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0 to 1600 CHRONOLOGICAL OVERVIEW ™ 150 18 IAG 5 @e REFORMATION 16TH-CENTURY ART IN ORTHERN EUROPE AND SPAIN he dissolution of the Burgundian Netherlands in 1477 Jed toa realignment inthe European geopolitical landscape (MAP 18-1) in the early 16th century. France and the Holy Roman Empire (at the time consisting primarily of today’s Germany) ex panded their teritories after this breakup of Flanders. Through calculated marriages, military exploits, and ambitious teritorial expansion, Spain became the dominant power in Europe by the end of the 16th century. Monarchs increased their authority ‘over their subjects and cultivated a stronger sense of cultural and political unity among the populace, thereby laying the foundation for the modern state or nation, Yet mo~ mentous crisis in the Christian Church overshadowed these power shifs. As noted ear lier (see Chapter 17, page 514), concerted attempts to reform the Church led to the Reformation and the establishment of Protestantism (as distinct from Catholicism), which in turn prompted the Catholic Church’s esponse the Counter-Reformation Ultimately, the Reformation split Christendom in haf and produced a hundred years ‘of civil war between Protestants and Catholics. THE PRoTESTANT REFORMATION Replacing Church Practices with Personal Faith the Reformation, which came to fruition nthe xy 6th entry, ha its 0 in race erat dimatiaction with Church lesdership. The Seteirating rel er hf an te Church Reach stood an obstacle fr te Coa rea naningfl religous experince. Parca amazing was the are yopes concerned threes ove wth temporal pow and ater eer han whe aon of Chach member. The lt ht many Su aan nde Medics and Leo X or Giovanna de Mec) intensiied this perception, Ir was not ony those tthe highest levels who seemed to ignore hei