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Art History

Volume II: 1400Present


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Introduction to Boundless Chapter 22 Chapter 23 Chapter 24 Chapter 25 Chapter 26 Chapter 27 Chapter 28 Chapter 29 Chapter 30 Northern Europe from 1400-1500 Italys Renaissance in the 1400s Art in Commercial and Market Contexts Italy in the 1500s Northern Europe and the Iberian Peninsula in the 1500s Europe in the 1600s South and Southeast Asia After 1200 China and Korea After 1279 Japan After 1333

Art History
Volume II: 1400Present
Chapter 31 Chapter 32 Chapter 33 Chapter 34 Chapter 35 Chapter 36 Chapter 37 The Americas After 1300 Oceania Africa in the Modern Period Europe and America in the1700s and Early 1800s Europe and America in the 1800s Europe and America, 1900-1950 Global Art Since 1950

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Chapter 22

Northern Europe from 1400-1500

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Section 1

The Northern Renaissance

Introduction

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Introduction
Before 1450, Italian Renaissance humanism had little inuence outside Italy; after 1450, these ideas began to spread around Europe.
KEY POINTS

influence outside Italy; however, from the late fifteenth century, these ideas began to spread around Europe. This influenced the German Renaissance, French Renaissance, English Renaissance, Renaissance in the Netherlands, Polish Renaissance and other national and localized movements. Each of these regional expressions of the Renaissance evolved with different characteristics and strengths. In some areas, the Northern Renaissance was distinct from the Italian Renaissance in its centralization of political power. While Italy and Germany were dominated by independent city-states, parts of central and western Europe began emerging as nation-states. The Northern Renaissance was also closely linked to the Protestant Reformation and the long series of internal and external conflicts between various Protestant groups and the Roman Catholic Church had lasting effects. As in Italy, the decline of feudalism opened the way for the cultural, social, and economic changes associated with the Renaissance in northern Europe. Northern painters in the 16th century increasingly looked and traveled to Rome, becoming known as the Romanists. The High Renaissance art of Michelangelo and Raphael and the late Renaissance stylistic tendencies of Mannerism had a great impact on their work (Figure 22.1). Although Renaissance humanism and the large number of surviving classical artworks and monuments in Italy encouraged many Italian painters to explore Greco-Roman themes, Northern Renaissance painters developed other subject

Humanism influenced the German Renaissance, French Renaissance, English Renaissance, Renaissance in the Netherlands, Polish Renaissance and other national and localized movements, each with different characteristics and strengths. Northern painters in the 16th century increasingly looked and traveled to Rome (becoming known as the Romanists). The High Renaissance art of Michelangelo and Raphael and the late Renaissance stylistic tendencies of Mannerism had a great impact on their work. Although Renaissance humanism and the large number of surviving classical artworks and monuments in Italy encouraged many Italian painters to explore Greco-Roman themes, Northern Renaissance painters developed other subject matters, such as landscape and genre painting.

Overview The Northern Renaissance is the Renaissance in northern Europe. Before 1450, Italian Renaissance humanism had little

matters, such as landscape and genre painting. As Renaissance art styles moved through northern Europe, they changed and were adapted to local customs. For example, in England and the northern Netherlands, the Reformation nearly ended the tradition of religious painting. In France, the School of Fontainebleau, which was originally founded by Italians such as Rosso Fiorentino, succeeded in establishing a durable national style. Finally, by

Figure 22.1 Danae by Jan Mabuse

One of the most well-known Romanists was Jan Mabuse. The inuence of Michelangelo and Raphael showed in the use of mythology and nudity in this particular piece.

the end of the 16th century, artists such as Karel van Mander and Hendrik Goltzius collected in Haarlem in a brief but intense phase of Northern Mannerism that also spread to Flanders.
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Section 2

Burgandy and Flanders

Chartreuse de Champmol Illuminated Manuscripts Textiles

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Chartreuse de Champmol
The Chartreuse de Champmol, a Carthusian monastery on the outskirts of Dijon, represents the nest monumental work of early modern France.
KEY POINTS

provide a dynastic burial place for the Valois Dukes of Burgundy, and operated until it was dissolved in 1791, during the French Revolution. Called "the grandest project in a reign renowned for extravagance," it was lavishly enriched with works of art, and the dispersed remnants of its collection remain key to the understanding of the art of the period. Champmol was intended to rival Cteaux, Saint-Denis, where the Kings of France were buried, and other dynastic burial places. Purchase of the land and quarrying of materials began in 1377, but construction did not begin until 1383, under the architect Druet de Dammartin from Paris, who had previously designed the Duke's chateau at Sluis, and been an assistant in work at the Louvre. According to James Snyder his work at Champmol was "a somewhat conservative modification of the Late Gothic buildings of Paris". A committee of counselors from Dijon supervised the construction for the Duke, who was often elsewhere. By 1388 the church was consecrated, and most construction had probably been completed. The monastery was built for twenty-four choir monks, instead of the usual twelve in a Carthusian house, and two more were endowed to celebrate the birth in 1433 of Charles the Bold. These lived semi-hermitic lives in their individual small houses when not in the chapel. There would also have been non-ordained monks, servants, novices, and other workers.

Champmol was intended to rival Cteaux, Saint-Denis, where the Kings of France were buried, and other dynastic burial places. Called "the grandest project in a reign renowned for extravagance," Champmol was lavishly enriched with works of art, and the dispersed remnants of its collection remain key to the understanding of the art of the period. The monastery was founded in 1383 by Duke Philip the Bold to provide a dynastic burial place for the Valois Dukes of Burgundy, and operated until it was dissolved in 1791, during the French Revolution.

Monastic Splendor The Chartreuse de Champmol, formally the Chartreuse de la SainteTrinit de Champmol, was a Carthusian monastery on the outskirts of Dijon, which is now in France, but in the 15th century was the capital of the then-independent Duchy of Burgundy. The monastery was founded in 1383, by Duke Philip the Bold, to

A Ducal Symbol Somewhat in contradiction to the Carthusian mission of tranquil contemplation, visitors and pilgrims were encouraged; the expenses
Figure 22.2 Tomb of John the Fearless and Margaret of Bavaria

there would hardly have been room for so many in the choir of the church, where the monuments were. Only two monuments were ever erected, both in the same style, with painted alabaster effigies with lions at their feet and angels with spread wings at their heads (Figure 22.2). Underneath the slab on which the effigies rested, small (about 40 cm high) unpainted "pleurants" or mourners (traditionally called "weepers" in English), were set among Gothic tracery (Figure 22.3). These were described by Johan Huizinga in The Waning of the Middle Ages as "the most profound expression of mourning known in art, a funeral march in stone".
Figure 22.3 "Pleurants" or mourners Stone mourners (or "weepers") at a tomb in Chartreuse de Champmol, called "the most profound expression of mourning known in art, a funeral march in stone".

of hospitality were then recompensed by the Dukes. In 1418 Papal indulgences were granted to those visiting the Well of Moses, further encouraging pilgrims. The ducal family had a private oratory overlooking the church, which has since been destroyed, though their visits were in fact rare. The ducal accounts, which have fortunately survived, show major commissions for paintings and other works to

John the Fearless commissioned work on this tomb, though by his death in 1419 nothing had been done. The project saw several di!erent artists at work until its completion in 1470.

complete the monastery continuing until about 1415. Further works were later added by the Dukes and other donors, though building progressed at a slower rate .

The Valois dynasty of Burgundy had less than a century to run when the monastery was founded. The number of Valois tombs never approached that of their Capetian predecessors at Cteaux - indeed

Champmol was designed as a showpiece. The artistic contents, now dispersed, represent much of the finest monumental work of French

and Burgundian art of the period, demonstrating a tradition distinct from that of the similarly prestigious illuminated manuscripts.
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Illuminated Manuscripts
During the early to mid 1400s, illuminated books were considered a high art form, and Burgundy (Flanders) was a center of such production.

KEY POINTS

Illuminated manuscripts included religious works such the books of hours and prayer books, but also histories, tales of adventure and love, poetry, and a wide range of moralizing works that we might today class as self-improvement books. By the 14th century, the production of luxury manuscripts by monks writing in the monastic scriptorium had almost fully given way to commercial urban scriptoria, especially in Paris, Rome, and Burgundy. At the time illuminated manuscripts were considered treasured works of high craft; to own books indicated wealth, status, and taste. In addition books were commonly used as diplomatic gifts or as offerings to commemorate dynastic marriages. In the 1440s the cities of Bruges and Ghent became the most important center of production of illuminated manuscripts, in part due to the patronage of the cultured Philip the Good, who by his death had collected over 1,000 individual books.

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KEY POINTS (cont.)

love, poetry, and a wide range of moralizing works that we might today class as self-improvement books. Urban Scriptoria By the 14th century, the production of luxury manuscripts by monks writing in the monastic scriptorium had almost fully given way to commercial urban scriptoria, especially in Paris, Rome and Burgundy. While the process of creating an illuminated manuscript did not change, the move from monasteries to commercial settings was a radical step. Demand for manuscripts grew to such an extent that the monastic libraries were unable to meet with the demand, and began employing secular scribes and illuminators. These individuals often lived close to the monastery and, in certain instances, dressed as monks whenever they entered the monastery, but were allowed to leave at the end of the day. In reality, illuminators were often well-known and acclaimed and many of their identities have survived. At the time illuminated manuscripts were considered treasured works of high craft; to own books indicated wealth, status, and taste. In addition, they became common as diplomatic gifts, or offerings to commemorate dynastic marriages. Paris was the major source of supply after their production spread from the monasteries. However, its importance was supplanted in the 1440s by the cities of Bruges and Ghent, in part due to the patronage of

Simon Marmion was perhaps the best known and most successful artist specializing in this area, although van Eyck is thought to have contributed to the "Turin-Milan Hours" as the anonymous artist known as Hand G.

Illumination in a Gothic World The Gothic period, which generally saw an increase in the production of illuminated manuscripts, also saw more secular works such as chronicles and works of literature illuminated. Wealthy people began to build up personal libraries; Philip the Bold probably had the largest personal library of his time in the mid-15th century, is estimated to have had about 600 illuminated manuscripts, while a number of his friends and relations had several dozen. Monastic Production of Luxury Books During the early to mid 1400s, illuminated books were considered a higher art form than panel painting. While they had traditionally been created in monasteries, by the 12th century levels of demand led to their production in specialist workshops known in French as libraries. The works included religious works such the books of hours and prayerbooks, but also histories, tales of adventure and

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the cultured Philip the Good, who by his death had collected over 1,000 individual books. When, in the early to mid 15th century, manuscripts were held in higher regard than panel paintings, masters would often produce single leaf illustrations to be almost randomly inserted into precious books, as a means for the master to display and advertise his skill. Outstanding Illuminators Simon Marmion was perhaps the best known and most successful artist specializing in this area, although van Eyck is thought to have contributed to the Turin-Milan Hours as the anonymous artist known as Hand G (Figure 22.4). A number of illustrations from the period show a strong stylistic resemblance to the work of Gerard David, though it is unclear whether they are by
The Birth of John the Baptist (above) and the Baptism of Christ below, by "Hand G", Turin. Figure 22.4 Page from the "TurinMilan Hours", anonymous artist known as Hand G.

between several different masters, with more junior painters, including many women, assisting, especially in producing the increasingly elaborate border decoration.
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his hand or by his followers. There was considerable overlap between panel painting and illumination, and by the second half of the century large manuscript commissions were often shared

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Textiles
During the Burgundy period, Flanders became one of the richest parts of Europe, where magnicent tapestries where produced.

The Evolution of Art and Industry By 1433 most of the Belgian and Luxembourgian territory, along with much of the rest of the Low Countries, became part of Burgundy under Philip the Good. When Mary of Burgundy, granddaughter of Philip the Good, married Maximilian I, the Low Countries became Habsburg territory. Their son, Philip I of Castile

KEY POINTS

(Philip the Handsome), was the father of the later Charles V. The Holy Roman Empire was unified with Spain under the Habsburg Dynasty after Charles V inherited several domains. During the late Middle Ages--especially during the Burgundy period (the 15th and 16th centuries)--Flanders' trading towns, particularly Ghent, Bruges, and Ypres, made it one of the richest and most urbanized parts of Europe, weaving the wool of neighboring lands into cloth for both domestic use and export. As a consequence, a very sophisticated culture developed, with impressive achievements in the arts and architecture, rivaling those of Northern Italy. Tapestries Flemish tapestries hung on the walls of castles throughout Europe. Among the most famous of Flemish tapestries is The Hunt of the Unicorn, often referred to as the Unicorn Tapestries. These constitute a series of seven tapestries dating from 14951505

By 1433, most of the Belgian and Luxembourgian territory, along with much of the rest of the Low Countries, became part of Burgundy under Philip the Good. When Mary of Burgundy, granddaughter of Philip the Good, married Maximilian I, the Low Countries became Habsburg territory. Flemish tapestries hung on the walls of castles throughout Europe. Among the most famous of Flemish tapestries is The Hunt of the Unicorn, often referred to as the Unicorn Tapestries: a series of seven tapestries dating from 1495 1505. The two major interpretations of the Unicorn Tapestries hinge on pagan and Christian symbolism. The pagan interpretation focuses on the medieval lore of beguiled lovers, whereas Christian writings interpret the unicorn and its death as the Passion of Christ.

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(Figure 22.5). The tapestries show a group of noblemen and hunters in pursuit of a unicorn. The tapestries were woven in wool, metallic threads, and silk. The vibrant colors still evident today were produced with three dye plants: weld (yellow), madder (red), and woad (blue). One tapestry, The Mystic Capture of the Unicorn, survives only in two fragments. Interpretive Traditions: Pagan and Christian Much of the history of the Unicorn
The second of the seven tapestries, often called The Unicorn is Found Figure 22.5 The second of the Unicorn Tapestries

writers, allowing the traditionally pagan symbolism of the unicorn to become acceptable within religious doctrine. The original myths surrounding The Hunt of the Unicorn refer to a beast with one horn that can only be tamed by a virgin; subsequently, Christian scholars translated this into an allegory for Christ's relationship with the Virgin Mary.
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Tapestries is disputed, and there are many theories about their original purpose and meaning, including suggestions that the seven tapestries were not originally hung together. However, it seems likely that they were commissioned by Anne of Brittany to celebrate her marriage to Louis XII, King of France. The two major interpretations of the tapestries hinge on pagan and Christian symbolism respectively. The pagan interpretation focuses on the medieval lore of beguiled lovers, whereas Christian writings interpret the unicorn and its death as the Passion of Christ. The unicorn has long been identified as a symbol of Christ by Christian

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Section 3

Flemish Painting

The Flemish School: Robert Campin, Jan van Eyck, and Rogier van der Weyden The Second Generation

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The Flemish School: Robert Campin, Jan van Eyck, and Rogier van der Weyden
The Flemish School refers to the paintings of artists who were active in Flanders during the 15th and 16th centuries.

KEY POINTS (cont.)

Robert Campin has been identified with the signature, Master of Flemalle. Because the Flemish masters used a workshop system, they were able to mass produce high-end panels for sale and export throughout Europe.

The Flemish School The Flemish School, which has also been called the Northern Renaissance, the Flemish Primitive School, and Early Netherlandish, refers to artists who were active in Flanders during the 15th and 16th centuries, especially in the cities of Bruges and Ghent. The three most prominent painters during this period, Jan van Eyck, Robert Campin and Rogier van der Weyden, were known for making significant advances in illusionism, or the realistic and precise representation of people, space and objects. The subject matter of the Flemish School was typically religious in nature, but small portraits were common as well. The majority of this work was presented as either panels, single altarpieces, or more complex altarpieces, which were usually in the form of diptychs or polyptychs. During the 15th and 16th centuries, the Low Countries became a political and artistic center focused around the cities of Bruges and

KEY POINTS

The three most prominent painters during this period, Jan van Eyck, Robert Campin, and Rogier van der Weyden, were known for making significant advances in illusionism, or the realistic and precise representation of people, space and objects. The subject matter of the Flemish School was typically religious in nature. The majority of the work was presented as panels, usually in the form of diptychs or polyptychs. While the Italian Renaissance was based on rediscoveries of classical Greece and Rome, the Flemish school drew influence from the area's Gothic past. Van Eyck is known for signing and dating his work ALS IK KAN (AS I CAN).

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Ghent. Because Flemish masters employed a workshop system, wherein craftsmen helped to complete their art, they were able to mass produce high-end panels for sale throughout Europe. The Flemish School emerged almost concurrently with the Italian Renaissance. However, while the Italian Renaissance was based on the rediscoveries of classical Greek and Roman culture, the Flemish school drew influence from the region's Gothic past. Robert Campin Robert Campin, considered the first master of the Flemish School, has been identified with the signature, Master of Flemalle, which appears on numerous works of art. Campin is known for producing highly realistic work, for making great use of perspective and shading, and for being one of the first artists to work with oil paint instead of
"The Merode Altarpiece""is a triptych that features the Archangel Gabriel approaching Mary, who is reading in a well-decorated, typical middle class Flanders home. Figure 22.6 "The Merode Altarpiece" attributed to Robert Campin

is reading in a well-decorated, typical middle class Flanders home (Figure 22.6). Jan Van Eyck Jan Van Eyck, a contemporary of Campin, is widely considered to be one of the most significant Northern European painters of the 15th century. He is known for signing and dating his work ALS IK KAN (AS I CAN). Signatures were not particularly customary during this time, but helped to secure his lasting reputation. Active in Bruges and very popular within his own lifetime, Van Eyck's work was highly innovative and technical. It exhibited a masterful manipulation of oil paint
"The Ghent Altarpiece," a commissioned polyptych from around 1432, is perhaps Van Eyck's most famous work. Figure 22.7 "The Ghent Altarpiece" by Jan Van Eyck

and a high degree of realism. While Van Eyck completed many famous paintings, perhaps his most famous is the Ghent Altarpiece," a commissioned polyptych from around 1432 (Figure 22.7).

tempera. One of his best known works, the Merode Altarpiece, is a triptych that features the Archangel Gabriel approaching Mary, who

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Rogier Van der Weyden Rogier Van der Weyden is the last of the three most renowned Early Flemish painters. An apprentice under Robert Campin, Van der Weyden exhibited many stylistic similarities. Highly successful in his lifetime, his surviving works are mainly religious triptychs, altarpieces, and commissioned portraits. By the end of the 15th century, Van der Weyden surpassed even Van Eyck in popularity. Van Der Weydens most well-known painting is The Descent From the Cross, circa 1435 (Figure 22.8).
Figure 22.8 "The Descent from the Cross" by Rogier Van Der Weyden Van Der Weyden's most well-known painting is "The"Descent From the Cross, circa 1435.

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The Second Generation


The second generation of Flemish painters refers to painters who worked in the tradition of the three great masters of the Flemish School.
KEY POINTS

Followers of the Flemish School The second generation of Flemish painters refers to painters who worked in the tradition of the three masters of the Flemish School: Robert Campin, Jan Van Eyck, and Rogier Van der Weyden. These three artists of the Flemish School were incredibly influential, and not only within the realm of Flanders and the Netherlands. Their successful use of the workshop model allowed them to massproduce works of art for distribution, thereby spreading their influence throughout Europe. The second generation of Flemish painting coincides with the Dutch Golden age, which is characterized by the division of styles in painting, and the increase in non-religious works, while Flanders remained predominantly Catholic. The influence of Italy plays an important role in the work of the later generation of Flemish painters. Mannerism begins to be seen in Flemish painting, exemplified by long, curved human figures, and by unrealistic colors and shapes. The influence of Italy on Flanders is not thought to be as powerful as the reverse influence of Flanders on Italy, though there are numerous debates about this issue. The works of the second generation in Flanders continued the stylistic traditions of the early masters. Continuing attention to detail, complex religious iconography, exceptional realism, and further exploration into the use of oil paint characterizes their work.

The Flemish School (Robert Campin, Jan Van Eyck and Rogier Van der Weyden) were incredibly influential throughout Europe and had numerous followers. After the death of Van der Weyden, Petrus Christus is considered the first artist to set his portraits against a naturalistic background, as opposed to a flat plain. Hans Memling succeeded Christus as the next great painter of second generation in Bruges. Gerard David is known as the informal ending of the reign of the Flemish School in Bruges after which point Antwerp became the leader in art as well as political and commercial importance. Hieronymous Bosch is often discussed in relation to the second generation of Flemish artists, though he was Dutch and his style was highly individual, and decidedly more fantastical than that of Flemish School artists.

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Their themes, however, begin to expand to include more naturalistic landscape and genre paintings. Landmark Painters of the Second Generation The paintings of Petrus Christus have sometimes even been confused with those of his master, Jan Van Eyck. After the death of Van der Weyden, Petrus Christus was the first artist to set his portraits against a naturalistic background, as opposed to a flat plain. In Portrait of a Young Girl we no longer see the sitter in front of a neutral background, but poised within a defined space (Figure 22. 9). Hans Memling succeeded Christus as the next great painter of second generation in Bruges. His work is highly influenced by Van der Weyden, and exemplified by the three-quarter pose that is typical of his sitters. Memlings paintings were highly influential in their own right, but very much carried on the stylistic torch of the Early
Petrus Christus was the rst artist to set his portraits against a naturalistic background, as opposed to a at plain. In this painting, we no longer see the sitter in front of a neutral background, but poised within a dened space. Figure 22.9 "Portrait of a Young Girl" by Petrus Christus

Flemish School. After the death of Hans Memling, Gerard David became the leading painter of the area. Known for his brilliant use of color, he is another example of the second generation, having studied and copied the works of Van Eyck and Van Der Weyden. He was a direct student of Memling, whose influence is visible in David's stylistic solemnity, the great realism in his rendering of the human form, and the orderly arrangement of his figures (Figure 22. 10). David is known as the informal ending of the reign of the Flemish School in Bruges. By this time, Antwerp was becoming the leader in art as well as political and commercial importance.
Figure 22.10 "The Virgin Among the Virgins" by Gerard David

David was a direct student of Memling, whose inuence is visible in David's stylistic solemnity, the great realism in his rendering of the human form, and the orderly arrangement of his gures.

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Bosch as Contemporary Counterpoint Hieronymous Bosch is often discussed in relation to the second generation of Flemish artists, though he was Dutch and his style was highly individual, and decidedly more fantastical. His most renowned painting is The Garden of Earthly Delights. In this painting we can see a visible relation to early Flemish works, but with numerous variations of his own (Figure 22.11). The work of Bosch often exhibits visible brush strokes, a factor that is in direct opposition to the style of the Flemish school, which sought to conceal the brush with numerous layers of paint and glaze. As seen
Figure 22.11 "The Garden of Earthly Delights" by Hieronymous Bosch

in "The Garden of Earthly Delights," Boschs work employs more dream-like imagery and is seemingly less concerned with direct illusionism compared to the Flemish masters.
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The work of Bosch often exhibits visible brush strokes, a factor that is in direct opposition to the style of the Flemish school, which sought to conceal the brush with numerous layers of paint and glaze. As seen in "The Garden of Earthly Delights," Boschs work employs more dream-like imagery and is seemingly less concerned with direct illusionism compared to the Flemish masters.

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Section 4

Germany and Switzerland

Germany Switzerland

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Germany
The German Renaissance continued the use of elaborate Gothic ornament even in works that treated the human gure in entirely new ways.

Northern Renaissance: A Distinct Tradition The concept of the Northern Renaissance or German Renaissance is somewhat confused by the continuation of the use of elaborate Gothic ornament until well into the 16th century, even in works that are undoubtedly Renaissance in their treatment of the human figure and other respects. Classical ornament had little historical

KEY POINTS

resonance in much of Germany, but in other respects Germany was very quick to follow developments. They were especially in adopting printing with movable type, a German invention that remained almost a German monopoly for some decades, and which was first brought to most of Europe, including France and Italy, by Germans. Woodcuts and Engraving Printmaking by woodcut and engraving (perhaps another German invention) was already more developed in Germany and the Low Countries than anywhere else. The Germans took the lead in developing book illustrations. These were typically of a relatively low artistic standard, but were seen all over Europe, with the woodblocks often being lent to printers of editions in other cities or languages. Albrecht Drer The greatest artist of the German Renaissance, Albrecht Drer, began his career as an apprentice to a leading workshop in

Printmaking by woodcut and engraving (perhaps another German invention) was already more developed in Germany and the Low Countries than anywhere else, and the Germans took the lead in developing book illustrations. The greatest artist of the German Renaissance was Albrecht Drer. His work is often taken to represent the start of the German Renaissance in visual art, which for the next forty years replaced the Netherlands and France as the area producing the greatest innovation in Northern European art. Most leading German artists became Protestants, but this deprived them of painting most religious works, previously the mainstay of artists' revenue. Matthias Grnewald's Isenheim Altarpiece,!completed !in 1515, is widely regarded as the greatest German Renaissance painting.

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Nuremberg, that of Michael Wolgemut, who had largely abandoned his painting to exploit the new medium. Drer worked on the most extravagantly illustrated book of the period, the Nuremberg Chronicle, published by his godfather Anton Koberger, Europe's largest printer-publisher at the time. After completing his apprenticeship in 1490, Drer travelled in Germany for four years, and to Italy for a few months, before establishing his own workshop in Nuremberg. He rapidly became famous all over Europe for his energetic and balanced woodcuts and engravings; he also continued his painting during this period. Though retaining a distinctively German style, his work shows strong Italian influence. It is often taken to represent the start of the German Renaissance in visual art. For the next forty years Germany replaced the Netherlands and France as the area producing the greatest innovation in Northern European art. Drer supported Martin Luther, but continued to create Madonnas and other Catholic imagery, and to paint portraits of leaders on both sides of the emerging split of the Protestant Reformation. Reformation: the Protestant-Catholic Divide Drer died in 1528, before it was clear that the split of the Reformation had become permanent, but his pupils of the following generation were unable to avoid taking sides. Most leading German artists became Protestants, but this deprived them of the chance to

Figure 22.12 The Crucixion, central panel of the Isenheim Altarpiece by Matthias Grnewald. The Crucixion, central panel of the Isenheim Altarpiece by Matthias Grnewald.

paint most types of religious work, previously the mainstay of professional artists' revenue. Martin Luther had objected to much Catholic imagery, but not to imagery itself, and Lucas Cranach the Elder, a close friend of Luther, had painted a number of "Lutheran altarpieces," mostly showing the Last Supper, some with portraits of the leading Protestant divines as the Twelve Apostles. However, this phase of Lutheran art ended before 1550, probably under the more fiercely aniconic influence of Calvinism. Religious works for public display virtually ceased to be produced in Protestant areas. Presumably largely because of this, the development of German art had also virtually ceased by about 1550, but in the preceding

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decades German artists had been very fertile in developing alternative subjects to fill the gap in their order books. Cranach, apart from portraits, developed a format of thin vertical portraits of provocative nudes which were given classical or Biblical titles. Lying somewhat outside these developments is Matthias Grnewald, who left very few works, but whose masterpiece, his Isenheim Altarpiece, completed in 1515 (Figure 22.12), has been widely regarded as the greatest German Renaissance painting since it was restored to critical attention in the 19th century. It is an intensely emotional work that continues the German Gothic tradition of unrestrained gesture and expression; it used Renaissance compositional principles, but presented them in that most Gothic of forms, the multi-winged triptych.
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Switzerland
Switzerland brought together French, German, and Italian people in political union, and the art of this period also reects that mix.

KEY POINTS

Switzerland was preoccupied with war throughout much of the 15th century. Among Swiss artists one of the most outstanding is Konrad Witz, whose 1444 altarpiece panel, "The Miraculous Draft of Fishes" is credited with being the earliest extant faithful portrayal of a landscape in European art history, being based on observation of real topographical features. Another 15th century Swiss artist of note is Nicolaus Manuel, who painted many monumental mural decorations, which are some of the best representatives of Renaissance art North of the Alps.

In the 15th century, Europe was in a state of shift with political struggles between the growing strength of the Italian city-state and the Holy Roman Empire. In spite of this, Switzerland was consolidated during this period as a small conference formed in the Alps that brought together French, German, and Italian Duchies. During much of this century, Switzerland was occupied with

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defending itself, and eventually achieving full independence from the Holy Roman Empire. At the same time, a unique democracy was being formed, and as the century continued artists and thinkers were increasingly embracing humanist principals which would set the tone for the Swiss renaissance period. Switzerland was precoccupied with war throughout much of the 15th century. By 1353, the three original cantons had been joined by the cantons of Glarus and Zug and the city states of Lucerne, Zrich, and Bern, forming the "Old Federation" of eight states that persisted during much of the 15th century. Zrich was expelled from the Confederation from 1440 to 1450 due to a conflict over the territory of Toggenburg (the Old Zrich War). The Confederation's power and wealth increased significantly, with victories over Charles the Bold of Burgundy during the 1470s and the success of Swiss mercenaries.The traditional listing order of the cantons of Switzerland reflects this state, listing the eight "Old Cantons" first, with the city states preceding the founding cantons, followed by cantons that joined the Confederation after 1481, in historical order.The Swiss defeated the Swabian League in 1499 and gaining greater collective autonomy within the Holy Roman Empire, including exemption from the Imperial reforms of 1495 and immunity from most Imperial courts.

Because of the unique political and cultural makeup of Switzerland, it is difficult to describe a single Swiss-style during this period. Instead, the painting and sculpture of Switzerland from the 15th century is related to French, German, and Italian art. Among Switzerland's outstanding artists are Konrad Witz (circa. 1400 1456), whose 1444 panel, The Miraculous Draft of Fishes (a portion of a lot altarpiece, (Figure 22.13) is credited with being the earliest
Figure 22.13 Konrad Witz, The Miraculous Draft of Fishes, 1444. Originally part of a now dismantled altarpiece known as Peter's Altar Table, the panel depicts the "miraculous catch of 153 sh" as reported in the Gospel of John and shows a scene of the disciples, who had been shing at the edge of a lake, recognizing the stranger who had called out to them from the shore as the resurrected Jesus. Peter is shown wading toward Jesus to greet him. In this painting Witz takes the revolutionary step of moving the scene from the biblical Sea of Galilee to his local area, around Lake Geneva. With this move, Witz was able to base his rendering of the far landscape on his own observation of actual topographical features rather than rely on imaginative interpretation as earlier artists did. He further brought the landscape to the fore of his work; here the range is not simply a footnote seen through a window or detail visible beyond a crucixion scene. The painting is renowned for its naturalistic representation of the Graian Alps and the snow-capped peaks of Mont Blanc and Le Mle seen in the distance. In this regard the work is the earliest known faithful portrayal of a landscape in European art history.

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extant faithful portrayal of a landscape in European art history, being based on observation of real topographical features. Another 15th century Swiss artist of note is Nicolaus Manuel (1484 1530), who painted many monumental mural decorations, which are some of the best representatives of Renaissance art North of the Alps.
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Section 5

France

Manuscript Printing Panel Painting

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Manuscript Printing
French manuscript painting of the 15th century was best represented by Enguerrand Quarton, who created a distinctly French style.

Block printing was long practiced in Christian Europe as a method for printing on cloth, achieving widespread use by the year 1300. Images printed on cloth for religious purposes could be quite large and elaborate, and when paper became relatively easily available, around 1400, the medium transferred very quickly to small woodcut religious images and playing cards printed on paper. These prints were produced in very large numbers from about 1425 onward. Around mid-century, block-books-- woodcut books with both text and images, usually carved in the same block-- emerged as a cheaper alternative to manuscripts and books printed with movable type. These were all short, heavily illustrated works, the bestsellers of the day, repeated in many different block-book versions: the Ars moriendi and the Biblia pauperum were the most common. Enguerrand Quarton (or Charonton) (c. 1410 c. 1466) was a French painter and manuscript illuminator whose few surviving works are among the first masterpieces of a distinctively French style, very different from either Italian or Early Netherlandish painting. Six paintings by him are documented, of which only two survive, and in addition the Louvre now follows most art historians in giving him the famous Avignon Piet. His two documented works are the remarkable Coronation of the Virgin (145354, Villeneuve-les-Avignon) and The Virgin of Mercy (1452, Muse

KEY POINTS

Enguerrand Quarton (or Charonton) (c. 1410 c. 1466) was a French painter and manuscript illuminator whose few surviving works are among the first masterpieces of a distinctively French style, very different from either Italian or Early Netherlandish painting. Quarton's The Virgin of Mercy, also known as the Cadard Altarpiece after the donor, uses a motif that is most often found in Italian art, and was developed by Simone Martini a century earlier. Quarton's The Coronation of the Virgin depicts the Provenal landscape in a style derived from Italian painting, while his figures are more influenced by Netherlandish art. They hold a severity and elegance, however, that is French alone, as is the geometrical boldness of his composition. The Piet, where the dead Christ is supported by his grieving mother, is one of the most common themes of late-medieval religious art, but Quarton's Piet of Villeneuve-les-Avignon is one of the most striking depictions, perhaps the greatest masterpiece produced in France in the 15th century.

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Cond, Chantilly). Two smaller altarpieces are also attributed to him. The Virgin of Mercy, also known as the Cadard Altarpiece after the donor, uses a motif that is most often found in Italian art, and was developed by Simone Martini a century earlier (Figure 22.14). The painting has the same plain gold background as the Avignon Piet, which by this date was unusual, although it also appears in what is now the best-known version of this theme, completed just a few years earlier by Piero della Francesca. The scale of the figures is hieratic; The Virgin and Saint John the Baptist and Saint John the Evangelist tower over the donor and his wife, who are themselves slightly larger than the faithful sheltered by the Virgin's robe. The Coronation of the Virgin is a common subject in art, but the contract for this work specifies the unusual representation of the Father and Son of the Holy Trinity as identical figures (very rare in the 15th century, though there are other examples), allowing Quarton only to represent the Virgin as he chooses. Around the Trinity, blue and red angels are deployed, similar to those in Fouquet's Melun diptych (now Antwerp). The depiction of Rome (left) and Jerusalem (right) in the panoramic landscape below is also specified in the contract; the donor had been on a pilgrimage that included both cities. Beneath this, Purgatory (left) and Hell (right) open up, and in the center the donor kneels before a

Crucifixion. On the extreme left a church is shown in "cut-away" style, containing a Mass of Saint Gregory.
Figure 22.14 Enguerrand Quarton, The Virgin of Mercy (1452)

The scale of the gures is hieratic; The Virgin and Saint John the Baptist and Saint John the Evangelist tower over the donor and his wife, who are themselves slightly larger than the faithful sheltered by the Virgin's robe.

Like many of Quarton's landscape backgrounds, this painting depicts the Provenal landscape in a style derived from Italian painting, while his figures are more influenced by Netherlandish artists like Robert Campin and Jan van Eyck. They hold a severity and elegance, however, that is French alone, as is the geometrical boldness of his composition. His very strong colors have little shading, and his lighting is "harsh, even merciless." The landscape includes perhaps the first appearance in art of Mont Sainte-Victoire, later to be painted so often by Czanne and others. The painting remains in the monastery Chartreuse du Val de Bndiction, Villeneuve-ls-Avignon, for which it was commissioned by a local clergyman, Jean de Montagny.

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The Piet, where the dead Christ is supported by his grieving mother, is one of the most common themes of late-medieval religious art, but Quarton's Piet of Villeneuve-les-Avignon is one of the most striking depictions, "perhaps the greatest masterpiece produced in France in the 15th century." (Figure 22.15) The curved back form of Christ's body is highly original, and the stark, motionless dignity of the other figures is very different from Italian
Figure 22.15 Enguerrand Quarton, The Piet of Villeneuve-ls-Avignon in the Louvre, ca. 1455

or Netherlandish depictions. Before the painting was generally attributed to Quarton, some art historians thought the painting might be by a Catalan or Portuguese master. The bare background landscape falls away to a horizon broken by the buildings of Jerusalem, but instead of a sky there is plain gold leaf with stamped and incised halos, borders and inscriptions. The clerical donor, portrayed with Netherlandish realism, kneels to the left. The painting comes from Villeneuve-ls-Avignon, just across the Rhne from Avignon, and is sometimes known as the "Villeneuve Piet".
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The Piet, where the dead Christ is supported by his grieving mother, is one of the most common themes of late-medieval religious art, but this is one of the most striking depictions, "perhaps the greatest masterpiece produced in France in the 15th century."

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Panel Painting
Fourteenth century French art was still dominated by the International Gothic style, even as a new Renaissance style developed in Italy.
KEY POINTS

century, it was the normal form of support for a painting not painted directly onto a wall (fresco), or vellum, which was used for miniatures in illuminated manuscripts and paintings for the framing. Sacred and Secular By the 15th century, with the increased wealth of Europe, and later the appearance of humanism and a changing attitude about the function of art and patronage, panel painting moved away from altarpieces and religious subjects. Secular art opened the way to the creation of chests, painted beds, birth trays and other furniture. Many such works have now been detached and hung framed on walls in museums. Many double-sided wings of altarpieces have also been sawed into two one-sided panels. While there was a growing market for secular painting, though, most 15th century French panel painting was still religious in nature and included votive portraits. Changing Media and Styles In France, until the 17th century, most panels were made from oak, the material Leonardo da Vinci used for his paintings in France, although a few panels made of walnut and poplar have been found. French art in the 14th century was still dominated by the International Gothic style, even as a new Renaissance style

A panel painting is a painting made on a flat panel made of wood, either a single piece or a number of pieces joined together. Until canvas became the more popular support medium in the 16th century, it was the normal form of support for a painting not on a wall (fresco) or vellum. In France, until the 17th century, most panels were made from oak (which is what Leonardo da Vinci used for his paintings in France), although a few made of walnut and poplar have been found. Notable painters in France during the 15th century include Jacques Fouquet, the unidentified painter known as the Master of Parement, Jacquemart de Hesdin, and the Netherlandish Limbourg brothers.

Overview A panel painting is a painting made on a flat panel made of wood, either a single piece, or a number of pieces joined together. Until canvas became the more popular support medium in the 16th

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developed in Italy. Notable painters in France during the 15th century include Jacques Fouquet (Figure 22.16), the unidentified painter known as the Master of Parement, Jacquemart de Hesdin, and the Netherlandish Limbourg brothers. In the late 15th century, the French invasion of Italy and the proximity of the vibrant Burgundy court, with its Flemish connections, brought the French into contact with the goods, paintings, and the creative spirit of the Northern and Italian Renaissance. Initial artistic changes at that time in France were executed by Italian and Flemish artists, such as Jean Clouet and his son Franois Clouet, along with the Italians, Rosso Fiorentino, Francesco Primaticcio, and Niccol dell'Abbate, who constituted what is often called
The Madonna is depicted here as the Queen of Heaven, and is meant to reveal her as between the veil of heaven and earth. She is both human and otherworldly. The unnatural colors have been attributed to represent the heraldic colors of the king, being red, white, and blue. The Virgin is believed to be an idealized portrait of Agns Sorel, mistress of King Charles VII, who died two years earlier. Sorel was considered by many at the time to be the most beautiful woman in the world and therefore an obvious choice after which to model the Virgin. Figure 22.16 Jacques Fouquet, right wing of Melun Diptych; Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels (c.1450)

the first School of Fontainebleau (c. 1531). Leonardo da Vinci also was invited to France by Franois I, but other than the paintings which he brought with him, he produced little for the French king.
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Section 6

Art on Paper

Single Sheets Printed Books

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Single Sheets
Paper manufacturing became popular in Europe around 1400, and with it the medium of printmaking.
KEY POINTS

14th century, woodblock-printed cards and religious images were beginning to be seen. Landmark Printmakers Martin Schonhauer (c. 1450-1491), from Southern Germany, is credited as the first artist to create an engraving; he was also a wellFigure 22.17 "Ecce Homo" engraving by Martin Schonhauer

Artists such as Albrecht Durer, Rembrandt, and Goya made names for themselves as printmakers as well as painters. The main printmaking techniques were woodcut, engraving, and etching. Martin Schonhauer (c. 1450-1491), from Southern Germany, is credited as the first artist to create an engraving; he also refined the cross-hatch technique. Perhaps the most well- known of the Northern artists was Albrecht Durer, a painter, printmaker, engraver and mathematician from Nuremberg, Germany.

known painter (Figure 22.17). He is known for further developing the engraving methods by refining the cross-hatching technique to depict volume and shade. Another notable German printmaker is known as the "Housebook Master." His prints were made in drypoint: he scratched his lines on the plate leaving them much more shallow than they would be with an engraving. Other artists who developed distinctive styles during the 15th and 16th centuries include Lucas Cranach the Elder and Matthias Grunewald.

Printmaking The main printmaking techniques were woodcuts, engravings and etchings. Woodcut, or woodblock printing, had reached Europe from the Byzantine or Egyptian world by around 1300, and was used largely to print patterns on textiles. By the time paper was first being manufactured in Burgundy and Germany at the end of the
Martin Schonhauer is credited as the rst artist to create an engraving, and is also a wellknown painter.

Perhaps the most well-known of the Northern artists was from Nuremberg, Germany (Figure 22.18). By the time he was in his twenties, he had an established reputation across Europe, and many

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young printmakers are known to have gone though periods of copying Durers work before adapting his technical advances to their own styles. Engraving on metal was considered part of the goldsmiths' practice throughout the Medieval period, but other classifications of artist

Figure 22.18 Engraving of St. Christopher by Albrecht Durer Albrecht Durer, a painter, printmaker, engraver and mathematician, was perhaps one of the most well-known of the Northern artists.

Printed Books
The mass production of paper in 15th-century Europe opened the door for the proliferation of printed books.

KEY POINTS

Around 1450, small woodcut books called "block books," or "xylographica," came into prominence and began to be reproduced in large numbers. Block books were short books consisting of up to 50 leaves. They were printed with woodcuts carved to include both text and imagery and were nearly always religious in nature. Germany and Northern Europe were important centers for the spread and development of printed works during the 15th and 16th centuries. The most renowned block book is titled the "Ars Moriendi," or "The Art of Dying." This block book was from the Netherlands and was reprinted in several editions with different illustrations. It is widely believed that block books existed as a cheaper alternative to the movable-type printed book, which was in use but still very expensive. The "Biblia Pauperum" involved visual depictions relating the Old Testament to the New Testament and often placed the illustrations in the center with very little additional text.

began to be involved at or around 1450. Albrecht Durer originally studied to be a goldsmith, but instead went the way of the artist and subsequently became one the most well known in history.
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The increasing mass production of paper, coupled with the invention of the printing press in 15th-century Europe, opened the doors for the proliferation of printed books. Woodcut printing on
Figure 22.19 A Print from the "Ars Moriendi"

illustrations, and then the type was filled in by hand; these are called chiro-xylographic block books. Block books are considered incunabula (or incunable"), a term referring to a book, pamphlet, or broadside printed before the year 1501 in Europe. The most renowned block book is the Ars Moriendi, or The Art of Dying, from the Netherlands; it was reprinted in several editions with different illustrations (Figure 22. 19). The Biblia Pauperum, or Paupers Bible, was also a popular series of titles; they had existed previously in the 14th century as illuminated manuscripts, hand-painted on vellum, before woodcuts took over. A "Biblia Pauperum" included visual depictions that related the Old Testament to the New Testament (Figure 22.20), often
The Biblia Pauperum, or Paupers Bible, was a popular series of titles; they had existed previously in the 14th century as illuminated manuscripts, hand-painted on vellum, before woodcuts took over. A "Biblia Pauperum" included visual depictions that related the Old Testament to the New Testament. Figure 22.20 Woodblock Print from a "Biblia Pauperum"

textiles had been practiced in Europe for some time when paper began to become more affordable and readily available. Around 1450, small woodcut books called block books or xylographica came into prominence and began to be reproduced in large numbers. Block books were short books consisting of up to 50 leaves block-printed with woodcuts carved to include both text and imagery. These books

The "Ars Moriendi" is the most renowned block book.

were aimed at a general audience and were often popular titles,

nearly always religious in nature, and sometimes reprinted into multiple editions. Germany and Northern Europe were important centers for the spread and development of printed works during the 15th and 16th centuries. It is widely believed that block books existed as a cheaper alternative to the movable-type printed book, which was in use but still very expensive. Some block books were printed with only the

placing the illustrations in the center with very little additional text. Other notable incunabula include the Gutenberg Bible of 1455, as

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well as the Peregrinatio in Terram Sanctam of 1486, printed and illustrated by Erhard Reuwich. Most of the earliest block books are believed to have been printed in the Netherlands, while the later ones are thought to be from Southern Germany. Specifically, Nuremberg, Ulm, Augsburg, and Schwaben were notable locations for the development of print media in the 15th and 16th centuries.
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Section 7

Holy Roman Empire

Sculpture Panel Painting Graphic Arts

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Sculpture
In the 15th century Holy Roman Empire enjoyed patronage from the state for public sculpture, and from the wealthy for their homes and tombs.

most surviving examples are in Germany, a resut of extensive iconoclasm (image destruction) elsewhere. Tilman Riemenschneider, Veit Stoss and others continued the style well into the 16th century, gradually absorbing Italian Renaissance influences. Life-size tomb effigies in stone or alabaster became popular among the wealthy, and grand multi-level tombs evolved. The Scaliger Tombs of Verona were so large they had to be moved outside the church. By the 15th century there was an industry exporting small Nottingham alabaster altar reliefs in groups of panels over much of Europe for economical parishes who could not afford stone retables. Small carvings, intended for a lay and often female market, became a considerable industry in Paris and some other centers. Types of ivories included small devotional polyptychs, single figures, especially of the Virgin, mirror-cases, combs, and elaborate caskets with scenes from Romances, used as engagement presents.

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A revival of classical style is seen in the International Gothic work of Claus Sluter and his followers in Burgundy and Flanders around 1400. Life-size tomb effigies in stone or alabaster became popular for the wealthy, and grand multi-level tombs evolved (e.g., the Scaliger Tombs of Verona). The period was marked by a great increase in patronage of sculpture by the state for public art and by the wealthy for their homes; especially in Italy, public sculpture remains a crucial element in the appearance of historic city centers.

Late Gothic A revival of classical style is seen in the International Gothic work of Claus Sluter and his followers in Burgundy and Flanders around 1400. Late Gothic sculpture continued in the North, with a fashion for very large wooden sculpted altarpieces with increasingly virtuoso carving and large numbers of agitated expressive figures;

Northern Renaissance Renaissance sculpture is often thought to begin with the famous competition for the doors made for the Florence Baptistry in 1403. The trial models submitted by the winner, Lorenzo Ghiberti, and by Filippo Brunelleschi survive. Ghiberti's doors are still in place, but were undoubtedly eclipsed by his second pair for the other

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entrance, the so-called "Gates of Paradise," which took him from 142552 to complete. They are dazzlingly confident compositions in the classicized mode, with varied depths of relief allowing extensive backgrounds (Figure 22.21). The intervening years had seen Ghiberti's early assistant Donatello develop; he had produced seminal statues, including his Davids in marble (140809) and bronze (1440s), and his Equestrian statue of Gattamelata, as well as reliefs. A leading figure in the later period was Andrea del Verrocchio, best known for his equestrian statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni in Venice. His pupil Leonardo Da Vinci designed an equine sculpture in 1482, The Horse for Milan, but
Ghiberti's doors were named by Michelangelo the "Gates of Paradise". Figure 22.21 Lorenzo Ghiberti's bronze doors of the Baptistry of Florence Cathedral

This was especially true in Italy, where public sculpture remains a crucial element in the appearance of historic city centers. Church sculpture mostly moved inside just as outside public monuments became common. Portrait sculpture, usually in busts, became popular in Italy around 1450, with the Neapolitan Francesco Laurana specializing in young women in meditative poses, while Antonio Rossellino and others more often depicted knobbly-faced men of affairs, but also young children. The portrait medal style introduced by Pisanello also often depicted women. In Catholic parts of South Germany the Gothic tradition of wood carving continued to flourish until the end of the 18th century, adapting to changes in style through the centuries. Veit Stoss (d. 1533), Tilman Riemenschneider (d.1531) and Peter Vischer the Elder (d. 1529) were Drer's contemporaries, and their long careers covered the transition between the Gothic and Renaissance periods, although their ornament often remained Gothic even after their compositions began to reflect Renaissance principles.
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only succeeded in making a 24-foot (7.3 m) clay model, which was destroyed by French archers in 1499. Da Vinci's other ambitious sculptural plans were never completed. The period was marked by a great increase in patronage by the state of sculpture for public art, and by the wealthy for their homes.

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Panel Painting
The court of the Holy Roman Emperor played an important role in forming the International Gothic style in the late 14th century.
KEY POINTS

time, Hamburg was a city of the Hanseatic League, and Bertram was succeeded in the city by artists such as Master Francke, the Master of the Malchin Altar, Hans Bornemann, Hinrik Funhof, and Wilm Dedeke, who survived into the Renaissance period. Hanseatic artists painted commissions for Baltic cities in Scandinavia and the modern Baltic states to the east. In the south, the Master of the Bamberg Altar was the first significant painter based in Nuremberg, while the Master of Heiligenkreuz and then Michael Pacher worked in Austria. Like Pacher, Bernt Notke-- a painter from the Hanseatic city of Lbeck-painted altarpieces or carved them into the increasingly elaborate painted and gilded style used as frameworks or alternatives for painted panels. South German wood sculpture was important in developing new subjects that reflected the intensely emotional devotional life encouraged by movements in late medieval Catholicism, such as German mysticism. These are often known in English as andachtsbilder (devotional images) and include the Piet (Figure 22.22), Pensive Christ, Man of Sorrows, Arma Christi, Veil
Piet is one of the most common artistic representations of a sorrowful Virgin Mary. Many German and Polish 15th-century examples in wood greatly emphasize Christ's wounds. Figure 22.22 Swabian painted wood Piet of c. 1500

The International Gothic style style was spread around the wealthy cities of Northern Germany by artists such as Conrad von Soest in Westphalia and Meister Bertram in Hamburg, and later by Stefan Lochner in Cologne. South German wood sculpture was important in developing new subjects that reflected the intensely emotional devotional life encouraged by movements in late medieval Catholicism, such as German mysticism. These are often known in English as andachtsbilder (devotional images). Martin Schongauer, who worked in Alsace in the last part of the 15th century, was the culmination of late Gothic German painting, with a sophisticated and harmonious style.

The court of the Holy Roman Emperor, originally based in Prague, played an important role in forming the International Gothic style in the late 14th century. The style was spread around the wealthy cities of Northern Germany by artists such as Conrad von Soest in Westphalia, Meister Bertram in Hamburg, and, later, Stefan Lochner in Cologne. At the height of its prosperity at the

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of Veronica, the severed head of John the Baptist, and the Virgin of Sorrows-- many of which would spread across Europe and remain popular until the Baroque and, in popular religious imagery, beyond. Indeed, "Late Gothic Baroque" is a term sometimes used to describe hyper-decorated and emotional 15th century art, above all in Germany. Martin Schongauer, who worked in Alsace in the last part of the 15th century, was the culmination of late Gothic German painting, with a sophisticated and harmonious style, but he increasingly spent his time producing engravings, for which national and international channels of distribution had developed, so that his prints were known in Italy and other countries. His predecessors were the Master of the Playing Cards and Master E. S., both also from the Upper Rhine region. German conservatism is shown in the late use of gold backgrounds, still used by many artists well into the 15th century.
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Graphic Arts
The artistic style that continued to predominate in the Holy Roman Empire of the fteenth century was Gothic.
KEY POINTS

In many areas of the Holy Roman Empire, especially Germany, late Gothic art continued well into the sixteenth century, before being subsumed into Renaissance art. Primary media in the Gothic period included sculpture, panel painting, stained glass, fresco, and illuminated manuscripts. Frescoes continued to be used as the main pictorial narrative craft on church walls in southern Europe, whereas in northern Europe, stained glass was an important and prestigious form of painting until the fifteenth century, when it became supplanted by panel painting. From the middle of the fourteenth century, blockbooks with both text and images cut as woodcut were most popular in the Low Countries. By the end of the century, printed books with illustrations, still mostly on religious subjects, were rapidly becoming accessible to the prosperous middle class. In the fifteenth century, the introduction of cheap prints, mostly in woodcut, made it possible even for peasants to have devotional images at home.

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The artistic style that continued to predominate in the Holy Roman Empire of the fifteenth century was Gothic. Gothic art was a style of Medieval art that developed in France out of Romanesque art in the mid-twelfth century, led by the concurrent development of Gothic architecture. It spread to all of Western Europe, but took over art more completely north of the Alps, never quite effacing more classical styles in Italy. In the late fourteenth century, the sophisticated court style of international Gothic developed and continued to evolve until the late fifteenth century. In many areas, especially Germany, Late Gothic art continued well into the sixteenth century, before being subsumed into Renaissance art. Primary media in the Gothic period included sculpture, panel painting, stained glass, fresco, and illuminated manuscripts. The easily recognizable shifts in architecture from Romanesque to Gothic, and Gothic to Renaissance styles, are typically used to define the periods in art in all media, although in many ways figurative art developed at a different pace. Painting during the Gothic period was practiced in four primary media: frescoes, panel paintings, manuscript illumination, and stained glass. Frescoes continued to be used as the main pictorial narrative craft on church walls in southern Europe as a continuation of early Christian and Romanesque traditions. In northern Europe, stained glass was an important and prestigious form of painting until the fifteenth century, when it became

supplanted by panel painting. Gothic architecture greatly increased the amount of glass in large buildings, partly to allow for wide expanses of glass, as in rose windows. In the early part of the period, mainly black paint and clear or brightly colored glass was used but in the early fourteenth century, the use of compounds of silver painted on glass which was then fired, allowed a number of variations of color, centered on yellows, to be used with clear glass in a single piece. By the end of the period, designs increasingly used large pieces of glass which were painted with yellows as the dominant colors and relatively few smaller pieces of glass in other colors. From the middle of the fourteenth century, blockbooks with both text and images cut as woodcut seem to have been affordable by parish priests in the Low Countries, where they were most popular. By the end of the century, printed books with illustrations, still mostly on religious subjects, were rapidly becoming accessible to the prosperous middle class, as were engravings of fairly high quality by printmakers like Israhel van Meckenem (Figure 22.23) and Master E. S.. In the fifteenth century, the introduction of cheap prints, mostly in woodcut, made it possible even for peasants to have devotional images at home. These images, tiny at the bottom of the market, often crudely colored, were sold in thousands but are now extremely rare, most having been pasted to walls.

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Painting with oil on canvas did not become popular until the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and was a hallmark of Renaissance art. In northern Europe, the important and innovative school of early Netherlandish painting is in an essentially Gothic style but can also be regarded as part of the northern Renaissance, as there was a long delay before the Italian revival of interest in classicism had a great impact in the north. Painters, such as Robert Campin and Jan van Eyck, made use of the technique of oil painting to create minutely detailed works, correct in perspective, where apparent realism was combined with richly complex symbolism arising precisely from the realistic detail they could now include, even in small works. In early Netherlandish painting, from the richest cities of northern Europe, a new minute realism in oil painting was combined with subtle and complex theological allusions, expressed precisely through the highly detailed settings of religious scenes. The Mrode Altarpiece (1420s) of Robert Campin and the Washington Van Eyck Annunciation or Madonna of Chancellor Rolin (both 1430s, by Jan van Eyck) are examples. For the wealthy, small panel paintings, even polyptychs in oil painting, were becoming increasingly popular, often showing donor portraits alongside, though often much smaller than, the Virgin or saints depicted. These were usually displayed in the home.

Figure 22.23 Israhel van Meckenem and his wife, the rst self-portrait in a print. Engraving, 1480s or 1490s.

Israhel van Meckenem was the most prolic engraver of the fteenth century and an important gure in the early history of old master prints. He was active from 1465 until his death.

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Chapter 23

Italy's Renaissance in the 1400s

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Section 1

Introduction

Art of the Italian Renaissance

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Art of the Italian Renaissance


The art of the Italian Renaissance was inuential throughout Europe for centuries.

At the turn of the 16th century, especially in Northern Italy, artists began to use new techniques in the manipulation of light and darkness, such as the tone contrast evident in many of Titian's portraits and the development of sfumato and chiaroscuro by Leonardo da Vinci and Giorgione. The period also saw the first secular themes. Botticelli is known for producing works with mythological themes, notably The Birth of Venus and Primavera, although he was deeply religious (becoming a follower of Savonarola) and the great majority of his output was of traditional religious paintings or portraits (Figure 23.1).
Figure 23.1 Birth of Venus

KEY POINTS

Renaissance artworks depicted more secular subject matter than previous artistic movements. Michelangelo, da Vinci and Rafael are among the best known painters of the High Renaissance. The High Renaissance was followed by the mannerist movement, known for elongated figures.

The Italian Renaissance was a broad intellectual movement, best known for its cultural achievements. Italian Renaissance painting exercised a dominant influence on subsequent European painting for centuries afterwards, with artists such as Giotto di Bondone, Masaccio, Piero della Francesca, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Perugino, Michelangelo, Raphael, Botticelli, Leonardo da Vinci, and Titian. The same is true for architecture, as practiced by Brunelleschi, Leone Alberti, Andrea Palladio, and Bramante. Their works include Florence Cathedral, St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, and the Tempio Malatestiano in Rimini.
Botticelli's Birth of Venus was among the most important works of the early Renaissance.

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The period known as the high renaissance represents the culmination of the goals of the earlier period, namely the accurate representation of figures in space rendered with credible motion and in an appropriately decorous style. The most famous painters from this phase are Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo. (Figure 23.2) Their paintings and frescoes are among the most widely known works of art in the world. Da Vinci's Last Supper, Raphael's The School of Athens and Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel Ceiling are the masterpieces of the period. High renaissance painting evolved into mannerism, especially in Florence. Mannerist artists, who consciously rebelled against the principles of high renaissance, tend to represent elongated figures in
Raphael was one of the great artists of the High Renaissance. Figure 23.2 Marriage of the Virgin, by Raphael

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illogical spaces. Modern scholarship has recognized the capacity of mannerist art to convey strong (often religious) emotion where the High Renaissance failed to do so. Some of the main artists of this period are Pontormo, Bronzino, Rosso Fiorentino, Parmigianino and Raphael's pupil, Giulio Romano.

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Section 2

Humanism

Humanistic Art

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Humanistic Art
Humanism was an activity of reform engaged in by scholars, writers and civic leaders in 14th century Italy.

KEY POINTS (cont.)

In humanist painting, the treatment of the elements of perspective and depiction of light became of particular concern.

KEY POINTS

Humanism, also known as Renaissance humanism, was an activity of reform engaged in by scholars, writers and civic leaders in 14th and early 15th century Italy, which later spread to the rest of Europe becoming known as the Renaissance. Renaissance humanism can be regarded as the early or proto Renaissance. The movement developed in response to the scholastic conventions in education at the time, which emphasized practical, pre-professional and scientific studies engaged in solely for job preparation, and typically by men alone. Humanists reacted against this utilitarian approach seeking to create a citizenry (frequently including women) able to speak and write with eloquence and thus able to engage the civic life of their communities. This was to be accomplished through the study of the studia humanitatis or the "humanities": grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry and moral philosophy. Humanism introduced a program to revive the cultural and particularly the literary legacy and moral philosophy of classical antiquity. The movement was largely founded on the ideals of Italian scholar and poet Francesco Petrarca, which were often centered around humanitys potential for achievement.

Humanists reacted against the utilitarian approach to education seeking to create a citizenry (frequently including women) able to speak and write with eloquence and thus abe to engage the civic life of their communities. The movement was largely founded on the ideals of Italian scholar and poet Francesco Petrarca, which were often centered around humanitys potential for achievement. While humanism initially began as a predominantly literary movement, its influence quickly pervaded the general culture of the time, reintroducing classical Greek and Roman art forms, leading directly to the Renaissance. Donatello became renowned as the greatest sculptor of the Early Renaissance, known especially for his humanist and unusually erotic statue of David. While medieval society viewed artists as servants and craftspeople, Renaissance artists were trained intellectuals, and their art reflected this newfound perspective.

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While humanism initially began as a predominantly literary movement, its influence quickly pervaded the general culture of the time, reintroducing classical Greek and Roman art forms, leading to the Renaissance. Humanists considered the ancient world to be the pinnacle of human achievement and thought its accomplishments should serve as the model for contemporary Europe. Early Renaissance art in Italy was generally focused on sculpture with the leading artists being Donatello, Brunelleschi and Ghiberti. Donatello became renowned as the greatest sculptor of the Early

Figure 23.3 Donatello's "David"

relegated to religious themes, art was now primarily secular in nature. Important patrons such as Cosimo de Medici emerged and contributed largely ot the creation of new works. In painting, the treatment of the elements of perspective and light became of particular concern. The studies of Paolo Uccello, such as Battle of San Romano demonstrates his particular solutions to the problems of portraying light and linear perspective (Figure -.-). The use of oil paint had its beginnings in the early part of the 16th century and its use continued to be explored extensively throughout

Figure 23.4 "Battle of San Romano" by Paolo Uccello

Donatello's "David" is regarded as an iconic humanist work of art,

Renaissance, known especially for his humanist and unusually erotic statue of David, which became one of th icons of the Florentine republic (Figure 23.3). Humansim affected the artistic community and how artists were perceived. While medieval society viewed artists as servants and craftspeople, Renaissance artists were trained intellectuals, and their art reflected this newfound perspective. Patronage of the arts became an important activity and commissios were no longer
Italian humanist paintings were largely concerned with the depiction of perspective and light.

the coming High Renaissance of the 16th century.

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Section 3

Florence

Architecture Sculpture Painting Painting Post-Masaccio

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Architecture
Renaissance architecture rst developed in Florence in the 15th century and represented a conscious revival of classical antique styles.

KEY POINTS (cont.)

The buildings of the early Renaissance in Florence expressed a new sense of light, clarity, and spaciousness that reflected the enlightenment and clarity of mind glorified by the philosophy of Humanism.

The Quattrocento or the 15th century in Florence was marked by


KEY POINTS

the development of the Renaissance style of architecture, which represented a conscious revival and development of ancient Greek and Roman elements. The rules of Renaissance architecture were first formulated and put into execution in 15th-century Florence, whose buildings subsequently served as an inspiration to architects throughout Italy and Western Europe. The Renaissance style of architecture emerged in Florence not as a slow evolution from preceding styles but rather as a conscious development put into motion by architects seeking to revive a golden age. These architects were sponsored by wealthy patroms including the powerful Medici family and the Silk Guild, and approached their craft from an organized and scholarly perspective that coincided with a general revival of classical learning. The Renaissance style deliberately eschewed the complex proportional systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings whose architects relied on intuition rather than mathematics. Instead, it placed emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry, and regularity

The Renaissance style of architecture emerged in Florence not as a slow evolution from preceding styles but rather as a conscious development put into motion by architects seeking to revive the golden age of classical antiquity. The Renaissance style eschewed the complex proportional systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings, and placed emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry, and regularity of parts. 15th-century architecture in Florence popularized the use of classical antique features such as orderly arrangements of columns, pilasters, and lintels, semicircular arches, and hemispherical domes. Filippo Brunelleschi was the first to develop the Renaissance view of architecture. His enormous brick dome that covers the central space of Florence's Duomo or cathedral was the first dome erected since classical Rome and became a ubiquitous feature in Renaissance churches.

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of parts as demonstrated in classical Roman architecture, and made considerable use of classical antique features such as orderly arrangements of columns, pilasters, and lintels, semicircular arches, and hemispherical domes.
Figure 23.5 Duomo of Florence

the architecturally most significant. The Duomo was begun in 1296 in the Gothic style and completed structurally in 1436 with the dome engineered by Brunelleschi. While it retains the Gothic pointed arch and the Gothic ribs of the original 13th-century design, its dome is structurally influenced by the great domes of Ancient Rome such as the Pantheon, and it is often described as the first building of the Renaissance. The dome is made of red brick and was ingeniously constructed without supports, using a deep understanding of the laws of physics and mathematics. It remains the largest masonry dome in the world and was such an unprecedented success at its time that the dome became an indispensable element in church and even secular architecture thereafter (Figure 23.5). Another key figure in the development of Renaissance architecture in Florence was Leon Battista Alberti (1402 - 1472), an important Humanist theoretician and designer, whose book on architecture De re aedificatoria was the first architectural treatise of the Renaissance. Alberti designed two of Florence's best known 15thcentury buildings: the Palazzo Rucellai and the facade of the church of Santa Maria Novella. The first was a palatial townhouse built 1446-51, which typified the newly developing features of Renaissance architecture, including a classical ordering of columns over three levels and the use of pilasters and entablatures in proportional relationship to each other.

The Florence Cathedral is the rst example of a true dome in Renaissance architecture.

The person generally credited with originating the Renaissance view of architecture is Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446), whose first major commission--the enormous brick dome that covers the central space of Florence's Duomo or cathedral--was also perhaps

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The facade of Santa Maria Novella (1456-70) also showed similar Renaissance innovations based on classical Roman architecture. Alberti attempted to bring the ideals of humanist architecture and proportion to the structure while creating harmony with the existing medieval facade, and his contributions included a classically inspired frieze decorated with squares, four white-green pilasters, and a round window crowned by a pediment with the Dominican solar
Faade of Santa Maria Novella church in Florence, designed by Alberti Figure 23.6 Santa Maria Novella

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emblem, and flanked on both sides by S-shaped scrolls. While the pediment and the frieze were were inspired by Roman architecture, the scrolls were new and without precedent in antiquity, and ended up becoming a very popular architectural feature in churches all over Italy (Figure 23.6). The buildings of the early Renaissance in Florence expressed a new sense of light, clarity, and spaciousness that reflected the enlightenment and clarity of mind glorified by the philosophy of Humanism.

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Sculpture
Renaissance sculpture originated in Florence in the 15th century and was deeply inuenced by ancient Roman sculpture.

KEY POINTS (cont.)

The period was marked by a great increase in patronage of sculpture by the state for public art and by the wealthy for their homes.Public sculpture became a crucial element in the appearance of historic city centers, and portrait sculpture, particularly busts, became hugely popular in Florence.

KEY POINTS

Renaissance sculpture proper is often taken to begin with the famous competition for the doors of the Florence baptistry in 1403, which was won by Lorenzo Ghiberti. Ghiberti designed a set of doors for the competition, housed in the northern entrance, and another more splendid pair for the eastern entrance, named the Gates of Paradise. Both these gates depict biblical scenes. Ghiberti set up a large workship in which many famous Florentine sculptors and artists were trained. He reinvented the lost-wax casting of bronze, a technique which had been used by the ancient Romans and subsequently lost. Donatello created his bronze David for Cosimo de' Medici. Conceived independent of any architectural surroundings, it was the first known free-standing nude statue produced since antiquity.

Commonly known as "the cradle of the Renaissance," 15th-century Florence was among the largest and richest cities in Europe and its wealthiest residents were enthusiastic patrons of the arts, particularly sculpture. Departing from the International Gothic style that had previously dominated in Italy, and drawing from the styles of classical antiquity, Renaissance sculpture originated in Florence and was self-consciously influenced by ancient Roman sculpture. Lorenzo Ghiberti Renaissance sculpture proper is often taken to begin with the famous competition for the doors of the Florence baptistry in 1403, from which the trial models submitted by the winner, Lorenzo Ghiberti, and the runner up, Filippo Brunelleschi, still survive. Ghiberti's bronze doors consist of 28 panels depicting scenes from the life of Christ, the four evangelists, and the Church Fathers Saints Ambrose, Jeromy, Gregory, and Augustine. They took 21

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years to complete and still stand at the northern entrance of the baptistry, although they are eclipsed by the splendor of his second pair of gates for the eastern entrance, which Michelangelo dubbed "the gates of paradise." These new doors were commissioned in 1425 and built over a 27-year period. They consist of ten rectangular panels, depicting scenes from the Old Testament and employ a clever use of the recently discovered principles of perspective to add depth to the composition. They are surrounded by a richly decorated gilt framework of fruit and foliage, statuettes of prophets, and busts of the sculptor and his father (Figure 23.7). In order to carry out these huge commissions, Ghiberti set up a large workship in which many famous Florentine sculptors and
Ghiberti's gates representing scenes from the Old Testament at the eastern entrance of the Baptistry. Figure 23.7 Gates of Paradise, Florence Baptistry

artists trained in later years, including Donatello, Michelozzo, and Paolo Uccello. He reinvented the lost wax casting of bronze, a technique which had been used by the ancient Romans and subsequently lost. This made his workshop particularly famous and was a great draw for aspiring artists. Donatello Another deeply influential sculptor from Florence was Donatello (1386 - 1466), who is best known for his work in bas-relief, a form of shallow relief that he used as a medium for the incorporation of significant 15th century sculptural developments in perspectival illusion. Donatello received his early artistic training in a goldsmith's workshop and then trained briefly in Ghiberti's studio before undertaking a trip to Rome with Filippo Brunelleschi, where he undertook the study and excavation of Roman architecture and sculpture. Roman art became the single most important influence on Donatello's work. His foremost sponsor in Florence was Cosimo de'Medici, the city's foremost patron of art. Donatello created his bronze David for Cosimo's court in the Palazzo Medici. Conceived entirely in the round and independent of any architectural surroundings, it was the first known free-standing nude statue produced since antiquity and represented an allegory of civic virtues overcoming brutality and ignorance. This sculpture represented a particularly important development in Renaissance

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sculpture; namely the production of sculpture independent of architecture unlike the preceding International Gothic style where sculpture rarely existed independent of architecture (Figure 23.8). Donatello's other important projects in and near Florence include the marble pulpit of the facade of the Prato cathedral, the carved Cantoria or choir at the Florence Duomo, which was influenced by ancient sarcophagi and Byzantine ivory chests, the Annunciation scene for the Cavalcanti altar in the church of Santa Croce, and a bust of a Young Man with a Cameo, the first example of a lay bust portrait since the classical era.
Donatello's genius made him an important gure in the early Italian Renaissance period. Sculpted between 1430-32, his bronze David is an example of his mature work. It is currently located in the Bargello Palace and Museum. Figure 23.8 David by Donatello

city centers, and portrait sculpture, particularly busts, became hugely popular in Florence following Donatello's innovations. These 15th-century innovations soon spread throughout Italy and later through the rest of Europe.
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The period was marked by a great increase in patronage of sculpture by the state for public art and by the wealthy for their homes. Public sculpture became a crucial element in the appearance of historic

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Painting
Renaissance painting was born in fteenth-century Florence and moved away from the atness of Gothic painting to focus on naturalism.

KEY POINTS (cont.)

Masaccio is best known for his frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel in which he employed techniques of linear perspective, such as the vanishing point for the first time, and had a profound influence on other artists despite the brevity of his career.

KEY POINTS

Florentine painting received a new lease of life in the early fifteenth century, when the use of perspective was formalized by the architect Filippo Brunelleschi and adopted by painters as an artistic technique. Other important techniques developed in Florence during the first half of the fifteenth century include the use of realistic proportions, foreshortening, sfumato, and chiaroscuro. The artist most widely credited with first popularizing these techniques in fifteenth-century Florence is Masaccio (1401-1428), the first great painter of the Quattrocento period of the Italian Renaissance. Masaccio was deeply influenced both by Giotto's earlier innovations in solidity of form and naturalism and Brunelleschi's formalized use of perspective in architecture and sculpture, and moved away from the international Gothic style to a more realistic mode.

Fifteenth-century Florence was the birthplace of Renaissance painting, which moved away from the comparative flatness and stylized nature of Gothic art to focus on accurate representations of the human body and naturalistic landscapes. While Giotto is often referred to as the herald of the Renaissance, his realism, threedimensional figures, and humanist interest in expressing the individual personality, rather than iconic images proved to be a fleeting passion, as Italian painting retreated to conservative late Gothic conventions after his death. However, Florentine painting received a new lease of life in the early fifteenth century, when the use of perspective was formalized by the architect Filippo Brunelleschi and adopted by painters as an artistic technique. This development of perspective was part of a wider trend towards realism in the arts. Many other important techniques commonly associated with Renaissance painting developed in Florence during the first half of the fifteenth century, including the use of realistic proportions,

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foreshortening, or the artistic effect of shortening lines in a drawing to create the illusion of depth, sfumato, or the blurring of sharp outlines by subtle and gradual blending to give the illusion of threedimensionality and chiaroscuro or the contrast between light and dark to convey a sense of depth. The artist most widely credited with first popularizing these techniques in fifteenth-century Florence is Masaccio (1401-1428), the first great painter of the Quattrocento period of the Italian Renaissance. Masaccio was deeply influenced both by Giotto's earlier innovations in solidity of form and naturalism and Brunelleschi's formalized use of perspective in architecture and sculpture, and moved away from the International Gothic style to a more realistic mode. Masaccio is best known for his frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel in which he employed techniques of linear perspective, such as the vanishing point for the first time, and had a profound influence on other artists despite the brevity of his career. Masaccio was friends with Brunelleschi and the sculptor Donatello, and collaborated frequently with the older and already renowned artist Masolino da Panicale (1383/4 - 1436) with whom traveled with him to Rome in 1423. From this point onwards, he eschewed the Byzantine and Gothic styles altogether, adopting traces of influence from ancient Greek and Roman art instead. These are

evident in the cycle of frescoes he executed alongside Masolino for the Brancacci Chapel in the church of Santa Maria del Carmine in Florence. The two artists started working on the chapel in 1425, but their work was only completed by Filippo Lippi in the 1480s.
Figure 23.9 The Tribute Money, fresco in the Brancacci Chapel in Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence, 1425.

The Tribute Money is one of Masaccio's most famous frescoes from the Brancacci Chapel. Jesus and his apostles are depicted as as neo-classical archetypes. The shadows of the gures fall away from the chapel window, as if the gures are lit by it; this is an added stroke of verisimilitude and further tribute to Masaccio's innovative genius.

The frescoes in their entirety represent the story of human sin and redemption from the fall of Adam and Eve to the works of St. Peter. Giotto's influence is evident in Masaccio's frescoes, particularly in the weight and solidity of his figures and the vividness of their expressions. Unlike Giotto, Masaccio utilized linear and atmospheric perspective, and made even greater use of

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directional light and the chiaroscuro technique, enabling him to create even more convincingly lifelike paintings than his predecessor. His style and techniques became profoundly influential after his death and were imitated and elaborated by his successors (Figure 23.9).
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Painting Post-Masaccio
Florentine artists after Masaccio's death built on his contributions to the use of perspective and light and shadow.
KEY POINTS

Florentine painting greatly increased in range and richness after Masaccio's death, and fifteenth-century artists adopted his drive towards naturalism and his use of linear perspective, as well as the sfumato and chiaroscuro techniques. The most famous Florentine Quattrocento painters of the post-Masaccio period were Paolo Uccello, Piero della Francesca, and Filippo Lippi, who dedicated themselves to the study of light and shadow and perspective as their paramount concern. Piero della Francesca studied light and linear perspective from a scientific point of view and wrote treatises about his findings. Paolo Uccello used foreshortening to give his work depth and also made use of light, color, and contrast to add to the drama of his painting.

Masaccio is widely regarded as the first Renaissance painter of the Italian Quattrocento, and despite the brevity of his career, had the

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most profound influence on his successors. Florentine painting greatly increased in range and richness after Masaccio's death, and fifteenth-century artists adopted and built on the style and techniques that he had introduced to Italian painting, most notably the drive towards naturalism, and the use of linear perspective, sfumato, and chiaroscuro. Artists also began to focus even more on proportional and anatomically accurate representations of the human body and naturalistic landscapes. Some of the most famous Florentine Quattrocento painters of the post-Masaccio period were Paolo Uccello (1397-1475), Piero della Francesca (1415-1492), and Filippo Lippi (1406-1469). These painters dedicated themselves to the study of light and shadow and perspective as their paramount concern. Paolo Uccello was said to be so obsessed with trying to achieve the appearance of perspective by grasping the exact vanishing point that it disturbed his sleep. Piero della Francesca studied light and linear perspective from a scientific point of view and wrote treatises about his findings. Paolo Uccello's paintings emphasized color and pageantry rather than strictly classical realism, and he used perspective to convey a feeling of depth rather than to narrate different or succeeding stories as his contemporaries did. He is best known for his three egg tempera on wood paintings representing the Battle of San Romano, which use broken weapons on the ground and fields on the distant

hills to give an impression of perspective (Figure 23.10). Paolo Uccello also used light and contrast for dramatic effect in some of his almost monochrome frescoes, enlivening terra verde or "green earth" compositions with touches of bright vermilion. The best known is his equestrian portrait of John Hawkwood in the Florence Cathedral, which gives the impression of being lit by natural light as if the light source was an actual window in the cathedral.
Figure 23.10 Niccol Mauruzi da Tolentino at the Battle of San Romano by Paolo Uccello, 1438-1440

In the foreground, broken lances and a dead soldier are carefully aligned, so as to create an impression of perspective.

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Piero della Francesca is famous for his fresco paintings including the cycle of frescoes depicting the Legend of the True Cross, and his painting is characterized by its serene humanism and its use of geometric forms in addition to his close attention to perspective. His Flagellation of Christ demonstrate his mastery over linear perspective and his knowledge of how light is proportionally disseminated from its point of origin. There are two light sources in the painting, one outside the building and the other from outside. While the light source inside the building is invisible, its position
Figure 23.11 The Flagellation of Christ by Piero della Francesca, 1460

can be calculated with mathematical certainty from the rest of the composition, demonstrating his intimate understanding of the science of light (Figure 23.11).
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The Flagellation of Christ demonstrates Piero della Francesca's control over both perspective and light.

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Section 4

The Second Half of the 1400s

Urbino Mantua Rome and the Papal States Florence in the Late 1400s Venice

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Urbino
Urbino was an important center of Renaissance culture in the 15th century.
KEY POINTS

architectural piece is the Palazzo Ducale, rebuilt by Luciano Laurana (Figure 23.12). Palazzo Ducale The construction of the Ducal Palace was begun for Duke Federico III da Montefeltro around the mid-15th century by the Florentine Maso di Bartolomeo (Figure 23. 13). Luciano Laurana, an architect from Dalmatia who had been influenced by Brunelleschi's cloisters in Florence, designed the faade, the famous courtyard, and the great entrance staircase. Laurana's light, almost delicate arcaded courtyard
The walled city of Urbino was a crucial center of cultural activity during the Renaissance. Figure 23.12 Urbino: panorama with Palazzo Ducale & Duomo

Duke Federico III da Montefeltro commissioned the construction of the Ducal Palace (Palazzo Ducale) and the Duomo di Urbino, and was a significant patron of the arts during the Renaissance. The Galleria Nazionale delle Marche is one of the most important collections of Renaissance paintings in the world, and resides in the Ducal Palace. No single architect is credited with designing Palazzo Ducale, though many of the most impressive features of this structure are attributed to Luciano Laurana.

Urbino's History Urbino is a walled city in the Marche region of Italy, south-west of Pesaro. It is notable for a remarkable historical legacy of independent Renaissance culture, especially under the patronage of Federico III da Montefeltro, who was the duke of Urbino from 1444 to 1482. It hosts the University of Urbino, founded in 1506, and is the seat of the Archbishop of Urbino. Its best-known

at Urbino rivals that of the Palazzo della Cancelleria in Rome as the finest of the Renaissance. Overcoming the challenges of the clifflike site, which made an irregular massing of architecture necessary, from the 1460s onwards Laurana created what contemporaries considered the ideal princely dwelling. Many of the refined Early Renaissance carved

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details are so similar to features in paintings by Piero della Francesca that scholars have debated his possible input in the execution of Laurana's plan. After Laurana's departure from Urbino in 1472, works were continued by Francesco di Giorgio Martini, who was mainly responsible for the faade decoration. The portals and the window sculptures were executed by the Milanese Ambrogio Barocci, who was also the decorator of the interior rooms. In high, plainly stuccoed rooms the richly sculptured doorways, chimneys, and friezes created by Barocci, Domenico Rosselli, and their workshops stand out. After the death of Duke Federico (1482), the construction was left partially unfinished. The second floor was added in the first half of the following century by Girolamo Genga.
Duke Federico III da Montefeltro was a major patron of Renaissance culture in Urbino. Figure 23.13 Duke Federico III da Montefeltro

Baldassare Castiglione represents as having taken place in the Hall of Vigils in 1507 in his Book of the Courtier. Duomo di Urbino The Duomo di Urbino, the cathedral at Urbino, was founded in 1021 and rebuilt in the 15th century; the rebuilding was commissioned by the duke of the period, Federico III. However, the cathedral was not completed until 1604. The Duomo, which had a simple plan with a nave and two aisles, was destroyed by an earthquake in 1789. The church was again rebuilt by the Roman architect Giuseppe Valadier. This rebuilding effort wasn't completed until 1801. The current church has a typical neo-classicist appearance, with a majestic dome (Figure 23.14). It houses a San Sebastian painting from 1557, an Assumption by Carlo Maratta (1701), and the famous Last Supper by Federico Barocci (16031608). Beyond the limits of the city is the Church of San Bernardino, housing the tombs of the Dukes of Urbino.
The Duomo di Urbino is the main church of the city and cathedral of Urbino. Figure 23.14 Duomo di Urbino

The Palazzo Ducale houses the Galleria Nazionale delle Marche, one of the most important collections of Renaissance paintings in the world. it is also famous as the setting of the conversations which

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Mantua
Arts and culture ourished in the time of the Gonzaga rule in Mantua.

KEY POINTS

The wealth of the city made possible a brilliant court culture under the Gonzaga family, who offered extensive patronage of the arts. Casa Giocaso was a famous humanist school established in Mantua by Vittorino da Feltre and sponsored by Marquis Gianfrancesco Gonzaga. The Palazzo del Te was commissioned by Federico II Gonzaga and built by Guilio Romano between 1524 and 1534. It is a strong example of Renaissance Mannerist architecture. Mannerism emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance, beginning around 1520. It represented a departure from the harmonious ideals and restrained naturalism associated with artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and early Michelangelo.

Mantua and Mannerism The City of Mantua, located in the northern Italian plain, was traditionally a center of cloth manufacture. On August 16, 1328, the

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Figure 23.15 Ludovico Gonzaga receiving the news of his son Francesco being elected cardinal by Andrea Mantegna, 1474

Gonzaga Patronage During the Renaissance, the Gonzaga family softened their despotic rule and raised the level of culture and refinement in Mantua. Because of the city's wealth and the Gonzaga support of arts and letters, the Mantuan court became one of the most brilliant in Italy. Marquis Gianfrancesco Gonzaga brought Vittorino da Feltre, to Mantua in 1423 to open his famous humanist school, the Casa Giocosa. Vittorino da Feltre was one of the first modern educators to develop during the Renaissance. The Gonzagas protected the arts and culture, and were hosts to several important artists, including Leone Battista Alberti, Andrea Mantegna, Giulio Romano, Donatello, Peter Paul Rubens, Pisanello, Domenico Fetti, Luca Fancelli, and Nicol Sebregondi. Though many of the masterworks made during the period have been dispersed, the cultural significance of Mantua is nonetheless outstanding. Many of Mantua's patrician and ecclesiastical buildings are uniquely important examples of Italian architecture. Under Francesco II, the famous Renaissance painter Andrea Mantegna worked in Mantua as the court painter, producing some of his most outstanding works. Mannerism and Giulio Romano's Work

This fresco of the powerful Gonzaga head of family resides in the Stanza degli Sposi of Palazzo Ducale.

Bonacolsi family was overthrown in a revolt backed by the House of Gonzaga. Luigi Gonzaga, who had been podest of the city in 1318, was elected "People's Captain." The Gonzagas built new city walls with five gates and renovated the architecture of the city in the 14th century, but the political situation in the city did not settle until the third ruling Gonzaga, Ludovico Gonzaga, eliminated his relatives, seizing power for himself (Figure 23.15).

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The first Duke of Mantua was Federico II Gonzaga, who acquired the title from Emperor Charles V in 1530. Federico commissioned Giulio Romano to build the famous Palazzo del Te, on the periphery of the city, and profoundly improved the city (Figure 23. 17). Romano was a pupil of Raphael.His stylistic deviations from high Renaissance classicism helped define the 16th-century style known as Mannerism. Stylistically, Mannerism encompasses a variety of approaches influenced by and reacting to the harmonious ideals and restrained naturalism associated with artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and early Michelangelo. Mannerism is notable for its intellectual sophistication as well as its artificial (as opposed to naturalistic) qualities. Once the shell of the Palazzo del Te was completed, for ten years a team of plasterers, carvers, and fresco painters labored, until barely a surface in any of the loggias or salons remained undecorated. Under
The Fall of the Giants is one of the most important frescoes of the Palazzo del Te. Figure 23.16 Giulio Romano, The Fall of the Giants in the "sala dei Giganti"

Figure 23.17 Palazzo del Te The Palazzo del Te was a mannerist palace constructed from 1524-1534 by Giulio Romano and commissioned by the Duke of Mantua.

Giulio Romano's direction, local decorative painters such as Benedetto Pagni and Rinaldo Mantovano worked extensively on the palace frescos. These frescoes remain today, and are the most remarkable feature of the Palazzo. The subjects range from the Olympian banquets in the Sala di Psiche and stylized horses in the Sala dei Cavalli to the most unusual of allgiants and grotesques wreaking havoc, fury, and ruin around the walls of the Sala dei Giganti (Figure 23.16).
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Rome and the Papal States


Rome was a center of Renaissance culture in the second half of the 15th century.
KEY POINTS

and public spaces, including a new Saint Peter's Basilica, the Sistine Chapel, Ponte Sisto (the first bridge to be built across the Tiber since antiquity), and Piazza Navona. As patrons of the arts, the Popes engaged such artists as Michelangelo, Perugino, Raphael, Ghirlandaio, Luca Signorelli, Botticelli, and Cosimo Rosselli. The Renaissance can be said to have begun in Rome under Pope Nicholas V, who became Pontiff on March 19, 1447. His ascension heralded a period during which the city became the center of humanism. He was the first Pope to embellish the Roman court
Figure 23.18 Piet by Michelangelo, 1498 1499

The Renaissance began in Rome during the papacy of Nicholas V, who became Pontiff on March 19, 1447. The patronage of arts and culture was important to successive popes. As its status as a cultural center in the Renaissance grew, Rome's role as a religious center diminished. Sixtus IV was considered the first Pope-King of Rome and was a great patron of the arts in that city. The most notable architectural achievement of Sixtus IV's papacy was the Sistine Chapel. Raphael became the most famous painter in Italy during his time at Rome.

with scholars and artists, including Lorenzo Valla and Vespasiano da Bisticci. The Renaissance had a great impact on Rome's appearance. The city was enhanced with works like the Piet, by Michelangelo, and the frescoes of the Borgia Apartment, which were all made during the latter half of the 15th century (Figure 23. 18).

The Dawning Dominance of Rome The latter half of the 15th century saw the seat of the Italian Renaissance move to Rome from Florence. The Papacy wanted to surpass the grandeur of other Italian cities. To this end the popes created increasingly extravagant churches, bridges, town squares,
The Piet is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture by Michelangelo Buonarroti, housed in St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City.

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Figure 23.19 Creation of Adam, by Michelangelo, c. 1511

contributing to what became one of the most famous monuments of the world. Rome reached the highest point of splendour under Pope Julius II (15031513) and his successors Leo X and Clement VII, both members of the Medici family. During this twenty-year period Rome became the greatest centre of art in the world. The former St. Peter's Basilica was demolished and a new one begun (Figure 23. 20).

Sixtus IV commissioned artists to work on the Sistine Chapel beginning in 1477; Michelangelo worked on the ceiling from 1508-1512.

Figure 23.20 St. Peter's Basillica

Sixtus IV, Julius II, Leo X and Clement VII Sixtus IV is considered the first Pope-King of Rome. A true patron of arts, he reopened the Roman Academy, and in 1471 began the construction of the Vatican Library. The Library was officially founded on June 15, 1475. Sixtus restored several churches, including Santa Maria del Popolo, the Aqua Virgo, and the Hospital of the Holy Spirit; however, his main building project was the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican Palace (Figure 23.19). Its designers included some of the most renowned artists of the age, including Mino da Fiesole, Sandro Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Pietro Perugino, Luca Signorelli, and Pinturicchio; in the 16th century Michelangelo decorated the ceiling with his famous masterpiece,
Vatican City's Papal Basilica of Saint Peter is a denitive Late Renaissance church.

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The city hosted artists like Bramante, who built the Temple of San Pietro in Montorio and planned a great project to renovate the Vatican; Raphael, who in Rome became the most famous painter in Italy, creating frescos in the Cappella Niccolina, the Villa Farnesina, the Raphael's Rooms, and many other famous paintings Increasingly Secular Character Over time Rome lost some part its religious character, becoming increasingly a secular-humanist Renaissance city. It hosted a great number of popular feasts, horse races, parties, intrigues, and licentious episodes. Its economy was prosperous, with the presence of several Tuscan bankers, including Agostino Chigi, a friend of Raphael and a patron of the arts. Despite his premature death, and to his eternal credit, Raphael also promoted for the first time the preservation of the ancient ruins.
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Florence in the Late 1400s


The Renaissance began to ourish in the 15th century in Florence.

KEY POINTS

The wealth of Florence's upper classes contributed profoundly to the advancement of arts and culture in the city. Florence viewed itself as heir to the Roman Empire, in part for the shared emphasis on freedom and liberty. Filippo Brunelleschi was one of the great artistic talents in Florence at this time, renowned for his knowledge of mathematics and engineering, as well as his artistic abilities. Completing the dome of the Florence Cathedral was Brunelleschi's major life work.

During the Early Renaissance, Italy was divided into many citystates (Florence, Milan, Venice etc.), each with their own form of government. There are several reasons for the extraordinary rebirth of the Renaissance at this time. Tremendous wealth accumulated in Florence during this period among a growing middle and upper class of merchants and bankers. With the accumulation of wealth came the desire to enjoy the pleasures of life on Earth -- not just an exclusive focus on the hereafter.

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Figure 23.21 The Dome of the Florence Cathedral

Florence saw itself as the ideal city-state, a place where the freedom of the individual was guaranteed, and where many citizens had the right to participate in the government. Successfully defeating several wouldbe conquerors in the early 15th century, Florentines imagined themselves as

The dome, the lantern (built 1446ca.1461), and the exedra (built 1439-1445) occupied most of Brunelleschis life. Brunelleschi's success can be attributed to no small degree to his technical and mathematical genius. Brunelleschi used more than 4 million bricks in the construction of the dome of the Florence Cathedral.
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Brunelleschi dedicated much of his life to the completion of the Florence Cathedral's dome.

the "New Rome" -- in other words, as the heirs to the Ancient Roman Republic, prepared to sacrifice for the cause of freedom and liberty. This emphasis on freedom and individuality was key to the cultural and intellectual growth that defined the Renaissance. Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 April 15, 1446) was one of the foremost architects and engineers of the Italian Renaissance. He is perhaps most famous for his discovery of perspective and for engineering the dome of the Florence Cathedral, but his accomplishments also include other architectural works, sculpture, mathematics, engineering, and even ship design. His principal surviving works are to be found in Florence, Italy (Figure 23.21).

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Venice
In the latter years of the 15th century, Venice had a distinctive, thriving, and inuential art scene.

Bellini's Legacy Bellini has been described as reaching the High Renaissance ideals; his work certainly expresses
Figure 23.22 San Cassiano Altarpiece by Antonello da Messina, 1475-76

KEY POINTS

the key distinctive factors of the Venetian school. Throughout his career, he gradually developed a softer style that used glowing colors to represent form and suggest an atmospheric haze. Applying this approach in his San Zaccaria Altarpiece (1505), the high viewpoint, the uncluttered and interconnected figures arranged in space, and the subtle gestures all combine to form a tranquil yet majestic image (Figure 23.23). Considered to bring a primacy of color over line, the Venetian tradition begun by Bellini was seen to contrast with Mannerism, which was prevalent in much of Italy. The Venetian style is viewed as greatly influencing the subsequent development of painting.
Antonello's San Cassiano Altarpiece greatly inuenced the Venetian school.

During his long career, Bellini has been credited with developing the Venetian style, along with his pupils Titian and Giorgione. The Venetian school, characterized by softness, tranquility, and the use of warm colors, is easily contrasted with the aesthetic ideals of Mannerism. The Venetian school was influenced by traveling artists from elsewhere in Italy, including Leonardo da Vinci and Antonello da Messina.

Venetian Artistry Beginning with the workshop of Giovanni Bellini (c. 14301516), major artists of the Venetian school included Giorgione (c. 1477 1510), Titian (14891576), Tintoretto (15181594), Veronese (1528 1588), and the Bassano family (15101592).

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Outside Influences Venetian painting was also influenced by Renaissance artists from other regions. Antonello da Messina (c. 14301479) introduced the techniques of Early Netherlandish
Figure 23.23 San Zaccaria Altarpiece by Giovanni Bellini, 1505

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painting, which were probably acquired through his training in Naples. Antonello travelled to Venice c. 1470, to see Giovanni Bellini's paintings. He spent much of the next several years in Venice, where he both influenced and was influenced by Bellini's work. Antonello's works of this period began to show greater attention to the human figure in regards to both anatomy and expressivity. Antonello's San Cassiano Altarpiece especially influenced Venetian

Bellini's San Zaccaria Altarpiece typies the Venetian style.

painters, as it was one of the first of the large compositions in the sacra

conversazione format which was perfected by Giovanni Bellini (Figure 23.22). Leonardo da Vinci also visited Venice in 1500; his visit was particularly influential for Giorgione.

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Chapter 24

Art in Commercial and Market Contexts

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Section 1

Artists

Training Artists Making the Art The Role of the Artist

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Training Artists
In the current Western artistic tradition, artists typically train at an art school or institution.
KEY POINTS

today, apprenticing, or studying with an established artist, is still the method by which artists learn their crafts. In the current Western artistic tradition, artists typically train at an art school or institution. The model for the modern art school dates back to the French Royal Academy, which was founded by Louis XIV in the 17th century. Numerous universities, colleges, and private institutions teach the various artistic disciplines at a postFigure 24.1 Goldsmiths' College, London

Training in the visual arts has traditionally revolved around the apprentice system. The model for the modern art school dates back to the French Royal Academy, which was founded by Louis XIV in the 17th century. Art departments in most colleges and universities around the world offer degrees at both the undergraduate and graduate level. Art schools generally lead young artists on the path towards becoming exhibiting artists or teachers. Artists who did not attend art school are generally termed "self-taught".

secondary level. Prominent examples include the Pratt Institute, Rhode Island School of Design, Yale, The Art Institute of Chicago, California Institute of the Arts, and Goldsmiths' College (Figure 24.1). In addition, artistic training is

Goldsmiths' College in London is one example of an art school.

often taught in elementary school, and is valued as a

For many years, craftsmen and artists have formed associations, guilds, and groups in order to preserve and perpetuate their various crafts. Training in the visual arts has traditionally revolved around the apprentice system. In the Middle Ages, many guilds of goldsmiths, glassmakers, stonemasons, and artists were formed and supported most often by the monarchy or state. In many cultures

tool to enhance technical abilities and creativity. Artists today spend many years learning and training in their various disciplines. Art departments in most colleges and universities around the world offer degrees at both the undergraduate and graduate level. There are schools devoted to

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many art forms, including film, graphic design, sculpture, painting, drawing, printmaking, and textiles, to name a few. Art schools generally lead young artists on the path towards becoming exhibiting artists or teachers. Many art schools also grant degrees in art curation, criticism, art education, and design, and prepare individuals for the jobs associated with these degrees. Outside of the academic system, many artists learn their craft through personal practice. Artists who did not attend art school are generally termed "self-taught," and go about their practice in the same manner as artists who attended art school, by aiming to exhibit and sell their work.
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Making the Art


Arts practices revolve around a cycle of creation, exhibition and selling of art works.
KEY POINTS

Artists rely on a vast support network outside the studio space to create art. Most artists work in a studio, which is essentially an artists workshop. There are many steps between an artists initial concept and the finished work of art. Art shows or exhibitions represent the culmination of a body of work for an artist. The artist statement is a piece of writing that explains the motivation behind an artist's work, and is an essential part of the art show. Artist residencies invite artists to spend time and space away from their usual environments in order to create art.

After years of intensive learning and practice of their chosen art form, artists embark upon the task of creating art as professionals. The method by which an artist goes about creating art is typically referred to as their "process" or "artistic practice." Arts practices usually revolve around a cycle of creation, exhibition and selling of

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art works. While much of an artists work is completed in the studio, they also rely on a vast support network outside of the studio space. Entire industries revolve around the creation of art, from those who make tools for artists like paper and paint to those who help to distribute art like galleries and markets. Artists often join a network of similar minded artists, sometimes termed an artist collective." Creativity is a process, and as such, there are usually many steps between an artists initial concept and the finished work of art. Some artists employ staff to run the administrative side of their studio, or even hire craftspeople and technicians to create a work. Most artists work in a studio, essentially an artists workshop. This workshop can be in the home (a live-work studio) or it can exist as a space that is maintained outside of the home. Artists of all disciplines maintain studio practices. Art studios are sometimes called ateliers" (Figure 24.2). Art shows or exhibitions represent the culmination of a body of work for an artist, and are organized by curators. They take place most often in galleries, but can happen in any space the artist chooses. Art shows typically begin with an opening night or vernissage (private viewing), whereby the public is invited to celebrate the show with the artist. The artist statement is a piece of writing that explains the motivation behind the artist's work, and

stands as an essential part of the art show. At an art show, artworks are generally for sale, with a price list available from the gallerist.
Figure 24.2 Example of an artist studio

Art studios are sometimes called ateliers."

Artist residencies invite artists to spend time and space away from their usual environments to create art. Most residencies offer the artist a living and working space, sometimes offering small stipends and meals. There are numerous residencies around the world existing in artist-run-spaces, galleries, universities and private residences to aid artists in the task of creating work.

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The Role of the Artist


The role of the artist is to use his or her medium and style in order to convey a chosen purpose.
KEY POINTS

The visual arts are divided into categories that make distinctions based on the context of the work. Traditionally, the role of the artist revolved around describing themselves and their surroundings. For hundreds of years Western artists sought to create work that was realistically rendered. The advent of Cubism and subsequent avant-garde movements signified a shift in the role of the artist to a more cerebral plane. Currently, the role of the artist is to create art by whichever means he or she would like to.

Artists hold many different roles in society, but share the common role of using their medium and style in order to convey a chosen purpose to make art. The visual arts are divided into categories that make distinctions based on the context of the work. While these categories continue to grow and change, the primary ones are fine art (e.g., drawing, painting, sculpture, photography, and some new media), popular culture (e.g., advertising, graffiti, product

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design, television, and movies), and the decorative arts (e.g., utilitarian objects such as furniture, glassware, ceramics, and all the crafts). Traditionally, the role of artists has revolved around describing themselves and their surroundings. Among the earliest records of artistic production are depictions of people and animals on cave
Figure 24.3 "Young Hare" by Albrecht Durer

depiction of imagery in works such as "Young Hare" (Figure 24.3). The advent of Cubism and subsequent avant-garde movements signified a shift in the role of the artist. These movements no longer emphasized the importance of realistic depictions and moralistic themes, but were instead based on conceptual and cerebral ideals, ushering in numerous revolutions in the Western art world. The current role of the artist is to create art by whichever means he or she would like to. It is not uncommon for artists, especially those in the fine arts, to supplement their practice with another job, such as teaching, in addition to seeking grants and maintaining a regular cycle of creating and exhibiting works of art.
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walls. With the progression of Western art came the increasing division of the many art forms. Currently, the role of the artist is very dependent on the type of art being created; however, a universal role of an artist is to use his or her tools in order to describe and illuminate various aspects of life. For hundreds of years,

"Young Hare" by Albrecht Durer is an example of art that is realistically rendered.

Western artists sought to create work that was

realistically rendered. It was believed that the closer a painting or drawing was to reality, the closer it was to ultimate truth. The work of Albrecht Durer demonstrates a very technical and accurate

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Section 2

Support for Art Making

Private Patronage The Market Tax-Supported Art

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Private Patronage
A patron of the arts is a person who pays for or commissions works of art.
KEY POINTS

imperial rule dominated a significant share of resources. Throughout time, rulers and wealthy people have used patronage of the arts to support their political and social positions in society. Art patronage has also been important for art associated with various religious groups, especially the Roman Catholic and Protestant churches, both of which have sponsored numerous schools and specific works of art and architecture. Another example of a well-known patron of the arts is Catherine de Medici, who made a significant contribution to the French Renaissance through her widespread patronage (Figure 24. 4). The patronage system continues across many artistic fields today, however, the nature of the sponsors
A well-known patron of the arts is Catherine de Medici, who made a signicant contribution to the French Renaissance through her widespread patronage. Figure 24.4 Portrait of Catherine de Medici

Since ancient times, patronage of the arts has been important to the development of many artistic movements, works, and styles. Throughout time, rulers and wealthy people have used patronage of the arts to support their political and social positions in society. The patronage system continues across many artistic fields today, however, the nature of the sponsors has changed. Art collectors can act as patrons as well, by commissioning specific works or styles from artists they wish to support.

Patronage is the support, usually in reference to financial aid, that one individual or organization bestows to another. A patron of the arts is a person who pays for or commissions works of art, and commonly refers to the support that kings and popes provided to painters, sculptors, musicians, and poets. Since ancient times, patronage of the arts has been important to the development of many artistic movements, works, and styles. With strong ties to the medieval period, patronage of the arts tended to arise whenever

has changed. No longer churches and kings, it is now charitable organizations and governments that bestow grants and provide other aid to artists. Both private and public granting bodies exist for artists, and require minimal endorsement, though it is generally

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required that their patronage of a specific project be publicly known. Art collectors can act as patrons as well, by commissioning specific works or styles from the artists they wish to support. While the contemporary emphasis on artistic freedom generally dictates that the specifics of an artwork be left up to the artist, patrons, in the past, would dictate materials, style, and subjects of works of art. Over time, the discipline of art history has evolved to recognize the important and often neglected role that patronage has played in the cultural life of previous centuries.
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The Market
The important components of the art market are the gallery, curator, dealer, consultant, and collector.
KEY POINTS

The art market is an economic ecosystem that relies not only!on supply and demand, but also on the fabrication of a works predicted future monetary and/or cultural value. The primary art market refers to art that enters the market for the first time. The secondary market refers to artworks that have been sold at least once before. An art dealer is a person or company who buys and sells works of art. Art galleries are commercial or privately funded businesses that deal in artworks, typically made by contemporary artists. The curator is the manager or director of the gallery who traditionally programs the space and organizes art shows. Art fairs act as conventions or large-scale shows where galleries display the work of select artists whom they represent.

The art market is an economic ecosystem that relies not only on supply and demand, but on the fabrication of a works predicted future monetary and/or cultural value. The art market can appear

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somewhat unclear, since artists do not make art with the sole intention of selling it, and buyers often have no idea of the value of their purchase. The art market is made up of two parts: the primary market and the secondary market.
Figure 24.5 "Garcon a la Pipe" by Picasso

example, the Picasso painting Garcon a la Pipe sold for $104.2 million at auction, thereby setting its worth at $104.2 million (Figure 24.5). The important players in the art market are the gallery, curator, dealer, consultant, and collector. Art galleries are commercial or privately funded businesses that deal in artworks, typically made by contemporary artists. Nonprofit galleries are typically a step above commercial galleries, and include museums and galleries that are funded by the government or charity that do not sell artwork, such as the Tate gallery. The curator is generally the manager of the gallery, who traditionally programs the space and organizes art shows. Curators at commercial galleries may have the responsibility of selling work, while those at museums generally maintain the organizational aspects of exhibitions. Art dealers are persons or companies who buy and sell works of art. They typically seek out artists to represent while simultaneously building relationships with collectors and museums to whom they might be able to sell the work. Dealers are often able to anticipate market trends, and some prominent dealers might be able to influence the taste of the market. Many dealers specialize in a particular style, region, or time period and travel internationally to exhibitions, auctions, artists studios, and art fairs to pick up new

The primary art market refers to art that enters the market for the first time. The secondary market refers to artworks that have been sold at least once before. Once a work is sold, it enters the secondary market and the price at which it sold has a direct influence on its subsequent price. Supply and demand affects the secondary market more than the primary market, as contemporary art with no market history relies on speculative analysis to determine its value. For
Picasso's "Garcon a la Pipe" sold for, and is thereby valued at, $104.2 million.

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work. An example of a highly notable art dealer is Larry Gagosian, who also owns Gagosian Gallery, a highly influential art gallery. Art fairs act as conventions or large-scale shows, where galleries display the work of select artists whom they represent and are important to the structure of the contemporary art market. Prominent art fairs include Art Basel, Scope, Frieze Art Fair, and the Armory Show. Art auctions are the sale of art at auction houses, a tradition which dates from the 17th century and continues to thrive today. Art auctions deal in the most highly valued of art, such as works by Picasso, Manet, Jeff Koons, and Andy Warhol. The leading auction houses are Christies and Sothebys.
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Tax-Supported Art
Many artists seek nancial support in the form of grants.
KEY POINTS

Grants are available from both public and private institutions. In the USA and Canada, grants are available from the federal, state and municipal branches of government to fund artistic projects in all media, including drawing, painting, sculpture, theater, music, dance, new media, and interdisciplinary art forms. In the United States, the National Endowment of the Arts is an independent agency of the federal government that offers funding to projects it deems exhibit artistic excellence. In Canada, the Canada Council for the Arts funds the projects of artists in much the same way as the NEA, but allots more funding to the arts based on population. The grant application typically entails submitting a project proposal in relationship to ones artistic practice, as well as a detailed budget, timeline, and c.v.

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In addition to selling their artwork, many artists seek financial support in the form of grants, which are available from both public and private institutions. Grants are non-repayable funds dispersed by one party (often a government agency) to a recipient (often a nonprofit entity). Nearly every government has a department or agency that distributes these funds. In order to receive a grant, artists must submit a grant application by a specified deadline. In the USA and Canada, grants are available to fund artistic projects in all media, including drawing, painting, sculpture, theater, music, dance, new media, and interdisciplinary art forms. In the United States, the National Endowment of the Arts (NEA) is an independent agency of the federal government that offers funding to projects it deems exhibit artistic excellence. The NEA was created in 1965 and dispersed more than 128,000 grants between 1965 and 2008, totaling more than $4 billion. In 1996, Congress cut NEA funding to $99.5 million as a result of pressure from conservative groups. Numerous controversies have arisen from the use of tax dollars to fund art that can be seen as "controversial," such as the work of Robert Mapplethorpe in the 1980s (Figure 24.6). In Canada, the Canada Council for the Arts funds the projects of artists in much the same way as the NEA, but allots more funding to the arts based on population. Established in 1957, the Canada

Figure 24.6 Robert Mapplethorpe Exhibition An NEA-funded Robert Mapplethorpe exhibition was labeled obscene and a poor use of taxpayer money by conservative groups.

Council awards an average of $120.5 million in grants and awards annually. In addition to the Canada Council, the provincial and municipal branches of the Canadian government also award grants to artists and arts organizations for a variety of arts-based projects and activities. The grant application typically entails submitting a project proposal in relationship to ones artistic practice, as well as a detailed budget, timeline, and curriculum vitae (c.v.). Project grants are intended to cover the immediate costs of a project as well as the living expenses of the artist for the duration of the project. In Europe, similar arms of the government exist to award grants to working artists. Every country has its own arts granting bodies with different rules, regulations, and conventions specific to that country. In addition to awarding direct funds, grants can provide

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numerous in-kind benefits to artists, such as mentorships, residencies, travel, research, and exhibition opportunities.
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Section 3

Consumption of Art

Using Art National Pride Museums and Private Collections Preservation and Restoration

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Using Art
The ways in which we use art depend on the type of art in question.
KEY POINTS

balance, and rhythm (beauty), are examples of non-motivated artistic functions. Fine art can be categorized as either motivated or non-motivated. Additionally, the desire to experience mystery and
Figure 24.7 Giovanni Baglione,!Sacred and Profane Love.

the infinite, as well as to express the imagination in ways that are not related to the spoken or written language, are examples of non-motivated functions of art. Fine art includes drawing, painting, sculpture, photography, and some film and new media. Its function is often decorative, to appeal to the senses, or to communicate emotions and ideas. For example, a chiaroscuro painting communicates the feeling of drama through skilled application of the artistic elements (Figure 24.7). Art in

Motivated art is art that has been given an intentional, conscious purpose by the artist or creator. Non-motivated art functions on an innate human level and does not fulfill a specific external purpose. Art can function as decorative, to appeal to the senses, or to communicate emotions and ideas. Art can be used to influence popular conceptions, as with advertising and propaganda. Art can have ritualistic and symbolic functions. Art can function as entertainment for the viewer.

The ways in which we use art depend on the type of art in question. We can break down the way that art functions broadly into two groups: motivated and non-motivated. Motivated art is art that has been given an intentional, conscious purpose by the artist or creator such as popular culture and decorative arts. Non-motivated art functions on an innate human level and does not fulfill a specific external purpose. Creativity and the basic human need for harmony,
Baglione's "Sacred and Profane Love" is an example of a"chiaroscuro"painting.

this sense can be used to support political ideals, to comment on society, to express emotions, or to illustrate a concept. Additionally,

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art can be used to bring about political change, exemplified by movements like Dadaism and Surrealism (Figure 24.8).
Figure 24.8 Hannah Hoch,!Cut with the Dada Kitchen Knife through the Last Weimar BeerBelly Cultural Epoch in Germany. Hoch's"Cut with the Dada Kitchen Knife through the Last Weimar BeerBelly Cultural Epoch in Germany,"is an example of art resulting from the Dadaism movement.

conceptions. Propaganda and commercialism refer to art that is used to influence poplar conceptions or moods. Advertising attempts to sell a product by creating associations with a particular product or brand, while propaganda is used to manipulate the public on various ideas. The decorative arts are widely used and utilitarian by their very nature. Decorative arts include any object that might be used in everyday life, from chairs to ceramics. Typically, their purposes are obvious, and their aesthetic value is often secondary to their utilitarian function. Art can have ritualistic and symbolic functions. Many cultures and religions utilize art in rituals, performances, and dances as decoration or symbolism. While these art objects often have no specific utilitarian purpose, anthropologists have proven they hold very specific cultural importance.
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Popular art includes movies, product design, television, posters, graffiti, advertising, and video games. We encounter popular art at all times, and in fact we are almost oversaturated with it. Popular art usually functions as entertainment for the viewer, such as with a film or video game, but can also be used to influence popular

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National Pride
Art can be used to advance nationalistic goals, by providing a state or nation with political and social legitimacy.

Art can be used to advance nationalistic goals by providing a state or nation with political and social legitimacy. "Romantic nationalism" refers to the phenomenon by which a state derives power from the unity of those it governs, whether it be through culture, religion, customs, language, or race. Romantic nationalism was a key component of Romanticism as well as certain postEnlightenment philosophies that focused on the development of national language, folklore, and traditional customs. This form of nationalism arose in reaction to imperial and dynastic hegemony, which acquired legitimacy not from the bottom-up but from the top-down-- in other words, from the authority down to the people. National anthems, national epics, and national treasures are part of the language of Romantic nationalism, and date back to the 18th and 19th centuries. After the 1870s, Romantic nationalism became a very familiar movement in the arts that allowed for a form of reinterpretation of the past, without being considered merely historicist. Nationalist movements for the separation of Finland, the kingdom of Bavaria from Germany, and Czech and Serb nationalism created conflict, while Welsh and Irish tongues experienced a poetic revival and the Zionist movement both revived Hebrew and began immigration to Israel. In the first few decades of the 20th century, Romantic nationalism had an important influence on political events. The belief that nation states forming around unities in culture and

KEY POINTS

Romantic nationalism refers to the phenomenon by which a state derives power from the unity of those it governs, whether it be through culture, religion, customs, language, or race. Romantic nationalism was a key component of Romanticism as well as certain post-Enlightenment philosophies. National anthems, national epics, and national treasures are part of the language of Romantic nationalism, and date back to the 18th and 19th centuries. Today, cultural heritage-- both tangible and intangible-- is regarded as highly valuable. A national treasure refers to shared culture which has been deemed exceptionally valuable. Governments influence the artistic output of their regions by presenting grants and awards to artists whose careers they wish to support.

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ethnicity were in some sense natural was prominently held. After the Second World War however, Romantic nationalism took on a darker tone.
Figure 24.9 Bayeux Tapestry

value, such as Britains Bayeux tapestry (Figure 24.9). Governments influence the artistic output of their regions by presenting grants and awards to artists whose careers they wish to support-- a model which is not unlike the dynastic patronage common throughout Europe in the past.
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A hawking scene from the Bayeaux Tapestry.

Some degree of art-based national pride still exists today. The ageold notion of the state gaining political prowess through its artistic output still holds true in some senses. Cultural heritage-- both tangible and intangible-- is regarded as highly valuable. It is not uncommon for museums and art galleries to be owned by the state, thereby imparting biased and/or nationalistic worldviews on exhibitions. A national treasure refers to shared culture which has been deemed exceptionally valuable. A national treasure could be a skilled musician, such as Yo-Yo Ma, or a cultural object of great

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Museums and Private Collections


Museums and private collections are both engaged in the collection and display of works of art.

essentially holds them in public trust, and engages in varying levels of education and conservation practices. Private collections are privately owned works of art which may or may not be available for viewing by the public. Museums and private collections are both engaged in the collection and display of works of art. Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy families and individuals. Originally, only nobility collected art, but soon the

KEY POINTS

wealthy classes began to adopt the habit of collecting and displaying archaeological and art objects in their salons and living rooms. Cabinets of curiosity, or cabinets that held these collections of artifacts and art objects, became commonplace, and were the beginnings of museums and private collections. Often, these private collections were available for viewing by the so-called respectable public, but the majority did not become open to the public until the 18th century. The majority of significant museums were opened to the public in the 18th century, or the "Enlightenment Era," a time known for its pursuit and dissemination of knowledge throughout society. The arts were especially important during the Enlightenment and viewed as a deeply noble pursuit. The Grand Tour, which became very popular during this time, solidified the habit of collecting works for display from these trips abroad. Many of the most significant private collections of art were opened to the public in the

Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy families and individuals. "Cabinets of curiosity, or cabinets that held collections of artifacts and art objects, were the beginnings of museums and private collections. The majority of significant museums were opened to the public in the 18th century Enlightenment Era, such as the Louvre and the Hermitage Museum. Numerous art works in museums today were donated from private collections. It is not uncommon to see a note next to a work of art in a temporary museum exhibition, stating that it is on loan from a particular private collection.

Museums are institutions that collect art objects and make them available for public viewing, through either permanent or temporary exhibitions. A museum does not sell works of art, but

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18th century such as the Uffizi gallery in Florence, Italy, The Louvre in Paris, France (Figure 24.10), and The Hermitage Museum, founded in 1764 by Catherine the Great. Numerous art works in museums today were in fact donations from private collections. In addition, commonly a note is posted next to a work of art in a temporary museum exhibition stating that it is on loan from a particular private collection. Currently, some private collections remain private, while some are available for public viewings. The Frick Collection in New York City is one of the preeminent small art
The Louvre museum in Paris was a private collection opened to the public in the 18th century. Figure 24.10 The Louvre, Paris

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museums in the city. Housed in the mansion of its owner, Henry Clay Frick, the collection includes old master paintings by Jan van Eyck, Fragonard, Rembrandt, and others.

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Preservation and Restoration


Preservation and restoration is a profession devoted to the conservation of cultural heritage, such as works of art, for future generations.

KEY POINTS (cont.)

Interventive conservation refers to any act that involves a direct interaction between the conservator and the cultural material, and could involve cleaning, stabilizing, repair, or replacement of parts.

KEY POINTS

Preservation and restoration is a profession devoted to the conservation of cultural heritage, such as works of art, for future generations. The activities involved in this profession include examination, documentation, treatment, and preventative conservation. The goal of the conservator is to attempt to maintain cultural heritage objects as close to their original condition as possible, for as long as possible. The conservator acts as a sort of steward for these objects, which range from archaeological to artistic. The tradition of conservation is considered by most to have begun in 1565, with the restoration of the Sistine Chapel frescoes (before: (Figure 24.11), after: (Figure
Detail of Sistine Chapel freso before restoration. Figure 24.11 Sistine Chapel

The goal of the conservator is to attempt to maintain cultural heritage objects as close to their original condition as possible, for as long as possible. The tradition of conservation is considered by most to have begun in 1565, with the restoration of the Sistine Chapel frescoes. Today, all museums employ teams of conservators to keep their collections up to date, conduct frequent tests, and engage in analysis and documentation. Conservators are often involved in what is termed preventative conservation, which refers to protecting art and cultural works from damage from environmental conditions, such as temperature, humidity, and exposure to light. A guiding principal of conservation is the idea of "reversibility;" that is, any intervention with the object should be fully reversible.

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24.12). During the 19th century, the fields of science and art became somewhat intertwined, and scientific processes were used to care for artistic objects. Today, all museums employ teams of conservators to keep their collections up-to-date, conduct frequent tests, and engage in analysis and documentation. In addition, numerous organizations create standardized methodologies for the conservation of art objects, such as the International Institute for the Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, and the American Institute for Conservation.
Figure 24.12 Sistine Chapel

The conservators activities are guided by ethical standards. They must choose if, when, and how to alter a work of art in order to bring it closer to its original state. Since the original state is often beyond the conservators lifetime, a certain degree of guesswork is required. Conservators are often involved in what is termed preventative conservation, which refers to protecting art and cultural works from damage from environmental conditions, such as temperature, humidity, and exposure to light. This is why, for example, it is common to see textiles or photography exhibited in dimly-lit galleries. A guiding principal of conservation is the idea of "reversibility;" that is, any intervention with the object should be fully reversible, and the object should be able to be returned to its original state. Interventive conservation refers to any act that involves a direct interaction between the conservator and the cultural material, and could involve cleaning, stabilizing, repair, or replacement of parts. The conservator is required to fully justify any work of this sort, and to complete documentation of the process before and after. Examples of interventive conservation include securing flaking paint, or the tinted varnish treatment, whereby the restorer applies a tinted varnish over the original varnish, giving the illusion that spots on a work have been repainted.

Detail of Sistine Chapel fresco after restoration.

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Section 4

Non-Preservation of Art

Conicts Rituals

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Conicts
The non-preservation of art via destruction, mislabeling, and repossession can cause numerous conicts.

art. Numerous conflicts can arise when cultural property is not properly preserved. Ownership conflicts are common when it comes to the nonpreservation of art objects. During
Figure 24.13 "L.H.O.O.Q." by Marcel Duchamp

KEY POINTS

times of unrest, such as war, there is a higher potential for unethical behaviorart is often stolen, or looted, in periods of conflict. Plunder, appropriation, and spoilation are related terms that describe the process of looting. During World War II, the Nazis looted a lot of European art, much of which was eventually repatriated returned to its rightful owners. Appropriation is a complex issue in art. The appropriation of Native American iconography, sacred images, and sculptures for commercial use by non-natives has been
"L.H.O.O.Q." is an example of appropriation usually deemed acceptable in art.

War, political unrest, accidents, and disaster are the typical outside factors that contribute to the non-preservation of art. Looting refers to when art is stolen during such times of conflict. Art repatriation refers to the process of returning artworks to their rightful owners. The use, or appropriation, of art has inspired much controversy and contributed to cultural subjugation. A prime example of appropriation and subjugation is seen the appropriation of sacred Native American images, iconography, and sculptures for commercial use by nonnatives. Copyright can give the creator of an original work exclusive rights to it, usually for a limited time.

Non-preservation of art refers to damages, destruction, mislabeling, and repossession that might occur due to a variety of circumstances. War, political unrest, accidents, and disaster are the typical outside factors that contribute to the non-preservation of

a source of controversy, contributing to cultural subjugation. For example, the Kachina doll is a sacred Hopi sculpture that was traditionally meant to be seen only during specific Hopi ritual

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events. Many commercial replicas have been created to sell to tourists, altering the original intent of the object. Appropriation is sometimes acceptable in certain Western art movements. Dadaist and Surrealist works typically utilize a great deal of appropriation, as seen in Marcel Duchamps L.H.O.O.Q. (Figure 24.13). A Copyright can give the creator of an original work exclusive rights to it, usually for a limited time. There is a branch of the law that deals exclusively with copyright issues as they relate to artwork.
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Rituals
Issues regarding the non-preservation of ritual objects became widespread in the expansion of museums in the 19th"century.
KEY POINTS

Non-preservation refers to either to the physical decay, or more often, the alteration of an object or artifacts intended meaning and/or purpose. In the 19th century, the founding of museums and scholarly studies of various cultures and religions, and the growth of anthropology and archaeology as disciplines, saw private collectors, museums, and universities competing to acquire artifacts. In the Buddhist faith, materials are considered to have a life of their own, and this life must be allowed to end naturally. Cultural integrity can be compromised or wrongfully preserved through improper association in a museum context. Physical preservation of the Shinto shrines in Ise Jingo would damage their spiritual and cultural integrity.

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History and Tradition Preservation of meaning in library, archival, and museum collections involves understanding spiritual, ritual, or cultural perceptions of value for specific objects, and ensuring these values are maintained and respected. Meaning is assigned to objects of cultural or spiritual significance based on interpretations or perceived values by user populations, a process known as the social construction of an object. All artistic mediums have a branch of associated conservation theory, which may or may not be congruent with the original intentions of the objects maker. While not all artifacts and art objects have rituals or socially constructed beliefs associated with their continued existence, it is a relevant issue for many cultural and religious groups. Issues of non-preservation or wrongful preservation became widespread following the expansion of anthropology and archaeology in the 19th century. Non-preservation refers to the opposite of preservation, either to the physical decay, or more often, the alteration of an object or artifacts intended meaning and/or purpose. There are numerous ways in which non-preservation of ritual or spiritual objects can occur. Many times, the very effort to preserve an artifact compromises its socially constructed meaning; in this way, the act of preservation becomes, in fact, an act of non-preservation. A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, often

prescribed by the traditions or religions of a particular community. When removed from their ritual setting, or rightful environment, significant objects or artifacts lose their imbued symbolic and magical values, and take on very different meanings. Role of Museums The 19th century saw the widespread loss cultural artifacts of many cultures around the world. In North America, this was particularly true for Native American populations, who faced intense loss of culture and land during this time. With the founding of museums and scholarly studies of various cultures and religions, and the growth of anthropology and archaeology as disciplines, private collectors, museums, and universities competed to acquire artifacts. Many cultural and religious communities, including Native Americans, insisted these were cultural and ancestral assets, but nonetheless saw them sold and placed behind glass. As of the year 1990, federal agencies reported having the remains of 14.500 Native Americans in their possession. N.A.G.P.R.A. (North American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act) The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act is a United States federal law enacted on November 16, 1990, requiring institutions that receive federal funding, such as museums, to

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return Native American cultural items to lineal descendants and affiliated tribes and communities. Cultural items include human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects and objects of cultural patrimony. This act was brought into existence at the insistence of numerous Native American communities. Other Traditions In the Buddhist faith, materials are considered to have a life of their own, which must be allowed to end naturally. Impermanence (anitya) in the Buddhist faith relates to the natural end of all things, and acts of physical preservation would be contrary to this belief. Cultural integrity can be compromised or wrongfully preserved through improper association in a museum
11th-century North African Quran in the British Museum. Figure 24.14 The Koran at Islamic Gallery British Museum

Sikh religious text, is repaired by a conservator, instead of ceremoniously destroyed, its cultural meaning is likewise obliterated.

EXAMPLE

The Shinto Shrines of Ise Jingu in Japan serve as an example of the importance of non-preservation. Every twenty years since the time of Emperor Temmu, in the 7th century CE, the buildings are completely destroyed, then rebuilt. The rebuilding process is based on descriptions from ancient documents and ensures that the recreations are exact replicas of the shrines that were taken down. Physical preservation of these monuments would damage the spiritual and cultural integrity of both this process and its purpose.

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context. For example, when books are piled on top of a Qur'an in a museum display (Figure 24.14) the spiritual integrity is compromised or destroyed completely, leaving the physical object devoid of cultural meaning. Similarly, if a Guru Granth Sahib, a

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Chapter 25

Italy in the 1500s

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Section 1

Sixteenth Century Europe

Introduction

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Introduction
Sixteenth-century Italian art history is characterized by the High Italian Renaissance and Mannerism, which both ourished in Florence.
KEY POINTS

in the early nineteenth century. Over the last twenty years, use of the term has been frequently criticized by academic art historians for oversimplifying artistic developments, ignoring historical context, and focusing only on a few iconic works.
Figure 25.1 Creation of Adam

Many art historians consider sixteenth-century High Renaissance Italian art to be largely dominated by three individuals: Michelangelo, Raphael, and Leonardo da Vinci. Mannerism is notable for its intellectual sophistication and its artificial (as opposed to naturalistic) qualities, such as elongated proportions, stylized poses, and lack of clear perspective. Some historians regard Mannerism as a degeneration of High Renaissance classicism, or even as an interlude between High Renaissance and Baroquein which case the dates are usually from c. 1520 to 1600, and it is considered a positive style complete in itself.
The Creation of Adam, Michelangelo's work in the Sistine Chapel.

Nevertheless, many consider sixteenth-century High Renaissance Italian art to be largely dominated by three individuals: Michelangelo, Raphael, and Leonardo da Vinci. Michelangelo excelled as a painter, architect, and sculptor, demonstrating a mastery of portraying the human figure. His frescoes rank among the greatest works of Renaissance art (Figure 25.1). Raphael was skilled in creating perspective and in the delicate use of color. Leonardo da Vinci painted two of the most famous works of Renaissance art (The Last Supper and Mona Lisa) and made numerous drawings of human skeletons and muscles. Although the

Sixteenth-century Italian art history is often characterized by the High Italian Renaissance and Mannerism, which both flourished in Florence. The High Renaissance period is traditionally taken to begin in the 1490s, with Leonardo's fresco of The Last Supper in Milan, and to end in 1527, with the sacking of Rome by the troops of Charles V. This term was first used in German ("Hochrenaissance")

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works of these artists are emblematic of the High Renaissance, they were by no means wholly representative of the all the aesthetic styles emerging in this period. For instance, Mannerism is a period of European art that emerged from the later years of the sixteenth century and lasted as a popular aesthetic style in Italy until about 1580, when the Baroque began to replace it (although Northern Mannerism continued into the early seventeenth century throughout much of Europe). Stylistically, Mannerism encompasses a variety of approaches influenced by, and reacting to, the harmonious ideals and restrained naturalism associated with artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and early Michelangelo. Mannerism is notable for its intellectual sophistication, as well as its artificial (as opposed to
Madonna with the Long Neck Figure 25.2 Madonna with the Long Neck

Some historians regard Mannerism as a degeneration of High Renaissance classicism, or even as an interlude between High Renaissance and Baroquein which case the dates are usually from c. 1520 to 1600, and it is considered a positive style complete in itself. The definition of Mannerism, and the phases within it, continues to be the subject of debate among art historians. For example, some scholars have applied the label to certain early modern forms of literature (especially poetry) and music of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The term is also used to refer to some Late Gothic painters working in northern Europe from about 1500 to 1530, especially the Antwerp Mannerists, a group unrelated to the Italian movement.
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naturalistic) qualities, such as elongated proportions, stylized poses, and lack of clear perspective (Figure 25.2).

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Section 2

The High Renaissance

Leonardo da Vinci Raphael Michelango Architecture of Rome Architecture of Northern Italy Architecture of Venice and the Veneto Paintings of Venice

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Leonardo da Vinci
Despite popular admiration of da Vinci as a scientist, his fame rests on his achievements as the painter of several Renaissance masterpieces.

for a variety of qualities that have been much imitated by students and discussed at great length by connoisseurs and critics. Among the qualities that make Leonardo's work unique are the
Figure 25.3 The Last Supper Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper, although much deteriorated, demonstrates the painter's mastery of the human form in gurative composition.

KEY POINTS

Among the qualities that make Leonardo's work unique are the innovative techniques that he used in laying on the paint, his detailed knowledge of anatomy, his innovative use of the human form in figurative composition, the sfumato smoking technique, and his use of the subtle gradation of tone. Among the most famous works created by Leonardo is the small portrait titled the Mona Lisa, known for the elusive smile on the woman's face, brought about by the fact that Leonardo subtly shadowed the corners of the mouth and eyes so that the exact nature of the smile cannot be determined. Despite his famous paintings, Leonardo was not a prolific painter, but he was a most prolific draftsman, keeping journals full of small sketches and detailed drawings recording all manner of things that took his attention.

innovative techniques that he used in laying on the paint, his detailed knowledge of anatomy, his innovative use of the human form in figurative composition, the sfumato smoking technique, and his use of the subtle gradation of tone. All these qualities come together in his most famous painted works, the Mona Lisa, The Last Supper, and the Virgin of the Rocks. Leonardo's most famous painting of the 1490s is The Last Supper, painted for the refectory of the Convent of Santa Maria della Grazie in Milan. (Figure 25.3) The painting represents the last meal shared by Jesus with his disciples before his capture and death. When finished, the painting was acclaimed as a masterpiece of design and characterization. However, it deteriorated rapidly, so that within a

Despite the admiration of Leonardo da Vinci as a scientist, academic, and inventor, his fame rests on his achievements as the painter of Renaissance masterpieces. These paintings are famous

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hundred years it was described by one viewer as "completely ruined." Leonardo, instead of using the reliable technique of fresco, had used tempera over a ground that was mainly gesso, resulting in a surface that was subject to mold and flaking. Despite this, the painting has remained one of the most reproduced works of art. Among the works created by Leonardo in the sixteenth century is the small portrait known as the Mona Lisa, or La Gioconda, "the laughing one" (Figure 25.4). In the present era it is arguably the most
In the Mona Lisa, Leonardo incorporates his sfumato technique to create a shadowy quality. Figure 25.4 Mona Lisa

between colors, tones, and often objects. Other characteristics found in this work are the unadorned dress, in which the eyes and hands have no competition from other details; the dramatic landscape background, in which the world seems to be in a state of flux; the subdued coloring; and the extremely smooth nature of the painterly technique, employing oils, but applied much like tempera
Figure 25.5 Virgin and Child with Saint Anne

and blended on the surface so that the brushstrokes are indistinguishable. In the painting Virgin and Child with St. Anne, Leonardo's composition again picks up the theme of figures in a landscape, which Wasserman describes as "breathtakingly beautiful," and harkens back to the St. Jerome picture with the figure set at an oblique angle (Figure 25.5). What makes this painting unusual is that there are two obliquely set

famous painting in the world. Its fame rests, in particular, on the elusive smile on the woman's faceits mysterious quality brought about perhaps by the fact that the artist has subtly shadowed the corners of the mouth and eyes so that the exact nature of the smile cannot be determined. The shadowy quality for which the work is renowned came to be called "sfumato," or the application of subtle layers of translucent paint so that there is no visible transition
Virgin and Child with St. Anne, (c. 1510)-Louvre Museum.

figures superimposed. Mary is seated on the knee of her mother,

St. Anne. She leans forward to restrain the Christ Child as he plays roughly with a lamb, the sign of his own impending sacrifice. This

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painting influenced many contemporaries, including Michelangelo, Raphael, and Andrea del Sarto. The trends in its composition were adopted in particular by the Venetian painters Tintoretto and Veronese. Despite these famous pieces, Leonardo was not a prolific painter. He was a most prolific draftsman, keeping journals full of small sketches and detailed drawings recording all manner of things that took his attention. His earliest dated drawing is a Landscape of the Arno Valley, 1473, which shows in great detail the river, the mountains, Montelupo Castle, and the farmlands beyond it. Among his famous drawings are the Vitruvian Man, a study of the proportions of the human body, the Head of an Angel (for the Virgin of the Rocks), and a botanical study of Star of Bethlehem. Some of his drawings employ the subtle sfumato technique of shading, in the same manner of the Mona Lisa, suggesting that Leonardo used his drawings to hone his techniques. Other, often meticulous, drawings show studies of drapery. A marked development in Leonardo's ability to draw drapery occurred in his early works. For instance, an often-reproduced drawing is a macabre sketch that was done by Leonardo in Florence in 1479, showing the body of Bernardo Baroncelli, hanged in connection with the murder of Giuliano, brother of Lorenzo de' Medici, in the Pazzi Conspiracy.

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Raphael
Raphael was an Italian Renaissance painter and architect, and his work is admired for its clarity of form and ease of composition.
KEY POINTS

ease of composition and for its visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur. Together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period. He was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop, and, despite his death at thirty, a large body of his work remains among the most famous of High Renaissance art. Influences Some of Raphael's most striking artistic influences come from the paintings of Leonardo da Vinci. In response to da Vinci's work, Raphael gave his figures more dynamic and complex positions in some of his earlier compositions. For instance, Raphael's Saint Catherine of Alexandria,1507, borrows from the contrapposto pose of Leonardo's Leda and the
Saint Catherine of Alexandria, 1507, borrows from the contrapposto pose of Leonardo's Leda. Figure 25.6 Saint Catherine of Alexandria

Together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period. He was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop, and despite his death at thirty, a large body of his work remains. Some of Raphael's most striking artistic influences come from the paintings of Leonardo da Vinci; because of this inspiration, Raphael gave his figures more dynamic and complex positions in his earlier compositions. Raphael's "Stanze" masterpieces are very large and complex compositions that have been regarded among the supreme works of the High Renaissance. They give a highly idealized depiction of the forms represented, and the compositions, though very carefully conceived in drawings, achieve "sprezzatura".

Overview Raphael, 14831520, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form and

Swans (Figure 25.6). On the other hand, while Raphael was also aware of Michelangelo's works, he still deviates from his style. For instance, in his Deposition of Christ, Raphael draws on classical

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sarcophagi to spread the figures across the front of the picture space in a complex and not wholly successful arrangement, and although there is some influence of the Madonna from Michelangelo's Doni Tondo, most of the composition is far removed from his style. The Stanze Rooms and the Loggia In 1511, Raphael began work on his famous Stanze rooms, which made a stunning impact on Roman art, and remains generally regarded as his greatest masterpiece. The Stanze contains The School of Athens, The Parnassus (Figure 25.7), and the Disputa.
Figure 25.7 The Parnassus

These very large and complex compositions have been regarded ever since as among the supreme works of the High Renaissance, and the "classic art" of the post-antique West. They give a highly idealized depiction of the forms represented, and the compositionsthough very carefully conceived in drawingsachieve "sprezzatura," a term invented by Raphael's friend Castiglione, who defined it as "a certain nonchalance that conceals all artistry and makes

Figure 25.8 Raphael Sketch

This drawing shows Raphael's e!orts in developing the composition for the Madonna and Child.

whatever one says or does seem uncontrived and effortless." In the later phase of Raphael's career, he designed and painted the Loggia at the Vatican, a long thin gallery that was open to a courtyard on one side and decorated with Roman-style grottesche. He also produced a number of significant altarpieces, including The Ecstasy of St. Cecilia and the Sistine Madonna. His last work, on
The Parnassus, 1511, from the "Stanze" or Stanza della Segnatura Rooms.

which he was working until his death, was a large Transfiguration

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which, together with Il Spasimo, shows the direction his art was taking in his final years, becoming more proto-Baroque than Mannerist. The Master's Studio Raphael also ran a workshop of over fifty pupils and assistants, many of whom later became significant artists in their own right. This was arguably the largest workshop team assembled under any single old master painter, and much higher than the norm. They included established masters from other parts of Italy, probably working with their own teams as sub-contractors, as well as pupils and journeymen. Architecture In architecture, Raphael's skills were employed by the papacy and wealthy Roman nobles. For instance, Raphael designed the plans for the the Villa Madama, which was to be a lavish hillside retreat for Pope Clement VII (and was never finished). Even incomplete, Raphael's schematic was the most sophisticated villa design yet seen in Italy, and greatly influenced the later development of the genre. It also appears to be the only modern building in Rome of which Palladio made a measured drawing.

Draftsman Finally, Raphael was one of the finest draftsmen in the history of Western art, and used drawings extensively to plan his compositions. According to a near-contemporary, when beginning to plan a composition, he would lay out a large number of stock drawings of his on the floor, and begin to draw "rapidly," borrowing figures from here and there. Over forty sketches survive for the Disputa in the Stanze, and there may well have been many more originally (over four hundred sheets survive altogether). As evidenced in his sketches for his Madonna and Child, Raphael used different drawings to refine his poses and compositions, apparently to a greater extent than most other painters, to judge by the number of variants that survive (Figure 25.8). Most Raphael drawings are rather preciseeven initial sketches with naked outline figures are carefully drawn, and later working drawings often have a high degree of finish, with shading and sometimes highlights in white. They lack the freedom and energy of some of Leonardo's and Michelangelo's sketches, but are almost always very satisfying aesthetically.
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Michelango
Michelangelo was a sixteenth-century Florentine artist renowed for his masterpieces in sculpture, painting, and architectural design.
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three most famous works are his David, the Sistine Chapel, and the Basilica of Saint Peter's in the Vatican. Sculpture: David In 1504, Michelangelo took a commission to create a colossal marble statue portraying David as a symbol of Florentine freedom. The subsequent masterpiece, Michelangelo's David, was created out of a single marble block. The work definitively established his prominence as a sculptor of extraordinary technical skill and strength of symbolic imagination (Figure 25.9). Michelangelo's David differs from previous representations in that the Biblical hero is not depicted with the head of the slain Goliath, as he is in Donatello's and Verrocchio's statues; both had represented the hero standing victorious over the head of Goliath. No earlier Florentine artist had omitted the giant altogether.Instead of appearing victorious over a foe, David's face looks tense and ready for
Michelangelo's David stands in contrapposto pose. Figure 25.9 The David

Michelangelo created his colossal marble statue, the David, out of a single block of marble, which definitively established his prominence as a sculptor of extraordinary technical skill and strength of symbolic imagination. In painting, Michelangelo is renowned for the ceiling and Last Judgement of the Sistine Chapel, where he depicted a complex scheme representing Creation, the Downfall of Man, the Salvation of Man, and the Genealogy of Christ. Michelangelo's chief contribution to Saint Peter's Basilica was the use of a Greek Cross form and an external masonry of massive proportions, with every corner filled in by a stairwell or small vestry. The effect is a continuous wall-surface that appears fractured or folded at different angles.

Overview Michelangelo was a 16th century Florentine artist renowned for his masterpieces in sculpture, painting, and architectural design. His

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Figure 25.10 The Last Judgement

combat. The tendons in his neck stand out tautly, his brow is furrowed, and his eyes seem to focus intently on something in the distance. Veins bulge out of his lowered right hand, but his body is in a relaxed contrapposto pose, and he carries his sling casually thrown over his left shoulder. The majority of his weight is on his back leg, staying consistent with the Renaissance practice of

for a different and more complex scheme, representing creation, the Downfall of Man and the Promise of Salvation through the prophets, and the Genealogy of Christ. The work is part of a larger scheme of decoration within the chapel which represents much of the doctrine of the Catholic Church. The composition eventually contained over three hundred figures, and had at its center nine episodes from the Book of Genesis, divided into three groups: God's Creation of the Earth, God's Creation of Humankind and their fall from God's grace, and lastly, the state of Humanity as represented by Noah and his family. On the pendentives supporting the ceiling are painted twelve men and women who prophesied the coming of the Jesus. Among the most
Michelangelo designed the dome of St. Peter's Basilica on or before 1564, although it was unnished when he died. Figure 25.11 St. Peter's Basillica

The frescoed altar wall of the Sistine Chapel

depicting its subjects in recoiled, calm positions. In the Renaissance, contrapposto poses were thought of as a distinctive feature of antique sculpture. In David, the figure stands with one leg holding its full weight and the other leg relaxed. This classic pose causes the figures hips and shoulders to rest at opposite angles, giving a slight s-curve to the entire torso. Painting: Last Judgement In painting, Michelangelo is renowned for the ceiling and Last Judgement of the Sistine Chapel. He was originally commissioned only to paint the Twelve Apostles against a starry sky, but lobbied

famous paintings on the ceiling are The Creation of Adam, Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, the Great Flood, the Prophet Isaiah and the Cumaean Sibyl. Around the windows are painted the ancestors of Christ. The fresco of The Last Judgment on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel was commissioned by Pope Clement VII, and Michelangelo

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labored on the project from 1534-1541 (Figure 25.10). The work is massive and spans the entire wall behind the altar of the Sistine Chapel. The Last Judgment is a depiction of the second coming of Christ and the apocalypse; where the souls of humanity rise and are assigned to their various fates, as judged by Christ, surrounded by the Saints. The wall on which The Last Judgment is painted looms out slightly over the viewer as it rises, and is meant to be somewhat fearful and to instill piety and respect for God's power. In contrast to the other frescoes in the Chapel, the figures are heavily muscled and appear somewhat torturedeven the Virgin Mary at the center seems to be cowering before God. Once completed, the depiction of Christ and the Virgin Mary naked was considered sacrilegious; after Michelangelo's death, the Church decided to obscure the figures' genitals. Architecture: St. Peter's Basilica Finally, although other architects were involved, Michelangelo is given credit for designing St. Peter's Basilica. Michelangelo's chief contribution was the use of a symmetrical plan of a Greek Cross form and an external masonry of massive proportions: with every corner filled in by a stairwell or small vestry. The effect is of a continuous wall-surface that is folded or fractured at different angles, lacking the right-angles which usually define change of direction at the corners of a building. This exterior is surrounded by

a giant order of Corinthian pilasters all set at slightly different angles to each other, in keeping with the ever-changing angles of the wall's surface. Above them the huge cornice ripples in a continuous band, giving the appearance of keeping the whole building in a state of compression (Figure 25.11).
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Architecture of Rome
Rome, the second Renaissance capital after Florence, was one of the most important architectural and cultural centers in this period.
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from Roman and Greek classical models. However, like the styles of Renaissance architecture emerging elsewhere in Italy, Rome was also characterized by several novel features that emerged in
Figure 25.12 Loggia Example

Roman Renaissance architects derived their main designs and inspirations from Roman and Greek classical models. However, Roman architecture was also characterized by several features that emerged in sixteenth century Italy. Loggias, an architectural feature that refers to a gallery or corridor on the facade of a building that is open to the air on one side (and is often supported by classically-inspired columns or pierced openings in the wall), were fashionable styles in Roman buildings. A primary example of Renaissance Roman architecture include the Palazzo Farnese, one of the most important High Renaissance palaces in Rome.

Villa Godi by Palladio. A loggia is the focal point in place of a portico in the centre, and used again at each side of the structure as a corridor.

sixteenth century Italy. For instance, Loggias, an architectural feature that refers to a gallery or corridor on the facade of a building that is open to the air on one side (and is often supported by classically-inspired columns or pierced openings in the wall) were emerging fashionable styles in Roman buildings (Figure 25.12). Loggias are accessed only from inside which makes it a place for leisure, and hence it is found mainly on noble residences and public buildings. Opulent palaces, or palazzi, built in Rome often had rusticated blocks that decorated grand entrances in churches, especially in St. Peter's Basilica where baldacchini or a column-supported canopy, were widely employed.

Architecture of Rome Rome is widely regarded by scholars as being the second Renaissance capital of Italy after Florence, and was one of the most important architectural and cultural centers in this period. Roman Renaissance architects derived their main designs and inspirations

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A primary example of Renaissance Roman architecture include the Palazzo Farnese, one of the most important High Renaissance palaces in Rome (Figure 25.13). First designed in 1517 for the Farnese family, the building expanded in size and conception from designs by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger when Alessandro Farnese became Pope Paul III in 1534. Its building history involved some of the most prominent Italian architects of the sixteenth century, including Michelangelo, Jacopo Barozzi da Vignola and Giacomo della Porta. Key Renaissance architectural features of the main facade include the alternating triangular and segmental pediments that cap the windows of the piano nobile, the central rusticated portal, and Michelangelo's projecting cornice which throws a deep shadow on the top of the facade. Michelangelo revised the central window in 1541, adding an architrave to give a central focus to the facade, above which is the largest papal stemma, or coatof-arms with papal tiara, Rome
Outside facade of the Palazzo Farnese. Figure 25.13 Palais Farnese

had ever seen. The Palazzo Farnese courtyard, initially open arcades, is ringed by classically-inspired columns (characteristic of Italian Renaissance architecture), in ascending orders (Doric, Corinthian, and Ionic). The piano nobile entablature was given a frieze with garlands, added by Michelangelo. On the garden side of the palace, which faced the River Tiber, Michelangelo proposed the innovatory design of a bridge which, if completed, would have linked the palace with the gardens of the Vigna Farnese. While the practicalities of achieving this bridge remain dubious, the idea was a bold and expansive one. Furthermore, during the sixteenth century, two large granite basins from the Baths of Caracalla were adapted as fountains in the Piazza Farnese, the urban face of the palace. The palazzo was completed for the second Cardinal Alessandro Farnese by Giacomo della Porta's porticoed facade towards the Tiber (finished in 1589). Following the death of Cardinal Odoardo Farnese in 1626, the palazzo stood virtually uninhabited for twenty years.
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Architecture of Northern Italy


During the High Renaissance, architectural concepts derived from classical antiquity were developed and used with greater surety.
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development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture. Stylistically, Renaissance architecture followed Gothic architecture and was succeeded by Baroque architecture. During the High Renaissance, architectural concepts derived from classical antiquity were developed and used with greater surety. The most representative architect is Bramante (14441514), who expanded the applicability of classical architecture to contemporary buildings, a style that was to dominate Italian architecture in the sixteenth century. In the late fifteenth century and early sixteenth century architects such as Bramante, Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, and others showed a mastery of the revived style and ability to apply it to buildings such as churches and city palazzos, which were quite different from the structures of ancient times. Although studying and mastering the details of the ancient Romans was one of the important aspects of Renaissance architectural theory, the style also became more decorative and ornamental, with a widespread use of statuary, domes, and cupolas. Forms and Purposes of Buildings Renaissance architecture adopted obvious distinguishing features of

Renaissance architecture adopted obvious distinguishing features of classical Roman architecture. However, the forms and purposes of buildings had changed over time, as had the structure of cities, which is reflected in the fusion of classical and sixteenth-century forms. The primary features of sixteenth-century structures, which fused classical Roman technique with Renaissance aesthetics, were based in several foundational architectural concepts: facades, columns and pilasters, arches, vaults, domes, windows, and walls. Although studying and mastering the details of the ancient Romans was one of the important aspects of Renaissance architectural theory, the style also became more decorative and ornamental: with a widespread use of statuary, domes, and cupolas.

Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early fifteenth and early seventeenth centuries in different regions of Europe, demonstrating a conscious revival and

classical Roman architecture. However, the forms and purposes of buildings had changed over time, as had the structure of cities, which is reflected in the resulting fusion of classical and sixteenth-

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century forms. The plans of Renaissance buildings typically have a square, symmetrical appearance in which proportions are usually based on a module. The primary features of sixteenth-century structures, which fused classical Roman technique with Renaissance aesthetics, were based in several foundational architectural concepts: facades, columns and pilasters, arches, vaults, domes, windows, and walls. Foundational Architectural Concepts Renaissance faades are symmetrical around their vertical axis. For instance, church faades of this period are generally surmounted by a pediment and organised by a system of pilasters, arches, and entablatures. The columns and windows show a progression towards the center One of the first true Renaissance faades was the Cathedral of Pienza (145962), which has been attributed to the Florentine architect Bernardo Gambarelli (known as Rossellino). Renaissance architects also incorporated columns and pilasters, using the Roman orders of columns (Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite) as models (Figure 25.14). The orders can either be structural, supporting an arcade or architrave, or purely decorative, set against a wall in the form of pilasters. During the Renaissance, architects aimed to use columns, pilasters, and entablatures as an integrated system. One of the first buildings to

Figure 25.14 Classical Roman Columns

use pilasters as an integrated system was the Old Sacristy (14211440) by Brunelleschi. Arches are semi-circular or (in the Mannerist style) segmental structures often used in arcades, supported on piers or columns with capitals. There may be a section of entablature between the capital and the springing of the arch. Alberti was one of the first to use the arch on a monumental scale at the St. Andrea in Mantua. Renaissance vaults do not

The classical orders were models for Renaissance architects.

have ribs and are semicircular or segmental and on a square plan, unlike the Gothic vault which is frequently rectangular. The barrel vault was returned to architectural vocabulary, as at the St. Andrea in Mantua.

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The dome is used frequently in this period, both as a very large structural feature that is visible from the exterior, and also as a
Figure 25.15 Dome of St. Peter's Basilica

Figure 25.16 Palazzo Farnese The Palazzo Farnese in Rome demonstrates the Renaissance window's particular use of square lintels and triangular and segmental pediments used alternatively.

means of roofing smaller spaces where they are only visible internally. Domes had been used only rarely in the Middle Ages, but after the success of the dome in Brunelleschis design for the Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore and its use in Bramantes plan for St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, the dome became an indispensable element in church architecture (Figure 25.15).

Stained glass, although sometimes present, is not a prevalent feature in Renaissance windows. Finally, external Renaissance walls were generally of highly finished ashlar masonry, laid in straight courses. The corners of buildings are often emphasized by rusticated quoins. Basements and ground floors were sometimes rusticated, as modeled on the Palazzo Medici Riccardi (14441460) in Florence. Internal walls are smoothly plastered and surfaced with white-chalk paint. For more formal spaces, internal surfaces were typically decorated with frescoes.
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The Dome of St Peter's Basilica, Rome is often cited as a foundational piece of Renaissance architecture.

Windows may be paired and set within a semicircular arch and may have square lintels and triangular or segmental

pediments, which are often used alternately. Emblematic in this respect is the Palazzo Farnese in Rome, begun in 1517 (Figure 25. 16). In the Mannerist period, the Palladian arch was employed, using a motif of a high semicircular topped opening flanked with two lower square-topped openings. Windows are used to bring light into the building and in domestic architecture, to give views.

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Architecture of Venice and the Veneto


In the Venato, the Renaissance ushered in a new era of architecture after a Gothic phase, which drew on classical Roman and Greek motifs.
KEY POINTS

Figure 25.17 Villa Foscari

Architecture in Venice and the Veneto was largely based on the work of Andrea Palladio, who designed and completed some highly influential works, including Villas in the mainland, in Vicenza, Padua, and Treviso. Palladian architecture, in masterpieces such as Villa Emo, Villa Barbaro, Villa Capra, and Villa Foscari, evoked the imagined grandeur of antique classical Roman villas. Palladio created an architectural movement called Palladianism, which has had strong following in the next three centuries, inspiring a new generation of architects who completed several works that echo Palladio's aestheticism, including the first Teatro Olimpico in Vicenza.

The front faade of the Villa Foscari features several neoclassical columns.

Ottoman influences. The style originated in 14th-century Venice, where the confluence of Byzantine style from Constantinople met Arab influence from Moorish Spain. Chief examples of the style are the Doge's Palace and the Ca' d'Oro in the city. The city also has several Renaissance and Baroque buildings, including the Ca' Pesaro and the Ca' Rezzonico. In the Venato, the Renaissance ushered in a new era of architecture

Venice, the capital of the Veneto, has a rich and diverse architectural style, the most famous of which is the Gothic style. Venetian Gothic architecture is a term given to a Venetian building style combining use of the Gothic lancet arch with Byzantine and

after a phase of Gothic art, with the creation of important works including the Ca' d'Oro (Figure 25.18) and the churches of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari and of Saints John and Paul in Venice. This

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phase of architecture drew heavily on classical Roman and Greek motifs. Architecture in Venice and the Veneto was largely based on the work of Andrea Palladio, who designed and completed some highly influential works, including villas in the mainland, in Vicenza, Padua, and Treviso.

Figure 25.18 Ca' d'Oro

front of the villa, created a space that recalled the ancient idea of the Roman Forum, bringing all campaign activities to gravitate in front of the villa itself.
Figure 25.19 Teatro Olimpico

Ca' d'Oro faade overlooking the Grand Canal in Venice

In Venice, he designed the Basilica of San Giorgio Maggiore, the Il Redentore, and Zitelle on the island of Giudecca. Palladian architecture, in masterpieces such as Villa Emo, Villa Barbaro, Villa Capra, and Villa Foscari, evoked the imagined grandeur of antique classical Roman villas (Figure 25.17). This aesthetic, established through Palladio's publications, proved very popular and underwent a revival in the neoclassical period. For instance, palladian villas were designed so that the owner visibly exerted control over production activities of the surrounding countryside by structuring the functional parts, such as the porch, close to the central body. In the case of Villa Badoer, the open barn, formed by a large circular colonnade, enclosing the front yard in
Scaenae frons of the Teatro Olimpico. The large arch in the center is known as the porta regia or "royal arch."

Palladio created an architectural movement called Palladianism, which had a strong following in the next three centuries, inspiring architects, some of them his direct students, including Vincenzo Scamozzi, who completed several works that echo Palladio's aestheticism, including the first Teatro Olimpico in Vicenza (Figure 25.19).

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Paintings of Venice
Veronese, Titian, and Tintoretto constitute the triumvirate of preeminent Venetian painters of the late Renaissance.
KEY POINTS

All three similarly employed novel techniques of color, scale, and composition, which established them as acclaimed artists north of Rome. In particular, Veronese, Titian, and Tintoretto were adherents of the Venetian School's primacy of color over line in painting composition. Titian was arguably the most important member of the Venetian school, as well as one of the most versatile. His painting methods, particularly in the use of color, would exercise a profound influence not only on painters of the Italian Renaissance, but on future generations of Western art.

Veronese, Titian, and Tintoretto constitute the triumvirate of preeminent Venetian painters of the late Renaissance. All three similarly employed novel techniques of color, scale, and composition which established them as acclaimed artists north of Rome. In particular, Veronese, Titian, and Tintoretto were

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adherents of the Venetian School's primacy of color over line in painting composition. Paolo Veronese (15281588) was one of the primary Renaissance painters in Venice, famous for paintings such as The Wedding at Cana and The Feast in the House of Levi. Veronese is known as a supreme colorist, and for his illusionistic decorations in both fresco and oil. His most famous works are elaborate narrative cycles, executed in a dramatic and colorful Mannerist style, full of majestic architectural settings and glittering pageantry. His large paintings of biblical feasts executed for the refectories of monasteries in Venice and Verona are especially notable. For instance, The
Figure 25.20 The Wedding at Cana The artist's decorative genius in The Wedding at Cana was to recognize that dramatic perspectival e!ects would have been tiresome in a living room or chapel, and that the narrative of the picture could best be absorbed as a colorful diversion.

Wedding at Cana, painted in 15621563, was a collaboration with Palladio, and Veronese arranged the architecture to run mostly parallel to the picture plane, accentuating the processional character of the composition (Figure 25.20). The artist's decorative genius was to recognize that dramatic perspectival effects would have been tiresome in a living room or chapel, and that the narrative of the picture could best be absorbed as a colorful diversion. The Wedding at Cana offers little in the representation of emotion: rather, it illustrates the carefully composed movement of its subjects along a primarily horizontal axis. Most of all, it is about the incandescence of light and color. Even as Veronese's use of color attained greater intensity and luminosity, his attention to narrative, human sentiment, and a more subtle and meaningful physical interplay between his figures became evident.Tiziano Vecelli, or Titian (14901576), was arguably the most important member of the sixteenth-century Venetian school, as well as one of the most versatile: equally adept with portraits, landscape backgrounds, and mythological and religious subjects. His painting methods, particularly in the application and use of color, would exercise a profound influence not only on painters of the Italian Renaissance, but on future generations of Western art. During the course of his long life, Titian's artistic manner changed drastically, but he retained a lifelong interest in color. Although his mature works may not contain the vivid, luminous tints of his early pieces, their loose

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brushwork and subtlety of polychromatic modulations were without precedent. In 1516, Titian completed, for the high altar of the church of the Frari, his famous masterpiece, the Assumption of the Virgin, still in situ (Figure 25.21). This extraordinary piece of colorism, executed on a grand scale rarely before seen in Italy, created a sensation. The pictorial structure of the Assumptionuniting in the same composition two or three scenes superimposed on different levels, earth and heaven, the temporal and the infinitewas continued in a series of his works, finally
It took Titian two years (15161518) to complete his Assunta, whose dynamic three-tier composition and color scheme established him as the preeminent painter north of Rome. Figure 25.21 Assunta

Figure 25.22 Paradise

Detail of Tintoretto's Paradise.

gave a new conception of the traditional groups of donors and holy persons moving in aerial space, the plans and different degrees set in an architectural framework. Tintoretto (15181594), was a notable exponent of the Venetian and Renaissance schools. His work is characterized by its muscular figures, dramatic gestures, and bold use of perspective in the Mannerist style, as well as color and light typical of the Venetian School. The crowning production of Tintoretto's life was the vast Paradise, reputed to be the largest painting ever done upon canvas (Figure 25.22). It is a work so stupendous in scale, as well as divergent from ordinary standards of conception, color, and method, that it has defied the connoisseurship of three centuries.

reaching a classic formula in the Pesaro Madonna, (better known as the Madonna di Ca' Pesaro). This perhaps is Titian's most studied work, whose patiently developed plan is set forth with supreme display of order and freedom, originality and style. Here, Titian

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All Venice applauded Paradise when it was unveiled, which has since suffered from neglect. In the restless dynamism of his composition, his dramatic use of light, and his emphatic perspective effects, Tintoretto seems to art historians to be a baroque artist ahead of his time.
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Section 3

Mannerism

Painting Sculpture Architecture

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Painting
Mannerism emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520 and lasted until about 1580 in Italy.

lasted until about 1580 in Italy, when a more Baroque style began to replace it. Stylistically, Mannerist painting encompasses a variety of approaches influenced by, and reacting to, the harmonious ideals and restrained naturalism associated with artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and early Michelangelo. Mannerism is notable for its intellectual sophistication as well as its artificial (as opposed to naturalistic) qualities. Mannerism developed in both Florence and Rome. The early Mannerist painters in Florenceespecially the students of Andrea del Sarto: Jacopo da Pontormo and Rosso Fiorentinoare notable for elongated forms, precariously balanced poses, a collapsed perspective, irrational settings, and theatrical lighting. Parmigianino (a student of Correggio) and Giulio Romano (Raphaels head assistant) were moving in similarly stylized aesthetic directions in Rome. These artists had matured under the influence of the High Renaissance, and their style has been characterized as a reaction or exaggerated extension of it (Figure 25.23). In other words, instead of studying nature directly, younger artists began studying Hellenistic sculptures and paintings of masters past. Therefore, this style is often identified as "anti-classical," yet at the

KEY POINTS

Mannerist painting encompasses a variety of approaches influenced by, and reacting to, the harmonious ideals and restrained naturalism associated with High Renaissance artists. Mannerism is notable for its intellectual sophistication as well as its artificial (as opposed to naturalistic) qualities. Mannerism developed in both Florence and Rome. The early Mannerist painters are notable for elongated forms, precariously balanced poses, a collapsed perspective, irrational settings, and theatrical lighting. The second period of Mannerist painting, called "Maniera," is differentiated from the earlier "anti-classical" phase. High mannerists stressed intellectual conceits and artistic virtuosity, features that have led later critics to accuse them of working in an unnatural and affected "manner".

Mannerism is a period of European art that emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance. It began around 1520 and

time it was considered a natural progression from the High Renaissance. The earliest experimental phase of Mannerism, known

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for its "anti-classical" forms, lasted until about 1540 or 1550. This period has been described as both a natural extension of the art of Andrea del Sarto, Michelangelo, and Raphael, as well as a decline of those same artists' classicizing achievements. In past analyses, it has been noted that Mannerism arose in the early 16th century alongside a number of other social, scientific, religious and political movements such as the Copernican model, the Sack of Rome, and the Protestant Reformation's increasing challenge to the power of the Catholic Church. Because of this, the style's elongated forms and distorted forms were once interpreted as a reaction to the idealized compositions prevalent in High Renaissance art.
In Parmigianino's Madonna with the Long Neck (1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, highly stylized poses, and lack of clear perspective. Figure 25.23 Madonna with the Long Neck

This explanation for the radical stylistic shift in1520 has fallen out of scholarly favor, though the early Mannerists are still set in stark contrast to High Renaissance conventions; the immediacy and balance achieved by Raphael's School of Athens, no longer seemed interesting to young artists. Indeed, Michelangelo himself displayed tendencies towards Mannerism, notably in his vestibule to the Laurentian Library, in the figures on his Medici tombs, and above all the Sistine Chapel (Figure 25.24). The second period of Mannerist painting, called "Maniera," or High Mannerism, is commonly
The Libyan Sibyl from Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling. Figure 25.24 The Libyan

differentiated from the earlier, so-called "anti-classical" phase. High mannerists stressed intellectual conceits and artistic virtuosity, features that have led later critics to accuse them of working in an unnatural and affected "manner" (maniera). Maniera artists held their elder contemporary Michelangelo as their prime example; theirs was an art imitating art, rather than an art imitating nature. Maniera art couples exaggerated elegance with exquisite attention to surface and detail: porcelain-skinned figures recline in an even, tempered light, regarding the viewer with a cool glance, if at all. The

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Maniera subject rarely displays an excess of emotion, and for this reason is often interpreted as "cold" or "aloof." A number of the earliest Mannerist artists who had been working in Rome during the 1520s fled the city after the Sack of Rome in 1527. As they spread out across the continent in search of employment, their style was distributed throughout Italy and Europe. The result was the first international artistic style since the Gothic (including
Figure 25.25 Joachim Wtewael's Perseus and Andromeda, 1616,

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French, English, and Dutch Mannerism styles, (Figure 25. 25). The style waned in Italy after 1580, as a new generation of artists, including the Carracci brothers, Caravaggio and Cigoli, reemphasized naturalism. Walter Friedlaender identified this period as "anti-mannerism," just as the early mannerists were "anti-classical" in their reaction to the High Renaissance.

An example of seventeenth-century Dutch mannerism.

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Sculpture
Mannerist sculpture, like Mannerist painting, was characterized by elongated forms, spiral angles, and aloof subject gazes.
KEY POINTS

typical of Mannerism. It is similar, but not identical, to contrapposto, and often features figures in spiral poses. Early examples can be seen in the work of Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo. In defining figura serpentinata, Emil Maurer writes of the painter and theorist Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo: "the recommended ideal form unites, after Lomazzo, three qualities: the pyramid, the 'serpentinata' movement and a certain numerical proportion, all three united to form one whole. At the same time, precedence is given to the 'moto', that is, to the meandering movement, which should make the pyramid, in exact proportion, into the geometrical form of a cone." With the loosening of the norms of the High Renaissance and the development of the "Serpentita" style, the Mannerist style's structures and rules began to be systematized. The Mannerist style of sculpture began to create a form in which figures showed physical
Giambologna, Rape of the Sabine Women, 1583, Florence, Italy, 13' 6" high, marble. In this piece, Giambologna demonstrates the use of the gura serpentinata. Figure 25.26 Rape of the Sabine Women

Figura Serpentinata (Latin - serpentine figure) is a style in painting and sculpture that is typical of Mannerism. It is similar, but not identical, to contrapposto, and often features figures in spiral poses. The Mannerist style of sculpture began to create a form in which figures showed physical power, passion, tension, and semantic perfection. Movements were not without motivation, nor even simply done with a will, but were shown in a pure form. Mannerist sculpture was an attempt to find an original style that would surpass the achievements of the High Renaissance: equated with Michelangelo. Much of the struggle to surpass his success centered on commissions to fill other places in the Piazza della Signoria in Florence, next to the David.

Mannerist sculpture, like painting, was characterized by elongated forms, spiral angles, and aloof subject gazes. Figura Serpentinata (Latin - serpentine figure) is a style in painting and sculpture that is

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power, passion, tension, and semantic perfection. Movements were not without motivation, nor even simply done with a will, but were shown in a pure form. Also, their actions arose not out of power, but powerlessness, perhaps best evidenced by Giambologna's Rape of the Sabine Women (Figure 25.26).
Figure 25.27 Perseus with the Head of Medusa

Mannerists, Bandinelli removes far more of the original block of stone than Michelangelo would have done. Outside of natural stone sculptures, Cellini's bronze Perseus with the head of Medusa is a Mannerist masterpiece, designed with eight angles of view (Figure 25.27). Characteristically of Mannerist sculpture were small bronze figures for collector's cabinets, often mythological subjects with nudes. They were a popular Renaissance form at which Giambologna excelled in the later part of the century. He and his followers devised elegant, elongated examples of the figura serpentinata, often of two intertwined figures, that were interesting from all angles and joined the Piazza della Signora collection (Figure 25.28).
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Hercules and Nessus (1599), Florence. Figure 25.28 Hercules Beating Nessus

Also as in painting, early Italian Mannerist sculpture was largely an attempt to find an original style that would expand and surpass the achievements of the High Renaissance. For contemporaries in sculpture, the High Renaissance was equated with Michelangelo, and much of the struggle to surpass his success was played out in commissions to fill other places in the Piazza della Signoria in Florence, next to Michelangelo's David. For instance, Baccio Bandinelli took

Benvenuto Cellini, Perseus with the head of Medusa, 1545 1554.

over the project of Hercules and Cacus from Michelangelo, although his work was maliciously compared

by Benvenuto Cellini to "a sack of melons." Like other works of

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Architecture
During the Mannerist period, architects experimented with using architectural forms to emphasize solid and spatial relationships.
KEY POINTS

experimented with using architectural forms to emphasize solid and spatial relationships. Specifically, in Mannerist architecture, the Renaissance ideal of harmony gave way to freer and more imaginative rhythms. The best known architect associated with the Mannerist style was Michelangelo (14751564), who is credited with inventing the giant order, a large pilaster that stretches from the bottom to the top of a faade. He used this in his design for the Campidoglio in Rome. Stylistically, Mannerist architecture was marked by widely diverging tendencies from Renaissance and Medieval styles that eventually led to the Baroque style, in which the same architectural vocabulary was used for very different rhetoric. Baldassare Peruzzi (14811536) was an architect working in Rome, whose work bridges the High Renaissance and Mannerism. His Villa Farnesina of 1509 is a very regular monumental cube of two equal stories, with the bays articulated by orders of pilasters. Peruzzis most famous work is the Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne in Rome. The unusual features of this building are that its faade curves gently around a curving street. It has, in its ground floor, a dark central portico running parallel to the street, but as a semi enclosed space, rather than an open loggia. Above this, three undifferentiated floors rise, the upper two with identical small horizontal windows in thin flat frames which contrast strangely

Stylistically, Mannerist architecture was marked by widely diverging tendencies from Renaissance and Medieval styles that eventually led to the Baroque style, in which the same architectural vocabulary was used for very different rhetoric. Michelangelo (14751564) is credited with inventing the giant order, which is a large pilaster that stretches from the bottom to the top of a faade. Andrea Palladio, "the most influential architect of the whole Renaissance", was to transform the architectural style of both palaces and churches by taking a different perspective on the notion of Classicism.

During the High Renaissance, architectural concepts derived from classical antiquity were developed and used with greater surety. The most representative architect is Bramante (14441514) who expanded the applicability of classical architecture to contemporary buildings in a style that was to dominate Italian architecture in the sixteenth century. During the Mannerist period, however, architects

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with the deep porch, which has served, from the time of its construction, as a refuge to the citys poor. Giulio Romano (14991546) was a pupil of Raphael, assisting him on various works for the Vatican. Romano was also a highly inventive designer, working for Federico II Gonzaga at Mantua on the Palazzo Te (15241534), a project which combined his skills as architect, sculptor, and painter. In this work, which incorporated garden
Romano's Palazzo Te incorporates mixture of architectural forms and textures. Figure 25.29 Palazzo Te

other architect. When he took over the project in 1546, Michelangelo incorporated Bramantes Greek-cross plan and redesigned the piers, the walls, and the dome, giving the lower weight-bearing members massive proportions and eliminating the encircling aisles from the chancel and identical transept arms. Michelangelos dome was a masterpiece of design using two masonry shells, one within the other and crowned by a massive lantern supported, as at Florence, on ribs (Figure 25.30). For the exterior of the building, he designed a giant order which defines every external bay. The whole lot is held together by a wide cornice which runs unbroken like a rippling ribbon around the entire building. Andrea Palladio, "the most influential architect of the whole Renaissance" transformed the architectural style of both palaces and churches by taking a different perspective on the notion of Classicism. While the architects of Florence and Rome were influenced by structures like the Colosseum and the Arch of Constantine, Palladio
St Peter's Basilica was designed by Michelangelo. Figure 25.30 St. Peter's Basillica

grottoes and extensive frescoes, he uses illusionistic effects, surprising combinations of architectural form and texture, and the frequent use of features that seem somewhat disproportionate or out of alignment (Figure 25.29). Michelangelo's architectural fame lies chiefly in St Peter's Basilica in Rome. St Peter's was "the greatest creation of the Renaissance," and a great number of architects contributed their skills to it. But at its completion, there was more of Michelangelos design than of any

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looked to classical temples with their simple peristyle form. When he used the triumphal arch motif of a large arched opening with a lower square-topped opening on either side, he invariably applied it on a small scale, such as windows, rather than on a large scale as Alberti used it at SantAndreas. This Ancient Roman motif is often referred to as the Palladian Arch. The best known of Palladios domestic buildings is Villa Capra, otherwise known as "la Rotonda", a centrally planned house with a domed central hall and four identical faades, each with a templelike portico like that of the Pantheon in Rome (Figure 25.31). At the
Figure 25.31 Villa Rotonda

recessed loggia of the garden faade are of two ordered stories, the upper forming a balcony. In designing church faades, Palladio was confronted by the problem of visually linking the aisles to the nave while maintaining and defining the structure of the building. Palladios solution was entirely different from that employed by della Porta. At the church of San Giorgio Maggiore in Venice, he overlays a tall temple, with its columns raised on high plinths, over another low wide temple faade, which has its columns rising from the basements and its narrow lintel and pilasters appearing behind the giant order of the central nave.
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Palladio's Villa Capra La Rotonda

Villa Cornaro, the projecting portico of the north faade and

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Section 4

The Counter-Reformation

Rome and the Vatican

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Rome and the Vatican


Italian painting after 1520 concerned many Catholic leaders during the Reformation as lacking pious appeal.

Figure 25.32 The Last Judgement

it lacked pious appeal. Furthermore, a great divergence had arisen between the Catholic Church and Protestant reformers of the north regarding the content and style of art work. Church pressure to restrain religious imagery affected art from the 1530s and influenced several decrees

KEY POINTS

Pressure to restrain religious imagery affected art from the 1530s and influenced several decrees from the final session of the Council of Trent in 1563. These included short passages on religious images that had significant impact on the development of Catholic art during the Counter-Reformation. .The Counter-Reformation Catholic Church promoted art with sacred or religious content. In other words, art was to be strictly religious, created for the purpose of glorifying God and Catholic traditions. Despite the different approaches to religious art, stylistic developments passed quickly across religious divisions. This meant Rome was in!closer touch!artistically with Protestant Netherlands than with Catholic Spain by the end of the sixteenth century.

The Last Judgment fresco in the Sistine Chapel by Michelangelo (1534-41) came under persistent attack in the CounterReformation for nudity (later painted over for several centuries), not showing Christ seated or bearded, and including the pagan gure of Charon.

from the final session of the Council of Trent in 1563. These included short passages concerning religious images that had

significant impact on the development of Catholic art during the Counter-Reformation. The church felt that religious art in Catholic countries (especially Italy) had lost its focus on religious subjectmatter. It focused on decorative qualities instead, leading to a church decree that art was to be direct and compelling in its narrative presentation, that is was to provide an accurate presentation of the biblical narrative or saints life, rather than

Italian Painting and Mannerism Italian painting after 1520, with the notable exception of Venice, developed into Mannerism. This highly sophisticated style concerned many Catholic leaders in the wake of the Reformation, as

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adding incidental and imaginary moments, and that it was to encourage piety." The reforms that resulted from this council are what set the basis for Counter-Reformation art. Counter Reformation Movement While the Protestants largely removed public art from religion and moved towards a more secular style of art embracing the concept of glorifying God through depictions of nature, the CounterReformation Catholic Church promoted art with sacred or religious content. In other words, art was to be strictly religious, created for the purpose of glorifying God and Catholic traditions. To that end, The Last Judgment, a fresco in the Sistine Chapel by Michelangelo (153441), came under attack for nudity (later painted over for several centuries), not showing Christ seated or bearded, and including the pagan figure of Charon (Figure 25.32). Scipione Pulzone's painting of the Lamentation, commissioned for the Gesu Church in 1589, gives a clear demonstration of what the Council of Trent was striving for in the new style of religious art. With the focus of the painting giving direct attention to the crucifixion of Christ, it complies with the religious content of the council and shows the story of the passion while keeping Christ in the image of the ideal human (Figure 25.33).

On the other hand, in Paolo Veronese's painting the Last Supper (subsequently renamed Feast in the House of Levi), one can see what the Council regarded as inappropriate. Veronese was summoned before the Inquisition on the basis that his composition was indecorous for the refectory of a monastery. The painting shows a fantasy version of a Venetian patrician feast, with, in the words of the Inquisition:
Figure 25.33 Lamantation

"buffoons, drunken Germans, dwarfs and other such scurrilities" as well as extravagant costumes and settings. Veronese was told that he must change his painting within a three month period - in fact he just changed the title to The Feast in the House of Levi (Figure 25.34). The Movement Grows As Counter-Reformation grew stronger and the Catholic Church felt less threat from Protestant Reformation, Rome began to reassert its universality

Scipione Pulzone's Lamentation, a pious depiction of the Crucixion, embodied a typical CounterReformation work.

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to other nations around the world. The Jesuits, also known as the Society of Jesus, sent missionaries to the Americas, parts of Africa, India and eastern Asia, using the arts as an effective means of
Figure 25.34 Last Supper/House of Levi

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Paolo Veronese's Last Supper (The Feast in the House of Levi)

articulating the Catholic Church's dominance over the Christian faith. The Jesuits' impact was so profound very similar styles of art from the Counter-Reformation period in Catholic Churches can be found all over the world today. Despite the different approaches to religious art, stylistic developments passed about quickly across religious divisions. This meant Rome was artistically in closer touch with Protestant Netherlands than with Catholic Spain by the end of the sixteenth century.

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Section 5

The Late 1500s in Venice and the Veneto

Oil Painting Palladio

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Oil Painting
Oil painting did not gain popularity in Europe until the fteenth century.

peace for much of the fifteenth century and a rise of Venetian-style Renaissance art in the 1500s. While Florence and the southern Italian states were well known for fresco painting, Northern Italy, especially Venice, adopted the technique of oil painting during the High Renaissance. Oil

KEY POINTS

painting is the process of painting with pigments bound with a medium of drying oil. An oil like linseed would be boiled with a resin (pine resin or frankincense), resulting in "varnishes" prized for their body and gloss. Although oil paint was first used for the Buddhist Paintings created by Indian and Chinese painters in western Afghanistan sometime between the fifth and ninth centuries, it did not gain popularity until the fifteenth century in Europe. Oil painting techniques likely migrated from Afghanistan and China to Europe during the Middle Ages.

Northern Italy adopted the technique of oil painting in the High Renaissance. Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments that are bound with linseed or other drying oil. Oil paint eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks. Oil paint remains wet longer than many other types of artists' materials, enabling the artist to change the color, texture or form of the figure. One of the most famous Venetian oil paintings is The Tempest (La Tempesta), painted in 1508 by Giorgione and commissioned by Venetian noble Gabriele Vendramin.

Venice entered as a dominant player in Renaissance art and politics with its hegemony in sea warfare. For much of the Renaissance, Northern Italy and upper Central Italy were divided into a number of warring city-states, the most powerful being Milan, Florence, Pisa, Siena, Genoa, Ferrara, Mantua, Verona and Venice. Warfare between these states was common, and the first part of the Renaissance saw almost constant fighting as the city-states vied for preeminence. Venice's unquestioned maritime hegemony led to

Oil paint eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks. Oil paint remains wet longer than many other types of artists' materials, enabling the artist to change the color, texture or form of the figure. At times, the painter might even remove an entire layer of paint and begin anew. This can be done with a rag and some turpentine while the paint is wet. After awhile, however, the hardened layer must be scraped. Oil paint dries by oxidation, and is usually dry to the touch within a span of two weeks. It is

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generally dry enough to be varnished in six months to a year. The popularity of oil painting spread throughout Italy from the North, starting in Venice in the late fifteenth century. By 1540, oil painting had eclipsed the previous method for painting, although southern
Figure 25.35 The Tempest

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Italians continued to use frescoes for wall paintings. One of the most famous Venetian oil paintings is The Tempest (La Tempesta), painted in 1508 by Giorgione and commissioned by Venetian noble Gabriele Vendramin (Figure 25.35). There is no clear theme to The Tempest, which depicts a

Giorgione's The Tempest, oil on canvas, 1508

semi-nude woman suckling a baby while a

man stands in contrapposto. The Tempest may represent Adam and Eve in their post-Eden days. One thing that appears to be certain is that Giorgione painted a female nude; the very first female nude that stands (or rather, lies) as a subject to be portrayed and admired for beauty alone.

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Palladio
Palladio, inspired by Roman and Greek architecture, is considered the most inuential individual in the history of Western architecture.
KEY POINTS

considered one of the most influential individuals in the history of Western architecture. All of his buildings are located in what was the Venetian Republic, but his teachings, summarized in the architectural treatise, The Four Books of Architecture, gained him wide recognition beyond Italy. Andrea Palladio began to develop his own architectural style around 1541. Palladian Architecture, named after him, adhered to classical Roman principles that Palladio rediscovered, applied, and explained in his works. Palladian architecture has "been
Portrait of Palladio from 1576. Figure 25.36 Palladio

Palladian Architecture adhered to classical Roman principles that Palladio rediscovered, applied, and explained in his works. Palladian architecture has "been valued for centuries as the quintessence of High Renaissance calm and harmony". Palladio's buildings served to communicate, visually, their place in the social order of their culture. This powerful integration of beauty and the physical representation of social meanings is apparent in three major building types: the urban palazzo, the agricultural villa, and the church. One factor in the spread of Palladian influence was the publication in 1570 of Palladio's architectural treatise, I Quattro Libri dell'Architettura (The Four Books of Architecture), which set out rules others could follow.

valued for centuries as the quintessence of High Renaissance calm and harmony." Palladio designed many palaces, villas, and churches, but his reputation has been founded on his skill as a designer of villas. Palladian villas are located mainly in the province of Vicenza, while the palazzi are concentrated in the city of Vicenza and the churches in Venice.

Overview Andrea Palladio (1508 1580) was the Chief Architect in the Republic of Venice in the sixteenth century (Figure 25.36). Deeply inspired by Roman and Greek architecture, Palladio is widely

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The Four Books of Architecture One factor in the spread of palladian influence was the publication in 1570 of Palladio's architectural treatise, I Quattro Libri dell'Architettura (The Four Books of Architecture), which set out rules others could follow. The first book includes studies of decorative styles, classical orders, and materials. The second book included Palladio's town and country house designs and classical reconstructions. The third book has bridge and basilica designs, city

planning designs, and classical halls. The fourth book included information on the reconstruction of ancient Roman temples. Palladio's Architecture Palladio's architecture was not dependent on expensive materials, which must have been an advantage to his more financially-pressed clients. Many of his buildings are of brick covered with stucco. Stuccoed brickwork was always used in his villa designs in order to portray his interpretations of the Roman villa typology. Palladio's success and influence came from the integration of extraordinary aesthetic quality with expressive characteristics that resonated with his clients' social aspirations. His buildings served to communicate, visually, their place in the social order of their culture. This powerful integration of beauty and the physical representation of social meanings is apparent in three major building types: the urban palazzo, the agricultural villa, and the church. Palazzos By 1556, Palladio had developed three main palace types. He often used Mannerist elements such as stucco surface reliefs and large columns often extending two-stories high (Figure 25.37). In his urban structures, he developed a new improved version of the typical early Renaissance palazzo. Adapting a new urban palazzo type created by Bramante in the House of Raphael, Palladio found a

Figure 25.37 Palazzo Chiericati

Faade of Palazzo Chiericati in Vicenza, which includes surface reliefs and high columns that extend two stories high.

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powerful expression of the importance of the owner and his social position. For instance, the main living quarters of the owner on the second level were clearly distinguished in importance by use of a pedimented classical portico, centered and raised above the subsidiary and utilitarian ground level. The height of the portico was achieved by incorporating the owner's sleeping quarters on the third level, within a giant two-story classical colonnade, a motif
Figure 25.38 Villa Barbaro

based on practicality and employed fewer reliefs. He consolidated the various stand-alone farm outbuildings into a single impressive structure, arranged as a highly organized whole, dominated by a strong center and symmetrical side wings, as illustrated at Villa Barbaro (Figure 25.38). The Palladian villa configuration often consists of a centralized block raised on an elevated podium, accessed by grand steps and flanked by lower service wings. This format, with the quarters of the owner at the elevated center of their own world, found resonance as a prototype for Italian villas and later for the country estates of the British nobility. Palladio developed his own more flexible prototype for the plan of the villas to moderate scale and function. Churches Similarly, Palladio created a new configuration for the design of

In many of Palladio's villas, like the Villa Barbaro, pavilions were little more than mundane farm buildings behind a concealing facade.

Catholic churches by establishing two interlocking architectural orders, each clearly articulated, yet delineating an hierarchy of a larger order overriding a lesser order. This idea directly coincided with the rising acceptance of the theological ideas of St. Thomas Aquinas, who postulated the notion of two worlds existing simultaneously; the divine world of faith and the earthly world of humans. Palladio created an architecture which made a visual statement communicating the idea of two superimposed systems, as illustrated at San Francesco della Vigna.

adapted from Michelangelo's Capitoline buildings in Rome. The elevated main floor level became known as the "piano nobile," and is still referred to as the "first floor" in continental Europe. Villas Palladio also established an influential new building format for the agricultural villas of the Venetian aristocracy. His designs were

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Chapter 26

Northern Europe and the Iberian Peninsula in the 1500s

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Section 1

The Reformation

Introduction

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Introduction
The Reformation was a religious movement in the sixteenth century that divided Christianity between Roman Catholics and Protestants.
KEY POINTS

Northern countries became Protestant, while Southern countries remained Catholic. Protestant theology centered on the individual relationship between the worshipper and the divine, and accordingly, the Reformation's artistic movement focused on the individuals personal relationship with God (reflected in the number of common people and day-to-day scenes depicted in art). The Reformation and Protestant Art The Reformation ushered in a new artistic tradition that highlighted the Protestant agenda and diverged drastically from southern European humanist art produced during the High Renaissance. Reformation art embraced Protestant values, although the amount of religious art produced in Protestant countries was hugely reduced. Instead, many artists in Protestant countries diversified into secular forms of art like history painting, landscapes, portraiture, and still life. Art that did seek to portray religious figures or scenes followed Protestant theology by depicting people and stories that emphasized salvation through divine grace and not through personal deeds or by intervention of church bureaucracy. In terms of subject matter, iconic images of Christ and scenes from the Passion became less frequent, as did portrayals of the saints and clergy. Instead, narrative scenes from the Bible, and moralistic depictions of modern life were prevalent.

Art that did seek to portray religious figures or scenes followed Protestant theology by seeking to portray people and stories that emphasized salvation through divine grace and not through personal deeds or by intervention of church bureaucracy. Reformation art embraced Protestant values, although the amount of religious art produced in Protestant countries was hugely reduced. Instead, many artists in Protestant countries diversified into secular forms of art like history painting, landscapes, portraiture, and still life. The Protestant Reformation induced a wave of iconoclasm, or the destruction of religious imagery, among the more radical evangelists.

The Protestant Reformation arose during the sixteenth century in Europe. The Reformation was a religious movement that occurred in Western Europe during the sixteenth century that resulted in a split in Christianity between Roman Catholics and Protestants. This movement created a North-South split in Europe, where generally

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The Protestant Reformation also capitalized on the popularity of printmaking in northern Europe. Printmaking allowed images to be mass produced and widely available to the public at low cost. The Protestant church was therefore able to bring their theology to the people through portable, inexpensive visual media. This allowed for the widespread
Figure 26.1 Bruegel's Peasant Wedding

artists in Protestant areas painted far fewer religious subjects for public display, although there was a conscious effort to develop a Protestant iconography of Bible illustration in book illustrations and prints. In the early Reformation, some artists made paintings for churches showing the leaders of the reformation in ways very similar to Catholic saints. Later Protestant taste turned away from the display in churches of religious scenes, although some continued to be displayed in homes. There was also a reaction against large images from classical mythology, the other manifestation of high style at the time. This brought about a style that was more directly related to accurately portraying the present times. For instance, Bruegels Wedding Feast, portrays a Flemishpeasant wedding dinner in a barn. It makes no reference to any religious, historical or classical events, and merely gives insight into the everyday life of the Flemish peasant (Figure 26.1).
Altar piece in St. Martin's Cathedral, Utrecht, attacked in the Protestant iconoclasm in 1572. This retable became visible again after restoration in 1919 removed the false wall placed in front of it. Figure 26.2 Iconoclasm: Catholic Altar Piece

availability of visually persuasive imagery. With the great development of the engraving and printmaking market in Antwerp in the sixteenth century, the

Bruegael's Peasant Wedding is a painting that captures the Protestant Reformation artistic tradition: focusing on scenes from modern life rather than religious or classical themes.

public was provided with accessible and affordable images. Many artists provided

drawings to book and print publishers. Iconoclasm and Resistance to Idolatry All forms of Protestantism showed a degree of hostility to religious images, especially sculpture and large paintings, considering them forms of idol worship. After the early years of the Reformation,

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The Protestant Reformation induced a wave of iconoclasm, or the destruction of religious imagery, among the more radical evangelists (Figure 26.2). Protestant leaders, especially Huldrych Zwingli and John Calvin, actively eliminated imagery from their churches and regarded the great majority of religious images as idolatrous, even plain crosses. On the other hand, Martin Luther encouraged the display of a restricted range of religious imagery in churches. For the most part, however, Reformation iconoclasm resulted in a disappearance of religious figurative art, compared with the amount of secular pieces that emerged.
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Section 2

The Holy Roman Empire in Germany

Sculpture Painting

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Sculpture
The sculpture of The Holy Roman Empire spread its inuence into the already gothic style in Germany.
KEY POINTS

Background The court of the Holy Roman Emperor, then based in Prague, played an important part in forming the International Gothic style of sculpture in the late 14th century. The style was spread around the wealthy cities of Northern Germany by artists such Conrad von Soest in Westphalia, Meister Bertram in Hamburg, and, later, Stefan Lochner in Cologne. Hamburg was one of the cities in the Hanseatic League, then at the height of its prosperity, and artists such as Master Francke, the Master of the Malchin Altar, Hans Bornemann, Hinrik Funhof, and Wilm Dedeke, who survived into the Renaissance period, succeeded Bertram in the city. Hanseatic artists painted commissions for Baltic cities in Scandinavia and for modern Baltic States to the east. In the south, the Master of the Bamberg Altar was the first significant painter
Schussenried Abbey (Kloster Schussenried, Reichsabtei Schussenried) was a Premonstratensian monastery in Bad Schussenried, Upper Swabia, BadenWrttemberg, Germany. Figure 26.3 Wessobrunner stucco at Schussenried Abbey

The court of the Holy Roman Emperor, then based in Prague, played an important part in forming the International Gothic style for sculpture in the late 14th century. The style was spread around the wealthy cities of Northern Germany. In Catholic parts of South Germany the Gothic tradition of woodcarving continued to flourish until the end of the 18th century, adapting to changes in style through the centuries. Veit Stoss, Tilman Riemenschneider and Peter Vischer the Elder were Drer's contemporaries, and their long careers covered the transition between the Gothic and Renaissance periods, although their ornament often remained Gothic even after their compositions began to reflect Renaissance principles. Veit Stoss was a leading German sculptor, mostly in wood, whose career covered the transition between the late Gothic and the Northern Renaissance. His style emphasized pathos and emotion, helped by his virtuoso carving of billowing drapery; it has been called "late Gothic Baroque".

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based in Nuremberg, while the Master of Heiligenkreuz and Michael Pacher worked in Austria. Gothic Style in Sculpture In Catholic parts of South Germany, the Gothic tradition of woodcarving continued to flourish until the end of the 18th century, adapting to changes in style through the centuries. Veit Stoss (d. 1533), Tilman Riemenschneider (d.1531), and Peter Vischer the Elder (d. 1529) were Albrecht Drer's contemporaries, and their long careers covered the transition between the Gothic and Renaissance periods, although their ornament often remained Gothic even after their compositions began to reflect Renaissance principles. Two and a half centuries later, Johann Joseph Christian and Ignaz Gnther were leading masters in the late Baroque period, both dying in the late 1770s, barely a decade before the French Revolution. A vital element in the effect of German Baroque interiors was the work of the Wessobrunner School, a later term for the stuccoists of the late 17th and 18th centuries. Another manifestation of German sculptural skill was in porcelain (Figure 26.3); the most famous modeler is Johann Joachim Kaendler of the Meissen factory in Dresden, but the best work of Franz Anton Bustelli for the Nymphenburg Porcelain Manufactory in Munich is often considered the greatest achievement of 18th century porcelain.

Veit Stoss Veit Stoss was a leading German sculptor, mostly working in wood, whose career covered the transition between the late Gothic and the Northern Renaissance (Figure 26.4). His style emphasized pathos and emotion, helped by his virtuoso carving of billowing drapery; it has been called "late Gothic Baroque". He had a large workshop, and in addition to his own works there are a number by pupils. He is best known for the altarpiece in St. Mary's Basilica in Krakw, Poland.
Figure 26.4 Gothic Altar by Veit Stoss The altar at in Krakw was not completed until 1489, and was the largest triptych of its time and, like his other large works, required a large workshop including specialized painters and gilders.

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Painting
German Renaissance is reective of Italian and German inuence in its paintings, and one is not present without the other.
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The outstanding achievements of the first half of the 16th century were followed by several decades with a remarkable absence of noteworthy German art, other than accomplished portraits that never rival the achievement of Holbein or Drer.

The concept of the Northern Renaissance or German Renaissance is somewhat confused by the continuation of the use of elaborate Gothic ornament until well into the 16th!century, even in works that are undoubtedly Renaissance in their treatment of the human figure and other respects. Though retaining a distinctively German style, Drer's work shows strong Italian influence, and is often taken to represent the start of the German Renaissance in visual art. For the next forty years, Germany produced the greatest innovations in Northern European art. Lying somewhat outside these developments is Matthias Grnewald, who left very few works, but whose masterpiece, his Isenheim Altarpiece (completed 1515), has been widely regarded as the greatest German Renaissance painting since it was restored to critical attention in the 19th century. Hans Holbein the Elder and his brother Sigismund Holbein painted religious works in the late Gothic style. Hans the Elder was a pioneer and leader in the transformation of German art from the Gothic to the Renaissance style.

Background The concept of the Northern Renaissance or German Renaissance is somewhat confused by the continuation of the use of elaborate Gothic ornament until well into the 16th century, even in works that are undoubtedly Renaissance in their treatment of the human figure and other respects. Classical ornamentation had little historical resonance in much of Germany, but Germany was very quick to follow developments in other respects, especially in adopting printing with movable type--a German invention that remained almost a German monopoly for some decades and was first brought to most of Europe, including France and Italy, by Germans. After completing his apprenticeship in 1490, Drer traveled in Germany for four years, and Italy for a few months, before establishing his own workshop in Nuremberg. He rapidly became famous all over Europe for his energetic and balanced woodcuts and engravings, while also painting. Though retaining a distinctively

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German style, his work shows strong Italian influence, and is often taken to represent the start of the German Renaissance in visual art, which for the next forty years replaced the Netherlands and France as the area producing the greatest innovation in Northern European art. Drer supported Martin Luther but continued to create Madonnas and other Catholic imagery, and to paint portraits of leaders on both sides of the emerging split of the Protestant Reformation. Famous Paintings in Germany Lying somewhat outside these developments is Matthias Grnewald, who left very few works, but whose masterpiece, his Isenheim Altarpiece (completed 1515), has been widely regarded as the greatest German Renaissance painting since it was restored to
Figure 26.5 The Crucixion, Central Panel of the Isenheim Altarpiece by Matthias Grnewald This work is intensely emotional and continues the German Gothic tradition of unrestrained gesture and expression, using Renaissance"compositional" principles, but all in that most Gothic of forms, the multi-winged triptych.

critical attention in the 19th century (Figure 26.5). It is an intensely emotional work that continues the German Gothic tradition of unrestrained gesture and expression, using Renaissance compositional principles, but all in that most Gothic of forms, the multi-winged triptych. Albrecht Altdorfer's (c.1480 1538) Danube landscape near Regensburg (c. 1528) is one of the earliest Western pure landscapes, from the Danube School in southern Germany (Figure 26.6). The Danube School is the name of a circle of artists of the first third of the 16th century in Bavaria and Austria, including Albrecht Altdorfer, Wolf Huber, and Augustin Hirschvogel. With Altdorfer in the lead, the school produced the first examples of independent landscape art in the West (nearly 1,000 years after China), in both paintings and prints. Their religious paintings had an expressionist style somewhat similar to Grnewald's. Drer's pupils Hans
One of the earliest Western pure landscapes, from the Danube School in southern Germany. Figure 26.6 Albrecht Altdorfer (c. 14801538), Danube landscape near Regensburg (c. 1528)

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Burgkmair and Hans Baldung Grien worked largely in prints, with Baldung developing the topical subject matter of witches in a number of enigmatic prints. Hans Holbein the Elder and his brother Sigismund Holbein painted religious works in the late Gothic style. Hans the Elder was a pioneer and leader in the transformation of German art from the Gothic to the Renaissance style. His son, Hans Holbein the Younger, was an important painter of portraits and a few religious works, working mainly in England and Switzerland. Holbein's well known series of small woodcuts on the Dance of Death relate to the works of the Little Masters, a group of printmakers who specialized in very small and highly detailed engravings for bourgeois collectors, including many erotic subjects. The outstanding achievements of the first half of the 16th century were followed by several decades with a remarkable absence of noteworthy German art, other than accomplished portraits that never rival the achievement of Holbein or Drer. The next significant German artists worked in the rather artificial style of Northern Mannerism, which they had to learn in Italy or Flanders. Hans von Aachen and the Netherlandish Bartholomeus Spranger were the leading painters at the Imperial courts in Vienna and Prague, and the productive Netherlandish Sadeler family of engravers spread out across Germany, among other counties.

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Section 3

France

Renaissance in the Reign of Francis I

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Renaissance in the Reign of Francis I


Francis I (1515 - 1547) brought about such huge cultural changes in France that he has been called France's original Renaissance monarch.
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Francis I (1494 1547) was King of France from 1515 until his death. During his reign, huge cultural changes took place in France and he has been called France's original Renaissance monarch. His permanent rivalry with the Emperor Charles V for hegemony in
Figure 26.7 Francis I by Jean Clouet (circa 1530)

Europe was the origin of a long and ruinous military conflict that gave rise to the Protestant revolution. Francis was an ally of Suleiman the Magnificent, with whom he formed the FrancoOttoman alliance. His great rivals were King Henry VIII of England and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. By the time he ascended the throne in 1515, the Renaissance had arrived in France, and Francis became a major patron of the arts. At the time of his accession, the

At the time of his accession, the royal palaces of France were ornamented with only a scattering of great paintings, and not a single piece of sculpture, ancient or modern. During Francis's reign, the magnificent art collection of the French kings was begun. Francis patronized many great artists of his time, including Andrea del Sarto and Leonardo da Vinci; the latter was persuaded to make France his home during his final years. Francis set an important precedent by opening the royal library to scholars from around the world in order to facilitate the diffusion of knowledge. In 1537, Francis signed the Ordonnance de Montpellier, decreeing that his library be given a copy of every book to be sold in France. Francis poured vast amounts of money into new structures. He continued the work of his predecessors on the Chteau d'Amboise and also started renovations on the Chteau de Blois. Early in his reign, he also began construction of the magnificent Chteau de Chambord.

Francis I of France was one of the great patrons of the arts in early modern Europe.

royal palaces of France were ornamented with only a scattering of great paintings, and not a single piece of sculpture, ancient or modern. During Francis's reign, the magnificent art collection of the French kings, which can still be seen at the Louvre Palace, was begun (Figure 26.7).

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Francis patronized many great artists of his time, including Andrea del Sarto and Leonardo da Vinci; the latter was persuaded to make France his home during his final years. While Leonardo painted very little during his years in France, he brought with him many of his greatest works, including the Mona Lisa (known in France as La Joconde), and these remained in France after his death. There is another version of the Mona Lisa, discovered by Hugh Blaker, which never made it to France. It is known as the Isleworth Mona Lisa, and has for years been the subject of much debate, since it possesses many qualities that fit the history of the Mona Lisa which the Louvre version does not. These qualities include the columns depicted in Raphael's 1504 sketch of the Mona Lisa, completed in Leonardo's studio, and a younger woman (in her 20s) which better suits the age Lisa Gherardini would have been in 1504. Other major artists to receive Francis's patronage include the goldsmith Benvenuto Cellini and the exceedingly loyal painters Rosso, Romano, and Primaticcio, all of whom were employed in decorating Francis's various palaces. Francis also commissioned a number of agents in Italy to procure notable works of art and ship them to France. Francis was also renowned as a man of letters. When the subject of Francis enters a conversation among characters in Castiglione's Book of the Courtier, he is referenced as the greatest hope of bringing culture to a war-obsessed French nation. Not only did

Francis support a number of major writers of the period, he was a poet himself, if not one of particular quality. Francis worked hard at improving the royal library. He appointed the great French humanist Guillaume Bud as chief librarian, and began to expand the collection. Francis employed agents in Italy looking for rare books and manuscripts, just as he had agents looking for art works. During his reign, the size of the library greatly increased. Not only did Francis expand the library, but, according to Knecht, there is much evidence that he read the books he bought for it, a much rarer event in the royal annals. Francis set an important precedent by opening his library to scholars from around the world in order to facilitate the diffusion of knowledge. In 1537, Francis signed the Ordonnance de Montpellier, decreeing that his library be given a copy of every book to be sold in France.
The Chateau de Blois's spiral staircase is one of the great artistic achievements of the French Renaissance under Francis I. Figure 26.8 The Francis I wing of the Chateau de Blois

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Francis poured vast amounts of money into new structures. He continued the work of his predecessors on the Chteau d'Amboise and also started renovations on the Chteau de Blois (Figure 26.8). Early in his reign, he began construction of the magnificent Chteau de Chambord, inspired by the styles of the Italian renaissance, and perhaps even designed by Leonardo da Vinci. Francis rebuilt the Chteau du Louvre, transforming it from a medieval fortress into a building of Renaissance splendor. He financed the building of a new City Hall (Htel de Ville) for Paris in order to have control over the building's design. He constructed the Chteau de Madrid in the Bois de Boulogne, and rebuilt the Chteau de St-Germain-en-Laye. The largest of Francis's building projects was the reconstruction and expansion of the royal chteau of Fontainebleau, which quickly became his favorite place of residence, as well as the residence of his official mistress (Anne, duchess of tampes). Each of Francis's projects was luxuriously decorated, both inside and out. Fontainebleau, for instance, had a gushing fountain in its courtyard where quantities of wine were mixed with the water.
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Section 4

Spain and Portugal

Architecture Painting

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Architecture
Gothic, Renaissance, and Mannerist elements are all important to the architecture of the Iberian peninsula in the 16th century.
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architecture which had been popular for the centuries preceding the Renaissance. In Spain, the Renaissance began to be grafted to Gothic forms in the last decades of the 15th century. Local architects developed a specifically Spanish Renaissance, bringing the influence of South Italian architecture, sometimes from illuminated books and paintings, mixed with Gothic tradition and local traditions. The new style was called Plateresque because of the extremely decorated facades that brought to the mind the decorative motifs of the intricately detailed work of silversmiths, the Plateros. From the mid 16th century, under such architects as Pedro
The Monastery of Ucls is a prime example of Herrerian architecture. Figure 26.9 Monasterio de Ucls, Cuenca, Espaa

Plateresque emerged in Spain in the late 15th century. This architectural style,!named for silversmiths, was!known for producing decorative facades suggestive of silver plate. From the mid 16th century, Spanish architecture adhered closely to the art of ancient Rome, anticipating Mannerism. The Herrerian style dominated Spain in the late 16th and 17th centuries and was defined by clean and sober facades and attention to geometrical precision. In Portugal, the transition from Gothic to Renaissance architecture is visible in the Manueline style which combined ornamental elements from each of these styles. Portuguese!Mannerism dominated the!Portuguese!architecture of the late 16th century and was also known as "plain style" for its lack of decorative elements.

Renaissance architecture reached the Iberian peninsula in the 16th century, ushering in a new style that gradually replaced the Gothic

Machuca, Juan Bautista de Toledo, and Juan de Herrera, there was a much closer adherence to the art of ancient Rome, sometimes

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anticipating Mannerism. An example of this is the palace of Charles V in Granada built by Pedro Machuca. A new style emerged in Spain with the work of Juan Bautista de Toledo and Juan de Herrera in the Escorial, known as the Herrerian style. Herrerian architecture was extremely sober, naked, and particularly accomplished in the use of granite ashlar work. This style influenced the Spanish architecture of both the peninsula and the colonies for over a century (Figure 26.9). The adoption of the Renaissance style in Portugal was gradual and intimately linked to Gothic architecture. The Manueline style (circa 1490-1535) was a transitional style that combined Renaissance and Gothic ornamental elements. One of the most important examples of Manueline style is the Jernimos Monastery at Lisbon, in which Renaissance ornaments decorate portals, church columns, and cloisters (Figure 26.10). The definitive abandonment of Gothic architecture and the first "pure" Renaissance structures, like the Chapel of Nossa Senhora da Conceio in Tomar (153240), the Porta Especiosa of Coimbra Cathedral, and the Graa Church at vora (c. 1530-1540), appeared later in the 16th century under King John III. Manueline was succeeded by a brief Early Renaissance phase (c. 1530-1550), followed by the adoption of Mannerist, or, late

Renaissance forms. Portuguese Mannerism, especially in secular architecture, is characterized by simplicity in the organization of faades and relative lack of decoration, being often referred to as Estilo Cho (plain style).
Figure 26.10 Jernimos Monastery, Lisbon

The church at Jernimos Monastery is an important example of Manueline architecture.

An important and rare example of urban palaces of the Renaissance is the Casa dos Bicos (c. 1525) in Lisbon, with a faade covered with diamond reliefs in Italian fashion (Figure 26.11). During the first half of the 16th century, the Portuguese nobility built various quintas (manor houses) in the area surrounding Lisbon. Among these, the Quinta da Bacalhoa (15281554), near Setbal, is the most important. The faades of Bacalhoa palace have symmetrical

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windows, loggias, and towers, and the building is surrounded by an artificial lake and geometrical gardens, an ensemble that reveals Italian inspiration. The Ribeira Palace of Lisbon, a royal palace built in the early 16th century in Manueline style by King Manuel I, was remodeled towards the end of the 16th century by the orders of Philip I (Philip II of Spain). At this time, the faade of the palace was modernized and a large Renaissancestyle tower with a dome was built by the Tagus river. The palace and its prominent tower dominated the cityscape of Lisbon until 1755, when the Great Lisbon Earthquake destroyed it. With the royal palace destroyed, perhaps the most important late Renaissance palace in Portugal is the Ducal Palace of Vila Viosa, built between the late 16th and early 17th centuries.
Casa dos Bicos exemplies Portugese urban palaces of the 16th century. Figure 26.11 Casa dos Bicos, Lisbon

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Painting
Spain and Portugal were both inuenced by Netherthandish painting, due to shared economic and political connections.

due to the mix of Flemish and Italian influences, and regional variations. Apart from technical aspects, the themes and spirit of the Renaissance were modified to the Spanish culture and religious environment. Consequently, very few classical subjects or female nudes were depicted, and the works frequently exhibited a sense of

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pious devotion and religious intensity - attributes that would remain dominant in much art of Counter Reformation Spain throughout the 17th Century, and beyond. Important Mannerist artists included Vicente Juan Masip (1475 1550) and his son Juan de Juanes (15101579), the painter and architect Pedro Machuca (14901550), and Juan Correa de Vivar (15101566). However, the most popular Spanish painter of the early 17th Century was Luis de Morales (ca. 1510-1586), called "The Divine" by his contemporaries, because of the religious intensity of his paintings. From the Renaissance style, he also frequently used sfumato modeling, and simple compositions, but combined them with Flemish-style precision of details. His subjects included many devotional images, including the Virgin and Child. The Spanish Golden Age, a period of Spanish political ascendancy and subsequent decline, saw a great development of art in Spain. The period is generally considered to have begun at some point after 1492 and ended by or with the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659,

As Spain was an extremely devout country, religious intensity was heightened in Spanish painting in the 1500s. El Greco was one of the most important and distinctive artists to emerge during the Spanish Golden Age. Mannerism was the dominant style of painting, for most of the 16th century. Given the low status granted to artists in the 1500s, Portugese painters of this period remain anonymous.

Due to important economic and political links between Spain and Flanders from the mid-15th century onwards, the early Renaissance in Spain was heavily influenced by Netherlandish painting, leading to the identification of a Hispano-Flemish school of painters. Leading exponents included Fernando Gallego, Bartolome Bermejo, Pedro Berruguete and Juan de Flandes. Overall the Renaissance and subsequent Mannerist styles are hard to categorize in Spain,

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though in art the start is delayed until the reign of Philip III (1598-1621), or just before, and the end also delayed until the 1660s or later. El Greco (15411614) "the Greek", was one of the most individualistic of the painters of the period, developing a strongly Mannerist style based on his origins in the postByzantine Cretan school, in contrast to the naturalist approaches then predominant in Seville, Madrid and elsewhere in Spain (Figure 26.12). Universally known for his great impact in bringing the Italian Renaissance to Spain, El Greco studied the great Italian masters of his time - Titian, Tintoretto, and Michelangelo - when he lived in Italy from 1568 to 1577. Many of his
This is presumably a self-portrait by the great Spanish Mannerist. Figure 26.12 Portrait of a Man, by El Greco, 1604

works reflect the silvery-greys and strong colors of Venetian painters such as Titian, but combined with strange elongations of figures, unusual lighting, disposing of perspective space, and filling the surface with very visible and expressive brushwork. During the Golden Age of Portugal, in the late 15th and early 16th century, Portuguese artists were also influenced by Flemish art, and were in turn influential on Flemish artists. During this period, Portuguese art became internationally well-known, mostly because of its very original and diverse characteristics, but little is known about the artists of this time due to the medieval culture that considered painters to be artisans. The anonymous artists in the Portuguese "escolas" produced art not only for metropolitan Portugal but also for its colonies, namely Malacca or Goa and even Africa, gratifying the desires of local aristrocatic clients and religious clients.
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Section 5

The Netherlands

Art for Aristocrats Antwerp

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Art for Aristocrats


While Dutch"painting"focused on"anti-aristocratic themes, Spanish art was heavily patronized by nobility and royalty.
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developed in direct response to the Reformation and was heavily patronized by nobility and royalty. Dutch and Flemish Renaissance Painting The "Golden Age" of Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting represents the 16th century response to the Italian Renaissance and Mannerism in the Low Countries. After 1550, the Flemish and Dutch painters begin to show more interest in nature, leading to a style that incorporates Renaissance elements, but remained far from the elegant lightness of Italian Renaissance art. It focussed on scenes from everyday life including: landscapes, still life, and genre painting. This evolution is seen in the works of Joachim Patinir and Pieter Aertsen, and especially Pieter Brueghel the Elder. The latter was well-known for his depictions of nature and everyday life, with a preference for the natural condition of man, and his numerous depictions of peasants instead of the princes. The Fall of Icarus (now in fact, considered a copy of a Bruegel work), although highly atypical in many ways, combines several elements of Northern Renaissance painting. It hints at the renewed interest for antiquity (the Icarus legend), but the hero Icarus is hidden away in the background. The main actors in the painting are nature itself

However, while the Dutch schools focused on nature and anti-aristocratic themes, Spanish art developed in direct response to the Reformation and was heavily patronized by nobility and royalty. After 1550, Flemish and Dutch painters showed more interest in nature, leading to a style that incorporates Renaissance elements, but remained far from the elegant lightness of Italian Renaissance art; focusing on scenes from everyday life, including landscapes, still life, and genre painting. Spanish art, particularly that of Morales, contained a strong mark of mysticism and religion that was encouraged by the Counter-Reformation and the patronage of Spain's strongly Catholic monarchs and aristocracy.

The Dutch and Spanish Golden Ages This style of art centered around the 16th century and was influenced by the Italian Renaissance. However, while the Dutch schools focused on nature and anti-aristocratic themes, Spanish art

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and, most prominently, the peasant, who does not even look up from his plough when Icarus falls (Figure 26.13). Here, as opposed to the classical aristocratic tradition, Brueghel shows man as an anti-hero; comical, and sometimes, grotesque.
Figure 26.13 Fall of Icarus

The Habsburg princes in Spain and Austria were great patrons of the arts. King Philip II developed relationships with great artists and commissioned works of art and architecture. An example, El Escorial monastery was built by invited architects and decorated by works of other invited artists. Diego Velzquez was one of the artists who developed a patronage relationship with the King, painting several portraits that demonstrated why he was considered one of the most influential painters of his time. Over the course of the 16th century, the religious element in Spanish art grew in importance with the pace of the CounterReformation. Philip IV, for instance, actively patronized artists who agreed with his views on the Counter-Reformation and religion. Therefore, much of the art from the Spanish courts depicted Catholic themes and narratives. Luis de Morales, one of the leading exponents of Spanish Mannerist

Landscape with the Fall of Icarus, Pieter Bruegel the Elder

painting, retained a distinctly Spanish style in his work, reminiscent of medieval art. His art also contained a strong mark of mysticism and religion that was encouraged by the Counter-Reformation and the patronage of Spain's strongly Catholic monarchs and aristocracy. During the Italian Renaissance, Spain had seen few great artists come to its shores, until Ferdinand and Isabella's reign, which

Spanish Renaissance Painting The "Golden Age" of Spanish of art coincided with the rise and decline of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty, and was heavily influenced by Mannerism as well as Catholic and aristocratic patronage.

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launched a steady traffic of intellectuals across the Mediterranean between Valencia, Seville, and Florence. Universally known for his great impact in bringing the Italian Renaissance to Spain, "El Greco" was not Spanish. However, he was influential in creating a Spanish Renaissance style based on impressions and emotion, featuring elongated fingers, and vibrant color and brushwork. Uniquely, his works featured faces that captured expressions of sombre attitudes and withdrawal, while still having his subjects bear witness to the terrestrial world. Furthermore, El Greco's paintings of the city of Toledo became models for a new European tradition in landscapes, and later influenced the work of Dutch masters (Figure 26.14).
Toledo by El Greco Figure 26.14 A View of Toledo

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Antwerp
Antwerp, located in Belgium, was a center for art in Netherlands and northern Europe for much of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
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the economic center of the Low Countries, and again during the seventeenth century when it became the artistic stronghold of the Flemish Baroque. The Antwerp School was comprised of many generations of artists and is known for portraiture, animal paintings, still lifes, and prints. Antwerp took over from Bruges as the main trading and commercial center of the Low Countries around 1500, and the boost in the economy attracted many artists to the cities to join craft guilds. For instance, many sixteenth-century painters, artists, and craftsmen joined the Guild of Saint Luke, which educated apprentices and guaranteed quality. The first school of artists that emerged in the city were the Antwerp Mannerists, a group of anonymous late Gothic painters active in the city from about 1500 to 1520. Antwerp Mannerism bore no direct relation to Renaissance or Italian Mannerism, but the name suggests a peculiarity that was a reaction to the "classic" style of the earlier Flemish painters. Although attempts have been made to identify the individual artists, most of the paintings remain attributed to anonymous masters. Characteristic of Antwerp Mannerism are paintings that combine Early Netherlandish and Northern Renaissance styles, and incorporate both Flemish and Italian traditions into the same compositions. Practitioners of the style frequently painted subjects such as the Adoration of the Magi and the Nativity, both of which

The Antwerp School for painting flourished during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The Antwerp School was comprised of many generations of artists and is known for portraiture, animal paintings, still lifes, and prints. Antwerp Mannerism bore no relation to Renaissance Mannerism, but the name suggests a reaction to the "classic" style of the earlier Flemish painters. Although attempts have been made to identify the individual artists, most of the paintings remain attributed to anonymous masters. Antwerp was an internationally significant publishing centre, and had a huge production of old master prints and book illustrations. Furthermore, Antwerp animaliers or animal painters, such as Frans Snyders, Jan Fyt and Paul de Vos, dominated animal-painting in Europe.

Antwerp, located in present-day Belgium, was a center for art in Netherlands and northern Europe for much of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The so-called Antwerp School For Painting flourished during the sixteenth century when the city was

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are generally represented as night scenes, crowded with figures and dramatically illuminated. The Adoration scenes were especially popular with the Antwerp Mannerists, who delighted in the patterns of the elaborate clothes worn by the Magi and the ornamentation of the architectural ruins in which the scene was set (Figure 26.15).
Figure 26.15 The Adoration of the Kings by Jan Gossaert

The city experienced an artistic renewal in the seventeenth century. The large workshops of Peter Paul Rubens and Jacob Jordaens, and the influence of Anthony van Dyck, made Antwerp the center of the Flemish Baroque. The city was an internationally significant publishing centre, and had a huge production of old master prints and book illustrations. Furthermore, Antwerp animaliers or animal painters, such as Frans Snyders, Jan Fyt and Paul de Vos, dominated animalpainting in Europe for at least the first half of the century (Figure 26.16). But as the economy continued to decline, and the Habsburg nobility and the Church reduced their patronage, many artists trained in Antwerp left for the Netherlands, England, France or elsewhere, and by the end of the seventeenth century, Antwerp was no longer a major artistic center.
Jan Fyt, a member of the Antwerp School, was well-known for the use of animal motifs in his paintings. Figure 26.16 Hunting Trophies

The iconoclastic riots ('Beeldenstorm' in Dutch) of 1566 that preceded the Dutch Revolt resulted in the destruction of many works of religious art, after which time the churches and monasteries had to be refurnished and redecorated. Artists such as Otto van Veen and members of the Francken family, working in a late mannerist style, provided new religious decoration. It

This painting captures the Antwerp Mannerist tradition of using religious themes, particularly the Adoration of the Magi, for inspiration.

also marked a beginning of economic decline in the city, as the Scheldt river was blockaded by the Dutch Republic in 1585 and trade diminished.

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Section 6

England

The Tudors Architecture

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The Tudors
The Tudor period was, for England, one of unusual isolation from European trends.
KEY POINTS

courtiers between 1485 and 1603 (from the reign of Henry VII to the death of Elizabeth I).Typically managing a group of assistants and apprentices in a workshop or studio, many of these artists produced works across several disciplines, including portrait miniatures, large-scale panel portraits on wood, illuminated manuscripts, heraldric emblems, and elaborate decorative schemes for masques, tournaments, and other events. The Tudor period was, for England, one of unusual isolation from European trends. At the start, the Wars of the Roses had greatly disrupted artistic activity, which apart from architecture had reached a very low ebb by 1485. The York dynasty overthrown by the Tudors had been very close to their Burgundian allies, and English diplomats had their portraits painted by the finest Early Netherlandish painters-- Edward Grimshaw by Petrus Christus, and Sir John Donne by Hans Memling (both National Gallery, London). These were both painted abroad, however. In the Tudor period, foreign artists were recruited and often welcomed lavishly by the English court, as they were in other artistically marginal parts of Europe like Spain or Naples. The Netherlandish painters remained predominant, though French influence was also important on both Lucas Horenbout and Nicholas Hilliard, the founder and greatest exponent of the distinctively English tradition of the portrait miniature, respectively.

In the Tudor period, foreign artists were recruited and often welcomed lavishly by the English court, as they were in other artistically marginal parts of Europe like Spain or Naples. The Netherlandish painters remained predominant, though French influence was also important on both Lucas Horenbout and Nicholas Hilliard, the founder and greatest exponent of the distinctively English tradition of the portrait miniature, respectively. With the virtual extinction of religious painting during the Reformation, and little interest in classical mythology until the very end of the period, the portrait was the most important form of painting for all the artists of the Tudor court, and the only one to have survived in any numbers. Jewelery and metalwork were regarded as extremely important, and far more was spent on them than on painting. Holbein produced many spectacular designs for nowvanished table ornaments in precious metals, and Hilliard was also a practicing goldsmith.

The artists of the Tudor court were the painters and limners engaged by the English monarchs' Tudor dynasty and their

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With the virtual extinction of religious painting during the Reformation, and little interest in classical mythology until the very end of the period, the portrait was the most important form of painting for all the artists of the Tudor court, and the only one to have survived in any numbers. How many of these have also been lost can be seen from Holbein's book (nearly all pages in the Royal Collection), containing preparatory drawings for portraits: of eighty-five drawings, only a handful have surviving Holbein paintings, though often copies have survived. Portraiture ranged from the informal miniature-- almost invariably painted from life in the course of a few days and intended for private contemplation-- to the later large-scale portraits of
The Rainbow Portrait epitomizes the elaborate iconography associated with later Tudor court portraiture. Figure 26.17 The Rainbow Portrait, an image of Elizabeth I as the "Queen of Love and Beauty," by Isaac Oliver c. 1600.

Elizabeth I, such as the Rainbow Portrait, filled with symbolic iconography in dress, jewels, background, and inscription (Figure 26.17). Much energy was also expended on the decorative painting of fixtures and fittings, often of a very temporary nature. In theory, the "Serjeant Painters" of the King, a lower rank of painter, did most of this, probably to the designs of the more elevated "King's Painters" (or Queen's), but it is clear that they too spent time on this, as did court artists all over Europe (see Royal Entry). There was also the Master of the Revels, whose Office was responsible for festivals and tournaments, and no doubt called upon the artists and Serjeant Painters for assistance. Jewelery and metalwork were regarded as extremely important, and far more was spent on them than on painting. Holbein produced many spectacular designs for now-vanished table ornaments in precious metals, and Hilliard was also a practicing goldsmith. The main artistic interests of Henry VIII were music, building palaces and tapestry (of which he had over 2,000 pieces, costing far more than he ever spent on painters). Elizabeth spent far less, hardly building anything herself, but took a personal interest in painting, keeping her own collection of miniatures locked away, wrapped in paper on which she wrote the

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names of the sitter. She is reputed to have had paintings of her burnt that did not match the iconic image she wished to be shown. The most progressive and spectacular palace of the Tudor period, Nonsuch Palace, begun by Henry VIII in 1538 a little way south of London, was covered inside and out with prodigious quantities of figurative sculpted stucco reliefs. The whole scheme covered over 2,000 square meters (21,000 sq ft). There was also probably much decorative painting. As for the similar work at the Chteau de Fontainebleau, which Nonsuch was certainly intended to compete with and outshine, Italians were brought in to provide authentic Mannerist work; however, much of the general plan remains English. The scattered fragments and images that have survived suggest that the awestruck accounts of visitors were not exaggerated.
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Architecture
The Tudor architectural style was the nal development of medieval architecture during the Tudor period (1485 1603).
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Tudor architecture followed the Perpendicular style and, although superseded by Elizabethan architecture in the domestic building of any pretensions to fashion, the Tudor style still retained its hold on English taste. The four-centered arch, now known as the Tudor arch, was a defining feature of the period; some of the most remarkable oriel windows belong to this period; typically, the moldings were more spread out and the foliage became more naturalistic. During this period, the arrival of the chimney stack and enclosed hearths resulted in the decline of the great hall based around an open hearth, which was typical of earlier medieval architecture. During the Tudor era, houses and buildings of ordinary people were typically timber-framed, the frame usually filled with wattle and daub but occasionally with brick.

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The Tudor architectural style was the final development of medieval architecture during the Tudor period (14851603), and even beyond, for conservative college patrons. It followed the Perpendicular style and, although superseded by Elizabethan architecture in the domestic building of any pretensions to fashion, the Tudor style still retained its hold on English taste. Portions of the additions to the various colleges of Oxford University and Cambridge University were still being carried out in the Tudor style, which overlaps with the first stirrings of the Gothic Revival (Figure 26.18). The four-centered arch, now known as the Tudor arch, was a defining feature of the period. Some of the most remarkable oriel windows belong to this period. Typically, the moldings were more spread out and the foliage became more naturalistic. Nevertheless, "Tudor style" is an awkward style-designation, with its implied suggestions of continuity through the period of the Tudor dynasty and the misleading impression that there was a style break at the accession of Stuart James I in 1603. During this period, the arrival of the chimney stack and enclosed hearths resulted in the decline of the great hall based around an open hearth, which was typical of earlier medieval architecture. Instead, fireplaces could now be placed upstairs, and it became possible to have a second story that ran the whole length of the

house. Tudor chimney-pieces were made large and elaborate to draw attention to the owner's adoption of this new technology, and the jetty appeared as a way to show off the modernity of having a complete, full-length upper floor.
Figure 26.18 King's College chapel, University of Cambridge

The chapel at King's College of the University of Cambridge is one of the nest examples of late Gothic (Perpendicular) English architecture, while its early Renaissance rood screen (separating the nave and chancel), erected in 1532-36 in a striking contrast of style, has been called by Sir Nikolaus Pevsner "the most exquisite piece of Italian decoration surviving in England."

The style of large houses moved away from the defensive architecture of earlier moated manor houses, and instead began

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emphasizing aesthetics. For example, quadrangular ('H' or 'E' shaped plans) became more common. It was also fashionable for these larger buildings to incorporate "devices," or riddles, designed into the building, which served to demonstrate the owner's wit and to delight visitors. Occasionally these were Catholic symbols, for example, subtle or not-so-subtle references to the trinity, seen in three-sided, triangular, or 'Y' shaped plans, designs, or motifs. The houses and buildings of ordinary people were typically timberframed, the frame usually filled with wattle and daub but occasionally with brick. These houses were also slower to adopt the latest trends and the great hall continued to prevail. The Dissolution of the Monasteries provided surplus land, resulting in a small building boom, as well as a source of stone.
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Chapter 27

Europe in the 1600s

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Section 1

The Baroque Period

Introduction

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Introduction
Baroque is a period of artistic style that started around 1600 in Rome, Italy, and spread throughout the majority of Europe.
KEY POINTS

The Baroque is a period of artistic style that started around 1600 in Rome, Italy, and spread throughout the majority of Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries. In informal usage, the word "baroque" describes something that is elaborate and highly detailed. The popularity of the style was encouraged by the Catholic Church, which had decided at the Council of Trent that the arts should communicate religious themes and direct emotional involvement in response to the Protestant Reformation. Baroque art manifested itself differently in various European countries owing to their unique political and cultural climates. The most important factors during the Baroque era were the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation, with the development of the Baroque style considered to be linked closely with the Catholic Church.
Chiaroscuro technique refers to the interplay between light and dark and is often used in paintings of dimly lit scenes to produce a very high-contrast, dramatic atmosphere. This technique is visible in the painting "The Massacre of the Innocents" by Peter Paul Rubens. Figure 27.1 "The Massacre of the Innocents" by Peter Paul Rubens

The popularity of the Baroque style was encouraged by the Catholic Church, which had decided at the Council of Trent that the arts should communicate religious themes and direct emotional involvement in response to the Protestant Reformation. In informal usage, the word "baroque" describes something that is elaborate, or highly detailed. The most important factors during the Baroque era were the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation; the development of the Baroque style was considered to be closely linked with the Catholic Church. The chiaroscuro technique refers to the interplay between light and dark and is often used in paintings of dimly lit scenes to produce a very high-contrast, dramatic atmosphere. In music, the Baroque style makes up a large part of the classical canon. The later Baroque style was termed "Rococo".

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The Baroque style is characterized by exaggerated motion and clear detail used to produce drama, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, and music. Baroque iconography was direct, obvious, and dramatic, intending to appeal above all to the senses and the emotions. Important Baroque painters include Caravaggio (who is thought to be a precursor to the movement), Peter Paul Rubens, and Rembrandt.
Figure 27.2 Queluz National Palace, Portugal In the Baroque style of architecture, emphasis was placed on bold spaces, domes, and large masses, as exemplied by the Queluz National Palace in Portugal.

large masses, as exemplified by the Queluz National Palace in Portugal (Figure 27.2). In music, the Baroque style makes up a large part of the classical canon. Important composers include Johann Sebastian Bach, George Handel, and Antonio Vivaldi. In the later part of the period, the Baroque style was termed "Rococo," a style characterized by increasingly decorative and elaborate works.
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The use of the "chiaroscuro" technique is a well known trait of Baroque art. This technique refers to the interplay between light and dark and is often used in paintings of dimly lit scenes to produce a very high-contrast, dramatic atmosphere. The chiaroscuro technique is visible in the painting "The Massacre of the Innocents" by Peter Paul Rubens (Figure -.-). In the Baroque style of architecture, emphasis was placed on bold spaces, domes, and

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Section 2

Italy

Architecture in Rome Sculpture in Rome Painting

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Architecture in Rome
The highly theatrical Baroque architectural style dominated Italy in the 1600s.

itself in response to the Protestant Reformation. Baroque architecture and its embellishments were on the one hand more accessible to the emotions and on the other hand, a visible statement of the wealth and power of the Church. A number of ecclesiastical buildings of the Baroque period in Rome

KEY POINTS

had plans based on the Italian paradigm of the basilica with a crossed dome and nave, but the treatment of the architecture was very different than what had been carried out previously. One of the first Roman structures to break with the Mannerist conventions (exemplified in the

Baroque architecture was linked to the Counter-Reformation, celebrating the wealth of the Catholic church. Bernini was the master of Baroque architecture in Rome; St. Peter's Square was one of his greatest achievements. Carlo Fontana, a prolific and influential writer on architecture, as well as practitioner, became Rome's leading Baroque architect following Bernini's death in 1680.

Figure 27.3 Facade of Santa Susanna by Carlo Maderno

The Baroque period of architecture began in late sixteenth century Italy and took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church and the absolutist state. It was characterized by new explorations of form, light and shadow and dramatic intensity. Whereas the Renaissance drew on the wealth and power of the Italian courts and was a blend of secular and religious forces, the Baroque was, initially at least, directly linked to the CounterReformation, a movement within the Catholic Church to reform

Ges) was the church of Santa Susanna, designed by Carlo Maderno (Figure 27.3). The dynamic rhythm of columns and pilasters, central massing, and the protrusion and condensed central decoration add complexity to the structure. There is an incipient playfulness with the rules of classic design, but it still maintains rigor.
The design elements of this church signalled a departure from the prevailing Mannerist style of architecture.

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The same concerns with plasticity, massing, dramatic effects, and shadow and light are evident in the architectural work of Pietro da Cortona, illustrated by his design of Santi Luca e Martina (construction began in 1635) with what was probably the first curved Baroque church faade in Rome. These concerns are even more evident in his reworking of Santa Maria della Pace (1656-8, (Figure 27.4). The faade, with its chiaroscuro half-domed portico and concave side wings, closely resembles a theatrical stage set and the projects forward so that it substantially fills the tiny trapezoidal piazza. Other Roman ensembles of the Baroque and late Baroque period are likewise suffused with theatricality and, as urban theatres, provide points of focus within the surrounding cityscape. Probably the most well known example of such an approach is Saint Peter's Square, which has been praised as a masterstroke of Baroque theatre (Figure 27.5). The piazza, designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, is formed principally by two colonnades of free standing columns centered on an Egyptian obelisk. Bernini's own favorite
Pietro da Cortona restored the edice of Santa Maria Della Pace, adding a Baroque faade. Figure 27.4 Santa Maria Della Pace

Figure 27.5 St. Peter's Square by Gian Lorenzo Bernini

St. Peter's Square is an iconic example of Baroque theatricality.

design was his oval church of Sant'Andrea al Quirinale, decorated with polychome marbles and an ornate gold dome. His secular architecture included the Palazzo Barberini (based on plans by Maderno) and the Palazzo Chigi-Odescalchi (1664), both in Rome. Bernini's rival, the architect Francesco Borromini, produced designs that deviated dramatically from the regular compositions of the ancient world and Renaissance. His building plans were based on complex geometric figures, his architectural forms were unusual and inventive and he employed multi-layered symbolism in his architectural designs. His iconic masterpiece is the diminutive church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, distinguished by a complicated plan arrangement that is partly oval and partly a cross and so has complex convex-concave wall rhythms. Following the death of Bernini in 1680, Carlo Fontana emerged as the most influential architect working in Rome. His early style is exemplified by the slightly concave faade of San Marcello al Corso. Fontana's academic approach, though lacking the dazzling

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inventiveness of his Roman predecessors, exerted substantial influence on Baroque architecture both through his prolific writings and through the number of architects he trained, who would disseminate the Baroque idioms throughout eighteenth century Europe.
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Sculpture in Rome
Baroque sculpture dominated Italy in the 1600s.
KEY POINTS

Baroque sculpture attempted to capture dynamic movement of human figures. Baroque sculpture was meant to be viewed from all angles and displayed centrally rather than against a wall. Gian Lorenzo Bernini was the most important sculptor of the age, in Rome and throughout Europe. Bernini's sculpture of French ruler Louis XIV set the standard for royal portraiture for a century.

Baroque sculpture is the sculpture associated with the Baroque cultural movement. In Baroque sculpture, groups of figures assumed new importance, and there was a dynamic movement and energy of human formsthey spiralled around an empty central vortex, or reached outwards into the surrounding space. Baroque sculpture often had multiple ideal viewing angles, and reflected a general continuation of the renaissance's move away from relief to sculpture created in the round. They were typically designed to be placed in the middle of a large space; for example, elaborate fountains such as Bernini's "Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi" (Rome,

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1651), or those in the Gardens of Versailles were a Baroque speciality. Much Baroque sculpture added extra-sculptural elements; for example, concealed lighting, or water fountains, or fused sculpture and architecture that created a transformative experience for the viewer. Artists saw themselves as working in the classical tradition, and admired Hellenistic and later Roman sculpture. Gian Lorenzo Bernini was the dominating figure of the age. Bernini's sculptural output was immense and varied. The "Ecstasy of St. Theresa", in the Cornaro Chapel, "Santa Maria della Vittoria", and the now-hidden "Constantine", at the base of the Scala Regia (which he designed) were among his best known works (Figure 27.6) He was also given the commission for the Tomb of Pope Urban VIII in St Peters.
Bernini was the most prominent sculptor of the Baroque period. Figure 27.6 Ecstasy of St. Theresa, by Bernini

In 1665, at the height of his fame, Bernini travelled to Paris for several months. His international popularity was such that on his walks in Paris the streets were lined with admiring crowds. This trip was a response to repeated requests for his works by King Louis XIV. Here Bernini presented some designs for the east front of the Louvre, which were ultimately rejected. He soon lost favor at the French court as he praised the art and architecture of Italy over that of France. The sole work remaining from his time in Paris is a bust of Louis XIV, which set the standard for royal portraiture for a century.
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Painting
Baroque painting emerged in the 16th century and became extremely popular in the 17th century; the Roman High Baroque was from 1623 to 1667.

dark backgrounds to dramatic effect. Some of his famous paintings are 'The Calling of St. Mathew', 'St. Thomas', 'The Conversion of St. Paul', 'The Entombment', and 'The Crowning of the Christ'. His use of light and shadow was emulated by the Caravaggisti, the followers of Caravaggio, such as Orazio Gentileschi (15631639), Artemisia Gentileschi (1592-1652/3), Mattia Preti, Carlo Saraceni and Bartolomeo Manfredi. Other influential painters during this early period who influenced the development of Baroque painting included Peter Paul Rubens, Giovanni Lanfranco and Guercino. Other artists, such as
Figure 27.7 Ecce Homo by Caravaggio, 1605

KEY POINTS

Caravaggio was an important figure in early Baroque painting during the 15th century and inspired many mimics, known as Caravaggisti. Pietro da Cortona was the most influential painter of the High Baroque Period. In the later seventeenth century, artists such as Giordano increasingly produced monumental ceiling frescoes.

Relevant Painters of the Time Caravaggio (15711610), born and trained in Milan, stands as one of the most original and influential contributors to late sixteenth century and early seventeenth century European painting. He was known for painting figures, even those of classical or religious themes, in contemporary clothing, or as ordinary living men and women (Figure 27.7). Nevertheless, his inclusion of the seedier side of life was in marked contrast to the trends of the time. He used tenebrism and stark contrasts between partially lit figures and

Guido Reni and Domenico Zampieri, pursued a more classical approach. Baroque painters such as Cortona,
Example of a Baroque work by Caravaggio.

Giovan Battista Gaulli and Ciro Ferri continued to flourish alongside the classical trend represented by painters such as Sacchi and Nicholas Poussin. Even a classicist painter like Sacchi's pupil Carlo Maratta was influenced in his use of color by the Baroque. The

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principal painter of the Roman High Baroque, a period that spanned several papal reigns from 1623 to 1667, was Pietro da Cortona. His baroque manner is clearly evident in paintings that he executed for the Sacchetti family in the 1620s, and the vault fresco in the Palazzo Barberini (finished 1639) in Rome. Monumental ceiling frescoes mainly date to the latter part of the seventeenth century. Some were dramatically illusionistic such as Gaulli's nave fresco (1674-9) in the church of the Gesu and Andrea Pozzo's nave vault (1691-4) in
Giordano was an extremely prolic Italian Baroque painter. Figure 27.8 The creation of man, fresco in the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi in Florence, 1684-1686.

Sant'Ignazio, both in Rome. Luca Giordano (1634-1705) was born in Naples and was so prodigious in his output of paintings that he was known as Luca fa presto (Luke fast work, (Figure 27.8).
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Section 3

Spain

Painting Architecture

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Painting
The Spanish Golden Age is a period of ourishing in arts, coinciding with the political rise and decline of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty.
KEY POINTS

the Spanish Habsburg dynasty. It begins no earlier than 1492, with the end of the Reconquista (Reconquest), the sea voyages of Christopher Columbus to the New World, and the publication of Antonio de Nebrija's Gramtica de la lengua castellana (Grammar of the Castilian Language). Politically, it ends no later than 1659 with the Treaty of the Pyrenees, ratified between France and Habsburg Spain. Spain, in the time of the Italian Renaissance, had seen few great artists come to its shores. The Italian holdings and relationships made by Ferdinand of Aragon,Queen Isabella's husband and later Spain's sole monarch, launched a steady traffic of intellectuals across the Mediterranean between Valencia, Seville, and Florence. Luis de Morales, one of the leading exponents of Spanish mannerist painting, retained a distinctly Spanish style in his work reminiscent of medieval art. Spanish art, particularly that of Morales, contained a strong mark of mysticism and religion
A View of Toledo Figure 27.9 A View of Toledo

The Spanish Golden Age begins in 1492, with the end of the Reconquista and the sea voyages of Christopher Columbus to the New World. Politically, it ends no later than 1659, with the Treaty of the Pyrenees, ratified between France and Habsburg Spain. The Italian holdings and relationships made by Queen Isabella's husband and later Spain's sole monarch, Ferdinand of Aragon, launched a steady traffic of intellectuals across the Mediterranean between Valencia, Seville, and Florence. Spanish art contained a strong mark of mysticism and religion that was encouraged by the counter-reformation and the patronage of Spain's strongly Catholic monarchs and aristocracy. The Habsburgs, both in Spain and Austria, were great patrons of art in their countries.

Overview The Spanish Golden Age is a period of flourishing in arts and literature in Spain, coinciding with the political rise and decline of

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that was encouraged by the counter-reformation and the patronage of Spain's strongly Catholic monarchs and aristocracy. Artists of the Golden Age of Spain The Habsburgs, both in Spain and Austria, were great patrons of art in their countries. The following three painters are often considered by scholars as the influential founders of a uniquely Spanish style of painting. Universally known for his great impact in bringing the Italian Renaissance to Spain, "El Greco", or "The Greek", was not Spanish. Born Domenikos Theotokopoulos in Crete, he studied the great Italian masters of his time - Titian, Tintoretto, and Michelangelo - when he lived in Italy from 1568 to 1577. El Greco was influential in creating a style based on impressions and emotion, featuring elongated fingers and vibrant color and brushwork. Uniquely, his works featured faces that captured expressions of somber attitudes and withdrawal while still having his subjects bear witness to the terrestrial world. His paintings of the city of Toledo became models for a new European tradition in landscapes, and influenced the work of later Dutch masters (Figure 27.9). Diego Velzquez is widely regarded as one of Spain's most important and influential artists. He was a court painter for King Philip IV and found increasingly high demand for his portraits from statesmen, aristocrats, and clergymen across Europe. His portraits

of the King, his chief minister, the Count-duke of Olivares, and the Pope himself demonstrated a belief in artistic realism and a style comparable to many of the Dutch masters. Velazquez's most famous painting, however, is the celebrated Las Meninas, in which the artist includes himself as one of the subjects (Figure 27.10). Religion in the Art of the Spanish Golden Age The religious element in Spanish art, in many circles, grew in importance with the CounterReformation. The austere, ascetic, and severe work of Francisco de Zurbarn exemplified this thread in Spanish art, along with the work of composer Toms Luis de Victoria. Philip IV actively patronized artists who agreed with his views on the counterreformation and religion. The mysticism of Zurbarn's work influenced by Saint Theresa of Avila - became a hallmark of Spanish
In his most celebrated painting, Valzquez's self-portrait is included on the left. Figure 27.10 Las Meninas (1656, English: The Maids of Honor)

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art in later generations. Influenced by Caravaggio and the Italian masters, Zurbarn devoted himself to an artistic expression of religion and faith. His paintings of St. Francis of Assisi, the immaculate conception, and the crucifixion of Christ reflected a third facet of Spanish culture in the seventeenth century, against the backdrop of religious war across Europe(Figure 27.11). Zurbarn broke from Velzquez's sharp realist interpretation of art and looked, to some extent, to the emotive content of El Greco and the earlier mannerist painters for inspiration and technique, though Zurbarn respected and maintained the lighting and physical nuance of Velzquez.
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The Birth of the Virgin by Francisco de Zurbarn, demonstrates the religious themes, particular the devotion to the Virgin Mary, which pervaded Counter-Reformation Spanish artwork. Figure 27.11 The Birth of the Virgin

Architecture
Spanish Baroque is a strand of Baroque architecture that evolved in Spain and its provinces and former colonies, in the late 17th century.

KEY POINTS

In contrast to the art of Northern Europe, the Spanish art of the period appealed to the emotions rather than seeking to please the intellect. The Churriguera family, which specialized in designing altars and retables, revolted against the sobriety of the Herreresque classicism and promoted an intricate, exaggerated, almost capricious style of surface decoration known as the Churrigueresque. Between 1720 and 1760, the Churrigueresque column, or estipite, in the shape of an inverted cone or obelisk, was established as a central element of ornamental decoration.

Spanish Baroque is a strand of Baroque architecture that evolved in Spain and its provinces and former colonies, notably Spanish America and Belgium in the late seventeenth century. As Italian Baroque influences penetrated across the Pyrenees, they gradually superseded in popularity the restrained classicizing approach of

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Juan de Herrera, which had been in vogue since the late sixteenth century. For example, by 1667, the facades of Granada Cathedral (by Alonso Cano) and Jan Cathedral (by Eufrasio Lpez de Rojas) suggest the artists' fluency in interpreting traditional motifs of Spanish cathedral architecture in the Baroque aesthetic idiom. In Madrid, a vernacular Baroque with its roots in Herrerian and in traditional brick construction was developed in the Plaza Mayor (Figure 27.12) and in the Royal Palace of El Buen Retiro, which was destroyed during the French invasion by Napoleon's troops. Its gardens still remain as El Retiro park. This sober brick Baroque of the seventeenth century is still well represented in the streets of the capital in palaces and squares. In contrast to the art of Northern Europe, the Spanish art of the period appealed to the emotions rather than seeking to please the intellect. The Churriguera family, which specialized in designing altars and retables, revolted against the sobriety of the Herreresque classicism and promoted an intricate, exaggerated, almost capricious style of surface decoration known as the Churrigueresque. Within half a century, they transformed Salamanca into an exemplary Churrigueresque city. The development of the style passed through three phases. Between 1680 and 1720, the Churriguera popularized Guarini's blend of

Figure 27.12 Plaza Mayor

Three sides of the Plaza Mayor.

Solomonic columns and composite order, known as the "supreme order." Between 1720 and 1760, the Churrigueresque column, or estipite, in the shape of an inverted cone or obelisk, was established as a central element of ornamental decoration (Figure 27.13). Three of the most eye-catching creations of Spanish Baroque are the energetic faades of the University of Valladolid (Diego Tome and Fray Pedro de la Visitacin, 1719), the western faade (or Fachada del Obradoiro)

Figure 27.13 Caravaca de la Cruz.

The Churrigueresque column, or estipite, was a central element of ornamental decoration in the Spanish Baroque, as shown here in the Estipite in the Church of Caravaca de la Cruz.

of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela (Fernando de Casas y Novoa, 1750, (Figure 27.14). In this case as in many others, the

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Churrigueresque design involves a play of tectonic and decorative elements with little relation to structure and function. The focus of the florid ornamentation is an elaborately sculptured surround to a main doorway. If one removed the
Figure 27.14 Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in Spain.

The Royal Palace of Madrid and the interventions of Paseo del Prado (Saln del Prado and Alcal Doorgate, also in the same city), deserve special mention. They were constructed in a sober Baroque international style, often mistaken for neoclassical, by the kings Philip V and Charles III. The Royal Palaces of La Granja de San Ildefonso, in Segovia, and Aranjuez, in Madrid, are good examples of baroque integration of architecture and gardening. They have a noticeable French influence, (La Granja was known as the Spanish Versailles), but with local spatial conceptions that in some ways display the heritage of the Moorish occupation. In Flanders, the richest imperial province of seventeenth-century Spain, florid decorative detailing was more tightly knit to the structure, thus precluding concerns of superfluity. A remarkable convergence of Spanish, French, and Dutch Baroque aesthetics may be seen in the Abbey of Averbode (1667). Another characteristic example is the Church of St. Michel at Louvain (165070), with its exuberant two-storey faade, clusters of half-columns, and the complex aggregation of French-inspired sculptural detailing.
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intricate maze of broken pediments, undulating cornices, stucco shells, inverted tapers and garlands from the rather plain wall it is set against, the building's form would not be affected in the slightest. Nonetheless, Churrigueresque baroque offered some of the most impressive combinations of space and light. Buildings like Granada Charterhouse (sacristy by Francisco Hurtado Izquierdo), considered to be the apotheosis of Churrigueresque styles applied to interior spaces, or the

The facade of the Santiago de Compostela reects the Churrigueresque facade: the lavish details of the facade have little structural use.

Transparente of the Cathedral of Toledo, by Narciso Tom, where sculpture and architecture are integrated to achieve notable light and dramatic effects.

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Section 4

Flanders

Introduction Painting

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Introduction
During the 17th century, Flanders saw a great deal of rich artistic production which is exemplied in Flemish Baroque painting.
KEY POINTS

(1584-1585), which ended the Eighty Years War, the Southern Provinces of the Netherlands (known as Flanders), remained under Spanish rule and were separated from the independent Northern Netherlands (known as the Dutch Republic). Flanders was Catholic whereas the Dutch Republic was Protestant, which created a divide in the two regions artistic themes and output. The late 16th century saw the end of late Renaissance and Mannerist styles in the Flanders region, and the beginning of the age of Rubens. Art in Flanders during the 17th century was innovative and rich. In both Flanders and the Dutch Republic, this period is often known as the Dutch Golden Age, a time especially important for the arts. Baroque art was the prevalent style in 17th century Europe. In Flanders, this style is known as Flemish Baroque, where it exemplifies unique traits, largely due to the Catholicism of the region. Painting flourished especially, with artists such as Rubens, Anthony Van Dyck, and Jacob Jordaens rising to prominence during the period. Rubens set up an influential live work studio, Rubenshuis, where he trained some of his students.

After the Siege of Antwerp, the Southern Provinces of the Netherlands (known as Flanders), remained under Catholic Spanish rule and were separated from the independent Northern Netherlands (known as the Dutch Republic) which was Protestant. The artist Peter Paul Rubens rose to prominence during the period as well as Anthony Van Dyck and Jacob Jordaens. Flemish Baroque painting of the period is distinctive for its use of detailed realism as well as the separation of genres. Antwerp was the undisputed capital of artistic production for Flanders during the 17th century.

Flanders is an historical region located in parts of present-day Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. The geographical territory of Flanders has varied over time, yet figured prominently throughout European history nonetheless. During the Middle Ages, the trading towns of Ghent, Bruges, and Ypres made Flanders one of the richest and most urban areas in Europe. After the Siege of Antwerp Flemish Baroque painting of the period is distinctive for its use of detailed realism as well as the separation of genres, where artists produced the majority of their work within a single genre. These genres include history, portraiture, genre, still life, religious, and landscape painting. Flemish art is also notable for the great deal of

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collaboration that took place between master painters. This was largely due to the aforementioned tendency to specialize in a particular area. Antwerp was the undisputed capital of artistic production for Flanders in the 17th century despite its new Habsburg authority, and largely due to the presence of Rubens. Brussels, the capital of Flanders, was also important, as it was the location of the court. Many artists fled the religious wars, moving from Flanders to the Dutch Republic. However, Flemish painting still flourished, especially in the Antwerp school, during the 17th century when the artists who remained influenced the direction of Flemish art. Baroque architecture in Flanders developed quite differently than in the Protestant North. Important architectural projects were set up
The house and studio of Peter Paul Rubens. Figure 27.15 Rubenshuis

in the vein of the Counter-Reformation. Rubens had a strong influence on architecture as well. In his book I Palazzi di Genova, he introduced new Italian models for buildings and decoration. The courtyard and portico of his own house in Antwerp (Rubenshuis) are good examples of his architectural aesthetic (Figure 27.15). Overall, the 17th century in Flanders saw a great deal of rich artistic production, mostly exemplified in Flemish Baroque painting. Rubens was at the forefront during the time, and his presence in Antwerp caused it to be a nexus for art.
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Painting
The style of painting produced in Flanders during the 17th century is known as Flemish Baroque.
KEY POINTS

Peter Paul Rubens, Anthony Van Dyck, and Jacob Jordaens-figured prominently as a point of artistic production during this time, as did Brussels and Ghent, to a lesser extent. Peter Paul Rubens, the preeminent painter of the Flemish Baroque style, had a strong influence on the artistic aesthetic of the 17th century. Flemish Baroque painting is notable for the fact that it was separated into different thematic categories, and artists of the time tended to specialize in one of these areas. These genres included history, portraiture, genre, landscape, and still life paintings. History painting, considered the most noble genre during the 17th
Rubens introduced the monumental hunting scene to painting, such as Wolf and Fox Hunt,' which depicted noble battle on a large scale and was inspired by his study of classical antiquity. Figure 27.16 'Wolf and Fox Hunt' by Peter Paul Rubens

Peter Paul Rubens was the preeminent painter of the Flemish Baroque style. Rubens was the dominant painter in the history painting category, and drew influence from Italian painting. Flemish Baroque painting is notable for the fact that it was separated into the different thematic categories of history, portraiture, genre, landscape, and still life. Genre paintings depict scenes from everyday life and were very common in 17th century Flanders. The vanitas, a type of still life painting that is meant to illustrate the meaninglessness of earthly life and the transience of all earthly pursuits, became very popular in 17th century Flemish painting.

The style of painting produced in Flanders during the 17th century is known as Flemish Baroque. This style was produced between about 1585, when the Dutch Republic split from the Habsburg Spain regions of the south, until about 1700, when the Habsburg rule ended after the death of King Charles II. Antwerp-- the home of

century, was comprised of depictions of historical, biblical, mythological and allegorical scenes. Rubens was the dominant painter in this category, though his student Anthony Van Dyck also became prominent. More than in any other category, Flemish history painters continued to draw influence from Italian painting. Rubens spent nine years in Italy studying the work of the masters.

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Rubens introduced the monumental hunting scene to painting, such as Wolf and Fox Hunt (Figure 27.16), which depicted noble battle on a large scale and was inspired by his study of classical antiquity.
Figure 27.17 Genre Painting

Genre paintings depict scenes from everyday life and were very common in 17th century Flanders. These paintings feature figures with no specific identity, commonly engaged in activities associated with the peasant life. Many genre artists follow the tradition of Peter Brueghel the Elder in their depiction of the lower classes (Figure 27.17). The paintings of Adriaen Brouwer, which often show peasants fighting and drinking, serve as an example of Flemish genre painting. Brouwer is known for painting his subjects in interior, rather than exterior, scenes. He was also known for his expressive facial studies, characteristic of a genre called tronies (faces), exemplified in works such as The Bitter Drink. Landscape painting was a major category in the 17th century. The style developed from earlier 16th century Flemish landscape paintings which were not particularly realistic and employed the

A genre painting by Peter Brueghel, enititled 'Village Lawyer'.

semi-aerial view typical of Peter Brueghel the Elder. Architectural interior painting also became popular around this time, developing out of the works of Hans Vredman de Vries, and depicting the realistic interiors of existing churches and cathedrals. Floral still life painting was widespread in 17th century Flanders, popularized by Brueghel the Elder around 1600. His sons, Jan Brueghel the Younger and Ambrosius Brueghel, were also known flower specialists of the time. Other subjects, or subcategories of still life painting, included the banquet still life, the animal still life,

Portrait paintings were for the most part monumental or life sized, though the group and family portrait came into prominence during the 17th century. Although he was not a portrait painter, Rubens completed some early works in this category. He also exerted influence through his student, Anthony Van Dyck, who became the court painter for Charles I of England and an influence on subsequent portraiture in England.

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and garland scenes. Still life paintings often had an underlying moralistic message concerning the brevity of life, a trait exemplified
Figure 27.18 Vanitas Painting

by the vanitas. A vanitas is a symbolic still life painting that is meant to illustrate the meaninglessness of earthly life and the transience of all earthly pursuits (Figure 27.18). Vanitas paintings were very popular in 17th century Flemish and Dutch work,

An example of a vanitas from the 17th century by Franciscus Gysbrechts.

and often depict symbols like skulls, flowers, rotting fruit, clocks, watches, smoke and hourglasses,

all meant to convey the ephemeral nature of life on earth.


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Section 5

The Dutch Republic

Ter Brugghen, van Honthorst, Hals, Leyster Rembrandt Landscape Art and Interior Painting Still-Life Painting

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Ter Brugghen, van Honthorst, Hals, Leyster


Hendrick ter Brugghen, Gerrit van Honthorst, Frans Hals and Judith Leyster were important genre painters of the Dutch Republic.
KEY POINTS

painters of the Dutch Republic. Their work generally depicted taverns and other scenes of entertainment that catered to the tastes and interests of a growing segment of the Dutch middle class. Hendrick Jansz ter Brugghen
Figure 27.19 Flute Player, by ter Brugghen, 1621

(1588 1629) was a Dutch painter and a leading member of the Dutch followers of Caravaggio, or the Dutch Caravaggisti (Figure 27.19). ter Brugghen began painting at the age of thirteen, studying with Abraham Bloemaert, a history painter trained in Mannerism. Around 1604, ter Brugghen travelled to Italy to expand his skills like many of his Dutch counterparts. While in Rome, he could have been in direct contact with Caravaggio.

ter Brugghen and Honthorst were both artists from the Utrecht working in the Caravaggisti tradition, emulating Caravaggio's dramatic use of light. Both of these artists were directly inspired by their travels to Italy. "Tavern scenes" and other depictions of lively entertainment were common subjects for genre painters of this period. Hals is remembered primarily for his portraiture and his pioneering use of loose brushwork. Judith Leyster is one of the few prominent female artists of the Dutch Golden Age. Leyster's work is extremely similar to Hals, leading some historians to speculate that she may have been his apprentice. Leyster is known for depicting female subjects in domestic interior scenes.
ter Brugghen, with Gerard van Honthorst imported Caravaggio's techniques from Italy in the early 17th century.

He certainly studied his work, as well as that of his followers the Italian Caravaggisti. Upon returning to Utrecht, he worked with Gerard van Honthorst, another member of the Dutch Caravaggisti.

The Utrecht Caravaggisti Hendrick ter Brugghen and Gerrit van Honthorst, as well as Frans Hals and Judith Leyster, were genre

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ter Brugghen's favourite subjects were half-length figures of drinkers or musicians, but he also produced larger-scale religious
Figure 27.20 The Matchmaker, by Gerard van Honthorst, 1625 This painting demonstrates Honthorst's use of chiaroscuro, a style made popular by Caravaggio.

Honthorst briefly became a court painter to Charles I in England in 1628. His popularity in the Netherlands was such that he opened a second studio in The Hague, where he painted portraits of members of the court and taught drawing. Honthorst cultivated the style of Caravaggio and had great skill at chiaroscuro, often painting scenes illuminated by a single candle. Apart from portraiture, he is known for painting tavern scenes with musicians, gamblers, and people eating (Figure 27.20). Frans Hals the Elder (c. 1582 26 August 1666), notable for his loose painterly brushwork, helped introduce this lively style of painting into Dutch art. Hals was also instrumental in the evolution

images and group portraits. He carried with him Caravaggio's influence, and his paintings have a strong dramatic use of light and shadow, as well as emotionally charged subjects. Though he died fairly young, at age 41, his work was well received and highly influential in his lifetime. Gerard van Honthorst (1590-1656) was born in Utrecht, and also studied under Abraham Bloemaert. In 1616, Honthorst also traveled to Italy and was deeply influenced by the recent art he encountered there. Honthorst returned to Utrecht in 1620 and went on to build a considerable reputation both in the Dutch Republic and abroad.

of 17th century group portraiture. Hals is best known for his portraits, mainly of wealthy citizens like Pieter van den Broecke and Isaac Massa, who were both prominent merchants. He also painted large group portraits for local civic guards and the regents of local hospitals. His pictures illustrate the various strata of society: banquets or meetings of officers, guildsmen, local councilmen from mayors to clerks, itinerant players and singers, gentlefolk, fishwives and tavern heroes. In his group portraits, such as the Archers of St. Hadrian, Hals captures each character in a different manner. Hals was fond of daylight and silvery sheen, in contrast to Rembrandt's use of golden glow effects.

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Judith Jans Leyster (1609 1660) was one of three significant women artists in Dutch Golden Age painting. The other two, Rachel Ruysch and Maria van Oosterwijk, were specialized painters of flower still-lifes, while Leyster painted genre works, a few portraits, and a single still life (Figure 27.21). Leyster largely gave up painting after her marriage, which produced five children. Although well-known during her lifetime and esteemed by her contemporaries, Leyster and her work were largely forgotten after her death. Leyster was rediscovered in 1893 when the Louvre purchased a Frans Hals only to find it had, in fact, been painted by Judith Leyster. Some historians have asserted that Hals may have been Leyster's teacher due to the close similarity between their work. Leyster's The Merry Drinker from 1629, has a very strong resemblance to The Jolly Drinker of 1627-28 by Hals, for example.
Leyster's subject matter was similar to other genre painters of the period, with the exception that she tended to focus on female subjects. Figure 27.21 A Game of Cards, by Judith Leyster

Leyster was particularly innovative in her domestic genre scenes. In them, she creates quiet scenes of women at home, which were not a popular theme in Holland until the 1650s.
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Rembrandt
Rembrandt is remembered as one of the greatest artists in European history and the most important in Dutch history.
KEY POINTS

etchings and paintings were popular throughout his lifetime, earning him an excellent reputation as an artist and teacher. In 1626 Rembrandt produced his first etchings, the wide dissemination of which would largely account for his international fame. Among the more prominent characteristics of Rembrandt's work is his use of chiaroscuro, the theatrical employment of light and shadow. This technique was most likely derived from the Dutch Caravaggisti, (followers of the Italian painter Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio). Also notable are his dramatic and lively presentation of subjects, devoid of the rigid formality that his contemporaries often displayed, and a visible
Rembrandt's immediate family frequently gured in his paintings. This work features Rembrandt's son Titus as a monk. Figure 27.22 Titus as a Monk, by Rembrandt, 1660

Rembrandt is primarily known for portraits of his contemporaries, self-portraits, landscapes and illustrations of scenes from the Bible. Rembrandt's self-portraits are exceptionally sincere, revealing and personal. Stylistically, Rembrandt's work evolved from "smooth" to "rough"over the course of his lifetime. The thick, "coarse" strokes in Rembrandt's work were unconventional at the time, and poorly received by many of his contemporaries, though this technique is now viewed as essential to the emotional resonance of his work. Though he is remembered as the master of Dutch painting, Rembrandt's success was uneven during his lifetime.

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (1606 1669) was a Dutch painter and etcher during the Dutch Golden Age, a period of great wealth and cultural achievement. Though Rembrandt's later years were marked by personal tragedy and financial hardship, his

compassion for the human subject, irrespective of wealth and age. Throughout his career Rembrandt took as his primary subjects the themes of portraiture (dependent upon commissions from wealthy patrons for survival), landscape, and narrative painting. For the

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last, he was especially praised by his contemporaries, who extolled him as a masterly interpreter of biblical stories for his skill in representing emotions and attention to detail. His immediate family often figured prominently in his paintings, many of which had mythical, biblical or historical themes (Figure 27.22). In later years biblical themes were still depicted often, but the emphasis shifted from dramatic group scenes to intimate portraitlike figures (James the Apostle, 1661). In his last years, Rembrandt painted his most deeply reflective self-portraits (from 1652 to 1669 he painted fifteen), and several moving images of both men and women (The Jewish Bride, c. 1666)in love, in life, and before God. Rembrandt's self portraits trace the progress from an uncertain young man, through the dapper and very successful portrait-painter of the 1630s, to the troubled but massively powerful portraits of his old age. Together they give a
Rembrandt's numerous self portraits provide a strong record of his development as an artist and o!er insight into his personal psychology. Figure 27.23 Self Portrait, by Rembrandt, 1659

remarkably clear picture of the man, his appearance and his psychological make-up, as revealed by his richly weathered face. In his portraits and self-portraits, he angles the sitter's face in such a way that the ridge of the nose nearly always forms the line of demarcation between brightly illuminated and shadowy areas (Figure 27.23). Stylistically, his paintings progressed from the early "smooth" manner, characterized by fine technique in the portrayal of illusionistic form, to the late "rough" treatment of richly variegated paint surfaces, which allowed for an illusionism of form suggested by the tactile quality of the paint itself. Contemporary accounts sometimes remark disapprovingly of the coarseness of Rembrandt's brushwork, and the artist himself was said to have dissuaded visitors from looking too closely at his paintings.The richly varied handling of paint, deeply layered and often apparently haphazard, suggests form and space in both an illusory and highly individual manner.
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Landscape Art and Interior Painting


Landscape painting of the Dutch Republic became increasingly sophisticated and realistic in the 17th century.
KEY POINTS

KEY POINTS (cont.)

Jan Vermeer, whose work uniquely captured lighting in interior spaces, is now the most renowned genre painter of the Dutch Republic.

Dutch and Flemish Painting Landscape painting was a major genre in the 17th century, inspired by Flemish landscapes of the 16th century, particularly from Antwerp. These Flemish works had not been particularly realistic, most having been painted in the studio, partly from imagination, and often still using the semi-aerial view style typical of earlier Netherlandish landscape painting, in the tradition of Joachim Patinir, Herri met de Bles and Pieter Bruegel the Elder. Dutch Landscapes A more realistic style soon developed in the Netherlands, with lower horizons making it possible to emphasize the often impressive cloud formations so typical of the region. Favourite subjects were the dunes along the western sea coast and rivers with their broad adjoining meadows where cattle grazed, often with the silhouette of a city in the distance. Winter landscapes featured frozen canals and creeks. The sea was a favorite subject as well, and held both military

The first phase of Dutch landscape painting was known as the "tonal phase", characterized by soft outlines, atmospheric effect, and focus on the sky. The "classical phase" began in the 1650s, retaining the atmospheric quality, but featuring contrasting light and color and the frequent presence of a compositional anchor - a prominent tree, tower, or ship. Paintings featuring animals emerged as a distinctive subgenre of Dutch landscape painting at this time. Romantic Italianate landscapes, featuring soft golden light, also emerged as a sub-genre of landscape painting. Genre paintings were also extremely popular during the Dutch Republic, featuring lively scenes from everyday life, such as markets, inns, taverns, and street scenes, as well as domestic interiors.

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and trade significance. Important early figures in the move towards realism were Esaias van de Velde (15871630) and Hendrick Avercamp (15851634).
Figure 27.24 A Southern Landscape with a Ruin, by Jan Both Both was known for working in the Italianate landscape style.

From the 1650s, the "classical phase" began, retaining the atmospheric quality, but with more expressive compositions and stronger contrasts of light and color. Compositions are often anchored by a single "heroic tree", windmill or tower, or ship in marine works. The leading artist of this phase was Jacob van Ruisdael (16281682), who produced a great quantity and variety of work, including "Nordic" landscapes of dark and dramatic mountain pine forests with rushing torrents and waterfalls. Other Landscape Styles Landscapes with animals in the foreground were a distinct subtype, and were painted by Cuyp, Paulus Potter (16251654), Adriaen van de Velde (16361672) and Karel Dujardin (16261678, farm animals), with Philips Wouwerman painting horses and riders in various settings. The cow was a symbol of prosperity to the Dutch and, apart from the horse, by far the most commonly shown animal; goats were used to indicate Italy. An important type of landscape, produced throughout the tonal and classical phases, was the romantic Italianate landscape, typically in more mountainous settings than are found in the Netherlands, with golden light, and sometimes picturesque Mediterranean staffage and ruins.

From the late 1620s, the "tonal phase" of landscape painting began, as artists softened or blurred their outlines, and concentrated on an atmospheric effect. Great prominence was given to the sky, with human figures usually either absent or small and distant. The leading artists of this style were Jan van Goyen (15961656), Salomon van Ruysdael (16021670), Pieter de Molyn (15951661), and in marine painting, Simon de Vlieger (16011653), with a host of minor figures.

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Jan Both (d. 1652), who had been to Rome and worked with Claude Lorrain, was a leading developer of the sub-genre (Figure 27.24). Italianate landscapes were popular as prints, and more paintings by Berchem were reproduced in engravings during the period itself than those of any other artist. Dutch Genre Painting Apart from landscape painting, the development and enormous popularity of genre painting is the most distinctive feature of Dutch painting in this period. These represented scenes or events from everyday life, such as markets, domestic interiors, parties, inn scenes, and street scenes. Genre Painting developed from the realism and detailed background activity of Early Netherlandish painting, which Hieronymus Bosch and Pieter Bruegel the Elder were among the first to turn into their principal subjects. Adriaen Brouwer is acknowledged as the Flemish master of peasant tavern scenes. Before Brouwer, peasants were
Vermeer is a conrmed master of Dutch genre painting for his interior scenes. Figure 27.25 The Milkmaid, by Vermeer, 1658

typically depicted outdoors; he usually shows them in a plain and dim interior. Genre paintings, reflected the increasing prosperity of Dutch society and settings grew steadily more comfortable, opulent and carefully depicted as the century progressed. Other artists whose common subjects were intimate interior scenes included Nicolaes Maes, Gerard ter Borch and Pieter de Hooch. Jan Vermeer, long a very obscure figure, is now the most highly regarded genre painter of all. He specialized in domestic interior scenes of middle class life (Figure 27.25). Unique Artists A number of other artists do not fit in any of these groups, above all Rembrandt, whose relatively few painted landscapes show various influences, including some from Hercules Seghers (c.1589 c. 1638); his very rare large mountain valley landscapes were a very personal development of 16th-century styles. Artists with more personal styles were Aelbert Cuyp (16201691) and Philips Koninck (16191688). Cuyp took golden Italian light and used it in evening scenes featuring a group of figures in the foreground with a river and wide landscape behind them. Koninck's best works are panoramic views, as if from a hill, looking out over wide flat farmlands, with a huge sky.

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Still-Life Painting
Still life painting ourished during the Golden Age of the Dutch Republic.
KEY POINTS

Ambrosius Bosschaert was one of the early still life painters of the Dutch Republic. Still lifes presented opportunities for painters to demonstrate their abilities in working with difficult textures and complex forms. The vanitas theme, a moral message frequently found in still life painting, alluded to the fleeting nature of life. In the mid 16th century, pronkstilleven emerged, which focused on ornate and exotic objects. Still lifes were frequently drawn by copying flowers in books, as the Dutch were leaders in scientific and botanical drawings and illustrations.

The Dutch still life tradition was largely initiated by Ambrosius Bosschaert (15731621), a Flemish-born flower painter who had settled in the north by the beginning of the period, and founded a dynasty (Figure 27.27). Early still lifes were relatively brightly lit, with bouquets of flowers arranged in a relatively simple way. From the mid-century, arrangements that could fairly be called Baroque,

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usually against a dark background, became more popular, exemplified by the works of Willem van Aelst (16271683). Painters from Leiden, The Hague, and Amsterdam particularly excelled in the genre. Still lifes were a great opportunity to display skill in painting textures and surfaces in great detail, and with highly realistic light effects. Food of all textures, colors and shapes-- silver cutlery, intricate patterns, and subtle folds in table cloths and flowers-- all challenged painters. Flower paintings were a popular sub-genre of still life with its own specialists, and were favored by prominent women artists, such as Maria van Oosterwyck and Rachel Ruysch. Dead game, as well as birds painted live but studied from death, were another sub-genre, as were dead fish, a staple of the Dutch diet. Abraham van Beijeren painted this subject frequently.
This work is an example of an "ostentatious" still life. Figure 27.26 Banquet Still Life, 1660, by Abraham Van Bereyen.

Virtually all still lifes had a moralistic message, usually concerning the brevity of life. This is known as the vanitas theme. The vanitas theme was included in explicit symbols, such as a skull, or less obvious ones such as a half-peeled lemon (like life, sweet in appearance but bitter to taste). Flowers wilt and food decays, and silver is of no use to the soul. Nevertheless, the force of this message seems less powerful in the more elaborate pieces of the second half of the century.
Figure 27.27 Flowers in a Porcelain Vase by Ambrosius Bosschaert the Elder

Initially, the subjects of still life paintings were typically mundane, but from the mid-century the pronkstilleven ("ostentatious still-life"), showing expensive and exotic objects, became more popular (Figure 27.26). Willem Claeszoon Heda (1595c. 1680) and Willem Kalf (16191693) led the shift towards the pronkstilleven. In the works of all of the still-life painters, colors tended to be muted, with browns dominating, especially in the middle of the century.

Bosschaert was an early still life painter who established a dynasty of ower painters.

Despite the intense realism of

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individual flowers, paintings were composed from individual studies or even book illustrations, and blooms from very different seasons were routinely included in the same composition. The same flowers also reappear in different works, just as pieces of tableware do. In reality, bouquets of flowers in vases were not at all common in houses at the time; even the very rich displayed flowers one by one in delftware tulip-holders. The Dutch also led the world in botanical and other scientific drawings, prints and book illustrations at this time.
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Section 6

France

Architecture, Sculpture, and Decoration at Versailles Painting

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Architecture, Sculpture, and Decoration at Versailles


The Palace of Versailles is a palace built by Louis XIV that contains seven hundred rooms, extensive gardens, and lavish decoration.
KEY POINTS

The Palace of Versailles is an opulent palace built by Louis XIV that contains seven hundred rooms, extensive gardens, and lavish decoration. Initially a small hunting lodge built by his father, Louis XIV transformed Versailles with four intensive building campaigns over his reign. The formal aesthetic of the palace was meant to glorify France and show the power and greatness of the selfproclaimed Sun King,' Louis XIV. The architect for the palace was Louis Le Vau, the interior decorator was Charles Le Brun, and the landscape designer was Andre Le Notre. These three artists had worked together previously on the private Chateau Vaux le Vicomte for the kings minister of finance, before he was imprisoned. In 1682 Versailles was transformed into the official residence of the king, and such notable features of the palace as the Hall of Mirrors and the Grande Canal were built.
Figure 27.28 Louis XIV-style The style of Louis XIV at Versailles is"characterized by red and gold richlywoven fabrics or brocades, heavy gilded plaster molding, large sculpted side boards, and heavy marbling.

The architect for the palace was Louis Le Vau, the interior decorator was Charles Le Brun, and the landscape designer was Andre Le Notre. The Palace of Versailles was executed in the French Baroque style, characterized by its large curved forms, twisted columns, high domes, and complicated shapes. Interior design from this period is known as Louis XIV-style.' Originated by Le Brun, it is characterized by red and gold richly-woven fabrics or brocades, heavy gilded plaster molding, large sculpted side boards, and heavy marbling. The gardens at Versailles cover eight hundred hectares of land and were executed in the French formal garden style, or jardin a la francaise'. Notable features of the palace include the Hall of Mirrors and the Grande Canal.

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The Palace of Versailles was executed in the French Baroque style


Figure 27.29 The Hall of Mirrors

woven fabrics or brocades, heavy gilded plaster molding, large sculpted side boards, and heavy marbling (Figure 27.28). The Hall of Mirrors is the central gallery of the Palace of Versailles and is one of the most famous rooms in the world (Figure 27.29). The main feature of this room is a series of seventeen mirrored arches that reflect seventeen arcaded windows overlooking the gardens. Each arch contains twenty-one mirrors. The arches are fixed between marble pilasters upon which bronze symbols of France are embedded. The landscape design at the Palace of Versailles is one of the most extravagant in history (Figure 27.30). Headed by Andre Le Notre, the gardens at Versailles cover eight hundred hectares of land and were executed in the French formal garden style, or jardin a la francaise.' This style is characterized by its meticulously manicured lawns, parterres of flowers, numerous fountains, and sculptures. The Bassin de Latone was designed by Le
Plan for the extravagant gardens at the Palace of Versailles. Figure 27.30 Gardens at Versailles

by architect Louis Le Vau, a French Classical architect who worked for King Louis XIV. French Baroque architectural style is characterized by its large curved forms, twisted columns, high domes, and complicated shapes. In comparison to the Baroque architecture of the rest of Europe, it is commonly thought to be more restrained and characterized by its

The main feature of the Hall of Mirrors is a series of seventeen mirrored arches that reect seventeen arcaded windows overlooking the gardens. Each arch contains twenty-one mirrors. The arches are xed between marble pilasters upon which bronze symbols of France are embedded.

mixture of lavish details on symmetrical and orderly buildings. Charles le Brun was the interior decorator for the Palace of Versailles as well as first painter to his majesty." Louis XIV declared him the greatest painter of all time, and Le Brun worked on such notable features of the palace as the Halls of War and Peace,' the Ambassadors Staircase, and the Great Hall of Mirrors.' Interior design from this period is known as Louis XIV-style,' originated by Le Brun, and characterized by red and gold richly-

Notre and sculpted by Gaspard and Balthazar Marsy between 1668-1670. This fountain depicts scenes from Ovids

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Metamorphoses, chosen as allegories to revolts during the kings reign. The Bassin dApollon is another fountain, which depicts the sun god driving his chariot to light the sky. The Grotte de Thetys is a freestanding structure with an interior decorated in elaborate shell-work to represent the myth of Apollo. A common feature of sculpture and decoration at Versailles is the use of classical mythology as allegory. The Grande Canal is a notable feature of the gardens, with an impressive length of 1500 by 62 metres. King Louis XIV ordered the construction of little Venice on the Grand Canal, which housed yachts, gondolas and gondoliers received from Venice. It also served a functional purpose by gathering the water that drained from the fountains and redistributing it to the gardens by horse-powered pump. The Grande Commande is a series of twenty-four statues that were commissioned by Louis XIV to decorate the gardens. The statues illustrate the classic quaternities of the Four Humors, the Four Parts of the Day, the Four Parts of the World, The Four Forms of Poetry, the Four Elements and the Four Seasons. Four additional sculptures depict abductions from classical mythology.
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Painting
17th century painting in France was inuenced by Italian Baroque sensibilities as well as the Classical tastes of the powerful monarchy.
KEY POINTS

Important painters of 17th century in France include Simon Vouet, Charles Le Brun, Nicolas Poussin, Claude Lorrain, and Georges de la Tour. Charles Le Brun was a student of Vouet and the most important painter in the court of King Louis XIV, responsible for the interior decoration at the Palace of Versailles. Nicolas Poussin is known for his Classical style paintings that favor clarity, logic, order and clean lines over color. Georges de la Tour was a French Baroque painter known for painting religious chiaroscuro scenes. Claude Lorrain is known particularly for his work in landscape paintings. King Louis XIV established the Academy of Painting and Sculpture, which propagated a style of art with distinctly Classical affectation.

17th century painting in France was influenced by Italian Baroque sensibilities as well as the Classical tastes of the powerful monarchy.

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These two strong influences resulted in a style that was unique to France and culminated in the art produced for King Louis XIV. The reign of Louis XIV saw a shift from Mannerist and Baroque styles popular in the early part of the century, during the reign Louis XIII, towards a more prescribed, Classical style. Louis XIV established royal control over artisanal production in France, prohibiting the purchase of luxury goods from abroad. He also established the Academy of Painting and Sculpture, which maintained a hierarchy of genres in painting and a distinctly Classical flavor. Important

painters of 17th century France include Simon Vouet, Charles Le Brun, Nicolas Poussin, Claude Lorrain, and Georges de la Tour. Simon Vouet is known for introducing Baroque style painting to France. He studied in Italy and learned the techniques of the Italian masters, which he imbued with his own sensibilities. He was made premier peintre du Roi by Louis XIII, who commissioned numerous works from him. Charles Le Brun was Vouets most influential pupil, and was to become an important painter in the court of King Louis XIV. Charles Le Brun worked primarily for King Louis XIV, and his most important works reside at the Palace of Versailles. Mostly producing battle pieces and altarpieces, Le Bruns
Nicolas Poussin is known for his Classical style paintings created in 17th"century France. His work features clarity, logic, order and clean lines over color, and serves as a counterpoint to Baroque style painting.

Figure 27.32 Nicolas Poussin, Echo and Narcissus.

Figure 27.31 Charles Le Brun,!The Conquest of Franche-Comt

Charles Le Brun worked primarily for King Louis XIV, and his most important works reside at the Palace of Versailles. Mostly producing battle pieces and altarpieces, Le Bruns paintings exemplify a synthesis of Baroque and Classical styles.

paintings exemplify a synthesis of Baroque and Classical styles (Figure 27.31).

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Nicolas Poussin is known for his Classical style paintings created in 17th century France. His work features clarity, logic, order and clean
Figure 27.33 Georges De La Tour,!Bende Maria Magdalena (Magdalena Terf)

17th century painting in France was divided: on the one hand there was influence from the Italian Baroque style as seen in the work of De La Tour; on the other was a distinctive turn towards a rigid, classical style that was favored by the monarchy, and exemplified by the works of Le Brun, Poussin, and Lorrain. The convergence of these two styles gave 17th century painting an aesthetic tone which was wholly unique to France.
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lines over color, and serves as a counterpoint to Baroque style painting (Figure 27.32). He spent most of his life working in Rome and became a favorite painter of King Louis XIV. Claude Lorrain is known particularly for his work in landscape paintings. He earned the patronage of Pope Urban VIII, after which his fame grew rapidly. Lorrain and Poussin were friends and were known to have traveled the Italian countryside together.

Georges de la Tour was a French Baroque painter known for painting religious chiaroscuro scenes lit by candlelight. His work shows a great deal of inuence from Caravaggio, characterized by the painted e!ects of light and dark, but is unique in that he applies this technique to genre subjects.

Georges de la Tour was a French Baroque painter known for painting religious chiaroscuro scenes lit by candlelight. His work shows a great deal of influence from Caravaggio, characterized by the painted effects of light and

dark, but is unique in that he applies this technique to genre subjects (Figure 27.33).

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Section 7

England

Architecture

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Architecture
English architecture during the 17th century can be characterized by its use of Palladian, Jacobean and English Baroque styles.
KEY POINTS

Baroque architecture, a distinctly English take on the Italian Baroque style, became prevalent during the later part of the 17th century, after the Great Fire of London. Inigo Jones, one of the first significant English architects, is known for introducing the Italianate Renaissance style to England. Jones is responsible for the Queens House at Greenwich (1635, (Figure 27.34), and the Banqueting House in the Palace of Whitehall (1622), which he designed based on the work of Palladio, an influential Italian Classical-style architect, with a ceiling painted by Peter Paul Rubens. Palladian architecture is highly symmetrical and based on the principles of formal Classical temple architecture of the ancient Greeks and Romans. Palladian architecture is seen during the 17th
The Queen's House at Greenwich was built by Inigo Jones, one of the rst signicant English architects known for introducing the Italianate Renaissance style to England. Figure 27.34 The Queen's House at Greenwich

Inigo Jones is known for introducing Palladian architecture to England. Popular during the early 17th century, Jacobean style can be classified by its adoption of decadent and detailed Renaissance motifs such as columns and pilasters, round arch arcades and flat roofs with openwork parapets e.g. Hatfield House. The architect Sir Christopher Wren was responsible for the genesis of the English Baroque style and designed St. Paul's Cathedral. After the Great FIre of London in 1666, Wren rebuilt many of the city's churches.

The architecture in England during the 17th century saw a continuation of the use of Classical forms, which eventually gave way to a uniform style, derived chiefly from Italy and exemplified predominantly in the work of Inigo Jones. Jacobean architecture was prominent in the first quarter of the 17th century and English

century in England with works by Jones and became truly prominent in the 18th century. The second phase of Renaissance architecture in England is termed Jacobean style. This style was popular during the first quarter of the

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17th during the reign of King James I. Chronologically following the Elizabethan style, Jacobean style can be classified by its adoption of decadent and detailed Renaissance motifs such as columns and pilasters, round arch arcades and flat roofs with openwork parapets. These classical motifs were, however,
Figure 27.35 St. Paul's Cathedral

Popular from 1666 to about 1715, English Baroque architecture can be characterized by heavy structures adorned with elaborate decoration, but tends to be relatively plain, with more Classical subtleties, compared to the Baroque architecture of the continent that was being built at the same time. Baroque country houses, such as Chatsworth House (Figure 27.36) by William

Figure 27.36 Chatsworth House, England

not strictly applied (as they were by Inigo Jones) but used rather freely and synthesized with elements of Elizabethan style architecture. Architectural examples of the style include Hatfield House, Knole House and Holland House by John Thorpe. The later 17th century saw Baroque architecture come to prominence in a

Built by Christopher Wren, St. Paul's Cathedral is the only English cathedral in the Classical tradition.

style that is termed English Baroque. It was the architect Christopher Wren, one of the most acclaimed English architects in history, who was

English Baroque architecture can be characterized by heavy structures adorned with elaborate decoration, but tends to be relatively plain, with more Classical subtleties, compared to the Baroque architecture of the continent that was being built at the same time. Baroque country houses, such as Chatsworth House by William Talman and Castle Howard by Vanbrugh and Hawksmoor, began to appear in the 1690s.

Talman and Castle Howard by Vanbrugh and Hawksmoor, began to appear in the 1690s. The most significant architects after Wren were Sir John Vanbrugh and Nicholas Hawksmoor who built Castle Howard (1699) and Blenheim Palace (1705).
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responsible for the genesis of the English Baroque style. When the Great Fire of London in 1666 forced much of the city to be rebuilt, Wren was hired to replace many of the churches. His most ambitious construction, St. Pauls Cathedral (Figure 27.35), a magnificent piece of architecture, is the only English cathedral in the Classical tradition.

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Chapter 28

South and Southeast Asia After 1200

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Section 1

India

Buddhist Art Jain Art Hindu Art Sultanate of Delhi Vijayanagar Empire Mughal Empire Hindu Rajput Kingdoms Nayak Dynasty

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Buddhist Art
Buddhist art originated in India in the 6th century BC and and evolved as it came into contact with other cultures in Asia.
KEY POINTS

of the Buddha ("the awakened one"). Born to a royal family and originally named Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha abjured worldly life to live as an ascetic and teach in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent during the sixth and fifth centuries BC. Buddhist art flourished in India following the establishment of the religion and a sizeable base of followers. In India, there are two broad phases of Buddhist art: the Pre-iconic phase that lasted from the 5th to the 1st centuries BC, and the Iconic phase from the 1st century AD to the present day. As Buddhism expanded outside of India from the first century AD onward, Buddhist art and architecture came into contact with different cultures that were adopting new artistic influences. Central and Eastern Asia practiced Mahayana Buddhism, which formed the Northern branch of Buddhist art. Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka practiced Theravada Buddhism, which formed the Southern branch of Buddhist art. Early Buddhist Art and Architecture: The Pre-Iconic Phase Buddhist architecture emerged after the Buddha's death, building

Buddhist art in India has two phases: the Pre-Iconic phase where the Buddha was represented by abstract symbols instead of anthropomorphic figures; and the Iconic phase during which representations of the Buddha in human form developed for the first time. There are two separate strands of Buddhist art in Asia: the Northern Branch, which encompasses Central Asia, China, Japan, and Korea where Mahayana Buddhism is practiced; and the Southern Branch which encompasses Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia, where Theravada Buddhism is practiced. The initial impact of Islam on Buddhist art was generally destructive, as Muslim invaders destroyed many Buddhist monasteries and artifacts. By the end of the 12th century, Buddhism in India remained only in select regions of the country.

Buddhist Art Buddhism is a religion indigenous to the Indian subcontinent that emerged in the fifth and fourth centuries BC, based on the teachings

on the model of the Brahminist Hindu temple that contained an inner sanctum, a surrounding ambulatory route, and a columned porch. They incorporated specifically Buddhist symbols such as the

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eight-spoked dharmachakra, the wheel of life that symbolized the Buddha's teaching of the path to enlightenment. Another characteristic feature of Buddhist architecture was the stupa, a mound-like structure housing the relics of holy men (Figure 28.1). From the 2nd to the 1st
Figure 28.1 The Great Stupa at Sanchi

Gandhara had benefited from centuries of interaction with Greek culture following the conquests of Alexander the Great in 332 BC, leading to the development of Greco-Buddhist art, characterized by wavy hair, detailed flowing drapery, and shoes or sandals The Buddhist art of Mathura, in contrast, was based on native Indian traditions. The two styles were characterized by a high degree of realism. Influencing each other strongly, they formed an iconographic canon for subsequent Buddhist art (Figure 28.3). Buddhist art continued to develop in India through the 4th and 6th centuries AD. The pink sandstone sculptures of the Gupta period were particularly influential in Southeast Asia. By the 10th century, the creation of new Buddhist art in India was waning and disappeared by the 12th
Sculptural frieze of the footprint of the Buddha. 1st century BC, Gandhara. Pre-iconic Buddhist art avoided anthropomorphic representations of the Buddha and used symbols such as footprints to indicate his presence in a sculpture. Figure 28.2 Footprint of the Buddha

century BC, Buddhist sites were decorated with votive tablets and sculptural friezes. These sculptures avoided anthropomorphic representations of the Buddha even in scenes where other human figures were present. His presence was indicated through symbols such as the wheel, a footprint, or an empty seat (Figure 28. 2).

The Great Stupa at Sanchi is the oldest stone structure of its kind in India and was commissioned by the Maurya emperor Ashoka the Great in the 3rd century BC. It contains the relics of the Buddha and is decorated with ne examples of pre-iconic Buddhist sculpture.

The Iconic Phase Anthropomorphic representations of the Buddha began to emerge in the 1st century AD in the Mathura and the Gandhara kingdoms in Northern India, which reached their zenith between the 1st and 5th centuries AD under the Buddhist Kushan kings. The art of

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century, due to the expansion of Islam. It continued, however, to expand through the Himalayan kingdoms and in East and
Figure 28.3 Gandhara Buddha

under governmental sponsorship. Japan also developed an extremely rich figurative art for the pantheon of Buddhist deities. Southern Buddhist Art Buddhism traveled to Southeast Asia through maritime trade routes in the Indian Ocean. The Pali and Sanskrit languages and the Indian script, together with Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism, Brahmanism and Hinduism, were transmitted from direct contact, through sacred texts, and Indian literature such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Theravada Buddhism was transmitted to Burma, Siam (Thailand), lower Cambodia, Southern Vietnam, and Indonesia. They largely influenced the direction Buddhist art would take in Southeast Asia. Several very powerful empires formed in Southeast Asia between the 9th and 13th centuries. These powers, including the Sri Vijaya Empire based in Sumatra, the Khmer Empire in Cambodia, and the ethnic Thai kingdom of Sukhothai, were very active in Buddhist architectural and artistic creation. The construction of vast Buddhist temple complexes played a particularly important role in this artistic creation.
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Southeast Asia. Northern Buddhist Art The Silk Road transmission of Buddhism to Central Asia, China, and ultimately Japan and Korea started in the 1st century AD, where the Mahayana branch of Buddhism was developed and practiced. Buddhist art persisted for several centuries in Bactria (modern Afghanistan) and Central Asia until the advent of Islam in the 7th century AD. They spread

Representation of the Buddha in the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara, 1st - 2nd century AD.

from eastern Central Asia to China, which favored solemn and abstract representations of the Buddha under

the Northern Dynasties of the 5th and 6th centuries, and more lifelike, classically Indian depictions under the Tang Dynasty until 845. Buddhism was introduced in Japan in the 6th century and adopted by the state in the 7th. Numerous temples and monasteries were built in Japan, and countless sculptures and paintings made

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Jain Art
Jainism has inuenced and contributed to many artistic spheres in India, such as painting, sculpture, and architecture.

worldly life to become an ascetic and establish the central tenets of Jainism. Jainism found favor with the merchant classes and also with several powerful rulers. Chandragupta Maurya (born c. 340
Figure 28.4 The two Jain Tirthankaras, British museum

KEY POINTS

BC, ruled c. 320 BC - 298 BC), the founder of the great Maurya Empire, who had succeeded in conquering almost the entire Indian subcontinent, abdicated his throne at the age of 42 to become a Jain monk. Samprati, also a emperor of the Maurya dynasty and the grandson of Ashoka the Great (304 - 232 BC) also became a Jain. Both Chandragupta and Samprati were responsible for spreading Jainism in southern and eastern India.
This sculpture represents the Tirthankaras, or two founders of Jainism. On the left is Rishabha, who was the rst of the 24 tirthankaras. On the right is Mahavira, the last of those 24, who consolidated and reformed the religious and philosophical system.

Common themes in Jain painting and sculpture are the Tirthankaras or saviors, the yakshas and yakshinis or supernatural guardian deities, and symbols such as the lotus and the swastika, which represents peace and well-being. A large number of Jain palm leaf manuscripts have survived from the 10th to the 14th centuries with illustrations in the sharp and angular Western Indian style of art. Figures are shown in profile except for the Tirthankaras who are depicted in full-face view. From the 14th century onward, the increased availability of paper allowed the production of larger and more elaborate Jain illustrated manuscripts.

Jainism is a transtheistic religion prescribing non-violence toward all living beings that originated in the Indian subcontinent in the sixth century. Its founder Mahavira (c. 540 - 468 BC) was born into a royal family, but was possessed of a spiritual bent, renouncing

Jain Art and Architecture

For the most part, artists in ancient India belonged to nondenominational guilds who were prepared to lend their services to any patron, whether Hindu, Buddhist, or Jain. The styles they used

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were a function of the time and place rather than the religion. Therefore, Jain art from this period is stylistically similar to Hindu or Buddhist art, although its themes and iconography are specifically Jain. Popular themes and icons in Jain art include the Tirthankaras (Jain saviors: human beings who achieved the ultimate spiritual salvation and served as role models for society), yakshas and yakshinis (supernatural male and female guardian deities), and holy symbols such as the swastika which symbolized peace and wellbeing (Figure 28.4). The earliest Jain monuments were temples based on the Brahmanical Hindu temple plan and monasteries for Jain monks. Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves Among the earliest Jain monuments are the Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves, located near the city of Bhubaneshwar in Orissa, India. These caves are partly natural and partly manmade and were carved out as residential blocks for Jain monks during the reign of King Kharavela of Kalinga (ruled 193 - 170 BC). The caves bear inscriptions and sculptural friezes depicting Tirthankaras, elephants, women, and geese.

The Statue of Bahubali A colossal monolithic statue of Bahubali at Shravanbelagola, the Jain siddha (one who has attained spiritual salvation), located in Karnataka in southern India, is one of the most sacred pilgrimage sites for Jains. The statue was carved in 981 AD out of a single block of granite. The statue stands 55 feet high and is completely nude, as is customary in the Jain tradition. The Dilwara Temples Built under Chalukya rule in Rajasthan between the 11th and 13th centuries AD, the Dilwara Temple complex consists of five ornately carved marble temples, each dedicated to a different Tirthankara. The largest temple in the complex, the Vimal Vasahi Temple, was built in 1021 and is dedicated to the TirthankaraRishabha. Among its most remarkable features are the rang manda, a grand hall supported by twelve pillars and surmounted by a breathtaking central dome, and the navchowki, a
This is the interior of a richly carved marble dome in the Dilwara Temple complex that represents Jain Tirthankaras. Figure 28.5 Domed ceiling detail

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collection of nine rectangular ceilings, also richly carved. The pillars in the main hall are carved into the likenesses of women playing musical instruments and the sixteen vidyadevis or goddesses of knowledge, each holding a symbol representing her individual branch of learning (Figure 28.5). Jain Illustrated Manuscripts A large number of illustrated manuscripts commissioned by members of the Jain community have survived from between the tenth and fourteenth centuries, representing the Western Indian style of art. Painted on palm leaf, these illustrations rely on sharp outlines for effect, becoming progressively more angular and wiry until barely a trace of naturalism is left. The figures are shown in profile, as the full-face view was reserved for the Jain Tirthankaras. A common feature of this style is the projection of an eye beyond the face shown in profile, meant to indicate the second eye which would not be visible in this position. Only a few colors are used: yellow, green, blue, black, and red.The earliest illustrations are simple icons in small panels, but they gradually become more elaborate, depicting scenes from the lives of various Tirthankarasin detail. The increased availability of paper from the late 14th century enabled artists to paint more elaborate illustrations. A 15th-century manuscript of Kalpasutra, a Jain text containing the biographies of

Figure 28.6 Jain Kalpasutra manuscript

This illustration is from a Jain Kalpasutra manuscript, 1470 - 1500 AD. It uses opaque watercolor and gold on paper.

the Tirthankaras is particularly opulent. The text is written in gold and the margins are illuminated with figural patterns. Paintings in lavish blue, gold, and red, testifying to the wealth of the patron, often take up an entire page (Figure 28.6). With some minor variations, the western style of Indian art endured throughout the 16th century and into the 17th century. The rise in Islam contributed to the decline of Jain art but did not result in its total elimination.
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Hindu Art
Hindu art represents a plurality of beliefs and has deeply inuenced the painting, sculpture, and architecture of the Indian subcontinent.

Hinduism is the predominant religion of the Indian subcontinent. Dating back to the Iron Age, it is often called the oldest living religion in the world. Hinduism has no single founder and is a conglomeration of diverse traditions and philosophies rather than a rigid set of beliefs. Most Hindus believe in a single supreme God who appears in
Figure 28.7 Shiva Nataraja, the Lord of the Dance

KEY POINTS

many different manifestations as devas (celestial beings or deities) and may worship specific devas as individual facets of the same God. Hindu art reflects this plurality of beliefs, and Hindu temples, in which architecture and sculpture are inextricably connected, are usually devoted to different deities. Deities commonly worshiped include Shiva the Destroyer, Vishnu in his incarnations as Rama and Krishna, Ganesha, the elephant god of prosperity, and different forms of the goddess Shakti (literally, "power"), the primordial feminine creative principle. These deities are often portrayed with multiple limbs and heads, demonstrating the extent of the god's power and ability. Hindu art is also characterized by a number of recurring holy
Nataraja from Tamil Nadu, India. Chola dynasty copper alloy sculpture, ca. 950 - 1000 CE. The deity is depicted as having multiple arms, as is common for idols of Hindu gods.

Architecture and sculpture are inextricably linked in Hindu temples, which are usually devoted to a number of different deities. Deities are often portrayed with multiple limbs and heads. A Hindu temple generally consists of an inner sanctum, in which the idol of the deity is housed, a congregation hall, and sometimes an antechamber and porch. The garba griha is surmounted by a tall tower. Two main styles of temples exist in India: the north Indian Nagara style, characterized by a beehive shaped central tower, and the south Indian Dravida style, characterized by a graduated tower with multiple layered pavilions. The period between the 6th and 12th centuries was marked by the appearance of a large number of Hindu states and was a productive and creative period for Hindu temple architecture. Some popular icons in Hindu art include the swastika, the om, and the lotus.

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symbols, including the om, an invocation of the divine consciousness of God, the swastika, a symbol of auspiciousness, and the lotus flower, a symbol of purity, beauty, fertility and transcendence (Figure 28.7). A Hindu temple generally consists of a garba griha (literally, "womb chamber"), the inner sanctum in which the murti,or idol of the deity, is housed, a congregation hall, and sometimes an antechamber and porch. The garba griha is surmounted by a shikhara,or tower. Two main styles of temples exist in India: the northern, or Nagara, style, in which the shikhara takes the shape of a curvilinear beehive, and the southern, or Dravida, style, in which the tower, also called a gopuram, consists of progressive smaller stories of pavilions (Figure 28.8). The earliest Hindu temples found in India date back to the Gupta period (ca. 320 550 CE), one of which is the Dashavatara Vishnu Temple in Deogarh in central India, built ca. 500 CE. The period between the 6th and 12th centuries was
The 11th-century Lingaraj Temple is a ne example of the north Indian Nagara style of temple architecture, marked by its curvilinear, beehive-shaped shikhara. Figure 28.8 Lingaraj Temple, Bhubaneshwar, Orissa

marked by the appearance of a large number of states, most of which were ruled by Hindu dynasties. This was a deeply productive and creative period for Hindu temple architecture and many beautiful examples survive to the present day, including the monumental, rock-cut Kailashnath Temple (754 - 774 CE) dedicated to Shiva at Ellora in the western state of Maharashtra, the 11thcentury Brihadeeswarar Temple in Tanjore in the southern state of Tamil Nadu, which is India's largest temple, and the Sun Temple (1238 - 1250 CE) at Konarak in Orissa (Figure 28.9). Although many Hindu temples were destroyed during the period of Muslim rule in India (12th - 18th centuries),
The Brihadeeswarar Temple in Tanjore has the tallest Dravida-style tower (216 feet) in India. The multiple stories are ornately carved. Figure 28.9 Brihadeeswarar Temple Gopuram Detail

Hindu influence on Indian art and architecture has withstood the test of time and continues to shape works of art.
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Sultanate of Delhi
Indo-Islamic art and architecture emerged in India under the Delhi Sultanate during the 13th to 16th centuries.
KEY POINTS

The five dynasties were: the Mamluk Dynasty (1206-1290) the Khilji Dynasty (1290-1320) the Tughlaq Dynasty (1320-1414) the Sayyid Dynasty (1414-1451) the Afghan Lodi Dynasty (1451-1526) The early rulers of the Delhi Sultanate are often viewed as iconoclastic pillagers, best known for their indiscriminate destruction of Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain temples; acting on Islamic prohibitions of anthropomorphic representations in art, and the attendent outrage that the sumptuously-realistic Indian sculptures and paintings would have caused them. However, the fusion of indigenous and Muslim customs and styles

The Delhi Sultanate's greatest contribution to Indian fine arts was the introduction of Islamic architectural features, including true domes and arches, and the integration of Indian and Islamic styles of architecture. Built by the first sultan of Delhi, the Qutb Minar is the tallest minaret in India. The Delhi Sultanate patronized painting despite Islamic injunctions against anthropomorphic figures in art, and developed an Indo-Persian style that drew heavily both from schools in Iran and from Jain paintings.

The Delhi Sultanate This term refers to the five short-lived kingdoms or sultanates of Turkic and Pashtun (Afghan) origin that ruled Delhi between 1206 and 1526, when the last of their line was overthrown by the Mughals.

under the Delhi Sultanate gave rise to the beginnings of IndoIslamic art and architecture, which reached its zenith under the Mughal emperors. Architecture The Sultanate's greatest contribution to the fine arts of India lies in their Indo-Islamic architecture. Qutb-ud-din Aibak, the governor of Delhi and subsequently, the first sultan of the Delhi Sultanate

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(ruled 1206-1210 AD), started the construction of the Qutb Minar in 1192, which was completed after his death by his successor Iltutmish. Made of fluted red sandstone and marble, the Qutb Minar is the tallest minaret in India, standing at a height of 238 feet. It comprises several superposed flanged and cylindrical shafts, separated by balconies supported by Muqarnas corbels (an architectural ornamentation reminiscent of stalactites employed in traditional Islamic and Persian architecture). The walls of the minaret are covered with Indian floral motifs and verses from the Quran (Figure 28.10). The Qutb Minar is located in Mehrauli Archeological Park, which also contains other fine examples of Delhi Sultanate architecture, including the tomb of the sultan Balban (reigned 1266-1287 AD), the first known building in India to feature a true arch. Another building of historical importance in the develoment of Indo-Islamic architecture is the Alai Darwaza, the main gateway on
One of the earliest and best known of the Delhi Sultanate architectural monuments, and also the tallest minaret in India. Its accompanying gateway, the Alai Darwaza bears the rst surviving true dome in India. Figure 28.10 The Qutb Minar and the Alai Darwaza

the southern side of the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque. Built by the second Khilji sultan of Delhi, Ala-ud-din Khilji in 1311 AD, it features the earliest-surviving true dome in India. There is little architecture remaining from the Sayyid and Lodi periods, but a few fine examples survive in Lodi Gardens in Delhi, including the tomb of Mohammad Shah, the last sultan of the Sayyid Dynasty, built in 1444. It is characterized by an octagonal main chamber with Islamic pointed arches, stone chhajjas (projecting eaves supported by carved brackets borrowed by Muslim empires from Hindu architecture) and guldastas (ornamental flower-shaped pinnacles) on the roof, both of which would eventually become common feaures of Mughal architecture. Art Scholars previously believed that the Delhi Sultanate did not patronize painting because of the Islamic injunction against the portrayal of living beings in art. However, literary evidence and the discovery of illustrated manuscripts from the period suggests otherwise, and royal painting workshops appear to have flourished under more liberal rulers. The painting style of the Delhi Sultanate borrowed heavily from the flourishing traditions of Islamic painting abroad, resulting in the development of an Indo-Persian style, based essentially on the

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schools of Iran but influenced by


Figure 28.11 "Rustam Kills the Turanian Hero Alkus with his Lance."

the individual tastes of Indian rulers and local styles. The earliest known examples date from the 15th century, including a copy of the Shahnama or Book of Kings, created under Lodi rule, which bears a close relationship to contemporary Jain paintings. Features of Delhi Sultanate paintings that are based on Indian traditions include groups of people standing in rows and identical poses, narrow bands of decoration running across the

Vijayanagar Empire
The Vijayanagar Empire ruled in South India from 1336 until 1646 and left a lasting legacy of architecture, sculpture, and painting.

KEY POINTS

Shahnama, Delhi Sultanate, c. 1450."This miniature comes from a manuscript made by an artist who was highly inuenced by Jain art from western India. Both the intense palette and the depiction of gures di!er from those found in other Islamic painting.

Vijayanagara architecture is a vibrant combination of the Chalukya, Hoysala, Pandya, and Chola styles, which evolved from prior empires in earlier centuries. It is also influenced by later Deccan and Dravidian styles. It uses granite as its main building material. Vijayanagar temples are characterized by ornate pillared halls and rayagopurams, or monumental towers adorned with lifesized figures of gods and goddesses that stand at the entrance of the temple. The courtly architecture of Vijayanagar is generally made of mortar mixed with stone rubble and often shows secular styles with Islamic-influenced arches, domes, and vaults. The Vijayanagar School of Painting is renowned for its frescoes of Hindu gods and goddesses and scenes from Hindu mythology on temple walls and ceilings.

width of the painting, and bright and unusual colors that replace the muted hues found in earlier Timurid painting (Figure 28.11).
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The Vijayanagar Empire was a Hindu empire based in the Deccan plateau region of South India. Established in 1336 by Harihara I (ruled 1336-135 CE), it enjoyed its greatest political and cultural

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prominence under Emperor Krishna Deva Raya (ruled 1509-1529 CE) and lasted until 1646, when it was conquered by the Muslim Sultans of Bijapur and Golkonda. The empire's patronage enabled its fine arts and literature to rise to new heights, and its legacy of sculpture, painting, and architecture influenced the development of the arts in South India long after the empire came to an end. There were great innovations in Hindu temple construction during this period, and many diverse templebuilding traditions and styles in South India came together in the Vijayanagar style of architecture, the finest examples of which are to be found in the capital Hampi. Vijayanagar Architecture and Sculpture Vijayanagar-era architecture can be broadly classified into religious, courtly, and civic architecture. Its style is a harmonious combination of the Chalukya, Hoysala, Pandya, and Chola styles which evolved in earlier centuries and represents a return to the simplicity and serenity of the past. Preferred for its durability, local hard granite was the building material of choice, as it had been for the Badami Chalukyas, but soapstone, which was soft and easily carved, was also used for reliefs and sculptures. In order to cover the unevenness of the stone used in sculptures, artists employed brightly-painted plaster to smooth over and finish rough surfaces.

Temples Vijayanagar temples are surrounded by strong enclosures and characterized by ornate pillared kalyanamandapa (marriage halls), tall rayagopurams (carved monumental towers at the entrance of the temple) built of wood, brick, and stucco in the Chola style, and adorned with life-sized figures of gods and goddesses. This dravida style became popular during the reign of Krishnadeva Raya and is seen in South Indian temples constructed over the next two centuries. Vijayanagar temples are also known for their carved pillars, which depict charging horses, figures from Hindu mythology, and yali (hippogriphs) (Figure 28.12). Some of the larger temples are dedicated to a male deity, with a separate shrine intended for the worship of his female counterpart. Another element of the Vijayanagar style is the carving of large, monolithic statues, such as the Sasivekalu Ganesha at Hampi. Some famous temples exemplifying the Vijayanagar style include the Virupaksha Temple
Pillars of Vijayanagar temples are often engraved with images of yali, or hippogri!s. Figure 28.12 Chandikesvara Temple in Hampi

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at Hampi and the Hazara Rama temple of Deva Raya I (Figure 28. 13). Palaces and Courtly Architecture No royal palace structures from the Vijayanagar period survive intact, and most of what is known about them has been drawn from archeological excavations at Hampi. Most of the palaces faced east or north and stood within compounds surrounded by high, tapering stone and earth walls. They were built on raised granite platforms with multiple tiers of mouldings decorated with carved friezes. Palaces usually spanned multiple levels and had tall flights of stairs flanked on either side by balustrades carved with yali and elephants. Pillars and beams were made of wood and the roofs of brick and lime concrete. The courtly architecture of Vijayanagar is generally made of mortar mixed with stone rubble and often shows secular styles with Islamic-influenced arches, domes, and vaults.
This temple has a particularly ne example of the tall, ornate rayagopuram popularized by Vijayanagar architecture. Figure 28.13 Virupaksha Temple, Hampi

The Vijayanagar School of Painting The Vijayanagar emperors were enthusiastic patrons of painting, and the Vijayanagar School of Painting was renowned for its frescoes of Hindu mythological themes on temple walls and ceilings. Mysore painting, an important form of South Indian classical painting, is an off-shoot of Vijayanagar painting and originated in the southern town of Mysore, in Karnataka, during the reign of the Vijayanagar emperors. Mysore paintings are known for their elegance, muted colors, and attention to detail. Popular themes include Hindu gods and goddesses and scenes from Hindu mythology. Vijayanagar art includes wall-paintings of the Dashavatara (The Ten Avatars of Vishnu) and the Girijakalyana (marriage of Parvati) at the Virupaksha Temple at Hampi (Figure 28.14).
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15th century, depicting scenes from Hindu mythology. Figure 28.14 Painted ceiling, Virupaksha Temple

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Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire spanned most of the Indian subcontinent from the 16th-19th centuries and contributed greatly to the Indian ne arts.
KEY POINTS

The Mughal Empire was an imperial power that ruled most of the Indian subcontinent from the 16th to the mid-18th century and continued to exist as a considerably weaker entity until 1857. The Mughals were a Muslim dynasty of Turkic-Mongol origin, descended from Genghis Khan and Timur. At the height of their power in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, they controlled most of the subcontinent, and their lands stretched over a territory of 1.2 million square miles. The History of the Great Mughals The Mughal dynasty was founded by Babur (r. 1526-1530 CE), a Mongol-Turkic prince from Ferghana (modern Uzbekistan). Ousted from his lands in Central Asia, he turned his attention to the fertile lands of the Delhi Sultanate in northern India. From his base in Kabul, which he conquered in 1504, he gradually captured more territory farther east. Babur finally defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the head of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat in 1526 (despite having a much smaller army), and took his kingdom, thus establishing the beginnings of the Mughal Empure. Babur's son, Humayun (r. 1530-40 and 1555-56), succeeded him in 1530 but lost most of his fledgling empire to Afghan enemies and was forced to go into exile. However, his son Akbar (r. 1556-1605), defeated the Hindu king Hemu Vikramaditya, who had seized

The Mughal dynasty was founded by Babur (ruled 1526-1530), a Mongol-Turkic prince from Central Asia. The emperor Akbar (ruled 1556-1605) extended the boundaries of the Mughal emperor through military conquests and diplomacy, set up efficient structures of government, and pursued policies of religious conciliation and harmony towards his Hindu subjects. Mughal architecture reached its zenith under Shah Jahan (ruled 1628-1658). The Taj Mahal was constructed during this period. The Mughal emperors were enthusiastic patrons of the arts. Their biggest contribution to the Indian arts were Mughal architecture and painting, both of which were amalgams of Persian and Turkic styles with local Indian styles. The Mughal Empire declined in political, economic, and cultural strength after the death of the emperor Aurangzeb in 1707 and finally collapsed at the hands of the British Raj in 1857.

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Figure 28.15 Western side of Taj Mahal at sunset

Akbar's son Jahangir (r. 1605-1627) built on his father's foundations of excellent administration, and his reign was similarly characterized by political and economic stability and cultural achievements. He also opened relations with the British East India Company. Jahangir was succeeded by his son, Shah Jahan (r. 1628-1658), who was a keen patron of culture. Mughal art and architecture reached its zenith under his rule. He erected many spectacular monuments, the most famous of which is the Taj Mahal in Agra (Figure 28.15).

The Taj Mahal is one of the nest examples of Indian architecture under the Mughal Empire. In 1983, it was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

A succession struggle for the Mughal throne ensued even while Shah Jahan was still alive. His third son, Aurangzeb, prevailed against his brothers and declared the ailing king incompetent to rule, putting him under house arrest. Following Shah Jahan's death, Aurangzeb became emperor, ruling from 1658-1707. He was a notable expansionist, and the Mughal Empire reached its greatest territorial extent under Aurangzeb and included almost all of present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and most of Afghanistan. A religious conservative, Aurangzeb chose not to tread the path of religious liberalism and tolerance that his predecessors had chosen. His religious intolerance, combined with his military and political expansionism, roused dissension among the Rajputs and the Hindu Maratha states in the Deccan Peninsula; he spent the last 26 years of his life and vast amounts of wealth trying to put down rebellions in the far reaches of his vast empire.

power in Delhi during Humayun's exile in the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556, thus reestablishing Mughal rule in northern India. Arguably the greatest of all Mughal emperors, Akbar was simultaneously an adept military leader who conquered vast swaths of northern and central India and a shrewd statesman who extended his empire by forging martial and marital alliances with his Hindu Rajput neighbors. He also was an exceptionally capable ruler, setting up efficient and durable administrative institutions of government, and a tolerant man who pursued policies of religious accommodation and harmony towards his Hindu subjects. The Mughal Empire under Akbar's reign experienced an unprecedented period of religious peace and economic and cultural progress.

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Decline of the Mughal Empire Aurangzeb died in 1707. His son, Bahadur Shah I, who lacked the military might and the strong
Figure 28.16 Mughal painting

strong economy under Mughal rule. The Mughal emperors were enthusiastic patrons of the arts, and their vast royal treasuries funded many cultural achievements. Most notable among their contributions to the culture of the Indian subcontinent were Mughal architecture and Mughal painting (Figure 28.16), both of which were an amalgam of Persian and Turkic styles with local styles. The Urdu language is another contribution, which continues to be the national language of Pakistan and a co-official language in India.
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leadership qualities of his father, proved unequal to governing an empire that had grown too big. Thereafter, a string of weak emperors, endless wars of succession, fiscal collapse, and persistent onslaughts from the Marathas in the south heralded the decline of the Mughal Empire. In 1739, a weakened Mughal Empire was defeated in battle by the conqueror Nader Shah, ruler of Iran, and continued to exist with only the most nominal power

A Mughal miniature painting, created between 1598 and 1602, is a watercolor on paper.

until 1857, when the last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah II, was overthrown by the British Raj.

Cultural Contributions The creation of a road system and a uniform currency, along with the unification of previously disparate territories, allowed for a

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Hindu Rajput Kingdoms


The Rajputs were patrilineal clans, ruling a majority of Hindu princely states in northern India between the 6th and 20th centuries.
KEY POINTS

The Rajputs (from Sanskrit raja-putra, "son of a king") are members of patrilineal clans in western, central, and northern India who claim to be descendants of the kshatriyas, the Hindu ruling warrior caste. The Rajputs rose to prominence between the 6th and 12th centuries, establishing the overwhelming majority of Hindu
Figure 28.17 Kandariya Mahadeva Temple, Khajuraho Complex

Claiming to be descendants of the Hindu ruling warrior caste, the Rajputs rose to prominence between the sixth and twelfth centuries, establishing the overwhelming majority of Hindu princely states in Rajasthan and Surashtra in northwestern India. During the period of Islamic invasions (11th through 16th centuries), the Rajput kingdoms proved to be the primary obstacle to the complete Muslim conquest of Hindu India. Under the Mughal emperor Akbar's reign (1556-1605 CE), the Rajputs accepted Mughal authority and were admitted into the emperor's court, given positions in his government and army, and formed martial and marital alliances with the emperor. Through their many centuries of rule in northern India, the Rajputs built spectacular temples, forts, and palaces and were eager patrons of painting. Rajput and Mughal art and architecture were also important influences on one another once the two powers came into contact.

The Khajuraho Group of Monuments in Madhya Pradesh, India, are the legacy of the Rajput Chandela Dynasty, who built the temples between 950 and 1150 CE. Khajuraho has the largest group of medieval Hindu temples and arguably the nest. The temples were built from sandstone, without mortar, and the stones are held in place solely by gravity. They are particularly famous for the erotic sculptures that adorn the temple spires and walls.

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princely states in Rajasthan and Surashtra in northwestern India, which they ruled until the twentieth century. The History of the Rajputs The origin of the Rajputs is a subject of debate, as the term was not used to designate any particular clan or social group before the 6th century CE. According to one theory, the invading Hephthalites, who ushered in the collapse of the Gupta dynasty in the late 6th century, were integrated into Indian society and given a ritual rank, kshatriya, within the Hindu caste system. From the beginning of the 9th century, these Rajput dynasties dominated many parts of northern India. Some important dynasties include the Chauhan Dynasty of Ajmer and Delhi, which ruled between 956 and 1192 and whose famous leader Prithviraj Chauhan defeated Muhammad of Ghor, a Persian conqueror, in battle; the Solanki Dynasty, which ruled present-day Gujarat between 945 and 1297; and the Chandela Dynasty, which ruled the Bundelkhand Region of central India between the 10th and 13th centuries and built the famous carved Hindu temples of Khajuraho between 950 and 1150 (Figure 28.17). During the period of Islamic invasions, the Rajput kingdoms proved to be the primary obstacle to the complete Muslim conquest of Hindu India. Even after the Punjab and the Ganges river valley fell

to Muslim armies, the Rajputs maintained their sovereignty in Rajasthan, in the forests of central India. Later, Sultan Alauddin Khilji of the Delhi Sultanate took the two Rajput forts of Chittor and Ranthambore, but he did not succeed in holding them. The Rajputs and the Mughals The Rajputs of Mewar were defeated by the Mughal emperor Babur in 1527 CE when he was in the process of establishing Mughal rule in India. His grandson, Akbar (r. 1556-1605), retook the forts of Chittor and Ranthambore in 1568-69 and then made a settlement with all the Rajput princes of Rajasthanwith the exception of Mewar, which continued to hold out against Mughal lordship. Accepting Mughal authority, the Rajputs were admitted into the emperor's court. Many Rajputs assumed positions in Akbar's government and army or formed martial and marital alliances with him. Mughal-Rajput relations suffered under the reign of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb (r. 1658-1707), who did not pursue the policy of religious accommodation of his predecessors. After the death of Aurangzeb and the subsequent decline of the Mughal empire, the Rajputs fell afoul of the Maratha Confederacy, an Indian power that covered much of the subcontinent and is credited with ending Mughal rule in India. At the end of the Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1818) between the Maratha Confederacy and the English East

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India Company, all the Rajput states in Rajasthan entered into a subsidiary alliance with the Company and became princely states under the British Raj.

important influences on one another once the two cultures came into contact (Figure 28.19).
Figure 28.19 City Palace, Udaipur

Figure 28.18 Jaisalmer Fort

Situated in Jaisalmer in the Indian state of Rajasthan, Jaisalmer Fort is one of the largest forts in the world. It was built in 1156 by the Bhati Rajput ruler Rao Jaisal and played a major role in trade with Persia, Arabia, Egypt, and Africa. The fort has three layers of walls and an ingenious drainage system that allows for easy drainage of rainwater away from the fort in all four directions. Built from yellow sandstone, it shines honey gold at sunset and is, consequently, also known as the Golden Fort. The palace complex in Udaipur Rajasthan was constructed by Maharana Udai Singh as the capital of the Sisodia Rajput clan in 1559. The largest of its type in Rajasthan, the Udaipur Palace is a amboyant fusion of Rajput and Mughal architectural styles.

Contributions to Art and Architecture Through their many centuries of rule in northern India, the Rajputs built spectacular forts and palaces (Figure -.-). They were also eager patrons of painting. Rajput and Mughal art and architecture were

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Nayak Dynasty
The Nayak reign in South India was renowned for its unique style of temple architecture and for the development of Tanjore painting.

century. Nayak rule was noted for its administrative reforms, its artistic and cultural achievements, and the creation of a unique style of temple architecture. They also renovated temples that had
Figure 28.20 Gopuram, Meenakshi Amman Temple

been sacked by the Delhi Sultans. Tanjore painting, a famous South Indian school of classical painting, also emerged under the Nayaks. Nayak Architecture The main characteristics of Nayak temple architecture as pioneered by the Nayaks of Madurai and Tanjore are the long corridors; the carved hundredpillared and thousand-pillared mandapas (outdoor temple halls or porches); and the high, multi-storied gopurams (towers adorning the entrance of a

KEY POINTS

The Nayak dynasties emerged in South India after the downfall of the Vijayanagar Empire in 1565, when the Nayak military governors declared independence and ruled from the 16th to 18th century. Nayak architectural style was characterized by elaborate hundred- and thousand-pillared mandapas, the high gopurams with painted stucco statues on the surface, and long corridors. The Nayak Dynasty is also known for its mural and wall paintings. Tanjore paintings from this time are known for their surface richness, vivid colors, and compact composition.

Nayak Dynasty The Nayak dynasties emerged in South India after the collapse of the Vijayanagar Empire. The Nayaks, former military governors of the Vijayanagar emperors, had declared their independence in 1565 and established their own kingdoms, ruling from the 16th to 18th

Gopurams from the Nayak Period are adorned with brightly-painted stucco statues of gods and goddesses, demons, and animals, both real and mythical.

temple), richly decorated with brightly-painted stone and stucco statues of animals, gods, and demons (Figure 28.20). Arguably the greatest example of the Nayak style is the Meenakshi Amman Temple at Madurai that was built between 1623 and 1655

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AD. The temple has ten ornate gopurams and a hall with 985 pillars, each of which is a sculpture in the Dravidian style (Figure 28.21). The temple complex also includes a sacred temple tank, the Porthamarai Kulam or Pond with the Golden Lotus. A portico on the west side of the tank contains remnants of Nayak paintings from the 17th and18th centuries. Nayak civic architecture combines Dravidian and Islamic styles, as exemplified by the palace erected by King Thirumalai Nayak of the Madurai Nayak dynasty in 1636 AD. The palace features an octagonal throne room topped by a dome that rises 70 feet, held up
Each pillar in these Nayak, many-pillared temple halls is carved in the shape of gods and goddesses or mythical beasts such as gri#ns. Figure 28.21 Hall of a Thousand Pillars, Meenakshi Amman Temple

by massive circular columns linked by Islamic pointed arches. The structure was constructed using foliated brickwork and the surface details finished in stucco mixed from shell lime and egg whites to provide a smooth and glossy texture. Painting Tanjore painting, a major form of classical South Indian painting, originated under the Nayaks of Tanjore around 1600 AD. Renowned for their surface richness, vivid colors, and compact composition, these paintings serve primarily as devotional icons. Hindu gods, goddesses, and saints are the most frequent subjects. Tanjore paintings are usually done on solid wooden planks. The artist began by making a preliminary sketch of the image on a base of cloth pasted onto the wood and applied a mixture of zinc oxide and adhesive to the base. After the drawing was completed, the jewelry and apparel on the image were decorated with semiprecious stones, lace, or thread. They applied a mixture of chalk powder and African gum for an embossed look, and the painting
Showing images of Nayak Kings and Queens at Srirangam Temple with inscriptions in Kannada language Figure 28.22 The Nayaka Murals

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was covered with gold foil and finished with dyes to color the figures. In Tanjore paintings, the figures are static and located in the center of the composition inside decorated arches or curtains. Eyes are broad and the outer lines are either brown or red, except for the god Krishna who's eyes are depicted in blue. Artists under Nayak rule also painted frescoes on the walls of buildings, usually temples, mostly featuring religious subjects or images of royal power (Figure 28.22). Coins The Nayaks issued coins made of gold and copper, featuring Hindu gods and goddesses such as Shiva and Parvati, figures of the king, and animals. Both real and mythical, the latter included bears, elephants, lions, and fish (the emblem of the Pandyas who had ruled Madurai before the Vijayanagar and Nayak rulers). The coins also carry inscriptions in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, and Nagari scripts.
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Section 2

Southeast Asia

Thailand Burma Vietnam Indonesia

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Thailand
Traditional Thai art primarily consists of Buddhist art with inuences from Thai folklore and Hinduism.
KEY POINTS

Traditional Thai art primarily consists of Buddhist art and, to a lesser extent, Hindu-influenced Thai folklore. Thai sculptures most often depict images of the Buddha and other characters from Buddhist and Hindu mythology, while Thai paintings comprise book illustrations and painted ornamentation of temples and palaces. The history of Buddhist art in Thailand until the 18th century can be divided into three broad phases: the Dwaravati period, the Sukhothai period, and the Ayutthaya period. Origins of Buddhist art in Thailand From the 1st to the 7th centuries, art in Thailand was influenced by direct contact with Indian traders and the expansion of the Mon Kingdom, leading to the creation of Hindu and Buddhist art inspired by the Gupta tradition of India. Dwaravati period (6th - 11th centuries) The Indian styles of the Amaravati and Gupta empires formed the basis of much of Dwaravati art, which produced both Hindu and
8th - 9th century. The continuous eyebrow and the thick lips are characteristic of the Amaravati style patronized by Dwaravati. Figure 28.23 Head of Buddha, Dvaravati kingdom

Thai sculptures depict images of the Buddha and other characters from Buddhist and Hindu mythology, while Thai paintings comprise book illustrations and painted ornamentation of temples and palaces. From the 1st to the 7th centuries, art in Thailand was influenced by direct contact with Indian traders and the expansion of the Mon Kingdom, leading to the creation of Hindu and Buddhist art inspired by Indian traditions. The history of Buddhist art in Thailand until the 18th century can be divided into three broad phases: the Dwaravati period (6th - 11th centuries), the Sukhothai (13th - 15th centuries) period, and the Ayutthaya period (14th - 18th centuries). The Sukhothai period witnessed the development of four classic postures of the Thai Buddha, namely, walking, standing, sitting, and reclining. Later Thai art was highly influenced by Sukhothai images and continued to imitate these postures. The most common form of Buddhist architecture seen in Thailand is the wat or monastery temple, which is characterized by multiple-tiered roofs.

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Buddhist images, usually taking the form of monumental statues. From the 9th century onward, Mahayana influences such as the Cambodian Khmer style in the north and the Sri Vijaya style in the south became more important. Dwaravati art came to represent the Mahayana pantheon, portraying of multiple creations of Bodhisattvas, or enlightened beings. Three important styles of portraying the Buddha emerged during the Dwaravati period, namely: 1. Buddha in the Tribhanga (leaning) position, with Indian features and no aureole. 2. Buddha in the Amaravati style with loosely folded legs, a continuous eyebrow, flat nose, thick lips, and a lotus-shaped aureole (Figure 28.23). 3. A square-faced Buddha with a cleft chin, Khmer features, and fully folded legs, sitting on a lotus base. Sukhothai period (13th - 15th centuries) Theravada Buddhism from Sri Lanka arrived in Thailand for the first time the 13th century, at the same time that the Sukhothai kingdom was established in north-central Thailand. Theravada Buddhism had a considerable influence on Sukhothai art, which favored highly stylized images of the Buddha-- cast with the

intention of depicting his superhuman traits, and in keeping with his canonical defining marks, as set out in ancient Buddhist texts. Sukhothai Buddhas usually had finely curled hair, a slight smile, broad shoulders, and a slender oval face, and were accompanied by a flame-shaped aureole. Small anatomical details were frequently omitted to emphasize the Buddha's spiritual aspects. The Sukhothai period witnessed the development of four classic postures of the Thai Buddha: walking, standing, sitting, and reclining. Later Thai art was highly influenced by Sukhothai images and continued to imitate these postures (Figure 28.24). Ayutthaya period (14th - 18th centuries)

Figure 28.24 Bronze walking Buddha, Thailand, Sukhothai kingdom, 15th century

The Sukhothai period witnessed the development of Buddha images in a walking position.

Ayutthaya sculptures were executed in stone, bronze, and brick and stucco. The period was characterized by juxtaposed rows of Buddha figures. The influence of the Sukhothai period continued to loom large, particularly in bronze Buddha images which were portrayed

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in Sukhothai poses. Artists of the late Ayutthaya period usually depicted the Buddha in royal attire, set on ornate bases. Sculptures were often gilded, or decorated with gold leaf in free-form designs on lacquer backgrounds (Figure 28.25). Thai Painting Traditional Thai paintings show subjects in two dimensions without perspective. An important element in the composition is the apportioning of areas: the main elements in the image are isolated from one another by space transformers, which eliminate the intermediate ground that would otherwise imply perspective. The size of each element in the picture reflects its degree of importance. The most frequent themes for Thai painting are illustrations of the Jataka tales (a vast body of fables about the previous incarnations of the Buddha, both in human and animal form), events from the life of the Buddha, the Buddhist
Gilded sculptures of the Buddha became popular during the Ayutthaya period. Figure 28.25 Standing Buddha, Thailand, Ayutthaya kingdom, 16th century

heavens and hells, and scenes from daily life. The paintings reflect a blend of Thai folklore and traditional Buddhist iconography. Thai Buddhist Architecture The most common form of Buddhist architecture seen in Thailand is the wat or monastery temple. It usually consists of two parts: the phuttawat or the area dedicated to the Buddha, and the sanghawat or the living quarters of the Buddhist monks. Multiple roof tiers are an important element of the Thai temple. Temples have two or three tiers, although royal temples may have four. Multiple tiers are used to lighten a roof's massive appearance, and individual layers themselves have multiple breaks, creating dynamic visual rhythms. Roofs are surrounded by a finial called the lamyong, sculpted in a serpentine shape, resembling the feathers of Garuda, a mythical bird-like creature from Hindu and Buddhist mythology. The lamyong is surmounted by a large, curving ornament called the chofah, which represents the beak of Garuda. Temples are also decorated with sculptures and paintings of the garuda, and other mythical beings from Hindu and Buddhist iconography, including the many-armed gods Vishnu and Shiva, the elephant god Ganesh, the naga or serpent deity, and the ghostbanishing giant Yaksha.

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Burma
Burmese art has been inuenced primarily by Theravada Buddhism with additional inuences from India, Thailand, and China.
KEY POINTS

Buddhist art and architecture first began to flourish in Burma under the Pyu city-states (2nd century BC - mid-11th century AD). The Pyu imported Buddhism from India and built solid stupas that served as inspiration for later Burmese temples. Under the Pagan Empire (849 - 1297 AD), two types of Buddhist temples developed: the stupa-style solid temple and the gu-style hollow temple. Two innovations in temple architecture of the Pagan period are pointed arches and vaulted chambers, and the pentagonal temple plan. There are three popular styles of Buddha images in Burma: the Ava style, the Mandalay style, and the Shan style.

Burmese art has been influenced primarily by Theravada Buddhism and the culture of the Mon people, with additional influences from India, Thailand, and China. Themes are commonly drawn from Buddhist and Hindu cosmology and myths. Burma is particularly renowned for its richness of

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Buddhist architecture, and is justifiably called "The Land of Pagodas." Buddhist monasteries and gilded pagodas dot the landscape. Buddhist art and architecture began to flourish in Burma under the Pyu city-states (2nd century BC - mid-11th century AD). Pyu culture was heavily influenced by trade with India, and imported Buddhism along with various Indian cultural, and architectural concepts. While Theravada Buddhism was the primary religion of the Pyu kingdoms, archeological finds indicate that Tantric Buddhism, Mahayana Buddhism, and Hinduism were also present. Figures from the Mahayana and Tantric pantheons, including Avalokiteshwara (a bodhisattva who embodies compassion) and Tara (a female Tantric meditation deity); Hindu deities, including the Hindu holy trinity of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva, and the goddess Lakshmi, were represented in Pyu art. Starting from the 4th century, the Pyu began to build stupas and other religious buildings. The styles, ground plans, and construction techniques used are very similar to those of Amaravati and Nagarjunakonda in the Andhra region in present-day south-eastern India. By the 7th century, the tall cylindrical solid stupas, characteristic of the Pyu reign, had emerged in the city of Sri Ksetra. These solid stupas served as models for later pagodas.

The Pyu city-states declined in the early 9th century when a new group of ethnic Burmans from the north entered and raided their lands, establishing the Pagan dynasty and eventually, overtaking the Pyu realm in the late-10th century. The Pagan state endured between 849 and 1297 AD, and laid the foundations for Burmese language and culture and the spread of Theravada Buddhism through all of Burma. The Pagan Empire is famous for its religious architecture. Over 2000 temples from the period survive to the present day in two broad architectural styles: the stupa-style solid temple, inherited from the Pyu city-states, and the gu-style hollow temple (Figure 28.26). During the Pagan period, the stupa developed into a longer, more cylindrical form than its Pyu predecessors at Sri Ksetra. By the 11th century, it had assumed a bell-like form, surmounted by a series of increasingly smaller rings, placed one on top of the other and rising
A view of the stupas in Bagan (formerly Pagan), the capital of the Pagan Empire. Figure 28.26 Pagan plains today

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to a point. A lotus or banana-bud topped these rings. Three or four rectangular terraces served as the base for a pagoda, often decorated by a gallery of terracotta tiles depicting the Jataka tales. One of the earliest examples of Pagan temple architecture is the Shwezigon Pagoda in Nyaung-U. It is considered a prototype of Burmese stupas and consists of a bell-shaped goldleaf-gilded stupa surrounded by smaller temples and shrines (Figure 28.27). The hollow gu-style temple comes in two basic styles: the one-face design with one main entrance, and the four-face design with four main entrances. The main features of these temples are pointed
Figure 28.27 Shwezigon Pagoda Completed in 1102 AD, this is one of the earliest examples of Pagan-style Buddhist temples. It is marked by a solid, bell-shaped stupa.

Buddhist temple with the pentagonal floor in order to honor the Maitreya Buddha, a future Buddha foretold of in Buddhist mythology. In addition to setting the model for subsequent Buddhist stupas and temples, the Pagan period also witnessed the production of beautiful jeweled statues of the Buddha. The Pagan Empire was succeeded by the Ava Kingdom, which ruled Upper Burma from 1364 to 1555. Ava rule was marked by the popularization of the Innwa style of Buddha, in which the Buddha has large protruding ears, exaggerated eyebrows that curve upward, half-closed eyes, thin lips, and a hair bun that is pointed at the top. Ava statues of the Buddha are also usually portrayed in the bhumisparsha mudra, in which the figure is seated with the right hand reaching for the ground, palm facing inward.
This gilded statue of the Buddha has naturally slanted brows, slanted eyes and round hair bun characteristic of the style. Figure 28.28 Mandalay-style Buddha statue, Shwedagon pagoda, Yangon, Myammar

arches and vaulted chambers which became larger and grander during the Pagan period. Vaulting was an innovation that developed independently in Pagan itself around the 11th century, and the masonry of these vaulted buildings is astonishingly perfect and durable. Another architectural innovation arising in Pagan is the

The Innwa stylecontinued to be popular in Burma until the end of the 18th century, when a markedly new style of Buddha image, the Mandalay style, emerged under the Konbaung dynasty (1752 -

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1885). The face of the Buddha in the Mandalay style was natural and fleshy with realistically-slanted eyebrows, slightly slanted eyes, thicker lips, and a round hair bun. These statues were portrayed wearing flowing, draped robes. Three postures were commonly depicted: reclining, standing, or sitting. Another common style of Buddha image is the Shan style, inherited from the Shan people who inhabit the highlands of Burma. Buddhas in the Shan style have angular features, large and prominently-pointed noses, and small, thin mouths (Figure 28.28).
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Vietnam
Traditional Vietnamese art and architecture has been been formed by the interaction of local customs with Chinese and Indian inuences.
KEY POINTS

The art of Northern Vietnam was strongly influenced by Chinese domination (111 BC - 939 AD), reflecting Confucian and Mahayana Buddhist traditions. Southern and central Vietnam were a part of the kingdom of Champa (ca. 500 1500 AD), and produced Indianized Hindu-Buddhist art. During the millennium of Chinese domination (111 BC to 939 AD), artists in the north of Vietnam began to apply newlylearned Chinese techniques to art, specifically ceramics, in conjunction with art created using traditional indigenous methods, including advanced bronze-casting. The period of rule under the L" Dynasty (1009 - 1225) is commonly considered a golden age in Vietnamese art, and its ceramics became famous across Southeast Asia and the Far East. Champa was an Indic civilization that flourished along the coasts of central and southern Vietnam between 500 and 1500 AD, lying on important trade routes linking India, China, and the Indonesian islands.

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KEY POINTS (cont.)

Chinese techniques to art, specifically ceramics, in conjunction with art created using traditional indigenous methods, including advanced bronze-casting. Chinese-influenced philosophies such as Confucianism, Mahayana Buddhism, and Taoism left lasting impressions on Vietnamese culture and art, which continued to flourish between the 10th and 15 centuries after Chinese dominance had waned. However, the ceramics from this period were considerably influenced by the Tang and Song dynasties of China. The period of rule under the L" Dynasty (1009 1225) is commonly considered a golden age in Vietnamese art, and its ceramics became famous across Southeast Asia and the Far East. Many Vietnamese landmarks were constructed during this period, including the Temple of Literature (a Confucian temple in Hanoi, built in 1070 and reconstructed
Built in 1070, this Confucian temple housed the Imperial Academy, Vietnam's rst national university. The temple layout is similar to that of the temple at Qufu, Shandong, Confuscius' birthplace. It covers an area of over 54,000 square meters, including the surrounding Lake of Literature, a park and the interior courtyards, which are enclosed by a brick wall. In front of the Great Gate are four tall pillars. On either side of the pillars are two stelae or stone tablets commanding horsemen to dismount. Figure 28.29 Temple of Literature, Main Gate, Hanoi

The artistic legacy of Champa consists of sandstone sculptures, both free-standing and in relief, and brick temples. Cham art and architecture synthesized from Hinduism, Buddhism, and different indigenous cults. The art and architecture of Champa was at its peak between the 7th and 10th centuries, after which it fell into a state of gradual decline. Worn out by external conflict, the kingdom fell in 1471 AD.

Vietnamese art and architecture has a long, rich history and has been shaped by the interaction of local customs with foreign cultures. The art of Northern Vietnam was strongly influenced by Chinese domination (2nd century BC - 10th century AD), and reflected Confucian and Mahayana Buddhist traditions. In contrast, southern and central Vietnam were a part of the Indic kingdom of Champa (ca. 500 - 1500 AD), and produced strongly Indianized HinduBuddhist art, with additional influences from Cambodia, China, and Java. The Art of Northern Vietnam During the millennium of Chinese domination (111 BC to 939 AD), artists in the north of Vietnam began to apply newly-learned

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between 1225 - 1400) and the One Pillar Pagoda (built in 1049 and widely regarded as one of Vietnam's most iconic Buddhist temples, (Figure 28.29). Vietnam was conquered and ruled by the Ming Dynasty of China between 1407 and 1427 AD. This period of Chinese domination was extremely harsh and many classical Vietnamese books were burnt as an extreme process of sinicization was enforced. Consequently, the art of this period was heavily influenced by the Ming Dynasty, a process which continued even after the liberation of Vietnam by the L Dynasty (1428 - 1788). The Nguy#n Dynasty, the last ruling dynasty of Vietnam, witnessed a renewed interest in ceramics and porcelain, which became famous and were imported to imperial courts across Asia.
The prole of this 13th century temple includes all the buildings typical of a Cham temple. From left to right one can see the kalan, the attached mandapa, the saddle-shaped kosgrha, and the gopura. Figure 28.30 Temple of Po Klaung Garai, Phanh Rang, Vietnam

The Art of Champa Champa was an Indic civilization that flourished along the coasts of central and southern Vietnam between 500 and 1500 AD, lying on important trade routes linking India, China, and the Indonesian islands. The artistic legacy of Champa consists primarily of sandstone sculptures, both freestanding and in relief, and brick buildings. Most of the surviving art expresses religious themes, synthesized from Hinduism, Buddhism, and different indigenous cults. The Cham built their temples from red brick. Temple complexes usually consisted of five parts: the kalan or sanctuary, usually in the form of a tower and used to house the deity, the mandapa or entry hallway, the kosagrha or fire-house, used to house the temple's valuables and to cook for the deity, and the gopura or gate-tower leading into the walled templed complex. This structure was typical for Hindu temples in general, not just in Champa but across Greater India. Some of the most significant temples of historical Champa include the temple of Yan Po Nagar, dedicated to the Hindu goddess Bhagavati outside Nha Trong, built between the 8th and 13th centuries, and Po Klaung Garai near Phan Rang (Figure 28.30). The Cham were famous for both their freestanding sandstone statues and their relief carvings, with some preference for the latter. The subject matter was mostly drawn from the legends and

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religious traditions of India and the sculptures feature Hindu and Buddhist deities, such as Shiva, Vishnu, Shakti (the divine feminine creative power in Hinduism), and Avalokiteshwara (the bodhisattva of compassion). Cham sculptors also erected numerous lingas or phallic posts connected with Shiva, and created some images that depart from Indian subject matter to reveal something of the lives and customs of the Cham. A few bronze sculptures and metal decorative items remain as well, dating from the 10th century AD. These include statues of Mahayana Buddhist deities such as Avalokiteshwara and Tara (a Buddhist female meditation deity), and bear a strong resemblance to the Indian Buddhist style of Amaravati (Figure 28.31). The art and architecture of Champa was at its peak between the 7th and 10th centuries, after which it fell into a state of gradual decline. The civilization tottered under persistent conflict with external
10th century Cham sculpture, sandstone. The gures are a dancing apsara (Hindu celestial nymph) and a gandharva (Hindu male nature spirit) musician. Figure 28.31 The Dancers' Pedestal of Tra Kieu

forces, culminating in 1471 AD with the conquest and obliteration of the capital Vijaya by the $%i Vi&t of northern Vietnam.
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Indonesia
Indonesian art has been shaped by interaction between indigenous customs and foreign inuences, including Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam.

KEY POINTS (cont.)

By the fifteenth century, Islam had become the dominant religion in Indonesia and local mosques reflected both indigenous and Islamic influences. They lacked the Islamic dome and had tall timber-tiered roofs similar to the pagodas of Balinese Hindu temples.

KEY POINTS

Indonesia has a particularly rich tradition of Hindu-Buddhist sculpture and architecture, and was strongly influenced by India from the 1st century AD onward. Buddhist art in Indonesia reached its golden era under the Sailendra dynasty of the Sri Vijaya Empire between the 8th and 13th centuries. Sculpture flourished between the 8th and 10th centuries AD in Java and Bali, taking the form of free-standing statues or relief sculptures incorporated into temples. They are characterized by their delicacy and serenity of expression. A classic example of the architecture of Sri Vijaya is the 8thcentury Borobudur temple, the largest Buddhist temple in the world. Indonesian art enjoyed a golden age under the Majapahit Empire (1293 - 1500) during which a huge number of HinduBuddhist brick temples were built. They have tall, slenderroofed red brick gates, a strong geometrical quality and a sense of verticality achieved through many horizontal lines.

The culture and art of Indonesia has been shaped by interaction between local indigenous customs and multiple foreign influences. Situated on the ancient maritime trading routes between the Near East and the Far East, it was exposed to a multitude of foreign cultural practices and religions, including Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam. The result is a complex fusion of many different customs, expressed in Indian art forms. Indonesia has a particularly rich tradition of Hindu-Buddhist sculpture and architecture, and was strongly influenced by India from the 1st century AD onward. The earliest Buddhist structures in Indonesia to survive to the present day are the 4th-century Batujaya plastered brick stupas in West Java. However, Buddhist art reached its golden era under the Sailendra dynasty of the Sri Vijaya Empire. The islands of Sumatra and Java in western Indonesia were the seat of the Sri Vijaya Empire (8th - 13th centuries), which practiced

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Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism and were a major political and cultural influence in the Southeast Asian peninsula. Stone and bronze sculpture flourished between the 8th and 10th
Figure 28.32 Bronze Maitreya statue, South Sumatra, Indonesia, c. 9th-10th century.

unfolds from beginning to end. The last three levels simply contain stupas and statues of the Buddha. Borobudur is supposed to represent a map of the Buddhist cosmos and is a masterful combination of didactic narrative sculptures, spiritual symbolism, monumental design, and meditative serenity. The entire structure resembles a stupa, and when seen from above, looks like a mandala, a concentric diagram with spiritual significance in Buddhism (Figure 28.33).
Figure 28.33 Borobudur's main stupa, Java, Indonesia.

century AD under the Sailendra dynasty in Java and Bali. These sculptures were either freestanding statues or relief sculptures and friezes incorporated into temples, and are characterized by their delicacy and serenity of expression (Figure 28. 32). The most outstanding example of this classical Hindu-Buddhist sculpture in Indonesia is found in the temple of Borobudur in central Java. Built in the 8th century, Borobudur is the largest Buddhist temple in the world. It has, as part of its structure, 504 statues of the Buddha and 2672 relief panels depicting the life of the Buddha. As

This bronze Bodhisattva Maitreya is an example of Sri Vijayan sculpture. The statue's distinctive crown incorporates a stupa in its design.

a visitor ascends through the eight levels of the temple, the story

The main Stupa crowning the Borobudur built in the 8th century by the Sailendra dynasty. The uppermost terrace has rows of bell-shaped stupas and Buddha images. The main stupa itself is empty, symbolizing perfect enlightenment.

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Near Borobudur is the 9th-century temple complex of Prambanan, one of the oldest and largest Hindu temples in Southeast Asia. The complex consists of eight main shrines, surrounded by 224 smaller ones. The Indian influence on the building is unmistakable, not only in the architectural style but also in the stone reliefs featuring scenes from the Hindu epic Ramayana, which adorn the outer walls of the main temples. The decline of the Sri Vijaya Empire in the 11th century was accompanied by a corresponding decline in Buddhism and a shift of power to Eastern Java. The Majapahit Empire was established in 1293 and lasted until ca. 1500. The Majapahit rulers practiced a mix of Hinduism, Buddhism, and animism, and the religious architecture reflects this syncretism. Indonesian art enjoyed a golden age under Majapahit rule and an enormous number of Hindu-Buddhist temples or candi were built during this period. The building material of choice was brick and mortar of vine sap and palm sugar. Majapahit architecture is characterized by tall and slender roofed red brick gates, a strong geometrical quality and a sense of verticality, achieved through numerous horizontal lines. Majapahit influence can still be seen to the present day in Hindu temples in Bali. By the fifteenth century, Islam had become the dominant religion in Java and Sumatra, Indonesia's most populous islands. Islamic

cultural and artistic influences were absorbed and reinterpreted in the local landscape, resulting in mosques that reflected both Indonesian and Islamic background, with additional influences from Hindu, Buddhist, and Chinese architecture. Indonesian mosques lacked the ubiquitous Islamic dome until the 19th century, and had tall timber tiered roofs similar to the pagodas of Balinese Hindu temples. Indonesian painting before the 19th century was mostly restricted to the decorative arts, which were considered a religious and spiritual activity. These include the mural paintings on the long houses of the Kenyah people of Borneo, which are based on endemic natural motifs such as ferns and hornbills, and the geometric wood carvings of the Toraja people of South Sulawesi. There is also a tradition of Balinese painting that depicts scenes from Balinese legends and is usually found in Indonesian lontar or palm-leaf manuscripts and the roofs of Balinese temples.
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Section 3

Mughal Period

Architecture Painting Rajput Painting

https://www.boundless.com/art-history/south-and-southeast-asia-after-1200/mughal-period/
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Architecture
Mughal architecture is an Indo-Islamic architectural style that developed in India under the patronage of the Mughal Empire.
KEY POINTS

Persian, Turkish, and Indian architecture. The Mughals were also renowned for creating exquisite gardens in the Persian charbagh layout, in which the quadrilateral gardens were divided by walkways or flowing water into four smaller parts. Architecture Under Akbar Mughal architecture first developed and flourished during the reign of Akbar the Great (r. 1556 - 1605), who was an enthusiastic patron of the arts. The architecture of his age was a synthesis of Persian, Turkic, and Indian Hindu styles. Akbari architecture is also remarkable for its large-scale use of sandstone as a building material, evident both in the
Humayun's Tomb, seen from the main gateway. Figure 28.34 Humayun's Tomb

Mughal architecture is a remarkably symmetrical and decorative amalgam of Persian, Turkish, and Indian architecture. Mughal architecture first developed and flourished during the reign of Akbar the Great (ruled 1556 - 1605). Akbari architecture was known for its extensive use of red sandstone as a building material. Humayun's Tomb, the sandstone mausoleum of Akbar's father, was built during this period. Mughal architecture reached its peak in refinement and attention to detail under Shah Jahan (r. 1628 - 1658). Shah Jahan commissioned the famous Taj Mahal, a white marble mausoleum dedicated to his wife Mumtaz Mahal. Mughal architecture declined after the death of the emperor Aurangzeb in 1707.

Mughal architecture is the distinctive Indo-Islamic architectural style that developed in northern and central India under the patronage of the Mughal emperors from the 16th to the 18th century. It is a remarkably symmetrical and decorative amalgam of

construction of Fatehpur Sikri, Akbar's royal city, and Akbar's own tomb in Sikandra. The mosque at Fatehpur Sikri also boasts the Buland Darwaza, the largest gateway of its kind in India.

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Humayun's Tomb One of the most stellar accomplishments of Mughal architecture under Akbar is the tomb of his father Humayun, situated in Delhi, India (Figure 28.34). Commissioned by Humayun's wife Hamida Banu Begum in 1562, and designed by a Persian architect, Humayun's Tomb is the first garden-tomb on the Indian subcontinent and first structure to use red sandstone on such a large scale. Humayun's Tomb is also the first Indian building to use the Persian double dome, with an outer layer supporting a white marble exterior, and the inner layer giving shape to the cavernous interior volume. The use of indigenous Rajasthani decorative elements is particularly striking, including the small canopies or chhatris surrounding the central dome. Humayun's Tomb is also remarkable in its use of the pietra dura technique, with marble and even stone inlay ornamentation in geometrical and arabesque patterns on the facade of the mausoleum, and its jali or latticed stone carving decoration. This style of decorative facade was an important addition to Mughal architecture and flourished in later Mughal mausolea, including the Taj Mahal. Architecture under Jahangir Under Jahangir (r. 1605 - 1627), Mughal architecture became more Persian than Indian. His great mosque at Lahore is a great example of the Persian style and is covered with enameled tiles. At Agra, the

tomb of Itmad-ud-Daula, completed in 1628, was built entirely of white marble and decorated in elaborate pietra duramosaic. Architecture under Shah Jahan The vision of Shah Jahan (r. 1628 - 1658) introduced a delicate elegance and detail to Mughal architecture, illustrated in the Jama Masjid in Delhi, the Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque) situated within the Agra Fort, and the Sheesh Mahal or Palace of Mirrors in the Lahore Fort, which makes
Pictured here is the Taj Mahal. Figure 28.35 The Taj Mahal

spectacular use of pietra dura and complex mirror work. His most famous achievement, however, is indisputably the Taj Mahal. The Taj Mahal Located in Agra, India, the Taj Mahal is a white marble mausoleum built between 1632 and 1648 by Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal (Figure 28.35). Constructed by twenty thousand men, it is widely regarded as Mughal architecture's greatest achievement.

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The mausoleum rests in the middle of a large square plinth and has four almost identical facades, each with a large arch-shaped doorway. It is topped by a large double dome and a finial, an architectural device employed decoratively to emphasize the apex of a building. The finial combines both the traditional Islamic motif of the crescent moon and the Hindu symbol of the trident, associated with the god Shiva. The central dome is adorned with a lotus design and is surrounded by four smaller chhatris, each of which also has the same lotus motif. Four tall minarets extend from the corners of the plinth. The exterior decorations of the Taj Mahal include calligraphy, abstract forms, and vegetable motifs, executed in paint, stucco, carvings, and pietra dura work. The interior decorations also feature inlay work featuring precious and semi-precious gemstones. Muslim tradition forbids elaborate decoration of graves and the bodies of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal are interred in a plain crypt underneath the mausoleum. However, the inner tomb features two cenotaphs or false tombs that are richly decorated with
This is an example of pietra dura inlay work and lattice carvings from the interior of the Taj Mahal. Figure 28.36 Cenotaphs inside the inner tomb

inlays of semi-precious stones forming vines and flowers and surrounded by jali screens (Figure 28.36). Aurangzeb and Later Mughal Architecture During Aurangzeb's reign (r. 1658 - 1707), brick and rubble with stucco ornamentation replaced squared stone and marble as the building materials of choice. Aurangzeb was responsible for additions to the Lahore Fort and also built one of the thirteen gates, which was named for him, and the Badshahi mosque, a structure constructed from brick with red sandstone facades. In general, however, Mughal architecture had begun to decline during Aurangzeb's reign, a process that would accelerate after his death.
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Painting
Mughal miniature painting was a blend of Persian and Indian styles that developed in Mughal courts between the 16th-19th centuries.

KEY POINTS (cont.)

Mughal painting essentially came to an end during the reign of Shah Alam II (1759 - 1806), and the artists of his disintegrated court contented themselves with copying masterpieces of the past.

KEY POINTS

Mughal painting is a style of South Asian miniature painting that developed in the courts of the Mughal Emperors between the 16th and 19th centuries. It emerged from the Persian miniature painting tradition with additional Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain influences. Mughal painting usually took the form of book illustrations or single sheets preserved in albums. There are four periods commonly associate with Mughal art, each named for the emperor under whom the art form developed: the Akbar Period, the Jahangir Period, the Shah Jahan Period, and the Aurangzeb Period. Origins Mughal painting was an amalgam of Ilkhanate Persian and Indian techniques and ideas. Under the Delhi Sultanate, the early 16th century had been a period of artistic inventiveness during which a previously formal and abstract style had begun to make way for a more vigorous and human mode of expression. After Mughal victory over the Sultanate in 1526, the tradition of miniature painting in India further abandoned the high abstraction of the

Mughal miniature painting emerged from the Persian miniature painting tradition with additional Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain influences. Mughal painting usually took the form of book illustrations or single sheets preserved in albums. There are four periods commonly associated with Mughal art, each named for the emperor under whom the art form developed: the Akbar Period, the Jahangir Period, the Shah Jahan Period, and the Aurangzeb and Later Mughal Period. The emperor Akbar set up a large atelier with artists from all parts of his empire. The atelier was responsible for illustrating books on a variety of subjects and developed the methods and techniques used by subsequent Mughal painters. The emperor Jahangir was influenced by European art and encouraged his atelier to emulate the single point perspective favored by European painters, unlike the flattened, multilayered style traditionally used in miniature painting.

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Persian style and began to adopt a more realistic style of portraiture and of drawing plants and animals. The Akbar Period (1556 - 1605) It was under the reign of Akbar that Mughal painting came into its own. Trained in painting in his youth by the Persian master 'Abdus-Samad, Akbar was responsible for setting up a large atelier of court painters, which he staffed with artists from all parts of India, and in whose work he took a keen interest. This atelier was chiefly responsible for illustrating books on a variety of subjects: histories, romances, poetry, legends, and fables, of both Persian and Indian origin. One of the greatest achievements of Mughal painting under Akbar may be found in the stupendously illustrated Hamzanama or Dastan-e-Amir Hamza, a narration of the legendary exploits of Amir Hamza, the uncle of Muhammad. The size of this manuscript was unprecedented: spanning fourteen volumes, it originally contained 1400 illustrations of an unusually large size (approx. 25" x 16"), although only about 200 survive today. It took fourteen years (1562 - 1577) and over a hundred men to complete.The paintings mark a significant departure from the Persian style in their bent towards naturalism, vigorous portrayal of movement and emotion, and bold color. Each form is individually modeled and the figures

are interrelated in closely unified compositions. Depth is indicated by a preference for diagonals (Figure 28.37). Methods and Techniques
Figure 28.37 The Battle of Mazandaran This painting is number 38 in the 7th volume of the Hamzanama. It depicts a battle scene in which the protagonists, Khwajah 'Umar and Hamzah, and their armies engage in erce battle. Originally clearly depicted, the faces were erased by iconoclasts, then repainted in more recent times. Only the face of the groom wearing an orange turban in the center of the left edge has been left untouched.

The methods most commonly used by Mughal painters were first developed in Akbar's great atelier. Illustrations were usually executed by groups of painters, including a colorist, who was responsible for the actual painting, and specialists in portraiture and the mixing of colours. Leading this group was the designer, an artist of the highest caliber, who formulated the composition and sketched the outline into the spaces in the manuscripts designated

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by the calligraphers for illustration. A thin wash of white was then applied, through which the outline remained visible. The colors were then applied in several thin laters, and rubbed down with an agate burnisher to produce a glowing, enamel-like finish. The colours used were mostly mineral but sometimes also vegetable dyes, and the fine brushes were made from squirrel's tail or camel hair. The Jahangir Period (1605 - 1627) Like his father Akbar, the emperor Jahangir showed a keen interest in painting and maintained his own atelier. The tradition of illustrating books assumed secondary importance to portraiture during Jahangir's reign because of the emperor's own preference for portraits. Among the finest works of his reign are elaborate court scenes, depicting him surrounded by his courtiers. These are largescale exercises in portraiture and the likeness of each figure is produced faithfully. The composition lacks the vigor and movement, as well as the vivid color characterized by the works of Akbar's reign. The figures are more formally ordered, the colors soft and harmonious, and the brushwork particularly fine. Mughal paintings during Jahangir's reign also boast magnificent floral and geometric borders. Jahangir was also deeply influenced by European painting, having come into contact with the English crown and received gifts of oil

paintings from England. He encouraged his atelier to emulate the single point perspective favored by European painters, unlike the flattened, multi-layered style traditionally used in miniature painting. These influences are evident in the illustrations of the Jahangirnama, a biographical account of Jahangir's own life (Figure 28.38). The Shah Jahan Period (1628 1658) While the artistic focus of the Mughal court shifted primarily to architecture under Shah Jahan, painting continued to flourish. The style became notably more rigid and portraits resembled abstract effigies. Paintings of this period were particularly opulent, as the colors used became jewel-like in
Illustration of a court scene from the Jahangirnama, c. 1620. Jahangir makes a public appearance on a balcony as a large group of courtiers stand below. Figure 28.38 Jahangir in darbar

their brilliance. Popular themes included musical parties, lovers in terraces and gardens-- sometimes locked in intimate embraces-and ascetics and holy men.

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The Aurangzeb and Late Mughal Period (1658 - 1809) The emperor Aurangzeb (r. 1658 - 1707) did not encourage Mughal painting, and only a few portraits survive from his court, accomplished in the cold, abstract style of Shah Jahan. While the art form had gathered sufficient momentum to invite patronage in other courts-- Muslim, Hindu, and Sikh alike-- the absence of strong imperial backing ushered in decline. A brief revival occurred during the reign of Muhammad Shah (1719 - 1748), who was passionately devoted to the arts, but was only temporary. Mughal painting essentially came to an end during the reign of Shah Alam II (1759 - 1806) and the artists of his disintegrated court contented themselves with copying masterpieces of the past.
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Rajput Painting
Rajput miniature painting developed in the courts of the Hindu Rajputs between the 16th and 19th centuries.
KEY POINTS

Rajput painting flowed primarily from the indigenous Western Indian style of manuscript illustration that had flourished in the 14th and 15th centuries, but was also greatly influenced by Mughal painting. Rajput painting usually took the form of miniatures in manuscripts or on single sheets kept in albums, although examples of this style can also be found on the walls of Rajput palaces, forts, and mansions. Popular themes include the life of the god Krishna; scenes from Hindu epics; pictorial representations of the ragamala (musical modes); women, lovers and romance; portraits; and court and hunting scenes. Rajput painting can be divided into two styles: the Rajasthani style, associated with the Rajput courts in Rajasthan, and the Pahari style, associated with the Rajput courts of the Himalayan foothills.

Rajput Painting Rajput painting, also known as Rajasthani painting, is the style of Indian miniature painting associated with the royal courts of the

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Rajputs, the independent Hindu states in western and northern India between the 16th and the 19th centuries. It flowed primarily from the indigenous Western Indian style of manuscript illustration that had flourished in the 14th and 15th centuries, but was also greatly influenced by Mughal painting. Rajput painting usually took the form of miniatures in manuscripts or on single sheets kept in albums, although examples of this style can also be found on the walls of Rajput palaces, forts, or havelis (mansions). Early Rajput painting was almost exclusively devoted to the life and deeds of Krishna, the Hindu cowherd god (Figure 28.39). Other popular themes included scenes from Hindu epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata; pictorial representations of the ragamala (musical modes); women, lovers and romance; portraits; and court and hunting scenes.
Figure 28.39 Krishna and Radha in a pavilion An 18th century Rajput painting by the artist Nihl Chand, chief painter at the court of Kishangarh. Krishna and his companions are by far the most popular theme of Rajput painting.

The colors used in Rajput painting were extracted from minerals, plant sources, conch shells, beetle wings, and sometimes even precious stones. Gold and silver were also used. The preparation of these colors was a lengthy process that could take weeks to accomplish. The brushes used were very fine, in keeping with the requirements of fine miniature painting. Rajput painting can be divided into two styles: the Rajasthani style, associated with the Rajput courts in Rajasthan, and the Pahari style, associated with the Rajput courts of the Himalayan foothills. The Rajasthani Style Emerging in the last decades of the 16th century, Rajasthani art is usually divided into four major schools, each centered on different courts and based on differences in artistic style. These four schools are the Mewar school, the Marwar school, the Hadoti school, and the Dhundar school.
Udaipur, Mewar, 1725-35. Opaque watercolor on paper, set with pearls and precious stones. This is a good example of portraiture in the Rajput style and of the Mewar School's work. Figure 28.40 Maharana Sangram Singh II of Mewar

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The Mewar school is associated with the courts of Chavand, Nathwara, Devgarh, Udaipur, and Sawar, and is characterized by simplicity and vivid colours. It produced a large number of devotional paintings for the pilgrim trade (Figure 28.40). The Marwar school is associated with the courts of Kishangarh, Bikaner, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Pali, and Ghanerao courts and is best known for its fine miniature portraits from the second half of the 17th century and a large body of highly stylized and colorful painting from the 19th century. The Hadoti school is associated with the courts of Kota, Bundi, and Jhalawar and is remarkable for its vivid portrayal of movement, strength, and vitality, best seen in depictions of hunting and sports scenes. The Dhundar school is associated with the courts of Amber, Jaipur, Shekhawati, and Uniara, and is characterized by
An example of Pahari painting from the Kangra school dating between 1775-1780. The subject matter--lovers and romance--is a popular theme in Rajput painting. Figure 28.41 Utka Nayika: A lady awaits her lover in the forest.

formal but rich portraits, very large paintings of the deeds of Krishna, and Western influences in the 19th century. The Pahari Style The Pahari style of miniature painting and book illustration developed in the independent states of the Himalayan foothills between the 17th and 18th centuries and began to decline after 1800. This style consists of two schools: the Basohli school and the Kangra school. The Basohli school flourished towards the close of the 17th century and is best known for its bold use of color, intense emotionality, stylized facial types shown in profile with prominent eyes, and distinctive depictions of jewelry. The Kangra school emerged in the mid-18th century as the Basohli style began to fade and is characterized by curving lines, calmer colors, and delicate lyricism (Figure 28.41).
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Section 4

India and the West

The British Contemporary Indian Art

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The British
The establishment of the British Empire greatly inuenced the art and culture of India and lead to a fusion of styles and techniques.

The establishment of the British Empire in the 18th century laid the foundation for modern India's contact with the West. Westernization paved the way for a radical change of artistic taste, and a style emerged that represented the adjustment of traditional artists to new fashions and demands. As a whole, the European advent was marked by a relative insensitivity to native art traditions; former Indian patrons of art became less wealthy and influential, and Western art more ubiquitous. However, rising nationalism attempted a conscious revival of Indian art toward the end of the 19th century. Architecture The Indo-Saracenic Revival (also known as Indo-Gothic, MughalGothic, Neo-Mughal, Hindoo or Hindu-Gothic) was an architectural style and movement by British architects in the late 19th century. It drew elements from native Indo-Islamic and Indian architecture and combined them with Gothic revival and Neo-Classical styles favored in Britain. Public and government buildings, such as clock
This municipal building in Mumbai reects the IndoSaracenic architecture of its time. Figure 28.42 Municipal Corporation Building, Mumbai

KEY POINTS

The Indo-Saracenic Revival was an architectural style and movement in the late 19th century, where public and government buildings were often rendered on an intentionally grand scale. In the 18th century the merchants of the East India Company provided a large market for native art, and a distinct genre of watercolor painting developed known as the "Company style". The attitude in the mid-19th century was one of general British disregard for Indian art, followed by the establishment of British schools and the propagation of Western values in art education. Raja Ravi Varma was among the first Indian painters to use Western techniques to illustrate Indian themes and traditions. The Bengal School of Art arose in the early 20th century as an avant garde and nationalist movement reacting against the Western academic art styles and promoting instead a return to paintings such as the Mughal miniatures.

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towers, courthouses, municipal buildings, colleges, and town halls, were often rendered on an intentionally grand scale, reflecting and promoting a notion of an invincible British Empire. Infrastructure was composed of iron, steel, and poured concrete, and included domes, overhanging eaves, pointed arches, vaulted roofs, pinnacles, open pavilions and pierced open arcading (Figure 28.42). Among the key architects of this time were Robert Fellowes Chisholm, Charles Mant, Henry Irwin, William Emerson, George Wittet, and Frederick Stevens. Painting In the 18th century, oil and easel painting brought many European artists to India in search of fame and fortune, including Thomas and William Daniel, Joshua Reynolds, George Chinnery, and others. The merchants of the East India Company provided a large market for native art in the 18th century, and a distinct genre of watercolor painting developed that depicted scenes of everyday life, regalia of princely courts, and native festivities and rituals. Referred to as the "Company style" or "Patna style," it flourished at first in Murshidabad and spread to other cities of British India. While the 18th century saw moderate British manifestations of Indian art, monuments, literature, and culture, the attitude in the mid-19th century shifted to one of disregard for Indian art. To

propagate Western values in art education along with the colonial agenda, the British established art schools in Calcutta and Madras in 1854 and in Bombay in 1857. After 1857, John Griffith and John Lockwood Kipling came out to India together and headed the Sir J. J. School of Art. Griffith was considered one of the finest Victorian painters to come to India, and Kipling went on to head the Mayo School of Arts in 1878. Raja Ravi Varma (18481906) was a remarkable self-taught Indian painter from the princely state of Travancore. He is considered the first of the modernists, and advocated for the use of Western techniques to develop a new aesthetic in the subjective interpretation of Indian culture. His work was considered to be among the best examples of the fusion of
Ravi Varma's work, such as this painting, used Western composition, perspective, and realism to illustrate Indian themes. Figure 28.43 Shakuntal by Ravi Varma

Indian traditions with the techniques of European academic art, and came to play an important role in the development of the Indian national consciousness (Figure 28.43).

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As more artists began using Western ideas of composition, perspective, and realism to illustrate Indian themes, others rebelled against these styles. The Bengal School of Art, commonly referred as Bengal School, arose in the early 20th century as an avant garde and nationalist movement reacting against the Western academic art styles previously promoted in India. Also known as "Indian style of painting" in its early days, it was led by Abanindranath Tagore (1871-1951) and supported by British art teacher E. B. Havell. Following the influence of Indian spiritual ideas in the West, Havell attempted to reform the teaching methods at the Calcutta School of Art by encouraging students to imitate Mughal miniatures. This caused controversy among some who
Bharat Mata by Abanindranath Tagore (1871-1951), a nephew of the poet Rabindranath Tagore, and a pioneer of the movement that led to the Bengal School. Figure 28.44 Bharat Mata, a painting by Abanindranath Tagore

spiritual qualities, as opposed to the "materialism" of the West. The best known painting by Tagore is Bharat Mata ("Mother India"), depicting a young woman with four arms in the manner of Hindu deities, holding objects symbolic of India's national aspirations (Figure 28.44). Other painters and artists of the Bengal school were Gaganendranath Tagore, Asit Kumar Haldar, M.A.R Chughtai, Sunayani Devi, Kshitindranath Majumdar, Nandalal Bose, Kalipada Ghoshal, Sughra Rababi and Sudhir Khastgir. The Bengal school eventually paved the way for future modernist movements, and its influence declined in the 1920s. In the following years Rabindranath Tagore established the university of Santiniketan, focused on the preservation and reclamation of Indian culture. The school established an Indian version of naturalism, distinct from the oriental and western schools, and replaced oil and easel painting for watercolors, wash, tempera, and ink on paper.
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considered it to be a retrogressive move; however, Havell and Tagore believed the technique to be expressive of India's distinct

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Contemporary Indian Art


Contemporary Indian art fuses multiple concepts and forms of media to express both traditional Indian and non-traditional themes.

past and bringing awareness to the heritage of Indian artists. As of 2012, there has been a resurgence of interest in the Bengal School of art among scholars and connoisseurs, and the School continues to produce some of the best artists of modern India today, including Ganesh Pyne, Manishi Dey, Nirmal Dutta, Nilima Dutta, Jahar Dasgupta, Bikash Bhattacharjee, Sudip Roy, Devajyoti Ray and Paresh Maiti. By the time India gained Independence in 1947, several schools of art in India provided access to modern techniques and ideas. This same year a group of six artists (K. H. Ara, S. K. Bakre, H. A. Gade, M. F. Husain, S. H. Raza, and F. N. Souza) founded the Progressive Artist's Group, a group aimed at establishing new ways of expressing Indian art in the post-colonial era. Though the group was dissolved in 1956, it was profoundly influential in changing the idiom of Indian art. Modern Indian art typically shows the influence of Western styles but is often inspired by Indian themes and images. For example, S.
Artist Souza uses an expressionistic style to capture aspects of Indian life in his paintings. Figure 28.45 F. N. Souza Balzac Etcetera, 1971

KEY POINTS

Toward the end of the 19th century, the Bengal School of Art helped to reconnect Indian artists with their heritage and past and helped pave the way for the modernist movement. After independence in 1947, a group of artists formed the Progressive Artist's Group, which profoundly changed Indian art. Often showing the influence of Western styles, modern Indian art tends to be inspired by Indian themes and images. After the economic liberalization of India in the 1990s, artists continued to introduce new concepts outside of previous academic traditions, such as the Pseudorealism of Devajyoti Ray.

Western and colonial influence replaced much of traditional Indian painting during the end of the 19th century until the Bengal School, established by Abanindranath Tagore and E. B. Havell, consciously attempted to reconnect Indian artists with their past. Paving way for the future modernist movement, the Bengal School did a great deal to reshape contemporary taste by drawing inspiration from the

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H. Raza's works are mainly abstracts in oil or acrylic with a very rich use of color, replete with icons from Indian cosmology as well as its philosophy. F. N. Souza uses an expressionistic style to illustrate both the highs and lows of Indian social life (Figure 28.45). M. F. Husain utilized a modified Cubist style to create narrative paintings. Jayasri Burman works mainly in watercolor, using rich, strong hues and bold themes to portray female figures or mythic elements such
Figure 28.46 Sitting Bridgette

From the 1990s onward, Indian artists began to increase the number forms they used in their work. After the economic liberalization of the country that occurred during that decade, Indian art began to introduce new concepts and to work both within and outside of previous academic traditions. For example, artist Devajyoti Ray introduced a new genre of art called Pseudorealism, in which he used offbeat colors and abstract shapes to create imagery depicting regular scenes of Indian life (Figure 28.46). Akbar Padamsee, a contemporary Indian artist
Contemporary artist Anish Kapoor utilizes postminimalism in sculptural work. Figure 28.47 "Turning the world upside down" by Anish Kapoor

as hybrid animals with human heads. Other well known artists associated with the groupand who continue to be influential todayinclude Bal Chabda, Manishi Dey, Mukul Dey, V. S. Gaitonde, Ram Kumar,

and painter, has worked with various mediums, from oil painting, plastic emulsion, water color, sculpture, and printmaking to computer graphics and photography. He has also worked as a filmmaker, sculptor, photographer, engraver, and lithographer. Other leading artists exploring radical new directions in both painting and sculpture include Subodh Gupta, Narayanan Ramachandran, Vivan Sundaram, and Jitish Kallat. The abstract painter Natvar Bhavsar and postminimalist sculptor Anish Kapoor (Figure 28.47) have gained attention in the international art

While not a work of Devajyoti Ray, this painting is a good example of the pseudorealistic style.

Tyeb Mehta, and Akbar Padamsee.

Outside of painting, the 1980s were marked by the growth of fashion schools in India, increased involvement of women in the fashion industry, and a widespread modification to Indian clothing as Indian and Western styles began to fuse.

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market. Major artists continue to gain international recognition, both among both the Indian diaspora and non-Indian audiences. Contemporary Indian architecture tends to be cosmopolitan, with extremely compact, densely populated cities. Mumbai's Nariman Point is famous for its Art Deco buildings; other notable works include the Lotus Temple in New Delhi (also known as the Bah' House, recognized for its flower-like shape) and modern urban developments like Chandigarh. The India Art Fair, previously known as the India Art Summit, is an Indian modern and contemporary art fair held annually in New Delhi, India. First held in 2008, it is India's largest art fair and includes paintings, sculptures, photography, mixed media, prints, drawings, and video art. Its fourth edition, held in 2012, canvassed 98 exhibitors from 20 countries. Over the years, the fair has showcased Indian modernists (including those from the Progressive Artists' Group), Indian diaspora artists, contemporary Indian art, international artists, and art from the subcontinent.
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284

Chapter 29

China and Korea After 1279

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Section 1

The Mongols

Introduction

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Introduction
The Mongol Empire emerged in Central Asia during the 13th and 14th centuries.
KEY POINTS

under the leadership of the legendary Genghis Khan, also known as Great Khan, meaning emperor. During his reign, Genghis Khan began a series of invasions known as the Mongol invasions, often accompanied by the large-scale massacre of civilian populations. This resulted in the conquest of most of Eurasia. By the end of Genghis Khan's life, the Mongol Empire occupied a substantial portion of Central Asia and China. The empire began to split as a result of wars between succession heirs, particularly concerning Kublai Khan and Ariq Boke. The Mongol Empire was governed by a code of law instituted by Genghis, termed Yassa, meaning order. A notable aspect of this law was that those of rank shared many of the same hardships as common people, resulting in an empire that was generally highly disciplined, well-run and safe. Nevertheless, any resistance to Mongol rule was met with massive and collective punishment. European travelers wrote of their amazement concerning the organization and discipline of the Mongol people. The society was one that practiced religious tolerance. Many religions found homes in the empire, and it is believed the Genghis Khan never persecuted anyone on religious grounds.

The Mongol Empire was governed by a code of law instituted by Genghis, termed Yassa, which means order. Mongol society practiced religious tolerance. The Mongol Empire is notable for its extensive trade routes as well as its postal system, called "yam". The trade routes were known as the Silk Road and consisted of well-traveled and well-maintained roads that linked the land from the Mediterranean basin to China, greatly increasing trade throughout the area. The oldest surviving Mongolian work is The Secret History of the Mongols. The Shahnama or "Book fo Kings", is an illuminated manuscript noted for its innovative compositions that blended elements of Persian, Chinese and European painting traditions through lavish illustrations.

The Mongol Empire emerged in Central Asia during the 13th and 14th centuries as the largest land empire in history. A result of the unification of Mongol and Turkic tribes, the empire took form

The Mongol Empire is notable for its extensive trade routes as well as its postal system, which was called yam. This postal system was very advanced and was later replicated in the US, where it was

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known as the Pony Express. Many merchants and travelers from China, Europe and the Middle East used the postal system. The trade routes were known as the Silk Road and consisted of well-traveled and wellmaintained roads that linked the land from the Mediterranean basin to China, greatly increasing trade throughout the area. Genghis Khan is known to have encouraged trade during his reign as merchants provided information about neighboring cultures. These merchants were necessary for many needed goods since the Mongols produced little of their own. Taxes were heavy on the subjects of the Mongol Empire, but teachers, lawyers and
The Shahnama, an illuminated manuscript that is noted for its innovative compositions that blended elements of Persian, Chinese and European painting traditions in its lavish illustrations Figure 29.1 Illuminated manuscript from the Shahnama

epics exist from the empire. The oldest surviving Mongolian work is The Secret History of the Mongols which was written for the royal family sometime after Genghis Khans death in 1227, and serves as a detailed account of his life. Another important work from the empire is titled the Shahnama, an illuminated manuscript that is noted for its innovative compositions that blended elements of Persian, Chinese and European painting traditions in its lavish illustrations (Figure 29.1).
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artists were exempted from paying. The Mongols enjoyed the various art forms, and the ruling classes were active patrons. Many paintings, illuminated manuscripts and

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Section 2

China

Yuan Dynasty

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Yuan Dynasty
With the Yuan Dynasty, many artists retreated from social life and returned to nature, through landscape paintings.
KEY POINTS

With the fall of the Song dynasty in 1279 and the subsequent dislocation caused by the establishment of the Yuan dynasty by the Mongol conquerors, many court and literary artists retreated from social life. They returned to nature through landscape paintings and by renewing the "blue and green" style of the Tang era. Wang Meng was one such painter, and one of his most famous works is the Forest Grotto (Figure 29.2). Zhao Mengfu was a Chinese scholar, painter, and calligrapher during the Yuan Dynasty. His rejection of the refined, gentle brushwork of his era in favor of the cruder style of the 8th century is considered to have brought about a revolution that created the modern Chinese landscape painting. There was also the vivid and detailed works of art by Qian Xuan (12351305), who had served the Song court, and out of patriotism refused to serve the Mongols. Instead Qian Xuan turned to painting. He was
Wang Meng and the great masters of the Yuan Dynasty exclusively painted landscapes, which they believed to be the visible key to the invisible reality. Figure 29.2 Wang Meng, Forest Grotto in Juqu (1378)

Wang Meng was a leading painter of the Yuan Dynasty, and one of his most famous works is the Forest Grotto. Zhao Mengfu was a Chinese scholar, painter, and calligrapher during the Yuan Dynasty. His rejection of the refined, gentle brushwork of his era in favor of the cruder style of the 8th century is considered to have brought about a revolution that created the modern Chinese landscape painting. Among the Yuan Dynasty artists, there was also the vivid and detailed works by Qian Xuan, who had served the Song court, and out of patriotism refused to serve the Mongols, instead turning to painting. He was also famous for reviving and reproducing a more Tang Dynasty style of painting. The later Yuan dynasty is characterized by the work of the socalled "Four Great Masters". The most notable of these was Huang Gongwang whose cool and restrained landscapes were admired by contemporaries and by the Chinese literati painters of later centuries.

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also famous for reviving and reproducing a more Tang Dynasty style of painting. The later Yuan dynasty is characterized by the work of the so-called "Four Great Masters". The most notable of these was Huang Gongwang (12691354) whose cool and restrained landscapes were admired by contemporaries and by the Chinese literati painters of later centuries (Figure 29.3). Another man of great influence was Ni Zan (13011374), who frequently arranged his compositions with a
Figure 29.3 Huang Gongwang, Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains (c. 1350) Huang Gongwang rejected the landscape conventions of his era's Academy, but is regarded as one of the great literati painters.

included the areas of painting, calligraphy, poetry, and theater, with many great artists and writers being famous today. Due melding of painting, poetry, and calligraphy at this time, many artists practicing these different pursuits were the same individuals, though perhaps more famed for one area of their achievements than others. The Song Dynasty and the Yuan Dynasty are linked together through the development of landscape painting as well as the classical joining of the arts of painting, poetry, and calligraphy. There were many famous painters in the area of Chinese painting, during the Yuan Dynasty. Many of the great calligraphers were also from the Yuan Dynasty era. In Yuan poetry, qu was the main development, which was used among other poetic forms by most of the famous Yuan poets. Many of the poets were also involved in the major developments in the theater during this time, and the other way around, with people important in the theater becoming famous through the development of the sanqu type of qu. One of the key factors in the mix of the zaju variety show was the incorporation of poetry, both classical and of the newer qu form. One of the important cultural developments during the Yuan era was the consolidation of poetry, painting, and calligraphy into a unified piece which tends to come to mind when people think of classical Chinese art. Another important aspect of Yuan times is the increasing incorporation of the then current, vernacular Chinese into both the qu form of poetry and the zaju variety show. Another

strong and distinct foreground and background, but left the middleground as an empty expanse. This scheme was frequently to be adopted by later Ming and Qing dynasty painters. In the Yuan era China, various important developments in the arts occurred or continued in their development. These developments

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important consideration regarding Yuan Dynasty arts and culture is that so much of it has survived in China, relative to works from the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty, which have often been better preserved in places such as the Sh's'in in Japan.
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Section 3

Ming Dynasty

Court Painting Decorative Art Architecture and Urban Planning Literati Expressionism

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Court Painting
During the Ming Dynasty, Chinese painting developed greatly from the achievements of the earlier Song Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty.
KEY POINTS

attempts to marginalize and persecute the scholar class, this was seen as an attempt to banish the gentrys influence from the arts. The dominant style of the Ming court painters was called the Zhe School. However, following the ascension of the Yongle emperor (reg 1403-1424), the capital was moved from Nanjing to Beijing, putting a large distance between imperial influence and the city of Suzhou. These new conditions led to the rise of the Wu School of painting, a somewhat subversive style that revived the ideal of the inspired scholar-painter in Ming China. During the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), Chinese painting developed greatly from the achievements in painted art during the earlier Song Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty. The painting techniques
A Chinese landscape painting using "atmospheric perspective" to show recession in space. Figure 29.4 Dai Jin, "Landscape in the Style of Yan Wengui", hanging scroll, ink on paper!(Early Ming Dynasty)

The Zhe school and Yuanti school began to prosper during the early Ming period while the painting schools of the Yuan dynasty began to decline. The Zhe and Yuanti schools declined during the mid-Ming period while the Wuman school prospered. The late Ming period witnessed the rise of the Songjiang School and Huating School.

Background Under the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368), painters had practiced with relative freedom, cultivating a more individualist, innovative approach to art that deviated noticeably from the more superficial style of the Song masters who preceded them. However, at the outset of the Ming, the Hongwu emperor (reg 1368-1398) decided to import the existing master painters to his court in Nanjing, where he had the ability to cultivate their styles to conform to the paintings of the Song masters. As Hongwu was notorious for his

which were invented and developed before the Ming period became classical during this period. (See, e.g., Dai Jin (Figure 29.4).) More

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colors were used in painting during the Ming Dynasty. Seal brown became much more widely used, and even over-used during this period. Many new painting skills/techniques were innovated and developed, calligraphy was much more closely and perfectly combined with the art of painting. Chinese painting reached another climax in the mid- to late- Ming Dynasty. The painting was derived in a broad scale, many new schools were born, and many outstanding masters emerged. Early Ming Period (1368~1505) The painting schools of the Yuan Dynasty still heavily influenced early Ming painting. But new schools of painting were also growing. In particular, the Zhe School and the Yuanti school were the dominant schools during the early Ming period. Indeed, the Yuanti school was organized and supported by the Ming central government to serve the Ming royal court. Both of these new schools were heavily influenced by the traditions of both the Southern Song painting academy and the Yuan scholar-artist. Mid Ming Period (1465~1566) The classical Zhejiang School and Yuanti School declined during this period. Meanwhile, the Wumen School became the most dominant school nationwide. Suzhou, the activity center for Wumen School painters, became the biggest center for the Chinese painting

during this period. The Wumen painters mainly inherited the Yuan scholar-artist style of painting and further developed this style into its peak. The painters Tang Yin, Wen Zhengming, Shenzhou and Qiu Ying were regarded as the "Big Four of the Ming Period" in Ming period painting. Late Ming Period (1567~1644) The Songjiang School and Huating School were born and developed during this time. During the late Ming Dynasty, the Songjiang School rivaled Wumen, particularly in generating new theories of painting. Both schools formed the basis for the later Shanghai School.
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Decorative Art
In Ming China, much of the nest work in decorative arts was produced in large workshops, especially in the eld of Chinese porcelain.
KEY POINTS

was produced over a long period by the various Imperial factories or workshops. As well as being used by the court, these works were also distributed internally and abroad on a huge scale to demonstrate the wealth and power of the Emperors. In contrast, the tradition of ink wash painting, practiced mainly by scholarofficials, and especially of landscapes, developed aesthetic values similar to those of the West, but long pre-dated their development there. As in earlier dynasties, the Ming Dynasty saw a flourishing in the arts, whether it was painting, poetry, music, literature, or dramatic theater. Carved designs in lacquerwares (Figure 29.6) and designs glazed onto porcelain wares displayed intricate scenes
One of the 340,000 pieces of ceramics and porcelain held at The Palace Museum of the Forbidden City. Figure 29.5 A blue and white porcelain vase with cloud and dragon designs, marked with the word "Longevity," Jiajing period of Ming Dynasty

In Ming China, carved designs in lacquerwares and designs glazed onto porcelain wares displayed intricate scenes similar in complexity to those in painting. Connoisseurship in the late Ming period centered around these items of refined artistic taste, which provided work for art dealers and even underground scam artists who made phony imitations of originals and false attributions to works of art. The major production centers for porcelain items in the Ming Dynasty were Jingdezhen in the Jiangxi province and Dehua in the Fujian province. The Dehua porcelain factories catered to European tastes by creating Chinese export porcelain by the 16th century.

The media that the post-Renaissance West called the decorative arts are extremely important in Chinese art. Most of the finest work was produced in large workshops or factories by essentially unknown artists, especially in the field of Chinese porcelain (Figure 29.5). Much of the best work in ceramics, textiles, and other techniques

similar in complexity to those in painting. These items could be found in the homes of the wealthy, alongside embroidered silks and wares of jade, ivory, and cloisonn. The houses of the rich were

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also furnished with rosewood furniture and feathery latticework. The writing materials in a scholar's private study, including elaborately carved brush holders made of stone or wood, were all designed and arranged ritually to give an aesthetic appeal.
Figure 29.6 A Ming Dynasty red lacquer box with intricate carving of people in the countryside, surrounded by a oral border design.

how to judge its sheen; porcelain wares from the Yongle era (1402 1424) could be judged authentic by their thickness. Some potters also became renowned for their artwork, such as He Chaozong in the early 17th century for his style of white porcelain sculpture. The major production centers for porcelain items in the Ming Dynasty were Jingdezhen in the Jiangxi province and Dehua in the Fujian province. The Dehua porcelain factories catered to European tastes by creating Chinese export porcelain by the 16th century. In The Ceramic Trade in Asia, Chuimei Ho estimates that about 16% of late Ming era Chinese ceramic exports were sent to Europe, while the rest were destined for Japan and South East Asia. From the Ming Dynasty, ivory began to be used for small statuettes of the gods and others.
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Connoisseurship in the late Ming period centered around these items of refined artistic taste, which provided work for art dealers and even underground scam artists who made phony imitations of originals and false attributions to works of art. This was noted even by the Jesuit Matteo Ricci while

Carved designs in lacquerwares and designs glazed onto porcelain wares displayed intricate scenes similar in complexity to those in painting.

staying in Nanjing, writing that Chinese scam artists were ingenious when it came

to making forgeries of artwork and made huge profits. However, there were guides to help the wary new connoisseur; in Liu Tong's (d. 1637) book (printed in 1635), he told his readers various ways to spot a fake and authentic pieces of art. He revealed that a Xuande era (14261435) bronzework could be authenticated if one knew

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Architecture and Urban Planning


Chinese urban planning and architecture are based on fengshui geomancy and numerology, as in the Forbidden City of the Ming Dynasty.
KEY POINTS

Figure 29.7 The Forbidden CIty

The Forbidden City was the Chinese imperial palace from the Ming Dynasty to the end of the Qing Dynasty. It is located in the middle of Beijing, China, and now houses the Palace Museum. For almost 500 years, it served as the home of emperors and their households, as well as the ceremonial and political center of Chinese government.

Chinese urban planning is based on fengshui geomancy and the well-field system of land division. The Chinese axis is a line of privilege, usually built upon, regulating access - there are no vistas, but a series of gates and pavilions. Numerology heavily influenced Imperial Architecture, hence the use of nine in much of construction (nine being the greatest single digit number). The importance of the East (the direction of the rising sun) in orienting and siting Imperial buildings is a form of solar worship.

manner. Depending on the particular style of feng shui being used, an auspicious site could be determined by reference to local features such as bodies of water, stars, or a compass. Meanwhile, the wellfield system of land division is a system in which a square area of land was divided into nine identically-sized sections; the eight outer sections were privately cultivated by serfs and the center section was communally cultivated on behalf of the landowning aristocrat.The basic well-field diagram is overlaid with the luoshu, a magic square divided into 9 sub-squares, and linked with Chinese numerology. Beijing Beijing became the capital of China after the Mongol invasion of the 13th century, completing the easterly migration of the Chinese capital begun since the Jin dynasty. The Ming uprising in 1368

Chinese Architecture and Urban Planning After 1279 Chinese urban planning is based on fengshui geomancy and the well-field system of land division, both used since the Neolithic age. Fengshui geomancy is a way to orient buildings in an auspicious

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reasserted Chinese authority and fixed Beijing as the seat of imperial power for the next five centuries. The Emperor and the Empress lived in palaces on the central axis of the Forbidden City (Figure 29.7), the Crown Prince at the eastern side, and the concubines at the back (therefore the numerous imperial concubines were often referred to as "The Back Palace Three Thousand"). However, during the midQing Dynasty, the Emperor's residence was moved to the western side of the complex. It is misleading to speak of an
The yellow roof tiles and red walls in the Forbidden City (Palace Museum) grounds in Beijing, built during the Yongle era (14021424) of the Ming Dynasty. Figure 29.8 Ming architecture

number) and the reason why the Forbidden City in Beijing is said to have 9,999.9 rooms - just short of the mythical 10,000 rooms in heaven. The importance of the East (the direction of the rising sun) in orienting and siting Imperial buildings is a form of solar worship found in many ancient cultures, where there is the notion of Ruler being affiliated with the Sun (Figure 29.8).
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axis in the Western sense of a visual perspective ordering facades, rather the Chinese axis is a line of privilege, usually built upon, regulating access - there are no vistas, but a series of gates and pavilions. Numerology Numerology heavily influenced Imperial Architecture, hence the use of nine in much of construction (nine being the greatest single digit

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Literati Expressionism
Literati Expressionism in Chinese painting was produced by scholar-bureaucrats of the Southern School, rather than professional painters.
KEY POINTS

Under the Ming dynasty, Chinese culture bloomed. Narrative painting, with a wider color range and a much busier composition than the Song paintings, was immensely popular during the time. The Southern School (, pinyin: nanzhonghua) of Chinese painting, often called "literati painting" (, wenrenhua), is a term used to denote art and artists which stand in opposition to the formal Northern School of painting. Where professional, formal painters were classified as Northern School, scholar-bureaucrats, who had either retired from the professional world or who were never a part of it, constituted the Southern School. Never a formal school of art, in the sense of artists training under a single master in a single studio, the Southern School is more of an umbrella term spanning a great breadth across both geography and chronology. The literati lifestyle and
Shen Zhou paintings reveal a disciplined obedience to the styles of the Yuan dynasty, to Chinas history, and to the orthodox Confucianism that he embodied in his lial life. Figure 29.9 Shen Zhou, Lofty Mt.Lu () Hanging scroll, ink and light colors on paper (1467)

Under the Ming dynasty, Chinese culture bloomed. Narrative painting, with a wider color range and a much busier composition than the Song paintings, was immensely popular during the time. Generally, Southern School painters worked in monochrome ink, focused on expressive brushstrokes, and a somewhat more impressionistic approach than the Northern School's formal attention to detail, use of color, and highly refined traditional modes and methods. Literati paintings are most commonly of landscapes featuring men in retirement or travelers admiring and enjoying the scenery or immersed in culture. Figures are often depicted carrying or playing guqin (zithers) and residing in quite isolated mountain hermitages. Calligraphic inscriptions, either of classical poems or ones composed by a contemporary literati (the painter, or a friend), are also quite common.

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attitude, and the associated style of painting, can be said to go back quite far to early periods of Chinese history. However, classification of the "Southern School" as such, that is, the coining of the term, is said to have been made by the scholar-artist Dong Qichang (1555-1636), who borrowed the concept from Ch'an (Zen) Buddhism, which also has Northern and Southern Schools. Generally, Southern School painters worked in monochrome ink (Figure 29.10), focused on expressive brushstrokes (Figure 29.9), and a somewhat more impressionistic approach (Figure 29.11) than the Northern School's formal attention to detail, use of color, and highly refined traditional modes and methods. The stereotypical literati painter lived in retirement either in the mountains or other rural areas, not entirely isolated, but immersed in natural beauty and far from mundane concerns. They were also lovers of culture,
Dong Qichang created landscapes with intentionally distorted spatial features. Figure 29.10 Dong Qichang, Wanluan Thatched Hall (1597): hanging scroll, ink and light colors on paper

hypothetically enjoying and taking part in all Four Arts of the Chinese Scholar as touted by Confucianism, that is, painting, calligraphy, music, and games of skill and strategy. They would often combine these elements into their work and would gather with one another to share their interests. Literati paintings are most commonly of landscapes featuring men in retirement or travelers admiring and enjoying the scenery or immersed in culture. Figures are often depicted carrying or playing guqin (zithers) and residing in quite isolated mountain hermitages. Calligraphic inscriptions, either of classical poems or ones composed by a contemporary literati (the painter, or a friend), are also quite common. While this sort of landscape, with certain features and elements, is the standard stereotypical Southern School painting, the genre actually varied quite widely in rejecting the formal strictures of the Northern School. The painters sought the
Wen often chose painting subjects of great simplicity, like a single tree or rock. His work often brings about a feeling of strength through isolation, which often reected his discontent with o#cial life. Figure 29.11 Artwork by Wen Zhengming, a leading Ming dynasty painter

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freedom to experiment with subjects and styles. The scholars, scholarly civil servants, or literati of Imperial China, where all schooled in Confucianism known as the School of Literati. In early China the term refers to the class of people that went through traditional Chinese education. There were sets of Chinese civil service examinations, including Chinese literature and philosophy. Passing the exam was a requirement for many government positions. These individuals were the mandarins and referred to those who held government positions.
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Section 4

Qing Dynasty

Orthodox Confucian Painting Individualist Painting

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Orthodox Confucian Painting


The early Qing dynasty developed in two main strands: the Orthodox school, and the Individualist painters .
KEY POINTS

Under the Qing Dynasty, traditional forms of art flourished and many types of innovations were made at many levels. High levels of literacy, prosperous cities, a successful publishing industry, and the Confucian emphasis on cultivation all fed a lively and creative set of cultural fields. The early Qing dynasty developed in two main strands: the Orthodox school, and the Individualist painters, both of which followed the theories of Dong Qichang, though emphasizing very different aspects. The "Four Wangs", including Wang Jian (15981677) and Wang Shimin (1592 1680), were particularly renowned in the Orthodox school. They sought inspiration in recreating the past styles, especially the technical skills in brushstrokes and calligraphy of ancient masters. The younger Wang Yuanqi (16421715) ritualized the approach of engaging with,

Figure 29.12 Yun Shouping, Peonies, Hanging scroll; ink and color on silk (17th- 18th c.)

Under the Qing Dynasty, traditional forms of art flourished and innovations were made at many levels and in many types. High levels of literacy, prosperous cities, successful publishing industry, and the Confucian emphasis on cultivation all fed a lively and creative set of cultural fields. Both the Orthodox School and the Individualist painters followed the theories of Dong Qichang but stressed different aspects. The "Four Wangs", including Wang Jian (15981677) and Wang Shimin (15921680), were particularly renowned in the Orthodox school, and sought inspiration in recreating the past styles, especially the technical skills in brushstrokes and calligraphy of ancient masters. The Six Masters of the early Qing period was a group of major Chinese artists who worked in the 17th and early 18th centuries, whose art was generally conservative, cautious, subtle, and complex, in contrast to the vigorous and vivid painting of their individualist contemporaries.

Yun's style was vibrant and expressive; he attempted to display the inner vitality and spirit of his subjects in painting.

and drawing inspiration from, the work of an ancient master. His own works were often annotated with his theories of how his painting relates to the master's model.

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The Six Masters of the early Qing period was a group of major Chinese artists who worked in the 17th and early 18th centuries. Also known as orthodox masters, they continued the tradition of the scholar-painter, following the injunctions of the artist-critic Dong Qichang late in the Ming Dynasty.The Six Masters include the flower painter Yun Shouping (Figure 29.12) and the landscapists Wu Li and the Four Wangs: Wang Shimin, Wang Jian, Wang Yuanqi, and Wang Hui (Figure 29.13). The works of the Six Masters are generally conservative, cautious, subtle, and complex in contrast to the vigorous and vivid painting of their individualist contemporaries.

Figure 29.13 Wang Hui, Clearing Autum Sky over a Fishing Vilage, hanging scroll, ink and light colors on paper (1680)

Individualist Painting
During the Qing Dynasty, painters known as Individualists rebelled against many of the traditional rules of painting through free brushwork.
KEY POINTS

During the early Qing Dynasty (16441911), painters known as Individualists rebelled against many of the traditional rules of painting and found ways to express themselves more directly through free brushwork. The Individualist painters included Bada Shanren and Shitao, who drew more from the revolutionary ideas of transcending the tradition to achieve an original, individualistic style. The art created by Shitao was revolutionary in its transgressions of the rigidly codified techniques and styles that dictated what was considered beautiful.

Wang Hui and the three other Wangs, dominated orthodox art in China throughout the late Ming and early Qing periods. Of the Four Wangs, Wang Hui is considered to be the best-known today.

During the early Qing Dynasty (16441911), painters known as Individualists rebelled against many of the traditional rules of painting and found ways to express themselves more directly through free brushwork. The Individualist painters included Bada Shanren (16261705) (Figure 29.14) and Shitao (16411707, (Figure 29.15). They drew

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from the revolutionary ideas of transcending tradition to achieve an original style; in this way they were more faithfully following the way of Dong Qichang than the Orthodox school, who were his official direct followers. The paintings of Bada Shanren feature sharp brush strokes, which are attributed to the sideways manner by which he held his brush. The art created by Shitao was revolutionary in its transgressions of the rigidly codified techniques and styles that dictated what was considered beautiful. In his time, imitation was valued over innovation, and although Shitao was clearly influenced by his predecessors (namely Ni Zan and Li Yong), his art breaks with theirs in several new and fascinating ways. His formal innovations in depiction include drawing attention to the act of painting itself through his use of washes and bold, impressionistic brushstrokes, as well as an interest in subjective perspective and the use of
Bada Shanren paintings feature sharp brush strokes which are attributed to the sideways manner by which he held his brush. Figure 29.14 Bada Shanren, Two Birds (1650-1705)

negative or white space to suggest distance. The poetry and calligraphy that accompany his landscapes are just as beautiful, irreverent, and vivid as the paintings they complement. His paintings exemplify the internal contradictions and tensions of the literati or scholar-amateur artist, and they have been interpreted as an invective against art-historical canonization. "Reminiscences of Qin-Huai" is one of Shitao's unique paintings (Figure 29.16). Like many paintings from the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties, it deals with man's place in nature. Upon first viewing, the craggy peak in this painting seems somewhat distorted. What makes this painting so unique is that, upon closer inspection, it appears to depict the mountain bowing. A monk stands placidly on a boat that floats along the Qin-Huai river, staring up in admiration at the genuflecting stone giant. The

Figure 29.15 Shi Tao, Pine Pavilion Near a Spring (1675)

Bada Shanren paintings feature sharp brush strokes which are attributed to the sideways manner by which he held his brush.

economy of respect that circulates between man and nature is

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explored here in a sophisticated style reminiscent of surrealism or magical realism and bordering on the absurd. Shitao himself had visited the river and the surrounding region

Figure 29.16 Shitao, Reminiscences of Qin-Huai Like many of the paintings from the late Ming Dynasty and early Qing Dynasty, Shitao's Reminiscences of Qin-Huai deals with man's place in nature.

in the 1680s, but it is unknown whether the album that contains this painting depicts specific places. Re-presentation is the only way the feeling of mutual respect that Shitao depicts in this painting could be communicated; the subject of a personified mountain simply defies anything simpler.
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Section 5

The Modern Period

Modern Chinese Painting

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Modern Chinese Painting


Chinese painting is one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world..

the twentieth century. Traditional painting involves essentially the same techniques as calligraphy and is done with a brush dipped in black or colored ink (oils are not used). As with calligraphy, the most popular materials on which paintings are made of are paper and silk. The finished work can be mounted on scrolls, such as hanging scrolls or handscrolls (Figure 29.17). Traditional painting can also be done on album sheets, walls, lacquerware, folding screens, and other media. The two main techniques in Chinese painting are Gong-bi and Shui-mo. Gong-bi (meaning "meticulous") uses highly detailed brushstrokes that outline details very precisely. It is often highly coloured and usually depicts figural or narrative subjects. It is mostly practiced by artists working for the
A wall scroll painted by Ma Lin on or before 1246. Ink and color on silk, 226.6x110.3 cm. Figure 29.17 Traditional Chinese Wall Scroll

KEY POINTS

Traditional painting involves the same techniques as calligraphy and is done with a brush dipped in black or colored ink. As with calligraphy, the most popular materials on which paintings are made of are paper and silk. During the early Qing Dynasty (16441911), painters known as Individualists rebelled against many of the traditional rules of painting and found ways to express themselves more directly through free brushwork. Beginning with the New Culture Movement, Chinese artists started to adopt Western techniques. However, by the early years of the People's Republic of China, artists were encouraged to employ socialist realism modeled on the Soviet Union.

Overview of Chinese Painting Chinese painting is one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world. Painting in the traditional style is known today in Chinese as gu hu, meaning 'national' or 'native painting', as opposed to Western styles of art which became popular in China in

court or in independent workshops. Shui-mo is ink and washing painting (also loosely termed watercolour or brush painting). It was

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known as "literati painting", as it was one of the "Four Arts" of the Chinese Scholar-official class. Theoretically, Shui-mo was an amateur art practised by gentlemen, popular during the Song dynasty (Figure -. -). This style is also referred to as "xie yi" or freehand style. Early Chinese Painting Beginning in the thirteenth

Figure 29.18 Loquats and a Mountain Bird

painting and found ways to express themselves more directly through free brushwork. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, great commercial cities such as Yangzhou and Shanghai became art centers where wealthy merchant-patrons encouraged artists to produce such bold new works. In the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Chinese painters were increasingly exposed to Western art. Some artists who studied in Europe rejected Chinese painting while others tried to combine the best of both traditions. Among the most beloved modern painters was Qi Baishi, who began

Loquats and a Mountain Bird, by an anonymous painter of the Southern Song Dynasty (11271279). Small album leaf paintings like this were popular amongst the gentry and scholar-o#cials of the Southern Song.

life as a poor peasant and became a great master. His best known works depict flowers and small animals. Chinese Painting in the Republic Beginning with the New Culture Movement, Chinese artists started to adopt Western techniques. However, by the early years of the People's Republic of China, artists were encouraged to employ socialist realism modeled on the Soviet Union. Some Soviet Union socialist realism was imported without modification, and painters were assigned subjects and expected to mass-produce paintings that depicted social issues, and ordered to cease traditional Chinese painting. This regimen was considerably relaxed in 1953, and after the Hundred Flowers Campaign of 1956-57, traditional Chinese painting experienced a significant revival. Along with these developments in professional art circles, there was a proliferation of

century, the tradition of painting simple subjectsa branch with fruit, a few flowers, or one or two horsesdeveloped. Narrative painting, with a wider color range and a much busier composition than Song paintings, was immensely popular during the Ming period (13681644).The first books illustrated with colored woodcuts appeared around this time, and as color-printing techniques were perfected, illustrated manuals on the art of painting began to be published. During the early Qing Dynasty (16441911), painters known as Individualists rebelled against many of the traditional rules of

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peasant art depicting everyday life in the rural areas on wall murals and in open-air painting exhibitions. During the Cultural Revolution, art schools were closed, and publication of art journals and major art exhibitions ceased. Major destruction was also carried out as part of the elimination of Four Olds campaign. Following the Cultural Revolution, art schools and professional organizations were reinstated. Exchanges were set up with groups of foreign artists, and Chinese artists began to experiment with new subjects and techniques. One particular case of freehand style (xieyi hua) may be noted in the work of the child prodigy Wang Yani -born 1975- who started painting at age 3 and has since considerably contributed to the exercise of the style in contemporary artwork.
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Section 6

Korea

Choson Ceramics Choson Painting

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Choson Ceramics
Korea's Choson Dynasty (13921910) was the golden age of Korean pottery.
KEY POINTS

driven wares, and so were a form of popular art. This was the golden age of Korean pottery, with a long period of growth in imperial and provincial kilns, and much work of the highest quality still preserved. Wares evolved along Chinese lines in terms of color, shape, and technique. Celadon, white porcelain (Figure 29.19), and storage pottery were similar, but with slight variations in glazes, incision designs, florality, and weight. The Ming influence in blue and white wares using cobalt-blue glazes existed, but without the pthalo blue range and the three-dimensional glassine color depth of Ming Dynasty Chinese works. Ceramics from the Joseon period differed from other periods because artists felt that each piece of art deserved its own uniquely cultivated personality. Simplified designs emerged early on. Buddhist designs still
White porcelains were preferred and praised more than any other porcelains during the Joseon period. Figure 29.19 Joseon white porcelain

During Korea's Joseon Dynasty, ceramic wares were considered to represent the highest quality of achievement from imperial, city, and provincial kilns, the last of which were export-driven wares, and so were a form of popular art. Wares evolved along Chinese lines in terms of color, shape, and technique. The Ming influence in blue and white wares using cobalt-blue glazes existed, but without the pthalo blue range and the three-dimensional glassine color depth of Ming Dynasty Chinese works. Buddhist designs still prevailed in celadon wares-- lotus flowers and willow trees, mostly. The form most often seen was that of pear-shaped bottles. Also notable were thinner glazes and colorless glazes for buncheong or stoneware. The rise of white porcelain occurred as a result of Confucian influence and ideals, resulting in purer, less pretentious forms lacking artifice and complexity.

During Korea's Choson Dynasty (13921910), ceramic wares were considered to represent the highest quality of achievement from imperial, city, and provincial kilns, the last of which were export-

prevailed in celadon wares-- lotus flowers and willow trees, mostly. The form most often seen was that of pear-shaped bottles. Also

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notable were thinner glazes and colorless glazes for buncheong or stoneware. After the prolonged fall of the Ming dynasty, immigration of some Chinese master potters occurred in southern coastal Korea. Qing coloring, brighter and almost Scythian in enamel imitation, was rejected by Korean potters in favor of simpler, less decorated wares in keeping with a new dynasty that built itself on military tradition. Generally, the ceramics of this dynasty is divided into early, middle, and late periods, changing every two centuries, approximately; thus, 1300 to 1500 is the early period, 1500 to 1700 the middle, and 1700 to 1910 the late period. The wares began to assume more traditional Korean glazes and more
The rise of white porcelain occurred as a result of Confucian inuence and ideals, resulting in purer, less pretentious forms lacking artice and complexity. Figure 29.20 White porcelain jar, 18th century, Korea

ideals, resulting in purer, less pretentious forms lacking artifice and complexity (Figure 29.20). In 1592 during the Japanese invasion of Korea, entire villages of Korean potters were forcibly relocated to Japan, permanently damaging the pottery industry as craftsmen had to relearn techniques since the masters were gone.
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specific designs to meet regional needs. This was to be expected, as the Scythian art influences were of the former dynasty. The rise of white porcelain occurred as a result of Confucian influence and

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Choson Painting
The art of the Joseon period considerably a!ected Korean art and has left a substantial legacy which inuenced Modern Korea.
KEY POINTS

In this period, the influence of Confucianism superseded that of Buddhism. However, Buddhist elements remained, and Buddhist art itself continued. Buddhist art was encouraged not by the imperial centers of art, or the accepted taste of the Joseon Dynasty publicly, but in private homes and in the summer palaces of the Choson Dynasty kings. The simplicity of Buddhist art was given great appreciation - but it was not seen as citified art.
Figure 29.21 A late Joseon painting.

The influence of Confucianism superseded that of Buddhism in the Joseon period. However Buddhist elements remained. The Mid-Joseon dynasty painting styles moved towards increased realism. A national painting style of landscapes called "true view" began - moving from the traditional Chinese style of idealized general landscapes to particular locations exactly rendered. The mid-to-late Joseon dynasty is considered the golden age of Korean painting. It coincides with the collapse of Ming dynasty links with the Manchu emperors accession in China, and the forcing of Korean artists to build new artistic models based on an inner search for particular Korean subjects.

This painting from the late Joseon period -- considered the golden age of Korean painting -- shows some inuences of the Western painting techniques introduced to Joseon.

The Choson period has left a substantial legacy to modern Korea. Much of modern Korean etiquette, cultural norms, societal attitudes towards current issues, and the modern Korean language and its dialects derive from the culture and traditions of Joseon.

While the Choson Dynasty began under military auspices, Goreyo styles were left to evolve, and Buddhist iconography (bamboo, orchid, plum, chrysanthemum and the familiar knotted good luck symbols) was still a part of genre paintings. Neither colors nor forms had any real change, and rulers stood aside from edicts on

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art. Ming ideals and imported techniques continued in early dynasty idealized works. The Mid-Choson dynasty painting styles moved towards increased realism. A national painting style of landscapes called "true view" began - moving from the traditional Chinese style of idealized general landscapes to exactly rendered particular locations. While not photographic, the style was academic enough to become established and supported as a standardized style in Korean painting. The mid-to-late Joseon dynasty is considered the golden age of Korean painting (Figure 29.21). It coincides with the shock from the collapse of Ming dynasty links with the Manchu emperors accession in China and the forcing of Korean artists to build new artistic models
Owon was the pen name for Jang Seung-eop (1843 - 1897), a painter of the late Joseon Dynasty in Korea. He was one of the few painters to hold a position of rank in the Joseon court. Figure 29.22 Joseon Dynasty painting by Owon

its own course and became increasingly distinctive from traditional Chinese painting (Figure 29.22).
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based on an inner search for particular Korean subjects. At this time, China ceased to have preeminent influence. Korean art took

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Modern Korean Art


Modern Korean art is inuenced by its historical roots, its recent tumultuous history, and various forms of Western art.

KEY POINTS (cont.)

Art in North Korea is influenced by the country's political history and is characterized by patriotism and revolutionary images.

Modern Korean art is influenced by its historical roots (including


KEY POINTS

early Korean shamanist art, Korean Buddhist art and Korean Confucian art) and its recent tumultuous history, as well as various forms of Western art in the 20th century. From the 1880s onward, the Japanese invasion of Korea had a significant impact on Korean art. Works of art were looted and destroyed, schools of art were closed, and Korean styles were replaced with paintings of Japanese subjects in Japanese styles. In 1945 Korea was freed from Japan, and new and contemporary styles of art have emerged. In modern Korea, works in metal, jade, bamboo and textiles have had a limited resurgence. The South Korean government has tried to encourage the maintenance of cultural continuity through awards and scholarships for younger students in rarer Korean art forms. Korean fabric arts have a long history, and include many artforms such as embroidery (used in costumes and screenwork), knots (best represented in the work of Choe Eun-sun, and used in costumes and as wall-decorations), and lesser known weaving skills as indicated

From the 1880s onward, the Japanese invasion of Korea had a significant impact on Korean art. Works of art were looted and destroyed, schools of art were closed, and Korean styles were replaced with paintings of Japanese subjects in Japanese styles. In modern Korea, works in metal, jade, bamboo and textiles have had a limited resurgence, as seen in Korean fabric and paper arts. Korean paper art includes all manner of handmade paper (hanji), used for architectural purposes, for printing, artwork, and the Korean folded arts (paper fans, paper figures), and as well for Korean paper clothing, which has an annual fashion show in the city of Jeonju, attracting world attention. Contemporary Korean painting often resembles the textures and glazes of pottery, and emphasize the importance of brushstrokes. Manhwa, or Korean comics, were inspired by classic Asian arts and have been influenced by the dramatic modern history of Korea, resulting in a diversity of forms and genres.

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below in rarer arts. Korean paper art includes all manner of handmade paper (hanji), which is used for architectural purposes
Figure 29.23 Pre-Bell-Man, statue in front of the 'Museum fr Kommunikation', Frankfurt am Main, Germany

artists include Park Su-geun, Nam June Paik (Figure 29.23), Chang Ucchin, and Seund Ja Rhee. A new wave of Korean art includes the work of Lee Dong Youb and Suh Yongsun, while 21st century Korean artists include Amy Sol, David Choe, Seonna Hong, Tschoon Su Kim, and Junggeun Oh. Suh Yongsun was elected "Korea's artist of the year 2009," and makes paintings with heavy brushstrokes of subjects from both Korean history and urban scenes of Western cities like New York and Berlin. His artwork is a good example of the combination of Korean and Western subjects and painting styles. Manhwa (Figure 29.24) is the

Figure 29.24 The rst woodcut manhwa by an unidentied painter, printed in Gamgak Nodong Yahak Dokbon in 1908

(such as window screens and floor covering), printing, artwork, the Korean folded arts (such as paper fans and figures), and as well for Korean paper clothing. Contemporary paper artists are very active, and the art of Korean paper clothing has an annual fashion show in the city of Jeonju, attracting world attention. Korean calligraphy is seen as an art where brush-strokes reveal the artist's personality enhancing the subject matter that is painted. Contemporary Korean painting demands an understanding of Korean ceramics and Korean pottery. The glazes and textures of Korean

Nam June Paik (July 20, 1932 January 29, 2006) was a Korean American artist who worked with a variety of media. He is considered to be the rst video artist.

Manhwa, or Korean comics, were inspired by classic Asian arts and have"been inuenced by the dramatic modern history of Korea. In this cartoon, an"Adviser of Workers' Evening School Council says "Hello, we have to work for our country and people have to learn.""The worker"then replies, "Yes, thanks. I will do that."

paintings make them more similar to the tradition of ceramic art than of western painterly traditions, even if the subjects appear to be of Western origin. Brush-strokes as well are far more important than they are to the Western artist; paintings are judged on brushstrokes more often than pure technique. Major 20th century Korean

general Korean term for comics and print cartoons. Outside of Korea, the term usually refers specifically to South Korean comics. The term, along with manga, is a cognate of the Chinese manhua. Manhwa were inspired by classic Asian arts, especially Chinese, and

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have been influenced by the dramatic modern history of Korea, resulting in a diversity of forms and genres. Distinctive manhwa can be found in editorial comic strips, artistically-oriented works, and webcomics serials. North Korea In the north, changing political systems from Communism merging with the old yangban class of Korean nationalistic leaders have brought out a different kind of visual arts that is quite distinctive from the Socialist Realism common to Communist art. This is particularly seen in the patriotic films that dominated the culture from 1949 to 1994, and the reawakened architecture, calligraphy, fabric work and neo-traditional painting from 1994 to today.The impact could be seen on revolutionary posters, lithography and multiples, dramatic and documentary film, realistic painting, and grand architecture; it could also been seen to a lesser extent in areas of domestic pottery, ceramics, exportable needlework, and the visual crafts. Sports art and politically-charged revolutionary posters have been the most sophisticated, and are internationally collected by auction houses and specialty collectors.
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Chapter 30

Japan After 1333

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Section 1

Muromachi Period

Zen Ink Painting Zen Dry Rock Garden

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Muromachi Period
During the Muromachi period (1333 - 1578), Zen values had a major impact on the visual arts, which took the form of Zen ink painting.

During the Muromachi period (1333 - 1578), also called the Ashikaga period, a profound change took place in Japanese culture. The Ashikaga clan took control of the shogunate and moved its headquarters back to Kyoto, to the Muromachi district of the city. With the return of government to the capital, the popularizing trends of the Kamakura period came to an end, and cultural

KEY POINTS

expression took on a more aristocratic, elitist character. During the Muromachi Period, Zen Buddhism rose to prominence especially among the elite Samurai class, who embraced the Zen values of personal discipline, concentration and self development. The establishment of the great Zen monasteries in Kamakura and Kyoto had a major impact on the visual arts. Because of secular ventures and trading missions to China organized by Zen temples, many Chinese paintings and objects of art were imported into Japan and profoundly influenced Japanese artists working for Zen temples and the shogunate. Not only did these imports change the subject matter of painting, they also modified the use of color; the bright colors of Yamato-e yielded to the monochromes of painting in the Chinese manner of Sui-boku-ga () or sumi-e (). This style mainly used only black ink the same as used in East Asian calligraphy.

The development of the great Zen monasteries in Kamakura and Kyoto had a great influence on the visual arts of the Muromachi period. The foremost painter of the new Sumi-e style was Sessh( T'y' (14201506), whose most dramatic works are in the Chinese splashed-ink (Haboku) style. The Sumi-e style was highly influenced by calligraphy, employing the same tools and style as well as its Zen philosophy. By the end of the 14th century, monochrome landscape paintings (sansuiga) had found patronage by the ruling Ashikaga family and were the preferred genre among Zen painters, gradually evolving from its Chinese roots to a more Japanese style. Another style which developed in the Muromachi period is Shigajiku (). This is usually a painting accompanied by poetry and has its roots in China, where painting and poetry were seen as inherently connected.

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The foremost painter of the new Sumi-e style was Sessh( T'y' (14201506), a Rinzai priest who traveled to China in 14689 and
Figure 30.1 Haboku-Sansui, Sessh", 1495, ink on silk,

clear his mind and apply the brush strokes without too much thinking, termed mushin ( "no mind state"?) by the Japanese philosopher Nishida Kitaro. The concept of mushin is central to many Japanese arts including the art of the sword, archery and the tea ceremony. By the end of the 14th century, monochrome landscape paintings (sansuiga) had found patronage by the ruling Ashikaga family and was the preferred genre among Zen painters, gradually evolving from its Chinese roots to a more Japanese style. Another important painter in this period is Tensh' Sh(bun, a monk at the Kyoto temple of Sh'koku-ji who traveled to Korea and studied under Chinese painters. He returned to Japan in 1404 and settled in Kyoto, then the capital city. He became director of the court painting bureau, established by Ashikaga shoguns, who were influential art patrons. Sh(bun's best known landscape painting, designated as a National Treasure in Japan, is Reading in a Bamboo Grove, now kept in the Tokyo National Museum (Figure 30.2).
Tensh% Sh$bun's (14141463) best known landscape painting. Figure 30.2 Detail of "Reading in a Bamboo Grove", 1446, Sh"bun

studied contemporary Ming painting. Some of his most dramatic works are in the Chinese splashed-ink (Haboku) style. Upon returning to Japan, Sessh( built himself a studio and established a large following, painters that are now referred to as the Unkoku-rin school or "School of Sessh(". To make one of the calligraphic and highlystylized Haboku paintings, the

Splashed-ink style landscape by Sessh$ T%y% (14201506)

painter would visualize the image and then make swift

broad strokes onto the paper, resulting in a splashed and abstract composition, all done with meditative concentration. This impressionistic style of painting was supposed to capture the true nature of the subject (Figure 30.1). The Sumi-e style was highly influenced by calligraphy, using the same tools and style as well as its Zen philosophy. To paint in this style the practitioner had to

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Another style which developed in the Muromachi period is Shigajiku (). This is usually a painting accompanied by poetry and has its roots in China, where painting and poetry were seen as inherently connected. This style grew out of literary circles; an artist would usually be given a subject to paint and the poets would write accompanying verses to be written above the work. A famous example is the scroll "Catching a Catfish with a Gourd" (Hy'nen-zu ) located at Taiz'-in, My'shin-ji, Kyoto. Created by the priest-painter Josetsu (1386?-1428?), it includes 31 verses of many Zen priests inscribed above the painting. In the foreground of the painting a man is depicted on the bank of a stream holding a small gourd and looking at a large slithery catfish. Mist fills the middle ground, and the background mountains appear to be far in the distance. The painting was commissioned by the 4th Shogun of the Muromachi Period, Ashikaga Yoshimochi (1386-1428) and was based on the nonsensical riddle "How do you catch a catfish with a gourd?". The painting and accompanying poems capture both the playfulness and the perplexing nature of Zen buddhist Koans who was supposed to aid the Zen practitioner in his meditation; a central practice of the Rinzai school. In the late Muromachi period, ink painting had migrated out of the Zen monasteries into the art world in general. Artists from the Kano

school and the Ami school adopted the style and themes, but introduced a more plastic and decorative effect that would continue into modern times.
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Zen Dry Rock Garden


Zen dry rock gardens were created at temples of Zen Buddhism during the Muromachi Period to imitate the intimate essence of nature.
KEY POINTS

KEY POINTS (cont.)

The invention of the zen garden was closely connected with developments in Japanese ink landscape paintings. Japanese painters such as Sessh( T'y' (14201506) and Soami (died 1525) greatly simplified their views of nature, showing only the most essential aspects of nature.

A zen garden is usually relatively small, surrounded by a wall, and is meant to be seen while seated from a single viewpoint outside the garden, such as the porch of the hojo, the residence of the chief monk of the temple or monastery. The Muromachi Period in Japan was characterized by political rivalaries that frequently led to wars, but also by an extraordinary flourishing of Japanese culture. It saw the beginning of Noh theater, the Japanese tea ceremony, the shoin style of Japanese architecture, and the zen garden. In Kyoto in the 14th and 15th century, a new kind of garden appeared at the important zen temples. These zen gardens were designed to stimulate meditation. The most famous of all zen gardens in Kyoto is Ry'an-ji, built in the late 15th century where for the first time the zen garden became purely abstract.

The Muromachi Period in Japan, which took place at roughly the same time as the Renaissance in Europe, was characterized by political rivalaries that frequently led to wars. However, it was also characterized by an extraordinary flourishing of Japanese culture. It saw the beginning of Noh theater, the Japanese tea ceremony, the shoin style of Japanese architecture, and the zen garden. Zen Buddhism was introduced into Japan at the end of the 12th century. It quickly achieved a wide following, particularly among the Samurai class and war lords, who admired its doctrine of selfdiscipline. The gardens of the early zen temples in Japan resembled Chinese gardens at the time, with lakes and islands. However, in Kyoto in the 14th and 15th century, a new kind of garden appeared at the important zen temples. These zen gardens were designed to stimulate meditation. "Nature, if you made it expressive by reducing it to its abstract forms, could transmit the most profound thoughts by its simple presence," Michel Baridon, a well know researcher,

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wrote. "The compositions of stone, already common China, became in Japan, veritable petrified landscapes, which seemed suspended in time, as in a certain moments of Noh theater, which dates to the same period." The first garden, to begin the transition to the new style, is considered by many experts to be Saih'-ji, "The Temple of the Perfumes of the West," popularly known as Koke-dera, the Moss Garden, in the western part of Kyoto. The Buddhist monk and zen master Mus' Kokushi transformed a Buddhist temple into a zen monastery in 1334 and built the gardens. The lower garden of Saih'-ji is in the traditional Heian Period style; a pond with several rock compositions representing islands. The upper garden is a dry rock garden which features three rock "islands." The first, called Kameshima, the island of the turtle, resembles a turtle swimming in a "lake" of moss. The second, Zazen-seki, is a flat "meditation rock," that is believed to radiate calm and silence; and the third is the kare-taki, a dry "waterfall" composed of a stairway of flat granite rocks. The moss that now surrounds the rocks and represents water, was not part of the original garden plan; it grew several centuries later when the garden was left untended. However, is now the most famous feature of the garden. Muso Kokushi built another temple garden at Tenry(-ji, the "Temple of the Celestial Dragon." This garden appears to have been

strongly influenced by Chinese landscape painting of the Song Dynasty which feature mountains rising in the mist, and a suggestion of great depth and height. The garden at Tenry(-ji has a real pond with water and a dry waterfall of rocks looking like a Chinese landscape. Saih'-ji and Tenry(-ji show the transition from the Heian style garden toward a more abstract and stylized view of nature.
Figure 30.3 Ry#an-ji (late 15th century) in Kyoto, Japan, a famous example of a zen garden The most famous of all zen gardens in Kyoto is Ry%an-ji, built in the late 15th century where for the rst time the zen garden became purely abstract

The gardens of Ginkaku-ji, also known as the Silver Pavilion, are also attributed to Muso Kokushi. This temple garden included a traditional pond garden, but it had a new feature for a Japanese garden; an area of raked white gravel with a perfectly shaped mountain of white gravel, resembling Mount Fuji, in the center. The scene was called ginshanada, literally "sand of silver and open sea." This garden feature became known as kogetsudai, or "small mountain facing the moon." There was also a similar small Mount

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Fujis made of sand or earth covered with grass appeared in Japanese gardens for centuries afterwards. The most famous of all zen gardens in Kyoto is Ry'an-ji, built in the late 15th century where for the first time the zen garden became purely abstract (Figure 30.3). The garden is a rectangle of 340 square meters. Placed within it are 15 stones of different sizes, carefully composed in five groups; one group of five stones, two groups of three, and two groups of two stones. The stones are
Figure 30.4 A mountain, waterfall, and gravel "river" at Daisen-in (15091513) The garden at Daisen-in (1509-1513) took a more literary approach than Ry%an-ji. There a "river" of white gravel represents a metaphorical journey through life; beginning with a dry waterfall in the mountains, passing through rapids and rocks, and ending in a tranquil sea of white gravel, with two gravel mountains.

surrounded by white gravel, which is carefully raked every day by the monks. The only vegetation in the garden is some moss around the stones. The garden is meant to be viewed from a seated position on the veranda of the h'j', the residence of the abbot of the monastery. The garden at Daisen-in (1509-1513) took a more literary approach than Ry'an-ji. A "river" of white gravel represents a metaphorical journey through life; beginning with a dry waterfall in the mountains, passing through rapids and rocks, and ending in a tranquil sea of white gravel with two gravel mountains (Figure 30. 4). Michel Baridon wrote, "The famous zen gardens of the Muromachi Period showed that Japan had carried the art of gardens to the highest degree of intellectual refinement that it was possible to attain."
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Section 2

Momoyama Period

Architecture Shoin Rooms The Tea Ceremony

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Architecture
The ornate castle architecture and interiors of the Momoyama period were a reection of both a daimyo's power and a new aesthetic sense.
KEY POINTS

Japan after an era of almost 100 years of warfare. Oda, a minor chieftain, acquired enough power to take de facto control of the government in 1568 and, five years later, to oust the last Ashikaga shogun. Hideyoshi took command after Oda's death, but his plans to establish hereditary rule were foiled by Ieyasu, who established the Tokugawa shogunate in 1603. The Momoyama period was a period of interest in the outside world, but also saw the development of large urban centers and the rise of the merchant class. The ornate castle architecture and interiors, adorned with painted screens embellished with gold leaf, were a reflection of both a daimyo's power and a new aesthetic sense that marked a clear departure from the somber monotones favored during the Muromachi period. A specific genre that emerged at this time was called the Namban styleexotic depictions of European priests, traders, and other "southern barbarians." )saki Hachiman-g( () is a Shinto shrine in Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan (Figure 30.5). The main shrine building ( shaden) is the oldest extant ishi-no-ma-zukuri () structure and an example of Momoyama architecture. It is a single-

The Momoyama period was a period of interest in the outside world, but also saw the development of large urban centers and the rise of the merchant class. The ornate castle architecture and interiors, adorned with painted screens embellished with gold leaf, marked a clear departure from the somber monotones favored during the Muromachi period. A specific genre that emerged at this time was the Namban styleexotic depictions of European priests, traders, and other "southern barbarians". )saki Hachiman-g( (?) is a Shinto shrine in Aobaku, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan. The main shrine building ( shaden) is the oldest extant ishi-no-ma-zukuri (?) structure and an example of Momoyama architecture.

In the Momoyama period (15731603), a succession of military leaders, such as Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu, attempted to bring peace and political stability to

storied structure consisting of a main sanctuary (honden) and a worship hall (haiden), which are joined via a connecting passage

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Figure 30.5 $saki Hachiman-g" shrine in Sendai city

called ishi-no-ma. All three structures are under a single roof covered with shake shingles. The honden is a 5 ken by 3 ken structure with a hip-andgable, irimoya-style roof to which a simple gabled roof of the 1 ken by 1 ken ishi-no-ma connects. The

Shoin Rooms
Shoin ( drawing room or study) is a type of audience hall in Japanese architecture that was developed during the Muromachi period.

KEY POINTS

The main shrine building is an example of Momoyama architecture.

haiden is also 3 ken wide. The structure is 7 ken at

Shoin originally referred to a study and a place for lectures on the s(tra within a temple, but later it came to mean just a drawing room or study. The emerging architecture of the Muromachi period was subsequently influenced by the increasing use and appearance of shoin. One of the most noticeable changes in architecture to arise from the shoin came from the practice of lining their floors with tatami mats. The architecture surrounding and influenced by the shoin quickly developed many other distinguishing features. Since the guests sat on the floor instead of on furniture, they were positioned at a lower vantage point than their Chinese counterparts who were accustomed to using furniture. Another characteristic development to arise from the lower vantage point were the tokonoma (an elevated recess built into the wall to create a space for displaying the Chinese art) and chigaidana ("staggered shelves," shelving structures built into the tokonoma to display smaller objects).

the front and 5 ken at the back where the ishi-no-ma is attached. Its roof is like that of the honden of the hip-and-gable type. On the front it has an attached triangular dormer with a decorative bargeboard of strongly concave shape, a chidori hafu ( lit. "plover gable"). The entrance is covered by a 5 ken step canopy with an undulating karahafu gable at eave ends (nokikarahafu).
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The architecture surrounding and influenced by the shoin quickly


KEY POINTS (cont.)

developed many other distinguishing features. Since the guests sat on the floor instead of on furniture, they were positioned at a lower vantage point than their Chinese counterparts who were accustomed to using furniture. This lower vantage point generated such developments as suspended ceilings, which functioned to make the room feel less expansive and also resulted in the ceilings rafters being no longer visible as they were in China. The new suspended ceilings also allowed for more elaborate decoration, resulting in many highly ornate suspended ceilings in addition to the much simpler ones.
The Shiro-shoin at Hongan-ji Figure 30.6 The Shiro-shoin at Hongan-ji

Occurring at the same time as the development of the shoin architecture, the fusuma, or "sliding doors," were becoming a popular means to divide rooms.

Shoin ( drawing room or study) is a type of audience hall in Japanese architecture that was developed during the Muromachi period (Figure 30.6). The term originally referred to a study and a place for lectures on the s!tra within a temple, but later it came to mean just a drawing room or study. The shoin-zukuri style takes its name from these rooms. In a shoin-zukuri building, the shoin is the zashiki, a tatami-room dedicated to the reception of guests. The emerging architecture of the Muromachi period was subsequently influenced by the increasing use and appearance of shoin. One of the most noticeable changes in architecture to arise from the shoin came from the practice of lining their floors with tatami mats. Since tatami mats have a standardized size, the floor plans for shoin rooms had to be developed around the proportions of the tatami mat; this in turn affected the proportions of doors, the height of rooms, and other aspects of the structure. Before the shoin popularized the practice of lining floors with tatami mats, it had been standard to only bring out a single tatami mat for the highestranking person in the room to sit on.

Another characteristic development to arise from the lower vantage point were the tokonoma and chigaidana. The tokonoma was an elevated recess built into the wall to create a space for displaying the Chinese art, which was popular at the time at a comfortable eye level. The chigaidana, or "staggered shelves," were shelving structures built into the tokonoma to display smaller objects. Occurring at the same time as the development of the shoin

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architecture, the fusuma, or "sliding doors", were becoming a popular means to divide rooms. As a result columns began to be created that were square-shaped to accommodate the sliding doors. The asymmetry of the tokonoma and chigaidana pair, as well as the squared pillars, differentiated the shoin design with the Chinese design at the time, which preferred symmetric pairs of furniture and round pillars. Soon after its advent shoin architecture became associated with these evolving elements as it became the predominant format for formal gathering rooms.
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The Tea Ceremony


The art of the tea ceremony ourished during the Momoyama period and was inuenced by Zen principles of imperfection and transience.
KEY POINTS

The Momoyama period saw the budding of what is generally regarded as Japanese traditional culture as we know it today. The Japanese tea ceremony developed as a "transformative practice", and began to evolve its own aesthetic, in particular that of "wabi-sabi": a Japanese concept derived from Zen Buddhism that emphasizes simplicity, humility, impermanence, and intense appreciation of the immediate experience. Murata Juk' is known as the founder of the tea ceremony as a spiritual practice. He was the first to emphasize the concept of wabi-sabi in the aesthetic of the ceremony. By the 16th century, tea drinking had spread to all levels of society in Japan. Sen Riky( (1522 - 1591) is the most famous and revered tea master in the history of the tea ceremony. His teachings perfected many newly developed forms in architecture and gardens, art, and the full development of "the "way of tea".

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KEY POINTS (cont.)

By the 16th century, tea drinking had spread to all levels of society in Japan. Sen Riky( (1522 - 1591) is perhaps the most well-known
Figure 30.7 The tea ceremony ourished during the Momoyama period

Sen Riky( emphasized several key aspects of the ceremony, including rustic simplicity, directness of approach and honesty of self. His principles of harmony, respect, purity, and tranquility are still central to tea ceremony. He was also responsible for the creation of hand moulded Raku teabowls.

History of the Tea Ceremony The art of the tea ceremony flourished during the Momoyama period (ca. 1568 - 1603), and both Oda Nobunaga, the initiator of the unification of Japan under the shogunate in the late 16th century, and his successor, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, lavished time and money on this pastime, collecting tea bowls, caddies, and other implements, sponsoring lavish social events, and patronizing acclaimed masters such as Sen no Riky(. The Muromachi Period gave rise to Kitayama Culture, centered around the gorgeous cultural world of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu and his villa in the northern hills of Kyoto (Kinkaku-ji), and later during this period, gave the rise to Higashiyama Culture, centered around the elegant cultural world of Ashikaga Yoshimasa and his retirement villa in the eastern hills of Kyoto (Ginkaku-ji). This period saw the budding of what is generally regarded as Japanese traditional culture as we know it today.
An open tea house serving matcha (ippuku issen , right) and a peddler selling decoctants (senjimono-uri ja: , left). Ippuku issen's

monk clothing depicts the relationship between matcha culture, tea ceremony, and Buddhism.

and still revered figure in the history of the tea ceremony. He was driven by the concept of ichi-go ichi-e, a philosophy that each meeting should be treasured, for it can never be reproduced. His teachings perfected many newly developed forms in architecture and gardens, art, and the full development of "the "way of tea". He also reestablished and emphasized several key aspects of the ceremony, including rustic simplicity, directness of approach and honesty of self. The principles he set forwardharmony, respect,

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purity, and tranquilityare still central to tea ceremony (Figure 30. 7). Cultural Relevance of the Tea Ceremony The Japanese tea ceremony or chanoyu, also known as the Way of Tea, is a Japanese cultural ritual involving the cemeronial preparation and presentation of matcha or powdered green tea. Loose leaf green tea or sencha, is also used but far less commonly. Zen Buddhism was a formative influence in the development of the tea ceremony. The Japanese tea ceremony developed as a "transformative practice", and began to evolve its own aesthetic, in particular that of "wabi-sabi". Murata Juk' is known in chanoyu history as an early developer of the ceremony as a spiritual practice. He studied Zen under the monk Ikky(, who revitalized Zen in the 15th century, and this is considered to have influenced his concept of chanoyu. Indeed, he was responsible for use of the intensely Zen Buddhist concept of wabi-sabi in the aesthetic of the tea ceremony. "Wabi" represents the inner, or spiritual, experiences of human lives. Its original meaning indicated quiet or sober refinement, or subdued taste "characterized by humility, restraint, simplicity, naturalism, profundity, imperfection, and asymmetry" and "emphasizes simple, unadorned objects and architectural space, and celebrates the mellow beauty that time and care impart to materials." "Sabi," on

the other hand, represents the outer, or material side of life. Originally, it meant "worn," "weathered," or "decayed." Wabi-sabi emphasized simplicity, humility, consciousness of impermanence, and intense appreciation of the immediate experience, and this was reflected in the aesthetics of the tea ceremony. Tea Ceremony Vessels The pottery Sen Riky( used for the tea ceremony used was simple and natural in accordance with wabi-sabi, and came to transform the manner in which the Japanese viewed ceramic ware. He was involved in the innovation of Raku teabowls with the collaboration of a tile maker named Raku Ch'jir', prompted by his preference for simple, rustic items made in Japan rather than the expensive Chinese ware that was in fashion at the time. These hand moulded and glazed vessels have become intimately connected with the tea ceremony and are still in use to the present day.
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Section 3

Edo Period

Rinpa School Painting Naturalistic Painting Literati Painting Ukiyo-e Zen Painting Crafts

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Rinpa School Painting


In the early years of the Edo period, some of Japan's nest expressions in painting were produced by the Rimpa school.

KEY POINTS (cont.)

Rimpa artists worked in various formats, notably screens, fans, hanging scrolls, woodblock printed books, lacquerware, ceramics, and kimono textiles. Many Rimpa paintings were used on the sliding doors and walls (fusuma) of noble homes.

KEY POINTS

The Edo Period ( Edo jidai), or Tokugawa period ( Tokugawa jidai), is the period between 1603 to 1868 in the history of Japan when Japan was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate. The period was characterized by economic growth, strict social orders, isolationist foreign policies, an increase in both environmental protection, and popular enjoyment of arts and culture. Japanese society during this period was controlled by the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional Daimyo. It was officially established in Edo on March 24, 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu. The period came to an end with the Meiji Restoration on May 3, 1868 after the fall of Edo. One of the dominant themes in the Edo period was the repressive policies of the shogunate and the attempts of artists to escape these strictures. The foremost of these strictures was the closing of the country to foreigners, the accoutrements of foreign cultures, the imposition of strict codes of behavior affecting every aspect of life,

Hon'ami K'etsu founded an artistic community of craftsmen supported by wealthy merchant patrons in northeastern Kyoto in 1615. These patrons favored arts which followed classical traditions, and K'etsu obliged by producing numerous works of ceramics, calligraphy, and lacquerware. K'etsu's collaborator, Tawaraya S'tatsu, maintained an atelier in Kyoto and produced commercial paintings such as decorative fans and folding screens. S'tatsu also specialized in making decorated paper with gold or silver backgrounds, to which K'etsu assisted by adding calligraphy. S'tatsu also pursued the classical Yamato-e genre as K'etsu, but pioneered a new technique with bold outlines and striking color schemes. The Rimpa school was revived in the Genroku era (1688 1704) by Ogata K'rin and his younger brother Ogata Kenzan. K'rin's innovation was to depict nature as an abstract using numerous color and hue gradations and mixing colors on the surface to achieve eccentric effects.

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the clothes one wore, the person one married, and the activities one could or should not pursue. In the early years of the Edo period, however, the full impact of Tokugawa policies had not yet been felt, and some of Japan's finest expressions in architecture and painting were produced: Katsura Palace in Kyoto and the paintings of Tawaraya S'tatsu, the pioneer of the Rimpa school. Hon'ami K'etsu founded an artistic community of craftsmen, supported by wealthy merchant patrons of the Nichiren Buddhist sect at Takagamine in northeastern Kyoto in 1615. Both the affluent merchant town elite and the old Kyoto aristocratic families favored arts which followed classical traditions, and K'etsu obliged by producing numerous works of ceramics, calligraphy, and lacquerware.
Portion of S%tatsu's F$jin Raijin-zu, Japanese wind god Fujin. 17th century. Figure 30.8 Early Rimpa school work

His collaborator, Tawaraya S'tatsu, maintained an atelier in Kyoto and produced commercial paintings such as decorative fans and folding screens. S'tatsu also specialized in making decorated paper with gold or silver backgrounds, to which K'etsu assisted by adding calligraphy. Both artists came from families of cultural significance. K'etsu came from a family of swordsmiths who had served the imperial court and the great warlords, Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi, in addition to the Ashikaga sh'guns. K'etsu's father evaluated swords for the Maeda clan, as did K'etsu himself. However, K'etsu was less concerned with swords as opposed to painting, calligraphy, lacquerwork, and the Japanese tea ceremony (he created several Raku Ware tea bowls). His own painting style was flamboyant, recalling the aristocratic style of the Heian period. S'tatsu also pursued the same classical Yamato-e genre as K'etsu, but he pioneered a new technique with bold outlines and striking color schemes. One his most famous works is the folding screens Wind and Thunder Gods" ( F(jin Raijin-zu) located in Kennin-ji temple in Kyoto and "Matsushima" () at the Freer Gallery (Figure 30.8). The Rimpa school was revived in the Genroku era (16881704) by Ogata K'rin and his younger brother Ogata Kenzan, sons of a

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prosperous Kyoto textile merchant. K'rin's innovation was to depict nature as an abstract, using numerous color and hue gradations, mixing colors on the surface to achieve eccentric effects, and the liberal use of precious substances like gold and pearl. His masterpiece "Red and White Plum Trees" ( K'hakubai-zu) c. 1714/5, is now at the MOA Museum of Art in Atami, Shizuoka (Figure 30.9). As a dramatic composition, it established the direction of Rimpa for the remainder of its history. K'rin collaborated with Kenzan in painting designs and calligraphy on his brother's pottery. Kenzan remained as a potter in Kyoto until after K'rin's death in 1716 when he began to paint professionally. Other Rimpa artists active in this period were Tatebayashi Kagei, Tawaraya Sori, Watanabe Shiko, Fukae Roshu and Nakamura Hochu. Rimpa was revived in 19th century Edo by Sakai H'itsu (1761 1828), a Kan' school artist whose family had been one of Ogata
K%rin's "Red and White Plum Trees" (1714/15) established the direction of Rimpa for the remainder of its history. Figure 30.9 Portion of Ogata K#rin's K#hakubai-zu

K'rins sponsors. Sakai published a series of 100 woodcut prints based on paintings by K'rin, and his painting "Summer and Autumn Grasses" ( Natsu akikusa-zu) painted on the back of K'rins "Wind and Thunder Gods screen" is now at the Tokyo National Museum. Rimpa artists worked in various formats, notably screens, fans, hanging scrolls, woodblock printed books, lacquerware, ceramics, and kimono textiles. Many Rimpa paintings were used on the sliding doors and walls (fusuma) of noble homes. Subject matter and style were often borrowed from Heian period traditions of yamato-e, with elements from Muromachi ink paintings, Chinese Ming dynasty flower-and-bird paintings, and Momoyama period Kan' school developments. The stereotypical standard painting in the Rimpa style involves simple natural subjects such as birds, plants, and flowers with the background filled in with gold leaf. Emphasis on refined design and technique became more pronounced as the Rimpa style developed.
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Naturalistic Painting
The Kan% school ( Kan%-ha) was the dominant style of the Edo period (1603 - 1868).
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art, "another family which in direct blood line produced so many men of genius... would be hard to find." The school began by reflecting a renewed influence by Chinese painting, but developed a brightly colored and firmly outlined style for large panels, which reflected distinctively Japanese traditions, while continuing to produce monochrome brush paintings in Chinese styles. It was supported by the Shogunate, effectively representing an official style of art, which "in the 18th century almost monopolized the teaching of painting." It drew on the Chinese tradition of literati painting by scholar-bureaucrats, but the Kan' painters were firmly professional artists: they were very generously paid if successful, and received formal workshop training in the family workshop (similar to European painters of the Renaissance or Baroque period).

Figure 30.10 Kano Tan'yu, Spring Landscape (1672)

The Kan' school reflected a renewed influence from Chinese painting, but developed a brightly colored and firmly outlined style for large panels, which drew from Japanese traditions, while continuing to produce monochrome brush paintings in Chinese styles. Kan' school artists worked mainly for the nobility, shoguns, and emperors, covering a wide range of styles, subjects, and formats. The Kan' school split into different branches in Kyoto and the new capital of Edo, which had three schools for much of this period: the Kajibashi, Nakabashi and Kobikcho, named after their locations in Edo.

The Kan" school ( Kan'-ha) was the dominant style of the Edo period. The Kan' family itself produced a string of major artists over several generations, not to mention the large number of unrelated artists trained in workshops of the school. Some artists married into the family and changed their names, while others were adopted. According to Robert Treat Paine, the historian of Japanese

Tan'y$ headed the Kajibashi branch of the Kan% school in Edo and painted in many castles and the Imperial palace. "He used a less bold but extremely elegant style, which tended to become sti! and academic in the hands of less-talented imitators.

They worked mainly for the nobility, shoguns, and emperors,

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covering a wide range of styles, subjects, and formats. While initially innovative, from the 17th century onward the artists of the school became increasingly conservative and academic in their approach (Figure 30.10). The range of forms, styles, and subjects that were established in the early 17th century continued to be developed and refined without major innovation for the next two centuries. Although the Kan' school was the most successful in Japan, the distinctions between the work of it and other schools tended to diminsh, as all the schools worked in a range of styles and formats, making the attribution of unsigned works often unclear. The Kan' school split into different branches in Kyoto and the new capital of Edo, which had three schools for much of this period: the Kajibashi, Nakabashi and Kobikcho, named after their locations in Edo.
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Literati Painting
An important art trend in the Edo period was Bunjinga (literati painting), also known as the Nanga school (Southern Painting school).

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Bunjinga paintings, usually in monochrome black ink, sometimes with light color, and nearly always depicting Chinese landscapes or similar subjects, were patterned after Chinese literati painting. Due to the Edo period policy of sakoku, bunjin artists were left with an incomplete view of Chinese literati ideas. Bunjinga grew, therefore, out of what did come to Japan from China, including Chinese woodblock-printed painting manuals and an assortment of paintings widely ranging in quality. Japanese literati were not members of an academic, intellectual bureaucracy like their Chinese counterparts. While the Chinese literati were academics aspiring to be painters, the Japanese literati were professionally trained painters aspiring to be academics and intellectuals. Bunjinga paintings almost always depicted traditional Chinese subjects. Artists focused almost exclusively on landscapes, birds and flowers.

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traditional Chinese culture. Their paintings,


KEY POINTS (cont.)

usually in monochrome black ink, sometimes with light color, and nearly always depicting Chinese landscapes or similar subjects, were patterned after Chinese literati painting, called wenrenhua () in Chinese). The

As Japan became exposed to Western culture at the end of the Edo period, many bunjin began to incorporate stylistic elements of Western art into their own.

Figure 30.11 Fish in Spring by Ike no Taiga (1747)

Rise of Bunjinga An important trend in the Edo period was the rise of the Bunjinga (literati painting) genre, also known as the Nanga school (Southern Painting school). This genre started as an imitation of Chinese scholar-amateur painters of the Yuan dynasty, whose works and techniques came to Japan in the mid-18th century. Later bunjinga artists considerably modified both the techniques and the subject matter of this genre to create a blending of Japanese and Chinese styles. Exemplars of this style are Ike no Taiga, Uragami Gyokudo, Yosa Buson, Tanomura Chikuden, Tani Buncho, and Yamamoto Baiitsu (Figure 30.11). Nanga ( lit. "Southern painting"), also known as Bunjinga ( lit. literati painting"), was a school of Japanese painting which flourished in the late Edo period among artists who considered themselves literati, or intellectuals. While each of these artists was unique and independent, they all shared an admiration for

name nanga is an abbreviation of nansh(ga, referring to the Chinese Southern school of painting (nanzonghua in Chinese). China's Influence Chinese literati painting focused on expressing the rhythm of nature rather than the realistic depiction of it. However, the artist was encouraged to display a cold lack of affection for the painting, as if he, as an intellectual, was above caring deeply about his work. Ultimately, this style of painting was an outgrowth of the idea of the intellectual, or literati, as a master of all the core traditional arts - painting, calligraphy and poetry. Due to the Edo period policy of sakoku, Japan was cut off from the outside world almost completely. Its contact with China persisted, although this was greatly limited. What little did make its way into
Bunjinga paintings almost always depicted traditional Chinese subjects. Artists focused almost exclusively on landscapes, birds and owers.

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Japan was either imported through Nagasaki, or produced by Chinese living there. As a result, the bunjin (literati) artists who aspired to the ideals and lifestyles of the Chinese literati were left with a rather incomplete view of Chinese literati ideas and art. Bunjinga grew, therefore, out of what did come to Japan from China, including Chinese woodblock-printed painting manuals and an assortment of paintings widely ranging in quality. Bunjinga emerged as a unique art form for this reason, as well as due to the great differences in culture and environment of the Japanese literati as compared to their Chinese counterparts. The form was to a great extent defined by its rejection of other major schools of art like the Kano school and Tosa school. In addition, the literati themselves were not members of an academic, intellectual bureaucracy, as their Chinese counterparts were. While the Chinese literati were academics aspiring to be painters, the Japanese literati were professionally trained painters aspiring to be academics and intellectuals. Nanga or bunjinga paintings almost always depicted traditional Chinese subjects. Artists focused almost exclusively on landscapes, birds and flowers. Poetry or other inscriptions were also an important element of these paintings, and were often added by friends of the artist rather than the painter himself.

Unlike other schools of art which pass on their specific style to their students, nanga was always about the attitude espoused by the painter and his love of Chinese culture. Thus, as mentioned before, every bunjin artist displayed unique elements in his creations, and many diverged greatly from the stylistic elements employed by their forebears. As Japan became exposed to Western culture at the end of the Edo period, many bunjin began to incorporate stylistic elements of Western art into their own, though they usually stuck strictly to traditional Chinese elements. Ernest Fenollosa and Okakura Kakuz', two of the first to introduce Japanese art to the West, criticized nanga as trivial and derivative. As a result, the style has only attracted academic attention in the West in recent decades. A particular style of bonsai is called variously bunjin, bunjingi or "literati" and is intended to look like the trees portrayed in nanga art. Examples of the style are often elegantly elongated with few branches, being mainly a long, slim trunk surmounted by a very small mass of foliage.
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Ukiyo-e
With the rise of popular culture in the Edo period, a style of woodblock prints called ukiyo-e became a major art form.

first polychrome print in 1764.. Print designers of the next generation, including Torii Kiyonaga and Utamaro, created elegant and sometimes insightful depictions of courtesans. The best known work of ukiyo-e from the Edo period is the woodblock
Figure 30.12 "The Great Wave off Kanagawa," Hokusai's most famous print, the rst in the series 36 Views of Mount Fuji

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print series. Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji ( Fugaku Sanj(roku-kei, c. 1831), which includes the internationally recognized print, The Great Wave off Kanagawa, was created during the 1820s by
Although it is often used in tsunami literature, there is no reason to suspect that Hokusai intended it to be interpreted in that way. The waves in this work are sometimes mistakenly referred to as tsunami (), but they are more accurately called okinami (), great o!-shore waves.

The school of art best known in the West is that of the ukiyo-e paintings and woodblock prints of the demimonde - the world of the kabuki theater and the brothel district. Ukiyo-e prints began to be produced in the late 17th century, with Harunobu producing !the first polychrome print in 1764. The dominant artistic figure!of the 19th century was Hokusai's contemporary, Hiroshige, a creator of romantic and somewhat sentimental landscape prints.

With the rise of popular culture in the Edo period, a style of woodblock prints called ukiyo-e became a major art form. Its techniques were fine tuned to produce colorful prints of everything from daily news to schoolbooks The school of art best known in the West is that of the ukiyo-e paintings and woodblock prints of the demimonde - the world of the kabuki theater and the brothel district. Ukiyo-e prints began to be produced in the late 17th century, with Harunobu producing the

Katsushika Hokusai ( , October 31, 1760

May 10, 1849, (Figure 30.12). Hokusai was influenced by such painters as Sesshu and other styles of Chinese painting. As historian Richard Lane concludes, "Indeed, if there is one work that made Hokusai's name, both in Japan and abroad, it must be this monumental print-series." While Hokusai's work prior to this series is certainly important, it was not until this series that he gained

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broad recognition. It was also The Great Wave print that initially received, and continues to receive, acclaim and popularity in the Western world.
Figure 30.13 Hiroshige's Upright T#kaid# depicts Hakone.

figures from life outside the strictures of the Tokugawa shogunate, Bunjin artists turned to Chinese culture. The exemplars of this style are Ike no Taiga, Yosa Buson, Tanomura Chikuden, and Yamamoto Baiitsu.
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The dominant artistic figure of the 19th century was Hokusai's contemporary, Hiroshige, a creator of romantic and somewhat sentimental landscape prints. The odd angles and shapes through which Hiroshige often viewed landscape, with its emphasis on flat planes and strong linear outlines, had a profound impact on such Western artists as Edgar Degas and Vincent van Gogh (Figure 30.13) Via artworks held

Print shows travelers and porters crossing a steep pass in the mountains at the Hakone station on the T%kaid% Road.

in Western museums, these same printmakers would later exert a powerful influence on the imagery

and aesthetic approaches used by early Modernist poets like Ezra Pound and Richard Aldington. Another style of ukiyo-e was Bunjinga, based on paintings executed by Chinese scholar-painters. Just as ukiyo-e artists chose to depict

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Zen Painting
Zenga is the Japanese term for the practice and art of Zen Buddhist painting and calligraphy, which developed in the Edo period.
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merged within the same piece. The calligraphy denotes a poem, or saying, that teaches some element of the true path of Zen. The brush painting is characteristically simple, bold and abstract (Figure 30.14). Though Zen Buddhism had arrived in Japan at the end of the 12thcentury, Zenga art, as here described, didn't come into its own until the beginning of the Edo period, in 1600. In keeping with individual paths to enlightenment, nearly any subject matter can and has lent itself to Zenga. Everything from a cat, to a bamboo shoot, to a man defecating in a field has been used to illustrate a particular point - although Ens", sticks, and Mt. Fuji are the most common elements. The modern study of Japanese aesthetics in the Western sense only

Figure 30.14 Example of Zen painting, Edo period

Zenga is a style of Japanese ink-based calligraphy and painting. In many instances of Zenga, both calligraphy and image will be in the same piece. The calligraphy denotes a poem, or saying, that teaches some element of the true path of Zen. The brush painting in Zenga is characteristically simple, bold, and abstract. In keeping with individual paths to enlightenment, nearly any subject matter can lend itself to Zenga. Everything from a cat, to a bamboo shoot, to a man defecating in a field has been used to illustrate a particular point - although enso, sticks, and Mt. Fuji are the most common elements.

Zenga is the Japanese term for the practice and art of Zen Buddhist painting and calligraphy, and is associated with the Japanese tea ceremony and also the martial arts. As a noun, Zenga is a style of Japanese calligraphy and painting done in ink. In many instances, both calligraphy and image will be

This Japanese scroll calligraphy of Bodhidharma reads (from up to low, left to right) Zen points directly to the human heart, see into your nature and become Buddha. It was created by Hakuin Ekaku (1685 to 1768).

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started a little over two hundred years ago. But, by the term "Japanese aesthetic" we tend to mean not this modern study, but a set of ancient ideals that include wabi (transient and stark beauty), sabi (the beauty of natural patina and aging), and y(gen (profound grace and subtlety). These ideals and others underpin much of Japanese cultural and aesthetic norms on what is considered tasteful or beautiful. Thus, while seen as a philosophy in Western societies, the concept of aesthetics in Japan is seen as an integral part of daily life. Japanese aesthetics now encompass a variety of ideals; some of these are traditional, while others are modern and sometimes influenced from other cultures.
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Crafts
Traditional Japanese handicrafts associated with the Edo period are temari (a toy handball for children) and doll making.

KEY POINTS

One of the dominant themes in the Edo period was the repressive policies of the shogunate and the attempts of artists to escape these strictures. The craft of making temari or handballs evolved into an art in the early Edo Period. These balls were made from strips of old kimono silk and exquisitely embroidered with complex decorative stitching . Another craft that developed during the Edo period, when Japan was closed to most trade, was doll making as there was a market of wealthy individuals who would pay for the most beautiful doll sets for their homes or as gifts. Japanese lacquerwork reached its peak in the 17th century during the Edo period. Lacquer was used to decorate a range of everyday items, and the famous lacquerer Ogata Korin introduced greater use of pewter and mother of pearl in lacquerware. Other important Edo-period crafts include nishijin weaving, yuzen dying, and the production of wadokei or Japanese clocks.

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The Edo Period The Edo Period ( Edo jidai) is the period in Japanese history between 1603 to 1868 when the country was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate. The period was characterized by economic growth, strict social orders, isolationist foreign policies, and an increase in both environmental protection and popular enjoyment of arts and culture. Japanese society during this period was controlled by the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional Daimyo. It was officially established in Edo on March 24, 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu. The period came to an end with the Meiji Restoration on May 3rd, 1868, after the fall of Edo. One of the dominant themes in the Edo period was the repressive policies of the shogunate and the attempts of artists to escape those strictures. The foremost of these was the closing of the country to foreigners and the accoutrements of foreign cultures, and the imposition of strict codes of behavior affecting every aspect of life, the clothes one wore, the person one married, and the activities one could not or should not pursue. Temari Of the many and varied traditional handicrafts of Japan, one closely associated with the Edo period is the ancient craft of temari. Temari means "handball" in Japanese. It is a folk craft born in

ancient Japan from the desire to amuse and entertain children with a toy handball. Temari is said to have its origins from Kemari (football), brought to Japan from China about 1400 years ago. These balls were constructed from the remnants of old kimonos. Pieces of silk fabric were wadded up to form a rough ball and this preliminary wad was then further wrapped in additional strips of fabric. Temari making gradually became an art, and the initially purely functional stitching assumed a decorative and detailed quality, displaying intricate embroidery. Making temari grew as a pastime for noble women in the early part of the Edo Period (16001868), with women of the aristocracy and upper class competing in creating increasingly more intricate and beautiful balls. Over the years, region by region, the women of Japan explored the craft and improved it. They added noisemakers to the inside to delight the ear. They added Japanese designs and copied the colors of nature around them, and they used the brilliant colors of kimono silk to stitch eye-catching patterns. Doll Making Another craft that developed during the Edo period, when Japan was closed to most trade, was doll making as there was a market of wealthy individuals who would pay for the most beautiful doll sets for display in their homes, or as valuable gifts. Sets of dolls came to include larger and more elaborate figures, and more dolls in total.

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The competitive trade was eventually regulated by the government, meaning that doll makers could be arrested or banished for breaking laws restricting materials and heights. Hina dolls are the dolls for Hinamatsuri, the doll festival on March 3rd. They can be made of many materials but the classic hina doll has a pyramidal body of elaborate, manylayered textiles stuffed with straw and/or wood blocks, carved wood hands (and in some cases feet) covered with gofun, and a head of carved wood or molded wood compo covered with gofun, with set-in glass eyes (though before about 1850 the eyes were carved into the gofun and painted), and human or silk hair. A full set comprises at least 15 dolls, representing specific characters, with many accessories (dogu), though the basic set is a male-female pair, often referred to as the Emperor and Empress (Figure 30.15).
Fine dollmaking developed during the Edo period (1603-1867). Figure 30.15 Hinamatsuri Hina Dolls, the Emperor with Two Handmaidens

Figure 30.16 Lacquered Writing Box by Ogata Korin, ca. 1700. This writing box made of black lacquered wood with gold, makie, abalone shells, silver, and corroded lead strip decorations dates from the 18th century and reects the skill of the Edo painter and lacquerer Ogata Korin.

Lacquerwork Japanese lacquerwork reached its peak in the 17th century during the Edo period, and lacquer was used both for solely decorative objects as well as everyday items such as combs, tables, bottles, headrests, small boxes, and writing cases. The most famous lacquerer-painter of the time was Ogata Korin, who was the first artist to use mother of pearl and pewter in larger quantities in lacquerware (Figure 30.16). Several techniques of Japanese weaving and dying thrived during the Edo period. These include Nishijin weaving, which involves weaving many different types of colored yarn together to form decorative designs, and also the Yuzen or paste-resist method of

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dying, where designs were applied to textiles using stencils and rice paste, resulting in the imitation of aristocratic brocades, which were forbidden to commoners by sumptuary laws. Another Edo period craft that reflected contemporary Japan's interest in electrical phenomena and mechanical sciences was the development of wadokei or Japanese clockwatches. These were typically made of brass or iron in the lantern clock design and driven by weights.
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Section 4

Modern Period&

Meiji Period Japan Post-WWII Showa Period

https://www.boundless.com/art-history/japan-after-1333/modern-period--2/
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Meiji Period
The art of the Meiji period (1868 - July 1912) was marked by the division into competing European, and traditional indigenous styles.

KEY POINTS (cont.)

In 1907, with the establishment of the Bunten under the aegis of the Ministry of Education, both competing groups -- Y'ga and Nihonga -- found mutual recognition and co-existence, and even began the process towards mutual synthesis.

KEY POINTS

The Meiji period ( Meijijidai), known as the Meiji era, is a period in Japanese history which extended from September 1868 through July 1912. This period represents the first half of Japan's time as an imperial power. Fundamental changes affected Japan's social structure, internal politics, economy, military, and foreign relations. Japanese society moved from being an isolated feudalism to its modern form. In art, this period was marked by the division into competing European and traditional indigenous styles.

The Meiji period (September, 1868 through July, 1912) represents the first half of the Empire of Japan, during which Japanese society moved from being an isolated feudalism to its modern form. During the Meiji period Western style painting (Y'ga) was officially promoted by the government, who sent promising young artists abroad for studies, and who hired foreign artists to come to Japan to establish an art curriculum at Japanese schools. After an initial burst for western style art, the pendulum swung in the opposite direction, and led by art critic Okakura Kakuzo and educator Ernest Fenollosa, there was a revival of appreciation for traditional Japanese styles (Nihonga). In the 1880s, western style art was banned from official exhibitions and was severely criticized by critics. Supported by Okakura and Fenollosa, the Nihonga style evolved with influences from the European pre-Raphaelite movement and European romanticism.

Figure 30.17 Y#ga style painting of the Meiji period by Kuroda Seiki (1893)

Y%ga in its broadest sense encompasses oil painting, watercolors, pastels, ink sketches, lithography, etching and other techniques developed in western culture. However, in a more limited sense, Y%ga is sometimes used specically to refer to oil painting.

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During the Meiji period, Japan underwent a tremendous political and social change in the course of the Europeanization and modernization campaign organized by the Meiji government. Western style painting (Y'ga) was officially promoted by the government, who sent promising young artists abroad for studies. The Y'ga style painters formed the Meiji Bijutsukai (Meiji Fine Arts Society) to hold its own exhibitions and to promote a renewed interest in western art. Foreign artists were also hired to come to Japan to establish an art curriculum at Japanese schools (Figure 30.17). However, after an initial burst for western style art, the pendulum swung in the opposite direction. Led by art critic Okakura Kakuzo
Figure 30.18 Nihonga style painting: "Black Cat" (Kuroki Neko, 1910) Nihonga ( Nihonga) or literally "Japanese-style paintings" are paintings that have been made in accordance with traditional Japanese artistic conventions, techniques and materials. While based on traditions over a thousand years old, the term was coined in the Meiji period of the Imperial Japan, to distinguish such works from Western-style paintings, or Y%ga ( Y%ga).

and educator Ernest Fenollosa, there was a revival of appreciation for traditional Japanese styles (Nihonga). In the 1880s, western style art was banned from official exhibitions and was severely criticized by critics. Supported by Okakura and Fenollosa, the Nihonga style evolved with influences from the European preRaphaelite movement and European romanticism (Figure 30.18). In 1907, with the establishment of the Bunten under the aegis of the Ministry of Education, both competing groups found mutual recognition and co-existence, and even began the process towards mutual synthesis.
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Japan Post-WWII
After World War II, Japanese artists became preoccupied with the mechanisms of urban life, and moved from abstraction to manga-inuenced art.

KEY POINTS (cont.)

There are also a number of contemporary painters in Japan whose work is largely inspired by anime subcultures and other aspects of popular and youth culture, such as the work of Takashi Murakami.

KEY POINTS

Welcoming the new post-World War II period of Japanese history, the government-sponsored Japan Art Academy (Nihon Geijutsuin) was formed in 1947, containing both nihonga and y'ga divisions. Government sponsorship of art exhibitions had ended, but was replaced by private exhibitions, such as the Nitten, on an even larger scale. Although the Nitten was initially the exhibition of the Japan Art Academy, since 1958 it has been run by a separate private corporation. Participation in the Nitten became almost a prerequisite for nomination to the Japan Art Academy, which in itself was almost an unofficial prerequisite for nomination to the Order of Culture. The arts of the Edo and prewar periods (1603-1945) had been supported by merchants and urban people, but were not as popular as the arts of the postwar period. After World War II, painters, calligraphers, and printmakers flourished in the big cities particularly Tokyoand became preoccupied with the mechanisms of urban life, reflected in the flickering lights, neon colors, and

In the post-World War II period of Japanese history, the government-sponsored Japan Art Academy (Nihon Geijutsuin) was formed in 1947, containing both nihonga and y'ga divisions. After World War II, painters, calligraphers, and printmakers flourished in the big cities, particularly Tokyo, and became preoccupied with the mechanisms of urban life, reflected in the flickering lights, neon colors, and frenetic pace of their abstractions. After the abstractions of the 1960s, the 1970s saw a return to realism strongly flavored by the "op" and "pop" art movements, embodied in the 1980s in the explosive works of Ushio Shinohara. By the late 1970s, the search for Japanese qualities and a national style caused many artists to reevaluate their artistic ideology and turn away from what some felt were the empty formulas of the West. Contemporary paintings began to make conscious use of traditional Japanese art.

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frenetic pace of their abstractions. All the "isms" of the New YorkParis art world were fervently embraced. After the abstractions of the 1960s, the 1970s saw a return to realism strongly flavored by the "op" and "pop" art movements, embodied in the 1980s in the explosive works of Ushio Shinohara. Many such outstanding avant-garde artists worked both in Japan and abroad, winning international prizes. These artists felt that there was "nothing Japanese" about their works, and that they belonged to the international school. By the late 1970s, the search for Japanese qualities and a national style caused many artists to reevaluate their artistic ideology and turn away from what some felt were the empty formulas of the West. Contemporary paintings within the modern idiom began to make conscious use of traditional Japanese art forms, devices, and ideologies. A number of mono-ha artists turned to painting to recapture traditional nuances in spatial arrangements, color harmonies, and lyricism. Japanese-style, or nihonga, painting continued in a prewar fashion, updating traditional expressions while retaining their intrinsic character. Some artists within this style still painted on silk or paper with traditional colors and ink, while others used new materials, such as acrylics. Many of the older schools of art were still practiced, most notably those of the Edo and prewar periods. For example, the decorative

Figure 30.19 Sculpture by Japanese artist Takashi Murakami at Versailles, France. 2007-2010 bronze and gold leaf.

naturalism of the rimpa school, characterized by brilliant, pure colors and bleeding washes, was reflected in the work of many artists of the postwar period in the 1980s art of Hikosaka Naoyoshi. The realism of Maruyama )kyo's school and the calligraphic and spontaneous Japanese style of the gentlemen-scholars were both widely practiced in the 1980s. At times, all of these schools (along with older

Takashi Murakami is perhaps the most famous and popular contemporary Japanese artist whose work is largely inspired by anime subcultures and other aspects of popular and youth culture.

ones, such as the Kano school ink traditions) were drawn on by contemporary artists in the Japanese style and in the modern idiom. Many

Japanese-style painters were honored with awards and prizes as a result of renewed popular demand for Japanese-style art beginning in the 1970s. More and more, the international modern painters also drew on the Japanese schools as they turned away from

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Western styles in the 1980s. The tendency had been to synthesize East and West. Some artists had already leapt the gap between the two, as did the outstanding painter Shinoda Toko. Her bold sumi ink abstractions were inspired by traditional calligraphy, but realized as lyrical expressions of modern abstraction. There are also a number of contemporary painters in Japan whose work is largely inspired by anime subcultures and other aspects of popular and youth culture. Takashi Murakami (Figure 30.19) is perhaps among the most famous and popular of these, along with and the other artists in his Kaikai Kiki studio collective. His work centers on expressing issues and concerns of postwar Japanese society through what are usually seemingly innocuous forms. He draws heavily from anime and related styles, but produces paintings and sculptures in media more traditionally associated with fine arts, intentionally blurring the lines between commercial, popular, and fine arts.
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Showa Period
In the Sh%wa period, Japan shifted toward totalitarianism until its defeat in World War II, when it led an economic and cultural recovery.
KEY POINTS

The Sh'wa period ( Sh'wa jidai, literally "period of enlightened peace/harmony"), or Sh'wa era, is the period of Japanese history corresponding to the reign of the Sh'wa Emperor, Hirohito, from December 25, 1926, through January 7, 1989. Japanese painting in the prewar Sh'wa period was largely dominated by Yasui Sotaro (1888 - 1955) and Umehara Ryuzaburo (1888 - 1986). During World War II, government controls and censorship meant that only patriotic themes could be expressed. Many artists were recruited into the government propaganda effort, and critical non-emotional review of their works is only just beginning.

The Sh'wa period ( Sh'wa-jidai, literally "period of enlightened peace/harmony"), or Sh'wa era, is the period of Japanese history corresponding to the reign of the Sh'wa Emperor, Hirohito, from December 25, 1926, through January 7, 1989. The

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Sh'wa period was longer than the reign of any previous Japanese emperor. During the pre-1945 period, Japan moved towards political totalitarianism, ultra-nationalism and fascism, culminating in Japan's invasion of China in 1937. This was part of an overall global period of social upheavals and conflicts such as the Great Depression and the Second World War. Defeat in the Second World War brought radical change to Japan. For the first and only time in its history, Japan was occupied by foreign powers. This occupation by the Allied Forces (the U.S., the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and China) lasted seven years. Allied occupation brought forth sweeping democratic reforms. It led to the end of the emperor's status as a living god and the transformation of Japan into a democracy with a constitutional monarch. In 1952, with the Treaty of San Francisco, Japan became a sovereign nation once more. The post-war Sh'wa period also led to the Japanese economic miracle. In these ways, the pre-1945 and post-war periods regard completely different states: the pre-1945 Sh'wa period (19261945) concerns the Empire of Japan, while post-1945 Sh'wa period (19451989) was a part of the State of Japan. Japanese painting in the prewar Sh'wa period was largely dominated by Yasui Sotaro (1888 - 1955, Figure 30.20) and Umehara Ryuzaburo (1888 - 1986). These artists introduced the

Figure 30.20 Portraut of ChinJung (1934) by Yasui Sotaro Yasui S%tar% was strongly inuenced by the the realistic styles of the French artists JeanFranois Millet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and, in particular, Paul Czanne. He incorporated clear outlines and vibrant colors in his portraits and landscapes, combining western realism with the softer touches of traditional nihonga techniques.

concepts of pure art and abstract painting to the Nihonga tradition, and thus created a more interpretative version of that genre. This trend was further developed by Leonard Foujita and the Nika Society to encompass surrealism. To promote these trends, the Independent Art Association (Dokuritsu Bijutsu Kyokai) was formed in 1931.

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During World War II, government controls and censorship meant that only patriotic themes could be expressed. Many artists were recruited into the government propaganda effort, and critical nonemotional review of their works is only just beginning.
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Chapter 31

The Americas After 1300

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Section 1

Mesoamerica

The Mixteca-Puebla Tradition

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The Mixteca-Puebla Tradition


The Mixteca-Puelba tradition of artistry originates from the pre-Columbian Mixtec peoples from the region of Puebla, Mesoamerica.
KEY POINTS

Mexican states of Oaxaca, Guerrero and Puebla in the La Mixteca region. They are the fourth largest indigenous group in Mexico, although many have emigrated out of traditional Mixtec areas into other parts of
Figure 31.1 Mixtec-Puebla style Pipe with Bluebird, A.D. 1100-1400

the state, Mexico City and even the United States. The work of Mixtec artisans was wellregarded

The Mixtecs were one of the major indigenous civilizations of Mesoamerica, and today inhabit the Mexican states of Oaxaca, Guerrero and Puebla. Primarily producing work in stone, wood and metal, the artistry of the Mixtecs was well-regarded throughout ancient Mesoamerica. Mixteca-Puebla art, which archaeologists classify as distinct from other Mixtec arts and crafts, is a variant of iconography and commonly found in pottery.
Mexico, Western Oaxaca or Puebla

throughout

ancient Mesoamerica. Primarily producing work in stone, wood,and metal, they are well known for their "Codices," or phonetic pictures in which was written their history and genealogies. They were also known for their exceptional mastery of jewelry, particularly gold and turquoise. Mixtec goldsmiths played an important role in the tributes paid to the Aztecs during the height of the Aztec Empire. (Figure 31.3) and (Figure 31.1) are examplesof Mixtec-Puebla work. Archeologists classify Mixteca-Puebla art as distinct from other Mixtec arts and crafts. This variant of artistic style and iconography,

The Mixteca-Puebla Tradition Puebla, a state located in East-Central Mexico, originated from the city of the same name founded by the Spanish in 1531. In preColumbian times, the region was inhabited by ethnicities including the Mixtecs. The term Mixtecs (or Mixteca) comes from the Nahuatl word mixtecah, meaning "cloud people." One of the major indigenous civilizations of Mesoamerica, today they inhabit the

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commonly found in pottery, became associated with traits of the Toltec archaeological tradition in Mesoamerican culture during the early post-classic period (800-1000). Using vast trading networks, the MixtecaPuebla style of art spread from Cholula, a city located in the center west of Puebla, to other areas in the Valley of Mexico and eventually Mesoamerica (Figure 31.2).
Figure 31.2 Large Mixteca-Puebla style bowl

Figure 31.3 Mosaic Skull, 1400-1521

EXAMPLE

The ruins of a Pre-Columbian Mayan walled city are situated on 12-meter tall cliffs in Tulum in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. A mural can still be seen on the eastern wall that resembles the Mixteca-Puebla style of art.

Bone/ivory/horn/shell/ bamboo, Human skull with turquoise, jadeite, and shell

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Preserved in the Museum of the Americas, Madrid, from the late Postclassic Mexico.

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Section 2

The Aztecs

Tenoctitlan Sculpture Featherwork Manuscripts

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Tenoctitlan
Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital city from 1325-1521, is one of the most magnicent architectural accomplishments of the Aztec empire.
KEY POINTS

in 1521. Today the ruins of Tenochtitlan are located in the central part of Mexico City. An ancient Aztec prophecy predicted that the wandering tribes would find the destined site for a great city. The Aztecs saw this vision on what was then a small swampy island in Lake Texcoco. Not to be deterred by the unfavourable terrain, they set about building their city and a thriving culture soon developed. The small natural island was perpetually enlarged as Tenochtitlan grew to become the largest and most powerful city in Mesoamerica, with the Aztec civilization coming to dominate other tribes all around Mexico. Tenochtitlan covered an estimated 3.1 to 5.2 square miles on the western side of the shallow Lake Texcoco. Built on a series of islets, the city plan was based on a symmetrical layout that was divided into four city sections called campans. Each campan was divided into 20 districts (calpullis) and each district was crossed by streets. Some of the major streets crossing the city are believed to have been wide enough for ten horses. The city was interlaced with canals used for transportation.

Founded in 1325, Tenochtitlan became the largest city in preColumbian Mesoamerica until it was captured by the Spanish in 1521. Built on a series of islets on the shores of Lake Texcoco, Tenochtitlan covered 3.1 to 5.2 square miles and was home to an estimated 212,500 people, which made it the 4th largest city in the world at the time. In the heart of the city were the massive Temple de Mayo, a palace, two zoos, a botanical garden, a ceremonial center, and some 45 public buildings. When the Spanish conquered Tenochtitlan in 1521, Hernan Corts ordered the destruction of the city and the rebuilding of the capital of New Spain atop its ruins. Today the ruins of Tenochtitlan are located in the central part of Mexico City.

Tenochtitlan was the capital city of the expanding Aztec empire during the 15th century. Founded in 1325, it became the largest city in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica until it was captured by the Spanish

At the heart of the city was the sacred precinct, home to about 45 public buildings, temples, and schools. Among the most famous of these buildings was the Templo Mayor, the twin pyramid dedicated to the Aztecs' patron deities, Huitzilopochtli and Tlaloc. Other

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buildings included the temple of Quetzalcoatl, the tlachtli (ball game court), the tzompantli or rack of skulls, the temple of the sun, the platforms for the gladiatorial sacrifice, and some minor temples. Houses were made of wood and loam, and roofs were made of reed; pyramids, temples and palaces were generally made of stone. The palace of Moctezuma contained 100 rooms, each one with its own bath, which was used by the lords and ambassadors of allies and conquered people. Also contained within the palace were a botanical garden, an aquarium, and two zoos - one for birds of prey and another for other birds, reptiles, and mammals - with about 300 people dedicated to the care of the animals.
Figure 31.4 Ruins of Templo Mayor

The city center was also home to the ceremonial center, built inside of a 300-square meter walled square. It is well known that the Aztecs used human sacrifices as a part of their religious activities. Historians have estimated that anywhere between 10,600 and 250,000 people were sacrificed each year. Surrounding the city and floating on the shallow flats of Lake Texcoco were enormous chinampas - long raised plant beds set upon the shallow lake bottom. Misnamed "floating gardens," they were a very efficient agricultural system used to grow food for the city's many residents. Two double aqueducts, each more than 2.5 miles long and made of terracotta, provided the city with fresh water for cleaning and washing. The power of Tenochtitlan was maintained by tributes paid by

While the location of the ruins of Templo Mayor was rediscovered in the early 20th century, major excavations did not take place until 1978 to 1982.

conquered lands and the capital grew in influence, size, and population. When Spanish conquistador Hernn Corts arrived in Tenochtitlan on November 8, 1519, he and his men were in awe at the sight of the splendid city. At this point it was the fourth largest city in the world - following Paris, Venice and Constantinople - with an estimated population of 212,500 people, although some popular sources put the number as high as 350,000. In 1521, the Spanish conquered Tenochtitlan, and Corts directed the systematic destruction of the city and the rebuilding of the capital of New Spain atop its ruins. The resulting weight of the

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structures caused the ruins of Tenochtitlan to sink into the sediment of the lake. The location of the dismantled Temple Mayor was rediscovered only in the early 20th century (Figure 31.4).
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Sculpture
The Aztecs excelled in sculptures made of stone and other material, ranging from small works of art to monumental buildings.

KEY POINTS

Aztec sculpture often represented gods and mythical creatures, and was commonly expressed through ceramics, architecture, freestanding three-dimensional stone works, and relief work. The grand city of Tenochtitlan contained some of the finest examples of Aztec sculpture, from its temples and pyramids to its elaborate stone palaces. A great deal of Aztec sculpture incorporated the skull motif what is today known in Mexico as "skull art". The Aztec calendar stone is a large monolithic sculpture that was excavated in Mexico City in 1790, and is believed to have served multiple purposes.

As with many Mesoamerican cultures, the Aztecs excelled in stone sculptures that ranged from small works of art to monumental buildings. Aztec sculpture often took the form of striking carvings of Aztec gods or mythical creatures, and was expressed through ceramics, architecture, freestanding three-dimensional stone

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works, and relief work. The grand city of Tenochtitlan contained some of the finest examples of Aztec sculpture, from its temples and pyramids to its elaborate stone palaces (Figure 31.5). A great deal of Aztec sculpture incorporated the skull motif; today this is known in Mexico as "skull art." In Aztec tradition, both death and life are worshiped together, and the skulla symbol of deathwas a promise of resurrection. The use of skulls and skeletons in Aztec art originated before the conquest, and the Aztecs often carved skulls into their stone

Figure 31.5 An Aztec Sculpture of the Mythological Serpent, Xiuhcoatl

Figure 31.6 Aztec Statue of Coatlicue, the Earth Goddess

dead. Aztec mirrors were originally held in wooden frames and were decorated with perishable ornaments, such as feathers. During the Spanish conquest, Hernn Corts was known to have sent obsidian mirrors back to the royal court in Spain where they became widely collected among the European aristocracy (Figure 31.7).

Xiuhcoatl, a mythological serpent in Aztec religion, was a common subject of Aztec art.

This sculpture is currently held in the Museo Nacional de Antropologa in Mexico City.

One of the most well known Aztec sculptures is the Calendar Stone. Also known as the Mexican Sun Stone, Stone of the Sun, or Stone of the Five Eras, it is a large monolithic sculpture that was excavated in the Zcalo,

Figure 31.7 Aztec Mirror This mirror was carved from obsidian on a modern wooden base, and is currently held in the Museum of the Americas, Madrid.

sculptures, monoliths of lava, and masks of obsidian and jade (Figure 31.6). A unique and versatile form of sculpture was the carved mirror. Obsidian mirrors in pre-Columbian times were fashioned from stone and served a number of uses, from decorative to spiritual. During the late Postclassic period (c.12001521) these mirrors, symbolizing rulership and power, were used in rituals to spiritually access the Aztec underworld and communicate with the realm of the

Mexico City's main square, on December 17, 1790. While the exact

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purpose of the stone is unclear, archaeologists and historians theorize that there could have been many functions to the stone, from spacial and time-related to political and spiritual.
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Featherwork
Featherwork, or the working of feathers into clothing and artifacts, was an especially elaborate practice among the Aztecs.
KEY POINTS

Endowed with sacred meaning, feathers were associated with the Aztec patron deity Huitzilopochtli and the mythical god of featherworkers, Coyotlinahual. Feathers were incorporated into many aspects of life, including traditional clothing, armor for warfare, elaborate headdresses, and beautiful works of art. One of the most famous featherwork artifacts is the elaborate feather headdress thought to be worn by Moctezuma II, the Aztec emperor at the time of the Spanish conquest. As Christianity spread through Mexico with the arrival of the Spanish, the use of feathers was adopted by Christians in the creation of religious objects.

Featherwork is the working of feathers into a cultural artifact, which was an especially elaborate art form among the Aztecs. Endowed with sacred meaning, feathers were associated with the Aztec patron deity Huitzilopochtli and the mythical god of featherworkers, Coyotlinahual. Feathers were incorporated into

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many aspects of life, including traditional clothing, armor for warfare, elaborate headdresses, and beautiful works of art. Artisans specializing in featherwork often worked full-time to produce fine luxury goods for noble patrons during the height of the Aztec empire.
Figure 31.8 Aztec feather headdress This Aztec headdress is often described as the crown of Moctezuma II. Today it is exhibited at the Museo Nacional de Antropologa e Historia, Mxico.

shields, or m*huizzoh chimalli, were often decorated with motifs made in featherwork. The huipil is the most common traditional garment worn today by indigenous women from central Mexico to Central America. It is the only garment in Mexico which uses the pre-Hispanic art of featherwork. The most complicated designs are generally known only to a few older master weavers. Designs are embedded into the fabric of the huipil, along with decorative elements such as embroidery, ribbon, feathers, lace, wax, and even gold thread. After the Aztec Empire was invaded and conquered by the Spanish, the huipil evolved to incorporate elements from Europe and even Asia. In the early years of evangelization, the Aztec's use of feathers was adopted by Christians in the creation of religious objects, including feather paintings with Christian subjects. The sacredness of feathers, which for the Aztecs stemmed back long before the conquest, became associated with Christian forms of veneration. They were used to adorn triumphal arches, the bases of crosses, and the litters and canopies in which the host was carried during the Corpus Christi festival.
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Perhaps the most well-known example of Aztec featherwork is the feather headdress (Figure 31.8), such as the one thought to be worn by Moctezuma II. As the Aztec emperor at the time of the Spanish conquest, his headdress was made of quetzal and other feathers and mounted in a base of gold and precious stone. Aztec warriors, or cu*uhoc+l'tl, were distinguished in bravery and skill by their helmets and uniforms. In particular, the Eagle Aztec warriors wore feathered helmets to mark their ability. Ornamental

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Manuscripts
Aztec codices, or pictorial manuscripts, are among the best primary sources of information on Aztec culture.
KEY POINTS

that they are largely pictorial and not meant to symbolize spoken or written narratives. The colonial-era codices not only contain Aztec pictograms, but also Classical Nahuatl (in the Latin alphabet), Spanish, and occasionally Latin. There are very few surviving codices from the pre-Columbian era. While the tradition of codex-painting endured over the transition to colonial culture, codex production declined under the control of Spanish authorities. This suggests Spanish influence or even censorship in codex production. Well-known Aztec Codices
The original page thirteen of the Codex Borbonicus shows the thirteenth trecena (or thirteen-day period) of the Aztec sacred calendar. This thirteenth trecena was under the auspices of the goddess Tlazolteotl, who is portrayed wearing a ayed skin, giving birth to Cinteotl. Figure 31.9 Page thirteen of the Aztec Codex Borbonicus

Serving as calendars, ritual texts, almanacs, maps, and historical manuscripts of the Aztec people, codices spanned from before the Spanish conquest throughout the colonial era. Pre-colonial codices were largely pictorial in nature, while colonial codices contain Classical Nahuatl, Spanish, and even Latin. Few pre-colonial codices have survived. Codices created after the conquest were heavily influenced and even censored by the Spanish. The Florentine Codex is perhaps the most useful source of information on pre-colonial Aztec life.

Aztec Codices The Aztec codicesare manuscripts written and painted by tlacuilos (codex creators). The codices and are among the best primary sources of information on Aztec culture. Serving as calendars, ritual texts, almanacs, maps, and historical manuscripts of the Aztec people, they spanned from before the Spanish conquest through the colonial era. The pre-colonial codices differ from colonial codices in

Scholars now have access to a body of around five hundred colonial-era codices, as well as a

limited number of pre-colonial codices.The Codex Borbonicus is a codex written by Aztec priests around the time of the Spanish conquest of Mexico. Like all pre-colonial codices, it was originally entirely pictorial in nature, although some Spanish descriptions

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were later added (Figure 31.9). The Boturini Codex was painted by an unknown Aztec author some time between 1530 and 1541, roughly a decade after the Spanish conquest of Mexico. It tells the story of the legendary Aztec journey from Aztln to the Valley of Mexico. Rather than employing separate pages, the author used one long, folded sheet of amatl (fig bark, Figure 31.10). The Codex Mendoza was composed around 1541. It is divided into three sections: a history of each Aztec ruler and their conquest, a list of the tribute paid by each tributary province, and a general description of daily Aztec life.The Florentine Codex is perhaps the most useful source of information on Aztec life in the years before the
The rst page of this Aztec codex depicts the departure from Aztln. Figure 31.10 Detail of rst page from the Boturini Codex.

surviving Aztec wise men and taught tlacuilos to write the original Nahuatl accounts using the Latin alphabet. Because of fear of the Spanish authorities, he maintained the anonymity of his informants, and wrote a heavily censored version in Spanish. The Codex Osuna is a set of seven separate documents created in early 1565 to present evidence against the government of Viceroy Luis de Velasco during the 1563-66 inquiry by Jernimo de Valderrama. In this codex, indigenous leaders claim non-payment for various goods and for various services performed by their people. These services include construction and domestic help. The Aubin Codex is a pictorial history of the Aztecs from their departure from Aztln through the Spanish conquest to the early Spanish colonial period, ending in 1607. Consisting of eighty-one leaves, it was most likely started in 1576. It is also known as the "Manuscrito de 1576" (The Manuscript of 1576). Among other topics, the Aubin Codex has a native description of the massacre at the temple in Tenochtitlan in 1520.The Codex Magliabechiano, named after 17th century manuscript collector Antonio Magliabechi, was created during the mid-16th century. Primarily a religious document, it depicts the twenty day-names of the tonalpohualli, the eighteen monthly feasts, the fifty-two-year cycle, various deities, indigenous religious rites, costumes, and cosmological beliefs.

Spanish conquest, even though the complete copy of the codex was not published until 1979. Prior to this, only a censored Spanish translation had been available. The codex is a set of 12 books created under the supervision of Bernardino de Sahagn between approximately 1540 and 1585. De Sahagn worked with the

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The Codex Cozcatzin,dated 1572, lists historical and genealogical information focused on Tlatelolco and Tenochtitlan. The final page consists of astronomical descriptions in Spanish. The Codex Ixtlilxochitl is an early 17th century codex fragment detailing, among other subjects, a calendar of the annual festivals and rituals celebrated by the Aztec teocalli during the Mexican year. Each of the eighteen months is represented by a god or historical character. The Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis ("Little Book of the Medicinal Herbs of the Indians") is an herbal manuscript describing the medicinal properties of various plants used by the Aztecs. The Libellus is also known as the Badianus Manuscript, the Codex de la Cruz-Badiano and the Codex Barberini.
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Section 3

South America

Introduction

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Introduction
South American art has a long and rich history, from indigenous roots and European colonization to the arrival of new immigrants from Asia.

Background The art of South America has a long and rich history, stemming from its indigenous roots and significantly shaped by the influence of Spanish, Portuguese and French conquests in the 16th century. Tensions between
Figure 31.11 South America

KEY POINTS

indigenous peoples and European colonizers shaped South America from the 16th through the 19th centuries. These tensions were channeled into the revolution for independence in the region during the 19th century, resulting in major social and political changes. The continent was also greatly influenced by the African diaspora through the European slave trade, while Asian and European ethnic groups arrived in the area over the
A map of the countries that make up South America today.

South America is made up of several regions, including what are today known as Brazil, the Andean States along the Andes mountains, the Guianas to the north, and the Southern Cone. Among the most important pre-Columbian cultures are the Inca civilization (1438-1533, Andes region), the Caaris (in south central Ecuador), the Chimu Empire (13001470, Peruvian northern coast), the Chachapoyas, and the Aymaran kingdoms. Artistic traditions in South America date back to the elaborate pottery, textiles, jewelry, and sculpture of pre-Inca cultures. Colonization in the 16th century brought with it warfare, disease, and slavery that led to significant disruptions in the production of art and craft. At the same time, European styles and techniques were introduced to the region, such as architecture, oil painting and Baroque work. In an effort to convert the region to Christianity, many native artworks that were considered pagan were destroyed by Spanish explorers.

19th and 20th centuries (Figure 31.11). The continent is made up of several regions, including what are today known as Brazil (home of the Amazon), the Andean States (along the Andes mountain range), the Guianas (the north-eastern

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region), and the Southern Cone (the southernmost areas of the continent). During the Late Intermediate period (1000 - 1476 CE), the regions were populated by a number of indigenous nations. Some of these include the Aymara in Bolivia; the Muisca, Nario, and Tairona in Colombia; Los Huancavilca, the Kingdom of Quito, Manteo, and Nario in Ecuador; and the Chim, Piura, Huarco, Ichma, Parinacota, Huarochiri, and Kheswa people in Peru. In the Late Horizon period (1576 - 1534 CE), the Inca Empire dominated the Andes region, including present-day Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, Chile, and Colombia. Art After Christopher Columbus Artistic traditions in South America date back to the elaborate pottery, textiles, jewelry, and sculpture of pre-Inca cultures (Figure 31.12). The Incas maintained these crafts along with significant architectural and artistic achievements, including metalwork, unmatched stonework, and highly developed cities. After Christopher Columbus led a major exploration to the Americas in 1492, European colonization of South America occurred quickly and extensively. Cities and artifacts were destroyed, and warfare, disease, and slavery led to significant disruptions in the production of art and craft. At the same time, European styles, techniques and technologies were introduced to the region, such as architecture and

oil painting. Baroque art dominated the region in colonial times, though it was modified by native traditions.
Figure 31.12 Estela

During this period, most art focused on religious subjects, as the Spanish sought to convert the indigenous people to Christianity. Quick to purge any indigenous

A detail of the Raimondi Stela. This stela was found out of its original placement at the ceremonial complex, Chavn de Huantar. It was cited by Pablo Picasso as an inspiration for his art.

cultural practices that hindered their missionary intentions, many native artworks

that were considered pagan were destroyed by Spanish explorers. This included a great number of gold and silver sculptures that were melted down before being transported back to Europe. Through the trans-Atlantic slave trade, South America (especially Brazil) became the home of millions of people in the African diaspora, and the mixing of races led to new social structures and artistic creations.
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Section 4

The Incas

Cuzco Machu Picchu Textiles Metalwork The Spanish Conquest and Its E!ects

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Cuzco
The Inca capital city of Cuzco is one of the nest examples of both traditional Inca and colonial architecture.
KEY POINTS

politics and religion, similar to a modern federal district like Washington, DC or Mexico City. The Inca created the city of Cuzco in the shape of a puma, a shape still visible in modern aerial photographs (Figure 31.13). Pizarro, the Spanish explorer and conquistador, sacked much of the city in 1535 and built a new city over precolonial foundations. Because of its antiquity and importance, the center of the city retains many buildings, plazas and streets from both pre-colonial and colonial periods. Remains of the
The puma shape of the city of Cusco is discernible, with the head at the upper left and the tail at the lower right. Figure 31.13 A map of Cuzco, by E.G. Squier, c. 1860.

The Kingdom of Cuzco was a small city-state of the Inca empire. It served as the preeminent center of politics and religion for the empire. In 1535, the Spanish explorer Pizarro sacked much of the Inca city and built a new city over pre-colonial foundations. Because of its antiquity and importance, the center of the city retains many buildings, plazas and streets from both precolonial and colonial times. These include the Temple of the Sun, the Cathedral of Santo Domingo, and the Plaza de Armas.

The Kingdom of Cuzco (sometimes spelled Cusco, Qosqo or Qusqu) was a small city-state in the Inca empire. Scholars have established that the Inca did not occupy the areapreviously inhabited by the indigenous people of the Killke cultureuntil after 1200 CE, under the leadership of Manco Cpac.

Palace of the Incas, the Temple of the Sun, and the Temple of the Virgins of the Sun still stand. In some cases, the Inca buildings and foundations have proved to be stronger than the foundations built in present-day Peru. Some of Cuzco's most noteworthy architectural sights include

The Inca empire was divided into four suyus, whose corners met at the capital of Cuzco. Cuzco served as the preeminent center of

(Figure 31.4):

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The Coricancha and Convent of Santo Domingo. The Coricancha


Figure 31.14 Images of Cuzco

Cathedral of Santo Domingo. This Spanish cathedral was built in phases between 1539 and 1664, on the foundations of the Inca Palace of Viracocha. The cathedral presents late-Gothic, Baroque, and Plateresque interiors. It also has a strong example of colonial goldwork and wood carving. It is well known for a Cuzco School painting of the Last Supper depicting Jesus and the twelve apostles feasting on guinea pig, a traditional Andean delicacy. Plaza de Armas. Known as the "Square of the warrior" in the Inca era, this plaza has been the scene of several important events in the history of this city, such as Pizarro's proclamation of conquest over the city and the scene of the death of Tpac Amaru II, the indigenous leader of the resistance. The Spanish built stone arcades around the plaza which endure to this day. Iglesia de la Compaa de Jesus. The Jesuits initially began construction on this church, over the foundations of the palace of the Inca ruler Huayna Capac. It is considered one of the best examples of the colonial baroque style in the Americas. Its faade is carved in stone, and its main altar is made of carved wood covered with gold leaf.
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("Golden Temple" or "Temple of the Sun," named for the gold plates covering its walls) was the most important sanctuary dedicated to the Inti (the Sun God) during the Inca Empire. Over the temple's foundation, Spanish colonists built the Convent of Santo Domingo in the Renaissance style. The Convent exceeds the height of many other buildings in the city. Barrio de San Blas. This neighborhood includes houses

Top: Plaza de ArmasMiddle left: Temple of Coricancha"Middle right: Aerial view of Cusco Bottom left: SacsayhuamnBottom right: Cathedral of Cusco

built over Incan foundations, along with the oldest parish church in Cuzco. The church, built in 1563, houses a carved wooden pulpit that is considered the epitome of colonial era woodwork in the city. Convent and Church of la Mercad. Founded in 1536, this Spanish complex was destroyed in an earthquake in 1650 and rebuilt in 1675. Modeling the Baroque Renaissance style, it contains choir stalls, paintings, and wood carvings from the colonial era.

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Machu Picchu
Often referred to as the "City of the Incas," Machu Picchu is one of the most signicant pre-Columbian Inca sites in Peru.
KEY POINTS

referred to as the "City of the Incas", most archaeologists believe that it was built as an estate for the Inca emperor Pachacuti (1438 1472). The Incas started building the "estate" around 1400, but abandoned it as an official site for the Inca rulers a century later at the time of the Spanish Conquest. Because the site was never known to the Spanish during their conquest, it is highly significant as a relatively intact cultural site. Machu Picchu was declared a Peruvian Historical Sanctuary in 1981 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983. In 2007, Machu Picchu was voted one of the New Seven Wonders of the World in a worldwide internet poll. Since it began drawing international attention in 1911, a long restoration process has been underway (and continues today) to reconstruct it to its original glory. The Inca The Inca absorbed much of their technical skill from the cultures they conquered. They disseminated this skill, along with standard shapes and patterns, throughout their area of influence. Many of the Inca's monumental structures deliberately echoed the natural environment around them; this is particularly evident in some of the structures at Machu Picchu.

Built in the 15th century, most archaeologists believe that Machu Picchu was created as an estate for the Inca emperor Pachacuti, though other theories suggest it was a religious site. The site was abandoned by the Inca around the time of the Spanish Conquest and, because it was never known by the Spanish, it has remained a relatively intact cultural site. Machu Picchu was built in the classical Inca style, with polished dry-stone walls that fit to tightly together. It is said that not even a blade of grass can fit between the stones. The space is composed of 140 structures or features, including temples, sanctuaries, parks, fountains, residences and long flights of stone steps. The most prominent features include the Intihuatana, the Temple of the Sun and the Room of the Three Windows, all used to worship the Inca sun god.

Machu Picchu Machu Picchu is a pre-Columbian 15th-century Inca site located in the Cuzco Region of Peru, South America (Figure 31.15). Often

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Machu Picchu was built in the classical Inca style, with polished, dry-stone walls. The Incas were masters of this technique, called ashlar, in which blocks of stone are cut to fit together tightly without
Figure 31.15 The historical Incan site, Machu Picchu

one hundred flights of stone steps each often carved from a single block of granite and numerous water fountains. These were interconnected by channels and water-drains, perforated into the rock, that were designed for the original irrigation system. According to archaeologists, the urban sector of Machu Picchu was
Figure 31.16 Machu Picchu

mortar. Many junctions in the central city are so perfect that it is said not even a blade of grass fits between the stones. Peru is a highly seismic land, and mortar-free construction was more earthquakeresistant as it

Photo taken by Martin St-Amant.

divided into three great districts: The Sacred District contains the archaeological treasures of the Intihuatana, the Temple of the Sun and the Room of the Three Windows, all dedicated to Inti, their sun god and greatest deity. To the south, the Popular District (often referred to as the Residential District) is the place where lower-class people lived, and includes storage buildings and simple houses. The District of the Priests and the Nobility is a group of houses located in rows over a slope. The residence of the Amautas

Photography by Martin St-Amant.

allowed for the stones to move slightly and resettle without the walls collapsing. Other design details that protected against earthquakes included trapezoidal doors and windows that tilted inward from bottom to top; rounded corners; and "L"-shaped blocks used to tie outside corners of the structure together. The space is composed of 140 structures or features, including temples, sanctuaries, parks and residences. There are more than

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(wise persons) was characterized by its reddish walls, and the zone of the ustas (princesses) had trapezoid-shaped rooms. The Monumental Mausoleum is a carved statue with a vaulted interior and carved drawings, believed to have been used for rites or sacrifices. As part of their transportation system, the Incas built a road to Machu Picchu. Today, tens of thousands of tourists walk the Inca Trail to visit Machu Picchu each year (Figure 31.16). Sacred or Settlement? Some researchers believe Machu Picchu to be a sacred religious site, based on its location. The city was built on and around mountains that hold high religious importance in the Inca culture, as well as to previous cultures that occupied the land. Certain stylistic stonework points to the possible use of ritual. Other theorists maintain that Machu Picchu was an Inca llaqta, a settlement built to control the economy of conquered regions. Others assert that it may have been a prison, an agricultural testing station, an abode for the deities, or a site for the coronation of kings.
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Textiles
The Incas were highly regarded for textiles inuenced by the artistic works of the pre-Inca Chim culture.
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Inca textiles were widely manufactured for practical use, trade, tax collection and decorative fashion. Cloth and textiles were divided by class, with llama wool used in more common clothing and the finer cloths of alpaca or vicua wool reserved for royal and religious use. Specific designs and ornaments marked a person's status and nobility. The weaving tradition was very important to Incas in the creation of elaborate woven headdresses. Textiles were widely prized within the empire - in part because they were somewhat easily transported - and were widely manufactured for tax collection and trade purposes. Cloth and textiles were divided among the classes in the Inca empire. Wealthy Inca men wore large gold and silver pendants hung on their chests, disks attached to their hair and shoes, and bands around their arms and wrists. Inca women adorned themselves with a metal fastening for their cloak called a tupu.

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The Incas were highly regarded for textiles influenced by the artistic works of the pre-Inca Chim culture. The Chim arose about 900 AD. The Inca ruler Tupac Inca Yupanqui led a campaign that conquered the Chim around 1470 AD. The Chim embellished their fabrics with brocades, embroidery, fabric doubles and painted fabrics. Textiles were sometimes adorned with feathers, gold or silver plates. Colored dyes were created from plants containing tannin, mole, or walnut. These dyes also came from animals like the cochineal and minerals like clay, ferruginosa and mordant aluminum. Garments were made of the wool of four animals - the guanaco, llama, alpaca and vicua. The people also used varieties of cotton that grew naturally in seven different colors.
An example of"Inca"textiles."Inca o#cials wore stylized tunics decorated with certain motifs, while soldiers of the Inca army had specic uniforms. Figure 31.17 Tupa Inca tunic from around 1550

Clothing consisted of the Chim loincloth, sleeveless shirts, small ponchos and tunics. Textiles were widely prized within the empire - in part because they were somewhat easily transported - and were widely manufactured for tax collection and trade purposes. Cloth and textiles were divided among the classes in the Inca empire. Awaska was used for common clothing and traditional household use, and was usually made from llama wool. Qunpi, a finer cloth, was divided into two classes - it would either be made of alpaca wool and collected as tribute for use by royalty, or woven from vicua wool and used for royal and religious purposes. The finest textiles were reserved for the rulers as markers of their status. For example, Inca officials wore stylized tunics decorated with certain motifs, and soldiers of the Inca army had specific uniforms (Figure 31.17). The Weaving Tradition The weaving tradition was very important to Incas in creation of beautiful and elaborate woven headdresses. Royalty was clearly distinguished through decorative dress. Inca emperors, for example, wore woven hats trimmed with gold and wool tassels or topped with plumes or showy feathers. Incas also created elaborate feather decorations for men like headbands made into crowns of feathers, collars and chest coverings. Wealthy Inca men wore large gold and silver pendants hung on their chests, disks attached to

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their hair and shoes, and bands around their arms and wrists. Inca women adorned themselves with a metal fastening for their cloak called a tupu. The head of their tupu was decorated with paint or silver, gold, or copper bells.
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Metalwork
The Inca were well-known for their use of gold, silver, copper, bronze, and other metals.
KEY POINTS

Drawing much of their metalworking style from Chim art, the Incas used metals for utilitarian purposes as well as ornaments and decorations. Copper and bronze were used for basic farming tools or weapons. Gold and silver were reserved for ornaments and decorations in temples and palaces of Inca royalty. Gold was especially revered for its sun-like reflective quality. Even though the Inca Empire contained many precious metals, the Incas did not value their metal as much as fine cloth. The Inca people's reverence of gold has much to do with their worship of the sun and the sun god, Inti.

Background The Inca were well known for their use of gold, silver, copper, bronze and other metals. Drawing much of their inspiration and style in metalworking from Chim art, the Incas used metals for

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utilitarian purposes as well as ornaments and decorations (Figure 31.18). As part of a tax obligation to the commoners, mining was required in all the provinces. Although the
Figure 31.18 Andean bronze bottle, ca. 1300-1532

and wood. Metal tools and weapons were forged by Inca metallurgists and then spread throughout the empire. Ornaments and Decorations in Metalwork Gold and silver were used for ornaments and decorations and reserved for the highest classes of Inca society, including priests, lords and the Sapa Inca, or emperor. Gold and silver were common themes throughout the palaces of Inca emperors. The temples of the Incas were also strewn with sacred and highly precious metal objects. Thrones were ornately decorated with metals, and royalty dined on golden-plated dishes inlaid with decorative designs. Headdresses, crowns, ceremonial knives, cups and ceremonial clothing were often inlaid with gold or silver. The Inca people's reverence of gold, in particular, has much to do with their worship of the sun and the sun god Inti. Gold's sun-like
The Incans adopted much of their metalworking characteristics from the metalwork of Chimu. Because of their expertise, "many metalworkers were taken back to the capital city of Cuzco to continue their metalworking for the emperor. Figure 31.19 Golden Plaque from Chim Culture

Inca Empire contained a lot of precious metals, the Incas did not value their metal as much as fine cloth. The Incas adopted much of their metalworking characteristics from the metalwork of Chim (Figure 31.19). With their expertise, many metalworkers were taken back to the capital city of Cuzco after the fall of Chim to continue their metalworking for the emperor. Copper, tin, gold and silver were all obtained from mines or washed from the river gravels.

While this bottle was most likely made by Chim artisans, Inca metalworkers adopted similar characteristics.

Copper and bronze were used for basic farming tools or weapons. Some common instruments included sharp sticks for digging, clubheads, knives with curved blades, axes, chisels, needles and pins. The Incas had no iron or steel, so their armor and weaponry consisted of helmets, spears and battle-axes made of copper, bronze

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reflective quality made the precious metal even more highly regarded.
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The Spanish Conquest and Its E!ects


After the fall of the Inca Empire, many aspects of Inca culture were systematically destroyed or irrevocably changed by Spanish conquerors.
KEY POINTS

Following the Spanish Conquest, the Inca population suffered a dramatic and quick decline largely due to illness and disease. Many of those remaining were enslaved. Many aspects of Inca culture were systematically destroyed as cities and towns were pillaged, resulting in the loss of vast amounts of traditional artwork, craft, and architecture. The introduction of Christianity greatly impacted the art of the region, which began to reflect Christian themes alongside and in place of traditional Inca designs. The Spanish also brought with them new techniques such as oil painting on canvas, which fused with the artistic traditions of the region.

The Spanish Conquest of the Inca Empire was catastrophic to the Inca people and culture. The Inca population suffered a dramatic and quick decline following contact with the Europeans. This decline was largely due to illness and disease such as smallpox,

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which is thought to have been introduced by colonists and conquistadors. It is estimated that parts of the empire, notably the Central Andes, suffered a population decline amounting to a staggering 93% of the pre-Columbian population by 1591. As an effect of this conquest, many aspects of Inca culture were systematically destroyed or irrevocably changed. In addition to disease and population decline, a large portion of the Inca population - including artisans and crafts people - was enslaved and
Figure 31.20 The execution of the Inca Spaniards burning the Inca leader Atahualpa at the stake, following their conquest of the Inca people.

Beginning at the time of conquest, art of the central Andes region began to change as new techniques were introduced by the conquerors, such as oil paintings on canvas. The spread of Christianity had a great influence on both the Inca people and their artwork. As Pizarro and the Spanish subdued the continent and brought it under their control, they forcefully converted many to Christianity, and it wasn't long before the entire region was under Christian influence. As a result, early art from the colonial period began to show influences of both Christianity and Inca religious themes, and traditional Inca styles of artwork were adopted and altered by the Spanish to incorporate Christian themes.
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forced to work in the gold and silver mines (Figure 31.20). New buildings and cities were built by the Spanish on top of Inca foundations. Cities and towns were pillaged, along with a vast amount of traditional artwork, craft, and architecture.

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Section 5

North America

Woodlands in the East The Great Plains Northwest Coast and Alaska Southwest

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Woodlands in the East


The Eastern Woodlands cultures lived east of the Mississippi River, and are best known for their beadwork and pottery.
KEY POINTS

Northeastern Woodlands From the 12th century onward, the Iroquois and nearby coastal tribes fashioned wampum from shells and string. "Wampum" is a Wampanoag word referring to the shells themselves, which were used primarily as currency and were highly sought as a trade good
Figure 31.21 Wampum jewelry

throughout the Eastern Woodlands (Figure 31.21). Beadwork was very popular in this region, and Indigenous peoples produced barrelshaped and discoidal shell beads, as well as perforated small whole shells. Over time the use of more slender iron drills much improved the drilling of holes in small beads. Pendants carved from stone, wood, shells, and incised animal teeth especially bear teeth - were

The Eastern Woodlands cultures inhabited the regions of North America east of the Mississippi River. Much of their artwork was preserved in the earthen mounds where they buried their dead. Beadwork, pendants, and wood carvings were common among the tribes of the Northeastern Woodlands. The Mississippian Culture from 800 - 1500 CE included advanced pottery techniques, patchwork clothing, and wood carving and painting. The culture flourished throughout the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Fort Ancient culture flourished along the Ohio River from 1000 CE - 1750 CE, and included coiled pottery, beadwork, and silversmithing.
Wampum was commonly traded or used as currency by the Iroquois and nearby coastal tribes.

The Eastern Woodlands cultures inhabited the regions of North America east of the Mississippi River since 2500 BCE or earlier. Much of their artwork has been preserved through their shared tradition of burying their dead in earthen mounds along with artifacts and tools.

popular, and typically shaped as animals such as birds, turtles, or fish. Bird motifs were especially common, ranging from the stylized heads of raptors to ducks, as were images of human faces, believed

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by the Seneca and other tribes to be protective. Pearls were historically inlaid into bear teeth and incorporated into necklaces. Other arts from the Northeast Woodlands included wood carvings, such as False Face masks used by Iroquois people in healing rituals. Iroquois artists carved ornamental hair combs from antlers, making increasingly elaborate designs with the introduction of metal knives from Europe in the late 16th and 17th centuries. Europeans also introduced silversmithing to the northeast in the mid-17th century, and today there are several active Iroquois silversmiths. Mississippian Culture The Mississippian culture flourished from approximately 800 1500 CE, in what is now the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States. Pottery is one of the hallmark arts of this culture, which includes the Cahokia, Natchez, Caddo, Choctaw, Muscogee Creek, Wichita, and many other southeastern peoples (Figure 31. 22). One of the defining marks of Mississippian culture pottery is its
Figure 31.22 Mississippi pottery A human head e#gy pot from the Mississippian culture, on display at the Hampson Museum State Park in Wilson.

use of more advanced ceramic techniques, such as the use of ground mussel shell as a tempering agent in the clay paste. Textile making (such as the common patchwork clothing worn by indigenous people) and doll-making were also common crafts. Many artisans from this area were involved with the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex, a pan-regional and pan-linguistic religious and trade network. The majority of the information known about the S.E.C.C. is derived from the elaborate artworks its participants left behind, including pottery, shell gorgets (Figure 31.23) and cups, stone statuaries, and copper plates. By the time of European contact the Mississippian societies were already experiencing severe social stress, and with the social upsets and diseases introduced by Europeans many of the societies collapsed and ceased to practice a Mississippian lifestyle. In 1896 more than 1,000 carved and painted wooden objects, including masks, tablets, plaques, and effigies, were excavated in Key Marco, southwestern Florida. They have since been described as some of the finest prehistoric native
A contemporary shell gorget carved by Bennie Pokemire (Eastern Band Cherokee) Figure 31.23 Cherokee shell gorget

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American art in North America. Spanish missionaries described similar masks and effigies in use by the Calusa late in the 17th century, although no examples of the Calusa objects from the historic period have survived. Fort Ancient Culture In addition to Mississippi culture, Fort Ancient was a Native American culture that flourished from 1000-1750 CE among a people who predominantly inhabited land along the Ohio River. Fort Ancient women used a technique known as coiling to make their pottery, in which they rolled clay into long, rounded strips. They then layered these strips one on top of another to mold the vessel, smoothing the inside of the vessel with a smooth round stone and the outside with a wooden paddle. Pottery from this period was distinguished by thinner walls than preceding Woodland pottery, and common shapes included large plain cooking jars with straps or loop handles. Fort Ancient pottery was often engraved with decorations on the rim and neck of the vessels, consisting of a series of interlocking lines, called guilloch. Much traditional dress incorporated elaborate designs and decorations. For example, Choctaw women's dance regalia incorporated ornamental silver combs and openwork beaded collars, and Caddo women wore hourglass-shaped hair ornaments called dush-tohs.

Clay, stone, and pearl beads were fashioned and worn by the people of the Southeastern Woodlands, often decorated with bold imagery. European contact introduced glass beads and silversmithing technology, and silver and brass armbands and gorgets became popular among Southeastern men in the 18th and 19th centuries. Sequoyah became one of the first well-known Cherokee silversmiths in the 18th and 18th centuries.
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The Great Plains


Great Plains Native Americans are well known for their bu!alo hide paintings, quillwork, and elaborate beadwork.
KEY POINTS

Ojibwe, Sarsi, Nakoda (Stoney), and Tonkawa; as well as the semisedentary tribes of the Arikara, Hidatsa, Iowa, Kaw (or Kansa), Kitsai, Mandan, Missouria, Omaha, Osage, Otoe, Pawnee, Ponca, Quapaw, Wichita, and the Santee, Yanktonai and Yankton Sioux. Buffalo hide has many uses in Great Plains art. Clothing made from buffalo hide was beautiful and elaborate, decorated with porcupine quill embroidery (using a traditional style known as porcupine quillwork), beads, and such prized materials as shells and elk teeth (Figure 31.24). Later, items such as coins and glass beads acquired from trading were incorporated into Plains art. Painting on buffalo hides was a common practice as well. Men painted narrative, pictorial designs recording personal exploits or visions as well as pictographic historical calendars known as Winter counts. Women painted geometric designs on tanned robes and rawhide,
Sioux dress with fully beaded yoke. Figure 31.24 Traditional Sioux dress

The people of the Great Plains are the indigenous peoples who live on the plains and rolling hills of the Great Plains of North America. Buffalo hide clothing was beautiful and elaborate, decorated with porcupine quill embroidery, beads, shells and teeth. Buffalo hide paintingsand its later counterpart, Ledger Art illustrated narratives, pictorial designs, calendars, and geometric designs. Great Plains Native Americans are perhaps most well known for their beadwork, used to decorate clothing, jewelry, breastplates, and ceremonial headdresses.

The people of the Great Plains are the indigenous peoples who live on the plains and rolling hills of the Great Plains of North America. During the Plains Village period (ca. 950-1850 CE), tribes included nomadic peoples, such as the Blackfoot, Arapaho, Assiniboine, Cheyenne, Comanche, Crow, Gros Ventre, Kiowa, Lakota Sioux, Lipan, Plains Apache (or Kiowa Apache), Plains Cree, Plains

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which sometimes served as maps. During the Reservation Era of the late 19th century, buffalo herds were systematically destroyed by non-native hunters. Due to the scarcity of hides, Plains artists adopted new painting surfaces, such as muslin or paper, giving birth to Ledger Art. Ledger Art flourished from the 1860s to the 1920s and was named for the accounting ledger books that were a common source for paper for Plains Native Americans during the late 19th century. Great Plains Native Americans are most well known for their beadwork, which dates back to 8800 BCE and was used to decorate chokers, breastplates, clothing, jewelry, and ceremonial headdresses worn by women and men. Shells, such as marginella and olivella shells, were traded from the Gulf of Mexico and the coasts of California to the Plains beginning in 100 CE, and mussel shell gorgets, dentalia, and abalone were prized trade items for jewelry. Bones provided material for beads as well, especially long, cylindrical beads called hair pipes. Porcupine quillwork was also used in creating bracelets, hatbands, belt buckles, headdresses, hair roaches, and hairclips. Glass beads were first introduced to the Plains as early as 1700 and were used in decoration in a manner similar to quillwork, but they never fully replaced it. The Lakota, especially the members of the Standing Rock Sioux tribe in the Western Dakotas, became particularly adept at glass bead work. Several award-winning quillworkers are active in the art world

today, such as Juanita Growing Thunder Fogarty (AssiniboineSioux). Southern Plains Native Americans adopted metalsmithing in the 1820s, after metal jewelry was introduced through Spanish and Mexican metalsmiths and trade with tribes from other regions. Plains men began wearing metal pectorals and armbands, and in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, members of the Native American Church revealed their membership to others through pins with emblems of peyote buttons, water birds, and other religious symbols. Bruce Caesar (Sac and Fox-Pawnee) is one of the most prolific Southern Plains metalsmiths active today and was awarded the NEA's National Heritage Fellowship in 1998. U.S. Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell (Northern Cheyenne) is also an accomplished silversmith.
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Northwest Coast and Alaska


Art from the indigenous peoples of the Northwest Coast and Alaska is distinguished by its complex woodcarvings and its use of formline.
KEY POINTS

from pre-European-contact times up to the present. Art from this region is historically distinguished by complex woodcarvings, the use of formlines, and the use of characteristic shapes referred to as ovoids, "U" forms and "S" forms. Before European contact, the most common media were wood (often Western red cedar), stone, and copper; since European contact, paper, canvas, glass, and precious metals also have been used. If paint was used, the most common colors are red and black, but yellow was often used as well, particularly among Kwakwaka'wakw artists. Chilkat weaving applied formline designs to their textiles. Tlingit, Haida, and Tsimshian have traditionally produced Chilkat woven regalia from wool and yellow cedar bark, using them for civic and ceremonial events (Figure 31.25).
In the collection of the University of Alaska Museum, Fairbanks Figure 31.25 Chilkat blanket

Northwest Coast art refers to art created by the indigenous peoples of current-day Washington State, Oregon, British Columbia, and Alaska. Before European contact, the most common media were wood, stone, and copper; since, European contact, paper, canvas, glass, and precious metals also have been used. Northwest designs commonly included natural animals, legendary creatures, and abstract forms and shapes, and were often used to decorate traditional household items. Totem poles, masks, and canoes are examples of the complex woodcarvings of the peoples of the Northwest. After the arrival of Europeans in the late 18th century, traditional production of Northwest Coast art dropped significantly due to population loss and cultural assimilation.

Northwest Coast art is the term commonly applied to a style of art created primarily by artists from Tlingit, Haida, Tsimshian, Kwakwaka'wakw, Nuu-chah-nulth, and other First Nations and Native American tribes of the Northwest Coast of North America,

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The patterns depicted in most forms of art include natural forms, such as bears, ravens, eagles, orcas, and humans; legendary creatures, such as thunderbirds and sisiutls; and abstract forms made up of the characteristic Northwest Coast shapes. Northwest Coast designs were often used to decorate traditional household items, such as spoons, ladles, baskets, hats, and paddles; since European contact, the Northwest Coast art style has increasingly been used in gallery-oriented forms, such as paintings, prints, and sculptures. Woodcarving from this region is characterized by an extremely complex style. The most famous examples include Totem poles, Transformation masks, and canoes (Figure 31.26). After European contact in the late eighteenth century, the people who produced Northwest Coast art suffered huge population losses due to diseases, such as smallpox, and cultural losses due to assimilation into European-North American culture. The production of their art dropped off drastically as well. Toward the end of the nineteenth century, Northwest Coast artists began
Native American Totem Pole from Ketchikan, Alaska. Figure 31.26 Totem Pole from the Northwest

producing work for commercial sale, such as small argillite carvings. The end of the nineteenth century also saw large-scale export of totem poles, masks, and other traditional art objects from the region to museums and private collectors around the world. Some of this export was accompanied by financial compensation to people who had a right to sell the art, and some was not. In the early twentieth century, very few First Nations artists in the Northwest Coast region were producing art. A tenuous link to older traditions remained in artists, such as Charles Gladstone and Mungo Martin. The mid-twentieth century saw a revival of interest and production of Northwest Coast art due to the influence of artists and critics, such as Bill Reid, a grandson of Charles Gladstone. It also saw an increasing demand for the return of art objects that were illegally taken from First Nations communities. This demand continues to the present day. Today, there are numerous art schools teaching formal Northwest Coast art of various styles, and there is a growing market for new art in this style.
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Southwest
The indigenous peoples of the Southwest created magnicent works of pottery, jewelry, painting, weaving, and architecture.
KEY POINTS

The Southwest Prior to European exploration and contact with North America, the region of the Southwest was dominated by the Pueblo, Navajo, Apache, Hopi and Zuni peoples, among others. These peoples were rich in culture and history, creating magnificent works of pottery, jewelry, painting, weaving, and architecture. Pottery For hundreds of years the Ancestral Pueblo created utilitarian grayware and black-on-white pottery, incorporating reds and oranges toward the end of their era in the 13th century (Figure 31.28). Designs were painted on the exterior of black-on-white pottery and the interior of bowls, primarily with geometric shapes or representations of
The Navajo are well-known today for their use of turquoise in jewelry. Figure 31.27 Old and new Navajo bracelets

The Ancestral Pueblo created grayware and black-on-white pottery, decorated with geometric designs or representations of people, animals, and birds. Pueblo jewelry was often inlaid with pieces of turquoise, stone, or shell, and the Navajo incorporated silversmithing into their jewelry-making after this practice was introduced by the Mexicans in the 1850's. Sandpainting, the art of pouring colored sand onto a surface, was an aspect of Navajo healing ceremonies. Navajos learned to weave on upright looms from Pueblos and wove blankets and rugs that were highly regarded around the region. The Ancient Pueblo culture is perhaps best known for the stone and adobe dwellings built along cliff walls, the most elaborate of which is Chaco Canyon in New Mexico.

people, animals, and birds. Pottery making became an art form for individuals who specialized in distinctive styles made for trade. In historical times, Hopi created ollas, dough bowls, and food bowls of

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different sizes for daily use, but they also made more elaborate ceremonial mugs, jugs, ladles, seed jars and vessels for ritual use. These finer works were usually finished with polished surfaces and decorated with black painted designs. Jewelry and Silversmithing Jewelry and other ornaments were made by the Ancestral Pueblo using shells and stones bartered from the coasts of Mexico and California (Figure 31.27). Within the region, turquoise, soapstone, and lignite were attained through trade. Just as pottery from this period has received
Figure 31.28 Pottery of the Pueblo

jewelry with turquoise. Their hallmark jewelry piece known as the squash blossom necklace first appeared in the 1880s. Turquoise has been part of jewelry for centuries, but Navajo artists did not use inlay techniques to insert turquoise into silver designs until the late 19th century. Sikyatata became the first Hopi silversmith in 1898, and Hopi are renowned for their overlay silver work and cottonwood carvings. Zuni artists are admired for their cluster work jewelry, showcasing turquoise designs, as well as their elaborate, pictorial stone inlay in silver. The centuries old art of lapidary, preserved by clan and family tradition, remains an important element of design. Stone on stone mosaic inlay, channel inlay, cluster work, petite point, needle point, and natural cut or smoothed and polished cabochons fashioned from shells, coral, semi-precious, and precious gems commonly decorate these works of art with blue or green turquoise being the most common and recognizable material used. Navajo Sandpainting Sandpainting is an aspect of Navajo healing ceremonies that inspired an art form (Figure -.-). Sandpainting is the art of pouring colored sands, powdered pigments from minerals or crystals, and pigments from other natural or synthetic sources onto a surface to make a fixed, or unfixed sand painting. In the sandpainting of southwestern Navajo, the Medicine Man (or Hata,ii) paints loosely

world-wide recognition, work inlaid with shell and turquoise from this period was noteworthy for its artistry and sophisticated inlay techniques.

Ceramic bowl from Chaco Canyon in New Mexico, Pueblo III phase.

In the 1850s, Navajos

adopted silversmithing from the Mexicans. Atsidi Sani (Old Smith) was the first Navajo silversmith, and the technology quickly spread to surrounding tribes. Today thousands of artists produce silver

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upon the ground of a hogan, where the ceremony takes place, or on a buckskin or cloth tarpaulin, by letting the colored sands flow through his fingers.
Figure 31.29 Navajo Sandpainting

inexpensive, so Navajo weavers switched to producing rugs for trade for an increasingly non-Native audience. Rail service also brought in Germantown wool from Philadelphia, commercially dyed wool which greatly expanded the weavers' color palettes. Some early European-American settlers moved in and set up trading posts, often buying Navajo rugs by the pound and selling them back east by the bale. Architecture The Ancient Pueblo culture is perhaps best known for the stone and adobe dwellings built along cliff walls, particularly during the Pueblo II and Pueblo III eras. Adobe structures are constructed with bricks created from sand, clay, and water, with some fibrous or organic material, shaped using frames and dried in the sun. These villages, called pueblos by Spanish settlers, were often only accessible by rope or through rock climbing. One of the most

One of the four elaborate dry-paintings or sand altars employed in the rites of the Mountain Chant, a Navaho medicine ceremony of nine days' duration.

elaborate and largest ancient settlements is Chaco Canyon in New Mexico, which includes 15 major complexes of sandstone and timber connected by a network of roads.
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Weaving Navajos came to the southwest with their own weaving traditions; however they learned to weave on upright looms from Pueblos and wove blankets that were eagerly collected by Great Basin and Plains tribes in the 18th and 19th centuries. After the introduction of the railroad in the 1880s, imported blankets became plentiful and

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Chapter 32

Oceania

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Section 1

The Rise of Pacic Cultures

Introduction

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Introduction
The ancestors of modern-day Pacic Cultures, such as the Lapita, spread through Oceania from 1500 BC.
KEY POINTS

Polynesia, Micronesia, Australia, and Melanesia (Figure 32.1). The ancestors of the people of these islands came from Southeast Asia by two different groups at separate times. The first, an Australoid people and the ancestors of modern day Melanesians and Australian Aboriginals, came to New Guinea and Australia, with the Melanesians expanding as far as the northern Solomon Islands by 38,000 BC. The second wave of peoples came from Southeast Asia 30,000 years later, where they reached reached even the most remote Pacific islands. These early peoples lacked a writing system,
Figure 32.1 Major culture areas of Oceania: Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia

Oceania encompasses the people indigenous to Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands. The area is often broken down into four separate regions: Polynesia, Micronesia, Australia, and Melanesia. The Lapita, dating from about 1500 BC to 500 BC, are thought to be the ancestors of the modern day cultures of Polynesia, Micronesia, and some parts of Melanesia. The Lapita culture was formed by the second wave of Oceanic settlers coming from Southeast Asia. The period from 1000 BC to 1000 AD is characterized by increasing trade and interaction between the Pacific Islands and mainland Asia, as well as the settling of new areas. By 1500, the first European explorers reached Oceania. Although previous artistic and architectural traditions continued, the various regions began to diverge and record more distinct cultures.

Art of Oceania properly encompasses the artistic traditions of the people indigenous to Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands. The area is often broken down into four separate regions:

Oceania properly encompasses the people indigenous to Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacic Islands."The area is often broken down into four separate regions: Polynesia, Micronesia, Australia, and Melanesia.

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and made works on perishable materials, so few records of them exist from this time. By 1500 BC, descendants of the second wave began to expand and spread into the more remote islands. At around the same time, art began to appear in New Guinea, including the earliest examples of sculpture in Oceania. From around 1000 BC on, the Lapita people consolidated and began to create the contemporary Polynesian cultures of Samoa, Tonga, and Fiji. From there they ventured further out into the Pacific and settled the Marquesas and northern Cook Islands. The Lapita were an early culture with an influential artistic tradition. Dating from about 1500 BC to 500 BC, they are thought to be the ancestors of the modern day cultures of Polynesia, Micronesia, and some parts of Melanesia. The culture was formed by the second wave of Oceanic settlers, and the name comes from the site of Lapita in New Caledonia, which was among the first places its distinctive sculpture would be found. It is debated exactly where the culture developed, but the people themselves originally came from Southeast Asia. Their art is best known by their ceramics, which include elaborate geometric motifs and sometimes anthropomorphic imagery. It is thought some of the designs may be related to modern Polynesian tattoos and barkcloths. They were created by firing a comblike tool that stamped the designs on to wet

clay; each stamp would have one design and would be layered until an elaborate pattern was created. Their usage was primarily practical, used in cooking, serving, and storing food. The period from 1000 BC to 1000 AD is characterized by increasing trade and interaction between the Pacific Islands and mainland Asia. Starting around 600 BC, works of the Dongson culture of Vietnam - known for their bronze working - can be found in Oceania, and their imagery has a strong influence on the indigenous artistic tradition. New areas were also settled during this time, including Hawaii, Easter Island, Tahiti, and New Zealand. Starting around 1100 AD, the people of Easter Island began construction of nearly 900 moai (large stone statues, Figure 32.2). At about 1200 AD, the people of Pohnpei, a Micronesian island, embarked on another megalithic construction, building Nan Madol, a city of artificial islands and a system of canals. By 1500, the first European explorers reached Oceania.
Starting around 1100 AD, the people of Easter Island began construction of nearly 900 moai, or large stone statues. Figure 32.2 Moai at Rano Raraku, Easter Island

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Although previous artistic and architectural traditions continued, the various regions began to diverge and record more distinct cultures.
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Section 2

Australia

Art of Australia

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Art of Australia
The history of visual arts in Australia ranges from ancient Aboriginal rock paintings to the westerninuenced contemporary works of today.

Art in Australia The visual arts have a long history in Australia, from ancient Aboriginal rock paintings to colonial landscapes to contemporary movements of today. Aboriginal and Indigenous Art

KEY POINTS

Aboriginal art in Australia can be traced back at least 30,000 years; the rock art of Australian Aborigines is one of the longest continuously practiced artistic traditions in the world (Figure 32.3). Rock paintings are divided into three periods, based on the styles and content of the art:Pre-Estuarine(c. 40,000?6000 BCE), Estuarine(c. 6000 BC500 CE), and Fresh Water (c. 500 CEpresent). There are also three regional styles of cave art: the geometric style (known for its concentric circles, arcs and dots) found in Central
Aboriginal art in Australia can be traced back at least 30,000 years. Figure 32.3 Aboriginal Rock Art, Ubirr Art Site, Kakadu National Park, Australia

Aboriginal rock art can be traced back at least 30,000 years, and is one of the longest continuously practiced artistic traditions in the world. Europeans first began depicting the natural landscape and wildlife of the Australian continent during initial voyages in the late 1700; however the origin of distinctly Australian painting is associated with the Heidelberg School of the 1880s-1890s. In the mid-20th century a new generation of artists began experimenting with modernist styles such as surrealism, abstract expressionism, and cubism; at the same time Australian Tonalism movement rejected modernist art and promoted a unique theory of painting. As the years went on contemporary artists increasingly depicted socio-political issues of the time through performance, Feminist, and grunge art. Recent decades have seen a resurgence of indigenous influence in the arts, most famously through the Papunya Tula school and "dot art.".

Australia, Tasmania, the Kimberly and Victoria; the simple figurative style found in Queensland; and the complex figurative

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style found in Arnhem Land. Rock paintings are believed to have served several functions, from ceremonial to merely decorative. Today they are preserved in national parks throughout the
Figure 32.4 Golden Summer, Eaglemont (1889) oilon-canvas, 81.3 cm (h) x 152.6 cm (w), by Arthur Streeton (18671943)

John Lewin and Harriet and Helena Scott were among the first professional natural-history illustrators, while artists such as Augustus Earle focused on ethnographic portraiture of Aboriginal Australians. The colonial art market primarily desired landscape paintings, which are often described as making a gradual shift from a European sense of light to a more Australian one. Among the first Australian artists to gain a reputation overseas were the impressionist John Peter Russell and landscape painter Rupert Bunny. The origin of distinctly Australian painting is associated

continent and protected through organizations such as the Friends of Australian Rock Art. The influence of Aboriginal artwork in Australia carries over to the 19th and 20th centuries in the works of William

Artists such as Arthur Streeton attempted to capture the unique light and color that characterize the Australian landscape.

Figure 32.5 Shearing the Rams, 1888-1890, oil on canvas, Tom Roberts (1856 - 1931)

Barak, who recorded traditional aboriginal ways for the education of Westerners; Margaret Preston, a non-indigenous painter incorporating Aboriginal influences in her works; Albert Namatjira, an Arrernte artists whose landscapes inspired the Hermannsburg School of art; and Elizabeth Durack, notable for her fusion of Western and indigenous influences. Colonial Art (1770-1900) Europeans depicted the natural landscape, plant life, and wildlife of the Australian continent during initial voyages in the late 1700s.
Colonial artists such as Tom Roberts captured aspects of everyday life in Australia.

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with the Heidelberg School of the 1880s-1890s. Like European Impressionists, artists such as Arthur Streeton (Figure 32.4), Frederick McCubbin, Tom Roberts (Figure 32.5), and Charles Conder applied themselves to recreating a truer sense of light and color as seen in Australian landscape. Federation to Depression Eras The early 20th century saw many Australian artists making their careers in Europe, such as impressionist John Peter Russell, bohemian painters Rupert Bunny and Agnes Goodsir, printmaker Hall Thorpe, and sculptor Bertram Mackennal. Han Heyson won the Wynne Prize nine times, from 1904 to 1932, for his luminous watercolor paintings of rural Australia. The Archibald Prize, Australia's most famous art prize for portraiture, was founded in 1921. Art decomade its mark around this time in advertising posters, architecture such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge, and consumer goods, as well as fine art. Early proponents of modernist art in Australia included cubist influenced Roy de Maistre and Margaret Preston, and the post-impressionist Grace Cossington Smith. In the 1940s and 1950s a new generation of artists began experimenting with styles such as surrealism, abstract expressionism, and other techniques. Prominent artists of this time include James Gleeson, Robert Klippel, Jacqueline Hick, and Herbert McClintock.

Cubismhad an enduring influence on painting as well, such as in the works of Grace Crowley and Godfrey Miller. The advent of photography brought with it several prominent Australian photographers; David Moore's 1966 photograph Migrants Arriving in Sydney remains one of the most famous works of modern Australian photography. Max Meldrum led the Australian Tonalism movement, which rejected modernist art and promoted a unique form of painting in accordance with his own theories. He is thought by some historians to be the only Australian artist to develop and practice his own fully formulated theory of painting. Contemporary and Resurgent Indigenous Art Pop art, Feminist art, and other contemporary art forms emerged in Australia in the 1960s. The Power Institute of Fine Arts, established in 1968, eventually led to the establishment of the Museum of Contemporary Art in Sydney. The 1970s saw a growth in publicandperformance art;Burnum Burnum, an Aboriginal rights activist who protested the lack of legal recognition of Aboriginal land ownership, is famous for several works of performance art. A grunge art movement occurred in the 90s, mainly in Sydney. Contemporary artists increasingly depicted cultural phenomena and socio-political issues of the time.

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In 1971, Geoffrey Bardon encouraged the Aboriginal people of Papunya to paint their Dreamtime stories about creation, people, animals and customs on canvas. This led to the development of the Papunya Tulaschool, or dot art, now possibly Australia's most recognizable style of art worldwide. Clifford Possum Tjapaltjarri, Long Jack Phillipus Tjakamarra and William Sandy are some of the best known Papunya artists. Other Aboriginal artists have incorporated western mediums into their work, such as Emily Kngwarreye, Rover Thomas and Freddy Timms.
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Section 3

Melanesia

New Guinea New Ireland New Britain

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New Guinea
With its diverse cultural heritage, the island of New Guinea holds some of the most striking art in all of Oceania.
KEY POINTS

Islands and Australia. The earliest examples of art in New Guinea are thought to have appeared around 1500 BC in the form of early Oceanic sculptures. These sculptures, found throughout the island but mostly in the mountainous highlands, first appeared as stone figures that took the shape of mortars, pestles, or freestanding
Figure 32.6 Papau New Guinean wooden sculpture

figures. Imagery including birds, human heads, or geometric patterns was often carved onto the tops

The earliest examples of art in New Guinea are thought to have appeared around 1500 BC in the form of early Oceanic rock sculptures, found mainly in the highlands. The region is most famously known today for its elaborate wood carvings, including sculptures, masks, canoes, drums, and storyboards. The latter half of the 19th century saw a decline of some traditional art forms as westernization began taking its toll on the area. However, the 20th and 21st centuries have seen a comeback in traditional New Guinean art and a burgeoning movement of contemporary artists like Mathias Kauage.

A Papua New Guinean wooden sculpture, Stanford University New Guinea sculpture garden.

of pestles or mortars or into the freestanding figures. While the original significance of these pieces is unknown, they may have been used in the context of rituals. The region of New Guinea is perhaps most famously known for its tradition in wood carvings (Figure 32.6), which are especially prevalent along the Sepik River of Papau New Guinea. Elaborate carvings often took the form of sculptures, masks, canoes, drums (Figure 32.7), and storyboards, with many held today in overseas museums.

New Guinean art is many-sided and complex. The sheer diversity of cultural groups existing in the region have resulted in many unique styles of cultural expression, from art and architecture to music and weaponry. Traditional art of New Guinea falls under the greater classification of Oceanic art - art made by the native peoples of the Pacific

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New Guinean artistic tradition continued even with increasing trade and interaction with European explorers through the 17th and 18th centuries. The latter half of the 19th century saw a decline of some traditional art forms as westernization began taking its toll on the area. In the 20th century, however, New Guinean and other Oceanic art began making a comeback. The first wave of contemporary New Guinean artists included Mathias Kauage,Timothy Akis, Jakupa Ako and Joe Nalo. Kauage, whose work included drawing, painting and woodcuts, won Australia's Blake Prize for religious art; four
Papua New Guinea, East Sepik Province, Eastern Iatmul People, circa 1909 Figure 32.7 Hand drum, Papau New Guinea

New Ireland
New Ireland, a large island in Melanesia, is most known for its elaborate wooden carvings used in traditional rituals and ceremonies.
KEY POINTS

New Ireland has a rich cultural history heavily influenced by Oceanic art. The most well-known art from this region includes !Malagan carvings, tatanua masks, and kulip sculptures used in traditional ceremonies such as the funerary Malagan ritual. Wooden Malagan carvings used during the rituals they are named after are now world famous and held in museums around the world. Tatanua masks, carved from wood and elaborately painted and decorated, are often worn by ceremonial dancers during Malagan rituals. Kulap are small funerary sculptures believed to contain the soul of the deceased.

of his works are in the Glasgow Museum of Modern Art, and he had a solo show in 2005 at the Horniman Museum entitled "Kauage's Visions: Art from Papua New Guinea." Other noted Papua New Guinean visual artists include Larry Santana, Martin Morububuna and Heso Kiwi.
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New Ireland, a large island in Melanesia lying northeast of the island of New Britain, has a rich cultural history in the Oceanic arts. Art from this region was often highly decorative, portraying elaborate forms and often tied to themes of ancestry, hunting, or

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spiritual ceremonies. Some of the most well-known artworks of New Ireland are malagan carvings, tatanua masks, and kulap sculptures. Malagan Carvings Malagan ceremonies are large, intricate cultural events that are often funerary in nature, held by the family of the deceased to communicate with deities and to honor those that have passed. Malagan carvings (Figure 32.9), now world-famous, are the wooden carvings which are created for use in these ceremonies. Traditionally these were burnt at the conclusion of the event; in modern times most are now retained, as the carving tradition is known only by a few. Contemporary masters of Malagan form include Ben Sisia of Libba Village (northern New Ireland) and Edward Salle of Lava Village (Tatau, Tabar Islands, New Ireland). Many Malagan carvings are held today in museums around the world.
The tatuana masks of New Ireland were traditionally used in malagan ceremonies. Figure 32.8 Tatuana mask

Tatanua Masks A tatanua (Figure 32.8) is a type of traditional wooden mask worn by ceremonial dancers during the Malagan ritual. These masks are normally carved from lime wood, decorated with sugar cane fibers and wool or other animal hair, and painted using chalk and natural dyes. Kulap Scupltures Kulap are small funerary sculptures produced in the Punam region of southern New Ireland. They were believed to represent and contain the soul of the deceased, and would be ritually smashed
Malagan wood carvings are created for use in malagan ceremonies. Figure 32.9 Malagan carvings, Papua New Guinea

once their usefulness was outlived (although in more recent years some have been sold to Westerners). Kulap are carved from chalk limestone, native to the region, and often painted; they are expressly produced by artisans from the Rossel Mountains.
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New Britain
New Britain, one of the larger islands in Melanesia, is heavily inuenced by the Oceanic art of the region.

Works of art would commonly be used in the context of spiritual rituals, such as painted wooden masks. The 17th century, both here and in other regions of Oceania, brought with it increasing encounters with European explorers. These explorers witnessed a flourishing tradition of art and culture,

KEY POINTS

Similar to its neighboring islands in Melanesia, New Britain has perhaps the most striking art of all Oceania. Art from this region tends to be highly decorative, such as the creation of elaborate masks for use in spiritual ceremonies. While the arrival of European explorers in the 17th century led to a decline in some traditional art forms, in recent years traditional Melanesian art has grown in recognition and influenced some contemporary artists in the West.

Figure 32.10 Mask (lor)

such as the first record of the region's elaborate wood carving. It wasn't until the latter half of the 19th century, however, that westernization began to take its toll. Some traditional forms of art began to decline, though others like sculpture survived and even thrived in the region. It wasn't until more of the islands were explored that the sheer diversity of Melanesian art began to be

New Britain is the largest island of the Bismark Archipelago of Papau New Guinea. Similar to its fellow Melanesian islands, it is heavily influenced by Oceanic art. Oceanic art refers to the creative works made by the native peoples of the Pacific Islands and Australia. Melanesia, comprising New Britain and the surrounding islands, has perhaps the most striking art of all Oceania. Art from this region tends to be elaborate and highly decorative, and is often made in connection with ancestors.

The lor, or skull masks of New Britains Gazelle Peninsula, were made by the Tolai People from the regions available materials.

seen and appreciated by westerners. By the 20th century traditional Melanesian art began to find its way to the west, eventually having a profound impact on

contemporary artists. The second World War brought with it a great cultural disruption that led to another decline in traditional art; however, decades later a new appreciation for native art forms again began to emerge.

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EXAMPLE

The lor (Figure 32.10), or skull masks of New Britains Gazelle Peninsula were made by the Tolai People from the regions available materials. Made of human skulls or wooden boards, they were decorated with paint, animal hairs and other material and attached to sticks. The use of the lor became limited to New Britain, and the Tolai people would often use them in initiation rites and dances or to represent specific spirits. The use of these masks died out by the 19th century.

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Section 4

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

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Caroline Islands
The Caroline Islands boast a rich history of traditional art, including elaborate wood carvings, sculptures, textiles, and ornaments.
KEY POINTS

Among the most prominent works of the region is the megalithic floating city of Nan Madol, which today lies in ruin off the eastern shore of the island of Pohnpei. Construction on the city started in 1200 A.D., and was still underway when European explorers began to arrive around the year 1600. Often called the "Venice of the Pacific," Nan Madol consists of a series of small, artificial islands linked by a network of canals. Around the turn of the 19th century, during the Saudeleur dynasty, the city underwent a decline, and it was abandoned altogether by the 1820s. During the 19th century, the Caroline Islands were divided up among the colonial powers, but art continued to thrive. This work was typically gendered in the communities. Men in the Caroline Islands created elaborate wood
Dilukai are wooden gures of young women carved over the doorways of chiefs' houses (bai) to protect the villagers' health and crops and ward o! evil spirits. Figure 32.11 Dilukai from the Caroline Islands, Belau (Palau), 19th-early 20th century, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Belonging to the region of Micronesia,the Caroline Islands have a rich history of Oceanic art. Among the most prominent works of the region is the nowruined, megalithic, floating city of Nan Madol, which is often called the "Venice of the Pacific". Artwork in these communities was often gendered. Men created elaborate wood carvings and sculptures, while women created textiles and ornaments. While colonization threatened historical artistic traditions, independence from colonial powers has since allowed for a renewed interest in traditional arts, and a notable movement of contemporary art has begun to emerge in the region.

The Caroline Islands are a widely scattered archipelago of tiny islands in the western Pacific Ocean, to the north of New Guinea. Technically belonging to the region of Micronesia, these islands have a rich history of Oceanic art.

carvings, including stylized bowls, canoe ornaments, sculptured figures, ceremonial vessels, and richly decorated ceremonial houses (Figure 32.11). Women created textiles, ornaments, bracelets, and headbands. Stylistically, this art is streamlined with a practical simplicity, but is typically finished with a high standard of quality.

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During the first half of the 20th century, Western and Japanese imperialism began to affect the region. A number of historical artistic traditions simply ceased to be practiced, while others were maintained. By the second half of the century, however, when the Caroline Islands secured their independence from colonial forces, there was a resurgence of interest in traditional arts, and a new generation began to learn these forms. Toward the end of the 20th century, a notable, regional movement of contemporary art had emerged in Micronesia, to which artists from the Caroline Islands contributed.
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Section 5

Polynesia

Cook and Marquesas Islands Hawaii Easter Island Samoa Tonga New Zealand

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Cook and Marquesas Islands


The Cook and Marquesas Islands are located in the South Pacic, and are known for their woodcarving, weaving, quilts and tattooing.
KEY POINTS

small islands whose total land area is 92.7 sq miles. Although Cook Islanders are citizens of New Zealand, they have the status of Cook Islands nationals, which is not given to other New Zealand citizens. The Cook Islands were first settled in the 6th century CE by Polynesian people who migrated from nearby Tahiti, to the southeast. British navigator Captain James Cook arrived in 1773 and 1777 and named the islands the Hervey Islands; the name "Cook Islands", in honor of Cook, appeared on a Russian naval chart published in the 1820s. Woodcarving is a common art form in the Cook Islands (Figure 32.12). The proximity of islands in the southern group helped produce a homogeneous style of carving; however each island developed its own characteristics within this style. Rarotonga is known for its fisherman's gods and staff-gods; Atiu for its wooden seats; Mitiaro, Ma'uke and Atiu for mace and slab gods; and Mangaia for its ceremonial adzes. Most of the original wood carvings were either spirited away by early European collectors or were burned in large
The Cook Islands were regarded for their ne wood carvings, many of which were taken or destroyed by European missionaries. Figure 32.12 Cook Islands carved wood gure, British Museum

The Cook Islands, composed of 15 small islands whose total land area is 92.7 sq miles, are a parliamentary democracy in free association with New Zealand. Woodcarving, weaving, and tivaevae - the art of handmade Island scenery patchwork quilts - are well-known artistic traditions of the Cook Islands. The islands have also!produced several internationally recognized!contemporary artists. The Marquesas Islands are a group of volcanic islands in French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of France in the southern Pacific Ocean. The first recorded settlers prior to 100 AD were Polynesians, most likely from Tonga and Samoa. The Marquesas have a long history of complex geometric tattooing, covering the whole bodies of both men and women.

The Cook Islands The Cook Islands are a parliamentary democracy in the South Pacific Ocean in free association with New Zealand, composed of 15

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numbers by European missionaries. Today, carving is no longer the major art form with the same spiritual and cultural emphasis given to it by the Maori in New Zealand. However, there are continual efforts to interest young people in their heritage. The island Atiu, in particular, has a strong tradition of crafts both in carving and local fiber arts such as tapa. Mangaia is the source of many fine adzes carved in a distinctive, idiosyncratic style with the so-called doublek design. Mangaia also produces food pounders carved from the heavy calcite found in its extensive limestone caves. The outer islands produce traditional weaving of mats, basketware and hats. Particularly fine examples of rito hats are worn by women to church, which are made from the uncurled immature fibre of the coconut palm. The Polynesian equivalent of Panama hats, they are highly valued and are keenly sought by Polynesian visitors from Tahiti. Often, they are decorated with hatbands made of minuscule pupu shells which are painted and stitched on by hand. Although pupu are found on other islands the collection and use of them in decorative work has become a specialty of Mangaia. The weaving of rito is a specialty of the northern island of Penrhyn. Another popular art form in the Cook Islands is tivaevae - the art of handmade Island scenery patchwork quilts (Figure 32.13). Introduced by the wives of missionaries in the 19th century, the craft grew into a communal activity and is probably one of the main

reasons for its popularity. By custom, a tivaevae is not measured by monetary value nor production cost. Its value is said to be reflected by the love and patience that the creator(s) have put into making a stunning work of art. Cook Islands women often described their tivaevae as being "something from the heart." The Cook Islands has produced internationally recognized contemporary artists, especially in the main island of Rarotonga. Artists include painter (and photographer) Mahiriki Tangaroa,
Figure 32.13 Woman sewing a tivaevae, Rarotonga Tivaevae - the art o handmade patchwork quilts - is not measured by monetary"value nor production cost, but rather is valued for the love and patience that the creator(s) have put into making a stunning work of art.

sculptors Eruera (Ted) Nia (originally a film maker) and master carver Mike Tavioni, and community-project artist Ani O'Neil. Many of these artists have studied at university art schools in New Zealand and continue to enjoy close links with the New Zealand art scene.

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Marquesas Islands The Marquesas Islands are a group of volcanic islands in French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of France in the southern Pacific Ocean (Figure 32.14). The Marquesas Islands form one of the five administrative divisions (subdivisions administratives) of French Polynesia. In the history of Marquesas Islands, the first recorded settlers of the Marquesas were Polynesians, who, from arch-ological evidence, are believed to have arrived before 100 AD. Ethnological and linguistic evidence suggests that they likely arrived from the region of Tonga and Samoa. The islands were given their name by the Spanish explorer lvaro de Mendaa de Neira who reached them on 21 July 1595. Much of Polynesia, including the original settlers of Hawaii, Tahiti, Rapa Iti and Easter Island, was settled by Marquesans, believed to have departed from the Marquesas as a result of overpopulation and drought-related food shortages. Much of the rest of Polynesia was colonized by Marquesan descendants centered in Tahiti. These islands share similar artistic traditions of other Pacific Islands, including the art of tattooing. The Marquesas have a long history of complex geometric tattooing, covering the whole bodies of both men and women. Today, Marquesan culture is a mlange created by the layering of the ancient Marquesan culture, with

Figure 32.14 Major culture areas of Oceania: Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia

The Cook and Marquesas Islands are located in the Polynesian region of the South Pacic.

strong influences from the important Tahitian culture and the politically important French culture.
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Hawaii
Hawaiian art can be divided"into pre-European art, nonnative art, and art produced by Hawaiians incorporating western ideas.
KEY POINTS

Figure 32.15 Hawaiian kapa, 18th century

Hawaii represents the northernmost extension of the vast Polynesian triangle of the south and central Pacific Ocean. While traditional Hawaiian culture remains only as vestiges in modern Hawaiian society, there are reenactments of the ceremonies and traditions throughout the islands. Some of these cultural influences are strong enough to affect the United States at large, including the popularity (in greatly modified form) of luaus and hula. The Hawaiian archipelago consists of 137 islands in the Pacific Ocean

Some Hawaiian cultural influences are strong enough to affect the United States at large, such as the popularity of luaus and hula. Polynesians arrived in Hawaii one to two thousand years ago, and in 1778 Captain James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to visit Hawaii, calling it the Sandwich Islands. Art existing prior to Cooks arrival includes wood carvings, feather work, petroglyphs, bark cloth (called kapa in Hawaiian) and tattoos. Some of the first westerners to visit Hawaii were artists, who sketched and painted Hawaiis people and landscapes using imported materials and concepts. The Volcano School was a group of non-native Hawaiian artists who painted dramatic nocturnal scenes of Hawaiis erupting volcanoes. Artworks produced by Hawaiis native born and long-term residents incorporating western materials and ideas include paintings on canvas and quilts. They may be distinctly Hawaiian in subject matter or as diverse as their places of origin.

Kapa is a kind of bark cloth, or fabric"made by Native Hawaiians"from the bast bers"of certain species of trees and shrubs.

that are far from any other land. Polynesians arrived there one to two thousand years ago, and in 1778 Captain James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to visit Hawaii (which they called the Sandwich Islands). The art created in these islands may be divided into art existing prior to Cooks arrival; art produced by recently arrived westerners; and art produced by Hawaiians incorporating western materials and ideas.

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Art Prior to Cook's Arrival Art existing prior to Cooks arrival is very similar to the art of other Pacific Islanders. This art includes wood carvings, feather work, petroglyphs, bark cloth (called kapa in Hawaiian and tapa elsewhere in the Pacific; Figure 32.15) and tattoos. Native Hawaiians had neither metal nor woven cloth. Production of this art continued after Cooks arrival, and a few craftsmen still produce traditional Hawaiian arts, either to sell to tourists or to preserve native culture. Art Produced by Visitors Some of the first westerners to visit Hawaii were artistsboth professional and amateur. Many of the explorers ships had professional artists to record their discoveries. These artists sketched and painted Hawaiis people and landscapes using
Jules Tavernier was a member of the Volcano School, a group of non-native Hawaiian artists who painted dramatic nocturnal scenes of Hawaii's erupting volcanoes. Figure 32.16 Jules Tavernier's painting 'Full Moon over Kilauea', 1887

imported materials and concepts. Artists in this category include Alfred Thomas Agate (American 1812-1849), Jean Charlot (French 1898-1979), Robert Dampier (English 1800-1874), Joseph Henry Sharp (American 1859-1953), and many others. Night scenes of erupting volcanoes were especially popular giving rise to The Volcano School. The Volcano School was a group of non-native Hawaiian artists who painted dramatic nocturnal scenes of Hawaiis erupting volcanoes (Figure 32.16). Some of the artists also produced watercolors, which, by the nature of the medium, tended to be diurnal. Two volcanoes on the Island of Hawaii, Kilauea and Mauna Loa, were intermittently active during the 1880s and 1890s, when interest in Volcano School paintings peaked. Getting to Kilauea, the more frequently painted volcano required an arduous two or three day roundtrip journey on horseback. Printmaker and art educator HucMazelet Luquiens called this period a little Hawaiian renaissance. Art Produced by Hawaiians and Long-Term Residents Artworks produced by Hawaiis native born and long-term residents incorporating western materials and ideas include paintings on canvas and quilts. They may be distinctly Hawaiian in subject matter or as diverse as their places of origin. Most of the art currently produced in Hawaii falls into this third category. Notable artists in this category include sculptor Satoru Abe (born Hawaii

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1926-), ceramicist Sally Fletcher-Murchison (born Hawaii 1933-), Joseph Nawahi (born Hawaii 1842-1896), Reuben Tam (born Hawaii 1916-1991), and others. Hawaiian Art Today In 1967, Hawaii became the first state in the nation to implement a Percent for Art law. The Art in State Buildings Law established the Art in Public Places Program and designated one percent of the construction costs of new public schools and state buildings for the acquisition of works of art, either by commission or by purchase. Hawaii is also home to numerous cultural events. The annual Merrie Monarch Festival is an international Hula competition. The state is also home to the Hawaii International Film Festival, the premier film festival for Pacific rim cinema. Honolulu is also home to the state's long running GLBT film festival, the Rainbow Film Festival.
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Easter Island
Easter Island is famous for its monumental statues, called"moai, created by the early Rapanui people.
KEY POINTS

Easter Island is a Polynesian island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle. The Rapa Nui people of Easter Island had a Stone Age culture and made extensive use of several different types of local stone, including basalt, obsidian, red scoria, and tuff. The large stone statues, or moai, for which Easter Island is world-famous, were carved from 11001680 CE. A total of 887 monolithic stone statues have been inventoried. Ahu are stone platforms that often carried moai; of the 313 known ahu, Ahu Tongariki had the most and tallest moai. Easter Island has one of the richest collections of petroglyphs in all Polynesia, with over 4,000 petroglyphs cataloged. Tongorongo is an apparent script with glyphs that include pictographic and geometric shapes; the texts were incised in wood in reverse boustrophedon direction. Despite numerous attempts, the surviving texts have not been deciphered.

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Easter Island is a Polynesian island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeastern most point of the Polynesian Triangle
Figure 32.17 Easter Island and the islands near South America.

The large stone statues, or moai, for which Easter Island is worldfamous, were carved from 11001680 CE. A total of 887 monolithic stone statues have been inventoried on the island and in museum collections so far. Although often identified as "Easter Island heads", the statues have torsos, most of them ending at the top of
Figure 32.18 Ahu Tongariki near Rano Raraku

(Figure 32.17). A special territory of Chile that was annexed in 1888, Easter Island is famous for its 887 extant monumental statues, called moai, created by the early Rapa Nui people. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, with much of the island protected within Rapa Nui National Park. In recent times the island has served as a warning of the cultural and environmental dangers of exploitation. Ethnographers and archaeologists also blame

the thighs, although a small number of them are complete, with the figures kneeling on bent knees with their hands over their stomachs. Almost all (95%) moai were carved out of distinctive, compressed, easily worked solidified volcanic ash or tuff found

Easter Island is a Polynesian island in the southeastern Pacic Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle.

Ahu Tongariki is a 15-moai ahu that was excavated and restored in the 1990s.

diseases carried by European sailors and Peruvian slave raiding of the 1860s for devastating the local peoples. Stone Work The Rapa Nui people had a Stone Age culture and made extensive use of several different types of local stone, including basalt, obsidian, red scoria, and tuff.

at a single site inside the extinct volcano Rano Raraku. The native islanders who carved them used only stone hand chisels; while many teams worked on different statues at the same time, a single moai took a team of five or six men approximately one year to complete. Each statue represented the deceased head of a lineage. Ahu are stone platforms, and of the 313 known ahu, 125 carried moai. Ahu Tongariki, one kilometer from Rano Raraku, had the most and tallest moai (Figure 32.18). Ahu evolved from the

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traditional Polynesian marae. In this context ahu referred to a small structure sometimes covered with a thatched roof where sacred objects, including statues, were stored. The ahu were usually adjacent to the marae or main central court where ceremonies took place, though on Easter Island ahu and moai evolved to much greater size. Ahu are found mostly on the coast, where they are distributed fairly evenly except on the western slopes of Mount Terevaka and the Rano Kau and Poike headlands. One of the highest-quality examples of Easter Island stone masonry is the rear wall of the ahu at Vinapu. Made without mortar by shaping hard basalt rocks of up to seven tons to match each other exactly, it has a superficial similarity to some Inca stone walls in South America. Two types of houses are known from the past: hare paenga, a house with an elliptical foundation, made with basalt slabs and covered with a thatched roof that resembled an overturned boat, and hare oka, a round stone structure. Related stone structures called Tupa look very similar to the hare oka, except that the Tupa were inhabited by astronomer-priests and located near the coast, where the movements of the stars could be easily observed. Settlements also contain hare moa ("chicken house"), oblong stone structures that were used to house chickens. The houses at the ceremonial village of Orongo are unique in that they are shaped like hare

paenga but are made entirely of flat basalt slabs found inside Rano Kao crater. The entrances to all the houses are very low, and entry requires crawling. Petroglyphs Easter Island has one of the richest collections of petroglyphs in all Polynesia, with over 4,000 petroglyphs cataloged. Designs and images were carved out of rock for a variety of reasons: to create totems, to mark territory or to memorialize a person or event. There are distinct variations around the island in terms of the frequency of particular themes among petroglyphs, with a concentration of Birdmen at Orongo. Other subjects include sea turtles, Komari (vulvas) and Makemake, the chief god of the Tangata manu or Birdman cult. Rongorongo Easter Island once had an apparent script called rongorongo. Glyphs include pictographic and geometric shapes; the texts were incised in wood in reverse boustrophedon direction. It was first reported by a French missionary, Eugne Eyraud, in 1864. At that time, several islanders said they could understand the writing, but according to tradition, only ruling families and priests were ever literate, and none survived the slave raids and subsequent epidemics. Despite numerous attempts, the surviving texts have not

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been deciphered, and without decipherment it is not certain that they are actually writing.
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Samoa
Samoa is known for its rich traditions of tattooing, siapo (bark cloth), and fale (architecture).
KEY POINTS

Samoa, officially the Independent State of Samoa and formerly known as Western Samoa, is a country encompassing the western part of the Samoan Islands in the South Pacific Ocean. Samoans have two gender specific and culturally significant tattoos: Pe'a for males, and malu for females, each consisting of intricate and geometrical patterns. Samoa is known for its 'ie toga (finely woven mats used in ceremony and gift exchanges) and siapo (bark-cloth made from beaten mulberry bark). Traditional Samoan architecture, known as fale, is characterized by openness, an oval or circular shape, and wooden posts holding up a domed roof with no walls.

Samoa, officially the Independent State of Samoa and formerly known as Western Samoa, is a country encompassing the western part of the Samoan Islands in the South Pacific Ocean. It became independent from New Zealand in 1962. The two main islands of Samoa are Upolu and one of the biggest islands in Polynesia,

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Savai'i. The capital city, Apia, and Faleolo International Airport are situated on the island of Upolu. As with other Polynesian cultures (Hawai'ian, Tahitian and M*ori) with significant and unique tattoos,
Figure 32.19 A traditional Samoan male tattoo

clothing, for wrapping objects or simply for decorative reasons. Ornaments, jewelry and hair accessories are made from naturally occurring materials such as sea shells, coconut and coir.
Figure 32.20 Samoan woman with a traditional Malu (tattoo). The traditional tattoo for females in Samoan society is called the malu, and it covers the area from just below the knees to the upper thighs.

Samoans have two gender specific and culturally significant tattoos. For males, it is called the Pe'a and consists of intricate and geometrical patterns tattooed that cover areas from the knees up towards the ribs (Figure 32.19). A male who possesses such a tattoo is called a soga'imiti. A Samoan girl or teine is given a malu, which covers the area from just below her knees to her upper thighs (Figure 32.20).

The architecture of Samoa is characterized by openness, with the Women play an important cultural role and contribute their skills in the making of such
The traditional tattoo for males is called the Pe'a, and it consists of intricate and geometrical patterns covering the knees up toward the ribs.

design mirroring the culture and life of the Samoan people. Architectural concepts are incorporated into Samoan proverbs, oratory and metaphors, as well as linking to other art forms in Samoa, such as tattooing. The spaces outside and inside of traditional Samoan architecture are part of cultural form, ceremony and ritual. Fale is the Samoan word for all types of houses, from small to large (Figure 32.21). In general, traditional Samoan architecture is characterized by an oval or circular shape, with wooden posts

items including 'ie toga, finely woven mats used in ceremony and gift exchanges. Other items include bark-cloth, siapo (equivalent to the Fijian tapa cloth), which is made from beaten mulberry bark. Patterns or

pictures are painted on with a natural brown dye, and typically depict fish, turtles, and hibiscus flowers. The siapo may be used for

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holding up a domed roof. There are no walls, and the base of the architecture is a skeleton frame. Before European arrival and the availability of Western materials, a Samoan fale did not use any metal in its construction.
Figure 32.21 Samoan fale construction 1896

Tonga
Tongan culture has changed dramatically over the centuries, and is known for its wood carvings, canoe building and tattooing traditions.

KEY POINTS

The Kingdom of Tonga is a sovereign state and an archipelago comprising 176 islands scattered over 270,000 sq mi of the southern Pacific Ocean. It is the only island nation in the region to have avoided formal colonization. Before the arrival of European explorers, the Tongans were in frequent contact with their nearest Oceanic neighbors, Fiji and Samoa. Tongan culture changed dramatically in the 19th century with the arrival of Western traders and missionaries. Tongan women traditionally made koloa, such as bark cloth and woven mats. Tongan men are known for their wood carvings, canoes, traditional architecture (known as fale) and tattooing.
Samoan fale are"characterized by an oval or circular shape, with wooden posts holding up a domed roof and no walls.

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The Kingdom of Tonga is a sovereign state and an archipelago comprising 176 islands scattered over 700,000 square kilometres (270,000 sq mi) of the southern Pacific Ocean. Fifty-two of these islands are inhabited. It is the only island nation in the region to have avoided formal colonization. In 2010, it took a decisive step

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towards becoming a fully functioning constitutional monarchy after legislative reforms paved the way for its first partial representative elections. The Tongan archipelago has been inhabited for perhaps 3000 years, since settlement in late Lapita times. Before the arrival of European explorers in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, the Tongans were in frequent contact with their nearest Oceanic neighbors, Fiji and Samoa. In the 19th century, with the arrival of Western traders and missionaries, Tongan culture changed dramatically. Some old beliefs and habits were thrown away and others adopted. Some accommodations made in the 19th century and early 20th century are now being challenged by changing Western civilization. Hence Tongan culture is far from a unified or monolithic affair, and Tongans themselves may differ strongly as to what it is "Tongan" to do, or not do. Traditional Women's Crafts

waist mats (ta'ovala), waist girdles (kiekie), and traditional dance clothing. Woven mats serve a variety of purposes, from the ordinary to the ceremonial. Many woven mats are passed down from generation to generation, acquiring greater status with the passage of time. Royal mats are displayed only on high state occasions such as the death of a member of the royal family or the coronation of a monarch.
Figure 32.22 Tonga war club brought back from the South Pacic during WWII

Men in Tongan culture traditionally carved wooden items such as this war club.

In pre-contact Tonga, women did not do the cooking (cooking in an earth oven was hard, hot work, the province of men) or work in the fields. They raised children, gathered shellfish on the reef, and made koloa, barkcloth and mats, which were a traditional form of wealth exchanged at marriages and other ceremonial occasions. An industrious woman thus raised the social status of her household. Among the typical koloa are: bark cloth (also called tapa), mats,

Traditional Men's Crafts Before Western contact, many objects of daily use were made of carved wood: food bowls, head rests (kali), war clubs and spears, and cult images. Tongan craftsmen were skilled at inlaying pearlshell and ivory in wood, and Tongan war clubs were treasured items in the neighboring archipelago of Fiji (Figure 32.22).

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Tongan craftsman were also adept at building canoes. Many canoes for daily use were simple p'paos, dug-out canoes, shaped from a single log with fire and adze and outfitted with a single outrigger. Due to a dearth of large trees suitable for building large war canoes, these canoes were often imported from Fiji. Traditional Tongan architecture, known as fale, consisted of a curved roof (branches lashed with sennit rope, or kafa, thatched with woven palm leaves) resting on pillars made of tree trunks. Woven screens filled in the area between the ground and the edge of the roof. The traditional design was extremely well adapted to surviving hurricanes. If the winds threatened to shred the walls and overturn the roof, the inhabitants could chop down the pillars, so that the roof fell directly onto the ground. Because the roof was curved, like a limpet shell, the wind tended to flow over it smoothly. The inhabitants could ride out the storm in relative safety. There are a many surviving examples of Tongan stone architecture, notably the Ha.amonga .a Maui and mound tombs (langi) near Lapaha, Tongatapu. Tongan males were often heavily tattooed. In Captain Cook's time only the Tu.i Tonga (king) was not, because he was too high ranked for anybody to touch him. Later it became the habit that a young Tu.i Tonga went to Samoa to be tattooed there. The practice of T*tatau disappeared under heavy missionary disapproval, but was

never completely suppressed. It is still very common for men (less so, but still some for women), to be decorated with some small tattoos. Domestication of Western Arts and Crafts Tonga has evolved its own version of Western-style clothing, consisting of a long tupenu, or sarong, for women, and a short tupenu for men. Women cover the tupenu with a kofu, or Westernstyle dress; men top the tupenu either with a T-shirt, a Western casual shirt, or on formal occasions, a dress shirt and a suit coat. A few Tongan village churches are decorated with freehand murals or decorations done in house paint, which may mix crosses, flowers, and traditional barkcloth motifs.
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New Zealand
New Zealand art"includes traditional M'ori art, and more recent forms taking inspiration from M'ori, European and other traditions.

New Zealand is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses ! that of the North and South Islands ! and numerous smaller islands. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. Polynesians settled New Zealand in 12501300 CE and developed a distinctive M#ori culture, and Europeans first made contact in 1642 CE. The British and Irish immigrants brought aspects of their own culture to New Zealand and also influenced M*ori culture, particularly with the introduction of Christianity. More recently American, Australian, Asian and other European cultures have exerted influence on New Zealand. New Zealand art includes traditional M*ori art, which was developed in New Zealand from Polynesian art forms, and more recent forms which take their inspiration from M*ori, European and other traditions. Prehistoric Art Charcoal drawings can be found on limestone rock shelters in the center of the South Island, with over 500 sites stretching from Kaikoura to North Otago. The drawings are estimated to be between 500 and 800 years old, and portray animals, people and fantastic creatures. Some of the birds pictured are long extinct, and were drawn by early M*ori; however by the time Europeans arrived, local inhabitants did not know the origins of the drawings.

KEY POINTS

Polynesians settled New Zealand in 12501300 CE and developed a distinctive M*ori culture, and Europeans first made contact in 1642 CE. Charcoal drawings, estimated between 500 and 800 years old, can be found on limestone rock shelters in the center of the South Island, with over 500 sites stretching from Kaikoura to North Otago. M*ori visual art of New Zealand consists primarily of four forms: carving, tattooing (ta moko), weaving and painting. Europeans began producing art in New Zealand as soon as they arrived, and landscape art and painting became very popular. From the late 19th century, many P*keh* (New Zealanders not of Maori origin, usually of European ancestry) attempted to create a distinctive New Zealand style of art, sometimes appropriating Maori artistic styles. From the early 20th century, politician Apirana Ngata fostered a renewal of traditional M*ori art forms.

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Traditional M#ori art M*ori visual art consists primarily of four forms: carving, tattooing (ta moko), weaving and painting (Figure 32.23). Traditional M*ori art was highly spiritual and conveyed information about ancestry and other culturally important topics. Most traditional M*ori art was highly stylized and featured motifs such as the spiral, the chevron and the koru. The colors black, white and red dominated. Carving was done in wood, bone, and stone. Wood carvings were used to decorate houses, fencepoles, containers and other objects. Both stone and bone were used to
This portrait shows traditional jewelry (known as hei-tiki), woven cloth, and chin moko, or tattooing. Figure 32.23 Portrait of Hinepare of Ng%ti Kahungunu by Gottfried Lindauer, showing chin moko, pounamu hei-tiki and woven cloak

stone and bone fish hooks and other tools to become purely decorative. Ta moko is the art of traditional M*ori tattooing, done with a chisel. Men were tattooed on many parts of their bodies, including faces, buttocks and thighs. Women were usually tattooed only on the lips and chin. Moko conveyed a person's ancestry. The art declined in the 19th century following the introduction of Christianity, but in recent decades has undergone a revival. Weaving was used to create numerous things, including wall panels in meeting houses and other important buildings, as well as clothing and bags (kete). While many of these were purely functional, others were true works of art taking hundreds of hours to complete, and often given as gifts to important people. In preEuropean times the main medium for weaving was flax, but following the arrival of Europeans cotton, wool and other textiles were also used. In 'classical' M*ori art, painting was not an important art form. It was mainly used as a minor decoration in meeting houses, in stylized forms such as the koru. Europeans introduced M*ori to their more figurative style of art, and in the 19th century less stylized depictions of people and plants began to appear in place of traditional carvings and woven panels.

create jewelry such as the hei-tiki. The introduction of metal tools by Europeans allowed more intricacy and delicacy, and caused

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European Influence Europeans began producing art in New Zealand as soon as they arrived, with many exploration ships including an artist to record newly discovered places, people, flora and fauna. Landscape art was popular among early colonizers, with prints used to promote settlement in New Zealand. Notable landscape artists included Augustus Earle and William Fox. However the most successful artists of this period, Charles Goldie and Gottfried Lindauer were noted primarily for their portraits of M*ori. From the late 19th century, many P*keh* (New Zealanders not of Maori origin, usually of European ancestry) attempted to create a distinctive New Zealand style of art. Many, such as Rita Angus, continued to work on landscapes, with attempts made to depict New Zealand's harsh light. Others appropriate M*ori artistic styles; Gordon Walters created many paintings and prints based on the koru. New Zealand's most highly regarded 20th century artist was Colin McCahon, who attempted to use international styles such as cubism in New Zealand contexts. From the early 20th century, politician Apirana Ngata fostered a renewal of traditional M*ori art forms, for example establishing a school of M*ori arts in Rotorua. The visual arts flourished in the later decades of the 20th century, with the increased cultural sophistication of many New Zealanders. Many M*ori artists became

highly successful blending elements of M*ori culture with European modernism. Ralph Hotere is New Zealand's highest selling living artist, and others include Shane Cotton and Michael Parekowhai.
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Section 6

Modern Oceanic Art

Pacic Arts Festival

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Pacic Arts Festival


The Pacic Arts Festival celebrates the arts of indigenous cultures in the Oceanic region.
KEY POINTS

Figure 32.24 Map of Oceania

The Festival of Pacific Arts, or Pacific Arts Festival, is a traveling festival hosted every four years by a different country in Oceania. The Pacific Arts Festival was conceived by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community as a means to stem erosion of traditional cultural practices by sharing and exchanging culture at each festival. The major theme at each festival is traditional song and dance.
Nations of the Oceanic region.

The Pacific Cultural Council, former Pacific Arts Council or Council The Festival of Pacific Arts, or Pacific Arts Festival, is a traveling festival hosted every four years by a different country in Oceania (Figure 32.24). It was conceived by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community, former South Pacific Commission, as a means to stem erosion of traditional cultural practices by sharing and exchanging culture at each festival. The major theme of the festival is traditional song and dance. The 2012 Festival of Pacific Arts was hosted by the Soloman Islands from July 1-14. It was the 11th Festival of Pacific Arts, and its theme was "Culture in Harmony with Nature." of Pacific Arts and originally South Pacific Arts Festival Council, selects the host country and recognizes that each participating country desires the opportunity to showcase its unique indigenous culture by hosting the festival. Host selection is based on principles of equity and preference is given to countries which have not yet hosted. The festival's host country pays participants' costs of local travel, accommodation, meals, and other forms of hospitality. Entry to all artistic events is free to the public, thereby maximizing cultural outreach and inclusion.

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By its vastness, the Pacific Ocean inhibits social and cultural interchange between the inhabitants of its island countries. The festival is not a competition but a cultural exchange, and it reunites people and reinforces regional identity and mutual appreciation of Pacific-wide culture. Participating countries select artist-delegates to represent the nation at this crossroads of cultures, which is considered a great honor. About 2,000 artists attended the 2008 Festival of Pacific Arts from these participating countries: American Samoa, Australia, Cook Islands, Easter Island, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hawaii, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Pitcairn Islands, S*moa, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, and Wallis and Futuna. Taiwan was allowed to send a delegation of 80 performers and artists, most of whom were Taiwanese aborigines, to the Festival of Pacific Arts for the first time in 2008.
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Chapter 33

Africa in the Modern Period

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Section 1

Traditional and Contemporary African Culture: A Comparison


Domestic Architecture The Rite of Passage The Spirit World Leadership Death

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Domestic Architecture
African architecture is exceptionally diverse from region to region, and has been subject to numerous external inuences.
KEY POINTS

the history of Africa have had their own architectural traditions. As with most architectural traditions elsewhere, African architecture has been subject to numerous external influences from the earliest periods for which evidence is available. The Islamic conquest of North Africa saw Islamic architecture develop in the region; western architecture has had an impact on coastal areas since the late 15th century, and is now an important source for many buildings, particularly in major cities. One common theme in much traditional African architecture is the use of fractal scaling: small parts of the structure tend to look similar to larger parts, such as a circular village made of circular houses. Vernacular architecture uses a wide range of materials. One finds structures in thatch, stick/wood, mud, mudbrick, rammed earth, and stone, with a preference for materials varying by region. North Africa primarily used stone and rammed earth; West Africa mud/adobe; Central Africa thatch/wood and more perishable materials; Southern African stone and thatch/wood; and in East Africa the materials varied. Ten broad categories of traditional hut and house structures have been identified throughout Africa: 1. Domical (beehive)

Traditional African architecture uses a wide range of materials, including thatch, stick/wood, mud, mudbrick, rammed earth, and stone, with a preference for materials varying by region. During the early modern period, new and diverse influences such as Baroque, Arab, Turkish and Gujarati Indian style began to be absorbed into African architecture. By the late 19th century, most buildings reflected the European preference for eclectic and mixed styles, taking from Mediterranean and Northern European influence. The revival of interest in traditional styles can be traced back to the 19th and 20th centuries, as colonial buildings began to mix European and vernacular African styles of architecture. Modern architecture expanded through the 1920s and 1930s, while today a great deal of domestic architecture reflects a fusion between modern and neo-vernacular styles.

The architecture of Africa, like other aspects of the culture of Africa, is exceptionally diverse. Many ethno-linguistic groups throughout

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2. Cone on cylinder 3. Cone on poles and mud cylinder 4. Gabled roofed 5. Pyramidal cone 6. Rectangle with roof rounded and sloping at ends 7. Square 8. Dome or flat roof on clay box 9. Quadrangular, surrounding an open courtyard 10.Cone on ground (Figure 33.1) displays Lunda dwellings, an example of the Square and the Cone On Ground type of African Vernacular Architecture. Early Modern Period During the early modern period, the absorption of new diverse influences such as Baroque, Arab, Turkish and Gujarati Indian style began with the arrival of Portuguese Jesuit missionaries in the 16th and 17th centuries. Castles were built by arriving colonizers, at times as defensive fortresses during times of war. Early European colonies developed around the West African coast, building large

forts, as can be seen at Elmina Castle, Cape Coast Castle, Christiansborg, Fort Jesus and elsewhere. Living conditions changed for many indigenous African communities under colonial rule. The tradition of building houses out of mud walls, thatched roofs and other traditional materials decreased while houses started being built with cement blocks and zinc roofs. Roads for vehicles were built. Buildings such as hospitals and schools were erected in many areas. Along with these changes came electricity and running water to many areas in the early 20th century. By the late 19th century, most buildings reflected the European preference for eclectic and mixed styles, taking from Mediterranean and Northern European influence. Examples of colonial towns from this era survive at Saint-Louis, Senegal, GrandBassam and elsewhere. A few buildings were pre-fabricated in
Lunda dwellings display the Square and the Cone On Ground type of African Vernacular Architecture Figure 33.1 Lunda Street and Houses

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Europe and shipped over for erection. This European tradition continued well into the 20th century with the construction of European-style manor houses, such as Shiwa Ng'andu in what is now Zambia, or the Boer homesteads in South Africa (Figure 33.2). The revival of interest in traditional styles can be traced to Cairo in the early 19th century. Afterward it spread to Algiers and Morocco by the early 20th century, and soon colonial buildings across the
Figure 33.2 Shiwa Ngandu, Zambia

the Eastgate Centre, Harare in Zimbabwe (Figure 33.3). With an advanced form of natural air conditioning, this building was designed to respond precisely to Harare's climate and needs, rather than import less suitable designs. Neo-vernacular architecture continues, for instance with the Great Mosques of Nioro or New Gourna.

continent began to mix European and traditional African styles of architecture. The impact of modern architecture began to be felt in the 1920s and 1930s. Le Corbusier (Algeria), Steffen Ahrens (South Africa), and Ernst May (Nairobi and Mombasa) were influential

Figure 33.3 Eastgate Centre, Harare, Zimbabwe The pink-hued Eastgate Centre, with its distinctive chimneys

Main house on the estate at Shiwa Ngandu, built by Stewart Gore-Browne.

architects at the time. Villages in Libya and Italian East Africa began to incorporate modern Italian designs. A number of new cities were built following the end of colonialism, while others were greatly expanded. In the city of Abidjan the majority of buildings were still designed by high-profile non-African architects. Experimental designs have also appeared, most notably

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The Rite of Passage


The rite of passage, still practiced by some Africans today, is a traditional ceremony in which a person enters into a new phase of life.

Rites of passage in African culture have undergone many changes from pre-colonial to contemporary times. The rite of passage is typically a ceremonial event in which a person enters into a new phase of life, such as puberty or marriage. While many rituals and ceremonies are still practiced today, many Africans - especially those in more urban areas - no longer practice them.

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In many cultures, a child goes through several graduation stages which recognize his or her growth and assign him or her a place in the community. For the Xhosa, each stage is marked by a specific ritual, such as the imbeleko performed at birth to introduce a newborn to its ancestors or the umphumo in which a boy becomes a man. One traditional ritual that is still regularly practiced by the Xhosa is the secret rite of Ulwaluko, which marks the transition from boyhood to manhood with ritual circumcision and weeks of isolation. Another rite of the Xhosa is the seclusion of mothers for ten days after giving birth and the burial of the afterbirth and umbilical cord near the village. Zulus historically performed the ritual circumcision of boys as well, but the ritual was stopped by King Shaka in the war of 1810. In 2009, it was reintroduced by King Goodwill Zwelithini Zulu, not as a custom this time but as a medical procedure to curb HIV infections and other sexually transmitted infections.

Many cultures such as the Xhosa and Balanta!have initiation rites to mark each phase of a person's life and their progressive entrance into a new social category. Male circumcision, prolonged periods of isolation, and tests of endurance are common in the rites of passage marking a boy's transition into manhood. While some cultures ceased the custom of male circumcision, it has been reintroduced in some areas as a medical procedure to curb HIV infections and other sexually transmitted infections. Scarification has been widely used to mark milestone stages in both men and womens lives or communicate messages about one's identity or role. Female genital mutilation (FGM) originates as a rite of passage for girls and is the subject of much controversy. Still practiced in 28 African countries, there is a wide movement both in Africa and internationally to end the practice.

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Scarification has been widely used by many West African tribes to mark milestone stages in both men and womens lives, such as puberty and marriage. It is also used to transmit complex messages about identity, such as social, political, and religious roles (Figure 33.4). Similar to the Xhosa, the Balanta have initiation rites to mark each phase of a person's life and his or her progressive entrance into a new social category. From early childhood up to age 15, the child belongs to the category of Nwatch; around age 18 to 20 the individual enters the Fuur, then enters the Nghaye around age 25. An important rite is the Fanado initiation, in which men can be chosen to belong to the Council of Elders. A two-month process that involves circumcision and various tests of endurance, it represents the ultimate transition into maturity and wisdom. Clothing is an important marker of the tradition; the initiate ritual.
Many cultures used scarication to mark a rite of passage such as puberty. Figure 33.4 A picture of an Igbo man with facial scarications, known as Ichi, early 20th century

Female circumcision has also existed in many traditional cultures as a rite of passage for girls and is much more controversial due to its health risks. Often referred to as female genital mutilation (FGM), it can be carried out on girls from a few days after birth to puberty. According to the World Health Organization, it is still practiced in 28 countries in western, eastern, and north-eastern Africa. Opponents to FGM argue that it is a human rights violations that poses grave health risks, such as fatal hemorrhaging, cysts, recurrent infections, chronic pain, and obstetrical complications. Since 1979, there have been concerted efforts by both African activists and international bodies to end the practice. Several African countries have enacted legislation against it, including Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Togo, and Uganda. However the issue is complex, and some Africans argue that international interference with the custom infringes upon cultural tradition and women's decisions about their own rituals.
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wears a bright red hat to show that he has completed the Fanado

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The Spirit World


Beliefs about the spirit world are deeply embedded in traditional African culture, but were heavily inuenced by Christianity and Islam.
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sculptures. In some societies, artistic talents were themselves seen as ways to please higher spirits. Wooden masks, which often take the form of animals, humans, or mythical creatures, are one of the most commonly found forms of art in western Africa. These masks are often used to depict deities or represent the souls of the departed. They may be worn by a dancer in ceremonies for celebrations, deaths, initiations, or crop harvesting. In many traditional mask ceremonies, the dancer goes into deep trance, and during this state of mind he or she is believed to communicate with ancestors in the spirit world. The masks themselves often represent an ancestral spirit, which is believed to possess the wearer of the mask. Most African masks are made with wood and can also be decorated precious gems *(Figure 33.5). Statues and sculptures are also used to represent or connect to spiritual forces. For example, Bambara statuettes, such as the
This is a traditional African mask. Figure 33.5 Mask from Gabon

Most traditional African cultures include beliefs about the spirit world, which is widely represented through art such as masks, statues, and sculptures. Wooden masks are often used to depict deities or ancestors. When worn by ceremonial dancers, they are believed to channel spirits. Statues and sculptures are also used to represent, connect to, or communicate with spiritual forces. Today Africans profess a wide variety of religious beliefs, the most common of which are Christianity and Islam; perhaps less than 15% still follow traditional African religions.

Like all human cultures, African folklore and religion is diverse and varied. Culture and spirituality share space and are deeply intertwined in most African cultures, which have been heavily influenced by the introduction of Christianity and Islam. Most traditional African cultures include beliefs about the spirit world, which is widely represented through art such as masks, statues, and

with ivory, animal hair, plant fibers, pigments, stones, and semi-

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Chiwara, are used as spiritually charged objects during ritual. During the annual ceremonies of the Guan society, a group of up to seven figures, some dating back to the 14th century, are removed from their sanctuaries by the elder members of the society. The wooden sculptures, which represent a highly stylized animal or human figure, are washed, re-oiled and offered sacrifices. The Kono and Komo societies use similar statues to serve as receptacles for spiritual forces. The Igbo would make clay altars and shrines of their deities, usually featuring various figures. In the Kingdom of Kongo, nkisi were objects believed to be inhabited by spirits. Often carved in the shape of animals or humans, these "power objects" were believed to help aid in the communication with the spirit world.
Figure 33.6 Modern Makonde carving in ebony

Today Africans profess a wide variety of religious beliefs, and statistics on religious affiliation are difficult to come by. Christianity and Islam make up the largest religions in contemporary Africa, and some sources say that less than 15% still follow traditional African religions. Despite the drastic decrease in native African religions, some modern art in Africa has worked to reincorporate traditional spiritual beliefs. For example, Modern Makonde Art has turned to abstract figures in which spirits, or Shetani, play an important role (Figure 33.6).
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Modern Makonde sculptures often depict spirits, or Shetani.

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Leadership
Traditional African leadership structures underwent drastic changes under colonial rule and continue to evolve today.
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Traditional leadership structures in Africa are as diverse as the continent itself, making it impossible to describe an "African" style of leadership. Pre-colonial Africa possessed as many as 10,000 different states characterized by many kinds of political organization and rule. These included small family groups of hunter-gatherers as well as larger, heavily structured clan groups and autonomous city-states and kingdoms. Some traditional leadership systems were relatively egalitarian. Traditional Igbo society, with the exception of a few towns, was based on a quasi-democratic republican system of government. Unlike a feudalistic system, in which a king rules over subjects, the Igbo leadership system consisted of a consultative assembly of common people. Other kingdoms were ruled by kings or priest kings: for example the Yoruba city-state of Ife established its government under a priestly oba ("king") called the Ooni of Ife. Still others had kings that were elected in some form. When the Kongo Kingdom was at its political apex in the 16th and 17th centuries, the king was elected from among a noble class of descendants of former kingsusually the holders of important offices. The activities of the court were supported by an extensive system of civil servants, and the court itself usually consisted of numerous relatives or clients of the king. The many provinces were often governed by lesser relatives of the

Pre-colonial Africa had as many as 10,000 different states characterized by different sorts of leadership; these included small family groups of hunter-gatherers, larger, structured clan groups, and autonomous city-states and kingdoms. While some communities were relatively egalitarian, like the Igbo, others were ruled by a king and were highly stratified. Many African communities continue to be governed by a council of elders, which is responsible for mediating conflict and making all important decisions within the community. Leadership was reflected through various artforms, such as masks worn by Elders or sculptures of important leaders. Colonial rule drastically transformed traditional African leadership structures, drawing arbitrary boundaries between tribes and imposing new structures of leadership. Today, most African states are republics operating under a presidential system, though the legacy of colonialism has resulted in many cases of instability and political violence.

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king, and sub-provinces were governed by royal appointees or locally dominant families. Societies like Great Zimbabwe show a high degree of social stratification, which is common of centralized states. Archaeologists and historians have determined
Figure 33.7 Maasai Elder

African communities today (Figure 33.7). Like most leadership structures around the world, traditional African communities were often patriarchal in power structure. In Igbo culture, for example, law began with the male line of descent, and closely related families were headed by the eldest male member. Leadership was often reflected in the artwork of a culture. For example, the Yoruba people in present-day Nigeria depicted important leaders in their community as sculptures with large heads because the artists believed that the Ase, or inner power of a person, was held in the head. Their rulers were also often depicted with their mouths covered so that the power of their speech would not be too great. Elders in Dan society often wore masks that served as agents of social control, enforcing the council's rules and orders. The masked figures were believed to
Here, the nearly closed eyes and small mouth contrast with those of other masks and probably indicate that this mask served in a peacemaking function and generally created harmony in the community. Other masks with projecting eyes or exaggerated features may have been designed to be deliberately frightening. Figure 33.8 Dan mask worn by the Council of Elders

that for many societies, the elite held a great deal of wealth in the form of elaborate pottery, sculptures, beads, jewelry, and pendents made of copper, gold, bronze, ivory, and other revered materials. Common people, on the other hand, would have supported the elite through farming and labor. Many African communities were governed and administered by a

Village elder of the Maasai tribe in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania

council of elders. The council would be responsible for

mediating conflict, governing the town, and making all important decisions within the community. For many tribes, such as the Balanta people, a person would be initiated into the Council through a ceremony. Elders still play an important function in many

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be incarnate spiritual beings capable of rendering unbiased judgments (Figure 33.8). Colonialism and Independence In the late 19th century, the European imperial powers occupied and colonized most of the continent, leaving Ethiopia and Liberia as the only two fully independent states. Colonial rule drastically transformed traditional African leadership structures. In places where traditional rule had been fairly decentralized and egalitarian, such as regions inhabited by the Igbo, the British introduced new centralized leadership systems and incorporated their own "traditional leaders." In most cases, European colonizers disregarded native political and cultural systems, influencing current systems or imposing new systems upon people under their military control. Arbitrary borders were drawn with little concern for the pre-existing ethnic, cultural, or political groups. With independence from colonial rule in the mid-20th century came further changes in leadership. Today, Africa contains 54 sovereign countries, several of which have been hampered by instability, violence, and authoritarianism as native populations fought to capture territory and regain what had been lost during colonialism. Great instability was mainly the result of the marginalization of ethnic groups, some of which had been exacerbated, or even created, by colonial rule. Today, the vast

majority of African states are republics that operate under some form of the presidential system of rule. However, few of them have been able to sustain democratic governments on a permanent basis, and many have instead cycled through a series of coups, producing military dictatorships. Fortunately, the 21st century has seen the number of armed conflicts in Africa steadily decline. The African Union (AU) is a 54-member federation consisting of all of Africa's states except Morocco. The African Union has a parliamentary government, known as the African Union Government, consisting of legislative, judicial, and executive organs, which is led by the African Union President and Head of State. The aim of the African Union is to facilitate greater cooperation and peace between the continent's many countries.
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Death
For many African societies, death holds a great deal of meaning and is highly symbolized through art.
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for a uniform "African culture" regarding death and its meaning; however similarities exist among the types of art created. Death and Grave Markers Art related to death is represented in sculptures, masks, carvings, and urns. Graves are often marked and decorated by fine works of art. Pole sculptures in Eastern Africa are carved in human shapes and decorated with geometric forms, while the tops are carved with figures of animals, people, and various objects. These poles are then placed next to graves to to serve as symbols of death and the ancestral world. The stelae of Aksum are enormous stone towers and grave markers (some up to 33 meters high) that are engraved with patterns and emblems representing the rank of the deceased. The Dogon people of Mali place kneeling statues of protective spirits at the head of the dead, in order to absorb spiritual strength and to accompany the deceased into the world of the dead. Death In The Broader World The Dogon people also continue an ancient masquerading tradition, which commemorates the origin of death. According to their myths, death came into the world as a result of primeval mans transgressions against the divine order. Dama memorial ceremonies, consisting of the performance of up to 400 masqueraders, are held to accompany the dead into the ancestral

Traditional art related to death is represented through sculptures, masks, carvings, and urns. Pole sculptures in Eastern Africa, the stelae of Aksum, and the statues of the Dogon people are examples of both ornamental and symbolic grave markers. Masks are used in many traditional burial ceremonies, often representing ancestors or spirits. Decorated boxes, baskets, and other objects are used to hold the remains of ancestors; some, like the nkisi of Kongo, are used as powerful methods of communication with the dead. The introduction of Christianity and Islam to much of Africa has influenced traditional art and burial customs. Today many bury their dead in traditional western ways, although it is not uncommon to find a fusion of traditions.

A Complex Theme For many African societies, death holds a great deal of meaning and is highly symbolized through art. Because Africa consists of thousands of diverse ethnic groups, generalizations cannot be made

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realm and restore order to the universe. Dogon masks often take the form of animals associated with their mythology, and their particular significance is known only by the highest ranking individuals. The timing, types of masks involved, and other ritual elements are often specific to each village (Figure 33.9). Myeneart is also reflected in traditional rituals for death, in which male relatives wear white painted masks that symbolize female ancestors. Bieri are boxes used by the Fang people to hold the remains of ancestors, and are carved with protective figures; the Bekota use baskets to hold ancestral remains. People of the Kongo empire were known for their nkisi, objects believed to be inhabited by spirits. Kongo religion held great importance on communication with the dead, believing that exceptional human powers could result from this communication. Nkisi were containers such as ceramics
Dama memorial ceremonies can include performances of hundreds of masqueraders. Figure 33.9 Dogon people, Mali

animals. Sometimes considered "portable graves," they are made to hold spiritually-charged substances and may include earth or relics from the grace of a powerful individual. The powers of the dead thus infuse the object, which is used in divination or healing rituals. The introduction of religions such as Christianity and Islam to much of Africa has influenced many burial customs and perceptions of death. Many communities in contemporary Africa bury their dead in the western way, although it is not uncommon for burials to be practiced in the traditional ways or with a fusion of styles.
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vessels, gourds, animal horns, or shells, made often in the shape of

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Section 2

The 1800s

San Fang and Kota Kalabari Ijaw Bamum Fon Kongo Dogon Baule

https://www.boundless.com/art-history/africa-in-the-modern-period/the-1800s/
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San
San is the center of production for bglanni, a traditional Malian fabric.

Background San is an urban commune, town and capital of the Cercle of San in the Sgou Region of Mali. The town lies 10 km south of the Bani River. In the 2009 census the commune had a population of 68,078. San is the center of bglanfini production, a traditional

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Malian fabric. Bglanfini Bglanfini or bogolan ("mud cloth") is a handmade Malian cotton fabric traditionally dyed with fermented mud. It has an important place in traditional Malian culture and has; more recently, become a symbol of Malian cultural identity. The cloth is being exported worldwide for use in fashion, fine art and decoration. Traditional Production In traditional bglanfini production, men weave the cloth and women dye it. On narrow looms, strips of cotton fabric about 15 centimeters (5.9 in.) wide are woven and stitched into cloths about 1 meter (3 ft.) wide and 1.5 meters (5 ft.) long. The dyeing (a "strange and cumbersome technique", according to the opinion of J.B. Donne in 1973) begins with a step invisible in the finished product: The cloth is soaked in a dye bath made from mashed and boiled, or soaked, leaves of the n'gallama tree

Bglanfini or bogolan ("mud cloth") is a handmade Malian cotton fabric traditionally dyed with fermented mud. It has an important place in traditional Malian culture and has; more recently, become a symbol of Malian cultural identity. The cloth is being exported worldwide for use in fashion, fine art and decoration. In traditional bglanfini production, men weave the cloth and women dye it. On narrow looms, strips of cotton fabric about 15 centimeters (5.9 in.) wide are woven and stitched into cloths about 1 meter (3 ft.) wide and 1.5 meters (5 ft.) long. In Mali, the cloth is worn by people of all ethnicities, including prominently in Malian cinema and by Malian musicians, either as an expression of national or ethnic identity or as a fashion statement. Several Malian artists, notably by the Groupe Bogolan Kasoban, also produce Bglanfini as fine art six artists collaborating since 1978. These paintings are produced with vegetable dyes and mud, but often feature designs unrelated to those of traditional fabrics.

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(Anogeissus leiocarpa). Now yellow, the cloth is sun-dried and then painted with designs using a piece of metal or wood. The paint, carefully and repeatedly applied to outline the intricate motifs, is a special mud, collected from riverbeds and fermented for up to a year in a clay jar. Thanks to a chemical reaction between the mud and the dyed cloth, the brown color remains after the mud is washed off. Finally, the yellow n'gallama dye is removed from the unpainted parts of the cloth by applying soap or bleach, rendering them white. After long use, the very dark brown color turns a variety of rich tones of brown, while
A Bogolanni shirt. Figure 33.10 Mudcloth

an expression of national or ethnic identity or as a fashion statement. Particularly popular among young people, Bglanfini is made into a wide range of clothes, Western miniskirts and jackets as well as traditional flowing robes (boubous). The Malian fashion designer Chris Seydou has been credited with popularizing bglanfini in international fashion. In Art Several Malian artists, notably by the Groupe Bogolan Kasoban, also produce Bglanfini as fine art six artists collaborating since 1978. These paintings are produced with vegetable dyes and mud, but often feature designs unrelated to those of traditional fabrics; their newer motifs are also often found on clothing. Traditional Bglanfini designs are also used for on a wide range of commercial products, such as coffee mugs, curtains, towels, sheets, book covers and wrapping paper.
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the unpainted underside of the fabric retains a pale russet color. Uses Bglanfini has become a popular Malian export, notably to the United States. There, it is marketed as mud cloth (Figure 33.10), either as a symbol of African American culture or as a generically ethnic decorative cloth. In Fashion In Mali, the cloth is worn by people of all ethnicities, including prominently in Malian cinema and by Malian musicians, either as

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Fang and Kota


The Bakota (or Kota) are a Bantu ethnic group from the northeastern region of Gabon.
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Background The Bakota (or Kota) are a Bantu ethnic group from the northeastern region of Gabon. The language they speak is called iKota, but is sometimes referred to as Bakota, ikuta, Kota, and among the Fang, they are known as Mekora. The language has several dialects, which include: Ndambomo, Mahongwe, Ikota-lahua, Sake, Menzambi, Bougom. Some of these dialects themselves include regional variations of some kind. The Kota are traditionally a patriarchal society, however some of the sub-groups such as the Mahongwe have over time adopted a matrilineal system of lineage (Mahongwe means, "from your father"). The true meaning of Bakota is unclear, however it may be derived from the word kota, which means to bind/to attach/to link, hereby suggesting they view themselves as a united people bound by a common fate. Estimates indicate that there are at least 43,500 Kota speakers in the world, of whom 34,442 people (79%) live in the Ogouee-Ivindo province of northeastern Gabon, and 9055 people (21%) in neighboring Congo-Brazzaville. Kota Art They are noted for their copper and brass reliquary guardian figures (Figure 33.11), which are part of a powerful religious and

They are noted for their copper and brass reliquary guardian figures, which are part of a powerful religious and mystical order known as Bwete. Another key feature of the Kota people are the originality of its circumcision and widowpurification rituals, which are generally kept secret. The Kota are traditionally a patriarchal society, however some of the sub-groups such as the Mahongwe have over time adopted a matrilineal system of lineage (Mahongwe means, "from your father"). Politically, the Kota has been classified under the disputed stateless societies category. They have a strong egalitarian background, which in some instances cuts across age and gender lines. In Central West Africa, reliquaries used in the Bwete rituals contain objects considered magical, or the bones of ancestors, and are commonly constructed with a guardian figure attached to the reliquary.

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mystical order known as Bwete. In Central West Africa, reliquaries used in the Bwete rituals contain objects considered magical, or the bones of ancestors, and are commonly constructed with a guardian figure attached to the reliquary. Another key feature of the Kota people are the originality of its circumcision and widowpurification rituals, which are generally kept secret. Politically, the Kota has been classified under the disputed stateless societies category. They have a strong egalitarian background, which in some
Gabon, Kota people. Wood, covered with sheets of brass and copper. Figure 33.11 Reliquary Figure

Government. Alexandre Sambat, a long-time ambassador to the United States who later ran for president in 1993, was of Kota origin. Pascal Desire Misongo, another Kota, has served as minister of Justice in Gabon.
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instances cuts across age and gender lines. Kota children are taught to value tradition, respect for the elderly, and the concept of "Ewele" (loosely translated as 'pride'). The Kotas are not considered big players in Gabonese politics, however some Kota has been appointed to key positions in the

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Kalabari Ijaw
Culture and artistic festivities involve masquerades and the wearing of elaborate outts and carved masks to dance to the beat of drums.
KEY POINTS

Niger River Delta. Today it is recognized as a traditional state in what is now Rivers State, Nigeria. The people of Elem Kalabari originally worshipped the goddess Owemenakaso (or Awamenakaso, Akaso), the mother of all the deities of the Kalabari clan. Her role was central even when individual settlements had their own local gods and goddesses. Owemenakaso was opposed war and bloodshed; the Kalabari later claimed she was the sister of the British goddess Britannia, who ruled the seas. Among their neighbors, because of their civilized and generally peaceful behavior, the Kalabari were called "Englishmen." The Ijaw were among the first of Nigeria's peoples to have contact with Westerners, and were active as go-betweens in the slave trade between visiting Europeans and the peoples of the interior. This was particularly true in the era before the discovery of quinine, when West Africa was known as the "White Man's Graveyard" because of the endemic presence of malaria. Some of the kin-based trading lineages that arose among the Ijaw developed into substantial corporations, which were known as houses. Each house had an elected leader. Houses also maintained a fleet of war canoes for use in protecting trade and fighting rivals. As well as participating in trade, the Ijaw have traditionally been a fishing and farming culture.

The Kalabari Kingdom, also called Elem Kalabari (New Shipping Port), or New Calabar by the Europeans, was an independent trading state of the Kalabari people, an Ijaw ethnic group, in the Niger River Delta. Today it is recognized as a traditional state in what is now Rivers State, Nigeria. The role of prayer in the traditional Ijaw system of belief is to maintain the living in the good graces of the water spirits among whom they dwelt before being born into this world. Each year the Ijaw hold celebrations!lasting for several days!in honor of the spirits. Masquerades are central to the festivities. Ijaw men wearing elaborate outfits and carved masks dance to the beat of drums and manifest the influence of the water spirits through the quality and intensity of their dancing.

Elem Kalabari The Kalabari Kingdom, also called Elem Kalabari (New Shipping Port), or New Calabar by the Europeans, was an independent trading state of the Kalabari people, an Ijaw ethnic group, in the

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Being a maritime people, many Ijaw were employed in the merchant shipping sector in the early and mid-20th century (preNigerian independence). With the advent of oil and gas exploration in their territory, some are employed in that sector. Other main occupation are in the civil service of the Nigerian States of Bayelsa and Rivers where they are predominant. Culture and Art Ijaw religious beliefs hold that water spirits are like humans, having personal strengths and shortcomings, and that humans dwell among the water spirits before being born. The role of prayer in the traditional Ijaw system of belief is to maintain the living in the good graces of the water spirits, among whom they dwelt before being born into this world. Each year the Ijaw hold celebrations lasting for several days in honor of the spirits. Central to the festivities is the role of masquerades, in which men wearing
Mask, Kalabari Ijo peoples, Nigeria, Early 20th century, Wood, pigment (National Museum of African Art). Figure 33.12 ljo Mask

manifest the influence of the water spirits through the quality and intensity of their dancing (Figure 33.12). Particularly spectacular masqueraders are believed to be possessed by the particular spirits on whose behalf they are dancing. The Ijaw are also known to practice ritual acculturation (enculturation), whereby an individual from a different, unrelated group undergoes rites to become Ijaw.
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elaborate outfits and carved masks dance to the beat of drums and

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Bamum
Bamum people developed a great art of dyes and created six dye pits containing various colors which were applied to cloths and sculptures.
KEY POINTS

ethnic group from northeast Cameroon, founded it. Its capital was the ancient walled city of Fumban. Writing System The Bamum people have an indigenous writing system, known as Bamum script or Shu Mom. The script was developed by Sultan Ibrahim Njoya in 1896, and is taught in Cameroon by the Bamum Scripts and Archives Project. The German Empire claimed the territory as the colony of Kamerun in 1884 and began a steady push inland. They initiated projects to improve the colony's infrastructure, relying on a harsh system of forced labor. With the defeat of Germany in World War I, Kamerun became a League of Nations mandate territory and was
This life-size male gure from the kingdom of Bamum in Cameroon is a visually compelling example of the splendid beaded sculptures Bamum artists created for the royal court in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Figure 33.13 Bamum Sculpture

The Bamum people have an indigenous writing system, known as Bamum script or Shu Mom. The script was developed by Sultan Ibrahim Njoya in 1896, and is taught in Cameroon by the Bamum Scripts and Archives Project. Little is known about the kingdoms material and social culture during this time. Originally, the language of state in the Bamum kingdom was that of the Tikar. This apparently did not last long, and the language of the conquered, Mben, was adopted. The Bamun developed an extensive artistic culture at their capital of Foumban at the beginning of the 20th century. During Njoyas reign six dye pits containing various colors were maintained.

Background The kingdom of Bamum or Bamoum, also known as Bamun or Bamoun or Mum (13941884), was a pre-colonial West African state in what is now northwest Cameroon. The Mbum, a part-Bantu

split into French Cameroun and British Cameroons in 1919. France integrated the economy of Cameroun with that of France and improved the infrastructure with capital investments, skilled workers, and continued forced labor.

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Culture and Art Little is known about the kingdoms material and social culture during this time. Originally, the language of state in the Bamum kingdom was that of the Tikar. This apparently did not last long, and the language of the conquered, Mben, was adopted. The economy was largely agricultural, and slave owning was practiced on a small scale. The Bamum kingdom also traded with neighboring populations. They imported salt, iron, beads, cotton goods and copper objects. The Bamun developed an extensive artistic culture at their capital of Foumban at the beginning of the 20th century. During Njoyas reign six dye pits containing various colors were maintained. The Mbum also imported indigo-dyed raffia-sewn cloth from the Hausa as royal cloth. This royal cloth was called Ntieya, and Hausa craftsmen were kept at palace workshops to supply nobles and teach the art of dyeing. At the same time, during the 19th and early 20th century, Bamum artists created splendid beaded sculptures (Figure 33.13) for the royal court. Colorful beadwork attached to a fabric base covers most of the carved wooden figures.
Source: https://www.boundless.com/art-history/africa-in-themodern-period/the-1800s/bamum/ CC-BY-SA Boundless is an openly licensed educational resource

Fon
Much of the art work of the Fon revolved around the royalty.
KEY POINTS

Each of the palaces at the Royal Palaces of Abomey contained elaborate bas-reliefs (noundid/ in Fon) providing a record of the king's accomplishments. Each king had his own palace within the palace complex and within the outer walls of their personal palace was a series of clay reliefs designed specific to that king. In addition to the royal depictions in the reliefs, royal members were depicted in power sculptures known as bocio which incorporated mixed materials (including metal, wood, beads, cloth, fur, feathers, and bone) onto a base forming a standing figure.

Background The Fon people, or Fon nu, are a major West African ethnic and linguistic group in the country of Benin, and southwest Nigeria, made up of more than 3,500,000 people. The Fon language is the main language spoken in Southern Benin, and is a member of the Gbe language group. The Fon are said to originate from Tado, a village in south east Togo, near the border with Benin. The culture

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is patrilineal and allows polygamy and divorce. Funerals (and anniversaries of deaths) are among the most important cultural events, with mourning activities including drumming and dancing often lasting for days. The Fon believe that part of the person dies and part is reincarnated. Most Fon today live in villages and small towns in mud houses with corrugated iron gable roofs. Cities built by the Fon include Abomey, the historical capital city of Dahomey, and Ouidah on the Slave Coast. These cities were major commercial centers for the slave trade. The Kingdom of Dahomey was an important regional power that had an organized domestic economy, significant international trade with European powers, a centralized administration, significant taxation systems, and an organized military. Notable in the kingdom were significant artwork, all-female military units known as the Dahomey Amazons, and elaborate religious practices of Vodun with the large festival of the Annual Customs of Dahomey. The Kingdom of Dahomey serves as the context for a number of works of fiction dealing with West African ideas and the slave trade. While many Fon identify as Christian, the majority practice Benin's national religion Vodun. The Fon name for a god or spirit is "Vodu". Practice can involve drumming to induce possession by one of these gods or spirits. Fon religion is polytheistic, with a supreme (but not omnipotent) deity known as Nana Buluku.

Fon in Art Much of the art work revolved around the royalty. Each of the palaces at the Royal Palaces of Abomey contained elaborate basreliefs (noundid/ in Fon) providing a record of the king's accomplishments. Each king had his own palace within the palace complex and within the outer walls of their personal palace was a series of clay reliefs designed specific to that king. These were not solely designed for royalty and chiefs, temples, and other important buildings had similar reliefs. The reliefs would present Dahomey kings often in
Zoomorphic representation of Bhanzin as a shark. Figure 33.14 Homme-Requin Dahomey

military battles against the Oyo or Mahi tribes to the north of Dahomey with their opponents depicted in various negative depictions (the king of Oyo is depicted in one as a baboon eating a cob of corn). Historical themes dominated representation and characters were basically designed and often assembled on top of

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each other or in close proximity creating an ensemble effect. In addition to the royal depictions in the reliefs, royal members were depicted in power sculptures known as bocio which incorporated mixed materials (including metal, wood, beads, cloth, fur, feathers, and bone) onto a base forming a standing figure. The bocio are religiously designed to include different forces together to unlock powerful forces. In addition, the cloth appliqu of Dahomey depicted royalty often in similar zoomorphic representation (Figure 33.14) and dealt with matters similar to the reliefs, often the kings leading during warfare. A distinctive tradition was the casting of small brass figures of animals or people which were worn as jewelry or displayed in the homes of the relatively well-off. These figures, which continue to be made for the tourist trade, were relatively unusual in traditional African art in having no religious aspect, being purely decorative, as well as indicative of some wealth. Also unusual, by being so early and clear of provenance is a carved wooden tray (not dissimilar to much more recent examples) in Ulm, Germany, which was brought to Europe before 1659, when it was described in a printed catalogue. Fon Influence in the New World Many descendants of the Fon now live in the Americas as a result of the Atlantic slave trade. Together with other cultural groups from the Fon homeland region such as the Yoruba and Bantu, Fon

culture merged with French, Portuguese or Spanish to produce distinct religions (Voodoo, Mami Wata, Candombl and Santera), dance and musical styles (Arar, Yan Valu).
Source: https://www.boundless.com/art-history/africa-in-themodern-period/the-1800s/fon/ CC-BY-SA Boundless is an openly licensed educational resource

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Kongo
Kongo art can be known for their "nail fetishes" because users often hammered nails into the sculptures.
KEY POINTS

Luanda, Angola. They are primarily defined by the speaking of Kikongo, a common language. Before the early twentieth century, there was no single name in Africa for the group; in the earliest documented ethnonyms of the seventeenth century, those residing in the Kingdom of Kongo called themselves Esikongo (singular Mwisikongo); those in the Kingdom of Loango called themselves Bavili (singular Muvili), and in other parts of the Kikongo-speaking world they had different names as well. Late nineteenth century missionaries sometimes applied the term Bafiote (singular M(a)fiote) to the group, though it is unclear whether the term was ever used by local people to describe their own identity. Since the early twentieth century, Bakongo (singular MKongo or Mukongo) as an ethnonym for all members of the Kikongo-speaking community has gained popularity. The group is identified largely by speaking a cluster of mutually intelligible dialects rather than by large continuities in their history or even in culture. The term Congo was more widely deployed to identify Kikongo-speaking people enslaved in the Americas. Nail Fetishes in Kongo Art

Nkondi (plural minkondi, zinkondi or nkondi with miconcords, according to dialect) religious objects, frequently called "nail fetishes" because users often hammered nails into them, made by the Kongo people of West Central Africa. Nkondi are a subclass of minkisi that are considered aggressive. Nkondi, like other minkisi, are constructed by religious specialists, called nganga (plural nganga, also zinganga and banganga according to dialect). Human figures ranged in size from small to life-size, and contained bilongo (singular longo often translated as "medicine"), usually hidden by resin-fixed mirrors. Nkondi in the form of wooden figures were often carved with open cavities in their bodies for these substances.

Background The Bakongo, or the Kongo people (Kongo: hunters), also referred to as the Congolese, are a Bantu ethnic group who live along the Atlantic coast of Africa from Pointe-Noire (Congo Brazzaville) to

Nkondi (plural minkondi, zinkondi or nkondi with mi-concords, according to dialect) religious objects (Figure 33.15), frequently called "nail fetishes" because users often hammered nails into them, were made by the Kongo people of West Central Africa.

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Nkondi are a subclass of minkisi that are considered aggressive. The name nkondi derives from the verb -konda, meaning "to hunt" and thus nkondi means "hunter" because they can hunt down and attack wrong-doers or witches, or in some cases, also enemies. Construction Nkondi, like other minkisi, are constructed by religious specialists, called nganga (plural nganga, also zinganga and banganga according to dialect). The nganga gathers materials, called nlongo (plural bilongo, milongo, or concord with mi-), which when assembled, will become the home of a spirit. Often these materials include a carved human figure into which the other bilongo are placed. The nganga then either becomes possessed with the spirit or places the finished nkondi in a graveyard or other place where spirits frequent. Once it is
Because they are aggressive, many nkondi with human gures are carved with their hands raised, sometimes bearing weapons. Figure 33.15 Nail Fetishes

charged, the nkondi can then be handed over to the client. According to Kongo testimony of the early twentieth century, people drive nails into the figures as part of a petition for help, healing, or witness-particularly of contracts and pledges. The purpose of the nailing is to "awaken" and sometimes to "enrage" the nkisi to the task in hand. Nkondi figures could be made in many forms, including pots or other containers, which were described and sometimes illustrated in early twentieth century Kikongo texts, but those that used human images (kiteke) were most often nailed, and thus attracted collectors' attention and thus are better known today. Human figures ranged in size from small to life-size, and contained bilongo (singular longo often translated as "medicine"), usually hidden by resin-fixed mirrors. Nkondi in the form of wooden figures were often carved with open cavities in their bodies for these substances. The most common place for storage was the belly, though such packs are also frequently placed on the head or in pouches surrounding the neck.
Source: https://www.boundless.com/art-history/africa-in-themodern-period/the-1800s/kongo/ CC-BY-SA Boundless is an openly licensed educational resource

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Dogon
Dogon art is primarily sculpture that revolves around religious values, ideals, and freedoms.
KEY POINTS

made to be seen publicly, and are commonly hidden from the public eye within the houses of families, sanctuaries, or kept with the hogon (a spiritual leader of the Dogon people). The importance of secrecy is due to the symbolic meaning behind the pieces and the process by which they are made. Themes found throughout Dogon sculpture (Figure 33.16) consist of figures with raised arms, superimposed bearded figures, horsemen, stools with caryatids, women with children, figures covering their faces, women grinding pearl millet, women bearing vessels on their heads, donkeys bearing cups, musicians, dogs, quadruped-shaped troughs or benches, figures bending from the waist, mirror-images, apron-wearing figures, and standing figures. Signs of other contacts and origins are evident in Dogon art. The Dogon people were not the first inhabitants of the cliffs of Bandiagara; influence from Tellem art is evident in Dogon art because of its rectilinear designs. Funeral Masquerade Due to the expense, the traditional funeral rituals (or damas) are becoming very rare. They may be performed years after the death. Damas that are still performed today are not usually performed for their original intent, but instead are done as a source of entertainment for tourists interested in the Dogon way of life. The Dogon use this entertainment to make money by charging tourists

Dogon sculptures are not made to be seen publicly, and are commonly hidden from the public eye within the houses of families, sanctuaries, or kept with the hogon (spiritual leader). Due to the expense, their traditional funeral rituals (or damas) are becoming very rare. They may be performed years after the death. The traditional dama consists of a masquerade that essentially leads the souls of the departed to their final resting places through a series of ritual dances and rites. The Sirigie mask is a tall mask that is only used in funerals for the men that were alive during the holding of the Sigui ceremony. The Kanaga masqueraders, at one point, dance and sit next to the bundkamba, which represents the deceased.

Background Dogon art is primarily sculpture. Dogon art revolves around religious values, ideals, and freedoms. Dogon sculptures are not

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for which masks they want to see and for the ritual itself. The traditional dama consists of a masquerade that essentially leads the souls of the departed to their final
Figure 33.16 Dogon Sculpture

deceased's home in the family compound is decorated with ritual elements. Masks used during the yincomoli ceremony include the Yana Gulay mask, the Satimbe mask, the Sirigie mask, and the Kanaga mask. The Yana Gulay masks purpose is to impersonate a Fulani woman and is made from cotton cloth and cowell shells. The Satimbe mask represents the women ancestors who are said to have discovered the purpose of the masks by guiding the spirits of the deceased into the afterlife. The Sirigie mask is a tall mask that is only used in funerals for the men that were alive during the holding of the Sigui ceremony. The Kanaga masqueraders, at one point, dance and sit next to the bundukamba, which represents the deceased. The yingim and the danyim rituals each last a few days. These events are held annually to honor the elders that have died since the last dama. The yingim consists of the sacrifice of cows, or other valuable animals, and large mock battles performed in order to help chase the spirit, known as the nyama, from the deceased body and the village, and towards the path to the afterlife. The danyim then takes place a couple of months later. During the danyim, masqueraders perform dances every morning and evening for up to six days. The masqueraders dance on the deceaseds rooftops, throughout the village, and the area of fields around the village. Until the masqueraders have completed their dances and every

resting places through a series of ritual dances and rites. Dogon damas include the use of many masks, which they wear by securing them in their teeth, and statuettes. Each Dogon village may differ in the designs of the masks used in the dama ritual. Every village may have their own way of performing the dama rituals. The dama consists of an event, known as the halic, immediately after the death of a person and lasts for one day. According to Shawn R. Davis, a particular ritual incorporates the

Dogon wood sculpture, probably an ancestor gure

elements of the yingim and the danyim. During the yincomoli

ceremony, a gourd is smashed over the deceaseds wooden bowl, hoe, and bundukamba (burial blanket), announcing the entrance of the masks used in this ceremony, while the entrance to the

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ritual has been performed, it is said that any misfortune can be blamed on the remaining spirits of the dead.
Source: https://www.boundless.com/art-history/africa-in-themodern-period/the-1800s/dogon/ CC-BY-SA Boundless is an openly licensed educational resource

Baule
Baoul"sculptures are renowned for their renement, form, diversity, and labor they represent.
KEY POINTS

The Baoul (or Baule) are an Akan people and are one of the largest groups in Cte d'Ivoire. They are farmers who live in the eastern side of the Cte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast). The Baoule people are represented by religion, art, festivals, and equal society. Baoul sculptures are renowned for their refinement, their form and diversity, and for the labor they represent. The sculptures are executed in a range of media, including gold, bronze, and ivory. The works include face masks and human figurines. The bonu amuen is a dance performed as a protection from threats and is performed at the commemoration of the deaths of notable persons. The Baoul wear a wooden helmet that represents a buffalo.

Background The Baoul (or Baule) are an Akan people, and are one of the largest groups in Cte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast). The Baoul are farmers; they are distinguished by their religion, art, festivals, and their equal

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society. There are more than sixty-five different Akan-speaking subgroups. They live essentially in the middle of Cote d'Ivoire between the Como River and the Bandama River. One of the favorite Baoul pastimes is the game Att, which is similar to the North American version of marbles. The Baoul use nuts as playing pieces, rather than marbles. An odd number of nuts are placed in a circular pattern in the central space between two opposing teams. The two teams, placed roughly 30 meters apart, take turns throwing nuts at the circle of nuts. Once a nut has been hit, it is eliminated, and the team that hit the respective nut gains a point. The game ends when all the nuts have been eliminated; the team with the most nuts at the end of the game wins. Baule Art The Baoul people are talented artists. Their sculptures are renowned for their refinement, their form and diversity, and for the labor they represent. The sculptures are executed in a range of
Masque baoul de Cte d'Ivoire. Figure 33.17 Baule Mask

media, including gold, bronze, and ivory. The works include face masks and human figurines (Figure 33.17). Bonu Amuen Dance The bonu amuen is a dance performed as a protection from threats; it is performed at the commemoration of the deaths of notable persons. For this dance the Baoul wear a wooden helmet that represents a buffalo. They wear suits with raffia and metal bracelets for the ankles. The snout of the costume has teeth.
Source: https://www.boundless.com/art-history/africa-in-themodern-period/the-1800s/baule/ CC-BY-SA Boundless is an openly licensed educational resource

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Section 3

The 1900s

Benin Asante Yoruba Senufo Dogon Mende Kuba Samburu Igbo


https://www.boundless.com/art-history/africa-in-the-modern-period/the-1900s/
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Benin
The Benin Bronzes are a collection of more than 3000 brass plaques from the royal palace of the Kingdom of Benin, located in now Nigeria.

Expedition of 1897 and given to the British Foreign Office. Around 200 of these were then passed on to the British Museum in London, while the remainder was divided among a variety of collections, with the majority being purchased by Felix von Luschan on behalf of the Knigliches Museum fr Vlkerkunde in Berlin (the presentday Ethnological Museum). In 1936, Oba Akenzua II began the movement to return the art now known in modern discourse as the Benin Bronzes. The seizure of Benin art and particularly the Bronzes led to a greater appreciation in Europe for African culture. Bronzes are now believed to have been cast in Benin since the thirteenth century, and some in the collection date from the 15th and 16th centuries. Strangely the creation of bronze plaques is thought to have been revived by the arrival of European traders in Benin. The traders brought brass bracelets known as manillas, which were exchanged for spices, ivory, or slaves. This metal was melted down and used to create the plaques that decorated the palace in Benin. Depictions of Benin Bronzes

KEY POINTS

The Benin Bronzes are a collection of more than 3000 brass plaques from the royal palace of the Kingdom of Benin, located in present day Nigeria. They were seized by a British force in the Punitive Expedition of 1897 and given to the British Foreign Office. The seizure of Benin art and particularly the "Bronzes" led to a greater appreciation in Europe for African culture. Bronzes are now believed to have been cast in Benin since the thirteenth century, and some in the collection date from the 15th and 16th centuries. The Bronzes depict a variety of scenes, including animals, fish, humans and scenes of court life. They were cast in matching pairs (although each was individually made).

Background The Benin Bronzes are a collection of more than 3000 brass plaques from the royal palace of the Kingdom of Benin, located in present day Nigeria. They were seized by a British force in the Punitive

The Bronzes depict a variety of scenes, including animals, fish, humans and scenes of court life. They were cast in matching pairs (although each was individually made). It is thought that they were

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originally nailed to walls and pillars in the palace as decoration, some possibly also offering instructive scenes of protocol. The plaque shown at top right shows the Oba (Figure 33.18) who was the supreme ruler of Benin heading both religious and secular affairs. Two attendants waited on him, which shows his importance. Also in the picture are two Europeans who show the trade that was going on with Benin. The Europeans would have been Portuguese; their hats and long hair show their nationality. Nigeria, which includes the area of the Kingdom of Benin, bought around 50 Bronzes from the British Museum between the 1950s and 1970s, and has parallels that of the Elgin Marbles.
Source: https://www.boundless.com/art-history/africa-in-themodern-period/the-1900s/benin/ CC-BY-SA Boundless is an openly licensed educational resource
The Oba of Benin with attendants and Europeans. Figure 33.18 Benin Brass Plaque

Asante
Asante art is a subgroup of the Akan people and are known for their strong connection between visual and verbal expressions.
KEY POINTS

Akan art is an art form that originated among the Akan people of West Africa. Akan art is known for Akan goldweights, as well as cultural jewelry. The Akan people are known for their strong connection between visual and verbal expressions. The main cloth of the Ashanti was the kente cloth, known locally as nwentoma. Clothing production was typically gender specialized. The Golden Stool is the royal and divine throne of the Ashanti people. According to legend, Okomfo Anokye, High Priest and one of the two chief founders of the Asante Confederacy, caused the stool to descend from the heavens and land on the lap of the first Asante king, Osei Tutu. The Golden Stool is a curved seat 46 cm high with a platform 61 cm wide and 30 cm deep. Its entire surface is inlaid with gold, and hung with bells to warn the king of impending danger.

repeatedly called for the return of the remainder, in a case which

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Background Akan political organization centered on clans headed by a paramount chief or Amanhene. One such clan, the Oyoko, settled in Akanland's sub-tropical forest region and established a center at Kumasi. The Ashanti became tributaries of another Akan state, Denkyira; but in the mid-17th century the Oyoko, under Chief Oti Akenten started consolidating the Ashanti clans into a loose confederation against the Denkyira. Akan Art Akan art is an art form that originated from the Akan people of West Africa. Akan art is known for Akan goldweights, as well as cultural jewelry. The Akan people are known for their strong connection between visual and verbal expressions. Akan culture values gold above all other metals, so the artwork and jewelry made of gold is of great worth to them, whether it be made for appearance, artistic expression, or more practical trading purposes. Clothing The main cloth of the Ashanti was the kente cloth (Figure 33.19), known locally as nwentoma. Clothing production was typically gender specialized. The Covering of the State, is made of camel's hair and wool. An ornamental figurine, plated with gold or silver, topped all ceremonial umbrellas.

The Golden Stool The Golden Stool (Asante: Sika 'dwa) is the royal and divine throne of the Ashanti people. According to legend, Okomfo Anokye, High Priest and one of the two chief founders of the Asante Confederacy, caused the stool to descend from the heavens and land on the lap of the first Asante king, Osei Tutu. Such seats were traditionally symbolic of a chieftain's leadership, but the Golden Stool is believed to house the spirit of the Asante nationliving, dead and yet to be born. Each stool is understood to be the seat of the owner's soul and when not in use is propped against a wall so that other souls passing by may relax on it. The royal throne must never touch the ground; as such it is placed on a blanket. During inauguration, a new king is raised and lowered over the stool without Asantehene himself is allowed to handle it.
Figure 33.19 Kent Wove

Kente weaving is a traditional craft among the Ashanti people of Ghana. A kente cloths is sewn together from many narrow (about 10 centimetres (3.9 in) wide) kente stripes. This image shows di!erent patterns of typical Ashanti Kente stripes.

touching it. A throne is carried to the king on a pillow, as only the

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Appearance and Craftsmanship The Golden Stool is a curved seat 46 cm high with a platform 61 cm wide and 30 cm deep. Its entire surface is inlaid with gold, and hung with bells to warn the king of impending danger. Many have not seen it and only the king, queen, true prince Ofosu Sefa Boakye, and trusted advisers know the hiding place. Replicas have been produced for the chiefs and at their funerals are ceremonially blackened with animal blood, a symbol of their power for generations. The stool is one of the focal points of the Asante tradition today because it still shows succession and power. Each stool is made from a single block of wood and carved with crescent-shaped seats, flat bases and complex support structure. The many designs and symbolic meanings signify that every stool is unique; each has a different meaning for the person whose soul it seats. Some designs contain animal shapes or images that recall the person who used it. The general shape of Asantes stools has been copied by other cultures and sold worldwide
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Yoruba
Over the years, many Yoruban artists have come to merge foreign ideas of artistry and contemporary art with the traditional art forms found in West Africa.
KEY POINTS

The transAfrican style was manifest in Donaldsons individual work as well, as is demonstrated in the 1971 piece entitled Victory in the Valley of Eshu. The work depicts an elderly black couple holding what appears to be an eyeshaped pinwheel. The work is filled with Yoruba and traditional African references, including the Yoruba Sango dance wand in the right hand of the man, references to deified ancestors (a Yoruba belief), the name Esu, which is the Yoruba god of fate, and others. The notion of shine is conveyed through the collection of small dots of color in the figures hair and surrounding their bodies. Additionally, the afros of the couple seem to mimic halos.

Background Over the years, many have come to merge foreign ideas of artistry and contemporary art with the traditional art forms found in West

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Africa (Figure 33.20). The traditional art forms among the Yoruba include but are not limited to: beading, braiding, tattooing, clay molding and ceramic work, bronze casting, weaving and dyeing, sculpting, etc. There is also a vibrant form of customary theatre known as Alarinjo that has its roots in the medieval period and that has given much to the contemporary Nigerian film industry.

Figure 33.20 Yoruba Art

references, including the Yoruba Sango dance wand in the right hand of the man, references to deified ancestors (a Yoruba belief), the name Esu, which is the Yoruba god of fate, and others. The newly prominent element of shine, an aesthetic effect mimicking or displaying physical shine in order to reflect the bright, star-like quality of ordinary African Americans, is visible in this piece. This effect achieves the celebration aspect of black art: an art that, as stated by Donaldson, defines, glorifies, and directs black peoplean art for the peoples sake. The notion of shine is conveyed through the collection of small dots

Europeans in Africa; wood, paint; Yoruba people, West Nigeria; 1st half of 20th century.

of color in the figures hair and surrounding their bodies. Additionally, the afros of the couple seem to mimic halos. These elements, in combination with the couples bright white clothing, complete the celebration of the ordinary in this African diasporic work. The little splotches and dots of color seem to emanate from the bodies and to dance their way around the edges of the portrait, conveying that notion of a rhythmic motion, which was integral in transAfrican work.
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The TransAfrican Style in Yoruba Art The transAfrican style was manifest in Donaldsons individual work as well, as is demonstrated in the 1971 piece entitled Victory in the Valley of Eshu. The work depicts an elderly black couple holding what appears to be an eye-shaped pinwheel. The pinwheel is actually an African American symbol of freedom, the six-legged star. In addition to displaying national diasporic symbols, Victory in the Valley of Eshu incorporates many elements of traditional African culture, paying homage to the common heritage of diaspora members. The work is filled with Yoruba and traditional African

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Senufo
Much of the Senufos sculpted art work is made in the poro, or school.
KEY POINTS

ancestor spirits are responsible for all events that occur, and if they are not appeased through proper ritual they may cause drought, infertility, and illness. The Senufo are known as excellent farmers, and are mainly a farming society. They live by a strict caste system, where the farmer is top and the musicians are at the bottom, everyone else filling in between. One of the highest possible honors given in the Senefou culture is the sambali (champion cultivator), who is respected throughout the region and in his old age is typically given a strong leadership role. Even for those who do not belong to the farmer caste, farming is
They are expert mask makers, but since farming is the highest profession possible, artists and musicians are low in the caste system (musicians are bottom). Figure 33.21 Senufo Mask

Brass sculptures, woodcarvings, and masks are mostly made there, and sold to local artisans. They are expert mask makers, but since farming is the highest profession possible, artists and musicians are low in the caste system (musicians are bottom). The Poro has its special ritual and language, tattooing and symbols, but details are scarce, due to an oath of secrecy. It meets usually in the dry season, between the months of October and May. There are three grades, the first for chiefs and big men, the second for fetish-priests and the third for the crowd. The ceremonies of the Purrah are presided over by the Poro devil, a man in fetish dress, who addresses the meeting through a long tube of wood.

Background The Senufo people (Figure 33.22) inhabit northern Ivory Coast and Mali. The Senufo are made up of a number of different groups who migrated south to Mali and the Ivory Coast in the 15th and 16th centuries. They are a very animistic society; they believe that the

huge in the Senefou culture. The society is very community centered; people often take turns working each others lands, trading off and on. There is usually a group in each village made up of men from ages 15 to 35, who are in charge of working in the fields and providing a huge festival during the dry season. To make

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farming and chores fun, local games to see how fast a man can hoe a field are held. Another society for men is the poro, or school for young men, usually located in the forest. For Senefou women, the greatest ability is the ability to cook well; if a woman or girl cannot, it is a shame to the family. The womens society, sandogo, is responsible mainly for
Figure 33.22 Senufo Languages

phrase may also refer to the finished product, from individual sculptures, to hand-worked moldings composing part of a tracery. The Poro has its special ritual and language, tattooing and symbols, but details are scarce, due to an oath of secrecy. It meets usually in the dry season, between the months of October and May. The rendezvous is in the bush, at an enclosure, separated into apartments by mats and roofed only by the overhanging trees, serving as a clubhouse. There are three grades, the first for chiefs and big men, the second for fetish-priests and the third for the crowd. The ceremonies of the Purrah are presided over by the Poro devil, a man in fetish dress, who addresses the meeting through a long tube of wood.
Source: https://www.boundless.com/art-history/africa-in-themodern-period/the-1900s/senufo/ CC-BY-SA Boundless is an openly licensed educational resource

divination. Senufo Art Much of the Senufos sculpted work is made in the poro, or school. Brass sculptures, woodcarvings, and masks are mostly made there, and sold to local artisans. They are expert mask makers (Figure 33.21), but

Map of the Senufo language area showing the major groups and some neighboring languages.

since farming is the highest profession possible, artists and musicians are low in the caste

system (musicians are bottom). Woodcarving is a form of working wood by means of a cutting tool (knife) in one hand or a chisel by two hands or with one hand on a chisel and one hand on a mallet, resulting in a wooden figure or figurine, or in the sculptural ornamentation of a wooden object. The

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Dogon
Dogon art revolves around religious values, ideals, and freedoms.
KEY POINTS

made to be seen publicly, and are commonly hidden from the public eye within the houses of families, sanctuaries, or kept with the hogon (a spiritual leader of the Dogon people). The importance of secrecy is due to the symbolic meaning behind the pieces and the process by which they are made. Themes found throughout Dogon sculpture consist of figures with raised arms, superimposed bearded figures, horsemen, stools with caryatids, women with children, figures covering their faces, women grinding pearl millet, women bearing vessels on their heads, donkeys bearing cups, musicians, dogs, quadruped-shaped troughs or benches, figures bending from the waist, mirror-images, aproned figures, and standing figures. Signs of other contacts and origins are evident in Dogon art. The Dogon people (Figure 33.23) were not the first inhabitants of the cliffs of Bandiagara. Influence from Tellem art is evident in Dogon art because of its rectilinear designs. Funeral Masquerade Due to the expense, the traditional funeral rituals (or damas) are becoming very rare. They may be performed years after the death. Damas that are still performed today are not usually performed for their original intent, but instead are done as a source of entertainment for tourists interested in the Dogon way of life. The Dogon use this entertainment to make money by charging tourists for which masks they want to see and for the ritual itself. The

Dogon sculptures are not made to be seen publicly, and are commonly hidden from the public eye within the houses of families, sanctuaries, or kept with the Hogon. The importance of secrecy is due to the symbolic meaning behind the pieces and the process by which they are made. The Dogon people were not the first inhabitants of the cliffs of Bandiagara; influence from Tellem art is evident in Dogon art because of its rectilinear designs. Due to the expense, their traditional funeral rituals or damas are becoming very rare. They may be performed years after the death. The Yana Gulay masks purpose is to impersonate a Fulani woman and is made from cotton cloth and cowell shells. The Satimbe mask represents the women ancestors who are said to have discovered the purpose of the masks by guiding the spirits of the deceased into the afterlife.

Background Dogon art is primarily sculpture. Dogon art revolves around religious values, ideals, and freedoms. Dogon sculptures are not

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traditional dama consists of a masquerade that essentially leads the souls of the departed to their final resting places through a series of ritual dances and rites. Dogon damas include the use of many masks, which they wear by securing

Figure 33.23 Dogon People in Mali The Dogon are an ethnic group living in the central plateau region of the country of Mali, in the West of the Continent of Africa, south of the Niger bend, near the city of Bandiagara, in the Mopti region.

deceased's home in the family compound is decorated with ritual elements. Masks used during the yincomoli ceremony include the Yana Gulay mask, the Satimbe mask, the Sirigie mask, and the Kanaga mask. The Yana Gulay masks purpose is to impersonate a Fulani woman and is made from cotton cloth and cowell shells. The Satimbe mask represents the women ancestors who are said to have discovered the purpose of the masks by guiding the spirits of the deceased into the afterlife. The Sirigie mask is a tall mask that is only used in funerals for the men that were alive during the holding of the Sigui ceremony. The Kanaga masqueraders, at one point, dance and sit next to the bundukamba, which represents the deceased. The yingim and the danyim rituals each last a few days. These events are held annually to honor the elders that have died since the last dama. The yingim consists of the sacrifice of cows, or other valuable animals, and large mock battles performed in order to help chase the spirit, known as the nyama, from the deceased body and the village, and towards the path to the afterlife. The danyim then takes place a couple of months later. During the danyim, masqueraders perform dances every morning and evening for up to six days. The masqueraders dance on the deceaseds rooftops, throughout the village, and the area of fields around the village. Until the masqueraders have completed their dances and every

them in their teeth, and statuettes. Each Dogon village may differ in the designs of the masks used in the dama ritual. Every village may have their own way of performing the dama rituals. The dama consists of an event, known as the halic, immediately after the death of a person and lasts for one day. According to Shawn R. Davis, a particular ritual incorporates the elements of the yingim and the danyim. During the yincomoli ceremony, a gourd is smashed over the deceaseds wooden bowl, hoe, and bundukamba (burial blanket), announcing the entrance of the masks used in this ceremony, while the entrance to the

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ritual has been performed, it is said that any misfortune can be blamed on the remaining spirits of the dead.
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Mende
Much of Mand art is in the form of jewelry and carvings.
KEY POINTS

The masks associated with the fraternal and sorority associations of the Marka and the Mend are probably the best known, and finely crafted in the region. The Mand also produce beautifully woven fabrics, which are popular throughout western Africa, and gold and silver necklaces, bracelets, armlets, and earrings. Masks are the collective Mind of Mende community; viewed as one body, they are the Spirit of the Mende people. The features of a Mende mask convey Mende ideals of female morality and physical beauty. They are unusual because women wear the masks. Learning dance is a harsh discipline that every Mende girl must tackle. Girls practice for hours at a time until they drop from exhaustion.

Background Much Mand art is in the form of jewelry and carvings. The masks associated with the fraternal and sorority associations of the Marka and the Mend are probably the best known, and finely crafted in

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the region. The Mand also produce beautifully woven fabrics, which are popular throughout western Africa, and gold and silver necklaces, bracelets, armlets, and earrings. The bells on the necklaces are of the type believed capable of being heard by spirits, ringing in both worlds, that of the ancestors and the living. Mand hunters often wear a single bell that can be easily silenced when stealth is necessary. Women, on the other hand,
Helmet masks of the Mende, Vai, Gola, Bassa and other peoples of the sub-region are the best documented instance of womens masking in Africa. These masks are used by the Sande association, a powerful organization with social, political and religious signicance. Although worn only by women, these masks, as is the case elsewhere in Africa, are carved by men. Figure 33.24 Helmet Mende Mask

often wear multiple bells, referring to concepts of community, since the bells ring harmoniously together. Mende masks Masks are the collective Mind of Mende community; viewed as one body, they are the Spirit of the Mende people (Figure 33.24). The Mende masked figures are a reminder that human beings have a dual existence; they live in the concrete world of flesh and material things and the spirit world of dreams, faith, aspirations and imagination. The features of a Mende mask convey Mende ideals of female morality and physical beauty. They are unusual because women wear the masks. The bird on top of the head represents a woman's natural intuition that lets her see and know things those others can't. The high or broad forehead represents good luck or the sharp, contemplative mind of the ideal Mende woman. Downcast eyes symbolize a spiritual nature and it is through these small slits that a woman wearing the mask would look out of. The small mouth signifies the ideal woman's quiet and humble character. The markings on the cheeks are representative of the decorative scars girls receive as they step into womanhood. The scars are a symbol of her new, harder life. The neck rolls are an indication of the health of ideal women. They have also been called symbols of the pattern of concentric, circular ripples the Mende spirit makes when emerging

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from the water. In the Mende culture full-figured women are beautiful. The intricate hairstyles reveal the close ties within a community of women. The holes at the base of the mask are where the rest of the costume is attached. A woman who wears these masks must not expose any part of her body or a vengeful spirit may take possession of her. Women often cover their bodies with masses of raffia or black cloth. When a girl becomes initiated into the Sande society, the village's master woodcarver creates a special mask just for her. Helmet masks are made from a section of tree trunk, often of the kpole (cotton) tree, and then carved and hollowed to fit over the wearers head and face. The woodcarver must wait until he has a dream that guides him to make the mask a certain way for the recipient. A mask must be kept hidden in a secret place when no one is wearing it. These masks appear not only in initiation rituals but also at important events such as funerals, arbitrations and the installation of chiefs. Examples of these masks appear in museums. Dancing Learning dance is a harsh discipline that every Mende girl must tackle. Girls practice for hours at a time until they drop from exhaustion. Ndoli jowei, the expert in dancing, is in charge of teaching young Mende girls to dance. When girls make a mistake in

the steps, they are whipped with a switch until they get it right. Often girls are awoken in the middle of the night to practice the dance; sometimes they are forced to stay awake for nearly 48 hours dancing almost the entire time. By the end of their brutal training, the girls have transformed into young woman who are tough and confident even in the harshest of conditions. They are in great physical shape and have endurance and stamina.
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Kuba
Kuba have"been described as a people who cannot bear to leave a surface without ornament.
KEY POINTS

approximately 1625, an individual from outside the area known as Shyaam a-Mbul a Ngoong usurped the position of one of the area rulers and united all the chiefdoms under his leadership. Tradition states that Shyaam a-Mbul was the adopted son of a Kuba queen. He left the Kuba region to find enlightenment in the Pende and Kongo kingdoms to the west. After learning all he could from these states, he returned to Kuba to form the empire's political, social and economic foundations. The Kuba Kingdom reached its apex during the mid 19th century. Europeans first reached the area in 1884. Because of the kingdom's relative isolation, it was not as affected by the slave trade as were the Kongo and Ndongo kingdoms on the coast. Toward the end of the 19th century, the kingdom was invaded by the Nsapo people. The weakened Kingdom never recovered, and it was fragmented into chiefdoms once again by the time the area became a Belgian colony. The current reigning monarch, Kot-a-Mbweeky III, has been on the throne since 1969. Kuba Art The Kuba are known for their raffia embroidered textiles, fiber and

Toward the end of the 19th century, the kingdom was invaded by the Nsapo people. The weakened Kingdom never recovered, and it was fragmented into chiefdoms once again by the time the area became a Belgian colony. The current reigning monarch, Kot-a-Mbweeky III, has been on the throne since 1969. The Kuba are known for their raffia embroidered textiles, fiber and beaded hats, carved palm wine cups and cosmetic boxes, but they are most famous for their monumental helmet masks, featuring exquisite geometric patterns, stunning fabrics, seeds, beads and shells. The African art collection covers 2,500 years of human history and includes sculpture, jewelry, masks, and religious artifacts. This collection include a carved ndop figure of a Kuba king, believed to be among the oldest extant ndop carvings, and a Lulua mother-and-child.

Background The kingdom began as a conglomeration of several chiefdoms of various ethnic groups with no real central authority. In

beaded hats, carved palm wine cups and cosmetic boxes, but they are most famous for their monumental helmet masks, featuring exquisite geometric patterns, stunning fabrics, seeds, beads and

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shells. They have been described as a people who cannot bear to leave a surface without ornament. Boxes, known as Kuba Boxes and called ngedi mu ntey by the Kuba, are generally used to hold tukula powder and paste. The boxes are usually in the shape of a square with a faceted lid, a semicircle (sometimes referred to as "half moon"), a rectangle or the shape of a mask. Sometimes they were used for holding razors for cutting raffia, hairpins or ritual objects. Tukula (called twool by the Kuba) is a red powder made of ground cam wood. The color red is essential to the Kuba concept of beauty and was therefore used to ornament the face, hair and chest during dances and
A carved ndop gure of a Kuba king, believed to be among the oldest extant ndop carvings. Figure 33.25 Bushoong Kuba Ndop Portrait

After 1700, King Misha mi-Shyaang a-Mbul introduced wooden sculptures called ndop figures that were carved to resemble the king and represent his individual reign. These figures always included the king's ibol or personal symbol, akin to a personal standard. The carved palm-wine drinking cups and ornately carved boxes are identified with competition between titled court members among the Kuba. With half of all Bushoong men holding titles in the 1880s, competition for influence was sometimes fierce, and it found expression in the elaboration of these essentially commonplace household objects into works of extraordinary beauty. The African art collection covers 2,500 years of human history and includes sculpture, jewelry, masks, and religious artifacts from more than one hundred African cultures. Noteworthy items in this collection include a carved ndop figure of a Kuba king (Figure 33. 25), believed to be among the oldest extant ndop carvings, and a Lulua mother-and-child.
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important ceremonies, as well as to anoint bodies for burial. Tukula was also mixed with other pigments to dye raffia cloth.

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Samburu
Clothing and body ornaments are part of "Samburu artistic tradition.
KEY POINTS

Background The Samburu are a Nilotic people of north-central Kenya that are related to but distinct from the Maasai. The Samburu are seminomadic pastoralists who herd mainly cattle but also keep sheep, goats and camels. The name they use for themselves is Lokop or Loikop, terms that may have a variety of meanings which Samburu themselves do not agree on. Many assert that it refers to them as "owners of the land" ("lo" refers to ownership, "nkop" is land) though others present a very different interpretation of the term. The Samburu speak Samburu, which is a Nilo-Saharan language. There are many game parks in the area; one of the most well known is Samburu National Reserve.
Samburu warriors near Lake Turkana, Kenya. Figure 33.26 Samburu Warriors, August 1999.

The Samburu speak Samburu, which is a Nilo-Saharan language. There are many game parks in the area; one of the most well known is Samburu National Reserve. They adorn themselves with necklaces, bracelets and anklets, like the Maasai. Members of the moran age grade (i.e. "warriors") typically wear their hair in long braids, which they shave off when they become elders. It may be colored using red ochre. Some men may wear the 1980s-90s style of red tartan cloth or they may wear a dark green/blue plaid cloth around their waists called 'kikoi', often with shorts underneath. Marani (warriors) wear a cloth that may be floral or pastel. Women keep their hair shaved and wear numerous necklaces and bracelets. In the past decade, traditional clothing styles have changed. As Western style education has increased, and interaction with non-Samburu has become increasingly common, wearing pants no longer bears the same stigma, although clothing deemed traditional by Samburu is still the norm, and is expected to be worn in many everyday and ceremonial contexts.

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Art in Clothing They adorn themselves with necklaces, bracelets and anklets, like the Maasai. Members of the moran age grade (i.e. "warriors") typically wear their hair in long braids, which they shave off when they become elders. It may be colored using red ochre. Their bodies are sometimes decorated with ochre, as well. Women wear two pieces of blue or purple cloth, one piece wrapped around the waist, the second wrapped over the chest (Figure 33.26). Women keep their hair shaved and wear numerous necklaces and bracelets. In the past decade, traditional clothing styles have changed. Some men may wear the 1980s-90s style of red tartan cloth or they may wear a dark green/blue plaid cloth around their waists called 'kikoi', often with shorts underneath. Marani (warriors) wear a cloth that may be floral or pastel. Some women still wear two pieces of blue or red cloth, but it has become fashionable to wear cloths with animal or floral patterns in deep colors. Women may also often wear small tank tops with their cloths, and plaid skirts have also become common. As Europeans introduced Western style clothing, it was initially shunned by Samburu. As recently as the 1990s, wearing pants was considered by most to be a rather unmanly abandonment of cultural traditions, which would be done only when travel outside of home areas or some official business (e.g. with government offices) made

it appropriate. However, as Western style education has increased, and interaction with non-Samburu has become increasingly common, it no longer bears the same stigma, although clothing deemed traditional by Samburu is still the norm, and is expected to be worn in many everyday and ceremonial contexts.
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Igbo
Customs and traditions include the Igbo people's visual art, music and dance forms, as well as their attire, cuisine and language dialects.

KEY POINTS (cont.)

Igbo art is generally known for various types of masquerade, masks and outfits symbolizing people animals or abstract conceptions.

KEY POINTS

Background Igbo culture includes the various customs, practices and traditions of the Igbo people. It comprises archaic practices as well as new traditions introduced to the Igbo culture either through evolution or outside influences. These customs and traditions include the Igbo people's visual art, music and dance forms, as well as their attire, cuisine and language dialects. Because of their various subgroups, the variety of their culture is further heightened. Language and literature Things Fall Apart, written by by Chinua Achebe, is perhaps the most popular and renowned novel that deals with the Igbo and their traditional life. The Igbo language was used by John Goldsmith as an example to justify deviating from the classical linear model of phonology as laid out in The Sound Pattern of English. It is written in the Roman script as well as the Nsibidi formalized ideograms, which is used by the Ekpe society and Okonko fraternity, but is no longer widely used. Nsibidi ideography existed among the Igbo

Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe is the most popular and renowned novel that deals with the Igbo and their traditional life. The Igbo language was used by John Goldsmith as an example to justify deviating from the classical linear model of phonology as laid out in The Sound Pattern of English. In 1939, Dr. Ida C. Ward led a research expedition on Igbo dialects that could possibly be used as a basis of a standard Igbo dialect, also known as Central Igbo. This dialect included that of the Owerri and Umuahia groups, including the Ohuhu dialect. The Igbo people have a musical style into which they incorporate various percussion instruments: the udu, which is essentially designed from a clay jug; an ekwe, which is formed from a hollowed log; and the ogene, a hand bell designed from forged iron. Masking is one of the most common art styles in Igboland and is linked strongly with Igbo traditional music. A mask can be made of wood or fabric, along with other materials including iron and vegetation.

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before the 16th century, but died out after it became popular among secret societies, who made Nsibidi a secret form of communication. Igbo is a tonal language and there are hundreds of different Igbo dialects and Igboid languages such as the Ikwerre and Ekpeye languages. In 1939, Dr. Ida C. Ward led a research expedition on Igbo dialects that could possibly be used as a basis of a standard Igbo dialect, also known as Central Igbo. This dialect included that of the Owerri and Umuahia groups, including the Ohuhu dialect. Missionaries, writers and publishers gradually accepted the dialect. Performing arts The Igbo people have a musical style into which they incorporate various percussion instruments: the udu, which is essentially designed from a clay jug; an ekwe, which is formed from a hollowed log; and the ogene, a
Igbo Wooden Complex, currently in the British Museum. Figure 33.27 Igbo Wooden Complex

hand bell designed from forged iron. Other instruments include opi, a wind instrument similar to the flute, igba, and ichaka. Another popular musical form among the Igbo is Highlife. A widely popular musical genre in West Africa, Highlife is a fusion of jazz and traditional music. The modern Igbo Highlife is seen in the works of Dr. Sir Warrior, Oliver De Coque, Bright Chimezie, and Chief Osita Osadebe, who were among the most popular Igbo Highlife musicians of the 20th century. Masking is one of the most common art styles in Igboland and is linked strongly with Igbo traditional music. A mask can be made of wood or fabric, along with other materials, including iron and vegetation. Masks have a wide variety of uses, mainly in social satires, religious rituals, secret society initiations (such as the Ekpe society) and public festivals, which now include Christmas time celebrations. Best known are the Agbogho Mmuo (Igbo: Maiden spirit) masks of the Northern Igbo, which represent the spirits of deceased maidens and their mothers with masks, symbolizing beauty. Visual Art and Architecture It is almost impossible to describe a general Igbo art style because the Igbos are heavily fragmented. This has added to the development of a great variety of art styles and cultural practices. Igbo art is generally known for various types of masquerades, masks

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and outfits symbolizing people, animals or abstract conceptions (Figure 33.27). Bronze castings found in the town of Igbo Ukwu from the 9th century, constitute the earliest sculptures discovered in Igboland. Here, the grave of a well-established man of distinction and a ritual store, dating from the 9th
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Section 4

Contemporary Art

Contemporary African Art

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Contemporary African Art


Africa is home to a great and thriving contemporary arts culture.
KEY POINTS

artists include El Anatsui, Marlene Dumas, William Kentridge, Karel Nel, Kendell Geers, Yinka Shonibare, Zerihun Yetmgeta, Odhiambo Siangla, Olu Oguibe, Lubaina Himid, Bili Bidjocka, and Henry Tayali. Art biennials are held in Dakar, Senegal, and Johannesburg, South Africa. Many contemporary African artists are represented in museum collections, and their art may sell for high prices at art auctions. Despite this, many contemporary African artists tend to have difficult times finding a market for their work. Many contemporary African arts borrow heavily from traditional predecessors. Ironically, this emphasis on abstraction is seen by Westerners as an imitation of European and American cubist and totemic artists, such as Pablo Picasso, Amedeo Modigliani, and Henri Matisse, who, in the early twentieth century, were heavily influenced by traditional African art. This period was critical to the evolution of Western modernism in visual arts, symbolized by Picasso's breakthrough painting "Les Demoiselles d'Avignon" (Figure 33.28).
Figure 33.28 Wood sculpture attributed to Zimbabwean artist Gideon Chidongo, 4th quarter of 20th century. Wood carving has a long history in Zimbabwe.

Many contemporary African artists are represented in museum collections, and their art may sell for high prices at art auctions. Despite this, many contemporary African artists tend to have difficult times finding a market for their work. Many contemporary African arts borrow heavily from traditional predecessors. Ironically, this emphasis on abstraction is seen by Westerners as an imitation of European and American cubist and totemic artists. Contemporary African art was pioneered in the 1950s and 1960s in South Africa by artists like Irma Stern, Cyril Fradan, Walter Battiss, and through galleries like the Goodman Gallery in Johannesburg. A wide range of more-or-less traditional forms of art, or adaptations of traditional style to contemporary taste, are made for sale to tourists and others, including so-called "airport art".

Africa is home to a great and thriving contemporary arts culture. This has been sadly understudied until recently, due to scholars' and art collectors' emphasis on traditional art. Notable modern

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Contemporary African art was pioneered in the 1950s and 1960s in South Africa by artists like Irma Stern, Cyril Fradan, Walter Battiss, and through galleries like the Goodman Gallery in Johannesburg (Figure 33.29). More
Figure 33.29 Gilbert G. Groud, "Childsoldier in the Ivory Coast", 2007, mixed materials: tusche and wax crayon

haunt Contemporary African art. The appointment of Nigerian Okwui Enwezor as artistic director of Documenta 11, and his African-centered vision of art propelled the careers of countless African artists onto the international stage. A wide range of more-or-less traditional forms of art, or adaptations of traditional style to contemporary taste, are made for sale to tourists and others, including so-called "airport art." A number of vigorous popular traditions assimilate Western influences into African styles such as the elaborate fantasy coffins in shapes like airplanes, cars, or animals of West African cities, and the banners of clubs.
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recently European galleries like the October Gallery in London and collectors such as Jean Pigozzi, Artur Walther, and Gianni Baiocchi in Rome have helped expand the interest in the subject. Numerous exhibitions at the Museum for African Art in New York and the African Pavilion at the 2007 Venice Biennale, which showcased the Sindika Dokolo African Collection of Contemporary Art, have gone a long way to countering many of the myths and prejudices that

Groud is active against the military use of children in his homeland Ivory Coast and the world in general. He is working on the preparation of several exhibitions and writes a comic book about the topic to increase awareness on the topic. One of the pictures of the exhibition he has released on creative commons license in the hope that it will be also used in ghting the use of children in the war.

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Chapter 34

Europe and America in the 1700s and Early 1800s

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Section 1

Revolution

A Restructuring of Society: Industrial, Intellectual, and Political

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A Restructuring of Society: Industrial, Intellectual, and Political


Neoclassicism was a revival of the styles and spirit of classic antiquity that coincided with the developments of the Age of Enlightenment.
KEY POINTS

the light of science and reason on the world in order to question traditional ways of thinking. The scientific revolution (based on empirical observation and not on metaphysics or spirituality) gave the impression that the universe behaved according to universal and unchanging laws. This provided a model for looking rationally at human institutions as well as nature. The Enlightenment was a period of profound optimism, a sense that with science and reasonand the consequent shedding of old superstitionshuman beings and human society would improve.

European Neoclassicism in the visual arts began c. 1760 in opposition to the decadence of Baroque and Rococo styles. The austerity and sobriety of Neoclassicism echoed the spirit of the French Revolution. The French painter Nicholas Poussin was a master of the Neoclassical style. Neoclassicism was especially strong in those areas where classical examples were most abundant, such as in architecture and sculpture. Painting, in contrast, had fewer classical antecedents to reference.

The Enlightenment encouraged criticism of the corruption of Louis XVI and the aristocracy in France, leading to the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789. In 1792, Louis XVI and his wife, Marie Antoinette, were beheaded along with thousands of other aristocrats believed to be loyal to the monarchy. During this period, Rococo art was condemned for being immoral and indecent, and a new kind of moral, instructive art was called for: Neoclassicism. In opposition to the frivolous sensuality of Rococo painters like Jean-Honor Fragonard and Franois Boucher, the Neoclassicists looked to the artist Nicolas Poussin for their inspiration (Figure 34.1). Poussin's work predominantly features clarity, logic, and order, plus it favors line over color. His work served as an alternative to the dominant Baroque style of the 17th century. Poussin was the major inspiration for such classically

Toward the middle of the 18th century, a shift in thinking occurred, known as the Enlightenment. The thinkers of the Enlightenment, including Rousseau, Diderot, and Voltaire, influenced by the scientific revolutions of the previous century, believed in shedding

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oriented artists as Jacques-Louis David, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, and Paul Czanne. Neoclassicism is characterized by clarity of form, sober colors, shallow space, and strong horizontals. Its verticals render the subject matter timeless, instead of temporal, as in the dynamic Baroque works, and depicts classical subject matteror classicizes contemporary subject matter. Neoclassicists believed that strong drawing was rational, and therefore morally superior, and that art should be cerebral, not sensual. The Neoclassicists wanted to express rationality and sobriety that was fitting for their times. Artists like David supported the rebels in the French Revolution through an art that asked for clear-headed thinking, self-sacrifice to the State (as in Oath of the Horatii), and an austerity reminiscent of Republican Rome (Figure 34.2).
Poussin came to dene Neoclassical artwork. Figure 34.1 Et in Arcadia Ergo, by Nicholas Poussin, c. 1630s

Neoclassicism was strongest in architecture, sculpture, and the decorative arts, where classical models in the same medium were relatively numerous and accessible. Rococo architecture emphasizes grace,
Figure 34.2 Oath of the Horatii, by Jacques-Louis David, 1784

ornamentation, and asymmetry; Neoclassical architecture is based on the principles of simplicity and symmetry, which were seen as virtues in the

This work brings together the thematic and formal ideals of Neoclassicism.

arts of Rome and Ancient

Greece, and were more immediately drawn from 16th century Renaissance Classicism.
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Section 2

Rococo

Salons Painting and Sculpture Church Decoration and Architecture

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Salons
Rococo salons are known for their elaborate detail, serpentine design work, asymmetry, predisposition to lighter, pastel, and gold-based color palettes.

In 18th century Europe, the Rococo style became prevalent in interior design, painting, sculpture, and the decorative arts. A reaction to the rigidity of Baroque style, the frivolous and playful Rococo first manifested itself with interior design and decorative
Figure 34.3 Bureau Danton de l'Htel de Bourvallais

work. In French, the word salon simply means living room or parlor'; therefore, Rococo salons are central rooms that are designed in the Rococo style. In addition, the notion of the salon is an Enlightenment-era ideal that transformed the

KEY POINTS

After the reign of Louis XIV, the wealthy and aristocratic moved back to Paris from Versailles and began decorating their homes in the new Rococo style that was associated with King Louis XV. The notion of the salon is an Enlightenment-era ideal that transformed the salon, or living room, into the central space for aristocracy to entertain guests and engage in intellectual conversation. Rococo interiors are highly unified in nature, and represent the coming together of a number of decorative arts. As with other Rococo art forms, the color palette is lighter, the lines are curvaceous ('S' curve), and the decoration is excessive. Furniture rose to new heights in the period and emphasized lighthearted frivolity. Furniture, friezes, sculpture, metalwork, wall, and ceiling decoration are woven together stylistically in the Rococo salon.

Example of a Rococo salon

salon, or living room, into

the central space for aristocracy to entertain guests and engage in intellectual conversation. The idea that ones architectural surroundings should encourage a way of life, or reflect ones values, was the philosophy of the time. The Rococo interior reached its height in the total art work of the salon. Rococo salons are characterized by their elaborate detail, intricate patterns, serpentine design work, and asymmetry, plus a predisposition to lighter, pastel, and gold-based color palettes (Figure 34.3).

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After the reign of Louis XIV, the wealthy and aristocratic moved back to Paris from Versailles and began decorating their homes in the new Rococo style that was associated with King Louis XV.
Figure 34.4 Salon de la Princesse

As another means of reflecting status, furniture rose to new heights in the period dominated by the Rococo salon. Rococo furniture emphasizes the lighthearted frivolity that was prized by the style. It is meant to be comfortable and versatile. During this time, furniture design became lighter, so to be easily moved around for gatherings, and many specialized pieces came to prominence, such as the fauteuil chair, the voyeuse chair, and the berger et gondola.' Furniture in the Rococo period was freestandingas opposed to wall-basedto accentuate the lighthearted and versatile atmosphere that was desired by the aristocracy. Mahogany became the most widely used medium due to its strength, and mirrors also became increasingly popular. Rococo salons often employed the use of asymmetry in design, which was termed contraste. Interior ornament included the use of sculptured forms on ceilings and walls, often somewhat abstract or employing leafy or shell-like textures. Two excellent examples of French Rococo are the Salon de Monsieur le Prince in the Petit Chteau at Chantilly, decorated by Jean Aubert; and the salons in the Hotel Soubise, Paris, by Germain Boffrand (Figure 34.4). Both of these salons exhibit typical Rococo style with walls, ceilings, and molding decorated with delicate interlacings of curves based on the fundamental shapes of the 'S,' as well as with shell forms and other natural shapes.

Rococo interior from the Hotel de Soubise, Paris.

Rococo interiors are highly unified in nature, and represent a coming together of a number of the decorative arts. Furniture, friezes, sculpture, metalwork, wall and ceiling decoration are woven together stylistically in the Rococo salon. As with other Rococo art forms, the color palette is lighter, the lines are curvaceous and the decoration is excessive.

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In France, the style began to decline by the 1750s. Criticized for its triviality and excess in ornament, Rococo style had already become more austere by the 1760s, as Neoclassicism began to replace the Rococo in France and the rest of Europe.
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Painting and Sculpture


Rococo style, employing more ornate elements, originated as a reaction against the strict rigidity of the Baroque style in the 18th century.
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Rococo style developed first in the decorative arts and interior design, and its influence later spread to architecture, sculpture,!theater!design, painting, and music. Rococo style is characterized by elaborate ornamentation, asymmetrical values, pastel color palette, and curved or serpentine lines. Rococo art works often depict themes of love, classical myths, youth, and playfulness. Antoine Watteau is considered to be the first great Rococo painter who influenced later Rococo masters such as Boucher and Fragonard. In sculpture, the work of Etienne-Maurice Falconet is widely considered to be the best representative of Rococo style. Rococo sculpture makes use of very delicate porcelain instead of marble or another heavy medium.

The Rococo style originated in Paris, France during the mid-late 18th century. It was a playful, highly decorative style that manifested as a reaction against the strict rigidity of the Baroque.

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Rococo style developed first in the decorative arts and interior design, and its influence later spread to architecture, sculpture, theater design, painting, and music. The name Rococo comes from the French word rocaille, a popular form of ornamentation using shells and pebbles, as shells feature prominently in Rococo motifs. Though Rococo originated in the decorative arts, its influence is felt strongly in painting as well. Painting during the Rococo period has many of the same qualities as other Rococo art forms. The Rococo style is ornate and often employs a gold and pastel-based palette. Forms are often asymmetrical and the themes are playful, even witty, rather than political, as in the case of Baroque art. The reaction against the strict symmetrical values of early Baroque style manifests in the curvaceous, florid, and graceful motifs evident in Rococo painting and in furniture design, sculpture, and architecture. The use of a light color palette, curved line, and themes relating to myths of love
Watteau's signature"soft application of paint, dreamy atmosphere and depiction of classical themes that often revolve around youth and love is evident in 'Pilgrimage to Cythera.' Figure 34.5 'Pilgrimage to Cythera' by Antoine Watteau

typify Rococo painting. Portraits and idyllic landscapes also became quite popular. Antoine Watteau is considered to be the first great Rococo painter. His influence is visible in the work of later Rococo painters such as Francois Boucher and Honore Fragonard. Watteau is known for his soft application of paint, dreamy atmosphere, and depiction of classical themes that often revolve around youth and love, exemplified in the painting Pilgrimage on the Isle of Scythia' (Figure 34.5). Francois Boucher became a master of Rococo painting somewhat later than Watteau. His work exemplifies many of the same characteristics, though with a slightly more mischievous and suggestive tone. Boucher had an illustrious career, and became court painter to King Louis XV in 1765. There was controversy later in his career as Boucher underwent some moral criticism from people such as Diderot for the themes present in his work. 'The Blonde Odalisque' was particularly controversial, as it supposedly illustrated the extra marital affairs of the King (Figure 34.6).
'Blond Odalisque' was a highly controversial work by Francois Boucher. Figure 34.6 'Blond Odalisque' by Francois Boucher

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In sculpture, the work of Etienne-Maurice Falconet is widely considered to be the best representative of Rococo style. Generally, Rococo sculpture makes use of very delicate porcelain instead of marble or another heavy medium. Falconet was the director of

Figure 34.7 'Pygmalion and Galatee' by Etienne-Maurice Falconet 'Pygmalion and Galatee' is indicative of Etienne Maurica Falconet's Rococo style.

Church Decoration and Architecture


18th century Rococo architecture was a lighter, more graceful and decorative version of Baroque architecture.
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a famous porcelain factory at Sevres. The prevalent themes in Rococo sculpture echoed those of the other mediums, with the display of classical themes, cherubs, love, playfulness, and nature being depicted most often as exemplified in the sculpture Pygmalion and Galatee (Figure 34.7).
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In architecture, Rococo is often referred to as Late Baroque, as it came into existence during the final period of the Baroque style, and there is often some overlap between the two styles during this time. Rococo style emphasizes asymmetry, extreme ornamentation, light colors, frivolity, and numerous curves. Among the best examples of Rococo architecture are the Benedictine Ottobeuren Abbey, the Weltenberg Monastery, and Asam Church in Munich. The greatest examples of Rococo church decoration are seen in the churches of southern Germany, Bohemia and Austria. Rococo church interiors are flamboyantly decorated, with bright painting on the walls and ceiling and a great deal of ornamental sculpture.

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Introduction Rococo architecture, popular during the 18th century in Europe, was a lighter, more graceful and decorative version of Baroque architecture. The styles are, however, quite similar and can be difficult to tell apart. In architecture, Rococo is often referred to as Late Baroque. It came into existence during the final period of the Baroque style, and there is often some overlap between the two styles during this time. Differing use of symmetry is a notable distinction between Rococo and Baroque; the Rococo style emphasized asymmetry, while Baroque emphasized perfectly balanced and symmetrical forms. Rococo style can also be recognized by its many curves and elaborate decoration, as well as the use of lighter colors than we see in the Baroque style. Thematically, Baroque architecture was based in religion, and therefore more serious than Rococo, which was concerned with notions of frivolity and jocular themes. Italian architects of the early 18th century were brought to Catholic Germany, Bohemia, and Austria by local princes and bishops. Their work represents the height of Rococo church interiors, characterized by a prevalence of cherubs and the interaction of painting, sculpture, and the elaborate and delicate detailing on the walls and ceiling. There are numerous examples of Rococo architecture throughout Europe. Prominent buildings include the Queluz National Palace in

Portugal and the Charlottenburg Palace in Germany. The Charlottenburg Palace is the largest palace in Berlin, Germany, and was built and decorated using both the Rococo and Baroque styles. The Sanssouci Palace, which was built as the summer palace for Frederick the Great, was also created in the Rococo style. Its very name, "sans souci," means "without worries" or "carefree," which indicates the core values of the Rococo ideology. Another indication that the palace is Rococo in style is its relatively intimate size and highly ornate decoration (Figure 34.8).
Figure 34.8 Sans Souci Palace

Exterior of the Sans Souci Palace.

Religions Decoration The greatest examples of Rococo church decoration are seen in southern Germany. There has been some controversy regarding the frivolity and excess of the Rococo style as being inappropriate for the sacredness of a church. Rococo style was generally thought to be inappropriate for the outside of a church, but it was considered

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acceptable at times for the church interior, though that style choice is seen most often in Southern Germany. Rococo church interiors often feature multiple vaults and structures within structures, abstract shell designs, natural motifs, frescoes, and stucco-work. Among the best examples are the Benedictine Ottobeuren Abbey, the Weltenberg Monastery, and the Asam Church in Munich (Figure 34.9). The interiors of these churches are flamboyantly decorated with bright painting

Figure 34.9 Asam Church in Munich, Germany

The"interior of the Asam Church is amboyantly decorated with bright painting on the walls and ceiling, and there is an excess of ornamental sculpture.

on the walls and ceiling, and there is an excess of ornamental sculpture.


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Section 3

Neoclassicism in Italy

The Grand Tour and its Portraits Rome

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The Grand Tour and its Portraits


The Grand Tour was a customary trip to Europe undertaken by wealthy Europeans and some Americans.
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The Grand Tour was a customary trip to Europe undertaken by wealthy Europeans and some Americans that flourished as a tradition from about 1660 to 1840. The trip was viewed as an educational rite of passage typically for young men, but sometimes women as well. It was intended for culturally broadening purposes and associated with a fairly standard itinerary. The Grand Tour tradition was extended to include the middle class when railroad and ship travel became more widespread in the second half of the 18th century. The travel itinerary typically began in Dover, England and crossed the English Channel to Ostend or to Calais in France. From here the tourist and bear-leader, or tutor, and possibly a troupe of servants, could rent a coach and travel to Paris. From Paris they would travel to Switzerland, then Spain, and Northern Italy. Once in Italy, the tourist would visit Turin, and might spend a few months in Florence and Venice, which was the epitome of the Grand Tour for most British tourists. From Venice they would go to Rome to study the ruins and masterpieces and possibly to the archaeological sites at Pompeii. Next was the German section of Europe, such as Vienna, Dresden, Berlin, and Potsdam, and finally to Holland and Flanders before making the trip home. The journey generally involved the study of art at museums and universities, private collections, and notable architectural sites.

The trip was viewed as an educational rite of passage typically for young men, but sometimes women as well. The Grand Tour tradition was extended to include the middle class when railroad and ship travel became more widespread in the second half of the 18th century. The Grand Tour generally involved the study of art at museums and universities, private collections, and notable architectural sites. Souvenirs and mementos became an important element as they could demonstrate the specifics of which location was visited and what was seen or acquired. The artist Pompeo Batoni made a career of painting portraits of English tourists posed among Roman antiquities and became very popular in Rome. Batoni's paintings made it into numerous private collections in Britain, thus ensuring the genres popularity in the United Kingdom.

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The pilgrimage was popularized further by the advent of tour guides, such as Thomas Cook, which became synonymous with the Grand Tour. Grand Tourists were known to travel with an entourage that included valets, coachmen, scholarly guide and
Figure 34.10 A portrait by Pompeo Batoni

English tourists posed among Roman antiquities. He became very popular in Rome and his portraits of the British traveling through the city were in very high demand. There are records of over 200 portraits of visiting British patrons standing amidst ruins and great works of art by Batoni. These paintings made it into numerous private collections in Britain, thus ensuring the genres popularity in the United Kingdom.
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possibly a cook. Souvenirs and mementos became an important element as they could demonstrate the specifics of which location was visited and what was seen or acquired. Their popularity created an industry of sorts, and prices rose with the growth of the trend. Some Grand Tourists invited artists from home to accompany them throughout their travels, painting views specific to their

A popular souvenir of the Grand Tour was a portrait of the tourist themselves, often painted amidst the architecture, or famous art works of a particular European location.

personal itineraries. A popular souvenir of the Grand Tour was a portrait of

the tourist themselves, often painted amidst the architecture, or famous art works of a particular European location (Figure 34.10). The artist, Pompeo Batoni, made a career of painting portraits of

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Rome
Romes connections to classical antiquity made it an important site for the Neoclassical movement during the 18th century.

particular interest to the increasingly widespread Neoclassical movement. Neoclassical Rome was also a time of political change. The French Revolution of 1789-99 had a major impact on France as well as the rest of Europe. The Roman Republic was proclaimed on February 15, 1798, after a general of Napoleon had invaded the city. The Roman Republic was short lived, lasting only until October 1799. Despite the political upheaval, 18th-century Rome remained a desirable destination. It became an absolute necessity for people of means to spend time in Rome as part of their "Grand Tour," or educational pilgrimage. The city became a nexus for these tourists as well as the merchants and industries that resulted from their patronage. Artists including Pompeo Batoni and Giovanni Piranesi essentially based their entire careers upon catering to tourists.The increasing popularity of the Grand Tour, and the related desire for visitors to collect "classical" souvenirs, quickly spread the Neoclassical style throughout Europe. It became a symbol of wealth and freedom to go on the Grand Tour and to have something to show for it displayed in your home. In addition to the upper class, it was not uncommon for young

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