\,c hil \'( q( r )( l ,,r,.r ot outish lor,crs,,.lir1r:rvc'd roua's, l)u\orlr *,cnchcs lz6-;1. llc t['t,rrlr ,,, .,[ .rnd body h:rir, rncl on lz66] :Lncl l:6t] rvc brvc ntrc crrrrrPlcs rrr t lrn 1, ,,,1 oi shirding. His synrposii hrlc rhc spilit oithc lilgos l)irirrt(r. l)rrl , , I .rrrrl porc urc oficr origi)ll. Hc t:rkcs ln originel vicu ofrrrytlr too. llrt l'.rh.lp! r'clllclllbcIcrl bcsr lot ltis dcpictrolr of ar:Ltt\l11cll lllc b,rrrrrzt , L ll,rrrrr' ,,r'orkshop fronr rvhich hc tirkcs his rrnrc l:6-u ], rvith rlrc lirlrr,rc , ,q stokctl xnd l)lo\n (rlrc bo,v bchind \\ith bcllo\vr. thc strttrc esscrrrLl,,l. ,l ,)1r thc otlrcr sl(le rlrothc[ bc]n!l s(:rlrPcd do\\'n irrrcl firrlshccl. Atrothcr v.l:t

ll

ovcl br Athcnr l:6;1. Irvo othcr tirllou,crs o1_ Bryqos ll-c c-\acllcnt rrtists btrt llrck tlrc nlrtt,:r't . ,iLr 'llrilLl Ilry'gen llcirzlcy cellccl rhcur. Thc hc:r,-ls ofthc-ir-6rrtrrcs:rrc lr,:lcr cvctl, bllrrclcr. rhcir- irttiorr flgurcs sccl1l rchcilrscd lrlhcr th.tll l.,,ft.lr(oLLs in thcir trrovcrrrcrrts, rnd drc sccorrtl of thcnl il1 pitr.tlculrr i\ ,, rrous ir his ttsc of brokcrr liDcs itt clrcss, so:ttctitttcs discord:rntJl :rnttllll 'l,r.iirlly (nr l.trgcr frgrrrcs). soll)ctirrrc\ rfli'dcclly biJlo$'irrg. Thc first is thc i,r\r:1\ PArNnr l:70 .;l rvho likcs thc u'ing slceves for his d:rrrcirrs nrecrrads
,\\ s .l rr.rrl)lc rcrLlptor. u rlchcd

'

r|

.rncl rs

at
His ruvdr sccr)cs lrc cqually oriuinal thc Lrnique dc:rd Alex covercd by Tckricssr fz46] end .r vericty of othcr sccucs cspecially iDvolvinq Achillc:s (llriscis, ant1 thc cluarrcl ovcr his arurour l:471),:ls wc1l as rhc lirllous lhrrsorn ofHectot on rlrc Vicnne skyphos [.21d] ln rhu l)ron,,sr;rc qttnrr rhr lltil hinrscll- crllcrs nrorc irrro thc spirir of his rr-oupc rhar) trsual [:5-l]. Ou l:5:l hc ;tppcars,,.,,rrily on lllc sccl)c of lris s:rryrs'lttcnrptccl rape of lris:lnd Hcr:I. Iris rclir's ou hcr rvinqs fot cscapc: Hcrr on thc cliplorrr:rcy ofHcrnrcs beckccl iry Hcrukles' borv. Thc- satyls :rrc brilliant studics of lust, ovcrt ilud steelthy, of

,, rrs, \\itlr llriscis lcd i\\'i,v lionr r sulking Achillt's l.:70]. Thc L)otrnAsta '\r\ rr r l-rZ+ 7] is gcncll11l'quictcr sti1l, prclclriug ir sk)ak lrrrgc ofkonros ,rrr's lrd sttrdics ()a )1)Llrlg rncn with holscs his rlrlllc detlr,cs ltrorll rhc ruill jrspcatlo) of cxvxlicrs rDd tllcir lltoLttlls conduatccl bl rhe Ath.ni.Llr r ,rLrrrcil :rnd rppltrcrrtll showrr ()D his rrlrrrc v:tsc, lvhclc,i sal it)c is prcsctrt. l,,tll prirrtcrs dccolrtc litr rlcr v11scs loo. Thc I)oklrrrlsll I)eirrrcr is thc rrlorc rlcrcsling with l\\.o srrnrrloi shou,irlg I sPlritcd slxuiihtcr o1_()rphcns b,v thc I rr,rciln u,ornctr l.::zl, rnd:r lilrc celyx crirtcl ill Llostoll rvith thc dceths of \g.urcrlrrlon rrrcl Aigisthos on cilhcr side l.z71l. Thc Agrlllcllltloll, rvilh lhc i.rrq ('rvclopcd in u clotlt. rcc:rllr Acsch,vltts' !rc;rlltrellt oi thc story, but on ()nvcDtiorrrl rlltilrg rlrc vlrsc rs citr]rcr therr thc plodtrctiorr of lhc ,-'l(,rrr.rr,/ra// ;li rr r ) :rrrcl \\'c \llolrld thclctirr c supposc this vcrsiorr oi thc story to Lrc thc \'cnti()rr ()l .Il clllicr poct. Ilrc 1)okirrrrsi;r l)rirrtcr.:rt lc.rst. is $orl'irrq slill irt 'Ihc l)arsrlt or l.ouvtr Ci:,65 is rDotlrcr rrrild (:rncl lltc) 13rvgen, but , psh,rcl l-:7o"]. rn(l thc I)r\lN1l.li OIr lrrr l'\rl\Llr,ANl',1^, ITY rll^r( \'i{orotl\
L,r

lr' r r.rrrc vrsc ollcrs .lrrothcr_

gcncrell,v tbnd ofsccncs l lrh u r)rncl1 xl vtr joLls clolltc\tic occr\iurr\ oF thc )rovcl \,lcws of thc Ilild, so poftr lirr ill lhcsc

no lcsser rltists th:rlt lhc llllstcr but lcss prolific, lcss influcntiel, lDd tlrctc can bc littlc cloubr to u,hont is owcd thc contrlotr stock of figur.es, poscs ald subjccts, cvcr) nruch of the dcreils oi xtriltoltry and drcss. Thc Four.tr,rry l)atNrln |.26.: 8l ':rrrcxccJlcrtartist:rvirhhisfbrciblc,sonrcrin)cscvcllbnrtxl. stvlchcolicncrluelsthc13rygosPainrer'(Llerzlcy) hrs e disrir)ctivc pcr.sorlelity.
rJa)

surprisc, ofc-.rpcctcd satisficriorl- Thc itscriptiors, so irr as rhcy irrc intclligiblc, both labcl lrcl cornrucrrt, und on othcr cups orrr piintcr's figurcs arc sccrr to sjD!l ()r cry out u,ith rcal lcgcncls. SLrrprisinely, keios inscripriors lrc cxtrcnrcly r-arc, bul the peiltcr rvas nor siugJe-rlincicd il hls choicc oflovc thcnrcs. A mrurbcr of othcr cup pliltcrs arc of rhc J3ryeos l)lintcr,s Circlc, sornc

prolilic l:79,.:801. Thc prirtcr'l)()uRr\ 12.9/ .;ool eppcers k) hivc bccrl ,lt lc:r\t ls P)odll(ri\r r\ tllc llrygos Piuntcr, r'lth sornc lhlcc hundrccl vrscs :rrtributcd to hillr. I Ic \rqDs thi, t\--rrinc vil\c! ls Pirintcr, or)c ()fthenr arls() Js poltcl, ltlcl etlotllcr lts i)ottcr rloDc. ln crrl,v c1l-vs hc \\1)rkcd for l(lcophrldcs and, it sc'cttts, Eu1.1.." rrios, but throughout his circcr Ir- rr,'rs n,orkinq fo: drc potter P; rhorr, r,r,hosc .Lrnrc irppcilrs irlonc oD thc pliiilr srclc ofthrcc ctrp licl. l)ouris' llelnc wrs oficrr
c1

137

lakcrl in v:rin. or very popuial. Wc slrv ir r.ritcn or1 dlc ctlp crrriL-d bv u girl on cup by Orrcsirros Izz5]. ancl thc Oerrellino Painrcr. writcs it on I ticket orr onc
vusc encl ou thc dtcss

ll

l-r.i.t

offiglrrcs on otltclr; dtcn dtcrc

is rhc

Triptolcntos Puintcr's crrp, y('t to lrc lloticcd. I)oulis r,r'rs u p:rirtcr ofcorsidcr.abIc cfiicicncy, cllulm lld cltrlluess. Somc tinrcs his slirn, distincrivcli round-hc:rclcd liqtres carry an aur:r of Archaic innocclce and onc canlot Llit tdntirc thc errcrsy and rhc itnparrilJity witlt rvhich hc visits but rarcl,v errheDccs ct,cry gcnrc sllbjcct klo\1,n t() thc Littc
Archeic lrtist. In his hrcr lrtrrk his
pr

,farqcr-y'ou tltc

cftincss bccorucs nrcrelv slick and rherc

sccnrccl rro rc:lson whv hc slrould cvcr stop turniDg oul his rirthcr mcchrlrical lud sh:rllor,r, pliirtiligs. His lonq clrccr runs fronr about 5oo to nclr .+6rl xnd ltis mood rrrust hevc cirirlccl rvcll rvirlr thc ncr, Early Clessicrl.

hctc is comrtrorrly e pllrrlctlc conlPlc\ ,rt citch ctrp hlllrdlc. :Lrrd lvhcrc rhc londo ltes e qlourlci linc lhcilrcir l)clow rs Jcli pllir- Hippotlarnrs is thc'firvourite kllos tr:ttlc- This is I)otrtis rt lris 1rrost chlt.rctcristic lrrcl rccognisablc, though rror:rt his bcst. Hc lovcs tirll crrrves ol tlillrsll;rlcllt d pcry- Thick lr]ack hclrllirrcs :rrc prcfi'rrcrl iur(l \\.c t)cgnl to scc tllc liltc pettcrDillq ofgrouped lirrcs oD drcss H' h.rs bccu thottghr rcsporrsiblc f(r-:ur iltcrcst ill bxck vicws ofsvnlposi rstr Thc l-u9o] but hc is Iror othcrvu'lsc pirrticrllirlly iuvcntivc in poiltlrc. sYnrposiorr lcgiirrs its Plilcc xs :t Prlnlc sttbjcct, togctircl with studi, s .ri \\':llriors :tlrd of youths irt school l:E9] (inclrrding I1r)rrhicll lltcr, with llcrrklcs xttdckirrg his tulor Linos lz96l: Doticc lll:rt thc hcro, lhough
nr:1c1rndcr lrl)c1 sqLrrrc pi1!lcrns. I

9ll Tondo borclcrs IloN .rrr,v thc

clistinctivc Dorrrien silrr:lc

\r

voLrDg, is irlrcadY fict cc-c1cd). Lr9-5 Zl Thc lrrc vescs slqrrrl e [cttr]n ro thc orll;1rc. Thc torrclo irordcrs b,v nou, h:rvc tu,o rrrecerldcr clcnlents trcl\t'ccn thc sqLl;1l cs, llot ollc' :rlld ,l\ \\'cll r\ lhc heDdlc plllDcttc wc scc ll()w lllolc lolltscs. LrslliillY u'llh scpilretcd lcaivc\ \!hich sccrrl csPcciallv l)otll-iilr1, lnd cvc'n HorLlttls blossortrs ir rhc iicld. Most ofltis srudics of u'olllen scclll letc. L)rcss hes

thc grotrpctl litrcs urorc olrctt. with sinlplcr hcrlrs, :llld on lrlxlc\ thc
hooLccl coll:rt trotrcs arc sccn tttorc rarcly.

.tllcrzlcy clistinquishccl li;ur nrain pcriocls in his,,vork bv critcrie which l sumnr:rrisc bclorv, adding obscrvlriorrs on ch:urgcs irr srvlc alrd sLlbjcat interr,st:

Ilis nr,vrh sccrrcs eppcrr lhroLl!lhotrt his career, will) no Pcrccptiblc Plttcrn. llrcrc urc sonrc oclclitlcs, like thc clresorl rcgtlrgitllirlg Jlsorr l:,981 u'idr the ,,lden flcccc h:rngitrg beyond xnd Alheni wttching with hcl owl' This is 'r r1(luc vilri:lltt on tllc Argollltut srorY. Hc clccorxtcs I li'lv orher shepcs His , ,rlicsr signccl work, probilbl) bcfotc 5oo, is a rotrucl erybllJos [26:]. C)f his
11v,

(l)

(ll)

Douris er his bcsr with Do lcss pronrisc lhan C)ncsrrrLos lzEl bcsiclc *hotl hc rney hrtvc set. Thc're is I tcndcncy to thc orlatc ill thc vrrictics ofbordcr pitrcrrr, includins thc p:rlnrctc lriezcs u,hich appclrcd on solrlc of tllc l1reat litc si-\rh-ccnttrly cups, arrd t,,vicc hc adds I fisLrre lriczc routrcl :r tonrlo. Soruc toDclo contpolitioDs anLl nt vth sccncs hrvc a quality of rrr ouu nr cutality rr,ltrrh rrourld r)or hj\(, LI\rjr.l(cd rhc filcr pot pirirltcrs of thc dry. Ilis mouths :rrc per.llaulxrly cxprcssivc, oficD rvilh sh:rrplv clorvnturncd lowcr lip.r (notc thc corrrrlst on l2d-ll). In rhis, end thc lcxt pcriod, Chililcstr:ltos is lhc flrvotrcd krlos nlmc. l":8,s 7, 991 Tirc dccorrrlvc srrlirr rhirs rnd rnost tonclos h:rvc r)o l)orclcrs norv, but tbr rilrc cxpcrilltcnt wjth vrrictics ofsinqlc rlrcan,:lcr clcrnents altcrrrxtjrq lvith scluar.cs. Arr ocLl fi'etrtrc is thc n,ltv hc rrorv bcqins tcr qivc;r bold hook to thc jnncr crcl oicoller boncs. Gcncr.allv rhis is .rn c,irlv fi':lturc brrr J)oU:is cntplr.rrirr., tr lLr(r Il l)l\ t.rrccr (rltt LJrvsor l):rintcr rnd his (lirclc, and M;ikron i{rored it). Sccucs u.irh vorrr}rs ericl ..r'rl, r,"..r rrorr 1 r.r t. r r r d rn rl,. r..rrlr,.r .lr rrrkr.rr.: 1..rr r i. .
sccs
-u

7l This

I r thoi, onc rvhitc ground cxanrplc rcacntl,v recovcrccl cerricd irn cxccPrionexccssivcll. ornl!c Arll:Intl | :911, still rurrrrirrg though in hcr Strndly bcst.
thc scroll in the scllool sccnc [,2691 to rhe lovcr's whisPcr nr ]ris

,,

lhcLondonpsykterlzgg]isdcscrvcdlylenrousiorilsvcrsltllesxtyrsxtnplrrly h-ollr x silt,vl plx,v (ollc drcsscd :I\ Hclrrres). His litcr:rc! is lrl.tll\ sidcd: 6on1
rc

cpic vcrsc

t.-lsc siluiLti(nl 'kccP strll'[:97]. l)otllis u'ls irlflucnti:rl in thc Eerlv 's in a i .lersicrl pcriod. Vcrv ciose to hinr 1n his lrtcst rvork is rhc ()ttrrr'us PatN tlt, ,r 1r,.rsc nrnrc vllsc I sho\\' f3o t l: hcro ;rtrd sphirrx rvidriu, I slryr hrrlil,v orr rhc ,,Lrtsiclc, rvirh:r child pcrh:rps bcing chtstcrrcd for the enlPty r','rlrc jrrr b.rrrX

ol

i.\tcd

'Ihc TRIlrorfM()s I)AlNrliR Iro2 7] is:ru ltcconlplis]rcd erld vcr-satilc rrrist n ho strrtcd as ] cLlp peilltcr [rtlt sool trll L-d to dccorltc thc lit]l reDqc of htgcrrcsscls, cspcci:rlly pclik:ri, strrlrnoi eDd collllllll cratcls, t:lvotlr-ccl bv Illrjr'r puiutcrs ofthc clly. k is li>r rhc llrgcl v.iscs tilll hc rcsL'rves his studics ofnlyrh .rnd Bcrzlc,v :rdmircd his ' nccorrrplishccl. stro11g, purc , c\plcssioll of I irlc Archric urt. His clrps, including soltlc \vith ro[]tlst crolic sulr.lccts l.7o.u l, h:rvc lorc of I)orrrl! rhrn thc llrygos Pllir)tcr ill lhclrl. His cllrly rvork rlcccl hudl,v
ru9

oD thc left.

r38

cletc c,rrlitr lhrr rhc 4so's. rnd rhc Edinbursh ctrp rvith (irecks frghrine l)crsiel]s oD tb()t .ll](] horscbirck (dtc Eestcrtrcrs shooritrg 6!m thcir iloLlllts. cvcn ro tltc rcxr) llrllsr jllustrate l.ccclrt Arhcnliul sLtcccsses [30-;]. His leter rvork, includirrs llost ofhis larscr-vescs, is alrcady E:rrly Clessiciil, of:rbout,l7o. Orr ;rn rrlrphoril of Punathcn:tic shlpc Athcua is acting es scorer irl thc, garrcs, rvith srylus errd $,rirnrs r:rblcr opcl [.7071. ()thc,r nry.rh scelcs a,rd fisurcr,ray be as latc bur rcnr:rin sobcrll. Archaic in rnoocl end cixccutj,r,,; ,,, yr,.:.i.:rl',, ,,r,r. like_rhc ranr 1:rbcllcd 'Patlroklos]' fbught ovcr bv Ajax ancl Hetor [-104]. Iloth p:rirrtinq ard pomirll link hjs work rvith l)our-is :rncl a cup th.rt hc plLrnrs rs siqned as though printccl by 1)orrris. T'his is rot:r casc ofidcntity of:rrrists. nor is it v-crv likcly rhat rhcy hld rhc srnrc n rnc. Ir rright hu ur .rrr.runt ic,l:cry withiD thc u'orkshop, or I conrplil)rc'Dt paicl by thc senior pailrtcr. drc nrost prolific or rvcll prcscrvcd oirll u.rrl1 rcJ ti;ur.c rrtists. Hc si;Lrs orly oDc,.possibJy two, vascs :ts ptiritcr, rncl sc,ents to hevc rvorkccj cxilusivcly

MAt<toN IjoE

/,91

cliliuls sonlc rhrcc hundrcd rrcl

litiy lttriburcd

v.rscs,

irrgfiquresanclrcnclcringcvcnthcscrl,:nnrrrhunr.,,fcloreh.ri{rrrqtoltls\.r,ith carc and vlricry- (ionrperc drc nrlctads' clrcss on his Bcrlin cLrf l-;i rl rvith rhc clull prccision ofthcse dctirils on r)rLrch corltcnrporery r,,,ork. Fot lup r.r,rdix h" rdnrirlccl onlv thc rcgul:lI nlircll)dcr rr b,rr.l,.r \^nl(.Lup Jt.rndlts {ct r ir.ilrtrc \vork of rcscrvcd-hcert pilllucttcs, solltc plLts spik,v icavcd lot,,r"r, ,r. ln occlsiourl ivy trr:urch benceth thcnr. His cerly rvork is lcss iirll,v dccot;rtcd. My rh cllrms fi-rv ofhis vascs, and on thcsc thc l rojln cyclc outnunrber.s :ri1 othcr'\, brrt thcrc rre lo ruarkcclly original cotnpositions, cxccpt fbr ilclir,iclual flr:rrrcs \vhich hrve e ccrtairr casual c:rs.l. M,,rt ,rl'1,i, ,rtlr", ur.r,.r1rs ,rt nrclr! wonrc.D end yotrdts, cl:rrrcinq or pessinu thc rilrc of","r"s'."r.y cll,v togctll.r u,,irh e rrrtnrbcr ofthc uslul I)ionvsi:rc, symposion and;ithlctc subje.tr. Arnu,,ta oth.rs hc rnurcs Hippodanras mc1 Hikcrcs rs kalos, nenrc.s firirlli,rr fronr lfotrris, latcr.crrccl M:rkrorr rves l yoLllllcr-rrr;rn, probably r,vor-kiuE ind rvorkirrs haltll rrreinJy in thc 43o's:urcl r lirtlc llrci.

fbr thc pottcr Ilicron uhosc siqnxtLll.c:tppcitrs ol) ovcr tllirtv ot' ltrs vascs. prirtcd orr rhc hrrrll,:r. Hrr rs r f.rr rorrqhcr lr.,ni rh.rrr I rouris,, his lrqurcs hclvicr, but or) soDlc of his bcst u,orks espccirlly skl,phoi l3od, -;o9l rvhcrc hc is cerchrl too, tltc ellct crrn bc iltprcssivc en.l r-tlni. His hcacls tcnd to I lor.r, br-ou, lucl flat skull, lncl hc is lond ofhair in scp:rr:rrc locks, slrEgcsting bruDctlc or blonclc, fbt borh Dtcn rtrcl lvortrcD. ()D thc bcst vascs hc lovcs clctaiiirg ciccorltion, oticu 6eurcd, orl frrrr)it!u.c. drcsscs lnd skins l7o9,.ii rl. Hc is bcst at wonlcl's drc\s. r\prc\\rn,l rh( Lrrlin,.vrnc hrlds,,n cllncusuell,v inciscd ol

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Mdkra

MANNERISTS

OTHERS

lr , not possible to rekc thc f'ull ntclsttlc of drc E:trly Classicel stylc in rccl I rre il this book, bur mc[c]y ft) introdllcc it:rncl to studv thc llst throcs ol_ \,,lr.risrn bcforc thr.'rlid fitih ccltluy- Thc pcriod is onc rvhich sccs I coni,J, r,ll)lc incrcxsc itr ectivity ill thc portcrs' qllilttcr, witil lllorc llulllclotls , l,t)rts to North rDd South ltlly (albcit lirvcr to Etrulia eiicl thc dclcet ofthc
()u:nlc by thc (lrccks ofsyrlctlsc lrrd (lunlrc lll :lbotlt,+7'+ B(), ,l st],listl.rlly a grorviDg dcpendcrrcc- on thc cx:rrnple of ltlljor peintitll; irr ( rrk sil cturuics anci public Lluildtngs. Wc havc cnlcrcd thc pcriod nLcrl ill arlliquity butstillnotthcv.rsc l, Lrrrtcr s rvcrc lbr thc i_rl st lilllc t'anror.ls ar_lisls Early Cl;rssicel clnrrot bc lirlly of thc ancl thcrlrcs tnood Thc rcrv l,rrntcr\. Lr rllcd hcrc lror thc cilccls of nlljor peiuturg, bur sonrcthillg oi tLrc rrcrv rrr.rnr)crs irl dr:rrviDg carl. A1l rhe groups prcscntccl dcperld, in varyirlt clcgrccs, ,, r thc Archtic. Thc Menucrists itrdulgc tllc Pltlcrrrs ofArchric, withoLrr il\ r'.rrt, with thc c-\ccption oforlc rl)llslcr, thc Pan Paintcr, arld the pot iiDcl ctlP follorvcrs of thc qrcatcr Lete Ar'h ri' l, riuLcrs choscrr erc' pupils, ltlritators or Lrri\ts, l]or thctttsclvcs Dlilstcl-s, bl-1t bcari[q sul]icient i:rclicetion for us ofthc . r' .t) 1.. 1,, rtL r prr.ri'ud Lr.rtlr.'r..
I llLrs.arls i1l

rrU l\l , i,) 1r,1,r,,r Er,,tu lL l)

117

()q

hy ltlak

,l

Mannerists l'hc Err'lv Clhssictl st,vlc cxpresscs rI ncw cthos ro which Archlic dclight il build on l).ltlcrns ol rnirtoltly or drcss collrributcs nothil1q, b t rvhich could Alchaic cxp.:rinrcnt irr subtlct,v ofposc ancl colllPositlol to rctlclcr tlrood or ,nrotion. llrrt thc ptttclr)s of Archaisnr rvcrc tlor qnickly abarrdoDccl lrld !cntulics lalcl thcy could srill infcrrnr :r viqorous sculprtlr:r1 st,v1c. Ll thc,17o's lhc cxh;lustioD ofArcheism and dlc protttisc ofnc$'stylcs lcft.rtists with :l r'hoicc bctr,r,cen cornlllitrl)crlt lo thc l1cw, or lllc colrtillLlilticlIr ofrhc olc1, lvhcrc, u,ith thc hcart gonc, otrly thc trlppirrgs could srill clltclliiin. All thc olcl 'rrri'r' \\clc:lffcctcd by the changc and bccorne'sub-Archaic'in thcir lercl work, nor:rbly thosc rvho hrd bcst cxprcssccl the Latc Archeic noocl, cven thc Ilcr lin Peinter. C)rhcrs, end thcir pupils, rvho rcrrtairrcd colnrtljttcd to tltc olcl hrvc bccn callccl 'Mrnllct-ists' bccltsc sotlrc oi thc c1u:rlitics of lhcir rvork erc rccllJcd b,v MltrtrcLlst rilovclllllltls iu orllcr pcriods ofart. PhysicelJy this srrbt lit.1,

, .,1tyb.ll.\ L), lttl! \t l).y\ ltittt tut dwilt\. H

r19
6.1

MANNERISTS

OTHERS

lr , not possible to rekc thc f'ull ntclsttlc of drc E:trly Classicel stylc in rccl I rre il this book, bur mc[c]y ft) introdllcc it:rncl to studv thc llst throcs ol_ \,,lr.risrn bcforc thr.'rlid fitih ccltluy- Thc pcriod is onc rvhich sccs I coni,J, r,ll)lc incrcxsc itr ectivity ill thc portcrs' qllilttcr, witil lllorc llulllclotls , l,t)rts to North rDd South ltlly (albcit lirvcr to Etrulia eiicl thc dclcet ofthc
()u:nlc by thc (lrccks ofsyrlctlsc lrrd (lunlrc lll :lbotlt,+7'+ B(), ,l st],listl.rlly a grorviDg dcpendcrrcc- on thc cx:rrnple of ltlljor peintitll; irr ( rrk sil cturuics anci public Lluildtngs. Wc havc cnlcrcd thc pcriod nLcrl ill arlliquity butstillnotthcv.rsc l, Lrrrtcr s rvcrc lbr thc i_rl st lilllc t'anror.ls ar_lisls Early Cl;rssicel clnrrot bc lirlly of thc ancl thcrlrcs tnood Thc rcrv l,rrntcr\. Lr rllcd hcrc lror thc cilccls of nlljor peiuturg, bur sonrcthillg oi tLrc rrcrv rrr.rnr)crs irl dr:rrviDg carl. A1l rhe groups prcscntccl dcperld, in varyirlt clcgrccs, ,, r thc Archtic. Thc Menucrists itrdulgc tllc Pltlcrrrs ofArchric, withoLrr il\ r'.rrt, with thc c-\ccption oforlc rl)llslcr, thc Pan Paintcr, arld the pot iiDcl ctlP follorvcrs of thc qrcatcr Lete Ar'h ri' l, riuLcrs choscrr erc' pupils, ltlritators or Lrri\ts, l]or thctttsclvcs Dlilstcl-s, bl-1t bcari[q sul]icient i:rclicetion for us ofthc . r' .t) 1.. 1,, rtL r prr.ri'ud Lr.rtlr.'r..
I llLrs.arls i1l

rrU l\l , i,) 1r,1,r,,r Er,,tu lL l)

117

()q

hy ltlak

,l

Mannerists l'hc Err'lv Clhssictl st,vlc cxpresscs rI ncw cthos ro which Archlic dclight il build on l).ltlcrns ol rnirtoltly or drcss collrributcs nothil1q, b t rvhich could Alchaic cxp.:rinrcnt irr subtlct,v ofposc ancl colllPositlol to rctlclcr tlrood or ,nrotion. llrrt thc ptttclr)s of Archaisnr rvcrc tlor qnickly abarrdoDccl lrld !cntulics lalcl thcy could srill infcrrnr :r viqorous sculprtlr:r1 st,v1c. Ll thc,17o's lhc cxh;lustioD ofArcheism and dlc protttisc ofnc$'stylcs lcft.rtists with :l r'hoicc bctr,r,cen cornlllitrl)crlt lo thc l1cw, or lllc colrtillLlilticlIr ofrhc olc1, lvhcrc, u,ith thc hcart gonc, otrly thc trlppirrgs could srill clltclliiin. All thc olcl 'rrri'r' \\clc:lffcctcd by the changc and bccorne'sub-Archaic'in thcir lercl work, nor:rbly thosc rvho hrd bcst cxprcssccl the Latc Archeic noocl, cven thc Ilcr lin Peinter. C)rhcrs, end thcir pupils, rvho rcrrtairrcd colnrtljttcd to tltc olcl hrvc bccn callccl 'Mrnllct-ists' bccltsc sotlrc oi thc c1u:rlitics of lhcir rvork erc rccllJcd b,v MltrtrcLlst rilovclllllltls iu orllcr pcriods ofart. PhysicelJy this srrbt lit.1,

, .,1tyb.ll.\ L), lttl! \t l).y\ ltittt tut dwilt\. H

r19
6.1

Alchric M,rtrncrisrr Dl:ty bc r.e:rdcrcd by sllrlnrer ligurcs, sntrllcr hceil.,, c\egscriltioll ()l qcstLllc, cxploitiltion ofpaftcrn i| cL.ess lor its orvrr s:rkc wirlr
thc nrodcrn scnsc) ir thc trcatrncnt ofrnygfi. Thcrc rvcre h-accs of Menn,:risrrr ln thc' work ot'sonrc xrti-sts alrcady bet'brc 4llo ancl r,r,c c:rn sec, n,hich worksltol, brcd its nrost devotcd adhcrcnts. Thcsc rvc considcr 6rst. Onc nrajol xrtist, tl)r. Pen Prinrcr, nradc a virtuc of Mannerisnr, :rud his work is in a roLrllv dillcrert class, but it is a syrnptoli of lhc sanru lrsr tl,rurrish rri ,.vh:rt ,.r.rs prrrbrbly rlrr. rllost lrrritflrl rncl c-rciting pcriod ofrcd fisure vesc pairrring in Athcus. .. Ihc Mannerisrs rrc p:rinters nlainly,,i tolnltn ,:rrtcrs. ptJtk.Li .rtrd hyrlri,rr (kalpides). On thcsc rhe sccncs ilrc gcncrally lranrcd with thc old bllc.k ivt pafterns, aDd rvith rorvs ofblack buds xs bordcrs, on cretcr llccks, pelik.lr Ur

)ittlc rcgerri to rhc rilrturxl lirrnrs r,r,hich hacl inspircd rhc Arch:ric schcnrus; rrr nroocl it is rcndcrcd tr_v rrivialitv ofsub.jcct, rvirh e touch of rhc thcatric:rl (rrr

r l,r1\ lhxt IScezlcy's'sub-Arcllxic' llls not wo snpP()rt- Hc w rs rv"rlrrrrl of Arcltaic coruposltioll .trrtl 1'-rttcrrr tl'' r' ', ,,lr bl.ebotrt 48o, his treetntcnt vese [;36] L:rtcrlrc rlirres t'r tlr' thc Mlrpessir as on ,1, rethcl 1,' Prccious, ;,
, ,

l, ,,!i.uv pattcrns alld llorals of Letc Archaisll), rlotirbly c'lc'1it rrr lx)t'lt l \rrlirl 1, , r' ancl cleborated lotuses includirrg thc ncwly rcvivcd str'riqlrt , ,, Lr. rnd lrc givcs sornc pelnlc'lte lcrves spincs. Thc ovol() t(x) is bv rr"tu '

,, ,,,,,,", borJ", 1r^ttcrtr. His best sccncs heve a turiquc thc;rtIi'rlllv rlr ll)t l, . ., rsc, bcitrg en jllPr()vclllcllt ou lifc. Yott cen alnlost llc:rr-thc htrrtl' ''r"l
is

rlr,lr,ittcr,rvhilcrhcdcgreeoflffcctationlndrcssorgcsturcrclldcrstll(\'crrr\

',,, , 's vivid. His dratving , . .,,'ivclv, encl rhc Archaic Pattcrrrs of

Thc satyr cebinct-nrakcrs on [325] probably illustratc Acichl,lus, saiyr phy, thc ThaltwLtpoiLti. ()thcl c.r1y Mlnncrists of yct slightcr qr.rllity rcprcscntcd hcrc arc thc At;nrc;lNro ParNrr,u [327, ,2d], OTNANTHL pArN'Ir.r encl plnslus
4]. Sorrrc of thesc u,orks musr bc rs larc as thc ,15o's and thcy have \Lreau\s,,rs! ro rh( uncl ,rt the tcrrtur v, not consiclcrcd lterc. It is iltclcstinq ru rlrrfi.r rh.lf rhc rl.rs lound.l \uL,ultcl rrrarker in Italy (cxccpr Etruril) then ilrost ofthcir aorltcnlporarics. llesidc thesc drc P,rN P,rrN.r.ln is a parrqon [:-;-s ,1q]. Though with sorllc prcfercrcc for thc Marrnerist shapcs lrc also dccoratcs thc f;llcsr possiblc rensc of vascs including nrany lckythoi (sorne whitc ground), clrp;, sor)rc ilrlrphor:1c alrd a serics ofculr loutrophoroi. His ratigc ofsubjccts is unrivallcd all rypcs ofgenrc, |tyth sccDcs ancl fiSur(\ r(.st.lt(d or rtrvtntcd. Arrronrj thesc rvc rnay pick out scvcral of suc:.ificc [340] or.r.,,ith religious thcrnes, bur our irtist is ro puritan [346]. If Myson's followcrs havc lcnirhe tcrrn .Manrlcrisr' l pejoriltive ncaning, rhen the Pen Painter dcservcs some othcr epirhct an.:l it

The LENTNcIAD PATNILR l-j22-61 ciul menrsc nar;ltivc bettir Lrrrr the ernlciation ofthe ligurcs on [.;24/ is riv.rllcil only bf rhrr ot rhr ,,.tsc irsclt. His v;rsc rvorkshop, visircd by Nikai (noticc thc swiDs of thcir clrcss) lrtl Athcna is an inrportart sccnc, not lcast for thc worlral ;at'tsrlJrl rr thc risht l 1:3]. 'No_r l) itvcragc day in thc Manncrist workshop, rcruarkcrl l3e,rz1'cy. iplopos of thc vasc shlpcs, brLt derails of shapc and clisposition of patcrrr sLrsgesr dlat rhis is a nrN;rl-\,asc studio, \\,jth cltisinq arrd ril.lmg i, p|og."r,
shapc

bctweeir thc hydria hlrdlcs. Diolysi:rc or konros lncl sl.rnposiol sccr., :tccoLlnt for rlrost ofthciI plrirllirlg, with a ferv, sencr.ally old-irshioncd, nr ytl,, Thc shapes, prttems and rlrilny sccllcs are lhose of Mysor, end rt hjs bcnch tlrr carly Mrnncrists ieentcd rhcir crafi. Thc prc pAtNl !R t z tl ts onc of tlrc 1.1 9 first and Bcezley lound il nor clsy ro sly \r,hcrc hc, bcsini aud M1,son encls. For l dcltonstrarion of Mrnncrism look at thc illogicrl u.,avy borclcis to the nre,,.,, himetion on [3.2o] and rhc boy's proportions. Noticci his spccirl rrnphorir

distiDctivc. Proportions tend to tllc slirrr' l)trt Ir()l dress arc vericd btrt sclclorrr ill'rgicrrl rlot Tigzags. His hcxds arc slll:rll' roLrrr(1. \\'11'v lincs, cr1 ,r , , tolcls crrding in "r65 ,r rlr iirll chir s. sirort noscs, thick nccks, bcecly cyes. Hc is circfil with lrrrrtorrrv 'fhc Ir , 1, r Lr1, o ficu addrng cxPrcssivc cxlra lio es alld ercs on arl1ls iuld nccks 'r'rk arc clclialltly itl rocks ,, rrr' coller boncs is sonctitlres dct]chcd. Fissurcs .rr ,.cLl [135, 1141.

j;i91.

Parrrur[;;o] r,",ithsonrcpicccsLnlxttached[11r

Ir29]

bcll cralcr ill Boston, ntusl hrvc beerr pxintcd il1 thc 46o's, by a rustic idol to pursuc a 1,,,b;rb1-v carly Ir,,-5]. It givcs us Parl, inspircd lbr Attic art Obscrvc thc gocl ncrv 1l conlpirativciy n"ru r,-,b.j"ct, ,,,1"1,. rlrr,:e hcrds - rrortal booby, anirnll divinity, poP-cycd synlbol of country ir .r1tcrs. Nolice hor'r, thc artist ttscs iris brush thc cap, goatskl cloak, Pan's 1,, rtl. rocks. On thc othcr sidc Artcrris thrc:rtcl)s with hcr bow es she swccps bccn l,r\r Akt:rion, torn by his dogs, an lru flung up ir :rliorry. Thcrc-hes ,,,,rhing in rhe convcntjons ofrccl6gure to lcad us to belicve thxt such a mood ,,, cornpositiorr wts P()ssilllc or cvcn adDlisslblc But, lbr allecration noti'c rl,. slirrincss of thc gocldcss end tlre tiny dolis; col)lr:Ist thc sr:rckcd nrultiplc .,riz.t!;s of Artcrnis' hinr a tiotr, with the shakcn-out folds oIher skirt, with thc
I lis rrarllc v:lsc. a

r..lo.king hook lolds on Aktiion's cloak, :rud thcn recall the sr'virling patrcrrr frrr l,rttcnr ofihc boy's clrcss on thc othcr side of thc vise. This is
,

but divc: sc arld subordineted to figurc end thcrnc' Wc havc an , ulicr lrcatn)cDt ofthc Akteion story by our irrlist 1337-r], rvherc hc givcs rhc lrLrntcr a dccrskin bocly-stocking lor his clogs to worry and tclrThe Athcns pclike with Hcrtklcs Frqhtiuq the scrvar)ts oflSusiris [3;t6] nrry 1,, :r little earlicr tharr rhe Pln vasc, llrcl is Do lcss clrerDtlic iIl mood Novcl
l, rtrcrn's sakc,

r8o

rilr

I Ktlpi!

by

tlt L,: i !rt!] Pthnt t/d| lItllJDP

,t1tl 1\

ita -\,J tuth,rrl\th, \ tn,,. H il

p4t', tilt,.Tln,

J,a (:.htn M1(

by

1lt

pi.q

pai ttt

t2t (:tlt

it t'dtt' l,),tht l,il t\r1ttut

t22

Collr ndtu

I'y tht.LalirytuLt

l\titut

rrl Nuk anrylnr'|t)v ttu I'"rytdl "iikt n lttutluYl. H. 50

Pdi'ttt1

r.ra l:r4,rj /,I rr( L.xn1(rnd

Prin(

1'npilh5

lKri 'r')

l\

Ird llrilr

l,), rh.

i'trv,J
20

no. Hnn. H-

.J,? Krli5

H.nrt5,Ar!.\n t1o

by

tli lqiantu ltri r\.

t,tt

Knlpi\

b),tu A.\ri.q1tu

l,dntk1.

t29 Krl,it ht tfu Onldnth. t\tith,r

-1r, l\'1itu, ),1r &'i5t. ,4.ltillLi t.irt! 4r d kati

1i5.1 lltll trlto'hytht Pt

r L\1i1tttr

l a trn\') hr

ntld

b'y H'l7')

jt) {)rlr ItLhntt,Ll. ri),t ()ltrt ,lrt /)r,!rf\)r l/..i().5

L(lytha! i\1d 0in H

)9.2

rrs i R.roJr./ir5.r

1r!t i!

nn,l .4ktrit)t

0 0

1u .)'

1.16

P.lik

by th(

Pd Pri

ttt

Hodkt.! o d Br\ni,

JalZ

1 llaLrt. oak\

by thc l\111

lrai n\ Art. ti! r

d Aktdjon

irir

/l,rr,! nl tt/-.t 1)ir l\,:r tlia

i1E-t,) l)i,kt(rby ttu\'dnPdi to.

ANLIa li.Chl\

Iddjji'r M/{"Jjd

1io Colunn (db

hy ttu

l\ ]\titt

ttl Oi oJat by tht Pt ht tttl lhr.t\ d l ()tuithtir

tj

Lltll

.1(t

l')' th' l\t|P'rn'tua l)id')'n'J

tt

t ,)tti|i h)'tt( h

l)ri ttt

119 Nrl,l rtqnnrtu lrl tlr 1\u l\tifitt Z\:n lCity \h

1a, C.hon mtu hy *(

Pdn

Pa" (

l'

Nalr r lhan l)y thl I'd Pa" 't N'tuitl

rvrtion rlliun - thc btld, circulncrrcd Africaus' ancl inclulgcncc 'rr' is i,r rr r.ll pattc;lr on rhc lltlr. (lcstures lre cxxgccr:ltcd no- hrrthcr tlr 'rr rlr-c qtr'lrtics rr'rblc Ctrrlll' dltrlr'rr'' ,,,1Lrr'cd to dcmonslratc thc barba;lrrlr' hv rhis ,1,. ,rrihlc il1 other acliorl sccires whcla Ar'h'lit vigour lr erllrlnrtti
,,1,,,
L

irr

lri-

llis l'ntcst work lacks bitc (es l:+t.:++' 3161), thc sharp relieflirrc is less ,,, rlrrlv ust'd and rhetu rs.L rc\elsion to nlorc formal Archaic pattcrn' but , L ,,,nirious no\\ iltld nlort tlul\ mannclcd 'Thc Paintcr bcgins:rs I tuln_ r istr ., r\r. llrd crlds es it ltrtlnerlst. Bctu'cen hc is rnol c' (t3eazlcy) Thc M:lllll' .,,,.,",,.,-friri"ti-f.urlosity,butthcPanPainterdclivcredArch:ricGrcekert's eni ection in an Athcns wherc muralists' v'tsc Pxinr('l! i.,., ',"i",tr.t" ofp"rtcrr-r workjrrs lowards the ncrv Clessical idcrlism Hc *"." .lolpi,rr, , ,1. a;;", fi,ll,r*'".s of qt,^lity ilt such a clitllatc bttt il w's 6tljn!5 thit lhc ,, l,f fr"r" ",, rrr grcrl exponcnt of thc Archaic \{:r\ :rls() one of its lnasters'

l.

sophisricatcd llair u'id-r linc encl dress-

i16 Dtb\

l)y th(

Pa Pnttlt

l'ot painters
I L,, srennos hacl
r

,, ,,,rc'vasc

\ \crv( d ;,,', .""rit .tfror, if," ,''i' of lru 't:r rrr rro' t r b"trrc lt 'rt It rl\ 'r)olessicrl Early finc j,ff.r.,,t is I lhcm. p,-,rp,,"" from [350[ ,,,, ,l"a;.^rr" rlrc ,ui'L,i .,. '.,1., *Lr 'i"''t h'rrc buerr J Prrprl''r llrc,Ucrlrn P'rtntr:r'
t t '

( xnd bcci iln ilnportant \h rPr in the flrst Lltlrrtrl ol the cn lury cd'r rJrrnl.rirr'\n.rltl ollgh lll.U"l 'rrll'r'ttlll prelur th''l'rrgur'r'rtLr''rllJt

i, rift"a Uy Mothcr E'rrrh (Gc) irrro thc rtrrrr of Athcna' i ;;il;; by thc vase h:rrrdlcs' fr,u e god and by irotes poiscd on thc tcnclrils ".,ifr.'a (born fronl scnlelr child ofthc father donor rhc Ucph.tistos, r r,, -oa o..rb"frlv Ath(nrr'i'Jrosrrirrthc or , l,.i:'; I;;;.,'r'i,,,ilr- ,r" t<la" 'rrr( rrrprud rrr( lll ( '- r'rl ( )l\ I I] pl'l' . L\!,\\.ot \\ |l rt uu re\ oqrrt.c.t\ rhc I rl l1 t il.r*ii rl irl 'crrlfl tlr., rrrorr' ' ,u.i,:l,r .,rlr. bodr irghtlr 'hrftcd on Irr urr\ l(): hrrl wrtlrorrL The posc rrnrts , ,pfr"ii. f"S.r.rrri,-rg o, p"rittitivc lorttho'tcnirrs ofr'rrli'r by light rcudur'd rrrd hiru pl"rtibi - ai that oFthc Eros bchrnd , , ,]ir,,-.'a irr bur.rpplicd ",ri rs unlhrrtntd uhi'h in prinr ,,,,irrrt aain""tlon of anxtonry Drt'rr c.rrrtts rhu 'wccuirrs hool' ''nd : ;,. i:.,;i,; b,. ,..r..,rc
.,..| i,,"." f"r1.

of thc Pa.INTtilt oF MUNI(

11

241

-l

' Thc

hr

ld Eri'

rhonror' r forrndcr

',-[... *i,i.h ', 't 'l'" lr' rricr dr'rp' rr 'r.d p''plo'-rtc'rinr 6grrrur (\errl rhc-cliJrrusl brcek ,,i l."riy Cf""i*f in sculpture too md *Lch Icpl pro6lc vicw witlr good in livcly' arc widc, ,' ,rl, A..hai. pettcln. Thc: cycs but the pupil sti11,r;rinly circtrlar. nrarkcd, .,,,:"i*irl,,rry*iia, cclge its top '-ii" attist HETMoN^x Er-i.l-r,f*rni"t v^.. w"s-1o"g to"sidered tbc work of the lor 'rll rl ' trrrriit rr''w"rrrd t'tr *rrrg di"n' rr ..ho1,.r., *,11 l!q.rzlc1 ' bl' th'rt hc wirs susqe\t to Hur),or)rx irr cnoug-h little l,;;ri";-;; r;;" rhere is rrr'l r ' rrl'' ri pclrk .,..,b1. oi rlir' .tL'.,litv I i5 r al' Hc ii"n' f'rrnr'rnrn"i fir'' 'i."", erttl thc big.cratcrs 11ot ttt hi' f"t'or'Iritc shiPes t,f, tr..|.
""rpt in rilu:rl loutrophoroi lrc clecoratcs sonlc sllul]er vases as wcll as a spcciel linc

,il.-"",'"

r93

lt7

L.kfthas by

tl l,dt P,ti t.'

t.jE Ltkylb\
/'j,rnrd'.

Nilr.

hy th( Pn

149

H.

J!

lri'lJr"r

l)tli/|. bt tht H Priittu. rf i/r.{.l.(.,r.i,,,

grlvcs al)d dedicilliolls otr tserlin Peintc'r, lnd we r',rtr pupil ofthc him as a Beazlcy salv Acropolis. thc glirnpsc the rnood of thc master's cool figurcs cspecially on thc Nol:rr);rrrr phoric, but not, unforturratcly, his delicacy of rouch llrhough dctrils ,rrr' iopicd (c.g. ankle rnrrkirrgs, lotus types) All thc ncr,v clcrails ofEar)y (l)rtssi' rl drllving arc hcrc thc hook folds, grouped lincs ol drcss bur with straight 'rr at least rot zigztg hcns, opcn eyes. Florel friezes are bcccltning popular rrg ritr, laurels [352] on pclikai end hydriai, xnd an occ:rsional revcrsion to thc ol(lrr, straight-s1ded lotus rypc, rlnd solnc looser tcndrils. Aprrt froln :t rarrgc I'l ordiirary konros and Dionysiac sccnes, r,vith a snrall rarrgc ofn yth, his spcci r lit v seenls to bc the Olyrnpixns, notably Zcus, logcthcr with xrr:Illnost cxcc\\i\r fondncss for pursuit scelrcs, sccular or divinc (Eos llter Tithonos or Keph:rl'rr, Ilorcas and Orcithyia fj5z), Zcus ald Aigina [35r], Poseidon [::-i]). Hc rv u workrng from lhe htc 47o's probably to thc nlid ccntnry. Thc namc vasc ol r follower, rhe PAINTEn oF THII BIr{TH oT ATHLNA, prcscllts J Pheidian thcrlrr',

with filllcrxl or wcdding

scerres

for honrc usc

only

cr-Ittillg oll:r forelock rlr, \vrrrior '1.'p;;r;;,'

Prr)vidcs [;orl' pre<urn'hl1 for dcdiL]tlon (h( p'rrr1t''' ' : \(rrr"rrorherol uhr',h roi ,a;'pr.,r,,f ''"'""' J\k'rln',"n tlrc hurrtr"rr ,,, r..r\. Ihr Nrxur l,arrrrnl{04-ol r'.rrll, '(;lrukorr v''st' H' h'rt bu'rlirrg on Jrrolher , ', ,,j.,i,1. t,,' ,",t., ' ""nt L'''''o' i'h'p' 'u,.n""1'l'r'rt'nt I *J \r(rur\ rrith lr 'rphlr'r"rr A,;1, ,.;.,',:; ,' i" r,L L,' ,r,,1 J,,,r. s r.'"",,iiili::i:,Iil'
I,

"', I r th, 'i rn thi\ qroLlp rrleludc \oll1c

]::',:i Jli[';,i]:::i

frorn Troy (co'nparc I , lr;-ti ;. : [i, o,' R'n".'' rcscuc of Anchiscs prrr' rrrsorrrhL \ol rrr' f , '.,,|,. f,rt'll f',,'.bc'rrcb*'v'd-rh'"ilrcirourrdli'rL t'mc,'rrt'ltort''tttt' ,',t,"'..i.."*,nf,t, tho'. rr otrnd cup torrdt': rrrd th'rc rntr\l b( Ilr( 4r'o \'

I,,::i* :.:::l:,].

i,.ii ,;:;

r,it l,l '1" \:kun

l)rinr.r' thoru' ch'erlc't.oIrhu "ld''d

+;:'t

:m*:::jl:::lii.:i:'L:,',ili,1l:Xi::i:l:

,-.f. ,f,. v.r'..1lrc lr'1d''r ror thr' wlrol'' iroup

but thc rnidget Athcna bursting from Zcus'hcad is still Archric [,rJil. IIr'' florels arc;rtrociotts, thc 6gurcs little bettcr. Thc Bcrlin Painter decorlted a numbcr of Nolan amphorae ancl lekytlr"t throughout his clrccr, notably larcr. Thcsc are populer shapcs lvith nrrlr'r

Cup painters

Etrly Classicai arlists aDd e few mly bc mcntioncd hcrc, cspccillly thc'first, whois secn to bc a pupil ofthc Bcrlirr Paintcr- l3eazlcy fek ablc to call tlr' PRovr)F.NcE PAINTLn an cxccllcnt artist [356 9]. Altcr the Archaic wc clcrrlll' have to look ior othcr crireria ofcxccllence, yct solllc thc precision, bel:rrrtt and prttcrn arc apParcrt still in thc major Early (lltssicel artists likc tlr' ruiobid and Vill.r Giulia Painlcrs, who arc not collsidcrcd in this book. l lr| Providencc Paintcr is ncar and unprclcntious, not obllvious to Pltterns ()l drcss ard body and rcluctant ro brcak with Archaic poscs although dct;rils 'rl drcss and drawing, lrnd so[Ic sobriety of tlrood, ere in thc ncrv ntllllet Nolans er-rd lckythoi ollcr no oPPortulrity for elaboratc scenes:tDd or-rly ott some slunnoi and hydriai do wc scc groups ofgods or minor rnyth Hc liktr pursuits of u'orncn, indced most of his wolrcn scclll in a hurry' carryirrli ernrour [;581 or in donrcstic sccrlcs :l bustlc to whicl-r cvcn his Arhenas llrt not inrrune [3571. l)ctails ofdrawing rccall his masrer cycs, curin!5s, xnk]cs sonrc florals. Hc workcd in thc decadcs bcftrre and aftcr 47o and pr.rrst'
Glaukon on scveral vlscs. (lthcr artists rcscnrblc hinr. and hlve the s:rnlc illtcrest in thc bcaury ol (llaukon. and of Charmidcs, Nikon, Timoxenos and Hippon. Thcy arc lcsser nlen, pcrhaps, in choice of sul'rjcct-matlcr, and lcss prolific (the Providcrrtc Pairter ntttstcrs rleerly x hundrcd and fifty ertributions). Thc OttlNc>tlt trs P,uNlnn [360 -;] displays sonrc viqour and humour w]rich carr rcca)) Skythcs' Thc Dionysos and sltyr [362] rchearse all old thel)te though in ncw dress, btrt thc Pcrsitn ([360j fighting r Grcck on thc othcr sidc of the vasc) rcminds trs ofa nclv thcltc for vesc paintcrs inspircd by rcccllt cl-lcountcrs in thc ficld; arltl
194

cotllttrtrc irl I wcrkencd forttr lcw cup paintcrs workiDg n'illh ilr thc 4('o's Mlnlrerist flourishcs. Thc soltlt rLlf trirditlons of Latc Archaic, ,,ot *,th,,ut ;rrlrsts whos( rcPerrory stverrl by rcc'rlled of l)ouris is .'i";;;;"t.; 't, I rttcnrton orrll thc Axt't"*o". b(\L,nd rh( L)lun\'rJ('ot rht loirro'' l)rsH PAIN,F. l''7r' ;,li F;;-r; ar;;i' ,r,n sun"'"i I'ArNrLr lJTrl; rhc

'l.rnlro,..'sp..r',lisilrrh('I(nrnl',ddish.h.rpr.llo((up\:JlldIll(EUAlitN or sonr'' rrrrrrr -nd n urc ,'. ;,, l;r;. ;-, r-41. slro i' ' nroliGc rni'r ol lri''rrr'rll-hcrLl'd 'lrrr' -r., .1,..r.,1 l', ,,,,,od "lrh.'uqh ih""'r.*t1 o{ ( ornPo\rrinn irr \trb(l.-rv ric ::]). :.':i.l'; : ,:,,"i, i. ,'. i:' r,.",rr Ar'h introdrr'" ofrurr 'orr"rirrrur 'lrrghliker,rlrc i l:i:: ;:'1.',l,j,il, r,'i"" o.,irrtur 'ld ll;;,li;|-:.,;;; li',. ro, ,,, "p'igiu-'"o'nsul.' erorrp' ,rr'd hcotrrsrd( ' ' trp\' rnd the grorrrtd lrnr\ lo'r'lo' firr bordur' tl ,',f -r'',.ty'p,t,.,,,' sectitn wc find lotuscs srvollcn ( )r scvcrai cups [ry parntcrs rrlcnu;;cd it this as lt"itl.'"p"' well as ti.tc oldcr varicty u'ith ,,,,1 sirnolified into knobbly '"y lcr[' l,lLrrnp.r11r rlld long ':cntLc rs rlrrr'rr;rlly morc robust' erld this' conlbincd on Makr ot 1 hc follorvrng fbr ltttt"or" Thc CuNtr; Parxrut []76' rr ith lo littlc Mannctrstll, cen tlrlke r I rrr(''lrrt 1'erlr'rr" rlr.r( ('r)rphr,c thrrr hi' rrrr\l( ,,' i ':""rp'r' n'r'rtd t''r 'n ''ryl''rll"' r' l"rri' ",,,,",f,,,, .,'1.r,o,,,1 Lrrr , q,'.'cl ,,h*,u.r. H' r' .,.,',,'r, Lrlrt-rrudy o1_:r hotlr u'rth'cltps'h'rtrutn{ url tht rvrll' Lrltl 'L rrr thc p,.o'hotrnir sttrgctv *r'rn*crcd t,or': is T''-'u"o' l'awrr^ lJ1618rl ,irr'.;r ilr;l il his ircss' but cen bc.confidcrrr errtl oortions ofhis figurcs atrd sonrct;;1cs in rlot withour rvhat Bcezlcv calls rr's,rilclcss 1,:,.,ff,,;:,; niJi;"o ''ua','r,o' rapt,re scizini. Tirho.os ir dte llost.tr il:ili#:."ii;.';; ;"L,,i'i,, ofbcwildcrt*.- t"u" thi'roughiy e"ig"'atit sttu" ,1., frirl " "tt""'a', and a warrior silcnt "'n.,., yot"g old"' t'y rrrcDt and scerch corrcllrctccl 'it""'

""d

r95

bcior,,,a peak. It has bccn associated with thc srory ofthe rcturn co Atircrs ot thc dcsccndants of Kcphajos, r,vhosc nante is that both of Eos' othcr swcct hcart rnd of lur Attic dcruc-hcro. T'his is orc of tr,vo ofthis peintcr's cups sigrrc,l by Mlkrou's potcr, Hicron. On othcr. vlscs Licltts is preiscd, a lavouritc ol tirli Classicel :urisr, rhe Achillcs Paintcr. Thc.rrp J-rdoj prcscrrts an old thcrrr,. but rvith a nclv usc tirr ll_vinq drapcry and noticc thc nrlnnered florlls, tlr,.
r

ij

o..r

/),{ii1./ rio

racquct thYrsos.

Finally, thc Boor PATNTER, on whosc cups Bcazley lvondcrcd whcthcr rv,. sce thc latcst work of the Klcophrades Painter. Thc figures undoubtctlll, havc a ccrtain stocky prcscncc, but if they xrc his then thc grextcst ol rl)(. Archaic artists had an inreresting old agc, brighrened by thcsc figurcs ofrrirk(.(l Lo)itas and thcir big boots [382]. Thc rhcrn.rnc ch.rnge is rntr:JligiLl,:. rrrcl whcr r. mvth is showD it is hlndlcd with confidcnce; thc stylistic chxnqc is admissiblc, thi' r. chc r,,,'rk ofuitlrrr I young rnJn or .c.ond .hrldh,,od.
, .\n",,!J
/,

),

Hr,rro,r\.

-jjo-t Str nr!hlt/.I\ri

tL\

tl:\lini& 14ttllt lt u\.)_tli hol F.tuhh.

itt!

...<'.....",.'--.

d hy Hu .ltrr 1:, Irilik( 'l.t Brh$ nnl Oftitlifir

t)j L(ktthr\ hy HtnN a\ Po\(m. 11ur k,t. H .16

n nr') JjJ l).lil. l,l lr l\inltt ,'l th. lttth 'l lthtnn lr .tt1 5tLt,to\hlHl hiitl\ l\ ltrl t)ttrhtu)

158 l,(kytha\ l,y th(

J5( LtLytho\ hr th. Pn'ridtlr(

.t6o Nala

a1111)h

a hy

tltt Oit

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161 L'kj'tha\bl ttu Ot'lntkl'\

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t5q

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dnDhn

{,

Nolt allthori by 1.Oio akk\ Prittt't'

j6

r Nrli,l tnllut bt th' Oid ll.J ili,,rrl

ll.rnta. Dio ylt ifi

tq Noh n ryhon

I'y th.

Ni[., lk,rrr.

iad C,1, /,)'./,.,4l.Jr.rid.r Pd'"'r'

to9 t'ttlt Lt tht

lt l'ttrtt..\tlnttn

i65 tr(),t/e,! r), /r. \ll.rl Pri .it- lyhik.qtuntl. H. 12


161 N.tk

t d\nn bt tk ClNuridt\ Pii t.r

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tltt L rnh , t\r kl

176 Crp lry lhe Chti.

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jili ()1p I'y lfu'li'lL'tha! l\nt!.t

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by

tht ll{t l\tittttr

Chapter Five

SHAPES AND DATES

b
08
;":,;;'no,g;; ,;;;',si"
l.1u l.

Shapes

The lengthy discussion in AIJFH Chapter Ninc obviatcs the ncccssity for detailed re-study ofshapes, names and uses, and thc developmcnt ofmany ol' the more important shapes has been considered in the course of rhe chaptcrs on stylc. Some recapitulation and con-rment on new or complex shapcs wiJl
sullicc. Amphorat. Of thc belly amphorae very few ofthe old varicty are still madc besidc rhc rrcwer Type A with irs angular handles and steppe d foot 18, r 46, r 7 t ). Type C, with rollcd lip and plain foot Ir5z], has a limited vogue in Archaic rcd figure to about 45o. Neck amphorac less often follow the standard late sixthcentury scheme [t49, t64, jt9] but the small 'doubleens' with doublc-rccded handlcs and concavc lips are made chrough thc Latc Archaic period Ir 64]. Therc are Nikosthenic survivals [56], copics ofthe Panathenaic shapc ft5t, t 6z, t 7j. 3o7] are particularly common after 5oo, and pointcd versions resembling thc plain wine jars ltjz, t96). Thcrc arc a few special varieties as well as diffcrent forms ofhandlc ridged, rceded, twisted [138, J24]. Morc important arc thc small, high-necked Nolan amphorae 116o, j6ol, introduced about 49<:. Pelikai become very popular after 5oo, cspccially with the Mannerists [142, r79, t8o, etc.l. Neck pelikai are rarc [383]. Hydriai. The sixth-century shouldered type has a surprisingly long though tenuous existcnce to at lc.rst 48o lr 75]. One-piccc kalpides are far commoner with thc figurc scenc tending to spread off the shoulder and round or-r to the bclly of the vase Ir89]. Oinochoai arc easiest summarised by outlines of thc varieties decorated in Archaic red figure, giving Bcazley's classificatlott (see next page). See also for

DU
thc-

Vase-NewisrhebcllcraterwhichisrePrL.)cnrcdonearlyredfLgrrrecups.but fr'" froln about 5oo on Ir5ol' Some cartv ex'-,!1.::':: k;;;;;.;;r.."1y rcgul;r' lrtcr rrc rnhrch handl(\ r,l* ,r,a ..."rrl h,rue lug. 17151 nor loop fr'-ir,' t'' wooden ve'sel'' wc 5rc (he old dino{
.hrpc on

'n tobecome 1Ire'tanrno'prc'cnt'mrrrorshrpcrarr'rtions rendrng .i,,i,n"rr,,;n,"p.,'re'112. iaa tqS' 1o4 J5t' J54l A'wella'rhcu'u'l"bulbous holc: fur lrds) , ,Af , .omc oi rrhr'h hrve ':an 1'tring "," l:d "n" "'rl,.r.ita. ordin'rry 1hr P\yk(cr ' lrle r\ J i,,i t.,-.frrp"a toolcr with hpour l:6r l Dott(rv \hJpr I' Troln thr 520 \ lo lbout 460' v'' r..tic' ha' bcc, dr* u"ed'lre rd) ""'a,,,'iii. a.r.l.o,n.,i of th" p,.'n''p'l 'P'''p'h.,iot rnd Pvthon mak' Clralcidising i,, in"'*.t'."''", c'r; il,;,tt'
.o',1."u"'.i,r'tr, ..r"r]rble corntnon

:76) C,p skvp!:'' ;;;i;-i;;;"J;*u.J (.o-p"" 'arni:rrg ljll:I"* frgtll c fi tpe zo' : o6] rnd thcrc 1et'' bl
'tk
I

Type

oflife in 6fth-century red 6gure [t69, t7o), its handle platc supports now wholly columnar. The volutc Ii54, i8r] and calyx [zz, 24, 130, 188, ctc.] craters remair-r favoured for the most elaboratc work. The former is often left with a black body; the latter's height comcs to overtake its width in the 47o's. The Syriskos Painrer has a volute crater with figures on the handlc sidcs, as there had been on thc Franqois
Cratets anil coolers.'lhe column crater has a new lcasc
2o8

[z-rz], Typc

z [zr]. Typc

a is called a 'chous'; Typc 8 are 'mugs'.

stcrnmud vrrietv' sL<vphoi ;;';;;; ;;;;,[; .;p, *irh th' fl"'ing bowls of tirccorrnrhian kotvle of which the ;"; ;"i1";.;;i;;iigt t w"lls (deriricd from Aspccialtypc(B) red ftgurc in 309]) Izo5' ii.l- "r.i'""" o. r*o ctse imitations vertical' one horizontal ;;;,;;x;., and its carronical lorm after 5oo-h"t o"" which commonly appears

i'r""i[. ii rt ,r."""a"ys called a 'glaux' efter the owl somc r bcak and .r'i,l r.f,. J"."."ri." latcr (thc handlcs h'rve Ll\o .uggc\tE d to sides (Type A) strarght havc may handles, upright ,rili. ilr" r",r,n"..s, with ,i'"r."a flrifi" i"a figun 'hrpc whi'h mry rl'o be stcnrles' "1"."..t,,. fhckyrllro\drpprr curvr\'\ .-l ,o.flt.",'di'rlt.vlretyf,'ourcdb'Hcr'rkle'' ftgurc' rn blrcl rh'rn r'o ifl. q"o.lz;41. .,nd ,. ft..,ttt

209

I
Oil.flasts. A lcrv early lekythoi have the tapering or swelling profilc ol lrtc black figurc but latcr:r11 arc cyJindrical in form [zlo, 211, 249, 294, etc.l. The squat lekythos appears by about Jro but only becomes really populer latc in drc fifth ccntury. Thc spherical aryballos is still madc fz8z, j771, as tr rcfincincnt of thc Corinthian shape (in usc on 14, z4.j]), and thc alabastron 1208, 2og), often white ground, recalling its original stone form- The askos is new, from the 48o's on, with shallow (Shape r) or deep (Shapc z) body, basket handle and oblique spout for careful pouring [;r6]. The shape recalls the wineskin with a tied orifice, whence its narl-re (not applied to it in antiquity). Ritual shapcs. The lebes gamikos will become important again only later in red figure but the loutrophoros is decorated ofterr after Joo wirh funeral sccncs [l4r] or fights, occasionally with weddings. There are no cxor(', decorated funerary shapes; no funerary plaques in red figure. Votivc plaqucs arc still madc, howcver Ir8, 52, 53]. Othcr shdpes. Lidded pyxides arc coinrnoncst in thcir Typc A form, with concave sides fu75], or powder box (Type D) with slip-over lid. The plairr cylindrical (Type B) and Nikosthenic 197] (early) are also seen. New arc stemmed plates and dishes. Figure vases, usually in the form of human or animal heads with lips dccorated in rcd figurc, arc madc from about 5oo on, and rhyta, copies ofEastern pouring vases with 6gure additions, from aboul 47o; but thc whole class, wcll reprcsented latcr, is bcst considcrcd elscwhcrc. Phintias madc and signcd some cockle-shcll aryballoi, and therc is the charming astragal Izo4], and odd sphinx stand Ir o,J]. Representations on vrses suggest the cxistence of other, more fantastic shapcs, oftcn with phallic acccssoric' 1284, jo5l: cf. ABFH fig. r77.

The stratifrcxtion ofthe Acropolis dcbris is confused and confusing' althottgh *rc concentration of Arch:tic vascs should cnd about 479' ln the Agor:r clcercr drlo.il\ Jllribulcd lo lhc:r ycrrs Jre Totrnd. but thel arc ruhli\..ly Ptr"r rrr

;;;;6;;"; ,"a ngut" pt..., .,td do no more than confirm thc susPc'to(l .i,,.. ih"," i' .rlwry' tlru put'ibrlity rhrt orlrr'r oi' rsi.rr' '.i1ue,,cc. A,,d r'rrr ororrptcd rhc filling.-,f'orrrc Pir' end well' whilc'Pur'tan \ack ciulrrr\ dangcr of thcre is-serious pottery, ofits date rhc apparenr bi i,t"rrtif,.d inlfd. irr
Th" ,l"riratatio,t lcvel at Erctria nray wcll provc mor' "rg.,r-t,"r'ra i;;,;^ri";,'"s wcll as furthcr study of ostraka from Athcns potshcrds witlr this purpose is nr"fii,o ,t"rrr", uscd in voting for ostracisn Thcir re-use for K1'ophrades tht vrses b1 ot frJHnrunt\ two Fo. e*"rilple, date"blc. .,.1,,,r.,u,r",
.-ira'ul^,

ij"iui".."rrv Mcgaklci na,,,c ^"d 'o rT tl'r ltt'e bccn p'rrrrr':d' rnd brokcn' tr"i"..'u"giU.t ,i"s osrrxcised i1r 4116 B (l (though they might be from a possiblc in
s.'-lrJ or,'r^.irn in thc 47o's). Thc
,,p iri tlr"

evidencc of kalos nllnes we ccinsidc'r (.hiDrcr Srx (under Inseriprrolls) and syn-rbolic Lrse of lnyth at thc start of
bc thosc set L h rprcr Eighl. A I'.rn P.rrnicr vr5r shows thrcc hcrms, which tnay

t,, .clcbralc' thc capture ofEion in 476/475 ]l (i' Thcse comPlcthan confirm thc Posited dating' rnent rerhcr lr-) Vascs detcd b\ lheu corlluxl wlth other objccts for which a chronology [.,. b..,r u'rrblislr't]. lh.re I' rro joy Ircrc 'in'i thirr i' r]o (nrrl'lrrpor'rr] ,"ri.. ,rf,"r". .ir1ra, prohic cr-rough or wtll cnouqh stlrdled- rs rhere. hrd bccn d:rtcrble than vascs' c:rrlicr (the Corrnthian series), andiorns arc no rrorc closely

.t[o."

Dates The relativc chronology of Archaic red 6gurc dcpends on the clcar stylistic dcvclopment which can be traced, cvcn within the work of a single artisr, rcinforccd by criteria ofshape and ornamcnt. [n such a closely studied field doubt may linger only over problems set by thc lcngth of time for which old styles or thc working life of old-fashioucd artists might continue, or ovcr speculation about how carly some innovations may havc appcarcd. So a stylistic scqucncc may nor bc an absolute orrc but it is ncrrly so, end rhc warnings given about tl-rc chronoiogy of black figurc vases in .4BFH p. r93
rppJy hcre too.

\1) V.r\*or'ryl('d.rr'dbstylr'ti'cornl'"ri''r''uirh''rh'roble't'rortvlrrlt . , t,.o,,ot,,*y l',.,' l',c', "'r.rt',1,'h.,1 thc "hvroL'' '"rrrp"ri'on' rr' rritlr '"rlp525' i*" ifr" ,'"ii"f, ,rf th" Siphnian Trc:rury rt DeJphi' Lrrrdc.Lttlc before .l,r'.1, ,,,.t,.1, rlru c.rr ly ArrLluIidc' l''rrnLir' I hc pudrrrrurrt'rl "rrll'tL r' oi tlre 'f the i:,,rrji. ;; Apollo .rr L),.lphr, of rbout 5ro, is 'Pjonccr'' Tlrc drapcry Archalc lttcst thc of lolds looscr thc hrs p ir ..'ir,,,.ia"r'c, .r,L Gl)l+l'l
dr.rrving.

For absolutc dating r,vc can look for thc samc rhrcc typcs of evidencc
considered in ,4BF-FI:

(r) Vascs or srylcs dltcd by cvcnts. Part ofa Late Archaic cup tondo bordcr i:r thc Marathon tumulus (49o) tclls us no more than thxt the new border patterns are established by that date. Athens was sacked by thc Pcrsians in 48o and 479.
270

lnscriptions
Inscriptions are paintcd rn recl, rarely whirc or incised, otr the bltck backgrotrrrtl' fhey h:,rc oft.r, losr thcir colour a:rd thcrl can only bc traccd by carching thc .lullccl surfacc rn rcflectcd light. Thc red figurc artist was as arbitrary rs thc bleck 6gure artist had bcen in his use of them. Thc best are oftcn silent ;rbout thcir ide"ntity, rhc poorcst vocifcrous, but we havc luore rcd figurc llxlne\ th:rll black figurc arrd a fair ranqc of pottcr siljDatulcs Nonsense inscriptions rrc rarer :rftcr rhe carly 6fth cclltury Gencral captions, such as werc seeD occa\ioD-

Chapter Six

GENERAL DECORATION

.rlly in black 6gure, are rlot found, but lcgends issuing frorn the figurcs'

D) rcli ll,jlrru I ret(r ro thu Ar.h. . penod (overcd in tlI. buol. fhurc rr.r sienificanr latcr dcvclopmcnt of 6gures and sccncs, both n"rr." ,rrvtlr.
"rr.l

Chaplcrs Elcvcn to ThirtecD irr ,4 BFII covcl iluch thtt is relcv]nt xlSo to an y discnssion of the dccoration of red v.tscs, .Lnd irr rfr. ..,r..rfrairg _fi:ILuc chapters of this volurne I shall avoid nru.h rup(tition r\(,:;r ir, ,tr.'rr*r"., ofpoirrrnls our difll.rer)(e\. chrngcs or innovxrions. ft *itt UJ.,rr.t.*ri.roa
a_r"t

Conventions
Iconographic coltvclttions weac ncver morc stcreotyped in Crcck art than in Athcnia.n black figure. Marry pcrsist in rcd figr.., brt .t rt ncw tcchniquc is the frecdom ofcorrrposition which ir " This "...i".iri;.-ui " offers. has.r srrikinq cffccton thc errangenrcnt ofstock scencs rnd pronrorcs.r _.liipi,.i,i .fr"*

mouths arc mo.. popul".:rncl rhe Pionecrs'vascs arc solnctil'ncs quitc noiry' r"iiti",, however: 'Look, a swallow', 'Yes, by Herakles', Conversations "r.spring aheady'- on. Ptonccr vese close to Euphronios 'Thcre it is; it's licspoke inscriptioirs, as for dcdications, are almost urkrrown, and mcrcrnrile grelliti far fer,vcr than il1 lhe latcr sixth ccr-rtury. Kalos inscriptions praising thc beauty of contcnporary youths r(:m'rirl popular, with or without the proper nalnes, or ailirmatives (karta, naichi)' The significance and thc dating value of the kalos namcs wls discussed irr ABFip- zor. hr recl 6gurc florc cal] be plausibly idenrified witlr Athcni'rrrs othcrwisc kr-rorvn, bur still fcw arc chronologically usefui l mclltion sornc of

oncs, bul

uhrtc hcing r-rsrd ro rrdiclrc qrcyrrg heir. Tir" nf li,r" ".tiri ror rr1\.lncl poscr Lrur t)ot yct prup-rrcd to forcgo thc paftcrn coDvcDtiolts ofhis l,qltrC, t th- 11r1,.1q,1..rf r erc r.,,,lir-rr.

rr-.rlrstie qcstrLrer ot rr-d figurc mean that we hivc ofter) to trtrD to , l,rttct-d-ry uxlLncn(e oI rhc fhrrfrc or our nore thcarrical coDtelDporilries lbr c-\plxnation. Facial cxpression remlins iimitcd n_r.,.i- ,r,or" ,, "ltlrougl, rnanagcd by posc and gest.rc. Frontal and thc rarc threc_qu"rraa fia", rro, ^." lor grorcrqucs likc- centaurs lss.z, ts9, )/.a!, or rr'1,,jr.11, :.:::1":1 ,*h.llr brt,lrcr) l:5. :-. 5r.il. pip,.rs lr5l or hclmcred lre,d, lrra.3r-.,,1. ,,nd )rl,l L,(,'ontr u\ud ntore ollcn ro inr rrc rhc \tc\\cr \ \)ltpilhy [ygr I o, ,,r,cnr,on vicrirrr. lr.i. t t:.2.2--1. Nil.r jyadl. ,hc p.co.c,,pi.,l l,b,'10r.'ri,.,:.1;,_,, l)t'firrrri,,rroi.,ir hv lr.r.l .rrrd po.q i, r,ru.h rrrrproued.'rlr ,,,,.i ni,,r, ,.,*fl"r.

h.rc Thr nrorc

posus dcsigrr,:d to .xhibit Sror,r ins conrmald of io.csh,,.te'r.ri,,e. ,.rrchrrc pL'rrod ncw inspir-rtion rs drlwn lrom rnajor painting,

canonisltion aud can be rakcn as hlllraiks ofthe Arch:ric " r"d fig.,.".iyJ" i,, its various phases for instance thc frontal_with_profi)c 1egs,

numbcr of newiy rnastercd poses rhrrn"elv.s ecquii.

a'"or"" ot. f"gr,

thc more interesting, naurinq thcir Pxinter-xdnlircrs in brrckets' Lcagros, tlvouritc of sonre biack figurc xrtists arld the PioDecrs (Euphronios, Euthynrides. Tbelia Peinter-, Kiss Paintcr, Elcusis Paintcr, Proto-Panaitian and Oncsiuros, Colmer Painter), was I contemporary of Themistoklcs (born rbout 524) and plausibly kalos about 5ro-5oo. His son Glaukon, bom rbout Hipparchos 49o and a gcneral in 44r/44o, was kalos tbout 47j-46j The (Epit,"to9 is probabJy not the tyranl bur husbrnd of his niccc. Megaklcs

.--rr.i

Aii". tlr"

noi considerccl

(Phintias, Euthyrnides) l-rad a nlost probably your5ler sislcr born, it sectls, sro jto, and was himsclf ostracised in 486 Miltiedcs, thc Mtrrthon "bo.rt victor, and his brotlrcr Stesagoras nust havc been boru before iio lnd wcre a littlc old to bc praiscd il carly red figurc (Plsces and near the Seking Peintcr respcctivcly). Oltos' long allegiarrce to Mcnlnol] rnight sccnr to call into qr-ristion tlic short perioJ in rvhich we assr-mlc 1I youth rcuraincd popularly k;rlos, but Oltos nriy bc dclibcrltcly rcxctirls aqrirrsl thc usual prtctice and praising thc hero Mcrnnon, slain at Troy and markcd out ls handsonr('by thc po"r.. bn a contcrnPorary vasc showin!5 Memnon's duel hc is callccl 'k:rlos'.
so the idce wxs fanliliar. Lericr shapcs arc norv uninformative- Ionic forms end spcllings

i,,rro..'"*"."

ofthe typc fanriliar to us ftorrr rnodem prirrting (ofcapitals) become incrcasingly conrnron ralth the filth ccnlury end the lcltcrs square up morc, losins thcir Arr:hric slaDting forms.

213

__r
Florals and Ornament
Late bl:rck figurc floruls and othcr bortlcr prttcrns appeel still on early rcd frgurc, beconinq lcss conrnolr rvith thc st;rrt ofthc tifth ccnturv exccpr or) shepcs morc cornrnonll,;rssociltcd rvith thc old techriquc such s arrrphor.rc Lrl I)enerhcnaic fornr, lckvrhoi or colunrr crrtcrs. Rccl figure prlrnette friczcs. thc flou,crs circLrmscribccl arlcl scpirttc or in scrolls, or in thc filih ccnturv sct lt) obliquc p:rirs, ere tLscd ibr rim :rnd border pattcrlls ol thc firrcr vascs, or irr orles or grolrpcd b,v tnany cup handlcs. Clcncrally this orrlarncDt {jcts rnorc
sparsc in tht' early fii_th cclltlrry, rcviving in thc sccond quartcr rvhcn tlrc laurel rvrcerh, r colnnlorl rim pattcrrl in latcr red fieurc, bcgins to:trakc:r rcguler appclrlncc. Fro[r about S].o a ne\{, lotus typc is rttachcd to p:llnlcftc

.l!lrltlal dokiln.siil. Pcts arc prorrrirlcnt,

fightirril r*rr" gif,. 1373] but thcrc rrc Lr"i"t" 'ock l)oss rtc "t'i"t" coursing,['18-il sltlllrcsts ttt t1t'wn ,.a ilr.',.,"u r.;"" fr"".",,r" b"i,,g fi)xcs r,,"rtcrrs' ."rr,,rr;,""wi,rr rrr"", ""a *"i"t L,,cls' witir wor'rer" whilc urrlr I rrrr"rrr'i ',',u rlPrrr'rrr" ,,,i, i f r,"f, rnd.r l'rr tlr(r-('rb l r r-l rrr rk' thc:"
cxplicir sccllcs

lrc ltere eucl cock lr:rd eppc;rlcd

1l,rlr1

of

It \]'r'lrt''' llr' ''"'rr lztcl 'rr'l 'l'r'I'l tluvr" '.'i"r i,',, ''',",r,.- -,,;a i'itl'""n Therc erc ler fervcr of thc u"'"'l ,i:.';r;l' ";"'i,;,iia' 1."" "' rnimll strrdiestlvins brlcls. sptcc hihlrg or lrs ollrclls Otr rhc r'r'holc' thc best rrrvrh\'rlrL\ ,''i,.,,,,,fr.: f..''", '"."f i"1 Lrt'll'ls':rrl ''r' 'll''JiorLrr rrrrel \\rllr'' rr\aru
,',, t;.,',.- Lul,..,, d,lc.r rorrllrr IUror \\'rlr nr h'r"r'' Tlr( '
h,,r ' lr 8rl
rs

scrolls, with sclu:rt springy scpals and.loD!i ccntre leaf r,vith various palrnctk. lcavc's filling. Not all painrers usc thcsc llo\\,ers end thcy hclp dcfirc hancls, xs \vc hrvc seerl. With thc sccold qulrtcr ofthc filih ccutury thcre ls ir I cvcl sion to thc oldcr lotLrs ty1'rc with strlight stiffpcrals, oltcn col)tbinccl in a fricze u,ith pxlnrctcs ilr thc olcl nrtnncr. On fcr,r, rcd fiqurc vascs iuc thc llorlls of mlrch irnportlncc in thc dcsign, but therc arc sonrc with florals orly, norebly thc
(

iroup of rhc Floral Nolens. Tlrc squat lotus wes derived from Eest Grcck florrls in thc fbrm rvitlr uhich Attic bl:rck figr-uc plintcrs hlc{ tlso cxpcrimcntecl- Frou thc slrre

sphinxcs' ;i;." ,r1";;;;';; l.rll Iorn frrour es ldcpcnLlcl)t nrotifs' but cqrs cerly sotnc of l6z' 9i]' *,,*,"i t-.ro xncl qrrllrns r't.lr1Ll b! rhc handlcs I sptny acclulrcs after and' knob Joo' ill.=,."m" loses hjs-Archrrc forchead thc oncc t'd figure' rccl earlv on riddcn i' still 'o'k ,:,;.:';il ;-lr;; sonru DrLrrlrtlcry' .,i""" lro^'rl. Thc dolphins riddcn orr l-r6l nli\ rcfLr -to ,", ,ll ,l'. "'''n1 " ''''t1 'n'"'"'t' ol E'rtr Grc'k 'rrr 'rr'd u irr,ld d.,ir-,lr',,' "",:,,,'rlt.'.1 L't 'l't"' L''" 'lr ' ''" "rru 'irt'r rlr' tenJ'rr'r i' r" "r.ili,i cxotic'
"-*pr',r,ga

crlcptlolrrl.

tlr"

l1lo11stlo!1s arrd

colrle thc rnaclnclcrs rvhich incltrdc parrcnt sqLurrcs uscd to trordcr c[rp r()n(l()s xlld irs basc lincs from about joo on, ancl rvhich had beeu uscd sporaclically in Arhcnier bJ:rck figtrrc (Antinrenes Paintcr). Norc holv sonrc rrircaDdcr p:ltfenrs cilll bc'rcad'in a reservirg, rcd figlrrc nrxnncr', Thc ollly orhcr inlportant lcd fieule pertt-rn is thc ovolo of sl-rort torlgucs, f<rr b:rsc lincs or lips. Rays at the bescs of thc l:ugcr virscs bcconlc vcry r:rrc irr tlrc fililr
soLrrce

cerltLrry.

Animals and Monsters


irnlJs virtual)y ccrse to sclvc ls rnajor clcnrcrrts ofclcco:.ation irr red fiqurc. r,:rsc - lckytiros, hydria or slalrnos has :r snrell enintll clcvicc wirh or witltout llorals, and isoletcd anirnals mav be stetionccl bcnerth hendlcs on othcr shlpcs. Silhoucttc animel lriczcs lppc.r still on shepcs witlr e strong black fiqurc plst, notablv on lips or necks of sotlc colutln cr.atcr-s. Shicld blazor:rs, usuallv xnirr:ll, erc elso silhoucttc as e rulc, rarcly rcd 6qLrrr [-26]. Wc nrey singlc out the 6ne bleck crows orl rlrilny shiclcls, about:rnd et'ter. joo, llncl good lions, soruc outlinc drrwn on carly viscs- The liorr rcuullrly

Thc occasional black

iclopts the crouchiltq, bottom in-eir, otrc-palv-raised posc, rvith srt:rll heacl end brisrlinq lnarlc, vcrv dilicrcDt Ii-onr the crc:lturcs of uniru:rl friczc black figure. Special sccrc-s with aninrals include scvcral rvith horscs bcing groorncd .nd conlbcd [z;9], or rvith their n):lstcrs [z,u8] rnd bcing illspcctcd at rhc

JJi N..lt./it.lrI,r.lJ'tlilt

]\litttt 17

t1

2r4

--------------l'-

Chapter Seven

rrlns and lcgs, is rescrved forThrici'tD wolrlcn nursesorkillingOrpllcrlsl:7:l' frgurc wlcn i1 corrres Rcd 6nurc nxturally prcscnts Dorc problents lhxn black j.;:";;;;^;;:.^i,],..r" I'Lrt tlrurc 'trrrr r. lt 'rrl' r , rl i" ;,, ""tl'r'c l:o8l I \l\\'rrr r\ .;:,:,J;;. ;J.1"-,;.r, Toi.ign"' 1''o 'rol' 'rnd thr rnr(orrrv 'rr

SCENES OF

EA

LITY

Observatiol oflivc forms

rvas

.r,rrrdingofho,,rrh,.vtun,.lio .butirdrdcnh.rrr.ccl)rllrwtrr(domotdrirwrn$

still sporadic and did not yet lcad to full under_

and rnay havc contributed to frccr usc ofevcryday and ger.rrc sLlbjects on vases. Intcrcst in the bchaviour of his fcllow rncn and wonten was [o novclty for a Greck artist - think ofHomcr - aird I doubt whcther Athcns, ncw dcmocracv c.tn clailtl much credit fir th" wrsc painter's widcr repcrtory sincc a simri-rr frcedom is apparenr ir1 his use of myth. A rcsuk is thc creation ofncw stock scencs, but also a Jooscning ofthc o)dcr iconograpbic convcntions.

p.op..l. ,,Lr'".r.i, lz58l l.rr pl5nric' 'r'd l r--l' 6gurc l41l Thc fountain housc'scencs, as rn black figt''"' ^ppt"' in-red grouP bathing (Dot nrixcd sh;ing somc alc thcre bul li"tao5oo, "ft., "Lr.rrt bc. onr..s, \rry .ornnron ,uLjicr, c.pecr,rllv irr llrc c.rrlr lrlr. prrr.rre.rblurior, (h'rrr onr'' virl "r l-liii; :;;,;,r:;;t'.., .',,,a.a lrvcr 'rnd genur:rllv rru more uorncn btr\\ wrlh brthrrrg rlr'rnt arc llrcr' .rrrd li ltool. 'cune' ',.,,,f, f,-ra. prtntrt' ttu Thl iri,fr ,1.i. .l"tf.t* irz+1. or $ith boot\ lr6:l rrrd ''rrrdrl'' but nLrdc 'rrc \l'rw l!' th'' lernale rrr ,f,',',i-rrrnn ,,,.,,l.11 (f', b.cck lrtl ir)lerc\r ofsccrcshavc A.un.rber notcd h^ve ., we pt"u,utv, ;"'i;J.;i;;,J t.jr.,r", J/ol' esP(crrllv.'rft(1,-l-'-: T1" ;ffi,, ;inJ;;;;'*oiLi,,g *n"t fzoT' zsj' wrtlr 'Pl'ryrrrg 'rdc' i' J-rugulrr PIcce ot lLrrnrllrrt' L' w''ol " -l5.,.*i.'"r"*r"ir-trrr",'rt ''ict .k rirtho'' by bolr wirh hoops [:36] (as

lcaf sails r.-C"lry-.a4, bird cages 15t':2, z4l rnd toy ch'rrrots whrch havcor nrherdorrr'\trc "f rrr8l: lnd lherc rre qrrl' orr '**''t* [1::l Ar'hir'icur' |ii;l''; :";;,;;"'. *:,,,',,,"v th.," i" iil"ci 6gr"c' with at the most a tokcn

ii

dc,,t",,n,r'rrcd

Everyday life
Evcryday drcss in rcd figure is as it has bccn dcscribcd for black figurc (,4BFH pp. 20J-6) brt the ncw tcchnique admits more dctail ofall but suraace pattcrlling (cxcept early). ! omcD arc more ciaborately drcsscd now. The ihrton rs still prefcrred, btrt the pcplos bccomcs increasin!!ly cornmon and detrils oftlrc pin or btooch fasteningj ar rhe shoulders, over bare arms, may bc shown_ Thc hair may be bound in a clotl-r (sakkos) somctirres with a rail hanging frcc bchind and in early rcd fiqurc the forehead and templc rinelcrs rival those ol' the marble korai. Othcrwisc fillets or diadcms arc worn ind occasionally u srnrll loose scarf [294]- Therc are far nore detaiis ofjcwcllery carrirrgs, armiets and bracclcts, ankJets (one leg ouly as a rulc), but not fingcr rrngs. Noticc thc seals or anulcts ticd on to thc limbs or round the nccLs of nakicl woncn lz7] and (latcr) cl.rildren. A br:r hclps those who lead an acrivc lifi, (Atalanta [369] and I:+4). h.r men's dress, we may noricc towards rhc cnd ol' our period the hunter's boots, with hcavy lransversc stripcs for thc lacing rather than thc stiller tongucd vadcty of earlier days or the sofr boots witlr lappets. Thcsc are often worn with chlamys (short cloak) and petasos (brimnrcd har) and, with rwo spears, identify a huntcr [347]. Bcards and moustachcs rnay be worn, not moustaches alone, rnd thc hair of younger rncn is norc ol'tcil shown cropped in the fifth century. Nrkccl, both scxcs show all thcir body hair, cxcept under arrr, l:ut there is thc odd scenc ofl worraf singeins olfhcr pubic hair, and a loving couple arc oncc rhreatencd by a lallp in that quartcr. Foreskins arc vcry rarcly wirhdrawn, even on erecrions. Tattooing ori lrccks,
216

.;li;,r- ;;

t;tiP of Doric cntablrtr-rre I z74l Therc

rr'

!cvu"rl schoolrsccnes

;;;;;;

in

"0",p-"ril;".rl,iag on [3 77] is cxccPrionel


Fighting

flp.t, ry." *.itii'g i"t't"", ha'ging

[38,328] and

r-ding from

Iz3a' on thc wall behind The tlilric

scr'"1ls

zjg]' with

figure h:rd bcelr- Thc Red figure is no less explicit about arrrour thur bleck tlrerc- rre slill sonrc but oftc'r lcss sccn arc Iz] ;Jr".:;i" iigh-crestcd helmcts thc.Corinrhia'r i.""tl , ,ii",,a lransvcrsc Thc str.dard hellrct tyPes are i"li '(:;;,;;;,,1;.,:il picccs chick lts' s t' tsl' ,,i .1',1, i:1"'l'iai"' rvirir rouuclcd rs rddcd the u hrch to precc' ihcck ;;iJ.r, a3, 5o. r, i35.4 *it}r hingcd

"rd ii.".i"tr *fri.lr-rr",

J.J ,i** rt. f...it"J """. aiir.,,"- o" .oi",) 6 '''rr.rrc. rr !rt cr t i" 1,,r",, ('or\(lcl, $ :rh 'hoLrlder Pr" " ricd 'r''rn't tlr" hest rnd wor end an rigid.bcJJ rhc t#;.hn;;irr.,, 2EIl, sool.t *ht'iJy t'pltccs 'orsrlct' rrnrrsuel An " scJcr cor Uoal [36r l' tl'c is i"".r",i." .f ,,i* niii, cc,rtu.y "tod..it'd rr.ratcri.'l [zoo, J6r].somctrrncs lolll )'rrhout a ;;;;;";; " a skirt ofhcavy greavcs u'hrch rrr"y bt tl'utun wrrb rhcir steld in io.r"l.,. ffr"r. arc thc usu;l *.,,.' lrlo. zo -tl 'rttd ''re uorrt prddco rr-rh' rrrklc' lF'r''ri'1'r''rcl'
t ; r sl. I )ccor

t-rloi. pointtd croul, oficrr witlr e perk lDd elaborxtc " arei hcllncts aPpcrr' sometitrcs with rclicforn:rnrcnt hrit rrnglcl\ [:E5'z], snakcs, lcaves as ofa crorvn (compare b.,t fei"e' *iti' tl't ho'nt or flathers r've sarv ir'r black

",.,in* ;,,;;i..,:;i,.'i,pr.,oi,r'.rhrsh-'rndrrnr-gur''rd'*rnrrrblrck6gurrIzf

bclieved hcroic, wc scc thc crc'sccrrr-shapcd pelta in thc hlnds of lighr-anucrl troops, some Arlazons, Pcrsians f36ol, evcn saryrs l3i, 661. Thc kopir or rnachaira curlass with curving bladc is rethcr cornnloncr now ItE6l, besidcs rhe usual straight sword. In conremporilry hop)itc practicc thc thrusting spcur. is thc besic *capon. Not only Alllxzons nlay carry a battle axc ft 29. t, 36olThc Thr:rcian pattcrrrcd cloak (zcira) is secn, cspccially for horscmcn [26], and the Thracien fox-skin cap (eJopckis) or its equivalcnt ir clapplcd hide IzzEi, rvorn ir Athcns as fashionablc or appropriatc ridine gcar. Other soft caps rrc tlrc lrielr-cro$ ned or pointed Scythian Ilz, 13, 17, 15,77, ctc.], worn still with the usual Oriental pattcrncd costlrmc of archcrs and Amazols, but also a morc closely fitring vcrsion, and rhe type with a looser crorr,,n which is worrr

Aplrt t'ionr thc hoplitc shicld and its Boeoriln variaut lz.z righr, zd5_zl.

we trblcs r,r,ith lbocl on tl-rcll1 arc solncti1llcs ()lrlittccl lrow but

st'e sotrrc l'rtsrrrs

ii,; i",r;;;;;g, .pPortuncly pl,,ccd hrr othtr pr'rL^p''rs':r'rndhnrp't'r''l'lrr:l ilr" ,r., *f"t iiidc or rrotllirl!4, 'rrrd irr thc fifth crntury trkt r" tlrick trl

crrps' t,tt.,:t lor thclr hair, likc srvett bards Nakcd boys frll tlrcir I rrl 'r,la.'J r.r' rlr* Cirl nr'rr rr;hrl ...',^,,,. f"ii, ",,,t .,.t. f,', th*rrrt'i l:18 'lo ';;;'l :,;,,'; ;t"; fi1'"' o- ',' .,rr rlr(' cutr'hr' "" "'"'""' (lr'' ,rrrr' l lr' r r'rr' lr l:rkcdncss' - ,r-t ,r. , ri.r, ztril, encl grrl prpcr I Lrsuelly havc trngirt chirons' Yct ',, 't'-i,, rJt.'.,,,,,t thi r.lrrrrrr'ld lor 'rll-u"rrr.rr P'rr(rc' \u(1r irr ' '' "n,,'l"i'. sccncs includc sevcrel rclatcd and lncidcntal ..rly -a'n-g,tt.', f rr, -;8] cf. Izz:] lirr

of

by Persiaus [30-i. r l. Thc cornrnoncst warrior sccnes rernaiD lhc lrming [d6, g-i, zd], ctc.l end thc departurc fronr homc [45], somctinres widr a liberion pourcd or enrrails inspccted for onr cns It zg.l ]. IJcsides thc usuel fiqhting scenes therc arc somc ol' rvarriors crouching in arnbush [r67]. Archcrs test thcir arrows by looking along thcnr to sec that thcy lrc straight Ilz], and sontc string their bows, bending thcrn across thcir rhiehs. Long hair has ro bc rolled up oD a krlifc or sword to tuck into a hcimet (cf. [zdl]), but thc cutting oflocks is also sccn, Do donbt for dcdication ljjt. j6rl. Trumpcts are blown, anglcd down ftrr testing l4J], up for summons [66], and a conch 193]. Fewer ch:rriots appcer. c-\ccpt irl myth sccncs. It is doubrlul whethcr rhcy had any warlike applic:rriurr in Grcccc at this datc. Rcal cavahy is ro be distinguisired fronr thc mountcd hoplitcs lccompanied by squircs. Morc werrior clanccs (pyrrhic) :rre sho\\u rl lcd figulc, accompanicd oD thc pipes Ir 27].

ivith v:rts or cr;rrers, prcstlrrxbly clexning theln in preparation thc fcist. "'-rn,i.i"i,r,rr",,, i, varied and usurll) supPliud by thc prr ty-5oun wh(' plxy' loo | ''r rr hrle r rdrrr; l ine'L'rr' r,,",,'o, b ,l.rrr. rr rg rrr,'1" * itL ilr.'i 'i, .-,.. rr., g,,lr. korrll,o' i' pl rlcd bv ' '-'p' lrorrr rh'.fr,B'r 'rrd ,rlri 'p'n"'ng '.''p 'l ge'rtrre l38 ro5l' brrt dirrctilrr lh( dlc{. ur \\llrL'.rl 'r I llil('l " "''d fl''ol. lhe b\ J r..onrpJrricd bc mry rnd pc'"'d ,,,, lr,.i.,r*,,.,J.1,'*' ,'n.,, "' ihi' rtrobats bt ir-Provrded nrtl'L'' f""" toast. '',,,t Pro6siollil cntcrtaillnlent, "p'ir rrc rr-r'rL'il ,,"rt,.tr. L,r'tlrc t,t l r'ri,'tt ,r d "'''-' l'L'rlorlrl(J I rr''ilrly Ilr(r br lrrtlrcrloil 2Jrl .."t.1 rt,1.,,,,o".,r,'i,' [,, *.rr pl ,1rrr,r'l rppun'lror''l'') lro8' ("r rrrutrrlrPri'(' lh( tid' po'l''r uirlr r\ 1,.itr,,,r,,,,,,.',, ltr, r r l. t h.' PrP(\ ' k norrr ,..'.,; ,,,,;,';."'l,",.,1 o,, l'''ru rr'r' 8l' llrup'rnr''r'd' r)"t\hrrr wlrle nltl(h too dcscribing lllc cxcrerory or ll:lLlseotrs rcllef'r b'rtl1 scekr 'rfrtl
yoLrths

'I

r,', ,.,',' rrt,rrrrq ''rrit't'' lr-"r;1 'r'rrr'r'rL'rL''rr'\ "r'r tlr''rr lr'rrr' sit'rrcs. fr'rtrt, rb(tut l20 'i',.i't :rnd sornctitDcs c:rrl,vi,,g l'ltrsols, LPP( rr i11 \ur11( onc holds a iyre orr. On a Klcophrai., i'"i,""t v"s., *itl' sr'tlt frgures lrSr]
1,,b"11..1

Entertainment. public and private


Rccitals, with thc soloists standine on a low platform (bcnra), are shor,vn as irr black 6gurc [,1381, but in these carly ye:us of rhc history of the rheetre rrr (lrcccc it is hardcr to idenrily stage scencs or playcrs, aithough the popularity of solrc myth sublecrs rrisht llre:rdy owe sonlcthing to dreir trcatntent by playwrights, as bcforc by pocts- The satyr play undoubtcdly attr:rcts thc rrrlsr since inritation of his favouritc humanoid is rrvolvcd. and we shxll rctum to rhis subject, but drcre arc norc scer)es of satyr play, dirhyremb or draltrari( choruscs on lxtcr vascs [J-r-]1. There are a fcw rcd fieure additions to thc black fisurc sccncs of parltorrime, likc thc dolphin ridcrs [5E].

end who An"k..iorr, thc Iouien poct u'ho canle to Athens ill about 5zo lor fislrionablc rcmairlcd which pcrforrnancc this drag ,rr1, fr^t.l ""roa".ecl Lvc{ia but coLrld onlv i. :rtcn for' suitabic *"' l.,"^Ja'"', iil ;;;; ;;;. '."g"ra"a ls r:flelllillittc ir Athcns Alekrcon's poctic vic\\'oithc ";; tr"r'" Lr".',, svnlpositrn- Hc,oor1 trntc (cupirrosvnc) rs vcr'\' lnncb ther ofthc rcd fiirurc b1 'r sr'rp( Prl\ h''k"l Li.j n,f,. ,"t.,',1 .rttcr M'rr'rrlr"rr' 'rc'l ''rr'hr-frru' '

thcy "''it s;rid.

"-,rr""y ".a f,r..i,,,,1i,,.p'rt',.,ru'',rcl1

Thc symposion drinking party rcccivcs its

classic expression

in Archaic

rcd figure- Thc sctting m:ry bc outdoor, r-noving frorn house to housc with cups, pipcs aud eirls, or thc clining-roon1 (andron) with couchcs, o1lc occasiorally sccn eud on fzgo] sirrcc thcy are set alorrg thc w.lls of small rcctangular roo1l1s, <l1) which c;ur hang lyres, baskets, pipc cascs. Thc thrcc-lcgged sidc
2r8

't"'po'"'"slllrne 'ltou't rtr'' t' rro i'ller rt'ord "l rrr'rt' tltc lov'r rrr 'rrr\ llt''ru o.d' r.rt,rii,r,' ,ii tr-.i rival ir irl the histo'y ofarl' ;;;;.';r;;;.,,rt or pcriod of Grcek art; firv to ftrtrrlorrrtnt'i lst'2 ,t1' tz6' orrL,,l.'lrt'r',. ll,. ..r,rrrrrg '.er,,' of bl'"I l1* rr'd rh' rrr'l z:zl rro\ l2r4 ..;;i";J,',;",, ,"-t,.i,.,o'.'^"''t .clr'''r'1 Jrc Jlrrr{ or lo\r-,n p'r'rtiorr' l'r'ii rhc All .rrdcll, .rle 'rot rrcglcct.d lr"Sl uJriont tll"r' rro\\ ,r-rJi n ton rr. t t,!', 2 t q. Jo', r4i wrr tllr"'peci''l prclr r(rr'1 ol"ot"t"'t'" ^iv"'tage' ofdrc sta'.'di.g cntrv frorrr :;;;;;l;;l;.; '",',ti..a z7z, zgTl Aids rney bc- clothcs hengirrg iiotrr es c:rrlier, i-i",U, i"";.."a
ltE,
2\9

u"ricd sccncs ofscxutl acllvity' rilhough no doLrbt Pr()rnotcd

tpt'if''

rlrhutrglr

sirnplc dildos, :rnd so uscd [7r]: othcrs arc largcr and may be c".ii"d by *orrr",, or_ kept 1rr baskets []26,312]. The knob is oftcn decorared with an cye, rs other objects (ship, which havc to 6nd rhcir way. It would be casie. to belicv(. that thcse objccts wcrc being uscd for somc religious, fcrtility purpose, ifthcy wcrc cvcr in thc hands of othcr than naked womcn or satyrs. With the phalkrs_ hc.rdcd bird I r 7fl wc are taken into thc rcalm ofpsycholoey rxther rha; myrh. Thcv appe:rr hendlcd by womcr, ridden by a satyr, cven as shicld blazons.
S

the wall lz33], urd cithcr parrncr rnay wicld a slipper to arld piqu;rrcy: Ir rz, zjj, z4r]nd cl [jo]. Note thc i[scribcd injunction onlz97]to,k..p still,, and the splendidly irrclevant praisc ofa handsomc youth;n [2r9]. Mal(. nasturbation is shown, and oncc cvcn female I I I z ]. The Grcek wiirc amphor:r with its narrow cylindrical ncck and pointcd toc is an uncxpcctcd aid [o; both men (at lcast, satyrs I73]) and won-rcn (squatting on the uptrrncdjar). Honro_ sexual activity is cxclusively male and hctcroscxually sucking is rriorc ir.r ordcr lhirn Iiclrrrg [9o]. t hr' i..r n)Jr'\ \ orlJ. Modcl phalloi arc oftcn showil, cven x two-ctdcd onc [99]. Sornc arc

Commerce and industry


sccncs sho\\' art]sls poltcrs alld p'ilrtcrs ;rt to tllc ki]n; mctalsnriths Ir ol' cf' r 711 or Ittovin!! with brushcs, thc rl'hccl Ir or l, (and more prot:rbly so than potters ol thc Clpltti hydria [323])-; sculPt('r \ irr t.lro,.lr.'[2621, t,.,"rlr]" 1r641, wood [71]; c:upclltcrs lrz4 cf' tgzl;:Irnrolrrcrs! thr:sc cspecialiy with hclnrc'is l8t, 2621. Thc Prcscnce of Atllclla ru sornc of .,.1n", 1ror, 264,3231 is a delicatc sclf-corlPlirllcnt by thc artist, xnd rcflc'Liorr

Ihc rnosr iufbrnative workshoP

ofhcr ftnlctioll xs Erqal1c. We sce far lcs ofih" rcliil tr:rde no wcighing sccnes now xnd only onc or two butchcrs in ear)y rcd ftgure, or sornc lxtcr Pcrfunliers on pclikai Thc (()Lrrltrvsrclc is m;uD1y rHuorcd, wirh a few yokels ridiDg a goal [/60] or ram' rlr.rs.el'br Prn ltls.rl, rn.l rncn ftshing l"g, S'l+l (and rccall Paris' whcn .il,o.u,, *,itl, hi. flockion Ida beforc the Judgcmcnt [3ro]) For an occxsional vintagc sccnc we tunl to salyrs. Thcrc arc no t1lore inporratlt ship sccncs' i,, th" service of nyth (Odysscus and the Sirens)' ln sencral the scencs ""."pi to bcirotcd ul.lcr this hcad show a rnlrkcdly rnetropolitarr and altistic intercst'
r

port

rthcr narro\\,er: then thc rcpertor-v in bl:rck figurc'

sorrrc dctailnrg ofholds, lcgitimatc and otherwise [26;]. Thc picks (sometirlcs only ouc-prorrged) shown in sonle sccncs uc for loosening thc ground for thc, long jump lzzz.tl, cvenr in which the athlete is assisted by hand wcights ^r, (heltcres) [85.:, 286]. Traincrs carry long stal1i or cancs Jt, 971, and sometimcs Llsc rhelD. Thcv rtlxy 1lrakc Dores or lccord wins on t.blcts: [2-]Jl cl [-707]. Thc athletcs are nekcrl but nay wcal excrcisc caps [227, j6g]_ The oil bottlc, spongc ancl strigil (f<rr scraping down) is rcgular equiplnclrt sccn hanging 15r.z, zjo, z6ol or bcing.carried by r child attendant [rSS, zSS]. Thc thick oil is bcing shaken our into the hand on 14 zq.jl. Some men practisc infibulation, tting up rhc forcskin with a cord for modesry, protection or to discouragc the ciisti:rctior ol an crcction [24.i ]efi, u;o]. Athlctes providc thc largesr sir-rgle class ofcveryclay lili' sccncs in Archaic rcd figurc.
22C)

rrowing popuJarity ofraccs for anncd men - thc hoplitodrornollZg,62. 2301. Thc cvcnt was introduccd at Olympia in 5zo and seems Irot to appear rrry carlicr on Athenian vascs. The pankrltion (:rll-in wrcstiing) is shown witlr

'['hc nakcdness of yourhs cxcrcising at the pxlaisrra couid wcll havc becn ;rrr rrnporraltt soLn'ce of inspiration for the Greek artist who was beconrirrq incrclsinsly awarc ofthc possibilitics ofreprescnting the physiology ofsubtlc balrncc end lnovenlcnt in painring and sculptLrrc. Athlcte figurcs on vases or irr nrar blc fron-r now on scrve as dcrnonstrations ofthis new skill. Thc rangc ol sporrs shown on vases rcnains thc slme as in thc sixth ccntury, but an in6nitcly src:rtcr va.icty ofposcs are chosen for dcpiction in any onc cvenr or act, suclr irs throwing thc discus. Of ptrticular evcnts in rcd 6gure wc may pick our tbr..

Religion

'Ihc commonest

scencs erc extrenlcly simplc rvith just onc or two lncn or Worship ar hcrms is sholvu fairly oftcr-r, and somcrilrle\ an altar. by rvomen .rc scc .r,r"11 voti",e plequcs I-ringirlg in thc frcld :rs from a trcc 1278, j64' cf' jjol, rs also hauging by iir" ir'r.,,".. o,., iz6z], r'vith masks. On.[34o] mcf,t is '()okcd

on a spit oier'thc altxr where thc boncs and far burn aud a libatiot is porrrcd' Therc arc a fcr,v morc elxllorite sccnes ofprocession to an altar, with sacrificial

animals and tl'rc distillctive openrvork baskcts bcing carricd [zi l] The ekars conrmonly have volutc tops, ind the rcgttler rcd marks ar the sides arc thoughr to be wipin gs t'iom thc bloocl of victinrs : x lz 4 5 z, j j o! bt tlyth scencs we sce o...rlo,r-"1 cult statuc [135.r] or tripod [215.2]. A mask of Dionysos on a

",, clresscd pillar mey bc thc.el,r."pi.cc for a vinous fcstivrl involving rrecnad impcrsonation by dancing priestcsscs [;l r], and aPparently winc tasting' A spc:ciai act is the cltrail inspcction as a warrior departs Irz9 r], ancl thcre are ,,r"rry r..r,", oflibttion, pouriug inro and fronl e phialc or cup, for errivlls
ancl departurcs, olten bcside lltars and evcn by gods'

Funeral plaqucs are not tnadc in red 6gurc atd prorhcsis (the leyrng out of thc bodyj is iccn only on sonc ritual loutrophoroi I r 4 r ]' Votive plaqucs in ,"d fig,r'" ,rfthi, datc arc few found only on and nc:rr the Acropolis' They .rrc oflcn ofhigh mcril atrd show Athcrra [52], gods, rnyth, cven croric sccnes Ir6]. Thc chariot marri:rgc proccssions ofblack figurc disap;rcar'

--l
H

istorical figures

as quick ro put Pcrsians fighting Circcks on thcir vascs Acschylus was to put Pcrsi:rns on thc stxqc aficr rhc PersrJl Wars. Thc dcld of Mlrlthotr u,crc trcatcd :ls hcrocs, end Dear con tenl por .rrics or rcccnt c'vents had to hivc a hcroic status before Grccks would admir th,:m in

The vasc p;rintcrs rvcrc


1279,

joj, j6ol

as

ChaPter Eight

thcir elt, xt lcast et this datc. Wlrich is r,r,h y thc 'lrarlsvcstitc' ligurcs arc Anakrc-ontic rathcr !h:ln Anlkrcon hirrsclf(scc rbovc). Srppho end Aicecus [z6r] wcrc Jons crroush dead (over fil'ty yeius) and wcll cnough honoured to qualify (and see .4BFH fig. 3rr). Thc rnurdcr of Hipparchos (5r4 Lrr) had brought heroisatiou arld the honour of x st:rtuxry group to his slaycrs lr99l .nd night bc tacitly cquarcd with thc cxccution of Aigisthos. Oroesus' defeat
aDd thc story ofhis cscape from the pyre (546 tc) had already rcceded into r-nyth history [17-t]. Thc naming ofcontrnrporrrres rn \ynlposrr \n'-r\ n.rturally exempt from restrictions obscrvcd in rrorc formal scencs or scnior arts.

SCEN ES

OF MYTH

lhe s'rlnc new Thc sccncs of nlyth on early rcd figrrrr v'rscr rlc 'rffclrcd bv wcrtr thc genre lcchnicltrc rrcw 'r\ conditions and possibilities offercd by thc or brokell' soon are episodes for coovcntions s..,r* Sr..L iionographic trcw Many story a jn of morc telling of intcrcsts tl-re .,rl.ia"."t tu air".tiici in ."fri.." ,t.'i",t*lr..d l,Lrr rr i' still po"iblc lu Prcscnt thc hrrrrilrrr sctrrc' from f'r are we so Eveu dciail ;; nr.,kc full usc ofallusive ";.'.;;;;;lt pr.lorrJl \r,r(crrr.nt "f rn'rn) stori's or crrtt r r'rttonic'rl orrr irt itr.ir'a , irll ",r; nlost fully known to us lrom othcr sources' A1r hlsrotjcal ,.]rrrr.k "..ii.. i. ,fl" a""clopmcnt of myth in lrl is xs ilnport'nt es it is ill litcrlturc' irtisrs' "pp..-i of the new sccncs or cycles is to bc sought largely in tbc
Thc sorttcc

ownleacliollstothcnewconditionsoflcredtlrcr'n.Werrraysuspcctnrorc l1lore litcratc For thc 6rst timc it bcconcs ,rr"il".at"l, ',.-"-;";;r,; in thcir nurnbcr Dow, ilspiring thc choice or ncw scencs' notxble ncw or olcl, are -tr"i,rg Thc nerration of mYth orr ceutury' fifth early ilr" i",.'*:li ;,r Troy in thc murxl corlposrtlolls 1l) trew of thc importancc thc ancl th" ittr"rri"r't sragc, both p-u1r1;. lruitdingi als'r plryed thcit. P:rr.t irr irrBrrcncing .^".i.,".i.t Archaic i' L'Lrt ",ra Auschvlus h-tcr' 'r fiit:., but thcir cfcct rs nrrr.ly ;il;;;; ",r;but it is eavcr to rccogDl\c lhc inflr'rcnee of thc-uovtl lhcmes of arlist too,
special versiorrs of cPic stori(:\ from I r t'3, 3z5l ti'"' ar'ry '.nl ,-r'ofi",, possiblc to idc|tify accuratcly in e'rlicr poets' i"r-,rr'"".ft.'. L'l1ov'ud' 1,a,";;i.;';";,,;', ",',".,,''Jr'.i'r ''" p"'''""'d.'liL'.rrrrlv w.j trrrn to bttorc notcd bu lnry trLnds One or trvo geucral iconographlc thal) rithcr d.t"il, i*pp1.,rin,ing the account tn ABFH ChaPtcr Thirtcen hunrrni"c soon

;;;rlri

srrvr plays

t*."iig

Gorgons i on" is t"hc rcjection of thc monstro!1s: the detoratrvt or although ducls f- fcwcr hcto-vcrsus-n-toDstcr rfr".i "r" "rri coursc tht utterly p1a.sible of nor forsorten' is nol ;;;i;;:il"irphir1xcs thu\e ycars' c;ntaurs and ,"tyrt, dr" Iattcr bclng rl thcir n1o\t vigorons,rtl tn.re hcrocs vouthlul' bcxrdlcss' i, to ..,,.1"' deit-ics ;,rd ;;;;;;;,;;y ackrlowlcdlied lerliors

at ifi-crcnt ratcs to rlmost all exccpt the ilr;, "fpfy-g iik. l;.,;, P"oscidon, Hcphaisros, or fathcr-figurcs like Ncrcus

arrd Priem. At Prtroklos' sorllctrn)c\ f'r.-"t temaiu beardccl cx(ePl ArLilles arrd' i."r"-o* rht day' or t-vcntt-of on colllrlliJllt ro ifr" ttr*"la or allusivc usc of nlylh wrs lIHer'rklcs drlect to brrd renlrrrl ofrrlyrll promotjon

a"f,L.."ii f.flii."f

thc hcro ofPeisistretan Athcns. thcrr Thcscus is ofthc new dcrtrocracy This is dcnronstratcd clearly enough on vxscs and clscwhcre, cttlminating in Kimon's recovcry ofThcscus'bones for Athcus. Aftcr Marathon thcrc is a grcxt sPlte

of Nike figurcs on vases rvhich surcly alludc to thc victory: nol dirccdy becausc thi' contcxl is vcry rarely nri)itary rarhcr than rcligious, rnusicel,

athlctic or vaguc, but military succcss may havc prornotcd a l1ew intcrcst ilr her cult ar-rd spccial association with Athcnt, end so grearcr attcrltion to her function in other contesrs. At Artemisiunl in 413o thc Persi:rn flect was scatterec{ and dcGatcd by the North Wind, as it had been rwclvc years carlicr offAthos, and accordingly thc Athenians hotourcd llorcas and built hinl a rernple lt has been suggcstcd that this provokcd the ncw intcrcst in scencs showing Orcithyia, wbo wts,tll Attic princcss The artisls who Borc", ^bducti,,g introduced thc sr-encs :uc so obscssed by othcr scencs of pursr-rit (Eos with hcr youlrg mcn; Zeus, Poscidon, Thesctts with various girls) rhat wc should bc cautiJus in attributing spccial imPortance ro Borcas. Fron about 'l7o on th'

l'rrirrttr rirrt: lrrrrr 'r r,r.''.i.. iliti, ",,a.f",. with his slstc:' l'hc llcrlrrr lr Hi'rill " 'r.rrlr /rt1" l' '' r" '1" 1 u'rrrqerl rrrpod lur r)r\Jnrrnc\ 'r'r'r'lrs r"'* I l'r' lrrlL {1r'lt,' t ,,,[o.rtr,rck-d llrcrr rrrrrtl-cr lcrolr/'rl Oi' ''ri" '*' qrrl\ l'rrlrL,l,l(r(lr()s T'h' god rht to 1-ol. Urtr..irr, who prcfcrrcd the bclo thc otlcr sidc or'rlr(' i:i.i";,,i-';;i ,;.-i;P;i;;'""rsio. [;7ri]' "ul'il" 1"'" ;:.,;., to i'.'t"t"'l" A Lov-'idi']s ^ s*"n l36El o]l sonrcc'trlv ;..:;; t;;j; -i. -"tr"lly

aD^rr.) rrloe:lrs ls erlolhcr wt)rl1'rlliscl [)ut h(

is

lll(xl corrlrrr'rrlli rlr"rrrr

rr

trkcr for Hyakitttios' Apollo's firvouritc' r"J [-.,t. to ridc hrs srv.rrr chrrrol' rllos.'cl roles'-har still ' 'ir*rt"r,-.tinti,ous Ir1 sceles u hcre othcrs take thc lcadi,g r:-l' Arr"' 0j l'r' rh( 'o\\ l/ fi ,,'.if," ii'.p.,r.t' ,'r,1,.. "t bv H;rr ro {u'rrd llc'rrrc:' figrrrt' bl''ck in lre''d' 't ",. l,arlr llrll (,I l]\i\ Iro\r r'rth('r h'rr rrio is sho..'lr b'v the Brvgos Pai.tcr' thc ll;1,"::.:;:i., '"11,;;;p"i;;,'' ''r"/'' edull i.".*.a u'it t'u"'nt"""g baskcr fz5rl; and he is scc, as arr

whonr hc

girl

chased

by Zcus on

vases is sonrclinres

identificd

as

Aigina, whosc island

iistinguishcd itsclf at Salan-rls ill 48o, but was thc barlc of Athcns bcfcrre and aftcr, sullcring defeat in 459. But is it Aigina on thc earlier vascs, and did anything poliiical or nrilitary popularisc this othcrwisc unirnPortant slory? Spcculation in tiris subjcct is hezrrdous. It should bc remarked that thc lppxrcnt popultrity of sonrc srorics in red figurc only aftcr about Joo nlust il1 part bc duc to thc restricted Productron urd shapcs irr rcd figure bcfore th:rt darc.

irill-*a ith c.rtle, pJ.r1 irrg .r lyre Ioo l' l-';;^*;ii;;ir"riiy r'-jrv ,ceds dwclii.g upo' Hc is co,monl'v \vith Ariedrre' but hc.rlirrcs hi, ;;,.,;';i;;,;;:;J ,.',j"n"d', "ft"n wirh his consort gods i,cluding thc other wilh somctirnes also' ;";;;; ;;il; ty.nposio, to O)vurpus Htphat'n" ,rr"-.r"a ff*"U*'l;Zf] ffi' pro'c\\rorlil Rcntrtt.a'lM'rkror^h'rr"shi,r'r' ''hilocrrri'd :l;,,ii;";,,;,;;,,,i ih"i,,"1'v' zo5':l r"l fi;trr' r'tlrc :.: i:li. 1;i,,."t,,,"r,,,,,'.t',q Diorrt..r''' 'rrL1e' t rc'ervcd ror 'ii;lli i,,,,r, ti"* Pinth"'s t'v his mothc'r and l.rer rrcnzicd :J":il: ';'iii 'i Arrodlcr ::;l;:X':;''i,;i,: ,'"'v r"" ["i'"" ro us rronr Euripides Bdcft'7' lrl' r' r

lllr,.ill
The Gods

In rccl 6gure, cspecially eftcr 5oo, thc OlyrrPiilns lre sccll lllorc oftcrl xl

independint studics or involved in stories Pcculiar to thcnl rathcr thalr to any prot6g6. Particularly conunon arc libation scencs whcrc dcilies alonc pour 'from a phiale, or arc scrvcd by othcrs (Zeus r,vith Iris or Nike, Apolkr r'virh Artcmis. Athcnx with Hcraklcs, etc.) in the rjtual of grccting or dcparturc
zozl. lr9j, ' 'Znr, it ticities, as [55. r]. 'lh,c Birth o-l'Athoa fully arurcd fronr his head is still for long

titatttt "!t Ht't 'rrrd r.,1.' Irtrt rritlrout tc\t Jlltllorlr)'' l'ol Ill\ \'rt\l\ blrck rls,rrr' rrr rck trr'rrrr u,r' r' rrl r l)(ru n,i,", ' i'r.,r Jllli" irtn rrtd l\ 'rtrr''l((11 rgJrrr' ,,,,'U"..,. L,ur.'l* *h. r. Ir'' p'1' thc pur'''lry oi n rl rlrcrc \\r\ Jrlv c:rllolllc lr.rt b, a"r'tt"o., ll;91, so wc rn'v doubt whcthcr of satvric bch.'io.r extcnsio. a logic:rl *g"*r thil as

r'i."'

ii:Hl;";trr,,r,rr.lr
rrr

;;li'"v

a far comtttolcr figure now, often

in quict grouPs with othcr

shown in thc oldcr scheme, r,vith the diminutivc and precocious figurc crncrgenl [-i5J], but sooD to bc shorvD full-grown bcside hcr sire, as on thc Part]rcnon, though it is l lcss colnmol subject than in black figurc Ncrv arc rcpcatcd scencs ofZcus' pursuit of a worlxn and. of Cattyutdc ['So, :s9], shown as a youth, olten with hoop and stick and holding a cock (a pct or lovc gift). On thc idcntity offic wolnan AS Aiginall5tl, scc abovc; but ?hctir is also.lrascd, a lnatch xvertcd sincc hcr son was fatcd to be stronger then his fathcr.,L'rroira with chc Zcus bull [r+z] is particularly popular in tbc- first quartcr of thc 6fth ccnturY.

". -Jnd-crrri(\ irr"",i""i. Othcrwis! hc irr lri' l'orF' \usF(\r I \'rI\r phv lr,-41' '"'rr. ";;;.;;t orrt'..,crslon "."j.tr..-l,,1 be Aithra (uho bore hrrn Thcscrts rrr .o,,,ott ".'"y ^fhirqrorw)orAmpbrtritc.ft'a"'''t*afrshiclentifyhinr[59]'whilcbodr atlcnd thcm mav holcl fish . '4riymorr' ,1," i'" il;J;;"'";; '* ",pL'- "a'o tcscucdbvhilnfror,"t"ty'^t"tntt'''r"inorwell'w:rsthcllseduccdbyhinrand hcr o, vases othcr women he pursucs arc ir.,,r',rr" '*i"it r-,s
.,honvrtrntt\
'cct-t'chasi"g

r.tt,td.. thc litdr cerrttrrl' br'rt he is once Hpptrarstos' ianrcncss is not cmphrsisc'l by a'-i* ['rzol' proLr'rbty orrc of hrs orvtt trtrrvcllous ;;;t;;" lorlgs or x "'*"'r"J welrs short working drcss

[r;11 Anr' r(l]l''lll\ 'r llL'l)enllly hcr ''tg,r'-hrl'rlrt' AIill\A l'n,rrtrr'rllr th' ltr"'t popul'rr'qod(lc's.t)r' Wu 1t''1' 11'1qd Ier I'rrrh t' '; J""ttr' gt l''r11 1''1 ,',.""' " , .,,,r, i.r,, ,t,,ot,J,t .* i.I -r'. i' nr''ir11 errF rsud 'rrpPortrrrs hcr"" ''r "r' i;,]i";",'r i..,'i piot*"g6 Hrrrklcr lrlo -rd6]; in civic tasks - cscortinq or cltcrtrrrrirlq h"t
225

rvith Nikc, rnd holding :rn xphlastol) (ship's stcrn) to celebratc :r victory, presunrably Salauris or Artclnisiuln 1249, J66l; xttcnclilg thc r'vorkshops ofhcr tl.rc birth of llrldrtftotitts lj-29, -rJo], thc Athenian hcro ;Lnd hcr iitircrl., "nd fbster-child, handcd over by Earth (Gc). The lest tppc'ars onl,v after the P'rrr'lr
Wrrs when Atlrcna scems to bc'coll1c rcspccted nlore lor hct orvn sake godclcss than for hc'r patrorrtrrc' ofhcrocs

scttirlgs recirllirt{-: hcr role es goddess of thc Panadrcnlla errd its garncs [307];

dcmocracy's hcro, Thcscus, ovcr lhc ty:arlrs' hcro; and in lhc pcriod whcrr tlrt

stil1-flouriihing black 6gurc arrd thc ncw red 6gurc ovcrl:rp, thc ptour'''ssivi ertists arc qtticter tn t"k" ,rp thc nc$' trcnds, so that it is ollly in clrrlicst r't tl fillure thilt thc black figurc lnood is maiurainccl. Bur thcrc arc scvcrltl rrcr'"
.,'crr.r irrrolrirrg rlrr lr.'ro ro cllrurl rin tl\. t o t o1l W c r:,rkc the lalronic Labours first. Thc e ucour, tcrs with rhc 1- iot I l ' thrortghotrt appcel tlrclr nruch of retaio ,g, ,+9,298] ancl witir,4na.:ors lS, our period. Thc dciivcry of the lJoar to tcrrilicd Eurystheus l'19], thc frght witlr'Ccryn, [26.:], wiih thc Hydm l196l, wifi thc llall, thc' rcrlovel of Krr0rro-, frolu Hedes [16], ancl the visit to the /{'ry(/idc-r and Atlls, arc nor wholly lbrgottcrr, and there arc cxarrplcs wid-r as much or morc expllcit dctail
nr'rirrthan bcfore. Thc rcst arc virtually ignorcd. Somc intcresr, howcver, is Borr'/ Co/dcn in his l'7ool' taincd in subsidiary cpisoclcs. We scc Herakles

rr.ity

Thc vulncrebility of Hcrl aud lris to thc sul>hunran has bccn nolcd abovc' [-{nt.t is shou.n in varjous Olytnpi:rn gathcrings, distinguished by sccptrc and crorvn. Ilus, u,ingcd, is thc corllltcrpart to Hcrnlcs and may carrv a hcrald's ceduccus, bur olicn sinrply xttcuds Zc[s or pours libations for him [zoz]' Shc is readily confuscd rvith Nikc cxccpt wherc tllc larlcr is clcarly cclcbr.rtlng victory rvith phialc, olten by an alter [.2 i3 ] or iuccnsc brrrncr I r,s9]; carrl irrg a tripod or hydria p zc, lyrc l3;rEl or wreeth lr6r]. Dtirrrrln :,rrd her chughtcr carrv lorchcs or cars of corD aicl wcilr lorv crow:rs, bLLt thcy r-lsuall,v appclr on1-v ro dispatch Triptolcmos rtr his nlissr'rrr to bring lgricultnrc to ctrth Ir54, -rdq,3o9]. His rvhcclcd throne is nor'v r.rsually porvcred bv rvingccl snakes. Aluloorrt [55..2] cnjoys no spccial sccncs LrLrl makcs a good show rr rhc (Hirncros lnd Judgcnrcnt of Paris [;io]. Ettos, or a nlultipJicity oF Erotcs usually in singlc rhc populer frolrr 49o's, others Ir84]), bc'conres suddculv studies I i 73, 204, 3r 6], cat rying a lyre or harc, or pursuing a boy ; and hc servcs irr nryrir fzg4, J 08, -,, r o]. At t ltr'tts supcrviscs the kilJing of Aktaion bv his dogs by l;-;,s.2,.;J:.r l. Only latcr is thc hunrer's transfbrnlxtiol) inlo x stag indicetcd plinlirivc firrm ls ller llorv, bur ,,.i.lcd lro.r,s. Shc is morc thc archer-huntress
rvingccl Cloddess ofAninrels is 11ot cntirely lorgortcn lzrzlPaN started es .ll-goat. In thc fifth ccntury his body ancl limbs arc tntinly humer, but despite thc favour hc lbund in Athcns aftcr his ]rclp:rl Maredrorr, hc is not much shor,vn in the first l-rllf of thc 6t1h ccntury li35.l]' Thc gods sit or stx[d tosethcl often still, cithcr in counci] on OJynrpus or obscrvirig thc birth ofArhcne, the lrrivel ofDionysos. Tllcir action togethcr, fighting il.rc Ci art-s, tbllot s rhe schcrncs establisircd in bhck figurc, oftcn with

provided by the Sin; ihc wrestling with Ncrca.r 1156l.to discovo thc routc wcst, with'Ncrcus wholly human now (one cxception) eud cxhibiting only

slight nutlrliolls, but clullc of[cn accollpanicd by his daughtcrs.ol cvcn Triton witlr lttic f,glrt witl, thc fishy Tritolr has disappeared); lhc ddnking.pxrly drc with 6ght prul,,-, thc rcsuliant pithos, ancl wine the open bcsidc i",-r,",-ri

rrrore cxplicit or novcl detail 1t87, t96, 28o, f7l. Thus, Hephlistos now hurls his burniug coals et thc foc, and l)ionysos'vinc is sccn treppil)!! a gi'rrrr lzSo.zl; in black figurc Hcpheistos is hc:rtirrg thc coals and L)iotllsor is :rssistcd only by animals. Poseidon's islarrd missilc rrav bc trickcd out '"vith eppropriatc wild lile.
H

erakles

Thc hcro rvho dollirlriccl thc nlYtll rcpcl lory of Arhcnitl bleck hgruc hrd e rcduccd rolc oD thc hlcr vascs. Various f;Lctors arc rcsponsiblc for thrt grolinq lvcrsion f_ronr thc ntonslrotts; a qrowillg prcfcrencc for thc tlcw
226

,rot all of the other popullr black 6gurc episodcs recur with thc sxlllc forrnula: thc match with thc giant .4rl/'rior wholl-l Euphtonios givcs rcalistically bxrbarixD fe:rtures [2J]; thc attack orr thc slecping giarrt '4l&yorrcrr-t upon him; rerely, tbc Kcr&opcs b:tggcd Iaz, 95], wrth Slecp (Hypno$ pcrchcd sons [2.;i]; iisrl; lfr" rcccption olKing Errrllos ancl slaying ofhis perfidious bclweclr ir.riervcniug Zcus withoul but now in. hgUt ."itli KyArros l6j] Hr:raklcs tnd Arcs. or at rrlost his thundcrbolr; and thc best ofthc 6ghts with thc Egyprian I{iug Brrslri-r 175, jj6l md l.ris follower-s rt thc.altar-whcrc thcy i,',r",,i.li ,,, sacriicc Herakles, which ollit intcresti:rg srudies of thc artists' dcvcloping vicws or d1e physiognomy end anatomy of Africans- , To win his bridc l)cilnira Hcrakles fought thc rivcr god '4drrltros Oltos the is unique iu showirrg hin with a fishy body [5a], ralhcr.tllll) bovinc, hut who of Nrs_ro_t slayilg xs does thc sccDc;emaits ,"r" oilr"a*ir" lllonslrous, rricd to rapc thc girl Irzi]. The quarrcl with,4pollo ovcr thc tripod [4o i' 91] ancl has l ren,a.k"blc'i.,n o I popularily j ust through our pcriod but uot latcr' thcsc it irr susraincd lvc sl-rould pcrhaps look fo. ,o.nc specill symbolism whic-h ycers. Thc cotnplerrrcnlary disputc over the dccr is still rrrc' Arhena's ,peiirl .olc as Hcraklcs' patrol naturally renreins iluportent lt hrtl been so long beforc aDd outsidc Athens. Thcy aPPeirr oftcn togcthcr' Ilr ()lynpus 15o z) .onversxtiorl. wlth libarions, in lclion. Bnt ]IIis ltttrcdttctioll nt ifit had sorrc understandably favour, falls frotr by hcr, espccially by chariot, t ttory' hc|o r' part ofthc pr"prlcrv it' d. sptr, .rnd cr r"nt svn,bol,sn, The ricu H.r..rkle' t.cnc' rnr olve his childhood, onc or two trivial tclvcrrrures, and possibly reflcct stige thclncs. Sorne appear also il1 contelnporxry

ct:ntdu.

. 172]l. Son-re b.it

oftcn with Dionysos than hitherro. Thcy rnay reclinc toecticl [.;76] end satyrs oftcir :rttcnd ; or Hcrakles is ak>nc with satyrs. Itr black figurc hc,is shown

latc bhck tlqrrrc. Thc Ilcrlin P:rrnter is thc firsr ro shorv hinr wrcsrlinlj wirh rhc rrd,!.J scrlt by thc cvcr Llnfriendl), Hcra while he wls still it his credlc li55l. Hc rcatcd prcdicrabiy badly ro school and killed his rnusic tcachcr 1_lros with his lyrc [:96]. He rcccivcs his baby son Hyllos frorn his wife. Hc clobbers or. corlrcs to tcrrns rvith pulry Gcres (Old Agc) ltS:l and destroys thc vir)cyrrd Ir 95] cx homc 13631 ofSy/r,,l-r ,,vho cusronrarily c,_xacrcd corv6c fronr p:rsscrs-by. (Thc Syleus scenes all fall bet'a,,cen 49o and 46o_) Af-ter joo hc issccn rnorc

-fhe Minotntrr story rcllleins vclv PoP1lh1, wlrh thc bcest collilPsiDli ()r bcrng clreggcd lrom the palacc-leby: irrth: l l l B], ci [70]' On thc r'vay to -( r' t'

capturirrg thcnr, and whcrc thcy appcar robbing hirn of his anrrs rvhile hc slccps wc nlay suspect a satyr play thenlcThc Herakles of rccl 6gure is lcss iltcrcstins thu he hacl bccn ir thc sixth ccnrurv, but his rival in thc painter's rcpcrtory, Thescus, rvill nevcr metch his pnl,r'l u il) w rl) 51,,r-\ -rcllur, irr po..rry or p.rirrr.

Theseus
on thc road fronr Trorzcr, to claim his hcritagc iu Athcns only lppcar conrmolriy or r,:rses :rfter about j ro and mev bc inspircd by a ncw pocrn. Thcy are e pallid but clcliberatc irnirarrorr ofHereklcs' Lrbours, and sitrcc thc Hcrakles story sccnts to havc becD rsccl by I'L't,r'tt.rro..rnd hr. t.rrrrriv. ir i. r,.rrrrr rl rn iirr.l ilr, rrcrr rj-.rr1c i,voqrrnl .r rivel. Thc rrvo hcroes' rclationship in nryth, poctry, syDrbolisru and rcliqior) rs cortlplicltcd, nor hostilc. Oivcn thc opporturlirics thar rnyth provided ir nray irc siEnificanr rlt:rt no confrontarions nrc adrnittcd in thesc yceri, alrhough thcir c:lrccr-s nxy bc comparcd (as on thc Alhcnien Trcasury at Delphi) lrld only l]tcr, ltr pliy aDd lrt, is thcir associetion agail prescnrcd. The Thcscus srorrcs are trctted rlrorc as a cyclc by artiscs then Hcrakies had bccn (although thc Klcophredcs Pairltc. puts t'bur Labours in onc fricze), rvirh sir.,elc u"r"..ror,rctirlrcs illustrating scvcrxl cpisodcs. Frort PL,riphttcs (or Korynctes _ ,club bcarcr') hc ecquircd a club. Sirir-' challcngcd wxyfarers to hoid dorvn:r pinu trcc, benl to thc grotDd, which sooD splxng up to catapulr eld rend thcir
Thescr-rs' :rdvcrrtr-rrcs

Tl-r"i.'.,, hJ bccn challenlrcd to Provc thtt Poscidorr rvas his fathcr, :rrrcl :rficr ioo rvc firld versioDs of his d!'sccnt to the ocern-bccl, supportcd by Trit"rr' visitinq thc courl of Poscidoll and AnlPhitritc with thcir sca nynlphs, xn(l lccciviirg a crown fionl AfiPhitrilt'[22-i]. Herc Athcna may atcrrd On his retum i;n1 Crcte thc abenJonrllent of thc slccping ,4r'iarlar on Nixos [2691 is occasiorraJly showrl, cvctr with an indicetion ofher itnrninctlt discovcry by l)ionysos (Eros alrcl thc virrc). Othcrrvisc lhcy arc shown slcePing toliethcr or he is icd tl-o:n lrer, alvtkc. Thcre may elso bc the rcturrr to Alhens' Thcseus hed oncc carricd off Htln lj4. tl and his seizing of the Amazolr ,.1,/ri()p. appcers ea:-ly, as in black ligurc. At thc erld ofour pc'riod arxl lrrer thc'rc'tre somc scenci ofhim thrcetcnillg a woll1all, ollcc ll'lncd (by Mekrorl) thc ruscriprion :rs Airhra, his mothcr. Thc occasion is no! il l_ccordcd onc, or clsc is a mistakc (Aithra for auother; Thcseus lor onc ofrhc Dioskouroi?)' I"herc erc rn;trly sccrlcs ofhilD chasing unicic[tificd yolulll wo]l]cn, if al1 thc yortths
dressccl as Thcscus arc hc-

Thc cyclc of scercs dcpicting

Thc pronrotion of Thcsclls es thc Athcnian hero sccms lo lllvc l11ct with lirnitcd succcss wilh vase Paintcrs, bcyorrr:l thc cyclc of pscuclo-Labours, :rnd nlorc i.'spccirlly thc Minotaur story (fivourcd long bclorc') :rrrd thc llull cpisodc irr Attice itsclll He rlr:ry hevc iired Lretrcr orl wxlls alld i1l vcrsc'

Other heroes
Prt rus, r,r,hosc major rolc is in thc prclitlinerics to thc Troj:trr cyclc (bcloB)' is sccn wrcstlinq with ,4tul,rl?t,r [62], rn cvcllt al thc flmcral galllcs of Pcli:rs' e br-a, bur not llw:rys lll Shc is shorvn naiccl but for art cxcrcisc cxp, panrs 'nd On Douris' lckythos alonc oihcr l369l thrce, and therc:Irc scveril studics (the [:g1] hcr swili-footcclllcss is lhe thcrrrc, ancl pcrhaps thc lovc intcrcst iio,.'9 ti", iu tbc ibot racc shc sct hcr suitors. Shc htd elso bcc'n at thc Ol)ydonian bolr hLlnt, but rhis ls rlot a story to illtercst Archaic rcd figurc artistr 'ls it hrd thc bhck figure . Wc also lose sight fbr a whilc of l)cllerophorr' Mcclusa or bciug pursuccl by hcr (iorgolt sisters was r11o!t PEnsrus killing -figurc. In Archaic rcd 6gure wc scc t vcry lirv scc[cs of thc popular i11 bleck p.rirtlit (.i l,::, :+d) l>trt the hcro's eirlicr lili is now xttcndcd to The i'riptnJ.irros Prinrcr slrows his mothcr Darral;, visitcd by Zcui goldc'r r''in and hc ar1cl others havc thc chcst bcing preparccl for hcr voyagc witir

parrphcrnalia - clili, loot basin, turtlc_ Irro&ru-slts loppcd or stretchcd his victims to fit his beds. Thcscus cuts hirn down to size, and thc wood axc and bcd may be shown [137, zzj, jrgl. Phaia, thc savage sow of Klonrnryon. is kiJled [zE7]. Krrtlor ofElcusis, is wrcstlcd. AnJ hrcr rn Articr ThocLrs fights thc Marath otian Bull l z o t l. Thc hcro is usrally iislttiy dresscc{ in shorr chiron or r,vith chlanrys oniy, wcxriDq a petasos travcliilg hat. Except with the bull hc docs not usuelly cnjoy Athcna's support (an rntcrcsring omission), br-rr in
s()n1c

bodics. Thcscns clcals rvith hirn in like wty It rJ, 206, 28i]. Ski,nn nraclc folk r.r,esl-i his fc'ct, thcn kickccl thcrn ovcr.thc clilf to a tortoise/rurtle waiting ro eet therrr bclow. Thescus topplcs hin l9o, zz1] lnd sonrc scelcs itclude all tltc

[;ofl

(with borv drill) watchcd by King Akrisio-s Ir9'z]' i.,"b), l'c.r",-,s by ^.arpcntcr orte or two othcr vcrsioDs of the scclc rvith the chcst, a11cl llrter its Tl-rcr" ".c rc.L,\ cr) L\ ll.l)-rlrlcr'.

othcr

scencs she is

oltcn showrr.

228

cup ls illr Jasor disgorgcd by a scrpcrrr bcfbrc Athcne on thc l)oLrris nnlanonical ipisicle lrorl1 thc Ar!lorlaut story lz8.!l For Mcdct's rcluvc'''rri"n spells, vesc pii,rt".s sl,o* a rarn bclns boilcd lzool, which in thc tcxt' is 'L

-Y
dernonslration of powct on1y. Thc spcll is cast for .Prlla-r bcfore his daughtcrs, and forJason's 0rthcr Acson (given hr' son'r n-urrc bv ntist.rkr in l:ool), but
is rarc.
OIDTPUS, conlrontirlg thc sphin-\ or1 rock or column, is sccr rnorc oflcrr orr later red fisure l7oi.:1. ()rrntus, clutching his lyrc as hc is tonl by Thrlcr.l) womcrr, bcconcs quitc r common figurc aftcr 5oa Ir7Z, j5ll. Thc rveapols rre usuxlly domestic spirs, rocks, bLlt a sword nry bc uscd, alrd t sicklc to cut ofl'his hcrd. Thc youths solnctimcs prcscnt wcrc his auclicrrcc. Thcrc arc somc'1l1i11or pursuit scc'ncs to sct llcsidc thc Olynrpiur. Borras ANI) OnEITFTyIA lppear first at thc end ofour periocl f34t, 3,lz] (on the suggestccl synrbolism scc thc stxrt of this chaptcr). His hair is shaggy, somctirrcs latcr frosted rnd spiky. He is usuelly winged, as r,vinds should be; and so is his son, young Zrplryros pursuing thc yor-rth Hyakinthos or flying with him in his rrnrs (but thcsc idcntificrtions alc lcss ccrtain). Eos (l)arvn), norma)ly also rvingccl, pnr-sues eirher I(cphalos [zo3], rvho is gcncrally sho\\rr as a huntcr (rarely es l schoolboy), lvith brirnrned hrr, chlemys end tlvo spcars, sonretinlcs with his dog or dogs; or Tithonos {3791, a handsomc city boy for whonl shc nc!lotiatccl immortelity but not ctcrnxl youth. The lavourite pcriod lor thcsc pursuit sccncs is llom the end of the Archaic orr. A fcw scencs of about 5oo and just afterwards show the arning of thc SEvEN AcAINsr THLBtrs. Thcrc is usually :r ch:rriot (for Arnplriareos) arrrl conrnron fi'aturcs arc rhc artcnti(nl paicl to hair, holding a corsclct, ald.rqrrt of dcjcction. Parthcnopaios is narncd on [3;i] to idcntify the gtoup. Tlte rrurder of Arcrslnos by Orcstcs, with Klytaiornestra (rushilg forrvard r,vitl: ;rn axc [.250]) end Elektra, has the victim seatcd, somctinlcs with l lyre Irq.t. z7q.zl. Only thc Dokimasia Paintcr, as a pendent to rhis, also shorvs lhc nrurdcr of Agamcmnou lz7q.rl, tr:,d in a ncar-Acschylcal tnanucr already

pocm, plus thc nurnber of motc clonrcstic cpisodes shown by thc lhygos Paintcr and his Circlc. It rcellv sccnrs thet nr this ficld choicc ofsubjcct is lrcirrg fir morc often detcrmitrcd b,v knorvlcdgc of x tcxt. This is a p: cltr':lc trr litcrar-v iDtcrcsls oflatcl gcllcr:rtiols ofpaintcrs, lnore opcrl to in6ucDcc iorrr
rhe sta!lc than cpic.

\)fhar fbllor,is is :r sumnrery of thc scencs shown in Archtlc rcd f-tgrrrc, fbllou,ing rhe orclcr ofthc cpic cyclc, as in ,4IJFH pp 228 J I I hrvc aslcriskcd (*) those srbjccts whosc iconography is in esscnce dcrivcd fron thc tarlicr black 6gure tradition.
is nor,r, shorvn

Kvpru.r. Prlrus t)tcsll(s'l'h,ti\* l,u l1.l], vcrsatile as cver, but thc l'l/tdtliu,q ts a foot proccssioll with the briclc sonletinlcs lcd itl thc ritrtal nranncr, hand upolr lvrist. Thc r/rild,4rlrillr's* is brought to Chiron for cducation [-s61. TheJrid.grncnt o-l'Poris* [3r o] has thc hero now as a youth, 11o lorrger .cl.r.t;,,ri, .rith tlr" rustic setting on Mourrt lda tnorc clcarly indiclted and thc goddcsscs differcnriatcd, Aphrodite oftcn with ettclldant Eros or Erotcs' 'Parl-r ir',tds Hrlu arvay 1308. r], but willingly, it scetns, es a briclc (hand on rl'risr) rathcr thiul viclrm, atrcl his rcltrnt tLt Trof is showll- Ou thcir wey to Tro,v the Clreeks mistekcnly ettackcd rlrc kingdom of Tclrplo-r. The king is woutrdcd by Achillcs rnd r,ve scc hirn seeking rcfugc at Agxlllcl-n1ron's court in Argos lr78], onl,v htcr seizing Orcstes hostagc. On thc Trojan plain Achilles' pursuit of '.lioilos* with hii sister Polyxcna llgol rcmlins in thc repcrtory, end lhcrc is nlorc dclail of Achillcs drauging thc boy liorn his horsc by his hair :rnd

discusscd.

The Trojan Cycle


Conlparative study ofthc popular sccncs tiorn thc Trojan cycle in black ficur',' and rcd figurc is rcvcalir-rg. Afrcr 53o black figure can stlll dcvotc as rner)y sc.^ncs to it as docs rccl figurc clown to thc nrid 6frh ccntury, btrt the bhck ftgure rotal is due largcly to thc continrlillg popularity of a vcry fcw oltl favourilcs Pcleus and Thetis, Judgcrncnt of Paris, Troilos, Aja-x carryrrrq Achillcs, Mencleos with Helen, Aeneas and Anchiscs, Polyphcutos - whilc rr rlunlber ofother sccncs erc following thc lced ofred 6gure. On thc othcr henrl rcd figurc morc than doublcs the nutrber ofsubjccts choscn. 11) so aar es rr)y prcfcrcrlccs arc sho\,vr1 thcy arc for Achillcs, cspccielly in the 6rst clurrtcr oftlr(

6fth century rvhcn thcrc is solncthing of a boorn in besic Trojan sccncs. especially from thc Iliad and llioupcrsis, ancl thc rccorcl of tLc formcr is rlis proporliorlatcly dr.re to the l{leophradcs Pairltcr's appxrcllt intcrcst in tlrc
230

prcparing to dcclpitare hinr bcside Apollo's akar lz3zl, but lhc w'irrrrg in rrrbu.h..o poprrLr in bl.,ck 6grrr,. i' rtow t',Ltc hno. Tirerc is far molc artcition in thc early fifrh century to ePisodcs imrrrcdittcly conncctcd wirh the pocm's thenc, thc wrath of Achillcs Wc scc tirc girl Brirrir scrving Phoini-x (Achillcs' rtrcntor [za5'r]), lcd auay frorn Achillcs by thc heraicls lz7ol, dclivcrcd to Agamerlrrrolr' The Mitri'rn ltr Athitks 166,3o4.il shows thc hcro dclectcd, scetcd, hced on hald ancl t:loak over his hcad, bcftrre the appcasing herocs. Thcsc includc Odysscus' sr:etcd clasping his kncc or standing, Ajax, old Phoinix and (on vxses but rlol irr llonrcr) I)iomedcs. Achillcs is silent, as iu Acscl-rylus but not Horncr, brl 1l is ftr from cleer that Acschylus irrspircd tl-ic paintcrs rathcr than cpic' Achillcs tcnds a wound of his cotnpenion Patroklos [50.1], rnd dispatchcs hitn to thc fielcl of battlc B'hcrc we sec thc 6ght over his body. The figurc of Arhillas r,orrr ttg eppcars in scerlcs u'ith Briscis led away, in thc Mjssiolr aDd orr lxtcr is dclivercd ar-rd he is rnournitlg Petroklos ahnost u"r". *ir.ri i.i. u..0, ^rrnour lrcrlcric studics of thc tragic bcro. Achillcs' arrnins ot rcerrting by Thctis in thc i33z] is to longet an irnportanr thclnc but there arc scvcral sccnes dut']s the Of ne\v irrnour' tl-rc rccciving u,itlt H.pl.rista! T/rcri-. ol [:6z.rl +io'. ir Trov we scc Ajax I,. Hector* [30.1.,ul, Ajax r'. Acueas (ovcr Patroklos), M,r,chos r,. Prrii. Diomcdes r,. Aeucas (witl-r Athr:na cucourlgirrg arrd Aphrodite rescurng Ii86]) rnd Achillcs r'. Hector* followcd by the PLrr\rLir

2jr

ror-urd thc wrlls. Thc KJcophrtdcs Paiutcr shows the exch:tngc ofgifts bet*'ccn Ajax anrl Hctntr ancl possibly rhe excherlgc ofrlmour beni'ccn-l)iomedcs end Ci1:rukos. Thc drlgrring ofHccror is not a subjcct for rcd figurc bul lhe ransorn is, with Prlan anJ ittc-nclants bringing gifrs of nrctal vesscls xr)d boxcs for thc rich robes rrcntioued by Holncr for a rlonchalant Achilles, Hector strctchccl

rtlilLrd, (u\\ Jr.l' tnc Cr' , kt M rkr"rr lr'rt P"/y " 'r'r lud lu \-r'r rfi(,." f'rr rlr(' Ouvsslv- Thc poern is allrost igt''rcd irr Arehrie rcd Ii{trIc r\L'Jft Sirlrr'* rhc PolyPhotos*' frorlr cscaPc thc s.",r.s ir, ,tr. old i.^r,tle, of Cilrci, lxter' comc suitors and thc Pcnclopc Ir84]. Sccncs rvith Other f igules
Scvcral

out below his couch, a sroup lrest statcd by thc Brytos l)eiltcr [248]' Othcr episodcs from rhe lljad ere thc atrbush of .Do/on by Odysscus and Dionrcdcs. *it1, I)ol.rn in his outlandish rright-patrol gear [276]; and wingcd S/rr2 attrl Dlatlr carryirg ewiy the body of Sarpedon [zz]. Alrutorrs aNo LIrrrr ILIAD. The fight bctwccrr Athillts atd Puthrilm* ts remenbcrcd; and that bclwccn Achilla and Mtmtioa* rct-ttlins ilnportallt or, fot Acirjlles, [48.r], whcre they ma1 be sccondcd by their divine Dlothcrs and is shor'vrr Mcrnnou, slairr by bccn son, hed Neslor's Athcir:r. Antilochos, with his farhcr and with Achillcs. Thc P-slrlro-'la-rla* of the Jivcs of Achillcs and Mcmnon Ir34] rcmains tnorc popular tiran thc lliad's wcighiug for Achillcs

rrinor pcrsonificatiolls, sonle llovcl, appear m Archaic rt.d t-i5Llr'' l)ikc n,,ht ,4rl;lLrn rlurri.', .rrrcl lnlrr'ticr'r rrr r.(l fiqrrre rrrr 'rrr urrl) brlirrgtr'rl ()llrrrPr'r chrrre ulr,h h.,d .rpp, rr.d y(l urrlrcr ('rr th( chc'l of Kyp*lo' 'rt disc likc lsis or i.i",,. t,fr" laoot,) ipp.ars with hcr chariot, crowned by atlpinik"' l"'rrcr rrr rnd s cLrp orr thr So'i di:'c I irr"r l5o' lru..rd ,t, ,r.fl ,r. ^
r

I,",rit. irr.,.lc rlsu oci.LsLonrl ? r/totr-r, isolatcd [zr7] or hclping Thcseus by al)v .r"i", *.,- [zz3], ancl Ncrcicls rvith fish [56, 6r, -r'r5]' no-t occupicd earlicr in favourcd bccn h:rd and riarrs pv.snrics of ngl," ;;;;ih; ;;;;y: ii* I'
hs rlr(tll bt.r,k fisrrr.. $irlr thc plqrrriu' r\ (rrry rrrcrr Ilru ltryro'Prrrrl'r lrr' 'torr( trP \r''ypl"" trurrdlL' rcrlr.ri. pltrlrp dtv.rrl' l- s81. Irr lh( Lrrrd(r\\urld ignorcd on leter subjects lcrv vascs: :r o,'r rvhcel i"x ;;'1.r,,'" pur,t.j ,o h,,
"'''1c rharr Hcraklus) only beeomc rcally proli6c

is shown, bcforc Athcna, witlr and thc heroes lcgrsrcrOdysscus'favour ihc Grccks piling thcir pcbble dtad '4fa't. his Paintcr-shor'vs Thc Brygos delight. and pprop-.iatJ di.,,ray l,,g " t nai.tr.;rrg covcrccl bv Tckrrrcsst [246], laid on thc fleeccs ofthc rlnrs hc hecl

lnd Hector. Eo-r* carries dcad Mcnruon Ajnx urryutg ,4drll/t'-r*, dcacl, is a f:rr lcss populer thcnrc now, brrt thc Otlysscus qtarul lz47l over Achilles' arllrour tlrd arc scquc'1 is,,ot. Ajax a
p"ite.l by tlrci. .otlpairions. The l,o/lr,{ [?8,5.,]
votcs rn

fiolr

tirc ficJd [z9z].

[43] ^t'f;:");::-:,,j ere cxtrcrnely p.pular with as full 't r.rg1c ot 'rrrnr.g n t"'o"' Tl-rerr 6ght" rgrinst Grccks ,r j ir"."J.' ,a,ai* as :rrc accordcd

(othir

ir-r

rccl figure aftcr-thc Persieu

sleughrcre-d bclicving thern, itr his tnadncss, ro bc Grecks' Odysscui and Diorrrcclci ,.rnoral ofthc Palladiot frort Troy is anothcr latc cpisodc in thc

rvrr Ild5]. Makron shop's thcm cluarrcliing over it. Thc sccnc of '4dti1lr'r arrrl ,4lari pllying a boxrd grnle [z] is not forgottcn but hrrdly survivcs thc
Archeic pcriod.

lnd irnprovcd rxlher lhan altcrcd in rcd figurc: thc oftcl with his dcrtrh o-l- Priatt*. sltr,.,ck dow,, by Ncoptolctros o11 xr) 'ltxr, by thc ol Kaswrdr'r* the rdy 245.2\; g.:rr'rdio,r'. body rn cvidclce ltj5.z, thc with rrsrrtl4g Atnta: Athette statuc of et tlic Lcsser Ajrx lt15.tl '4rrrlisrr* child Aianios lr j5.tl; Matlaos r(orcting HtlL'l1*, thrcatclinll her rvith I
lishcd in black figurc

Ir-roulttsts. Most of thc strndlrd

scencs

of thc

Seck

of Troy wcre cslilb-

W.';..il,,y.,r', dr,*.ctl .r'.rrdirr',ry hoplrrc' l13l or tn E''r'rr.t r:rrb 't,''r'h'r' lzot- or tn rr(.or'rtr\c turri.' l9l. rh'':rr tunrinirriry r'rrcl" bcrlq rdrrrirrcd' b.'rtl, .,rc. or.rrc ltqhr-rrrrl,d wllll (rc\\('nl pclr'r'hrtltl'' t.r',.,.i.-,,rt "' '""a thc fight with ccrtaurs will rclnain inrPortant sulrjccls i,lrrrrt pcriod o. Archaic red figurc the fight with drc ci"rti."r ,h.;;;.;,i" wcdding oftheir l.,roiths. occa,iorred by rhc cunlrurs' unruly lehaviour at thc wcdding xt thc rlisrurb;rncc ltTo' t96' z68l' lhc tiri*, it'.r *l fr-",l" rrtirur thrn jnvurr6llbtq bertcn irro rhc is shorvn Kdillsx-r thc xncl f"pi,l,,

io'ii.i

;;;Ji;r;i.

i"p"i"t"v "i,n" rdrn I fiurl.

"rmccl "." xlixinst thc centau's nlay havc hclpcd cnsrrrc rhe Thcseus'help ,"bjcct in the carly fiftir centtry' but hc is seldom explicitly

srvord f3o8.,u l, lcadius lter a\\'ay, end thc 6rst ofthe sccnes rvith )rirn dropprng his srvorcl et sight ofhcr beauly []JEl. A nerv figure is the Trojan wornrtr, oncc nrmcd Airdrorrrechc, r,vho fights b:rck with.l Pcstle Il-ii'Ji;ltrd I ncw story for art, the rcscuc of,4/t/rra lt j5.j, t7z), Thcscus' mothcr rvho had gonc Helcn's slavc', by hcr grarldsotls. Shc is sirown sonrctitnc'i with ,o Troy "t .ro1]p.i h"1., as iD Pol,Y!IDotos' plintirrg at Dclphi, or as thc 'vicillc :tccroupic' of thc I{lcophradc's Pairrtcr. Thc grouping of scvcrll cpisodcs on onc vasc to providc a penoranra of tlre Sack is a noveJty, lllost sr-lblly rnaulgcd by thc kl"oplrr"d., Paiilcr IrJ5l. Thc same artist rllty also shou'thc rescuc of Antcior who crmc to be rcgxrdcd as a Troj:rn traitor for his cotrciliatory
212

rnd ,",j';;',,, i; ,h. A..ha,c-p.:,iod :'c1 on rcd fig.rc Thcy providc *usic play Thcy contpaniorrs macnad their wlth a"lr." fo, I)ionysos, xlone or i)^i"".i"-* ,ti.rt i"irr.l thcir cups (at which thcy have spccial advantagcs [299])' help at the vi"ragc Fot thcir rolc-irr nr y-th wc sce thcln .t"."1"-.rt"f"ffy thc only .ir.or,irtg U"ptl"t*os io olympt" attd ass"ulti'lg goddes:es Silcnos' belicvc tobccasier would lt Midas to King ir.fi"iari"fill"i t",y., is lcd captivc Gixlrts if the against war thc for prep-aring wcrc r ol I 66, *ryt, i , , 4 i-lr"i ".-"J -.;";;r"s of tlc"r f'ghii'g bcsidc l)ionvsos' Morc cnigmrtic;rrc ;;;..';.."

ncvcr nlorc cnterlalnSaryr. arc thc lnost crlgrging rllventions oICircck art'

irnt"i"a r."rr"t of them dcstroying

tomb Ii 69] or chopping up

hernl'

233

The end ofthe sixth century sees the beginning ofthe satyr play in Athens, dressed as satyrs, shaggy trunks holding on erect phallos and tail, fore and aft [Jr4]. But our artists often ignore the costume and almost always the masks, in depicting what must be satyr play themes, the earliest of whidr

with actors

jot.t), as athletes [163] or directly or indirectly, from their may derive, parody myth, of involved in new stage role. The best ofthis comes later in the century bt ov lt6j, t74,
satyr scenes on vases, giving them family life 1t77, zqg, 125,

(from about 5ro)

seems

to be their robbing of Herakles. Many of the new

ABBREVIATIONS

j6i may be inspired by satyr Plays. The maenads with whom they dance wear animal skins over their ordinary clothes (as may any Dionysiac attendant), holding animals l4o.z' zoTl ot snakes (and a snake hair band on [zl8]), or wielding the thyrsos wand, with its knob of ivy leaves ltjz.z\, which may also be held by Dionysos or, Iess often, his satyis. The maenads only undress to sleep. Some perform a winged dance by holding the cufii oftheir loosened chiton sleeves in their hands I136, z7 r, 3ai]. Theyire often molested by the satyrs, but virtually never suffer thc expected fate. A satyr's sexual release is generally self-administered.- For hinr th; pursuit is the thing, the excitement ofthe dance, the touch ofthigh or arm, the impossibly heady pleasure of discovering or uncovering a maenad asleep lttj, i571, but not the consummation. On the vases only mortals make it with theii women. The satyrs act out mortal fantasies, mortal dreams which always seem to fade before fulfilment They illustrate the timeless frustrations
of the male, affiicted or

AA

Arthdologi scher An
logy

iger

BSA

Anxual

oJ the

bitish Sthool

AAA
ABFH
ABL

Athens Annals of Archaeo'Bta&


hook

at Athens

CVA
Hesp

Cotpus Vasorum Anti'


Hespetia P. Arias,

l-

Bo::'drr,ar', Gy+)

Athenian Figure Vases a Hand-

HCVP

jgwed Lekythoi (tY6)

E.

Haspels, Attic Black'


Beazley. Atw Blackio I

M. Hirmer, B. B. S}refton, History of Creek Vase Paintitg (\962)

ABV
ADelt AE

l. D.
At

ldr
JHS

-ar

lahfuuth des
&iio
I

figure V ase-Painters (rg 56)


eha
ogiko

o gi

ch

deusrhen

In s ti I ul

t
det
,

fl D e lti o n

lo

nal

oJ

Hellenic

Stud.ies

blessed - with permanent and unquenchable tumescence (they even infibulate on occasions), enjoying all the apparent pleasures and frecdom ofthe good life They are a more than adequate answer to ihose who bclieve that the Greeks wete obsessed by homosexuality.

Atchaiologike EPheneis
Amer i

MJBK
MonPiot

Min henet Jahtb ch


hildeflden

A]A AK

afiJ o rnal oJ At thae o-

logy Antike Kufist


Atbenische

Krnst Monwnefits et Mifioites

AM
Ann
Arch. Class.

Mit\eil

MWPr
ngen

Mofuuryet WincLehfiannspt0gfafi?n

Anorario della
Archeologiu di Atene Archeologia Classica .1.

Scuola

olh

lahreshefte
reihisthen
(r97r)
J. D. B eazley,

iles

6stct-

archiiologischen
P arulip omena

Itlstituts in Wien

ARV
BABesch

Redfirurc V ase-paint?$ (1963)

D. Beazley,,4/lic

R,4

Revue Arthiologique Rdmische Mitteilungen

lletin Antieke Beschavittg

BCH
Bostotl

Bullelin de Cofiesqondance
Helltnique

RM
VAmer

J. D. Beazley,

L. D.

Beazlev. ,4rai. Vase Painlings itt'the Mu'eun oJ Fine Arts, Boston

Caskey and J. D.

fiptred Vases in Amerkan

A ic Red'
Vases

serms

(Lgrg\

J. D. Beazley. Cteck
in Poland (tgz9)

23+

r\nd blr.k
1K

figlrrc
8rI

Atsl:H 1qt-.

(iorhx

Bcihcft ia.

l\vLNlloN ANr) r,xnruMr:NI

1'}io,,..r black hl.,.l< ligure, firnre ctc.: ck : Euthlrrrirlcr: EL,th!,)ri.l. wq g l'n,rc.r plaqucs [5;2, iJl, ,lRr rJ9ll, rJgl], Uorrdr!I). '" iil, ,lRr ///.s ///.s iio trjr4 (l( lxxli. tro ri b.l lxxli. b.l plaques Akr. i, iio
.

cnp

CI,',4 Cdha i, 5,r, pls. 4tr, 4r.

NOTES AND BIBLIOGRAPHIES

jor\'h.p,,r,-:{.M'r$, ,,//r \ v. /rrt: K \(h,,r 'hurA. /di y\\i. 1'tll: (.,r1I. on idcnrity), lxrx,9.u tT.; (;. Szihgvi, Bal/. rtu .1LJ. IId(roiJ. xxviii, r l1I. i 8.n., iii, I Ti D. von . JIIIL,.L.1I'I, .\rr. Urr' {\r\. o {.:A Li.'rii{l(ollrc, Mrllrr r97tl2.6otr. (frrgDrcnt, nQr: tlcl P 3i6l l ABI:H to5.
I

l. Bl", '. h. i Hs 1....i.

Perers. I1,rd.r. ft.lianpnatot Ptuiianpha@ Jo, Euph(),,i(*i J6, as EUPn(),"(*i better ELrthymidcs)i Panithenrics Akr. i, Do. el (Peters, loc cir.i lltl r8)i PioDcer r.l phquc\

? ,
r

Al.-

rr.

r,..

roq

U.

',n

,,

.JH( lx\vi. j:l

CrNntAr. P. Hrrtwig, Dn

(;ENERAL tsOOKS

J l, '. .4/?l r., .,r I l,n. ot p r.r, r ,nd ,''dt \,. ru Dror,1.ie. rj.Ir I r.. Ir\j ...,* slrpplcnrcDr.d rr /|nr. M. RotrorsoD "rD)csi rcvicw rfticlc ol l/lt/ !) JHS lxr\v. 9o,L is
5

u, ,,t

Tl

rh(

.rl r . , ld r ', lrrrrr, . .p., , ,.r .r,..t r...1r,,. ." o ('(1.r1 8../r<\. t.,..t,L M,r r,t.,i.,,
p,'\r$rr vuhI
L\

1r.../l !. l'l,r.r
nr.rn\

Il,,r-,rio,, o, . v.-c. ^.1( J. C. Hoppin, A Htllt'ook ttl Ch,tk R&t Fi{ fti

.rr.ro.tr... ,.rrt .ji( dr..J.,orl p.iintr^ rd sn,r p\. C. Lrfl .r;'., .'rr |. R.r...t,, d, r-.",,.,.r,. I r. th,.1,",.. I iir \t,,o r.:r....,1-r.,.rr,r...r..,,rrd

1.r..,.,',.tJr i;r,,1 rr,J.orrr. rrrritrurLd \.r 1 Pl tl. \ 1.,1,.. t t,,tLt rx...,(J., L,.. r,?, r!.. Lr,inprLlr(n!\ L !r \ (), uurdJr.J A I(.. f.. t/r/...- ttrt t,t tttn,...r,.i1. t...k... rl ,rrIll\ J -r,.ibcdr- r..,"I $iLl,\cr\ .,,,.i

I Ir d.../t....rlrd I J, r.,.{,\ t,r i /r..a, C M A. lli.hrcr i,rd L. F. Hrtt, /tid r(r,,,i Athulnn h1\$ it ! Mtircpatitn'1 ,Vrrir,rrr ,y' . t,r (rer6). L-l.n!- /.t,ti.,t1 .1., L..rx, r.,./...,.., r,,i../ 8 (ir.e"r',lF lti,n/ D.,.t-,ttt.-.t t.. r_,.,.t-, )lnlt 'h :n )th, n
r

Orho publi.rr1ors of inrportart cotlccricxs or'mt tirurc lith rclirblc tcrts rrc:

ije dr(

Lrc\l

rlv, j87ff i H. R. W. Snlth, r\'.ir ,4jt..tj ./ rr.


lir.r

) rt

6t G.

A. Richter, ,4J,, xxxviii. j47fl1,

gi(hirho Mtillu{hdLot (t89i), imponant carly study of hands rnd groups: H. Blo.s.h, I'orl,., liti{]w s.hdk (re+o), pionecr stndy oi shapcs; ,4RI,' t9l, classification of cyc
cups; E. Hispels, Aa-'II liv (r9ro) ::r

\ldto

aftists)i ,4BirH I()6; S. P. Uggeri,

Pdiltkl (.1929)\ ALtl- 77 (con .ctn,r wllh D. (1. Kurtz, forthconug

Itl.,i,,,
3r5li
r5r11-.

N,ft. . ,4,r.

rb.l., ,v :

,4.(.r. xii,

a-'ldJJ. 1972.33fi:

toDdo

coDrpostron C. ltollcy,

Typc C; corrl-rcd, gildmg, , rd \. u.,.,o. ,.1.\l l,\\i,.

l,

fl,

paradc cups;

/tl

I97r,

C. Roebu.k. AIA \1;ii. 46jtr.t lloardnrau. JHS lrrv, rs+i rnd ABFH to6. A,. (lrcifcnhrgrn, /r. ttuli u Mr\\\t iii, r r71r .nd forthconring on thc w g plxqu.i D. C. Kurrz, forthconring.
Akr.ii,no. ro4o,pl 8, (.roricplxquclrEl)ino. Iee,
pl. 9 (r.l with coml-rcd br.kgroLurd)i other sidc b.f.r,4tst' io6). i, Do. 2499,

OLros F. P. JohDsoD, A lt\lhti't Oror (r94j)i nr;1'1' 3 zol

xi\, j.]TlI : A llruhn,

Er{I(rrro! l,Aktt 1+ Lat

I. INTRODU(]TION

pl. Io2 G.tl plaque ivith rvhitc brckgroundt dre

r, \4. A. ILlI.r 4,tt, R.d-t,_itt 'r, , \r.r,l r.,.\/. t.'o.l , ,i ' ,.i r )rr..riJ. :rr,:r.rl o - r:-ro, ,r d \ l.,t'r,.r', ,r,d pI r,- ,rrrt, .... rt. \ rirr,, l{.\h. ur ,H,,1'/'ru,d i...rip .,,^,,!u.. 1,r.,.'rr,"',!r,t.i. Hirrrr-r.,r,.:,. ;.,.,..".."._,LJ

\4. lr^1..,',.,r. e,.. / /,'.xrir( s ith ./ll ( ul,,u r r1rrrur.\

v.

!.', r.r r,.\

HijJr. lr M.,...1,r,,,r.,r./,x..r. /rilr..,.,t, rj M Rl .c ,. ,r, B |-. r l,tt- r tl, | ,| t 1.t 11i .-..) (1e63). J. l). Bc.rzl.y. t\h\ rnl t\ti ttt it A itlt Atht : (reaa). 'o... ob. r,, .,. ur Lrp ,r.... .t It\r,.., J.J. ra r r.:"r, I'.r'.p.,li,ru \,1 .t,,,1R,, W ,ll p.,r,' ,' : l,"cnUr, M N..r,ot . / .r /. .,r.d J, .l)i0dl.r, (re7o)i Elnrill M. Mcltink, l-l..1
I

aloluchow
ts71,117fl'.

l'rirltcr t?ol rr,I.

R.

l). l]lattcr,,4l

M. Robcrtson,JHS l\xxv,99li (lrtc work); HC : ryil: tsorrdmrn, forthcoming. Phcidrppos W. Kmikt. ,4M Iv, ro;tL

W. Krrikcr, J./I xliv, rarlii

t'7']

L'A.\'| 21f I E Portlcr, r],|orPnt ix.


G. E. Riz7o, r'l,Lr,Pi,,
plaqucg.
EurRc]Dtrs PArNrrR

r\, ror$li ,{irl, jjtr

jtl., \.

49ll. i

(b

lxxiv lrrvii Thc r$dcr s rrvitcd to turn ti) lRt'e1i.l P,& r;,
drc liLllcst bibl;oamphic\

l',Anu 11tr.\ Bcrrlcy, Prtu n d |11i1tt.r i A ti t ,4rrdrJ 19ftr.i A. Cr ci lcD hagcn. J/, Bt:rlitttt Mt!t\.t r\. ro- \Siirkru'l'l."i.l.V. ,,rrl..4A "r' ' (Sniikros rnd Euphronios); Boin, ii.,1l (Phuvlld);
M. Ohly-l)unnn. forthconrnrg.

Bcxzlcy,JHS xxxiii, 147fl.i

l'.): l'. \or

llo lir..

,4Rt'I63r (? l)clos r. /),4 . r-:. 'rrr (l.cr,,;

cylindricalstrnds).
For comparisons with Epiktctos takc ,4Rl'_ r5,r, 37 (prol,xl,lv hi, ind,{Rt/ 76, lJ4. Bctter than u$rlis CI,',4 BryD Mawr i, pls. 3. 4; ,4Rl'- r47, r8.

t-,t:.t t ., h,.t, ,/.it 1,,..1 !-.,n r.r. ,,o5r.;ls r .t 1,.,r.J., ul ..\,r)i.h,o'1. 1ror, (Mrjr,.n f.,. ',1' -h. d. ti I,t .1,-,..,. .,r.,. ur prr (1i Jnd \UhicLt. IL Mct4lcr givcs vrlurblc Ltcnniat sLrrnmaric.s of cr!1, r",,.. rrr R-,- rl, Lt,d. {rdt( -,, sin.c r960. ...(. I\i,ar,, , ,'(s ot r'ujj-. r. t.. d. \o,Ld r, .',,.ir...'i t"ijj ,F.r,,lr.o rrr.h {\t rtr .\rr..uor. lv.n Zihe,nl . l-,r 'l', o,. rr',' . u|,', , Llr r. .r. ri. ,t(.qc. . . ,t ,ui ,, \t wl (ir!(l .r *c M lt, o,rr o.,. H.r,.) ., Ciil'l lr, (CaDrbr qc, r)?j). Cr,,l publirhes pi.tl,res ot .,ll d..orrrcd (;.cck
vases

r.,.a.tt1,,", ru . .i t,.,P(. ll ll Y , IrllI,"k,:, ',1 M llr-,,r.i.,ii11r,r./.. t',.r. J.,

olpantcr s rnd r:rscs. I give rcicr.nccs to u\eIul d;scusuons or rtlLsLrxrions, !o rc..trr Norks rnd ro $,Ic pirr;.!hr r)on,ts raisc(l

i.-P L \.11,r,1. .\l,u/i,r rlr, rn', rl\ir. irr 1, "-l , rrr,.: .nd D. Ohlv, rvrBK ,'lK viii,
F.

l'. t"I,r.,

1,,

B,/rr,x \r\.

Vcrnrc!lc, 34ff xxll. :29fi: (Mlrrich .ratcr u,ith Smikrot)l I). von d,,l',, r, .\I r' V, B /1 \s), r{:J M.r\rrri .

Henrrior

II, TI IE

FIITST GENERATION

AAA vi.

299fi=.

(inrt(,nv)i

Hal t'1) 3-rr

6i

l)

von

!7. Kuikcr,,.l,.l re.lt/24. 16jl1l Apollodorcs M. ohlv l)un1n, ,\,U,'lK \xii, 7fi:
(Elpmikos P.).

P,rdik. Al,b..rrJ.ro P.,.r.'J(' {a/ ror

I'rint.r

THL rED rr(:uRri lricHNreu!

Bothmcr. forthconrnlg
1/ aj", r\. ,fl : A. ( ,'(,ri ,'1,. , ,,.J/, L, l. ' \1,r0 r{. Lorl IrCI P rrrt Brrnrrr

Arrbro$os Plnrter

- VAt \

191.

Rclieflxrc - scc B.x,lc,v's dcscnprid,,s m u,)vd, .n.l (- rl Oxn)rd lr,l.r. ( J.V \.,t11... /r.-t- 1,\q,,. .tp.h.,.-,t -4ttl l\ tttt), I tt 5) SrphnirD TrcrsLrrv R. Lulltes inct M. HinDd,

l']r.li,Iurrv skci.h - P [. Corb.rt, /./-1.S lurv. I6fl:-R. D. dc Pumr,,{Jl lx\ii. rjr-; (Mrkor.

III, THE LATE ARCHAIC] PAINTERS TrL KrEopHR^r)!s PArNrrn AND rHE lJErLrN
KrEornn^r)r\ P^rNrflt Bozlev, JH.S \xx. r8ll., 1".4,,o'4o

(. H,,ppr.. l'.tt.) , t. .utl ltt 1'tt.'', t1."' :| ,.r:HLi/ 'r"*.,, c1 lJ ,/l('.1H.\ x\r\... l16 ll.
Phintirs Hoppm, op clr., ellI; HCt'P-lr7 I9

EurHYMr)Ls

bv nruscunl. Most s.rirs rcmx;r iD.orrlrlctc

tlir- Mri. llrll. x\iv, Zitl'.rnrn tt 17tr.

Cr..[ .S.i4r,r

(r9r,o) p]s.

4ii-Jj i l). voD Bort,rrLcr. roN roi !. Llnqlotz,

H\pi\ HoppLD. of..ir.. ltiI sr^i.s l.rnttr ( l l l3lrhn I. rl

49. 5o.

yh,-d hn,n 1" 4 ..rrC,1A,. ^ \:l:. M. A Pr.hr..,a/,a"l.roolT(lprltrr,'ll, L\r1,. rr., , ,rx-,' ,{rr. \i.47ll' )i R Iull,r.. ni, s11.1.r..1Jr ... dt l\l,r t td, \,r../, , L ..,r,

4, i-lrr

KTro-

46

237

A tt 4rt,,,,..r(1. //,1, \r\\, :oli. ir.): U. I(|r,r!.. .lt/ j\.\\1. r;: rirh.,. t1t.)t H(;l l, l:N tr: A (;tr (;tr.iiifhrr,r, iii fhrgrir. \ir. \,,,,,
li)rrh(()r))r,!r
(A1ho,\

Artip|or) Prirrr.l
Bry(;()\ l)^rNr,l

llhft.r, .l

.l

\obil..
l'IDrr Nl, ,.li (1. M A ttr.hLc, ir Clrdrrl.j (F.\r l'.1.,r/ t:t1,,, I'tr-, A M,,j,..., lr.lt t )t_|. ,ttA.,...1.._.li. I1._ B.y t',.-a tt ,,.'. M W..,.j,r /,,r H.)..,,.\t t._\ )Jl FouNDry l,ArN r r P A tl, . t.ur ,, t . t. I rt Lr Ltr,t ._.tn i. i p Ii..'/l \. L. p,.ni t.t -t _, t,),.,,) 3r;\cis l)riDrcr lt./1tut nol lr,kj l',,.,,r L V rj I t/.. ,,,,,, 11u,,.,,',.. !r. rr r) I'rnrr- oll,rris Gis.nn))Dr.h), I,.l,xr !,{a | 4,....,- ,oo: t/,t'j., ..t{,./t..\. /H\.\. .. .rr.:HLl/,{., r{:tt t,jr.iol,,t. i,, /,.,,. tt..r U'\..\r, r,,-d. .r.,r(,1 rr.,..,. . \4 Ur.-r,(r.
I

(;dty illt\ll, trr,rrl

,tr

r. ..j..t

rrsr. l:rrt.

(,e7i) : Ltorrdirxl,.

I.l. r)r lr.d,)ic, l *r(r to7 t', // /),/t,!,, ,/i lilla it96t) lnht l']rii,l., l. /iy' jTi.llllr 8:L
V. SIIAPES ANI) I)ATES

,.///.\1.\ -.r /.rirr',. l/.t.. {(,1 ,(:.,r...r, ,1,,,.,,', _ ,1 p U..r.,. ti..,..t .p,",.-;, .,,'11, H.l.llr-. il .rv. ar,l ri .o. ( t.t rk,.r!,. lA''r\. ,d. Nu,.i..\.^..H Uir.,...,.D.., .. ,." r, t(.1!l-...t., -lr rio/.ljr\..r,, |i UrI.,d. /{ . .,. :. aflt r. ,,. r., _, 1;,,, ._ 7, r4r i. M. \ hDrJr, torrh.,,f,rnS ,,n l,;ql
Orr)r ror
!ArN r.!Rs

,t./r ..JH.ir.. _.n ,r,i.r,j .an, tt,. l\,t.t) /,n.,,, M.r,v r,, r.4,. .it,./." .\... I tfl. l( i- 1',rI //.../t,",. / ,.r., ,.. r :M t{,,..,-l

S'r^rr\ (i. M. A.lli.lrtf ,d M J Milrrc, .!rdl,r5 d,, r\i",rJ ,r',.lrr.rrr l ,r.j (rr3i),,r uscfully rlJu*r.rtcd guidc. I V Nolr1., Tlt Ttlhti,ttr'! tlI\tiitttl AtliL I\tt1('t

.,,': l| l l.l."r'.,,, lU {. \r. - '. . lr, .,. ,.. .t.r,r xii, tar bhck shrpcs brr Dost r.1.vrlr LL G.ri.kc, c-,r;i jd,rJnrhoryo atil .tt trrn, (r97o) j,,r, ,1..,'l'l'.\.1,(,.... J-L..r'. ,t rl rrr-,,',rr
Sec,.lIJIH :171, rrldmg:

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it
t

VI GINEIIAL DEC]O]IATION
(;cstur.s (i Ncnnrinr, Oc:ro utlCLknlu ltLy",)1 (; M. A. R;.lrtcr, I\'r\,ttit! h Cruk &td kot d An I t 97o).

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1,.

AhLri*ron U.
S.h.,ucnLn,rs,././I

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ll\xvii, :: jrfil
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Muri.h iv. London Anrphoh. rr..L (Nohn,

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IV. MANNEIIIS'fS ANl) OTHEIT\

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(lrxio. .olunrn Cll,4 VicnDr ii, BologDi i.

Hrslrds, rbid., rr6lU on carrymg.

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l'. Jr.obsthrl, ()flfu,14tk \tiuhi{hu l.'d\t\ 1t917): D. (-.. Ktnt7, Athotit t Utltik l,.kyllNi \1ei\).
ANrM^rs AND MoNsrrn\

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).

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I-ekythos l). ('.. Kttv,
(r975): W. W. llu.lolph, Dt c'l'.,'1 l']rlcnno (Mornrnro) ,.

volut. LJono, ir, 8.). Cup icc biblrcgrrphrcs lbr orh.r


(lrxtcr,

.hs

CL',4

l)ccr F. tsr.ir, D.r Huj.h tu dd.tt. /rliih:1it (.t96q. l)okinrisix H. Ctrhn,R,4 rrTr. tll: l)olplr.n aJ. r, I u.uhni, r. 4 1 t)4/..,:n Fclnr.s W L llrowD, T/,. Ir?,!.d, I-4,)/r (r96lr)
Foxcs K. S.hruo,[rurs, M-\\xvi. 47t Hor..'. ,rrl Hrr"rr" J K. A i.fo,i /1,r.,,, ()1\k ttot\' Id nh lt,)(,l) MrltcDs B.J/., iii, :9

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67.

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hsr ctr.prcr. Acrocup

Attoirt

l)xiutcr of MuDich H., nlo.rx).

14|

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,.1.,.
,,t_.

.l It. (lrccn, Br11 11t\t. (:ld$ Lith \i\, I*li K. l']ctcrs, -/dI Ixxxvi, rralr (.horri (-'1".4 Muri{h,i Il.rlin iii P.like C'1.'l Vicnna ii. LouvrL' vi, Atl)cns
Onrochoc

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Mrxcd nronstus llorrdnrrn.,,lrrlrarrCrr,!Crrr (r968) roj. rj,t 7.

I H J-jji"f... .1l.r,r r". r,. .. ..rl

VIl, S(]ENES OF REALITY Scc IBIH:.1e. Drcss h.ld far b.f. l, (1. Cc..hciri n) srn/i MiJ. xix)i P. U/oltcrs. I:ado Md K .t(t dlt Ar tldt\ A. l(rug, B;rhr nr /.r.qr. K,,r-r (r9.8). wrrhnrr ll. (i)o!vas. Bd/dr?rlll (re62). Scc-srlv /n\0, iii,48l Toy chfi.,r! Bc.zlcv. A.Sl xxix. r87li o. Irr8].

I .r, \ v t t' , 1: tpt 1r t.: /r. .,r. j '.- ./:H(,tt 1.,..H. ,, i..k.. rr,,,. la, ,r(,jJ."rr 4\:fl 1.lj'r.r!, lM.,nr..kt ,j.
2J8

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Llcrlnr ir. LoDd(nr iv. StxDnros CI'.,1 Mtr,,;.h

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lJanrcr l,A r\ ti1t.: l.pnl 46t.

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2i9

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C,nd,rJ (I17I)

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ro

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rsiirnr Thcbcs UcMl(). 'll l lL\' lrJr al M A. llichtcr. ,4i,4lxxi!, 1.1'll. a'.,',r,.,r. q*. ,. ii.-, I \ ' r i"''r'' ' l/ I l' ' ,j v tr.,',.'. 8,]H { r,, jraH . ttt"' ttn t

i". irzit
TH.

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At \ ,l At r\r il !1t. (]tutk\ idd f;L b.ll. P. A. L. C.ccnl,rlg|, //ll ()1\'t! a"li11, lteil) oD horscmcn rnd chrrior Hclr)ct\ /r,,jr,!r ii, ]o (dc.orrhon)r B. Schrt,dcr, -/,// xrvii, I,7l{ (lrrr.iri). I)rcss A. lloron, llCH krrvii. j7ri. (P.rsier)i LI. C)hn, R,] r97r, rjt (Thrr(irn)i W. vrn lngcrt, I lah\,1lst . C/rss. /']iril. xlvi. I6r (rtron)i llorrdnrri, C/a.s. Qudrnt!y r973, r96i (hrif)r I(. SchiucDburg, .1rr ,,1 ll.,rdl,unl xx, 88lt
(re67)i

H,\,,)r,, Ai , rr,,r, \ T. Hi!1s.h.r. Or. l,li\t.ridrl,tldu dLt;. nl t. l,lt' (r971): lk \vii.78il ((jr..ks r. t'usirnr. VIII. S(]!]NTS OF MYTH Scc :1/ii:H trr9 4r fo ,,rnY iclN.ir)r r.t.r(rr((\.

. i.t., ,r,,i,

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ENTl:Rr^rNrvfNr

(l hri.irn).

fcu oi*hich rrc rcputcd h*c F. llroDrnrcr, l,',rwriinr, :,, .tr. H.id.,j.r(.r (re7.t) t-or iirllllstsand bibliognphl, q ithortcortmcntrty i,r.l in.l.xcs to ,'1RI" rDd /rrtrr ED.).lop..(lr.r
r

i,,r,,,1,". .,, n

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(,r,r. Kottibos B. A. Sparkcs.,,lrriraroi.qyxrii, :o:fii A,,rlr.(,r /n)n.rii, jj 6ri l).(l.KLtrrzil.BorrdmrD.

l;n.j nr (l,,rtI ,I1i^. iii. riRl l,),,,hi. drn..rs Poursrt, loc cit.
BrL.rncirg BojI,,, ii. ]6.

W. H. ltoscher s /-.xior h ..$ Iiti,dr Inttalmthiiwt MIfi,/,)(i.x' (;lriJl.d, r\ bcnrs rrcpircd)j xrd nbrc rc.cntl) /i,r.i./,)/r ,/i, rlLll ,4rrL anrtt (rrjl 66). 1-.rilo, ht nlnlt tt(lt (r96j) ir.t dlc ().\'/arl (-/,,JJi.i/ Di./n!ri/l (r97o) llcd 6gurc icorosraphv his bc(n stu.iicd l,) scholrrs no lcs tlnnolrqhl)' thir drat of orltr ,r r,i i. pr i. , .,j I h' l;ll.s'r' 4 | r.. , rr,. rrt tl, rrI rrt rln r". , L,'rr, c. Li 1 ', rbo!c Arri.1.r .ri.d in ,411rH c not sc,,c,ill.v rcfctrrcd h.rc, $ o$.nrrics ir..ithc, olprin,r, il\ r I i,,tur\t, or nrorc r...nt thrn lBlH.
.

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Borrcirnrn

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Lovc mrkDg al Vorl).rg, (;ioii,n"x Erorin,r, (re.)i)i lL Li.ht, Sino.(thnltu ()trltttl,tnd: (re-ri ll)i E. VcrireLrL, ,4( xii, ,fl. (lnxmn) rn(l .4J{ \rr.J.rd llu. J -,rir/x' l, ".( .--trt,:'i ,, P/.ri!n,y (StLrdjcs Hrwk., I l6t I']hrllo\ l)irds ll. Hcrtc. ir l'.r!l,v wi\\orr 'lJhallos' rTr4iiG D.vcrcu\, /HS x.rii,4rl.
s

Tirr E. Snrion, l)n. Ciitkt du (llnlki \tt69) J t))tLukl Oiitut (r9ir), or librtionsi (;. Bc(k.1.
Cd.rrrrriJnir,/ (r9ar)

(;or)s

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,t", (/,r,i/rra,/rvralirs

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Achilics

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Pur{r.s

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ArxlaDtr
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J.

thpc

oill.ra rrd Iris ,48/- roi A (lrDbiiosl(trr. 'Iht lJrylr\ I\1i tu 2a 1R.

-t

,r,"r,.,', S. l.r,ir.?' r',1- M.',rt"r. .Dx''li,i .,.0..,',rh"' x,,r,r l''rii' ro'", :M '.hr 'I.
,{N Llcrh(l' vii, ./,ri. Ab( dldnd xi;i, \1t tl. t,, ...j ,r K(., ,ro , I'h,.i

,1,n.r, li.J/, (r9rr). H.rnrs tt. Lrllics, ,Dn' 7 ttt lu.lt. H. .lt]]t):
P. l)c\.rnrbcz,

l-org.

ll.

G.mpcLcr,

,{,( xii,

I61,

e".",n .,a o-irl,yi" - E. Srnon, '4xril'

rnd

Rl

I968, rrgtt_

U. Hc,n,bcrs, Ddj Bil.i.1'J /'](\.tr/,),, (,e.)r).

,.,

n . r.

, | ,

A,,i",-* Il von Bothmcr. A nz' ! tt C tk L:.rt.L.r, P V. I BI rl'"txr' '' 4't tn' 4'' i'')r' /i''l' s.,irr, t. l'',r"r..cr S,)', 1\r',r-' rld ,,.,rr;,1r ,- i,. -r .trr ri1". r' " _'r "Pnr"" d ,,,," .a,, t i"'t, ' -, .ti'rri" I rr'r re'r' 'r '", u B, r-rd. .{/r ,\ elff \b' iktrrE h' rn' orrr[": K Schrucrburg, l/i lxxxviii, t1I (at tlist)' Mrcnrcts l't.-W. ndrvards, IHS lxxx 78fil SileDos and Mtlas F. Bromnrer, l'( Bc'hctt vii' )i 7.

F.

llromnr.r, ,4.4 r96l,68ott

24r

210

gcn 24rt, f.om Vul.i.

Muni.h, Airikcnsxmmllxr-

lRI"

L(,rdoi), lJ,irinr Musen,,, 8. ,'lRl 6l. s8.


I-orclon. Itritlsh Museun

F.

87

Villi (iiulix M,,v,r,, I/ r6r, \ 8ti Piris. LoLrvrc (i r,)..'llll f.l.


Romc,

5oj9o
3.

,'l1<

Romc, Torloni. CollccrioD


71,

Aftcr ,4rril. D.nkfliill i;,


p1. x.

tiorr Vulci ,4Rt'30,

2.

IST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Arlcshcrm, S.hlrcizcr (bllc(tioI. ,4.lll.' r7lrr. 6 lis. 6ll Obcrlin, Allcr Art Museunr
6-7.6t Pdrd 129. tL Li\Baltin,orc, John HopkuN

3-/RV

7o,

(;iuh.r Mut ui,,. (l(rv.L$i. ./l1l I'8r9o Romc, Vilir {;iuli.t Muse u:t:

89 Ronc, Vilh
aronr

45

fondnn. Bflh\h Muie0nr l. :j5, tron) Vulci. ,4RI" 3 r, tr.

:076(), troDr (lc.vctcn..4/l 83, r4.

46 +7

Brusscls, Mus6es RoyiLt Il 3jr. froDr Vulci. ,4RlrI, 7. Lo don, British MuscnDr E 767. froDr

UDiv$sity, frorr
ARV 7j,
Athcns.

Chtrrsi?

9r 9: 9l
94

Pfis, Louvrc (lA ri-:7.lro!tl

Cor.r Clistle Adrby,


Vnlci. ARV 77,
t)2.

from

l Ncw York, Mctropoliun Muscun r4.146.I, llogcn


Fund.

/ilrJli!/i... Ncw York


,e7r.,t.,o.
Sec

,4Rf

14

.lso [,2l.

gico r rooli, fronr

M.drid, MLr$o ArqucoloVulci. ARI/ 7, 2- Alr.t CVASwirzcrland. private.,4RI/


3o

8. 9.

Boston, Muscum oi Fnrc Arts 1o.22r, lro Orvleto. ARV t6. 14.
Are,zo,

ARV 16, tS. Ait$ Furr!v:insler Rci.hhol.l, pl 63.

48

Athe0s, Agorl 24t r 1, i_ron AthcDs.

Vul.i.

I r, Mlrselnn

lR /

,4Rf

Akr. 68, fron 7t,62. L{rct Akr. Vd\.";iscunr nrv. r46I I,

Nrtionrl

56.

Tx

agra.

lRl/

Muscum, Athens. ,4Rr

l,xris, Lonvrc ARV 124.7.

(i I.]

s3,

I:.

,'ll.t l.'

(lastlc Ashby. fronr VLtlci.


Rome. Villa Giulii MLrscum

Lcningrttd, HcrDitige Mu

49 Athe s, N.tionxl Muscur

rr
r

Pr.stum. Altcr N.,pulr,

: ELrali. Afto
pl.6().2il.

ti

//

L1

I)r d,1

1rldtd,.
,4J,4

lxxlv,

ft Bo(on,
163,6

Athcns, National Muscurtt, from SuniuDl. Aftcr aCH

Muscum of FiDc Arts or.8otr5, H. L. Picrcc Fund, from Chtrri.,lRL'

6t

u,inglcr-Rcichhold. p]r
2.

Akl/ 1t, 6. Aftcr


Romc,

MLrseo

Civico r46j.
Ftrrt-

zj, r Aftcr Pft1h1, ftg 386. jo Bcrl;n, Staadi.be Musedr

I628. arom Trnagr..,4RI/

zrn. ,{RI/ 7r, 6.). Bexzlcy


7) London, British Musclrnl r9:9 tr rr.r, fro r sPlrr ARL'7+.35. 73 LoDdon, Bntish MNcum
E J5, fronr
I

fron Bcrc

:zzro, ftom Todi.,4RI; r24, 8. A[tc, Hoppxl, ii,


3()j.

gjMelbournc,
E 8r

viii, pl. t4. Dc\,hi, Siphnian TrQsury. Boston, Mtscun of Finc Arts or.8oj7, H. L. Picrcc
Fund, lroDr

t7

oxford, Ashmolern Muscum I1o, froDr

Chilsi.,j

r/

lr
3-1

froDl ncar Vitcrbo. ,4R / t5, I t. IScazlcy dnwinus. Bolnr, Str:rdi.hc Musecn
7\7.

VilhGulia Museunr,

jr (lothr, from Koli.s. ,4R/ j2


2a. Atuet CVA.

2]71i, froDl Vulci. ,4RI/ 2r, r. After Ptuhl, fis. ar8.

I7lo.4. frcm Vul.i.,4RIl


j, from Vulci.

Univcrsrty
Muscunl

Vlrlci. ,4Rr74,
Grccce.

96 LoDdon. British 97
'5. Rornc,
seum 20749,

Il.

IRIl

r2j,

Athcns, Nationrl Musellm. Akr. :59o rnd Oxford, AshmolcaD

74

CopcDhrgen. National Mu-

seun tr9, from


ARt/ 7t,59.

Vilh Giulia MufronCervctcri.

r6t,

li.

1966.t9- Pdra 323, 3 l'it. llrusscls, Mus6cs Royrux A

Orvicto.,4ltl'
Musccn
3,

Athcns. Nationrl Museun, Akr. ro4o. Aater,4lr. raJ.,

-r tlcrlur, Storlichc

1.7.

rr'i9, from Vulci. ,{RI/


r-l.

4 j

l'aris, Louvr. F ro3.

,4R/4.

I.

tt Adolphscck. Lrndgmf
Philipp ol Hcssc 29. rr9. r. Aftcr CI,7.

i.

3l Munich, Antikcnsrnlmlun gcn 2J07, froD Vulci.,{RI/

Akl/

fron

Muscun I927.4602,

Athe,rs. ,4lt

L/ rj98.
Athcns.

2a.1. Furtw:inglcr

jl

Aft$JH.S lxxvi, Pl.2.L Athe s, ActoPolis MtscuDi,

75 London, Britlsh Muscur! 76 77

ARV 127,30.

/Rr

tr6,

r. Aftcl

Akr. rol7, fronr


i4' i.

Reichhold, pl. r1.


34

tludxpcst, Muscunr of Furc Arrs jr.28.,4Rrl r 6r7, Ij, i,rd ts!/1Mrir. Hd,It. xxviii,

Orvicto.
5.

Cotlc.rion 6r, from Orv;eto.,4RIl r r.

Frnr

Munich, Antikcnsamrrlun
scrl 2309, fronr Vulci. ,4R I/ Romc, Vaticrn
71,

,4RI.' r'i98. 54 LoDdorr, Bntish Muscunr E 417, ftoDr Cervctcri.,4RI/

E .]8, froni Vtrlci. ,4RI" 72, I6, Oxford. Ashnrolcan MLF scLrn itro. IRII 76. 84. London. British Muscunr E r3J, froD Vulci ,4RIl 78,
93.

98 BcrliD, Strxtliche Musccn 2324, tion Vulci. .4Rr I26, 26. Afrcr I'fuhl, fig 32r. 99 lloston. Museum of Fnrc
Arts 9J.61, Gift of tl2.
Warrcn, lrom Vltlci
Akr.
r()2.

P.

,{ /t

t' r

6 Ncw York,
Musclrnr

Meropoliian
,'1R

Cambridgc, Fiuwilliinl Muscun G 16l. fronl


Arhcns. ,4RI/ Io,

35

Mucuns

\) j6 i7 j8 j,

'I .r rq

RL , xas, lruDr 'I rrqurn,


ARI/ 6a,66.
Piris, Louvre G

rf i.,,

Mu,ro NJzroD.Ll.
'

78 London. llritish
E I37, froDr

Muscunl

Vulci.,4Rr78,

roo Atbcns, Nrtional Muserm


fiom Adlens.,ll<

36

7
N

6.1. r 1.6. Pulitzcr Bcqucst. l']drd 32(), 2 lJir.

Switzcrlucl. private.
3, 4.

I/

Arts 99.531. H. L.
Furd.

BostoD, Museum

of

Finc

Ncs York, Mcuopolittin Museu r 1972.rr.ro, Beqlrest ofj. H l)urkee, Gifts of l). O. Mills rn.l C. R.
Love, by Exchange.
Sce also

i.

frotri Vulci. ,4RI'28. r4. Tlrrn, Musco di Artich;ta 412t, fronr Vul.i ,4RIl 28, r r. ArrtJHs xxxv, pl j.

l.

,'1Rt' j3,

79 Ncw York, Mctropoliun 8,] London. British


E 6, from Vulci.,4RI/

9i.

ror

r6tr5.

37

Wfs.w, N.riorul
I423J2.

MuseuDr

,{Rt/

27, 8. Bcazlcy

London, British Muserm E 2j8, froDr Vllci. ,4RI/ i4, 4. K!1qs Point, Schinlnel Col
seunr
57

Muscum 4r. r6tr.lJ, Rog$s Fu d.,4Rr I6j.6.


Muscunr
166,

r02 London, British Museunr

Athcns, Nrtion.l Museunr Akr. r 66, frori Athcns.lRI/ 92,6+. Aftct Akt. l/d\t ti.r920.6-r3. r, Irom ClPua. 88, L. Kxrgs Pomr, SchinlDlcl Col lcction Sc. R,4 I972,81ft.

Aftcr,4[r. I/ds., ii.

3ll

Piercc

9 Otvi.to,
l-ronr
r

lRt'-4,

Munich, AntikensrDDJur gcr) r4rr, froDl Vulci. ,4RI/


21,7. nn'scurn 61. rcj4. ,4R I,' r7oo, Tarqutuia. Museo Nrzionulc RC 6841, fro,r TrrqLrinia.

lecrion. /tr, 126,7 i)ir. CopcDhagcn, Nation.l Mu-

irrv. Il4o7. ,4/tl' i9,

8r 8, 8r

rtr.

Orvicto.,4Rf 3, i.

Fain. CollcctioD,

itl

A.ftet Corclld

tu|.

1c, Ldrdon, Bntish Muscun B

Ccrvctcri. ,41? r 14, 2. 24 Bcrlin. Sraatlichc M$ee. 2 r30. fron Crplu. ,4RI/ r3,

Prfls, Louvrc G rot, fronr

l9 Krrlsruhe,BadischcsLrndcs

60 oxfotd. Aslinolc.n Mu-

rr
rtr

Munich. AntikcDsaDirnluDgcn :102, fronr Vulci. ,4lt I/


6, t.

93, fronr

Etrurir.,4ltI/4,8.

6r

scrur i I6, froln 63.92. Castle Ashby,

Vulci.,lRl

Prrls, I,.rit Palais 3s2. iron Athens. .4Rf 8r, r. Aftcr KleiD, Lt'l,ln,.(strri.r/l/i., 88. Ilrunswick. Boudoh Col legc, from Ccrvctcri. ,4Rtl

ro3

,4R/

roa Maplewood, Noblc Collec-

roJ

tion.

l'tascl, Antikcllmuscuu BS

Pdrd 330.

tlom Vulci.

2j Munrch, Antikcnsammlung.n nv. 8rl j. .4RI/ 1619.


rToti
Pdrd

,4RI/

ARV

j2tr.

Lc.nrgr:td, Hcrmitagc Muscum.,4RI'7, j. A ltcr PfLrhl. Mnbftl ulLtl Z.id nr flg.


34,1.

Mmich, Antikcnsammlun gcn 26:0, fron Vlrlci.,4RL/ 16, r7. Lerihgract. Hernit.gc Muscum 644, fronr Ccrvctc
.

ais.

4'

4,

Vulcl.

lRI,

&)lognx, Musco Civico 36I, from BologDa. ,4R r 6J, 2r,


6-l

ii.

r8.

C.stlc Ashb,\,. ARV t72,1. lJ4 Brusscls, Musics Royru\ R 1j9- ARV t69,7.

rc,6 Mrnich, Antikcns.DrmhnL gen tr6r9A, fronr Vul(i

lfi. ARI.

t47,16.

8j wiD.hcstcr Collcgc 4:.


86 Mulrich, Arltikensannrl!trrqsr 2t88, from Vulci. ,lR

Ptuhl, fig. I li3.

M rich, AntikcnsaDrnrluL
gen 2j9o, froDr

Vul.i..4Rt,

' '1. Antikcrnrusc!tm BS Llrsd. 45, lLtu l:7. jo /)ii. Forrnerly Arlcshcrr, S.h$clz.r. ,4R r t7. a2.

ARV t1o, r.

ARI/ t16,2. rlr7 London. Britirh Museuttt B 668. fron Mtirt,r. ,'1l( I' ro8 CaDlbridgc.
Vul.i. ,4Rf
Ir

98, r.

irl:,

t'-

Aftet Furtwinslullcichhold, iii. z4o.


-2.

FitT$,illi.r,il ML$eum GR 49.r864, tlorrr

r,

14

242

243

ro, London. Brirish Mn\,rr,l Iro II'


I

E r4, tronr MrrioD. ,,1/ll'

urtwilrritler Rcichhold, pl.

Lcn;.erad, Hcrnrrrgc Mu scum 647. fiom Mrrur. AI?V rrc, ). Munich, ADrikcDsxrlnlluDee. 2589. fro)r Vulci. ,4R

CrDrl)ri.lgc, Fogg
ij

\cunr r9iro.:r6 ,4R

Art Mu

]I,
I

r r8j.

r4, lliscl, Antikcnnusch, tJS ,1j3.,41?I,' r614, 3lr rir. rjo Prris, Louvrc C; r7j ,l/il rjr
gc,r 23r3,Irorn

(lopcnhrgcr. Nationttl Mu
scunr nrv.

i/

rjt6j. lRll rtii,

MuDich, Artikcnsarrrnrlurr Vul.i ,4]l r

t73

Irr , Louvrc G r97. ftorr Vul.i. IRI/ 2jlr. r. Lordon, Britisli Muscunl [4j8.,,1RI,'r]9, ra 8.rlin, Staatliclic Musee , r6tr. lioDr V!lci.lRrrTl,
Crkdnisscttc, irom Srbucnrx. Il,rd lj4, 39 ,iJ Scc

tn$k,r. M!s.unr of Fn,. Arts rj roo, froD (ich?

2r3

l/il':47,

r.

Aft.r B.J/d, ii,

r9l Lc.ingr.d, HerDitrqc Mn

Pl. l4.

()xbr.l, Ash,rol..,ji ML scum r9r7.iS /lftl .trr), r,l Bcrli.. SLrxrli{ ll Mu!! ! z:79.llorr Vnl(, ,l/li'| \. B.r.'$ (i,llc( tio,, (N.\ York L.rr7r.)r) S.. //,/r rrrl Snil.
(-'n,!!. i'jril.
r7 r ril

L2 llerixr. Stlatlichc Mu\..f


.]rJr, froIll Vulci.
7. Aticr CVA.
,1R i,' I

rl,

r3: Muri.h. ADtlkensanlllun gcD :144, t-ron) Vlrl.i.,41tt,r

E2, 6.

rr Bftlin, Sta.tliche M!sccD it1\- J42. ARV Lt7,2. I ta Lordon. tsrirish Mu\cnnr
r
r

r5

4l.,4RI/ r8, rj. Munich. Artikcusammhr, gcD nrv.877r. Scc M/B,k


E
I

],N

,4Pl ruj, r, Ptis, Bibl. Nrr. .]8j.,rd


quiri.'
nruscum r43. from
IloDn, AkxLlenis.hcs KuDsr-

Trrqr;nir, Mu!eo Na2ioDalc ll( 4rei,. frunr T,r,rurDri

tjr Nc$ York. M.rroD.lirI, MuscuD j6.r7r.rs,' frc,,, No1.. lll I' 197. r. Bcazlev driwurg. Iil MuDich, ADtik(DsrDr.rluD
scn 2r
1.)7,

scuD, f-rom Ket.h. ,lRI" 248, r. llce,lcy druwffg t91 LoDdon, Briti\L Mus.unl E tr6r. iioDr VLrl.l ..lRl,tr48,
r95

l\rv,.

Ath.rs. Nrti(,ril Mu\(uIl

I54

rt

rr, trorr) Vllci.

t(,r, iioD Vulci.


176 177

Miplclvood, Noblc Colle.,4RI,'-:76,


-i()7.

Copcrnreg.n,

,4R l '

scun rrv 3293,

N.tionrl Mu
fiom

Paris,

4:rr. lRr r2r, 22. 1r7 LondoD. llrfish MNcrnr ]j j7, lroDr Vulci. lltl, r::o,
logico
t).

I6

rxii, rlli

l/{| r\.,.\o

Tr-

K.rlsruhc, Bad$chcs Lan d.r muscunr 6E. tot. Potd 344,


,

IJcrzlu\

Ijj I'..is, Lo!vrc G r9r, fro


I56 Londor. Bnrish
E r6r, r6J.
r

Crpua ,4/tt":7r.2. tlostoD, M$cunr of Fmc Al.ls 98.18r, froD (l.pLra.


ARV ,.79.7. Llctrzlcy dr.\\,
t97

l'ctit Pihis

iionl

Orvicto.,4R l'i:i I, 36. Aft.r I{or. /rr.r/. xi, pl. 5o.

Akr. 43r, i;oI) ArhcIs At<r J32,27. Afto A/ll.


Elcutir Musclrnr
E]cusis.
6r

Brusscll, Mtsics Royrli\

lt lo3. lionr V!lci. l/il'


249' 6

FloreDcc. Musco Arclco-

rli Nrplcs,
rl6
r-t7
74-

Musco N.rzio,)rle 242:, froD Noh. .{Rr r89,


Bascl, WilhclD Coll..rioD, lioD Vulci. ,.,i /t I,' I 89, 73 .

Vulo. ,{R I/ ro8, r6.,.

Peris, Nirrchos

(iollcctrrr

i,)e.

MusL-!, jr
| 71)

fron Vulci.lR I,'ror,


r

Pfls. Loulrc al 22o.,4ltl'


rlJo, r r. Bcazlcy driwiDg.

IRI/

,4Rr I r4, I. Murch, AntikcDsxnrmlungcD :6.ri, from Vrlci ,4Rr/ I7 r, r j. S.c.lso [2j6]
E8r6. frori) Vul.i IRL:trj. tr. ll!'.zley drrsDg. MLnri(h. ADtikcnsanrnrluF
gcn 2(,36, froD Vul.i. l/tr I t7, r6. Aticr llrrrwig. rU.irtu1r./,dhr p1. ri. r. Brscl, CahD Collcctrcn.

8. 6om

250, r$.

Londo

Palcrmo, Musc'o Nrzionrle

. llritidr

Moscurlr

11ll Oxford. Ashmolcm


scuDr ro3,lroDr

(lhiusi.,4It

Mrr

l'

E 44 r,

LondoD, llrirish MusNnr frorr Vulci. ,4 /t I/ I87.


.:7o, fronr rll3, rt.

i7 Ronre, Vxrr.aD MuscuDrs. tiom Vulci.,1Rt 2o9. 6r) rjE VieDnx, Kunsrhist(r'sch.s ti9
Mnsculr 74 r.lR l./20t, f'ftc CVA.
1118.
r

lldtor, Muscnm ol
64.2111r.

Fn,c
2a

Arrs

,4RI/ z8J,

t.)9

rr9

llosror), MrNcunr of Fnrc Arts or.lloi:,I, H. L. Picrcc Fund. from Orvrcto. i/tl
t13.9

rjri
139

LondoD. Br[ish Muscun

i7

Noh lR

P.rls, Louvrc G jr6, f_ron


1" 2N6, r4.

V 76j, fiom C]hitrsi.,4Rt' rj r. 34 Wiir zblrrg, Mrrrnr von Wigncr Mn\cL1i)r \ I i.,'1llI/
Londo

Vulci llU,'

Prlorno. Museo NrzioD.l.


V 66r, lrom Gch. ,4R

Mu,ri.h, AnrikcnsrnrnrluDgcD r.]8r, from Si.ily. lR l'


Ro,)rc, V;lh GiLrlir Muscunr 4il23it, ftoDr aldvctoi. lRt'

, British

Muscun

E r6l, fronr Vulci. ,4/t

t'rj8.
:2]

lRf

t/zr

r.

Londo,, Ilritish
E

l 16, l. London, llritish Muscunr fronr

rro B.rlnr, Staitli.hc


rr

(E.st) 2]71, fron, Vutci. .1111' t74..tt.


London, Ilritish Moseunr F,42 ARI' r74, 2a

MlsecD

4rrlJ.,1/il/ r9r, ro:.

FlorcD.c, Musco Na,ioralc

r60 S\vitzcrland, privatc ,4Rll r61 Bcrl;r. Staathch. Mnn$


34i, rri4 riJ. 16:: llostoD, Muscum ol Fnrc
Pdrd

44r, from

Vnl.r.lltl".riT,

Muscunr

E 4a.

Vul.i ,1/tt,3rN,

t-

Hrrow S.hool jj.,4Rt/ r8l. ir. Arter /ils x\x, rrl


Musecn

rltl Lcnrngncl, H$nririg.


scum 614.

Ncw Yo,k, privrr.. lR

l'

MU
r

I']er$, Louvrc G ro4, lrorr (l.rvcrcri.,4.lt I' 3rlr, r. Uruscis. Musacs tto,vlrx

t96i.\.

r2:

Agon MuscnDr I, :4ro:, fronr Athcns. ..1ii t'


AdlcDs,

Par1s.

Bcrlnr, St.xrli.he

Louvrc CIA ajr. froDr Atticx. .411 1,' r84, r2. r8j.2N

Arr\ 9r.r9, C. P
Ftrnd
,4R I7

Perknx

r:r B.rli.,

Sra.rt;.hc Mtr\ccD
,4R

-:170, froDr C.rvcteri.,l Rl,,

16r Munich, Anrikcrsrrrrmltrrgor r38r, fronr S ltaly. r64


ARI/ 12r, t+.
tlrusscls, MDsa$ Ro),au{ A

r:o. i.

LoDdon. British M!s.uD [ 44o, tioDl Vul.j .4/il,'

,4Rl/:81t.

zSl, iionl Orv;erc l/it'


frojji Falcrn. ,4RI,'rrJ4,

llologDr, Musco Civi.o PU

stl9, lionr Chiusi. ,,'lll

l/

129, r3().

rtlj Stockhol.r, Mcdclhrvsmuscct r963.r. ,4ltl' I61l,


lloston, Mun'Lrn ol F!)c

Ilorlc, Vilh Ciulir I\ivit..


.l),trd

866,
a)7.

r-:r6e. tioD) Clhiusi.

I.

Vic.nr,
terr.

r14 LondoD. tsr;rish Muscurn E trr, tioDr (lhiusi. ,,1R I,'

Ktrnsthrsrorirchcs Muscum 37:5, from Ccrvc

rr5 r:,,

t-79, t.

Fufd 4/{l r7j r27 O,).c Lu,dl markct.,{RI,'


r-:8
ro. tthodcs, Archacologicel

Or).cLondon, Mrrc|ellatol lc.t;oD, lrcn) Grcccc.,4Rt' r7x. \ AakrJHS \r,. rl. r-1. NL \\. Yn,I Mrrrop,,lrtrn M rnurr 07 r8,,.47, lrncch

l,tirhl, lig. j7o. Llcrlnr. St:r:ulichc Mu{.cn


trr6,r,

,lRI/ ro4, r09. Afrff


frorr Vul.i. ..1ltt'r96,

r6i H.nrburg, Muscunr fiir I(unsundCir'werbc r966 34 ]\ti j17,8 t(. f r67 CiDrbrldgc,
C.rvetcri. ,4li

72t- ARV 226,

j.

Arts 97.161, lroni Vrl.t

r66

l']xris, Lolrv,e

G r6t, tionr
trr7, r::.

,4RI'r9o, r. A[tc, 8,)Jnrr ii. Pl 36. London, l}itish Musotrr


E r6j, lronr
INS

Pr;vi('. l),r? Iit, r. LoD.tor, llritish MuseL,D E 5ro, iionr Vul.i. lRl' 107, lt. At_tcrJH.S {xxiii, fl.
t)

lj l,

I9lo.I ( fr. givcn by l). voD Bothnrd). ftolr Ccrvcifti. llt I/ .]28, rr4. Bosiotr. Mrscu,I of Fmc Arrs 6l.N7l. P.n 36a, 14
lcgc MDDi.h, AntikeDsJnnnlur qc. tr6j7, frorr Vulci. IRL'
Puils, Louvre G tos. frorr Vulci. ,4Rr l:4, 6.]. Kugs Pomt, SchiDnrel CollectioD. ,4R I/'-129,

LlrLrDsvick, Ilowdonr Co1-

Vul.i.llt t"r94,

LordoD, llritLfi Musc!Dr


B 674. trom Tenrgra.,4RI/

l4) WnPburg, Mtrrti, vor Wxgnr Mrscuri joo, frorr

Fuzrvilliur

Vul.i

,{R

rl6,

Bas.l, ADtikcnnuscunr llS 1i6. ARt' rr4, lraft j4z.

t/

r97,

Muscunl GIt r8.r937..4Rt'

8.

)l1,16.
168 Athens, Nxrionrl MNcunr
Akr.

Cop.rhigdl, NatioDrl Mf scun r16.,{Rl7ir97, rr. rtl9 Ncw York, McoopolitaD Muscunr j6. r?r.Jl, Iilct.her
Fund, fronr Vulci. ,4.it I,' r97.

Nc!' York, Mcropolitan Muscum rr.rlr. Cift of (1. M. A. lti.htcr.lRtl 169,


(lanrbridgc, Iogg Art Muscunr r9]j.3o.j r. lIl l' 3{)2,

r2j [ir

2lo Biscl, Anrlk.,)nruscum BS 439. ,4 Rl" 32l, j6.

MuvoD

rr9 \iyiirrblrg, Marril


244

scunr r33tl6, frorD Camirus ARI' 139.21. Alict CfA_

nt')r
gcD

Ortbrd. Ashrolcm Mr
t9tr7.,rjcl2.
,4

::4o.4:. Attcr ,4lr l,'aor

lJo6,

liom Arhcns.,41<

I,

rll

/l L/

21o.

r6e l,rrr,
2,t i o.

Louvr. (lA r947, fror)r


2,{o. 44.

Lo,ictdD,

Vul.i. ,4Rl/ r8r, r. Aficr

Wrgncr Mrscum J07, i;onl

Muni.h. ArtikcDsr,)rh h,,,irlv. 8766. ,4lt I,' r7oo,

r7lr Nxpt$, Museo Nrzior.lc


nom Ruvo

Orvi.to. ,4R l/

99 7-rr ,r, fronr 297. 15.

Aritsh MuscuDr Vul.i lRt'


Asr;gcDto.

Ncs, York. Melropolitan Museftn r2.21r.2, tiom


Cffvctcri. lRl'
tioDr Vulci.
Artcr ltichtcr and I Iall. Pcrugja, Musco (livi.o

lRt,rj9,

Muni.h, AntiIc,rsxNrDlun

go rlol, froin lR f -:4s, r.

ol Finc Afrs rl.r9j, fionr (;.1e. ,4RI,'ji, r. t'tis. Pcrit Prhis I rj, tionr Noh. .lll l/ lo7, r r.
Bosron, MNcunr

l19,

6. ti9.
N

Aftcr I-lart\vig, M.ind245

,4Ill, l:o,

lhscl, Anhkcnrruv rrrrr


44o. ,{RI'':l-:6.
159.

86 1,ir:

/lr,r

ll\

llerlin, Smrtlichc Mus..n

Wrgn.r Musc!))),t79, froll VrLl.i .4RI: r7:. tz.

Wiirzburg, Mirtur

von

B$lih. SI..rlich.

Musccl zl09. frorr C.pux. Pdrd t7tr,

ge

M!nich, A,)tikcn\.!rDrlun-1646,
1211.

lion Vul.i. lRt'

E.,!, ironr V,rl.i. lRI,'468. -tlli ()xti)rd. Adrnrolc., Mur9r9. r75, Iiom Ath.rs. lR l' 48o, l17

rr2r, tio,), V!1.i. / 129. r i,t. On.c BerlDr, St tlichc Musccn inv. J r-19, fronl lr.ly. IRI/ lrr. 23. Altcr
(Ersr)
,,llt Pfirhl,Iig.4rl8.

I'ris. Bibknhiquc N.
tioDulc

417,

n57

Munich, Artikensrmnlungdr 2645. froD Vulci.,4lttl r71, r5. Scc .lso lz,El Wrrsxw, N.tionrl MuseL!n

j76 ,4/i I/ l7 r.

r,t.

6ll. /4 R Ir 4I t, 21. Znrich, UDivcrsiry Mu


sctrn)

Lcrn)shd. H.rnriLigc Mu
i:91

oi Arts r97o.r3l. IRI'


BosroD, MrsNDr
7r8. ,'l R I'',145, r5r).

ll7 AthcDs, Nitk!).rl M,,\,rr, Akr. 7.o, liorr Arl,.,,'. /RL sir, tro. Ati., 'l[,

Fnic
44,1.

s(um. /iard 371, 14 riJ.


27t)

llrusels. Mus6cs llovaux A

lry CrrrbriLlge,
Muserm GR

:\6 O\aoid. Aslnnolcrn Muse!1m Joo, fronr Chiusi.


ARV 3t7.6t)
237

,41t/ 382. r8J. Aficr rf./ Lcninsricl, Hcrn)irigc Mo-

()xtirrcl, Ashrrolco Mu scllm 3oj.,4Rr4r6, t.


pl. r66.

j6i,.t6

rr

Fitzrvillirnt
r917.

llti Murich, Ant;k.1)s.rrrr[,,F


gc,r :4r7. fio,r) AqriSdr({)

lRt'
.13

,4/{.'jj6, lor

r99

Ilonl.n Dr.,kct, from Vulci.

Lon.lor:, British Muselnl E 768. fronr Ccrvctui. ,4Rt'


Ronrc, Vrti.rn Mllseltrns,
lrom Vnlci.

rcurlr 679. ,4R l,'

jl2,

ARr 4tj,

1. (lcrhrrd.

,41,

(llcvelind MuscNn ol Att 24.r97. Mrs L. (1. Hrnnr (;iti. lRl/ i64, I8.
.1:
L

BostoD, MLscunr ol I:i,rc Arts ro ,84. lronr Sucsmli. ,4R L' jJ,]. 19. Naplcs, Musco Nrziorrlc,

25t tsosron, Musclr)r


,,1R

Brscl, Antlke,rmuscum BS

Arts ro.r76, korn (ircccc. Oxaord. Ashnrolcxr) Murcum r967.3lr4, froD Vulci.
Al?

of

rN8.

Fnrc

23ll

4r8,lrorr Vtrlci.,4RI,'li r, ll. Prris, Louvrc (i rjj, lron'


VLrlci.

Pxris. Bibiiorhaquc Nrrrmalc i7 t, fronr Vulci.

38r.

71.

ARI'ttt, VlcL).,
veteri.
51.

-to

tKunsrhistorischcs

Txrqunria, Musco Nrz;onxlc,


AR
3lr1

Romc, Vrticxt Mnscums, ftonr Vulci ,4RL +st. t

/R r

a49, 2.

(lrmbridge, Fogg Musc0n of Art 6c,.J16, fronr Agrigenk). ,'lRt'563. 8. BcazlcY

fion
A

Cumxc.

lRl'Jir,

rj.

2lrj. frcDr Ponlrrico. ,4RI'3jj. r.


(E.st)

B$Itu. Smatliche

,4Rr

15

5, 15.

Musccn

Il

Muselrn 1694,

378, 131

MuDich, Antikcnsxni,rlungcn ,416, lron Agriscnto.

Furtw:irgler-Rei.hhol.l, pl

fro CcrlRI,' 4:7, 3. Afto


Museu,I
3'r4

Edinb rgh, Ro),,1 scottbh

l'

fron

Bosblr, Museun

of

.l4l Lon.loD, British Muscnnr E j r r. troDl VLrlci. lRI,' jJ7,

ftcr P{nhl. iig.477.

FiDc
41)

Trrqumir.

1,67

, 91.

Arts ro.r91. ARL/ 569, Aftcr &Jnrr nr, Pl. 8i.

Baltinore, W:rllers Art Gzlle,y 4lJ zr r J. /Rr 316, 16. Oncc Muich, Aodt Collcction. ,,1 R I/ Ji9. Ji. Housto., de Ma11il Collcc tion. ,4R t/ r646, lt5 ,i\.
211

,4RI/ 18j,221r.
.1194.

Bcrliil, Smatlichc Lordon. British


E 7lJ,

Musccn
2tl3

from Vulci. ,4RI/4oo,


Muscunr

TE j56, fronr Athcnr. /r.ni 376.2T bi! Bilr;nrorc, Johns Hopkn)s UDivcrsity, lroft Chiuri

Atli.u, Nation.l

Mnscum r8rl7.2ll. fron Itily. l.ltl/.16,1, 44.

Mihn, Torno

Suitzcrirnd. privatc.,4RL-

t6r,7.
loJ j2.

fronr Ruvo. ARI' :7t,73. ScTJH S Lrtrr. pl' t,,7 ML nL.h Antrkc,r:nrnrlungcn 21trr, iiorn Vulci. /4RI" Arts 03.788.,4Rf j7r, 7j. Atier 8drror iii, pl 86. l:6 LondoD, Llritisll Muscunr
r9ro.

Collcction,

B$hr, Startli.hc Muscc,i (E.st) ilrv. 1106. t-ronr Erlfil. ,4Rf Sjr, ro.

r2i. AficrJHS \xxii. Pl.

8.

144

V 77i1. from Agrigcrro. tRI,-i5o, 2. Vienn., Kunsthistorisches


vcteti ,4RI,' j55,
lronr S

Prlcrnlo, Musco Nr?ionilc

ll$hi, Stutlichc
r.rqS, frorn

Muscctt

Vul.i. ,4Rt'r64,

Boskrl, MuscLrm ol

Mrs.uDr 1717, from Ccr18. I ro,f,

FDc

fro,n Vulci. ,4/t l,',lor,

Bcrl;n, Stiutliche M!sc.! )ror, from Vulci ,4RI, 316,


Lonclon, llritish Muscunr Iror.j r,t. r, fronr Orvicro.
,4R L' 148. 2.

MuDich. ADtikcDsrnrnlLnF Scn r6io, fronr Vulc'.,4RI/ 26j Cxnrbridgc, Corplrs (lhristi.

t.

rlt,t Romc, Vrti.itn MLrseuns, l-ron Vulci. lRt'427, ,.

ARl

4+2,2t5.

l4i S.hwctrr Musc n


146

106 LeniDcri.l. Hermitrgc Mu-

r8j Vicn!., Ku.sthistori\chcs Museulr 1695, from C$2ll6


287

PIis, Louvre Cl r.j2, ftotl


V!]ci. ,{RI/ 169, I. York L.6e. r r.rj).
E 49. t-roDr

ARI' 4o.. tz. CInbri.lge, Fogg

Art Mu
4o-r,

lRl/ 429, 26. D.rscl. Antikcnmuscunr


vctcri. K:ippcli 42J..4RI/ 4jo. 3r. from Vulci.

r07 Munich, ADrikens.nnrlut3os

scunr 617. troDl ARV 360, t.

c$v.tcn.

gcn ,3 14, fronr Vulci.,4RI" 362.11. Boskm, Muscurrr ol FDc

-tr:7

lhrcss (lollcction

scum r927.r,l9.,4RI/

London, British Muscunr


E 48,

Arts I3.r86. F. llxrilctt


DoDation, from Su.ssuld.
,4RL_458. r.

(Ncw Pdr, t6?,

London. llrirish Muscuni


Vulci. ,4R I,'j.r9,
Knnsthistoris.hcs

l) r l.
38.

Loncton, Bitish Muscunl


l.roD Locri ?,lR I,'4o1,

,lRl

43 r,

lRt' j79, 84. A[t$ tsoJn,, iii, pl. 86 t2ll Lo,1don, BritNh Mus.utll E r7r, frorr Crnrirus.3Rt'
3.t Loncton, British
Er

ARI' 5jt,79. llosk r, Mnscunl of fmc Arts o8.4r 7, from (laPur.

t IJ.3, fron

Adrcls, Scrpicri Qrll((tnnr


(Vlaito), jj-:.21r.
6

I Iv.,4Rl' sJl,
onr Athcns.

-18.

CrPua.
3+7

,4 R

l'

Ilosron, Museunr ol

Furc
,'1R

Arts

l)onrtion, fronr (ich. i57, I I3


l41l

r3

rr8. F. llttl.tt

l"

Oxford. Ashroie

Muscun I rr, tiom (;c1.. ,4R t: Mnnich, AttikcDsaDinilur ScD iiv. ljTrj ,4Rt'ii4, 3j. g(n ,4r1, fr,,nr Vul.i. ,4RI 415, r AlrLr Frrrt$:r,'glcr
Rt'ichholcl, pl.
t

Munlch, AntikcDs.mmlutr gen 2640. froD Vulci. ,4Rl"


)69 Trrclu;rir. Mureo N.zionr1.

Itonrc, Vatican Museums, ftonr Ccrvctcri. /Rr 417,


r r6.

l09 London. Ilritish

MuscuDl

Vioni, Aftd
hold,

Bcrlur,
43

(lervct.ri. ,{R

M!ruDr nrv. l7ro, l-roDr t' j30. r7r. pl


14

r2Nj. lrom C$v.tcri. ,4R


r, 4ll.

St tlichc Musc(n
I

rro Bcrlin,
I
r

E r+o, from Crpux.,4Rt' 4i9, t.


Sharlichc Musc.n
tr29r, fi oDr

J79,

117

Muscum
Jlro.

sr, fron Vulci.

,{RI'

31t)

Vrl.i. IRI/459,

llcrlin, Startlichc
:r72, fronl j8r.4.

lio Munl.h. Antik.nsxmnrhuF t;.

Musccn Etrurix. lR I,'

Furtwinglcrltcich
ll4.

llc sr9r, fro,r Tfqrnir. ,4Itt' 4{)5, r. Aftcr Mo,.


London, llritisli Museun

E4e, fron
E 54.
96.

London, Britirh Muscunr


Muscurr

r Lletlir,

Stardichc Museen

Vulci,lRIl4-l:,

rr9o, from Vulci. ,4R1"46r,


Rornc, Villa

ilr

New Yotk. M.topolirin MuseuD trj r89.r. lrom


Gcl..

Bcrlin, Strrtllchc
ARL'378,
12.).

RLr 3il4i

:r r.

Mus.cn

(Er\t) 23or, rrom Txtutuioii


i:5
|

76,lroDr Vu1(i.lR L'406. r. Londo., Briridr M$cum E 7j, {r oIn Vlrlci. ,4Rl'406, ::. Attcr Hrrtwig. Ir'iJr.F
E

Londor. tsritidr
fron Vnl.i.

3r: Irl

,4R I/ 41..

jol96, tiom

(iiulir Muscuttt
C.rvctcrt

I}rscl. Borowrki (iollc.tion. Scc :t/,4 l-sxiv, :: Llll jE6,

liL

London, Britlsh Mtscuri) E 363, from C:rnrirtrs. ,4Rt' 113 Bascl, Ariikcnrrrusclun
3.14 Llostor.

ttoDrc. Vriicrn Muscuns, lronr Vlrlci.,'1li I,' 4E4, 2 L Ironrc. Vilh Ci!1ia Museum, fron Ccrvctcri. lR I/ +ilt,
V 67:, fronr

I,irris, Louvrc C Irj, fronr Crpur. ,,1R L 43,t, 7,1


zt)3

,4lt I,'46j, 82. Mu,rich, ArtikcnsamDll!tF

l6

BS Fmc

gcr 26j4, fronr Vulci.


gen 26j7,

,4Rf

4ri.

Scc ,4K

Romo. Vxri.in MuscuDrs,


fronr Vulci. ,{R L'169,

r52

Londou, lltitish Muscunt E 65. tio,r Crpur. ,4 /i I,'170, London, Bntirh


E 68. 24-

6.

Oxlord, Aslnnolcm Mus$nn r967.loj, lron' (lcrvctcri /l? f 4olr, 17.


213

Ilcrin,

Smrtllchc Musccrr

Muselr of
F.

x, TotL

Nrzionrlc lj3 Prler o, Musco (lclx. ,4/tl",l9o,

2:8e, fronr Vlrlc;.

,4RI,',tlL

3r4 Mtn)ich,
.l

9i.
ClcvclaDd

MusND ol Arr
Hrn,rr Bcqucst.
Nx

A,rtikcnsrmnllunfron Vulci. '4ltr

Arts I r.199.

r.l.

fto

Vulci.

MLrscun) ,4R I,' i7 r,

Ruvo. Musco Jrttr rj39, fronr Ruro. ,4Rr 4o8, j3 lJostor. Muscnn o{ Fnre
Arts 6.]. !r46, W. F. Wardcn

66. r r4. L. C.

r5

LrllsxDnc, Privrtc.,4R l',17 r,

Pxrls. Bibliotha.luc
.4R l/ 4.18,

ftnid. l)drr

17.1,

l4

tlon.lc 542, fi 0.
1rl.

lrr

Vulci.

.liian r.

lr7 Lonclor, Brrirh

Brunswick, Bo!v.lon1 (lollcgc i:1.3o ,'1/t I/ .!lio, l l9.


Muscunr

18

j.

.ll5 tloston. Mlrsern of Finc Arts Io.r85. Iton Ct!n... r4R f jio! L 336 Athens, Nrtion.l Muscnrn 961i1. tionr Bocoui.,4ltl'

tionr (;cli. ,4ltI,'jtiil,

Brrtllrr

FuDd, 71.

3j,t

ljj

Pirris, Louvrc (l 4r6. frorrr Noh ,4R 1" 484, r7. Loncton, llritish Muscunl E 4ro, I'roin Vul(i.,4R t'494,

lJ6 Oxford. AshDrclcir Mu


,4RI,'64',87

seuDl r9trj.68, frcnl Gch.

246

a
IJ7
3J8

s.u,)r r77.
636. 22.

Oxlord, Aslrrrrolclr Mr llo,I (icli. 1/l I'


t-roDr

366 L,)doD. Brir;sh MrscluD


E 299,

Paldmo, Mus$ Na,io,,ri(


V 676,
8J

Gcla.lRt,6lr,
Mrsctrnr

' 167 llostoD, Muj.tr,ll oa Fihc


Arrs 76.46, lronl (lxpul. ARI. 651, 11. Aftcr Borror
ri, pl.4s.
I)anr 4r7.

lioDr Noh. ,4R Bcrzlcy drervirg.

r6jo,

r76 Lon.loD, lJrirish Mus.l,j j


E 66. lroDr Nola.

lRtlNos.

177 Paris, Louvre


ARI'811.\)6.

(tA rrsr

Loudor, British
E

tse.lm. St.xtlichc MusccD (Erst) :l t r. .4Rr646,7. J6r Clevclerd Muscurn of Art


28.660,
F!Dd,
37-

3ol, fronl Ccl.. ,4Iit.616. 4. uerzlcy drrwnrg.

169 tiarr. Lonvrc CA::s9,1ionr

16ll lhil nrrrkcr.


Kcr.h.

.178 llosroD, Mu\cun) ol Frk Arts 9E.9.1r, t_roD Errurir

t7o llerfur,
37I 17:
ARt

lRil

fron Italy.,,lRr

Cl. W.

HrrkD.ss
64N,

!/t I/ 7rj, roo. (lopcDhigcn, NrrioDel Mu


iDv. I r426.

Snadichc Musccn

797. r17.

iii, pl.88. 17, Iloston. MuscuD)


Ar

ARt t,i7. .

Aate. /i.Jn,,

INDEX OF
Prnciprl

RTISTS AND GROUPS


bold. Figurc numbcs erc ndl;iJe/

s.lrnr nrv. 6. from Noh.


7t7, 3. Lcr,ngrad. Hernnragc M!, \cuir Etrl. IloD Noli.,4RL,
787,

.l80 lloston, MuscuDr of FjI.


Arrs 9j 3o. ,4Rt7 t!rr,
Af-tt.8oiro,r iii. pl. 9r
,14

ttg

ol Fi,r ts 9j.:8, tiom Vrt,i ,,1Rt/ 8r6, r Altcr l,iirtrt.


4+q

page rctcrences are

I'}.
Agrigcnto
Akcsrorides tr. r95 i J6E Amasis 9, r4, r7, J8,9r Ambrosios P. 62i rr9 rr Ardokides P. r5-r7, IlJ, 5J.

Prrnter; (p)

poitcr

l6l
361

r22r J, from Nola. ,4.iit/ 646,3. I']aris, Louvrc G 2ro, fronr C.pL,a. lR r 647, r8.
Arrs 68.

ItcrD, H;storisch$ Musctr,n

P.

Itloi J27

Elrusis P. r3j, 2rl i Elpnrikos P. 62, 2]]


Epclcios
57,

l7l OxLrd,
sctr

i.

Ashrrolcan Mu14,R |,',

-t8r Lc.irgmd, Hcrmir.gc M!s.unr 6j8. l-roDr Orv'cr()

Epid(,nos

Boston, Museunr ot Furc r6l, L. T. Cl.y Giti.

scur) j 17.

374 Oxl-ord, Ashnrolein Mu-

7Nj,

N.

lllz

ARl 8tt.3.

l6j

Brusscls. M!s6cs Royaux A Iorq. fronl Ererria. ,4R I,6

j2,

l.

I7i London, Dritish M!\c!Dr E 77-:, f(,1 AthcDs. AIi I,. 8()6. 90. Altcr Furrlv:nlill.r Rcichhold, pl. j7:

r927-7r. ARV 79o.

16

Illt Fcrreri, Mus.o


,4R I,'2oJ. r14

Aftff /rdJn[ iii, pl. 87.

Arts ro.j7i:.

llostoD. Muscu]n

/Rf

ol l:Ir.
N2r, j

dokides Antimenes
43

Na7(nr,tl.

(p) ,7. 58,8rJ P. J7,:r4 Anriphon P. 35. 132, r35i P. t Il; rdj

2tq

Euai.hnc lr I95: J 2., Ention P- lt)Sa 369 70,


Euclrarrles
Eucrgides Euersidcs

62i rrJ ,4 Epiktebs 9, 15. 56,57 9, 6ct, t)o, 92. t 11, 2t1: a,r , 66 7E

P. P.

i rrJ 6r.62: io5 6

,i

Kachrylion

Kares
Kiss

(p) lr,
2rl:

56.61

P.

62,

Kleophradcs Kleophradcs

19r-6, trrr,
9

P.

r2.l 9. 90, 9r-4, 95, 2r9, 22U, 23o li

95.

rt2t

1b4

t7t
?

Kolchos

(p) eI, I17

diSp'r)x T.867, fiom SpIr.r

Apollodoros 62; r16 rli


Argos

HEAD DETAILS IN TEXT

(p r6),{Rrnos.za6,2r,J,zra,8.e,Euphronros(p.lr),4Rrnus.t/,ir,),r7,rr, -.Iurh)mrde,(p. l4l ,,tR/no"r r.l,4. a U.ro\(p.i7),4Rrnosolsi,s,..5.ooripili,i",ip r,]) Attv n9\:l: r(. oJ. rr. s,..Kl(ophtude. pnnrcr O. s.t,) ,4Rl no,. rol. ro;, o, r, tsertD p;,n,,1 ,p. ,Jr //?l r. r/'r'. r,,4. r,r. rl);: O-(,.rno.,p .J4. 4Rlno. ,,. r4. .. r07. -4. Bry!.\ 'io. P.,in,s /p. rr,,. *. .t.. d8. r. .24. .2or. Do,ri. rp irsr 4Rr no, i;. ry a,'r,., ia , r,.,,, 1Ef no.. P.,rn,,rfp r8r) {I?l r. r. s. t hc rr,grrr,rrr oD p. ror\rn rh". _rhor.,,"ll,,
Andokidcs Panrrd The drawing on p. 2o9 is by M:rrion Cox.
I)rmcDsions

P. 12,9r 5, rrr, rr2 14, 179, 193 4,22r. r+J 61,3u1 Ilom P. I34 ji 2_17 Boot P. 9j, 195-6i i82 Bowdon Eye P. J9i 82 Briseis P. I37: 27o .l Brygos P. I33. 135-6. r17 9.
Bcrlin

P 56, (p) 60 Euphronios 9, irl, 32-3, 31, 61, <)t, 1 tt, 21 3t ronisp., r, Jo Euphronios (p) 9, 12,,33, 137 Eudrymides 3c2. 33-4, lJ 6, gti 2tlt 33 7i 52 l Euritheos (p) lz, j6 7
j8,60 r; rro I

L.agros Croup 36 t.eningrad P. t 8(); Jr?-6

Lydos

Lysippides

P.

scc Andokides P.

9, 90, rj8, r4o, 22.).232. Jo8 18 MJtsch P. rrl; rE,

Makron

r9j

-1.

Ex.ki.s
FouDdry
(l.1cs

7, r8, j6

Meilon (p) 17 Mid,s (p) e

Mv,9
13. t76-8
9

225.23t 3t rtE, r4S


Brygos

(p)

61

Flyurq Angcl

e, eo, 115

P.

P. r.t2

Mysor rr2. r8o: 168 22


Nikon

116 7; 262

Cagc P. Carpentcr

ofso

re

colrplctc v.s.r

rrr

S'vc,) in c.nr;,Ietrcs iD rhc c.ptions.

v.,.";;o$,,r{..r: Il":11,"'..:,.'r,,..,,u,.-,.r,h....r,1,r,.-r,r.o..r.,r.rr MarH; sfJ. tl,rt t, 26, J2, .14. Jit, qo 1.55 6,66.72 6, go. r32.,|i,,a,. raa,,5o ,, ,51, 157, 159, 1Ia i, iEi, 19r. 198.218,2r, 1,2r2, r15. r56, r61,26E,260.26t, zgz j, zq5 6, z9t, t12, -t.13,31J..115, t5o..j5.i i,.l8jli l,rofcsso, Bloe!h l,r7lj Protc$ur Trcri.,llio5t: (;qrrx,, Jrdl. Pt,.r., R,r',^/,pt.ri p,t,r..: r,.-,-, r,,.,.iril'.r., ,r.r. I.li, '.:. l: .:. iiorr the tscvlcv Ar.hivr nr o\f;rl

fhu .,rrrhor r,d tuLrlnrr B Jrc du.ft) qr.,ret, ro thc n)rnv n,rseums aDd .olectors nrmcd nr rtr. 1 ,'.: ll, r,",1,-irki,l.\L.,rt.rl\ ,cp.r.,o-:rrp)r.. rdqrnri.gp,r..,iu.r,,,,1,t..1j rt,(,,,

P. 62r ,24 Cartellino P. I38 Charmidcs P. I9r i i67 Cheh P. 6I; r r r Chelis (p) 6I Cl:j\tc P. 195. 176 7 Colm,r P. 55, I12. r34-s,2rl: 236, , t8 CopcnhagoP t t3 t4 199 2a)
l)ciiiades (p) lj l)clos P. 59. 60: E, Dikrios P. 35. t6i 4J-7
Diogcncs
Diosphos

rjJi zli

P. r I41 2I I P. rj i i92 (;cras P. t r3: ,79 E, Golrchow P. 9.29i 2] (i.rsu' (p) 15. IIL: lE Lir"up ol Florn Nolin\ 95.rr.r
Clallatin
L

P. 6a', 9J-6, gti Nikosrhcncs (p) i(ts8,60,62.


N,kosihcDcs

P.

r9J i

J6i

88,

Nikoxenos

Ciroup of Negro

Alxbrstn t t4i
Allbastra 6'
J

Ciroup of I'r;dikos

P. itt 12: i62 3 oidip$ P. Ilgi Jdl Oinanthe P. 180: ,29 Oionoklcs P. 1t)4 5: J6o 3 Oltos 56-7,6l)-r.2rj i J4-6J Oncsimos 9, r3l-4, r3J. rl8,
Orelbclos

HIrow P. rr2r r7J

Hcgeslboulos P. 62i r26 Flcnna;os P. 6Ii ro, L

Prjdikos

I)ish P. I9J; J7, 2 l)oknnasia P. t37,23ot 27 i-7 I)ouris 59, 90, 92 3, 95, 133-4,

P. Irt;9r P. I r4

HcnnoDri 19l 4i JJ,-,

P of
P.

Agora Ch.irias cuPs 62i

(p) e (p) e, 6r

t374, t1o,1z9t
95,

'El

99

(p) eo. rao, 'e6 (p) I7 Hischylos P. t9. 86 7 Hischylos (p) J8 e Hypsis I jt 4J 1
Hicron Hihros

P. ofBirth ofAthena I94i JJJ P. of Louvrc G.26j Il7i r78 P. of Munich 24r3 P. of Ncw York

ofMunich Amphora

rIl;

rqr

l)!fiir P248

P of

zr.It

r9l;15d
oq

Paris Gigdntomachy

Il7;
249

rt4]'

2oZ, 212

Prnphiios
r33. 2o9
Pxn

(p) j6

8, (,o.

.:.

NN.

P.

r79,

r8o-r, r93, rr r, tr:ji


,o7

1',1)t(tsl'jru.ritirn r33-4, r :]j,2r3l


cncc P. r94i JJ6 9 P. rr-l r4j 2oJ 6 l)ri.\ r7-r8, 3j, J7 8r r I rj l,ythoD (p) 19, 9cl, r37, 2o9 l) S.

Pxrcrs r8, J8,2rJr rcrT


P.rsiades

3J5

49

I'tov

Pt'si.dcs

P. 6rt (p) 6r
r

Pc;thirros 132, l.]Ji ?r?


l)crsclrs

Phcidippos 591 79 Eo Phintias 9, lo 2, 35, 16. j7, <)1.132,2t3t 18 42 Phintias (p) lr. r r r, 2ror ,9
Pig P. r80: Jr9 2r f istoxcnos (p) e, j9, r ra t ithos P. 62; r2d

P-

8oi JJo

6(],

Sidc Pal ette lekythoi sikanos (p) e

P. 62, 21 3; ,2J P. , r,1 Scheurlco P 59i 6.r


Salting
Sappho
9

Ir4:2ro

I, l?,36, tl2,:3.]: Jo (d 3c,, la. 16 P. rrtiror-E P. rr3 r4,:o8; 2o2 4 Syrrkos (p) e, rr1 TclL'phos P. r9J 6i J7.9 Er Thali, P 61 2. zr3i rr2 Thiliarchos P. j9; dr rhrax (p) e Tithonos P. r r4i 2rJ Triprolcnros P. 1t 8, r39-4o,
Sosias

Hcraklcs

Soshs Sylcus Syriskos

sc. undcr rdvesxrics Hcrfrcs 22j 6a 61.2,88,96,25 t, scc Argos and /,drrn,

z2i.2ri,,7 u,2ll +i rlj d, r88,2r6; nr bowlolSuD iori lvith Dionysos - .176i ir)trodu.tion ro OlvDrpus - Joi sxcrificcs d: wirh sn.kes - rJJ i
JZ-5

Medusr

scc

Mcnrron 2l2i JEi with


158.3o6.2

Colgo'rs

Eos

Poly{c,rr -itr. rrr: v1' I r,)rl,n l'oscidon tr:r, .rrj 6, r:ri 5r,
Prianr :tr-i. 1rri

Menelaos 23r 2; with HclcD

d(xrh
r r.i

,r5.
)11)

Midas

233

MiDotrlr

229i

/r,

,,E

l)rocrnstcs trrili t 17, 22.), Promcthcus .ag:.t


Ps),chostasia

Hcspcrdcs :27:

Hyrkuthos ::'i..u

Sikclos

Sirc P r13;

Troilos
rE,l
9r
?

Tyszkiewicz \ViDchcsrcr

Skyrhcs 9, r.,,59-6oi 88 Snrikros 9,29, lo, 13; Jr

P. lrJj r8d 9d P. r rlt rEj-7 P.


59i 8t

Hydn :27; r98 Hyllos,8


Idas

3oi id8

Ncrcus 2rj, 227; /j6 Nerclds 2ll i 6,.,, rrj

Pygmics rll;2JE

2j:i

Nike

tr1,I,

126; 159, 161.

21-1.

Sxrpedon rl2;.ror,ijf.,

22

Satys

1-{ypnos 2::7,2t2

Ia 2r.tt 3r7 his 2r4-6i rjg.2o2,25r 2 Ixion 213


.lason 229 3oi 2oo,
288

ljd

Odysscus

rlr:i r EJ. r, r85; mour of Aclillcs ,6Ji sct'


27.1.2

lris

/t,Ji

it lurq( r7;;witlt
25?:

225,22iJ. 233-4; athlctcs

rt tomb roo;

Htr,,.
rnd

oidipus 2lo i Jor orcithyia scc 13otcas


Orestcs 23o r:

Sclene :31 Silcnos 233 Snris r28i r r5, :?06. :rE7 Sircns rti;r8l.r
Sisyphos 2i3

INDEX OF I\4YTHOLOGICAL SUBJECTS


lndcx to tcxt ofChaptcr Eight only; and sclcct ligurc nunlbcrs irdli.iJrl

otphcns

23at

27

7, 354

Skiroh

Kxirtcus 2.]l;

Krsaudn :3:i rii


Kcphalos z3o;;o;

126

Peris z:r; wjth Helcn loE-r;


Patroklos 223,23I:
250, 27i

Sylcus r28: ,9J, J6J

228i 9,r. ,2J

K*bcros u:zt
Achcloos ::7; 5.1 A.hil1es 223, 2to :j child J6l

r6
18/

Jrdgcncnt 3ro

rrms

JJ2i plays Ajex 2, ,nisrlon 766,J01. r isee Trollos,


llriseis
Anchises

Argos 12Ji I6J, j27 An.dnc 22J,2:9i 269


Artcnris :24,
2.26t

l)ionysos 2i:5 6.

1t, 1to,

zz,\,

2t2, z3t

371: scc

Daloi

J/6;

215, 255-6, 31J,

l),2:].,6,
t6r,

K$kopcs z27i Kerkyon 228

l,eleus 2i:9, 23ri f. Atrhntx 62i /. Thetis ir4.r

Jo

sce Gi:tDts and

232t 176

tdJJi,,

Klytrinnrcstra 4ot KykDos :27: 6j

Tclcphos :lr; JZ8 Thebcs (Scvcn) rio i JJI Tlrcscus z:4. 227-9\ ,2]. 2691 scc urdcr rclvcrsarics Thetis 23r; 2d2.r i see Pelcus

Tidronos 23o:.r/9

Adikia rtl
tJ5

Aetcas :3 r-z; with

Atalani

AtheDa 224 6.

)291 62. r91, 169


229,

Lapid 2ll;
Lnros 228i
Lion.

Tityos
Penthcus 22j:26

I96, 1,6
)2-1: 7. )0, 104

TripblcDros

rphlaston

2',

wttll

249, .r66i birdl

Elektra 23o Eos :lo,2r2i 2ar 292,


Ericlrthonios
Eros.

'ftlton
176

iz25i .1, 2261 151, 1u9. 309 227,2)9.2131 217, 221.1

AgamenrnoD z3o 1: ,71.1

erotcs 126,2lrj rZr,

17g 226t 129. 3r'o

296

Trollos 23I: ,9d,2J2


Phaia 2:8;287
Phallos

NcncxD

rEJ.2.

bird

22oi

Aigira

Phonlix 23r;2rJ.r Mlrpesa


22j i JJd

Zephyros:to Zc\s zaj 7: JJ, r9.i, 202:


Aignri .Dd pdiJn,

scc

A;thr^ 225,229,23r.t 1r5, i72.2 Ajrx 23r 2i f. H$rot - .r0.1.2i r Odysseus :47s derd .216
?,ktaion

Aigisthos rlo; r{J,

224; JJr

27,?.2

Eurysthcus
Iloar. E.ynranthian r27t 89 Borcxs r24,2lo; J./r, Jj2

I7i

8q

Brisels

Alkyoncrr 2r7; t2,9j Anrrzons u:7, z33t ij, 2o9', r. Herirkles - 9, 29, r19, 29E Anphitritc 225, :29j 2,?J
Anchscs see Aencrs Andnrnra.hc 2j2; ,JJ

226a 3.15.2, 137

Bull, Crctan zz7 Bull, Mxrathonirn 228i llusiris 227; zJ, JJ6

2311 57, r15.1,270

Gmymcdc z:,1; r5a,

139

2ar

Crlydonirn boar z:9 Ccntrurs 227, 233; /. Hcrrklcs

(irrnts ::26. rliT (Arh, Zcur,


r96 (Ath.. i'os.),280 (Dxnr.), (l)1(,i.), ire (DioD.) aiorgons 22j,:29a rJJ, Jr9
JJ7.,?

Chiron :j1i

Z2.r: laith

lrn

tj9; ig6, tz6

Jd

Hector 2lr 2: lt, 304.2; raiDmac zz9; 9z, jo6 Dcianin 227; r2, l)emctcr itr6; rJr, Jd9 l)ikc rt3 DioDrcdcs :3r 2; r. A.rcrs rd6j wi.h p ladioD rEJ
r

Helcn ::9, z3r :; with


14i scc Menclaos,
'

Theseus
i

Aphroditc

226,

Atrollo 224 5, 227t i57, tZ2.i. ,97, J.r8; /. Hcraklcs 4d, ,4;
scc MJrpcss.,

13r i:i

J-5

Hcphaistos 2:]1,225 6.2 j1,2ll


2o,262-1t

Pris

foryc

71 rcrrn1

Tityos

l'[en

zz5

6., 2o2,

2j2.1, 2qj.1

250

25r

\ -

RA

IN D EX

(k)

karos

Anakreon :19, zzz Artists foreigners - 9


Ife

Hipprrchos
ro, 29, J9;

2,,; (k)

2rJ

29-30

62,136,213
j 8-9
6,

Peis;st.atos 90, 224, Poliirs 30,34, 16


Satla

228

Bilirguals rJ-r7, jJ,


Bhck
60, 88, 93,

6gurc rr-r2, r4-rj,jj

irr

Kimon
Leagros

2t3 ro
3a. r32. r95,
93,

Sculpturc
Shading

plays rrr.

2r8, 223, 234

t2, 1t4. r33, 2t4

14. 17,30 89, 136


88

t,2r1

(k) lo,

2r3

Signatures 62,

Dokinasia r37, 2rJ


East

MaeandLJ

Creec. 9, 29, 2r4

Florals 15,31 2, JJ-7,90,94-J, rrJ 14, 1383, t8r, r94 J.2r4


Foreshorrc
Glaukon

rl8 40 Mtathon 90, 2ro, 2?2, 224 Megakles (k) 36,2r3 MenDon (k) j7,2r3 Miltiads (k) r8. ,r3
r35,

borders

95, rt2,

Technique

rr 16; cor.l-ied r8, 30, J6, r32; relef figures j6, 60, r3 j; reliefhair 30, 3J-6, J6, 89, rl5; relieflinc - 12, 89. r93; Six r8, 36, 60; white
ground rj. r7 r8.36,6r, rr4.
132-3, r39. r80, r9J,2ro 7, rr,60,88, r79 80

ng lr, (k) 2r3

JJ.89
Panathcnaic amphorae

Tr:de
rrr-rz,
2r4

Will painting ro, r4

@w0Rt

[-r*-}t.-Ai]i-

Athenian Recl FigureVases: The Archaic Period John Boardman. 528 illustrations

of The qualiry of Greek parnting and the intrinsic interest greater the {igure subjects chosen for depiction were never than iu Athens in tl're {rfty ycars following the invention the of the'red figure' technique in about 53o sc This is period covered by this book, a sequel to Athenian Bldck Lincoln Figure Vases also written by John Boardrnan' Art in Professor Emeritus of Classical Archaeology and his Oxford.'Once more one is grateful to the author for master\ organization ofthe material, his light touch and
his appreciation

ofthe

needs ofscholars and students

text"' alike' (TheTimes Literary Supplement) 'Admirable full of penetrating, often clever, observations' (British
Book News)
Thames and Hudson

rsBN 0-500-a0l,rrl9401695

96,00

i..

, u$lllltiluililfi