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Editor

TRANSMISSION LINE
MANUAL
Publication No. 268
Central Board of Irrigation and Power
Malcha Marg, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi - 110 021
CBI&P Panel of Experts on Transmission Lines
Chairman
'.J. Varma
D I\n Ahh \ A   ~ I i ~
CENTRAL BOARD OF IRRIGATION AND POWER
Esrablished 1\127
OBJECTIVES
• To render expertise in the fields of water resources and energy;
• To promote research and professional excellence;
• To provide research linkages to Indian engineers, researchers and managers with their cOWlterparts in other
countries andintemational organisations;
• To establish database of technical and technological developments, and provide information services;
• Teclmological forecasting.
ACfIVlTIES
1. AdvancemtDt of Knowledge iUld Tecbnologital Forecasting
t' .. ," '." ..... ,   .: $. :" . .':":" . '1'.: ' ..: .: , •
. ,': ,. . ::: data and pooling ofteclmical knowledge and experiences.
': .•. '.';" i water and power sectors in electronic format at the national level for easy access.
,n:; ··.r ",.: lllntrOductioo and' implementation of Internet, Intranet. E-Business and E-Commerce for infrastructure
,.. .. ,' ... >: ; ':- .. ' ....
:o'i .. : .. / • :,,... 0','- Introduction of paperless office, flow charting and documentation management.
  f' 1\ .:*C pissentinaticilof.iri£ojrnation - Library and infonnation services.
i r ,: * Organismg and seminars, symposia, conferences, workshops, roundtables, etc,
,* . RecOghizmgOUtstanding'contiibutions of engineers and managers by presenting them various CSIP awards.
'fttI, .
.. .' .", . ,1 Linkages with other Institutions/Committees/Organisations
* Establishing contact - Exchange of infonnation and publications.
• Interaction with international organisations working in the fields of water resources and energy for the benefit
of Indian professionals and fortechnology forecasting.
J. Publications
• Research project reports.
* Journals.
* Design,constructioo and management pUblications.
• Specifications/manuals/guidelines,
• Conference proceedings.
• Specific case studies.
4. Research
• Identifying research needs, sponsoring research projects. and monitoring R&D activities.
* Assisting in specific case studies/problems.
* Documentation.
5. Consultancy
* Maintaining panels of experts/consultants for specific project works.
• Providing information to member organisations in the country.
* Identifying Indian expertise for specific needs of other COWltries, especially in AsiaJ Africa,
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TRANSMISSION LINE
MANUAL
Editors
C.V.J. Varma
P.K. Lal
Publication No. 268
CBI&P Panel of Experts
on Transmission Lines
P.M. Ahluwalia
Chainnan
CENTRAL BOARD OF IRRIGATION AND POWER
Malcha Marg, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110 021
,
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
STANDING PANEL OF EXPERTS ON
TRANSMISSION LINES
Y.N. Rikh
Ex-Chainnan, UPSEB
V.D. Anand
Ex -Chief Engineer, CEA
M.L. Sachdeva
Ex-Chief Engineer, CEA
Chief EngineerlDirector
(Trans. Design), CEA
Chairman
P.M. Ahluwalia
Ex-Member, CEA
Members
7. Executi ve Director/Chief Engineer
(Trans. Design), UPSEB
8. Executive Director/Chief Engineer
Transmission Designs, MPEB
9. Executi ve Director/Chief Engineer
Transmission Design, GEB
10. Director
Bureau of Indian Standards
Umesh Chandra
AGM
D. Chowdhury
DGM
11. Vice-President (Engineering)/General
Manager Engineering, KECIL-RPG
Transmission Power Grid Corpn. of India Ltd.
6. S.N. MandaI, Chief Design Engineer
NTPC/K. Mohan Das, Addl. Chief
Design Engineer, NTPC
12. Vice-President (Technical) EMC
Convenor
P.K. Lal
Director (E)
Central Board of Irrigation and Power
Chaper 1 Introduction
P.M. Ahluwalia
VN. Rikh
YD. Anand
Chapter 2 Tower Types and Shapes
Chapter 3 Tower Geometry
M.L. Sachdeva
H.S. Sehra
Chapter 4 Electrical Clearances
M.L. Sachdeva
Chapter 5 Design Parameters
Chapter 6 Loadings
Umesh Chandra
D. Choudhury
Chapter 7 Design of Towers
Chapter 8 Testing of Towers
S.D. Dand
L. Khubchandani
AUTHORS
ASSOCIATED TRAN,SRAIL STRUCTURES lTD.
(An Associate Co, of Gammon Group)
GAMMON HOUSE, 2nd FLOOR,
VEER SAVARKAR MARG,
PRABHADEVI, MUMBAI·400 025.
    ::xtn: 4086/4043
Chapter 9 : Tower Materials, Fabrication, Galvanisation, Inspection and Storage
B.N. Pai
Chapter 10: Design of Foundation
S.M. Takalkar
D. Choudhury
Chapter 11: Construction of Transmission Lines
M.V Subbarayudu
Each Chapter was finalised after Intense input by Shri P.M. Ahluwalia, Chairman of the Panel Covering
Detailed Review, Modifications and Supplements followed by final Discussion and Acceptance by the Panel
of Experts.
v
OTHER CONTRIBUTORS
1. L.c. Jain, Ex-Member, CEA
2. H.S. Sehra, Ex-Director, CEA
3. Powergrid Corpn. of India
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4. ". Electricity Authority' . '.. .
S.L. Narasimhan
D.P. Kewalramani
Raisuddin
Kamail Singh
A.K Jain
P;S. Aggarwal
Alok Gupta
Neeraj Kumar
5. NHPC, Ltd.
S.B.C. Misra
G.c. Tather
VP.M. Nair
S.N. Dubey
6. NTPC Ltd.
L.V Rao
A.P. Shatru
S. Dasgupta
7. ABB, New Delhi
Mata Prasad
8. SERC Ltd., Chennai
K. Murlidharan
9.
SJ. Mohan
KEC International Ltd.
L. Khubchandani
S.D. Dand
G.D. Rathod
B.N. Pai
M.V. Subbarayudu
M.N. Dedhia
P.L. Sehgal
Vipin Parikh
VP. Nathwani
10. SAE, New Delhi
V Narayanan
Dr. D.M. Lakhapati
M.K. Mukherjee
P. Bhattacharya
N.T. Makijani
RJ. Kulkarni
Arun Arora
11. EMC Limited
Dr. P. Bose
D.K Roy
12. Transrail Engg. Co. Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai
D.C. Bagde
13. BHEL, Bangalore
S. Chandra
14. UPSEB, Lucknow
VB. Singh
Virendra Prakash
A.N. Sinha
Surendra Narain
VK Srivastava
A.K. Tiwari
15. G EB, Vadodara
VJ. Ambawani
KS. Dave
16. MPEB, Jabalpur
S.Z. Hussain
Ashok Bajpai
17. MSEB, Mumbai
AJ. Khan
18. BIS, New Delhi
S.K Gupta
S.S. Sethi
Rachna Sehgal
W.R. Paul
19. GERI, Vadodara
U.D. Datir
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The Central Board of Irrigation and Power brought out a manual on "Design of Transmission Line Towers" in
1977. The publication proved immensely popular and had to be reprinted twice because of its usefulness to utility
engineers and manufacturers of transmission line towers.
There have been many important developments since publication of the manual in 1977. The central sector generating
companies like National Thennal Power Corporation and National Hydro Power Corporation made considerable
impact on the generation scenario as also on EHV systems required for evacuation of power from the generating
stations and also on inter-connection between various states for integrated system operation within the region. The
regional grids are all in operation now and Power Grid Corporation of India is engaged in the task of establishment
of National Power Grid. There have been considerable technological developments in the field of transmission
engineering and the HVDC transmission and 800 kV transmission are going to play an important role in the National
Power Grid.
It was, therefore, felt necessary not only to revise the manual published earlier but also to make it a comprehensive
one to include not only towers but also other aspects of transmission lines incorporating latest technological
developments. Keeping this in view the Central Board of Irrigation and Power constituted a panel consisting of
eminent transmission lines experts from all over the country in 1988-89 under the chairmanship of Shri P.M.
Ahluwalia, Ex-Member, CEA, New Delhi to take up this important work. .
This Panel of Transmission Experts further set up in March 1992 a Steering Committee and also a Working Group
to consider and make suitable recommendations on the implications of the proposed draft amendment to the Indian
National Standard IS:802-1977 "Code for use of Structural Steel in Overhead Transmission Line Towers" issued
in 1991 based on the 1987 draft on the report oflEC 826 of Intemational Electro-technical Commission. The outcome
of efforts made by Steering Committee led to adoption of the probabilistic method of design as contained in
"Guide for New Code of Transmission Line" published by CBIP in 1993. These recommendations were adopted
in Part-I of IS-802 published in 1995.
The present document "Manual on Transmission Lines" is outcome of the ceaseless efforts made and voluminous
work done by the Panel of Experts on Transmission Lines. The various chapters contained in the publication were
authored by groups of eminent practising experts and were thoroughly discussed in the meeting of panel at the
time of finalisation.
This publication will be immensely useful to Managers, Design and practising engineers of power utilities and
Transmission Line Companies, Researchers, Testing Stations, Faculty Members and Students of Engineering Institutes
in India and overseas.
The Central Board of Irrigation and power wishes to acknowledge its grateful thanks to the authors of the different
chapters for their expert contribution. Special thanks are due to Shri P.M. Ahluwalia, Chairman of the panel for
the tremendous input and direction given for finalising the manual. Shri V.D. Anand, Chief Engineer (Retd.),
CEA took it upon himself to go through the final manuscript meticoulously and correcting the same. The Board
is also thankful to the members of the Committee for their valuable contribution.
It is hoped that this publication will be well received by the engineering fraternity.
Vll
(C.V.J. VARMA)
Member Secretary
Central Board of Irrigation and Power
Power projects are highly capital intensive. Transmission Line is the vehicle for optimum utilisation of power
produced at power projects.
Transmission Line suffers from limitless insurmountable handicaps - Funds, Environment, Ecology, Proximity
of Objects. Forests, Right of Way, Changing Hostile Terrains, Uncertainties of Wind, Temperature, Snow
and Lightning, and above all requirements of Reliability, Security and Safety. Overcoming all these adversities
Transmission Line has to deliver to the consumer power at minimum cost and with maximum reliability.
Tower is the most critical component of Transmission Line. CBI&P published in 1977 "Manual on
Transmission Line Towers". That document became very popular in India and Overseas with Power Utilities
and Tower Manufacturers. It had to be reprinted two times in 1988-89, CBI&P set up a Panel of Experts
on Transmission Lines to review the Document considering the latest technological developments.
In India, Towers were designed following Deterministic Method of Design as per Indian Standard, IS:802-
1977 Code of Practice for Use of Structural Steel in Overhead Transmission Line Towers.
For almost a decade since 1980, CIGRE and IEC worked on the Probabilistic Method of Design for Overhead
Lines, culminating in the publication of the Recommendatory Report IEC 826:1991, based on which CIGRE
Working Group 22.06 sent a Questionnaire to various countries of the World, including India. The CBIP
Panel of Experts on Transmission Lines examined the subject with speed and in depth through Steering
Committee of top-most Transmission Experts. As a result India was one of the first countries in the world
to adopt the Probabilistic Method of Design as contained in the sister Publication of CBI&P "Guide for
New Code for Design of Transmission Lines in India" -1993. In accordance with the CBI&P Guide, Indian
Standard IS:802" Code of Practice, for Use of Structural Steel in Overhead Line Towers" Part 1,
Section 1 "Materials and Loads has been amended and published in 1995. Chapters 5 - Design Parameters
-6 -Loadings; and 7 -"Design of Tower Members; of the Present Document deal with this subject.
Other subjects dealt with in the Document are: Tower Types and Shapes - Chapter 2; Tower Geometry
- Chapter 3; Electrical Clearances - Chapter 4; Testing" of Towers - Chapter 8; Tower Materials, Fabrication
Galvanising Inspection and Storage - Chapter 9; Design of Foundations - Chapter 1 0; and Construction
of Transmission Lines - Chapter 11.
Each one of the Chapters was authored by eminent practising Experts incorporating latest technological
advancements and practices and reviewed in depth by the members of the Panel of Experts on Transmission
Lines before adoption. Special attention was given towards simplicity, clarity and completeness to make
each chapter self-contained in all respects giving practical examples of calculation to facilitate practical
application without hinderance.
The Document has full acceptability as the Panel comprised managerial experts from Central Electricity
Authority, Central Government Power Corporations, State Electricity Boards, Bureau of Indian Standards,
Tower Testing Stations, Research Institutes and Transmission Line Manufacturing and Construction
Companies.
The mass of technological work could be accomplished by the untiring labours of the authors, members
of the Panel of Experts and their organisations who worked behind the scene, CBI&P Management,
Shri C.V.J. Varma, Member Secretary and Shri P.K. Lal, Advisor and other officers and staff of the CBIP.
They worked ceaselessly for almost 9 years. lowe limitless gratitude and personal thanks to them for their
co-operation and kindness in this great technical endeavour.
IX
Power utilities, Transmission Line companies and their engineers located in the far-flung corners of India
were always faced with the dearth of a single unified document on Design, Manufacture and Construction
of Transmission Lines. This Manual will fill that void. It will be of great reference value to the Management
and Practising engineers of Power Utilities and Transmission Line Companies, Researchers, Testing Stations,
Faculty Members and students of engineering Institutes in India and Overseas.
P.M. AHLUWALIA
Chairman
CBIP Panel of Experts on
Transmission Lines
Foreword
Preface
~   Introduction
1.1 Preamble
1.2 Develppment of Power Systems in India
1.3 Environmental and Ecological Awakening
1.4 Privatisation Wave - Impact on Transmission Systems in India
1.5 Philosophies in Design of Transmission lines
1.6 New Concepts in Transmission Line Design
1.7 Resume of Topics Covered In the Manual
'- 2. Tower Types and Shapes
2.1 Scope
2.2 Types of Towers
2.2.2 Self-Supporting Towers
2.2.3 Conventional Guyed Towers
2.2.4 Chainette Guyed Towers
2.3 Tower Shapes
2.4 Tower DeSignation
2.4.2 Suspension Towers
2.4.3 Tension Towers
2.4.4 . Transposition Towers
2.4.5 Special Towers
3. Tower Geometry
3.1 Scope
3.2 Tower Anatomy
3.3· Bracing System
3.4 Tower Extensions
3.5 Tower Outline
3.6 Tower Height
3.7 Tower Width
3.8 Cross-arm Spread
3.9 Typical lengths of Insulator Strings on
Transmission lines in India
4. Electrical Clearances
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Minimum Ground Clearance
4.3 Minimum Clearance above Rivers/lakes
4.4 Environmental Criteria for 800 kV line .
4.5 Air Clearances - General Consideration
4.6 Clearances and Swing Angles on Transmission lines in India
4.7 Conductor Metal Air Clearances
XI
4.8 Air Clearance - Analysis by CIGRE .
4.9 Phase-to-Phase Air Clearances
4.10 Clearance between Conductor & Groundwire
4.11 Effect of Span Length on Clearances
4.12 Clearances at Power Line CrOSSings
4.:13 Recommendation
ANNEXURES
Annexure I - Spacing between Conductors
Annexure II - 'Swing Angle for 800 kV Anpara - Unnao Line for Insulator
I Strings and Jumper
APPENDIX - Investigation Studies on Clearances and Swing Angles for
Indian Power System
  ~ Design Parameters
5.0 Abstract
5.1 Transmission Voltage
5.2 Number of Circuits
5.3 Climatic CQnditions
5.4 Environmental and Ecological Consideration .
5.5 Conductor
5.6 Earth Wire
5.7 Insulator Strings
5.8 Span
6. Loadings
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Requirements of Loads on Transmission Lines
6.3 Nature of Loads
6.4 Loading Criteria
6.5 Transverse Loads (TR) - Reliability Condition
(Normal Condition)
6.6 Transverse Loads (TS) - Security Condition
6.7 Transverse Load (TM) during Construction
and Maintenance - Safety Condition
6.8 Vertical Loads (VR) - Reliability .Condition
6.9 Vertical Loads (VS) Security Condition .
6.10 Vertical Loads during Construction and Maintenance (VM) - Safety Condition
6.11 Longitudinal Loads (LR) -Reliability Condition
6.12 Longitudinal Loads (LS) - Security Condition
6.13 Longitudinal Loads during Construction and Maintenance (LM) • Safety Condition
_6.14 Loading Compinations under Reliability, Security and Safety Conditions
6.15 Anti-cascading Checks .
6.16 Brokel1wite Condition
6.17 Broken Limb Condition for 'V' Insulator String
7. Design of Tower Members
7.1 General
7.1.1 Technical Parameters
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7.2.2 Graphical Diagram Method
7.2.3. Analytical Method
7.2.4 Computer-Aided Analysis
7.2.4.1 Plane - Truss Method or, 2-Dimensional Analysis
7.2.4.2 Space - Truss Method, or 3-Dimensional Analysis
7.2.5 Comparison of Various Methods of Stress Analysis
7.2.6 Combination of Forces to determine Maximum Stress in each member
7.3 Member Selection
7.4 Selection of Material
7.4.1 Use of hot rolled angle steel sections
7.4.2 Minimum Flange Width
7.4.3 Minimum Thickness of Members
7.4.4 Grades of Steel
7.5 Slenderness Ratio Limitations (KUR)
7.6 Computation of UR for Different Bracing Systems
7.7 Permissible Stresses in Tower Members
7.7.1 Curve-1 to Curve-6
7.7.2 Reduction due to bIt Ratio
7.8 Selection of Members
7.8.1 . Selection of Members in Compression
7.8.2 Selection of Members in Tension
7.8.3 Redundant Members
7.9 Bolts and Nuts
Annexures
I
1\
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
XIII
XIV
XV
Conductor Details
Earthwire
Design Loads
Graphical Diagram Method
Analytical Method
Computer Aided Analysis
Input for 3D Analysis
Output Giving Summary of Critical Stresses
Chemical Composition and Mechanical Properties of Mild Steel
Chemical Composition and Mechanical Properties of High Tensile Steel
Section List Equal Section Commonly Used for Towers & As Per IS:808
  ~ a r t - V) 1989
UR Consideration for Bracing System ·in a Transmission Tower
Permissible Axial Stress in Compression
Reference Table for Maximum Permissible Length of Redundant Members
Dimensions for Hexagon Bolts for Steel Structures
8. Testing of Towers
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Testing Requirements
8.3 Description of a Tower Testing Station
8.4 Calibration
8.5 Assembly of Prototype Tower
8.6 Rigging Arrangements and Location of the Loadcells
8.7 Test Procedure
8.8 Testing of Prototype Tower·
8.9 Special Requirements
X1I1
8.10 Acceptance of Test Results
8.11 Material Testing
8.12 Presentation of Test Results
9. Material, Fabrication, Galvani$ing, Inspection and Storage
9.1 Scope
9.2 " Material Quality Control
9 . .3 Specific Requirements of Fabrication
9.4 Operations in Fabrication
9.S Tolerances
9.6 Shop ,Erection/Proto-type Tower Assembly
9.7 Galvanising
9.8 Inspection
9.9 Packing and Storage
Annexures
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
Chemical Composition and Mechanical Properties of Mild Steel
Chemical Composition and Mechanical Properties of High Tensile Steel
" (a) Properties of Equal Angle Sections as per IS : 808 (Part V) - 1989
(b) Properties of Unequal Angle Sections as per : 808 (Part V) - 1989
(c) Properties of Channel Sections
Unit Weight of Plates
Dimenf;ions of Hexagon Bolts for Steel Structures
Ultimate Strength of Bolts
Properties of Anchor Bolts. Metric Screw Threads as per IS : 4218
(Part-3)-1976 with ISO
Appendices
Appendix I ; Quality Assurance Plan
I. Introduction
II. Quality Objective"
III. Quality Policy
IV. Organisation of Quality Control Department
V. "Quality Planning
VI. Design and Drawings
VII. Company Standards "
VIII. Control on Inspection-EquipmentsIToolsiGauges
IX. Material Management
X. Incoming Material Inspection
XI. Pre-production
XII. In-Process Inspection
XIII. Inspection and Testing of Finished (Galvanised) Material
XIV. " Storage, Packaging and Handling
Enclosures - A Sampling Plan for Incoming Material
a. Sections, Accessories and Bought out Items
b. Sampling Plan for Physical Properties" of Bolts, Nuts and Spring Washers
c. Sampling Plan for Galvanising"Test for Threaded" Fasteners "
d, Formats for Inspection Report for Steel StackinglPreliminary-(QCD-I)
e. Format for Report on Bend Test
f. Format for Report on Testing of Physical Properties
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k. Format for Inspection Report for Accessories - (QCD-4)
I. .' Format for Inspection Report for Steel Test Tower - (QCD-5)
B. Sampling Plan for In-process Material
(a) Procedure
(b) Format for Quantity Control Report
(c) Format for Loading Report of Crates
(d) Format for Inspection and Loading Report of Fabrication Shop
(e) Format for Inspection and Loading Report of. Model Assembly
(f) Format for Inspection and Loading Report of Model Shop
(g) Format for Out-right Rejection Slip
(h) Format for Rectifiable Rejection Slip
(i) Format for Weekly Records of ShiftWise Acid Strengths
G} Format for Galvanising Process Inspection Report
(k) Format for Galvanising Inspection Report
(I) Format for Testing Concentration of Prefluxing and Degreasing Solutions
Appendix II: List of Machines required for a well-equipped Tower - Fabricating Workshop
Appendix III : Workshop Chart
Appendix IV : Process Flow Chart for Fabrication of Tower
10. Design of Foundations
10.1 General
10.2 Types of Loads on Foundations
10.3 Basic Design Requirements
10.4 Soil Parameters
10.5 Soil Investigation
10.6 Types of Soil and Rock
10.7 Types of Foundations
10.8 Revetment on Foundation
10.9 Soil Resistances for Designing Foundation
10.10 Design Procedure for Foundation
10.11 Concrete Technology for Tower Foundation Designs
10.12 Pull-out Tests on Tower Foundation
10.13 Skin Friction Tests
·10.14 Scale Down Models of Foundation
10.15 Tests'on Submerged Soils
10.16 Investigation of Foundation of Towers
10.17 Investigation of Foundation of a Tower Line in Service
10.18 Repairs of Foundations of a Tower Line in Service
10.19 Foundation Defects and their Repairs
Annexures
Annexure - I
. Annexure - II
Annexure - III
Annexure - IV
xv
 
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Typical Illustrations Tower Foundation Design Calculation
Illustration - I
Illustration • II
Illustration - III
Illustration • IV
Illustration • V
Illustration - VI
Illustration • VII
Illustration - VIII
Illustration • 'IX
Illustration - X
.
11. Construction of Transmission Lines
11.1 Survey
11.2 Manpower, Tools and Plants and Transport Facilities
11.3 Environmental Consideration
11.4 Statutory Regulation for Crossing of Roads, Power Lines,
Telecommunication Lines, Railway Tracks, etc.
11.5 Surveying Methods
11.6 Foundations
11.7 Erection of Super Structure and Fixing of Tower Accessories
11.8 Earthing
11.9 Stringing of Conductors
11.10 Hot-Line Stringing of E.H.V. lines
11.11 Protection of Tower Footings
11.12 Testing and Commissioning
11.13 References
Annexures
Transmission Line Manual
Chapter 1
Introduction
CONTENTS
Page
1.1 PREAMBLE
1.2
DEVELOPMENT OF POWER SYSTEMS IN INDIA
2
1.3
ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECOLOGICAL AWAKENING
2
1.4
PRIVATISATION WAVE - IMPACT ON TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS IN INDIA
2
1.5
PHILOSOPHIES IN DESIGN OF TRANSMISSION LINES
3
1.6
NEW CONCEPTS IN TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN
3
i"
1.7
RESUME OF TOPICS COVERED IN THE MANUAL
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TRANSMISSION liNE MANUAL
INTRODUCfION
1.1 PREAMBLE
1.1.1 Electrical energy, being the most convenient and cleanest form of energy, is finding the maximum
usage the world over for development and growth of economy and therefore generation, transmission
and utilisation of the same in ever increasing quantities as economically as the latest technological
advancements permit, are receiving great attention. The technical, environmental and economic
considerations involved in siting and development of power generation projects required for meeting the
demand for electrical energy are gradually resulting in longer transmission distances and introduction
of higher and higher transmission voltages, and use of high voltage direct current transmission systems.
Thus transmission systems with voltages of 800 kV ae and t 600 kV de are already in operation in some
of the countries and those with 1000/1100 kV ac and ± 750 kV dc have also been introduced :n some
countries. In India, 66 kV, 132/110kV, 2301220 kV, and 400 kVae. and ± 500 kV dc systems are already
in service and 800 kV ac systems are in the· process of implementation. All these systems owe there
reliable performanee to a great extent to dependable transmission lines. Tower constitute a very vital
component of transmission lines, as these performs the important functions of supporting the p·ower
conductors and overhead ground wires at the requisite distances above ground level and maintaining
appropriate inter -conductor spacings within permissible limits under all operating conditions.
1.1.2 With increase in transmission voltage levels, the heights as well as weights of towers have also
increased and so has their cost. The transmission line towers constitute about 28 to 42 percent of the
cost a transmission line. Therefore optimisation of designs of towers can bring about significant
economy in the cost of transmission lines .. It is therefore imperative that transmission·line towers are
designed so as to make use of materials and workmanship most effectively and efficiently.
1.1.3 The weight of a tower required for any specific applications is influenced to a great extent by the
selection of tower configuration, choice of steel structurals for tower numbers, typ.e of tower, types of
connections etc. On the basis of experience and designing skill, a tower designer can produce tower
designs conforming to the governing specifications and bring about optimum reduction in tower weight
without sacrificing stability and reliability features of the fiQished tower which are very important for
structural reliability of a transmission line. These depend not only on the designs of tower and its
foundation but also on the type of tower, development of structural arrangement of tower numbers,
detailing of connections, quality of steel structural, accuracy in fabrication, proper soil investigations,
use of foundations according to soil conditions at sites of tower installation, accuracy and adequate care
in tower erection and proper maintenance of the erected towers.
1.1.4 Depending on the manner in which the towers are supported these fall in the following two broad
categories :.
1. Self supporting Towers
2. Guyed Towers
This Manual covers all aspects of designs of self supporting ~ o w   r s and their foundations in a
comprehensive manner.
~
~
1   ~ DEVELOPMENT OF POWER SYSTEMS IN INDIA
1.2.1 In India, development of power over the years has been phenomenal. The installed generating.
capacity has risen from a mere 2301 MW in 1950-51 to 85940 MW on 31st March, 1997. Matching with
the installed generating capacity, transmission Systems have also grown. In 1950-51 there were only
about 2700 Circuit KM of 132 kV lines and 7500 Circuit Km of 66/78 kV lines. These have grown to about
liOO Circuit Km of 500 kV of HYDC lines, 32200 Circuit Km of 400 kV lines, 76400 Circuit Km of 220
kV lines, 97200 Circuit Km of 132 kV lines and 37700 Circuit Km of 66 kV lines (total 245,200 Circuit
Kms). Strong interconnected transmission networks have been developed by each Electricity Board
within the State boundaries. Regional Grids interconnecting State Transmission Grids have been built
facilitating uninterrupted transfer of power within the region. National Grid at 800 kV and 400 kV is in
the process of coming up spear-headed by Power Grid Corporation of India. Highlights of the power
systems in India are given in Exhibits tl to 1.7. International comparisons with other countries are
given in Exhibits 1.8 and 1.9.
1.3 ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECOWGICAL AWAKENING
1.3.1 Environmental and ecological considerations were not given so much importance in the past in the
designs of transmission lines and their routing. However, availability of more sophisticated facilities has
made it possible to investigate into the effects of electric and magnetic fields associated with transmission
lines and understand and better appreciate the possible adverse effects of the above fields. In order to
ensure that these fields least affect the way of life and ecology, the conductor configuration, tower
shapes and transmission line corridors are so chosen that the magnitudes of radio interference (RI),
television interference (TVI), audio noise (AN) and electrostatic fields radiated by the transmission lines
are within safe limits and ecology is affected the least.
1.4 PRIVATISATION WAVE· IMpACf ON TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS IN INDIA
1.4.1 Exhibit No.l.lO gives an idea of the sector wise utilisation of funds as well as the total funds
allocated for Power from 1951 to 1992 and the outlay for the 8th Five year Plan period. It shows that
against the norm of at least 50% of the total allocated funds being utilised for Transmission and
Distribution, the average availability of funds for Transmission and Distribution over the years 1951 to
1997 has been 32% only. This has resulted in lopsided development of T&D systems leading to most of
the chronic problems faced by the consumers.
1.4.2 Development of power systems being highly capital intensive but essential for overall growth of
economy, induction of Private Sector in the development of generation as well as T&D systems is
engaging the attention of the Govt. of India. Some headway has been made as regards generation
projects. However, the same has yet to take place for the T&D sector. With privatisation coming
through for this sector also, the transmission system will get impatus for faster development. .
1.4.3 Need·based funds for development of transmission and distribution system during the 9th Plan
period are of the order of about Rs. 110 thousand crores. These are over and above the fUl}ds required
for generation projects which are about Rs. 160,000 crores for the 9th Plan period. It may not be
physically possible for the country to make available funds of this order in the Pu blic Sector. Privatisation
of generation projects is already underway. Many IPPs h ~ v e sponsored power generation projects
which are actually not coming up physically. The main bottle-neck is transmission and distribution.
l!nless a Private Sector Company has the facility to make returns from the power project, their
interest in actual execution will be limited. For privatisation in Power Sector to take momentum, it
is imperative for privatisation to take place in transmission and distribution, not limiting to power
generation only.
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ta.J
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sin
1.5 PHIWSOPHIES IN DESIGN OF TRANSMISSION UNES
Before IEC:826 - "Report on Loading and strength of overhead lines' came out in 1985, 1987 and 1991,
the design of transmission lines in India as also in several other countries was made as p.er design
philosophy based on deterministic concept of Loadings and strengths with specified factors of safety {or
the different operating conditions. Consequent to consideration of the approach outlined in IEC " 826.
design philosophy based on probablistic concept with provisions relevant to Indian experience has been
finalised for Transmission Une design and the existing 15:802 (Part 1/5ection 1) - 1995 code of practice
for use of structural steel in overhead line Towers has been recast accordingly .
-; 1.6 NEW CONCEPTS IN TRANSMISSION UNE DESIGN

has
;. I
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Y
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The new concepts in transmission line design philosophy include the followi 19 major changes in the
design method:-
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
Design based on limit load concept;
Use of probablistic method of Design;
Use of Reliability levels in transmission lines design;
Use of Co-ordination in strength of line components;
Use of six basic wind speeds converted to 10-minutes average speeds orresponding to 10-meter
height over mean retarding surface as the basis for wind loads on transmission lines instead of
three wind zones corresponding to 3D-meter height over mean retarding surface in use earlier;
Consideration of the effects of terrain category and topography of transmission line corridors
in the design wind speeds; and
Carrying out anticascading checks on all angle towers
1. 7 RESUME OF TOPICS COVERED IN, THE MANUAL
1.7.1 The topics covered in chapters 2 to 11 of this Manual are briefly described below.
1.7.2 Chapter 2 - Towers types and shapes
1.7.2.1 This chapter describes fully the types of towers, tower shapes and designation of towers and
brings out the essential differences between the various types of towers and the factors for preference
of a particular type of tower to other types for some specific considerations.
1. 7.3Chapter 3 . Tower Geometry
1.7.3.1 'This chapter describes the various portions of towers and details the factors which determine
tower height, tower width at various levels and the spread of cross-arms. It also describes the various
types of bracing systems, insulator stings, and gives details of their composition, typical details of 66 kV,'
132 kV, 220 kV and 400 kV insulator strings, values of angles of swing and corresponding electrical
clearances for insulator strings and jumpers for transmission lines already in service in India. analytical
calculations of electrical clearances on transmission lines etc.
1.7.4Cliapter 4 . Electrical Clearances
1. 7.4.1 This chapter covers the requirements regarding the minimum electrical clearances to be maintained
at tower and at mid-span between live parts of line and from live parts to tower members
for the various types of over voltages to which transmission lines of different voltage levels are subjected
in service. It also deals with the minimum ground clearances, effect of span length on clearances and
3
the requirements regarding electrical clearances of power lines crossing over tele-communication .d'
circuits. railway tracks rivers, lakes etc. J,
1. 7 .5Chapter 5 - Design Parameters
1.7.5.1 This chapter covers the electrical, climatic and geological environmental and ecological
considerations which influence the designs of transmission lines. It deals with the effects of shielcUng
of lee-ward conductors by the wind-ward conductors of bundle conductors, span terminologies and their-
significance in tower design, conductor creap allowance etc.
1.7.6Chapter 6 - loadings
1. 7.6.1 This chapter defines the various types of loads. gives methods for their estimation for snow-free
regions. deals with the Reliability Requirements - climatic loading under normal condition security
requirements - Failure containment under broken wire condition, safety requirements loadings under
construction and Maintenance and Anticascading Requirements
1.7.7 Chapter 7 - Design of tower-members
1.7.7.1 This chapter describes the methods of analysis of stresses in plane trusses and space frames, and
deals with selection of grades and of steel structurals for tower members, use, of high tensile steel
and mild steel sections, slenderness ratio limits for members with calculated and uncalculated stresses.
built-up members, permissible stresses in tower members and bolts, design of tower members and
member connections.
1. 7 .8 Chapter 8 - Testing of Towers
1. 7 .B.1 This chapter deals with the purpose of testing of towers, describes a typical tower testing station,
celebration of load cells, rigging arfangements, locations of load cells in the test set- up, testing
procedure, sequence of test loading cases. acceptance of test results and testing of tower material.
1.7.9Chapter 9 - Tower Materials, Fabrication, Galvanization, Inspection & Storage .
. . ,
1.7.9.1 This chapter deals with Material quality control, specific requirements of Fabrication covering
preparation of structural assembly Drawings, shop Drawings and bill of materials, cutting means,
operations in Fabrication such as straightening, cutting )i.e cropping, shearing, cutting, or saucing),
binding, punching, drilling and marking tolerances, shop erection (horizontal or vertical), Method of
Galvanising, Inspecti9n as per quality assurances plan, packaging of finished members and their storage.
The chapter highlights the significance of planing as it has great bearing on optimum utjlisation of
material and limiting the wastage. The chapter contains data on permissible Edge Security and Bolt
Gauges, chemical and mechanical properties of Mild and High tensile steels, Properties of Equal!
Unequal Angles, channels, Plates, Bolts/Nuts, and Anchor Bolts, it also contains a s'ample QAP, list of
Tower Fabricating, Machinery; details of Galvanising Plant. and the tests conducted on fabricated
members.
1. 7.10 Chapter 10· Design of F uundations
1.7.10.1 This chapters deals with design requirements for various types of foundations for 3df -supporting
towers. It brings out the importance of soil investigations and testing. classificaLivn ui soiis and
excavations types of foundations and their application areas, procedure for their dC$igr,s The
chapter contains the permissible values of soil bearing capacities. permissible stress vaillt ': (,II concrete,
reinforcement bar details and procedure for testing of foundatioils. A!)plkation of   :VIt·thods is
.;...
tit
el
,I
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11
11
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ir·
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,(, 1/
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:.! 5
and
L,e
Is is
dempnstrated by typical detailed calculations of designs for aifferent types of Foundations.! he cnapter
describes methods for investigating foundations and carrying out their repairs during construction
'stage and on lines in service.
1.7.11 Chapter 11 • Construction of Transmission Unes
1.7.11.1 This chapter covers all the stages from reconnaissance survey up to commissioning of lines. It
deals with statutory regulations, line corridor selection from environmental angle, methods of tower
erection, paying out of conductors under uncontrolled and controlled tension, final sagging, clamping in.
spacer Ivibration damper/spacer damper instaJIation, jumpering, live line stringing of EHV line,s,
protection of tower footings etc. It also covers the tests to be conducted before line energisation.
5
EXHIBIT 1.1
Plan Outlays for Power Sector
For Plan Generation- T&D
First Plan
(1951·56) Z83 110
Sa:ond Plan
(195&-61) 310 116
Fourth Plan
(1968-74) 699 321
Fifth
(1975--80) 1725 722
Sixth Plan
(l98Q..85)
13851 5413
Seventh Plan
  25087 9185,
Eighth Plan
(1992-97) 57291 22280
NinthPlan 1,40,000 1,10,000
'(1997-2002)

(Rs. Crores)
Total
393
426
1020
2447
19264
34272
79571
2.so.ooo
I
I
t
r


EXHIBIT 1.2
Installed Generating Capacity
Yl'ar Nuch>ar Hydro Thermal Tolal
1   S I 0
1742 2Wl
1<11)0 IiI
I,',
1917 2736 4653
  421;
6J83 7810 J.t1i13
1 li·lll 10883 15207 2!)i31i
19848::, ItllJ:l 14460 27030
1989-90 1565 18307 43764 63636
IS/iS 18753 45768 66086

1 ,X')
19194 48086 6906S
199:L,9:{ 20(1:')
19576 50749 723jli
1!I!l]-94 20DS 20379 54370 76754
2005 20829 58110 80944
1995-% 222S 20976 60086 8J287
19Y6,97
")')') r:.
Iw"-' .... ') 21fi45 61149 85019
<:OOX>
IroX)
'7(XXX}
60000
mx>

J(XXX)
ro'XJ
1%0-61' 19'7S-19 1mg1 1991-92 1993-94 1m-96 1996-97
y-
(MW)
EXHIBIT 1.3
Electricity Generation
Year Nuclear Hydro
1950 .. 51 0 2860
1960-61 0 7837
1970-71 1339 25248
1978-79 2770 52594
i584 ..85 4075· 53948
1989-90 4625 62116
1990-91 6140 . 71640
1991 ..92 5530 72760

1992·93 6730 69870
1993-94 5400 70460
1994·95 5646 82511
1995-96 7923 72383
1996-97 9024 68618
"-'0000
.Q)OO)

:i
JOOOOO


::
DlOOO
, ..
""
lnm
1000.»

0
Year
Thermal
 
!iIOO
29961
4
9883€i
178697
186550
208740
224760
24819()
267891""
299470
317158
\1l:)
Total

lti937
Sf:i54X
1/j2S23
1568[)9
245438
264330
287030
301360
324050
3S6i'l54
:179776
394800
_Nudear

ElThemul
i.a
\'. ·11
}-i':/
(oJ)
2:i1),

7 •. {
}
l
21
EXHIHIT 1.4
It'ngth of Transmission Unes (CK\1)
Transmis!lion 19511·51 lYtifl-61 1970-71 1980-tH 1.985-86 1991l-91 1992-93 1995·9h lY9ti·97
VI) \t(ijll'
HVl.C
(Ol) tV
1321111) kV
TOlal \1)139
11111
4tili)l)
83140
Z340
3BM
59nx
7952
 
1 tjJI)
;jh]4
X:
4
h.'
1f,67 1&57
&'1186
120214 162!:140 20H521 218447 2045226
lXOOO.-----------------------------------------------__ __
ItXXXlO
1960-61 t.m71 1985-86 1990-91 199'2-93 1995-96 1996-97
9
B HVDC
&400 \IV ,
o ZJOIZlO k. \' I
II IJUIIOII"
iii "78166144 kV
EXHIBIT 1.5
All India power Requirement Past Trend
Year Energy Peak Load
Requirement
(MkWh) (MW)
1988-89 206331 :B551
1989-90 228662 36327
1990-91 246722 38986
1991-92 259000 41674
1992-93 282739 43636
1993-94 324417 54707
1994-95 349346 58904
1995-96 376679 63490
199&-97 413490 63853


10lXXl0
o
    199G-91 1991·92 1992·91 1994-93 199'.96 1996-97
Var
EXHIBIT 1.6
AJI"lndia Power Requirement Forecast for 9th, 10th, 11th Plan
Year
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2006-07
2011-12
Source: 15th Electric Power Survey uf India
Energy
Requirement
(MkWh)
436258
469057
502254
535903
569650
781863
1058440
Yell'
11
Peak Load
(MW)
7   4 ~ 8
7R936
84466
90093
95757
130944
176647
D FMrO'R • .,dre_nt
• Puillold
EXHIBIT 1.7
Revised Fund Requirement Generation 1&D
(Rs. Billion)
Year Capacity
Addition (MW) Generation T&D Total
97·98 6000 210 126 336
9H-99 6500 227 137 364
99·1)1) 7000 245 147 392
1)1)·01
7750 271 163 434
01·1)2 8500 297 179 476
02-03 9250 324 194 518
03·\)4 . 10000 350 210 560
04·1)5 11000 385 231 616
05-06 12125 424 255 679
Total 78125 2733 1642 4375
Source: The India Infrastructure Report Published by Ministry of Finance Govt of India

L\\\\\"IT&D
! I'll4l.I Gcucrab:o
-+- Ca c' Additioo
Year
""r

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.,
HUI
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Iud,
r q
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Kon
Mex

. K.h
P' '1li
PrJ'Jl
Sri 1.;
I
Swedl
U.K.


Yu .. s
-
SOL .f'
EXHIBIT 1.8
International Comparison (If Installed Capacity and Generation
r· , Billion)
Installed Capacity Generation
(M\\) (GWH)
/Yrar 1960 1970 1980 1990 1960 1970 1980  
Argetina 3474 6091 11988 17128 10459 2172i 396i6 4700i
Bangladesh 990 2520 2&53 7732
Brazil 4800 11233 33293 52892 22865 45460 139485 211324
Canada 23035 42825 81999 104140· 114378 204723 377518 440317
China 240180 67000 98600 59400 115900 300620 618000
Egypt 1167 4357 3583 11738 2639 7591 16910 37100
Finland 2834 4312 10422 13220 8628 21185 38710 45i36
France 21851 36219 62711 103410 72118 146966 246415 393713
) Germany 28393 47540 82585 99750 118986 242605 368770 389000
,
Greece 615 2488 5324 8508 2277 9820 22652 34126
Hungary 1465 2477 4842 6603 7617 14541 23876 27463
India 5580 16271 31247 75995 20123 61212 112820 264300
Indonesia 319 907 2786 11480 1400 2300 6981 29810
Iran 2 2197 5300 17554 6758 17150 53200
Iraq 350 680 1200 9000 852 2750 8000 28410
Italy 17686 30408 46824 56548 56240 117423 185741 190327
Japan 23657 68262 143698 194763 115498 359539 577521 757595

Korea (DPR)
3400 5500 9500 9139 16500 35000 53500
.",'11
,
Mexico J048 7318 16985 29274 10813 28707 66954 114277
: . Additicr!
Norway 6607 12910 20238 27195 31121 57606 84099 108836
Pakistan 656 2334 2518 9137 26 8727 15277 37999
Phi11ipines 765 5176 4632 6869 2731 8666 18032
Poland 6316 13710' 24723 30703 29307 64532 121871 128201
Sri Lanka 94 281 422 1289 302 816 1668 3150
Sweden
15307 27416 34189 34740 60645 96695 139515
U.K. 36702 62060 73643 73059 136970 249016 284937 298496
USA 186534 360327 630111 775396 844188 1639771 2354384 2807058
USSR 66721 166150 266757 333100 292274 740926 1293,878 1652800
Yugoslavia 2402 6972 14030 16470 8928 26024 59435 83033
Sourl"t': Powt'r Ot'vrlopment in India 1995-96
13
EXHmrr 1.9
International Comparison of Electricity Prices
(Indian Paise)
Cost per Kwh
Country Industrial Domestic
SI
T.
Portugal 397 591
Germany 339 647
Italy 316 528
Spain 268 582
OBCD 258 378
United Kingdom 227 406
Denmark 221 666
Luxembourg 221 384
Ireland
215 432
Netherlands 202 415
Belgium 197 5tH
Greece 197 341
France. 184 490
India 211 93
Source: Report on Energy Prices & Taxes· lst Quarter 1995
700
600
SIX)
It
-1400
11.0
I
1
300
200
100
0
1
>. ..
;
e
i
 
i
M
It
 
110
E
t  
'a
i
 
j
.B
]
 
I
"II
g
·2
oJ
:I
CAuIdry
EXHIBIT 1.10
Sector·wise Utilisation of Funds for Power
~ t  
(Figurt's Rs. crorf's)
SI. Period Total Funds Sector wise Utilis.ation
No. utilised
for Power Generation Transmission & Others
Distribution
Amount % Amount % Amount %'
1. 1st F.Y. Plan (1951·56) 260 105 40 132 51 23 ~
2 . 2nd F.Y. Plan (1956-61) 460 250 54 115
. 25
95 21
. "
3. 3rd F.Y. Plan (1961-66) 1252 777 62 301 24 174 14
4. Annual F.Y. Plan (1966-69) 1223 676 55 291 24 256 21
5. 4th F.Y. Plan (1969-74) 2931 1505 51 768 26 658 23
6. 5th F.Y. Plan (1974·79) 7541 4467 59 2016 27 1058 14
7. Annual Plan (1979-80) 2473 1429 58 720 29 324 13
8. 6th F.Y. Plan (1980-85) 18913 12116 64 4706 25 2091 11
9. 7th F.Y. Plan (1985-90) 38169 24528 64 9847 26 3794 HI
10. Annual Plan (1990-91) 10470 7003 67 2375 23 1092 10
11. Annual Plan (1991·92) 13904 10373 75 2661 19 870 6
12. 8th F.Y. Plan (192·97) Outlay 79730 49196 62 22432 28 8102 10
15
Transmission Line Manual
Chapter 2
Tower Types and Shapes
CONTENTS
Page
2.1 Scope
2.2 Types of Towers
2.2.2
  Towers
2.2.3 Conventional Guyed Tower
1
2.2.4 Chainette Guyed Tower
7
2.3 Tower Shapes
7
2.4 Tower Designation
7
2.4.2 Suspension Towers
8
2.4.3 Tension Towers
8
2.4.4 .Transposition Towers
8
2.4.5 Special Tower
Page
1
1
1
1
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
CHAPTER 2
TOWER TYPES AND SHAPES
2.1 SCOPE
2.1.1 The tower of various shapes had heen used in the
past without considering detrimental influence on the
environment. With conservation environmentalists attracting
the highest attention and the public becoming more and more
conscious of the detrimental effects of transmission line
towers on the environment and occupation of land,
transmission line tower designers have been endeavouring to
develop towers with sllch shapes which blend with the
environment. Other factors responsible for changes in
shapes of towers are the need for the use of higher
transmission voltages, limitation of right-of-way availability,
audible noise level, radio and T.V. interference, electrostatic
field aspects, etc. The types and shapes of Transmission
Line Towers used in India and in other countries are
discussed in this chapter.
2.2 TYPES OF TOWERS
2.2.1 The types of towers based on their constructional
features, which are in use on the power transmission line are
helow :
I. Self-Supporting Towers
2. Conventional Guyed Towers
  Chainette Guyed Towers
These are discussed in the subsequent paragraphs.
112.2 Self·Supporting Towers
Self-supporting broad based/narrow based latticed
steel towers are used in India and other countries. This type
\oftower has been in use in India from the beginning of this
century for EHV transmission lines. Self-supporting towers
e covered under Indian Standard (IS : 802) and other'
ational and International Standards. These are fabricated,
sing tested quality mild steel structurals or a combination
f tested quality mild steel and High tensile steel structurals
onforming to IS:2062 and IS:8500 respectively. As H.T.
1
steel conforming to IS: 8500 is not readily available in the
country, steel conforming to BS 4360 Gd 50B/ASTM A
572IJ1SNDE or any other InternationallNationai standards
can be used. Some of the countries such as ; apan, USSR,
Austria, Canada, France, etc., have explored use of other
material such as steel formed angle sections, tubular
sections, aluminium sections, etc., for fabrication of towers.
In the case of heavy angle and long span crossing towers,
some of the countries namely Russia, Norway, France, etc.
are using single phase self-supporting towers. Self-
supporting towers usually have square/rectangular base and
four separate footings. HoweveN'wer voltage narrow-based
towers having combined monoblock footings may be used
depending upon overall economy. Self-supporting towers as
compared to guyed towers have higher steel consumption.
Self supporting compactline design.
Compact tower may comprise fabricated steel body, cage
and groundwire peak, fitted with insulated cross-arms.
also .     of phases,
V insul_ator strings, etc. Compact towers iUiVereduced
dimensions and require sm3iier right-of-way and are suitable
for use in congested areas and for upgrading the voltage of
the existing Transmission Lines  
Self-supporting towers are shown in Figures 1 & 2.
2.2.3 Conventional Guyed Tower
2.2.3.1 These towers comprise portal structures fabricated in
"Y' and "V' shapes and have been in some of the
countries for EHV transmission lines upto 735 kV. The
guys may be internal or external. The guyed tower
including guy anchors occupy much larger land as compared
to self-supporting towers and as such this type of
construction· finds application in long unoccupied, waste
land, bush tracts in Canada, Sweden, Brazil, USSR
etc.
2.2.3.2 Compact guyed towers are used on compact lines.
The phases are arranged in such. a way that the phases are
not interspersed by grounded metal parts of Tower. The
phases can be placed in different configurations and are
insulated from the supports. The conventional guyed towers
ZONTAUWAS"
OWER
...!.

.,a:.
B-DEL T AlCA T HEAD TOWER
'.
PHASE-I
. ' .
.
.!..

• •

.,a.
SINGLE CIRCUIT TOWER
C-VERTlCAUBARREL TOWER
I'HASE-2 PHASE-J
E-TRIPLE POLE STRUCTURE
FIGURE I : SELFISUPPORTING
TOWERS
...
.a ..
-' .
J)()UBLE CIRCUIT TOWER
N
 
 
""
...,
 
 
""
""
$::l
5.
I NSUI,ATED
'FABRICATED
TOWER BODY
COMPACT TOWER
MULTICIRCUIT TOWERS
FIGURE 2
4
...
and compact guyed towers are shown in Figure 3.
2.2.4 Chainette Guyed Tower
Chainette guyed tower is also known as cross rope
suspension tower, and consists of two masts each of which
is supported by two guys and a cross rope which is
connected to the tops of two masts and supports the
insulator 'strings and conductor bundles in horizontal
formation ..
For angle towers, the practice is to use three
separate narrow based masts each for carrying one set of
hundle conductors or self-supporting towers. Each
. narrow based mast is supported with the help of two main
guys. Typical chainette guyed towers for suspension and
angle location are shown in Figure 4.
2.2.5 Guyed towers will in a separate I    
2.3 TOWER SHAPES
,
Tower shapes in use are as follows:
(i) Verticallbarrel Type
(ii) Horizontal/Wasp Waist Type
(iii) Delta/Cat Head
(iv) H-Structure Type
In India, tower shapes at (i) and (ii) are used for
single circuit line whereas tower shape at (i) has been used
for double circuit and multi-circuit lines. In other countries
al the above shapes have been used. Tower shape at (i) is
structurally more stable and ideally suitable for multi-circuit
lines. whereas tower shape at (ii) offer better performance
from the consideration of audible noise, radio and television
interference i.. electrostatic potential gradient at ground level
and at the edge of the right-of-way. These towers shapes
are shown in Figures 1 & 2.
2.4 TOWER DESIGNATION
2.4.1 Broadly, towers are designated as under:
(i)
Suspension Tower
(ii) Tension Tower
DOUBLE TENSION
i
SUSPENSION
:INSULATOR STRING
FIGURE 6 : ARRANGEMENT OF INSPAN TRANSPOSITION
(iii)
Transposition Tower
(iv) Special Tower
2.4.2 SUspension Towers
These towers are used on the lines for straight run
or for small angle of deviation upto 2° or 5°. Conductor on
sUspelisioh towers may be sUpported by means of I-Strings,
V·Strings, or a combination of I & V Strings.
2.4.3 Tension Towers
Tension towers also known as angle towers are used
at locations where the angle of deviation exceeds that
permissible on suspension towers and/or where the towers
are subject to upliti loads. These towers are further classified
as 2°/SO-15°, 15°.30°, 30°·60
0
IDead end towers and are used
according to the angle of deviation of line. One of the
classes of angle towers .depending on the site conditions is
illso designated as Section Tower. The section tower is
introduced in the line after 15 suspension towers to avoid
Cil<icade failure. The design of such towers is checked for
adequacy both for angle location requirernellts as well as for
arresting cac;cade failure.
....
Tower Types and SI
2.4.4 Transposition Towers
TranspoSition lOWers are used to transpose the.
conductors in three sections in such a way that each!
by rotation occupies each of the three phase positiO£
circuit. A typical transposition tower is shown in Figl
In another transposition arrangement called  
transposition' (Figure 6) the transposition is carri
1
:
near a tension tower due to greater ground ele
aVailable near the tower than in the mid span.
multiple tension insulator strings are connected baq
back through a strain ·plate. III the central phase
plate, a Single suspension insulator string having alf
double the No. of inSUlator discs and air gap
Suspended. The baJance work oomplises
Jumpers. ,
2.4.5 Special Tower
These towers are used allocations Such as  
involving long span river and valley crossings, cf
crossings, pOwer line crossings etc. falling Oll the line
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Transmission Line Manual
Chapter 3
Tower Geometry
3.1 Scope
3.2 Tower Anatomy
3.3 Bracing System
3.4 Tower Extensions
3.5 Tower Outline
3.6 Tower Height
3.7 Tower Width
3.8 Cross-arm Spread
CONTENTS
3.9 Typical Lengths of Insulator String on
Transmission Lines in India
Page
1
3
5
6
6
23
26
28
3.1
3.1.
3.2
3.2 .
3.2'0-.1
3.2.,)
3.2.3.1
3.2.'1
3.2.4.1
3
5
r
)
S
3
5
 
v"at""" v
TOWER GEOMETRY
1 SCOPE
3.2
3.2.1
The Chapter describes anatomy of tower and factors involved in determining the outlines of the
towers. The selection of an optimum outline together with right type of bracing system contribute to
a large extent in developing an economical design of transmission line tower. The geometry of a
tower has also a bearing on aesthetic values. The tower anatomy and tower outline are discussed
below:
TOWER ANATOMY
A tower is constituted of the following components as shown in Figure-1
Peak
Cross Arm
Boom
Cage
Tower Body
Body Extension
Leg Extension
Stub/Anchor Bolts and Base Plate Assembly
A brief description of each component of the tower is given as under:
3.2.2 Peak
3.2.2.1 It is the portion of tower above the top cross arm in case of vertical configuration tower and above
the boom in case of horizontal configuration tower. The function of the peak is to support the
groundwire in suspension clamp and tension clamp at suspension and angle tower locations re-
spectively. The height of the peak depends upon specified angle of shield and mid span clearance.
3.2.3 Cage
3.2.3.1 The portion between peak and tower body in vertical configuration towers is called Cage. The
cross-section of cage is generally square and it may be uniform or tapered throughout its height
depending upon loads. It comprises tower legs interconnected by bracings are used in the panel of
cage where cross-arms are connected to the cage or where slope changes for proper distribution of
torsion.
3.2.4 Cross-Arm
3.2.4.1 The function of a cross-arm in case of vertical configuration tower is to support conductor/ground
wire. The number of cross arms depend upon number of circuits, tower configuration and conduc-
tor/groundwire arrangement. The cross-arm for ground wires consists of fabricated steel work and
that for conductor may be insulated type or consist of fabricated steel work. The dimension of a
cross-arm depends upon the line voltage, type and configuration of insulator string, minimum fram-
ing angle from the requirement of mechanical stress distribution etc. At large angle of line deviation,
rectangular/trapezc1idal cross-arm with pilot string on outer side are used to maintain live conductor
to grounded metal clearance. The lower members of the cross -arm are called main members and
the upper members as tie members/compression members depending upon direction of vertical
loads.
2

't3.2.E
Cross arm--
3 ...
  Bracing
Tower body
3.3.1
Concrete level
Body extension
G. l:.:..,;::;;::::11\
Ground level
Single Circuit Tower
Double Circuit Tower
3.3.2
3.3.2.
Vertical/Barrel Type Towers
Boom level
3.3.3
Bracing
3.3 n 1
Concrete level
'Horizontal/Wasp Waist .. Type Tower
Figure 1: Tower Anatomy
3.3."
ge
Waist lev
I.e level
-
3.2.5 Boom
3.2.5.1 It is generally a rectangular beam of uniform cross-section in the middle, but tapered in the end
sections and form part of horizontal configuration towers (self supporting, guyed etc.) The boom is
attached to the tower body and it supports power conductors.
3.2.6 Tower Body
3.2.6.1 Tower body is the main portion of the tower to connecting cagelboom to the tower foundation or
body extension or leg extension. It comprises tower legs inter-connected by bracings and redun-
dant members. It is generally square in shape. In another arrangement, a tower body comprises
two columns connected on one of their ends to the foundations and on the other ends to the boom
to which conductors are attached through the insulator strings.
3.3
3.3.1
BRACING SYSTEM
Peak, cage, tower body, body extension, leg extension, etc. comprises legs, bracings and redundants.
The bracing and redundants are provided for inter-connecting the legs as also to afford desired
slenderness ratio for economical tower design. The Framing Angle between bracings, main leg
members and (both bracing and leg member) shall not be less than 15°Bracing patterns are single
web system, double web or warren system, Pratt System, Portal System, Diamond Bracing
system, and multiple bracing system. Each of the bracking system, shown in Figure 2, is described
below.
3.3.2 Single Web System
3.3.2.1 It comprises a system either of diagonals and struts or of diagonals only. In diagonal and strut
system, struts are designed in compression while diagonals in tension, whereas in a system with all
diagonals the members are designed both for tension and compressive loads to permit reversal of
the applied external shear. This system is particularly used for narrow base t o w   r s ~ in cross-arm
griders and for portal type towers. This system can be used with advantage for 66 kV single circuit
line towers.
It is preferable to keep the four faces identical in case of 66 kv single circuit tower using single web
system as it results in lighter leg member sizes. Single web system has little application for wide
base HV and EHV towers.
3.3.3 Double Web or Warren System
3.3.3.1 This system is made up with diagonal cross-bracings. Shear is equally distributed between the two
diagonals, one in compression and other in tension. Both diagonals are designed for tension and
compressive loads in order to permit reversal of externally applied shears. The diagonal bracings
are connected at their cross points. The tension diagonal gives an effective support to the compres-
sion diagonal at the point of their connections, and reduces the unsupported length of bracings
which results in lighter sizes of bracings members. This system is used for both large and small
towers and can be economically adopted through out the cage and body of suspension and small
angle towers and also in wide base large towers. In lower one or two panels in case of wide base
towers, diamond or portal system of bracing is generally more suitable from the consideration of
rigidity. These bracings result in better distribution of loads in legs and footings.
3.3.4 Pratt System
3.3.4.1 Shear is carried entirely by one of the diagonal members under tension. Other diagonal is assumed
to be carrying no stress Struts, i.e.,horizontal member in compression are necessary at every panel
4
Strut
~   . . . .
J
I
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I
(al (bl
Single Web System
A_..I.-_A
(e)
Portal System
(g)
Multiple Bracing System
(Lighter Tower)
Hip Bracing
Warren System
(h)
,,' i "
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, I ' , ,
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,
View 1-1
View 2-2
Multiple Bracing System
(Heavier Tower)
Tower Geometry
,,----
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Pratt System
Diamond Bracing System
3.
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lO provlae commul1Y 10 me oraclng syslem. Aovamage or mls SYSlem IS mal me sizes or olagonal
members would be small because these are designed for high slenderness ratio in order to make
them in tension. This type of bracings result in large deflection of tower under heavy loadings,
because the tension members are slender in cross-section than compression members for similar
loading. If such a tower is over-loaded, the in-active diagonal will fail incompression due to large
deflection in the panel, although the active tension member can very well take the tension loads.
This system of bracing impart torsional stresses in leg members of the square based tower and also
result in unequal shears at the top of four stubs for the design.
3.3.5 Portal System (Shear Divided 50:50 between Diagonals K·System)
3.3.5.1 The diagonals and horizontal members are designed for both tension and compression forces. The
horizontal members are supported at mid-length by the diagonals, one half of the horizontal mem-
bers is in compression and the other half in tension. The portal system is used for approximately the
same size of panels as that for Pratt System of bracings in conjunction with warren system of
bracings. It has been found advantageous to use the portal system for bottom panels, extensions
and heavy river crossings towers when rigidity is a prime consideration. If hill side or comer exten-
sions are anticipated, the portal panel is particularly attractive due to its versatility of application.
3.3.6 Diamond Bracing System
3.3.6.1 Somewhat similar to the Warren system, this bracing arrangement can also be derived from the
Portal system by inverting every second panel. As for each of these systems, all diagonals are
designed for tension and compression. Applicable to panel of approximately the same size as the
pratt and portal systems, this arrangement has the advantage that the horizontal members carry no
primary loads and are designed as redundant supports.
3.3.7 Multiple Bracing System
3.3.7.1 The EHV towers where the torsional loads are of high magnitude, the cage width is kept large to
resist the torsional loads. Standard Warren system, if used, give longer unsupported lengths of
legs and bracings which increases the weight of tower disproportionately, for such tower, multiple
system of bracings is used. The advantage of this system in addition to reduction in forces in the
bracings is that the unsupported lengths of leg members and bracings are reduced substantially
thereby increasing their strength and reducing the member sizes. Although there is an incre.as.e in
the number of bolts, fabrication and erection cost, yet the above system gives overall reduction in
weight and cost of steel.
The bracings on the transverse and longitudinal faces may be staggered as reduction in tower
weight is achieved by staggering the bracings. The system is preferable only for suspension and
medium angle towers. In heavy angle and dead end towers, in order to have more rigidity, bracing
on transfers and longitudinal faces should not be staggered.
3.4 TOWER EXTENSIONS
3.4.1 Body Extension
Body extension is used to increase the height of tower with a view to obtaining the required mini-
mum ground clearance over road crossings, river crossings, ground obstacles etc. Body extensions
upto 7.5 m height in steps of 2.5 m can be used and thus form a part of standard tower. For body
extensions having greater heights say 25 m, the suitability of the standard tower is checked by
reducing the span length and angle of deviation. Practice in the tower industry is also to specify
negative body extension i.e. a portion of the tower body is truncated.
For lines transversing in hilly terrain, negative body extension can be used in tension towers from
consideration of economy.
6 Tower Geometry
3.4.2 Leg Extensions
3.4.2.1 Leg extensions are used either with anyone leg or any pair of legs at locations ~ h   r   footings of the
towers are at different levels. Leg extensions are generally used in hilly regions to reduce benching
or cutting. The alignment of leg extension is done with the first section of a tower. Installation of leg
extension calls for high degree of expertise in tower erection.
3.4.3 Stubs/Anchor Bolts and Base Plate Assembly
3.4.3.1 Stubs/anchor, bolts and base plate assembly connect the tower body/body extension including leg
extension to the foundations. Cleats are provided with the stub to offer resistance against uprooting
0f the stub. A stub set consists of four members whereas the number of anchor bolts depends upon
uplift and shear on the bolts.
3.5 TOWER OUTLINE
3.5.1 Tower Outline is fixed from the requirement of minimum ground clearance, terrain type, right of way
limitation, electrical clearances etc. Tower outline is defined in terms of the following parameters:
3.5.1.1 Tower Heights
Minimum ground clearance
Maximum sag including creep effect of conductor
Length of suspension insulator string assembly
Vertical spacing between power conductors
Location of ground wire
Angle of shield
Minimum mid span clearance
Tension insulator Drop
3.5.1.2· Tower Width
At Base or Ground level
At Waist level
At Cross-arm/Boom level
3.5.1.3 Cross Arm Spread
Type of insulator string assembly
Suspension, I-string or V-string.
Tension
Pilot
Swing angle
Suspension String Assembly
Conductor jumper
Phase to phase horizontal spacing
Each of the above parameters is discussed in the subsequent paragraphs
3.6 TOWER HEIGHT
3.6.1 Minimum Ground Clearance
'\
.;.1
; of the
l'l"hing
, f leg
I: .J leg
rooting
Il:! upon
way
neters:
IUlations
3.6.2
laid down by Power Telecommunication vo-oralnallon   'U' • " ...... _ ... _
Crossing on Railway Tracks-1987 laid down by Indian Railways and other applicable regulations laid
down by different National Agencies like Indian Road Congress, Ministry of Surface Transports etc.
The values of clearances required for lines of different voltage ratings are given in Chapter 4 of this
manual.
Maximum Sag including Effect of Conductor Creep
3.6.2.1 The size and type of conductor (AAC, ACSR, AAAC. ACAR, AACSR), climatic
conditions(wind,temp,snow)and span length determined the conductor sag. The maximum sag of
a conductor occurs at maximum temperature and still wind condition. The maximum sag is consid-
ered in fixing the height of a line support. In snowy region, the maximum sag may occur at 0°and
nil wind for ice coated conductors.
3.6.2.2 Creep in a conductor is defined as permanent set in the conductor. It is a continuous process and
takes place throughout its life. The rate of creep is higher initially but decreases with time since in
serVice. Creep compensation is provided by either of the following methods :-
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
Pretensioning of conductor before stringing
Over tensioning of the conductor in the form of temperature correction
By providing extra ground clearance
By a combination of partly over tensioning of conductor and partly providing extra Ground
clearance.
The procedure for determining sag and creep compensation in respect of conductor is dealt with in
Chapter 5 of this manual.
3.6.3 Maximum Sag of Groundwire/Minimum Mid Span ClearanceS/Angie of Shield
The function of groundwire is to provide protection to the power conductors against direct lightning
stroke and to conduct the lightning current to the nearest earthed point when contacted by a light-
ning stroke. The above functions are performed by the ground wire (s) based on selection of angle
of shield, mid span cfearance and coordination of groundwire sag with that of conductor. The
material and size of groundwire (galvanized stranded steel, alumeweld, ACSR, ACAR, AAC, AACSR)
depends upon the criteria for sag coordination and extent of mutual coupling. The effect of cre.ep in
galvanised stranded steel groundwire being negligible is not taken in account while deciding the s.ag.
The location of groundwire (s) determine the height of groundwire peak. Single groundwire has
been used in India for transmission line towers upto 220 kV having verticallbarrel type configuration
and two groundwires for horizontal/wasp waist type towers of all voltages and 400 kV verticallbarrel
type towers.
The detailed procedure for coordination of groundwire sag. with that of power conductor and values
of mid span clearances and angle of shield are dealt with in Chapters 4 and 5.
3.6.4 Length of Insulator String Assembly·
3.6.4.1 The length of suspension insulator string in combination with minimum ground clearance and maxi-
mum conductor sag determine the height of (i) lowest crossarm in case of verticallbarrel/Delta type
suspension tower and (ii)boom in case of horizontal wasp waist type suspension tower whereas the
length of suspension insulated string in conjunction with phase to grounded metal clearance deter-
mines the spacing between cross- arms in case of verticallbarrel type tower. The length of an
insulator string is a function of insulation -level (BIL and SIL), power frequency voltage (service
voltage dynamic over voltage) and service conditions (Pollution, attitude humidity). The depth of the
jumper is affected by phase to grounded metal clearance which its.elf is determined from BIL, SIL,
8 Tower Geometry
service voltage, short circuit level, altitude, humidity etc. For determining electrical clearances, the
length of the suspension insulator string is defined as the distance between the centre line of con-
ductor and the point of contact of ball hook/anchor shackle with the hanger/U-bolt whereas the
length of tension insulator string is defined as the distance between the point of attachment of the
string to the strain plate at cross arm upto the jumper take off point of tension clamp. The length of
V string for the purpose of determining the height of tower is the vertical distance between the lower
main member of cross arm and ,centre of lowest conductor. For preparing clearance diagram the
nearest live part from the grounded metal has to be considered. The number and size of discs.,
length of single and double suspension and tension string for various system voltages are given in
Chapter 4 of this manual.
Typical arrangements of Insulator Strings are shown in Figures as indicated below:
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
Figure 8
Figure 9
Figure 10
Figure 11
Figure 12
Figure 13
Figure 14
Figure 15
Figure 16
Typical Insulator String Arrangement for 220 kV AC Transmission Line
Single Suspension Insulator String for 400 kV AC Transmission Lines
Typical Arrangement of Single Suspension String for 400 kV Lines with Twin Bundled
Conductor
Typical Arrangement of Double Suspension String (For 400 kV Lines with Twin
Bundled Conductor)
Single Tension Insulator String for 400 kV Transmission Lines
Typical Arrangement of Double Tension String for 400 kV Lines with Twin Bundled
Conductor
400 kV AC "V" Suspension with AGS Clamp for Twin Moose
400 kV AC Quadruple V Suspension Set for ACSR Bersimis (35.1 6)
Quadruple Deadend Assembly for 400 kV AC ACSR Bersimis
800 kV Single V-Suspension Insulator String for Quad "Moose" Bundle 300 KN x
2(31 pcs. per String)
800 kV Single V-Suspension Insulator String for Quad "Moose" Bundle 400 KN x
2(29 pcs. per String)
800 kV Double V-Suspension Insulator String for Quad "Moose" Bundle 300 KN x _
2(31 pcs. per String)
± 500 kV DC "vn Suspension Insulator Strings for Four ACSR Bersimis (35.1 mm
Dia)
± 500 kV DC Quadruple Tension Insulator String Four ACSR Bersimis
3.6.5 Vertical Spacing between Power Conductors/Minimum Vertical Phase to Phase Clearances/
Minimum Phase to Grounded Metal Clearances
3.6.5.1 The vertical spacing between power conductors and between power conductor and groundwire is
controlled by mechanical considerations (galloping/clashing and electrical consideration) (phase to
phase and phase to grounded metal clearance requirements. The minimum phase to phase and
phase to grounded metal clearances are generally determined on the basis of lightning impulse
levels for lines of voltages upto 300 kV.
For lines voltages as are 300 kV, the minimum phase to phase and phase to grounded metal clear-
ance are based on switching impulse level. The minimum phase to grounded metal clearance is
affected by power frequency. The dynamic over voltage/service, voltage, altitude, humidity and
temperature also. The minimum phase to grounded metal clearance is ascertained from the light-
ning impulse level for lines upto 300 kV and switching impulse level for lines voltages above 300 kV
as also power frequency dynamic over voltagel service voltage considering altitude, humidity and
temperature also. The minimum phase to phase and phase grounded metal clearances for different
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Figure 5: Typical Arrangement of Single Suspension String for 400 kY
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Figure. 6: Typical Arrangement of Double Suspension String \for 400 kV
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Figure 7 : Single Tension Insulator String for 400 kV AC Transmission Lines
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: H. Ii ball eye
Arcin 9 horn
Socke t clevis
Yoke plate
[rading ring
Clevis eye
Susp en sian clamp
with retaining rod
Figur e
wi' T n In r" ~   ";In'' 'ct--
9. V Suspension with AGS Clamp for Twin Moose
_._. -" -- '"  
22 r/> bolt
1. Anchor shackle
2. link strap
3. H. H. ball eye
4. T. S. arcing horn
5. Socket clevis
6. Spacing yoke
7. Bottom guard ring
8. U clevis
9. Susp ension clamp
10. Armour rod
Figure :10. 400 kV A ( Quadruple V Suspension Set for ACSR Bersimis (35.1 ct»
 
-"
CJ")
Qi

....
G)
('I)

Cb

1_
Nom. 5900 Min. 5745
r
130 1130.
175 1100 11001210 3910
670-820
1-6131 max. ..-/
I.. 1300 .. /
72S
This bolt will be provided
with sped .. 1 nut for corona g
protection co
725
-.-- - =:-.
---- -
 
;:
• .:.IL ____ .:.-_
':'-:::-=-=-.-
....
U"\
 
....
""'
figure 11
Quadruple Oeadend Assembly for 400kV AC ACSR Bersimis
'1. Anchor shackle
2. Yoke plate
3. Anctllr shackle
4. Yoke plate
5. Arcing horn
6. Ball clevis
7. Socket clevis
8. Yoke plate
9. Anchor shackle
10. Yoke plate
11. (levis eye
12. Corona central ring
13. Sag adjusting device
14. Extension link
15. Dead end assembly
11650·
:Q)- Tower Fitting
240
Figure 12: BOOkV
450
1800 max.
c:>
V'I
oj
=.
=
oj
U"I
2.30
=
U"I
C7'
=
CD
IJ"I
..,g
r
I
Item Description Main material Reqd. Cat No.
<D
Towtr fitting Steel 2
Q). ·U-Clevi& Steel 2
Q) Horn holder Steel 2
G>
Ball Clevis   tension 2
'(3)


Porcelain 29x2
@. Arcing horn Steel 2
(j) Arcing horn Steel 4
(]) Socket Clevis Ductile iron 2
G> Yoke Steel 1
@ Clevis eye Steel 4
<!) Suspension chimp Aluminium alloy 4
@ 90° Clevis Clevis Ductil.. iron 1
@ 90· (levis eye tension
sf
1
l@ Yoke Steel 1
@ link
':Ilgh tension
steel
2
@ Anchor shilckle tension 4
Min. breaking strength of string
Suitilble conductor size of clilmp
Type of ball and socket pilrts
Note:- 11 General Tolerance on
a) Length of hardware components :!: 37mm
.b) Insulator string:!: 190mm
21 Air gaps between live parts and tower body
shall be as per clearance diagram
Insulator String for o.uad 'Moose' Bundle

0)


Ci)
(!)


rigure 'JL: oOOr<V .:>inyle '{ -S\Jspt;.nSlun IoISU.dt0. S. fL. (JaL 'M .)S, B "d .
300KN X 2 (31 pcs./String)

co

""',.


"+/
/,9 ,
i?o

'<90",
",0+
./
Detail of(!)- Tower Fitting
250 290
11560
-'
l
6''5i's
450
1800 Max.
<=>
Ln
-.3
<=>
<=>
-.3
Ln
<=>
Ln
a-.
<=>
co
Ln
'-D
Item Description Main material Reqd. Cat No.
CD
Tower fitting Steel 2
a>
U-Clevi& Steel 2
Q) Horn holder Steel 2
@ Ball C(evis
Mign. tension
   
2
(j)
'SL I .. tor
Porcelain Z9xZ
@ Arcing horn Steel 2
(j)
Arcing, horn Steel 4
(]) Socket Clevis Ductile iron 2
(j) Yoke Steel 1
@ Clevis eye Steel 4
Q) Suspension clamp Aluminium alloy 4
@ 90
0
Clevis Clevis Ductile iron 1
@ 90
0
Clevis eye
High tension
steel
1

Yoke Steel 1
@ Extension link
High, tension
steel
2
@ Anchor shackle L tension 4
Min. breaking strength of string
Suitabl. conductor size or clamp
Type of ball and socket parts
Note:- 1) General Tolerance on
al Length of hardware components .t·39mm
bl Insulator string
21 Air gaps between live parts and tower b"ody
shall be as per clearance diagram
Figure 13: 800 kV Single V - Suspension Insulator String for o.uad 'Moose' Bundle
400KN x 2 (29pcs.lString)
I
Item Description Hain material Reqd.
D
90° Clevis eye
High tension
"Steel
4
D
Compression damp Aluminium 4
3) Horn holder Steel 2
1(4) Ball clevis
High., tension

2
5) Suspension clamp Porclean 31x2
6) Arcing horn Steel 2
7) Arcing ring Steel 1
i) Corona shidd ring Aluminium
,

Socket eye Ductile iron 2
Ir9) 90° Clevis Clevis Ductile iron 4

Q.uadruple yoke Ductile 'ron 1
11) Yoke Steel 2
12) 90° Clevis Clevis Ductile iron 4
®
adjustable
pia e
Steel 4

Anchor shackle I tension 4
(15) Adjustable pl.te Steel 2
I Suitable conductor size of clamp
Hin. breaking strength of string excePt-
compression clamp .
Type of ballal"idsocket parts
Cat No.
,
I
I
I
I
6045
5000
Arcing horn
(orona shield ring
\_ .. _--_ ..
Details 0 f CD -Clevis Eye
25
.j.
t----cJ---h·-
'"
2S
,,: ;
. :   . ,,';" ,.
Note:
1. Genenll tolerance on
I·al Length of hardware components :!:53 mm
lill Insulator string :!:190 mm
2. Air gaps between live parts and tower body
shalt be as per clearance diagram
Figure 14: 800 kV Double Tension Insulator String for Quad 'Moose'
Bundle 300KNx2 (31 pes./String)
c:>
VI
oj
<:>
VI
oj
I\)
o
Qi


G)
(t)


~ . . 320 _/
700
r-
l.I"I
-J"!
457
1100
"" '"
~ "-
"
. ~   : : . ~   : : .
",# ",.;"::.'0"::.
-i:--Y 1. Anchor shackle
2. Ball eye
3. Socket clevis
4. Spacing yoke
S. Bottom guard ring
6. Susp ens ion clamp
7. U-tlevis
8. Armour rod
Figure 15: :!:500 kV DC IV' Suspension Insulator Strings for Four A CSR BERSIMIS. (35'.1 mm dial
130
,"",.
Nominal in central Dosition
725
17S '100 /100/150 95
170x38=64U
Min. 490'Mu. 8810 with sa osition
I. 11.00 -/
r--.( ,
r l r ~ . ~ n d
.   . ~
c:>
~

...,
7'- " "" " ~
1.- - 1420 ~
=
= CIO
72S
.....
'" oJ"
r-
'" oJ"
Figure 16: :!:500 kV DC Uuadruple'Tension Insulator String Four ACSR BERSIMIS
1. Anchor shackle
2. Yoke plate
3. Anchor shackle
4. Yoke plate
5. Ball clevis
6. Socket clevis
7. Spacing yoke
8. Anchor shackle
9. (orona ring
10. (levis eye
11. Spacing yoke
12. Adjus table plate
13. Extension link
14. Dead.end damp
15. Dead Elnd damp
I\)
I\)
Qi
~
...,
G)
(I)
o
3
(I)
~
  "I I qC1J C1IIU I qUJ. vvnerever elevauon omerence oelWeen twO aOJacem
tower is considerable, the vertical clearances betWeen phases at the tension tower is determined by
phase to phase switching/lightning impulse clearance between the highest point of the shielding
ring/atoning horn of the tension insulator string of the lower phase and the lowest point of the jumper
of the upper phase.
3.6.6 Tension Insulator Drop
3.6.6.1 The tension string/assumes position along the line of catenary of the conductor and therefore its
inclination with respect to horizontal varies with change in sag. The Tension Insulator Drop is the
vertical displacement of the jumper leg point w.r.t attachment point of tension string at strain plate.
The drop is maximum under maximum sag condition and is lowest at minimum sag condition. While
drawing the clearance diagram it is necessary to check the clearance of jumper for both minimum
and maximum drop conditions of insulator string.
3.6.6.2 In case of considerable difference in the elevations of adjacent towers, the jumper leg and of
insulator string of the tower at lower elevation may go up due to null point lying outside the span and
the insulator drop maybe negative leading to insufficient live conductor to grounded metal clearance
between the jumper and the cross-arm. Under such cases, the jumper may be modified to obtain
the appropriate clearance.
3.7 TOWER WIDTH
3.7.1 The width of the tower is specified at base, waist and cross-arm/boom level.
3.7.2 Base Width
3.7.2.1 The spacing between the tower footings i.e. base width at concrete level is the distance from the
centre of gravity of the corner leg angle to that of the adjacentcorner leg angle. The width depends
upon the magnitude of the physical loads imposed upon the towers (calculated from the size, type of
conductors and wind loads) and also depends upon the height of the application of external loads
from ground level. Towers with larger base width result in low footing cost and lighter main leg
members at the expense of longer bracing members. There is a particular base width which gives
the best compromise and for which total cost of the tower and foundations is minimum. Through
experience covering over a number of years, certain empirical relations have also been developed
which are good guide in determining the base width. The base width of the tower is determined from
the formula as given below:
B
B
M
K
=
=
=
=

Base width of tower at ground level in centimeters
Overturning moment, in kg-m
A constant
The value of K varies from 1.35 to 2.5 and 1.93 is an average value.
The determination of the correct value of the constant for suspension and angle towers becaus.e of
such a wide range suggested, may lead to differing results. With a view to arriving at a simpler
relationship, Figures relating to total weight of tower and their base widths are tabulated in Table 3.2
for typical towers of all voltage classes both single and double circuits. It is seen that the base width
generally varies between 1/4 to 1/6 of the overall height of the tower upto concrete level- the values
may be 1/6 for suspension tower, 1/5 for medium angle towers and 1/4 for heavy angle towers.
Where the way leave is a problem, the design is optimized with the maximum permissible bas.e
width.
24
b
I
,h

0: l

r- or a .. -jset
Figure17(a):Vertical Spacing Between Two Adjacent Cross-arms or Two
Power Conductors in Case of Suspension Tower
9, should be limited to oc for determini.nO.,minimum vertical spacing
/Fora:<OJ tForO, <'cr< B2
Vertical spacing = H+b+h H+b+h
Height of hanger (li) = (x, +B+C) - S Cos 9, H=(x
2
+B+C)-S Cos 9
2
(Considering from upper or (x
2
+B+C) - S Cos 9,
x-arm main member)
Tower Geometry
b = (S+x,+B+C) Cos r:C
b=S   +(x, +B+C) Cos 1 j" -whichever is
(S+x2+B+C) Cos oc
h=(a+off set) tan oc
Notes:
9, =
9
2
=
B =
C =
x, =
x
2
=
S =
h = (a +off set) tan oc
a = b tan oc '
a = (S2+x,+B+C)+Sin oc
a= S Sin 9, +(x, +B+C) Sin oc
or
= (S+x
2
+B+C) sin oc
Value of 'a' should correspond to greater value of 'b'
Swing angle of the suspension string.
Maximum swing angle of the suspension string.
Flange width of the nearest projecting angle section
Distance of centre of gravity of the main angle section
Electrical clearances corresponding to BIUSIL
Electrical clearances corresponding to dynamic over voltage/power frequency voltage.
Lenoth of suspension insulator string. The minimum value of string length shall be used
\
,
[
b
h
a
/)
y L.   ~ ~ __ -+----I
Figure 17Ibl: Vertical SpiKing Bet"'een two Adjacent Cross...:.arms
. or two Power Conductors in Case of Tension Towers
oc > 9.
Vertical spacing = Y +b+h
Y+b+h
Depth of jumper terminal point below cross-arm level
D = 1.10 x Maximum electrical clearance corresponding to Bil or Sil
h=
a=
a=
D Cos 9
3
+ (x, +BtC) Cos oc
or
(D+X2+B+C) Cos oc
(a+St Sin 41/2+off set) tan oc
D Sin 9
3
+(x, +B+C) Sin oc
or
(D+X2+B+C) Sinoc
Y' = Sag of the minimum span specified
b=D Cos 9
3
+(x, +B+C) Cos oc
or Whichever is greater
D Cos 9. + (x
2
+B+C) Cos oc
h = (a+St Sin ,/2+offset) tan oc
a = D Sin 9
3
+ (x, +B+C) Sin oc
or
a = D sin 9. +(x2+B+C) Sin oc
Sag of minimum span excluding twice length of tens.ion insulator
string .
This value may -be worked out for maximum sag as well as minimum sag and a relevant value is adopted.
26 Tower Geometry
In medium and heavy angle towers, for the bracings to carry minimum possible loads, it is sug-
gested that the base width and the slopes of the leg members may be adjusted in such a manner
that the legs when extended may preferably meet at the line of action of the resultant loads. This
reduces the forces in bracings to a large extent and a stronger and more stable tower emerges.
Typical slopes of bottom most leg member with vertical for various voltage rating tower are given
in Table 3.1
Table 3.1
Typi.cal Slopes of Tower Legs for Various Voltages
Voltage Rating Type of Towers Slope of Leg
Upto 220 kV Suspension
4°_9°
angle
70-11 °
dead end 8°-13°
400 kV and above Suspension 8° -12°
angle 10° - 17°
dead end 11° - 15°
3.7.3 Width at Waist Level
3.7.3.1 Width at the waist level is defined as the width at waist line in case of horizontal/wasp waist towers.
For horizontal configuration, the width at:the waist level is found to vary from 1/1.5 to 1/2.5 of base
width depending upon the slope of the 199.
3.7.4 Width of Cross-Arm Level
3.7.4.1 Width at cross-arm level is defined as the width of the tower at the level of lower cross- arm in case
of barrel type tower. This width is mainly decided by torsion loading. The torsional stresses are
evenly distributed on the four faces of the square configuration tower. The larger width reduces
torsional forces transmitted to the bracings below that level and thus helps in reducing the forces in
bracings of the tower body. The cage width is decided in a manner that the angle between lower
main member and the tie member of the same cross-arm and that between bracings and belts is not
less than 15° in line with the general structural engineering practices as an angle less than 15° may
introduce bending stresses in the members.
3.8 CROSS-ARM SPREAD
3.8.1 The cross arm spread of a suspension and a tension tower is a function of Basic Impulse Level/
Switching Impulse Level and power frequency over voltage, configuration of insulator strings, angle
of swings of suspension string in case of suspension tower and that of jumper in case of tension
tower, phase to phase spacing etc. These parameters are described in Chapter 4 of the Manual.
3.8.2 Length of Cross-arm for Suspension Towers
3.8.2.1 Alternative-I: Insulator String-I Configuration
The length of the cross-arm is determined corresponding to nil swing and two swing an ales and the
iQ
I.,
~ I
~ I
E
". :
  ~ f
~ I L
III
,.
"'II
II
III
c
~ o
!
I I ~
II .
:;
b
CD "n) n: -:: CO -,:::::      
"'l =:...- --=.J
':1
¢ a d
TABLE 3.2
Base width top hamper width and height for typical 66/132/220/400 kV standard towers
-------- --- ------ ---- ------
SI. Type of Tower Width at Width at top Total Base width at Vertical Horizontal Tower
No. hamper/width height concrete spacing distance weight
Concrete Top at concrete above level: Total between between
level Hamper level ground height above conductors conductors
- level concrete level
(mm) (mm)
(mm) (mm) (mm) (kgs)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 66 kV: Double Circuit
A (0-2°) 3.075 1,000 1:3.08 19,600 1 :6.1 2,170 4,270 1.382
B (2°_30°) 4,400 1,075 1:4.10 18,895 1:4.3 2,060 4,880 2,100
C (30°_60°)
4,500 1,150 1:3.91 20,090 1 :4.4 2,440 6,000 2,782
2. 66 kV: Single Circuit
A (0-2°) 1.675 760 1:2.20 15,910 1:9.5 1.030 4,040 1.064
B (2°-30°)
2,590 915 1:2.80 15,425 1:6 1.030 4,270 1,283
C (30°_60
0
)
3,050 1,220 1 :2.50 16,240 1:5.3 1,220 4,880 1,783
3 132 kV:Double Circuit
A (0-2°) 4,050 1,250 1:3.24 26,230 1:6.4 3,965 7,020 3.10
B (0-15°)
5,490 1,540 1:3.56 26,545 1:4.83 3,965 7,320 3.97
C (15°_30°)
4,880 1,665 1:2.87 26,545 1:5.44 3,965 7,320 4.60
D (30
0
-60'/D.E.)
6,400 1,840 1:3.47 28,060 1:4.38 4,270 8,540 6.00
4. 132 kV: Single Circuil
A (0_2°) 3,920 1,300 1:3.0 23,140 1:6 4,200 7,140 2.17
B (0-15°)
4,224 1,400 1:3.0 22,060 1:5.2 4,200 6,290 2.89
C (15°-30°)
4,828 1,600 1:3.0 22,685 1:4.7 4,200 7,150 3.74
D (30°-60"/D.E.)
6,135 2,000 1:3.0 24,060 1 :4 4,200 8,820 4.82
5. 220 kV:Double Circuil
A
· · 7,000 2,260 1:3.09 31,650 1:4.52 5,200 9,900 4.15
B · · 8,900 2,500 1:3.56 31,300 1:3.52 5,200 10,100 6.04
C · ·
10,344 3,000 1:3.45 29,900 1:2.90 5,200 9,700 8.69
6. 220 kV Single Circuit

· ·
4,500 1,500 1:3.0 28,555 1:6.3 5,200 8,500 2.57
B
· · 5,300 1,700 1 :3.12 29,080 1:5.48 5,250 10,500 3.60
..--.
C · ·
7,000 2,000 1:3.50 31,680 1:4.52 6,700 12,600 5.04
7. 220 kV: Single Circuit
Horizontal Configuration 4,000 2,640 1 :1.5 18,050 1:4.51 - 7,400
A
·
..
4,800 3,300 1:1.5 18,600 1:3.9 - 8,800
B
· ·
5,800 3,600 1 :1.61 20,200 ; :3-:5 - 8,800
C
· ·
8. 400 kV: Single Circuit
A
5,000 2,000 1:2.5 34,100 1:6,82 7,800 12,760 6.517
B (2
0
-1 0)
6,700 2,000 1:3.35 33,100 1:4.94 7,800 12,6l«l 11.261
C
_ 6,900 2,200 1:3.13 33,010 1:4.78 7,800 14,000 14,473
D 3O°-60°/D.E.)
7,500 2,400 1:3,12 33,410 1:4.45 8,100 16,200 17.603
9. + 500 kVDC
A+O (Susp.) 10,000 2,200 0.220 35,900 0.2803
...
12,800 . ..
B+O (Susp.) 10,000 2,600 0.260 35,400 0.2843 .- 13,300 ...
8+0 (Tension) 10,000 2,600 0.260 35,750 0.2815 .- 15,400 ...
C+O (Tension) 11,400 3,000 0.2632 35,925 0.3193
...
14,300
_.
0+0 (Tension) 11,400 3,000 0.2632 35,875 0.3198
...
18,700 -

28 Tower Geometry
load (maximum) and vertical load and load (average) and vertical load. At nil and
medium swing angle the electrical air clearance cJrresponds to lightning impulse level for lines
having voltages upto 300 kV and to switching impulse level for lines having voltages upto 300 kV and
to switching impulse level for lines having voltages above 300 kV voltage and at maximum swing
angle the electrical air cle,!lr§ince corresponds to power frequency dynamic over voltage/rated volt-
age. ,,-
,\1
3.8.2.2   Suspension Insulator String-V Configuration
I
The length of the cross-arm is determined corresponding to electrical clearances(BIUSIL) and the
angle of the V-insulator string. The criteria for determining electrical clearances in case of lines upto
300 kV and those exceeding 300 kV is same as applicable in case of I-Insulator string.
3.8.2.3 The electrical clearance diagrams considering length and configuration of string and electrical air
clearances (Ref. Chapter 4) are drawn to determine the length of cross arm and the same is checked
against galloping/clashing depending upon the exposure of the lines to such conditions.
The electrical clearance diagrams for suspension tower with I and V - string is given in Figure 18.
The analytical calculations for electrical clearances are given in Annexure-I where reference is to be
made to Figure 20.
3.8.4 Length of Cross-arm for Tension Towers
3.8.4.1 On tension tower without the pilot string, the length of cross-arm is determined corresponding to Nil
swing and swing angles specified for the jumper and the corresponding electrical air clearances
(BIUSIL Power frequency voltage). The length of cross-arm is also determined with jumper swing
limited to 15°with the use of pilot string and the corresponding electrical air clearance (BIUSIL).
3.8.4.2 The electrical clearance diagrams considering length of tension string, jumper swing angle, electri-
cal air clearances,angle of deviation of the line are drawn and cross arm length is arrived at. For
large angle towers (60°)/ and dead end towers, provision of unequal cross-arms, rectangular/ trap-
ezoidal cross-arm and use of pilot Insulators Strings and links may be considered where necessary
for determining the cross-arm length.
The electrical clearance diagram of a tension tower is given in Figure 19. The analytical calculation
for electrical clearance is given in Annexure-I where reference is to be made to Figure 21.
3.9 TYPICAL LENGTHS OF INSULATOR STRING ON TRANSMISSION LINES IN INDIA No
3.9.1 Typical details of insulator strings (suspension and tension) and swing and clearance of suspension ('
insulator strings and jumpers for existing lines in India are given in Tables 3.3 and 3.4. Typical Swing b
Angles and Electrical Clearances for Tension String (Single/Double) Jumper adopted in India are
given in Table 3.5. 9
b
2
v
,
I .
Notes:
C
=
B
=
S
=
8
1 =
8
2
=
X
1
=
X
2
=

=
=
I - String Airangement
v -s ti;ng  
Figure 18: Electrical Clearance Diagram Suspension Tower
Distance of centre of gravity of the main angle sections
Flange Width of the nearest projecting angle sections connected to main angle members.
Length of suspension string
Swing angle of the suspension string
Maximum swing angle of the suspension string
Electrical clearance corresponding to BIUSIL
Electrical clearance corresponding to dynamic over voltage power frequency voltage
Maximum swing angle of String
1/2 of the inc! uded angle of V String
Length of X-arm I-String V-String
S Sin 9
1
+X
1
+B+C
or
S Sin 9
2
+ X
2
+B+C

30 Tower Geometry
D = Depth of Jumper = 1.10 x Maximum electrical clearance corresponding to BIL or SIL
Length of cross arm = St Sin..t + D Sin 9
3
+Xl+B+C
2
or
= St Sin <!> + 0 Sin 9
4
+X2+B+C
""2
$ = Angle of line deviation
8
3
= Jumper swing and corresponding clearance XI
8
4
= Maximum jumper swing and corresponding clearance X
2
I9.L-J
Isef ~ S t   1 S i n ~
")
>
I



U
I
,...
n
' I
('f r
.>-


x2 =1860
VI
wt
z
,.,t,
--
 
Xt,
T
14---1----- LM ------1
wb

Figure 20: Electrical Clearance Diagram-Suspension Tower
(Annexure-I: Analytical Calculations)
32 Towe; Geometry -
Tal
, -
-
\1
II
\1
I
I
~ ~
l-
---
B
--.-,-
xtl
Z
>
I-
101 mt
I
101m
I
K
I
~   L.
I
I
\
I
I
r t
wb
14-----+---LB-----.. ...,1
r
I a
I
-
\ 1
Line
Voltage
(kV)
66
132
220
400
TABLE 3.3
Typical Details of the Insulator Strings Adopted in India on
Transmission Lines at 66 kV to 800 kV AC and ± 500 kV HVDC
Suspension String Tension String
Type No. of Length Types No. of
Discs (mm) discs
SIS 5 965 SIT 6
DIS 2x5 1255 DIT 2x6
SIS 9 1630 SIT 10
DIS 2x9 1915 DIT 2x10
SIS 14 2340 SIT 15
DIS 2x14 2640 OIT   x ~ 5
SIS 23 3850 DIT 2x23
Length
(mm)
1070
1575
1820
2175
2915
3345
5450
± 500 DC VIS 2x38 7120 QuadlT 4x38 8450
800
POWER
GRID
UPSES
Note: (i)
(ii)
(iii)
DIS 2x40 7000 QuadlT 4x35 9800
V(A Towers) 2x35 7550
V(S&C Towers) 4x35 7800
SIS (Pilot D&E Towers) 1x40 7000
V (Pilot D&E Towers) 2x40 7250
V 2x29 See QuadlT 2x31 See Fig.
2x31 Fig.14 16
& 15
Size of discs for insulator strings upto and including 220 kV Voltages is 255x145 mm.
Size of discs for suspension and tension strings for 400 kv voltage is 280x145 mml255x145
mm and 280x170 mm respectively.
Size of discs for 800 kV system of POWERGRID are 255x145 mm of 120 KN discs for DIS
and SIS (Pilot D&E towers) and V (Pilot for D&E towers) and 280x170 mm 01210 KN for V
(A, S & C towers) and quad tension string. In case of UPSES, the size of disc is 320x195
mm of 300 KN both for suspension and tension strings.
TABLE 3.4
Typical Swing Angles and Electrical Clearances for Suspension Insulator Strings adopted
. in India on Transmission Lines at 66 kV to 800 AC and ± 500 kV HVDC
SI. No. Line Voltage (kV) Assumed Value of Swing of Minimum Clearances
Suspension String from Vertical Specified (mm)
(degrees)
1. 66 15
0
915
30
0
760
45
0
610
60
0
610
34 Tower Geometry
(Table 3.4 Contd.)
2. 132 15° 1530
30° 1370
45° 1220
60° 1070
3. 220 15° 2130
30° 1830
45° 1675
4. 400 22° 3050
I-String 44° 1860
5. 800 Power Grid
I-String 20° 5600
25° 4400
41°
55°/64° 1300
V-String
Power Grid 105°to 115° 5100/5600
UPSEB V=90° 5000/5500
TABLE 3.5
Typical Swing Angles and Electrical Clearances for Tension String (Single/Double) Jumper
adopted in India on Transmission Lines at 66 kV to 800 kV and ±500 kV HVDC
SI. No. line Voltage (kV) Assumed Value of Swing of Minimum Clearances
Jumper from Vertical (Degrees) Specified (mm)
1. 66 10° 915
20° 610
30° 610
2. 132 10° 1530
20° 1070
30° 1070
3. 220 10° 2130
20° 1675
4. 400 20° 3050
40° 1860
5. ± 800 Power Grid
15°/20° 5600
25°/30° 4400
40°/45° 5000
( C
\
)
c
c
y
"
I .
• '.1
w
vV
.. ,
ANNEXURE·I
Analytical Calculation for Electrical Clearances on Transmission Lines (Refer Figures 20 and 21)
1.0 NOTATIONS
H =
S =
B =
C =
ocococ=
T' M' B
y ~ . Y2 =
W
1
=
W!1,W
I2
=
W'1'W:? =
~ . Y =
M =
LT,LM,L
B
=
Z =
h"hm,hb =
4> =
D =
Height of hanger
Overall length of suspension insulator string upto the lower tip of corona control ring.
Swing angles of suspension insulator string
Specified electrical clearances to be maintained at swing angles corresponding to 9
1
& 9
2
respectively.
Flange width of the nearest projecting angle sections connected to main and tie angle
members.
Distance of centre of gravity of main angle section
Angle between main and inclined tie members of top, middle and bottom cross-arms.
Vertical distance from underneath the cross-arm to nearest tip of corona control ring from
centre line of tower corresponding to 9
1
& 9
2
,
Vertical distance from underneath the cross-arm to the farthest tip of corona control ring
from centre line of tower corresponding to 9
1
& 9
2
,
Horizontal distance from centre line of tower to nearest tip of corona control ring corre-
sponding to 01 & 9
2
,
Horizontal distance from centre line of tower to the farthest tip of corona control ring corre-
sponding to 9
1
& 9
2
,
Half width of tower body at top cross arm level
Half width of tower body at level corresponding to ~   1   ~ 1 2
Half width of tower body at level corresponding to X
I1
, X!2' .
Slopes of legs
Height of Corona control ring
Length of top, middle, bottom cross arm from centre line of tower body.
Spacing between the conductors of bundle or jumpers.
Height of top, middle and bottom cross arms
Angle of deviation of line
Jumper depth
36
2.0 ELECTRICAL CLEARANCE ON SUSPENSION STRINGS
2.1 Underneath the Cross-arm
At Angle of Swing Electrical clearance Ayailable
6, K, = Y, - (B + C)
= H +(8-M) Cos 6, - N . Sin 9, - (B+C) X,
2
6
2
K2 = Y 2 - (B + C)
= H +(S'- M) Cos 9
2
- N Sin 9
2
- (B+C) X
2
2
2.2 Electrical Clearance from Tower Body
Horizontal Clearance = (X\1 - WI') Cos B X,
9,
-
W\1 = WI + Y, tan B
XI' = ~ - S. Sin 6, - N Cos'9, - (B+C)
2
Y1 = H + S. Cos 9, + N Sin 9, - (B+C)
2
Horizontal Clearance = (XI2 - W 12) Cos ~ ~ X
2
W 12 = WI + Y 2 tan ~
X
12
= ~ - S. Sin 6
2
- N Cos 9
2
- (B+C)
2
Y
2
= H + S. Cos 9
2
+ N Sin 9
2
- (B+C)
2
2.3 Electrical Clearance from Lower Cross-ARM Tie (Inclined) Member
tan oem h
m
(Lower X-arm) =
Perpendicular distance to Tie member from the line point' is shortest.
Tower Geometry
If oem < 9,. then clearance is required to be computed at swing angle of string corresponding to oem
If oem > 9, and less than 9
2
, then the clearance is minimum when angle of swing is 9
1
Distance from lower tip of corona control ring to lower cross-arm tip = P
p = (Lm - ~ ) + S. Sin 9, - N Cos 8,
Clearance available = rJ=-l H +5 COs 9, + Sin 9,) - P tan u,,1 Cos 0., • (B+C) ~ X"
i = [V - Y, . p tan aml Cos Urn· (B+C) ; e ~  
IV Similar check shall be made for 8n
vi
(
,
3.0 ELECTRICAL CLEARANCES ON TENSION STRINGS
3.1 Electrical Clearance with Reference to Underneath of Cross-arm
Angle of Swing Electrical Clearance
Clearance = t + 0 Cos 9
1
- Z Sin 9
1
- (B+C)   X
1
2
Clearance = t + 0 Cos 8
2
- Z Sin 9
2
- (B+C)   X
2
2
3.2 Clearance from Tower Body·
SWING ANGLE 9,
Shift =
deviation.
X
t1
=
=
W
t1
=
Projected length of Tension Insulator String upto Jumper connection for angle of
Cross-arm Length - (Shift + 0 Sin 9
1
+ Z Cos 9
1
)
2
L, - (S. Sin + 0 Sin 9, + Z Cos 9,)
2 2
Clearance available from tower body = (X
t
- Wt) Cos   (B+C)   X
1
3.3 Clearance from Low Cross-Arm Tie (Inclined) Member
tance =----
m
L -W
m mt
AG = V - Y ; BH = AG - Z Sin 9
1
KH = (Lm - L
t
) + Shift + 0 Sin 9
1
- Z Cos 9
1
2
KG = KH + Z Cos 9,
AI = AG-GI = AG - KG tan oc
m
BJ = BH - JH = BH - KH tan oc
. m
Clearance available from middle X-arm = AE = AI Cos oc m - (B+C)   X
1
· Save power for
national productivity
~   MAHARASHTRA STAlE ElECTRICITY BOARD
Transmission Line Manual
Chapter 4
Electrical Clearances
CONTENTS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Minimum Ground Clearance
4.3 Minimum Clearance above RiverslLakes
4.4 Environmental Criteria for 800 kV Line
4.5 Air Clearance - General Consideration
4.6 Clearance and Swing Angles on Transmission Lines in India
4.7 Conductor Metal Air Clearances
4.8 Air Clearance-Analysis by CIGRE
4.9 Phase-to-Phase Air Clearances
4.10 Clearance between Conductor & Groundwire
4.11 Effect of Span Length on Clearance
4.12 Clearance at Power Line Crossings
4.13 Recommendation
ANNEXURES
Annexure I - Spacing between Conductor
Annexure II - Swing Angle for 800 kV Anpara - Unnao Line for Insulator
Strings and Jumper
APPENDIX - Investigation Studies on Clearance and Swing Angles for
Indian Power System
Page
1
1
2
2
2
3
4
5
6
7
7
8
11
12
16
1
a
4
r
11
7
8
,
)
Chapter 4
ELECTRICAL CLEARANCES
4.1 Introduction
The design of a transmission line tower is distinctly classified into mechanical design and electrical 'design.
The parameters which affect the design of a tower are   in Chapter-V, whereas loadings and
mechanical design of a tower are discussed in Chapters 6 & 7 'of the Manual. In this chapter, the
aspects leading to electrical design of· a tower are, therefore discussed. The electrical deslgn·oftower,
infact, involves fixation of external insulation against different electrical phenomena. The extemallnsulation
comprises self restoring air and solid insulation in the form of insulator strings consisting of disc insulators,
mtg rod insulators etc. The electrical insulation of a tower is a function of steady state operating voltage
of the syst&m and various events that occur in the system (energisation, re-energisation;-fault occurrence.
and its clearance, lightning strokes etc.), For system upto and including "3b9kV voltage rating, the tower
insulation is determined from the power frequency voltage and lightning impulse requirement where.as for
system above300 kV rating, the power frequency and switching impulse voltages are the governing criteria.·
The other factors which affect the electrical insulation are climatic conditions - altitude, relative humidity,
pollution, etc. The various factors and statutory regulations which affect the electrical design of a t.ower
are discussed as hereunder.
4.2 Minimum Ground Clearance
The minimum clearance above ground as per sub rule 4 of Rule 77 of I.E.Rules 1956 (latest revision) for
AC system and for ± 500 kV HVDC system as adopted in India are as under:
Vrltage (kV) Nominal 66 132 220 400
-- --
Highest (System) 72 145 245 420 800 ±500
Minimum ground clearance (mm) 5500 6100, 7000 8800 12400 12500
To the above clearance, an additional clearance of 150 mm is added to provide for uneven ground profile
and possible sagging error.
4.3 Minimum Clearance above Rivers/Lakes
In case of accessible frozen r'iversnakes, the minimum clearance abOve frozen riversnakes should be equal
to the minimum ground clearance given in 4.2 above. ' . ,
The minimum clearance of Power Conductor over the highest flood level in case -of ·non rivers
shall be as foliows:
System Voltage (kV) Minimum clearance above higttesUloodJeveL(mm)*
72 3650
145 4300
245 5100
420 6400
800 9:400
±500 6750
..
·(The maximum height of an obJect over the highest flood level of non-navigable rlverlll;consldClred:al·3000mm)
1
For navigable rivers, clearances are fixed in relation to the tallest mast in consultation with the concerned
navigationaVport authorities.
4.4 Environmental Criteria for 800 kV Line
The Standing EHV committee of CEA (Working Group 9: Interference) have laid down the iollowing
environmental criteria for 800 kV lines:
Radio Interference should not exceed 50 dB for 80% of time duration during the year.
For Television Interference, the minimum signal to noise ratio should be 30 dB.
Audible noise should be less than 55 dB (A).
  field at 2 m above ground below the outer most phase should be equal to or less than
10 kV/m and equal to or less than 2 kV/m at the edge of right of way.
To comply with the above environmental requirements minimum ground clearance of about 15000 mm has
been adopted in India for 800 kV lines.
4.5 Air Clearances - General Consideration
The air clearances applicable to transmission lines are categorised as minimum ground clearance, phase
to grounded metal clearance, phase to phase clearance, clearance between power conductor and
groundwire, clearance between pOwer lines crossing each other, power lines crossing telecommunication
lines, railway tracks, roads etc.
The phase to grounded metal clearances is a function of power frequency voltage and lightning impulse
vottage in case of the transmission lines of voltage rating upto and including 245 kV and power frequency
vottage and switching impulse voltage for lines above 245 kV voltage rating.
The power frequency voltage is expressed in terms of service voltage or service voltage modified by events
such as faults, sudden change of loads, ferranti effect, linear resonance,ferroresonance, open conductor,
induced resonance from coupled circuits, etc.
A line is subjected to lightning impulses due to shielding failure (direct stroke to power conductor), back
flashover from tower to power conductors, vottage induction from nearby objects etc.
The switching impulse voltage originates from line energisation, line reclosing, fault occurrence and
clearing, switching off capacitive current (restriking effect) including line dropping and capacitor bank
switching, switching of inductive currents (current chopping effect) including transformer magnetising
currents and reactor switching, special switching operations including series capacitors, resonant ferro
resonant circuits and secondary switching.
The air gap clearances tor phase to phase lightning impulse withstand voltages are the same as those for
phase to ground lightning withstand voltages.
4.6 Clearances and Swing Angles on Transmission Lines In India
Conductor metal clearances generally adopted in the country for transmission lines 66 kV and above are
given as under:
"".1 ""VIII ..   Qlllijll:l ;;'Utiptml:iIOn InSUIalor Jumper
(kV)
Swing from Minimum Swing from Minimum
vertical (degree) clearance (mm) vertical (degree) clearance (mm)
72AC Nil 915 Nil 915
15 915 10 915
30 760 20 610
45 610 30 61()
60 610 -- --
145 AC Nil 1530 Nil 1530
15 1530 10 1530
30 1370 20 1070
45 1220 30 1070
60 1070 -- --
245 AC Nil 2130 Nil 2130
15 1980 10 2130
30 1830 20 1675
45 1675 -- --
60 -- -- --
420 AC Nil 3050 Nil 3050
22 3050 20 3050
44 1860 40 1860
800AC <-------- Discussed in the Appendix ------->
±500 DC NiI* 3750
I
40
I
1600
·V-Strings have been adopted.
Notes:
(i) Electrical clearance for suspension towers should be based on !single suspension strings. For
road crossings, tension towers should be adopted.
(ii) The details of insulator string adopted in the country for transmission lines 66 kV and above
voltage are given in Chapter SP.
4.7 Conductor Metal Air Clearances
4.7.1 System VoHage
The air clearances for AC system given in document 11 (secretariat 48) of IEC referred in CiGRE document
"Tower Top Geometry - WIG 22.06" issued in June "1995 and for DC system on the basis of values
adopted by Power Grid for their ± 500 kV HVDC Rihand-Dadri line are given below:
System VoHage (kV) "72 145 245 420 800 ±500
<-------------- AC --------------> <------------- DC ------------->
Air Clearance (mm) 190 390 650 1200 1560 1150
4.7.2 LIghtning and Switching Over-voltage
The air clearances corresponding to lightning impulse and switching over-voltages for AC system as per
IEC 71-2 (1996) and for DC system as adopted by Power Grid for their ± 500 HVDe Rlhand-Dadri line are
given as under.
"
System Impulse withstand VoHage Air Clearances (mm)
VoltagQ (kVp)
, (kV)
I "Ligtilning':
Switching \ '
Ufghtning Impluse Level t
. --. . - _. - .- --.- ..•..•..• - - I
I Switching   r ~ p l u ~ Leval,'
,
Conductor Rod Conductor Rod
Structure Structure Structure structure
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
,
72AC 325 '
-- -- 630 -- --
145AC 550 -- -- 1100 -- --
650 -- -- 1300 -- --
245AC 950 -- 1700 1900 -- --
1050
--
1900 2100 -- --
,.
'"
420AC 1300 950 2400 2600 2200 2900
1425 1050 2600 2850 2600 3400
800AC ,1950 1425 3800 3900 4200 5600
2100 1550 3900 4200 4900 6400
±500DC 1800 1000 -- -- 3750
..
4.8 Air Clearance· Analysis by CIGRE
4.8.1 As a sequel to adoption of structural design based on reliability concept, CIGRE SC-22,WG06 had
taken up study on tower top geometery to ascertain the swing angles of the insulator strings, air clearances,
etc. for the meteorological data used for determining the structural strength. The WG based on
CIGRE Publication 72 had interalia worked out air clearances corresponding to lightning and switching
surges understill air,condition/small swing angle in Document "Tower Top Geometry" - June 1995 as
given below.
Nominal VoHage Highest Voltage Lightning Impulse Switching Impulse Minimum Phase-
u
R
(kV) for Equipment Withstand Withstand Voltage to-Earth Air
urn (kV) Voltage (kV) (kV) Clearance (mm) ,
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
110 123 450 -- 940
550 -- 1130
230 245 850 -- 1760
950 '
-- ,1970
1050 -- 2180
400 420 1175 850 2430
..
1300 950
. 2800
1425 1050 3250
500 525 1300 950 2800,
1425 1050 3250
1550 1175 3900
Values recommended for adoption are given separately.
I
1
1
J
J
,4i8:3
:4:9
4:9.1
- -- - ---- -----." .--,. ...... "'..- ... r-·
CIGRE Doc of June 95 adopted in ·other ·'countries .are,given Tables ..A.;1 ;and
The 'correlation between wind.pressure (speed) ',and'maximum :of Jdf.uspenslon
'strings(bdth 'r&V):adopted
\to 70%,ofUHimate wind:pressure. :Further, '1hese'WfAd:pressures:corre'$pol'Itf'JtolllHrll'geeus
:characterisedbyretum ;period :df:2·to '5 'years  
;arnHightnlng/switchingsurges i!'l case of V;:strings.
'occasionally.a characteristic ,wind 'speed 'Is ':speclfied }'.COrresJi)OnCfing 'to'
'voRages incase 'of I,.suspenslon 'or pllot:suspension·:string.
1Phase-lO-;Phase tArrClearances

or'different circuits onthe same tower will be;estabIiShed1lY1:Onductormetal:t!teamrrae8l1scuased
tn Paras 4:7& 4:8. However minimum clearances 'betweenphases ,as 'given ;inEiTiH21(t99B)
are 'reproduced 'below:
4:9.1.1 Ughtning 'Impulse
.,
'Standard . lightning Impulse Clearance'(mrtI)
withstand voltage (kVp)
Rod Structure Conductor:Structme
,
325 630
-
450 900
-
550 1100
--
650 1300 .-
750 1500 .-
850 1700 16'00
950 1900 1700
1050 2100 19'00
1175 2350 22'0t)
1300 2600 :24.00
·1425 2850 .2600
1550 3100
,

1675 3350· :311;'0'0
1800 3600 :3300
1950 3900 .:3600
2100 4200 3'9'00
hi
. Ie
9
)s

la


. ,
, I
I.

i
",":'
,.
  ~ I
.j
4.12.2 Power Lines Crossing Communication Lines
The minimum clearance to' be maintained between a power line and a communication line, as per "Code
'of Practice for Protection of Telecommunication Lines of Crossings with Overhead Power Lines" should be ,',
as follows:
Nominal 66 132 220 400
Voltage (kV)
Highest
72 145 245 420 800
2440 2750 3050 4480 7900 Minimum clearance between power conductor
"(1'
crossing telecommunication line (mm)
4.12.3 Power Line Crossing Railway Tracks
The minimum vertical clearance between the lowest conductor of a power line crossing the railway track
,," as per "Regulations for Power Line Crossings of Railway Tracks· 1987" shall be as follows:
~ , .. ,
The minimum vertical clearance above rail track as a l ~ o highest working point of the jtb when crane is
deployed and the lowest point of any conductor of crossing including ground wire under condition of
maximum sag.isgiven as under: .
Voltage (kV) Minimum Ciearance (mm)
Nominal
66
132
220
400
Highest
72
145
245
420
800
Above Rail Track
14,100
14,600
15,400
17,900
22,000
4.12.4 Power Lines Running Along or Across the Roads
Over Crane
2,000
2,500
3,500
6,000
9,50Q
The minimum clearanct:: above ground for 66 kV and above voltage power lines running along or across •
the road shall be 6,1 m as per Rules 77 of I.E, Rules 1956 provided the requirement stipulated in Sub·Rule .
(4) of Rule 77 of IE Rules 1956 is met. .
~
As per electrostatic field effect of EHV transmission lines, the minimum clearance for line passing over the'
road shall be corresponding to field gradient of 10 kV/m, It should not permit a short circuit current more
than 5 rnA through an individual when touching a vehicle standing below the line. .
4.13 Recommendation
4.13.1 Air clearances and swing angles for various system voltage ratings are recommended as under:
System voltage (kV) Single SuspenSion Insulator String Jumper
Swing from Minimum Swing from
vertical (degree) clearance (mm) vertical (degree)
15 915 10
30 760 20
45 610 30
60 610
145 AC Nil 1530 Nil 1530
4.13.2
-
30 1370 20 1070
45 1220 30 1070
60 1070
245 AC Nil 2130 Nil 2130
15 1980 10 2130
30 1830 20 1675
45 1675
60
400 AC Nil 3050 Nil 3050
22 3050 20 3050
44 1860 40 1860
800 AC
Zones 1& Nil 5600/5100 Nil 5100
II 22 4400 15 4400
45 1300 30 1300
Zones III Nil 5600/5100 Nil 5100
&IV 27 4400 20 4400
55 1300 40 1300
Zones V Nil 5600/5100 Nil 5100
& VI 30 4400 ' 22 4400
60 1300 45 1300
The spacing between conductors for,long spans shall be established from the following formulae:
Vertical Clearance (,-1)
0.75 Vf.,s  
+
Horizontal Clearance (m)
Where
=
=
=
V
T5U
Sag at 75" C
Length of Insulator String in metres.
Line in kV
60
01
50

en
L..
40
E
::J
. ..."
.... 30
o
QI
g' 20

10
1-----
----
L
         
-Ii
V
----
-i
I
VI
L :
//0
I
I
I
I
/1
!
/

Nominal Voltage : 500 k V
"2-
Conductor : ACSR 410mm
Insulator Strings: 320mm x 26pc
double strain
Depth of Jumper: 5,000 mm
Catenary Angle : OCI + oc2: 5°
Without reinforcement
-
With reinforcement wire
-----
And reinforcement spacer _.-.-
l/
o
o 10 20 30 40 50
Mean wind speed during 10 minutes
[m/sec]
Figure I : Swing characteristics of jumper conductor based on test
carried out in Japan.

r-=;
o 0 0
o 0
Where.
x4
s.
L. Length of insulator strings
(a) Suspension Insulator Strings
e .. Line deviation angle
(b) Jumper (wi thout pilot Suspension Insulator
C:. r:nn c. \
Germany
Austria
Belgium
O. 75Jf + 1 k + (Vertical)
O.62Jf+l
k
  (Horizontal)
France
U.S.A.
O.   inch
Poland
Sweden
 
Czechoslovakia
    .
Canada
In which
f =
1+40 =
1k •
V =
La =
.
V
R
=
"5 =
Max. Sag
Sag at 40°C
Length of Insulator String (assumed as 4 m)
VoHage in kV
Actual span in m limited to 450 m
Reference span in m (50 m)
Reference Voltage in kV (5 kV)
Sag at 15°C

,
' ..
i
. "
I
I
11.'.- f ~  
, r
« !
•• l
t:
, c:
fi
. ~
'1
fc'
t:
,;
~ . : .. ',
'-:;
f:
C' !
tJi>
.1
G



..





'.

'.
Transmission Line Manual
Chapter 5
Design Parameters
i ..
CONTENTS
5.0
Abstract
5.1
Transmission Voltage
5.2
Number of Circuits
5.3
Climatic Conditions
5.4
Environmental and Ecological Consideration
. .
5.5 Conductor
5.6
Earth Wire
5.7
Insulator Strings
5.8 Span
Page
2
2
11
11
12
13
17 -
,
,
  ~
s
')
COl
T ~ I
I I
Design Parameters
5.0 ABSTRACT
The design of transmission line towers is entirely dependent on the selection of correct
data/parameters. A good tower designer should accumulate all necessary design parameters
before starting the design work. This chapter describes the design parameters required for
developing a transmission line tower design. These design parameters should be correct and
authentic in nature to ensure· reliability of transmission line under given conditions.
5.1 Transmission Voltage
This is very important parameter. All the electrical parameters such as air gap clearance,
phase to phase clearance, ground clearance etc. are fully dependent on the voltage level.
The power is transmitted either through A.C. System (alternating current) or through
D.C. system (Direct Current) depending upon the requirement of power system of a particular
region or country as a whole.
In India the following transmission voltages have been standardised for transmitting the
power :
A.C. System
(i). 66KV
(ii) 110KV
(iii) 132KV
(iv) 220KV
(v) 400KV
(vi) 800KV
D.C. System
(i) .+/-500KV
For indigenous development of HVDC technology, Govt. of India had approved HVDe
Research and Development proposal in Nov. 1981 and action plan in Nov. 1982 for taking the
R&D project on an actual line to enhance the power level. APSEB and MPEB had offered
220KV DIC Lower Sileru (A.P) Barsoor (M.P) line for the experimental project. The HVDC
Steering Committee in Oct. 1983 approved National HVDe project (NHVDC) to be taken in 3
stages.
Stage I
Stage II
Stage III
1 OOMW, + 100KV monopole
200MW, + 200KV monopole
400MW, + 200KV bipole
The National HVDC Stage I was approved by Government in Oct. 1984 for establishing
a 100MW, ± 100 KV HVDC, 6 pulse monopole link between Lower Sileru and Barsoor by
converting one circuit of 220KV D/C Lower Sileru-Barsoor line. The Stage I has been
commissioned in Oct. 1991 and is in operation. The Stage II for uprating Stage I to 200 MWj
+200KV, 12 pulse monopole has been approved by the Govt. in Sept. 1993 and scheduled
to be commissioned by the end of 1997.

2 Design Parameters
5.2 Number of Circuits
The transmission line can be classified into three categories depending on the number
of circuits. Each circuit consists of three phases. However, each phase may further consist of
single, twin or multiple bundle of conductors. The three classifications based on the number
of circuits are :-
(a) SINGLE CIRCUIT
(b) DOUBLE CIRCUIT
(c) MULTI CIRCUITS
(i) Single Circuit : The transmission line which carries only one circuit.
(ii) Double Circuit : The transmission line which carries two circuits.
(iii) Multi Circuit: The transmission line which carries more than two circuits.
However, single circuit and double circuit transmission lines are popular throughout the
world. Some of the utilities of the world have constructed multi circuit transmission lines also
to avoid Right of Way problems in Urban areas but the number of such lines are very less
as the multiple circuit lines are not advisable from the maintenance & reliability point of view.
Some of the utilities of the world have constructed multivoltage lines which have more
than two circuit of different voltage levels. Wherever Right of Way constraints are foreseen,
multiple circuit and multivoltage lines are preferable.
5.3 Climatic Conditions
The reliability of a transmission system is largely dependent on the accuracy of the
parameters related to climatic conditions considered for design. The design of tower will vary
with variation in climatic conditions. The following are the main climatic parameters which play
vital role in developing design of transmission line towers :-
1. Wind
2. Temperature
3. Isokeraunic level
4. Seismic Intensity
5. Ice formation.
5.3.1 Wind
5.3.1.1 The Wind speed have been worked out for 50 years return period based on the -tlP-
to-date wind data of 43 dynes pressure tube (DPA) anemograph stations and study of other
related works available on the. subject since 1964. The basic wind speed data have been
published by Bureau of Indian Standards in IS : 875-1988 in active cooperation with In9ian
Meteorological Department as shown in Figure 1. This map represents basic wind speed
based on peak gust velocity averaged over a short time interval of about 3 seconds and
corresponds to 10m height above mean ground level in terrain Category-2 for 50 yrs. return
period.
Based on the wind speed map the entire country has been divided into six wind zones
... : ........... v , .. : .. ,.1 "'''' ........ ,.1 ,,* r::.r::.m/" .... ,. min C!noorl nf         winn c:.nAAn fnr thA
Wind Zone
1
2
3
4
5
6
TABLE I
Basic Wind Speed (m/sec)
33
39
44
47
50
55
NOTE : In case the line tranverses on the border of wInd zones, the hIgher wInd speed may be considered.
,
5.3.1.2 Reference Wind Speed VR
It is extreme value of wind speed over an average period of 10 minutes duration and
is to be calculated from basic wind speed 'vb' by the following relationships:-
VR = vb/k
o
Where : Ko is a factor to convert 3 seconds peak gust speed into average speed of
wind during 10 minutes period at a level of 10 meters above ground. Ko is to be taken as
1.375.
5.3.1.3 Design Wind Speed, Vd
Reference wind speed obtained in 5.3.1.2 shall be modified to include the fo.llowing
effects to get the design wind speed :
(i)
(ii)
Risk Coefficient, K,
Terrain Roughness coefficient, K2
It is expressed as follows :-
Vd = VR' K,.  
5.3.1.4 Risk Coefficient K1
Table 2 gives the values of Risk Coefficient K, for different wind zones for three
Reliability Levels.
TABLE 2
Risk Coefficient K1 for Different Reliability
Levels and Wind Zones
Reliability Coefficient K, for wind zones :
Level 1 2 3 4 5
1 (50 yrs. return period) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
2(150 yrs. return period) 1.08 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13
3(500 yrs. return period) 1.17 1.22 1.25 1.27 1.28
6
1.00
1.14
1.30
4 Design Parameters
5.3.1.5 Terrain Roughness Coefficient, K2
Table 3 gives the values of coefficient ~ for the three categories of terrain roughness
corresponding to an average 10 minutes wind speed.
TABLE 3
Terrain Roughness Coefficient ~
Terrain Category 1 2 3
Coefficient ~   1.08 1.00 0.85
5.3.1.6 Terrain Categories
(a) Category 1 - Coastal areas, deserts and large streches of water.
(b) Category 2 - Normal cross country lines with very few obstacles.
(c) Category 3 - Urban built up areas or forest areas.
NOTE: For lines encountering hills/ridges, value of K2 will be taken as next higher value.
5.3.1.7Design Wind Pressure Pd
The design wind pressure on towers, conductors and insulators shall be obtained by
the following relationship :-
Where
Pd = 0.6 Vd
2
Pd = design wind pressure in N/m
2
and
Vd = Design wind speed in m/s.
Design wind pressure Pd for all the three Reliability levels and pertaining to six wind
zones and the three terrain categories have been worked out and given in· Table 4.
Reliability
Level
1
2
3
TABLE 4
Design Wind Pressure Pd, in N/m2
(corresponding to wind velocity at 10m height)
Terrain Wind pressure Pd for wind zones
Category 1 2 3 4 5
1 403 563 717 818 925
2 346 483 614 701 793
3 250 349 444 506 573
1 470 681 883 1030 1180
2 403 584 757 879 1010
3 291 422 547 635 732
)
1 552 838 1120 1320 1520
2 473 718 960 1130 1300
6
1120
960
694
1460
1250
901
1890
1620
(A) Wind Load on Tower
In order to determine the wind load on tower, the tower is divided into different
panels having a height 'h'. These panels should normally be taken between the
intersections of the legs and bracings. For a lattice tower, the wind load Fwt in
Newtons, for wind normal to a face of tower, on a panel height 'h' applied at
the centre of gravity of this panel is :
Fwt = Pd. C
dt
• Ae. GT
Pd = Design wind pressure, in N/M2
C dt = Drag Coefficient pertaining to wind blowing against any face of the tower. Value
of ~   t for the different solidity ratios are given in Table 5.
Ae = Total net surface area of the legs and bracings of the panel projected normally
on face in m2. (The projections of the bracing elements of the adjacent faces
and of the plan-and-hip bracing bars may be neglected while dete-rmining the
projected surface of a face).
GT = Gust Response Factor, perpendicular to the ground roughness and depends on
the height above ground. Values of GT for the three terrain categories are given
in Table 6.
TABLE 5
Drag Coefficient, C cit For Towers
. Solidity Ratio'" Drag Coefficient, C
dt
Upto 0.05 )'3.6
0.1 3.4
0.2 2.9
0.3 2.5
0.4 2.2
0.5 and above 2.0
Note : Intermediate values may be linearly Interpolated.
"'Solidity ratio is equal to the effective area (projected area of all the individual elements) of
a frame normal to the wind direction divided by the area enclosed by the boundary of the frame
normal to the wind direction.
TABLE 6
Gust Response Factor for Towers (GT) and for Insulators GI)
Height above
ground m
Upt010
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Values of GT and GI fo(Aerrain Categories
1 fl 3
1.70
1.85
1.96
2.07
2.13
2.20
2.26
2.31
1.92
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.48
2.55
2.62
2.69
2.55
2.82
2.98
3.12
3.24
3.34
3.46
3.58
Note : Intermediate values may be Interpolated.
6 Design Parameters
(B) Wind Load on Conductor and Groundwire
The load due to wind on each conductor and ground wire, Fwc in Newtons applied at
supporting point normal to the line shall be determined by the following expression :
Fwc = Pd. L. d. Gc. Cdc
Where:
Pd = Design wind pressure in N/m2;
L = Wind span, being sum of half the span on either side of supporting point, in
metres.
d = Diameter of conductor/groundwire, in metres.
Gc = Gust Response Factor which takes into account the turbulance of the wind and
the dynamic response of the Conductor. Values of Gc are given in Table 7 for
the three terrain categories and the average height of the conductor above the
ground.
Cdc = Drag coefficient which is 1.0 for conductor and 1.2 for Groundwire.
Note : The average height of conductor/groundwire shall be taken upto clamping point
on tower less two third the conductor/groundwire sag at minimum temperature
and no wind.
The total effect of wind on bundle conductors shall be taken equal to the sum of the
wind load on sub-conductors without accounting for a possible· masking effect of one of the
subconductors on another.
Terrain
Category
1. Upto

3.
TABLE 7
Values of Gust Response Factor Gc. for Conductor/G-Wires
Height Values of Gc for conductor of span, in m
above Upto:
ground, m 200 300Y\) 400 500 600 700
10 1.70 1.65 1.60 1.56 1.53 1.50
20 1.90 1.871-1'5'1.83 1.79 1.75 1.70
40 2.10 2.04 :],·ov2.00 1.95 1.90 1.85
60 2.24 2.18 2.12 2.07 2.02 1.96
80 ·2.35 2.25 2.18 2.13 2.10 2.06
10 1.83 1.78 1.73 1.69 1.65 1.60
 
./
2.12 2.041-:(\0.\1.95 1.88 1.84 1.80
2.34 2.08 2.05
60 ·2.55 2.46
2.37 l.! \'lJ2.28
2.23 2.20
80 2.69 2.56 2.48 2.41 2.36 2.32
10 2.05 1.98 1.93 1.88 1.83 1.77
20 2.44 2.35 2.25 2.15 2.10 2.06
40 2.76 2.67 2.58 2.49 2.42 2.38
60 2.97 2.87 2.77 2.67 2.60 2.56
80 3.19 3.04 2.93 2.85 2.78 2.73
800 & above
1.47
1.66
1.80
1.90
2.03
1.55
1.80
2.02
2.17
2.28
1.73
2.03
2.34
2.52
2.69
\"'1 nlllu L.UClU un   .:nnngs
Wind load on insulator strings 'Fwi' shall be determined from the attachment point to
the centre line of the conductor in case of suspension tower and upto the end of clamp in case
of tension tower, in the direction of the wind as follows:
Fwi = 1.2 . Pd . Ai . Gi
Where:
Pd = Design Wind pressure in N/m2
Ai = 50 Per cent of the area of Insulator string projected on a plane parallel to the
longitudinal axis of the string (1/2 x diameter x length).
NOTE : Length of Insulator shall be co'hsidered as follows :
Suspension Insulator!
from the centre point of conductor to the connection point of Insulator to the tower.
Tension Insulator:
End of tension clamp to the connection point of insulator to the tower.
Gi = Gust Response Factor, perpendicular to the ground roughness and depends on the height above ground. Values
of Gi for the three terrain categories are given in Table 6.
In case of multiple strings no masking effect shall be considered.
5.3.2 Temperature
To evolve design of tower, three temperatures i.e. Max. temperature, min. temperature
and everyday temperature are very important. Tower height as well as sag and tension
calculation of conductor and earthwire varies with the change in above three temperatures.
The temperature range varies for different parts of India under different sea.sonal
conditions. The absolute max. and min. temperatures which may be expected in different
localities in country are indicated on the map of India in Fig 2 and Fig 3 respective.ly. The
temperature indicated in these maps are the air temperature in shade. The max. conductor
temperatures may be obtained after allowing increase in temperature due to solar radi.ation
and heating effect due to current etc. over the absolute max. temperature given in Fig 2. After
giving due thought to several aspects such as flow of excess power in emergency during
summer time etc. the following three designs temperatures have been fixed :
(a) Max. temperature of ACSR conductor = 75 deg.c
(b) Max. temperature of AAAC conductor = 85 deg.c
(c) Max. temperature of earthwire = 53 deg.c.
(d) Min. temperature (ice free zone) = - 5 deg C to +10 deg. c
(depends on location of the trans. line of
however Goc widely used in the country)
a
(e) Everyday Temperature 3). C (for most parts of the country).
For region with colder climates (-5 deg.c or below) the respective Utility will decide the
everyday temperature.
5.3.3 Lightning Consideration for Tower Design
As the overhead transmission lines pass through open country, they are' subjected to
the effects of lightning. The faults initiated by lightning can be of following three types :
8 Design Parameters,
IS 802 ( Part 1I5ec 1 ) : 1995
.t'.
-
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(SRINAGAR
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MAP OF INDIA
SHOWING HIGHEST MAXIMUM
TEMPERATURE ISOPLETHSOC
BASED ON DATA UP TO 11158 SURI!llED BY
INDIA METEOROlOGCAl DEPARTMENT -'
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PROJEC'OON: lAMBERT CONICAl,
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42.6 INDOAE
.......
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...... 11
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BaNd I4IOfl Survey of India Oullone map p""led ,n 1987.
The territorill wlters of India extend into the sei.lo a distance of nautical miles measured hom the appropriate basI
for lhe cor'aclness of ,nte,oal del ails shown on Ihe mop 'esls wilh lhe publishel.
©,Goven .... enl of India Copyrighl1995
CIIART SHOWING HIGHEST MAXIMUM TEMPERAllJRE iSOPlEIllS
Fig. 2
..
.
IS 801 ( Part l/Set 1 ) : 1995
71
. .$',....'"
./" .
SHOWING LOWEST
TEUPERAlURE ISOPLETHS C
BASED ON DATA UP To 1958 SUPPLIED BY
INDIA UETEOROLOGCAL DEPARTMENT
PROJECTlQN:LAUBERTCONICAL
ORlHOUORPHIC

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aHOd upon Survey.' InclitOutline mepp'lnltd in 1917,
The IOrrilorill WllO,. 0' India IXlendi"IO the ... 10 a dllllftCI oIlWlIfv. ftIUIICII mil .. mllllUrld 'II1II' 'he lIPPC'oprIlI' II-. line,
Rnponsibilily lor Ihe correctneu 0' Inllfftli dllllilihown Oft !he mep ' .. 11 wtlh!he pullllIhIr,
i
CHART SHOWING loWEST MiNIMUM TEMPERATURE ISOPLEllIS
Fig. 3
C.oQvemnIlll oIlnCII III'
10
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
Design Parameters
Back flash over: When lightning strikes on a tower or on the earthwire near the
tower which raises the tower potential to a level resulting in a discharge across
the insulator string.
Midspan flash over: When a lightning strikes on earthwire raising local potential
of the earthwire such that a breakdown in the air gap between earthwire and
phase conductor results.
Shielding failure: When lightning strikes on the phase conductor directly resulting
in a flashover across the insulator string. *'
The above type of faults can be minimised by suitably choosing the shielding angle and
keeping the tower footing resistance at the minimum.
Lightning is a very unpredictable phenomenon. Moreover not enough data are available,
at present. to treat them in statistioal technique. The_ only data available are the isokeraunic
level; i.e. annual number of thunder storm days for a particular area; but it does not give
information on the intensity of strokes.
In view of the above fact, following shield angles are provided in EHV line towers as
per present practice in the country.
Voltage Level
66KV
110/132KV
220KV
Shield Angle
: 30 DEG
: 30 DEG
: 30 DEG
400KV Single Ckt. (Horizontal Configuration) Outer Ph. : 20 DEG
400KV
400KV
- 800KV
Single Ckt. (Vertical Configuration)
Double Ckt.
Inner Ph.
Single Ckt. (Horizontal Configuration) Outer Ph
Inner Ph
5.3.4 Seismic Consideration
: 45 DEG
: 20 DEG
: 20 DEG
: -15 DEG
: 45 DEG
The transmission line tower is pin jointed light structure comparatively flexible and free
to vibrate and max. wind pressure is the chief criterion for the design. Concurrence of earthquake
and max. wind condition is unlikely to take place and further siesmic stresses are considerably
diminished by the flexibility and freed\),,", ~ ~ vibration of the structure. This assumption is also
in line with recommendation given in cl. no. 3.2 (b) of IS : 1893-1984). Seismic considerations,
therefore. for tower design are ignored and have not been discussed here. However in regions
where earthquakes are experienced, the earthquake forces may be considered in tower
- -
_ ..... _ ..... ". 'UII gl lOW   ' ,   v l v ~ l   a l ,",UII::tIUt:1 cUIUIi
. The transmission line corridor requirement for different voltage lines are as
follows :-
Voltage Level
(KV)
66
110
132
220
400
800
Corridor Requirement
(MetfffS)
18
22
27
35
52
85
While deciding tower and conductor configuration of Transmission Lines at 400KV and
above, the interference level should be maintained within the following limits :-
(i) RI should not exceed 50 dB at 80% of the time during the year.
(ii) TVI - The minimum signal to noise ratio should be 30 dR
(iii) Audio noise level for 800KV system should be less than 55 dB (A).
(iv) Electrostatic field should be less than 10 KV/m below the outermost phase (2m
above the ground) and less than 2 KV/m at the edge of the right of way.
PTCC :-
1.
2.
Maximum value of induced
electromagnetic voltage for
fault duration equal to or less
than 200 ms.
Maximum value of induced noise
(noise interference) To be taken
cognizance if noise is persistent
5.5 Conductor
volts
microvolts
650
2000
(measured)
Conductors normally used for 400KV and 220 KV lines are given below with their
electrical and mechanical properties :
5.5.1 Voltage Level
Code Name of Conductor
No. of conductor/Phase
StrandinglWire diameter
Total sectional area
Overall diameter
Approx. Weight
Calculated d.c. resistance at 20 deg. &
Min. UTS
Modulus of elasticity
Co-efficient of linear expansion
Max. allowable temperature
400KV
ACSR "MOOSE"
Two (Twin Bundle)
54/3.53mm AL+7/3.53mm steel
597 mm2
31.77mm
2004 Kg/Km
. 0.05552 ohm/km
161.2KN
7034Kg/mm
2
19.30x10-6/deg. t:
75 deg.C
12 Design Parameters
5.5.2 Voltage Level 220KV
Code Name of Conductor ACSR "ZEBRA"
No. of conductor/Phase ONE
Stranding/Wire diameter 54/3.18mm AL+7/3.18mm
Total sectional area 484.5mm
2
Overall diameter 28.62mm
Approx. Weight 1621 KglKm
Calculated d.c. resistance at 20 deg. fi 0.06915 ohm/km
Min. UTS 130.32 KN
Modulus of elasticity 7034Kglmm
Co-efficient of linear expansion 19.30x10-
6
/deg. G
Max. allowable temperature 75 deg. G
5.5.3 Voltage Level 1321110KV
Code Name of Conductor ACSR "Panther"
No. of conductor/Phase ONE
Stranding/Wire diameter 30/3mm AL+7/3mm St.
Total- sectional area 261.5mm2
Overall diameter 21.00mm
Approx. Weight 974 Kglkm
Calculated d.c. resistance at 20 deg.C 0.140hm/km
Min. UTS 89.67 KN
Modulus of elasticity 8155Kglmm
Co-efficient of linear expansion 17.80x10-
6
/deg. G
Max. allowable temperature 75 deg.C
5.5.4 Voltage Level 66KV
Code Name of Conductor ACSR "Dog"
No. of conductor/Phase One
Stranding/Wire diameter 6/4.72 mm AL+7/1.57mm St.
Total sectional area 118.5mm
2
Overall diameter 14.15mm
Approx. Weight 394 KglKm
Calculated d.c. resistance at 20 deg. C. 0.281 ohm/km
Min. UTS 32.41 KN
Modulus of elasticity 7747Kglmm
Co-efficient of linear expansion 19.80x10-
6
/deg. C
Max. allowable temperature 75 deg.C
5.6 Earth Wire
The earthwire to be used for transmission line has been standardised. Continuously run
galvanised steel   to be used for lines, earthed at every tower points. The
properties of the and follows:-
5.6.1 Voltage Level
Material of earthwire
, No. of continuous earth wires
400 KV
Galvanised Steel
Two
I otal sectional area
Overall diameter
Approx. Wt.
Calculated d.c.
resistance at 20 deg. C
Minimum UTS
Modulus of elasticity
Co-efficient of linear expansion
Max. allowable temperature
5.6.2 Voltage Level
Material of Earthwire
No. of Earthwires
Standing/wire diameter
Total sectional area
overall diameter
Approx. wt.
Calculated d.c.
resistance at 20 deg. 'c
Minimum UTS
Modulus of elasticity
co-efficient of linear expansion
Max. allowable temperature.
5.7 Insulator Strings
73.65 mm"
10.98 mm
583 Kg/Km
2.50hms/Km
68.4 KN
19361 kg/mm2
11.5x10-6/deg.C.
53 deg. c:
220 KV, 132 KV, 110KV, 66KV
Galvanised Steel
one
7/3.15 mm
54.55 mm
2
9.45 mm
428Kg/Km
3.375 ohmslKm
5710 Kg
19361 kg/mm2
11.5x1 O-s/deg.  
53 deg. ,
The following type of insulator strings are generally used on transmission lines:
5.7.1 400 KV INSULATORS
S.No. Type of Tower Type Size of No. of Electro Mechanical
String The DISC Stan- Mechanical Strength
(DIA X dard Strength of The
Spacing) Discs of Insulator Complete
(mm) Disc String
(KN) (KN)
1. Single Suspn. 255/280 1x23 120 120
'I' string Standard x145
tangent
type tower.
In case of
single ckt.
horizontal
configuration
'I' suspension
strings are
generally
used "on
two outer
phases
14 Design Parameters
S.No. Type of Tower Type Size of No. of Electro Mechanical
String The DISC Stan- Mechanical Strength
(DIA X dard Strength of The
Spacing) Discs of Insulator Complete
(mm) Disc String
(KN) (KN)
2. Single Suspn. 255/280 1x23 120 120
'I' pilot Large deviation x145
angle towers
for restraining
the jumper
coming closer
to the tower
body. Also used
on trans-position
towers
3. Single Suspn. 255x145 2x23 90 12ll
'V' string Middle phase
of horizontal·
configuration
single ckt.
tower
.4. Double Suspn. 255/280 2x24 120 2x120
'I' string River crossing x145
or any other
type special
suspn tower
5. Single ten- Transposi- 280/170 1x24 120 120
sion tion Arran- OR
gement 245/170
6. Double tens- Tension 280/170 2x23 160 160
sion Towers 145/170
5.7.2 220 KV INSULA TORS
1. Single 'I' Standard 255x145 130r14 70 70
Suspn. tangent
string type tower
2. Single Suspn. Large deviation 255x145 130r14 70 70
pilot string angle towers
for restraining
the Jumper
coming closer
tn tho
S.No. Type of Tower Type Size of No. of Electro Mechanical
String The DISC Stan- Mechanical Strength
(DIA X dard Strength of The
Spacing) Discs of Insulator· Complete
(mm) Disc String
(KN) (KN)
3. Double Suspn. River X-ing 255x145 2x14 70 2x70
string or any other
type special
suspension
tower
4. Single All type of 255x145 140r15 120 120
tension angle tower
string including
Dead end, section
& transposition
towers
5. Double River X-ing 255x145 2x15 120 240
tension or any other
string special ten-
sion tower
5.7.3 132 KV INSULATORS
1. Single II' standard 255x145 9 45 45
Suspn. tangent
string type tower
2. Single Suspn. Large deviation 255x145 9 45 45
pilot string angle towers
for restraining
the jumper
coming closer
to the tower
body
3. Double Suspn. River X-ing 255x145 2x9 45 2x45
string or any other
type special
suspension
tower
4. Single' All type of 255x145 10 70 70
tension angle tower
string including
Dead end, section
& transposition
towers
16 Design Parameters
S.No. Type of Tower Type Size of No. of Electro Mechanical
String The DISC Stan- Mechanical Strength
(DIA X dard Strength of The
Spacing) Discs of Insulator Complete
(mm) Disc String
(KN) (KN)
5. Double River X.ing 255x145 2x10 70 140
tension or any other
string special ten-
sion tower
5.7.4 110KV INSULA TORS
1. Single 'I' Standard 255x145 8 45 45
Suspn. tangent
string type tower
2. Single Suspn. Large deviation 255x145 8 45 45
pilot string angle towers
for restraining
the jumper
coming closer
to the tower
body
3. Double Suspn. River X-ing 255x145 2x8 45 2x45
string or any other
type special
suspension
tower
4. Single All type of 255x145 9 70 70
tension angle tower
string including Dead
end section
& Transposition
towers
5. Double River X-ing 255x145 2x9 70 2x70
tension or any other
string
-
special
tension tower
5.7.5 66 KV INSULA TORS
1. Single 'I' Standard 255x145 5 45 45
Suson. tanaent
S.No. Type of Tower Type Size of No. of Electro Mechanical
String The DISC Stan- Mechanical Strength
(DIA X , dard Strength of The
Spacing) Discs of Insulator Complete
(mm) Disc String
(KN) (KN)
2. Single Suspn. Large deviation 255x145 5 45 45
pilot string angle towers
for restraining
the jumper
coming closer
to the tower body
3. Double Suspn. River X-ing 255x145 2x5 45 2x45
string or any other
 
type special
suspension
tower
4. Single All type of 255x145 6 45 45
tension angle tower
string including
Dead end &
section towers
5. Double River X-ing 255x145 2x6 45 2x45
tension or any other
string special ten-
sion tower
5.8 Span
5.8.1 Design Span
Normal design span for various voltage transmission lines considered are as
follows.
Voltage Normal sp,an
800 KV 400,450m
400 KV 400 m
220 KV 335, 350, 375 m
132 KV 315, 325, 335 m
110 KV 315, 325, 335 m
66 KV 240, 250, 275 m
5.8.2 Wind Span: The wind span is the sum of the two half spans adjacent to the support
under consideration. For plain terrains this equals. to normal rulling span.
5.8.3 Weight Span: The weight span is the horizontal distance between the lowest point of
the conductors on the two adjacent spans. For design of towers the following weight spans
are generally considered :
18 Design Parameters
400KV LEVEL
I!rrlin!tower type . permissible Weight Span (mts)
NormDI condition Broken wire Condilion
Max. Min. Max. Min.
(a) Plain Terrain
Suspension 600 200 360 100
SmalVMedium Angle 600 0 360 -200
Large angle 600 0 360 -300
(b) Hilly Terrain
Suspension 600 200 360 100
SmalVMedium/Large 1000 - 1000 - 600 - 600
anlge
220 KV LEVEL
(a) . Plain Terrain
Suspension 525 200 315 100
Small/Medium Angle 525 0 315 - 200
Large angle 525 0 315 - 300
(b) Hilly Terrain
Suspension 525 200 315 100
SmalVMedium/Large 1000 - 1000 600 - 600
angle
1321110 KV LEVEL
(a) Plain Terrain
Suspension 488 195 195 104
Small/Medium Angle 488 0 195 - 200
Large angle 488 0 195 - 300
(b) Hilly Terrain
Suspension 488 208 192 104
SmalVMediurnlLarge 960 - 960 576 - 576
angle
66 KV LEVEL
(a) Plain Terrain
Suspension 375 163 150 75
SmalVMediurnl 375 0 150 - 150
Large/angle
(b) Hilly Terrain

Suspension 375 163 150 75
SmalVMediumlLarge angle 750 - 750 450 - 450
I
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,
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Transmission Line Manual
Chapter 6
Loadings
CONTENTS
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Requirements of Loads on Transmission Lines
6.3 Nature of Loads
6.4 Loading Criteria
6.5 Transverse Loads (TR) - Reliability Condition
(Normal Condition)
6.6 Transverse Loads {TS) - Security Condition
6.7 Transverse Load (TM) during Construction
and Maintenance - Safety Condition
6.8 Vertical Loads (VR) - Reliability Condition
6.9 Vertical Loads (VS) - Security Condition
6.10 Vertical Loads during Construction and
Maintenance (VM) - Safety Condition
6.11 Longitudinal Loads (LR) - Reliability Condition
6.12 Longitudinal Loads (LS) - Security Condition
6.13 Longitudinal Loads during Construction and
Maintenance (LM) - Safety Condition
6.14 Loading Combinations under Reliability,
Security and Safety Conditions
6.15 Anti-cascading Checks
6.16 Brokenwire Condition
6.17 Broken Limb Condition for 'V' Insulator String
Page
2
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4
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5
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6
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4
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5
5
5
5
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6
6
6
6
CHAPTER VI
LOADINGS
6.1 INTRODUCTION
Tower loading is most important part of tower design.
Any mistake or error in the load assessment will make the
tower design erroneous. Various types of loads are to be
calculated accurately depending on the design parameters.
In the load calculation the wind plays a vital role. The correct
assessment of wind will lead to proper load assessment and
reliable design of tower structure.
6.2 REQUIREMENTS OF LOADS ON TRANS-
MISSION LINES
Overhead lines are subjected to various
loads during their life span which are classified into three
distinct categories:-
(a) Climatic loads related to reliability requirements.
(b) Failure containment loads related to security
requirements.
(c) Construction and maintenance loads related to. safety
requirements.
6.2.1 Reliability Requirements-Climatic Loads under
Nonnal Condition
6.2.1.1 Wind Loads (Non-Snowy Regiens).
6.2.1.2 Wind Loads with Ice (Snowy Regions).
6.2.1.3 . Wind loads without Ice (Snowy Regions).
Transmission lines in snowy regions will be dealt with
in a separate document.
6.2.2 Security Requirements - Failure Containment
Loads under Broken Wire Condition
towers Shall be checked for anti-cascading loads for all
conductors and earthwires broken in the same span.
6.2.3 Safety Requirements - Loads during Construction
and Maintenance .
As an important and essential requirement, Construction
and Maintenance Practices should be regulated to eliminate
unnecessary and temporary loads which would otherwise
demand expensive permanent strengthening of Towers.
6.2.3.1 Loads during Construction
These are the loads imposed on tower during the
construction of transmission line.
6.2.3.2 Loads during Maintenance
These are the loads imposed on tower during the
maintenance of transmission line.
6.3 NATURE OF LOADS
6.3.1 Transverse Loads (T)
6.3.1.1 Wind load on tower structure, conductor, ground-wire
and insulator strings.
6.3.1.2 Component of mechanical tension of condu.ctor and
ground-wire.
6.3.2 Vertical Loads (V)
6.3.2.1 baads due to weight of each conductor, ground-wire \
based on appropriate weight span,weight of insulator strings
and fittings.
6.3.2.2 Self-weight of structure.
6.3.2.3 Loads during construction. and  
6.2.2.1 Unbalanced Longitudinal Loads and Torsional Loads. 6.3.3 Longitudinal Loads (L)
due to Broken Wires
All towers should have inherent strength for resisting
the Longitudinal and Torsional Loads resulting from
breakage of specified number of conductors andlor
earthwire.
6.2.2.2 Anti-Cascading Loads
Failure of items such as insulators, hardware joints etc.
as well as failure of major components such as towers,
foundations and conductors may result j., cascading
condition. In order to prevent the cascading failures angle
Unbalanced Horizontal loads in longitudinal direction
due to mechanical tension of conductor andlor groundwire
during broken wire condition.
..6.4 LOADING CRITERIA
Loads imposed on tower due to action of wind are
calculated under the following climatic criteria:
Criterion I
Criterion n
Every day temperature and design wind pressure.
Minimum temperature with 3.6% of design
wind pressure.
2
6.5 TRANSVERSE LOADS (TR) - RELIABILITY
CONDITION (NORMAL CONDITION)
6.5.1 Wind Load on COllductor/G round-Wire
The load due to wind on each conductor and ground-wire
normal to the line applied at supporting point shall be
determined by the following expression:-
Fwc = Pd x L x d x Gc x Cdc
where
Fwc = Wind load in Newtons
Loadings
Cdc = Drag Coefficient which is 1.0 for conduc-
tor and 1.2 for ground-wire.
Gc = Gust response factor which takes into ac-
count the turbulance of the wind and the
dynamic response of the conductor.
Values of Gc for three terrain categories and different
height of the conductor/groundwire above Ground Level are
given in Table-I. The average height will be taken upto the
clamping point of top conductor/groundwire on tower less
two-third the sag at minimum temperature and no wind,
Pd = Design wind pressure in N/nt (see 5.3.1. 6
6.5.2 Wind Load on Insulator String
6.5.2.1 Wind load on insulator strings shall be determined
from the attachment point to the centre-line of the conductor
in case of suspension tower and upto the end of clamp in
case of tension tower, in the direction of wind as follows:-
of coapter -5).
L = Wind span in metres
d = Diameter of conductor/groundwire In
metres.
TABLE ·1
Values of Gust   e s p o n ~ e Factor Gc for Conductor/Groundwire
Terrain Height Values of Gc for conductor of span in metres upto
Category above
ground 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
(metres) . & above
1. Upto 10 1.70 1.65 1.60 1.56 1.53 1.50 1.47
20 1.90 1.87 1.83 1.79 1.75 1.70 1.66
40 2.10 2.04 2.00 1.95 1.90 1.85 1.80
60 2.24 2.18 2.12 2.07 2.02 1.96 1.90
80 2.35· 2.25 2.18 2.13 2.10 2.06 2.03
2. Up to 10 1.83 1.78 1.73 1.69 1.65 1.60 1.55
20 2.12 2.04 1.95 1.88 1.84 1.80 1.80
40 2.34 2.27 2.20 2.13 2.08 2.05 2.02
60 2.55 2.46 2.37 2.28 2.23 2.20 2.17
80 2.69 2.56 2.48 2.41 2.36 2.32 2.28
3. Upto 10 2,05 1.98 1.93 1.88 1.83 1.77 1.73
20 2.44 2.35 2.25 2.15 2.10 2.06 2.03
40 2.76 2.67 2.58 2.49 2.42 2.38 2.34
60 2.97 2.87 2.77 2.67 2.60 2.56 2.52
80 3.19 3.04 2.93 2.85 2.78 2.73 2.69
. Noh!:
(i) -. Fnr lntprtnArI:'lt.a. 'co_nft
.r .... l .. __ --.C r". __ 1I. n ____
5
to\\
.r
Fwi = Pd x Ai x Gi x Cdi
where
Fwi = Wind load in Newtons
Pd = Design wind pressure in N/sq. m.
Ai = 50% area of insulator string in sq.m.
projected on a plane which is parallel to
Gi
the   axis of the string.
= Gust response factor depending upon
terrain category and height of insulator
attachment above ground. Values of Gi
for the three Terrain Categories are
given in Table-2.
Cd)
= Drag coefficient of insulator is
taken as 1.2
TABLE - 2
Gust Response for Tower (GT)
and for Insulatol"S" (GI)
Ht. above Values of GT and Gi for terrain categories
ground
(metre) Upto 2 3
10 1.70 1.92 2.55
20 1.85 2.20 2.82
30 1.96 2.30 2.98
40 2.07 2.40 3.12
50 2.13 2.48 3.24
60 2.20 2.55 3.34
70 2.26 2.62 3.46
80 2.31 2.69 3.58
Note: (i) In case of multi-string including V-string no
Masking Effect shan be considered.
(ii) The total effect of wind on multiple string set
shall be taken equal to sum of the wind load on
the individual insulator strings.
(iii) Intermediate values may be linearly
interpolated.
6.5.3 Wind Load on Towers
6.5.3.1 In order to determine the wind load on tower, the
tower is divided into different panels. These panels should
normally be taken between connecting points of the legs
and For square/rectangular lattice tower, the
wind load for wind normal to the longitudinal face of
tower, on. a panel height of 'h' applied at the centre of
gravity of the panel is:-
Fwt = Pd x Cdt x Ae x GT
where
Fwt = Wind Load in Newtons
Pd = Design Wind Pressure in N/m
2
Cdt = .Drag Co-efficient pertaining to wind blowing against
any of the tower. Value of Cdt for the different
solidiLY ratios are given in Table - 3.
Ae = Total net surface area of the legs and bracings
including x- arm members and redundants of the
panel projected normally on windward face in
sq.m. (The projections of the bracing elements of
the adjacent faces and ofthe 'plan' and 'hip' brac-
ing members may be neglected while determining
the projected surface of a windward face).
y = In single ckt horizontal configuration towers, a part
of tower frame above waist level which is not
shielded by the windward face shall be taken
separately for wind calculation of tower.
GT = Qust Responses factor depending upon terraln
category and height of CG panel above ground
level. Values of GT for the three terrain categories
are given in Table- .2 r
TABLE .. 3
Drag Coefficient Cdt for Towers
Solidity Ratio
Upto 0.05
,0.1
0.2
OJ
0.4
0.5 and above
Drag Coefficient Cd
3.6
3.4
2.9
2.5
2.2
2.0
Note: (i) Solidity ratio is equal to the effective area
(Projected area of all the individual
elements) of a frame normal to the wind
direction divided by the area enclosed by
the boundary of the frame normal to the
wind direction.
(ii) Drag Coefficient takes into account the effect
of wind load both or. wind ward and leeward
faces of the tower.
(iii) For intermediate value of solidity ratio, drag
coefficient will be interpolated.
4
6.5.4 Transverse Load from Mechanical Tension of
Conductor and Groundwjre due to Wind
(Deviation Load)
6.5.4.1 This load acts on the tower as component of
Mechanical Tension of Conductor/Groundwire.
Fwd = 2 x T x sin <p/2
Fwd = Load in Newtons
T = Maximum t,ension of conductor and Groundwire at
every day temperature and 100% of Full Wind Pres-
sure or at minimum temperature and 36% of Full
Wind Pressure whichever is more stringent.
4> = Angle of deviation.
65.5 Total Transverse Load (TR) under Reliability
Condition
(TR) = Fwc + Fwi + Fwt + Fwd
.-- .' _.
I (6.5.1)     ..  
Where "Fwc" and "Fwi" and "Fwd" are to be applied
on all conductor/Groundwire points. But "Fwt" wind on
tower is to be applied on the tower at ground wire peak and
cross ann levels. For 400 kV and above, "Fwt" will also "
be" applied at any convenient level between Bottom Cross
Arm and ground-level. In case of Normal tower with
extension of any voltage rating one more level at the top of
extension panel shall be considered
6.6 TRANSVERSE LOADS (TS) - SECURITY
CONDITION
6.6.1 SuspenSion Towers
6.6.1.1 Transverse loads due to wind action on tower
structure, conductors, ground wires and insulators shall be
taken as nil.
.,
6.6.1.2 Transverse loads due to line deviation shall be based
on component of mechanical tension of conductors and
ground wires corresponding to everyday temperature and nil
wind condition. For broken wire the component shall be
corresponding to 50% of mechanical tension of conductor
and 100% of mechanical tension of ground wire at everyday
temperature and nil wind.
6.6.2 Tension and Dead End Towers
6.6.2.1 Transverse loads due to wind action on tower
structure, conductors, ground wires and insulators shall be
computed as per 60% wind span shall be
considered for broken wire and 100% for intact wire.
Loadings
6.7 TRANSVERSE LOAD (TM) DURING
MAINTENANCE- CONSTRUCTION AND
SAFETY CONDITION,
6.7.1 Normal Condition-Suspension, Tension and Dead
End Towers
6.7.1.1 Transverse loads due to wind action on tower
structure, conductors, ground wires "and insulators shall be
taken as nil.
6.7 .1.2 Transverse loads due to mechanical tension of
conductor or ground wire at everyday temperature and nil
wind on account of line deviation shall be considered as
follows:-
TM
=
2 x Tl x sin 4>/2
TM
=
Load in Newtons
Tl
=
Tension in Newton of conductor/ground-
wire at everyday temperature and nil wind.
$ =
Angle of deviation of the
6.7.2 Brokenwire Condition - Suspension, Tension and
Dead End Towers
6.7.2.1 Transverse loads due to wind action on tower
structure, conductors, ground wire insulators shall be taken
as nil.
6.7.2.2 Transverse load due to mechanical tension of
conductor ground wire at everyday temperature and nil
wind -on account of line deviation shall be considered as
follows:-
TM = Tl x sin $12
where TM = Load in Newtons
Tl = 50% of tension in Newtons of conductor
and 100% of tension of grollndwire at
everyday temperature and nil wind "" ."
for suspension tower and 100% for
angle and dead end towers for both con-
ductor and ground wire.
$ = Angle of peviation of the tower.
6.8 VERTICAL LOADS (VR) - RELIABILITY
CONDITION
6.8.1 Loads due to weight of each conductor and groundwire
based on appropriate weight span, weight of Insulator strings
and accessories. "
6.8.2 Self weight of structure upto point under
c
v
c
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Cc
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6.1
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15(
u.l
f
I
f
I
Loadings
calculated corresponding to minimum design weight span
plus weight of insulator strings & accessories only shall be
taken.
5
Longitudinal loads. which might be caused on tension
towers by adjacent spans of unequal lengths shall be
neglected.
6.9 VERTICAL LOADS (VS) - SECURITY 6.11.2 Dead End Towers
CONDmON
6.9.1 Loads due to weight of each or
groundwire based on appropriate weight span, weight of
insulator strings and accessories taking broken wire
condition where the load due to weight of broken
conductor/groundwire shall be considered as 60% of
weight span. (For intact wire the vertical load shall be
considered as given in clause No. 6.8)
6.9.2 Self weight of structure upto point under- consideration
of tower panel.
6.10 VERTICAL LOADS DURING CONSTRUCTION
AND MAINTENANCE (VM) - SAFETY
CONDITION
6.10.1 Same as Clause 6.9.1 multiplied by overload factor
of 2.0
6.10.2 Same as Clause 6.9.2
6.10.3 Load of 1500N shall be considered acting at each
cross-arm tip as a provision of of line man with tools.
6.10.4 Load of 3500N at cross arm tip to be considered for
cross-arm design upto 220 kV and 5000 N for 400 kV and
higher voltages.
6.10.5 The cross arms of tension towers shalf also be
designed for the following construction loads:
Tension Tower Vertical Lifting point distance
with Load, N min. from the tip of
cross-arm (mm)
;>
Twin bundle 10,000 600
Conductor Multi-
bundle conductor 2u,000 1,000
6.10.6 All bracings and redundant members of the, tower
which are horizontal or inclined upto 15 deg. from horizontal
shall be designed to withstand an ultimate vertical load of
1500N considered as acting at centre, independent of all other
loads.
.
6.11 LONGITUDINAL LOADS (LR) - RELIABILITY
CONDITION
6.11.1 Suspension and Tension Towers
,,,.j jr.·
6.11.1.1 Longitudinal loads for Suspension and Tension
  be taken as nil.
6.11.2.1 Longitudinal loads for Dead End Towers shall be
considered corresponding to mechanical tension of
and groundwires for loading criteria defin.ed in
Clause 6.4.
6.12 LONGITUDINAL LOADS (LS) - SECURITY
CONDITION
6.12.1 Suspension Towers
The longitudinal load corresponding to 50 per cent of·
the mechanical tension of conductor and 100% of
mechanical tension of ground wire shall be considered
under everyday temperature and No wind pressure for
broken wire only.
6.12.2 Tension Towers
6.12.2.1 Horizontal loads in longitudinal direction due to
mechanical tensi"n of conductors and groundwire shall be
taken for loading criteria specified in Clause 6.4 for broken
wire(s). For intact wires these loads shall be considered
as nil.
6.12.3 Dead End Towers
Horizontal loads in longitudinal direction due to
mechanical tension of conductors and groundwire shall be
taken for loading criteria specified in Clause 6.4 for intact
wires, however for broken wires these shall be taken as
nil.
6.13 LONGITUDINAL LOADS DURING CONS-
TRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE (LM) -
SAFETY CONDITION
6.13.1 Normal Condition - Sm'pensi.on and Tell$ion
Towers
These loads shall be taken as nil.
6.13.2 Normal Condition - Dead End Towers
6.13.2.1 These loads for Dead End Towers shall be
considered as corresponding to mechanical te.nsion of
conductor/groundwire at every day temperature and nil
wind. Longitudinal loads due to unequal spans may be
neglected .
6.13.3 Broken Wire Condition
6.13.3.1 Longitudinal loads during construction simulating
broken wire condition will be based on Stringing of One
Earthwire or One Complete Phase of sub-conductors at one
time.
6
6.13.3.2 Broken Wire Condition f o ~ Suspension Tower
Longitudinal loads during Stringing on Suspension
Tower should be nominally imposed only by the passing
restriction imposed during pushing of the running block
through the Sheave. It will apply only on one complete
phase of Sub-conductors or One Earthwire. It will be taken
as 10,000 N on one Sub-conductor or 5,000 N on one
Earthwire.
6.13.3.3 Broken Wire Condition for Tension and Dead End
Towers
Angle Towers used as dead en,d during stringing
simulating broken wire condition shflll be capable of
resisting longitudinal loads resulting from load ·equal to
twice the sagging tension (sagging tension is 50 per cent
of the tension at every day temperature and no wind) for
one earthwire or one complete phase of sub- conductors
which is in the process of Stringing. At other earthwire
or conductor attachrllent points for which stringing has
been completed, loads equal to 1.5 times tbe sagging
tension will be considered. However, the structure will
be strengthened 'by installing temporary guys to neutralise
the unbalanced longitudinal tension. These guys shall be
anchored as far away as possible to minimise vertical load.
I 6.14 LOADING COMBINATIONS UNDER
RELIABILITY, SECURITY AND SAFETY
CONDITIQNS
6.14.1 Reliability Condition (Normal Condition)
6.14.1.1 Transverse Loads as per Clause 6.5
1 6.14.1.2 Vertical Loads as per Clause 6.8
,
t 6.14.1.3 Longitudinal Loads as per Clause 6.11.
16.14.2 Security Condition (Broken Wire Condition)
1 6.14.2.1 Transverse Loads as per Clause 6.6
\
,I
i\ 6.14.2.2 Vertical Loads as per Clause 6.9
!
6.14.2.3 Longitudinal Loads as per Clause 6.12.
6.14.3 Safety Condition (Construction and Maintenance)
: 6.14.3.1 Normal Conditions
1. Transverse Loads as per Clause 6.7.1
2. Vertical Loads as per Clause 6.10.
3. Longitudinal Loads as per Clause 6.13.1 and
6.13.2
~   6.14.3.2 Brokenwire Condition
Loadings
2. Vertical Load as per Clause 6.10
3. Longitudinal Load as per Clause 6.13.3 and 6.13.4
6.15 ANTI·CASCADING CHECKS
All angle towers shall be checked for the following
anti-cascading conditions with all conductors arid OW intact
only on one side of the tower.
6.15.1 Transverse Loads
These load shall be taken under no wind condition.
6.15.2 Vertical Loads
These loads shall be the weight of conductorl groundwire
intact only on one side of tower, weight of insulator strings
and accessories.
6.15.3 Longitudinal Loads
6.15.3.1 These loads shall be the pull of conductorl
ground wire at everyday temperature and no wind applied
simultaneously at all points on one side with zero degree
line deviation.
6.16 BROKEN WIRE CONDITION
6.16.1 Single Circuit Tower
Anyone phase or ground wire broken, whichever is more
stringent for a particular member.
6.16.2 Double, Triple and Quadruple Circuit Towers
6.16.2.1 Suspension Towers
Anyone phase or groundwire broken whichever is more
stringent for a particular member.
6.16.2.2 Small and Medium Angle Towers
Any two phases broken on the same side and same span
or anyone phase and one ground wire broken on the same
side and.same span whichever combination is more stringent
for a particular member.
6.16.3 Large Angle/Dead End Towers
Any three phases broken on the same side and same
span or any two phases and one ground wire broken on the
same side and same span whichever combination is more
stringent for a particular member.
6.17 BROKEN LIMB CONDITION FOR 'V'
INSULATOR STRING
6.17.1 For 'V' Insulator strings, in normal condition one
limb broken case shall be considered. In such a case the!
transverse and vertical loads shall be transferred to outer limb
\ ,
Transmission Line Manual
Chapter 7
Design of Tower Members
CONTENTS
Page
7.1 GENERAL 1
7.1.1 Technical Parameters
7.2 STRESS-ANAL"'(SIS
7.2.1 List of Assumptions
7.2.2 Graphical Diagram method 2
7.2:3 Analytical Method 2
7.2.4 Computer-Aided Analysis. 2
7.2.4.1 Plane - Truss method or, 2-Dimensional analysis ')
7.2.4.2 Space - Truss method or, 3-Dimensional analysis 2
7.2.5 Comparison of various methods of stren analysis 3
7.2.6 Combination of Forces to determine maximum stress in each member 3
(i.e., Leg-Member, Bracing-Transverse and Longitudinal, X-arm and G.W. Peak)
. 7.3 MEMBER SELECTION 4
7.4 SELECTION OF MATERIAL 4
7.4.1 Use of hot rolled angle steel sections 4
7.4.2 Minimum flange width 4
7.4.3 Minimum thickness of members 4
7.4.4 Grades of steel 4
7.5 SLENDERNESS RATIO LIMITATIONS (LlR) 4
7.6 COMPUTATION OF LIR FOR DIFFERENT BRACING SYSTEMS 4
7.7 PERMISSIBLE STRESSES IN TOWER MEMBERS 5
7.7.1 Curve-l to curve-6 5
7.7.2 Reduction due to bIt Ratio 5
7.8 SELECTION OF MEMBER 5
7.8.1 Selection of Members in Compression 5
7.8.2 Selection of Members in Tension 5
7.8.3 Redundant Members 6
7.9 Bolts and Nuts. 6
Annexures
I Conductor Details 7
II Earthwire 8
III Design Loads 9
IV Graphical Diagram Method II
V Analytical Method 13
VI Computer Aided Analysis 21
W ~ m b   D A n ~ ~ M
VIII Output Giving Summary of Critical Stresses 28
IX Chemical Composition and Mechanical Properties of Mild Steel 32
X Chemical Composition and Mechanical Properties of High Tensile Steel 33
XI Section List Equal Section Commonly Used For Towers & 34
As Per IS:808 (Part - V) 1989
XII Llr Consideration for Bracing System in a Transmission Tower 36
XIII . Permissible Axial Stress in Compression 37
XIV Reference Table for Maximum Permissible Length of Redundant Members 43
CHAPTER 7
DESIGN OF TOWER MEMBERS
7.1 GENERAL
7.1.1 Technical Parameters
Design data for transmission line Towers are discussed in chapters 2 to 6.
7.2. SlRESS ANALYSIS
The exact stress analysis of transmission tower requires calculation of the total forces in each member
of the tower under action of combination of loads externally applied, plus the dead weight of structlle.
The design of structure must be practical so that it is done as a production assignment. Basically
the stress analysis of any tower requires application of the laws of statics. As. tower is a space frame
the solution becomes complex. if all extemalloads are applied   Different categories
of loads are taken separately for calculation of stress in each member. stresses so calculated. for
different types of loads are superimposed to arrive at overall stress in the member.
7.2.1 List of Assumptions
(a) All members of a bolted type tower frame work are pin-connected in such a manner that
the members carry oxialloads only.
(b) The bolt slippages throughout the structures are such as to allow the use of the same
modulus of elasticity for the entire structure. thus permitting the use of the principle of
super-imposition for stress analysis.
(c) Shear is distributed equally between the two members of a double web system. i.e .. warren
system.
(d) Shear is carried by the diagonal member under tension in a Pratt system with members
designed for tension only. the other member being Inactive.
(e) Torsional shears applied at crossarm level for square tower are resisted by all the four tower
faces equally.
(f) Plan members at levels other than those at which external loads are applied or where the
leg slope changes. are designated as redundant members.
(g) Any face of the tower subjected to external loads lies in the same plane. so far as the analysis .
of the particular face is concerned. except earth wire cross-arm and peak.
(h) Transverse loads are shared by the members on the transverse faces of the tower equally.
Similarly. the longitudinal loads are shared equally by the two longitudinal faces.
(i) Vertical loads placed symmetrically and dead weight of the structure are shared equally
by the four legs.
m Vertical load at cross-arm panel will be shared by web member. in some cases.
1
(I<) The tooionaJ loads ae resisted by all the fcufoces In Inverse proportlon of the width of each face.
(I) All members, placed Horizontally or at an angle, less than 15
0
to the horizontal. will be
checked independently for specified point load, causing bending stresses.
7.2.2 Graphical Diagram Method
Stress-Analysis by graphical method I.e .. stress diagram method is the easiest method of stress Analysis
but the accuracy of the cdcutated stress by graphical method depends upon the accuracy of stress
diagram drawn and measlXement of stresses mode on proportionate Scale. Even the line thickness
makes some difference in stress value. Further, for each load on each face, separate stress diagram is
required. Some times, due to spJce limitation in a drawing sheet. each stress diagram bears different
Scale and overall computation of the stresses become difficult. There is likelihood of some human errO( '.
creeping in! whUe computng the stresses. Thus, the graphical method of drawing stress diagram has
now become obsolete. However, a typical stress diagram for a Tower is shown at .A.nQexure 4 (2 Sheets).
7.2.3 Analytk::aI Method
Basically, all the assumptions which ore mode In stress analysis of Tower by Graphical Method, are
also mode while using Analytical Method. However, the colculoti.on of stress in leg-members with
staggered bracings on transverse and longitudinal faces are Slightly more intricate.
Annexure 5 (8 Sheets) shows the formats for calculating stresses by Anal'jaical Method, for the
following tower members:-
leg Member
Bracings-Transverse and longitudinal faces.
Cross-Arm: Various Members
7.2A Computer Aided Analysis
In the previously described methods of stress analysis. viz Graphical Method as well as Analytical
Method, a designer has limitations to try-out several permutations and combinations of Tower
Geometry. To avoid mental fatigue due to numerous trials. one is inclined to restrict Jo few trials,
based on one's experience, thus analytical designs were more or less personified ones.
WIth the a.dvent of Digital Computer, now available as an aid to a Designer, hiscapabilrrv is
enhanced to try out number of iterations with several permutations and combinations. so as to
achieve the optimum design and accurate stress analysis. Two different methods of stress analysis
with the aid of computers are being practised.
1.2.4.1 Plane TrusslMlhod Or 2-dimensiond AnalysIs
This is exact replica of analytical method, covering all the steps as before but with unlimited scope
of trials for variations in tower geometry of bracing systems. Various organisations have developed
several computer programmes suitable to use with particular computer system available with
them. Some computer programmes are so elaborate that even optimum Tower Geometry is
selected automatically by a Computer. But most practical one is that Computer Software working
on Interactive mode. It amalgamates the experience of a designer to try a particular geometry
along with capability of a computer to try numerous permutations and combinations. The main
objective of such an elaborate aid from a computer is to achieve optimum design of a tower,
which will withstand slmultaneous application of worst loadings and achieve reliability as well as
optimum strength of all tower members.
}
  ~
The tower structure Is basically a statically Indeterminate structure, 3-o;menslonal Analysis is not
possible to do manually, Stiffness matrix analysis with the help of appropriate powerful computer is
essential.
STEPS INVOLVED IN 3·0 ANALYSIS OF TOWER
a) A line diagram showing the four faces of a tower Is prepared (Ref, Annexu're,6 ) ( 3 Sheets),
b) Each NODE is numbered sequentially at each level.
c) Every member Joining two nodes Is then numbered, including Plan members at each leve!.
d) Annexure, 7 shows the input data which consist of following:-
- Coordinates of each Node In a spectfied format.
- ConnectMty of members between the Nodes and the sectional areas of the members.
- The loads on each Node for all three directions,
- These inputs can also be created through computer programmes.
PROCESSING STAGES
1, The first stage gives the 3-D analysis of the tower for each member for each load case.
2. The secord stage uses the out-put of the first stage as input and then gives the st.J'TV1'lOrY of critical
stresses for members of each group, (Ref,Annexure 8, 3 sheets), The 2nd stage also requires the
Group file as an Input, Wi Sl.J1l'OOry ootput is then ufUized by designers fer final design,
7,2.5 Comparison of Various Methods of Stress-analysis
Comparison of stress analysis by graphical. analytical and computer method reveals, that though
It does not affect the practical stress design of tower much. the 3-D analysis by computer gives
more insight Into stress distribution In various members due to the various extemalloads, Whereas.
in the case of graphical and analytical methods it is assumed that the transverse faces take care
of transverse loads and memt;>ers of longitudinal faces carry stresses due to longitudinal loads
only.the   ~ stress analysis 'by computer shows the stress distribution in the members of all the four
faces of the tower due to any type of external load applied to the structure. Similarty, while doing
analysis by graphical and analytical method, stresses are only calculated in the members at the
level of the externally applied load and below it, the 3-D analysis gives the magnitudes of stresses
even in the members above the level of the externally applied load.
Again in the Cross-arm analysis we assume that the main members carry the transverse and
longitudinal loads and a portion of vertical load. and the top Inclined members carry the vertical
loads, but the 3-D analysis Indicates the top members shore even the transverse and longitudinal
loads. 3-D analysis. therefore. give more realistic picture of stress distribution in the Tower and can
be used as an effective tool to arrive at the optimum design of Tower In minimum possible time
7.2.6 Combination d Forces, to cktJennlne Maximum Stress In eoch Member
Ref.Annexure 6 which gives (] typical Tower Design Calculation. (based on IS:-802(Part 1)-1995
showing combination of forces for (1) Design of Leg members "c", (2) Design of X-arm members.
and (3) Design of bracings on Transverse and longitudinal faces,
7.3 MEMBER SElEC110N
~ per IS:B02(Part I) (1995). the concept of limit load theory has to be followed and the tower
loadings. covered in Chapter 6 are based on this concept.
3
7.4 SELECnON OF MATERIAL
7.4.1 Use of hot-lolled angle steel sections
Since Towers are manufactured in factory'environment and have to be assembled at site. the ease d
t r ~ P Q r t and assembly dUrlng tower erection are equally important points for consideration, So far. the
practice is overwhelmingly in favour of the use of Hot Rolled Angle steel Sections in the design of Towers,
7.4.2 Minimum Flange width
Minimum flange widths for bolts of different diameters are given below:-
BOLTDIA
12mm
16mm
20mm
24mm
7.4.3 Minimum Thickness 01 Members
FLANGE WIDTH
40mm
45mm
50mm
60mm
As per 15:802 the following minimum thicknesses for members are specified:
a) leg members
b) Ground wire peak and Extemal members of Hom peak
c) lower members of cross-Arm
d) Upper members of cross-Arm
e) Bracings & Inner members of Hom peak
1) Other members
7.4,4 Grades 01 steel
: 5mm
: 5mm
: 5mm
: 4mm
: 4mm
: 4mm
Generally two grades of steel i.e,. mild steel and higher tensile steel are used in the manufacture
of transmission line towers. The salient properties of these grades of steel are tabulated in Annexure
11. Annexure 12 and Annexure 13 ( 2 sheets), Properties of angle sections which are normally used
in Towers. are fumished.
7.5 SLENDERNESS RATIO UMITAnONS (Kl/R)
As per 15: 802 (Part I). section-2. the following limits of L/R ratio are prescribed:-
-leg members. G.W. Peak. and X-arm lower member = 120
  ~ ~ = ~
- Redundants/Nominal stress carrying members = 250
- Tension members = 400
7.6 COMPUTAnON OF L/R FOR DIFFERENT BRACING SYSTEMS
For achieving desired strength of tower members and optimum weight of full Tower. a Designer
adopts several Geometrical patterns for bracings. with and without the use of secondary members,
KL/R for bracing patterns are exhibited in Annexure. 12 (2 sheets) (based on 15-802 Part-I
Section-2: 1992)
7.7.1 Curve 1 to Curve 6
Various strut formulae for working out the permissible compressive stresses are as per IS: 802(Port
l/sec-2): 1992. This code suggests for use 6 different curves for calculation of the permissible'
compressive stresses in different tower members. Refer Annexure 13.( 5 sheets) .
Curve-1. is used for Leg-members. vertical G.W. Peak members and double-angle sections.
connected back-to-back. having concentric loads at both ends and KL/R upto 120.
Curve-2. is used for X-arm lower members. having concentric loads at one end. eccentric load
at the other ends and KL/R upto 120.
Curve-3. is used for bracings with single angle sections having eccentricity at both ends and KL/R
upto 120.
  is used for bracings wtth single-bolt connections at both the ends, thus b.eing
unrestrained against rotation at both the ends and having KL/R from 120 to 200.
Curve-5. is bracing; with sirQe-bolt connectioos at one end 000 2-bo1t comections at the
other erd ttus being partblly restrained agdnst rotation at one erd only crd having Kl./R
from 120 to 225.
Curve-¢. is used for bracings with 2-bo/t connections at both the ends. thus being partially
restrained against rotation at both the ends and having KL/R. from 120 to 250.
7.7.2 Reduction due to bIt rotfo
Suttoble reduction in permiSSible stresses has to be mode for fimits in bit ratio. as per 15:-802 (part-l)-l995.
7.8 SELECTION OF MEMBERS
7.8.1 Selection of Members in Compression
This Design should follow stipulations of Curve-' to Curve-¢, described above (Ref. Annexure 13).
7.8.2 Selection 01 Members In Tension
The estimated ultimate tensile stress In a member, should not exceed 2550 kg/crrl the slenderness
ratio of member carrying axial tension should not exceed 400. The net effective areas of angle sections
in tension to workout the pennlssible tensile load In a member shall be determined as under.-
(i) Single angle in tension connected on one flange only.
A+ BK.where
A = Net sectional area of the connected flange
B = Area of the outstanding flange
= (L-t) t, where
L = Flange width.
t = Thickness of the member.
1
K=----
1 + 0.35 B/A
(ii) Pair of angles back to back : connected on one flange of each angle to the same side of g.JSSet.
A+BK
5
'N'here. A = Net sectional area of the connected flange
B = Area of the outstanding flange.
1
K=----
1 + 0.2 B/A
The back to back angles are to be connected or stitched together throughout their length In
accordance with the requirements of IS: 800·1969 (Code of Practice for use of Structural Steel In
General Building Construction).
7.1.3 Redundant- Members
Redundant members corry nomnol stress. They are used to restrict the slendemess ratio LJR of the main
member$. Slendemess ratio of redundant member is restricted to 250. They ore also required to corry
2.5 % of the stress In the main members. which ore supported by these redundant member. These
m e m b e ~   It placed at an angle less than 15°ere required to be checked to withstand bending also.
due to a mid-point concentrated load of 150 kg Independent of other Ioods (Ref. Annexure 14).
7.9 BOLTS AND NUTS
7.9.1 Tower structures are usuolly BoHed type
7.9.2 The uHimate stresses in bolts shall not exceed the following values:
Nature 01 Stress
00sa.4.6 CIaUS.6
(a) Shear stress on gross 2.220 3.161 Gross aea of the bolt shdl be
area of bolt. (218) (310) taken as the nominal area of the
bolt.
(b)
Bealng stress on gross 4.4«)
6.322 Bott area :neil be taken as dxt
diameter of bolt. (436) (620) wtlefe.
d = OIaneter of bolt
t = Thlckress of the thinner
member
(e) Sealng on member 4.4«1 4,440
MS (436) (436)
HT 4.4«1 6.322
(436) (620)
(d) Tension 1980 2590
(194) (254)
7.9.3 The bolt sizes used. are 12. 16.20 and 24 mm diameter PreferabJy not more than two sizes of
bolts should be used in one tower.
Connection will be designed for the relevant shear and bearing stresses and the closs of bolts used.
There will be no restriction on the number of botts.
•• ·)[111I1J1I1.1IJ[I·U Jlro ... r .. : ..•. ! ... U.IIlunnl·· .. 1 r tlJIJm· IIII! JIJ .11.11 HlIIIU •• UIITII11 •• lillfi II HIII .. 111111I1'.IIIOIIIIJU1IL.I.III?DJlJI_
ANNEXURI
CONDUCTOR DETAILS
Sr. Code Strands Ultimate Overall dia Total Unit Wt. Co-efficlenft Modulus of
No. AI Steel Strength (cm) Sectional Kg/m. ot linear Elasticity
No./mm. No./mm. (kg.) Area (cm
2
) expansion Kg/cm'
-u· /oc
1.
Dog _.
6/4.72 7/1.570 3.305 1.415 1.185 0.3940 19.80 x 10-6 0.775 x lot'
2. Leopard ~ / 3   2 8 3 7/1.753 4.140 1.585 1.485 0.4935 19.80 x 10-6 0.775 x 1(t
3. Coyote 26/2.54 7/1.905 4.655 1.590 1.515 0.5215 18.99 x 10-6 0.773 x 1(t
4. TIger 30/2.362 7/2.362 5.800 1.650 1.622 0.6060 17.80)( 10-6 0.816 x 1cf'
5.
Wolf _.
30/2.590 7/2.590 6.867 .1.813 1.949 0.7260 17.80 x 10-6 0.816 x lcf'
6. Lyon 30/2.794 7/2.794 7.965 1.958 2.265 0.8455 17.80 x 10-6 0.816 x 10"
7. Lark 30/2.924 7/2.924 9.080 2.047 2.470 0.9230 17.80 x 10-6 0.816 x 1cf
8. Panther - • 30/3·.CXXl 7/3.0CIJ 9.144., 2.100 2.615 0.9740 17.80 x 10-6 0.8)6 x let
9. Bear 30/3.353 7/3.353 11.330 2.350 3.262 1.2195 17.80 x 10-6 0.816 x lcf'
....,
10. Goat 30/3.708 7/3.708 13.800 2.600 4.<XXl 1.4915 17.80 x 10-6 0.816 x let
11. Sheep 30/3.980 7/3.980 15.900 2.793 4.620 1.7260 17.80 x 10-6 0.816 x lcf'
12. Kundara 42/3.595 7/1.960 9.054 2.688 4.252 1.2180 21.50 x 10-6 0.755 x 1cf'
13.
Zebra _.
54/3.180 7/3.180 13.289 2.862 4.845 1.6210 19.30 x 10-6 0.704 x let
14. Deer 30/4.267 7/4.267 18.200 2.984 5.300 1.9800 17.80 x 10-6 0.816)( lCf
15. Camel- • 54/3.353 7/3.353 14.760 3.020 5.382 1.8100 19.30 x 10-6 0.704 x 1(f
16. Drike 26/4.4424 7/3.454 14.175 2.814 4.684 1.6280 18.99 x 10-6 0.773 x let
17. Mouse - @ 54/3.530 7/3.530 16A38 3.177 5.970 2.0040 19.30 x 10-6 0.704 X 10
6
18. Canary 54/3.280 7/3.280 14.650 2.951 5.152 1.7210 19.30 x 10-6 0.704 x lct
19. Dove 26/3.720 7/2.890 10.180 2.355 3.279 1.1370 18.99 x 10-6 0.773 x let
20. Redwlng 30/3.920 19/2.350 15.690 2.746 4.452 1.6460 17.50 x 10-6 0.738 x let
21. Gerslmls 42/4.570 7/2.540 15.734 3.510 7.252 2.1850 21.50 x 10-6 0.755 x let
22. Curlew - @ 54/3.510 7/3.510 16.850 3.162 5.915 1.9760 19.30 x 10-6 0.704 x 1(f
23. Duck 54/2.690 7/2.690 10.210 2.418 3.464 1.1580 19.30 x 10-6 0.704 x let
24. Leg Hom 12/2.690 7/2.690 5.360 1.346 1.080 0.5000 15.30 x 10-6 1.050)( let
• Conforming TO IS - 398 (Part 2) - 1976 (UP TO 220 kv)
@ Conforming TO IS " 398 (Port 5)1\ - 1982 (400 kv)
  -:.. , _
Sr.
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Stranding Weight per
No./dla. metre
(mm)
(kg)
7/3.15 0.429
7/3.&J 0.523
7/3.66 0.583
7/4.00 0.690
19/3.15 1.163
19/3.&J
19/3.66 1.570
19/4.00 1.875
1/5+8/3.2 0.458
OPTICAL
FIBRE GLASS
Strands
7
19
OPTICAL FIBRE
Overall Total
DIameter Sectlonal
(mm) Area (nvn2)
9.45 54.552
10.&J 67.348
10.98 73.646
12.00 87.965
15.75 148.069
\7.50 \82.801
18.30 199.897
20.00 238.761
11.40 71.41
Modulus of Elastlctty - E·
1.969xlct kg/em'
1.933xHt
1.893xlcf
1.52x1cf
EARTHWIRE
Ultimate tensile strength (kg)
700 1100 1570
N/rrvn' N/mm' N/mm'
3699 5913 8297
4567 7177 10243
4994 7848 11201
5965 9374 13379
10041 15778
12396 19479
13555
16191
&m
Co-efflclent of linear expansion
-n- perrf c




ANNEXURE - 2
: " Jt211Ldll tIm.! lUi db t tEl Lit U I L ,LIt l'IUJt_niHIl LIHJtJldllLflI ' • , IF I! 1 ',. I AiI.I. I " It. lbn LUd • • •
DESIGN LOADS
( FOR SUSPENSION TOWER)
(REUABllITY CONDmON (NORMAL CONOmON) (32°C & Full Wind)
i (,r..,
!--_._.
..
I
,
i
,
i '!!IIO
.---.
i7'56
..-

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Nfl'
I'fiII .-.

... - ..... .
:;
t • ....
. 70'.
I
;

--I
i
I
k
175G

I
, "
o. V;"
Nil:'

"SSM.;l
Sheet No. 1 of 2
SE,.CURIT) (,\,)NOIilON (B.W, CONDITION) orc & NO MND)


",
'·'''0
'0;'
, . .. _-


102
---_.- .. -.. - - .........
'07
....... _._ .. _---
I
'l'
r, '" .. ,
....
102
._ ... _.- --
LEVEL A
--

I.!; ..    
 

NOTES:-
1. AlL LOADS ARE IN KGS AND ARE ULTIMATE
2. BRACKETED FIGURES INDICATE MIN. VERT. LOADS/UP UFT LOADS.
3. WIND lOADS ON TOWER BODY SHAll BE CONSIDERED IN ASSUMPTION-! ONLY
4. SELF WEIGHT (s.w.) OF TOWER BODV TO BE CONSIDERED EXTRA.
S. SUFFIX 'A' IN ASSM NOS INDICATE RIGHT SIDE BROKEN CON·DITION.
9
DESIGN LOADS
SAFETY CONDITION (NORMAL CONDlnON) (32°C 6 No Wind)
:r.1
w) 1
Jl2
--
10;: 102
.... .. -_ .. -
--- ----
"
102 102
-......
----
----

...

102 102
---
-

LEVU A
ASSM:6
ANNEXURE·3
Sheet No.2 01 2
SAFEIY CONDITION (8 W. CONDITION) Ie. tw Y'f '''1))
IIl2
-

,

,-;------
°1'"
",
.... .


--_ ... _-+--
102
-
'°1

"j
gl

102 102 102 102
- .,- - "---'-;-- --- --...
-


rJ
A
°1
....
• 1
••
lE'/EL "
-.- ---

(G.J.V,

 
NOTES:-
I. AlL LOADS ARE IN KGS AND ARE ULTIMATE
2. BRACKETED FIGURES INDICAlE MIN. VERT. LOADS/UP UFT LOADS.
3. WIND LOADS ON TOWER BODV NEED NOT BE 'CONSIDERED
4. SELF WEIGHT (SW.) Of TOWER BOOY TO BE CONSIDERED EXTRA.
5. StJFFIX 'A' IN ASSM NOS INDICATE RIGHT SIDE BROKEN CONDlTluN.
:ifleeT NO. I Of 2
 
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Stress Diagram
11
 
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:;neef No. I Of 8
ANALYTICAL METHOD
~
N
..
~
UI
on
BOlTQU Pl}.N or BOTIOM X-ABU
~
"l
0
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  ~
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('I
TRANSVERSf:. FACE
.tiQIE .-
. 1. ALL DIMENSIONS p.p.E IN mm.
13
DESIGN OF T<JWER
DESIGN OF LEG MEMBER
PAAT-2
ASSM-1 (te)
(240 + 705) x 14.566 = 13765
= 37192
17726
'1C = (650+-2x1756) x 8.936
(880 + 2 x l756)x 4.036 =
M = 68683
STRESS = M = 68G83 = 16261
2 x W x Cos 2 x 2.114 x 0.999
Vertical load = Max = 219 + 6 x 929
4
Vertical load = Min = (73 + 6 x 356)
4
Self weight of Tower = 1600/4
carpressioo
Tensioo
D5 x 75 x 6 (1 = 864/0.999 = 865)
= 1448
= (553)
::
= 18109
= 15308
ANNEXURE· 5
Sheet No. 2 of 8
1 = 86.5 = 59.25
Imin 1.46
U1t. compressive strength = 2265 x 8.66 = 19615
(Q1 Gross Area) Safety margin over limit load (s-t)
-S.M. = 1.098
Ultimate Tensile strength = 2549 x 6.56 = 16721

S.M. = 1.09
(On Net Area)

12 mn dia. Bolt - 6 Nos. (Single Shear)
Ultimate Shearing strength = 21450
Ultimate Bearing strength = 19181
12 om dia. Bolts 6 t<>. (Double Shear)
Ultimate shearing strength = 42900
S.M. = 1.06
a:...-....-._ .... , __ l_ v__ .... " 1,...,,ft,,..     Mo ...
. l (
DESIGN OF £RACINGS
'SfO -,
c.. .'t-I.
Fb FUR TRANS. FACE 9R""'NG.r
• ASSM-l (OC)
I
I
0
C"'1 I
GW = (240 + 705) x·I.520 1436
\.0
I
=
In
,
TC = (650+2x1756)x 1.750 = 7284
,
1750
T.e..
Me = (SSO+2x1756)x 1.950 = 8564
0
LFb = 17284
(j
(7\
i
1'6,
Fb FOR I..(N;. FACE  
M.e·
- 4 BROKm)
0
0
Me = 1465 x 1.950 = 2857
(j\
't
Tbrsion (Me)= 1465 x 4.20, = 6153
I

Pl--
J
'
e.c.. .
215(p
ZFb
= 9010
DESIGN OF TRANS. FACE t3 R R C./tJt'. S    
1 = 1.379
l.oBo 4 x W x Cos:.>\= 4 x 2.114 x 1.075 = 6.59
1.379
Sheet No.3 of 8
o
o
t-
- /\g;-4a
2. .1.1li )( STRESS = Fb = 17284 = 2623 (Canpression & Tension)
./ ·"".,l -----
.. '. 6.59 .
2.lSb
L 45 x 45 x 4
1 = 137.9 = 158.51
min 0.87
Ultimate compressive strength = 901 x 3.47 = 3126
Ultimate tensile stsrength = 2549 x 2.2lS = 5654
S.M. = 1.19
S.M. = 2.15
12 mm dia. Bolt 2 Nos. (Single Shear)
Ultimate Shearing strength = 7146 S.M. = 1.86
U1 timate Bearing strength = 4888
15
DESIGN OF L9NG. FACE BRACING . ~  
1 = 1.379 4.W.Cos,( = 6.59
S'mESS = ~ Fb = 9010 = 1368
----
4.W. 006 6.59
L 45 x 45 x "
1 = 137.9 = 158.51
min 0.87
Ultimate Cmpressi ve strength = 901 x 3.47 = 3126
Ultimate Tensile strength = 2549 x 2.218 = 5664
12 mn dia. Bolts 2 Nos. (Single Shear)
Ultimate Shearing Strength = 7150
Ultimate Bearing Strength = 4262 S.M. = 3.11
ANNEXURi·5
Sheet No.4 of 8
S.M. = 2.28
S.M. = 4.14
: "
DESIGN OF BOTTOM X-ARM
Design of tower Merrber.
Length = J 1.075
2
+ 3.125
2
: 3.30
S'1RESS IN' MEMBER
ASSM-10 (OC Broken)
ST = 51 x 3.30 = + 27
2 x 3.125
sv = 1857 x 3.30 = + 3546
2 x 0.864
SL = 1000 x 3.30 = + 1534
2.150
Cbmpression 5107
Tensioo =
L60 x 60 x 5 (3300/2 = 1650)
1 = 165 = 90.65
nned 1.82
Ultimate Compressive Strength = 1793 x 5.75 = 10309
Ultimate Tensile Strength = 2549 x 4.00 = 10196
12 mm dia. Bolts 3 Nos. (Single sheat)
Ultimate Shearing Strength = 10719
Ultimate Bearing Strength = 9165 S.M. = 1. 79
17
....... . .   ~ - ..
Sheet NO.5 of 8 .
S.M. = 2.01
S.M. =-
i
I
i
·1
!
DESIGN OF UPPER MEMBER.
1E'ngth =J 0.864
2
+   =3.426
srnE.c)S IN MEM3ER (ASSM-6)
sv = 2520 x 3.426 = 4996 (Tension)
2 x 0.864
L 45 x 45 x 4
1 = 342.6 = 250
- nned 1.37
Ultimate Tensile strength = 2549 x 2.218 = 5654
12 nm ella. Bolts 3 Nos. (Single shear)
ANNEXURE·5
Sheet No.6 of 8
S.M. = 1.13
Ultimate Shearing strength = 10719
Ultimate Bearing strength = 7332 S.M. = 1.46
DESIGN OF TRANS. BELT.
IN MEMBER (ASSM-IO OC Broken)
ST = 102 - 51
4
sv = (1857 + 2520) x 3.125
4 x 0.864
SL = 1000 x 3.125
2 x 2.150
Catpression
Tension
= + 13
-
= + 3958
= + 727
= 4698
=
~   BELT (CCNI'INUEl»
L 65 x 65 x 6
1 = 215 = 170.6
rmin 1.26
Ultimate COmpressive strength = 691 x 7.44 = 5141
ANNUUIlt· :;
SheetNo.7of8
F .0.5. = 1.09
Ultimate Tensile strength = 2549 x 5.317 = 13553 F.O.S. = -
12 mm dia. bolts 2 Nos. (Single shear)
Ultimate Shearing strength = 7146
Ultimate Bearing strength
=
pesign of UN; BELT.
s:nm;S IN MEMBER (MSM-6)
ST = 102 x 2.150 = + 18
4 x 3.125
sv = 2520 x 2.150 = -1568
4 x 0.864
SL = =
CcJTpressioo =
Tension = 1586
L 45 x 45 x 4
1,
= 215 =
'47
nru.n 0.87
7332
Ultimate Tensile Strength = 2549 x 2.218 = 5654
12 mn dia. Bolts 2 Nos. (Single shear)
Ultimate Shearing strength = 7150
Ul timate Bearing strength = 4262
F .0.5. = 1.52
S.M. = 3.56
S.M. = 2.68
DESIGN OF PIJ\N BRPCIN:;
lslgth of Bracing = fi .150
2
+ 2 1 ~ · ~ 2 I = 3.040
S'mESS IN MEMBElt (ASS+-S - B.C. Broken)
ANNEXURe - S
Sheet NO.8 of 8
SL = (1465 x 4.2 z: ~   f2 - 494 (Carpressioo I Tensioo)
4 x 2.150 ." •
L 45 x 45 x 4
1 = 152 = 174.7
tminO.87
Ultimate Compressive strength = 660 x 3.47 = 2290
Ultimate Tensile strength = 2549 x 2.218 = 5644
12 RIO ma. Bolt 1 No. (Single shear)
Ultimate Shearing strength = 3573
Ultimate Bearing strength = 2131
S.M. -= 4.63
S.M. = 11.44
S.M. = ".31
bill I .1111 . L JUiLJUllllUn H I. JJL._ lI11LIUJrn If1l1l,11 lp·rntrf 111111_UII ill! IJl]IIIIl 1.IIIH.TCllUllJI __ a
COMPUTER AIDED ANAL V'SIS
! lne cAogtam IhowIng Few Foe.t of Tow., with HOC» Humbert .

''''''''''- '>f(1)t' ::::""""16
Lk""': "f( I --...... 'I

u,.....::::: I )111'1 -=:::...,. • z
w-:: Ie' I J,f'" ==-68
,{' I )fA
, ..
Y.E'I' PL':'N
N
.....
t I ,.,." I"""" I '-lIt1 V97
TRANSVERSE rACE A LONGITUDINAL rACE B TRANSVERSE rACE C LONGITUDINAL B
.. -
§
-9.· .... - ...·, .. 5'"-"'*, r='!('::';" ... ..     ...........u.---=.!'."· .... 'z_ :: ¥:: .
MEMBER NUMBERS tOR 3D ANALYSIS
KEY PLAN
~
z
~
  ; ; ) ~
(:;;.
~ 0-
TRANSVERSE tACt A· LONGITUDINAL tACE B TRANSVERSE tACE C LONGITUDINAL tACE B
... ------.... ---..... -----------------.... - - ~ - ~ - - .•. ---.. --
.IIIFlll-]' .• Hlllinrrrr;:T]_11I It'] 111 . I IlltlllUllJIfT 'UlItliI . IF Ill" :nllllnnllillUJ 1[111111 111111 IIIIFllllltllllftlUI'flllJIUrlJlnnTIII UI
I\)
w
MEMBER NUMBERS ~ NODE NUMBERS rR 3D-ANALYSIS
~ = = ~  
BOTTOM PLAN OF TOP CROSS ARM
.42
BOTTOM PLAN Or MIDDLE CROSS ARM
a
BOTiOM PLAN OF BOTTOM CROSS ARM
ISOMETRIC VIE""
~
i
wil
~  
ANNEXURE· 7
-
INPUT FOR 3D ANALYSIS
(If4)
TRUSS
UNIT MH KG
tNPUT WIDTH 7t
OUTPUT WIDTH 79
INPUT NODESIGN
JOINT COORDINATES

IN GLOBLE AXIS X +VE LEFT TO RIGHT :y +ve UP ;z +ve 00; SIDE

NODE X Y
Z NOOF.
J(
Y Z
,
-5025. O. O. l -880. -205". 6&0.
3 -660. -2050. -1560. 5025. o. O.
5 660. -2050. 660. e no. -2050. -no.
7 -2010. 396. 8 -2010. -He.
,
-100. -36S0. 700. 10 -100. -3850. -700.
"
2010. J96. 12 2010. -25H. -In.
13 100. ...3650. 700.
,.
700. -lI50. -700.
15 -5025. -3650. O. 11 S025. - 3150. O.
11 -723. 723.
"
723. -4550. 723.
11 723. -723. 20 -723. -.550. -723.
2'
-7$5. -5650. 755. 22 755. -5850. 7S5.
23 15S. -5850. -755. 24 -1$5. -5850. -755.
25 -190. -7250. 790. 2& no. -7250. no.
u 790. -7250. -790. 28 -790. -7250. ;-190.
21 -818. -8360. 818. JO 118. -8leO. 818.
31 818. -8360. -Bt8. 32 -ate. -8380. -118.
33 O. -8360. 8ta. 34 O. -83150. -818.
35 818. -8360. O. 38 -I,.. -!3&0. O.
37 -848. -9550. 8.8. 3. 148. -9550.
'.8.
3'
,48. -9550. -848. 40 -8U. -9550. -us.
41 -5200. -95S0. o. 5200. -95S0. O.
43 -873. -10550. 873. U 873. -t0550. 873.
4S 873. -10550. -873.
. ,
-873. -t05S0. -873 .
47 -904. -11S00. 904.
4' 90'. -11800. 904.
4'
-11800. -90 •. 50 -9(\ •. -11800. -904.
&1 -934. -13000. 934. 52
'H.
-13000.
'34.
93'. -13000. -934. S. -.3 •. -13000. -934.
,55
-91515. -14280 .. 91515. 515 '1515. -14280. 951.
S7 9&15. -14280. -9U.
.',
58 -91515. -142S0. -see. I
5'
o. -14280. 9815. eo o. .-142S0. -gee..
11 ne. -14280. o. e2 -915&. -142BO. O.
13 -1000. 1000. U 1000. -151550. 1000.
15 1000. -15650., -1000. 88 -1000. -15850. -1000 .
• 7
-5150. -151550. O . 68 5150. -15&50. O.
••
-1291. -17eeo. 1291. 70 129 I . -171580.
12" .
11 1291. -17&80. -1291. 72 -1291 . -17880. ':12".
73 -un. -20510. 1897. 74 1&97. -20510. 1897.
75 1697. -20510. -1&97. 7& -1&97. -20510. -1697.
77 -2180. -23735. 2160. 7! 2160. -23735. 21150.
l'
2180. -23735. -2180. 80 -2160. -23735. -2180.
11 -2770. -279815. 2770. @2 2770. -279!15 • 2770.
83 2770. -27986. -2770. @( -2770. -27980. -2770.
as -33030 , 3494. 88 3494. -33030. 349'.
a7 3(94.
-33036 . -349. .; l'8 -3.,4. -33030. -3(94.
at -lIOO. -358158. 3900.
-.
90 3900. -3581515. 3900. I
"
lIOO. -35815&. -3900 . 92 -3900. -358815. -3900.
• 3 0. -358&&. 3900. U O. -35815&. -uoo.
15 3900. -35see . o.
. .
9& -3900. -35815e. O.
I
• 1 -U12. -39438. U12. te U12. -39438. 4412 •
9' ""2.
-3U38.
-"'2.
106
-"'2.
-39438. -4412.
101 -4558 . -40431. 4551.
.
102   -40438. 4551.
I
t03 -4551. -40438. -4551. 10. 455&. -40431. -455 ••
t05 -1412. -39438 . 4412. 5412. -39.38.
".12 .
'07 -3412. -19438. -4412 .
"
we 5'"' 2. -39"31. -4412. ,
t09 -4412. -3'4315. 3412.
"0
4,",2. -39"36. 3412.
ANNEXURE ·7
(3/4)
INPUT FOR 3D ANALYSIS
COtlS rANT S
IJtlI T eM
E 2047000 ALL

rRQPERTIES Itl[.:lMI
-MEMBER

.... ,
• <;p'(II}r'
·
 
, .
Pfll" 1111\ )
,.
.,
urI
,
I1SO: Ii
,



,
,C;HnUP 1-1')- ') , PEIIY. IN( R) A
.
3 4 lIpr I 41))' 45:t 5

'"
,CP(ltJP tI()- J, reM' Of( L)A A
·
...
5 6 UI-l-
,
€ 1;:( 5
,
* •
2 , (;pr1ur
H0-
" ,
PFAK II
,
7 8 UPT I 6r,v 6
,
*
..
1 .... 110- 5, PfM N(P)"
.A

,
9 10 UPT 1 65X 65)1 6
..

2 1 ,GROUP NO- 5, PEAK_OT(P)B."
11 12 UPT 1 6SX 55X 6
*.
4 1 ,GPc)UP NO- 7 ,
LEG,"
13 14 15 16 upt \ 65X 651 6
*

4
3 -,GPOUP NO- 0, IRAN_A
17 18 19 20 UPT 1 45'1 5
*
4
3 ,cnoup NO-
g,
LONG_A

21 22 23 24 UPT
,
45X 45X 5
· .
2 3 ,GROUP NO- 10, TR_BELT
-
TOP_A
25 26 UPT 1 45X 45X 5
* •
2 3 ,GROUP NO-
t "
LG_BELT_TOP_A
27 28 UPT 1 45X 45>: 5
*
4 3 .
,GPOUP 1'10- 12, UM':' TR_BLT_A

29 30 31 32 t 45X 45X 5
*. 2
.,
,GROUP NO- t 3, UM LG._BL T _A ..,;
JJ 34 i 45X 45X 5
*
4
3 ,GROUP NO- 14, LONG_OX_A

35 36 37 38 UtlT 1 45)( 41\:< 5
*
2 2 ,GROUP 15, LM_LT TC

-
39 40 Ur:'T 1 90l( 90X
Ij
*
2 3 ,GROUP NO- 16, UM_LT_TC

41 42 lJPT 1 45X 45X
:&
2 2 ,GROUP NO- 17, LH_RT_TC

43 44 UPT 1 90X 90X 6
* •
2 3 ,GROUP NO- 18, UM_RT_TC
45 UPT 1 45X 45X 5

2 3 ,GROUP tlO- t 9, TR .. BEL T _II. 1
H 48 CPT 1 e.;f 51)X 5
..

2 3 ,GROUP 1:0- 20, LG._BEL T _A 1
49 50 UPT 1 45X 5
INPUT FOR 3D ANAlYSIS
. CASEOI --)C-INC Vmx
QADHIG 4 C-INC
YmJ(
tNT LOADS
IFX 477 F';'
-332 FZ
4 FX 477 FY -332 FZ
15 FX
"'5
FY -1233 FZ
ten 1<U5 FY -1233 FZ
41 n:
"'S
FY -1233 FZ
., 2
FX ,.45 FY -1233 FZ
1$7 FX 1.45 FY -t233 FZ
a8 FX
""5 FY
-1233 FZ
CASE01 --)C-tNC Ymn
OADJNG 5 C-INC Vmn
OINT LOADS
1 FX 477 FY -10 FZ
4 FX 477 FY -10 FZ
15 FX 1445 FY -83 FZ
la F:< 1445 FY -83 FZ
41 FX "445 FY -83 FZ
42 FX· 1445 FY -83 FZ
67 FX 1445 FY -83 FZ
68 FX 1445 FY -83
CASE02 -->C-1NCSC Vmx
'JADING 6 C-1NCSC Vmx
,INT LOADS
1 FX 477 FY -332 FZ
• FX o FY o FZ
15 FX 1'.5· FY   FZ
ISFX o FY o FZ
41 FX 1445 FY -1233 FZ
l2 FX o FY o FZ
FX
I·U5 FY -1233 FZ
as FX o FY o FZ
CASE02 --)C-1NCSC Vmn
LOADING 7 C-l NCSC Vmn
JOINT LOADS
1 FX 477 FY -to FZ
4 FX
o FY o FZ
IS FX 1445 FY -83 FZ
15 FX o FY o FZ
41 FX 1445 FY -S3 FZ
42 FX o FY o FZ
57 FX ·1445 FY -83 FZ
58 FX o FY
PROBLEM STATISTICS
PRINT MEMBER PROPERTIES ALL
PERFORM ANALYSIS
PRINT ANALYSIS RESULTS ALL
PLOT DISPLACEMENT FILE
FINISH
o FZ
0
0
I)
0
C'
0
CI
0
t)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
J
0
0
0
0
27
(4/4)
f1.00+2.00*C' .00.0.00)+( I .OOort .00t
(2.00+2.00-(1.00
4
O.OO)+(1.01)0rl.00)
(2.00+2.00*(1.00+0.00)+(t.OOorl.00)
(2.00+2.00*( 1.00+0.00)+( 1.000rl.00)
".'j
ANNEXURE· •
Sheet 10f4
OUTPUT GIVING SUMMARY OF CRITICAL STRESSES
Job : STAAD TRUSS
LOA 0 I N G CAS E S
Ld = Jt.Loads::Tw = Tr. Wind::Lw =
Load Case Description
NO
1 SELF WEIGHT LOADING
2 TRANS. WIND LOADING
1 LONG. WIND LOADING
4 C-1NC VHX
5 C-INC VMN
6 C-1NCSC VMX
7 C-INCSC VHN
8 C-1GWL VHX
9 C-1GWL VMN
10 C-1GWL VHX REV
11 C-1GWL VMH REV
12 C-1GWSC VMX
13 C-1GWSC VMN
14 C-1GWSC VMX REV
15 C-IGWSC VMN REV
16 C-ITCL VMX
17 C-ITCL VMN
18 C-1TCL VHX REV
19 C-ITCL VHN REV
20 C-ITCSC VHX
21 C-ITCSC VHN
22 C-ITCSC VMX REV
23 C-ITCSC VMN REV
24 C-IMCL VMX
25 C-IMCL VHN
26 C-IMCL VMX REV
27 C-IMCL VMN REV
28 C-IMCSC VMX
29 C-IMCSC VMN
30 C-IMCSC VMX REV
31 C-IMCSC VMN REV
32 C-IBCL VMX
33 C-IBCL VMN
34 C-IBCL VMX REV
35 C-IBCL VMN REV
36 C-IBCSC VHX
37 C-IBCSC VMN
38 C-IBCSC VHX REV
)9 C-1BCSC VMN REV
40 C-2NC VMX
41 C-2NC VMN
42 C-2NCSC VMX
43 C-2NCSC VHN
44 C-2GWL VMX
45 C-2GWL VMN
46 C-2GWL VHX REV
47 C-2GWL VMN REV
48 C-2GWSC VMX
49 C-2GWSC VHN
50 C-2GWSC VHX REV
Lg. Wind(-ve means Rev.)::Swt = Self Wt.
Factor Of Safety
Ld + Ld*( Tw ± Lw ) + swt
Factor Of Safty = 1.00
Factor Of Safty - 1.00
Factor Of Safty = 1.00
2.00+2.00X(1.OO+O.00)+1.OOorl.OO

2.00+2.00x(1.00+0.00)+1.OOorl.OO
2.00+2.00X(I.00+0.00)+1.00orl.OO
1.25+1.25x(1.OO+O.00)+1.00orl.OO

1.25+1.25x(1.OO+O.OO)+1.OOorl.OO

1.25+1.25x(1.00+O.OO)+1.OOorl.OO
1.25+1.25x(1.OO+0.OO)+1.00orl.00
1.25+1.25x(I.00+0.00)+1.00orl.00

1.25+1.25x(1.OO+O.OO)+1.OOorl.OO
1.25+1.25x(1.OO+O.OO)+1.OOorl.OO
1.25+1.25x(1.OO+0.00)+1.OOorl.OO
1.25+1.25x(1.00+O.OO)+1.00orl.OO
1.25+1.25x(1.OO+O.OO)+1.OOorl.OO
1.25+1.25x(1.OO+O.OO)+1.OOorl.OO
1.25+1.25x(1.OO+O.OO)+1.OOorl.00
1.25+1.25x(1.OO+O.OO)+1.OOorl.OO
1.25+1.25x(1.OO+O.OO)+1.OOorl.OO
1.25+1.25x(1.OO+O.OO)+1.OOorl.OO
1.25+1.25x(1.OO+0.OO)+1.OOorl.OO
1.2S+1.25x(1.OO+O.OO)+1.OOorl.OO
1.25+1.25x(1.00+O.OO)+1.OOorl.OO
1.25+1.25x(1.OO+O.OO)+1.OOorl.OO
1.25+1.25x(1.OO+O.OO)+1.OOorl.OO
1.25+1.25x(1.OO+O.OO)+1.OOorl.OO
1.25+1.25x(1.OO+O.OO)+1.OOorl.OO
1.25+1.25X(1.00+0.00)+1.OOorl.OO


1.25+1.25x(1.OO+O.QO)+1.OOorl.OO
1.2S+1.2Sx(1.OO+O.OO)+1.00orl.OO
1.2S+1.25x(1.OO+Q.OO)+1.OOorl.00
1.25+1.25x(1.OO+0.OO)+1.OOorl.00

2.00+2.00x(O.70+1.00)+1.OOorl.OO
2.00+2.00x(O.70+1.00)+1.OOorl.00
2.00+2.00x(O.70+1.00)+1.OOorl.OO
1.25+1.21x(0.70+1.00)+1.OOorl.OO



1.25+1.25x(n.70+1.00)+1.OOorl.OO
 
 
. i
SheeT"l. or 4
Job : STMD TRUSS
SUMMARY OF 3D_FORCES(ULT)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
GRP MEMBER SECTION (AREA) CRC i.0 COMP. LOD MEM TENS. LOD ME
NO NAME (As Input)(Sq.cm) (mm) (Kg) NO NO (Kg) NO M
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 PEAK_IN{L)_A 45X 45X 5( 4.28) 1 4867 5244 9 1 -4494 10
2 P!A1CIN (R)_A 45X 45X 5( 4.28) 1 4867 2443 113 3 -3356 114
1 PEAK_OT(L)A_A 65X 65X 6( 7.44) 1 3965 6762 8 5 -6882 15
4 PEAX_OT{L)B_A 65X 65X 6( 7.44) 1 1741 6381 8 7 -6247 13
5 PEA1COT(R)A_A 65X 65X 6( 7.44) 1 3965 3482 114 1'0 -2432 113
6   65X 65X 6( 7.44) 1 1741 2998 114 12 -2035 115 1
7 LEG_A 65X 65X 6( 7.44) 1 1601 5324 78 13 -3857 '78 1
8 TRM'-A 45X 45X 5( 4.28) 3 1019 6259 78 18 -6242 78 2
8 TRAM_A 4,)X 45X 5( 4.28) 3 1081 6259 78 18 -6242 78 2
9 LONG_A 45X 45X 5( 4.28) 3 1019 1431 78 22 -1208 78 2
9 LONG_A 45X 45X S( 4.28) 3 1081 1431 78 22 -1208 78 2
10 TR_BELT_TOP_A 45X 45X 5( 4.28) 3 1320 2849 113 25 -8644 76 2
11 LG_BELT_TOP_A 45X 45X S( 4.28) 3 1320 1523 76 27 -64 7 2
12 UM_TR_BLT_A 45X 45X 5( 4.28) 3 1462 2990 17 29 -7396 76 3
13 UM_LG_BLT_A J!5X 4SX S( 4.28) 3 792 158 5 33 -569 76 3
14 LONG_OX_A 45X 45X 5( 4.28) 3 735 674 112 35 -808 11 3
14 LONG_OX_A
45X 45X 5( 4.28) 3 1299 674 112 35 -808 11 3
15 UCLT_TC 90X 90X 6{ 10.47) 2 4381 16791 18 40 -13611 19 3
16 UM_LT_TC
45X 45X 5( 4.28) 3 3235 3005 17 41 -7269 78 4
17 LM_RT_TC
90X 90X 6( 10.47) 2 4381 9105 114 44 -6743 113 4
18 UM_RT_TC
45X 45X 5( 4.28) 3 3235 2080 113 45 -7294 76 4
19 TR_BELT_Al
55X 55X 5( 5.27) 3 1400 10568 112 47 -7683 115 4
20 LG_BELT_Al
45X 45X 5( 4.28) 3 1400 876 5 49 -2815 76 5
21 PLAM_BR_Al
45X 45X 5( 4.28) 3 990 5414 18 52 -4840 19 5
21 PLAH_BR_Al
45X 45X 5( 4.28) 3 990 5414 18 52 -4840 19 5
22 LEG_B
65X 65X 6( 7.44) 1 901 13238 78 53 -9338 78 5
23 TRM'-B 70X 70X 5( 6.77) 3 828 6679 17 57 -77i4 16 5
TIW'-B 70X 70X 5( 6.77) 3 856 6679 17 57 -7714 16 5
, 24 LONG_B
70X 70X 5( 6.77) 3 828 8080 17 64 -6974 22 6
24 LONG_B
70X 70X S( 6.77) 3 856 8080 17 64 -6974 22 6
25 LEG_C
90X 90X 6( 10.47) 1 1301 11273 78 68 -8261 78 6
26 TRAN_C
70X 70X 5( 6.77) 3 963 8366 18 71 -7246 17 7
26 TRAleC 70X 70X 5( 6.77) 3 1006 8366 18 71 -7246 17 7
27 LONG_C
70X 70X 5( 6.77) 3 963 7560 20 76 -8754 17 7
27 LONG_C
70X 70X 5( 6.77) 3 Hi06 7560 20 76 -8754 17 7
28 LEG_D
90X 90X 6( 10.47) 1 1401 15668 16 78 -12946 9 8
29 TRMeD 70X 70X 5( 6.71) 3 1019 7024 19 83 -8102 16 8
29 T1WCD 70X 70X S( 6.77) 3 1066 7024 ·19 83 -8102 16 8
30 LOHG_D
70X 70X S( 6.77) 3 1019 8483 17 88 -7326 20 8
30 LONG_D
70X 70X S( 6.77) J 1066 8483 17 88 -7326 20 8
31 LEG_T_ET
90X 90X 6( 10.47) 1 1111 18193 18 91 -14537 17 "9
32 TRAN_T_ET
75X 75X S( 7.27) 3 1363 9774 18 95 -8467 17 9
'33 LONG_T_ET
75X 75" 5( 7.27) 3 1363 8837 22 99 -10233 17 9
34 LEG_B_EB
90X 90X 6( 10.47) 1 1191 18770 18 103 -14654 17 10
'35 TRAleB_EB
75X 75X 5( 7.27,. 3 1462 7797 16 106 -8020 92 10
36 LONG_B_EB
7:;X 75X 5( 7.27) 3 1462 8453 20 112 -9850 19 11
37 TR_BELT_EB
45X 45X S( 4.28) 3 818 2840 25 113 -9132 76 11
38 LG_BELT_EB
45X 45X 5( 4.28) 3 818 1790 76 117 -563 31 11
"39 LM_LT_MC
90X 90X 6( 10.47) 2 4434 14024 26 122 -10105 27 12
40 UM_LT_MC
45X 45X S( 4.28) 3 46"..4 3018 27 124 -9658 78 12
29
Job : S7AAD TRUSS
ULTIMATE FOUNDATION Kg)
ALL MAXIMUM )
ANNEXURE·6
Sheet 3 of 4
SR COMP •. UPLIFT TRANS. LONG. LOAD DESCRIPTION
NO FORCE FORCE FORCE FORCE NO
1 53188 -39115 1159 64. 4 MAX COMPRESSION
2 49338 .-42964 1153 42 5 MAX UPLIFT
3 27780 -19105 1812 1215 36 MAX TRANSVERSE
4 39121 -27957 1218 1520 68 MAX LONGITUDINAL
5 22259 -145Sf P12 1501 116 MAX   +
Critical Load Cases
-------------------
4 5 7 8 9 10 11 13 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22· 24
29 31 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 68 70 76 78 92 112 113 114
118 119
[ TOTAL NO OF CRITICAL CASES = 42
25 26 27
115 116 117
,lob
: S1'AAD 'flWSS
ULTIHATE FOUNDATION FORCES_30(IN Kg)
LOAD COHP. UPLlf"r TRANS. LONG. LOAD COHP. UPLIFT TRANS. LONG.
NO FORCE fORCE FORCE FORCE NO FORCE FORCE FORCE FORCE
1 2938 2907 27
28 2 5942 -5942 577 4
)
5579 -5579
2 )99
4 5)188 -39115 1159 64
5 49338 -42964 1153 42 6 31520 -21560 1502
71
7 31920 -25810 1179 33 8 39913 -28780 1116 577
9 37504 -31131 1098 563 10 )991) -28780 1116 577
11 )7504 -31131 1098 563 12 26371 -17809 1331 596
13 26618 -20410 1114 572 14 26371 -17809 1331 596
15 26618 -20410 1114 572 16 44685 -33467 1534 1013
17 42267 -35677 1518 1000 18 44685 -33467 1534 1013
19 42267 -35677 1518 1000 20 3114) -22496 1749 1033
21 31381 -24956 1543 1010
22 31143 -22496 1749 1033
23 31J81 -24956 1543 1010
24 42983 -318)9 1509 867
25 40561 -34045 1534 851 26 42983 -31839 ' 150'9
867
27 40561 -34045 1534 851 28 29441 -20868 1725 837
29 29675 -2)324 1551 846 )0
29441 -20868 1725 837
J1 29675 -2)324 1551 846
J2 41322 -30076 1597 1245
J)
38887 -32269 1587 12)1
34 41322 -)0076 1597 1245
35 38887
-32269 1587 1231 36 27780 -19105 1812 1215
37 28001 -21548 1612 1226 38 27780 -19105 1812 1215
)S'
28001 -21548 1612 1226 40 51642 -37569 825 859
41 47793 -41419 818 836 42 34544 -24584 1162 868
43 34944 -28834 843
44 37917 -26821 824 686
45 35508
-29172 RI7 46 37917 -26821 824 686
47 35508 -29172 817 671 48 27230 -18706 1034 657
49 27477 -21307 83) 667 50 27230 -18706 1034 657
51 27477 -21307 83:: 667
52 41884 -30742 1163 973
5)
39465 -32952 1158 54 41884 -30742 1163 973
55 :;9465 -32952 1158 957 !:6 31197 -22627 1374 944
57 31435 -25087 1174 953 58 311 c,; -22627 1374 944
59 31435 -25087 1174 953 60 40435 -29403 1144 1212
61 38063 -31.610 J..t 7G ',196
62 4048!1 -29403   1212
63 380(\3
-J1610 1176 U.96 64 29798 -21288 1366 1183
65 30032 -23745 1191 1192 66 29798 -21288 1366 1183
67 30032 -23745 1191 11:12 68 39121 -27957 1218 1520
69 36685 -30150 1207 1505 70 39121 -27957 1218 1520
11 36685 -30150 1207 1506 72 28434 -19841 1428 1491
73 28655 -22284 1228 1St:? 74 28434 -19841 1428 1491
15 28655 -22284 1228 lr.502 76 13993 8307 86 78
77 6294 60') 22 3)
78 10578 3495 727 110
79 4296 2078 63 32 80 13087 3048 24', 355
81 8269 -1654 240 327 82 13037 3048 249 355
83 8269 -1654 240 327 84 10830 -53 655 377
85 7020 -735 247 329 36 108)0 -53 655 377
87 7020 -7)5 247 329 88 16863 -840 552 670
89 12026 -5259 53) 644 90 HR63 -84ft 552 670
31
 
CHEMICAL COMPOSmON AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MILD mEL
Description INDIAN SAIL-MA BRITISH AMERICAN GERMAN JAPANESE
(INDIAN)
IS- 2062 MA300HV BS-436O ASTMA36 DIN-17100 JIs-G-3101
GR-43A Cl.ASS-2
Cbemlcgl Comoosltfon.
Carbon ... 0.23-0.25 0.25 0.25 0.26 0.17.().20
Manga\eS8 ... 1.50 1.60
Phosphorus ... 0.06 0.055 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.05
SUlphur ...
0.06 0.055 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
SIlIcon % 0.50 0.05
MfK:tK:Icls::CI
Tensile Strength kg/mm
2
42-54 44.88-57.12 43.86-52.02 40.80-56.10 34.66-47.94 41-52
YIeld Strength kg/mm
2
26 30.60 26.01 25.50 23.97 24-25
Elongatlon (mln)% 23 20 22 20-23 26 lE'r21
. ANNEXURE - 1
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HIGH TENSILE STEEL
Description Standards
Indian Brtt1sh Amer1can Germon Japanese
Specn. Nos. 15-961 15-85CX> SAll-MA SAIL-MA BS-436O ASTM ASTM DIN 17100 JIS-G-3101
.
EF-540 FE-490HT 350 MA-410 GRSOB A-441 A-572 ST-52
GR50
Oass- 3 Class 4
55-50 5S-SS
Cbarnlccl CQrnccsltlQc
Carbon % 0.20 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.20 0.22 0.23 0.20 0.30
Mn% 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 0.85 to 1.35 1.60
(.oJ
1.25
w
51% 0.49 0.30
S% 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.04
P% 0.055 0.05 0.055 0.055 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.04
Mechanical PropertieS
T ensUe Strength
49.98 49.98 55.08 49.98 49.98 52
Kg/mm
2
58 to
to to to
49.47 45.70
to
to 55
62.22
62.22 67.32 63.24 64.26
62
YIeld Strength 36 34.68 35.70 41.82 36.21 35.19 35.20 35.19 to . 28 to 29 40 -41
kg/mm
2
36.21
Elongotton 20 20 20 19 20 18 18t021 20 to 22 16 to 19 14-17
(Mln)%

ANNEXURE - 11
SECTION UST
EQUAL SECT10N COMMONLY USED FOR TOWERS. AS PER lS:aoa (PART-V)-1969
Stze Sectional Unit weight Centre of Ixx-Iyy (cm4) Rxx (Rmed) Rvv (Rmin) Modulus of
Area (em
2
) kg/mt. gravity (em) (em) (em) section
(em
3
)
35x35xS 3.27 2.60
1.04 .
3.50 1.04 0.67 1.40
4Ox4Ox3 2.34 1.80 1.08 3.40 1.21 0.77 1.20
4Ox4Ox4 3.07 2.40 1.12 4.50 1.21 0.77 1.60
4Ox4OxS 3.78 3.00 1.16 5.40 1.20 0.77 1.90
4Ox4Ox6 4.47 3.50 1.20 6.30 1.19 0.77 2.30
45x45x3 2.64 2.10 1.20 5.00 1.38 0.87 1.50
45x45x4 3.47 2.70 1.25 6.50 1.37 0.87 2.00
45x45x5 4.28 3.40 1.29 7.90 1.36 0.87 2.50
45x45x6 5.07 4.00 1.33 9.20 1.35 0.87 2.90
5Ox5Ox3 2.95 2.30 1.32 6.90 1.53 0.97 1.90
5OxSOx4 3.88 3.00 1.37 9.10 1.53 0.97 2.50
5OxSOx5 4.79 3.80 1.41 11.00 1.52 0.97 3.10
..
3.60 5OxSOx6 5.68 4.50 1.45 12.90 1.51 0.96
55x55x4 4.26 3.30 1.51 11.00 1.67 1.06 2.96
55x55x5
5.27 .
4.10 1.53 14.70 1.67 1.06 3.70
55x55x6 6.26 4.90 1.57 17.30 1.66 1.06 4.40
6Ox60x4 4.71 3.70 1.60 15.80 1.83 1.18 3.58
6Ox6OxS 5.75 4.50 1.65 19.20 1.82 1.16
4.40
6Qx6Ox6 6.84 5.40 1.69 22.60 1.82 1.15 5.20
65x65x4 5.00 . 4.00 1.73 19.76 1.99 1.26 4.16
65x65xS 6.25 4.90 1.77 24.70 1.99 1.26 5.20
65x65x6 7.44 5.80 1.81 29.10 1.98 1.26 6.20
65x65x8 9.76 7.70 1.89 37.40 1.96 1.25 8.10
70x 70x5 6.77 5.30 1.69 31.10 2.15 1.36 6.10
70x 70x6 8.06 6.30 1.94 36.80 2.14 1.36 7.30
70x 70x 8 10.58 8.30 2.02 47.40 2.12 1.35 9.50
75x 75x 5 7.27 5.70 2.02 38.70 2.31 1.46
7.10
75x 75x6 8.66 6.80 2.06 45.70 2.30 1.46 8.40
75x 75x 8 11.38 8.90 2.14 49.00 2.28 1.45 11.00
8Ox8Ox6 9.29 7.30 2.18 56.00 2.46 1.56 9.60
8Ox80x8 12.21 9.60 . 2.27 72.50 2.44 1.55 12.60
80. x 80 x 10 15.05 11.80 2.34 87.70 2.41 1.55 15.50
9Ox90x6 10.47 8.20 2.42 80.10 2.77 1.75 12.20
9Ox90x7 12.22 9.59 2.46 93.00 2.76 1.77 14.20
9Ox90x8 13.79 10.80 2.51 104.20 2.75 1.75 16.00
9Ox90xlO 17.03 13.40 2.59 126.70 2.73 '1.74 19.80
ANNEXURE· l'
SEcnON UST
EQUAl SECT10NS COMMONLY USED FOR TOWERS AS PER 1$,&08 (PART -V)-1989
Size Sectional UnIt weight Centre of
I x x   ~
Rxx(Rmed) Rw(Rmln) Modulus of
Area (em
2
) kg/mt. gravity (em (em) (em) Section
(em) (em
3
)
100x 1oox6 11.67 9.20 2.67 111.30 3.09 1.95 15.20
lOOxloox7 13.62 10.70 2.71 129.00 3.08 1.97 17.70
100 x loox8 15.39 12.10 2.76 145.10 3.07 1.95 20.00
l00x 100 x 10 19.03 14.90 2.84 177.00 3.05 1.94 24.70
l00x loox 12 22.59 17.70 2.92 207.00 3.03 1.94 29.20
110x 110 x 8 17.08 13.40 3.00 196.80 3.40 2.18 24.60
110x 110 x 10 21.12 16.60 3.09 240.20 3.37 2.16 30.40
110x 110x 12 25.08 19.70 3.17 281.30 3.35 2.15 35.90
11Oxll0x16 32.76 25.70 3.32 357.30 3.30 2.14 46.50
120x120x8 18.70 14.70 3.23 255.00 3.69 2.37 29.10
120 x 120 x 10 23.20 18.20 3.31 313.00 3.67 2.36 36.00
120x 120x 12 27.Eil 21.60 3.40 368.00 3.65 2.30 42.70
130 x 130x 10 25.12 19.70 3.59 405.30 4.02 2.57 43.10
130 x 130 x 12 29.88 23.50 3.67 476.40 3.99 2.56 51.00
150x ISO x 10 29.21 22.90 4.08 635.50 4.66 2.98 58.00
150 x 150 x 12 34.77 27.30 4.16 746.30 4.63 2.97 68.80
150x lSOx 15 43.00 33.80 4.25 898.00 4.57 2.93 83.50
150x 150x 16 45.65 35.80 4.31 958.90 4.58 2.94 89.70
150x 150x 18 51.00 40.10 4.37 1050.00 4.54 2.92 93.70
150x 15Ox2O 56.21 44.10 4.46 1155.50 4.53 2.93 109.70
180 x 180 x 15 52.10 40.90 4.98 1590.00 5.52 3.54 122.00
180x180x18 61.90 48.60 5.10 1870.00 5.49 3.52 145.00
180xl80x2O 68.30 53.70 5.18 2040.00 5.47 3.51 159.00
200 x 200 x 16 61.82 48.Eil 5.56 2366.20 6.19 3.96 163.80
200 x 200 x 20 76.38 60.00 5.71 2875.00 6.14 3.93 201.20
200 x200x24 90.60 71.10 5.84 3333.00 6.06 3.90 235.00
2OOx200x25 94.13 73.90 5.90 3470.02 6.07 3.91 246.00
L \1 CONSIOERAnON FOIIRACING SYSTEM IN A TRANSMISSION TOWER
CD{
®
~      
II
VlEWI ,.,
liP SKA.CING
,. A
I
VIEW2·Z
-------- --------
ADIr •• or ~ AFJru or
DC/r •• or ... ),[/r .... or
CB/r •• or
• }'B/r •• or 9 )'8fr:,y
.AD/i.., or" F J r ~ .. 0'
DC/r
n
or It Aftr • ., 01
(8Jr .. '# or
.A.Cir
u
or .. Joe/r.,
11Dh.v or • A rfrre.,. OJ'
DC/rn or
C BJrn of "AE/r ...
----_. -.. _--------=--
Af/t·./v or t AF Jr •• at"
f!.i Ir ..... I'!r .. AE/r., .. Or
D ::.jl.,.v O( ClJlrnt
• APPUCA nON FOR TENSION COMPRESSION SYSTEM ONLY I.e. TENSILE
STRESSES IN ONE BRACING MUST BE AT LEAST EQUAL TO 75 PERCENT OF
THE COMPRESSIVE STRESS IN THE OTHER BRACING.
# THE CORNER STAY SHOULD BE DESIGNED TO PROVIDE LATERAL
SUPPORT ADEQUATELY
ANNEXURE •
Sheet· I 0
l \ R CONSIDERAOON FOR BRACING SYSTEM IN A TRANSMISSION TOWER
0{

Sltfllitrriesl R4liD Ct';i.iui 01:

A X
ABlr,.,
y 1f'14IN')
r

IoC/.tyv f1I
CBIt.,., or
AB7ru
or
A'/''fY



or
l
L1*
C8 'I.,
vaw ,-1
AD/r.., or
f)Cftvv or
C BIt.,., or
A8/,x."
or
A8!'J)'
G) AD/r""
or
DC1'""
or
(8/,.,., or
HIP 8R ACING
or
 
A-
I.
AD/r
w
Of
DCt'"
or
CB r.,.,
'\.
HIP 8R "CINCO

OT
A
A
EDlr.,., or
D C/r.."
oy
0
C !fry.,
--_._-
ANNEXURE -1
Sheet-2 of
THE (ORNER SHOULD IE DESICNEOfO PRov,tE l,ATEAAl SUP'Pl>R'I' AtEqUA'TF L1
PERMISSIBLE AXIAL STRESS IN COMPRESSION
CONSIDERATION FOR L/R OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS

ANNEXURf • 13
Sheet· 1 of 5
The compressive stresses 1n various members multiplied by
the appropriate factor of safety shall not exceed the value
given by following formulae ( As per IS-B02 (Part-I) 1992).
Fa •   ry Where KL/r (for b/t'Lim)
& Fe- • "- y Il It; r- Cc (for
Fa • Allowable unit stress in compression (Kn kg/cm2)
Fy • Minimum guaranteed yield stress of the material.
(ly • 2549.3 kqlcm2 for Mild steel & Fy • 3620 kg/cm2
for High Tansile Steel).
Cc • 125.664 for Mild Steel & Cc • 105.455 for High Tensile
Steel.
(bIt) Lim • 661.8 13 for Mild Steel & 11 for High
Tensile Steel.
Where b = distance from edge of fillet to the extreme
fibre and t • thickness of material.
Where width thickness ratio (bit) exceeds (bIt) lim, above
formula will reduce as follows and -Fy" will be replaced by
for (I<G/CM2).
Mild Steel :
------.. ---
For 4275 - 132 (bit) where 13 <.. bit < 24
& For ., 668400 I (bIt) 2 where bit > 24
For = 6070 - 2'-3 where 11 < bit < 20
& for = 668400 I (bit) 2 where bit> 20
PERMtSSIBL! AXIAl. STRESS IN COMPRESSION FOR MILO STEEL
  -.ioU! i;I
FOR CURVE 1
FOR CURVE 2
FOR CURVE 3
IIr Ko/cm' Vr Kg/em' IIr Kg/cm
l
IIr Kg/cm
l
IIr
39 2427 80 20.33 39 2266 80 1895 3Q
40 2420. 81 20.20 40 2259 81 1885 40
41 2414 82 2007 41 2251 82 1874 41
42 2407 83 1993 42 22« 83 1862 42
43 2400 64 1980 43 2237 84 1851 43
« 2393 85 1966 44 2229 85 18040 44
45 23M 86 1952 45 2221 86 1828 45
46 2379 87 1938 46 2213 81 1817 4e
47 2371 83 1924 47 2206 88 1805 47
48 2363 89 1910. 48 2198 89 1794 48
40 2355 90 1895 49 2190 90 1782 4i
50 91 1881 50 2182 91 1770 50
51 2339 92 1866 51 2173 92 1758 51
52 2331 93 1851 52 2165 93 1746 52
53 2323 94 1836 53 2157 94 1734 53
·54 2314 95 1821 s.. 2148 95 1722 54
55 2305 96 1805 55 2140 96 1710. 55
56 2296 97 1790 56 2131 97 1697 56
57 2287 98 1774 57 2122 98 1685 57
58 2278 99 1758 58 2113 99 1672 58
59 2268 100 1742 59 2104 100 1659 59
60 2259 101 1726 60 2095 101 1647 60
81 2249 102 1710 61 20.86 10.2 1634 61
62 2239 103 1693 62 20.77 10.3 1621 62
63 2229 104 1676 63 2068 104 160.8 63
64 2219 105 1659 64 2058 10.5 1595 64
65 220.8 106 1642 65 2049- 106 1581 65
68 2198 107 1625 66 2039 107 1568 66
67 2181 108 1608 67 2029 108 1555 67
68 2176 109 1590 68 2020 109 1541 68
69 2165 110 1573 69 2010 110 1528 69
70 215-4 111 1555 70 2000 111 1514 70
71 2142 112 1537 71 1990 112 1500 71
72 2131 113 1519 72 1980 113 1486 72
73 2119 114 1500 73 1970 114 1472 73
74 2107 115 1482 7. 1959 115 1458 74
75 2095 116 75 1949 1"16 14« 75
76 2083 117 1444 76 1938 117 1430 76
77 2071 118 1425 77 1928 116 1416 77
78 2058 119 1406 78 1917 119 1401 70
79 120 1387 79 1906 120 79
CURVE 1: TO BE USED FOR LEG MEMBERS' LAnlCES HAVING BACK TO BACK
DOUBLE ANGLE FOR UR UPTO 12U
CURVE 2: TO BE USED FOR CROSS ARM (KUr • 30 + 0.75 UrI
FOR lIR UPTO 120
Kg/cm
2
203Q
2033
2026
2020.
2013
2007
2000
1993
1987
1980
1i73
1966
1959
1952
19045
1938
1931
1i24
1i17
1910
1903
1895
1888
1881
1874
1866
1859
1851
18044
1836
1828
1821
1813
1805
1798
1790
1782
1774
1766
1758
1750
CUlitVE 3: TO BE USED FOR LAmCES WITH SINGLE ANGLE SEC1!ON ptWpI tlO. O.llk I
FOR lIR UPTO 120
39
IIr

80 1742
81 1734
82 1728
83 1718
54 1710
85 1701
Be 1Sla3
87 18&5
88 1878
89 1661
go
1859
91 16.51
92 1&4.2
93 1634
Q.4 1825
95 1617
ee 1608
97 1599
98 1590
99 1581
100 1573
101 1584
102 155.5
103 1546
104 1537
105 1528
108 1519
107 1SDe
10.8 1500
109 1491
110 1482
111 1472
112 1463
113
114 14«
115 1435
116 1425
117 1416
118 1406
119 1397
120 1387
PERMISSIBU AXIAL STRESS IN COMPRESSION FOR MILO STEEL
ANNEXUR£ • 13
Sheet- 3 of 5
FOR CURVE 4 FOR CURVE 5 FORCURV!I
Vr Vr
Vr Ka/cm
2
Vr
121 1375 161 177 121 1379 161 &80
122 1352 162 167 122 1362 162 871
123 1330 163 158 123 1345 163 862
124 1309 164 148 124 1329 164 e54
125 1288 18S 739 125 1312 165 8045
128 1268 t66 730 126 1296 166 837
127 1248 167 722 127 1281 187 829
128 1229 168 713 128 1265 168 821
129 1210 169 705 129 1250 1tiQ 813
130 1191 170 696 130 1235 170 605
131 1173 171 688 131 1220 171 797
132 1155 172 .680 132 1206 172 790
133 1138 173 673 133 1192 173 782
134 1121 174 665 134 1178 174 775
135 1104 175 657 135 1165 175 767
138 1088 176 650 13e 1151 116 760
137 1072 177 642 137 1138 177 753
138 1057 178 635 138 1125 178 746
139 1042 179 628 139 1112 179 739
140 1027 180 621 140 1100 180 733
141 1012 181 614 141 1088 181 726
142 998 182 608 142 1076 182 719
143 i&4 183 601 143 1064 183 713
144 971 1M 595 1« 1052 706
145 957 185 588 145 1040 185 700
146 944 186 582 146 1029 186
147 831 187 576 147 1018 187 668
14a 819 188 570 148 1007 188 682
,.9
907 189 563 149 996 189 676
150 895 190 558 150 986 190 670
151 883 191 552 151 975 191 e&4
152 811 192 152 965 192 658
153 860 193 153 955 193 652
8-'9 194 535 154 io45 194 647
155 838 195 529 155 835 195 &41
156 827 196 524 156 926 196 63G
157 817 197 519 157 916 197 630
158 806 198 513 158 198 625
159 796 199 508 159 897 199 620
,
160 786 200 503 160 888 200 614
CURVE 4: TO BE USED FOR LATIICES HAVINQ 1 10LT CONN!c;TION
FOR UK 120 TO 200
L'r Kglcm
2
121 13&4
122 1370
123
124 1342
125 1329
128 1318
127 1303
128 12iO
12V 1277
130 1265
131 1253
132 1241
133 1221
134 1217
135 1m
138
137 1183
131 1172
138
".,
140 1150
141 1139
142 1129
143 1111
144 1108
145 1098
148 10M
147 1079
148 1069
148 1058
150
151 1041
152 1032
153 1023
1014
155 1005
158
9ge
157 Me
158 9711
171
160 te3
CURVE.: TO USED FOR LAmCES HAVlNG 110lT CQNNECTION AT ONI tNO AbO
2 10LT CONNECTION AT OTHER   2'.1 "," .712 UrI FOR LJR1J1'1O 200
tURn I: TO Bl USED FOR LATI1CES HAVlNG 2 BOLT CONNECTION Ai EITHER IND
• ., •• _ ...... a .... 1. __ P"'-" I ,III .""" 'Y""'''""
Vr Kglcm
J
161 155
162 94e
183 13i
164 131
165 123
1e1 115
187 eoe
168 900
189 893
170 eae
171 171
172 171
173 ..
174
175 151
176 I«
177 837
171 131
179 124
180
"8
181 811
182 105
183 711
184 713
185 7.7
188 7a1
187 775
111 7et
'"
183
190 757
181 751
192 748
1a3 740
1M 735
1"
721
11e 724
117 718
191 713
1"

200 703
PERMISSIBLE AXIAL STRESS IN COMPRESSION FOR HIGH STEEL
--
-- --
FOR CURVE 1 FOR CURVE 2
FOR CURVE 3
IIr Kg/em!
Vr Kg/em' IIr KQlcm
2
Ur Kg/cm
l
IIr
39
3372 80 2578 39 3049
80 2302 39

3360 81 2552 40 3034 81 2280 40
41
82 2526 41 3019
.
82 2257 41
42 3333
83 2499 42 3004
83 2235  
43 3319
84 2472 ·3 2989 84 2212 43
44 3305 8-5
2444 44 2974 85 2189 44
45 3290 86 2416 45 2959
86 2167 45
46 3276 87 2388 46 2943 87 2143 46
47 3260 88 2360 47 2927 88 2120 47
48 3245 89 2331 48 2911 89 2096 48
49 3229 90 2302 49 2895 90 2073 49
50 3213 91 2272 50 2878 91 2049 50
51 3197 92 2242 51 2862 92 2025 51
52 3180 93 2212 52 2845 93 2001 52
53 3163 94 2182 53 282.8 94 1976 53
54 31<c5 95 2J51 54 2811 95 1951 54
55 3128 96 2120
. 55
2794 96 1927 55
56 3110 97 2089 56 2776 97 1902 56
57 3091 98 2057 57 2759 98 1876 - 57
58 3072 99 2025 58 2741 99 1851 58
59 3053' 100 1992 59 2723 100 1826 59
60 3034 101 1960 60 2704 101 1800 60
61 3014 102 1927 61 2686 102 1774 61
62 ·2994 103 1893 62 2667 103 1748 62
63 2974 104 1860 63 2649 104 1722 63
64 2953 105 1826 64 2630 105 1695 64
65 2932 106 1791 65 2611 106 1668 65
66 2911 107 1757 66 2591 107 1642 66
67 2889 108 1722 67 2572 108 1615 67
68 2867 109 1686 68 2552 109 -1587 68
69 2845 110 1651 69 2532 110 1560
·69
70 2822 111 1615 70 2512 111 1533 70
71 2800 112 1578 71 2492 112 1505 71
72 2776 113 1542 72 2472 113 1477 72
73 2753 114 1505 73 2451 114 1«9 73
74 2729 115 1468 74 2430 115 1420 74
75 2704 116 1430 75 2409 116 1392 75
76 2680 117 1392 76 2388 117 1363 76
77 2655 118 1354 77 2367 118 1334 77
78 2630 119 1315 78 2345 '119 1305 78
79 2604 120 1276 79 2324 120 . 1276 79
CURVE l' TO BE USED FOR lEG MEMBERS' LArnCES HAVING BACK TO BACK
DOUBLE ANGLE FOR UR UPTO 120
CURVE 2: TO BE USED rOR CROSS ARM MEMBERS (KUr a 30 • 0.75 VI')
FOR UR UPTO 120
Kglcm
2
2591
2578
2565
2552
2539
2526
2512
2499
248.5
2472
2458
2444
2430
2416
2402
2388
2374
2360
2345
2331
2316
2302
2287
2272
2257
2242
2227
2212
2197
2182
2167
2151
2136
2120
2104
2089
2073
2057
2041
2025
OQ09
CURVE 3: TO BE USED FOR LATTICES WITH SINe _ ANGLE SECTION (KUr: 80 .0.6 Ui ,
FOR UR UPTO 120
41
IIr
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
,87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
Sheet· 4 ot5
l<Q/cm
2
1992
1976
1960
1943
1927
1910
1893
1878
1860
1843
1826
1808
1791
1774
1757
1739
1722
1704
16.86
1698
1651
1633
1615
1597
1578
156.0
1542
1523
1505
14.86'
14G.8'
1449
143.0
1411
1392
1373
13.54
1334
1315
1296
1276

PERMISSIBLE AXIAL STRESS IN COMPRESSION FOR HIGH TENSILE STEEL
AHNEXURl - 13
Sheet - 5 of 5
FORCURve.c FOR CURVE 5
FOR CURVE I
IIr Kg/cm
2
IIr Kg/em' IIr KQlem
l
IIr Kg/em'
121 1375 161 777 121 1379 161 880
122 1352 162 767 122 1362 162 871
123 1330 163 758 123 1345 163 862
124 1)(X1 1&4 7048 124 1329 1s.. 8504
125 12M 165 739 125 1312 165 845
120 1263 166 730 126 1296 166 837
127 1248 167 722 127 1281 167 829
128 1m 168 713 128 1265 168 821
128 1210 169 705 1250 169 813
130 1181 170 696 130 1235 170 805
131 1173 171 688 131 1220 171 797
132 1155 172 680 132 1206 172 790
133 1138 173 673 133 1192 173 762
1)4 j121 174 665 134 1178 174 775
135 1104 175 657 135 1165 175 767
136 1088 176 650 136 1151 176 760
137 1072 177 642 137 1138 177 753
138 1057 178 635 138 1125 178 746
138 1042 179 628 139 1112 179 739
1-40 1027 180 621 140 1100 180 733
141 1012 181 614 141 1088 181 726
142 998 182 608 142 1076 182
7"
143 984 183 601 143 los.. 183 713
144 971 1&4 595 144 1052 184 706
145 957 185 588 145 1040 185 700
148 .944 186 582 146 1029 186 694
147 831 187 575 147 1018 187 688
148 818 188 570 148 1007 188 682
148 907 189 563 149 996 189 676
150 895 190 558 150 986 190 670
151 883 181 552 151 975 191 6&4
152 871 192 5-46 152 965 192 658
153 860 193 5040 153 955 193 652
154 849 194 535 154 945
647 i
155 838 195 529 155 935 195 641 I
156 827 196 524 156 926 196 636
157 817 197 519 157 916 197 630
158 806 198 S13 158 907 198 525
19 796 199 508 159 897 199 520
160 786 200 503 160 8S8 200 614
CURVE 4: TO RE USED FOR LATIlCES HAVING 1 BOLT CONNECTION'
FOR UR 120 TO 200
IIr KQfcm
J
121 138<4
122 1370
123 1356
124 1342
125 1329
126 1316
127 1303
128 1290
129 1277
130 1265
131 1253
132 1241
133 1229
134 1217
135 1205
136 1194
137 1183
138 1172
139 1161
140 1150
141 1139
142 1129
143 1119
144 1108
145 1098
146 1088
147 1079
·,48
1069
149 1059
150 1050
151 1041
152 1032
153 1023
1504 1014
155 1005
156 996
157 988
156 979
",59 971
160 963
CURVE I: TO BE USED FOR LATIICES HAVING 1 BOLT CONNECTION AT ONE END AND
2 BOLT CONNECTION AT OTHER END(KUr= 2U + .112 UrI FOR UR 120 TO 200
\;URVE I: TO BE USED FOR LATIlCES HAVING 2 BOLT   EITHER END
IKI   .,. Ai" I/r\ J:nR I IR 11U TC 2110
Vr KW'em'
161 955
162 9<46
163 939
1&4 931
165 923
166 915
167 908
168 900
169 893
170 886
171 879
172 871
173 864
174 858
175 851
176 &«
177 837
178 831
179 824
180 818
181 811
182 805
183 799
184 793
185 787
186 781
775
188 769
189 763
190 757
191 751
192 746
193 740
194 735
195 729
196 72'-
197 719
198 713
199
-708
200 703
ANNEXU.R£ • ,.
REFERENCE TAel£ FOR MAXIMUM PERMISSIBlE l£NGTH OF REDUNDANT MEMBERS
.
Section l/R CONSIDERA nONS BENDING CONSlDERAnoNS ONLY
WIth WIth Rxx WIth 100 Kgs. (Ultimate) WIth 150 Kgs. (Ultimate)
Rw orRyy
(R min) (Rmed)
M.S. H.T. M.S. H.T.
(2600) (3600) (2600 (3600)
45X30X4 1575 2100 936 1296 624 864
45X30X5 1575 2075 11M N.C. 763 1056
45X45X4 2175 3425 2080 N.C. 1387 1920
45X45X5 2175 3400 N.C. N.C. 1733 N.C.
SOXSOX4 2425 3825 N.C. N.C. 1733 2400
SOX5OX5 2425 3800 N.C. N.C.
2149 N.C.
5OX5OX6 2400 3775 N.C.
N.C. N.C. N.C.
55X55X4
26Ei) 4175 N.C.
N.C. 2052 N.C.
55X55X5
26Ei) 4175 N.C.
N.C. 2565 N.C.
6OX60X4 2975
4625 N.C.
N.C. 2538 N.C.
6OX60X5 2900
A550
N.C.
N.C.
N.C. N.C.
65X65X4 3150
4975 N.C.
N.C. 2884 N.C.
65X65X5 3150
4975 N.C ..
N.C.
N.C. N.C.
65X65X6 3150
4950 N.C.
N.C.
N.C. N.C.
70 X 70X 5' 3400
5375
N.C.
N.C. N.C.
N.C.
75 X 75X5 3650
5775 N.C.
N.C. . N.C. N.C.
75 X 75X6 3650
5750
N.C. N.C.
N.C. N.C.
8OX80X6 3900
6150 N.C.
N.C.
N.C. N.C.
9OX90X6 4375
6925 N.C.
N.C. N.C. N.C.
.
Red. Members to be checked for 2.1/7'4 stress & bending independently.
N.C. = Not critical from bending COnsiderations. therefore.l/R lenghts to be used.
Notes:
1. Maximum l/R for redundants should not exceed 250.
2. Intermediate stress values can be obtained by Interpolation.
3. Redundants considered with one bolt connection at either end.
R MED
f
It
RMIN
1,
RMIN R MIN
J,
1
I
SKETCH-1
SKETCH-2
d
s
e
k
r
do
b
DIMENSIONS FOR HEXAGON BOLTS FOR STEEL STRUCTURES
All dlmensJons In mlilimetres
ANNEXURE - 15
Sheet No. 1 01 3
Y according to IS: 1369-1961 -Dimensions for screw threads run-outs and undercuts·.
'z' according to IS: 1368-1967 -Dimensions for ends of bolts and screws (first revision),"
Size
Nom
Nom
Min
Nom
Max
Max
M12
12
19
20.88
8
15.2
20
M16
16
24
26.17
10
19.2
23
M20
20
30
32.95
13
24.4
26
M24
24
36
39.55
15
28.4
30
'-"'lIll1""Vftl
r ,
Sheet:
ULnMATE STRENGTHS OF BOLTS
Bolts/Nuts conforming to IS : 6639
Mechanlcol Properties conform to IS: 1367
(FOR PROPERTY CLASS 1..6/1.)
Ultimate shearing stress = 2220 kg/cm
2
Ultimate bearing stress = 4440 kgl cm
2
Shearing Strength tor one bott Bearing Strength for one batt (In kg)
Bottdia
..
--'T)
Single Shear Double Shear 3mm 3.175 4mm 5mm 6nm 7mn
(kg) (kg) mm
(1/8")
12mm 2511 5022 1598 1692 2132 2664 3197 373C
----
-
16mm 4464 8928 2131 2256 2842 3552 4263 49n
20mm 6974 13948 2664 2820 3552 4440 5328 6216
24mm 10043 20086 3197 3383 4263 5328 6394 7460
(FOR PROPERTY CLASS 5.6/5)
Ultimate shearing stress = 3161 kg/cm
2
Ultimate bearing stress = 6322 kg/cm
2
Bolt Shearing strength for one bolt Bearing strength tor one bolt (in kg)
dia.
(inmm)
Single Shear Double Shear 3mm 3.175mm 4mm 5mm 6mm 7mm
(kg) (kg) (1/8")
12mm 3575 7150 2276 2409 3035 3793 4552 5311
--
16mm
6356 12712 3035 3212 4046 5058 fJJ70 7081
20mm 9931 19862 3793 4015 5058 6322 7587 8851
24mm 14300 28&Xl 4552 4818 tlJ70 7587 9104 10621
45
Oesig-
. nation
A
B
C
\
0
E
F
G
H
J
K
l
M
N
P
Bolt Die.
(mm)
12
16
20
24
ANNEXURE - 15
Sheet 3 of 3
NOMINAL L£NGTHS'   FOR M12, M16, M20' M24 BOLTS
AS PER IS - 6639-1972
Nominal Urn Weights and clamping lengths
lengths
(Inmm) M12 Bott M16 Bolt M20 Bott M24 Bott
Unit Grip Unit Grip Untt Grip Unit Grip
'.
wt. Lengths wt. lengths wt. lengths wt. lengths
(kg) (mm) (kg) (mm) (kg) (mm) (kg) (mm)
35 0.062 10-14 0.117 6-10 - - - -
40 0.0664 15-19 0.125 11-15 0.222 &-12 - -
45 0.0708 20-24 0.133 16-20 0.234 13-17 0.369 9-13
50 0.0753 25-29 0.141 21-25 0.247 18-22 0.387 14-18
55 0.0797 3(}34 0.149 26-30 0.259 23-27 0.405 19-23
60 0.0842 35-39 0.157 31-35 0.272 28-:2 0.423 24-28
65 0.0886
4Q.44
0.164 36-40 0.284 33-37 0.440 29-3.3
70 0.0930 45-49 0.172 41-45 0.296 38-42 0.458 34-38
75 0.0975 50-54 0.180 46-50 0.309 43-47 0.476 39-43
80 0.1020 55-59 0.188 51-55 0.321 48-52 0.494 44-48
85 0.1070 60-64 0.196 56-60 0.334 53-57 0.511 49-53
90 0.1110 65-69 0.204 61-<>3 0.346 58-62 0.529 54-58
95 0.1160 70-74 0.212 66-70 0.358 63-67 0.547 59-<>3
100 0.1200 75-79 0.220 71-75 0.371 6a-72 0.565 64-68
SPACING OF BOLTS AND EDGE DISTANCE ON FINISHED MATERIAL
Thickness of Spring Washer Hole die. Bolt Spacing Edge distance (Min)
Hole Centre Hole Centre
to Rolled or to sheared or
Weight Thickness Sown.edge. Flame cut
kg (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) edge. (mm)
0.004 2.5 13.5 32 16 20
0.009 3.5 17.5 40 20 23
0.Q15 4.0 21.5 48 25 28
0.026 5.0 25.S 60 33 38
Transmission Line Manual
Chapter 8
Testing of Towers
CONTENTS
Page
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Testing Requirements
8.3 Description of a Tower Testing Station
,
1
8.4 Calibration 2
8.5 . Assembly of Prototype Tower :2
8.6 Rigging Arrangements and Location of the Loadcells :2
8.7 Test Procedure 2
8.8 Testing of Prototype Tower 2
8.9 Special Requirements 3
8.10 Acceptance of Test Results 4
8.11 Material Testing 4
CBIP MANUAL ON TRANSMISSION LINE TOWERS
8.1 INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER-8
TESTING OF TOWERS
Transmission line towers are highly indeterminate structures. In the analysis of design of these structures and
their detailing a number of theoretical assumptions are made. The structures are mass produced and the quality
of materials, fabrication and the assembly require checking. It is desirable that the Designers and Users both
are convinced that the tower can stand the most critical loads for which it is designed and are therefore
subjected to a full scale prototype test.
For a Prototype test, the material used shall be made to the same standards, as those that will apply to all
towers during mass production.
8.2 TESTING REQUIREMENTS
This full scale testing of tower is generally termed as Prototype Test and for conducting Prototype tests, a
tower testing station is required where it is possible to measure the applied loads and deflections and observe
the behaviour of the tower on application of the external design loads.
8.3 DESCRIPTION OF A TOWER TESTING STATION
Figures 1&2 give layout for "Typical Tower Testing Station" and "Rigging Arrangements" for applying test
loads respectively.
A Tower Testing Station shall consist of:
(i) A Test Bed to withstand maximum possible compression and uplift loads and shear resulting from the
external loads on a prototype tower with the highest voltage and no. of circuits, which has to be
subjected to testing at the Testing Station.
(ii) Permanent Anchors of adequate capacity to take the Transverse, Longitudinal and Vertical Pulls
applied to the tower of maximum expected width, height and strength proposed to be tested on a test
bed. Longitudinal Mast (P) is a structure of adequate dimension and height, constructed at a sufficient
distance from the tower bed and equipped with all Rigging arrangements for applying longitudinal
loads. The Transverse loads are applied through pulleys positIoned on the Transverse Mast (B).
Vertical loads are applied by means of dead weight or through anchors on the test bed.
(iii) The arrangements for applying the combination of given loads at a specified rate of increase, if .
required with the help of a Multi Sheave Pulley, to take mechanical advantage and reduce load on the
winch. .
(iv) Electrical Winches operated by remote control from a Central Control Room used for applying loads
at the different points of tower structure, as far as possible simultaneously.
Instruments used for recording the load applied are either Mechanical Spring Gauges or Electrical/Electronic
TransducerslDynarnometers. The dials of the respective Dynarnometersrrransducers indicate the load in the
particular wire. Transverse & longitudinal by TheOdolites on scales fitted at appropriate
positions on the tower.
(v) Remote control of loading mechanisms.
(vi) Remote and precise reading of measuring instruments, like Mechanical Spring Gauges or
ElectricaVElectronic Transducers!Dynarnometers.
(vii) Arrangement for calibration of the measuring instruments. From control room, the winches and the
dynamometers are operated/controlled Control room shall have the facility to have the complete view
of transverse and longitudinal testing arrangements of the test tower. All the electrically operated
machines and instruments shall be connected to and controlled from the Control Room.
8.4 CALmRA nON
In order to ensure the correctness and reliability of all measuring instruments and in turn the validity of the
tests the calibration of all instruments before the test is conducted. Calibration of the load cells is done with
either a Universal Testing Machine or by standard weights. In case the calibration is done with the use of
UTM, the UTM shall be periodically (once in every six months) calibrated by an external third party. A
typical calibration chart is shown in Appendix-I.
8.5 ASSEMBLY OF PROTOTYPE TOWER
The Prototype tower,fabricated as per structural drawings approved by the Purchaser shall be assembled and
erected on a flxed base. Fitrnent of any member shall be easy, natural and shall not be a forced one. The
Bolts should be tightened simultaneously on all four faces.
8.6 RIGGING ARRANGEMENTS AND LOCATION OF THE LOAD CELLS
To enable application of the external loads in the most representative manner and to simulate tower design
conditions, the tower structure   Impact of any variance in inclination of rigging wires with
respect to the directions accountedJ...in designs 15 considered while preparing Rigging Chart. Loads are applied
as per these approved rigging charts: The loadcells shall be attached to the tower through the rigging wires,
positioned as close as possible to the test tower so that frictional losses do not cause impact on the 10adcell:..
8.7 TEST PROCEDURE
The Prototype Tower is erected on the test bed and all the rigging arrangements are completed. The Tower
is examined carefully to see that all the bolts and nuts are tightened properly. The tower is made truely plumb
and square. All its members are checked for freedom from any visible defect. Two graduated metallic scales
are fixed at Peak and Top Crossarm level on the transverse face. Readings on these scales with reference to
the plumb line are taken by Theodolite.
8.8 TESTING OF PROTOTYPE TOWER
8.8.1 Bolt-Slip Test
In order to eliminate as far as possible, the play between the bolts and the holes throughout the structure, Bolt
take up test is done in the beginning. Under this test all the transverse and vertical loads arc increased
1
   
LOADED conditions. The loads on the tower are then reduced to zero or to as Iowa value as possible. The
deflection reading is once again taken for this Zero loading. The differences between the two zero loadings
are the permanent deflections on tower. For subsequent test purposes, the readings with zero loads taken after
the Bolt Slip Test taken are considered as the Initial readings.
8.8.2 Sequence of Test Loading Cases
Sequence of test loading cases shall be pre-determined. The choice of the test sequence shall largely depend
upon simplification of the operations necessary for carrying out the test programme.
8.8.3 Details of Tests
Test 1: (Brokenwire Condition) Security and Safety Conditions as well as Anti-cascade conditions
Under this condition (all conditions involving longitudinal loads in addition to the transverse and vertical loads)
all the transverse and vertical loads are first increased to about 100%. Longitudinal loads are then increased
in steps of 50%-75%-90%-95% of the ultimate loads. At all stages of loading it shall be ensured that the
transverse and vertical loads are not less than the values for corresponding step of the longitudinal load. At
each step the loads are maintained for one minute and the deflections are noted. All loads are then increased
to 100%. At this final 100% loading stage, tower is observed for 2 minutes and deflections are noted. The
tower is required to withstand these loads without showing any failure. Mter every test the loads are brought
down and deflection readings are taken for no load condition.
Test-2: (Normal Condition) Reliability Condition:
These loads are applied as far as possible simultaneously at all points in steps of 50-75-90 & 95%. The
waiting period of one minute shall be maintained at each step.
The waiting period at the final 100% loading stage shall be 2 minutes.
Throughout the process of loading under all tests, the tower shall be closely observed for any visual sign of
deformation. Whenever such deformation is observed, the loads shall be brought down and remedial measures
shall be taken. It is pointed out here that the tendency of bowing in bracings shall not be considered as a sign
of failure even though it is during the final waiting period.
Test-3: Destruction Test:
If no Destruction Test is required by the Purchaser the loads on tower after 100% under Test-2 above, shall
be gradually brought down to zero. If desired by the Purchaser, in continuation to test 2, after the final waiting
period, the transverse loads only are increased in steps of 5% till the failure occurs. The Destruction test,
however, can be discontinued beyond a certain limit on mutual agreement between the Purchaser, Design &
Testing Station Authority. The point of failure is detected from the sudden drop of load indication in the
instrument dials in the Control Room.
8.9 SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS
8.9.1 The test tower shall be black or galvanised tower as desired by Purchaser.
8.9.2 The tower which has been tested shall not be part of supply and is not to be used on line.
8.9.3 Test tower shall be provided with unbraced portion of stub equivalent to distance of chimney top to
the point of connection of bracing with leg.
8.9.4 During the process of tower test. when a nwnber of tests have been completed satisfactorily and a
failure occurs at a subsequent test. the design will be reviewed and tower will be reinforced. if
required. The reinforced tower will be put to test again and subjected to balance tests. unless the
f   i l ~ e is of major nature. which will require all the tests to be repeated. or as mutually agreed between
the Purchaser and the Supplier.
8.9.5 Application of Loads on Test-Tower
As considered in design:
8.9.5.1 Transverse longitudinal and vertical loads.
At peak and respective crossarm points.
8.9.5.2 Wind Load on Tower Body
(i) Wind load from top at peak and respective crossarm points upto bOllom cross-arm will be simulated
suitably at ground-wire, Top cross-arm, Middle cross-arm and BOllom cross-arm levels.
(ii) Wind loads on tower below bottom cross-arm will be simulated to act at boltom cross-arm point and
test will be carried out accordingly.
(iii) For tower with extension. wind load on extension will be simulatcd on Top of Extcnsion.
8.10 ACCEPTANCE OF TEST RESULTS
Test is considered as passed, if tower is able to withstand the specified ulLimatc loads (100% step) with no
visible sign of deformation for the specified waiting period.
A detailed report incorporating test data and the results of complete tests along with photographs of the tower
shall be prepared by the test-authority. in quadruplicate.
8.11 MATERIAL TESTING
Material of the prototype shall be checked for mechanical and chemical charactcristics. Samplc sclectcd by
the Purchaser from Test Tower shall be subjected to such tests.
9.11 PRESENTATION OF TEST RESULTS
The test report shall include the following data:
1. The type of tested tower.
2. The name and address of the tower manufacturer and of the tower designcr.
3. The name and address of the client.
to
5.
6.
I a
he
7.
:ell
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
no
vcr
by
The names of persons presented during the tests.
A list of various assembly and detail drawings related to the tower tested with updated modifications
of the drawings referred to.
A schematic line diagram of the tower showing the various load points and directions of loading to
be applied and a table with the specified loads.
Diagram showing the rigging arrangement used to apply the test loads.
One table per test showing the loads required at the various points on the structure and for the various
loading steps.
One table per test showing the various deflection values measured.
Results of Mechanical and Chemical Test carried out on samples taken from the tower.
In the case of failure:
A table showing the maximum loads applied to the structure just before the collapse;
A brief description of the failure;
The dimensional and mechanical characteristics of the failed elements.
Photographs showing the whole of the structure and, details of the failure.
5
APPENDIX - I
CALI BRA TION CH ART
Calibration of Moster Load Cell tDesk No. ) with Universal Testing Machine on
for the testing of Tower Type M kd. of
Moster Load Cell Number :-
U T M - Universal Testing Machine.
U.T.M.
Reading 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 6000 9000 10000
( kgs)
Moster
Load Cell
Reading
Calibration of all the load cells
l
used for testing of tower in series with respect to
master load cell.
Moster Reading in kg.
Load Cell 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000
Load Cell
No. I
No. 2
No. 3
No.4
No. 5
No. 6
No. 7
No. 6
No.9
No.IO
No.11
No. 12
No.13
No.14
No. 15
No.16
No.17
No.IS
No.19
No.20
Witnessed by :
-.
,If I .
.... ".. . . i .mr 5 ,'15
,-- -- - - - ---- --- - - - -- - - - - - --- --- ---
I LAYOUT OF TEST BED FIG. I
T
 
.... oJ
,
,-- cr----: I ® ,
I ___
I
c:::=::=_-
A MAIN TEST BED
B TRANSVERSE MAST MAIN (60.0 M HT)
C LOAD CELL ROOM
D OFFICE BUILDING/CALIBRATION ROOM
E TRANSVERSE ANCHORS
F PULLEY BLOCK
I
I
G WINCHlWINCH HOUSE (ACCOMMODATING ELECT. MOTORS)
I
...;a ,
I
0
0
;1
,---
I
®
®, I
I
'---
-
, 81..20
;':01
I I v...
;/
I
1-
,-
c
I
I
J
0
C?
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Transmission Line Manual
Chapter 9
Materials, Fabrication, Galvanising, Inspection and Storage
Er
Clause
No.
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
Annexures
CONTENTS
Scope
Scope
Material Quality Control
Specific Requirements of Fabrication
Operations in Fabrication
Tolerances
Shop Erection/Proto-type Tower Assembly
Galvanising
Inspection
Packing and Storage.
Page
1
1
1
3
4
5
5
5
5
I Chemical Composition and Mechanical Properties of Mild steel 7
II Chemical Composition and Mechanical Properties of High Tensile steel 8
III (a) Properties of Equal Angle Sections as per IS: 808 (Part V)-1989 : 9
(b) Properties of Unequal Angle sections as per IS: 808 (Part V)-1989 11
(c) Properties of Channel Sections 12
IV Unit Weight of Plates 13
V Dimensions of Hexagon Bolts for steel structures 14
VI Ultimate strength of Bolts 15
VII Properties of Anchor Bolts. Metric Screw Threads as per IS: 4218
(Part-3)-1976 with ISO 16
Appendices
Appendix I - Quality Assurance Plan 17
I. Introduction 17
II. Quality Objective 17
III. Quality Policy 17
IV. Organisation of Quality Control Department 17
V. Quality Planning 17
VI. DeSign and Drawings 18
VII. Company standards 18
VIII. Control on Inspection-Equipments!Tools/Gauges 18
IX. Material Management 19
X. Incoming Material Inspection 19
XI. Pre-production 21
XII In-Process Inspection 21
XIII. Inspection and Testing of Finished (Galvanlsed) Material 25
XIV.Storage, Packaging and Packing 26
Enclosures-A Sampling Plan for Incoming Material 27
a. Sections, Accessories and Brought out Material 27
b. Sampling Plan for Physical Properties of Bolts, Nuts and Spring Washers 37
iii
c. Sampling Plan for Galvanising Tests for Threaded Fasteners
d. Formats for Inspection Report for Steel Stacklng/Prellmlnary-(QCD-I)
e. Format for Report on Bend Test
f. Format for Report on Testing of Physical Properties
g. Format for Inspection Report for Bolts/Nuts-(QCD-2)
h. Format for Test Report for Physical Properties of Bolts
I. Format for Test Report for Physical Properties of Nuts
J. Format for Inspection Report for Spring Washers-(QCD-3)
k. Format for Inspection Report for Accessorles-(QCD-4)
I. Format for Inspection Report for Steel Test Towers-(QCD-5)
B. Sampling Plan for" In-process Material
(a) Procedure
(b) Format for Quantity Control Report
(c) Format for Loading Report of Crates
(d) Format for Inspection and Loading Report of Fabrication Shop
(e) Format for Inspection and Loadlang Report of Model Assembly
<0 Format for Inspection and Loading Report of Model Shop.
(g) Format for Out-right Rejection Slip
(h) Format for Rectifiable Rejection Slip
(I) Format for Weekly Records of Shlttwise Acid Strengths
0) Format for Galvanising Process !nspectlon Report
(k) Format for Galvanising Inspection Report
(I) Format for Testing Concentration of Prefluxing and Degreaslng solutions
Appendix 11 : Ust of Machines required for a well-equipped Tower Fabricating Workshop
Appendix 111 : Workshop Chart
Appendix IV: Process Flow Chart for Fabrication of Tower
iv
Page
28
29
32
33
34
36
38
39
41
42
43
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
55
56
57
58
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. \.
CHAPTER - 9
MATERIALS, FABRICATION, GALVANISING, INSPECTION AND STORAGE
9.1 SCOPE
This chapter covers the provisions relating to the materials, fabrication, galvanising, Inspection and
storage requirements of Towers:
9.2 MATERIAL QUALITY CONTROL
Various grades of steel used In towers-detalls of sections, bolts and nuts and other accessories,
need a detailed scrutiny and quality control procedure before being processed for fabrication,
assembly etc. Annexures I and II give chemical composition and mechanical properties of mild
steel and high tensile steel used In towers. Annexure 1\1 (a) to (c) gives sectional details and properties
of hot-rolled angle and channel sections. Annexure IV gives unit weights of plates of all sizes.
Annexures V and VI give dimensions of hexagon bolts and their mechanical properties respectively.
Annexure VII gives the properties of anchor bolts.
A weil-planned and executed quality assurance programme Is necessary to ensure delivery of
acceptable material In a timely manner. Appendix I Is a typical quality assurance plan giving details
of the various processes. Indicating process controls and various steps that are followed
progressively at various stages of production to ensure right product as per the speCification.
9.3 SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS OF FABRICATION
i
9.3.1 Reliability of a transmission structure depends not only upon Its design, but also on the
development of structural arrangement. detailing of connections, uniformity of quality of structural
sections, and accurate fabrication. Proper fabrication while maintaining permissible tolerances.
and galvanIsing of towers are, therefore. very essential. The design of structure must be practicable
rather than exact so that It Is done as Fabrication assignment. Maximum efficiency In fabrication
of structural steel by Modern shops Is entirely dependent upon close co-operation between office,
draffing room and shop.
9.3.2 Structural Assembly Drawings
After design Is complete, the structural assembly drawings should be prepared according to IS : 696-
1972 and IS: 962 -1967. The drawings shall show the complete design dimensions, member length,
slope factors or triangles, section sizes, bend lines. gauge lines, diameter, length and number of bolts,
spacers, washers. sizes of gusset plates, position of holes, etc., and relaffve location of various members.
Sufficient number of elevatton. cross-section and plan views should be presented to cle.arty Indicate
the details of joints and arrangement of members.
All members should be clearly shown and respective Identification mark allotted to each member .
The drawings should be drawn to a scale Idrge enough to convey the Information adequately.
All connections should be detailed to minimise eccentricity of connections. Due consideration
should be given to the additional stresses Introduced in the members on account of eccentricity
of
Dimensions of all members and on a member the distances such as hole-to-hole, length, gauge
distance etc. should be given in full Integers and not in decimals.
9.3.3 Shop Drawings
Shop drawings, containing complete information necessary for fabrication of the component parts of.
the structures should be prepared. These drawings should clearly st lOW the member sizes, length and
marks, hole positions, gauge lines, bend lines, edge distances, amount of chipping, notching etc.
For Gusset fabrication, separate Individual itemwise templates can be made to facilitate gusset
fabrication as well as Inspection. In case of members to be bent, shop drawings should Indicate
the provisions for variation In length. At the design/drawing stage itself, care should be taken to see
that the degree of bend given in any member Is such that neither flange width nor thickness shall
vary beyond permissible limits for the section.
Items requiring steep bends can be cut and welded as per approved welding procedure.
Each fabrtcator or detailer has his own method of preparing details. This method is generally an evolution
process based on his equipment. facilities for material control, handling and shipping/transport
procedures. It is not recommended that specifications be established in so far as actual bending details
are concerned. However, at the time of proto stage/tower testing Itself, specific bend gauges and
templates to locate the holes after bending must be established for the items to be bent.
9.3.4 Bill of Material
Bill of material for each type of tower should be prepared separately. This should Indicate grade of
steel, mark numbers, sections sizes, member lengths, their calculated weights, number of bolts, nuts
and washers and their sizes, total quantities required and structural drawing numbers.
No reduction in weight due to drilling, punching of bolt holes, skew cuts, chipping, notching,
chamfering etc., should be made while computing calculated weights of the members.
All steel sections used should be as per IS : 1852-1985 and all angle sections should have dimensions as per
IS: 808-1989. In case more than one grade of steel is used in the structural members, proper Identification
marks of vanous grades of steel being used should be made on the matenal to ensure their ultimate use
in proper location in the tower before taking up fabncation. This may be achieved as follows:-
At the time of procurement of steel other than that conforming to IS: 226-1975, green colour on
the edges of HT material on both sides Is applied so that there is no mix-up of MS and HT steel
In stock yard as well as in the shops. A distinct green colour patch is maintained throughout
and on the shop sketch also, HT steel marking is added for identifying high tensile steel items.
This way, It is ensured that no mix-up of MS and HT steel materials can take place.
9.3.5 Cutting Memo
In Fabrication Shop, several tower projects are taken up together. For each project, several types
of towers in different quantities have to be fabricated. For each type of tower , number of sections
may vary as per design and in length. IngenUity in planning with the help of computer for preparing
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cutting list/memo leads to optimising wastage of raw materials as well as achieving completion
of tower fabrication as per commitment.
9.4 OPERATIONS IN FABRICATION
9.4. r Straightening: All material should be reasonably straight and, If necessary, before being
worked, be straightened and/or flattened by pressure and be free from twists. straightening should
not damage the material. Adjacent surfaces of the parts when assembled should be In close
contact throughout keeping In view the tolerances specified. Machines used for straightening are:-
(1) For angle sections upto 110 x 110 x 10 mm-Roller Straightening Machine;
(2) For higher sections - Beam bending machine and Hydraulic Press.
:. .ie 9.4.2 Cutting: Cutting may be effected by shearing, cropping, flatne cuttlng- or sawing.
) ~ e The surfaces so cut should be clean, smooth and reasonably square and free from any distortion.
snail
9.4.3 Bending: Mild steel angle sections (15:226-1975) upto 75 x 75mm (thickness upto 6 mm) shall be
bent cold upto and Including bend angle of 10 degree; angles above 75 x 75 mm (thickness upt6
6 mm) and upto and Including 100 x 100 mm (thickness upto 8 mm) may also be bent cold upto
the bend angle of 5 degree. PI III other angle sections not covered above should be
Jl10n bent hot. All plates upto 12 mm thickness should be bent cold upto bend angle of 15 degree.
;: )rt Greater bends and/or other thicknesses should be bent hot.
3talls
L,. Id All HT Steel sections should be bent hot. All bent material should be alrcooled. The bends should
be of even profile and free from surface damages. The machines used for bending are:
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-Mechanical Presses, Hydraulic Presses and Beam Bending Machines. .
9.4.4 Punching and Drilling: Punching may be adopted for sections upto 12 mm thick. For thicker
sections, drilling should be done. Holes In the members should either be drilled or punched to
jig and should not be formed by flame cutting process. The edge security and bolt gaug.es as
given below should be maintained In all cases.
Bolt dla (mm)
12
16
20
24
EDGE SECURITY AND BOLT GAUGES
Hole dla (mm)
13.5
17.5
21.5
26.0
Pitch Min. (mm)
32
40
48
60
Edge security
Hole centre to
rolled edge (mm)
16
20
25
33
Hole centre to
sheared edge (mm)
20
23
28
38
. In determining gauge lines, allowances should be made for the mill tolerances In accordance with
. IS: 1852-1985. Gauge line and edge security shall be determined from the heel end of angle sections.
All burrs left by punching or drilling should be removed. The holes near the bend line of a bent
member on both sides of the bend line should be punched/drilled after bending and relative
positions of these holes should be maintained with the use of proper templates/Jigs and fixtures and
. the same templates/jigs should be used for Inspection of such Items. In case of disputes, with respect
to fabrication tolerances, such Items may be approved after assembly of such members as per
3
structural drawings of that particular portion. The machines used for above purpose Including
notching operation are:-
(1) Heavy-duty Cropping Machine;
(2) Light-duty Cropping Machine;
(3) Light-duty Punching Machine;
(4) Heavy-duty Universal Machine;
(5) Heavy-duty Radial Drilling Machine (for drilling);
(6) Gas Cutting Sets-may be mechanically guided or manually set-type;
(7) Circular Saw (for sawing).
9.4.5 Marking: The Identification mark allotted to the member should be distinctly marked before
galvanising with marking dies of 16 mm size. The machine used for this purpose Is Eccentric Press.
Workmanship and finish should correspond to the best modern workshop practices and all similar
ports should be made Interchangeable.
9.5 TOLERANCES
9.5.1 Tolerance. in Holes
9.5.1.1 Holes for bolting should be cylindrical. The diameter of hole Is equal to diameter of.bolt
+ 1.5 mm for bolts upto 20 mm In diameters. For 24 mm dla bolts. the clearance between bolt
shank and hole Is 2 mm. For higher sizes. the hole diameter Is· specified by the designer. While
deciding the diameter of the hole whether drilled or punched. care should be taken In making
allowance for thickness of galvanising coat on bolts as well as In the holes and for the tolerance
In bolt shank diameter. It has been observed after series of measurements on bolt shanks that
their diameter varies upto 0.3 mm above the nominal diameter. Thus. the final diameter of the
holes to be punched/drilled at Black stage will be 1.5 mm + bolt diameter + 0.3 mm for bolts upto
20 mm In diameter. For 24 mm dia bolts. the final diameter of the hole at Black stage will be equal
to bolt diameter + 2 mm + 0.4 mm.
9.5.1.2 Blocking of mis-punched/excess holes: Mispunched or excess holes not more than one on
anyone cross-sectional area should be blocked by proper welding technique by qualified welders.
Total.number of such blockings by welding may be limited to three holes In a member. No new
holes should be permitted overlapping the plugged hole. The welding must be of proper quality
and specification to ensure that strength of the welded member shall be not less than that of the
normal member.
9.5.2 Fabrication Tolerance.
(a) On straightness (camber) - 0.4% of the length of sections of sizes upto 100 x 100 mm.
- 0.2% of the length of sections of sizes over 100 x 100 mm.
(b) The maximum allowable difference In diameter of the holes on the two sides of plate
angle shall be 0.8 mm; I.e .. the allowable taper In a punched hole shall not exceed 0.8
on diameter.
(c) On overall length of angle members : ± 2 mm
(d) On consecutive holes : ± 1 mm
(e) On 1st hole to last hole In member : ± 2 mm
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(f) On gauge distances : ± 1 mm
(g) On specified hole diameters on the punch side : ± 0.3 mm
(In black) or where drilled - 0.0
The fabrication tolerances In general shall conform to IS :7215-1974. In case of deviation beyond
prescribed tolerance, the assembly of the members may be made as per Structural Drawings and
If the overall dimensions of the structure are within limits, such Items can be accepted. For leg
member lolnt holes, a manufactured cleat may be taken at random and placed over the member.
The bolt should pass at right-angie to the surface of member. For comer cuts, notches, flanged
cuts etc., a tolerance of ± 2 mm Is allowed.
Appendix II gives a list of the Machines required for Tower Fabrication Workshop and Appendix III
Is a workshop chart listing the Workshop Operations. Appendix IV gives Process Flow Chart for
Fabrication of Towers. .
9.6 SHOP ERECTION/PROTO-TYPE TOWER ASSEMBLY
steel work should be temporarily erected In horizontal or vertical position (one tower of each type
Including combination of leg extension/body extension) so that accuracy of members can be
checked before testing the towers or commencing mass fabrication as applicable. The proto
assembly Is done on the basis of approved structural drawing and shop drawings.
9.7 GALVANISING
The tower members, bolts/nuts and other accessories should be hot-dip galvanlsed and the
spring washers electro-galvanlsed. Galvanising should be done In accordance with IS :
2629-1985, after fabrication and the Inspection at black stage Is complete. The nuts may be
re-tapped after galvanising so that these are "hand-free" on the galvanlsed bolts. The
galvanising procedure and Its In-process Inspection are given In -QAP"(Quallty Assurance
Plan)-Appendlx I . The galvanising bath should be reasonably free from dross. Chemically
cleaned steel (after pre-treatment) should be dipped In molten zinc carefully.On removal from
the kettle the galvanlsed material may have excess spelter which may be removed from the
surface by bumping or Wiping. The temperature of the spelter In the kettle shall be control.led
within close limits by means of accurate pyrometers.
9.8 INSPECTION
This Is also covered In -QAP'" Appendix I. The Inspector has to be given free access at all reasonable
time to those parts of the Manufacturer's works which are concemed with the fabrication of steel work
and has to be afforded all reasonable facilities for satisfying himself that the fabrication Is being done
In accordance with the provisions of the relevant standards/QAP. In general, all measurements
are done with steel winding taps In accordance with IS : 1270-1965. The defects which may
appear through fabrication, should be made good with his consent and according to the
procedure laid down by the Inspector. All gauges and templates necessary to satisfy the Inspector
should be supplied by the manufacturer. The grade and quality of steel used by the manufacturer
should be correct. To ascertain the quality of steel used, the Inspector at his discretion may get
the material tested at a suitable or approved laboratory. For Inspection of galvanlsed materiaL
the manufacturer should provide galvanlsed coupons enabling the Inspector to carry out tests on
the coupons. The coupons should be taken from the batches corresponding to the fabricated
material under Inspection.
5
9.9 PACKING AND STORAGE
Angle sections may be wire-bundled or loose as may be mutually agreed upon. Cleat angles,
gusset plates, brackets, fillet plates, hangers and similar loose pieces may be nested and bolted
together In mUltiples or securely wired together through holes. Bolts, nuts, washers and other
attachments should be packed In double gunny bags and accurately tagged In accordance with
the contents.The packing should be such as will avoid losses/damages during transit. Each bundle
or package should be appropriately marked.
6
ANNEXURE I
CHEMICAL COMPOSmON AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MILD STEEL
Description Indian Sell British American Gennan Japanese
MA(lndlan)
IS-226 MA300HY BS- ASTMA36 DIN 17100 JIS-G-3101
4360GR-43A CLASS-i
Chemical Composition
Carbon % 0.23-0.25 0.25 0.25 0.26 0.17- 0.20
Manganese % 1.50 1.60
......
Phosphorus % 0.06 0.055 0.05 0.04 0.05 Q.05
Sulphur % 0.06 0.055 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
SIlicon % 0.50 0.05
Mechanical Strength
Tensile kgf/mm
2
42-54 44.88-57.12 43.86-52.02 40.80-56.10 34.68-47.94 41-52
YIeld kgf/mm
2
26 30.60 26.01 25.50 23.97 24-25
Elongation % 23 20 22 20-23 26 18-21
7
ANNEXURE II
CHEMICAL COMPOsmON AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HIGH TENSILE STEEL
Description STANDARDS
Specn. Nos.
Indian British American German Japane ..
IS-961 IS-85OO SAIL-MA SAIL-MA 1$-4360 ASTM ASTM DIN JIS-G-3101
EF-5AQ FE-490 350 MA-410 GR-50B A-441 A-572 17100
HT GR50 ST-52
Class -3 Class-4
SS-5O SS-55
Chemical
Carbon % 0.20 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.20 0.22 0.23 0.20 0.30
Manganese % 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 0.85 1.35 1.60
to
1.25
Silicon % 0.49 0.30
SUlphur % 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.04
Phosphorus % 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.055 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.04
Mechanical
Tensile kgf/mm
2
58 49.98 49.98 55.08 49.98 49.47 45.70 49.98 52 55
to to to to to to
62.22 62.22 67.32 63.24 61.26 62
YIeld kgf/mm
2
36 34.68 35.70 41.82 36.21 35.19 35.20 35.19 28 40-41
to to
36.21 29
Elongation % 20 20 20 19 20 18 18 to 21 20 to 22 16to 19 14-17
8
)UJRE II
ANNEXURE III- (0)
PROPERTIES OF EQUAL ANGLE SEcnONS AS PER IS:808 (PART V) - 1989
Size SeeHonal Unit Weight Centre of
Ixx-Ilr
Rxx (Rmed) Rw(Rmln) Modulus of
Area (em
2
) kg/m gravity (em) (em) (em) (em)  
-'
4Ox4Ox3 2.34 1.80 1.08 3.40 1.21 0.77 1.20
4Ox4Ox4 3.07 2.40 1.12 4.50 1.21 0.77 1.60
101
4Ox4Ox5 3.78 3.00 1.16 5.40 1.20 0.77 1.90
loss -4
4Ox4Ox6 4.47 3.50 1.20 6.30 1.19 0.71" 2.30
)..·55
45x45x3 2.64 2.10 1.20 5.00 1.38 0.87 1.50
45x45x4 3.47 2.70 1.25 6.50 1.37 0.87 2.00
,)0
45x45x5 4.28 3.40 1.29 7.90 1.36 0.87 2.50
45x45x6 5.07 4.00 1.33 9.20 1.35 0.87 2.90
'''0
5Ox50x3 2.95 2.30 1.32 6.90 1.53 0.97 1.90
5Ox50x4 3.88 3.00 1.37 9.10 1.53 0.97 2.50
5Ox50x5 4.79 3.80 1.41 11.00 1.52 0.97 3.10
(It)4
5Ox50x6 5.68 4.50 1.45 12.90 1.51 0.96' 3.60
0.04
55x55x4 4.26 3.30 1.51 11.00 1.67 1.06 2.96
55x55x5 5.27 4.10 1.53 14.70 1.67 1.06 3.70
J
55x55x6 6.26 4.90 1.57 17.30 1.66 1.06 4.40
6Ox6Ox4 4.71 3.70 1.60 15.80 1.83
>,.
1.18 3.58
6Ox6Ox5 5.75 4.50 1.65 19.20 1.82 1.16 4.40
l II
6Ox60x6 6.84 5.40 1.69 22.60 1.82 1.15 ' 5.20
65x65x4 5.00 4.00 1.73 19.76 1.99 1.26 4.16
I, J7 65x65x5 6.25 4.90 1.77 24.70 1.99 1.26 5.20
65x65x6 7.44 5.80 1.81 29.10 1.98 1.26 6.20
65x65x8 9.76 7.70 1.89 37.40 1.96 1.25 8.10
70x70x5 6.77 5.30 1.89 31.10 2.15 1.36 6.10
70x70x6 8.06 6.30 1.94 36.80 2.14 1.36 7.30
70x70x8 10.58 8.30 2.02 47.40 2.12 1.35 9.50
75x 75x5 7.27 5.70 2.02 38.70 2.31 1.46 7.10
75x 75x6 8.66 6.80 2.06 45.70 2.30 1.46 8.40
75x 75x 8 11.38 8.90 2.14 49.00 2.28 1.45 11.00
8Ox80x6 9.29 7.30 2.18 56.00 2.46 1.56 9.60
8Ox80x8 12.21 9.60 2.27 72.50 2.44 1.55 12.60
8Ox80xl0 15.05 11.80 2.34 87.70 2.41 1.55 15.50
9Ox90x6 10.47 8.20 2.42 80.10 2.77 1.75 12.20
9Ox9Ox7 12.22 9.59 2.46 93.00 2.76 1.77 14.20
9Ox9Ox8 13.79 10.80 2.51 104.20 2.75 1.75 16.00
9Ox9Ox 10 17.03 13.40 2.59 126.70 2.73 1.74 19.80
9
ANNEXURE III-(a) Contd ..
SIze SectIonal Unit Weight Cenlreof
I x x   I ~
Rxx(Rmed) Rvv(Rmln) Modulus of
Area (em
2
) kg/m gravity (em (em) (em) Seetlon(em:s,
(em)
100 x l00x6 11.67 9.20 2.67 111.30 3.09 1.95 15.20
l00x l00x 7 13.62 10.70 2.71 129.00 3.08 1.97 17.70
l00x l00x8 15.39 12.10 2.76 145.10 3.07 1.95 20.00
l00x l00x 10 19.03 14.90 2.84 177.00 3.05 1.94 24.70
l00x l00x 12 22.59 17.70 2.92 207.00 3.03 1.94 29.20
110 x 110x8 17.08 13.40 3.00 196.80 3.40 2.18 24.60
110x 110x 10 21.12 16.60 3.09 240.20 3.37 2.16 30.40
110 x 110x 12 25.08 19.70 3.17 281.30 3.35 2.15 35.90
110x 110x 16 32.76 25.70 3.32 357.30 3.30 2.14 46.50
12Oxl20x8 18.70 14.70 3.23 255.00 3.69 2.37 29.10
12Ox12Oxl0 23.20 18.20 3.31 313.00 3.67 2.36 36.00
120x 120x 12 27.50 21.60 3.40 368.00 3.65 2.35 42.70
130x 130x 10 25.12 19.70 3.59 405.30 4.02 2.57 43.10
130xl30x12 29.88 23.50 3.67' 476.40 3.99 2.56 51.00
150x 150x 10 29.21 22.90 4.08 635.50 4.66 2.98 58.00
150x 150x 12 34.77 27.30 4.16 746.30 4.63 2.97 68.80
150 x 150x 15 43.00 33.80 4.25 898.00 4.57 2.93 83.50
150 150 x 16' 45.65 35.80 4.31 958.90 4.58 2.94 89.70
150x 150x 18 51.00 40.10 4.37 1050.00 4.54 2.92 98.70
150x 15Ox2O 56.21 44.10 4.46 1155.50 4.53 2.93 109.70
180x 180x 15 52.10 40.90 4.98 1590.00 5.52 3.54 122.00
180 x 180 x 18 61.90 48.60 5.10 1870.00 5.49 3.52 145.00
180x 180x2O 68.30 53.70 5.18 2040.00 5.47 3.51 159.00
200 x 200 x 16 61.82 48.50 5.56 2366.20 6.19 3.96 163.80
2oox200x2O 76.38 60;00 5.71 2875.00 6.14 3.93 201.20
2OOx200x24 90.60 71.10 5.84 3333.00 6.06 3.90 235.00
2OOx200x25 94.13 73.90 5.<itl 3470.02 6.07 3.91 246.00
10
ANNEXURE III-(b)
PROPERTIES OF UNEQUAL ANGLE SEcnONS
As per IS : 808 (Part V) - 1989
Size Sectional Unit Wt. Centre of gravity Rxx Rvv Modulus of
Area kg/m (Rmed) (Rmln) Section
exx eyy Ixx IYY
zxx zyy
(em
2
) (em) (em4) (em) (em)   e m ~
45x30x3 2.18 1.70 1.42 0.69 4.40 1.50 1.42 0.63 1.40 0.70
45x3Qx4 2.86 2.20 1.47 0.73 5.70 2.00 1.41 0.63 1.90 0.90
45x30x5 3.52 2.80 1.51 0.77 6.90 2.40 1.40 0.63 2.30 1.10
75x50x6 7.16 5.60 2.44 1.20 40.3 14.3 2.37 1'.07 8.00 3.80
8Ox6Ox6 8.65 6.80 2.87 1.39 70.6 25.2 2.86 1.28 11.5 5.50
100x 75x 8 13.36 10.50 3.10 1.87 131.6 63.3 3.14 1.59 19.1 11.20
11
ANNEXURE III-(e)
PROPERTIES OF CHANNEL SECTIONS
SectIonal Unit Wt. Centre of Ixx Iyy Rxx Ryy Modulus of SectIon
Area gravity zxx rrf
(em
2
)
eyy
  c m ~   e m ~   e m ~ kg/m (em) (em) (em)
ISMC 75x4O 8.67 6.80 1.31 76.0 12.60 2.96 1.21 20.3 4.70
ISMC 100x50 11.70 9.60 1.53 186.70 25.90 4.00 1.49 37.3 7.50
ISMC 125x65 16.19 12.70 1.94 416.40 59.90 5.07 1.92 66.6 13.10
ISMC 150x 75 20.88 16.40 2.22 779.40 102.30 6.11 2.21 103.9 19.40
ISMC 175x75 24.38 19.10 2.20 1223.30 121.00 7.08 2.23 139.8 22.80
ISMC200x75 28.21 22.10 2.17 1819.3 140.40 8.03 2.23 181.9 26.30
ISMC 225 x 80 33.01 25.90 2.30 2694.6 187.20 9.03 2.38 239.5 32.80
ISMC250x80 38.76 30.40 2.30 3816.8 219.10 9.94 2.38 305.3 38.40
ISMC300x90 45.64 35.80 2.36 6362.6 310.80 11.81 2.61 424.2 46.80
K
A _.
12
ANNEXUR!IV
UNIT WEIGHT OF PLATES
1 mm thick plate weighs 7.85 kg/m
2
Thickness In mm Weight In kg/m
2
Thickness In mm Weight In kg/m
2
7.85 23 180.55
2 15.70 24 188.40
3 23.55 25 ·196.25
4 31.40 26 204.10
5 39.25 27 211.95
6 47.10 26 219.80
7 54.95 29 227.65
8 62.80 30 235.50
9 70.65 35 274.75
10 76.50 40 314.00
11 86.35 45 353.25
12 94.20 50 392.50
13 102.05 55 431.75
14 109.90 60 471.00
15 117.75 65 510.25
16 125.60 70 549.50
17 133.45 75 586.75
18 141.30 80 626.00
19 149.15 85 667.25
20 157.00 90 706.50
21 164.85 95 745.75
22 172.70 100 785.00
13
x
z
SIze
d Nom.
s Nom.
e Min.
k •
Nom.
Max.
de
Max
b
DIMENSIONS OF HEXAGON BOLTS FOR STEEL STRUCTURES
All dimensions In mllllmetres.
ANNEXURE V
according to IS: 1369-1987 "Dimensions of screw thread runouts and undercuts·
according to IS: 1368-1982 "Dimensions of ends of bolts and screws (first revlslon,-
M12 M16 M20 M24
12 16 20 24
19 24 30 36
20.88 26.17 32.95 39.55
8 10 13 15
1 1
15.2 19.2 24.4 ·28.4
20 23 26 30
.14
: ~   E V
BoItdla
(mm)
12mm
16mm
20mm
24mm
Boltdla
(mm)
12mm
16mm
20mm
24mm
ULnMATE STRENGTH OF BOLTS
Bolts/Nuts conform to IS : 6639-1972
Mechanical Propertfes conform to IS: 1367
(FOR PROPERTY CLASS 4.6/4)
Ultimate shearing stress = 2220 kgf/cm
2
Ultimate bearing stress = 4440 kgf/cm
2
ANNEXURE Vi
Shearing strength for one Bearing strength (kgf) for one bolt for member thlckM."
Single
shear(kgf)
2511
4464
6974
10043
bolt
Double 3mm 4mm Smm
shear(kgf)
5022
8928
13948
20086
1598
2131
2664
3197
2132
2842
3552
4263
(FOR PROPERTY CLASS S.6/S)
2664
3552
4440
5328
Ultfmate shearing stress= 3161 kgf/cm
2
= 3160
Ultimate bearing stress = 6322 kgf/cm
2
6mm
3197
4263
5328
6394
7mm
3730
4973
6216
7460
Shearing strength for one Bearing strength (kgf) for one boH for member thlckn ...
bolt
Single Double 3mm 4mm Smm 6mm 7mm
shear(kgt) shear(kgt)
3575 7150. 2276 3035 3793 4552 5311
6356 12712 3035 4046 5058 6070 7081
9931 19862 3793 5058 6322 7587 8851
14300 28600 4552 6070 7587 9104 10621
Note: The above bearing values are against the bolt surface only. Bearing values against the member
surface shall be determined based on bearing strengths of materials used.
15
ANNEXURE VII
PROPERTIES OF ANCHOR BOLTS METRIC SCREW THREADS AS PER IS: 4218  
WITH ISO
(Ultimate Tensile Stress = 19.8 kgf/mm
2
)
Sr.No. Nominal PHchof Tensile Stress UIHmate Tensile
Diameter (mm) Threads (mm) Areo (mm
2
) strength (kgf)
1. 16 2 157 3109
2. 20 2 258 5108
2.5 245 4851
3. 22 2 318 6296
2.5 303 5994
4. 24 2 384 7603
3 353 6989
5. 30 2 621 12296
3 581 11504
6. 32 2 713 15305
7. 40 2 1140 22572
3 1085 21483
8. 45 2 1460 28908
3 1400 27720
9. 50 2 1820 36036
3 1750 34650
10. 56 2 2300 45540
3 2220 43956
4 2140 42372
11. 62 2 2830 56034
3 2760 54648
4 2670 52866
12. 75 2 4320 85536
(
3 4210 83358
c
4 4100 81000
13. 80 2 4790 94842
TI
3 4680 92664
C
4 4570 90486

V
{t
:'1
I.
l/.:
V' .,
IIIE
16
I. INTRODUCTION
APPENDIX-I
QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN
A well-planned and executed Quality Assurance Programme Is necessary to ensure. delivery of
acceptable material In a timely manner. The objective of the programme Is to establish thot
transmission material Is In conformance with the specifications of the purchase contract. thIs
programme must be established In a manner that provides open avenues of communication
throughout the plant. It Is headed by a Manager having overall authority and responslbllHy to
establish, review, maintain and enforce the programme;
II. QUALITY OBJECTIVE
- To develop and lay down the procedlJres followed In general for qualify control. In the
organisation.
- To create confidence In the customers about the quality of the towers supplied.
- To create awareness In vendors about the system of control on quality of the goods supplied.
III. QUALITY POLICY
The design of towers should fully meet the customers' quality requirements Including functional,
safety and life characteristic with adequate attention to economy.
Specifications anclplant standards are strictly adhered to during manufacture. ,
There Is a scientific sales development and evaluation of vendors.
IV. ORGANISATION OF QUALITY CONTROL DEPARTMENT
Quality Control Department Is autonomous by way of reporting directly to highest authority In the
organisation. The decision of Quality Control Department remains final which will be within the limits
of specified standards. .
There exists an Inbullt orientation and rotation system among personnel In   ContrQI
Department which gives opportunity to all persons In the department to leam all the aspects of
quality control.
V. QUALITY PLANNING
The objective of Quality Planning Is to Include the procedures for arrangements to manoge
the contract requirements. The various functions are as follows:
V.l. Preparation, Issue and updating of Quality Assurance Manual.
V.2. Preparation, Issue and updqtlng of Inspection Instructions and formats for all stages.
V.3. Developing schemes and sampling plans based on standard quality control technlque.s for
the Bought-out-Items and the Items fabricated In the Plant.
17
VA. To develop Vendors along with Procurement Department and from time to time guide them
In fulfilling technical requirements and prepare schemes for Ve.ndor evaluatlon'by Procurement
Department.
V.5. Periodic calibration of measuring Instruments and gauges.
V.6. Vendor Performance Evaluation Is made by Material Management based on feed back from
Quality Control.,Department. The Incoming materials are subjected to Inspection at the site as well
as In,the WorKS:
I' . i-,
The accepted materials are sent for further processing/despatch and rejected are sent
back·tathe supplier. Care Is taken that there Is no mix up of rejected lot with the one which Is
accepted. The evaluation of vendor performance Is done by Material Management Department
wlttHeed back on other factors like DeliverySchedules, Competitiveness and Reliability of Supplies.
  by Control Department Is completely standardized by way of developing
formats as can be-seen from formats Included In this manual.
VI. DESIGN AND DRAWINGS
VI.l.: The Customer's quality requirements are translated by Design Department Into achievable
Specifications and the same are Improved continuously. The Customer's Specifications are studied
and considering all factors, towers are designed.
VI.2. Based on results of test tower, Improvements In designs, If required, are carried out.lmprove-
ments In design are also done based on Information from Construction Division and
VI.3. To achieve economic specifications, the towers are designed for the minimum weight per
tower meeting the funcftonal requirements.
VIA. The Drawings and Bills of Materials are circulated to all concerned. The modifications In
drawings. and communication of changes required are done promptly.
VI.5. Design Department helps shop floor In critical and Important activities and also In simplifying
the methods of manufacture. .
VII: COMPANY STANDARDS
VII.l. Towers are designed. manufactured. erected and commissioned In accordance with the
relevant National/International Standards Or Customer Specifications.
VlI.2. For the aspects not covered by National/International/Customer Specifications. the
CompalY /Plant Standards are followed.
VlI.3. All National Standards. and International Standards are available In Quality Control
Department. The extracts/Information applicable to various Departments are Issued from time to
time for their reference and Implementation.
VIII. CONTROL ON INSPECTION-EQUIPMENTS/TOOLS/GAUGES
VIII.l. Verniers, micrometers, GO and NQ-GO-Gauges and Magnetic Coating Thickness Gauges
are calibrated periodically and records are maintained.
18
,.
Q
X
,1
'.,
In
"
..
" VIII.2. Measuring Scales and Metallic Tapes are Inspected on receipt with standard ones by
I) comparison .and sent to user department only When found acceptable.
g
e
(
In
VlII.3. Templates and Bend Gauges and Component Sketches are obtained from original source
I.e. Template Shop. Template Shop finalises these based on actual assembly of proto1yp.e of e.och
structure.
VlII.4. Testing equlpments like Universal Testing Machine In laboratory are calibrated periodically
by recognised Inspection Agencies.
" .....
IX. MATERIAL MANAGEMENT
IX.l. The list of registered approved vendors maintained Item-wise Is updated penodl.callY based
. -I'
on evaluation of performance of existing vendors as well as newly approved ones,: .
IX.2. Performance of the vendors (QCD) Is closely followed through the feedback received from
Stores and Quality Control Department. Sustained efforts are put by     to Improve the vendors.
IX.3. Acceptable materials are seggregated and sent for further processing/packing/despatch.
IX.4. Rejected materials are seggregated-stored In separate bins/areas and vendors are
Intimated about rejections and the materials are returned for replacements.

IX.S. Vendor Development And Evaluation
IX.S. J. Registration of Vendors Is done based on the following steps:
(I) Getting. complete Information on a prescribed  
(II) Inspection by Q.C. Representative of the factory premises for verification of Manufacturfng
& Testing facilities.
(III) Sample testing and performance of trial orders.
IX.S.2. EXisting Registered Vendors are rated based on the factors like qualify, price, delivery and
their service regarding the consignments supplied. .
IX.S.3. Improvement In performance of vendors Is done by continuous technical guidance by
Q.C. and Design Department. .
X. INCOMING MATERIAL INSPECTION
The Incoming material Is purchased as per deta!led Specification and drawings referred to In
'''' Indent by Scheduling Section or as per details flJrnlshed by Designs (Engineering) DMslon. The
Incoming material can be broadly classified In the following categories:
'01 X.l. Raw Materials
X. J. J. Structural Steel
(a) Quality of Steel-Generally conforms to IS: 226-1975 designation Fe-410-S, BS: 4360 Grade
SOB or any other equivalent specification stipulated In the Contract.
19
(b) Physical Properties:
(I) Verification of Mill Test Certificate .
. (11) Actual Test Certificates from Laboratory.
(0) _pIIng Plan for Dimensional and Visual Inspection-single sampling plan as per IS:2500
(Part-I)-1973.
Inspection Level -IV.
Acce'ptabllltyQudll1y Level -1.5
(d) . V*.IaiDefectt- Scaling (Burnt Surface)
Lamiriation (Folds)
Heel Ground
 
Plpy.
R()ugh Surface
Scab
(e) Dimension defects as per 15:808-1989 115:1852-1985 Leg-Length (Flange) below or above
tolerance. out of Square Camber Weight per metre below or above tolerance.
(1)' 'Chemical Analysis:
Mill test certificates for each lot are verified and conformatory tests on about four samples
per month from the major Purchasers are analysed as per IS:226 or the other applicable
standard.
(g) ,Document:
, Inspection Report of Steel (QCD-n.
X. 1.2. Zinc
(a) Quall1y:IS:209;'1979-Grade 99 .95% and
Grade 98.50%.
(b) Sampling: One sample per lot for chemical analysis. If one sample falls then two more
samples are analysed (as per IS : 209) for final decision.
(c) [)O(;\Jment: Te.st Certificate from Laboratory.
X.2. Bought-out Items
X2. I. :Fasteners
(a) Bolts ond Nuts:
(I) Bolts: Product speclflcation-lS:6639-1972 Technical Supply Condltlons- IS: 1367.
(II) Nuts: Product speclflcations-lS:1363-1984 Technical Supply Condltlons-IS:1367.
(III) Sampling: IS:2614-1969.
(Iv) Document: Inspection report of Bolts/Nuts (QCD-2).
(b) Spring Washers:
(I) Specifications: 15:3063-1972
(II) Sampling: 15:6821-1973 .
. (III) Documents: Inspection Report of Spring Washers (QCD-3).
X.2.2. Towel Accewrles
0) Materlal-I5:226-1975--Designo1ton FE-41 (}S(St-42-S) and of specified category as per BS : 970.
20
'.
(II) Manufacture-As per Drawing.
all) Sampling Specifications: IS:25OO (Part-1)-1973 Inspection Level-IV AQL--1.5.
Ov) Documents-Inspection Report for Accessories (QCD-4).
X.3. Identification for all Incoming material
X.3.1. Accepted Lot-No paint
X.3.2. Rejected materlal-Red paint
XI. PRE-PRODUCTION
Pre-production Is done for each structure/tower for finalising the Individual member Otem)sketches
which are used for mass fabrication. This Is done In the following way.
Xl.l. The draft sketches are made based on computerised approved structural assembly drawings.
X1.2. As per the draft sketches, pieces required for one model assembly are fabricated and
assembly of one model Is done on ground horizontally. Revisions and additions required as per the
model assembly are Incorporated In the draft sketches.
XI.3. Wherever required the structure assembled as above Is also tested for the specified loads
and modifications required, If any, are Incorporated In the draft sketches.
XIA. After Incorporating all revisions In draft sketches, the same are flnallsedandtradngs are
made. The copies of these final sketches are sent to Scheduling, Production, Qudllty Control ;ond
Inspection Departments to use for mass fabrication.
XI.S. If any revisions are required In sketches at a later date, the same are Incorporated In the
original tracing and copies are promptly forwarded,to all concemed. '
XI.6. At the time of pre-production, the bend gauges and templates are also prepared. Due to
revisions, If required, new/revised Templates/Bend Gauges are prepared and ,aU old ones 'are
destroyed.
XII. IN-PROCESS INSPEcnON

XlI.l. Inspection of Fabrication
XII. 1. 1. The raw material accepted by Quality Control and Inspection Department Is Issued to the
fabrication shops by Raw Yard Department on the Instructions of ,Planning and Schedunng
Department. The fabrication shops verify the correctness of material before accepting for mass
fabrication.
XII. 1.2. Structural members (Items) are fabricated as per the final sketch. The fdbrlcatlon Is done
In accordance with IS:802 (part 2-1978), IS:7215-1974 and Plant Standards.
XII. 1.3. In-process Inspection during fabrication Is done by checking the first piece thoroughly as
per the sketch, IS:802 (Part-2-1978), IS:7215-1974 -and Plant Standards. The clearance for mass
fabrication Is given only after the first piece Is found acceptable.' Regular Inspection Is also carried
out by periodically Inspecting pieces during the time the lot Is under fabrication, which ensures
maintaining correct quality throughout fabrication of the lot.
21
. XII. r.4. The complete fabricated lot Is taken for final Inspection before galvanising. Final Inspection
of fabricated lot Is done as per the following procedure:-
XII. 1.4. 1. Initially, the verification of stamping of member (Item No.) and Quantity (total number of
. pieces In the lot) Is done with resPect to the Route Sheet.
XII. 1.4.2. One piece from the lot Is drawn at random and detailed Inspection Is done as per sketch,
15:802 (Part-2-1978), IS:7215-1974 and Plant Standards wherein the following parameters are
checked:-
(I) Section & SIte: Angle section & gusset thickness.
(II) Straightness-Comber-VIsual method or thread method.
(III) squarne,srBy Trl-square;
ov) Size of holes-by GO and NO GO gauges.
(v) . Dimensional checking:
(a) . Length of member and overall size of gusset.
(b) Hole posltlons-back mark and spacing.
(c) End Securlty-Cut-edge security and rolled-edge security.
(d) Skew Cuts-Flange cuts, corner cut etc.
(e) Bend-Posltlon of bend and degree of bend by Bend Gauges.
(f) Chlpplng-Length and depth of chipping by Chipping Gauges.
(vi) Visual Inspection:
(a) Raw material roiling defects.
(b) Punch die marks.
(6) Burrs due to cropping, punching etc.
(d>,. .. surface cjue to scaling, thickness reduction due to bend.
(vii) cleat-The I eg member Joints, lattice Joints and cover cleats
  Cleats', made exactly as per the corresponding fitting
members.
(viII) Gussets are checked with gusset templates, correctness of which Is first verified. Criticality
of 'SEr ,(If. arw) Is ensured during gusset Inspection.
OX) ( Welded Items like footings are also Inspected for welding test visual characteristics of weld,
dimensions checking of weld by means of gauges and dye penetration test wherever required.
Xli. 7.4.3. (a) Once. the Inspection of·flrst piece Is over and It Is found acceptable, It Is treated as
templa:te (or master piece) and Inspection of other pieces In the lot Is done by vlsVSJI
comparison method with respect to this template. Joints of legs, Joints of lattices and
cover cleats are checked with checking cleats. Gussets are checked with gusset
templates. During Inspection by visual comparison whenever a deviation Is noticed In
any piece, It Is checked In detail In the same way as the first piece. Pieces found
defective In the. lot are rejected.
(b) In case the first piece drawn from the lot Is not acceptable, additional samples are
. :drown as perIS:2500 (Part-1-1973) Inspection level I and these pieces are Inspected
as per XII.1.4.2. Even If piece out of these Is found unacceptable, the lot Is finally
rejected. If all these pieces are found acceptable the Inspection of lot Is done as
stipulated above In XII.1.4.3 (a).
22
)
c

1
st
XII. 1.5. Rejections
 
The defective pieces found In a lot after Inspection as per !.1.4 are rejected. The rejections are
classified In the following two categories:
XI/.1.5. 1. Rectifiable ReJection:
These cover the defective pieces having defects which can be or permitted to be rectified. SUch
defects which are rectifiable are given code numbers. which are Indicated In the Rectifiable
Rejection Slips prepared for each rejected" piece. The referred pieces after rectification are
Inspected Individually.
XI/.1.5.2. Out RIght RejectIon
The defective pieces whlch-cannot be rectified are rejected out-right and are Scrapped.
XII. 1.6. Documentation
0) Inspection & Loading Report
(II) Rejection Slips - (a) Rectifiable
(b) Out-Right
011) Weekly Reports.
XII. 1.6. 1. (a) Dally Inspection and Loading Reports : forwarded to Senior Manager (Prodn.)
Galvanising Department, Stores & Accounts Department.
(b) Rectifiable rejection slips are sent to Senior Foreman of Fabrication shops along with
the material.
(c) Out-right Rejection Slips are sent to Senior Manager (Production) and Planning &
Scheduling Department.
(d) Weekly Inspection Reports are forwarded to Divisional Manager (Prodn.) and Divisional
Manager (Designs).
XII. 1.6.2. The defect analysis Is done by Sr. Manager (Prodn) & Divisional Manager (Prodn) and
corrective measures are taken to avoid recurrence of those defects In future.
XII. 1.1. Identlflcatlon:-The pieces rejected out-right are applied red paint and sent to scrap bin.
The pieces for rectification are marked with rectification required and retumed to corresponding
shop along with 'Rectifiable Rejection Slip.'
XII.2. Inspection of Galvanising
15:2629-1985 Practice for Hot Dip Galvanising or Equivalent like ASTM:A-123 and
85: 729.
XlI.2.1. Surface Preparation-Chemicals:
XII.2.1.1 Degreaslng Solution: To remove contamination by 011, grease and paint etc. material Is
dipped Into caustic soda solution which Is' kept at a temperature between «PC and 80°C. The
strength of solution Is 4% to 10% I.e. 40 g/Iltre to 100 g/Iltre. The strength of solution In degreaslng
tank Is checked every week. Altematlvely cold degreaslng with actlvaled caustic soda can al.so
be used. Immediately after degreaslng the material Is rinsed In running water before pickling.
23
XII.2. 1.2. Pickling Solution: Dilute Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) having Acid strength of 4% to 18% (40 gIl.
to 180 g/t) and specific gravity of 10-27° Be Is used for pickling the material. The soiution is
maintained at room temperature. The desired strength and °Be specifiC gravity Is checked In the
beginning of each shift and. If required fresh concentrated acid Is aded. Mild agitation of material
In pickling tank is done to reduce pickling tlme.A1ternatively dilute Suiphurlc Acid (H2S04) having
Acid strength of 4% to 15% (40g/l to 150 gil) and specific gravity of 11-28° Be Is also used for pickling
1he'moterlal. I
XII.2.1:3. Rinsing: After pickling the material Is rinsed In running water.
XII.2.1.4. Pre-fluxing Solution: The rinsed materia! after pickling Is Immersed In prefluxlng solution
(ZInc Chloride and Ammonium Chloride). The strength of pre-fluxing solution Is maintained between
160 g/iitre to 300 g/lltre at room temperature. The iron content In the solution Is not allowed to
exceed S""g/lltre. The"prefiuxlng solution Is checked for strength In the beginning of each shift and
for Iron content once a week.
XII.2. 1.5. Documentation:
(I) Weekly records of shlf1wlse acid strength.
(II) Galvanising process Inspection Report.
XII.2.2. Dipping
XII.2.2. I. Quality of Zinc: Zinc conforming to Grade Zn 98.5 of IS:4699-1984 and Grade Zn 99.95 of
IS:209-1979 Is used forthe purpose of galvanising.
XII.2.2.2. Bath Temperature: The temperature of molten zinc In the main as well as baths
for bolts, nuts and accessories Is consistently maintained" between 450°C to 465°C. The
temperature Is regularly In the shift to maintain It within specified limits. There is automatic
control and recording of temperature of molten zinc In kettle.
XII.2.2.3. Flux blanket: A layer of flux blanket of Ammonium Chloride ( NH4CI) is maintained on 1he
t9P layer of molten zinc In the bath.
XII.2.2.4. The other requirements like Aluminium addition, reduction In suspended dross, high rote
  low speed of withdrawal are maintained In such a way that quality of galvanlsed
product Is consistent. "
XII.2.2.5:-Documents: Galvanising Inspection Report.
XlI.2.3. AIIer"dipplng treatments
XII.2.3. 1. Centrifuging: Small Items, fasteners and hardware fittings galvanlsed In baskets are
centrifuged to remove excessive zinc Immediately after dipping and before water quenching.
  .. "Water Quenching: After withdrawal from molten zinc the material Is quenched
Immedlqtely In water. The w.ater 10nk Is cleaned every fortnight to prevent accumUlation of
corrosivesOlts:
XII. 2. 3. 3. Surface Passivation by Quench Chromatlng: To protect the galvanlsed surface from wet
storage staining and to avert attack by corrosive marine conditions the material Is quenched In"
24
gIl.
on
L .•
+"
nd
solution of sodium dichromate. The strength of solution Is maintained be1ween 0.12% and 0.15%
and checked by colour comparison regularly.
XII. 2. 3.4. Documents: Weekly records of shlftwlse acid strengths.
XIII. INSPECTION AND TESTING OF FINISHED (GALVANISED) MATERIAL
XIII. I. Visual Inspection
Regular Inspection of each lot Is carried out In accordance with IS: 2629-1985, ASTM : A-123 and
BS: 729 to ensure that zinc coating' Is uniform, adherent, reasonably smooth and free from such
Imperfection as flux, ash and.bare patches, black spots, pimples, bulky-white deposits and blisters;
The material not conformng to visual characteristics Is rejected.
Documentation: (I) Galvanising Inspection Report.
(II) Store Receipt Notes.
XIII.2. Uniformity of Coating (Preece Test)
To test for uniformity of zinc coating thickness and to determine thinnest spot of zinc coating the
copper sulphate solution test Is carned out In accordance with IS:2633-1986 and ASTM : A-239. The
samples are subjected to four dips of one minute each, which they should withstand satisfactorily
I.e .. they do not show any red deposit of copper upon base metal.
or This test Is applicable only for small articles and therefore for material of big and Inconvenient size,
unlnformlty of coating Is determlnd with Magnetic Thickness Gauge after taking 5 readings at each
end and In the middle of the piece.
t. ..
)" XIII.2.1. Documentation: Galvanising Inspection Report.
ic
XIII.3. Weight of Zinc Coating
Speclflcatlons-IS:4759-1984, ASTM : A-123 and BS : 729.
lb
XIII.3.1. Thickness of Zinc Coating by Magn$lc Gauge.
L XIfI.3. 1. 1. No. of samples: 3 for tower materials per shift.
lei 1 for accessories per shift.
e
d
\ ).
XII/.3. 1.2. Minimum Zinc Coating
(I) Tower Material (a) 5 mm thick and over-86 microns.
(b) Under 5 mm but over 2 mm thlck-65 microns.
(II) Hardware fittings, bolts, nuts and tower accessories - Minimum 43 microns as per
IS : 1367 (Part 13-1983).
XlII.3.2 Weight of zinc coating by Hydrogen Evolution Apparatus:
XII/.3.2.1. No. of samples: 2 for tower material per shift.
XII/.3.2.2. Minimum Zinc Coating:
(I) Tower Material: (a) 5 mm thick and over-610 g/sq.m.
(b) Under 5 mm but over 2 mm thick - 460 g/sq.m.
25
(II) Hardware fitting, bolt, nuts and Tower Accessories - Minimum 300 g/sq.m. as per
15-1367-(Part 13)-1983.
XIII.3.3. Documents: Galvanising Inspection Report.
XlnA. Adhesion of Zinc Coating
Specifications - IS : 2629-1985, ASTM : A-123 & BS : 729
XIII.4.1. Pivoted Hammer Test for Tower Members.
XlII.4.2. Knife test for Hardware FIttings, Bolts Nuts and Tower Accessories.
XIII.4.3. Two standard blows by hammer forming paraliellmpresslon (with 6 mm spacing) and
prying with stout knife should not peel/flake off coating.
XIII.S The material Inspected _ qnd tested as per above reqUirements when found acceptable Is
released by Q.C.D. to finish yard for storage, packing and despatch.
XIV. STORAGE, PACKAGING AND PACKING
XIV. I. The material Is dipped In dlchromatlng solution to protect from white rust formation.
XIV.2. The components are bundled In pre-determined method depending upon customers'
requirement/mode of transport.
XlV.3. For export orders, Itemwlse bundles to the extent of 1 tonne to 1.5 tonnes are made by
passing 8 SWG or 14 SWG wires In holes at both ends of the member and also strapping the bundles
at distance of 1.0/1.5 metres with electro galvanlsed steel straps. The strapping Is done by means
of strapping machine.
XIV.4. The Indigenous orders are dealt with differently. The bundles are Itemwlse but the weight Is
restricted to 100 kgs. to facilitate manual loading/unloading. The process of bundling Is same except
strapping' which Is eliminated.
XIV.S. Small articles and accessories are packed In double gunny bags/wooden boxes. The boxes
are strapped In addition to nailing. Weight of material boxes ranges between 500 kg to 1500 kg.
Boxes are made In accordance with drawing as per Company Standards.
XIV.6. Each package/bundle Is prepared only after scrutiny of Individual component by Its
Identification mark. StenCiling of Item number on the top of bundle/package also Is done.
XIV.7. The bundles/packages are also stencilled with Identification mark/shipping mark etc.
26

't
( ;
~   ,
bv
n ~ s
... ,
. '
k ...
<('t
Its
A. SAMPLING PLAN FOR INCOMING MATERIAL
a. Sections, Accessories and Bought-out Items.
I. Sampling Specifications : IS:2500 (Part 1 )-1973
Inspection level IV, AQl-1.5
Lot Size No. of Pes Sample Size Acceptance Number Rejection Number-
2to8 2 0
9-15 3 0
16-25 5 a
26-SO 8 a
5i-l00 8 0
101-lSO 32 1
151-500 so 2
S01-1,OOO 80 3
1 ,00 1-3,000 125 5
3,001-10,000 200 7
10,00 1-35,000 315 10
35,00 1-1 ,SO,OOO 500 14
1,50,001-5,00,000 800 21
5,00,001 and above 800 21
II. Fastener Sampling as per 15:2614-1969.
III. Spring Washer and non-threaded fastener sampling as per 15:6821-1973
IV. Zinc Sampling as per 15:209-1979
1
2
3
4
6
8
11
15
22
22
V. Sampling, for any other Incoming material whose relevant speCifications does not mention
any specific sampling plan should be done as per I above.
-Depending upon the nature of defect, availability of material and contractual commitment fully
rejected lots may be subjected to 100% Inspection and only such quantity which meets the quality
reqUirements of relevant specifications, should be accepted.
27
b. SAMPUNG PLAN FOR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BOLTS. NUTS. SPRING WASHERS
AS PER IS-26141969 AND IS: 6821-1973
Lot Size
upto 1,(0)
1,001 TO 3,(0)
3,001 TO 10,(X)J
10,001 TO 35,(X)J
Over 35,(0)
Sample Size
5
8
13
20
32
Acceptance
Number
o
o
o
o
c. SAMPUNG PLAN FOR GALVANISING TEST FOR THREADED FASTENERS
AS PER IS-1367 (PART-13)-1983 AND HARDWARE FITTINGS
Lot Size
Upto and Including
50 1 Upto and ·Including
Over
500
35,(0)
35,(0)
Microscopic test on Electroplated Spring
Washers per lot
28
Sample Sizes
3
5
8
2
1
±
j,
'c
~
..
01
1.1
.1'
I.,.,
nc
~   '
I
d. QCD-1
INSPEcnON REPORT OF STEEL
STACKING/PREUMINARY
I SECTION:
QUAUlY CONTROlOEPARTMENT
DATE:
-----
1. Supplier _________________ 6. Location _______________ _
2. Quality of Steel ______________ 7. Stacking started on __________ _
3. P.O. No. _________________ 8. Stacking completed on _____ . ___ _
4. Tonnage _________ 0 _______ 9. Test Cert. No. _____________ _
5. G.R. Note No. _____________ _
1. IMPORTANT INTSTRUCTIONS
1.1 The tolerance on leg length shall be as follows as per IS : 1852-1985.
Overmm
45
100
Leg Length
I
Upto & Including (mm)
45
100
Tolerance
± 1.5mm
±2 mm
±2 per cent
1.2 In the case of unequal angle: 45 x 30 mm, the tolerance on longer leg length shall be +2.0 mm
-1.5mm.
1.3 Out of Square - The legs of angles shall be perpendicular to each other within a tolerance of
± 1 degree.
1.4 The difference between the leg lengths of equal angles shall be limited to 75 per cent of the
totartolerance (plus and minus) specified on the leg lengths .
• 1.5 Weight: The tolerance on weight per metre shall be ±5% In the case of angles 3 mm In thickness
and +5/-3% In the case of angles over 3 mm In thickness.
1.6 All finished steel shall be well and cleanly rolled to the specified dimensions, sections and
weight. The finished material shall be free from cracks, surface flaws, lamination, rough, Jagged
Imperfect edges, scaling (excessive burnt surface) plpy cross section, ground heel and all other
harmful defects.
SAMPLING SPECIFICATION: IS 2500 (1)- 1973, Inspection level-IV,
AQL-1.5 or 100% Inspection of Steel carried out.
2. VISUAL INSPECTION
2.1 Lot Size ________________ 2.2 Sample Size _____________ _
2.3 Acceptance No. ___________ 2.4 Rejection No. _____________ _
2.5 No. of Deffectlves found _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
REMARKS: LOT ACCEPTED/REJECTED·
29
3. DIMENSIONAL CHECKING
3.1 lot Size _________________________ - - - - - - - - - - - -
3.2 Sample Size _______________________ - - - - - - - - - - - -
3.3 Acceptance No. _____________________ - - - - - - - - - - - -
3.4 Rejection No. ________________________ - _ - - - - - - - - -
3.5 No. of defectives found ___________________ - _ - - - - - - - - -
REMARK: LOT ACCEPTED/REJECTED-
REMARK: LOT ACCEPTED/REJECTED-
3.6 Actual Dimensions
Sr. No. Lea Lenath Thickness Sr. No. Lea Lenath Thickness
1. 3l.
2. 32.
3. 33.
4. 34.
5. 35.
6. 36.
7. 37.
B. 3B,.'
9. 39.
10. 40.
11. 4l.
12. 42.
13. 43.
14. M.
15. 45.
16. 46.
,
17. " 47.
lB. 48.
19. 49.
20. 50.
21. 5l.
22.
52.
23. 53.
24. 54.
25. 55.
26. 56.
27. 57.
28. 58.
, 29.
59.
30 60
Additional Sheets may be used If there are more number of pieces.
30
ISS
REJECTIONS
Out of Scaling Heel Unequal Hair Roiling Pitted" Plpy Mat.
Others .
Total
Square Grd. Section Une Defect Def. ReJ.
Crack Qty.
*Dependlng upon the nature of defect, availability of material and contractual commitments, fully rejected
lot may be subjected to 100% Inspection and only such quantity which meets the quality requirements of
relevant specifications shall be accepted. In such case, the actual dimensIons of rejected angles only
may be given In 3.6.    
4. PHYSICAL TESTING
4.1 Lot Size ______________________________________ _
4.2 Sample Size ___________________________ :.. _________ "
4.3 Acceptance No. _________________________________ _
4.4 No of defectives found ________________________________ "
4.5 Retest Samples ________________________________ :... __
4.6 Acceptance No. _________________________________ _
4.7 No. of Defectives found _____________________ " __________ .
5 FINAL REMARKS: LOT ACCEPTED/REJECTED
5.1 1000/. INSPECTION FINAL REMARKS:
Total No. of pieces Accepted: _____ (Refer 2.5 and 3.5)
Total No. of ReJected: _____ ._ (Refer 2.5 and 3.5)
Assn. OFFICER/INSPECTOR SR. ENGINEER (INSPN.)
31
•• BEND TEST

P.O. NO.
SECTION
QUAN:JI1Y (Tomes)
NO. OF TEST pcs.
I.D.MARK
BEND DEGREE 18(f
180°
  OIA fOR
aENl? IN rnr.n (3 TIMes
THICKNESS)
REMARkS
ASSn. OFFICER/INSPECTOR
32
QUAlITY CONTROL DEPARTMENT
DATE: ____ _
0 It
180 180
SR. ENGINEER (lNSPN.)
I
r
1-
t-

o

1
UI
VII
1/:
I
l'
 
I
I
1
 
I
I
I
1
J
f. REPORT ON TEsnNG OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
No.:
MATERIAL :- SPECIACATIONS
, MATERIAL UST NO. :- QUANTITY
W.O./P.O. NO. :- DATE OF TESTING
, SUPPUER/CUENT :- STAMPED AS
, TENSILE TEST :-
1YPE AND SIZE
IDENTlACATION MARK
WlDTH/DIA (mm)
THICKNFSS (mm)
AREA 'A' (mm
2
)
GAUGE LENGTH = 5.65 vA (mm)
RNAL GAUGE LENGTH (mm)
YIELD LOAD (kgf)
ULTIMATE LOAD (kgf)
YIELD STRESS (kgf/mm
2
)
U.T.S. (kgf/mm2)
PERCENTAGE ELONGATION
FRACTURE
BEND TEST
FORMER DIA. (mm)
BEND AT 180°(FORMER DIA. --mm)
RNAL REMARKS :-
Test Witnessed by:
33
:-
:-
:-
:-
.
t
Test Conduced By:
, A.
QUAUlY CONTROL DEPARTMENT
DATE:
-----
QCD-2
g. INSPECTION REPORT FOR BOLTS/NUTS
Description of the Material: ______________________________ _
Material Specification : 15:6639-1972/15: 1363-1984/15: 1367 -(PI 3)- 1979.
Purchase Order No. _____________ G.R. Note No. ______________ _
SUpplier _______________________________________ _
W.O. ___________________ Black/Galvd.
Date of Receipt ______________ Date of Inspection ____________ _
--------------------------------------------
SAMPLING SPECIFICATION: 15:2614-1969.
1. VISUAL INSPECTION
1.1 Description of the material _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1.2 Lot SJze _________________ 1.3 Sample Size _____________ _
1.4 Acceptance No. _________ ' ___ 1.5 Rejection No. _____________ _
1.6 No. of Defectives found ____ " :.. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1.7 REMARK: LOT - CONFORMS/DOES NOT CONFORM to Specifications.
2. DIMENSIONAL CHECKING
2.1   of the material _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
2.2 Lot Size _________________ 2.3 Sample Size ___________ "' _
2.4 Acceptance No. ____________ 2.5 Rejection No. ___________ .. __
2.6 No. of Defectives found ______________________________ _
2.7 REMARKS: LOT - CONFORMS/DOES NOT CONFORM to Specifications.
2.S Actual Dimensions of Bolts (15:6639-1972)
Description
2.S.1 Dla of Bolts
2.S.2 Shank dla
2.S.3 Major dla
2.S.4 Total length
2.S.5 Thread length
2.S.6 Pitch
2.S.7" Width across flats
2.S.S Width across corners
2.S.9 Thickness
2.S.10 Tolerance Class
Required dimensions In mm
12/16
11.30-12.70/15.30-16.70
11.541-11.966/15.512-15.962
Upto 30: ± 1.05
35 to 5O:± 1.25
55 to SO: ± 1.50
22: +3
-0
25: +3
-0
1.75/2.0
lS.4S-19.0/23.16-24.0
Min. 20.SS/Mln. 26.17
7.55-S.45{9.55-1 0.45
Sg
'lA
Actual dimensions In mm
n
. 2.9 Actual Dimensions of Nuts (IS: 1363-1984)
Description
2.9.1 Width across flats
2.9.2 Width across comers
2.9.3 Thickness
2.9.4 Pitch
2.9.5 Tolerance Class
Required dimensions In mm
18.48-19.0/23.16-24.0
Min. 20.88/Mln. 26.17
9.55-10.45/12.45-13.55
1.75/2.0
7H
Actual dimensions In mm
REMARKS:- The Nut threads shall be oversized by 0.4 mm for M 16 Nuts and 0.3 mm for M 12 Nuts as
dlametral allowance for galvanising on male threads. Nuts should be oiled after
ratapplng.
3. PHYSICAL TEST: (a) Bolts to property class 4.6 as per IS:1367 (Part-3)-1979.
(b) Nuts to property class 4 as per 15:1367. .
3.1 Description of the material _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .:.. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ '._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
3.2 Lot Size _________________ 3.3 Sample Size _____ !.. _______ _
3.4 Acceptance No. ____________ 3.5 Rejection No. _____________ _
3.6 No. of Defectives found ______________________________ _
3.7 REMARK: LOT - CONFORMS/DOES NOT CONFORM TO Specifications.
4. GALVANISING TEST: 15:1367 (Part-13)-1983 (Preece Test 4 dips and coating thl.ckne.ss by
thickness gauge)
4.1 Description of the material _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
4.2 Lot .Slze _______________ ..., _ 4.3 Sample Size ______ .J ______ _
4.4 Acceptance No. ____________ 4.5 Rejection No. _____________ _
4.6 No. of Deffectlves found ______________________ __ :... ' ____ _
4.7 REMARKS: LOT - CONFORMS/DOES NOT CONFORM to Specifications.
5. FINAL REMARKS: LOT ACCEPTED / REJECTED (Refer 1.6,2.6,3.6 &4.5)
Assn. OFFICER (INSPN.)/INSPECTOR SR. ENGINEER (INSPN.)
35
QUAUlY CONTROL DEPARTMENT
DATE: ____ _
h. TEST REPORT ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BOLTS
Specification: IS:1367 (Part-3) -1979
SIze : ___________________ Grade: _________________ _
Quantify: _________________ Manufacturer: ______________ _
Purchase Order ______________ G.R. Note No.: ______________ _
(1) HEAD SOUNDNESS TEST: - Requirement: No cracks at the neck
No. of Samples tested _____________ .;. __ Results: _________________ _
Remarks: Lot Accepted/Rejected.
(2) HARDNESS TEST: Requirement: minimum __________ maximum _________ _
Sample Hardness Values In Sample Hardness Values In
No. No.
1 6
2 7
3 8
4 9
5 10
Results: __________________ Remarks: Lot Accepted/Rejected
(3)
PROOF LOAD TEST:- Requirement: Application of kgf for 15 Seconds and adaptor
should be removed easily.
No. of Samples tested :- ______ Results: ______ _
Remarks: Lot Accepted/Rejected.
(4) WEDGE LOADING (Full Tensile) TEST:- Requirement: - Minimum breaking load __ kgf
and no crack at neck
Sample Breaking load kgf Fracture Sample .Breaking load kgf Fracture
No.
No.
1
6
2
7
3
8
4
9
5
10
.'
Results :-
Remarks :- Lot Accepted/Rejected.
(5)
SHEAR TEST:- Requirement: Minimum Shear stress __ kgf/mm
2
36
!
 
I
f
I
-1
Sample Afeamm
2
Shear load Shear Stress Scmp/e
No. kgf kgf/mm
2
No.
1 6
2 7
3 8
4 9
5 10
Results:- ____ _
Remarks:- Lot Accepted/Rejected.
(6) FINAL REMARKS: LOT ACCEPTED/REJECTED
Test witnessed by:-
37
Areamm
2
Shear load Shear Stress
kgf
kOf/rT'rn
2
Tests Conducted by
QUALITY CONTROL DEPARTMENT
DATE: ____ _
I. TEST REPOm' ON PHYSICAl PROPERTIES OF NUTS
Speclflcatlon
size : ___________________ Grade: ______________ - - - ...
Quantity: _________________ Manufacturer: ______________ *
Purchase Order ______________ G.R. Note No.: _ . _____________ _
(1) HARDNESS TEST: Requirement: Minimum __________ HRB Maximum __________ HRB
Sample Hardness Values In Sample Hardness Values In
No. No.
1 6
2 7
3 8
4 9
5 10
Results: __________________ Remarks: Lot Accepted/Rejected
(2) PROOF LOAD TEST:- Requirement: Application of kgf for 15 seconds and mandrel
should be removeable by the fingers after the load Is
released.
No. of Samples tested :- _____ Results: _____ _
Remarks: Lot Accepted/Rejected.
FINAL REMARKS: LOT ACCEPTED/REJECTED
Jest witnessed by:-
Tests Conducted by
.3Q
1 I
S
I   ~
1
QUALITY CONTROL DEPARTMENT
DATE: ____ _
QCD·3
J. INSPECTION REPORT FOR SPRING WASHERS
Description of Material _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Material Specification IS:3063-1972. Electro Galvanising Specns.lS: 1573-1970
P.O. No. __________________ G.R. Note No. ______________ _
Supplier _______________________________________ _
W.O. ___________________ Black/Electro Galvanlsed
Date of Receipt ________ ' ______ Date of Inspection ____________ _
SAMPLING SPECIFICATION: IS:6821-1973
1. VISUAL INSPECTION
1.1 Lot Size _________________ 1.2 Sample Size _____________ _
1.3 Acceptance No. (A) Duds _________________ (B) Others _________________ _
1.4 Rejection No. (A) Duds _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (B) Others ________________ _
1.5 No. of defectives found (A) Duds _________ .;. ____ (B) Others ________ ,- ______ _
REMARK: LOT - CONFORMS / DOES NOT CONFORM TO SPECIFICATIONS.
2. DIMENSIONAL CHECKING: Details as per 2.6
2.1 Lot Size _________________ 2.2 Sample Size _____________ _
2.3 Acceptance No. (A) Major _________________ (B) Minor _________________ _
2.4 Rejection No. (A) Major _________________ (B) Minor _________________ _
2.5 No. of defectives found (A) Major _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (B) Minor _______________ _
REMARK: LOT - CONFORMS / DOES NOT CONFORM TO SPECIFICATIONS.
2.6 Actual Dimensions
Descrlpfton Regulred Dimension for Size Actual
M12 M16 M20 M22
Dimension
1.0. 12.2+0.8 16.2+0.8 20.2+1.0 22.5+1.0
0.0. Max.21.1 Mox.27.4 Max.33.6 Max.35.9
Width 4±0.2 5±0.2 6±0.2 6±0.2
Thickness 2.5±0.15 3.5±0.2 4±0.2 4±O.2
2xThlckness 5+0.3 7±O.4 8+0.4 8+0.4
3. PERMANENT SET TEST
Size Free Height After 3 Min. Compression FREE HEIGHT AFTER 20 COMPRESSIONS
(As per specifications No further reduction
In free height Is permitted)
,IM12
   
M22
Min. Reqd. In mm Actual Min. found In mm
4.25
5.95
6.8
6.8
39
3.1 Lot Size _____________ ___ 3.2 Sample SIze _____________ _
3.3 Acceptance No. ____________ 3.4 Rejection No. _____________ _
3.5 No. of defectives found ______________________________ _
REMARKS: LOT - CONFORMS I DOES NOT CONFORM TO SPECIFICATIONS.
4. TWIST TEST
4.1 Sample Size _______________ 4.2 Acceptance No. ___________ _
4.3 Rejection No. ______________ 4.4 No. of defectives found ________ _
REMARKS: LOT - CONFORMS I DOES NOT CONFORM TO SPECIFICATIONS
5. HARDNESS TEST: Required Hardness 43 HRC to 50 HRC.
5.1 Sample Size _______________ 5.2 Acceptance No. ___________ _
5.3 Rejection No. ______________ 5.4 No. of defectives found ________ _
REMARKS: LOT - CONFORMS I DOES NOT CONFORM TO SPECIFICATIONS
6. ELECTRO GALVANISED AS PER IS: 1573-1986 SERVICE CONDITION 3
Lotslze: _________________ _
6.1 Average Thickness of Coating: Min. reqd-38 Micron.
6.1.1 Sample Size ____________ 6.1.2 Acceptance No. __________ _
6.1.3 . Rejection No. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 6.1.4 No. of defectives found _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
REMARKS: LOT - CONFORMS) DOES NOT CONFORM TO SPECIFICATIONS.
6.2 LOCAL THICKNESS OF COATING: MIN. REQD-25Mlcron.
6.2.1 Checking by Magnetic Gauge
6.2.1.1 Sample Size ____________________ _
6.2.1.2 Acceptance No. __________________ _
6.2.1.3 Rejection No. ___________________ _
6.2.1.4 No. of defectives found _______________ _
REMARKS: LOT - CONFORMS I DOES NOT CONFORM TO SPECIFICATIONS.
6.2.2 Microscopic Test: IS:3203-1982
Sampling - 2 pes. per lac or part thereof.
6.2.2.1 Sample Size ____________________ _
6.2.2.2 Acceptance No. __________________ _
6.2.2.3 Rejection No. ____________________ _
6.2.2.4 No. of defectives found _______________ _
REMARKS: LOT - CONFORMS I DOES NOT CONFORM TO SPECIFICATIONS.
FINAL REMARKS: LOT A C C E PTE D IRE J E C TED
ASSTT. OFFICERI ASSTT. ENGINEER SR. ENGINEER (INSPN.)
40
,
"
3
QUALI1Y CONTROL DEPARTMENT
DATE: ____ _
QCD·.
k. INSPEcnONS REPORT F.OR ACCESSORIES
of Material ________________________________ _
Material Specification ____________ Drawing No. _______________ _
Purchase Order No. _____________ G.R. Note No. ______________ _
Supplier _________________ ' ______________________ _
W.O. _' __________________ Black/Galvd.
Date of Receipt ________ .:. ____ :- Date of Inspection ________ ...; ___ _
--------------------------------------------
SAMPLING SPECIFICATION - IS:2500 (Part-1 )-1973 Inspection level - IV & AQL - 1.5
1. VISUAL INSPECTION
1.1 Lot Size _________________ 1.2 Sample Size _____________ _
1.3 Acceptance No. ____________ 1.4 Rejection No. _____________ _
1.5 No. of defectives found _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ '
1.6 Actual defect found _________________________________ -
1.7 REMARK LOT: ACCEPTED/REJECTED/lOO% INSPECTION
1.8 100% Inspection Report: Pieces Accepted ____________________ _
Pieces Rejected ____________________ _
2. DIMENSINAL CHECKING
2.1 Lot Size _________________ 2.2 Sample Size _____________ _
2.3 Acceptance No. ____________ 2.4 Rejection No. _____________ _
2.5 No. of defectives found ________ _
2.6 Actual Measurements
                                                        ___                        
DESCRIPTION REQUIRED DIMENSION ACTUAL DIMENSION
3. FINAL REMARKS: FULL LOT ACCEPTED/REJECTED
3.1 Final Remarks for 100% Inspection:
No. of pieces Accepted ____ (Refer 1.5 and 2.5)
No. of pieces Rejected (Refer 1.5 and 2.5)
Assn. OFFICER/INSPECTOR
SR. ENGINEER (INSPN.)
41
MATE- PUR- DESIGN
RIAL CHASE SECTION
IN)ENT
ORDER.
NO. NO.
ASSTT. OFFICER/INSPECTOR
QUAliTY CONTI<OL DEPARTMENT
DATE: ____ _
QCO-5
I. INSPECTIONS REPORT FOR STEEL
TEST TOWER
1. PROJECTjW.O. NO.
2. TOWER TYPE
3. INSPECTION DATE
NO. ACTUAL SECTION YIELD ULTI- ELONG. MAKE REMARKS
OFPCS STRESS MATE % EMBOSSING
TENSILE
STRESS
LEG LENGTH THICK-
NESS
SR. ENGINEER (INSPN.)
42
1
I
1
i
]
~
J
~
j
~
(a) Procedure
B. SAMPLING PLAN
FOR
IN-PROCESS MATERIAL
When a lot Is completed In fabrication and taken for Inspection on stand,.lnltially a piece Is randomly
drawn from a lot for detailed Inspection before loading for galvanising. If this piece Is found
acceptable further pieces are Inspected by comparison method and loaded. If the first piece does
not conform to the requirement and Is rejected the Inspector draws additional pieces as per the
follwelng sampling plan which Is In accordance with IS :-2500 (Part 1)-1973, Inspection Level-I.
  ~
Lot Size Sample Size
2to 15 2
16to 50 3
51 to 150 5
151 to 500 8
501 to 1(0) 13
All samples drawn according to the above plan should be checked again as per sketch and plant
standard.
If any piece drawn as per above plan Is found defective, the entire lot should be REJECTED and
sent back to the relevant shop.
If all the pieces are found acceptable the lot should be accepted and usual Inspection of 100%
pieces with respect to 'OK' pieces should be done before loading. Inspection procedure.s of
components failing In different categories are categorised separately In full details.
43
Route Sheet or Plannlnl Memo
Item No. No. Qty.
(b) QUANTITY CONTROL REPORT
c: 12.1.1'12.1.4.1
Quantity
Tons. Reed. Short
44
QUAlITY CONTROL DEPARTMENT
DATE: ____ _
Signature of
Excess Shop Quality
Supervisor INpector
for Improper
Qty.lfany
Quality Control Department
Date ____ _
(c) LOADING REPORT OF CRATES
Sr: Crate Crate Loading Loading TIme Weight In Location Remarks Signature
-
I
No. Mark Available Started Completec Taken Tonnes of
for Hours Inspector
I
Loading
1.
I
2 .
..J
3.
~
4.
l
5.
l
6.
7.
-I'
8.
I
9.
J
10.
J
11.
~
12.
13.
..
l
14.
1
15.
-
I
16.
I
: ;
-
17.
18.
J
19.
~
20.
1
21.
1
1
22.
23.
24.
J
25.
~
. ,
26 .
~  
,
1
27.
28.
29.
30.
45
Date ____ _
(d) INSPECTION & LOADING REPORT OF FABRICATION SHOP
S
QUANTITY REJECTION
,
H Crate Route Wt.ln
Offered Loaded Rejected Slip No. Code
Coupon Insp.
I No. Sheet Item No. kg.fPc.
No.
Sample SIgn.
F No.
T
,
Rejection OUT RIGHT REJECTION RECTIFIABLE REJECTION
Code
0 1
Quantity
Total Total
Insoected Relected
1. Store AlC.
2. Fabrication Shop.
3.FIle-QCO.
4. Galv. Shop.
2 3
-
%ge
Rejected
Others 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Others
REMARKS:
Manager (lnspn.)
AC
L I
I
. I
~
-i
~ I
~
-1,
- I)
-I
-J
I
-I
-J
I
-I
-4
--I
I
J
~
l
1.1
-1
]
-
. !
(e) INSPECTION a LOADING REPORT OF MODEL ASSEMBLY
Dat9 ____ _
5
QUANTITY REJECTION
H Crate PI. Wt.ln
Offered Loaded Rejected Slip No. Code
Coupon Ins-
I No. Memo Item No. kg./Pc.
No.
Sanple pector's
F No.
Sign •
T
Rejection OUT RIGHT REJECTION RECTIFIABLE REJECTION
Code
0 1 2 3 Others 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Others
Quantity
Total Total %ge
REMARKS:
Inspected Rejected Rejected
1. Store A/C.
~   Fabrication Shop .
3. Flle-QCD.
4. Galv. Shop.
Manager (lnspn.)
47
Date ____ _
(f) INSPECTION a LOADING REPORT OF MODEL SHOP
S Route
H oate Sheet Wt.1n
Offered
,
No; PI. Item No. kg.fPc.
F Memo
T No.
Rejection OUT RIGHT REJECTION
Code
0 1
Quantity
Total . Total
Insoected Rejected
1. store AlC.
2. Fabrication Shop.
3.AIe-QCO.
4. Galv. Shop.
2 3 others 4 5
%ge
REMARKS:
Rejected
QUANTITY REJECTION
Loaded Rejected Slip No. Code
Coupon Insp.
No.
Sample
SVl·
RECTIFIABLE REJECTION
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Others
Manager (Inspn.)
·
,
,
 
i
)
 
i
]
 
i
J
 
1
J
 
1
J
 
1
J
-t
1
-1
i
-I
-I
(g) OUTRIGHT REJECTION SLIP
o IN BLACK STAGE UNIT NO.
Item No. Qty. Section Length
Defect Details:
I--
Inspector Asstt. Officer (Inspn.)
Sr. Engineer (Inspn.)
49
Date ____ _
o AFTER GALVANISING
Reason Code Defects
0 Raw Material
1 Incorrect Section
2 Ends Short
3 Holes Wrong Punch
Others
C.C. Dlv. M. (P) I Manager (Scheduling)
C.C. Supdt./Sr. Foreman
Date ____ _
(h) REalflABLE REJECTION SUP
o SHOP: FABRICATION/MODEL o IN BLACK STAGE o AFTER GALVANIZING
ltemNo. Qty. Reason Signature of Signature of Code Defects
Sr. Foreman    
4 Hole Excess
5 End Long
6 Bending
7 Open & Close
8 Chipping
Oper. Surface Defects
10 Straightening
11 Stamping
12 Hole Mlsslng_
13 Hole out
Remarks 14 Paint /Bumlng
Others
C.C. Shop Foreman
INSPECTOR MANAGER (lnspn.) C.C. Suptd/Followup
• WHEN THE RECTIFIED ITEMS ARE RECEIVED BACK DULY RECTIFIED.
SG
0'1
.......
_ _' .J. _I '_' ...J.-- _, ,_. --1 ...L L -1. J
(I) WEEKLY RECORDS OF SHIFTWISE ACID STRENGTHS
QUAUlY CONTROL DEPT.
D S Hydrochloric Acid Tanks Sulphuric Acid Dichromate Signature of
A H
Tank No. Tank No. Tank No. Tank No. Tank No.
Tank No. Solution Inspector
T I concentra-
E F
Spec. WN Spec. WN Spec. WN Spec. WN Spec. WN Spec. WN
tlon By
T
gravity glUt. gravity g/lit. grqvity glUt. grqvtty g/lit. gravity g/lit. gravitY gIl It.
colour
dSBe


• .& •
'Be
.
 



comparison
180-40 180-40 180-40 180-40 180-40 11-28 150-40
1.2 - 1.5
B
C
D
B
C
0
B
C
0
B
C
0
B
C
D
--
·Percentage concentraHon Is one tenth of the values specified In the column.
SR. ENGINEER (INSPN.)
QUAUlY CONTROl & INSPN.
(j) GALVANISING PROCESS INSPECTION REPORT
CONCENTRAnON OF DEGREASING AND PREFLUXING SOLUTION
QUAUlY CONTROL DEPARTMENT
DATE _____ _
1. Specified % recommendation % Iron content
a) Prefluxlng solution
b) . Degreaslng solution
I 16% Concentration means
I 4% Concentration means
I 0.5% Iron content means
2. Frequency of testing weekly
3. Actual percentage concentration found
SAMPLE DRAWN ON
TEST REPORT
Sr. No. Description % ConcentraHon
A Prefluxlng Solution
(Main Tank)
A1 Prefluxlng Solution
(B/N & Accessortes Tank)
B Degreaslng Solution
(Main Tank)
16to 30'
4 to 10'
160 g/I.
4Og/l.
5g/l.
% Iron content
Max. 0.5'
Remarks
SATISFACTORY /
NOT SATISFACTORY
SATISFACTORY /
NOT SATISFACTORY
SATISFACTORY /
NOT SATISFACTORY
You ore requested to make necessary arrangements to achieve the specified percentage
• concentration and iron content, where it is not satisfactory before using the solutions.
cc: Galvanizing Deptt.
52
OFFICER (INSPECTION)
QUAUlY CONTROL DEPlT
 
t
\ -
 
I
L
(k) GALVANISING INSPECTION REPORT
Q.C.D.
DATE:
 

. TIME MAIN BATH AUX. BATIY N. &B.BATIY
,
ZINC COATING REPORT OF SAMPLES
@
Section 1 2 3 4 5 Ava. DIp· llAd.T. Item No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
ACC
GALVANISING REJECTION FOR REWORK (VISUAL INSPN.)
Item No. Qtv.
Code Colour Item No. Qtv. Code Colour
Total Pcs.lnspected Total Pes. Rejected
P.T.O.
53
Code
0 Unclckled Black/Bare Sco1s D Q.C.D.Flle
1 Flux Inclusions 2) Divisional Manager (Prodn[Schedullng)
2 Rough SUrface, lumpiness, Pimples, Hard Zinc ~   Galvanlsloo Dept.
3 Peeling, Flaking Off
4 Others
INSPECTOR OFFICER (lNSPN.) MANAGER (INSPN.)
NOTE:
• Preece test: No. of dips of one minute each.
@ 1 to 4 values In microns, 5 to 7 In g/sq. m.
A Adhesion test: By hammer blows/prying by knife
MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS
610 g/sq.m. for structural steel
86 Microns for structural steel
43 Microns for hardware & B/N
Optimum Temeroture range 450°C to 465°C
"1
I
j
-i
QUALITY CONTROL DEPARTMENT
(I)TESTING CONCENTRAnON OF PREFLUXING AND DEGREASING SOLUnONS
TO:
QUALITY CONTROL LABORATORY SAMPLE SENT ON DATE
The following samples are sent herewith for finding out percentage concentration/percentage Iron
content as follows. Kindly send the results at the earliest.
Sr. No. Description
A Prefluxlng Solutlon
(Main Tank)
A 1 Prefluxlng Solutlon
(BIN & Accessories Tank)
B Degreaslng Solution
(SIGNATURE)
No. of sample sent
55
Concentration
percentage
Percentage Iron
Content
(SIGNATURE OF RECEIVER)
Q.C.D. LABORATORY
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
APPENDIX II
Ust of Machines required for a well equipped Tower Fabricating Workshop
Monthly Production
Roller Straightener
Hammer Straightener
Screw Press Bending Machine
Hydraulic Press Bending Machine
Ball Point Bending Machine
Universal Machine (Punching, Cropping, Shearing, Notching), (For tower
manufacturing universal machine Is not favoured because stacking of
materials for two or more operations Is very difficult)
Single Operation Machine for Cropping
2 ~ M   o r m heavy radial drilling
Single operation Machine for punching (automatic machine preferable).
Single Operation Machine for Notching
Ole-punch Masking Machine
Stencilling Machine
Circular Saw
Gas cutting (mechanically guided)
Gas-cuttlng Torches
Portable Grinder
Field Grinder
56
500 Tonnes
One
Two
Two
One
One
One
Two
One
Two
One
One
One
One
One
Three sets
Three
Two
Sr. Operation
Symbol
No.
31 Straightening
32 Bending
33 Cropping sheartng,
gascuttlng
34 Punching
Drtlllng
-.-:...

Joggling
Heel chamfer
L
Closing or opening

,.Ii x
Notch  
I
.....
i'
v
Bevel cut

Comer cut

)(
Flange cutl

x
.. ., -J:..1-
Flange reduction
r=t ••
APPENDIX III
WORKSHOP CHART
Machine
Roller stralghtner,
Hammer
Stralghtner.
Screw press,
Hydraulic press,
.. point press

Universal machine,
Cropping machine
(single operOtlon)
Ufllversal machine
Radial drtlllng
57
No. of
Operations
Involved
Remarks

Both on flfnge
and heel
May be one or
more diameters
May be one or
more diameters
a
0-
On lettlce In
laid In different
planes
Required on covel
ee€'Jts and joint.
!$

fitting over
fltes
Required to
provide clearance
against fouling
Required to
provide clearance
against fouling
Required to
provide clearance
against fouling
Required to
provide clearance
against fouling
APPENDIX IV
Process Flow Chart for Fabrication of Tower
Detail drawing
Floor layout and shop drawing
Material procurement
Proto manufacture
Assembly of tower
Proto test and approval
Mass fabrication
Marking
Galvanising
Bundling
Despatch
58
A. Bibliography
1. Manual of steel construction by American /institute of steel construction.
2. Structural shop drafting by American Institute of steel construction .
.
3. American Society of Civil Engineers Manual No. 52 - 1988 MGuide for Design of Steel Transmission
Towers"
B. LIst of Indian Standards required for references for this paper.
IS - 800
IS - 802 Part I, " & 11/
IS - 962
IS· 808 -1989
IS - 2062 - 1992
IS - 1852 - 1985
IS· 6639 ·1972
IS-1367-
IS - 4218 (p'art iii - 1976)
IS ·12427·1992
IS - 2500 Part I - 1973
is· 2614·1969
IS - 6821 - 1973
IS - 209 - 1979
IS - 1363 - 1984
IS - 2629 - 1985
IS - 2633 - 1986
IS -·209 - 1979
IS - 7215 ·1974
IS - 3063 - 1994
IS - 13229 - 1991
IS - 1270 - 1965
59
Transmission Line Manual
Chapter 10
Design of Foundations
CONTENTS
10.1 General
10.2
Types of Loads on Foundations
10.3
Basic Design Requirements
10.4 Soil Parameters
10.5 Soil Investigation
10.6 Types of Soil and Rock
10.7 Types of Foundations
10.8 Revetment on Foundation
10.9 Soil Resistances for Designing Foundation
10.10 Design Procedure for Foundation
10.11 Concrete Technology for Tower Foundation Designs
10.12 Pull-out Tests on Tower Foundation
10.13 Skin Friction Tests
10.14 Scale Down Models of Foundation
10.15 Tests on Submerged Soils
10.16 Investigation of Foundation of Towers
10.17 Investigation of Foundation of a Tower Line in Service
10.18 Repairs of Foundations of a Tower Line in Service
10.19 Foundation Defects and their Repairs
Annexures
ANNEXURE-I
ANNEXURE-IT
ANNEXURE-ill
ANNEXURE-IV
ANNEXURE-V
Typical Ulustration for Examples of Design Circulation
Illustration-I
Illustratioft-IT
Illustration-III
Illustration-IV
Illustration-V
Illustration-VI
Illustration-VII
Illustration-VIII
Illustration-IX
Ulustration-X
Illustration-XI
Page
1
1
2
2
2
3
4
26
26
29
37
37
41 -
41
42
44
45
45
46
49
50
51
53
54
55
55
70
73
75
76
79
81
83
(
. t
86
88
1
CHAPTER - 10
DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS
10.1 GENERAL
10.1.1 Foundation of any structure plays an important role in safety and satisfactory performance of
the structure as it transmits the loads from structure to earth. Without having a sound and safe
foundation, structure can not perform the functions for which it has been designed. Therefore, the
importance of foundation need not be over-emphasized.
The sizes of transmission line towers are Increasing because of the present dgy high, extra high and ultra
high voltage transmission, resulting In heavier loads and as such requiring bigger and heavier
foundations. A large number of foundations are normally required in any transmission line project. Thus.
the total cost of foundations in a transmission line project becomes quite substantial. Apart from the
financial aspects. past records show that failures of tower foundations have also been responsible for
collapse of towers. These failures have usually been associated with certain deficiencies either In the
design or classification or construction of foundations. Many times. foundations cast are over safe
because of inappropriate classification. resulting In wastage of resources .. From engineering point of
view. the task of design and selection of most suitable type of tower foundation Is challenging because
of the variety of soil conditions encountered enroute the transmission line and remoteness of
construction sites. The foundations In various types of soils have to be designed to suit the soil
conditions of particular type.
In addition to foundations of normal towers. there are situations where one has to decide the most
suitable type of foundation system considering techno-economical aspects for special towers required
for river crOSSing which may be located either on the bank of the river or In the mid stream or both.
This is generally decided based on the actual river crossing requirements; and the choice of type of
foundation and it's design would be based on actual soil exploration data, high flood level, velocity
of water. scour depth etc. However. the design of special foundations Is not covered in this manual
and would be dealt with seperately.
10.1.2 As the concept of safe value for properties of soli has been dispensed with In the design of
foundation. limit value of properties of soli should be obtained from soli Investigation report.
10.1.3 This chapter does not cover the monoblock foundation.
10.2 TYPES OF LOADS ON FOUNDATIONS
The foundations of towers are normally subjected to three types of forces. These are :
(a) the compression or downward thrust:
(b) the tension or uplift; and
(c) the lateral forces or side thrusts In both transverse and longitudinal directions.
The magnitudes of each of these forces depend on the types of tower and the transmission capacl1y
of lines. The method of calculating above loads Is described In detail In Chapter-6 - LOCA.dU.''''jJ·ln
this mOnual.
The magnitudes of limit loads for foundations should be taken 10% higher than those for the
corresponding towers.
1
10.3 BASIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
To meet the varying needs in respect of soil conditions and loading quantum, several types of tower
foundations have been used for the transmission line towers. Design philosophy of tower foundation
should be closely related to the principles adopted for the design of the tower which the foundation
has to support. A weak or unsound foundation can make a good tower design useless while a very
strong foundation for a weak tower means a wasteful expenditure. Functionally, the foundation should
be strong and stable. It should take care of all the loads such as dead loads, live loads, wind loads.
seismic loads, erection loads etc. causing vertical thrust. uplift as well as horizontal reactions. For
satisfactory perform once, it should be stable and structurally adequate and be able to transmit these
forces to the soil such that the limit soil bearing capacities are not exceeded.
10.4 SOIL PARAMETERS
For designing the foundations, following parameters are required:
(a) Umit bearing capacity of Soil;
(b) Density of soil; and
(c) Angle of Earth frustum.
These soil properties are normally obtained either by conducting in-situ or laboratory tests on soil
samples collected from the field during Soil Investigation or from available testing record of the area.
The importance of above soil parameters in foundation deSign is discussed below in brief.
Umlt Bearing Capacity
This parameter is vital from the point of view of establishing the stability of foundation against shear
failure of soil and excessive settlement of foundation when foundation is subjected to total downward
loads and moments due to horizontal shears and/or eccentricities as applicable.
Recommended limit bearing capaCities of various types of soil are given in Annexure - I for guidance.
These will be reviewed when more reliable data are available.
Density of Soli
This parameter is required to calculate the uplift resistance of foundation. Recommended unit weights
of various types of soil are given in Annexure - I.
Angle of Earth FNstum
This parameter is required for finding out the uplift resistance of the foundation. Recommended values
of angle of earth frustum for different types of soils/rocks are given In Annexure - I.
10.5 SOIL INVESTIGATION
The design of the tower foundation is fully dependent upon conditions of the soil that will support the
foundation and the nature of loadings. It is, therefore, necessary to investigate the soil for it's
engineering properties.
There are number of procedures for collection of soil data covered in various Indian Standard Codes
of Practice like IS:1892, IS:1888, IS:2131, etc. and standard books on Soil Mechanics and Foundation
Engineering. Selection of anyone of these depends on the suitability and merits of the procedure for
a given soil condition as well as it's relative cost compared to the cost of the proposed structure.
y
(.
s
)r
.(
 
e.
It Is desirable to carry ?ut detailed soli Investigation on the Railway crOssing heavy angle
tower locations, at an.1nten:'al of 15 locations along the route'and also where soil strata changes, at
the descreHon of Englneer-In-charge. The detailed soli invesHgaHon for special river crossing tower
locaHon Is a must.
In areas which have already been developed, advantage should be taken of the existing local
knowledge, records of trial pits, bore-holes, etc. In the vicinity. If the existing InformaHon Is not sufficient,
It is necessary to explore the site to obtain details of the type, uniformity, consistency, thickness, depth
of the strata and the ground water conditions. In many cases of transmission line' works, the soli
invesHgatlon may consist of only exploratory test pits and laboratory tesHng of some selected soil
samples.
The details of solllnvesHgatlon' are not covered In this chapter and may be referred to In the relevant
text books and Indian Standards available for the purpose. However, the list of the tests to be carried
out is given In Annexure - ,II. These tests are aimed at finding out type of soli, density, limit becirrng
capacity, angle of earth frustum, water table. etc.
DuringexecuHon, trial pits upto a minimum depth of 3.0 m (except for hard rock locaHons) shall be
excavated at each and every tower locaHons (at all four legs) to obtain follOwing details In order to
classify the type of foundation to be adopted:
0)
Oi)
Type of soil encountered
Ground water table.
10.6 TYPES OF SOIL AND ROCK
Solis and rocks, based on their engineering and physical properties, can be broadly classified as under:
Types of Soil
(0) Non-cohesive Sol/s
This group of soils include gravel and sands which are composed mainly of Iqrger siied grains resulting
from weathering of rocks. The engineering behaviour of these soils under loading depends primarily
on their friction qualities which vary with their density, degree of lateral confinement, grQund water level
,ts and flow of water through them.
es
"'Ie
t'
The non-coheslve solis do not get unified with the parent soli after back filling with the passage of Hme.
The following type of solis come under this category :
Sandy Soils which have no clay Isllt or have very little clay Isllt
(II) Soft and hard murrum. These can be excavated using normal tools and these get diSintegrated
Into pieces
(b) Cohesive Soils
These comprise clays, silts and soft shales, etc. having comparaHvely fine grain size particles. The
strength of this group of soils is derived primarily from cohesion between their particles. The most
important characteristic of cohesive solis from engineering point of view Is their suscepHbllity for slow
volume changes due to their low permeability. When this type of solis are subjected to loads, the
contained water in the voids Is expelled very slowly with consequent diminution of volume resulting In
consolidation settlement. Unlike settlement In non-cohesive so/ls which Is Immediate, the settlement in
cohesive solis may take many years to reach It's final value. In cohesive so/ls, SPT test does not always
3
giVe depet\dable results,. partlculai1y In sensitive cloys; and undisturbed soH samples are required to be
tested In the laboratory for It's unit weight, moisture content confined and unconfined compressive
strengths and settlement chciroctei1stics.
The cohesive soils get unified with the parent soil after bock filling with the passage of time. The
following soBs cOme under this category:
(I) NorrndI soH hovIhg mixture of slit and clay (clciy not exceeding 15%). When this type 6f soil Is
rnoc:te wet and rolled betWeen the palms, only short threadS can be mode. . .
00 Clayae solis having high percentage of cloy (more than 15%) e.g. Block Cotton Soli (Black or
yellow In colour). When this type of soli Is made wet and rolled between the palriis, long
threads can be made.
011) Mai'SHy SOIl hdVlng sea mud (marine soli) which Is very sticky In nature .
. .
Types ci Rocb
Rocks derive their strength from permanent bond of cohesive forces among their particles. They
usually as· hard, and sOft. Rocks have hlgli bearing capacity except When deComposed
heavily shattered ot strcrlltied. On uneveh site, however, dangerous conditions riiay develop wItH
If they dip towards cuttings. Tower foundations are usualiy built on the upper ared df the rock
formationS WhIch are often found to be weathered and disintegrated.
The rocks Ore broadly classified Os follows:
(0) SOft Rock/FISSured Rock
The rocks WhICh can be excavated USing normal tools without blasting are classified as soft rock. These
Include dEk:omposed or fissured rock, hard gravel, konkar, lime stone, laterite or any other sOIl of Similar
nature.
(b) Hard Rock
The rocks Which cannot be excavated using normdl tools and require chiseling, drilling and blasting are
classJfled os Hard Rock. These Include hard sand stone, quartilte, granite, bosdit, hard marble,
cOITIbInaIIons Of SolIs
During execution for any transmission line project It Is possible that combination of two or more than
two types of soils may also occur, while excavating the soil upto founding level. Different combinations
of soils a.nd the types of foundations to be adopted are given in annexure - III.
10.7 TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS
Depending upon the ground water table and type of soil and rock, the foundations can be classified
as follows:
(a) Normal Dry Soil Foundations
When water table is below foundation level and when soli Is cohesive and homogeneous up to the full
depth having clay content of 10-15% .
(b) Wet Soil .
\A/h.o.n u/"ti:l.,   rihnvA fnllnrlntlnn lAVAl and UD to 1.5 m below around level. The foundations in
e
1 !
(S
:1,.
e
l'
r
IS
a
r.
the soils which have standing surface water for a long period with water penetration not exceeding
1.0 m below ground level (e.g. paddy fields) are also classified as wet foundations.
(c) Partially Submerged Foundations
When water table is at a depth between 1.5 m and 0.75 m below ground level and when the sallis
normal and cohesive.
(d)
Fully Submerged Foundations
When water table is within 0.75m below ground and the soil is normal and cohesive.
(e) Black Coffon Soil Foundations
When the soil is cohesive having inorganic clay exceeding 15% and characterised by high shrinkage
and swelling property (need not be always black in colour).
(f)
Partial Black Coffon Foundations
When the top layer of soil up to 1.5 m Is Black Cotton and thereafter It Is normal dry cohesive soli.
(g) Soft Rock/Fissured Rock Foundations
When decomposed or fissured rock, hard gravel or any other soil of similar nature Is met which can be
executed without blasting. Under cut foundation is to be used at these locations.
(h) Hard Rock Foundations
Where chiseling, drilling and blasting is required for excavation.
(i) Sandy Soil Foundations
Soil with negligible cohesion because of it's low clay content (0-10%).
The above categorization of foundations has been done for economising the foundations. as uplift
resistance of foundation is a critical design factor which Is greatly affected by the location of water
table and the soil surrounding the foundation. .
10.7.1 Structural Arrangement of Foundations
Based on structural arrangement of foundations, the various types of foundations are possible. The
necessity of erecting towers on a variety of solis has made it possible and necessary for the designers
to adopt new Innovations and techniques. As a result. several types of tower foundations have been
devised and successfully used. Some of the more common types of foundations are described below:
(a) P.C.c. Type
This type of foundation is shown in Figure I. This is the most common type of footing used In India and
in some countries of the continent. It consists of a plain concrete footing pad with reinforced chimney.
In this type of foundation, the stub angle is taken inside and effectively anchored to the bottom pad
by cleat angles and/or keying rods, and the chimney with reinforcement & stub Qngle Inside works as
a composite member. The pad may be either pyramidal in shape as shown In Figure 1(0) or stepped
as shown in Figure 1 (b). Stepped footings will require less shuttering materials but need more attention
during construction to avoid cold-joints between the steps. The pyramidal footings, on the other hand,
5
will require somewhat costlier form work. In this pad and chimney type footing, where the chimney Is
comparatively slender, the lateral load acting at the top of the chimney will cause bending moment
and, therefore, the chimney should be checked for combined stresses due to direct PlJll/thrust and
bending.
r
A
l
A
  : Not to be less thon 45
o
EL E VATION
PLAN A-A
IS
..
d
II
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-
t
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't
'0 <
> .....
A
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  0 = Not to be less
than 45°
Typical
ELEVATION
\., XI \.,-VI \. , '<.II
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PLAN I A-AI
Figure I (b):.P C.C.Type Stepped Foundation
7
If the soil is very hard, conglomerate of soil, containing stones, rubbles, Kahkar which tan be loosened
with the help of pick-axe or if the soil is of composite nature i.e" combihation of dry soli. hard
murrum, fissured rock which will not get unified easily with the parent soil atter back filling, pyramid
chimney type foundations having 150 mm side clearance are not advisable and in such cases
undercut/stepped footings without side clearance should be adopted.
(b) R.C.C. Spread Type
Typical types of R.C.C. Spread Footings are shown in Figure 2. It consists of a R.C.C. base Slab or mat
and a square chimney.
There are several types of R.C.C. spread footings which can be designed for tower foundations. The
three most common types of these are shown In Figures 2 (a), (b) & (c). As shown in the figures. this
type of foundation can be either Single step type or multiple step type and/or chamfered step type.
r
A
150nvn
ELEVATION
"y .... .L
.....""'-'.
1
""
/

r?
r;,
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,



i 1.1
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PLAN A-A
Figure 2{o): R.C.C. Spread Type Foundation {Chamfered Type)
with 150 mm work ina
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r
   
1S0mm
ELEVA TlON
PLAN A-A
c:
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>
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u
X
LLI
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1
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Figure 2(b): R.c.c. Spread Type Foundation (Step) with 1S'Omm
Working Clearance
The R.C.C. spread type footings can be suitably designed for variety of soil conditions. R.C.C. footings.
in some situations may be higher in cost although structurally these are the best.
9
When loads on foundations are heavy and/or soil is poor. the pyramid type foundations may not be
feasible from techno-economical considerations and under such situations. R.C.C. spread type footings
are technically superior and also economical. R.C.C. spread footing with bottom step/slab when cast
in contact with Inner surface of excavated soil will offer higher uplift resistance as compared to the
footing having 150 mm side clearance as shown in Figure 2(c).
r
A
ELEVA TiON
I
PLAN A-A
c
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:.::
III
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III
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)(
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Figure 2(eJ: R.Le. Spread Type Foundation (Step) Cast
Directly Contact with the Soil & without
1S0mm WorkinQ Clearance
(c) Block Type
This type of foundation Is shown in Figures 3 & 5 (a). It consists of a chimney and block of concrete.
This type of foundation is usually provided where soft rock and hard rock strata are encountered at the
tower location. In this type of foundation, concrete is poured in direct contact with the inner surfaces
of the excavated rock so that concrete develops bond with rock. The uplift resistance in this type of
footing Is provided by the bond between concrete and rock. The thickness and size of the block Is
decided based on uplift capacity of foundation and bearing area required.
It is advisable to have footing having a minimum depth of about 1.5 m below ground level and check
this foundation for the failure of bond between rock and concrete. The values of ultimate bond stress
between the rock and the concrete to be considered for various types of rocks are given in
Annexure-iV for guidance. However, the actual bond stress between rock and concrete can be
decided by tests.
Block type foundations are being provided by some power utilities for soft and hard rock strata.
However, under cut type of foundations for soft rock and rock anchor type of foundations for hard rock
are sometimes preferred by some power utilities because of their soundness even though thes.e may
be more costly in comparison with Block type foundations.
(d) Under-Cut Type
These type of foundations are shown In Figures 4 (a),(b) & (c). These are constructed by making
under-cut in soil/rock at foundation level. this type of foundation Is very useful in normal dry cohesive
soil, hard murrum, fissured/soft rock, solis mixed with clinker, where soli is not collapsible type i.e .. it can
stand by itself. A footing with an under-cut generally develops higher uplift resistance as compared
to that of an identical footing without under-cut. this is due to the anchorage in undisturbed virgin soil.
The size of under-cut shall not be less than 150 mm. At the descretion of power utility and based on the
cohesiveness of the normal dry soil, the owner may permit undercut type of foundation for normal dry
cohesive soil.
(e) Grouted Rock and Rock Anchor Type
Typical Grouted Rock and Rock Anchor type,footing is shown in Figure 5(b). This type of footing is
suitable when the rock is very hard. It consists of two parts viz. block of small depth followed by anchor
bars embeded in the Grouted Anchor Holes. The top part of the bsu is embeded in the concrete of
the shallow block. The depth of embedment. diameter and number of anchor bars will depend upon
the uplift force on the footing. The diameter shall not be less than 12 mm. The grouting hole shall
normally be 20 mm more than the diameter of the bar. ..
The determination of whether a rock formation is suitable for installation of rock anchors is an
engineering judgement based on rock quality. Since, the bearing capacity of rock is usually much
greater, care must be exercised in designing for uplift. The rock surfaces may be roughened, grooved.
or shaped to increase the uplift capacity.
The uplift resistance will be determined by considering the bond between reinforcement bar and
grout/concrete. However. an independent check for uplift resistance should be carried out by
conSidering the bond between rock & concrete block which in turn will determine the min. depth of
concrete block to be provided In hard rock. Anchor strength can be substantially increased by
provision of mechanical anchorages. such as use of eye- bolt. fox bolt or h r e   d ~ d rods as anchoring
bars or use of keying rods in case of stub angle anchoring. The effective anchoring strength should
preferably be determined by testing. "
11
Q)
c
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c
0
-
0
>
0
u
)(
ILl
r
t
A A
ELEVATION
PLAN 'A-A'
Fig u re 3: Block Foundation ( Friction
Tun .. \
ELEVATION
PLAN 'A- A'
Figure 4 (a ) : Pyramid Type Foundation
(with under-cut)
13
ELEVATION
PLAN A-A
Figure 4 (b): R. C. C. Spread Type Foundation
(Under Cut Type)
r
A
C.l.
I
A'
150
100
50
X : Min depth as per bond
requirement
ELEVATION
r---
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
L __ _
I
I
I
I
_--.-1
PLAN lA-AI
Figure 4 (c) : Block Foundation (Unit
Cut Type)
15
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...J
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  . ~ . It! .'..o '. , . _.. ..e"
Back fill
E
t
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0
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E
::J
Concrete
E
c
~
Hard rock
ELEVATION
X: Min depth as per bond
requirement
I"" •
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II..
PLAN I A-AI
Figure 5 (a): Hard Rock Foundation
(Block Type)
r
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G. L.
...... __ . . . . t Hard Rock
  - - J ~ ~ A
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• ! · .

ELEVATION
I .
PLAN lA-AI
IXI

, , I I 0
• X: 1 00 mm or
:. development length
of anchor bar which-
ever 15 minimum.
Figure 5(b) : Rock Anchor Type
Foundation
17
Open cast Rock foundation is not recommended in Hard Rock. However, where rock anchor 1ype
foundation Is not practicable, open cast rock type foundation may be adopted as a special case.
(f) Augur Type/Under Reamed Pile Type
Typical types of foundations are shown In Figure 6(a). The cast-In-situ reinforced concrete augured
footings have been extensively used in some westem countries like USA. Canada and many countries
in our continent. The primary benefits derived from this type of foundations are the. saving In time and
man-power. Usually a truck mounted power augur is utilised to drill a circular hole of required diameter,
the lower portion of this may be belled, If required, to a larger diameter to Increase the uplift resistance
of the footing. Holes can be driven upto one metre in diameter and six metre deep. Since, the
excavated hole has to stand for some time before reinforcing bars and cage can be placed In position
and concrete poured, all kinds of solis are not suitable for augured footing. Usually, stiff clays and
dense sands a r ~   capable of being drilled and standing up suffiCiently long for concreting works and
Installation of stub angle or anchor bolts, whereas loose granular materials may give trouble during
construction of these footings, Bentonite slurry or similar material is used to stabilise the drilled hole. In
soft soils, a steel casing can also be lowered Into the hole as the excavation proceeds, to hold the hole
open.
Uplift resistance of augured footing without bell Is provided by the friction along the surface of the shaft
alone and hence it's capacity to resist uplift is limited. Augured footing can be constructed according
to the requirement, vertical or battered and with or without expanded base.
(g) Under-Reamed Pile Type
The under-reamed piles are more or leSs similar to augured footings except that they have under
reaming above bottom of shaft. These can be generally constructed with hand augur. The bore Is
drilled vertically or at a batter with the augur, having an arrangement of cutting flanges (edges) to be
opened by the lever. This arrangement makes it possible to make under-reams at various level of bores
as shown in Figure 6(b). The advantage of this foundation is foster construction.
The load carrying capacity of these footings, both for downward and uplift forces should be established
by tests. The safe loads allowed on under-reamed piles of length 3.50 m and under reamed to 2.5
times the shaft diameter in clayey, black cotton and medium dense sandy solis may be taken from IS:
4091 for guidance.
These types of foundation are useful in case of expansive type of block cotton soils.
(h) Steel Grillage Type
These types of foundation are shown in Figures 7(a)&(b). These are made of structural steel sections.
Steel grillages can be of various designs. Generally, it consists of a layer of steel beams as pad for the
bearing area. The footing reaction Is transmitted to the pad by means of heavier joists or channels
resting cross-ways on the bearing beams. For smaller towers, the horizontal shears at foundation from
the component of force In the diagonal members is transferred to the adjoining soil by shear plates of
adequate size proyided at the point where the bottom most diagonal bracings Intersect the main
leg/stub usually about a metre below the ground surface as shown in Figure 7 (a). In case of heavy
towers like angle or dead end, the lateral·force is taken up by addition of suitable bracing members
shown in Figure 7 (b) which trdnsfer the shear down to the grillage beams.
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-,/
ELEVATION
(Vertical)
PLAN 'A-A'
A I
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r
A
ELEVATION
(Battered)
--,
A
PLAN 'A-A'
Figure 6(0) : Augur Type Foundation
19
G. L.
r
A
l
A
r
A
ELEVATION
ELEVATION
PLAN A-A
PLAN A-A
Figure 6(b): Augur Type Foundation
(Unde,r Reamed Pi Ie Type)
A
ELEVATION
PLAN 'A-A'
Figure 7(a): Steel Grillage Type Foundation
21
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A
A
ELEVATION
~ \ Y . J   ....
\V'/ ....
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([TTL!:
-----
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~ 7 I
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PLAN 'A_A'
Figure 7 ( b) : Steel Grillage Type Foundation
The grillage Is designed to resist the down thrust and uplift. The angle of earth frustum Is developed
from the bottom of the footing. In this type of foundations, there is no solid slab as compared to
concrete foundations. However, if the distance between the grillage members is not greater than the
width of members, the gross area of grillage can be utilised in calculating bearing pressure. If the
distance between members is large, only the net area of grillage can be taken into account for
calculating the bearing pressure on the soil. The placement and compaction of the backfill is very
critical to the actual load carrying capacity of this type of foundations.
As a precaution against corrosion, a coot of bituminous paint is usually applied to the footing. When
backfill Is well compacted to eliminate air pockets, the lower portion of the footing may not suffer any
appreCiable corrosion of steel. Weathering steel or galvanised steel can also reduce the chances of
corrosion, but none of these can prevent corrosion when the soil at the tower location is unfavourable
and chemically aggressive. When doubt arises, It may be necessary to test the soil and sub-soil water
samples to ascertain their corrosiveness before using a steel grillage footing.
Grillage footings require much more steel than a comparable concrete footing, but erection cost is
small in comparison to that of the concrete footing resuMing in often economical and always quicker
construction. Other advantages include their simplicity in construction procurement of complete
foundation with tower parts from the manufacturer of towers and elimination of concrete work at site.
These foundations are also very helpful in restoring the collapsed transmission lines because of quicker
construction.
The disadvantage of this type of foundation is that these foundations have to be designed before any
soil borings are made and may have to be enlarged and require a concrete base if actual soli
conditions are not as good as those assumed in the original design.
These types of foundation are generally provided in case of firm soils and are usually adopted for
locations where concreting is not possible and head loading is difficult. This type of foundation is not
. popular in our country.
(i) Steel Plated Type
A typical pressed steel plate foundation is shown in Figure 8. This arrangement is similar to the steel
grill foundation shown in Figure 8 except that the base grillage has been replaced by a pressed steel
plate. This type of foundation Is usually adopted for locations where concreting work is not possible
and head loading is difficult. This type of foundation is suitable only In case of good, cohesive and
firm soil. The size of plate is decided based on uplift capacity required and also based on footing
area necessary from bearing capacity consideration. The net horizontal force at the level where
bottom most diagonal bracing Is attached to the stub is resisted by the passive pressure of -the soil.
The advantage of this type of foundation Is It's simpliCity. However, one has to be careful in excavation
at the bottom .. The plate must rest firmly In contact with the surrounding soli. The disadvantage of this
type of foundation is possibility of corrosion of steel and large settlement because of loose sand under
the plate. This type of foundation is not popular in our country.
G) Pile Type
A typical pile type foundation is shown In Figure 9. This type of foundation is usually adopted when soil
is very weak and has very poor bearing capacity or foundation has to be located In filled-up soli or sea
mud to a large depth or where tower location falls within river bed and creek bed which are likely to
get scourea during floods.
23
ti.L.
r-
A
ELEVATION
PLAN A-A
c
o
:;:
IV
>
IV
>
X
""
Figure 8: Steel ,Plate Type Foundation
G.l.
A
HFL
Water flow
..
r
A
SECTION
PLAN 'A-A'
Figure 9: Pile Type Foundation
25
HFL
The pile foundations are designed based on the data of soil exploration at the tower location. The
1mPOrtant parometers for design of pUe foundation are the type of soli, angle of Intemal friction,
cohesion and unit weight of soil at various depths along the shaft of pile, maximum discharge of the
river, maximum velocity of water, high flood level, scour depth etc.
Pile foundation usually costs more and may be adopted only after detailed examination of the site
condition and soil data. The downward vertical load on the foundation is carried by the plies through
skin friction or by point bearing or both: while the uplift is resisted by the dead weight of the concrete
In piles and pile caps and frictional resistance between pile and soU surrounding the pile. For carrying
heavy lateral loads, battered piles may be advantageously used. Piles are of different types such as
driven pre-cast piles, cast-In-sltu concrete bored piles and cast-in-situ concrete driven piles. Concrete
driven piles whether pre-cast or cast-in-sltu, require heavy machinery for their construction and as such
may not be possible to use for transmission line foundations because of remoteness of the sites and
smail volume of o r   ~ Mostly, cast-In-sltu concrete bored piles are provided In transmission line proJects
since, they do not require heavy machinery for their construction.
Load carrying capacitY of different types of piles should normaily be established by load tests. When
It Is not possible to carry out load tests, the capacity of pile can be determined by static formula as
given In IS: 2911 using soil properties obtained from soil investigation of tower location where pile
foundation is proposed to be provided.
(k) Well Type
A typical well type of foundation for transmission line tower is shown in Figure 10. This type of
foundation Is usually provided where tower location falls within the course of major river having larger
discharge, heavy floods during monsoon and large scouring of river bed during floods. The cast-In-sltu
weils of R.C.C. or brick masonary are sunk by continuous excavation from within the wells. The basic
parameters required for the design of well are soil properties like angle of internal friction, cohesion,
and density at various levels along the depth of well, maximum flood discharge, maximum velocity
of water, the scour depth, etc.
The well has to be taken below the estimated scour level to a sufficient depth for obtaining desired
load carrying capacity of the well. Kentel edge may have to be used during sinking of the well for
penetrating the hard strata and also to prevent it's tilting during sinking operation. The top of the wells
is normally kept above the high flood level. After the well has been sunk to It's design depth, the well
Is filled up with sand and suitable well cap Is constructed on the top of the well to accommodate the
tower and it's anchor bolts/stubs. The filled up well acts as solid pier.
Well type foundations are very costly and require more time for their construction and may be adopted
only after detailed examination of the site condition and soil data.
10.8 REVETMENT ON FOUNDATION
The revetment on foundation is usually required when the tower is to be founded on a slope of hill or
in deserts where there is possibility of soil flying away during dust storm. The typical details of revetment
for hilly location are shown in Figure 11. The bench cutting is first done to level the siope. The
foundation is cast with shorter and longer stubs If it is not possible to fully level the slope. Revetment
is necessary to prevent erosion of soil due to water flow from uphill and also to ensure proper
anchorage against uplift. .
10.9 SOIL RESISTANCES FOR DESIGNING FOUNDATION
As discussed in para 10.2, the foundations of Transmission line towers are subjected to three types of .
loads viz. the downward thrust (compression), the uplift (tension) and the side thrust (horizontal shear) ..
Water flow
ELEVATION
PLAN A-A
Scouring
U action
Sand filling
(utting edge
Bottom (one. plug
Figure 10: Well Type Foundation
27
Tower leg
t
A
Tower body
\
lope of ..   ...
.....
1IP'-
...
T ower foundation
ELEVATION
Figure 11: Rivetment on Foundation
The soil resistances available for transferring the above forces to earth are described below:
(a) Uplift Resistance
The soil surrounding a tower foundation has to resist a considerable amount of upward force (tension).
In fact, In the case of self-supporting towers, the available uplift resistance of the soli becomes the most
decisive factor for selection of the type of footing for a particular location.
It is generally considered that the resistance to uplift is provided by the shear strength of the
surrounding soli and the weight of the foundation. Various empirical relationships linking ultimate up-lift
capacity of foundation to the physical properties of soil like angle of Internal friction (t/» and cohesion
(C) as well as to the dimensions and depth of the footing have been proposed on the basis of
experimental results. However, the angle of earth frustum Is considered for calculating the uplift
resistance of soil. Typical values of angle of earth frustum are given In Annexure -I for guidance. The
angle of earth frustum is taken as 2/3 of angle of Internal friction (t/» or the value given In Annexure I
.. aJl ..... :_ ...... _ ... _. I. ___ 11 __ ,1. __ .1.L _ .L ____ L - _·1' ••
The uplift resistance is estimated by co uti th .
of cone whose sides make an angle ;e  
formula for calculating volume covered under Inverted frustum of a cone is given in Annexure-V.
It shoUI?, be noted that effective uplift resistance, apart from being a function of the
properties of sOil like angle of intemal friction (¢J) and cohesion (C) is greatly affected by the degree
of co,:,pactlon and the ground water table. When the back fill Is less consolidated with non-cohesive
matena!, the effective uplift resistance will be greatly reduced. In case of foundation under water
table, the buoyant weights of concrete and back fill are only considered to be effective.
The uplift resistance of footing with undercut projections within undisturbed soils in firm non-cohesive
soils and fissured/soft rock shall generally be larger than that of conventional footings.
(b) Lateral Soil Resistance
In foundation design of towers. the side thrusts (horizontal shears) on the foundation are considered
to be resisted by the passive earth pressure mobilized in the adjoining soils due to rotation of the
footing. Passive pressure/resistance of soil is calculated based on Rankine's formula for frictional soils
and unconfined compressive strength for cohesive soils.
(c) Bearing Capacity
The downward compressive loads acting on the foundation including moments to horizontal shears
and/or eccentricities, wherever existing. are transferred from the foundation to earth through be.drtng
capacity of the soil. The limit bearing capacity of soil is the maximum downward intensity of load
which the soil can resist without shear failure or excessive settlement.
10.10 DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR FOUNDATION
The design of any foundation consists of following two parts :
(1) Stability Analysis
Stability analysis aims at removing the possibility of failure of foundation by tilting, overtuming, uprooting,
and sliding due to load intensity imposed on soli by foundation being In excess of the ultimate capacity
of the soil.
The most important aspect of the foundation design is the necessary check for the stability of
foundation under various loads imposed on it by the tower which it supports. The foundation shOUld
remain stable under all the possible combinations of loadings, to which It Is likely to be subjected under
the most stringent conditions. The stability of foundation should be checked for the following aspects:
(a) Check for Bearing Capacity
The total downward load at the base of footing consists of compression per leg derived from the tower
design, buoyant weight of concrete below ground level (i.e .. difference in the weight of concrete and
soli) and weight of concrete above ground level. '
While calculating over weight of concrete for checking bearing capacity of soil, the pOSition of water
table should be considered at critical location i.e .. which would give maximum over weight of
concrete. In case of foundation with· chimney battered along the slope of leg, the centre line of
chimney may not coincide with the C.G. of the base slabs/ pyramid I block. Under such situation, oxlal
load in the chimney can be resolved into vertical and horizontal components at the top of base
29
'\
I
slab/pyramid/block. The additional moments due to the above horizontal loads should be considered
while checking the bearing capacity of soli.
Further, even In cases where full horizontal shear Is balanced by the passive pressure of soli. the
horizontal shears would cause moment at the base of footing as the line of action of side thrusts
(horizontal shears) and resultant of passive pressure of soil are not In the same line. It may be noted
that passive pressure of soil is reactive force from the soil for balancing the external horizontal forces
and as such mobilized passive pressure In soil adjoining the footing can not be more than the external
horizontal shear.
Thus. the maximum soil pressure below the base of the foundation (Toe pressure) will depend upon the
vertical thrust (compression load) on the footing and the moments at the base level due to the
horizontal shears and other eccentric loadings. Under the action of down thrust and moments, the soli
pressure below the footing will not be uniform and the maximum toe pressure 'P' on the soli can be
determined from the equation:
W MT ML
P=-+ -+-
BxB ZT ZL
Where.
'W' is the total vertical down thrust including over weight of the footing;
'B' is dimension of the footing base;
MT & ML are. moments at the base of footing about transverse and longitudinal axes of footing; and
ZT & ZL are the section modulii of footing which are equal to (1/6) B3 for a sqlJare footing.
The above equation is not valid when minimum pressure under the footing becomes negative. The
maximum pressure on the soil so obtained should not exceed the limit bearing capacity of the soil.
(b) Check for Uplift Resistance
In the case of spread foundations, the re.sistance to uplift is considered to be provided by the buoyant
weight of the foundation ,and the weight of the soli volume contained In the inverted frustum of cone
on the base of the footing with sides making an angle equal to the angle of earth frustum applicable
for a particular type of the soil. Referring to Figure 13. the ultimate resistance to uplift is given by :
UP :: Ws + Wf
where
'Ws' is the weight of soil in the frustum of cone; (The method of calculation of Ws is given in
Annexure-V).
'Wf' is the buoyant weight/overload of the foundation (Refer Figures 13 & 14).
Depending upon the type of foundation i.e .• whether dry or wet or partially submerged or fully
submerged, the weights 'Ws' and 'Wf' should be calculated taking Into accounUhe location of ground
water table.
Under-cut type of foundation offers greater resistance to uplift than an Identical footing without
under-cut. This Is for the simple reason that the angle of earth frustum originates from the toe of the
under-cut and there Is perfect bond between concrete and the soli surrounding It and there Is no ~  
to depend on the behaviour of backfilled earth. Substantial additional uplift resistance Is developed,
due. to use of under-cut type of foundation. However. to reflect advantage of additional uplift
resistance In the design the density of soil for under-cut foundation has been increased as given in
Annexure -I.
I
In cases wnere HU:;IUIII VI C:UIItI I-IYIUIIIIU VI IY't'V .......... }"' ...... \:7 '-\:7- __ ,-_ .... -,--_
frustum Is assumed truncated by a vertical plane passing through the centre line of the tower base.
(c) Check for Side Thrust
In towers with inclined stub angles and having diagonal bracing at the lowest panel point. the net
shearing force of the footing is equal to the horizontal component of the force in the diagonal bracing
whereas in towers with vertical footings. the total horizontal load on the tower is divided equally
between the number of legs. The shear force causes bending stresses in the unsupported length of
the stub angle as well as in the chimney and tends to overtum the foundation.
When acted upon by a lateral load. the chimney will act as a cantilever beam free at the top and
fixed at the base anq supported by 'the soil along it's height. Analysis of such foundations and design
of the chimney for bending moments combined with down thrust/uplift Is very important.
Stability of a footing under a lateral load depends on the amount of passive pressure mobilized in the
adjoining soil as well as the structural strength of the footing in transmitting the load to the soil (Refer
Figure 12),
.c.
S
r-----7
I
,
I
I
,
I
II i
,
,
,
,
I
I
,
I
I
I ,
II I
I
,
  ,I
/
I
I I,
I
I t
,
: 1
I
I
I
I
• ,I
I
'I I
,
'I I
,
/-1 ,
I
I I
I
I I
I I
I

passive Pressure ,in , Pres.surO'in jr
Non . .. _', . __ .
Cu = Undrained   Soil
Kp = Coemcient of passive earth pressure
K = 1 • Sin •
. p l-.Sin.
1 = Unit Wt. of Soil Ikg.lm
3
)
Figure - 12
31
S" •
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
r \ ~
A
I-
B
-I
I
ELEVATION
s ~
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\ ~
\ ~ 2
f
\
.
~  
-.
A
B
-I
ELEVATION
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
.&;
I
I
m
I
I
t
A
I-
PLAN
Figure. 13
I
B3
I
I
/
I
/
/
/
.&;
/
/
I
/
m
/
I
PLAN 'A-A'
Figure.14
(d) Check for Over-Turning
Stability of the foundation against overturning under the combined action of uplift and horizontal shears
may be checked by the following criteria as shown in Figure 14 :
0) The foundation over-turns at the toe.
(II) The weight of the footing acts at the centre of the base; and
Oii) Mainly that part of the earth cone which stands over the heel causes the stabilising moment.
However, for design purpose, this may be taken equal to half the weight of the cone of earth
acting on the base, It is assumed to act through the tip of the heel.
For stability of foundation against overturning, stabilising moment should be more than overtuming
moment.
(e) Check for Sliding
In the foundations of transmission towers, the horizontal shear is comparatively small and possibility of
sliding is generally negligible. However, resistance to sliding Is evaluated assuming that passive earth
pressure conditions are developed on a vertical projections above the toe of foundation. The friction
between bottom of the footing and soil also resist the sliding of footing and can be considered in the
stability of foundation against sliding. The coefficient of friction between concrete and soil can be
considered between 0.2 to 0.3. However, the frictional force is directly proportional to vertical
downward load and as slJch may not exist under uplift condition. For cohesive soil the following
formula can be applied for calculating the passive to resist sliding:
Where
C
e
h
y.
=
=
=
=.
P = 2 C tane + rh T  
Cohesion (2t/m2 min.)
45° + 1/2 of angle of earth frustum
Height of foundation
Unit Wt.of soil
(2) Structural Design of Foundation
Structural design of concrete foundation comprises the design of chimney and the design of base
slab/pyramid/block. The structurql design of different elements of concrete foundation is discussed In
the following paras:
(a) Structural Design of Chimney
The chimney should be deSigned for maximum bending moments, due to side thrust In both transverse
and longitudinal direction combined with direct pull (Tension) / direct down thrust (Compression).
Usually, combined uplift and bending will determine the requirement of longitudinal reinforcement In
the chimney. When stub angle is embedded in the chimney to Its full depth and anchored to the
bottom slab/pyramid/block, the chimney is designed. Considering passive resistance of soil leaving 500
milimetres from ground level. This is applicable for all soils - cohesive, non-coheslve and mixture of
cohesive and non-cohesive soils. In hilly areas and for fissured rock, passive resistance of solis will not
be considered. Stub angle will not be considered to provide any reinforcement.
In certain cases, when stub is embedded in the chimney for the required development length alone
and same is not taken upto the bottom of foundation or leg of the tower is fixed at the top of the
chimney /pedestal by anchor bolts, chimney should be designed by providing 'reinforcement to
33
withstand combined stresses due to direct tension (tension)/down thrust (compression) and bending
moments, due to side thrust in both transverse and longitudinal direction.
The structural design of chimney for the above cases should comply with the procedures given in IS:
456-1978 and SP: 16 using limit state method of design except as specifically provided In this document.
CASE-I: WHEN SlUB ANGLE IS ANCHORED IN BASE SLAB/PYRAMID/BLOCK
When the stub is anchored in base slab/pyramid/block reinforcement shall be provided in chimney for
structural safety on the sides of the chimney at the periphery.
From the equilibrium of internal and external forces on the chimney section and using stress and strains
of concrete and steel as per IS:456, the following equations as given In SP: 16 are applicable.
n
Pu =O.36k+!; (Di/lOO) (Fsi-Fci) + (pS/100) (Fss-Fcs)/Fck ... (1)
FckB3
2
1-11 m I I m = modular ratio . . ---
I K = -- ; I c cbc = permissible bending com. press stress in
M i cs:t. + _c
st
____ = permissible     _________
. =O.36k(O.5-0.416k) +1: (pi/100) (Fsi-Fci)/Fck) (YijD) ... (,,)
FckB3
2
i-1
i - D :-Total deptll of stub:
Where
Asi
pi
.Fci
Fsi
Vi
n
Fss
Fcs
Fck
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Cross-sectional area of reinforcement In ith row
100 Asi/B3
2
Stress in concrete at the level of ith row of reinforcement
Stress in the ith row of reinforcement., Compression being positive and tension being
negative
distance from the centroid of the section to the i
'h
row of reinforcement; positive
towards the highly compressed edge and negative towards the least compressed
edge
Number of rows of reinforcement
Stress in stubs
Stress in concrete
Characteristic compressive strength of concrete
CASE-jl: WHEN SlUB IS PROVIDED IN CHIMNEY ONLY FOR ITS DEVELOPMENT LENGTH·
When stub is provided in chimney only for it's development length, chimney has to be designed for and
reinforcement provided for combined stresses due to direct pull(tension)lThrust (compression) and
bending moments. The requirement of longitudinal reinforcement should be calculated in accordance
with IS: 456 and SP: 16 as an independent concrete column.
In this case, from the equilibrium of internal and external forces on the chimney section and using stress
and strains-of concrete and steel as per IS:456, the following equations as given in SP: 16 are applicable.
n
Pu 2 =O.36k(O.5-0.416k) +L (pi/100) (Fsi-FCi)/Fck) ...
FckB3 i-1
In each of the above cases, for a given axial force, compression or tension, and for area of
n
Mu 2 =0.36 k (0.5 -0.416 K) + E (pi/100) (Fsi-Fci) / Fck) (Yi/D) ... ~ .
FckB3 i"'l
reinforcement. the depth of neutral axis Xu=kB3 can be calculated from equation (1) or (3) using stress
strain relationship for concrete and steel as given In IS: 456-1978. After finding out the value of 'k' the
bending'capacity of the chimney section can be worked out using equation (2) or (4). 'The bending
capacity of the chimney section should be more than the maximum moment caused In the chimney
by side thrust (horizontal shear). Chimney is subjected to biaxial moments i.e., both longitudinal and
transverse. The structural adequacy of the chimney in combined stresses due to axial force
(tension/compression) and bending should be checked from the following equation:
Where,
\
< 1,0 \
,
MT and ML are the moments about transverse and longitudinal axis of the chimney:
Mut and Mul are the respective moment of Resistance with axial loads of Pu about transverse and
longitudinal axes of chimney which would be equal In case of square chimney with uniform distribution
of reinforcement on all four faces:
_n is an exponent whose value would be 1.0 when axial force is tensile and depends on the value of
Pu/Puz when axial force is compressive where:
Puz = 0.45 Fck Ac + 0.75 Fy As + 0.75 Fys Ass
In the above equation,
Ac is the area of concrete;
As is the area of reinforcement steel;
Ass is the cross sectional area of stub, to be taken as zero;
Fy is the yield stress of reinforcement steel: and
Fys is the yield stress of stub steel, to be taken as zero.
Pu/Puz
0.2
0.8
n
1.0
2.0
For intermediate values. linear interpolation may be done.
The solution of equations (3) & (4) for case-2 Is given In SP-16 in the form of graphs for various grades
of concrete and steel and these can be readily used.
IMPORTANT CODAL STIPULATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL DETAILING OF CHIMNEY
While designing the chimney. the important codal provisions as given below should be followed:
(a) In any chimney that has a larger cross-sectional area than that required to support the load.
the minimum percentage of steel shall be based on the area of concrete required to resist the
35
direct stress and not on the actual area.
(b) The minimum number of longitudinal bars provided in a column shall be four in square chimney
and six in a circular chimney.
(c) The bars shall not be less than 12 mm in diameter.
(d) In case of a chimney in which the longitudinal reinforcement is not required in strength
calculations, nominal longitudinal reinforcement not less than 0.15% of the cross sectional area
shall be provided.
(e) The spacing of stirrups/ lateral ties shall be not more than the least of the following distances:
(1) The least lateral dimension of the chimney
(2) Sixteen times the smallest diameter of the longitudinal reinforcement bar to be tied
(3) Forty-eight times the diameter of the transverse stirrups/lateral ties.
(f) The diameter of the polygonal links or lateral ties shall be not less than one-fourth of the
diameter of the largest longitudinal bar, and in no case less than 6 mm.
(g) Structural Design of Base Slab
The base slab in R.C.C. Spread foundations could be single stepped or multi stepped. The design of
concrete foundations shall be done as per limit state method of design given in IS : 456 - 1978.
IMPORTANT CODAL STIPULATIONS FOR R.C.C. FOUNDATIONS
The important provisions applicable for concrete foundations which are necessary and should be
considered in the design are explained below:
(a) Footings shall be designed to sustain the applied loads, moments and forces and the induced
reactions and to ensure that any settlement which may occur shall be as nearly uniform
possible, and the bearing capacity of the soil is not exceeded.
(b) Thickness at the edge of footing in reinforced concrete footings shall be not less than 15 cm
(5 cm lean concrete plus 10 cm structural concrete). In case of plain concrete footing,
thickness at the edge shall not be less than 5 cm).
(c) Bending Moment
(i) The bending moment at any section shall be determined by passing through the
section of a vertical plane which extends completely across the footing, and
computing the moment of the forces acting over the entire area of the footing on the
side of the said plane.
(ii) The greatest bending moment to be used in the design of an isolated concrete footing
which supports a column/pedestal shall be the moment computed in the manner
prescribed in c(i) above at sections located as follows :
(1) At the face of the chimney;
(2) At sections where width/thickness of the footing changes.
(d) Shear and Bond
The shear strength of footing Is govemed by the more severe of the following two conditions:
(1) The footing acting essentially as a wide beam. with a potential diagonal crack
extending in a place across the entire width; the critical section for this condition shall
be assumed as a vertical section located from the face of the chimney at a distance
equal to the effective depth of the footing in case of footings on soils;
(2) Two-way action of the footing. wHh potential diagonal cracking along the surface of
truncated cone or pyramid around the concentrated load;
(e) Critical Section
The critical section for checking the development length in a footing shall be assumed at the same
planes as those described for bending moment In para (c) above and also at all other vertical plahes
where abrupt changes of section occur.
STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF BASE StAB SHALL BE DONE AS PER THE PROVISION OF E-1 OF APPENDIX-E-'OF
IS: 456-1978.
When a plain concrete pyramid and chimney type footing Is provided and pyramid slopes out from
the chimney at an angle less than 45°from vertical. the pyramid Is not required to be checked for
bending stresses. Thus. in such cases. the footing Is designed to restrict the spread of concrete pyramid
of slab block to 45°with respect to vertical.
10.11 CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY FOR TOWER FOUNDATION DESIGNS
While designing the various types of concrete footings. it is better to know about certain aspects. of
  o ~   r e t e technology which are given below:
(a) Properties of Concrete
The grade of the structural concrete used for tower foundations should not be leaner than M-15 (1 :2:4)
having a 28-day cube strength of not less than 15 N/mm2 and concrete shall confolm to IS: 456. For
special foundations like pile foundations. richer concrete of grade of M 20 (1: 1.5:3) having a 28-day
cube strength of not less than 20 N/mrrt should be used. M-15 grade concrete shall have the nominal
strength of not less than 15 N/mm2 at the end of 28 days as ascertained form the cube te.st. Such
strength at the end of 7 days shall not be less than 10 N/mm2.
The density of the concrete will be 2300 kg/m
3
for plain concrete and 2400 kg/m
3
for R.C.C. Oth.er·
properties of concrete are given In IS: 456.
(b) Properties of Steel
The high yield stress cold deformed reinforcement bars used in the R.C.C. shall conform to IS: 1786-1979
and shall have yield stress of not less than 415 N/mm2. When mild steel reinforcement bars are used
in R.C.C.. they shall conform to IS: 432 (part - I) and shall have yield stress of not less 26 N/mm2 for bars
of size upto 20 mm diameter and 24 N/mm2 for bars above 20 mm diameter.
10.12 PULL-OUT TESTS ON TOWER FOUNDATION
The pull-out tests conducted on foundations help In determining the behaviour of the soil while resisting
. the up-lift forces.
The feed back from this pull-out test results. In a particular type of soli. can be conveniently used In the
37
designs of foundations. The procedure of pull-out tests, equipments and results are discussed In detaU
below:
(0) Selection of Site
Trial pits of size 1.Ox1.0x3.0(d) metre are mode and the strata of the soil Is observed. It is ascertained
that the strata available at the location Is one In which we are Interested (I.e., a particular type of soil
or combination of soils is available). Soil samples are takEm from and around the'slte and subjected
to various tests, particularly relating to the density of soli, bearing capacity of soli, cohesion and angle
of intemal friction etc.
(b) Design of Foundation for Pull-Out Test
Design of foundations for pull-out test is carried out with a different view point os compared to the
design of actual foundations for tower. this Is due to the fact that the pull-out tests are conducted
to measure the pull-out resistance of the solis and therefore all the other ports of the foundation viz
concrete, reinforcement and the pull-out bars should be strong so that these do not fall before the
soli/rock fails.
Based on the actual tower foundation loadings (down thrust, uplift and side thrust) and the soil
parameters obtained from the tests, a foundation design is developed. The design has a central rod
running from the bottom of the footing upto a height of about 1.5 m to 2.0 m above ground,
depending on the jacking requirements. The central rod is surrounded by a cage of reinforcement
bars.
A typical design developed for the pull-out test is shown in Figure 15.
G.l.
Pull-out bar
-r--__
30
_
O
±_ =-1
<:)
<:)
11\
....
300
~   S ~ I.
1100
ELEVATION
Figure - 15
GoL.
(c) Casting of Foundation
The pits are accurately. The concrete mix, reinforcement form boxes etc., are exactly as
per the design. The pouring ofthe concrete is don,e such that voids are minimised. The back filling of
the soil should be carried out using sufficient water to eliminate voids and loose pockets. The
foundation should be cured for 14 days (minimum) and thereafter left undisturbed for a period not less
than 30 days.
(d) Pull-Out Test Set-Up
As indicated earlier, the pull-out is done with the help of central hole jacks of different capacities (10
M.T. to 100 M.l). Each & every test foundation, therefore, has a central pulling bar. The schematic
diagram of the test set up is shown In Figure 16.
: c:: I I
I I l:lI
\ . I: /
\ 1\
\   I I
\ I I "-
\ ' • " 9
\,' L J '"
\L ___ "+ __ _
- -1----
Figure - 16
39
The foundation under test (1) is below the ground level. The central pulling rod (12) is projecting out of
the ground to the specified height. Sets of sleepers (2) are placed on either side, away from the likely
pull-out region through angle (9) A set of two girders (8) is placed on the sleepers.
The central hole jack (4) is kept on these girders covering the pull-out bar in it's hollow. Two dial gauges
(3) capable of sensing a movement of 1/1 ClOth of.mm are used to record movements of the jacks and
the soli. The dial gauge to measure movement of the jack is kept just touching the top of the pull-out
bar by means of a pair of stands (10) and a datum bar (11). The dial gauge on the ground is kept just
touching the soil surrounding the top of the foundation by means of a stand (14). Hydraulic oil is
pumped In to the jack by a hydraulic pump (5) by moving the handle (13). The pressure built up in the
jack is recorded by the dynamometer, (6) on the top of the pump.
The upward movement of the jack is prevented by two nuts (7) on the top of the threaded portion of
the central pulling bar. This develops upward load on the foundation.
The oil is pumped gradually in10 the jack and readings of the pressure gauge and dial gauges are
taken at intervals of 500 Kg to 1000 Kg depending upon the estimated uplift resistances. In the
beginning, the dial gauges will not have appreciable movement but as the load increases, movement
will be significant. The movement of the soil surrrounding the foundation will be visible as soon as the
foundation starts yielding. At a particular juncture, the load will not show any increment and Instead
undergo a decrement. This juncture will be the final yield load of the soil surrounding the foundation.
The jack can be unloaded by opening the outlet in the pump and operating the lever so that the
pressure is released gradually. The curves of load versus dial gauge movements are plotted and the
size and the shapes of crack developed at the top of the soil are also recorded as shown in Figure 17.
60
50
40
>
..x
c 30
-g 20
o
.J
10
o
A
V
 
V
V
.-
'"
V
.....
I'B
o 234567
Deformation in mm
PLAN
Figure .17
Top of foundation
Pulling bar
"'Cracks on the soil
It may be noted that the deformation of foundation is recorded by the dial gauge kept on the top of
the pull out bar. where as the deformation of ground is recorded by the dial gauge kept on the
ground.
(e) Comparison of Design and PUll-Out Test Results
The ultimate pull-out resistance offered by the foundation is later compared with the parameter
assumed in the design. proper analysis of the test is done and inference drawn regarding the actual
soil parameters.
10:13 SKIN FRICTION TESTS
To determine the contact skin friction of soil and the concrete. this test is very important. Small pits in
the undisturbed layers of soil are made. The dimensions generally used are 300x3OOx300 MM.
300x300x600 MM. 300 (dia)x3oo MM (depth). 300 MM (dia)x600 MM (depth). These configurations are
shown in Figure 18.
The concrete is poured directly in contact with the soil. For pulling. a central rod and a cage is
provided. The pUll-out tests are done just as described in 10.12. The ultimate failure load On kg) after
deducting the self weight of the foundation Is divided by the area of surfaces In contact with the soli
On sq cm). This result is the ultimate skin friction In kg/cm
2
• The data obtained from the skin friction tests
have been found very reliable and have also been covered in the recommended parameters by some
utilities. The skin friction test results are very useful in designing foundations for rocky and non-cohesive
soils (like soft and hard murrum) The average skin friction value recorded during test on some of th soils
are given below: .
0)
Oi)
Oii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
Normal yellow dry soil
Black cotton dry soli
Soft murrum soil
Hard murrum soil
Soft rock
Hard rock
- 0.3 kg/cm
2
(ultimate)
- 0.1 kg/cm
2
- 1.0 kg/cm
2
- 2.0 kg/cm
2
- 3.0 kg/cm
2
- 4.5 kg/cm
2
It should be noted with care that the skin friction values are applicable only in cases where foundation
concrete is poured directly in contact with soil or rock.
10.14 SCALE DOWN MODELS OF FOUNDATION
The pull-out tests can also be done on various scale down configuration in different types of soils.
These are shown in Figure 19.
The advantages of this type of pull-out test are low cost and less time per test and quick comparison
between the models. The disadvantage is that the exact behaviour of the soli can not be determined
if the exploration is carried out in the top layers of soil upto a depth less than 1500 mm.
The pull-out tests done with these configuration under dry and wet conditions have revealed that the
stumps drlven foundation offer extra 15% uplift resistance. and undercut type foundation offer extra
50% up-11ft resistance. as compared to the friction type foundation. In case of stumps driven
foundations. the stumps of steel rods In contact with the soil may get corroded In the long run and the
advantage of 15% may not be available. However, these will be able to contribute In counteracting
the stringing/construction load on foundations and thus may afford early tower erection and stringing.
41
\_ 300; _I
10.15 TESTS ON SUBMERGED SOILS
PLAN
ELEVATION
PLAN
o
g
ELEVATION
Figure. 18
---.... ,-
o
o
rt>
~ 3     ~
300
o
o
...,
It is very difficult to carry out pull-out tests on naturally submerged soil as the testing gadgets are likely
to sink in the mud when pressure is increased In the hydraulic jack. Besides, It is also difficult to regulate
the sub-soil water.
The tests on these types of soils can be conducted by creating similar conditions in an underground
",non ""l'Y'In runriA of nridl mmonrv dulv olastered form inside). The soil to be tested (i.e., normal, black
o
o
o
r"
PLAN
PLAN
. 1 ~ _____________ ,.
150
1
' , ,
1 1
l rOOi !
g : !gf
~ 1 I ~
I 1
: I
, 1
1 0 L' . ,I
T"-    ~ L A ~   ----"
1000
ELEVATION
ELEVATION
1501.,'.. 1000
ElEVA TlON
Figure - 19
43
G.l.
o
o
~
o
an
,.,..
o
an
N
G.l.
o
o
~
o
111
,.,..
cotton, marshy etc.) is borrowed form elsewhere and dumped in the part of the sump/tank and is well
compacted. Three to four cycles of dry and wet spells are given to the soil till It attains the density of
the dry parent soil. The typical arrangement of this test is shown In Figure 20.
Pull-out Set-u
I' .......... ,
I ., . ,.',
. ,. I r ' :.' '::'.
". ~   ',1 1,-" ,./-::,
:. . .: J l: Ii",: .. ,:
• '. \ • I \' ,
• '. I
... f •
. ' ' .. '. "
oundation under test
orrowed soil
", .. " --- t--- .....
• " ... " ...... I' " ••
:., .. ,',. '.' : :',':": ': .. ' ".:;: ~ : : asonary tank
.' . ,> :'., .... ,:.: .:..: '.:. ::r.;;'·::;;:·+F+-Harrier
.. . ' .. ,.' .',' ..
Figure. 20
Four 50 mm dia pipes are placed in the four corners of the tank vertically before dumping the parent
soiL In 'such a way that their both ends remain open for the passage of water. The foundation is cast
on the partially filled soil. The remainder of the tank is then fully filled with the some type of borrowed
soli. This soli is again well compacted and three to four cycles of wet and dry spell are given.The
wetness is created using the pipes.
The pull-out tests is conducted by keeping the gadgets on the ground level with the some process as
Indicated in 10.12 under the presence of sub-soil water pressure created through the extemal watering
of the tanks using the pipes.
10.16 INVESTIGATION OF FOUNDATION OF TOWERS
Normally it is believed that once the foundation is cast and the tower is erected, the foundations can
not be re-opene.d for investigation or repairing. However, on the basis of investigation and rectification
work carried out on some major 220 kV and 400 kV lines, it is now conSidered to be viable to carry out
this type of exercise even after the line Is strung and energised.
If the foundations on the line have to be investigated, certain locations are selected at randum in such
a fashion that foundations for various types of soils are covered one by one. One or two locations for
every ten km may be sufficient for preliminary investigations. Out of the four individual footings of
selected tower, two diagonally opposite foundations are selected and one of the four faces of each
of these two foundations is excavated in slanting direction from top to bottom. This is shown in
Figure 21.
After the investigation is over and corrective measures have been chalked out it is advisable to backfill
the excavation mixing earth with light cement slurry, particularly when the soil is non-cohesive such as
soft murrum/hard murrum, softrock/hard rock etc., (say one cement bag for every three to four cu m
of earth). This will ensure good bond and safeguard the foundation against uplift forces, even if
corrective repairs of the foundations are delayed.
Direction of Tr. Line
! . .

        A.B.C.D. Footin95
I of Tower
Ope n'ed face I .
__ .--.£:..L. ofl __
Opened face

PLAN
G.L.
Bottom of foundation
Figure. 21
SECTION
10.17 INVESTIGATION OF FOUNDAnON OF A TOWER UNE IN SERVICE
For the investigation of failures of foundations or for the investigation of reported unhealthy foundations,
with line in service, the excavation at the selected location Is carried out In the same fashion as
described in 10.16. However. the line being In service, it will be better to guy the comer leg/legs of
the tower (on which the Investigation Is being carried out) at 45°diagonally from top, a.Noy from the
induction zone. The investigation and the back filling should be done exactly as detailed In 10.16.
10.18 REPAIRS OF FOUNDATIONS OF A TOWER UNE IN SERVICE
After It is establised that the foundation is unhealthy, it is better to take the corrective steps as early as
possible. The methods would be cliffe rent for rectifying Isolated location/locations (or:le to two) and
for rectifying complete line/line sections Including a number of towers. These are discussed below:
(a) Rectification of isolated locations (one or two) Is done on individual basis. Anyone of the four
footings is taken up first. It is opened up from all the four sides. The tower legs connected to
45
this footing are guyed as described in 10.17. After rectifying the foundation backfilling is done
as described in 10.16. A minimum of seven-days' time is allowed for curing of the repaired
foundation before excavating the second leg for repairs. All the four legs are repaired thus
without any outage on the line.
(b) When foundation rectification work is required to be done on a complete line or line section
without any outage, a section from cut point to cut point is selected. The four footings of each
tower in the section are named 'A', 'B', 'C' and 'D' clock-wise as shown Figure 22.
-§--._. ._.---Q
~   B   C   D   Tower legs
. Direction of 'line
-$:-.-. .-.-=$-
Figure. 22
The excavation of leg 'A' in first location, 'B' in second location, 'c' in third location and 'D' In fourth
location can be taken up first. This order can be continued for each group of four towers in the
section. After excavation, rectification and backfilling, seven days curing time Is be allowed. Again
from location 1 to 4, the excavation rectification and backfilling is done In the sequence leg 'c', 'D',
'A' & 'B'. This Is repeated for each group of four towers of the line section under repairs. After passage
of 7 days again the sequence 'B', 'c', 'D' & 'A' and again after 7 days the sequence '0', 'A', 'B' &
'c' are repeated for each group of four towers. This exercise.can be repeated for each group of four
towers for the remainder of the line section. All the precautions described earlier should be taken during
this exercise. It is advisable to avoid this exercise during abnormal wind conditions/active monsoon/
flood etc. If the work is to be completed early, two diagonally opposite footing of each towers can
be opened and repaired simultaneously. The second pair of diagonally opposite footings can be
opened and repaired simultaneously atter a passage of seven days.
10.19 FOUNDATION DEFECTS AND THEIR REPAIRS
The main possible defects In the cast concrete can be as follows :
(a) Under sizing of foundation due to wrong classification of soil: For example, the soil may be dry
black cotton but the foundation cast may be that for normal dry soil. If the corrective measures
are not taken, the foundation can fail. An R. C.C. collar is designed for the type of soli and
tower loadings to remedy such a defect. The details are shown in Figure 23.
(b) Improper formation of pyramid/chimney etc. due to improper concrete laying: If the concrete
is simply poured from the top of the form box, without taking care to fill the voids (using crow
bar, vibrator etc.) the concrete does not reach to the comers of the form and thus the
foundation is not compfetely formed. It will develop the defects described below.
..'
I
I
I
I
I
I
,
, , G.L.
,
el,i
,/1 ,Existing under size
    ' foundation
1/ , ,
" , I
/1.1 ,
1/ : L -.,....- Proposed R.Le. collar in
I
r-.J
I
I
... _-J
I
I
I
'I' I .
" I I steps for reinforcement
C¥J
. Figure - 23
As seen in Figure 24, the foundations have not attained the required shapes In the pyramid,
undercut and chimney portions. These defects can be rectified with R.C.C. collars. The design
of the collars will depend upon the requirement of the load transfer (I.e., thrust. uplift and side
thrust) and extent of deformation of the foundation.
(i.i..
Stub
, ,
, I! ,
, ., ,
, , ,
,   ,
1,.1 :
,   ,
, " ,
',' ,
fil
1/1
,.,
c.f-:J
(i.L
Actual shape
of pyrHlid
47
(c) Damage to stub top and top part of the chimney: Due to ingress of saline water or other
chemical pollutants etc. the stub top part of the steel in the chimney gets corroded. Repairing
can be done by welding the damged portion of the stub and providing R.C.C. collar to the
damaged chimney top as shown in Figure 25. For providing a welded joint. the part of the cast
concrete in the top part of the chimney is broken. All the precautions indicated in 10.16 must
be taken to safeguard the line in service.
ANNEXURE ·1
Soli Properties to be considered In Foundation Designs for various types of SoIl
SI.
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Note:
1.
2.
3.
Type of Soil Angle of Unit wt. of Limit bearing
Earth frustum Soil (kg/cu capacity
(Degree)s) m) (kg/sq m)
Normal Dry Soil
(a) Without Undercut 30 1440 25.000
(b) With undercut 30 1600 25.000
Wet Soil due to presence 15 940 12.500
of sub soil water/surface
water
Black Cotton Soil
(a) In Dry Portion 0 1440 12.500 1
(b) In Wet Portion 0 940 12.500
Sandy Soil
(a) With Clay Content 10 1440 25.000
0-5%
(b) With Clay Content 20 - 1440 25.000
5-10%
Fissured Rock/Soft Rock
(With Undercut)
(a) In Dry Portion 20' 1700
62.500 ..
(b) In Wet Portion 10 940 62.500
Hard Rock
-- -- 1.25.000
Normal Hard Dry Soil 30 1600 40.000
(Murrum) with Undercut
...
limit bearing capacity of soil has been arrived at taking FOS 2.5 over the safe bearing capacity
values. Soil research institutes will be approached to furnish the limit bearing capacities of soli.
If and when such data are available the above values can be reviewed.
Where clay content is more than 10% but less than 15%. the soil will be classified as Normal Dry
Soil.
Angle of Earth Frustum shall be taken with respect to vertical.
49
I
r
ANNEXURE • II
Ust of SoIls Tests
(A) To find out the soil properties, the following laboratory tests shall be carried out :
(1) Grain size distribution/sieve analysis to Identify the type of soli
(2) Atterburg limits (liquid and plastic limits only)
(3) Specific gravity, bulk unit weight moisture content
(4) Triaxial shear test for coheslon(c) and angle of Internal friction (+)
(5) Consolidation test
(6) Standard penetration test
(7) Chemical test on soil and water (only at special locations such as marshy soils,
chemically active soils etc.) to determine the carbonates, sulphates, nitrates, organic
matters and any other chemicals harmful to the concrete foundations.
(8) The above tests shall be useful in determining the types of soil, density, limit bearing capacity
etc. For determining the angle of earth frustum 2/3rd value of angle of internal friction (+) or
the values given in Annexure-I whichever Is smaller shall be taken.
(C) Standard penetration tests shall be conducted at depths as follows :
(i)
~ i  
Location
Normal Locations
River crossing & special Locations
Depth (m)
1.5. 3.0. 4.5, 7.00
1.5. 3.0, 4.5. 7.00. 10.00 &
thereafter at the rate of 3 M
inteNals upto 40 M.
Bore hole logs shall be prepared for the locations where above tests have been conducted.
(D) During execution. trial pits upto a minimum depth of 3.0 m (except rocky locations) shall be
excavated at each and every tower locations ( at all four legs) to obtain following details in
order to classify the type of foundation to be adopted :
1) Type of soli encountered
2) Ground Water table.
ANNEXURE ·111
Guidelines for classification of Foundations In different Soh
51. No. Type of soil encountered Type of foundation to be
adopted
1 In good soli ( silty sand mixed with clay) Normal Dry
2 Where top layer of Black Cotton soil extends upto Partial Black Cotton
50% of the depth with good soli there after
3 Where top layer of black cotton soli exceeds 50% Black Cotton
and extends upto full depth or Is fol!owed by
good soil
4,
Where top layer is good soil upto 50% of the Black Cotton
depth but the lower layer Is a black cotton soil.
5 Where subsoil water Is met at 1.5 m or more Wet
below the ground level In good soil
6 Good soil locations which are In surface water for Wet
long period with water penetration not
exceeding 1.0 m below ground level (e.g., paddy
fields)
7 In good soil where subsoil water Is encountered Partially submerged
between 0.75 m and 1.5 m depth from ground
level
8 In good soli where subsoil water Is encountered Fully Submerged
within 0.75 m depth from ground level
9 Where top layer of normal dry soli extends upt6 Dry Assured Rock
85% of the depth followed by fissured rock
without presence of water
10 Where top layer Is fissured rock followed by good Special foundation
soli/sandy soli with/without presence of water
11 Where normal soil/fissured rock extends upto 85% Dry fissured Rock with
of the depth followed by hard rock under cut In FIssured Rock
combined with anchor
bar for hard.rock design.
12 Where fissured rock is encountered with subsoil Submerged Assured Rock
water within 0.75 m or below 0.75 m from G.l.
(Top layer may be either a good soli or black
cotton soil)
13 Where Hard Rock is encountered at 1.5 m or less Hard Rock
below ground level
14 Where Hard Rock is encountered from 1.5 m to
Hard Rock Foundation
2.5 m below G.l. (Top layer being good soli)
with   h i m n e ~ for Normal
Soil
51
15 Where hard rock is encountered from 1.5 m to Hard Rock Foundation
2.5 m below G.L. (Top layer either in Black cotton geslgn with .. ne.'£.s
soil or fissured Rock) geslgne_Q for wet
   
16 Where fissured rock Is encountered at the bottom Composite Foundation
of pit (with black cotton soil at top)
17 Where hard rock is encountered at bottom with Hard Rock
water and black cotton soil at top and hard rock
layer depth is less than 1.5 m
18 Sandy soil with clay content not exceeding 10% Dry Sandy soli foundation
19 Sandy soil with water table in the pits Wet sandy soli design to
be developed
considering the depth of
water
20 Where top layer upt6 1.5 m below G.L. is normal Normal dry with undercut
dry soil and thereafter hard soil/murrum
21 Where bottom layer is marshy soH with top loyer Soil Investigation is to be
of good soil/fissured rock/ black cotton carried out and special
foundation design to be
developed
22 Where the top layers are a combination of clinker Normal dry with undercut
mixed with firm soil. gravel and stone chips upto
Wfo of foundation depth from ground level
followed by Hard murrum
23 Where top layers are combination of hard Special foundation design
murrum. soft rock etc. followed by yellow/black is to be developed after
clayee soil carrying out soil
Investigation
Any other combination of .soil not covered above sholl require development of special foundation
design.
ANNEXURE - IV
Bond Stresses
(1) Limit Bond Stress between Concrete and reinforcement steel deformed bars In tension of grade
Fe: 415
Conforming to IS: 1786-1985 or IS: 1139-1966
(a)
(b)
With M:15 Mix
With M:20 Mix
Note: For bars in compression the above values shall be increased by 25%
(2) Limit Bond Stress between Concrete and Stubs in Tension with
(a)
(b)
M:15 Mix
M:20 Mix
For compression the above values will be increased by 25%
(3) Limit band stress between Rock and Concrete
(4)
(a)
(b)
In Fissured Rock
In Hard Rock
Limit bond stress between hard rock and grout
53
As per IS: 456
/
16 kg/cm2
19.5 kg/cm2
10 kg/cm
2
./
12 kg/cm
2
1.5 kg/cm2
4.0 kg/cm'" ./
2.0 kg/cm2
.f
'i
ANNEXURE· V
Where oc are
respective angle of earth
frustum B: bose width
.-----________ -.;of footing.
-
,'--------------------
The Formula for Calculating the Volume of Conical Pyramid
Frustum' of Soi I .
VOL. OF. UPPER PORTION OF SOIL
/-\
A, . = 8
2
+ 4 x 8 xH
l
TANot+ 7t x  
= 8
2
+ 4 x 8 X (H
l
TAN 0(..+ HuTAN P) + 7t (H
l
TAN 0(.+ Hu
3
[ 1
VOLUME OF LOWER PORTION OF SOIL
VL = 8
2
X H, + 2 x 8 X H,2 TAN rL+ x 7t X H.] X TAN1,{
" , ,
Typical Illustration for Examples of Design Calculation Illustration·
ILLUSTRATION NO - I
DATA
1. 400 KV D / C Transmission line
2. Tower type: "DB"
3. Design loads (Limiting/ultimate) (inclusive of overload fador 1.2)
Description
Normal Condition
(Reliability)
Broken Wire Condition
(Security)
4.
Down thrust
uplift
side thrust (T)
side thrust (L)
Tower SIQpes:
TAN e = 0.192570
(Kgs.) .
165598
140917
5907
825
True length factor = 1 .036 J
5. Soil/rock data:
unit weight of dry s o   l ~ 1440 kglcu.m
unit weight of to wet soil=940 kg/cu.m
unit weight of dry fissured rock=1700 kg/cu.m
unit weight of wet fissured rock=940 kg/cu.m
unit weight of hard rock=1440 kg/cu.m
(Kgs.)
154376
130185
8283
4983
limit bearing capacity (dry locations) : 27350 kg/sq.m
limit bearing capacity (wet locations) : 13675 kg/sq.m
limit bearing capacity (fissured rock locations) : 62500 kg/sq.m
limit bearing capacity (hard rock locations) : 125000 kg/sq.m
ILLUSTRATION NO - "
DESIGN OF WET TYPE FOUNDATION
1.0 Volume of Concrete (Cu.m.) :
5.19
2
X 0.050
5.19
2
X 0.100
0.25/3 {5.19
2
+ 4.69
2
+ 5.19 X 4.691
1.74
2
X 0.2
0.65
2
X 2.625
55
= 1347
1
= 2.694/
= 6.106
1
= 0.605 /
= 1.109/
11.861
U'\
    __ m't" ___ -I
0
0
0
,.,...
0
0
-.1'
N
0
0
N'
o
0.
I
\
... --\.
...... __ ..... :z!:.,::;. :::::&:= .. =.:c.:: .. ..... s::' ,;:. =: .::£:.::-=. =. j=:" !:\. ::;. ... =. :z1
I
I
_I Lean concrete
.. 1740---' (1:3:6)
... 1 .. .. 1
...... ------5190 -------.. -'1
Sketch 1: Wet Type Foundation
NOTE: ALL DIMENSIONS IN THE SKETCH ARE IN MM.
2.0 Over Load of Concrete (kgs.) :
compression
0.65
2
X 0.225 x 2400
= 228
(11.861- 0.095) X (2400-1440)
= 11295
0.65
2
X 1.5 X (2490-1440)
=
(11.861-1.347 -.0095-0.634 X(1400-940)
=
-----
11523
3.0 Dry Soil Volume: (Cu.m)
Al=5.19
2
+4 X 5.19 X 0.362 + 3.14 X 0.3622
A2=5.19
2
+4 X 5.19 X (0.866+0. 362) + 3.14 X (0.866+0.362)2
V = (1.5/3) [ 34.857+57.160 + V(34.857x57.160))
=
=
=
(All dimensions
are in mm)
Uplift
228
608
4501
5337
34.857
57.160
68.327
\ :
.,.U wer o   VOlume: (Cu.m)
5.19
2
X 1.45
5.19 X 0.362 X 2 X 1.35
3.14/3 X 0.3622 X 1.35
=
=
=
39.057
5.069
0.185
44.311
5.0 Check for Uplift
5.1 Resistance Against Uplift
= 68.327 x 1440 + 44.311 x 940 + 5337
F.G.S (NC)= 145380/140917 = 1.032> 1.0
F.G.S (BWC) = 145380/130185 = 1.120> 1.0
= 145380 kgs.
Hence O.K.·
Hence O.K.'
6.0 Moment due to Side Thrust at Foundation Toe
6.1
NORMAL CONDITION (TRANSVERSE SIDE THRUST)
Side thrust force = (F) = 1/2 x w x h
2
xB3 x 1 +Sin ~
Where W = 940 kglm3
1-Sin 4>
ct> = Angle of Earth Frustum = 15°
B3 = 0.65
1 +Sin15°
F = 1/2 x 940 x (hF x x 0.65
1-Sin 15°
h = ..J (F/518.86)
F1 = ST = 5907 Kgs .
h =..J (5907/518.86) = 3.374m
Since h >§.4-0.5Ym therfore the soil pressure will only be
mobilised in (2.4-0.5) i.e. 1.9m depth.
Resisting soil force F = 518.86x1.9
2
= 1873.09 kg
Moment due to side thrust at the base of the footing .
= 5907x (2.95+0.225) - 1873.09x (O.55+r, .9/3)
= 1653a.85 kg m /'
6.2 NORMAL CONDITION (LONGITUDINAL SIDE THRUST)
Side thrust force = (F) =1/2 x w x hx1ri x 1 +Sin 4>
1-Sin 4>
Where W = 940 kglm3
~ = Angle of Earth Frustrum = 1 S°
B3 = 0.65m
57
1+Sin15°
F = 1/2 x 940 x (hF x x 0.65
h=..J (F518.86)
F1= SL = 825 Kgs
1-Sin15°
h =..J (825/518.86) = 1.261 m
Since h < (2,4-0.5) m therfore the soil pressure will only be
mobilised in 1.261 m depth from root of the chimney. .
Resisting soil force F = 518.86x1.26 P= 825 kg
Moment due to side thrust at the base of the footing
= 825x(2.95+0.225) - 825x(0.55+ 1.261/3)
= 1818.85 kg m J ,/
6.3 BROKEN WIRE CONDITION (TRANSVERSE SIDE THRUST)
Side thrust force = (F) = 1/2 x w x h
2
xB3 x
Where W = 940 Kglm3
$ = Angle of Earth Frustrum = 15°
B3 = 0.65m
1 +Sin15°
F = 1/2 x 940 x (hF x ----x 0.65
1-Sin15°
h =..J (F/518.86)
F1 = ST = 8283 Kgs
h =..J (8283/518.86) = 3.996m
1 +Sin $
l-Sin $
/
Since h > (2,4-0.5)m therfore the soil pressure will only be mobilised in (2,4-0.5) Le .. 1.9m depth.
Resisting soil force F = 518.86x1.9
2
= 1873.09 kg
Moment due to side thrust at the base of the footing
= 8283* (2.95+0.225) - 1873.09 x (0.55+ 1.9/3)
= 24082.70 kg m J
6,4 BROKEN WIRE CONDITION (LONGITUDINAL SIDE THRUST)
Side thrust force = (F) = 1f2 x W x h2xB3 x 1 +Sin '1>
Where W = 940 Kg ml
  = Angle of Eath Frustrum = 15°
83 = 0.65m
l-Sin $
"I
· '!
1 +Sin15°
F = 112 X 940 X (hF X ------x 0.65
1-Sin15°
h = v(F/518.86)
Fl = SL = 4983 Kgs
h =   = 3.099m
Since h > (2.4-0.5)m therfore the soil pressure will only be mobilised in 1.9m depth.
Resisting soil force F = 518.86 X 1.9
2
= 1873.09 kg
Moment due to side thrust at the base of the footing
= 4983x(2.95+0.225) - 1873.09x(O.55+ 1.9/3)
= 13605.2 kg m V
7.0 Check for Bearing Capacity
165598/1.036+ 11523 2x(165598/1.036)xO.192570xO.6
NC= + --------------
5.19
2
1/6x5.19]
16538.86 1818.85
+ ---------+ ---------
1/6 X 5.19] 1/6x5.19]
= 6362' + 1585.3 710+ 78
= 8736 kg/m2 < 13675 kg/m2 Hence O.K.
154376/1.036 + 11523 2 x (154376/1.036)xO.192570x(0.6)
,
I.
BWC= + --------------
5.19
2
1/6x5.19
J
24082.70 13605.2
+------ +------
1/6 x 5.19] 1/6x5.19]
= 9056 Kg/m2 < 13675 Kg/m2 Hence O.K
B.O Design of Chimney
A) Compression with bending
Area of steel in compression
ASC = 24x n/4 x(2.0)2
= 75.40 cm
2
.
percentage of steel = p = ASClB3
2
X 100 :B3=65 cm
= 1.785
p/fck = 1.785/15 = 0.119
59
Normal Condition
Puc = 165598 Kgs = 1624516 N
Puc 1624516
--=
------ = 0.256
fck.bd 15x650x650
.x
d' = 50(20/2) = 60 d = 650
therefore d' /d = 0.10
As per chart 44 of 5p.16
For the values of Puc/fckbd = 0.256 & p/fck = 0.119
Mux1/fckbd
2
= 0:65 -+ Mux1 = 0.165x15x650x650
2
= 679.7 X 10
6
N-mm
= 679.7 KN-m
Also Muy1 = 679.7 KN-m
From the calculation shown in $ 6.0
Moment at the root of the chimney
Mux = 5907x(2,4+0.225) - 1873.09x(1.9/3)
= 14320.21 kg m
= 140.5 kN m
Muy = 825x(2.4+0.225) - 825x(1.261/3)
= 1818.88 kg m
= 17.84 kN m
Ref: Clause 38.6 of 15-456-1978
PUZ = 0,45xfckxAC+0.75 fy ASC
= 0,45x15x(650)2+0.75x415 x{24x1t/4x20
2
)
= 5198650.2 N = 5198.65 KN
PUC = 165598 Kgs = 1624.5 KN
PUC . 1624.5
--= =0.3125
PUZ 5198.65
for PUC/PUZ = 0.3125; ocn = 1.1875
f : ~ : :   r + : : ~ : :   r
' ___ ] 1.1875+
r- 140.50
679.7
= 0.154+0.013 = 0.167 < 1.0 Hence O.K.
+
___ 11.1875
17.84
679.70
)..
BROKEN WIRE CONDITION
PUC = 154376 kgs = 1514.4 KN
PUC/fckbd = 1514.4x1000/15x650x650 = 0.239
p/fck = 0.119
. As per chart 44 of SP16
MUX1/fckbd
2
= 0.167
MUXI = 0.167x15x650x65Q2
= 687.90 x 10' N-mn
= 687.90 KN-m
Also MUY1 = MUXl = 687.90 KN-m
From the calculation shown in $ 6.0
Moment at the root of the chimney
Mux = 8283x(2.4+0.225) - 1873.09x(1.9/3)
= 20557.21 kg m
= 201.67 kN m
Muy = 4983x(2.4+0.225) - 1873.09x(1.9/3)
= 11894.71 kg m
= 116.69 kN m
PUZ =" 5198.65 KN
PUC/PUZ = 1514.4/5198.65 = 0.2913; ocn = 1.152
[
(MUX) l"n
(MUX1) J •
= 0.243+0.129 = 0.373 < 1.0 Hence OK
B) Tension with Bending
NORMAL CONDITION
PUt = 140917 Kgs
= 1382396 N
PUtlfckbd = 1382396/15x650x650 = (-)0.22
p = 1.785
p/fck = 0.119
d'/d = 0.10
From Chart 79 of SP 16
[
201.67 J1.152 .
687.90
61
1.152
[
116.69 ]
687.90
Muxl/ fck bd
2
= 0.085
Muxl :; 350.15 kN m
Muxl = Muyl = 350.15 kN m
Mux = 140.5 kN m
Muy = 17.85 kN m
As per c1. 38.6 of 15-456-1978
[ : : ~ : :   r + [ : ~ : :   r: 1.0
ocn = 1.0 for tension with bending
[
(MUX) ]
(MUX1)
+
[
(MUY) ]
(MUY1)
= [ 140.5 I + [ 17.85 I
350.15 350.15
= 0.452 < 1.0 Hence O.K.
BROKEN WIRE CONDITION
PUt
= 130185 Kgs
= 1277.1 kN
PUt/fckbd
= 1277115/15x650x650 = (.)0.202
p = 1.785
p/fck = 0.119
d'/d = 0.10
From Chart 79 of 5P 16
Mux1/ fck bd
2
= 0.09
Mux1 = 370.75 kN m
Mux1 Muy1 = 370.75 kN m
Mux = 201.67 kN m
Muy = 116.7 kN m
As per c1. 38.6 of 15-456-1978
ocn ocn
[
(MUX) + [ (MUY)
(MUX1) (MUY1)
an = 1.0 for tension with bending
< 1.0
- 1
I '
[ (MUX) 1
(MUX1)
+ [ : : ~ : :   ]
[201.67]
-
370.75
+ [:::::: ]
= 0.858 < 1.0 Hence O.K.
9.0 Design of Base Slab
Design Bearing Pressure
a)
= (PIA) + (P.ex/Z) +MAX{ST moment, SL moment}!Z
= 6362 + 1585.3/2 + 710
= 7865 kglm2
~ 0.07715 N/mm
2
d, = Eff. depth at Section XX
= 550-50-16-8
= 476 mm
d
2
= Eff. depth at Section YY
= 350-50-16-8
= 276 mm
COMPRESSION REINFORCEMENT
(i) Bending Moment at Section X-X
Bearing Pressure = 7865 kglm2
= 0.07715 N/mm
2
MUX1 = 0.07715x (8-83)2/8 x 5190
= 0.07715 x (5190-650)2/8 x 5190
= 1031708030 N-mm
= 1031.6 kN m
MU, LIM = 0.36 Xu, Max/d (1-0.42 Xu, max/d) bd
2
fck
As per C1. 37.1 f of IS - 456
for Fe 415 grade steel Xumax/d = 0.48
Mu, LIM = 0.36x0.48 (1-0.42xO.48)x1740 x (476)2x15
= 815.8 kN m < 1031.7 kN m '-,-
Mux1/bd
1
= 1031.7 x 10' I (1740x476
2
)
=2.618> 2.06
Hence section to be designed as doubly reinforced section.
d'/d = (50+16+8) 1476 = 0.15
63
From table 49 of SP 16
Pt = 0.8956, Pc = 0.192
Hence Ast = (1740x476xO.8956)/l 00
= 7418 mml Provide 37 bars of 16mm dia.
Ast provided = 7437 mm
1
> 7418 mml
Asc = (1740x476xO.192)/100
= 1590.2 mml Provide 8 bars of ·16 mm dia.
This is the minimum reinforcement to be provided at section x-x for uplift.
(ij) Bending Moment at Section Y_ Y
Muy1· = 0.07715 x(5190-1740)1 x 5190/8
= 595.73 kN m
.
Muy1/bd
1
= 595.73 x 10'1 (4690x276
2
)
= 1.67 < 2.06
Hence section to be designed as singly reinforced section.
From table 1 of SP 16
Pt = 0.546
Hence Ast = (4690x276xO.546)/l 00
= 7068 mm
2
Provide 37 bars of 16mm dia.
Ast provided = 7437 mm
2
> 7067 mm
2
(bJ UPLIFT REINFORCEMENT
Bearing Pressure P 2
= 1409171 (5.19
2
-0.65
2
)
= 5314.9 Kglm2
= 0.052139 N/mm
2
(j) Bending Moment at Section X-X
MUX2 = 0.052139 x (5190-650)2/8 x 1000
= 134333520 N-mm/M
MUX2 = 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 476 (1 - Ast x 415/1 0 0 ~ 1 5  
Ast = 820.81 mm
2
1M-width C7
= 8.21 eM2 1M-width
- ~
Ast reqd. = 8.21x1.74 = 14.29 eM2
Provide 8 bars of 16 mm •
Ast Provided = 16.08 em
2
> 14.29 cm
2
Hence depth provided at Section X-X is ok.
(ij) Bending Moment at Section Y_ Y
MUY2 = 0.052139 x (5190-1740)2 I 8 x 1000 = 77573055 N-mm/M
MUY2 = 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 276 (1 - Ast x 415/1000x276x15)
Ast = 850.9 mm
2
/M-width
= a.51 eM2 1M-width
Ast reqd. =: 8.51x4.69 = 39.91 eM2
Provide 22 bars of 16 mm •
Ast Provided = 44.22 em
2
> 39.91 eM2
Hence depth provided at Section Y-Y is ok.
; ,
c). CHECK FOR ONE WAY SHEAR
At Section X-X
Design bearing Pressure p 7 0.07715 N/mm
2
Shear force = VI =
B-B
1
-d1 x P
2
= 0.07715x[(5190-650) /2-476] x 1000
= 138407 N/M width
Shear Stress = 138407/476x1 000
= 0.291 N/mm2
% of Steel (p) = (Ast/bd)x1 00
= ((74.37x100) / (5190x476) xl00 = 0.301
As per table 13 of IS-456-1978
Allowable Shear Stress = 0.3806 N/mm2>0.291 N/mm2 Hence O.K.
At Sec-Y-Y
p = 0.07715 N/mml
Shear force:: V 2 =
B-B
2
- d2
2
':: 0.07715x [6190-1740) 12-276 )x1000
:: 111790 N in
ShearStle$:: 111790J276x1000
:: 0.4050 NAn 2
x p
Ast/bdxl00 = 74.37xl00/ (5190x276) xl00 = 0.5192 .
Allowable Shear Stress = 0.468 N/mm
2
>0.405N/mm
2
Hence OK
d). CHECK FOR 7WO WAY SHEAR
At Section X-X
p = 0.07715 N/mm
2
Shearforce ='V
2
[B2-(B
J
+D1)2] x p
= 0.07715x[5190
2
-(650+476)2]
= 1980304 N
Shear Stress = 1980304/4x476[650+476]
= 0.924 N/mm2
65
Allowable Shear stress
= 0.25 x (15) 1/2
. = 0.968N/mm2 > 0.924 N/mm
2
Hence OK
At Sec-y-y
p = 0.07715 N/mm
2
5hearforce = V
2
[B2-(B
3
+01)2] x p
= 0.07715x[519()2(1740+276)2]
= 1764563 N
Shear Stress = 1764563/4x276[1740+276]
= 0.793 N/mm2
Allowable Shear stress = 0.25 x ..J15
= 0.968N/mm
2
> 0.793
Hence OK
e) CHECK AGAINST UPROOTING OF STUB:
Design Uplift = 140917 Kgs.
Stub section = 200x200x16
Stub depth below GL = 2800 mm
UltLoad resisted by stub in slab due to Bond
Us = [Ox{Xx2.0+(X-Ts)x2.0}-Npx{X+(X-Ts)}xklxs
Where X = flange width of stub.
o = Depth of stub in slab.
s = Ultimate permissible bond stress
between stub & concrete
Ts = Thickness of stub section.
Np = No. of cleat pair
(pair consist of outer and inner cleat)
k = Flange width of cleat section.
Us = [40x{20x2+(20-1.6)x2.0}-3x{20+(20-1.6)x11]x10
= 18048 Kg.
Ultimate permissible bearing
stress in concrete = 68.84 kg/cm2
Use outer cleat = 3 nos. 11 Ox11 Ox8 - 440 mrn long
yse inner cleat = 3 nos. 11 Ox11 Ox8 - 250 mm long .
provide 4 nos. of"16 dia. bolts per cleat pair of 5.6 grade
Load resisted by cleat in bearing
Uc
Where b
Lo
U
Ct
= bx(Lo+U)xNpx(k-Ct)
= Ultimate Bearing pressure in concrete
= Length of Outer cleat
= Length of Inner cleat
= Thicness of cleat section.
--':;-1
 
= 136923 Kg (j)
: {
Ultimate shear strength of bolts
Ub = total no. of boltsx2.0x2.01 x3160
(considering M-16 bolt gradeS.6 & double shear for cleat connected in pair)
= (4x3)x2.0x2.01 x3160
= 152438 Kg (ii)
Ultimate bearing strength of bolt in stub or cleat
= Total nos. of boltsx1.6x(Ts or2xCt)x5200
take Ts or2xCt which ever is less
= (4x3)x1.6x1.6x5200
= 159744 Kg (iii)
Effective strength of stub and cleat
= Us+ .Least of the strength of case [ (i), (ii), (iii) ]
= 18048+136923
= 154971 Kg which is more than UIt.Uplift=140917kg
(Hence safe)
f) CHECK FOR BOND:
Design bearing pressure = 0.07715 N/mm2
[
(5190-2650)
Maxm. Shear force =
= 718333 N
As per Appendix - E of Is - 456 - 1978
Xu/d = 0.87 fy Ast/0.36 fck bd
0.87x415x7437
=--------
0.36x15x5190x476
= 0.2013
J = 1-Xu/d xl/3 = 1-0.2013/3 = 0.933
Bond Stress = 718333/0.933x476x37x 1t x16
= 0.87/N/mm2 < 1.6 N/mm
2
-
Hence OK.
10.0 Check for Sliding
/
F1 = 1/2x1.5x6480xO.65 = 3159
F2 = 1/2x (23'9'5+3831) x 0.9XO.65 = 1821
F3 = (0.2/2) (38J2+4151)x1.74 = 1389
F4 = (0.25/2) (45-50+4151) (4.69+5.19)/2 = 5373
F5 = (0.1/2)(4550+4710) x 5.19 = 2403
- 476
= 14145
67
1 x5190xO.07715
. .:"" I y r j
. I '<. 1 t. C. Q \.   ~ 6 D • IJ '
., 1 '"
o
o

N
o
o
o
,.,.,
G.L.
650Sq.
...            
... , • ..------4690--------1
..... -------5190--------t
Sketch - 2
F.O.S. in NC = 14145/5907 = 2.40 > 1.0
F.O.S. in BWC = 14145/8283 = 1.71 > 1.0
Hence OK.
n.o Check for Overturning
Resultant Side Thrust
(j) Under NC = {59072+825
2
)1/2
= 5964 kg
(ii) Under BWC = (8283
2
+4983
2
)112
= 9666 kg
Total Overturning Moment
(j) Under NC -
= (140917/1.036)x(5.19/2 -5.19/6) + 5964x(2.9S+0.225)
- 5338x(5.19/2 -5.19/6)
= 245016 kg m
(ij) Under BWC
= (130185/1.036)x(5.19/2 - 5.19/6) + 9666x(2.95+0.225)
- 5338x(5.19/2) -5.19/6}
= 238849 kg m
Total Resisting Moment
= 1/2 x(68.327xl440 + 44.311 x940) x (S/6 xS.19)
302843 kg m
o
o
Ln
...
«::)
o
N
o
11'1
N
       
o
... t----""'\ 4710 kg.- m
(All dimensions ire in mm)
"
Factor of Safety
Under NC = 302843/245016 = 1.236 > 1.0
Under BWC = 302843/238849 = 1.268> 1.0 Hence O.K.
12.0 Quantities Per Tower
Concrete Volume : 42.06 m
3
+ 5.39 m
3
(M15) (Ml0)
Excavation Volume: 361.68 M3
Reinforcement : 4962 Kgs.
13.0 Reinforcement Detail
13.1 BAR BENDING SCHEDULE
Sketch
Length

(mm) (mm)
5090
5090 16
1640
n
425
2690
16
100 100
4590
L

5352 16
100 100
3000

3350 20
550
0
550
2307 6
No. of Unit wt.
Bars (kg/m)
  , ..
76 1'58
16 1'58
44
1'58
20
2· 47
13 0·22
69
t t·.,
wt.llength wtlTower
(kgs) (kgs)
611'21 2444'84
68'00 272:00
372'07 1488'28
165'49 661'96
6·60 26'39
Totol 4893'47
4894 kgs
13.2 REINFORCEMENT SKETCH
 
o
o
<of
N
ILLUSTRATION - III
650---'
• • •
1740
·1
4690
5190
Sketch 3: Reinforcement
Bar Mkd' 0 '
(4) bars of 20 t
Bar Mkd 'E' I
(6mm _@ 250mm c/c)
Bar Mkd 'B,I
(8+8) bars of 16 t
I
Bar Mkd 'e'
(22+22) bars of 16 t
Bar Mkd 'A'

(38+38) bars of 16 I
\ kg metres '0 bewritt ..
.,
In pressure design

PARTIALL Y SUBMERGED TYPE FOUNDATION
0
0
<of
N
§
If)
0
0
N
0
10
N

0
10
e.l.
G.l.
1
o
o
433
l
dimensions
::0 "' _I .Iore in mm
\-
________ ________ J_.
Sketch 4 "Partially Submerged Type Foundation"
\ '
.)
) .'
\ .
1.0 Volume of Concrete (Cu.m)
5.78
2
xO.05
5.78xO.l0
0.25/3 [5.78
2
+5.28
2
+5.78x5.28]
1.88
2
X 0.200
0.65
2
x (2.4 + 0.225)
= 1.670
= 3.341
= 7.651
= 0.707
= 1.109
TOTAL = 14.478
2.0 Overload Due to Concrete (Kg)
(0.65
2
x 0.225) 2400
(0.65
2
x 1.5) x (2400-1440)
(14.478-0.095-0.634)x(1400-940)
0.65
2
x 0.75x(2400-1440)
(14.478-1.670-0.09S-0.317)x(1400-9OO}
~   - \ o
3.0 Dry 50;1 Volume: (Cu.m)
=
=
=
=
=
Al = 5.78
2
+4x5.78xO.563 +1t x(0.563)2 = 47.413
comp
228
608
6325·
7161
A2 = 5.78
2
+4x5.78x(0.563 + 0.433) + 1t x(0.563+0.433)2=59.544
V=0.75/3[47.413+S9.544+..[47.413x59.544] = 40.023 CU.M.
\ 4.0 Wet 50;1 Volume: (Cu.m)
\ .
) !
5.78
2
X 2.2
5.78 X 0.563x2x2.1
n/3xO.563
2
x2.1
=
=
::.
TOTAL =
5.0 Check for Vplift:
5. 1 RESISTANCE AGAINST UPLIFT:
73.498
13.660
0.696
87.854
= 40.023 X 1440 + 87.854X940 + 6234
= 146450 Kgs.
F.O.S (NC) = 146450/140917 = 1.040 > 1.0
F.O.S (BWC) = 146450/130185 = 1.125 > 1.0
71
Jplift
228
304
5702
6234
6.0 Check for Bearing Capacity
165598/1.036+7161 165598/1.036xO.192570xO.6x2
NC= +
5.78
2
1/6x5.78
J
16539 1820
+ +
1/6x5.78
J
1/6x5.78
J
= 6717 Kglm2 < 13675 kglm2
154376/1.036+7161 154376/1.036xO.192570xO.6x2
BWC = ------- +
1/6x5.78
J
24082.53 13605.2
+
+
1/6x5.78
J
1/6x5.78
J
= 6916 Kglm2 < 13675 kglm2
7.0 Design of Chimney
Calculations are similar to those given for Wet Type Foundation.
B.O Design of Base Slab
Basic design calculations are similar as given in Wet Type foundations.
9.0 Check for Overturning
Basic design philosophy is similar as given in wet foundation.
10.0 Check for Overturning
Basic design philosophy is similar as given in wet foundation.
11.0 Quantities Per Tower
Concrete Volume (MJ)
Excavation Volume
Reinforcement
12.0 Reinforcement -Details
51.23 (M15) + 6.68 (M1 0)
443.6 yn3
6050 Kgs.
Similar to those given in wet type foundations.
12.1 REINFORCEMENT SKETCH:
Similar to that given in wet type foundations.
12.2 BAR BENDING SCHEDULE
Similar to that given in wet type foundations.
ILLUSTRATION: IV
FULLY SUBMERGED TYPE FOUNDATION
G.l.
0
0
'it
N
0
0
0
 
0
0
N
0
to
N
0
0
0
to
Sketch.5: "Fully Submerged Type Foundation."
ALL DIMENSIO'NS ARE IN MM.
1.0 Volume of Concrete (Cu.m)
6.36
2
x 0.05
6.36
2
xO.10
0.25/3[6.36
2
+5.86
2
+6.36x5.861
2.022X 0.2
0.65
2
x2.625
TOTAL
2.0 Overload Due to Concrete (Kg.)
= 2.023
= 4.045
= 9.338
= 0.816
= 1.109
= 17.331
./ (0.65
2
x 0.225) x 2400 =
(0.65
2
xO.75) x (2400-1440) =
(1 i.331-0.095-0.317)x(1400-940) =
(17.331-2.023-0.095)x0400-940) =
COM UPLIFT
228
304
7783
228
6998
8315 7226
73
3.0 Dry Soil Volume.: Nil
4.0 Wet Soil Volume:
6.36
2
x 2.95
= 119.33
6.36 x 0.764x2x2.85
= 27.684
1t/3xO.764
2
x2.85
=
1.740
TOTAL = 148.750
5.0 Check for Uplift
5.1 RESISTANCE AGAINST UPLIFT:
= 148.750 x 940 + 7226 = 147051 Kgs.
F.O.S (NC) = 147051/140917 = 1.043> 1.0
F.O.S (BWC) = 147051/130185 = 1.130> 1.0
6.0 Check for Bearing Capacity
165598/1.036+8315 165598/1.036xO.192570xO.6x2
NC= +
6.36
2
1/6x6.36
3
16538.8 1819.13
+ +
1/6x6.36
3
1/6x6.36
3
= 5446 Kglm2 < 13675 kglm2
154376/1.036+8315
6.36
2
24082.53
154376/1.036xO.192570xO.6x2
BWC= +
+----- +
1/6x6.36
l
= 5571 Kglm2 < 13675 kglm2
7.0 Design of Chimney
Calculations are similar to those given in Wet Type Foundation.
B.O Design of Base Slab
1/6x6.36
l
13605.2
1/6x6.36
3
Basic design calculations are similar to those given in Wet Type Foundations.
9.0 Check for Sliding
Basic design philosophy is similar to that given in wet type foundation.
10.0 Check for Overturning
Basic design philosophy is similar to that given in wet type foundation.
U.O· Quantities Per Tower
Concrete Volume (M3)
Excavation Volume
61.23 (M15) + 8.09 (M10)
532.27' Y v   ~



I
:1
I
I
J
»
I

12.0 Reinforcement Details
Similar to those given in wet type foundation.
12.1 REINFORCEMENT SKETCH
Similar to that given in wet type foundation.
12.2 BAR BENDING SCHEDULE
Similar to that given in wet type foundation.
ILLUSTRATION: V
WET BLACK COTTON SOIL TYPE FOUNDATION
o
o
o
rt)
o
o
'fit
N
o
N
G.L.

Leon concrete
... ' ....
2180
6590

.0 •..
.. I
o
10
Q)
N
S ketch   Black Cotton Soil Type Foundat ion II
"ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MM"
1.0 Volume of Concrete (Cu.m)
7.09
2
x 0.05
7.09
2
xO.100
0.25/3 [7.09
2
+ 6.59
2
+ 7.09 x 6.59)
2.18
2
x 0.2
0.65
2
x 2.625
TOTAL
2.0 Overload Due to Concrete (Kg.)
= 2.513
= 5.027
= 11.702
= 0.950
= 1.109
= 21.302
Comp Uplift
(0.65
2
x 0.225) x 2400 = 228 228
(21.302-0.095) (2400 - 1440) = 20359
(21.302-2.513-0.095) x (1400··940) = 8599
--------------------
20587 8827
75
3.0 Wet Soil Volume (Cu.m)
7.09
2
x 2.95 = 148.290 M3
4.0 Dry Soil Uplift
Nil
5.0 Check for Uplift
= 148.290 x 940 + 8827 = 148220 Kgs.
F.O.S (NC) = 148220/140917 = 1.052 > 1.0
F.O.S (BWC) =. 148220/130185 = 1.140 > 1.0
6.0 Check for Bearing Capacity
165598/1.036+20587 165598/1.036xO.192570xO.6x2
NC=
+
7.09
2
1/6x7.09
J
17450.0 1551
+
+
1/6x7.09
J
1/6x7.09
J
= 4530 kg/m2 < 13675 Kg/m2
BWC=
154376/1.036+20587
7.09
2
24993.0
+
1/6x7.09
J
= 4620 Kg m
2
< 13675 Kg/m2
7.0 Design of Chimney
+
+
154376/1.036xO.192570 xO.6x2
1/6x7.09
J
14516
1/6x7.09
J
Calculations are similar to those given in Wet Type Foundation.
B.O Design of Base Slab
Basic design calculations are similar to those given in Wet Type Foundations.
9.0 Check for Overturning
Basic design philosophy is similar to that given in Wet type foundation.
10.0 Check for Overturning
Basic design philosophy is similar to that given in wet type foundation.
11.0 Quantities Per Tower
Concrete Volume (M
J
)
Excavation Vol"ume
Reinforcement
12.0 Reinforcement Details
75.16 (M15) + 10.05 (M10)
655.36 \tV\3
8800 Kgs.
Similar to those given in wet type foundation.
12.1 REINFORCEMENT SKETCH:
Similar to that given in wet type foundation.
12.2 BAR BENDING SCHEDULE:
Similar to that given in wet type foundation.
ILLUSTRATION-VI
DRY FISSURED ROCK TYPE FOUNDATION
1037
0
0

0
N
0
0
rC')
0
0
(\J
0
It)
(\J
0
Q
2
I-
16
-I
,-
4190
-I
l
4690
J
' All
art! In mm

Sketch"7: Dry Fissured Rock Type Foundation
II All DIMENSIONS ARE IN MM"
1.0 Volume of Concrete (Cu.m)
4.69
2
X 0.050 =
1.100/
4.69
2
x 0.100 =
2.200 /
0.25/3 [4.69
2
+ 4.19
2
+ 4.69 x 4.191 =
4.934 /
1.622 X 0.2
--
0.525 ./
0.65
2
x 2.625
;:; 1.109 .
TOTAL
=
9.868
2.0
Overload Due to Concrete (Kg.)
     
"'pt.,! \-
(0.65
2
x 0.225) x 2400
=
228 228
(9.868-0.095) (2400-1700)
=
6841
(9.868-0.095-1.100) x (2400-1700)
=
6071
- 7069 6299
-77
3.0 Dry Soil Volume (Cu.m)
4.69
1
x 2.95
4.69xl.037x2x2.85
1r/3xl.037
1
x 2.85
TOTAL
4.0 Wet Soil Volume: Nil
5.0 Check for Uplift
= 64.890
= 27.731
= 3.211
= 95.832
5.1 RESISTANCE AGAINST UPLIFT
= 95.832 x 1700 + 6299 = 16913 Kgs.
F.O.S (NC) = 169213/140917 = 1.200> 1.0
F.O.S (BWC) = 169213/130185 = 1.300> 1.0
6.0 Check for Bearing Capacity
165598/1.036 + 7069 165598/1.036 x 0.192570 x 0.6 x2
NC=
14676.0
+
1/6x4.69
1
= 1 0701 K&,m2 < 62500 K&,m2
154376/1.036+7069
BWC=--------------
22220.0
+ +
.1/6x4.69
3
= 11075 K&,m2 < 62500 K&,m2
+
1/6x4.69
3
1910
+
1/6x4.69
1
154376/1.036 xO.192570xO.6x2
+
1/6/6x 4.69
3
11743
1/6x4.69
3
7.0 Design of Chimney .
Basic design calculations are similar to those given in Wet Type foundation.
B.O. Design of Base Slab
Basic design calculations are similar to those given in Wet Type Foundations.
9.0 Check for Sliding
Basic design philosophy is similar to that given in wet type foundation.
J 0.0 Check for Overturning
Basic design philosophy is similar to that given in wet type foundation.
11.0 Quantities Per Tower
Concrete Volume (Ml)
Excavation Volume (NEAT)
Reinforcement
12.0 Reinforcement Details
35.07 (M15) + 4.40 (M1 0)
233.71 ml
4150 Kgs.
Similar to those given in wet type foundation.
12.1 REINFORCEMENT SKETCH:
Similar to that given in wet type foundation.
12.2 BAR BENDING SCHEDULE
Similar to that given in wet type foundation.
ILLUSTRATION-VII
SUBMERGED FISSURED ROCK TYPE FOUNDATION
o
o
o
r()
8
v
C\J
o
o
N
 
N
o
o
o
10
Lean concrete (I : 3: 6)
••••• Do. • 6> •• , .. •••• • •••
2080
6090
6590
"
All dimensions
are in mm.
Sketch-8: Submerged Fissured Rock Type Foundation"
"ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MM"
1.0 Volume of Concrete (Cu.m)
6.59
2
x 0.05
6.59
2
x 0.10
0.25/3 [6.59
2
+ 6.09
2
+ 6.59 x 6.09)
2.08
2
x 0.2
0.66
2
x 2.625
TOTAL
= 2.171
= 4.343
= 10.054
= 0.865
= 1.143
= 18.577
79
2.0 Que tp CqlJcrete (Kg.)
(0.66
2
x 0.225) x 2400 =
(1 a,577 -.098) x (1400-940) =
(18.577 -0.098-2.171) x   =
3.0 Dry $q;1 : Nil
4.0 Wet Soil volume: (Cu.m)
6.59
2
x 2.95 =
2 x 6.59 x 0.503 x 2.85 =
1t /3x (0.503) 2x2.85 =
TOTAL
=
5.0 Check for Uplift
5.1 RESISTANCE AGAINST UPLIFT:
128.113
18.877
0.754
147.744
= 147.744 x 940 + 7737 = 146616 Kgs.
F.O.S (NC) = 146616/140917 = 1.040> 1.0
F.O.S (BWC) = 146616/130185 = 1.130> 1.0
6.0 Check for Bearing Capacity
165598/1.036+8736
NC = +
16902.0
+----- +
1/6x6.59
J
COMP UPLIFT
235
8501
235
7502
8736 7737
165598/1.036 x 0.192570xO.6x2
1/6x6.59
3
1787
1/6x6.59
J
154376/1.036+8736 154376/1.036xO.192570xO.6x2
BWC= +
6.59
2
1/6x6.59
J
24445.0 13968
+ +
1/6x6:59
J
1/6x6.59
3
= 5160 Kg/m2 < 62500 Kglm2
7.0 Design of Chimney
Basic design calculations are similar to those given in wet type foundation.
B.O Design of Base Slab
Basic calculations are similar given to those in Wet Type Foundation.
9.0 Check for Sliding
Basic design philosophy is similar to that given In wet type foundation.
10.0 Check for Overturning
Basic design philosophy is similar to that given in wet type foundation.
11.0 Quantities Per Tower
Concrete Volume
Excavation Volume
Reinforcement
12.0 Reinforcement Details
65.62 (M15) + 8.69 (MlO) Ml
   
7750 Kgs.
Similar to those given in wet type foundation.
12. 1 REINFORCEMENT SKETCH:
Similar to that given in wet type foundation.
12.2 BAR BENDING SCHEDULE:
Similar to that given in wet type foundation.
ILLUSTRATION: VIII
DRY TYPE FOUNDATION
10
r-..
-
0
10
en
(\J
10

0
0
en
(\J
o All dimensions
10
__ L ______________ ----!. ore in mm
4070 .\
Sketch 9: Dry Type (PCC) Foundation
/I ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MM"
81
1.0 . Volume of Concrete (Cu.m)
4.07
2
X 0.05
1.725/3 .[4.07
2
+ 0.622 + 4.07 x 0.62]
0.622 x (1.175 + 0.225)
TOTAL
l.O Overload Due to Concrete (Kg.)
~ 0.828
= 11.197
= 0.538
= 12.563
0.622 x 0.225 x 2300
02.563-0.0865) (2300-1440)
COMP/UPlIFT
= 199
= 10730
10929
3.0 Dry Soil Volume (Cu.m)
4.07
2
x 2.95 = 48.867
4.07X1.674X2X2.9 = 39.516
1tI3x(1.674)2x2.9
=
8.510
TOTAL
=
96.893
4.0 Wet Soil volume: Nil
S.O Check for Uplift
5.1 RESISTANCE AGAINST UPLIFT:
= 96.893·x 1440 + 10929 = 150455 Kgs.
F.O.S. (NC) = 150455/140917
F.O.S (BWC) = 150455/130185
= 1.068> 1.0
= 1.156> 1.0
6.0 Check for Bearing Capacity
I -) .
\ '3. .
-
  ~
, ,
- (. I I 'Jl
~
-
'< Ij
.-- --
" -
."
.. ..:: t
165598/1.036+ 10929 . 2x165598/1.036xO.192570 x1.775
NC = +
4.07
2
1/6x4.07
1
17475.0 1340
+---- +
1/6x4.07
J
1/6x4.07
J
= 21708 Kglm2 < 27350 Kglm2
154376/1.036+ 10929 2x154376/1.036XO.192570x1.775
BWC=--------------- +
1/6x4.07
3
.
25020.0 14541
+------ +
1/6 X 4.07
3
1/6 X 4.07
3
= 22272 Kwm2 < 27350 Kglm2
7.0 Design of Chimney
Basic design calculations are similar to that given in wet type foundation.
B.O Check for Sliding
Basic design philosophy is similar to that given in wet type foundation.
9.0 Check for Overturning
Basic design philosophy is similar to that given in wet type foundation.
10.0 Quantities Per Tower
Concrete Volume : 50.252 m
3
Excavation Volume : 225.34 m
3
Reinforcement
ILLUSTRATION·IX
HARD ROCK TYPE FOUNDATION
1.0 Volume of Concrete
0.65
2
x 0.225 = 0.095
1.65
2
x 1.250 = 3.403
TOTAL = 3.498
,;
"
2.0 Overload of Concrete
0.095 x 2300 = 219
3.403 x 860
6:'1>00-\44
D
)
= 2927
TOTAL = 3145
83
c.L.
III
~ G.L.
......
o
III
N
....
o
III
N
....
1
o
III
+
o
o
'"
....
o
o
....
o
o
III
N
....
III
N
+1
  ~
0
III
-4'
-t-
0
III
-4'
0
III
-4'
III III
N N
.... +1
125
±2S
650 Sq,
Rock level
• • • •
I   ~ 22.54>-i ¢= dia of grout bar
e

20'mm'7
12 bars of

• • • •
1.50 1.50 450
125
1600!50
±25
~
U __ ..I
0 __ 1.
~ _ .. _...a_,,: __
3.0 Bea,ing CaP.1City
165598 + 3145
NC = -------= 70237 Kglm2 < 1,25,000 Kglm2
1.55
2
154376 + 3145
BWC = -------= 65565 Kglm2 < 1,25,000 Kglm2
1.55
2
4.0 theelc for Uplift
DESIGN UPLIFT
NET UPLIFT
= 140917 Kgs.
= 140917-1.55xl.55x1.25x2300
=134010 Kgs.
UPLIFT RESISTED BY 12 NOS. 20, ANCHOR BARS:
12 X 1t X 2.0 x 115 x 16 = 138733 > 134010
-
5.0 Check Against Uprooting of Stub
DESIGN UPLIFT
NO. CLEATS PROVIDED
NOS. OF BOLTS
Ult. resistence of stub in Bond
= 140917 KG
= 3 NOS. 11 Ox11 Ox8 (Outer & Inner)
= 12 NOS.   ~ 16MM DIA.
= Us =[115x (20x2+{20-1.6) x2.0) -3x {20 ... (20-1.6)} xl1]x 10
= 75648 Kg.
LEAST RESISTENCE OFFERED BY CLEATS IN BEARING/BOLT:
= 136923 Kg. .
(REFER CHECK FOR UPROOTING OF STUB CAL.)
RESISTENCE AGAINST UPLIFT:
=75648+136923 = 21i571 > 140917
6. 0 Bond Between Rock and Concrete
= 160 x 120 x 4x4 = 307200 > 134190
NOTE 1:
1. Minimum depth of slab should not be less than 1000 mm. ., .
2. Stub to be cut, Holes to be drilled .and cold-zinc rich paint/galvanising to be appliro at site.
·3. Grout holest to be 20 mm bigger than dia of grout bar.
4. Cement sand mix 1:1 Ratio to be used for grouting through grouting pump.
5. Entire concrete block (slab) should be embedded in hard rock irrespective of level of hard rock
encountered.
85
ILLUSTRATION -X
DRY SANDY SOIL (WITH CLAY CONTENT 5-10%)
C.L.
G.L.
225
100
I n....-.....J • 50 -

  ITsin_
I wI-
I- 4150. - 1 """In ,
4650 All dimensions ore In mm
Sketch X : Dry Sandy Soil (with Cloy Content 5-10%)
nALL DIMENSIONS IN SKETCH ARE IN MM'I
1.0 Volume of Concrete (Cu.m)
4.65
2
x 0.05
4.65
2
x 0.100
0.25/3 x (4.65
2
+ 4.15
2
+ 4.65 x 4 .15)
2.9
2
x 0.2
= 1.081
= 2.162
=4.845
= 1.682
= 1.109
0.65
2
x 2.625
2.0 Overload of Concrete (Kg.)

0.65
2
x 0.225 x 2400
0.65
2
x 2.4 x (2400-1440)
2.9
2
x 0.2 x (2400-1440)
4.845 x (2400-1440)
4.65
2
x 0.1 x 2400
3.0 Dry Soil Volume (Cu.m)
4.65
2
x 2.85
2 x 4.65 X 2.85
2
x TAN20
PI/3 x TAN2 20 X 2.85
1
=
=
=
=
=
= 61.62
= 27.494
= 3.211
10.879
92.325
COMP UPLIFT
228 228
973 973
1615 1615
4651 4651
5189 5189
12656 12656
.' .,
4.0
Total Resistance Against Uplift
= 92.325 x 1440 + 12656 = 1.45604 KG
F.O.S (NC) = 145604/140917
F.O.S (BWC) = 145604/130185
5.0 Check for Bearing Capacity
= 1.033 > 1:0
= 1.118 < 1.0
165598/1.036 + 1.036 + 12656 2x (165598/1.036) xO.192570 x 0.6
NC=
+
4.65
2
1/6 X 4.65
3
14676 1910
+ +
1/6 X 4.65
3
1/6x 4.65
3
= 11172 KG/M2 < 25000 kg/m2
154376/1.036 + 12656 2x (154376/1.036f x 0.192570 xO.6
BWC=
+
4.65
2
1/6x 4.65
3
22220 11743
+ +
1/6 X 4.65
3
1/6x4.65
3
= 11558 KG/M2 < 25000 KG/M2
7.0 Design of Chimney
Basic design calculations are similar to those given in wet type foundation
B.O Design of Base Slab
Basic design calculations are similar to those given in wet type foundation
9.0 Check for Sliding
Basic design philosophy are similar to that given in wet type foundation
10.0 Check for Overturning
Basic design philosophy is similar to that given in wet type foundation
11.0 Quantities Per Tower
Concrete Volume (CU.M)
Excavation Volume (CUM.M)
Reinforcement (KG)
: 39.192 (M15) + 4.324 (M1 0)
: 294.03
: 2740
12.0 Reinforcement Details
Similar to those given in wet type foundation.
13.0 Reinforcement Details
Similar to those given in wet type foundation.
14.0 Bar Bending Schedule
Similar to that given in wet type foundation.
87
ILLUSTRATION -XI
PARTIALL Y BLACK COTTON SOIL TYPE FOUNDATION
0
0
0
0
10
 
N.
0
0
0
0 0
N
",
0
0 0
10 10
-
N
0
52
I
2 00
..,
. 0
,-
JAil d,m.'::,o .. " •
\4
4000
-t
1----
4500
In mm
Sketch XI: Partially Black Cotton Soil Type
Foundation
IIALL DIMENSIONS IN SKETCH ARE IN MMII
1.0
Volume of Concrete (Cu.m)
4.50
2
x 0.05
= 1.013
4.50
2
x 0.100
= 2.025
0.25/3 (4.50
2
+ 4.00
2
+ 4.50 x 4.00)
= 4.521
2.8
2
x 0.2
= 1.568
0.65
2
x (2.4-1.5)
= 0.380
0.65
2
x 1.5
= 0.634
0.65
2
x 0.225
= 0.095
10.240
2.0
Overload of Concrete (Kg.)
COMP UPLIFT
0.095x2400
=
228 228
0.0.634 x (2400-1440)
=
609 609
0.38 x (2400-1440)
=
365 365
1.568x (2400-1440)
= 1505 1505
4.521 x (2400-1440)
= 4340 4340
2.025 x 2400
=
4860 4860
11907 11907


I
I
I
I
I
I
C
I
I
I

I
I
I
I
I
J
I
 
- , -
Al = 4.5
2
+ 4x4.5xl.35 X TAN30 + 1f"(1.35x TAN30)2
. = 36.188
A2 = 4.5
2
+ 4 X 4.5 (1.35 TAN 30 + 1.5 TANO) + 1f(1.35 X TAN 30 + 1.5 TANO)2
= 36.188
V = 1.5/3 06.188+36.188 + (36.188x 36.188)1/2
= 54.2822
3.1 Volume o( Normal Soil (Cu.m)
4.5
2
X 1.35
2 X 4.5 X 1.35
2
x TAN 30
1f/3 (1.35
1
x TAN2 30)
= 27.338
= 9.470
= 0.8588
= 37.6668
4.0 Total Resistance Against Uplift
5.0
= 54.2822 x 1440 + 37.6668 x 1440 + 11907
= 144313 KG
F.O.S. (NC) = 144313/140917 = 1.024> 1.0
F.O.S (BWC) = 144313/130185 = 1.108> 1.0
Check (or Bearing Capacity
165598/1.036+ 11907 2x (165598/1.036) x 0.192570 x 0.6
NC=------------------
+
4.50
2
1/6 X 4.50
3
17450 1551
+ --------- +
1/6 X 4.50
1
1/6x4.50
1
=12165 KG/M2 < 25000 KG/M2
154376/1.036+ 11907 2X(154376/1.036)XO.192570XO.6
Bwe= +
4.50
2
1/6X4.50
3
24993 14516
+ +
116 X 4.50
3
1/6 X 4.50
3
= 12815 KG/M2 < 25000 KGfM
2
7.0 Design o( Chimney
Basic design calculations are similar to those given in wet type foundation
B.O Design o( Base Slab
Basic design calculations are similar to those given in wet t y   ~ ioundation
89
9.0 Check for Sliding
Basic design philosophy is similar to that given in wet type foundation
10.0 Check for Overturning
Basic design philosophy is similar to that given" in wet type foundation
11.0 Quantities Per Tower
Concrete Volume (CU.M.)
Excavation Volume (CU.M)
Reinforcement (KG)
12.0 'Reinforcement Details
36.908 (M1S) + 4.052 (MlO)
243.03
2600
Similar to those given in wet type foundation.
13.0 Reinforcement Sketch
Similar to that given in wet type foundation.
14.0 Bar Bending Schedule
Similar to that given in wet type foundation.
";':
'.
;:
Transmission Line· Manual
Chapter 11
Construction of Transmission Lines
CONTENTS
Scope
11.1 Survey
11.2 Manpower, Tools and Plants and Transport  
11.3 Environmental Consideration
11.4 Statutory Regulation for Crossing of Roads, Power Lines,
Telecommunication Lines, Railway Tracks, etc.
11.5 Survey IN '"=I M E7HcJi}S
11.6 Foundations
11.7 Erection of Super Structure and Fixing of Tower Accessories
11.8 Earthing
11.9 Stringing of Conductors
11.10 Hot-Line Stringing of E.H.V. Lines
11.11 Protection of Tower Footings
11.12 Testing and COmmissioning
11.13 References
Annexures
I
I
I
Page
I
1

J
1
t
3
I
4
j
4

10

16
,
17
-
19
-
24
,
26
J
26
26
27-54
J
J
CHAPTER-XI
CONSTRUCTION OF TRANSMISSION LINES
A. SCOPE
This chapter will cover the environmental consideration,
Survey, Excavation, Stub-setting and Concreting, Erection of
Towers, Stringing of Conductor for the Construction of:
Transmission Lines.
11.1 SURVEY
(i) Reconnaissance Survey
(ii) Alignment Survey
(iii) Detailed Survey
It would also cover soil investigation of representative
sites along the route of the line to establish the distribution of
foundations in different types of soils.
11.1.1 Erection of Transmission Line
Erection of transmition line o v ~ r s Check Survey, Exca-
vation, Setting of Stubs, Casting of Foundations. Erection of
Towers, Stringing of Conductors and Groundwire, Final
Checking and Commissioning.
11.2 MANPOWER, TOOLS AND PLANTS AND
TRANSPORT of ACILITIES
11.2.1 Survey
Average output per month per gang consisting of about 10
persons will be:
(i) Alignment Survey I5km or
(ii) Detailed Survey 20km or
(iii) Check Survey 20km
Wherever topographical survey is to be carried out the
output will be less and will depend on the quantum of work.
11.2.1.1 Tools required/or Survey Gang
1. Theodolite with stand INa
2. Dumpy level with stand 1 No
3. Ranging rod 5 Nos
4. Levelling staff
,
2 Nos
5. Engineers chain 30m INo
20m 1 No
6. Steel Tape 30m INa
15 m 1 No
7. Survey umbrella 1 No
8. Chain pins 30 Nos
Asper 9. Spades, Knives and axes for
clearing the bushes and trees
10. Tents, buckets, water drums,
camping cots, tables, chairs,
and petromax etc
requirement
As per
requirement
11.2.1.2 Transport required/or Survey Gang
Jeep with trailor INo
11.2.2 Excavation Stub-setting and Concreting
A verage output per gang consisting of about 85 persons
per month will be °
Excavation 400-500 m
3
Normal soil
60 m
3
Soft rock + 180 m
3
Normal soil
150 m
3
Soft rock
Output of Hand rock will depend on
situation
Stub-setting &
Concreting 60-70 m
3
11.22.1 Tools and Plants required/or Excavation, Stub-
setting and Concreting Gang
L Stub-setting Templates As. per
requirement
2. Stub-setting Jacks -do-
3. Form boxes/Chimneys -do-
4. Mixer machine - Diesel engine driven I No
- Hand driven 2 Nos
5. Needle vibrator INa
6. Dewatering pump 2 Nos
7. Air compressor for drilling holes in rock INa
8. High carbon drilling rods for Asper
drilling holes in rock requirement
9 .• Exploder I No
10. Water tanker trailor INa
11. Theodolite with stand INa
12. Ranging rod 3 Nos
13. Dumpy level with stand. INa
14. Levelling staff INa
15. Survey umbrella INa
16. Concrete cube mould 6 Nos
17. Wooden shuttering & poles Asper
requirement
2
._ ... _._-_._---------
18. Mixing sheets
19. MeasUring box
20. Metal screen - 40 mm mesh
-20mm mesh
12 Nos
6 Nos
1 No
1 No
- 12.5 mm mesh . 1 No
2l. Sand Screen - 4.75 mm mesh 1 No
22 .. Empty barrel (200 litres capacity) 6 Nos
23. SteeVAlwninium/Wooden ladder
(3.5 m length) 5 Nos
24. 30 m metallic tape
25. 30 m steel tape
26. Engineers' spirit level I
27. Steel piano wire/thread
28. Crow bar
29. Pikaxe
30. Spade
31. Shovel
32. Gamelas
33. Buckets
34. Iron r ~ m e r (4.5 kg)
35. Masonry trowel
36. Manila rope - (38 mm dia)
-(12 mm dia)
37. Pocking rod (16 mm dia) - 3 m length
- 1.5 m length
38. Blasting materials, binding wire
1 No
1 No
2 Nos
50 m
20 Nos
12 Nos
25 Nos
8 Nos
30 Nos
12 Nos
5 Nos
6 Nos
150 m
30 m
2 Nos
2 Nos
Asper
requirement
39. Hammer, Tommy bar, plumb bob, (0.45 kg) .
Hook, (12 mm dia) spanners (bQth ring As per
and flat) etc. requirement
40. Tents, buckets, water drums, camping As per
/
cots, tables and chairs, petromax etc. requirement
1122.2 Transport required/or Stub-setting &
Concreting Gang
1. Truck 1 No
. (For transportation of metal and sand from
source, cement, reinforcement steel and other
materials from site stores)
2. Tractor with trailor 1 No
3. Motor Cycle 1 No
11.2.3 Erection or Tower by Built up Method
Average output per gang consisting of about 50 persons
per month will be - 80 mt
dia and of length - 8.5-9 m 2 Nos
2. Polypropylene rope -25 mmdia 700m
-19mmdia 1000m
. 3. Single sheave pulley - closed type 8 Nos
- Open type 4 Nos
4. Crow bars (25 mm dia and 1.8 m length) 16Nos
5. Spanners (both ring and flat) hammers,
Asper
slings (16 mm dia and 1 m length)
requirement
hooks, (12 mm dia) 'D: shackle,
tommy-bars
6. Tents, buckets, water drums, camping
cots, tables, chairs and petromax etc. As per
requirement
112.3.2 Transport required/or Tower Erection Gang
1. Truck 1/2 No
2. Tractor with Tailor
3. Motor Cycle
11.2.4 Stringing of Conductor
1No
1 No
Average output per gang consisting of about 200 persons
per month will be Tension Stringing method - Machine
stringing
(i) for 400 kV Single Circuit -15km
(ii)
(iii)
for 400 kV Double Circuit
for ± 500 kV HVDC Multi-Circuit
-8km
-Skm
Requirement of manpower and average output per gang
for carrying out various types of transmission lines by manual
method is furnished hereunder
Sl Description Manpower Average Output
No of line (Nos) per month (kIn)
l. -P6 kV Single CiItuit 75 30
2. ·6i6 kV Double Circuit 75 15
3. 132 kV Single Circuit 100 30
4. 132 kV Double Circuit 100 15
5. 220 kV Single CiItuit 125 30
6. 220 kV Double Circuit 125 .15
7. 400 kV Single Circuit 225 IS
8. 400 kV Double Circuit 225 8
112.4.1 Tools and Plants required/or Stringing Gang/or
Tension/Manual Stringing
l. TSE sets (Tensionar & Puller of 8/10t capacity) 1 Set"
2. Running block for conductor lOONos
~   Runninl!: block for earthwire 60 Nos
s
s
s
J'" :t
5. Pilot wire each of 800 m length
6. Pilot wire joint
7. Ground roller for Tension/Manual
Stringing
8. Wire mesh pulling grip (one end open) of
required dia for conductor
9. Wire mesh pulling grip (one end open) of
required dia for earthwire
10. Wire mesh pulling grip (double end open)
of required size for conductor
11. Articulated joint - Heavy duty (20 t)
- Medium duty (10 t)
- Light duty (5 t)
12. Drum mounting jack for conductor drum
of lOt capacity
13. Tum table (5 t capacity)
14. Anchor plate (1.5 m x 1.0 x 8 mm) with
15 Nos. Anchor pins
(45 mm dia and 850 mm long)
15. Hydraulic compressor machine
- 100 t capacity with die sets
16. Travelling ground
17. Dynamometer -10 t
- 2t
18. Pilot wire reel stand
19. Four sheave pulley with 12 mm dia
300 m length wire .rope
20. Four sheave pulley with 9 mm dia and
300 m length wire'rope
21. Four sheave pulley with 12 mm dia and
150 m length wire rope
22. Equiliser pulley (lOt capaci ty)
23. Conductor lifting tackle
24. Winch - motorisedlmanual - 10 t Capacity
25. Comealong clamp for conductor
(bolted type/automatic)
26. Comealong clamp for earthwire
(bolted type/automatic)
27. Tirfor (5 t capacity)
28. Aerial (chair for conductor)
29. Aerial trolly
30. Tum buckle - lOt
- 3t
...
10 Nos
12 Nos
30/1 00 Nos
6 Nos
2 Nos.
4 Nos
10 Nos
10 Nos
5 Nos
4 Sets
2 Nos
10 Sets
8 Nos
12 Sets
4 Nos
2 Nos
4 Nos
6 Sets
2 Sets
4 Sets
16 Nos
4 Sets
4 Nos
50/20 Nos
15/10 Nos
6 Nos
6 Nos
4 Nos
31. Tension/Sag plate (for tensioning purpose)
16 Nos
6 Nos
6 Nos
8 Nos
4 Nos
2 Nos
6 Nos
32. Sag board
33. Marking roller
34. Mismatch roller
35. Joint protector
36. Walkie talkie set
37. Theodolite with stand
38. Thermometer
39. Survey umbrella
40. Hydraulic wire cutter
41. Binocular
42. Flag (red & green)
43. Crow bar (1.8 m length)
44. Nail pullar
45. Wire rope -(19 mm dia)
-(16 mm dia)
-(14 mm dia)
46. Polypropylene rope - (25 mm dia)
- (19 mm dia)
47. 'D' - Shackle - 190 mm long
-150 mm long
- 100 mm long
48. Bulldog clamp - 100 mm long
49. Hammers, spanners, (both flat and ring)
4 Nos
1 No
3 Nos
I Nos
2 Nos
3 Nos
30 Nos
10 Nos
6 Nos
1000 m
150 m
900m
500 m
500 m
40 Nos
125 Nos
125 Nos
35 Nos
round files, flat files screw drivers, cutting pliers,
steel and metallic tapes, hacksaw frame and
blades, deadmenlS, scafolding, slings etc. Asper
requirement
50. Tents, buckets, water drums, ~ p i n   cots, As per
table, chair, petromax etc.
112.42 Transport required/or Stringing
1. Truck
2. 75 h.p. Tractor
Tension stringing
4 Nos
2 Nos
3. 35 h.p./45 h.p. Tractor 5 Nos
and trailors
4. Jeep
5. Motor Cycle
2 Nos
1 No
requirement
Manual stringing
4 Nos
1 No
6 Nos
2 Nos
INo
11.3 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERA nON
The route of transmission line should be aligned in such a
way as JO minimise damages to crops and cutting of trees.
Special care should be taken to avoid routing of transmission
line through lands particularly in Reserved/Protected forests.
Even ifline length increases, efforts should be made to keep the
line of forests.
If forest land cannot be avoided, standard extensions
should be provided minimise cutting of trees by ensuring
adequate ground clearances.
The line also should be kept away from villages, bulk
storage oil tanks, oil .. pipe lines, airports, petrol pumps,
cluster of hutments, buildings containing inflammable materi-
als such as explosives, cotton godowns, factories, aerodromes
Helipads etc.
4
11.3.1. requirement for Choice of Route
The transmission line connects two points which may be
two power stations, power station and another sub-station or
two sub-stations. The line route has to be shortest connecting
the two points. However, it is important that due weightage be
given while selecting the route to the accessibility of the line
for construction as well as for maintenance or its total life span.
By sljght deviation increasing the route length marginally, the
line should be sited in areas which are not inaccessible. It
should be possible to transport the materials and tools quickly
in case of breakdowns. Wherever roads are existing the line
should be approachable from such roads. It should avoid as far
as possible waterlogged areas or areas prone to flooding for
long periods. The transmission line route should avoid inhabited
areas leaving sufficient growth of villages. It should
avoid as far as possible the areas where intensive cultivation is
done. As far as possible crossing of orchards and gardens
should be avoided. The additional costs to be incurred in crop
compensation during construction and delay in attending to
break downs during operation and maintenance should be
carefully weighed against increase in the route length as also
increase in angle towers. It should be possible for the men
patrolling the line to be able to reach every location, careful
inspection of the towers, insulators and the accessories without
any obstruction from the land owners. With intensive irrigation
in certain areas it may be cheaper to have slight deviation,
rather than having litigation delaying the project apart from the
cost to be incurred in making payment for compensation.
Heavily wooded areas should be avoided. Prior consultations
should be held with the concerned Departments.
With these general remarks the various considerations for
the choice of route and the construction of the line are dis-
cussed in detail in the following paras.
11.4 STATUTORY REGULATION FOR CROSSING
OF ROADS, POWER LINES, TELECOMM-
UNICATION LINES,RAILWAY TRACKS ETC
11.4.1 Road Crossing
On all major road crossings, including National High-
ways, the towers shall be fitted with double suspension or
tension insulator strings depending on the type of towers used.
11.4.2 Power Line Crossing
Where a line is to cross over another line of the same
voltage or lower voltage, suspension/tension towers with stan-
{lard extensions shall be used. Wherever the line to be con-
structed is crossing another important line for which shut-
down is difficult, susPension towers with required extensions
in combination with dead end towers shall be used.
11.4.3 Telecommunication Line Crossing
The angie of crossing as near 90 degrees as
angle of crossing is below 60 degrees, the matter shall be
referred to the authority incharge of the telecommunication
system. Also in the crossing span, power line support shall be
as ncar the telecommunication line as possible to obtain
increased vertical clearance between the wires. The crossiug
shall be in accordance with the code of practice for crossing
between power and telecommunication lines.
11.4.4 Railway Crossing
For Railway Crossing, shall be Angle/dead,end
type and railway crossing construction shall conform to the
regulations for Electrical Line Crossings with Railway Tracks
, issued by the Ministry of Rail ways from time to time.
11.4.5 River Crossing
In case of major river crossing, towers shall be of suspen-
sion type using double suspension strings and the anchor
towers on either side of the main river crossing shall be dead
end type. Clearance required by the navigation Authority shall
be provided in case of navigable rivers. For non-navigable
rivers, clearance shall be reckoned with respect to highest
flood level (HFL).
11.4.6 Other Provisions
11.4.6.1 The transmission linein the vicinity of Aerodrome
shall meet the requirement laid down by the Director General,
Civil Aviation, Government of India.
11.4.6.2 Requisite vertical and horizontal clearance to ad-
jacent structures shall be maintained as per I.E. Rules.
11.4.6.3 The electrical clearance required for different kinds
of crossing are given in Annexure-' A'.
11.5 SURVEY \ N C) M GTHa..6S-
The survey of high voltage transmission lines must be
carried out accurately and expeditiously. A mistake in the field
or subsequent office work may cause unnecessary
and inconvenience.
It is, therefore, essential that every care should be taken in
seuing out; levelling and plotting the profile of the route. The
care and fore-thought given at the first stage of surveying goes
a long way in achieving economy and successful successive
operational stages.
The survey of the transmission line till now is being
carried out in India by conventional methods using only the
Topa sheets and instruments like vernier theodolite, dumpy
level, engineers' chains or measuring tapes, for selecting the
route and further field works.
However, in advanced<tountries to avoid time over run
and cost over run, modem survey instrwnents and techniques,
like Satellite Doppler Techniques, are used for the construction
of transmission lines as discussed later in this Chapter.
t t C 1 '"' .... ,nr\' nf ,,"rvP\1;nIJ   tn

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1. Reconnaisance and route al ignment survey
2. Detailed survey
3. Tower spotting
4. Check survey
115.1.1 Reconnaissance and Route Alignment Survey
A provisional route of transmission line is initially plotted
on survey maps and a reconnaissance walkover survey is
carried ouL This is essential to fix up angle tower positions
tentatively since many of the physical features on the ground
may not be clearly available in the survey map due to devel-
opments that might have taken place subsequent to the
preparation of the maps.
The reconnaissance survey is essential to carry out to
collect the first hand account of various important field data
required for transmission line works.
The general consideration to be kept in view while
establishing the preliminary route at the time of reconnaisance
survey are as under:
1. The route should be as short and as straight as possible.
2. It is advantageous to lay the line ncar to or along
roadway. The line should be approachable as far as
possible.
3. The number of angle towers should be minimum and
within these, the nllmber of heavier angle towers shall
be as small as possible.
4. Cust of securing and clearing of way (ROW),
making access roads and time required for these works
should be minimum.
5. Corridor through which line is taken should have suffi-
cient space to take care of future load developments.
6. Crossing with permanent objects, such as railway lines
and roads should be minimum and preferably at right
angles (reference shall be made to the appropriate
Railway regulations and Railway electrification rules
as well as Civil Authorities for protection to be pro-
vided for railway and road crossings respectively.
Guarding may not be necessary if fast acting protective
devices are provided).
7. In case of hilly terrain having sharp rises faIls in the
ground profiles, it is necessary to conduct detailed
survey and locate the tower positions. The proposition
should be most economical and safe.
The following areas should be avoided as far as possible
while selecting route:
1. Marshy areas, low lying lands, river beds, earth slip
zones etc. involving risk to stability of foundation.
2. Areas subject to floods, gushing nalas dwing rainy
seasons,tanks, ponds, lakes, snow blizzards, hurricanes
or similar extreme climatic conditions and     haz- .
ards.
,
3. Areas which involve risk to human life, damage to
public and private properties, religio·us places; civil and
defence installations, industries, aerodromes and their
approach and take off funnels habitation of important
crops, good farming areas, uneven terrain, quarry sites
or underground mines, gardens and plantations.
4. Inaccessible areas where approach roads are not pos-
sible.
5. Areas which will create problems of right of way and
way leaves.
6. Route involving abrupt changes in levels, too many
long spans, river or power line crossings or near paral-
lelism to telecommunication lines.
7. Thick forest or areas involving heavy compensatory
payments for acquisition of land etc.
8. Buildings containing explosives, bulk storage oil tanks,
oil or gas pipe lines, etc.
9. Aerodromes, helipads, etc.
The reconnaissance survey is also essential for collecting
the first hand account of various important field data required
for transmission line works, which are as under:
1. Major power line crossing details (66 kV and above)
2. Railway crossing details.
3. Major river crossing details.
4. Source of construction materials, viz .• metal, sand,
water etc., along the line.
5. Important rail heads for the purpose of receipt of mate-
rials.
6. Important villages or stations coming enroute for the
purpose of selection of labour camps.
7. Nature of soil strata along the route and the terrain.
8. Availability of labour, their present rate on daily basis
or on contract basis.
9. Names of the major towns for the purpose of selection
of site offices.
For fixing the final alignment and angle points on the
ground as per the reconnaissance survey, route alignment
survey shall be carried out with a theodolite, survey chains/
measuring tapes/electronic distance measuring instruments.
115.1.2 Detailed Survey
The object of carrying out detailed survey is to prepare
longitudinal and cross section profiles on the approved align-
ment and to prepare the route plan showing details of deviation
angles, important objects coming within the right of way.
General Considerations
Work of detailed survey is distinctly done in two stages:
1.- Actual field observations taking level readings andl)
calculating distances, level differences, deflection
angles, offset distances etc.
6 Construclion of Transmission Lines
----------------- ------------ ----
2. Plouing of profiles on graphed uacing papers.
11.5 .1.2.1 Field Observalion Recording and Calculalions
The method of taking level readings for preparation of
longilUdinal and cross section profile can be
1. By chain and dumpy level.
2. By tacheometric survey with theodolite.
First method is very useful in plain areas where chaining
offers no problems. This also requires comparatively less
skilled surveyors.
Tachcometric method offers a great advantage in hilly
regions and such other inaccessible places where chaining is
nol possible. This method needs skilled surveyors having good
understanding of the use of theodolite.
In this method, both traversing and levelling is done by
means of a tacheometric theodolite (theodolite having stadia
cross hairs fitted in the eye piece). The horizontal and vertical
distances are computed by the help of readings of the stadia
wires taken on the staff held at the reading station. For the
theory of this method reference may be made to any standard
surveying text-books.
The above two methods are best explained by means of a
worked example of filling field books and calc ulations thereof
in Annexure-' B' of this chapter.
11 5.1.2.2 P lOlling of Profiles
From the field book entries route plan and longitudinal
profile, commonly referred to as 'Survey chart' is prepared in
the drawing office. These charts are prepared and plotted Qn 1
mmlS mm/l em square paper of formed drawing sheets of
graphed tracing paper, which are available for this purpose to
a scale of 1:200-vertical; 1 :2000-horizontal. These shall show:
1. The longitudinal profiles along the centre-line of the
uansmission line route.
2. The cross-section profile wherever appreciable differ-
ence jn level exists with reference to centre-line level. In
such cases the cross-section levels shall be taken at each
50/100 m intervals.
3. Route plan giving details of all objects lying within the
right of way.
4. Angle ofline deviation duly marked left (L) onight (R)
as the case may be.
Following general considerations apply in the preparation
of the survey charts:
1. Objects and their distances along the route within the
right of way from centre line, nearby villages, important
roads or rivers should be marked on the route proflle.
2.   with.any power or
cauon lilies, roads, railway lines, or nvers should
- - - _-'_'1_
3. Readings should be taken and charts should show,
levels of roads, canal embankments, maximum waterl
flood levels, railway top levels, heights of supportsl
lines being crossed, all trees coming within the clear-
ance zone.
One typical example of Survey Chart/Profile duly plotted
with tower locations is shown in Annexure-'C'.
115.1.3 Tower SpOiling
The work of tower spolling is clearly divided into the
following five operations:
1. Sag tension calculations.
2. Preparation of Sag Template.
3. Application of Sag Template to decide optimum tower
position on Survey Chart.
4. Preparation of Structure Limitation Charts.
5. Deciding tower type and preparation of Tower
Schedule.
11 5.1.3.1 Sag Tension Calculations
The span length i.e. distance between two adjucenttower
locations is fixed at an optimum level by consideration of
various factors like line voltage, ground clearance, topography
of the area, conductor used, wind, ice and temperature condi-
tions, availability and cost ofline materials and over all project
economy. A detailed discussion on this aspect is beyond the
scope of present study and it will suffice to assume that the
optimum span length for the line is fixed by the purchaser. This
optimum span is called the "Basic Design Span" and forms the
basis of all calculations to develop a suitable tower design for
the line.
A conductor suspended freel y between two supports takes
the shape known geometrically as "catenary" . TIle dip from the
centre point joining the two supports called' Sag' being inversely
proponionalto the tension in the conductor at null point. For
all practical purposes the 'catenary' can well be simplified as
a 'Parabola' without much error. In case higher accuracy is
desired in finding the sags (particularl y in case oflonger spans)
a catenary correction can be applied. For detailed discussion on
the shape of catenary and parabola, and catenary correction .
reference may be made to any standard text book on this
subject.
Since weight of tower supporting the conductor and
consequently its cost depends upon its height, the tower is
designed for a minimum height which is equal to the maximum
sag at design span (at the maximum anticipated temperature)
plus the minimum ground difference required between the
charged conductor and ground as per Indian Electricity Rules.
Maximum sag at design span is governed by maximum
tension that can be given to the conductor which in tum
depends upon the external loading of wind, ice and tempera-
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physical properties of the conductor used. Moreover, from me
considerations of safety of electric installations, Indian Elec-
tricity Rules demand a minimum factor of safety to be main-
tained in tensioning the conductor. All these factors are checked
during 'Sag Tension Calculations' which fixed the maximum
tension and maximum sag to be taken for design of tower and
stringing of conductor. For detailed calculations reference may
be made to Chapter VI "Loading" of this manual.
115.1.3.2 Preparation of Sage Template
Sag Template is a very important tool for the surveyor by
the help of which the position of tower can be decided on the
Survey Chart so as to conform to the limitations of specified
minimum ground clearance required to be maintained as per
I.E. Rules, between the line conductor to ground telephone
lines, buildings, streets, navigable canals, power lines, or any
other object coming under or near the line and the limitation of
vertical load coming on any particular tower.
Sag Template consists of a set of parabolic curves drawn
on a transparent paper, a celluloid or acrylic clear sheet duly cut
in between the curves to allow surveyor to see through them on
the Survey Charts placed underneath it. The set of curves
consist of:
1. 'Cold or Uplift Curve' -Showing sag of conductor at
minimum temperature and still wind.
2. 'Hot' or 'Maximum Sag Curve'-Showing maximum
sag of conductor under still air and maximum tempera-
ture and still whid including sag tolerances allowed if
any or under maximum ice condition.
3. Ground clearaIl;ce Curve-Drawn parallel to curve (2) ,
and at a distance equal to specified minimum ground
clearance.
4. Tower footing Curve-For normal tower drawn parallel
to curve under (3) above and separated by a distance
equal to maximum sag at design span.
A typical' Sag Template' drawing is shown in Annexure-
'0'
In erecting an overhead line all the spans cannot be kept
equal because of the profile of the ground and proper clearance
considerations. A constant tension is calculated which will be
uniform throughout the Section. For calculating this uniform
tension an equivalent span or ruling span for the whole section
of the line is chosen. The ruling span is then calculated by the
following formula.
~ L,'+ 1.,' + 1.,' + ........ ..
LU=
LI + L
z
+ L) + ........ ..
Where LU = ruling span
Lp L
z
' L) ................. etc are different spans in a section.
The 'Cold and Hot' Template Curves are ploued as
parabola, to the same scale as the survey chart for the minimum
and maximum sags for the ruling span (nonnal design span
being considered as theoretical ruling span).
115.J.3.3 Application of Sag Template for Tower
Spotting
The Sag Template is applied to the profIle by moving the
same horizontally while always ensuring that the vertical axis
is held vertical. The structure positions are marked where the
tower footing curve cuts the profile, while the ground clear-
ance curve is just clear and above the proflle. The ground
clearance curve shall not onl y clear the route centre line profile
but also the proflle to the left or right of the centre line upto a
distance equal to maximum cross area spread on either side.
Besides normal ground clearance, the clearance between power
conductor and objects like, other power or telecommunication
. lines, houses, trolly wires, roads, railway tracks, canal em-
bankments etc., shall be checked. Extra clearance can be got
either by reducing the span or providing extension to tower
body depending on which alternative is most economical. The
weight span on either side of a tower can be easily obtained by
marking the low points of sags in two adjacent spans and then
reading the distance between the two. On inclined spans, null
point may be outside the span. This indicates that the total
weight of conductor is taken up by the higher,tower and the
lower tower is being pulled up by a force equal to the weight
of conductor between lower support and the null point.(!ould
the upward pull of the uphill span becomes greater than
downward load of the next adjacent span, actual uplift will be
caused and the conductor would tend to swing clear of the
lower upwardj]For an easy check of whether a tower is under
uplift or not, the following method may be adop,ted. The
Template is applied horizontally until the tops of alternate
supports coincide with the Cold Curve. If the support is under
uplift and has to be extended so as to be above it and in case
requisite standard body extensions do not suffice for doing
this, a tower which is designed to take uplift will have to be
used. However, for the stability of the line it is nol desirable to
place a tower in such ~ s   t   o n where it is always under
permanent uplift condiilimJ
The intermediate spans shall be as near as possible to the
normal'design'span. In case an individual'span becomes too
short on account of undulations in ground profiles one or more
line supports of the Section may be extended by inserting
standard body extensions.
In other countries longer stretches of transmission lines in
straight run are constructed without Section towers. In India
Sections towers may be provided after every 15 tangent tow-
ers.
To be in llne with the construction practices in other
countries this aspect needs review in future.
8
115.1.3.4 Structure Limitation Charts/Towers Spoiling
Data
Since each tower is designed to w ithsland a definite load
only in each of transverse. vertical and longitudinal directions, .
the surveyor must know these limitations for the various types .
of towers available for use on line. These limits are given in a
chart form called 'Structure Limitation Chart' or 'Tower
Spouing Data' which is prepared by the design department
These charts define the limits for permissible ruling span,
weight span. wind span. individual span and the degree of line
deviation allowed on each tower. These charts are made for
Donnal towers only. For all special crossings individual tower
checking is essential by the design department. Specimen
Tower Spotting Data is shown in Annexure-'E'.
115.1.35 Deciding TowJr Type and Preparation of
Tower Schedule
In order to decide the tower type for a particular location .
following information is required:
Angle of line deviation on tower.
Whether it is to be used as section tower or dead
end tower
Sum of adjacent spans
Weight span on tower
For proforma Tower schedule. Annexure-'F' may please
be referred to.
11 5.1.35.1 Weight Span
The analytical method for calculating weight span is given
below.
Distance of "Null point" or "Low point" of conductor
from centre of span is given by formula (see Figs. 1 and 2)
T h
X= -X-
w I
Where
X = distance of low point from centre of span in m
T = conductor tension in kg.
h = difference between conductor support levels in m
w = unit weight of conductor in kg/m, and
I = span length in m
Weight Span
For tower A. right h ~ d side Qnly
1
a= --X
2
For tower B. left hand side only
b= _1 +X
2
t"!-...!1 __ 1 ......... ~ _ L   ___ " r __ aL __ .. L ___ !..J __ r .. L _ .. _________ _
Construction of Transmission Lines
If the sum A and B calculated for a particular tower is
negative. the tower is under 'uplift'.
Maximum weight span is obtained under the conditions of
minimum temperature and no wind.
115.1.4 Check Survey
Objecl-Check survey is carried out for the following
(i) To reconfirm the work carried out during detailed
survey.
(ii) To locate and peg mark the tower position on ground
controlling to the route profiles.
(iii) To give direction pegs.
A. Checking and Line AUgment
In this operation traversing is done from the known fixed
angle poinl (the starting poinl or any other obligatory point
flXed by the purchaser) in the direction of given line deviation
and upto a distance equal to the Section length between the
starting point and the next angle point If this next angle poinl
is firmly marked in field by means of a permanent peg mark (or
concrete burjee) then the closing error is noted both in longi-
tudinal and transverse direc tions.1f the error is within 1 % of the
total Section length it can be ignored and the permanent mark
made during detailed survey is taken as correct and necessary
correction in the line deviation angle at the starting point is
made and noted in the survey chart
If the second angle poinl reached is not marked in field by
the detailed survey gang (or the mark is missing) the angle.
point is tentatively fixed at the place reached as per deviation
angle at starting point and first Section length and line aligmenl
proceeded to the next'deviation angle and next Section length
as per Survey Chart. This process is continued till an angle
point is reached which is fixed in field either by permanent
burjee or by means of identification marks given in Survey
Charts. Intermediate checks can also be made by measuring
offsets from the line to well defined objects shown in Survey
Charts very accurately (but much reliance cannot be given for
correct alignment based on offset distance). These objects only
guide the surveyor in moving as closely on the correct align-
ment as possible.
Once the known angle point is reached then the closing'
error is judiciously distributed in all the previous temporary
Sections and all angle points are finally marked on ground by
means of concrete pillar. Once the angle points are marked.
correct angle of deviation and Section length are measured and
noted on Survey Charts. Any adjustment in Section length is
normally done in the last span of that section or in that span
where very marginal clear8I1ce was kept at the time of tower
spouing (if reduction is required) or where enough clearance is
available (if increase is required).
B Spotting and Peg Marking o/Tower Locations
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concrete burjces and exact Section length is known, the sur-
veyor proceeds to mark all intcnnediate tower positions on the
straight line joining the 2 angle points spaced at a distance
equal to individual span length as given on Survey Chan and
after the same is duly adjusted for the closing error.
In order to help in correct aligning all intermediate lOwers
between 2 angle points, a number of aligment pegs are given
at the time of exact distance measurement of the Section. The
more the number of alignment pegs the better it will be for the
readings a" instrument errors are less if smaller distances are
measured in one reading. These pegs are also very useful when
main tower marking burjccs are found missing at a later dale
(due lO mischief of local people or negligence of excavation
marking gang).
C. Directional Peg Marking for Excavation Pit Marking
Directional pegs are for correct alignment of
tower centre line along longitudinal and transverse directions.
On suspension tower, pegs are set along the centre line of route
alignment and perpendicular to it. On angle towers these are
rotated by an angle equal to half the angle of line deviation.
11.5.2 Various survey techniques, depending upon the field
conditions, type of towers and available time frame are used in
different countries.
Modern methods like Satellite Doppler Technique,
Orthophoto Mapping used in many othercountriesarediscussed
in Appendix -'A' .
11.5.3 Clearing of Right of Way
Having decided on the choice of the route, it is necessary
to see right of way before commencing construction work.
Information of forest land, cultivated fields, orchards etc.,
I
h
1
Low or
null point
... 10------1
....... --e t---- b--.....
..---I/2 --....... --112 - ........
Figure 1: Distance of Null Point or Low
Point from (entre Point
should be obtained alongwith a true assessment of problems
facing procurements of right of way.and way leaves for access
and compensation required to be paid after evaluation of the
val ue of the damaged crops and vegetation wi th the help of the
Revenue Authorities.
The following right of way widths for different voltages of
power lines are recommended
SI Transmission Recommended width of
No Voltage Right of way in metres
1. 66KV 18
2. llOKV 22
3. 132KV 27
4. 220KV 35
5. 400KV 52
6. ± 500 KV 52
HVDC
7. 800KV 85
11.5.4 Tolerance
The accuracy of survey workdepends upOn, the accuracy
of surveying instruments, the prevailing temperatures, the
accuracy of placing instruments and their readings. It shall be
ensured, however, that no measurement should be missed
during surveys and the survey shall be checked where any
doubt arises.
In transmission line surveys where the linear measure-
ments are carried out using an Engineers' chain overrough
uneven ground the expected accuracy is between 1 in 200 to 1
in 250.
Low.or
null point
      --.. .-.tl
h
I---+-- b
t-II2 -I I/2---f
Figure 2: Distance of Null Point or Low
Point from (entre Point
10
n.6 FOUNDATIONS
n.6.1 Trpe of Foundations
The different types of foundations adopted in practice
depending on the soil or combination of various types of soils
encountered at various locations, their advantages, usefulness
and method of construction are described in details in chapter
X. However, the same are brought out for ready reference in a
nutshell hereunder.
11.6.1.1 Chimney and Pyramid Type
This is shown in Annexure-'G' (Figure I). These are used
in normal type dry and cohesive soils having clay percentage
of 15 to 30. Form boxes are required to cast this type of
foundations. These are generally P.C.C. type foundations.
11.6.1.2 Block Type
This is shown is Annexure- 'G' (Figure 2). These are used
in soft rock and hard rock foundations. Proper care has to be
taken to see that the concrete is poured in direct contact with the
linner walls of the excavated rock.
11.6.1.3 Under Cut Type
This is shown in Annexure- 'G' (Figure 3). Foundations of
this type are very useful in non-cohesive type of soils like hard
murrum, Soft murrum, fissured rock, clincker mixed soil.
However, the latest trend is to cast these foundations in nonnal
dry soil 100 because of certain advantages.
11.6.1.4 Spread Footing Type
This is shown in Annexure-'G' (Figures 4 & 5). These
foundations can be either step type or chamfered type. These
are generally used in wet submerged nonnal and submerged
black cotton soils.
11.6.1.5 Anclwr Rod Type
This is shown in Annexure-'G' (Figure 6). These founda-
tions are suitable for hard rock strata. The advantage of this
type is the reduced depth of foundation.
11.6.1.6 Auger Type/Under Reamed Type
This is shown in Annexure-'G' (Figure 7). These founda-
tions will be useful in case of clayee and firm soils. However,
these types of foundations are not popular in transmission
lines.
11.6.1.7 Steel Plated Type
This is shown in Annexure-'G' (Figure 8). These will be
useful only in case of good cohesive and firm soils where head
loading and mixing is a problem (but not hilly terrain). These
type of foundations are not very popular for the normal run of
the line.
11.6.1.8 Grillage Type
This is shown in Annexure-'G' (Figure 9). These will be
I I ~   nnlv in firm C!nilC! whp..,. !lnnrn!ll'hpC! !lrp!l nrnhlprn Th .. " ..
Construction of Transmission Lines
are also not very popular in this country.
11.6.1.9 Well Type
This is shown in Annexure-'G' (Figure 10). These will be
useful in case of submerged locations, river beds and fully
sandy strata.
11.6.1.10 Special Pile Type
This is shown in Annexure- 'G' (Figure 11). These foun-
dations will be very useful in river bed and creek bed having
constant flow of water and sea mud to a large depth.
In shallow depth, precast driven piles can also be useful.
In marshy soil, the foundation can also be rested on the wooden
piles driven in the soil. If there is solid rock below the river/
creek bed the pile can rest on it.
11.6.2 Levelling of Tower Site, Benching, Revetments
and Hill Side Extensions
11.6.2.1 Levelling of Tower Site, Benching and Revetments
The location site is normally divided into a number of
grids of 3m x 3 m and the reduced levels at the all intersection
points are taken with respcctto centre peg of the locations to
ascertain the volume of benching/filling that will be required
to level the tower site. The tower site is to be levelled by cutting
the excess earth and filling the down area and is to be brought
to the centre peg level of the location. A retaining walV
revetment is to be constructed to avoid the washing out of
retainer earth. Normally a revertment is constructed upto a
height of 15 cm higher than the centre peg level of the location.
11.6.2.2 //ill Side Extension
In hilly areas where for spotting the locations heavy
benching or revetment or both are involved, for normal tower
as well as tower with extensions suitable hill side extensions
ranging from 2m to 6mcan be used. A sketch of a typical hill
side extension is shown in Annexure-'H'.
11.6.3 Excavation
11.6.3.1 Pit Marking
Pit marking shall be carried out according to pit marking
Chan. The pit size in the case of open c.ut foundation shall be
determined after allowing a margin of 150mm all round. No
margin is necessary in the case of under cut foundations. The
depth of the excavation at the pit entre shall be measured with
reference to the tower centre level.
The design office will furnish the survey gang with an
'Excavation pit Marking Chart' or 'Excavation Plan'
(Annexure-'I') which gives distance of pit centres, sides and
corners with reference to centre point of the tower. These
distances are measured and each pit boundary is marked in the
field by means of spade or pick axe along the side of the pits.
While excavating care should be taken that earth is cut verti-
cally/tappered/in steps as per the site requirement to avoid any
" " .V • .   . ~ UfiVI "'6 UflU lJflUUCf ' ~
In pits excavated in sandy soil or water bearing strata and
particularly black cotton soil where there is every likelihood of
pits collapsing, sharing and shuttering, made out of timber
planks 30-35mm thickness or steel frames of adequate strength
to suit the requirement, will be provided.
Sand bedding/stone bedding will be provided in founda-
tions of marshy and Wet Black Cotton foundations.
11.6.3.3 Dewatering
Dewatering shall be carried out manually or by mechani--
cal means or power driven pumps to facilitate excavation and
casting offoundation. The pumps shall be suitable for handling
mud water. Dewatering is not necessary in case of bored
foundations extending below water table.
In areas where sub-soil water recoupment is heavy and
where water cannot be controlled even by use of power driven
pumps well point system is used for controlling water. In this
system a grid of pipes are laid around the area where the pits are
. excavated and the system is very effective in pumping water
particularly in sandy soils. After commencing pumping op-
eration the pit can be excavated avoiding risk of collapse of
earth. This will ensure proper quality of concreting.
Another method is by drilling bore holes of a deeper pit
much below foundation level for pumping out water by ordi-
nary pumps. Number of bore holes depend on the volume of
sub-soil water.
In areas where sub-soil water recoupment is very rapid and
water can not be controlled 'shallow foundations' will be
useful.
11.6.3.4 Excavation in Rock
, For excavation in hard rock, blasting can be resorted to.
Reference shall be made to statutory rules for blasting and use
of explosives for this purpose. No blasting is permitted near '
permanent work or dwellings. Blasting shall be so made that
pits are excavated as near to the designed dimensions as
practicable.
The work of blasting in rock is carried out in three separate
operations:
(a) Drilling of holes to hold explosive charge
(b) Charging of the drilled holes
(c) Fixing the charge
11.63.4.1 Drilling of HoLes to HoLd ExpLosive Charge
Drilling of holes to hold the explosive charge may be done
either manually or with an air compressor as per the require-
ment at the site.
The equipment for hand drilling is simple but requires
more man hours and generally consists of a set of' Jumpers' or
'Drills' which are usually made from 22mm diameter hexago-
nal steel bars.
IneJumpersare 1m. l.l)mand 1.5mlongandaresuitably
shaped. They must be tempered when sharpened. A 2 kg
hammer is used for striking the jumper, which is given a slight
rotation after each blow. The rate of progress by this in hard
rock is 25 to 40cm per hour.
When large quantity of rock is required to be excavated, an
air compressor is used for drilling the holes.
11.6.3.4.2 Charging of the Drilled Holes
The charge consists of gelatine and detonator. Either half
or a full gelatine' is used as per the requirement. Detonator is
normally pressed into the gelatine after making a hole in the
gelatine with a stick. Detonator is to be pressed into the gelatine
till it is completely embedded in the gelatine. Then this
assembly is placed into holes drilled.
11.6.3.4.3 Fixing the Charge
The detonator leads are first interconnected to form a
circuit and later the ends of this circuit are connected to the
exploder with separate wires. The exploder is kept in a shel-
tered spot To fire the shot the exploder handle is rotated at a
high speed.
11.6.3.4.4. Procedure in Case of Misfired Shots
(a) The misfired shot should not be touched.
(b) One should not approach a misfired shot until atIeast
15 minutes have elapsed and all connections and
handle removed from the exploder.
(c) A second hole is to be drilled at a safe distance from
the first and in such a direction as will keep the boring
tool clear of the first hole.
(d) This second hole is to be charged and fired:
(e) The debris ,is to be searched thoroughly for unexploded '
detonator and gelatine.
11.6.3.4.5 Additional Precautions
To protect the persons and animals from injuries from
flying debris depending on situation the number of holes to be
drilled should be less deep and the pit should be covered with
a steel plate. Such controlled blasting is an exception if the
transmission line is kept away from villages and inhabited
areas. Usual precautions for safety of working personnel are
taken in all cases. '
11.6.4 Soil Investigation and Classification of
Foundation
The transmission tower foundation shall be classified
based on-the soil conditions. Optimisation offoundation design
and their safety mainly depend on correctness of soil and their
analysis.
11.6.4.1 Soilinvestigation
il;'
The scope of work includes detailed soil investigation at'
various tower locations such as railway crossings, major road /J
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crossings. power line crossings. river crossings and wherever
soil strata differs.
However. the soil investigation activities shall be .com-
pleted alongwith preliminary survey much before the coin-
mencement of main erection activities. Soil investigation need
not be carried out in all the locations of the line.
11.6.4.1.1 Soil Investigation at Normal Locations
One bore hole of 150mm dia shall be drilled at the centre
point of the tower. Standard penetration test (S.P.T.) shall be
carried out at 1.5m interval or change of strata upto the required
depth of 21 times below the depth of foundation below
existing elevation or refusal whichever occurs earlier.
(B y refusal it shall mean that a standard penetration blow count
'N' of 100 is recorded for 30cm penetration). Bore details and
water table upto required depth below existing surface elevation
or refusal whichever occurs earlier shall be furnished in the
reporl
11.6.4.1.2 Soil Investigation at Special Locations
At certain locations such as rivers banks, river beds or
midstream of river and at other places. special soil investiga-
tion shall be carried out by drilling two holes each of 150mm
diameter at each lOwer location on the diagonally opposite legs
of the tower. considering the base width of tower as 20m.
Standard penetration tests shall be carried out at every
1.5m interval or change of strata till refusal is met subject to
maximum of 40m below the existing surface elevation.
Undisturbed samples of soils shall be collected at every
2.5m interval or change of strata whichever occurs earlier.
In the hard rock the bore drilling shall be continued atIeast
5m to ascertain its sufficient thickness.
11.6.4.1.3 Preparation of Test Reports
The investigation report shall contain the following test
results:
1. Grain size analysis
i 2. Nomenclature of soil
3. Atterbergs limit (Liquid and plastic limit only)
4. Triaxial shear Test results containing information about
angle of internal friction and cohesion.
5. S.P.T. results containing information about natural
moisture content. Specific gravity and Bulk unit weight.
6. Consolidation tesl
7. Unconfined compression test
8. Unconsolidated undrained test
9. "Presence of carbonates. sulphates. nitrates and organic
matters and any other chemicals harmful to the concrete
foundatiolH>btained from chemical test on soil sample.
10. For rocky, soil core recovery and crushing strength of the
Construction of Transmission Lines
II. The bearing capacities of soil at 3. 4 & 5m below the
existing surface elevation for normal investigation and at
3,6 & 9m below the existing surface elevation for special
soil investigation shall be furnished considering
approximate base width of foundation.
In addition to the above the following data also shall be
furnished in the report of Special Soil Investigation.
1. Scouring depth in case the locations are at the bank of river
or at midstream.
2. Silting factor in case of midstream and river bank loca-
tions where submergence is envisaged.
3. Depth of fill. if any.
4. Details of water table, water struck etc.
5. Compressibility of sub-soil stratification. "
6. Settlement characteristics of the shallow foundations.
The above test results shall be summarised strata-wise as
well as in a combined tabular form with all relevent graphs,
charts, tables, diagrams and photographs, if any, shall be
furnished in the test reports.
The test report shall include bore logs. Bore logs of each
bore hole clearly identifying the stratification and type of soil
stratum with depth upto the refusal. The locations of water
table shall be identified in the bore log. The value of SPT at
depth where conducted and various laboratory tests conducted
from samples collected at various depths shall be clearly
shown against the particular stratum.
The report should contain specific recommendation for
the type of foundation. In case the soil parameters obtained
from the soil investigation report for a particular lOwer loca-
tion, differ from the ones considered during design, a fresh
design has to be developed for such locations.
11.6.4.2 Classification of FoundaJions
Classification of soil shall be made according lO IS : 200
(part 1) 1974 for footing cast in open pits.· The foundation
designs shall depend upon the type of soil. sub-soil water level
and the presence of surface water which have been classified
as follow.
        No_rmal Dry
To be used for locations where nonnal dry cohesive or
non-cohesive soils are mel
11.6.4.2.2 Wet
To be used for locations
(a) Where sub-soil water is met at 1.5 metres or more
below the ground level.
(b) Which are in surface water for long periods with
water penetration not exceeding one metre below the
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11.6.4.2.3 Partially Submerged
To t>e 'used at locations where sub-soil water table is met
between 6.75 metre to 1.50 metre below the ground level.
11.6.4.2.4 FullySubmerged
To be used at locations where sub-soil water table is within
0.75 metre below the ground level.
11.6.4.2.5 Black Colton
To be used at locations when soil is clayey type, not
necessarily black in colour, which shrinks when dry, swells
when wet, resulting in differential movement extending to a
maximum depth of about 3.5 metres below ground level.
11.6.4.2.6 Fissured Rock
To be used at locations where decomposed or fissured
rock, hard gravel, kankar, limestone, laterite or any other soil
of similar nature is met. Under cut type foundation is to be used
for fissured rock locations. Rock anchor type foundation can
also be used for fissured rock location where the under cut is
not feasible.
In case of fissured rock locations where water table is met
at 1.5 metre or more below ground level submerged fissured
rock foundations shall be adopted. When the water table in
such location is met within 1.5 metre from ground level, fully
Submerged Fissured Rock type foundations shall be adopted.
11.6.4.2.7 Hard Rock
The locations where chiselling, drilling and blasting is
required for excavation, hard rock type foundations are to be
used. For these locations rock anchoring is to be provided to
resist uplift forces.
11.6.4.2.8 In addition to the above, depending on the site
conditions other types of foundations may also be developed
for:
1. Intermediate conditions under the above classifica-
tions to effect more economy or
2. For locations where special foundations (well type or
piles) are necessitated.
While classifying foundations of Wet, Partially Sub-
merged, Fully Submerged foundations mentioned above, the
worst conditions should be considered and not necessarily the
conditions prevailing at the time of inspection. For instance.
there are areas where sub-soil water rises when canal water let-
out in the fields raising sub-soil to a considerable degree.
Simifarly the effect of monsoon or when the nearby reservoirs
are full should also be considered and not the conditions
prevailing in open season or summer when work is carried out
normally.
11.6.5 Stub-setting
The stubs are set in such a manner thai the distance
between the stubs and their alignment and slope are as per
design so as to perm it assem bling of the superstructure without
undue strain or distortion in any part of the structure. There are
three methods by which this is generally accomplished.
(i) Use of a combined Stub-setting Template for all the
four stubs of the tower.
(ii) Use of Individual Leg Template for each stub.
(iii) Use as a Template the lower tower section or exten-
sion, where Stub-setting Template is not available.
The first method is the most commonly used. The Stub-
setting Template is composed of a light rigid framework which
holds the stubs at the correct alignment and slOpe. The Stub-
setting Template is generally of adjustable type which can suit
the standard tower as well as towers with standard extensions:
The Template is centred and levelled by sighting through
transit The anchors or slubs are bolted to this Template, one at
each comer of the Template, and are held in their proper
position until the concrete is poured and has hardened. The
procedure for setting stubs at.site is given in Annexure-'J'.
The second method is adopted for casting the foundation
'locations having individual leg extensions or locations having
broad base for which use of a single Template for setting all the
four stubs is unwieldy. The Individual Leg Template comprises
a steel channel or joist having a length more than the size of the
pit. by about 2 to 3 metres. A chamfered cleat is welded in the
centre of the channeVjoist to provide the slope to the stub. The
stub is bolted to the cleat of the Template for which holes as
required for the slope of the stub are provided. The Individual
Leg Templates are initially seton each pit approximately to the'
required position w.r.t. the centre point of the tower and after
that stubs are bolted to the cleat The stubs are then brought to
proper position w.r.t. the centre of the tower with the help a
Theodolite, Dempty level and a measuring tape, before fixing
form boxes and pouring concrete.
This type of Templates are very useful for casting the
foundations of individual leg extensions in which the foundation
pits are staggered and use of either a normal Stub-setting
Template or the first section of the tower is not feasible. The
foundation layout of unequal leg extensions is shown in
Annexure-'K'
In the third method, lower section of the tower or exten-
sion is used for setting stub. In this method two opposite sides
of the lower section of the tower are assembled horizontally on
the ground, and the stubs are bolted to the same with correct
slope and alignment. Each assembled side is then lifted clear of
the ground with a gin pole and is lowered into the four pits
excavated at four comers of the tower to their proper size and
depth. The assembly is IifWEI in such a manner that stubs are not
damaged. One side is held in place with props while the other
side is being erected. The two opposite sides are then laced
together with cross members and diagonals. Then the aSsembled
section is lined up. made square with line and levelled. The
propereJevation   are done with a transit. When the
14
lining and levelling has been done, the bolts are tightened up
to make the frame as rigid as is reasonably possible. Thereafter
the fonn boxes for foundations are built and the concrete is
poured. For heavy towers use of Stub-setting Template is
recommended.
11.6.6 Concreting
11.6.6.1 Type
For reasons of economy and progress it is nonnal practice
to use coarse and fme aggregates available along the line route
and/of nearest locations to the route. Ordinary plain or rein-
forced cement concrete given in IS: 456-1978 shall be used in
overhead line foundations.
11.6.6.2 Mixes
For main foundation, M 15 or 1 :2:4 mix cement concrete
shall be used. For lean concrete sub-bases or pads, M 10 or
1 :3:6 mix cement concrete may be used. The properties of
concrete and mix proportions shall be as given in IS : 456-1978.
It shall be pennissible to proportionate the concrete as
follows.
11.6.6.2.1 Prepare a wooden measuring box of 35litres ca-
pacity (that is equal to 1 bag of 50 kg. of cement) with inside
dimensions of 30cm x 30cm x 39cm alternatively a cylinder of
34cm diameter and 39cm height.
The mix quantities according to the measuring box shall
be as follows:
Cement
Sand
Metal
Water
MIS
1 bag
2 boxes
4 boxes
1 boxes less 3 litres
MIO
1 bag
3 boxes
6 boxes
1 box less 1 litre
11.6.6.2.2 Measurement of water may be made with separate
water tight drwns of the above size or with 1 or 2 litre mugs.
11.6.6.3 One bag of cement is taken to contain 50 kg or 35
litres of ordinary portland cement
11.6.7 Form Work
11.6.7.1 General
The fonn work shall confonn to the shape, lines and
dimensions as shown on the foundation design drawings, and
be so constructed as to be rigid during the placing and com-
pacting of concrete, and shall be sufficiently tight to prevent
loss of liquid from concrete. It shall be of light design, easily
removable without distortions and shall be of steel or suitable
materials. The inner surface coming in contact with concrete
shall be smooth and free from projections. Window on one face
shall be provided for pyramid fonns to facilitate concreting in
the lower parts which shall be flxed after concrete in the bottom
Construction of Transmission Lines
The fOnTI work for slabs and pyramids shall be made
symmetrical about the bases of the chimney to ensure inter-
changeable faces.
11.6.7.2 Clearing and Treatment of Forms
All rubbish, particularly chippings, shaving and sawdust
and traces of concrete, if any, shall be removed from the
interior of the fOnTIS before the concrete is placed. The surface
in contact with the concrete shall be wetted and sprayed with
fine sand or treated with an approved composition such as
black or waste oil etc., before use, every time.
11.6.7.3 Stripping Time
Under fair weather conditions (generally where average
daily temperature is 20 degree or above) and where ordinary
cement is used, fOnTIS may be stripped after 24 hours of the
placing of concrete. In dull weather such as rainy periods and
very cold temperature, the fOnTIS shall be removed after 48
hours of the placing of concrete.
11.6.7.4 Procedure when Removing Form Work
All fOnTI work shall be removed without much shock or
vibration as otherwise it would damage the concrete or the
fonns.
11.6.8 Mixing
11.6.8.1 Concrete shall preferably be mixed in a mechanical
mixer, but hand mixing shall be pennissible.
11.6.8.2 When hand mixing is adopted, it shall be carried
out on impervious platfonns such as iron plain sheets properly
overlapped and placed upon level ground. The coarse aggre-
gate shall first be evenly spread out in required quantity over
the sheets. The flne aggregate shall be evenly spread out over
coarse aggregate next. The aggregates shall then be thoroughly
mixed together and levelled. The required amount of cement
shall now be spread evenl y over the mixed aggregates and wet
mixing shall start from one end with required amount of water
using shovels. The whole lot shall not be wetted; instead
mixing shall proceed progressi vel y. If the aggregates are wet
or washed, cement shall not be spread out, but shall be put in
progressively.
11.6.8.3 For mixing in mechanical mixers, the same order of
placing ingredients in the loader drum shall be adopted, that is
coarse aggregate shall be put in fIrst followed by sand, cement
and water.
11.6.8.4 Mixing shall be continued until there is a unifonn
distribution of materials and the mass is unifonn in colour and
consistency but in no case shall mixing be done for less than 2
minutes.
11.6.8.5 If the aggregates are wet, the amount of water shall
be reduced suitably.
1 UiJj Tr.llmmortation
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dation. In places where it is not possible, concrete may be
mixed at the nearest convenient place. The concrete shall be
handled from the place of mixing to the place of final deposit
as rapidly as practicable by methods which shall prevent the
segregation or loss of any of the ingredients. If segregation
does occur during transport, the concrete shall be remixed
before being placed.
11.6.9.2 During hot or cold weatherw concrete shall be
transported in'deep containers. The deep containers, on
account of their lower ratio of surface area to mass, reduce the
rate ofloss of water by evaporation during hot weather and loss
of heat during cold weather.
11.6.10 Placing and Compacting
11.6.10.1 The concrete shall be placed and compacted before
seuing commences and should not be subsequently disturbed.
The placing should be such that no segregation takes place.
11.6.10.2 Concrete shall be thoroughly compacted during the
placing operation, and thoroughly worked around the rein-
. forcement, if any, around embedded fixtures and into comers
of form work by means of 16mm diameter poking bars pointed
at the ends. As a guide for compacting, the poking bars may be
worked 100 times in an area of 200mm square for 300mm
depth. Over compacting causes the liquid to flow out upward
causing segregation and should be avoided.
1l.6.10.3 If, after the form work has been re!lloved, the
concrete surface is found to have defects, all the damaged
surfaces shall be repaired with mortar application composed of
cement and sand in the same proportion as the cement and sand
in the concrete mix. Such repairs shall be carried out well
before the foundation pits are back filled.
1l.6.10.4 For precautions to be taken on concrete work in
extreme weather and under water, the provisions of S : 456 :
1978 shall apply.
11.6.11 Reinforcement
All reinforcement shall be properly placed according to
foundation design, drawing with a minimum concrete cover of
50mm. The bars shall, however, be placed clear of stubs and
cleats where fouling. For binding, iron wire of not less than
0.9mm shall be employed, and the bars may, be bound at
alternate crossing points. The work shall conform to IS : 2502-
1963 wherever applicable.
In case of the foundation having steel reinforcement in
pyramid or base slab, atleast 50mm thick pad of lean concrete
of 1:3:6 nominal mix shall be provided to avoid the possibility
of reinforcement rod being exposed due to unevenness of the
bottom of the excavated pit.
11.6.12 Sizes of Aggregates
The coarse aggregate (stone/metal) to be used shall be
40mm nominal size for slab/pyramid concrete and 20mm
nominal size for chimney concrete conforming to IS: 383-
1979. These sizes are applicable to ordinary plain cement
concrete. For R.C.C. works the aggregate shall preferably be of
20mrn, ,nominal size. The fine aggregate (sand) shall be of
preferably Zone I Grade to IS : 383-1979 which is the coarse
variety with maximum particle size of 4.75mm.
11.6.13 Levelling Sub-base
To take care of the unevenness at the bouom of the
excavated pit it is necessary to provide a levelling sub-base not
less than 1:3:6 proportion and 50mm thickness.
11.6.14 Back Filling,
Following opening of form work and removal of shoring
and shuuerings back filling shall be started after 24 hours of
casting or repairs, if any, to the foundation concrete. Back
fill ing shall normall y be done with the excavated soil, unless it·
consists of large boulders/stones, in which case the boulders
shall be broken to a maximum size of 80mm. The back ruling
materials should be clean and free from organIc or other
foreign materials.
The earth shall be deposited in maximum 300mm layers,
levelled and wetted and tamped properly before another layer
is deposited. Care shall be taken that the back ruling is started
from the foundation ends of the pits towards the outer ends.
After pits have been back filled to full depth, the stub-setting
template may be removed.
The back filling and grading shall be carried out to an
elevation of about 75mm above the finished ground level to
drain out water. After back filling 50mm high earthen em-
bankment (bund) will be made along the sides of excavated pits
and sufficient water will be poured in the back filled earth for
atleast 24 hours.
11.6.15 Curing
The concrete after setting for 24 hours shall be cured by
keeping the concrete wet continuously for a period of io days
after laying. The pit may be back filled with selected earth
sprinkled with necessary amount of water and well consolidated
in layers not exceeding 300mm. after a minimum period of 24
hours and thereafter both the back ruled ~ and exposed
chimney top shall be kept wet for the remainder of the prescn'bed
time of 10 days. The uncovered concrete chimney above the
back filled earth shall be kept wet by providing empty cement
bags dipped in water fully wrapped around the concre.te chim-
ney for curing and ensuring that the bags be kept wet by the
frequent pouring of water on them.
11.6.16 Tolerance
The tolerances for various items connected to the found8-
tion works of transmission line are as under.
11.6.16.1 Stub-setting (Tower Footing) \ ~  
11.6.16.1.1 All the stub angles for tower legs shall be set
accurately to the grade and alignment shown on the drawings. I
The difference in elevation between identical parts of any two
stub angles shall not exceed 1/1000 of the horizontal disl30ce
16
between the stubs,allowance being made for difference, if any,
in the lengths of legs and extensions. The actual elevation of
any stub angle shall not differ from the computed elevation by
more than 1/100 of foundation depth. Stub angles shall be
located horizontally so that each is within 6mm of its correct
position, and the batter of the stub angles shall not differ from
the correct t>1uer by more than either 1/100 of exposed stub
length, or by the amount of playas offered by the clearance
between bolts and holes of the stub-setting template. To ensure
greater accuracy, the hole clearance shall not be greater than
1.5mm o ~ the punched side of the Template members.
11.6.16.1.2 If the actual elevation of stubs is beyond 6cm as
found after casting the foundation and on the plus side (that is,
if the foundation is raised) equivalent depth of earthwork will
be provided over the top of the foundation as per design
requirements with particular reference to such location. By
design requirements is meant the earth required lO resist uplift
forces.
11.6.16.1.3 The following tolerances shall be applicable in
case of position of foundations erected with reference to the
tower positions spotted on Survey Charts:
Type oCTower GutoC
Aligrunent
Suspension 0.5 degree
Tension 05 de!,'fee
(Set at bi-section
of deviation angle)
From Centre
Line of Route
25mm
25mm
11.6.16.2 Concrete and Form Dimensions
From Transverse
Centre line
±250mm
±25mm
The maximum tolerance on the dimensions shall be ± 10
mm. AlllOlerances shall not be on the negative side.
11.7 ERECTION OF SUPER STRUCTURE AND
FIXING OF TOWER ACCESSORIES
The towers shall be erected on the foundations not less
than 10 days after concreting or till such time that the concrete
has acquired sufficient strength. The towers are erected as per
the erection drawings furnished by the manufacturers to facili-
tate erection. For the convenience of assembling the lOwer
parts during erection operations, each member is marked in the
factory lO correspond with a number shown in the erection
drawing. Any damage to the steel and injuring of galvanising
shall be avoided. No member shall be subjected to any undue
over stress, during erection.
11.7.1 Method of Erection
There are four main methods of erection of steel transmis-
sion lOwers which are described as below:
(i)   u i l ~ ~ u p method or Piecemeal method.
(iU Section method
(iii) Ground assembly method.
Construction o/Transmission Lines
11.7.1.1 Built Up Metlwd
This method is most common 1 y used in this country for the
erection of 66 kV, 132 kV, 220 kV and 400 kV transmission
line lOwers due to the following advantages:
(i) Tower materials can be supplied to site in knocked
down condition which facilitates easier and cheaper
transportation.
(ii) It does not require any heavy machinery such as
cranes etc.
(iii) Tower erection activity can be done in any kind of
terrain and mostly throughout the year.
(iv) Availability of workmen at cheap rates.
This method consists of erecting the towers, member by
member. The lOwer members are kept on ground serially
according to erection sequence to avoid search or time loss.
The erection progresses from the bottom upwards. The four
main comer leg members of the fIrst section of the tower are
fIrst erected and guyed off. Sometimes more than one contigu-
ous leg sections of each comer leg are bolted together at the
ground and erected.
The cross braces of the first section which are already
assembled on the ground are raised one by one as a unit and
bolted to the aIreadyerected comer leg angles. First section of
the tower thus built and horizontal struts (belt members) if any,
are bolted in position. For assembling the second section of the
tower, two gin poles are placed one each on the top of
diagonally opposite comer legs. These two poles are used, for
raising parts of second section. The leg members and braces of
this section are then hoisted and assembled. The gin poles are
then shifted to the comer leg members on the top of second
section to raise the parts of third section of the tower in position
for assembly. Gin poles are thus moved up as the tower grows.
This process is continued till the complete tower is erected.
Cross-arm members are assembled on the ground and raised up
and fixed to the main body of the lOwer. For heavier towers, a
small boom is rigged on one of the tower legs for hoisting
purposes. The members/sections are hoisted either manually
or by winch machines operated from the ground. For smaller
base towers/vertical configuration towers one gin pole is used
instead of two gin poles. In order to maintain speed and
efficiency,· a small assembly party goes ahead of the main
erection gang and its purpose is lO sort out the tower members,
keeping the members in correct position on the ground and
,assembling the panels on the ground which can be erected as
a complete unit.
Sketches indicating different steps or erection by built up
method are shown in Annexure-'L'
11.7.1.2 Section Method
In the section method, major sections of the tower are
assembled on the ground and the same are erected as units.
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is approximately 10 m long and is held in place by means of
guys by the side of the tower to be erected. The two opposite
sides of the tower section of the tower are assembled on the
ground. Each assembled side is then lifted clear of the ground
with the gin or derrick and is lowered into position on bolts to
stubs or anchor bolts. One side is held in place with props while
the other side is being erected. The two opposite sides are then
laced together with cross members and diagonals; and the
assembled section is lined up, made square to the line. After
completing the first section, gin pole is set on the top of the first
section. The gin rests on a strut of the tower immediately below
the leg joint The gin pole then has to be properly guyed into
position.
The first face of the second section is raised. To raise the
second face of this section ~ i s necessary to slide the foot of the
gin on the strut of the opposite of the tower. After the two
opposite faces are raised, the lacing on the other two sides is
bolted up. The last lift raises the top of the towers. After the
tower top is placed and all side lacings have been bolted up all
the guyes are thrown off except one which is used to lower the
gin pole. Sometimes whole one face of the tower is assembled
on the ground, hoisted and supported in position. The opposite
face is similarly assembled and hoisted and then the bracing
angles connecting these two faces are fitted.
11 .7.1.3 Ground Assembly Method
This method consists of assembling the tower on ground,
and erecting it as a complete unit. The complete tower is
assembled in a horizontal position on even ground. The tower
is assembled along the direction of the line to allow the crQSs-
arms to be fitted. On slopping ground, however, elaborate
packing of the low side is essential before assembly com-
mences. After the assembly is complete the tower is picked up
from the ground with the help of a crane and carried to its
location. and seton its foundation. For this method of erection,
a level piece of ground close to footing is chosen from the tower
assembly. This method is not useful when the towers are large
and heavy and the foundations are located in arable land where
building and erecting complete towers would cause damage to
large areas or in hilly terrain where the assembly of complete
tower on slopping ground may not be possible and it may be
JiiffIcult to get crane into position to raise the complete tower.
In India, this method is nOl generally adopted because of
prohibitive cost of mobile crane, and non-availability of good
approach roads to tower location.
I! .7.1.4J1elicopter Method
In the, helicopter method, the transmission tower is erected
in sections. For example bottom section is first lifted on to the
stubs and then the upper section is lifted and bolted to the first
section and the process is repeated till the complete tower is
erected. Sometimes a completely assembled tower is raised
with the help of helicopter. Helicopters are also used for lifting
completely assembled towers with guys from the marshalling
yards where these are fabricated and then transported one by
one to line locations. Helicopter hovers over the line location
while the tower is securely guyed. The ground crew men
connect and tighten the tower guys. As soon as the guy wires
are adequately tensioned the helicopter disengages and flies to
the marshalling yard. This method is adopted where approach
is very difficult or to speed up the construction of the transmis-
sion line.
11.7.2 Tightening of Nuts and Punching of Threads
and Tack Welding of Nuts
All nuts shall be tightened properly using correct size
spanners. Before tightening it is ensured that filler washers and
plates are placed in relevent gaps between members, bolts of
proper size and length are inserted and one spring washer is
inserted under each nut. In case of step bolts, spring washer
shall be placed under the outer nut. The tightening shall be
carried on progressively from the top downwards, care being
taken that all bolts at every level are tightened simultaneously.
I t may be better to employ four persons, each covering one leg
and the face to his right
The threads of bolts shall be projected outside the nuts by
one to two threads and shall be punched at three positions on
the top inner periphery of the nut and bolt to ensure that the nuts
are not lossened in course of time. If during tightening a nut is
found to be slipping or running over the bolt threads, the bolt
together with the nut shall be changed outright.
11.7.3 Painting of Joints
For galvanized towers in coastal or highly polluted areas,
the joints shall be painted with zinc paint on all contact surfaces
during the course of erection.
11.7.4 Checking the Verticality of Erected Towers
The finally erected tower shall be truly vertical after
erection and no straining is permitted to bring it in alignment
Tolerance limit for vertical shall be one in 360 of the tower
height
11.8 EARTHING
11.8.1 Each tower shall be earthed after the foundation has
been cast. For this purpose, earth strip shall be fixed to the stub
during concreting of the chimney and taken out horizontally
below the ground level. In normal circumstances, the earth
strip shall be provided on No.1 stub leg as given in Figure 3,
i.e. the leg with step bolts.
11.8.2 Tower Footing Resistance
The tower   o o t i ~ resistance of all towers shall be mea-
sured in dry v.:eather after tJ:teir erection and before the
stringing of earthwire. In no case the tower footing resistance
shall exceed 10 ohms. In case the resistance exceeds the
specified values, multiple pipe earthing orcounterpois'e earthing ,
shall be adopted in accordance with the following procedure,
but withQut interferring with the foundation concrete even
_________ _______________ .
Cons/ruction a/Transmission Lines
Receiving end
-fff--f
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----E 0
1
'.I//Ia ----;
- - I -}If- - -_..:.+
---- I" I - - i!
- !
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$-   ---fB-
Sending (Feeding end)
Figure 3: Designation of Tower Legs, Footing and Face
1. represents leg or pit No.1
2. represents leg or pit No.2
3. represents leg or pit No.3
4. represents leg or pit No.4
A. represents near side (NS) transverse face
B. represents near side (NS) longitudinal face
C. represents far side (FS) transverse face
D. represents far side (FS) longitudinal face
NOTE 1: Danger and number plates are localed on face 'A'
NOTE 2: Leg 1 represents .the leg with step bolts and anti-climbing
device gate, if any.lftwo legs with step bolts are required, the
next is No.3 leg.

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though the earth strip/counterpoise lead remains exposed at the
tower end
The connections in such case shall be made with the
existing lattice member holes on the leg just above the chimney
top.
11.8.3 Pipe Earth
The installation of the pipe earth shall be in accordance
with IS : 5613-19'&"1Part II/£ection 2). A typical example of
pipe type of earthing is given in Annexure-'M'
11.8.4 Counterpoise Earth
. Counterpoise earth consists of four lengths·of galvanized
steel stranded wires, each fitted with a lug for connection to the
tower leg at one end. The wires are connected to each of the legs
and taken radially away from the tower and embedded horizon-
tally 450mm below ground level. The length of each wire is
normally limited to 15m but may be increased ifthe resistance
requirements are not met. Galvanized steel stranded wire
preferably of the same size of the overhead ground wire may
be used for this purpose. A typical example of counterpoise
type earthing of tower is given in Annexure-'N'.
11.9 STRINGING OF CONDUCTORS
11.9.1 Mounting of Insulator Strings, and Running
Blocks
11.9.1.1 Suspension insulator strings shaIl be used on $US-
pension towers and tension insulator strings on angle and dead
end towers. The strings shall be fixed generally on the tower
just prior to the stringing of conductors. Damaged insulators
and fittings, shall not be used in the assemblies. Before hoist-
ing: all insulators shall be cleaned in a manner that will not
spoil, injure or scratch the surface of the insulator, but in no
case shall any oil be used for the purpose. Security clips shall
be in position for the insulators before hoisting.
Arcing horns or guard rings, if required, shall be placed
along the line on suspension, and facing upwards on tension
insulator string assemblies.
11.9.1.2 Traveller/Running Block Installation
Installation of travellers, including finger lines where
used, requires consideration of traveller attachment methods
and the need for and location of traveller grounds and uplift
rollers. For single conductor venical insulator assemblies, the
travellers are normally connected directly to the insulators, and
with 'vee' string insulator assemblies, to the yoke plate. For
most bundled conductor lines, the travellers are connected to
the yoke plate. With post type insulators, the travellers are
connected to the end of the insulators. Where travellers are
installed to string through tension towers, the travellers are
normally connected directly to the tower. If substantial line
angles are involved, two travellers in tandem may be requUed
to reduce the bending radius of the conductor or the load on
each traveller, or both.
Where bundled conductor traveUers are used atline angle
locations 5 degrees, it is advisable to change to
individual··single conductor travellers after the passage of the
running board to facilitate accurate sagging.

When adequate quantities of travellers are available, it is
com mon practice to install travellers alongwith the insulators.
Under some situations traveUers may be attached to slings or
rods in place of the normal insulator assembly. Sketch of
travellers is shown in Annexure-'0'
Use of travelling grounds and choice oflocations must be
based on the degree of exposure to electrical hazards. When
such hazards exist, as a minimum, traveUer grounds should be
installed at the first and last tower between tensioner and
puller. When stringing in proximity to energized lines, addi-
tional grounds shall be installed as required, but at a maximum
distance not exceeding 3 km. Additionally, grounds shall be
instaIled within a reasonable distance on each side of an
energized crossing, preferably on the adjacent structure.
Travellers with grounds are usually sensitive to direction
and care must be exerfLsep in hanging the travellers. Usually
the grounds   end. Each traveller with grounds
must be connected with temporary grounding sets to provide
an electrical connection between the traveller and earth, or to
some conducting medium that is at earth potential. Personnel
should never be in series, with a ground lead. Traveller grounds
should have a suitable grounding stub located in an ac.cessible
position to enable placing and removing the ground clamps,
with hot sticks when necessary. Traveller grounds also help
protect the sheave linings.
At the time the travellers are hung, finger lines, when used,
should be installed and tied off at the base of the structures. If
the helicopter method of pilot line installation is not to be used,
the pilot line could be installed at this time in lieu of finger
lines.
11.9.2 Paying out of Earthwire and Conductor
11.9.2.1 Paying out of Earthwire
Normally earthwire drums are mounted on a turn table.
Pulling machine/tractor are employed to pull the earthwire.
Earthwire running blocks are hoisted on the towers prior to
taking up of this operation. The earthwire while paying out
passes through theearthwirerunning blocks. Earthwiresplices
shall be made in such a way that they do not crack or get
damaged in the stringing operations. It should be noted that no
earthwire joints are·allowed within 30m from the tension or
suspension clamp fittings.
11.91.2 Paying out of Conductor
11.9.2.2.1 Slack Layout or Direct Installation Method:
/
Using this method, the conductor is payed out over the ground
rollers by means of a pulling vehicle or the carried along
the line on a vehicle. The conductor reels are positioned on reel
20
stands or jacks, either placed on the ground or mounted on a
transporting vehicle. These stands are designed to support the
reel on a shaft permitting it to rotate as the conductor is pulled
OUl Usually a braking device is provided to prevent over-
running and backlash.
When the conductor is payed out past a tower pulling is
stopped and the conductor placed in travellers are attached to
the structure before proceeding to the next structure.
This method is generally applicable to the construction of
new lines in cases where maintenance of conductor surface
condition is not critical and where terrain is easily accessible'
to a pulling vehicle. The method is not usually economically
applicable in urban locations where hazards exist from traffic
or where there is danger of contact with energized circuits, nor
it is practical in mountainous regions inaccessible to pulling
vehicles.
Major equipmem required to perform slack stringing
includes reel stands, pulling vehicles and a splicing cart.
11.9.2.2.2 Tension Stringing Method
Multi-conductor lines shall generatly be strung with the
help of tension stringing equipment. Using this method, the
conductor is kept under tension during the stringing process.
Normally, this method is used to keep the conductor clear of the
ground and obstacles which might cause conductor surface
damage and clear of energized circuits. It requires pulling of a
light pilot line through the travellers, w ~ i   c h in tum is used to
pull in a heavier pulling line. The pulling line is then used to
pull in the conductors from the reel stands using specially
designed tensioners and pullers. For lighter conductors, a light
weight pulling line may be used in place of pilot line to directly
pull in the conductor. A helicopter or ground vehicle can be
used to pull or layout a pilot line or pulling line. Where a
helicopter is used to pull out a line, synthetic rope is normally
used to attach the line to the helicopter and prevent the pulling
or pilot line from flipping into the rotor blades upon release.
The tension method of stringing is applicable where it is
desired to keep the conductor off the ground to minimise
surface damage or in areas where frequem crossings are
encountered. The amount of right of way travel by heavy
equipment is also reduced. Usually, this method provides the
most economical means of stringing conductor. The helicopter
use is particularly advantageous in rugged or poor! y accessible
terrain.
Major equipment required for tension stringing includes
reel stands, tensioner, puller, reel winder, pilot line winder,
splicing cart and helicopter or pulling vehicle.
While running out the conductors, care shall be taken such
that the conductors do not touch and rub against the ground or
objccts which could cause scratches or damage to the strands:
The conductor shall not be over-strained during erection. The
- - - -
Construction a/Transmission Lines
Wherever required jointing of conductor during paying
out will be carried out.
11.9.2.2.2.1 Typical Procedures/or Stringing Operations
11.9.2.2.2.1.1 Site Selection, Equipment Location, Anchor and
Equipment Grounding
11.9.2.22.1.1.1 Sile Selection
The selection of pull, tension, anchor and splicing sites
must consider accessibility, location of deadments, length of
conductor to be strung, available conductor and line lengths,
puller capacity, including placement of pullers, tensioners and
conductor anchor locations, placemem of reel stands, pilot line
winders, reel winders and the ability to provide an adequate
grounding system.
11.9.2.2.2.1.1.2 Equipmenl LocatiollS
The locations of the puller, tensioners and intermediate
anchor sites must be selccted so that the structures are not
overloaded. A pulling line slope of three horizontal to one
. vertical from the traveller to the site is considered good
practice. It is also necessary that the puller be positioned so that
the pulling line enters the machine at the smallest horizontal
angle thereby minimizing the possibility of damaging the line.
When a bull wheel type puller is employed, the reel winder to
recover the pulling line is located at the pulling site. The pilot
line winder is located at the tensioner site.
"The arrangement of the tensioner and reel stands should be
such that the lateral angle between the conductor as it approaches
the bull wheel and the plane of rotation of the wheel is not large .
enough to cause the conductor to rub on the sides of the groove.
For example, birdcaging problems were eliminated in large
conductors by using a maximum fleet angle of 1.5 degree from
the plane normal to. the conductor reel axis and a back tension
of approximatel y 4500 N. Problems of bird caging are normally
more acute in the case of large conductors having three or more
aluminum layers.
11.9.2.2.2.1.1.3 Anchors
Anchors are normally required for holding equipment in
place and snubbing conductors against tensions imposed. The
type of anchor is dependent upon the soil conditions and
stringing and sagging tensions. Portable equipment as well as
ground type anchors are often used for this purpose. Slack
should be removed from all anchor lines prior to loading to
minimize the possibility of equipment movement or impact
loads to the anchors.
11.9222.1.1.4 Equipment Grounding
Adequate grounding most be established at all sites. The
methods required and equipment used will be deteqnined by
the degree of exposure to electrical hazards and the soil
conditions at the site. All equipment, conductors, anchors and
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Once the ropepulIing lines have been installed prior to
pulling in any conductor or conduct.ivc type lines, a
running ground must be installed betwccn the reef stand or
tcnsioncr for conductor, or puller for pulling line, and the first
tower. This ground must be bonded to the ground previously
established at the site.
Pulling lines are usually pulled in under tension. The
pulling line is then connected to a single conductor through
swivel link, or to bundle conductors through swivel links and
a running board.
Swivel links should not be used on a three strand synthetic
pulling line. Pulling lines may be synthetic fibre or wire rope.
When wire rope is used, it is tecommended that swaged type
or braided type be used since it has less tendency to rotate under
load, which minimizes spinning problems.
A ball bearing swivel link is usually used for the connections
conductors, pulling lines and running boards. Swivel
links must be sufficient rated worked load to withstand loads
placed on them during tension stringing. They should also be
compatible with the travellers being used so that they can pass
through without spreading or damaging the sheaves. These
special line stringing swivel links are clevis type and compat-
ible with woven wire grips and swaged steel pulling lines. It is
recommended that swivel links not be passed over bullwheels
under significant tension since they may be weakened or
damaged due to bending.
When reeving the bullwhccls of a tensioner with the
conductor entering and leaving the wheel from the top facing
in the direction of pull, the conductor should enter from the left
and leave from the right for right hand lay (standard for
aluminium conductor) and enter from the right and leave from
the left for left-hand lay (standard for groundwire). The pro-
cedureeliminates the tendency of loosening of outer layer
strands while conductor passes around the bull wheel.
It is recommended that conductor of only one manufac-
HIrer be used in a given pull, and preferably in any given ruling
span. This precaution helps in minimizing the.possibility of
difference in sag characteristic of conductor significantly.
Attachment of the conductor to the pulling line, running
board or to another reel of conductor to be pulled successively
is accomplished by the use of woven wire grips. These grips
should be compatible strength wise and sized as close as
possible for the conductor or pullil\g line on which they are
.used. 9verall diameter of the grip over the conductor or rope
should be small enough to pass over the sheaves without
damage to the sheave or its lining and the grip must also be
capable of mating with a proper size swivel link.
Metal bands should be installed over the grip to prevent it
from accidentally coming off and dropping the conductor. The
open end of the grip should be secured with two bands. This
should then be wrapped with tape to prevent accidentally
stripping the grip off the conductor if the end were to snag OJ .
catch. This is particularly important when these grips are used
on pulling lines or between lengths of conductor when more
than one reel is strung. The grips will then pass through the
travellers backwards and if the ends are not banded and taped,
they may slip off.
Experience has shown th.at pulling speed is an important
factor in achieving a smooth stringing operation. Speeds of 3-
4 kmlhour usually provide a smooth passage of the running
board or connecting hardware, or both, over the travellers,
whereas slower speeds may cauSe significant swinging of the
traveller and insulator hardware assemblies. Higher speeds .
create a potential hazard of greater damage in case of a
malfunction.
The maximum tension imposed on a conductor during
stringing operations should not exceed than necessary to clear
obstructions on the ground. This clearance should be con frrrned
by observation. In general, stringing tension of about one-half
of the sagging tension is a good criterion. If greatertensions are
required, consideration must be given to any possible pre-
stressing of conductors that may result, based on the tension
and time involved. Consideration must also be given to the fact
that when long lengths of conductor are strung, the tension at
the pulling end may exceed the tension at the tensioner by a
significant amount. Difference in tension is caused by the
length of conductor strung, number and performance of trav-
ellers, differences in elevation of supporting structures, etc.
Light and steady back tension should be maintained on the
conductor reels at all times sufficient to prevent over run in
case of a sudden stop. It must also be sufficient to cause the
conductor to lie snugly in the first groove of the bullwheel and
to prevent slack in the conductor between bull wheels. It may
be necessary periodically to loosen the brake on the reel stand
as the conductor is payed off. As the reel empties, the moment
arm available to overcome the brake drag is reduced, and the
tension therefore rises. This may cause the conductor to wedge
into the underlying layers on the reel. .
The reel should be positioned so that it will rotate in the
same direction as the bullwheels. looSening of the stranding'
that often occurs between the reel and the bull wheels of the
tensioner is caused to a great extent by coil memory in the
conductor. As the conductor is unwound from the reel and
straightens out, the outer strands become loose, a condition that
is particularly noticeable in a large diameter conductorandcan
be best observed at the point at which it leaves the reel. As the
conductor enters the bull wheel groove, the pressure of contact
tends to push the loose outer strands back towardsrJie reel
where the looseness accurg,u!ates, leading to the condition
commonly known as birdcaging. If this condition iSoot con-
trolled, the strands can become damaged to the extent Hi'at the
damaged area of conductor must be removed. lbls'pr6blem
can be remedied by allowing enough distance between the reel
and tensioner to permit the strand looseness to distribute along
22 _____ . _. __ .
the intervening length of conductor and simultaneously main-
taining enough back tcnsion on the reel stretch the core and
inner strands to sufficiently tighten the outer strands.
The maximum time conductors may safely remain in the
travellers depends on wind induced vibration or other motion
of the conductors. Wind blown sand can severely damage
conductors in a few hours if clearance is less than about 3m
over loose sand with little vegetation. Damage from vibration
at sagging tensions is quite possible and, when required,
dampers should be installed promptly. However, at lower
tensions generally used for initial stringing, damage to con-
ductors or sheave bearings, or both, is not likely to occur from
vibration. Even for travellers having lined sheaves with root
diameters 20 times the conductor diameter, it is important to
complete conductor stringing, sagging, plumb marking, ~   p ­
ping, spacing and damping operations as soon as possible to
prevent conductor damage from weather, particularly wind.
Conductor should not be strung if adverse weather is predicted
before the entire sequence can be completed.
Sub-conductoroscillation may occur in bundled conductor
lines and tie-down methods. Temporary spacers, or other
means may be required to prevent conductor surface damage
prior to installation of spacers. Temporarily positioning of one
sub-conductor above another to prevent conductor clashing is
undcsirable since different tension history will produce sub-
conductor mismatch unless the tensions are low and duration
short enough so that creep is not a factor. Conductor clashing
can mar the strands and produce slivers which can result in
radio noise generation.
If a bull whccltype puller is utilized, the pulling line must
be recovered during the pulling operation on a separate piece
of equipment. This function is usually performed by a reel
windcr which is placed behind the puller in an arrangement
similar to the reel stand at the tension site. These coils shall be
removed carefully and if another length is required to be run
out, a joint shall be made according to the recommendation of
the manufacturers. Drum battens shall be removed just prior
to moving drums on drum stands. Drums will be transported
and positioned on station with the least possible amount of
rolling.
The conductors, joints and clamps shall be erected in such
a manner that no birdcaging, over-tensioning ·of individual
wires or layers or other deformation or damage to the conduc-
tors shall occur. Clamps or hauling devices shall, under erec-
tion conditions, allow no relative movement of strands or
layers of the conductors.
Scaffolding shall be used where roads, rivers, channels,
tclecommunication or overhead power lines, railway lines,
fences or walls have to be crossed during stringing operations.
It shall be seen that nonnal services are not interrupted or
damage caused to property. Shut-down shall be obtained when
The sequence of running out shall be from top to down-
wards i.e. the earthwire shall be run out first, followed by the
conductors in succession. In case of horizontal configuration
tower, middle conductor shall be strung before stringing of
outer conductors is taken-up.
A sketch of Tension stringing operation is shown in
Annexure-'P'
11.9.3 Repairing of Conductor
Repairs to conductors, in the event of damage caused to
isolated strands of a conductor during the course of erection, if
necessary, shall be carried out during the running out operations,
with repair sleeves. Repairing of conductor surface shall be
done only in case of minor damage, scuff marks etc., keeping
in view both electrical and meChanical safe requirements.
Repair sleeves may be used when the damage is limited to
the outer layer of the conductor and is equivalent to the
severances of not more than one third of the strands of the outer
most layer. No repair sleeve shall be fiued within 30m of
tension or suspension hardware fittings, nor shall more than
one repair sleeve per conductor normally be permitted in any
one span.
11.9.4 Jointing
The fullest possiblc usc shall be made of the maximum
conductor lengths. in order to reduce to a minimum number of
joints. All the joints on the conductor shall be of compression
type, in accordance with the recommendations of the manufac-
turers for which all necessary tools and equipments like com-
pressors, die sets etc., shall be arranged. The final conductor
surface shall be clean smooth and shall be without any pro-
jections, sharp points, cuts, abrasions etc., Conductor ends to
be joined shall be coated with an approved grease immediately
before final assembly. Surplus grease shall be removed after
assembly.
All joints or splices shall be made atieast30 metres away
from the structures. No joints or splices shall be made in
tension spans. No tension joint shall be used in any span
crossing other major power lines.
The compression type fitting used shall be of self -centering
type or care shall be taken to mark the conductors to indicate
when the fining is centred properly. During compression or
splicing operation the conductor shall be handled in such a
manner as to prevent lateral or vertical bearing against the dies.
After pressing the joint the aluminium sleeve shall have all
corners rounded, burrs and sharp edges removed and
smoothened.
11.9.5 Final Sagging of Conductor and Earthwire
The final sagging of the conductor shall be done by
sagging winches.
After being rough sagged the conductor/earth wire shall
I
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,
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IIUllfS OCIOre DCmg pulled to the specified sag.
The tensioning and sagging shall be done in accordance
with the approved stringing chans before the conductors and
earthwireare finally attached to the towers through theearthwire
clamps for theearthwire and insulatorslrings fortheconductor.
The sag will be checked in the first and last span of the
Section in case of Sections upto eight spans and in one
intermediate span also for sections with more than eight spans.
The sag shall also be checked when the conductors have been
drawn up and Iran sported from running blocks to the insulator
clamps.
The running blocks, which are suspended from the
transmission Slructure for sagging shall be so adjusted that the
conductors on running blocks will be at the same height as the
suspension clamp to which it is to be secured.
At sharp vertical angles, the sags and tensions shall be
checked on both sides of the angle, the conductor and earthwire
shall be checked on the running blocks for quality oftension on
both sides. The suspension insulator assembly will normally
assume vertical positions when the conductor is clamped.
Tensioning and sagging operations shall be carried out in
normal weather when rapid changes in temperatures are not
likely to occur. Sag board and dynamometers shall be em-
ployed for meac;uring sag and tension respectively.
The dynamometers employed shall be periodically checked
and calibrdted with a standard dynamometer.
Attempts to sag conductor on excessively windy day
should be avoided since serious error can result due toconductor
uplift caused by wind pressure on the conductor. Should severe
wind conditions occur when sagging is in progress, the sagging
must be stopped till peaceful conditions prevail to resume
sagging.
Once a Section hac; been sagged, the sub-conductors of the
bundle should be checked for evenness. Unevenness, if any,
shall be rectified as far as possible with the help of sag adjuster.
The travellers which are used to string conductor are not
frictionless and therefore, can cause problems during a sagging
operation. If one or more of the Iravellers becomes jammed,
sagging can become very difficult A Iraveller which swings in
the direction. of the pull may be an indication of a defective
traveller. Should unexplainable sagging difficulties occur, the
traveller should be checked. Tensions applied to the conductor
to overcome sticky or jammed travellers can eause sudden,
abrupt movement of the conductor in the sagging spans and .
quickly cause change of sag, particularly, if the conductor is
already tensioned to the required value.
During sagging care shaJl be taken to eliminate differen-_
tial sags in the sub-conductor ac; far as possible. However, in no
case sag mismatch of more than 25mm shall be allowed.
11.9.6 Clipping in/Clamping in of Conductors
The clipping portion of the conductor stringing operation
involves thework foil owing sagging and plumb marking of the
conductors. This entails removing the conductors from the
travellers and placing them in their permanent suspension
clamps attached to the insulator assemblies.
When clipping is being done, care must be exercised to
ascertain that the conductors are grounded prior to clipping
despite the fact that the lines being clipped are not attached to
any electrical source. This involves placing a locaJ ground
upon the conductor at the location of work.
After the conductors have been marked, the erection crew
will lift the weight of the conductors, allowing the travellers to
be removed and the suspension clamps, and armour rod, if any
used, to be placed on the conductors. Lifting is nonnally done
by use of a hoist suspended from the structure and a conductor
lifting hook which is designed so as not to notch or severely
bend the conductors. After placing the suspension clamps on
the conductor, the hooks are lowered thereby placing the
weight of the conductor on the suspension clamp and completing
the assembly. Where bundle conductors are used, the multiple
conductors may be lifted simultaneously by using a yoke
arrangement supporting the hooks and a single hoist or other
lifting means.
11.9.7 Installation of Spacers
Following the clipping operations for bundled conductor
lines, spacers must be installed. This is done by placing the
erection crew on the conductors in the 'conductor car' nor-
mally known as spacer cycle to ride from structure. Depending
on the length of line Lo be spacered and the equipment avail-
able, cars may be hand powered, towed by persons on the
ground or in adjacent slrucLures wiLh ropes, or powered by a
small engine on the car itself. Care must be exercised to ensure
thaL the concentrated load of the man, car and equipment does
not increase the sag appreciably to cause a hazard from
obSlructions over which the car will pass. The installation of
the spacers on the conductor varies with the type and manu-
facture of the spacer and is normally done in accordance with
the manufacturer's recommendations.
The load of the man, car and equipment should be equally
diSlributed to all sub-conductors of the phase. This is particu-
larlyimportant at the time each spacer is attached. Number of
spacers. per span and the spacings are provided as per the
approved spacer placement chart
11.9.8 Installation of Vibration Dampers/Spacer
Dampers
Vibration Dampers/Spacer Dampers are nonnally placed
on the conductors immediately following clipping to prevent
any possible wind vibration damage to the conductors which at
critical tensions and wind conditions can occur in a matter of
a few hours.
The number of dampers/spacer dampers and spacing are
provided as per the design requirement and instructions of the
manufacturers.
24
11.9.9 Jumpering
The jumpers at the Section and angle towers shall be
fonned to parabolic shape to ensure maximum clearance
requirements. Pilot suspension insulator string shall be used, if
found necessary, to restrict the jumper swings to the design
values. Clearance between the conductors and ground and
between jumpers and the tower steel work shall be checked
during erection and before handing over the line.
11.9.10 Ground Undulation
The provision of 150mm shall be made to account for any
undulations in the ground in final still air sag at maximum.
11.10 HOT-LINE STRINGING OF E.H.V. LINES
11.10.1 General
Hot line stringing means stringing of second circuit on the
same tower with first circuit electrically & mechanically
loaded. This is shown in Figure A.
11.10.1.1 With the available techniques, the hot-line string-
ing is done in this country only upto 220 kY. The advantage of
stringing second circuit at a later'date (with hot-line method)
is saving in initial capital investment in the form of conductors,
insulated hardware. Besides, with provision of Double circuit
towers from the beginning saves way problems as second
corridor is not required for second circuit
11.10.2 Precautions
11.10.2.1 Hot-line stringing is a specialised job and calls for
special precautions. All the crew members are provided with
rubber shoes and hand-gloves and are compelled to use them
during the stringing.
11.1 0.2.2. All the drums of conductor and pilot wires are
solidly earthed. All the tension locations, where the conductor
ends are terminated, are solidly earthed.
11.10.2.3 In addition to above, during final sagging and
clipping operation, standard earthing rods are used for con-
, necting each conductor to the tower body.
Circuit No-1
strung and
energised
Construction of Transmission Lines
11.10.3 Operations
11.10.3.1 Arrangement for earthing the conductor drums and
pilot wire drums is made at both the ends of the section under
stringing. The hoisting of insulators, clamping of pilot wire and
the conductor and rough sagging of conductor is done as per
nonnal stringing method.
11.10.3.2 Before marking and clipping the dead ends, each
phase conductor is solidly earthed in two separate sets. One set
is earthed by means,of droppers and earthing rods and second
set is by earthing of conductor end to tower body. This is shown
in the Figure B.
While removing the second set of earthing, the conductor
end is removed first and the tower end later. Similarly in case
of the first set the cable is disconnected from canductor end
first and the rod end later.
11.10.3.3 Similarly, before clipping the canductor on the
suspension towers, each canductor on both the sides of the
clamp is earthed to tower body. After the clipping is aver, the
earthing cable is first removed from the conductor end and later
from the tower end. This is shown in the Figure C.
11.10.3.4 In arder to limit the parallelism and induced volt-
ages, it is advisable to do thejumpcring work at the end. While
daing the jumpering work also the earthing cables are required
to' be pravided.
11.10.4 Earthing
11.10.4.1 Solid earthings are provided by driving one or mare
G.I. SPIKES in the soil as dane in pipe type of earthing. If
required, more pipes are driven at the same place. In any case
the soil resistance should not be more than 5 ohms.
11.10.4.2 In case of rocky soils, counterpoise type earthing
system is used. The length of the wires is decided by trial &
error till the earth resistance is lowered to 5 ohms or less.
11.10.4.3 For earthing a t1exible copper cable having 10 sq.
mm area (20 Ampere capacity) is used. The cable is generally
armoured type for rough use. Proper clamps/connectors are
used to connect the cable to the conductor and to the earth.
Circuit No.-2
to be strung
as hot line
I
,
 
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, (
E/W
TIC
First set
H/(
B/C
10 mm
2
flexible
copper cable
Standard
earthing rods
E/W
TIC
H/C
B/C
Earth
Tension tower
G.l.
Longitudinal View
FIGUREn
Suspension insulator string
10 mm
2
flexible earthing cable
Suspension tower
FIGUREC
26. Construction a/Transmission Lines
.------------. ------------- -- --_ .... _ ... -
11.11 PROTECTION OF TOWER FOOTINGS
The woi"k includes all necessary stone reveunem, concret-
ing and earth filling above ground level and the clearance from
)tacking on the side of all surplus excavated soil, special
measures for protection of foundations close to or in nallahas,
river beds, etc., by providing suitable reveunenl or galvanised
wire nelling and meshing packed with boulders.
A typical revetment drawing is shown in Annexure- 'Q'
11.12 TESTING AND COMMISSIONING
11.12.1 General
Before the line is energised, visual examination of the line
shall be carried out to check that all nuts and bolts are tight and
insulators and accessories ar9 in position. The earth connections
shall also be checked to venfy that these are in order.
11.12.2 Testing
Before commissioning of the lines, the following tests
may be carried out:
(a) Conductor continuity test-The objective of this test is to
verify that each conductor of the overhead line is properly
connected electrically (that is, the value of its electrical
resistance docs not vary, abnormally from that of a con-
tinuous conductor of the same size and length). The
electrical resistance of the conductor shall be measured
with a Wheatstone bridge or other suitable instrument.
(b) Insulation resistance test-This test may be carried out
with the help of a 5 kV megger preferably driven to
ascertain the insulation condition of the line.
11.12.2.1 The line may then be kept charged on no load at the
power frequency voltage preferably for 72 hours. for the
purpose of full scale testing.
11.12.3 Statutory Requirements
The statutory authorities shall be informed before com-
missioning the lines and their approval obtained in accordance
with Indian Electricity Act, 1910 and Indian Electricity Rules,
1956. (For details see Rules 63 to 69 of Indian Electricity
Rules, 1956).
11.13 REFERENCES
1. IEEE Guide to the Installation of Overhead Transmission
Line Conductors. (lEE Std. 524-1980). Published by the
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. 345
East 47th Street, New York 1.0017, Dec' 18,1980. .
2. The following papers published by the Association of
Indian Engineering Industry Transmission Line Division
Published on the occasion of International Conference on
Trends in Transmission Line Technology during 17th-
18th April, 1985.
(i) "Latest Erection Techniques for Tranmission Line
Construction" by Shri R. K. Madan, MIs National
Hydro-electric Power Corporation ..
(ii) "Tower Foundation design practice" by Shri S.D.
Dand, MIs KEC International Limited, Kurla.
3. Overhead Line Practice-by John Mc-COMBE.
4. Manual ofTransmission Line Towers-Technical Report
No.9 of Central Board of Irrigation and Power.
5. Text book on "Surveying and Levelling-by Shri T.P.
KaneLkar.
6. "Company Standard Guide for Transmission Line Sur-
veying"-EMC Ltd., Calcutta.
7. Indian Standard Codes
(a) IS: 5613 (Part II/Section I)-1976-Code of Practice
for Design, Installation and Maintenance of Over-
head Power Lines-(Lines above 11 kV and upto and
including 220 kV).
(b) IS: 5613 (Part II/Section 2)-1976-Code of Practice
for Design, Installation and Maintenance of Over-
head Power Lines-(Lines above 11 kV and upto and
including 220 kV).
(c) IS : 4091-1979-Code of Pmctice for Design and
Construction of Foundations for Transmission Line
Towers and Poles.
(d) IS: 456-1978-Code of Practice for Plain and Rein-
forced Concrete.
(e) IS: 3043-1966-Code of Pmctice for Earthing.
(f) Draft "Indian Standard Code of Practice for Design,
Installation and Maintenance for Overhead Power
Lines" -Part 3 (400 kV Lines)-Section I-Design-"IS
: 5613 (Part III/Sec. 1.)".
ANNEXURE 'A'
1. CLEARANCES
1.1 The minimum clearances shall be in accordance with Indian Electricity Rules, 1956 and are given in Table I
TABLE·I
Minimum Clearances
VOLTAGE CATEGORY EXTRA
(IE RULES, 1956) HIGH VOLTAGE HIGH VOLTAGE
Nominal System-Voltage 33kV 66kV 1l0kV 132kV 220kV 400kV ± 500kV 800kV
Clearance (Minimum value in m) HVDC
(i) Clearance to Ground
(a) Across street 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 7.0 8.84 13.20 12.40
(b) Along street 5.8 6.1 6.1 6.1 7.0 8.84 13.20 12.40
(c) Olher areas 5.2 S.5 6.1 6.1 7.0 8.84 13.20 12.40
(ii) Clearance to Buildings
(a) Vertical (*) -from
highest ,object 3.66 3.97 4.58 4.S8
5 . 4 ~  
7.32 11.59 10.90
(b) Horizontal (+) -from
nearest point 1.83 2.14 2.75 2.75 3.66 5.49 10.98 9.15
(iii) At Crossings with
(a) Tramway/trolley bus 3.05 3.36 3.76 3.97 4.78 6.44 10.14
(b) Telecom lines 2.44 2.75 2.75 3.05 4.67 8.18
(c) Railway #
1 Category 'A' and 'C' Groad Guage
Inside station area 10.0 10.3 10.6 10.9 11.2 16.630
Oul<;idc SL.1lion area 7.6 7.9 8.2 8.5 8.8 14.630
Metre/Narrow Gauge
Inside station area 8.8 9.1 9.5 9.8 10.0
Outside stalion area 6.4 6.7 7.0 7.3 7.6
2. Category 'B'-All Gauges
Inside staLion area 12.3 13.0 13.7 14.0 IS.3 18.63
Outside stalion area 10.5 11.0 11.7 12.0 13.3 16.63
(iv) Between Lines when crossing each other (derived)
2S0V 2.44 2.44 2.75 3.0S 4.58 6.10 10.80 10.00
6S0V 2.44 2.44 2.7S 3.0S 4.S8 6.10 10.80 10.00
11 kV 2.44 2.44 2.75 3.05 4.58 6.10 10.80 10.00
22kV 2.44 2.44 2.7S 3.05 4.58 6.10 10.80 10.00
33 kV 2.44 2.44 2.75 3.0S 4.58 6.10 10.80 10.00
66kV 2.44 2.44 2.75 3.0S 4.58 6.10 10.80 10.00
110kV 2.75 2.75 2.75 3.05 4.58 6.10 10.80 10.00
132kV 3.0S 3.0S 3.0S 3.0S 4.58 6.10 10.80 10.00
220kV 4.58 4.S8 4.58 4.S8 4.58 6.10 10.80 10.00
400kV 6.10 6.10 6.10 6.10 6.10 6.10 10.80 10.00
± SOO kVDC 10.80 10.80 10.80 10.80 10.80 10.80 10.80 10.80
800kV 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00
NOTE 1: $ Should not cross on/near buildings
2L _____     of Transmission Lifl!s
NOTE 2 For all crossings, the clearance to be obtained at the worst conditions of proximity of wires.
NOTE 3 The above table has been compiled wiLh the help of Indian Electricity Rules 1956
i(a) (*) Vertical clearance LO be obtained at max!mum still air final sags (at maximum temperature or ice-loaded conductor
at 0 degree Celcius).
ii(b) (+) Horizontal clearance to be obtained at worst load condition wiLh maximum deflected conducLOr position, including
that of insulaLOr string, if any.
iii(c) # Category' A' tI'dcks elecLrified on 1 500 V dc system.
Category 'B' tmcks already electrified.or likely to be convertedLO or electrified on 25 kV ac system within
the foreseeable future.
Category 'C' tracks not likely to be electrified in Lhe foreseeable future.
[For categories' A' and 'B' crossings up to 650 V shall be by means of underground (U.G.) cables; while it is recommended
that U.G. cable be upto 11 kV. For category 'C', it is recommended that U.G. cable be used UpLO 650 V. Above these, U.G.cable
or overhead crossings may be adopted as preferred by the owner. The minimum clearance between any of the owner's conductors
or guard wires and the Railway's conducLOrs shall not be less than 2 m.]
Station Area means all tracks lying in Lhe area between the outer most signals of a railway station.
1.2 Mid-span clearance between Earthwire and Power Conductor-The following values may be considered subject to Lhe
conditions given below:
(a) These should also meet the requirements of angle of shielding.
(b) The earthwire sag shall be not more than 90 percent of Lhe corresponding sag of power conductor under s1ill air
condition for the entire specified temperature range.
Line Voltage (kY) Minimum Mid-span clearance (m)
33 l.5
66 3.0
110 4.5
132 6.l
220 8.5
400 9.0
±500 kYHYDC 9.0
800 kY 12.0
Note: The mid-span clcarance shall be reckoned as direct distance between earthwire and top power conductor, in case of
vertical or triangular formation of conductors, or outer power conductors, in case of horizontal formation of conductors
at minimum temperature and still air conditions.
1.3 Live Metal Clearance : The live metal clearance depends upon Lhe voltage of the conduCLOrs in different operating
conditions. The values of these clearances corresponding LO conditions normally considered for the design of lines are given in
Table 2 .
I
I
TABLE 2
ANNEXURE 'A
(Contd.
Minimum Electrical Clearances from Live Conductor to Earthed Metal Parts
TYPE OF INSULATOR
STRING
SWING IN MINIMUM ELECTRICAL CLEARANCE FOR LINE VOLTAGE
DEGREE 33 kV 66kV 110 kV 132 kV 220 kV 400 kV 500 kV
(i) Pin insulator
(ii) Tension string
(Single/Double)
(iii) Jumper
(iv) Single suspension
string
2
Nil
Nil
Nil!
10°
3
mm
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
4
mm
915
915
915
610
610
915
915
760
610
610
5
mm
1220
1220
1220
915
915
1220
1220
1070
915
915
6
mm
1530
1530
1530
1070
1070
1530
1530
1370
1220
1070
7
mm
2130
2130
2130
1675
2130
1980
1830
1675
*
8
mm
3050
*
3050
*
*
3050
*
*
*
*
9
mm
3750
*
*
*
3750
*
*
*
*
(v) Double Suspens\on
String 2130 * Not appli-
cable
Note: The effect of galloping or dencing of conductors has not been taken into consideration while specifying the minimum
electrical clearances.
Nil 330 915 1220 1530
1.3.1 The values given in Table 2 are considered to be suitable for elevations upto 1000 m above the mean see level (MSL). For
heights over 1000 m and up to 3000m above MSL, it is recommended that the values should be increased by 1.25 percent for every
100m height or part thereor.
SPECIAL NOTE: 1) Value for the 33 kV to 220 kV have been copied from IS 5613 (part II/Sec 1)-1976
2) Values for 400 kV may be checked by the design department
3) Values for 500 kV are to be filled up by the design department.
* To be filled up by Kurla
30
ANNEXURE 'B'
Caiculalions of Reduced levels & Chainages
A. By Dumpy Level & Chainages
Sample field book observations
Stalion Angle of Level Readings Coli imatioll Route Plan
J
No. Chainage line Reduced

deviation Back Inter Fore (ll.l. ) Level L C R
sight sight sight
5.62 1   1 X90.50
A 0 10015' 6.95 IXX9.17
12 4.4X I X91.64
17 3.24
27 2.91 1 X93.21
37 3.25 IX92.X7
50 4.X2 1X91JO
85 2.94 1893.18
100 2.01 UN4.11
150 1.28 1894.84
200 5.44
-
0.68 1900.88 1895.44
B 300 20°10' 3.58 1897.30
- 4.24 1896.64
NOTE: Alllhe values are in meLres
B. By Tacheomelric Survey
Sample field book
Stalion Angle Readings Stadia Wire Readings H.I. Routs Plan Details
Number Horizontal Vcnical
Top Mid Botlom
(n
(M) (8) L R
(in melrcs)
(8) 10030'(L) 4°10' 3.60 3.00 2.40 1.4
9 8°24' 1.50 1.00 0.50
8 10°36' 1.40 1.00 0.60
7 2°18' 1.10 1.00 0.90
6 0°00' 1.52 I.P.
5 0°00' 3.04 3.00 2.96
4 (-) 11°05' 3.05 3.00 2.95
3 (-) 6°10' 2.10 2.00 1.90
2 2°40' 1.15 1.00 0.85
1 (x) 5°18' 1.20 1.00 0.80
2°12' 1.20 1.00 0.80
ANNEXURE'B'
Contd)
1
Calculations (Tacheometric Survey)
Height of Instrument
= H.I. =
1.40 m
R.L. of Instrument Station  
=
100.00
1
Stn. Vertical s m Horizontal Vertical R.L..' .. = Remarks
No. angle (T-B) distance V=DTan e
D=sxKCos8 in m
(B) 4°10' 1.20 3.00 119.37 8.70 107.10 Angle pt (B)
9 8°24' 1.00 1.00 97.87 14.45 114.85
6 10036' 0.80 1.00 77.29 14.46 114.86
7 2°18' 0.20 1.00 19.97 0.80 101.20
6 0000' 0.00 1.52 0.00 0.00 99.88 Exst. pt
8 0°00' 0.08 3.00 0.00 0.00 98.40
4 (-) 1005' 0.10 3.00 10.00 (-) 0.19 98.21
3 (-) 6°10' 0.20 2.00 19.76 (-) 2.14 97.26
2 2°40' 0.30 1.00 29.94 1.39 101.79
Ix 5°18' 0.40 1.00 39.66 3.68 104.08 CST (1)
1 2°12' 0.40 1.00 39.94 1.53 101.93
(A) 0000' 0.50 1.00 50.00 0.00 100.40 Angle pt (A)
B.M.l00.00
Where 'K' is the.Instrument Coefficient which is furnished by the Instrument manufacturers. In the above calculations valu
of 'K' has been taken as 100.
V =DTANe
Where
D = sxkxCos
2
8
RLo = Reduced Level of Instrument Station
RL =
A
RLo+ HI±v-m
RLA = Reduced Level of Staff Station
Staff
. Collimation tine

G.l.
Stadia with Line of Collimation Inclined
(Tower No.'
/ 350
(Angle point,_Y1
Datum 4000
level '"
co
Reduced
...
'" 0 .....
.. ....
Distance in metres
I C> C>
co Co Co
-
co
co
...
....
co
Co
112
A
g
co
,.,
... &Ii
.... ...
I
co co
'"
Co
Typical Sketch of Profile
co co
co ....
&Ii ,..;
....
'" I I
co co
Co co
co
'" .....
....
I
C>
co
113
A
co
co
0
GO
C>
co
co
-I"
...
....
I
C>
co
420
400
co C> co co C>
a-
'"
C> C> ,.,
&Ii &Ii &Ii 0 .....
.... .... ....
..,
'"
I I I I
co C> co
C> co
co co
co co co
co co
..... C>
..; ...
'" '" I
C> C>
co co
115
A
co
C>
..;
'" I
co
co
ANNEXUREC
400
co
g
co
C>
C>
.....
u:;
.,.:
'"
--:
I I
C>
C> C> C>
co co
0
AP t ,
22° 15
,., ,.,
-I"
'"
.... .... GO a-
:=
t::! ;!: :2 ..... ....,
Soil with b
1
Nala oulders
/f l': • ./- $ __ __
" A d3
I . . A L"P d3' T ",,,d --j
r--Bushes I A \ d3   I Bushes 11 k I. A \lP & v me
.. ,.
(,It" AP-l
Ivated land 27° 5S'l T
.J
- -

N
i(')
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- -------------
Typical Sa g Template Drawing
Ground clearance curve (3)
Tower footing curve (4)
Normal span 400 m
PARTICULAR
1. CONDUCTOR MOOSE ACSR
2. ULTIMATE STRENGTH 16434 Kg
3. TEMPERATURE RANGE 00-370-750
4. NORMAL SPAN 400 m
Scale
Hor. 1 cm = 20 m
Ver. 1 cm = 2 m
5. SAG OF CONDUCTOR AT MINIMUM TEMPERATURE
AT NORMAL TEMPERATURE
NOWIND .
6. MAXIMUM SAG
CONDUCTOR 12.865 m
EARTHWIRE 10.196 m
7. TENS'ION AT MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE
STILL WIND
8. TENSION AT MINIMUM TEMPERATURE
STILL WIND
GROUND CLEARANCE 8.840 m
GROUND UNDULATIONS 0.150 m
ANNEXURE.
34
6.
Construction o/Transmission Lines
ANNEXURE·E
STRUCTURE LIMITATION CHART/TOWER SPOTTING DATA
(FOR 400 KV TRANSMISSION LINES)
Tower Type 'A'MKD. 'A' 'B'MKD. 'B' 'C' MKD. 'c' 'D'MKD. 'D'
Max. Angle of Deviation 2° 15° 15° to 300 6OO/O.E.
Vertical Load Limitations
on Weight Span. Max. (Min.) Max. (Min) . Max. (Min.) Max (Min.)
Groundwire effect
(a) Both Spans 600 (200) 600 (0) 600 (0) 600 (0)
(b) One Span 360 (100) 360 (-200) 300 (-200) 360 (-300)
Conductor effect
(a) Both Spans 600 (200) 600 (0) 600-(0) 600 (0)
(b) One Span 360 (100) 360 (-200) 360 (-200) 360 (-300)
Weights
Groundwire effect
(a) Both Spans 350 (117) 350 (0) 350 (0) 350 (0)
(b) One Span 210 (58) 210 (-117) 210 (-117) 210 (-175)
Conductor effect
(a) Both Spans 2405 (802) 2405 (0) 2405 (0) 2405 (0)
(b) One Span 1443 (401) 1443 (-802) 1443 (-802) 1443 (-802)
Permissible sum of 2°-80'0 15°-800 30°-800 60°-800
adjacent span for 1-838 14-876 29-874 59-868
various deviation 0-878 13-956 28-952 58-936
angles. 12-1034 27-1028 57-1004
11-1112 26-11()4 56-1074
10-1190 25-1182 55-1144
Design
(a) Groundwire
(i) 32° Full wind 1574 1561/1574 1520/1574 1363/1574
(ii) 00 x 2(3 Full wind 1525 1521/1525 1473/1525 1321/1525
(b) Conductor
(i) 32° Full wind 4470 8864/8940 8635/8940 7742/8940
(ii) 00 x 2(3 Full wind 4582 9086/9164 8852/9164 7936/9164
TOWER TYPE
18m and 25m Extension (a) Maximum Wind span 300m
for Towertype 'A' marked 'A' (b) Deviation Angle o degree
(c) Vertical load Limitation on Weight span of Conductor/Groundwire:
Maximum Minimum
(i) Both spans 600 200
(ii) Onf> I1.mm ~ I \ l   1 ()()
\
ANNEXURE I
• (Contd,
6A. 18m and 25m Extension (a) Maximum wind span
(b) Deviation Angle
400m
7.
8.
9.
for Tower type 'D' marked 'D' 40 degree
(c) Vertical load limitation on weight span of Con ductorl Ground wire:
(i) Both spans
(ii) One span
Maximum
(-) 600
(-) 360
Way leave clearance 26 metres either side from centre of line of tower.
Electrical clearance for Railway crossing
17.9m,
------
- -
Minimum clearance between power line to power line crossing
5.490ml
Minimum
o
(-) 300
NOTES:
1. Vertical loads on individual spans are acting downwards for suspension towers.
2. Broken wire condition: As per specification requirement.
3. Maximum sum of adjacent spans for various angles of deviations are subjected to the condition that maximum live
metal clearance and minimum ground clearance are available.
4. Limit of Highway crossing span: 250 metres
5. Maximum deviation angle for dead end tower:
(a) Line side and Slack span side: 15 degree on either side.
(b) For River crossing Anchoring with longer wind span with 0 degree deviation on crossing span and 30 degree
deviation on either side.
6. Angle tower types 'B', 'C' & 'D' are designed for following unbalanced tension resulting from unequal Ruling spans
of 200 m and 400 m on each side of the towers for nonnal condition only.
Temperatures
At 32 degree Celsius (Without wind)
Unbalanced Tension
Groundwire
80
Conductor
983
At Zero degree Celsius (Without wind) 85 376
7. Tower type 'C' to be u'sed as Transposition tower with 0 degree deviation.
8. Tower type' B' to be used as Section towers. The number of consecutive spans between two section points shall not
exceed 15.
TOWER SCHEDULE
NAME OF THE LINE: XX XX XX XX XX XX
Tower No.
Length Angle of Type
Wt. Span (m)
mst. Final
Span of deviation of
L R Total
(m) Section T.ower
(m)
)/4 05 13°32' OO"L T B+9 107 260 367
450
)/5 06 A 190 190 380
380
./6 07 A 190 189 379
395
';7 08 A+3 206 217 423
415
1/8 09 A 198 194 392
390 2030
/9 10
10010'30"RT B 196 196 392
390
iiiMhC"
XX
Type
of
Fdn.
FS
WEe
Wet
WBe
Dry
WBe
ANNEXUREF
XX
Details of
Earthing Type Remarks
Resistance{ohm}
Type Ini- Final
(P/CP) tial
Pipe 5 2
11 kY crossing
Pipe 3 2
Nala crossing
Pipe 4 2
2 Nalas crossing
Pipe 3 2
Pipe 5 3
Pipe 5 3
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Types & Shapes of Foundations
Chapter on Construction Activities of EHV Transmission Lines
LL.
G.L.
Fig. 1
Pad
Chimney. Pyramid & pad type
0(( foundation for normal dry
.oil
tt1
  1m" G.l.
Fig. 7
er type/under ream
! foundation for c1ayee
--
CL.
G.L. t ._. V£.I i _,
Fig. 2
Block type P.e.e.
foundation for soft
& hard rock
Fig. 8
Steel plate type
. foundation for normal
soil·
CL. __ _
G.L. _, t
Fig. 3
Under cut type
P.e.e./R.C.e. foundation
for soft rock &
normal soli
Fig. 9
Fig. 4
Spread footing type
champhered R.Le.
foundations for submerged
soils
Grillage type foundafons
for normal cohesive soil.
ANNEXUREG
CL.
G.L.
----- CL. ---
_ ,.., VJ ,_ G.L., lAW< r
Fig. 5
Spread footing type
chamhered step type
R.LC foundations for
submerged soils
Fig. 10
Well type foundation
for submerged &
sandy soils (R.C.C.J
Anchor
Fig. ,
Anchor rod type
P.e.e. foundation
for hard rock
Pile cap
Fig. 11
Special pile type
R.C.C. foundation
in flowing river
38 Conslruclion of Tra.nsmission Lines
----
ANNEXUREH
Sketch of Hill Side Extensions
tl.
EXCAVA TlON MARKING CHART
_______ --------=1=-=---- -----
ELEVATION
D'I.--4--.
1ft .
/'<
/
------M -------..,.\
PLAN
ANNEXURE I
Dimensions in mm
Description
Dimensions for pit marking
H F M N AB ABC ABCD ABCDE ABCDEA
(Normal) wet location 3000 2295 9686 13698 5991 . 9686 11981 15227 20453
-
.
Wet location
3000
2295 10661 15077 6478 10661 12956 16202 22118
Wet location 3000
2295 11637 16457 6966 11637 13932 17177 23783
40
ANNEXURE:]
PROCEDURE FOR SETTING STUBS AT SITE BY COMBINED TEMPLATE
The Stubs are set with the help of the Stub-setting Tem-
plates, which are supplied loose, ready to be assembled at site.
All four excavated pits are to be lean concreted to correct level
sighted through level and the stubs are to be placed on the lean
concrete pad. Correct alignment is carried out by 0.9 kg Plumb
bob 4 in numbers hung from centre of horizontal bracings.
Following is the procedure for Stub-setting at site:
1 Assemble the Template as per the drawing alongwith .the
supply.
2 Set the Template as per the drawing at site.
3 Place the Stub-setting lacks below the Template.
4 Align Template, alongwith the line and centre it over the
centre peg of the location.
5 Fix up the stub to the Template and with the help of a
TEMPLATE
STue
dumpy level, level the Template comers to the required
level.
6 Ensure that all the four stubs are at the same level.
7 Check the alignment and centring of the Template again.
8 By placing on 8 to 12 screw jacks according to the length
of Template. with a levelling instrument fine adjustment
can be made by lifting/lowering the screw jacks, and the
stubs can be perfectly levelled. This ensures accurate
verticality of the tower. For ensuring all towers in one line
and cross-arms at right angle to it, 4 plumb bobs should be
dropped from the centre of the horizontal members of the
Template to correspond to the cross pegs and alignment
pegs given during the line alignment survey for the tower
location.
PIT
SCREWJ
3
Foundation layout of Unequal leg Extensions
R.L.100m
/
/
R.L.97m
Om leg extension ''\',\ / /
2
3m leg extension
R.L.98m
4
'\ /
X R.L. 100m
·0 .
/ "-
/ "-
/ .,
/ ,
"-
"
ANNEXUREK
Individual
2m leg extension
Leg Template
      = ~     T 1 "
"
"
"
"
"
"
II
" I,
"
"
Pit No.4
4m leg extension
T
2m
Pit No.1
42
Construction o/Transmission Lines
ANNEXURE L
Different Steps of Tower Erection
3/4" Polypropylene Rope
" "     : : ~ ~ _____ ~ ~ 1" Polypropylene Rope
Step No. I
-4-___ f!!.-_____ ~ - = - 1" polypropylene Rope
I
I
I
I
I
~
Different Steps of Tower Erection
Step No. m
""--- 1" Polypropylene Rope
                                  ~        
Step No. IV
44
Construction o/Transmission Lines
-----------------------------_ .. _._._----
Different Steps of Tower Erection
3/4" Polypropylene rope
Step No. V
Different Steps of
T ower Erection
Different Steps of Tower Eredion
Step No. VII
GI
a.
o
...
GI
c:
QI
>.
a.
o
...
a.
:>..
"0
a..
'" Polypropylene rope
46 Construction o/Transmission Lines
------------------------- -,----_ ..
Different Steps of Tower Erection
, \
Step No.VIII
Different Steps of Tower Erection
r'U-__ 1" Polypropylene rope
Step No. IX
\
I
48 Construction o/Transmission Lines
--------------------- ...... _--------
Typical Sketch of pipe Type Earthing
ANNEXURE M
n.s mm ilia holes for counter
poise earthing device
50x6 mm   steel
extended SOO mm beyono rile concrete
Requirement of coke and salt
17.5 mm dia holes for connecting
earthing strip I1KD-A --____ I!I!
..
..
Coke = ISO kg
Salt = 15 kg
t
I
I
Detail at-A
III III
Detail at-H
Bend line
60x6 RIll thick earthing strip 'A' Reqd
one per tower with stub Ilhis strip to
be supplied for all tower) This flat will
be at right angle to stub & will beco/lle
horizontal after twist
OJ
Q.
'Q.
V1
J:
'.:

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..
.' ,
.. ,
.. ..
'iii
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..
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Q.
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-0 _
" " .l: i: :-
:i :t
E'" E
E 1: E

"'--
(oke & salt
13.5 mm dia holes for 12 mm dia bolts
Pipe flattend & drilled for 12 mm dia bolts
o
...
."
C
..
-
-
=
OJ
.0
o
I-
Detail at-B
Ilty
-2
2
Material ReQd. Per Earthing Set
Desuiption
2S mill di.. bore pipe ho t
dip Gillvd.
SOx6 mm thick Gillvd.
steel flat-B
liillvd. HRH 16 mm dia
bolts & nuts with S td.
threads
(ialvd. HRH 12 mm dia
bolts & nuts fully
threaded
length in mm
3000
3325
35
30
Typical Skech of Counter Poise' Type Earthing
Ll. of lower
I
\
I
\
10weliegS
·_·t·_·
I
\
.
\
\
Reqd length of counter poise wire
to minimum of 15.0 m length per leg
Sleeve to be compressed
after fixing wire
20
!1!1 !1
rJO.97 mm dia wire
m / r------ - tTon
  I I
_ i i L ____ -- 1- t-+ I
T L 85 \ C,2 mm dia hole
r !3 •
ANNEXURE N
so
Sketch of Travellers/Running Blocks
tAli dimensions are in mml
Traveller for Single Conductor
. t-:-:-:-:!=_:::!-;;,;;-       .
co
U'\
,.,
COrlStruction of Transmission Lines
ANNEXURE 0
..... -----'-200 ---.,.j
Take up reel
stand
........ -     ..
...
ANNEXURE P
Tension S Operation
line winder
Transmission Tower
Take up reel stand
Typical set up for tension stringing .
a two bundle transmission line using bullwheel puller
Typical Sketch Showing the (ross Section of Revetment for Transmission Line Foundation
rll .
, h
G.L.
stone
7S mm to 1S0mm
600
M 150 1:2:4 normal mix
e
, '\
, "
\ I,
.\Veep holes 100+100
Notesi-
, '\
, "
, \,

,I
" I "
\ "
I· "
I I'
I ,I
I ,I
, "
, ,I
I I'
, II
.tj
I
I
Hand p.ackel/
stone
1600+450
I
I
I
I ' ",
I / Stone
LL ,I 75mm to
r9i 150mm
I!/ .
I
I
8=600 x H/3.846 •
8=600+ H tan e
Stone masonry 1:5 cement mortar
e =30°-45° depending on the site condition
e
o
vi
><
IV
:l:
0" ::I:
o
-0
.5

::I:
,.,
o
II
.c:
"0
1. All dimensions are in mm unless otherwise specified
2. Weep holes should be of size 100mm)C 100mm or 150mm)C 150mm in case of large size revetment
3. Weep holes should be at 2.sm centres horizontal
4. Centre of top most weep holes to be not less than 300mm below top
5. The minimum depth of revetment wall below G.L. will be 600mm
6. Dimensions of 8 are vaUd only for H not exeeding 5.00m
7. Size of stone for masonry work 300)C 150 x150 and below
8. The masonry work should be carried out in 1:5 cement mortar
9. Size of stone packing at weep hole 75mm to 150mm
...•....
 
"': JiIIF"
..:....-,- '. .. '
ANNEXURE .0
For H:! 1000 d = 230
For H < 1000 d = 150

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t1.
APPENDIX :A
MODERN METHODS OF SURVEYING
(Reference to the clause: 11.5.2)
1.1 Satellite Doppler Technique
Accurate and flexible survey data are necessary to achieve
the minimum cost transmission line routing with the minimum
environmental impact. Precise and reliable topographic data
arc obtained including detailed and accurate horizontal and
vertical terrain information by compiling large scale
''Orthophoto'. maps of the proposed transmission corridors.
These give a 'Picture' of the route which is geometrically
correct and overlayed on this are contour lines which depictthe
changes in elevation of the land.
By studying these maps,tmnsmission corridors are selected
which are most attractive for tower installation purposes.
Within these corridors, specific line routes can be defined on
. the map and profiles of these lines are automatically generated
for detailed analysis.
Before mapping is produced points with known coordi-
nates are established throughout the area to control the photo-
graphs both horizontally and vertically.
Each of the various components of route survey under this
technique are discussed in following paras.
1.1.1.' Initial Survey
Under initial survey, one or more preliminary transmis-
sion corridors are established. These are established with the
help of Topo sheets of the region and after having a walkover
survey along the tentative route alignment.
1.1.2. Controls
Control points are fixed along the route for which the
latitude, longitude and elevations are accurately known. An
initial reconnaissance will establish the most suitable sitesfor
the control points based on terrain conditions. Control points
need not be proposed along the transmission line corridors,
they can be at the sides of roads or elsewhere they cause the
minimum impact on the land owners. Each of these points is to
have a permanent marker placed on the ground. This is because
the field staff is required to return to the same points again and
again during the execution period of the project. Two types of
permanent markers are used. For the preliminary control, a
concrete cylinder is placed approximately 6 ft in the ground
with the top of the cylinder flush with the surface. This is used
for the 8 to 10 points which are surveyed using doppler satellite
techniques. Concrete markers are installed along the proposed
route to provide the overall basis for the control net work. A
receiver is placed on each control point to monitor the position
of satellite. From this information, position coordinates are
calculated for the receiver locations on the ground.
The remaining points are surveyed using the Inertial
Survey system which coordinate the control points (in x, y and
z) between any two of the previously established doppler
points. For these points, a 4 ft long steel bar is driven in the
ground so that the top is flush with the surface. Inertial Survey
System is operated from a helicopter in order to produce large
number of coordinated points in a minimum amount of time.
1.1.3 Orthophoto Mapping
Aerial survey mapping (photogrammetry) has a definite
application to the planning and design of transmission lines
and is used in the advanced countries both in the preliminary
stages of line routing and in the preparation of plan and profile
maps for structure plotting.
Aerial photography is taken immediately after fixing the
control points along the tentative route alignment in order to
minimise the loss of targets due to weather or any other
problems. Here it is necessary that these control points show up
very clearly when the aerial photography is taken.
Orthophoto is a photograph of the area which is true to
scale in all respects. It g i ~ e s the transmission line engineer a
complete picture of all ground features with the added bonus
of the required vertical pata. It is produced from aerial
photography using compJier technique.
:"
A band, approximately,2 kms wide is generally mapped
along the preliminary corridors. The horizontal scale for the
mapping is 1: I 0,000 with 1 m contour intervals in the plain
section and 5 m contour in the mountaneous terrain. This gives
a gOod basis for selection of tower site with spot height
accuracy to within 1 to 2 metres.
Some of the specific advantages of using photogrammetry
techniques for transmission line survey-are as under:
1.1.4 Advantages
Determine:J.the best route: The broad coverage provided
by aerial photographs facilitate selection of best line route.
Potential routing difficulties can be recognised and avoided
before any field activity begins. Also angles can be selected
easily for efficient and economical use of structures.
1.15 Economical
Aerial surveying has definite economic advantages-both
in respect of time and cost. Where mountaineous/rugged
terrain, inaccessible swamp land or heavily populated areas are
encountered, even greater economies can be realised.
1.1.6 Saves Times
\
Data that could take months to obtain by ground survey
can be obtained by aerial survey in a much shorter period of
time.
/!
54
1.1.7 Greater Visual Details.
The use of photogmmmetry techniques provides tisual
detaiis as well as pennanent visual record of existing features
which can not be obtained byany other means.·
1.1.8 More Accurate Engineering. Design & Construction
Bids
Accurate plan and profile maps can be prepared from
. photographic enlargement; which hel p the designers to spot the
and design the footing with greater accuracy and
"
economy.
1.1.9 Flexibility
All necessary.line data, including tower spoUing profiling
etc. can be detennined from theorthophotos for any number of
ro.ute·     withOl,lt returning to the actual site. In fact,
changes in the rOute alignment can be made with the mini·mum
. difficulty.
1.1.10 . Confidential
Aerial surveys are confidential and therefore help in
minimising the way leave problems.
1.1.11 Equipment required and their cost
Equipment required/or Satellite Doppler Technique are:
Equipment for control surveys i.e., Satellite doppler global
position system, Inertial survey system and Electronic distance
measurement system. Equipment for aerial photography i.e.
Aeroplane, Camera & PhoLOmechanicallaboratory.
Mapping equipment-Analytical stereo compilers. Cost of
these equipments is definitely substantially high and as such
initial investment for acquiring the same is much more. In
regard to the operational cost, it may vary due to geographic
location, distance from aerial survey station to job site, type of
aircraft employed, quality of photography and degree of
accuracy required.
i I
~ . :, .
I \
The e'quipoise
A mandate for balance
To strike ahead for a more optimum system of bulk power
distribution, POWERGRID was incorporated in October,1989.
The formation of POWERGRID is merely the reorganisation of
the Power Sector in the pursuit of a more efficient. planning,
implementation and development of power for the country.
With the amalgamatjon of available expertise inJhe areas of
Transmission, Load Despatch and Communications, .
POWERGRID is poised to set the milestones towards a reliable,
economic and secure National Power Grid.
(A Government of India Enterprise)
Regd. Off. Hemkunt Chambers, 10th Floor, 89 Nehru Place,New Delhi _ 110019.
  , . ~ - - - - - - - - - - ~ - . - .... - , , ~
--"
- - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - -
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