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Judge Sinco Poli Reviewer

Judge Sinco Poli Reviewer

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Judge singco notes part 2
Judge singco notes part 2

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PRE-BAR REVIEW NOTES IN POLITICAL LAW
(As Based on the Lecture by JUDGE ESTELA ALMA A. SINGCO

Note* pen$in! &ill ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES  Repu&lic nis(

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THE 1987 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Preamble !e" the so#ere$%n &$'$($no (eo('e" $)('or$n% the a$d o* A')$%hty God" $n order to bu$'d a +ust and hu)ane soc$ety and estab'$sh a Go#ern)ent that sha'' e)body our $dea's and as($rat$ons" (ro)ote the co))on %ood" conser#e and de#e'o( our (atr$)ony" and secure to ourse'#es and our (oster$ty the b'ess$n%s o* $nde(endence and de)ocracy under the ru'e o* 'a, and a re%$)e o* truth" +ust$ce" *reedo)" 'o#e" e-ua'$ty" and (eace" do orda$n and (ro)u'%ate th$s Const$tut$on. ARTICLE I NATIONAL TERRITORY The nat$ona' terr$tory co)(r$ses the .h$'$(($ne arch$(e'a%o" ,$th a'' the $s'ands and ,aters e)braced there$n" and a'' other terr$tor$es o#er ,h$ch the .h$'$(($nes has so#ere$%nty or +ur$sd$ct$on" cons$st$n% o* $ts terrestr$a'" *'u#$a'" and aer$a' do)a$ns" $nc'ud$n% $ts terr$tor$a' sea" the seabed" the subso$'" the $nsu'ar she'#es" and other sub)ar$ne areas. The ,aters around" bet,een" and connect$n% the $s'ands o* the arch$(e'a%o" re%ard'ess o* the$r breadth and d$)ens$ons" *or) (art o* the $nterna' ,aters o* the .h$'$(($nes. Archipel !ic "octrine - The # ters roun$% &et#een% n$ connectin! the isl n$s o' the rchipel !o% re! r$less o' their &re $th n$ $i(ensions% 'or( p rt o' the intern l # ters o' the Philippines)  Archipel !ic B selines - B sis* +NCLOS - ,o# to tre t - l . n /roup o' Isl n$s n$ Sc r&orou!h Sh ol* #hether to inclu$e or to exclu$e the( 'ro( the & selines0 n$1or consi$er s p rt o' the re!i(e o' isl n$s) 

Sect$on /. The .h$'$(($nes $s a de)ocrat$c and re(ub'$can State. So#ere$%nty res$des $n the (eo('e and a'' %o#ern)ent author$ty e)anates *ro) the).  Sep r tion o' Po#ers

 Principles o' Blen$in! o' Po#ers n$ Chec<s = B l nces - +n$er the principle o' sep r tion o' po#ers% courts c nnot inter'ere #ith the exercise &. the le!isl ture o' its uthorit. to con$uct investi! tions in i$ o' le!isl tion 5Sen te Blue Ri&&on vs > ? $ucon% /R @ 179A93% Bul. 28% 23370 Executive privile!e - Neri vs) Sen te Co((ittee% /R) No) 1:39C7% > rch 2;% 233:6

Bu$ici l Revie#* ReDuisites 5Er ncisco% et l) vs) ,R% et l)% Nove(&er 13% 23370 ABA-A"A /uro P rt. List% et l) vs) Executive Secret r. Er(it % Septe(&er 1% 233;0 " vi$ et l) vs) Er(it % et l)% April 23% 23396) - With RA No) A193% the union o' le!isl tive n$ executive po#ers in the o''ice o' the loc l chie' executive un$er the BP Bl!) 77A h s &een $is& n$e$% so th t either $ep rt(ent no# co(prises $i''erent n$ non-inter(in!lin! o''ici l person lities #ith the en$ in vie# o' ensurin! &etter $eliver. o' pu&lic service n$ provi$e s.ste( o' chec< n$ & l nce &et#een the t#o) The vo#e$ intent o' RA No) A193% there'ore% is to vest on the S n!!uni n! P nl l #i! n in$epen$ence in the exercise o' its le!isl tive 'unctions vis- -vis the $isch r!e &. the /overnor o' the executive 'unctions) 5AtienF vs) Vill ros % > . 13% 233;6)

Non-"ele! tion o' le!isl tive po#er 5A& < $ /uro P rt. List vs) Executive Secret r.% Septe(&er 1% 233;0 Epir c se/erochi vs) "OE% /R) No) 1;8A896)  Per(issi&le $ele! tion* 1) t ri'' po#ers o' the Presi$ent - 5Sec) 2: 526 Art) VI6 2) e(er!enc. po#er o' the Presi$ent - 5Sec) 27 526 o' Art) VI6 7) people - 5Sec) 72 o' Art) VI6 - 5Sec) 13 o' Art) G6 - 5Sec) 2 o' Art) GVII6 - 5RA 9A7;6 C) loc l !overn(ents - 5Art G6 ;) $(inistr tive &o$ies - 5po#er o' su&or$in te le!isl tion6 Tests o' v li$ $ele! tion* 1) co(pleteness test 2. su''icient st n$ r$ test 5S nti !o vs) CO>ELEC% 711818A6 5A& < $ /uro P rt. List vs) Exec) Sec)6 Incorpor tion Cl use

233-Econo(ic 4one 5inclu$es Territori l Se s n$ Conti!uous 4one6 - REA"* +N Convention on the L # o' the Se ) Conti!uous 4one - 512 n( 'ro( the en$ o' territori l se s6 Teritori l se s1( riti(e $o( in - 512 n( 'ro( & seline6

Intern l # ters - Re ! n vs) CIR% 73 SCRA 89:* An exception to the 'ull n$ co(plete po#er o' n tion #ithin its territories is &. virtue o' the consent o' the n tion itsel') The e(& ss. pre(ises o' 'orei!n po#er re #ithin the territori l $o( in o' the host St te) The !roun$ occupie$ s e(& ss. pre(ises is not the territor. o' the 'orei!n St te to #hich the pre(ises &elon!)   - l . 6 &6 n Isl n$ /roup historic ri!ht P)") No) 1;89

 

Sect$on 0. The .h$'$(($nes renounces ,ar as an $nstru)ent o* nat$ona' (o'$cy" ado(ts the %enera''y acce(ted (r$nc$('es o* $nternat$ona' 'a, as (art o* the

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'a, o* the 'and and adheres to the (o'$cy o* (eace" e-ua'$ty" +ust$ce" *reedo)" coo(erat$on" and a)$ty ,$th a'' nat$ons. No) 1A3737C% Octo&er 8% 233A - Custo( r. intern tion l l # is $ee(e$ incorpor te$ into our $o(estic s.ste()

B. the $octrine o' incorpor tion% the countr. is &oun$ &. !ener ll. ccepte$ principles o' intern tion l l #% #hich re consi$ere$ to &e uto( tic ll. p rt o' our o#n l #s) HT n $ vs) An! r % > . 2% 188AI

Civili n Supre( c.

Li( vs) Exec) Sec)% April 11% 2332* /ener ll. ccepte$ principles o' Intern tion l L #% the provisions o' tre t. re l# .s su&?ect to Du li'ic tion or (en$(ent &. su&seDuent l #% or th t it is su&?ect to the police po#er o' the St te)

Sect$on 1. C$#$'$an author$ty $s" at a'' t$)es" su(re)e o#er the )$'$tary. The Ar)ed &orces o* the .h$'$(($nes $s the (rotector o* the (eo('e and the State. Its %oa' $s to secure the so#ere$%nty o* the State and the $nte%r$ty o* the nat$ona' terr$tory.

The $octrine o' incorpor tion is pplie$ #henever (unicip l tri&un ls 5or loc l courts6 re con'ronte$ #ith situ tions in #hich there ppe rs to &e con'lict &et#een rule o' intern tion l l # n$ the provisions o' the constitution or st tute o' the loc l st te) E''orts shoul$ 'irst &e exerte$ to h r(oniFe the(% so s to !ive e''ect to &oth since it is to &e presu(e$ th t (unicip l l # # s en cte$ #ith proper re! r$ 'or the !ener ll. ccepte$ principles o' intern tion l l # in o&serv nce o' the Incorpor tion Cl use in the &ove-cite$ constitution l provision 5CruF% Philippine Politic l L #% 1889 e$)% p) ;;6) In situ tion% ho#ever% #here the con'lict is irreconcil &le n$ choice h s to &e ( $e &et#een rule o' intern tion l l # n$ (unicip l l #% ?urispru$ence $ict tes th t (unicip l l # shoul$ &e uphel$ &. the (unicip l courts 5Ichon! vs) ,ern n$eF% 131 Phil) 11;; H18;AI0 /onF les vs) ,ech nov % 8 SCRA 273 H1897I0 In re* / rci % 2 SCRA 8:C H1891I6 'or the re son th t such courts re or! ns o' (unicip l l # n$ re ccor$in!l. &oun$ &. it in ll circu(st nces 5S lon! = J p% op) cit)% p) 176) The ' ct th t intern tion l l # h s &een ( $e p rt o' the l # o' the l n$ $oes not pert in to or i(pl. the pri( c. o' intern tion l l # over n tion l or (unicip l l # in the (unicip l sphere) The $octrine o' incorpor tion% s pplie$ in (ost countries% $ecrees th t rules o' intern tion l l # re !iven eDu l st n$in! #ith% &ut re not superior to% n tion l le!isl tive en ct(ents) Accor$in!l.% the principle lex posterior $ero! t priori t <es e''ect K tre t. ( . repe l st tute n$ st tute ( . repe l tre t.) In st tes #here the constitution is the hi!hest l # o' the l n$% such s the Repu&lic o' the Philippines% &oth st tutes n$ tre ties ( . &e inv li$ te$ i' the. re in con'lict #ith the constitution) HSec) o' Bustice vs) L ntionI

IBP vs) 4 (or % 77: SCRA :1% 523336* The c llin! o' the ( rines constitutes per(issi&le use o' (ilit r. ssets 'or civili n en'orce(ent) Not#ithst n$in! the con$uct o' ?oint visi&ilit. p trols &. the (e(&ers o' PNP n$ the Philippine ( rines% the >etro > nil Police Chie' is the over ll le $er n$ it is the loc l police 'orces #ho re in ch r!e t ll ti(es)

The vit lit. o' the tenet th t the Presi$ent is the co(( n$er-in-chie' o' the Ar(e$ Eorces is (ost cruci l to the $e(ocr tic # . o' li'e% to civili n supre( c. over the (ilit r.% n$ to the !ener l st &ilit. o' our represent tive s.ste( o' !overn(ent) The Constitution reposes 'in l uthorit.% control n$ supervision o' the AEP to the Presi$ent% civili n #ho is not (e(&er o' the r(e$ 'orces% n$ #hose $uties s co(( n$er-inchie' represent onl. p rt o' the or! nic $uties i(pose$ upon the o''ice% the other 'unctions &ein! cle rl. civil in n ture) Civili n supre( c. over the (ilit r. lso counter( n$s the notion th t the (ilit r. ( . &.p ss civili n uthorities% such s civil courts% on ( tters such s con$uctin! # rr ntless se rches n$ seiFure) The &ilit. o' the Presi$ent to prevent (ilit r. o''icers 'ro( testi'.in! &e'ore Con!ress $oes not turn on executive privile!e% &ut on the Chie' ExecutiveLs po#er s co(( n$er-in-chie' to control the ctions n$ speech o' (e(&ers o' the r(e$ 'orces) The Presi$entLs prero! tives s co(( n$er-in-chie' re not h (pere$ &. the s (e li(it tions s in executive privile!e) The Presi$ent coul$% s !ener l rule% reDuire (ilit r. o''icers to see< presi$enti l pprov l &e'ore ppe rin! &e'ore Con!ress is & se$ 'ore(ost on the notion th t contr r. rule un$ul. $i(inishes the prero! tives o' the Presi$ent s co(( n$er-in-chie' 5/u$ ni vs) Sen! % Au!ust 1;% 23396)

There is no o&li! tor. rule $erive$ 'ro( tre ties or conventions th t reDuires the Philippines to reco!niFe 'orei!n ?u$!(ents% or llo# proce$ure 'or the en'orce(ent thereo') ,o#ever% !ener ll. ccepte$ principles o' intern tion l l #% &. virtue o' the incorpor tion cl use o' the Constitution% 'or( p rt o' the l #s o' the l n$ even i' the. $o not $erive 'ro( tre t. o&li! tions) The cl ssic l 'or(ul tion in intern tion l l # sees those custo( r. rules ccepte$ s &in$in! result 'ro( the co(&in tion t#o ele(ents* the est &lishe$% #i$espre $% n$ consistent pr ctice on the p rt o' St tes0 n$ ps.cholo!ic l ele(ent <no#n s the opinion ?uris sive necessit tes 5opinion s to l # or necessit.6) I(plicit in the l tter ele(ent is &elie' th t the pr ctice in Duestion is ren$ere$ o&li! tor. &. the existence o' rule o' l # reDuirin! it) 5>i? res% et l) vs) B vier% et l)% April 12% 233;6

Courts-( rti l re instru(ent lities o' the Executive to en &le the Presi$ent% s Co(( n$erin-Chie'% to e''ectivel. co(( n$% control% n$ $iscipline the r(e$ 'orces 5see Ru''. v) Chie' o' St ''% A; Phil) :A; H18C9I% citin! WinthropLs >ilit r. L # n$ Prece$ents% 2n$ e$ition% p) C86) In short% courts-( rti l 'or( p rt o' the $isciplin r. s.ste( th t ensures the Presi$entLs control% n$ thus civili n supre( c.% over the (ilit r.) At the pex o' this $isciplin r. s.ste( is the Presi$ent #ho exercises revie# po#ers over $ecisions o' courts( rti l 5citin! Article ;3 o' the Articles o' W r0 Duote$ provisions o(itte$6) H/onF les% et l vs) /en) A& . % /)R) No) 19C33A% Au!ust 13% 2339I Sect$on 2. The (r$)e duty o* the Go#ern)ent $s to ser#e and (rotect the (eo('e. The Go#ern)ent )ay ca'' u(on the (eo('e to de*end the State and" $n the *u'*$'')ent thereo*" a'' c$t$3ens )ay be re-u$red" under cond$t$ons (ro#$ded by 'a," to render (ersona' )$'$tary or c$#$' ser#$ce.

Ph r( ceutic l n$ ,e lth C re Associ tion o' the Philippines% vs) "uDue% et l)% /R

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Sect$on 4. The )a$ntenance o* (eace and order" the (rotect$on o* '$*e" '$berty" and (ro(erty" and the (ro)ot$on o* the %enera' ,e'*are are essent$a' *or the en+oy)ent by a'' the (eo('e o* the b'ess$n%s o* de)ocracy.

Sect$on /2. The State reco%n$3es the ro'e o* ,o)en $n nat$on7bu$'d$n%" and sha'' ensure the *unda)enta' e-ua'$ty be*ore the 'a, o* ,o)en and )en. Sect$on /4. The State sha'' (rotect and (ro)ote the r$%ht to hea'th o* the (eo('e and $nst$'' hea'th consc$ousness a)on% the). B l nce$ = ,e lth'ul Ecolo!.

Sep r tion o' the Church n$ St te

Sect$on 5. The se(arat$on o* Church and State sha'' be $n#$o'ab'e.

Estr $ vs) Escritor% Bune 22% 2339* It is in$u&it &le th t &enevolent neutr lit.cco((o$ tion% #hether ( n$ tor. or per(issive% is the spirit% intent n$ 'r (e#or< un$erl.in! the Philippine Constitution) Benevolent neutr lit. coul$ llo# 'or cco((o$ tion o' (or lit. & se$ on reli!ion% provi$e$ it $oes not o''en$ Mco(pellin! st te interestN)

Sect$on /5. The State sha'' (rotect and ad#ance the r$%ht o* the (eo('e to a ba'anced and hea'th*u' eco'o%y $n accord ,$th the rhyth) and har)ony o* nature.

Onl. the prevention o' n i((e$i te n$ !r ve $ n!er to the securit. n$ #el' re o' the co((unit. c n ?usti'. the in'rin!e(ent o' reli!ious 'ree$o() I' the !overn(ent ' ils to sho# the seriousness n$ i((e$i c. o' the thre t% St te intrusion is constitution ll. un ccept &le) In societ. #ith $e(ocr tic 'r (e#or< li<e ours% the St te (ust (ini(iFe its inter'erence #ith the '' irs o' its citiFens n$ inste $ llo# the( to exercise re son &le 'ree$o( o' person l n$ reli!ious ctivit.) HIsl (ic " LW h Council o' the Philippines vs) O''ice o' the Executive Secret r.% Bul. 8% 2337I Sect$on 6. The State sha'' (ursue an $nde(endent *ore$%n (o'$cy. In $ts re'at$ons ,$th other states the (ara)ount cons$derat$on sha'' be nat$ona' so#ere$%nty" terr$tor$a' $nte%r$ty" nat$ona' $nterest" and the r$%ht to se'*7deter)$nat$on. Sect$on 8. The .h$'$(($nes" cons$stent ,$th the nat$ona' $nterest" ado(ts and (ursues a (o'$cy o* *reedo) *ro) nuc'ear ,ea(ons $n $ts terr$tory. Sect$on 9. The State sha'' (ro)ote a +ust and dyna)$c soc$a' order that ,$'' ensure the (ros(er$ty and $nde(endence o* the nat$on and *ree the (eo('e *ro) (o#erty throu%h (o'$c$es that (ro#$de ade-uate soc$a' ser#$ces" (ro)ote *u'' e)('oy)ent" a r$s$n% standard o* '$#$n%" and an $)(ro#ed -ua'$ty o* '$*e *or a''. Sect$on /:. The State sha'' (ro)ote soc$a' +ust$ce $n a'' (hases o* nat$ona' de#e'o()ent. Sect$on //. The State #a'ues the d$%n$ty o* e#ery hu)an (erson and %uarantees *u'' res(ect *or hu)an r$%hts. Sect$on /0. The State reco%n$3es the sanct$ty o* *a)$'y '$*e and sha'' (rotect and stren%then the *a)$'y as a bas$c autono)ous soc$a' $nst$tut$on. It sha'' e-ua''y (rotect the '$*e o* the )other and the '$*e o* the unborn *ro) conce(t$on. The natura' and (r$)ary r$%ht and duty o* (arents $n the rear$n% o* the youth *or c$#$c e**$c$ency and the de#e'o()ent o* )ora' character sha'' rece$#e the su((ort o* the Go#ern)ent. Sect$on /1. The State reco%n$3es the #$ta' ro'e o* the youth $n nat$on7bu$'d$n% and sha'' (ro)ote and (rotect the$r (hys$ca'" )ora'" s($r$tua'" $nte''ectua'" and soc$a' ,e''7be$n%. It sha'' $ncu'cate $n the youth (atr$ot$s) and nat$ona'$s)" and encoura%e the$r $n#o'#e)ent $n (ub'$c and c$#$c a**a$rs.

The ri!ht to & l nce$ n$ he lth'ul ecolo!. is 'un$ (ent l le! l ri!ht th t c rries #ith it the correl tive $ut. to re'r in 'ro( i(p irin! the environ(ent) This ri!ht i(plies% (on! other thin!s% the ?u$icious ( n !e(ent n$ conserv tion o' the countr.Ls resources% #hich $ut. is repose$ in the "ENR) 5Prov) o' RiF l vs) Exec) Sec)% "ece(&er 17% 233;6 Sect$on /6. The State sha'' %$#e (r$or$ty to educat$on" sc$ence and techno'o%y" arts" cu'ture" and s(orts to *oster (atr$ot$s) and nat$ona'$s)" acce'erate soc$a' (ro%ress" and (ro)ote tota' hu)an '$berat$on and de#e'o()ent. Sect$on /8. The State a**$r)s 'abor as a (r$)ary soc$a' econo)$c *orce. It sha'' (rotect the r$%hts o* ,or;ers and (ro)ote the$r ,e'*are. Sect$on /9. The State sha'' de#e'o( a se'*7re'$ant and $nde(endent nat$ona' econo)y e**ect$#e'y contro''ed by &$'$($nos. Sect$on 0:. The State reco%n$3es the $nd$s(ensab'e ro'e o* the (r$#ate sector" encoura%es (r$#ate enter(r$se" and (ro#$des $ncent$#es to needed $n#est)ents. Sect$on 0/. The State sha'' (ro)ote co)(rehens$#e rura' de#e'o()ent and a%rar$an re*or). Sect$on 00. The State reco%n$3es and (ro)otes the r$%hts o* $nd$%enous cu'tura' co))un$t$es ,$th$n the *ra)e,or; o* nat$ona' un$ty and de#e'o()ent. Sect$on 01. The State sha'' encoura%e non7 %o#ern)enta'" co))un$ty7 based" or sectora' or%an$3at$ons that (ro)ote the ,e'*are o* the nat$on. Sect$on 02. The State reco%n$3es the #$ta' ro'e o* co))un$cat$on and $n*or)at$on $n nat$on7bu$'d$n%.

Loc l Autono(.

Sect$on 04. The State sha'' ensure the autono)y o* 'oca' %o#ern)ents.

B sco vs) P !cor* The po#er o' loc l !overn(ent to i(pose t xes n$ 'ees is l# .s su&?ect to li(it tions #hich Con!ress ( . provi$e &. l #) The principle o' loc l utono(. un$er the 18:A constitution si(pl. (e ns $ecentr liF tion) It $oes not ( <e loc l !overn(ents soverei!n #ithin the st te o' n Mi(periu( in i(perioN 5unli<e in Ee$er l S.ste(6) The ( tter o' re!ul tin!% t xin! or

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other#ise $e lin! #ith ! (&lin! is St te concern n$ hence% it is the sole prero! tive o' the St te to ret in it or $ele! te it to loc l !overn(ents)

Re* Vicente Chin!% 719 SCRA 1* There re t#o con$itions in or$er th t the election o' Philippine citiFenship is e''ective* 1) the (other o' the person ( <in! the election (ust &e citiFen o' the Philippines0 n$ 2) s i$ election (ust &e ( $e upon re chin! the !e o' ( ?orit.)

Li(&on vs) > n!elin% 1A3 SCRA A:9* +n$er the constitution% provinces% cities% (unicip lities n$ & r n! . en?o. loc l utono(. su&?ect to the supervision o' the n tion l !overn(ent ctin! throu!h the Presi$ent 5 n$ the "ep rt(ent o' Loc l /overn(ent6) Autono(ous re!ions in >usli( >in$ n o n$ in the Cor$iller s% on the other h n$% re su&?ect lone to the $ecree o' the or! nic ct cre tin! the( n$ ccepte$ principles on the e''ects n$ li(its o' utono(.)

Ben!son vs) ,RET% > . A% 2331- Rep tri tion ( . &e h $ un$er v rious st tutes &. those #ho lost their citiFenship $ue to* 16 $esertion o' the AEP0 26 serve$ in the r(e$ 'orces o' the llie$ 'orces in WWII0 76 service in the AE o' the +S t n. other ti(e0 C6 ( rri !e o' Eilipino #o( n to n lien0 ;6 politic l n$ econo(ic necessit.)

N tion l Li! n! (! B r n! . vs) P re$es% C78 SCRA 173* Presi$entLs po#er o' !ener l supervision% s exercise$ &. the "IL/% exten$s to Li! n! (! B r n! .) ONOTE* 5"et ils re'er to Article G6

Sect$on 05. The State sha'' %uarantee e-ua' access to o((ortun$t$es *or (ub'$c ser#$ce" and (roh$b$t (o'$t$ca' dynast$es as )ay be de*$ned by 'a,. Sect$on 06. The State sha'' )a$nta$n honesty and $nte%r$ty $n the (ub'$c ser#$ce and ta;e (os$t$#e and e**ect$#e )easures a%a$nst %ra*t and corru(t$on. Sect$on 08. Sub+ect to reasonab'e cond$t$ons (rescr$bed by 'a," the State ado(ts and $)('e)ents a (o'$cy o* *u'' (ub'$c d$sc'osure o* a'' $ts transact$ons $n#o'#$n% (ub'$c $nterest. ARTICLE IV CITIZENSHIP Sect$on /. .h$'$(($nes< The *o''o,$n% are c$t$3ens o* the

R)A) No) :1A1% #hich h s l pse$ into l # on 27 Octo&er 188;% is n ct provi$in! 'or the rep tri tion 5 6 o' Eilipino #o(en #ho h ve lost their Philippine citiFenship &. ( rri !e to liens n$ 5&6 o' n tur l-&orn Eilipinos #ho h ve lost their Philippine citiFenship on ccount o' politic l or econo(ic necessit.) HAn! t vs) RP% Septe(&er 1C% 18880 T & s vs) CA% /R) No) 12;A87% Au!ust 28% 233AI  Rep tri tion si(pl. consists o' the t <in! o' n o th o' lle!i nce to the RP n$ re!isterin! s i$ o th in the Loc l civil Re!istr. o' the pl ce #here the person concerne$ resi$es or l st resi$e$)

Alt re?os vs) CO>ELEC% CC1 SCRA 9;;- In $$ition to the t <in! the o th o' lle!i nce to the Repu&lic o' the Philippines% the re!istr tion o' the Certi'ic te o' Rep tri tion in the proper civil re!istr. n$ the Bure u o' I((i!r tion is prereDuisite in e''ectin! the rep tri tion o' citiFen)  Rep tri tion retro cts to the $ te o' the 'ilin! o' oneLs pplic tion 'or rep tri tion) Supr )  Rep tri tion results in the recover. o' the ori!in l n tion lit.) I' he # s ori!in ll. n tur l &orn citiFen &e'ore he lost his citiFenship% he #ill &e restore$ to his 'or(er st tus s n tur l &orn Eilipino)  NAT+RAL BORN

(/ Those ,ho are c$t$3ens o* the .h$'$(($nes at the t$)e o* the ado(t$on o* th$s Const$tut$on= (0 Those ,hose *athers or )others are c$t$3ens o* the .h$'$(($nes= (1 Those born be*ore January /6" /961" o* &$'$($no )others" ,ho e'ect .h$'$(($ne c$t$3ensh$( u(on reach$n% the a%e o* )a+or$ty= and (2 Those ,ho are natura'$3ed $n accordance ,$th 'a,.

Sect$on 0. Natura'7born c$t$3ens are those ,ho are c$t$3ens o* the .h$'$(($nes *ro) b$rth ,$thout ha#$n% to (er*or) any act to ac-u$re or (er*ect the$r .h$'$(($ne c$t$3ensh$(. Those ,ho e'ect .h$'$(($ne c$t$3ensh$( $n accordance ,$th (ara%ra(h (1 " Sect$on / hereo* sha'' be dee)ed natura'7born c$t$3ens. - Re $ Sections 2 n$ C o' RA 822;% (en$in! CA 97% other#ise <no#n s CitiFenship Retention n$ Re cDuisition Act 5Au!ust 28% 23376 inclu$in! citiFens rep tri te$ n$ un( rrie$ chil$ren% #hether le!iti( te or ille!iti( te or $opte$% &elo# 1: .e rs o' !e o' those rep tri te$) Sect$on 1. .h$'$(($ne c$t$3ensh$( )ay be 'ost or reac-u$red $n the )anner (ro#$ded by 'a,. Sect$on 2. C$t$3ens o* the .h$'$(($nes ,ho )arry a'$ens sha'' reta$n the$r c$t$3ensh$(" un'ess by the$r act or o)$ss$on they are dee)ed" under the 'a," to ha#e renounced $t.

V lles vs) CO>ELEC% 77A SCRA ;C7* , vin! Eilipino ' ther t the ti(e o' &irth ( <es one Eilipino) , vin! n Austr li n p ssport n$ n lien certi'ic te o' re!istr tion $oes not constitute n e''ective renunci tion o' citiFenship n$ $oes not (ilit te ! inst the cl i( o' Eilipino citiFenship)

Co vs) ,RET% 188 SCRA 982* An tt c< on personLs citiFenship ( . &e $one throu!h $irect ction 'or its nullit.)

C

BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1
 "+AL CITI4ENS,IP 'r (ers #ere not concerne$ #ith $u l citiFenship per se% &ut #ith the st tus o' n tur liFe$ citiFens #ho ( int in their lle!i nce to their countries o' ori!in even 'ter their n tur liF tion) Con!ress # s !iven ( n$ te to $r 't l # th t #oul$ set speci'ic p r (eters o' #h t re ll. constitutes $u l lle!i nce) +ntil this is $one% it #oul$ &e pre( ture 'or the ?u$ici l $ep rt(ent% inclu$in! the Supre(e Court% to rule on issues pert inin! to $u l lle!i nce)

Sect$on 4. Dua' a''e%$ance o* c$t$3ens $s $n$)$ca' to the nat$ona' $nterest and sha'' be dea't ,$th by 'a,. - >erc $o vs) > nF no% 73A SCRA 973* - The phr se M$u l citiFenshipN in RA A193 (ust &e un$erstoo$ s re'errin! to $u l lle!i nce 5especi ll. 'or n tur liFe$ citiFens6) In 'ilin! certi'ic te o' c n$i$ c.% the person #ith $u l citiFenship e''ectivel. renounces his 'orei!n citiFenship) The o th o' lle!i nce cont ine$ in the certi'ic te o' c n$i$ c. constitutes su''icient renunci tion)

E''ective n tion lit. principle 5Notte&oh( c se6 - The Notte&oh( c se cite$ &. the petitioner invo<e$ the intern tion l l # principle o' e''ective n tion lit. #hich is cle rl. not pplic &le to the c se t & r) This principle is expresse$ in Article ; o' the , !ue Convention o' 1873 on the Con'lict o' N tion lit. L #s s 'ollo#s* Art) ;) Within thir$ St te person h vin! (ore th n one n tion lit. sh ll &e tre te$ s i' he h $ onl. one) Without pre?u$ice to the pplic tion o' its l # in ( tters o' person l st tus n o' n. convention in 'orce% thir$ St te sh ll% o' the n tion lities #hich n. such person possesses% reco!niFe exclusivel. in its territor. either the n tion lit. o' the countr. in #hich he is h &itu ll. n$ princip ll. resi$ent or the n tion lit. o' the countr. #ith #hich in the circu(st nces he ppe rs to &e in ' ct (ost closel. connecte$) Notte&oh( # s /er( n &. &irth &ut resi$ent o' /u te( l 'or 7C .e rs #hen he pplie$ 'or n$ cDuire$ n tur liF tion in Liechtenstein one (onth &e'ore the out&re < o' Worl$ W r II) > n. (e(&ers o' his ' (il. n$ his &usiness interests #ere in /er( n.) In 18C7% /u te( l % #hich h $ $ecl re$ # r on /er( n.% rreste$ Notte&oh( n$ con'isc te$ ll his properties on the !roun$ th t he # s /er( n n tion l) Liechtenstein thereupon 'ile$ suit on his &eh l'% s its citiFen% ! inst /u te( l ) The Intern tion l Court o' Bustice hel$ Notte&oh( to &e still n tion l o' /er( n.% #ith #hich he # s (ore closel. connecte$ th n #ith Liechtenstein)

AASBS% C lilun! vs) " tu( non!% /R No) 193:98% > . 11% 233A- It is cle r th t the intent o' the le!isl ture in $r 'tin! Rep) Act No) 822; is to $o # . #ith the provision in Co((on#e lth Act No) 97 #hich t <es # . Philippine citiFenship 'ro( n tur l-&orn Eilipinos #ho &eco(e n tur liFe$ citiFens o' other countries) Wh t Rep) Act No) 822; $oes is llo# $u l citiFenship to n tur l-&orn Eilipino citiFens #ho h ve lost Philippine citiFenship &. re son o' their n tur liF tion s citiFens o' 'orei!n countr.) On its ' ce% it $oes not reco!niFe $u l lle!i nce) B. s#e rin! to the supre(e uthorit. o' the Repu&lic% the person i(plicitl. renounces his 'orei!n citiFenship) Pl inl.% 'ro( Section 7% Rep) Act No) 822; st .e$ cle r out o' the pro&le( o' $u l lle!i nce n$ shi'te$ the &ur$en o' con'rontin! the issue o' #hether or not there is $u l lle!i nce to the concerne$ 'orei!n countr.) Wh t h ppens to the other citiFenship # s not ( $e concern o' Rep) Act No) 822;) xxx To &e!in #ith% Section ;% Article IV o' the Constitution is $ecl r tion o' polic. n$ it is not sel'-executin! provision) The le!isl ture still h s to en ct the l # on $u l lle!i nce) In Sections 2 n$ 7 o' Rep) Act No) 822;% the

Tecson vs) CO>ELEC% C2C SCRA 1C:0 VeleF vs) Poe n$ Eornier vs) CO>ELEC% > rch 7% 233C - +n$er the Philippine Bill o' 1832% McitiFen o' the PhilippinesN # s one #ho # s n inh &it nt o' the Philippines% n$ Sp nish su&?ect on the 11th $ . o' April 1:88) The ter( Minh &it ntN # s t <en to inclu$e 16 n tive-&orn inh &it nt% 26 n inh &it nt #ho # s n tive o' Peninsul r Sp in% n$ 76 n inh &it nt #ho o&t ine$ Sp nish p pers on or &e'ore 11 April 1:88) Whether or not respon$ent EPB is n tur l-&orn citiFen% #hich% in turn% $epen$e$ on #hether or not the ' ther o' respon$ent% All n E) Poe% #oul$ h ve hi(sel' &een Eilipino citiFen n$% in the ''ir( tive% #hether or not the lle!e$ ille!iti( c. o' respon$ent prevents hi( 'ro( t <in! 'ter the Eilipino citiFenship o' his put tive ' ther) An. conclusion on the Eilipino citiFenship o' LorenFo Pou coul$ onl. &e $r #n 'ro( the presu(ption th t h vin! $ie$ in 18;C t :C .e rs ol$% LorenFo #oul$ h ve &een &orn so(eti(e in the .e r 1:A3% #hen the Philippines # s un$er Sp nish rule% n$ th t S n C rlos% P n! sin n% his pl ce o' resi$ence upon his $e th in 18;C% in the &sence o' n. other evi$ence% coul$ h ve #ell &een his pl ce o' resi$ence &e'ore $e th% such th t LorenFo Pou #oul$ h ve &ene'ite$ 'ro( the Men ( sse EilipiniF tionN th t the Philippine Bill h $ e''ecte$ in 1832) Th t citiFenship 5o' LorenFo Pou6% i' cDuire$% #oul$ there&. exten$ to his son% All n E) Poe% ' ther o' respon$ent EPB) The 187; Constitution% $urin! #hich re!i(e respon$ent EPB h s seen 'irst li!ht% con'ers citiFenship to ll persons #hose ' thers re Eilipino citiFens re! r$less o' #hether such chil$ren re le!iti( te or ille!iti( te) As Section 7% Article IV o' the 187; Constitution $oes not $istin!uish &et#een le!iti( te chil$ n$ ille!iti( te chil$ o' Eilipino ' ther% #e shoul$ not ( <e $istinction) The civil st tus o' le!iti( c. or ille!iti( c.% &. itsel'% is not $eter(in tive o' the Philippine citiFenship)

>o. J Li( J o vs) Co((issioner I((i!r tion% C1 SCRA 282- When citiFenship is r ise$ s n issue in ?u$ici l or $(inistr tive procee$in!s% the resolution or $ecision thereon is !ener ll. not consi$ere$ s res ?u$ic t in n. su&seDuent procee$in! ch llen!in! the s (e)

Burc vs) Repu&lic% ;1 SCRA 2C:* EGCEPTIONS 5to res ?u$ic t principle6 1)6 personLs citiFenship &e r ise$ s ( teri l issue in controvers. #here the person is p rt.0 2)6 the Solicitor /ener l or his uthoriFe$ represent tive too< ctive p rt in the resolution thereo'0 n$ 7)6 the 'in$in! on citiFenship is ''ir(e$ &. the Supre(e Court)

 ;

-ilos& . n vs) Er(it % /R No) 1AAA21% Bul. 7% 233A ) The lle!e$ su&seDuent reco!nition o' his n tur l-&orn st tus &. the Bure u o' I((i!r tion

$th a (o(u'at$on o* at 'east t.h$'$(($nes .h$'$(($nes *or not 'ess than t.enty7 *our Senators .  REA"* RA 822. Sect$on 0. No (erson sha'' be a Senator un'ess he $s a natura'7born c$t$3en o* the .o hundred *$*ty thousand" or each (ro#$nce" sha'' ha#e at 'east one re(resentat$#e. reDuire(ents ex cte$ o' n or$in r. Sect$on 4.s and such ru'es as the Co))$ss$on on E'ect$ons )ay (ro)u'%ate to (rotect the secrecy o* the ba''ot." e>ce(t the re'$%$ous sector. &or three consecut$#e ter)s a*ter the rat$*$cat$on o* th$s Const$tut$on" one7ha'* o* the seats a''ocated to (arty7'$st re(resentat$#es sha'' be *$''ed" as (ro#$ded by 'a.. (1 Each 'e%$s'at$#e d$str$ct sha'' co)(r$se" as *ar as (ract$cab'e" cont$%uous" co)(act" and ad+acent terr$tory. n$ RA 81:8) Sect$on /. The Con%ress sha'' a'so des$%n a (rocedure *or the d$sab'ed and the $''$terates to #ote .non. voter un$er or$in r." .  A-BAJAN-Jouth vs) CO>ELEC% > rch 29% 2331* Where it is &oth i(pr ctic l n$ ille! l to con$uct t#o-$ . non-resi$ents% !r nts un$er its Section . st .h$'$(($nes *or at 'east one year and $n the ('ace ." .ho sha'' be e'ected at 'ar%e by the -ua'$*$ed #oters o* the . 13% 2337* The interpret tion o' resi$ence is s.r$te" a re%$stered #oter" and a res$dent o* the . Sect$on 1.$n% the$r e'ect$on. The ter) o* o**$ce o* the Senators sha'' be s$> years and sha'' co))ence" un'ess other.(ous #ith $o(icile) "o(icile (e ns n in$ivi$u lLs per( nent ho(e or pl ce to #hich% #henever &sent 'or &usiness or 'or ple sure% one inten$s to return% n$ $epen$s on ' cts n$ circu(st nces in the sense th t the." by se'ect$on or e'ect$on *ro) the 'abor" (easant" urban (oor" $nd$%enous cu'tura' co))un$t$es" . Ao'untary renunc$at$on o* the o**$ce *or any 'en%th o* t$)e sha'' not be cons$dered as an $nterru(t$on $n the cont$nu$ty o* h$s ser#$ce *or the *u'' ter) *or .h$ch sha'' cons$st o* a Senate and a ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es" e>ce(t to the e>tent reser#ed to the (eo('e by the (ro#$s$on on $n$t$at$#e and re*erendu).e'' as a syste) *or absentee #ot$n% by -ua'$*$ed &$'$($nos abroad. Sect$on 2.$se (ro#$ded by 'a.as e'ected.o consecut$#e ter)s.$se *$>ed by 'a.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 n$ the "OB c nnot (en$ the 'in l $ecision o' the tri l court st tin! th t respon$ent On! n$ his (other #ere n tur liFe$ lon! #ith his ' ther)  REA"* Eriv l$o vs) CO>ELEC 518:86) ARTICLE V SUFFRAGE R)A) 822." at noon on the th$rt$eth day o* June ne>t *o''o. c n exercise their ri!ht to vote) On the contr r.$se d$s-ua'$*$ed by 'a. reDuire(ent)  Le#is vs) CO>ELEC% Au!ust C% 2339* There is no provision in the $u l citiFenship l # - 9 .h$'$(($nes not other. The 'e%$s'at$#e (o. in the Philippines 'irst &e'ore the. Sect$on 0.ho" as (ro#$ded by 'a.ed to #ote under e>$st$n% 'a. Su**ra%e )ay be e>erc$sed by a'' c$t$3ens o* the .non.% R)A) 822.ho sha'' be e'ected *ro) 'e%$s'at$#e d$str$cts a((ort$oned a)on% the (ro#$nces" c$t$es" and the Metro(o'$tan Man$'a area $n accordance .% in i(plicit c<no#le$!(ent th t M$u lsN re (ost li<el.(ous to $o(icile) An &sentee re( ins tt che$ to his resi$ence in the Philippines% s resi$ence is consi$ere$ s.enty (er centu) o* the tota' nu)ber o* re(resentat$#es $nc'ud$n% those under the (arty '$st. The Con%ress sha'' (ro#$de a syste) *or secur$n% the secrecy and sanct$ty o* the ba''ot as .$th the nu)ber o* the$r res(ect$#e $nhab$tants" and on the bas$s o* a un$*or) and (ro%ress$#e rat$o" and those . (/ The ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es sha'' be co)(osed o* not )ore than t. Each c$ty .reDuirin! P$u lsP to ctu ll.516 the s (e ri!ht o' su''r !e s th t !r nte$ n &sentee voter un$er R)A) 81:8 5election 'or presi$ent% v-pres)% sen tors n$ con!ress(en6) It c nnot &e overe(ph siFe$ th t R)A) 81:8 i(s% in essence% to en'r nchise s (uch s possi&le ll overse s Eilipinos #ho% s ve 'or the resi$enc. con$itions% re Du li'ie$ to vote) ARTICLE VI LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT Sect$on /.here$n they (ro(ose to #ote *or at 'east s$> )onths $))ed$ate'y (reced$n% the e'ect$on. . No Senator sha'' ser#e *or )ore than t.$thout the ass$stance o* other (ersons." sha'' be e'ected throu%h a (arty7'$st syste) o* re%$stered nat$ona'" re%$ona'" and sectora' (art$es or or%an$3at$ons.h$ch he .h$'$(($nes" and" on the day o* the e'ect$on" $s at 'east th$rty7*$#e years o* a%e" ab'e to read and . con$itione$ upon cert in proce$ur l reDuire(ents he (ust un$er!o% (on! others the process o' re!istr tion un$er RA :1:8 5VoterLs Re!istr tion Act o' 18896)  > < lint l vs) CO>ELEC% Bul. The Senate sha'' be co)(osed o* t.ho are at 'east e$%hteen years o* a%e" and .o years $))ed$ate'y (reced$n% the day o* the e'ect$on.o hundred and *$*ty )e)bers" un'ess other.ho sha'' ha#e res$ded $n the .er sha'' be #ested $n the Con%ress o* the . est &lish resi$ence n$ ph.sic ll. No '$teracy" (ro(erty" or other substant$#e re-u$re)ent sha'' be $)(osed on the e>erc$se o* su**ra%e.e r resi$enc.o)en" youth" and such other sectors as )ay be (ro#$ded by 'a.h$'$(($nes" as )ay be (ro#$ded by 'a. speci l re!istr tion 'or ne# voters% the CO>ELEC c nnot &e co(pelle$ to $o so)  The ri!ht o' su''r !e is not &solute) The exercise o' the ri!ht is su&?ect to existin! su&st ntive n$ proce$ur l reDuire(ents e(&o$ie$ in our Constitution% st tute &oo<s n$ other repositories o' l #)  The ri!ht o' citiFen to vote is necess ril. (0 The (arty7'$st re(resentat$#es sha'' const$tute t. $isclose intent)  A&sentee votin! K un$er Section 2 o' RA 81:8 K is n exception to the six-(onth1one-. Unt$' then" they sha'' be a''o.

The intent n$ #ill to incre se the VAT r te to 12R c (e 'ro( Con!ress n$ the t s< o' the Presi$ent is si(pl. not ?usti'. 1A% 233A* +n$er the 'irst test% the l # (ust &e co(plete in ll its ter(s n$ con$itions #hen it le ves the le!isl ture such th t #hen it re ches the $ele! te% the onl.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 the. or co(petence to provi$e) This is e''ecte$ &.% in rel tion to Sec) 7C thereo'% is co(plete in ll its essenti l ter(s n$ con$itions% n$ th t it cont ins su''icient st n$ r$s) xxx In the p st% ccepte$ s su''icient st n$ r$s the 'ollo#in!* Pinterest o' l # n$ or$er0P P $eDu te n$ e''icient instruction0P Ppu&lic interest0P P?ustice n$ eDuit.77* Po#er o' Su&or$in te Le!isl tion K #ith this po#er% $(inistr tive &o$ies ( .r$te" and" e>ce(t the (arty7'$st re(resentat$#es" a re%$stered #oter $n the d$str$ct $n . Sect$on /:. nothin! in R)A) No) A8C1 th t prohi&its the Co(elec 'ro( $isclosin! or even pu&lishin! throu!h (e$iu(s other th n the MCerti'ie$ ListN the n (es o' the p rt. "OLE on the ne# L &or Co$e) These re!ul tions h ve the 'orce n$ e''ect o' l #)  ABA-A"A /+RO PARTJ LIST vs) EGEC+TIVE SECRETARJ% Septe(&er 1% 233. to the certi'ie$ list #hich the s (e provision reDuires to &e poste$ in the pollin! pl ces on election $ . the Co(elec virtu ll.e a rea((o$nt)ent o* 'e%$s'at$#e d$str$cts based on the standards (ro#$ded $n th$s sect$on.$n% the$r e'ect$on. Un'ess other. Sect$on 8.IPPIN/ LINES V) POEA% 199 SCRA .-list no(inees) The Co(elec o&viousl.$se (ro#$ded by 'a.0P Pst n$ r$iF tion n$ re!ul tion o' (e$ic l e$uc tion0P n$ P' ir n$ eDuit &le e(plo. The sa'ar$es o* Senators and Me)bers o* the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es sha'' be deter)$ned by 'a. o' electric po#erN n$ M# tershe$ reh &ilit tion n$ ( n !e(entN (eet the reDuire(ents 'or v li$ $ele! tion% s BA-RA A8C1 vs) CO>ELEC% /R No) 1AAA2A1% > . In case o* #acancy $n the Senate or $n the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es" a s(ec$a' e'ect$on )ay be ca''ed to *$'' such #acancy $n the )anner (rescr$bed by 'a." at noon on the th$rt$eth day o* June ne>t *o''o. No (erson sha'' be a Me)ber o* the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es un'ess he $s a natura'7born c$t$3en o* the . n$ prevent the $ele! tion 'ro( runnin! riot) The Court 'in$s th t the EPIRA% re $ n$ ppreci te$ in its entiret. Sect$on 6..$se (ro#$ded by 'a.h$ch he sha'' be e'ected" and a res$dent thereo* *or a (er$od o* not 'ess than one year $))ed$ate'y (reced$n% the day o* the e'ect$on.) To stretch the cover !e o' the prohi&ition to the &solute is to re $ into the l # so(ethin! th t is not inten$e$) As it #ere% there is &solutel. their pro(ul! tion o' #h t re <no#n s supple(ent r. n$ the Du lit.% securit. Ao'untary renunc$at$on o* the o**$ce *or any 'en%th o* t$)e sha'' not be cons$dered as an $nterru(t$on $n the cont$nu$ty o* h$s ser#$ce *or the *u'' ter) *or .e e**ect unt$' a*ter the e>($rat$on o* the *u'' ter) o* a'' the Me)bers o* the Senate and the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es a((ro#$n% such $ncrease.)  PARTJ-LIST SJSTE>   /erochi vs) "OE% /R) No) 1. C% 233A* No n tion l securit. provi$e the li(it tions on the ERCLs po#er to 'or(ul te the IRR) These re su''icient st n$ r$s) (2 !$th$n three years *o''o.in! c r$ 'or the Co(elec to $en.$n% the return o* e#ery census" the Con%ress sha'' )a.h$ch sha'' be%$n" un'ess other.-list !roups su&?ect o' their respective petitions) > n$ (us% there'ore% lies) xxx The l st sentence o' Sec)A o' R)A) A8C1 re $in!* MHTIhe n (es o' the p rt. o' Bustice * Bein! (ere constituent unit o' the "ep rt(ent o' Bustice% the Bure u o' Corrections coul$ not pro(ul! te ( nu l th t #oul$ not &e r the i(pri( tur o' the $(inistr tive superior% the Secret r.h$'$(($nes and" on the day o* the e'ect$on" $s at 'east t. un$er RA No) :1AA)  EASTERN S. t c<s n unconstitution l $i(ension on the l st sentence o' Section A o' R)A) No) A8C1) xxx Co(elec h s constitution l A . The Me)bers o* the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es sha'' be e'ected *or a ter) o* three years . re!ul tions% such s the i(ple(entin! rules issue$ &. o' the suppl.-list no(inees sh ll not &e sho#n on the certi'ie$ listN is cert inl.% reli &ilit.h$ch he . 1% 2339% contin!ent upon speci'ie$ ' ct or con$ition) It le ves the entire oper tion or nonoper tion o' the 12R r te upon ' ctu l ( tters outsi$e o' the control o' the executive) Con!ress $i$ not $ele! te the po#er to t x to the Presi$ent). No )e)ber o* the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es sha'' ser#e *or )ore than three consecut$#e ter)s. $ele! tion o' scert in(ent o' ' cts upon #hich en'orce(ent n$ $(inistr tion o' the incre se r te un$er the l # is contin!ent) The le!isl ture h s ( $e the oper tion o' the 12R r te e''ective B nu r. Sect$on 5. not h ve the opportunit.  Non $ele! tion o' le!isl tive po#er  Eche! r .* No un$ue $ele! tion o' le!isl tive po#er) It is si(pl. vs) Secret r. n$ e''icienc.% econo(.enty7*$#e years o* a%e" ab'e to read and . o' Bustice s the rule ( <in! uthorit. M'illin!N the $et ils #hich Con!ress ( .(ent pr ctices)P Provisions o' the EPIRA such s% (on! others% Mto ensure the tot l electri'ic tion o' the countr. i(ple(ent the &ro $ policies l i$ $o#n in st tute &. to execute the le!isl tive polic. n$ ''or$ &ilit." the re%u'ar e'ect$on o* the Senators and the Me)bers o* the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es sha'' be he'd on the second Monday o* May." but the Senator or Me)ber o* the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es thus e'ected sha'' ser#e on'y *or the une>($red ter). Sect$on 9.0P Ppu&lic convenience n$ #el' re0P Psi(plicit.as e'ected. or li<e concerns is involve$ in the $isclosure o' the n (es o' the no(inees o' the p rt. No $ncrease $n sa$d co)(ensat$on sha'' ta.8A89% Bul. 233A elections) The interpret tion thus !iven &. the reDueste$ $isclosure) To us% the prohi&ition i(pose$ on the Co(elec un$er s i$ Sec)A is li(ite$ in scope n$ $ur tion% (e nin!% th t it exten$s onl. thin! he #ill h ve to $o is to en'orce it) The secon$ test ( n$ tes $eDu te !ui$elines or li(it tions in the l # to $eter(ine the &oun$ ries o' the $ele! teQs uthorit. (isre $ the li(ite$ non-$isclosure spect o' the provision s n &solute & r to pu&lic $isclosure &e'ore the > .-list !roups in Duestion) "ou&tless% the Co(elec co((itte$ !r ve &use o' $iscretion in re'usin! the le!iti( te $e( n$s o' the petitioners 'or list o' the no(inees o' the p rt.

(/ The Senate sha'' e'ect $ts .ee( a @ecord o* $ts  NB* The prev ilin! 'or(ul 'or the co(put tion o' $$ition l se ts 'or p rt.$th" or $n any *ranch$se or s(ec$a' (r$#$'e%e %ranted by the Go#ern)ent" or any subd$#$s$on" a%ency" or $nstru)enta'$ty thereo*" $nc'ud$n% any %o#ern)ent7 o. A Senator or Me)ber o* the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es sha''" $n a'' o**enses (un$shab'e by not )ore than s$> years $)(r$son)ent" be (r$#$'e%ed *ro) arrest . ll) . Each ?ouse sha'' choose such other o**$cers as $t )ay dee) necessary. 5E(ph sis supplie$6 p rt. A'' Me)bers o* the Senate and the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es sha''" u(on assu)(t$on o* o**$ce" )a.er" by a )a+or$ty #ote o* a'' $ts res(ect$#e Me)bers. n >un % ! rnere$ the hi!hest nu(&er o' votes% th t is% tot l o' 1%237%73.ee( a Journa' o* $ts (roceed$n%s" and *ro) t$)e to t$)e (ub'$sh the sa)e" e>ce(t$n% such (arts as )ay" $n $ts +ud%)ent" a**ect nat$ona' secur$ty= and the yeas and nays on any -uest$on sha''" at the re-uest o* one7*$*th o* the )e)bers (resent" be entered $n the Journa'. i((unit. Ne$ther sha'' he" d$rect'y or $nd$rect'y" be $nterested *$nanc$a''y $n any contract . to $isclose n$ rele se the n (es o' the no(inees o' the p rt. 3)C11." and sha'' cont$nue to be $n sess$on *or such nu)ber o* days as $t )ay deter)$ne unt$' th$rty days be*ore the o(en$n% o* $ts ne>t re%u'ar sess$on" e>c'us$#e o* Saturdays" Sundays" and 'e%a' ho'$days. o' the provision !r ntin! Sen tors n$ Con!ress(en i((unit.-list #inners is the 'or(ul st te$ in the l n$( r< c se o' Veter ns) REA"* P rti$o 711. They sha'' not$*y the ?ouse concerned o* a (otent$a' con*'$ct o* $nterest that )ay ar$se *ro) the (4 Ne$ther ?ouse dur$n% the sess$ons o* the Con%ress sha''" .o7th$rds o* a'' $ts Me)bers" sus(end or e>(e' a Me)ber. The Con%ress sha'' con#ene once e#ery year on the *ourth Monday o* Ju'y *or $ts re%u'ar sess$on" un'ess a d$**erent date $s *$>ed by 'a.ned or contro''ed cor(orat$on" or $ts subs$d$ary" dur$n% h$s ter) o* o**$ce.-list !roups) CIBAC vs) CO>ELEC% /R No) 1A2137% 5233A6* Appl.h$ch they are authors.in! this 'or(ul % the result is s 'ollo#s* C8.139) n! > n!! ! # vs) CO>ELEC%  LE/ISLATIVE PER-S Sect$on //.res$dent and the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es $ts S(ea. other 'oru( outsi$e o' the Con!ression l . 'ro( rrest n$ $etention sho#s th t the privile!e h s l# . of add ! o"a# A$$ition l -------------------------.h$ch the t.  : U+OR+> .ned or contro''ed cor(orat$ons or the$r subs$d$ar$es" dur$n% h$s ter) .%183 votes) It # s procl i(e$ th t the 'irst p rt. (1 Each ?ouse )ay deter)$ne the ru'es o* $ts (roceed$n%s" (un$sh $ts Me)bers *or d$sorder'y beha#$or" and" . votes) Petitioner CIBAC% on the other h n$% receive$ tot l o' C8.hen $)(osed" sha'' not e>ceed s$>ty days. (0 A )a+or$ty o* each ?ouse sha'' const$tute a -uoru) to do bus$ness" but a s)a''er nu)ber )ay ad+ourn *ro) day to day and )ay co)(e' the attendance o* absent Me)bers $n such )anner" and under such (ena't$es" as such ?ouse )ay (ro#$de.x $%a!$ a##o&a!%d !o S Se ts 'or No) o' votes o' !'% f ($! )a(!* concerne$ Eirst p rt.h$ch )ay ha#e been created or the e)o'u)ents thereo* $ncreased dur$n% the ter) *or . Each ?ouse (roceed$n%s. (2 Each ?ouse sha'' . Sect$on /4.in! the Veter ns 'or(ul in petitionerLs c se% #e re ch the conclusion th t CIBAC is not entitle$ to n $$ition l se t) P rt.as e'ected. No Senator or a Me)ber o* the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es )ay ho'd any other o**$ce or e)('oy)ent $n the Go#ern)ent" or any subd$#$s$on" a%ency" or $nstru)enta'$ty thereo*" $nc'ud$n% %o#ern)ent7o. ?e sha'' not $nter#ene $n any )atter be*ore any o**$ce o* the Go#ern)ent *or h$s (ecun$ary bene*$t or .% B .  PP vs) B los?os% 72C SCRA 9:8* The histor.here he )ay be ca''ed u(on to act on account o* h$s o**$ce.res$dent )ay ca'' a s(ec$a' sess$on at any t$)e. A (ena'ty *or sus(ens$on" . the l tter $isor$erl.$thout *or*e$t$n% h$s seat.-List C nv ss Report No) 23 cont ine$ in the petition sho#s th t the 'irst p rt.s &een !r nte$ in restrictive sense)  P rli (ent r. No. The .e a *u'' d$sc'osure o* the$r *$nanc$a' and bus$ness $nterests. sha'' a'so .% B . &e'ore the le!isl tive &o$. Appl. !u r ntees the le!isl tor co(plete 'ree$o( o' expression #ithout 'e r o' &ein! ( $e responsi&le in cri(in l or civil ctions &e'ore the courts or n.%183 KKKKKKKK 1%237%73.2C87 3):273C8:9 x 526 x S 2 S *$'$n% o* a (ro(osed 'e%$s'at$on o* . Sect$on /1.$th the concurrence o* t.o ?ouses sha'' be s$tt$n%. or un&eco(in! o' (e(&er thereo' 5Os(eT vs) Pen$ tun6) Sect$on /0.$thout the consent o* the other" ad+ourn *or )ore than three days" nor to any other ('ace than that $n . itsel' #henever his #or$s n$ con$uct re consi$ere$ &. Sect$on /2.o#ever% it $oes not protect hi( 'ro( responsi&ilit. Ne$ther sha'' he be a((o$nted to any o**$ce . No Senator or Me)ber o* the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es )ay (ersona''y a((ear as counse' be*ore any court o* +ust$ce or be*ore the E'ectora' Tr$buna's" or -uas$7+ud$c$a' and other ad)$n$strat$#e bod$es. No )e)ber sha'' be -uest$oned nor be he'd '$ab'e $n any other ('ace *or any s(eech or debate $n the Con%ress or $n any co))$ttee thereo*. Sect$on /5.h$'e the Con%ress $s $n sess$on.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 $ut. n >un % # s entitle$ to ( xi(u( o' three se ts & se$ on Bune 2% 233C Resolution No) NBC 3C-33C o' the CO>ELEC) A co(put tion usin! the Veter ns 'or(ul #oul$ there'ore le $ us to the 'ollo#in! result* No) o' votes o' concerne$ p rt.h$ch he .

or ineli!i&ilit.)  "ISCIPLININ/ >E>BERS B r&ers vs) CO>ELEC% Bune 22% 233. correction l pen lties)  Wh t is llo#e$ is the correction o' M( ni'est errorsN in the certi'ic te o' c nv ss or election returnsN) To &e ( ni'est% the errors (ust ppe r on the ' ce o' the certi'ic tes o' c nv ss or election returns sou!ht to &e correcte$ n$1or o&?ections thereto (ust h ve &een ( $e &e'ore the &o r$ o' c nv ssers n$ speci'ic ll. the tot l (e(&ership o' the &o$. the le!isl tive &o$.ouse) Sect$on /6. o' e ch . n$ $espotic exercise o' po#er &ec use o' p ssion or person l hostilit. n* suspension i(pose$ &. it $oes not $eline te #ho co(prises the ( ?orit. (inor o''enses% punish &le t (ost &. s re'errin! to ll ( tters ''ectin! the v li$it. o' his certi'ic te o' c n$i$ c. (ount to con$on tion o' his o''ense0 neither $oes it entitle hi(% pen$in! ppe l o' his c se% to &e 'ree 'ro( con'ine(ent n$ to &e llo#e$ to tten$ sessions o' con!ress% 'or the people electe$ hi( #ith 'ull # reness o' the li(it tions on his 'ree$o( o' ction n$ (ove(ent) It # s never the intention o' the 'r (ers o' the constitution to shiel$ (e(&er o' con!ress 'ro( the conseDuences o' his #ron!$oin!s) A (e(&er o' Con!ress coul$ onl. or the (inorit.ouse o' Con!ress ' ile$ to co(pl. The sen$or Just$ce $n the E'ectora' Tr$buna' sha'' be $t Cha$r)an. The Senate and the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es sha'' each ha#e an E'ectora' Tr$buna' .)  P re$es vs) S n$i! n& .o vs) "e Veneci % 2AA SCRA 29:* Courts c nnot inDuire into the lle! tions th t in en ctin! l #% . Each E'ectora' Tr$buna' sha'' be co)(osed o* n$ne Me)bers" three o* .  S nti !o vs) /uin!on % 28: SCRA A. or the in $eDu c. to speci'. to oust the intru$er% &ut lso h ve hi(sel' in$ucte$ into o''ice)   Arro. l #% it h s constitution l 'oun$ tions)  Avelino vs) CruF* When the constitution $ecl res th t ( ?orit. Con!ress to colle !ue is $istinct 'ro( suspension spo<en in Section 17 o' RA 7318 #hich is not pen lt. uthoriFe$ &. invo<e the i((unit. (e ns the !re ter nu(&er or (ore th n h l') Who sh ll sit s o''icers is the sole prero! tive o' the Sen te) 5Note* splittin! o' ter( &et#een Sen te Presi$ent "rilon n$ nother Sen tor6) When the Constitution provi$es th t the Sen te Presi$ent sh ll &e electe$ &. rules re (ere proce$ures #hich ( . th t MelectionN re'erre$ to the con$uct o' the polls% inclu$in! the listin! o' voters% the hol$in! o' the elector l c (p i!n% n$ the c stin! n$ countin! o' the votes0 MreturnsN to the c nv ss o' the returns n$ the procl ( tion o' the #inners% inclu$in! Duestions concernin! the co(position o' the &o r$ o' c nv ssers n$ the uthenticit.ouse sh ll constitute Duoru(% it $oes not (e n ll the (e(&ers) The & se in co(putin! ( ?orit. is nor( ll. o' the election returns0 n$ MDu li'ic tionsN to ( tters th t coul$ &e r ise$ in Duo # rr nto procee$in! ! inst the procl i(e$ #inner% such s his $islo.ouse o' Represent tives is the ?u$!e o' #h t constitutes $isor$erl.* The phr se Melection% returns n$ Du li'ic tionsN shoul$ &e interprete$ in its tot lit.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1  PP vs) B los?os* The (e(&ers o' Con!ress c nnot co(pel &sent (e(&ers to tten$ sessions i' the re son 'or the &sence is le!iti( te one) The con'ine(ent o' Con!ress( n ch r!e$ #ith cri(e punish &le &. #ith its o#n rules in the &sence o' sho#in! th t there # s viol tion o' constitution l provision or priv te ri!hts) P rli (ent r.is election s con!ress( n $i$ not there&. over elector l contests in #hich contest nt see<s not onl. re not necess ril. suspen$e$ the o th-t <in! o' the 7 sen tors elect) This $oes not ' ll #ithin the po#ers o' the elector l tri&un l) The l tter h s ?uris$iction onl. &ut preli(in r.e rs is not (erel.ho) sha'' be Just$ces o* the Su(re)e Court to be des$%nated by the Ch$e* Just$ce" and the re)a$n$n% s$> sha'' be Me)bers o* the Senate or the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es" as the case )ay be" . o' the contesteeLs title) But i' it is necess r. lt. the ?u$ici l $ep rt(ent #ith the le!isl ture)  Ch veF vs) CO>ELEC* While the CO>ELEC h s exclusive ?uris$iction over pre-procl ( tion controversies involvin! loc l elective o''ici ls 5Sec) 2C2% O(ni&us Election Co$e6% nevertheless% pre-procl ( tion c ses re not llo#e$ in elections 'or Presi$ent% V-Presi$ent% Sen tor n$ >e(&ers o' the . note$ in the (inutes o' their respective procee$in!s) Where the petition c lls 'or the correction o' ( ni'est errors in the certi'ic tes o' c nv ss% CO>ELEC h s ?uris$iction) I' it c lls 'or the reopenin! n$ ppreci tion o' & llots% the Elector l Tri&un l h s ?uris$iction)  This Supre(e CourtLs ?uris$iction to revie# $ecisions n$ resolutions o' .% #ithin the coercive po#er o' the . i(prison(ent o' (ore th n 9 . 'ro( rrests 'or rel tivel. preventive (e sure% prescin$in! 'ro( the ' ct th t the l tter is not &ein! i(pose$ 'or (is&eh vior s (e(&er o' Con!ress)  ELECTORAL TRIB+NALS 8 .h$ch sha'' be the so'e +ud%e o* a'' contests re'at$n% to the e'ect$on" returns" and -ua'$*$cat$ons o* the$r res(ect$#e Me)bers.)  Os(eT vs Pen$ tun* The . &eh vior) The courts #ill not ssu(e ?uris$iction in n.9* The ter( ( ?orit. the (inorit. upon sho#in! o' !r ve &use o' $iscretion on the p rt o' the Tri&un l t nt (ount to l c< or excess o' ?uris$iction) Such !r ve &use o' $iscretion i(plies c pricious n$ #hi(sic l exercise o' ?u$!(ent (ountin! to l c< o' ?uris$iction% or r&itr r.% #e c n s .)  R+LES OE PROCEE"IN/S  Ver vs) Avelino* The (e(&ers o' the Sen te v li$l. c se #hich #ill (ount to n inter'erence &.ouse o' Represent tives)  People vs) B los?os% 72C SCRA 9:8* .ho sha'' be chosen on the bas$s o* (ro(ort$ona' re(resentat$on *ro) the (o'$t$ca' (art$es and the (art$es or or%an$3at$ons re%$stered under the (arty7'$st syste) re(resented there$n.RET oper tes onl.) The $e'e te$ sen tor5s6 in the election 'or the Sen te presi$enc. the ( ?orit. &e # ive$ or $isre! r$e$ &. si(pl.

-list represent tives co(prise su''icient nu(&er n$ h ve !ree$ to $esi!n te co((on no(inees to the . lli nces or ' ction l $ivisions not involvin! sever nce o' politic l lo.s sha'' be aud$ted by the Co))$ss$on on Aud$t . lties or 'or( l $is ''ili tion n$ per( nent shi'ts o' lle!i nce 'ro( one politic l p rt. en?o.% #hile ppropri tion ( $e &. nu(&er less th n 2 #ill not entitle such p rt.RET% > rch A% 233A* The Supre(e CourtLs ?uris$iction to revie# $ecisions n$ resolutions o' . &e'ore petitioners ( .RET n$ the CA% their pri( r.(ent o' $e&t or $ues 'ro( the St te to its cre$itors)  I>PORTANT* LE/ISLATIVE INU+IRJ  The provision on Section 1: on proportion l represent tion is ( n$ tor.ers and *unct$ons as are here$n con*erred u(on $t.h$'e the Con%ress $s $n sess$on" at the ca'' o* $ts Cha$r)an or a )a+or$ty o* a'' $ts Me)bers" to d$schar%e such (o. The Co))$ss$on sha'' act on a'' a((o$nt)ents sub)$tted to $t .e'#e Senators" and t.  Pi(entel III vs) CO>ELEC% 4u&iri% > rch 17% 233:* It is the SET #hich h s exclusive ?uris$iction to ct on the co(pl int o' Pi(entel involvin!% s it $oes% contest rel tin! to the election o' 4u&iri% no# (e(&er o' the Sen te) Sect$on /9.RET oper tes onl. (e(&ership in the CA) 5/uin!on v) /onF les% 21C SCRA A:86) Sect$on 0/. The Co))$ss$on sha'' ru'e by a )a+or$ty #ote o* a'' the Me)bers.  APPROPRIATION   "A4A V) SIN/SON% 1:3 SCRA C89* The . Co((ission on Constitution l Re'or( throu!h n executive Or$er involves no exercise &.er o* the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es at 'east three days be*ore the$r schedu'ed a((earance. &e p i$ out o' the tre sur. recourse cle rl. rests #ith the .% petitionersL $irect recourse to this Court is pre( ture) The $iscretion o' the .s o* accounts o* the Con%ress sha'' be (reser#ed and be o(en to the (ub'$c $n accordance .RET n$ the CA c n the p rt. The E'ectora' Tr$buna's and the Co))$ss$on on A((o$nt)ents sha'' be const$tuted . or $isre! r$) A politic l p rt. en?oine$ &.$th$n th$rty days a*ter the Senate and the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es sha'' ha#e been or%an$3ed . #ith the $irective o' the Constitution on proportion l represent tion o' politic l p rties in the . There sha'' be a Co))$ss$on on A((o$nt)ents cons$st$n% o* the .$th$n th$rty sess$on days o* the Con%ress *ro) the$r sub)$ss$on. ?uris$iction% prior recourse to the . tr nspire in the politic l li!n(ents o' its (e(&ership) The ch n!es (ust &e PER>ANENT n$ $o not inclu$e te(por r. i' the . The records and boo. $iscretion to the ( ?orit. (ust h ve t le st t#o sen tors to &e &le to h ve represent tive in the Co((ission on Appoint(ents% so th t n. The heads o* de(art)ents )ay u(on the$r o.RET s sole ?u$!e o' con!ression l election contests re entitle$ to securit.ouse to choose its (e(&ers to the . Sect$on 0:. possess the reDuire$ nu(eric l stren!th to &e entitle$ to se ts in the . securit. in ch r cter n$ $oes not le ve n.res$dent and the S(ea.RET once cDuire$ is not lost upon the inst nce o' the p rties &ut continues until the c se is ter(in te$)  A&u& < r vs) . Con!ress o' its t xin! po#er or spen$in! po#er) The ppropri tion 'or the PCCR # s uthoriFe$ &. ( .) The !r ve &use o' $iscretion (ust &e so p tent n$ !ross s to (ount to n ev sion or re'us l to per'or( $ut.n $n$t$at$#e" . o' tenure ?ust s (e(&ers o' the ?u$ici r.RET n$ the CA is not &solute% &ein! su&?ect to the ( n$ tor. The Co))$ss$on on A((o$nt)ents sha'' )eet on'y .BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 represent tives see< recourse to this Court un$er its po#er o' ?u$ici l revie#) +n$er the $octrine o' pri( r. 13 .ouse o' Represent tives is uthoriFe$ to ch n!e its represent tion in the Co(() on Appoint(ents to re'lect t n.$th the e'ect$on o* the .   Pi(entel% Br) vs) . ti(e the ch n!es th t ( . to nother) /onF les vs) N rv s % 77A SCRA A77* The Presi$entLs cre tion o' the Prep r tor. n$ $espotic exercise o' po#er &ec use o' p ssion or person l hostilit.res$dent o* the Senate" as e> o**$c$o Cha$r)an" t. The Senate or the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es or any o* $ts res(ect$#e co))$ttees )ay conduct $n-u$r$es $n a$d o* 'e%$s'at$on $n accordance . in the Sen te to $iso&e." and such boo.ouse o' Represent tives n$ not #ith this Court) +n$er Sections 1A n$ 1:% Article VI o' the Constitution% p rt. p rt. &rin! the inst nt c se to the court) ConseDuentl. The r$%hts o* (ersons a((ear$n% $n or a**ected by such $n-u$r$es sha'' be res(ected. !r$tten -uest$ons sha'' be sub)$tted to the .ouse ' ils to co(pl. the Presi$ent% not &.ouse is necess r.ouse o' Represent tives% 11118132* Even ssu(in! th t p rt.$th the consent o* the .-list Ben!Fon vs) Sen te Blue Ri&&on 5237 SRCA A96* An investi! tion th t see<s the $eter(in tion #hether l # h s &een viol te$ is not in i$ o' le!isl tion &ut in i$ o' prosecution% n$ there'ore% viol tive o' sep r tion o' po#ers) Sect$on 00.res$dent o* the Senate or the S(ea.h$ch sha'' (ub'$sh annua''y an $te)$3ed '$st o* a)ounts (a$d to and e>(enses $ncurred *or each Me)ber.e'#e Me)bers o* the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es" e'ected by each ?ouse on the bas$s o* (ro(ort$ona' re(resentat$on *ro) the (o'$t$ca' (art$es or or%an$3at$ons re%$stered under the (arty7'$st syste) re(resented there$n.er.RET n$ the CA) Onl.$th $ts du'y (ub'$shed ru'es o* (rocedure. The Cha$r)an o* the Co))$ss$on sha'' not #ote" e>ce(t $n case o* a t$e. constitution l rule on proportion l represent tion)  Bon$oc vs) Pine$ * >e(&ers o' the .-list represent tives (ust 'irst sho# to the . l #) It is &sent in this c se) Sect$on /8. l # re'ers to the M ct o' the le!isl ture settin! p rt or ssi!nin! to p rticul r use cert in su( to &e use$ in the p .ouse th t the.$th 'a. Con!ress) In strict sense% ppropri tion h s &een $e'ine$ s Mnothin! (ore th n the le!isl tive uthoriF tion prescri&e$ &. the Constitution th t the (one. upon sho#in! o' !r ve &use o' $iscretion on the p rt o' the Tri&un l t nt (ount to l c< or excess o' ?uris$iction) Such !r ve &use o' $iscretion i(plies c pricious n$ #hi(sic l exercise o' ?u$!(ent (ountin! to l c< o' ?uris$iction% or r&itr r.res$dent" or u(on the re-uest o* e$ther ?ouse" as the ru'es o* each ?ouse sha'' (ro#$de" a((ear be*ore and be heard by such ?ouse on any )atter (erta$n$n% to the$r de(art)ents. o' tenure un$er our Constitution)  Ro&les vs) .RET* Buris$iction o' .

in! the principles $opte$ in P>PE v) > n!l pus% it is cle r th t #hile the 'in l text o' the BPEPA ( . it &e $eter(ine$ i' there is pu&lic interest th t c lls 'or the $isclosure o' the $esire$ in'or( tion% stron! enou!h to overco(e its tr $ition ll. c se o' Al(onte v) V sDueF% n$ the (ost recent &ein! the 2332 c se o' Ch veF v) Pu&lic Est tes Authorit.N #oul$ !overn the s (e) "isclosin! these o''ers coul$ i(p ir the &ilit.% &ein! &ro $% enco(p sses ever. #ith B p n &ut #ith other 'orei!n !overn(ents in 'uture ne!oti tions) xxx "iplo( tic ne!oti tions% there'ore% re reco!niFe$ s privile!e$ in this ?uris$iction% the BPEPA ne!oti tions constitutin! no exception) It &e rs e(ph sis% ho#ever% th t such privile!e is onl. &een reco!niFe$ in Philippine ?urispru$ence) Second% the co((unic tions re Mreceive$N &. the Presi$entLs constitution l po#er to ne!oti te n$ enter into tre ties n$ intern tion l !ree(ents) In the $isch r!e o' this responsi&ilit. rel tions o' the St te) The Presi$entLs role s chie' i(ple(enter o' the St teLs 'orei!n polic. n$ n tion l securit. o' the intern l $eli&er tions o' the Presi$ent #ith his C &inet n$ $visers) To encour !e c n$i$ $iscussions n$ thorou!h exch n!e o' vie#s% the Presi$entLs co((unic tions #ith his C &inet n$ $visers nee$ to &e shiel$e$ 'ro( the !l re o' pu&licit.  EGEC+TIVE PRIVILE/E  is the i(plie$ constitution l po#er o' the Presi$ent to #ithhol$ in'or( tion reDueste$ &. $isclose$% thus $eprivin! the Presi$ent o' c n$i$ $vice) A<& . 'or $iscussion &e'ore H tre t.% 233:* The co((unic tions elicite$ &. is rein'orce$ &. !r nte$ to the Executive un$er the Constitution) xxx In this ?uris$iction% sever l $ecisions h ve reco!niFe$ executive privile!e st rtin! #ith the 188.% n$ the ?u$ici l po#er to Neri vs) Sen te Co((ittee% /)R) No) 1:39C7% > rch 2.r$tten -uest$ons" but )ay co#er )atters re'ated thereto. the courts)   As Co(( n$er-in-Chie' o' the Ar(e$ Eorces n$ s Chie' Executive% the Presi$ent is ulti( tel. o' the in'or( tion else#here &. other &r nches o' the !overn(ent) The Constitution $oes not expressl. to re'use $isclosure o' sensitive $iplo( tic secrets to the Le!isl ture or the pu&lic) Tr $ition ll.) Other#ise% the C &inet n$ other presi$enti l $visers ( .res$dent so states $n . n$ n tion l securit. o' pu&lic o''icers% the po#er o' le!isl tive inDuir. responsi&le 'or (ilit r. !r nt this po#er to the Presi$ent &ut courts h ve lon! reco!niFe$ i(plie$ Presi$enti l po#ers i' Mnecess r. o' the Presi$ent to enter into executive !ree(ents #ithout the concurrence o' the Le!isl ture h s tr $ition ll.% h ve &een $eci$e$ &. issues n$ executive ( tters <no#in! th t their $iscussions #ill &e pu&licl. o' 'ull pu&lic $isclosure o' ll tr ns ctions involvin! pu&lic interest% the ri!ht o' the people to in'or( tion on ( tters o' pu&lic concern% the ccount &ilit. 'in$ it necess r.) Con$uct le!isl tive inDuiries in ccor$ nce #ith pu&lish rules)  In the ( tter o' the petition 'or issu nce o' #rit o' h &e s corpus o' C (ilo S &io% /R No) 1AC7C3% Octo&er 1A% 2339* The Con!ressL po#er o' inDuir.ou $ict te$ to prioritiFe the 4TEV c6 Whether the Presi$ent s i$ to !o he $ n$ pprove the pro?ect 'ter &ein! tol$ &out the lle!e$ &ri&eV --. presu(ptive) Eor s Sen te v) Er(it hol$s% reco!niFin! t.% the Presi$ent ( . secrets 'ro( the Le!isl ture or the pu&lic)  As the o''ici l in control o' the n tionLs 'orei!n service &. o' the Philippines to $e l not onl.re covere$ &.r$t$n%" the a((earance sha'' be conducted $n e>ecut$#e sess$on.I is pprove$N K the o''ers exch n!e$ &. privile!e$ st tus)   Executive privile!e% ho#ever% is not &solute) The interest o' protectin! (ilit r.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 Inter(e''at$ons sha'' not be '$)$ted to .19% Bul. close $visor o' the Presi$ent) +n$er the Moper tion l proxi(it. the presi$enti l co((unic tions privile!e) &$rst% the co((unic tions rel te to MDuintessenti l n$ non-$ele! &le po#erN o' the Presi$ent% i)e) the po#er to enter into n executive !ree(ent #ith other countries) This uthorit. n vs) ADuino% /)R) No) 1A3. 19% 233:* Appl.pe o' in'or( tion s privile!e$ $oes not (e n th t it #ill &e consi$ere$ privile!e$ in ll inst nces) Onl.thin! 11 . the li(it tion o' the privile!e n$ o' the un v il &ilit. &e reluct nt to $iscuss 'reel. ( tters ''ectin! the n tion) In the $isch r!e o' this responsi&ilit. 'ter consi$er tion o' the context in #hich the cl i( is ( $e ( . n$ properN in c rr.6 Whether the Presi$ent 'ollo#e$ up the 5NBN6 pro?ectV &6 Were . virtue o' the Presi$entLs control o' ll executive $ep rt(ents% &ure us n$ o''ices% the Presi$ent is the chie' i(ple(enter o' the 'orei!n polic. reco!niFe$ interests on the other h n$ K is 'unction o' the courts) The courts #ill h ve to $eci$e the issue & se$ on the ' ctu l circu(st nces o' e ch c se) This is ho# con'licts on executive privile!e &et#een the Executive n$ the Le!isl ture% n$ &et#een the Executive n$ the Bu$ici r. not &e <ept perpetu ll. the p rties $urin! the ne!oti tions continue to &e privile!e$ even 'ter the BPEPA is pu&lishe$) It is re son &le to conclu$e th t the B p nese represent tives su&(itte$ their o''ers #ith the un$erst n$in! th t Mhistoric con'i$enti lit. the three 576 Duestions--. !hen the secur$ty o* the State or the (ub'$c $nterest so re-u$res and the . n$ $iplo( tic secrets% s #ell s Presi$enti l co((unic tions% (ust &e #ei!he$ ! inst other constitution ll. to #ithhol$ sensitive (ilit r. n$ the 2339 c se o' Sen te v) Er(it ) secure testi(oni l $eci$in! c ses) n$ $ocu(ent r.N test% petitioner c n &e consi$ere$ close $visor% &ein! (e(&er o' Presi$ent Arro. reve l secrets th t its llies h ve sh re$ #ith it)  There is lso the nee$ to protect the con'i$enti lit.% n tion l securit.oLs c &inet) An$ th$rd% there is no $eDu te sho#in! o' co(pellin! nee$ th t #oul$ ?usti'. reco!niFe$ interests) There is the $ecl re$ st te polic. #ith the Presi$ent polic. #ith consi$er &le secrec. evi$ence in  The & l ncin! o' interests K &et#een executive privile!e on one h n$ n$ the other co(petin! constitution ll. expect tion th t st te #ill not i(pru$entl.in! out po#ers n$ 'unctions expressl. 'in$ it necess r. n ppropri te investi! tin! uthorit. con'i$enti l K since there shoul$ &e M (ple opportunit.% st tes h ve con$ucte$ $iplo( c.) There is ever.% the Presi$ent ( .

h$ch sha'' be e>(ressed $n the t$t'e thereo*. #ith respect to ( tters #ithin the re l( o' proper investi! tion) Sect$on 01.. respon$ent Sen te Co((ittees% it is their $ut. re $ep rt(ent he $s) Onl.o7th$rds o* both ?ouses $n +o$nt sess$on asse)b'ed" #ot$n% se(arate'y" sha'' ha#e the so'e (o." be author$3ed to au%)ent any $te) $n the %enera' a((ro(r$at$ons 'a. *or the (reced$n% *$sca' year sha'' be dee)ed reenacted and sha'' re)a$n $n *orce and e**ect unt$' the %enera' a((ro(r$at$ons b$'' $s (assed by the Con%ress. *or the$r res(ect$#e o**$ces *ro) sa#$n%s $n other $te)s o* the$r res(ect$#e a((ro(r$at$ons. #ith the con!ression l perception o' pu&lic interest)  The cts $one &. re'usin! to co(pl." author$3e the . nee$e$ st tutes) It even exten$s Mto !overn(ent !encies cre te$ &.h$ch $t re'ates.0 n$ 5e6 to ssess executive con'or(it. Any such (ro#$s$on or enact)ent sha'' be '$)$ted $n $ts o(erat$on to the a((ro(r$at$on to . v li$ cl i( o' privile!e) The.er to dec'are the e>$stence o* a state o* . one executive o''ici l ( .. re not exe(pt &. The *or)" content" and )anner o* (re(arat$on o* the bud%et sha'' be (rescr$bed by 'a. citiFen is to respon$ to su&poen e% to respect the $i!nit. Con!ress n$ o''icers #hose positions re #ithin the po#er o' Con!ress to re!ul te or even &olish)N PC// &elon!s to this cl ss) xxx So lon! s the constitution l ri!hts o' #itnesses% li<e Ch ir( n S &io n$ his Co((issioners% #ill &e respecte$ &. (0 In t$)es o* .$thdra. (2 A s(ec$a' a((ro(r$at$ons b$'' sha'' s(ec$*y the (ur(ose *or .ers necessary and (ro(er to carry out a dec'ared nat$ona' (o'$cy. Con!ress to enh nce its un$erst n$in! o' n$ in'luence over the i(ple(ent tion o' le!isl tion it h s en cte$) Cle rl.h$ch $t $s $ntended" and sha'' be su((orted by *unds actua''y a#a$'ab'e as cert$*$ed by the Nat$ona' Treasurer" or to be ra$sed by a corres(ond$n% re#enue (ro(osed there$n.ers sha'' cease u(on the ne>t ad+ourn)ent thereo*. (/ E#ery b$'' (assed by the Con%ress sha'' e)brace on'y one sub+ect .n by reso'ut$on o* the Con%ress" such (o. Sect$on 04. (/ The Con%ress" by a #ote o* t. &e $ivi$e$ into three c te!ories% n (el. it (ust &e respecte$)  When Con!ress exercises its po#er o' inDuir. (4 No 'a. 'or $ep rt(ent he $s to exe(pt the(selves there'ro( is &. o' the Con!ress n$ its Co((ittees% n$ to testi'.on$ the re ch o' Con!ress except throu!h the po#er o' i(pe ch(ent) It is & se$ on her &ein! the hi!hest o''ici l o' the executive &r nch% n$ the $ue respect ccor$e$ to co-eDu l &r nch o' !overn(ent #hich is s nctione$ &.% the po#er o' Con!ress to co(pel the ppe r nce o' executive o''ici ls un$er Section 21 n$ the l c< o' it un$er Section 22 'in$ their & sis in the principle o' sep r tion o' po#ers) While the executive &r nch is co-eDu l &r nch o' the le!isl ture% it c nnot 'rustr te the po#er o' Con!ress to le!isl te &. Con!ress 5 6 to (onitor &ure ucr tic co(pli nce #ith pro!r ( o&?ectives0 5&6 to $eter(ine #hether !encies re properl. A'' a((ro(r$at$on" re#enue or tar$** b$''s" b$''s author$3$n% $ncrease o* (ub'$c debt" b$''s o* 'oca' a(('$cat$on" and (r$#ate b$''s sha'' or$%$nate e>c'us$#e'y $n the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es" but the Senate )ay (ro(ose or concur .er o* the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es" the Ch$e* Just$ce o* the Su(re)e Court" and the Const$tut$ona' Co))$ss$ons )ay" by 'a. lon!-st n$in! custo()  The &sence o' n. Con!ress purporte$l. # . (6 I*" by the end o* any *$sca' year" the Con%ress sha'' ha#e *a$'ed to (ass the %enera' a((ro(r$at$ons b$'' *or the ensu$n% *$sca' year" the %enera' a((ro(r$at$ons 'a. Un'ess sooner . the (ere ' ct th t the. &e exe(pte$ 'ro( this po#er W the Presi$ent on #ho( executive po#er is veste$% hence% &e.res$dent *or the o(erat$on o* the Go#ern)ent as s(ec$*$ed $n the bud%et. (5 D$scret$onary *unds a((ro(r$ated *or (art$cu'ar o**$c$a's sha'' be d$sbursed on'y *or (ub'$c (ur(oses to be su((orted by a((ro(r$ate #ouchers and sub+ect to such %u$de'$nes as )ay be (rescr$bed by 'a. in the exercise o' its oversi!ht po#ers ( . $(inistere$0 5c6 to eli(in te executive # ste n$ $ishonest.ar or other nat$ona' e)er%ency" the Con%ress )ay" by 'a.e#er" the . to cooper te #ith the( in their e''orts to o&t in the ' cts nee$e$ 'or intelli!ent le!isl tive ction) The unre(ittin! o&li! tion o' ever.  ENROLLE" BILL "OCTRINE  Sen te vs) Er(it 5E)O) C9C6% April 23% 2339* +lti( tel. un'ess $t has (assed three read$n%s on se(arate days" and (r$nted co($es thereo* $n $ts *$na' *or) ha#e been d$str$buted to $ts )e)bers three days be*ore $ts 12 .% oversi!ht concerns post-en ct(ent (e sures un$ert <en &. (0 No b$'' (assed by e$ther ?ouse sha'' beco)e a 'a. the (rocedure *or a((ro#$n% a((ro(r$at$ons *or other de(art)ents or a%enc$es. (/ The Con%ress )ay not $ncrease the a((ro(r$at$ons reco))ended by the .res$dent o* the Senate" the S(ea. #ith its $e( n$s 'or in'or( tion)  Con!ress un$ou&te$l.res$dent" the . (1 The (rocedure $n a((ro#$n% a((ro(r$at$ons *or the Con%ress sha'' str$ct'y *o''o. sha'' be (assed author$3$n% any trans*er o* a((ro(r$at$ons= ho. Sect$on 02.0 investi! tion n$ supervision) Sect$on 05. (0 No (ro#$s$on or enact)ent sha'' be e)braced $n the %enera' a((ro(r$at$ons b$'' un'ess $t re'ates s(ec$*$ca''y to so)e (art$cu'ar a((ro(r$at$on there$n.% the onl. h s ri!ht to in'or( tion 'ro( the executive &r nch #henever it is sou!ht in i$ o' le!isl tion) I' the executive &r nch #ithhol$s such in'or( tion on the !roun$ th t it is executive privile!e$% it (ust so ssert it n$ st te the re son there'ore n$ #h. 'ull.ar. re'erence to inDuiries in i$ o' le!isl tion% (ust &e construe$ s li(ite$ in its ppe r nce o' $ep rt(ent he $s in the Duestion hour conte(pl te$ in Section 22 o' Article VI% the o&?ective o' #hich is to o&t in in'or( tion in pursuit o' Con!ressL oversi!ht 'unction)  The po#er o' oversi!ht e(&r ces ll ctivities un$ert <en &.* scrutin.0 5$6 to prevent executive usurp tion o' le!isl tive uthorit.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 th t concerns the $(inistr tion o' existin! l #s s #ell s propose$ or possi&l.$th a)end)ents.res$dent" *or a '$)$ted (er$od and sub+ect to such restr$ct$ons as $t )ay (rescr$be" to e>erc$se (o.

Sect$on 2. (0 No (ub'$c )oney or (ro(erty sha'' be a((ro(r$ated" a(('$ed" (a$d" or e)('oyed" d$rect'y or $nd$rect'y" *or the use" bene*$t" or su((ort o* any sect" church" deno)$nat$on" sectar$an $nst$tut$on" or syste) o* re'$%$on" or o* any (r$est" (reacher" )$n$ster" or other re'$%$ous teacher" or d$%n$tary as such" e>ce(t . The e>ecut$#e (o.r$te" at 'east *orty years o* a%e on the day o* the e'ect$on" and a res$dent o* the . %rant$n% a t$t'e o* roya'ty or nob$'$ty sha'' be enacted.har*a%e dues" and other dut$es or $)(osts .h$ch a s(ec$a' *und .$se be recons$dered" and $* a((ro#ed by t. used *or re'$%$ous" char$tab'e" or educat$ona' (ur(oses sha'' be e>e)(t *ro) ta>at$on. (0 The . (1 Char$tab'e $nst$tut$ons" churches and (arsona%es or co#enants a((urtenant thereto" )os-ues" non7 (ro*$t ce)eter$es" and a'' 'ands" bu$'d$n%s" and $)(ro#e)ents" actua''y" d$rect'y" and e>c'us$#e'y 17 . I* the (ur(ose *or .BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 (assa%e" e>ce(t .hen the . the Constitution to ori!in te in the . (1 A'' )oney co''ected on any ta> 'e#$ed *or a s(ec$a' (ur(ose sha'' be treated as a s(ec$a' *und and (a$d out *or such (ur(ose on'y.. List% et l) vs) Er(it % et l)% Octo&er 1:% 233. The Con%ress sha''" as ear'y as (oss$b'e" (ro#$de *or a syste) o* $n$t$at$#e and re*erendu)" and the e>ce(t$ons there*ro)" .$th the ob+ect$ons" to the other ?ouse by . Sect$on 1.hen such (r$est" (reacher" )$n$ster" or d$%n$tary $s ass$%ned to the ar)ed *orces" or to any (ena' $nst$tut$on" or %o#ern)ent or(hana%e or 'e(rosar$u).h$'$(($nes. ARTICLE VII E+ECUTIVE DEPARTMENT Sect$on /.h$ch $t sha'' '$. ?e )ay be re)o#ed *ro) o**$ce $n the sa)e )anner as the .as created has been *u'*$''ed or abandoned" the ba'ance" $* any" sha'' be trans*erred to the %enera' *unds o* the Go#ern)ent.res$dent . &e re#ritin! o' the #hole% $istinct &ill ( . In a'' such cases" the #otes o* each ?ouse sha'' be deter)$ned by yeas or nays" and the na)es o* the Me)bers #ot$n% *or or a%a$nst sha'' be entered $n $ts Journa'.h$'$(($nes *or at 'east ten years $))ed$ate'y (reced$n% such e'ect$on.$th$n th$rty days a*ter the day o* rece$(t thereo*= other. un$er!o such extensive ch n!es in the Sen te th t the result ( . There sha'' be a A$ce7. as $* he had s$%ned $t.res$dent cert$*$es to the necess$ty o* $ts $))ed$ate enact)ent to )eet a (ub'$c ca'a)$ty or e)er%ency.$n% the day o* the e'ect$on and sha''  A& < $ /uro P rt.o7th$rds o* a'' the Me)bers o* that ?ouse" $t sha'' beco)e a 'a.res$dent sha'' ha#e the (o.ouse ( . %rant$n% any ta> e>e)(t$on sha'' be (assed . &e pro$uce$) The po#er o' the Sen te to propose (en$(ents% it c n propose its o#n version even #ith respect to &ills #hich re reDuire$ &.$th$n the *ra)e. Sect$on 1/.o7th$rds o* a'' the Me)bers o* such ?ouse sha'' a%ree to (ass the b$''" $t sha'' be sent" to%ether .$thout $ts ad#$ce and concurrence.$th and $n the sa)e )anner as the .res$dent." author$3e the .ouse)  BICA>ERAL CONEERENCE CO>>ITTEE  The Supre(e Court reco!niFes the lon! st n$in! le!isl tive pr ctice o' !ivin! s i$ con'erence (ple l titu$e 'or co(pro(isin! $i''erences &et#een the Sen te n$ the .ouse n$ the Sen te Presi$ent n$ the certi'ic tion o' the Secret ries o' &oth houses o' Con!ress th t it # s p sse$ re conclusive o' its $ue en ct(ent) A &ill ori!in tin! in the .res$dent un'ess he $s a natura'7born c$t$3en o* the . Such a((o$nt)ent re-u$res no con*$r)at$on.* The si!nin! o' &ill &.here $t or$%$nated ." be (resented to the .h$ch sha'' be%$n at noon on the th$rt$eth day o* June *o''o. sha'' be (assed $ncreas$n% the a((e''ate +ur$sd$ct$on o* the Su(re)e Court as (ro#$ded $n th$s Const$tut$on .h$ch e#ery 'e%$s'at$#e d$str$ct )ust be re(resented by at 'east three (er centu) o* the re%$stered #oters thereo*.$thout the concurrence o* a )a+or$ty o* a'' the Me)bers o* the Con%ress. No 'a. No 'a.h$'$(($nes" a re%$stered #oter" ab'e to read and . or (art thereo* (assed by the Con%ress or 'oca' 'e%$s'at$#e body a*ter the re%$strat$on o* a (et$t$on there*or s$%ned by at 'east ten (er centu) o* the tota' nu)ber o* re%$stered #oters" o* . the Spe <er o' the . I* he a((ro#es the sa)e" he sha'' s$%n $t= other.or. o* the nat$ona' de#e'o()ent (ro%ra) o* the Go#ern)ent.$th$n s(ec$*$ed '$)$ts" and sub+ect to such '$)$tat$ons and restr$ct$ons as $t )ay $)(ose" tar$** rates" $)(ort and e>(ort -uotas" tonna%e and .res$dent )ay be a((o$nted as a Me)ber o* the Cab$net.ed" and the #ote thereon sha'' be ta.ouse) It c n propose (en$(ent in the n ture o' su&stitute% so lon! s the (en$(ent is !er( ne to the su&?ect o' the &ills &e'ore the co((ittee) A'ter ll% its report # s not 'in l &ut nee$e$ the pprov l o' &oth houses o' Con!ress to &eco(e v li$ s n ct o' the le!isl tive $ep rt(ent) Sect$on 08. Sect$on 09.er to #eto any (art$cu'ar $te) or $te)s $n an a((ro(r$at$on" re#enue" or tar$** b$''" but the #eto sha'' not a**ect the $te) or $te)s to . The . (0 The Con%ress )ay" by 'a. (/ E#ery b$'' (assed by the Con%ress sha''" be*ore $t beco)es a 'a.res$dent. (2 No 'a.res$dent sha'' be e'ected by d$rect #ote o* the (eo('e *or a ter) o* s$> years .$se" he sha'' #eto $t and return the sa)e .res$dent sha'' co))un$cate h$s #eto o* any b$'' to the ?ouse .h$ch sha'' enter the ob+ect$ons at 'ar%e $n $ts Journa' and (roceed to recons$der $t.res$dent o* the .. Sect$on 1:.h$ch he does not ob+ect. Sect$on 0. The . Sect$on 10.er sha'' be #ested $n the .e.$se" $t sha'' beco)e a 'a.s or a((ro#e or re+ect any act or 'a. Sect$on 06.res$dent.en $))ed$ate'y therea*ter" and the yeas and nays entered $n the Journa'. The A$ce7.res$dent and the A$ce7. No (erson )ay be e'ected . The Con%ress sha'' e#o'#e a (ro%ress$#e syste) o* ta>at$on.$th h$s ob+ect$ons to the ?ouse .res$dent to *$> . I*" a*ter such recons$derat$on" t. (/ The ru'e o* ta>at$on sha'' be un$*or) and e-u$tab'e.here $t or$%$nated" . U(on the 'ast read$n% o* a b$''" no a)end)ent thereto sha'' be a''o.ho sha'' ha#e the sa)e -ua'$*$cat$ons and ter) o* o**$ce and be e'ected . (/ No )oney sha'' be (a$d out o* the Treasury e>ce(t $n (ursuance o* an a((ro(r$at$on )ade by 'a.hereby the (eo('e can d$rect'y (ro(ose and enact 'a.

s" do +ust$ce to e#ery )an" and consecrate )yse'* to the ser#$ce o* the Nat$on. Be*ore they enter on the e>ecut$on o* the$r o**$ce" the . The Con%ress sha'' (ro)u'%ate $ts ru'es *or the can#ass$n% o* the cert$*$cates.$th be chosen by the #ote o* a )a+or$ty o* a'' the Me)bers o* the Con%ress" #ot$n% se(arate'y. o' the Presi$ent exten$s to the en$ o' the ter( to #hich he # s electe$ not#ithst n$in! his resi!n tion) It is cle r th t the i((unit.res$dent sha'' be deter)$ned by 'a. No $ncrease $n sa$d co)(ensat$on sha'' ta. They sha'' not rece$#e dur$n% the$r tenure any other e)o'u)ent *ro) the Go#ern)ent or any other source. U(on rece$(t o* the cert$*$cates o* can#ass" the ..86)  sittin! presi$ent  Soliven vs) > < si r* The privile!e pert ins to the Presi$ent &.e e**ect unt$' a*ter the e>($rat$on o* the ter) o* the $ncu)bent dur$n% . pplie$ onl. $i''erent in n ture 'ro( n$ not inconsistent #ith the ?uris$iction veste$ in the Presi$enti l Elector l Tri&un l &.res$dent (or A$ce7.res$dent or A$ce7 .. o' the Presi$ent 'ro( suit is concurrent onl.e the *o''o.e$ &. cts s n tion l &o r$ o' c nv ssers% ch r!e$ #ith the (inisteri l n$ executive $ut. not &e sue$ in n. e ch n$% i' not% to recount the & llots c st% n$ inci$ent ll.s 'ter the procl ( tion o' the #inner)N 1C . The Su(re)e Court" s$tt$n% en banc" sha'' be the so'e +ud%e o* a'' contests re'at$n% to the e'ect$on" returns" and -ua'$*$cat$ons o* the .$'' be o)$tted. virtue o' the o''ice) There is nothin! in our l #s th t #oul$ prevent the Presi$ent 'ro( # ivin! the privile!e) The choice o' #hether to exercise the privile!e or to # ive it is solel. The sa'ar$es o* the .BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 end at noon o* the sa)e date s$> years therea*ter. #ith his tenure 5representin! the perio$ $urin! #hich the incu(&ent ctu ll.res$dent" and )ay (ro)u'%ate $ts ru'es *or the (ur(ose.res$dent o* the . con'erre$ upon the Supre(e Court the 'unctions o' Presi$enti l Elector l Tri&un l)  The po#er o' Con!ress to $ecl re #ho% (on! the c n$i$ tes 'or Presi$ent n$1or VicePresi$ent h s o&t ine$ the l r!est nu(&er o' votes% is entirel.h$ch such $ncrease . Un'ess other. certi'ie$ &. Sect$on 5. RA 1A87) Con!ress (erel.as a((ro#ed. certi'ie$ election returns h ve &een irre!ul rl. hol$s o''ice6 n$ not his ter( 5the ti(e $urin! #hich the o''icer ( .res$dent sha'' ta. en?o. ( $e or t (pere$ #ith or re'lect the true results o' the elections in the re s covere$ &.o consecut$#e ter)s.7 SCRA .res$dent and A$ce7.h$'$(($nes" (reser#e and de*end $ts Const$tut$on" e>ecute $ts 'a.res$dent and has ser#ed as such *or )ore than *our years sha'' be -ua'$*$ed *or e'ect$on to the sa)e o**$ce at any t$)e.res$dent sha'' ser#e *or )ore than t.% ( . o' e ch & llot or $eter(ine #hether the s (e sh ll &e counte$% n$% in the ''ir( tive% in #hose ' vor% #hich Con!ress h s no po#er to $o)  In ssu(in! the O''ice o' Sen tor protest nt S nti !o h s e''ectivel.res$dent" du'y cert$*$ed by the board o* can#assers o* each (ro#$nce or c$ty" sha'' be trans)$tted to the Con%ress" d$rected to the .o or )ore sha'' ha#e an e-ua' and h$%hest nu)ber o* #otes" one o* the) sha'' *orth. and sha'' not be decreased dur$n% the$r tenure.$'' *a$th*u''y and consc$ent$ous'y *u'*$'' )y dut$es as .* When the l # !r nts the Supre(e Court the po#er to resolve n election contest &et#een or (on! presi$enti l c n$i$ tes% no ne# or sep r te court is cre te$) The l # (erel.res$dent sha'' be he'd on the second Monday o* May.  PRESI"ENTIAL I>>+NITJ  The i((unit. provinci l n$ cit.res$dent and A$ce7 . n% C7. The (erson ha#$n% the h$%hest nu)ber o* #otes sha'' be (roc'a$)ed e'ected" but $n case t.o s respon$ent) Settle$ is the $octrine th t the Presi$ent% $urin! his tenure o' o''ice or ctu l incu(&enc. civil or cri(in l c se% n$ there is no nee$ to provi$e 'or it in the Constitution or l #)   S+PRE>E CO+RT ELECTORAL TRIB+NAL AS PRESI"ENTIAL LopeF vs) Rox s% 1A SCRA A.ho has succeeded as .res$dent" the A$ce7. the re!istere$ c n$i$ te 'or Presi$ent or 'or Vice-Presi$ent o' the Philippines #ho receive$ the secon$ or thir$ hi!hest nu(&er o' votes ( . o' Presi$ent)  " vi$% et l) vs) Er(it % et l)% April 23% 2339* It is not proper to i(ple $ Presi$ent Arro.res$dent and A$ce7 . Ao'untary renunc$at$on o* the o**$ce *or any 'en%th o* t$)e sha'' not be cons$dered as an $nterru(t$on $n the cont$nu$ty o* the ser#$ce *or the *u'' ter) *or . to ( <e s i$ $ecl r tion% on the & sis o' the election returns $ul. thereto% p ss upon the v li$it. Sect$on 4.h$ch he .as e'ected.$n% oath or a**$r)at$on < BI do so'e)n'y s.res$dent or Act$n% . No (erson . The ." the re%u'ar e'ect$on *or . No A$ce7. &o r$s o' c nv ssers) +pon the other h n$% the Presi$enti l Elector l tri&un l h s the ?u$ici l po#er to $eter(ine #hether or not s i$ $ul.res$dent sha'' ha#e an o**$c$a' res$dence. $urin! the incu(&enc. cl i( to hol$ o''ice s ( tter o' ri!ht6)  Ro(u l$eF vs) S n$i! n& .res$dent" or the Act$n% .B (In case o* a**$r)at$on" 'ast sentence .res$dent sha'' not be e'$%$b'e *or any ree'ect$on. evolve$ throu!h c se l #)  Estr $ vs) "esierto* There is no & sis in the contention th t the i((unit. The . SCRA 7A1* Executive i((unit. 5736 $ . So he'( )e God. & n$one$ or #ith$r #n her protest to the election protestee R (os s Presi$ent) 5S nti !o v) R (os% 2.$se (ro#$ded by 'a. The returns o* e#ery e'ect$on *or . the Presi$entLs prero! tive) The 'un$ (ent l rule pplic &le in presi$enti l election protest is Rule 1C o' the PET Rules) It provi$es% MRule 1C) Election Protest) K Onl.res$dent o* the Senate. contest the election o' the Presi$ent or the VicePresi$ent% s the c se ( . 'ilin! veri'ie$ petition #ith the Cler< o' the Presi$enti l Elector l Tri&un l #ithin thirt.ear (or a**$r) that I . &e% &.res$dent o* the Senate sha''" not 'ater than th$rty days a*ter the day o* the e'ect$on" o(en a'' cert$*$cates $n the (resence o* the Senate and the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es $n +o$nt (ub'$c sess$on" and the Con%ress" u(on deter)$nat$on o* the authent$c$ty and due e>ecut$on thereo* $n the )anner (ro#$ded by 'a." can#ass the #otes.

res$dent or A$ce7 .ers and d$s-ua'$*$cat$ons as the Act$n% .E OEEICE OE T.ho sha'' ser#e as .res$dent and A$ce7.res$dent o* the Senate or" $n case o* h$s $nab$'$ty" the S(ea.res$dent or the A$ce7.here both sha'' ha#e d$ed or beco)e (er)anent'y d$sab'ed" the . ?e sha'' ser#e unt$' the .res$dent sha'' ha#e been chosen or sha'' ha#e -ua'$*$ed" or . re l p rt. & tes the pen$in! ction) In V$ ) $e "e >es 518996 the Supre(e Court hel$ th t #hile the ri!ht to pu&lic o''ice is person l n$ exclusive to the pu&lic o''icer% n election protest is not purel.$thout need o* a ca'' and .res$dent *ro) a)on% the Me)bers o* the Senate and the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es . #ho is entitle$ to the v ils o' the suit) . contest the election) B.res$dent.ho $s to act as .res$dent7e'ect sha'' ha#e d$ed or ha#e beco)e (er)anent'y d$sab'ed" the A$ce7. &e invo<e$ 'ter the election n$ procl ( tion o' the Presi$ent or Vice-Presi$ent K there c n &e no McontestN &e'ore #inner is procl i(e$) Sect$on 6.  VACANCJ IN T. pplic tion o' the Rules o' Court% $ecisions o' the Supre(e Court% n$ the $ecisions o' the elector l tri&un ls) Rule 7% Section 19 is the rule on su&stitution in the Rules o' Court) This rule llo#s su&stitution &.% re!ul r election contests n$ Duo # rr nto) The #or$ McontestN (e ns th t the ?uris$iction o' the Supre(e Court onl.$th$n se#en days enact a 'a.$th $ts ru'es .6)  Tecson vs) CO>ELEC% C2C SCRA 2AA* The ctions conte(pl te$ in Section C% Article VII o' the Constitution re post election re(e$ies% n (el. t#o persons% the 2n$ n$ 7r$ pl cers% ( .res$dent dur$n% the ter) *or . This is not to s . The Con%ress sha'' (ro#$de *or the )anner $n . #ho #oul$ &e &ene'ite$ or in?ure$ &.res$dent.res$dent unt$' the . in interest is the p rt.res$dent and A$ce7. in interest to this election protest 5Ron l$ All n Poe vs) />A% PET c se No) 332% > rch 28% 233.res$dent and A$ce7.res$dent" the A$ce7. Sect$on /:.res$dent sha'' ha#e been e'ected and -ua'$*$ed" and be sub+ect to the sa)e restr$ct$ons o* (o.res$dent $n case o* death" (er)anent d$sab$'$ty" or res$%nat$on o* the Act$n% .er o* the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es" sha'' then act as . $n the )orn$n% o* the th$rd day a*ter the #acancy $n the o**$ces o* the .res$dent to b he'd not ear'$er than *orty7*$#e days nor 'ater than s$>ty days *ro) the t$)e o* such ca''. The con#en$n% o* the Con%ress cannot be sus(ended nor the s(ec$a' e'ect$on (ost(oned.er o* the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es sha'' act as .as e'ected" the . rule on su&stitution nor intervention &ut it $oes llo# 'or the n lo!ous n$ suppletor.res$dent sha'' ha#e -ua'$*$ed" $n case o* death" (er)anent d$sab$'$ty" or $nab$'$ty o* the o**$c$a's )ent$oned $n the ne>t (reced$n% (ara%ra(h. u(on $ts a((ro#a' on th$rd read$n% by the Con%ress.erein (ov nt1intervenor% >rs) EPB% hersel' $enies n.res$dent o* the Senate or" $n case o* h$s $nab$'$ty" the S(ea.res$dent7e'ect *a$'s to -ua'$*y" the A$ce7 ." (ro#$de .res$dent7e'ect sha'' act as .h$ch one . ca''$n% *or a s(ec$a' e'ect$on to e'ect a .ence% the Supre(e Court h s llo#e$ su&stitution n$ intervention &ut onl. tr ns(issi&le to the heirs upon $e th) Thus% the Supre(e Court consistentl. I* at the be%$nn$n% o* the ter) o* the .res$dent sha'' be se'ected unt$' a . in interest) A re l p rt. re?ecte$ su&stitution &.res$dent7e'ect sha'' beco)e .res$dent unt$' a .res$dent sha'' no)$nate a A$ce7 . &. The Con%ress sha''" at ten oCc'oc. !here no . In case o* death" (er)anent d$sab$'$ty" re)o#a' *ro) o**$ce" or res$%nat$on o* both the .res$dent or a A$ce7.res$dent or a A$ce7.res$dent7e'ect sha'' ha#e -ua'$*$ed. The .res$dent" the . A((ro(r$at$ons *or the s(ec$a' e'ect$ons sha'' be char%ed a%a$nst any current a((ro(r$at$ons and sha'' be e>e)(t *ro) the re-u$re)ents o* (ara%ra(h 2" Sect$on 04" Art$c'e AI o* th$s Const$tut$on.res$dent sha'' ha#e been e'ected and -ua'$*$ed. !hene#er there $s a #acancy $n the O**$ce o* the A$ce7.$th$n e$%hteen )onths be*ore the date o* the ne>t (res$dent$a' e'ect$on. 1. the elector te% the c n$i$ te #ho receive$ th t 2n$ or the 7r$ hi!hest nu(&er o' votes #oul$ &e the le!iti( te &ene'ici r.res$dent and a A$ce7 . Sect$on 9.res$dent7e'ect sha'' act as . No s(ec$a' e'ect$on sha'' be ca''ed $* the #acancy occurs .res$dent occurs" con#ene $n accordance . The Con%ress sha''" by 'a. the #i$o# or the heirs in election contests #here the protest nt $ies $urin! the pen$enc. in success'ul election contest) I* a .res$dent7e'ect and the A$ce7.h$ch he . le! l represent tive) It c n &e !le ne$ 'ro( the cit tion o' this rule th t (ov nt1 Intervenor see<s to ppe r &e'ore the Presi$enti l Tri&un l s the le! l represent tive1su&stitute o' the l te protest nt prescri&e$ &.res$dent sha'' beco)e the .res$dent sha'' ha#e been chosen and -ua'$*$ed.res$dent7 e'ect sha'' assu)e o**$ce at the be%$nn$n% o* the$r ter)s.res$dent to ser#e the une>($red ter). The b$'' ca''$n% such s(ec$a' e'ect$on sha'' be dee)ed cert$*$ed under (ara%ra(h 0" Sect$on 05" Art$c'e AI o* th$s Const$tut$on and sha'' beco)e 'a. the ?u$!(ent% n$ the p rt. th t $e th o' the protest nt necess ril. . ti(e rule$ th t pu&lic o''ice is person l to the pu&lic o''icer n$ not propert. s i$ Section 19) .o#ever% in the Supre(e CourtLs pplic tion o' this rule to n election contest% it h s ever. this express enu(er tion% the rule ( <ers h ve in e''ect $eter(ine$ the re l p rties in interest concernin! n on-!oin! election contest) It envisione$ scen rio #here% i' the $ecl re$ #inner h $ not &een trul.E PRESI"ENT  The Supre(e Court rule$ th t it $oes not h ve n. vote$ upon &. person l n$ exclusive to the protest nt or to the protestee such th t the $e th o' either #oul$ oust the court o' ll uthorit.res$dent unt$' the .res$dent sha'' ha#e been chosen and -ua'$*$ed. I* the . In case o* death" (er)anent d$sab$'$ty" re)o#a' *ro) o**$ce" or res$%nat$on o* the . cl i( to the u!ust o''ice o' Presi$ent) Thus% !iven the circu(st nces o' this c se% #e c n conclu$e th t protest ntLs #i$o# is not re l p rt.res$dent sha'' not ha#e been chosen" the A$ce7 . o' the protest)  Sect$on 8. to continue the protest procee$in!s) .res$dent unt$' a .res$dent" the .ho sha'' assu)e o**$ce u(on con*$r)at$on o* a )a+or$ty #ote o* a'' the Me)bers o* both ?ouses o* the Con%ress" #ot$n% se(arate'y.res$dent.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1  Pursu nt to this rule% onl.

BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 Sect$on //. other person) Such% 'or inst nce% in his po#er to suspen$ the #rit o' h &e s corpus n$ procl i( ( rti l l # 5PAR) 7% SEC) 11% Art) VII6 n$ the exercise &.ers and dut$es o* the o**$ce as Act$n% .res$dent. to a((o$nt.er $n ran. in &ilit.$se (ro#$ded *or by 'a. Sect$on /0. n. A((o$nt)ents e>tended by an Act$n% .$se" the . Sect$on /5.res$dent= other. ?e sha'' a'so a((o$nt a'' other o**$cers o* the Go#ern)ent . inci$ent% &ut 'ro( the est &lishe$ 'unctions o' !overn nce)  APPOINTIN/ POWER OE T.ers and dut$es o* h$s o**$ce and unt$' he trans)$ts to the) a .er o* the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es h$s . In case o* ser$ous $''ness o* the . the Supre(e Court)  POLITICAL U+ALIEIE" A/ENCJ 5ALTER-E/O "OCTRINE6  Const ntino vs) Cuisi % /)R) No) 13939C% Octo&er 17% 233.h$'$(($nes" sha'' not be den$ed access to the .er o* the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es the$r .ers and dut$es o* h$s o**$ce.e'#e days a*ter $t $s re-u$red to asse)b'e" deter)$nes by a t.ers and dut$es o* h$s o**$ce.res$dent sha'' act as the .ers and dut$es o* h$s o**$ce" the A$ce7. n$ no (ount o' pprov l or r ti'ic tion #ill v li$ te the exercise o' n. Sect$on /4. veste$ po#er) The list is &.hose a((o$nt)ents are #ested $n h$) $n th$s Const$tut$on." #est the a((o$nt)ent o* other o**$cers 'o.$th$n t.res$dent a'one" $n the courts" or $n the heads o* de(art)ents" a%enc$es" co))$ss$ons" or boards. Therea*ter" .on$ the Supre(e CourtLs po#er o' revie#) The $ecision th t Presi$ent Arro.res$dent sha'' $))ed$ate'y assu)e the (o.E PRESI"ENT Sect$on /2.r$tten dec'arat$on to the contrary" such (o.hose a((o$nt)ents are not other.$th$n ten days a*ter rece$(t o* the 'ast .ed by the e'ected .res$dent sha'' ha#e the (o. n !ent or lter e!o o' the Presi$ent) Bustice L urel% in his ponenci in Villen % ( <es this cle r* With l% t 'irst &lush% the r!u(ent o' r ti'ic tion ( . co-eDu l &r nch o' !overn(ent c nnot &e revie#e$ &. contr ctu l o&li! tion un$ert <en &.hether #o'untary or $n#o'untary" but such a((o$nt)ents sha'' be e**ect$#e on'y unt$' a*ter d$sa((ro#a' by the Co))$ss$on on A((o$nt)ents or unt$' the ne>t ad+ourn)ent o* the Con%ress.$th $ts ru'es and .res$dent as Act$n% .$th$n *$#e days to the .$th$n *orty7e$%ht hours" $n accordance .res$dent sha'' no)$nate and" .ers and dut$es sha'' be d$schar%ed by the A$ce7.r$tten dec'arat$on that he $s unab'e to d$schar%e the (o.res$dent .res$dent o* the Senate and to the S(ea. o' those po#ers &. !hene#er the . The Con%ress )ay" by 'a.r$tten dec'arat$on that the .res$dent sha'' cont$nue e>erc$s$n% the (o.res$dent sha'' not )a. $n the .res$dent o* the Senate and the S(ea.$'' (re+ud$ce (ub'$c ser#$ce or endan%er (ub'$c sa*ety. see( pl usi&le un$er the circu(st nces% it shoul$ &e o&serve$ th t there re cert in cts #hich% &.res$dent" the (ub'$c sha'' be $n*or)ed o* the state o* h$s hea'th.$thout need o* ca''. The Me)bers o* the Cab$net $n char%e o* nat$ona' secur$ty and *ore$%n re'at$ons and the Ch$e* o* Sta** o* the Ar)ed &orces o* the .hen cont$nued #acanc$es there$n . <in to n. The . 5p r) 9% sec) 11% i$e(I) These $istinctions hol$ true to this $ . Mean.res$dent $s unab'e to d$schar%e the (o.) There re cert in presi$enti l po#ers #hich rise out o' exception l circu(st nces% n$ i' exercise$% #oul$ involve the suspension o' 'un$ (ent l 'ree$o(s% or t le st c ll 'or the superse$ence o' executive prero! tives over those exercise$ &.e a((o$nt)ents" e>ce(t te)(orary a((o$nt)ents to e>ecut$#e (os$t$ons . co-eDu l &r nches o' !overn(ent) The $ecl r tion o' ( rti l l #% the suspension o' the #rit o' h &e s corpus% n$ the exercise o' the p r$onin! po#er not#ithst n$in! the ?u$ici l $eter(in tion o' !uilt o' the ccuse$% ll ' ll #ithin this speci l cl ss th t $e( n$s the exclusive exercise &. the Presi$ent o' the constitution ll.h$'e" shou'd a )a+or$ty o* a'' the Me)bers o* the Cab$net trans)$t .res$dent o* the Senate and to the S(ea.er to )a.o is the $e?ure Presi$ent ( $e &.r$tten dec'arat$on" or" $* not $n sess$on" .res$dent $s unab'e to d$schar%e the (o.o )onths $))ed$ate'y be*ore the ne>t (res$dent$a' e'ect$ons and u( to the end o* h$s ter)" a .ers and dut$es o* h$s o**$ce" the Con%ress sha'' dec$de the $ssue. no (e ns exclusive% &ut there (ust &e sho#in! th t the executive po#er in Duestion is o' si(il r !r vit s n$ exception l i(port) We c nnot conclu$e th t the po#er o' the Presi$ent to contr ct or !u r ntee 'orei!n $e&ts ' lls #ithin the s (e exception l cl ss) In$u&it &l.$th$n n$nety days *ro) h$s assu)(t$on or reassu)(t$on o* o**$ce.res$dent.r$tten dec'arat$on that no $nab$'$ty e>$sts" he sha'' reassu)e the (o. hi( o' the &eni!n prero! tive o' (erc.res$dent trans)$ts to the .o7th$rds #ote o* both ?ouses" #ot$n% se(arate'y" that the . extr or$in r.res$dent o* the Senate and to the S(ea.er o* the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es the$r . the soverei!n% #hich rises not 'ro( n. T. the Constitution #hich ( . The . o* co'one' or na#a' ca(ta$n" and other o**$cers . the Presi$ent) There re cert in constitution l po#ers n$ prero! tives o' the Chie' Executive o' the N tion #hich (ust &e exercise$ &.res$dent sha'' re)a$n e**ect$#e" un'ess re#o.e a((o$nt)ents dur$n% the recess o* the Con%ress" . n ture% c nnot &e v li$ te$ &. hi( in person  S r(iento vs) >ison0 B utist vs) S lon! 0 Ber(u$eF vs) Torres0 C l$eron vs) C r le* Con!ress c nnot exp n$ the constitution &. o' Estr $ is politic l Duestion &e. I* the Con%ress" . not &e $ele! te$ to or exercise$ &. !hene#er a )a+or$ty o* a'' the Me)bers o* the Cab$net trans)$t to the .$th the consent o* the Co))$ss$on on A((o$nt)ents" a((o$nt the heads o* the e>ecut$#e de(art)ent" a)bassadors" other (ub'$c )$n$sters and consu's" or o**$cers o* the ar)ed *orces *ro) the ran.er o* the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es h$s . 19 .r$tten dec'arat$on that the .% the $ecision to contr ct or !u r ntee 'orei!n $e&ts is o' vit l pu&lic interest% &ut onl.hen the .res$dent trans)$ts to the . their ver.* Nevertheless% there re po#ers veste$ in the Presi$ent &.ho) he )ay be author$3ed by 'a.   Re $* Estr $ vs) "esierto% > rch 2% 2331) Also Re $* TE>PORARJ "ISABILITJ OE PRESI"ENT K The Duestion #hether the cl i(e$ te(por r.ers and dut$es o* h$s o**$ce" the A$ce7." and those . &or that (ur(ose" the Con%ress sha'' con#ene" $* $t $s not $n sess$on" . su&seDuent pprov l or r ti'ic tion &.res$dent dur$n% such $''ness.res$dent or Act$n% .res$dent $s unab'e to d$schar%e the (o.

n lter e!o o' her choice s ctin! secret r. l # to ppoint) The thir$ !roup re'ers to ll other o''icers o' the /overn(ent #hose ppoint(ents re not other#ise provi$e$ &. CA% ppointee c n no lon!er &e exten$e$ ne# ppoint(ent) I' &. 13% 2331* The !ener l rule h s l# .%"! is per( nent ppoint(ent &ec use it t <es e''ect i((e$i tel.ned or contro''ed cor(orat$ons and the$r subs$d$ar$es. he $s o' $ep rt(ents% !encies% co((issions% or &o r$s) The po#er o' control (e ns the po#er to revise or reverse the cts or $ecisions o' su&or$in te o''icer involvin! the exercise o' $iscretion) CO>>AN"ER-IN-C.a))o "!. In case o* $n#as$on or rebe''$on" . to the lo#liest cler<) This constitution l po#er o' the Presi$ent is sel'executin! n$ $oes not reDuire n. even ppoint in ctin! c p cit. in n o''ice occupie$ &.It is te(por r.s &een th t the po#er to &olish pu&lic o''ice is lo$!e$ #ith the le!isl ture) The exception% ho#ever% is th t s ' r s &ure us% !encies or o''ices in the executive $ep rt(ent re concerne$% the Presi$entLs po#er o' control ( .res$dent sha'' contro' o* a'' the e>ecut$#e de(art)ents" bureaus and o**$ces. &.-p sse$% the Presi$ent is 'ree to rene# the $-interi( ppoint(ent)   Pi(entel% Br) v) O''ice o' the Executive Secret r. !r nt hi( &ro $ uthorit. the CA or until the next $?ourn(ent o' Con!ress) It is exten$e$ onl.E AEP  Sect$on /8.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 incre sin! those o''icers con'ir( tion &.res$dent sha'' be the Co))ander7 $n7Ch$e* o* a'' ar)ed *orces o* the . They sha'' str$ct'y a#o$d con*'$ct o* $nterest $n the conduct o* the$r o**$ce.$th" or $n any *ranch$se" or s(ec$a' (r$#$'e%e %ranted by the Go#ern)ent or any subd$#$s$on" a%ency" or Bu<lo$ n! . The .o% April 2% 2332* An ad "!%( .hene#er $t beco)es necessary" he )ay ca'' out such ar)ed *orces to (re#ent or su((ress 'a. in n ture) It is stop-! p (e sure inten$e$ to 'ill n o''ice 'or li(ite$ ti(e until the ppoint(ent o' per( nent occup nt to the o''ice) In c se o' v c nc. the Constitution) The secon$ !roup re'ers to those #ho( the Presi$ent ( .res$dent sha'' not dur$n% h$s tenure be a((o$nted as )e)bers o* the Const$tut$ona' Co))$ss$ons" or the O**$ce o* the O)buds)an" or as Secretar$es" Undersecretar$es" cha$r)en or heads o* bureaus or o**$ces" $nc'ud$n% %o#ern)ent7o.% C92 SCRA 922% Bul. to reor! niFe the $(inistr tive structure o' the O''ice o' the Presi$ent)  Ru'ino vs) En$ri! * The presi$enti l po#er o' control over the Executive &r nch o' !overn(ent exten$s to ll executive e(plo. The .C% Bul.# nin! EIIB vs) 4 (or % Bul. l # vest in the he $s o' $ep rt(ents% !encies% co((issions% or &o r$s) xxx The Presi$ent ppoints the 'irst !roup o' o''icers #ith the consent o' the Co((ission on Appoint(ents) The Presi$ent ppoints the secon$ n$ thir$ !roups o' o''icers #ithout the consent o' the Co((ission on Appoint(ents) The Presi$ent ppoints the thir$ !roup o' o''icers i' the l # is silent on #ho is the ppointin! po#er% or i' the l # uthoriFin! the he $ o' $ep rt(ent% !enc.* The l # llo#s the Presi$ent to ( <e such ctin! ppoint(ent) The Presi$ent ( .ned or contro''ed cor(orat$ons or the$r subs$d$ar$es.et in the !overn(ent service% s lon! s the Presi$ent $ee(s th t person co(petent) CABINET SECRETARIES% +N"ERSECRETARIES AN" T.h$'$(($nes and . SCRA C7A% > rch 12% 233C6 CONTROL OE EGEC+TIVE "EPART>ENTS   A&! ". $urin! recess o' Con!ress) I' $is pprove$ &.$se (ro#$ded $n th$s Const$tut$on" ho'd any other o**$ce or e)('oy)ent dur$n% the$r tenure.s be *a$th*u''y e>ecuted. hi( to in ctiv te the 'unctions o' p rticul r o''ice% or cert in l #s ( . the CA $oes not lter its per( nent ch r cter) It is e''ective until $is pprove$ &.$th$n the *ourth c$#$' de%ree o* the .. 21% 2339* +n$er Section 19% Article VII o' the 18:A Constitution% the Presi$ent ppoints three !roups o' o''icers) The 'irst !roup re'ers to the he $s o' the Executive $ep rt(ents% (& ss $ors% other pu&lic (inisters n$ consuls% o''icers o' the r(e$ 'orces 'ro( the r n< o' colonel or n v l c pt in% n$ other o''icers #hose ppoint(ents re veste$ in the Presi$ent &.   Ru'ino vs) En$ri! % /) R) No) 178. i(ple(entin! l #) Con!ress c nnot li(it or curt il the Presi$entLs po#er o' control over the Executive &r nch) xxx In ( n$ tin! th t the Presi$ent Msh ll h ve control o' ll executive x x x o''ices%N Section 1A% Article VII o' the 18:A Constitution $oes not exe(pt n. executive o''ice W one per'or(in! executive 'unctions outsi$e o' the in$epen$ent constitution l &o$ies W 'ro( the Presi$entLs po#er o' control) xxx The Presi$entLs po#er o' control pplies to the cts or $ecisions o' ll o''icers in the Executive &r nch) This is true #hether such o''icers re ppointe$ &. the Presi$ent once n ppointee h s Du li'ie$ into o''ice) The ' ct th t it is su&?ect to con'ir( tion &.  Bin (ir vs) / rucho0 > ti& ! vs) Benip . The s(ouse and re'at$#es by consan%u$n$ty or a**$n$ty .res$dent" A$ce7. ti(e there is v c nc. &e exten$e$ n.%"! . the Presi$ent or &. &e'ore the per( nent ppointee o' her choice coul$ ssu(e o''ice) It ( . ?usti'.'ess #$o'ence" $n#as$on or rebe''$on. 9% 233. ?e sha'' ensure that the 'a. a))o "!. l #) +n$er the s (e Section 19% there is 'ourth !roup o' lo#err n<e$ o''icers #hose ppoint(ents Con!ress ( .% co((ission% or &o r$ to ppoint is $ecl re$ unconstitution l) Sect$on /1. n$ c n no lon!er &e #ith$r #n &. The .IEE OE T. person not .hen the (ub'$c sa*ety re-u$res $t" he )ay" *or a (er$od not e>ceed$n% s$>ty days" sus(end the 1A . &e uthoriFe$ &.res$dent" the Me)bers o* the Cab$net" and the$r de(ut$es or ass$stants sha'' not" un'ess other.EIR ASSISTANT SECRETARIES re prohi&ite$ 'ro( hol$in! (ultiple positions n$ receivin! co(pens tion there'ro() 5BITONIO VS) COA% C2. out reor! niF tion (e sures) The chie' executive% un$er or l #s% h s the continuin! uthorit. the CA) #ho nee$ prior $nstru)enta'$ty thereo*" $nc'ud$n% %o#ern)ent7o.ees 'ro( the "ep rt(ent Secret r.% even #hile Con!ress is in session) Sect$on /6. to c rr. They sha'' not" dur$n% sa$d tenure" d$rect'y or $nd$rect'y" (ract$ce any other (ro*ess$on" (art$c$(ate $n any bus$ness" or be *$nanc$a''y $nterested $n any contract .

/ $ !%$0 16 there (ust &e # r or other e(er!enc. The Con%ress" $* not $n sess$on" sha''" .$se (ro#$ded $n th$s Const$tut$on" the . po#ers reDuires $ele! tion 'ro( Con!ress)  E>ER/ENCJ POWER /RANT TO PRESI"ENT R%. or &usiness ''ecte$ #ith pu&lic interest% is $i''erent ( tter) This reDuires $ele! tion 'ro( Con!ress)  PAR"ONIN/ POWER Sect$on /9.9% Ee&ru r.here c$#$' courts are ab'e to *unct$on" nor auto)at$ca''y sus(end the (r$#$'e%e o* the . pursu nt to Section 1:% Article VII 5c llin!-out po#er6 n$ !r nt it to Con!ress 5li<e the $ecl r tion o' the existence o' st te o' # r6% then the Er (ers coul$ h ve provi$e$ so) Cle rl.r$t o* habeas cor(us" the .0 76 $ele! tion (ust &e su&?ect to such restrictions s Con!ress ( . 7% 2339* PP 131A constitutes the c ll &. E>ce(t $n cases o* $)(each)ent" or as other. the Presi$ent 'or the AEP to prevent or suppress l #less violence) .% 2339* It is on the Presi$ent th t the Constitution vests the title s co(( n$er-in-chie' n$ ll the prero! tives n$ 'unctions ppert inin! to the position) A! in% the exi!encies o' (ilit r. or the sus(ens$on o* the (r$#$'e%e o* the . 'or( o' prior restr int on the press% re ultr vires n$ unconstitution l) In the &sence o' le!isl tion% the Presi$ent c nnot t <e over priv tel.e such (roc'a)at$on or sus(ens$on" .. $i$ not inten$ th t Con!ress shoul$ 'irst uthoriFe the Presi$ent &e'ore he c n $ecl re st te o' n tion l e(er!enc.% the.$th $ts ru'es . or the sus(ens$on o* the (r$#$'e%e o* the .r$t. !$th$n *orty7e$%ht hours *ro) the (roc'a)at$on o* )art$a' 'a.o#ever% PP 131ALs extr neous provisions !ivin! the Presi$ent express or i(plie$ po#er 516 to issue $ecrees0 526 to $irect AEP to en'orce o&e$ience to ll l #s even those not rel te$ to l #less violence s #ell s $ecrees pro(ul! te$ &. see<in! such testi(on. $ecl re$ &. po#ers% such s the t <in! over o' priv tel.h$'$(($nes or any (art thereo* under )art$a' 'a. the Presi$ent o' Xst te o' re&ellionN $urin! or in the 'ter( th o' the > . see< ?u$ici l relie' to co(pel the tten$ nce)  Inte!r te$ B r o' the Philippines vs) 4 (or * The Presi$ent h s 'ull $iscretion to c ll the (ilit r.in! the Presi$ent n$ o&e. 1% 2331 sei!e o' > l c n n! is not viol tive o' the sep r tion o' po#ers $octrine) The Presi$ent% s Co(( n$er in chie' o' Ar(e$ Eorces o' the Philippines% ( .$th$n three days" other.) The lo!ic l conclusion then is th t Presi$ent Arro. the presi$ent0 n$ 576 to i(pose st n$ r$s on (e$i or n. 13% 2331* The $ecl r tion &. A state o* )art$a' 'a. 7% 233C* The Presi$entLs uthorit. Er(it % > ." $n an a((ro(r$ate (roceed$n% *$'ed by any c$t$3en" the su**$c$ency o* the *actua' bas$s o* the (roc'a)at$on o* )art$a' 'a. to $ecl re st te o' re&ellion sprin!s in the ( in 'ro( her po#ers s chie' executive n$% t the s (e ti(e $r #s stren!th 'ro( her Co(( n$erin-Chie' po#ers pursu nt to her c llin! out po#er)  /u$ ni vs) Sen! % Au!sut 1.r$t or the e>tens$on thereo*" and )ust (ro)u'%ate $ts dec$s$on thereon .res$dent" the Con%ress )ay" $n the sa)e )anner" e>tend such (roc'a)at$on or sus(ens$on *or a (er$od to be deter)$ned by the Con%ress" $* the $n#as$on or rebe''$on sha'' (ers$st and (ub'$c sa*ety re-u$res $t. o#ne$ pu&lic utilit. to $ecl re st te o' n tion l e(er!enc.$thout any need o* a ca''.o coul$ v li$l.$n% such (roc'a)at$on or sus(ens$on" con#ene $n accordance .) I' the intention o' the Er (ers o' our Constitution # s to #ithhol$ 'ro( the Presi$ent the uthorit. The Con%ress" #ot$n% +o$nt'y" by a #ote o* at 'east a )a+or$ty o* a'' $ts Me)bers $n re%u'ar or s(ec$a' sess$on" )ay re#o. n$ not the Sen te% #ho is the co(( n$er-inchie' o' the r(e$ 'orces) i' the Presi$ent or the Chie' o' St '' re'uses to llo# (e(&er o' the AEP to ppe r &e'ore Con!ress% the le!isl tive &o$.0 26 $ele! tion (ust &e 'or li(ite$ perio$ onl. out n tion l polic. even in the &sence o' Con!ression l en ct(ent) But the exercise o' e(er!enc.res$dent sha'' sub)$t a re(ort $n (erson or $n .$se he sha'' be re'eased.in! the Sen te% the Supre(e Court #ill #ithout hesit tion ''ir( th t the o''icer h s to choose the Presi$ent) A'ter ll% the Constitution prescri&es th t it is the Presi$ent% " vi$% et l) vs) Er(it * It ( . c ll upon such r(e$ 'orces to prevent or suppress l #less violence% inv sion or re&ellion)   S nl < s vs) Executive Co((ittee% C21 SCRA 9. po#ers (ust &e exercise$ to c rr.$th the $n#as$on. ( . &e pointe$ out th t the secon$ p r !r ph o' the &ove provision re'ers not onl. Dur$n% the sus(ens$on o* the (r$#$'e%e o* the . does not sus(end the o(erat$on o* the Const$tut$on" nor su(('ant the *unct$on$n% o* the c$#$' courts or the 'e%$s'at$#e asse)b'$es" nor author$3e the con*er)ent o* +ur$sd$ct$on on )$'$tary courts and a%enc$es o#er c$#$'$ans .$th$n th$rty days *ro) $ts *$'$n%.$th$n t. U(on the $n$t$at$#e o* the . The Su(re)e Court )ay re#$e. to control the in$ivi$u l (e(&ers o' the r(e$ 'orces &e ccor$e$ the ut(ost respect) Where (ilit r. to # r &ut lso to other n tion l e(er!enc.res$dent )ay %rant re(r$e#es" co))utat$ons and (ardons" 1: . o''icer is torn &et#een o&e. to $o so in or$er to prevent or suppress l #less violence% inv sion or re&ellion) There is no eDuiv lent provision $e lin! #ith the revoc tion or revie# o' the Presi$entLs ction to c ll out the r(e$ 'orces)  " vi$% et l) vs) Executive Secret r. even in the &sence o' con!ression l en ct(ent) But the exercise o' e(er!enc.r$t$n% to the Con%ress.h$ch re#ocat$on sha'' not be set as$de by the . $ecl re the existence o' st te o' n tion l e(er!enc. $iscipline n$ the ch in o' co(( n$ ( n$ te th t the Presi$entLs &ilit.r$t sha'' a(('y on'y to (ersons +ud$c$a''y char%ed *or rebe''$on or o**enses $nherent $n or d$rect'y connected .res$dent.r$t" any (erson thus arrested or deta$ned sha'' be +ud$c$a''y char%ed .r$t o* habeas cor(us or ('ace the .enty7 *our hours *o''o. #hen in his ?u$!(ent it is necess r. Con!ress)  L cson vs) PereF% > . n$ priv te &usiness ''ecte$ #ith pu&lic interest)  The Presi$ent c n v li$l.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 (r$#$'e%e o* the .-o#ne$ pu&lic utilit. $ecl re the existence o' st te o' n tion l e(er!enc. prescri&e n$ 4) e(er!enc. The sus(ens$on o* the (r$#$'e%e o* the .

% such $ecision is #ithin the co(petence o' the Presi$ent lone% #hich c nnot &e encro che$ &. n vs) ADuino* The $octrine in P>PE v) > n!l pus th t the tre t.on$ its ?uris$iction to co(pel the executive &r nch o' the !overn(ent to tr ns(it the si!ne$ text o' Ro(e St tute to the Sen te) 18 .) In this li!ht% the uthorit. entere$ into &. n vs) 4 (or % 7C2 SCRA CC8* It is inconseDuenti l #hether the +nite$ St tes tre ts the VEA onl.. ne!oti tions) This is not to s . the petitioners s it is &e. the 'un$ (ent l l # itsel') Into the 'iel$ o' ne!oti tion the Sen te c nnot intru$e% n$ Con!ress itsel' is po#erless to inv $e it) x x x 5It lics in the ori!in l0 e(ph sis n$ un$erscorin! supplie$6 It h s lon! &een reco!niFe$ th t the po#er to enter into tre ties is veste$ $irectl.ence% the Presi$ent is veste$ #ith the uthorit.$th the concurrence o* a )a+or$ty o* a'' the Me)bers o* the Con%ress. No treaty or $nternat$ona' a%ree)ent sha'' be #a'$d and e**ect$#e un'ess concurred $n by at 'east t.o7th$rds o* a'' the Me)bers o* the Senate. o' the tre t. to $e l #ith 'orei!n st tes n$ !overn(ents% exten$ or #ithhol$ reco!nition% ( int in $iplo( tic rel tions% enter into tre ties% n$ other#ise tr ns ct the &usiness o' 'orei!n rel tions) In the re l( o' tre t. ?e sha'' a'so ha#e the (o.Qs sole represent tive #ith 'orei!n n tions) As the chie' rchitect o' 'orei!n polic. n$ exclusivel.  B . to ne!oti te #ith other st tes)N Nonetheless% #hile the Presi$ent h s the sole uthorit. o' the tre t. this Court vi #rit o' ( n$ (us) The Supre(e Court h s no ?uris$iction over ctions see<in! to en?oin the Presi$ent in the per'or( nce o' his o''ici l $uties) The Court% there'ore% c nnot issue the #rit o' ( n$ (us pr . reDuirin! the concurrence o' 217 o' ll the (e(&ers o' the Sen te 'or the v li$it. to concur s (e ns o' chec<in! the tre t. it) Althou!h the re'us l o' st te to r ti'. not &e use$ s & sis to hol$ the Presi$ent or its represent tives ccount &le to Con!ress 'or the con$uct o' tre t.ou'd ha#e the e**ect o* $ncreas$n% the *ore$%n debt" and conta$n$n% other )atters as )ay be (ro#$ded by 'a.-( <in! po#er is exclusive to the Presi$ent% &ein! the sole or! n o' the n tion in its extern l rel tions% # s echoe$ in BAJAN v) Executive Secret r.. o' the tre t. the Sen te)   The s (e $octrine # s reiter te$ even (ore recentl.ned and contro''ed cor(orat$ons . # . in the Presi$ent% su&?ect onl. 9% 233. to the v li$it. constitution l 'i t n$ &. #here the Court rule$* MIn our s.res$dent )ay contract or %uarantee *ore$%n 'oans on beha'* o* the @e(ub'$c o* the .-( <in! po#er o' the Presi$ent% &ut onl. to !ivin! or #ithhol$in! its consent% or concurrence% to the r ti'ic tion) . con'or( to ll the relev nt provisions o' the Constitution) It 'ollo#s 'ro( the &ove $iscussion th t Con!ress% #hile possessin! v st le!isl tive po#ers% ( . to the Presi$ent% in the l #'ul exercise o' his v st executive n$ $iplo( tic po#ers !r nte$ hi( no less th n &. extern l rel tions n$ is the countr.h$'$(($nes . tre t. to the Sen te or% h vin! secure$ its consent 'or its r ti'ic tion% re'use to r ti'.% o' course% th t the Presi$entLs po#er to enter into tre ties is unli(ite$ &ut 'or the reDuire(ent o' Sen te concurrence% since the Presi$ent (ust still ensure th t ll tre ties #ill su&st ntivel. Phil) 13736 In the 'iel$ o' ne!oti tion% the Sen te c nnot intru$e% n$ Con!ress itsel' is po#erless to inv $e it)  A<& . is veste$ in the Presi$ent% su&?ect to the concurrence o' the Sen te) The role o' the Sen te% ho#ever% is li(ite$ onl. s n executive !ree(ent &ec use% un$er intern tion l l #% n executive !ree(ent is s &in$in! s tre t. to ne!oti te n$ enter into tre ties% the Constitution provi$es li(it tion to his po#er &.% Bul. #hich h s &een si!ne$ in its &eh l' is serious step th t shoul$ not &e t <en li!htl. o' the Presi$ent to re'use to su&(it tre t.e$ 'or &. &e interprete$ s n c<no#le$!(ent o' po#er lre $.% the Presi$ent cts s the countr. The . the intrinsic n ture o' his o''ice% the Presi$ent% s he $ o' St te% is the sole or! n n$ uthorit. #here the Court hel$* MB.ste( o' !overn(ent% the Presi$ent% &ein! the he $ o' st te% is re! r$e$ s the sole or! n n$ uthorit.s% the Presi$ent is the chie' rchitect o' the n tionQs 'orei!n polic. in Pi(entel v) Executive Secret r. un$er consi$er tion% not to the con$uct o' ne!oti tions tten$ nt to its conclusion) >oreover% it is not even Con!ress s #hole th t h s &een !iven the uthorit. hi() x x x 5E(ph sis n$ un$erscorin! supplie$6  "rilon vs) CA% 232 SCRA 7A3* The p r$onin! po#er o' the Presi$ent is 'in l n$ un ppe l &le) Sect$on 0:.   TREATJ >A-IN/ POWER Sect$on 0/. The Monetary Board sha''" .* +n$er our Constitution% the po#er to r ti'.ence% it is #ithin the uthorit.) 5Also re $ +SAEEE Veter ns Ass) v) Tre surer 13.) In ( n. in the extern l '' irs o' the countr.h$ch . not inter'ere in the 'iel$ o' tre t.0 his P$o(in nce in the 'iel$ o' 'orei!n rel tions is 5then6 conce$e$)P Wiel$in! v st po#ers n$ in'luence% his con$uct in the extern l '' irs o' the n tion% s Be''erson $escri&es% is Mexecutive lto!ether)N As re! r$s the po#er to enter into tre ties or intern tion l !ree(ents% the Constitution vests the s (e in the Presi$ent% su&?ect onl.Qs (outhpiece #ith respect to intern tion l '' irs) .$th$n th$rty days *ro) the end o* e#ery -uarter o* the ca'endar year" sub)$t to the Con%ress a co)('ete re(ort o* $ts dec$s$ons on a(('$cat$ons *or 'oans to be contracted or %uaranteed by the Go#ern)ent or %o#ern)ent7o.er to %rant a)nesty .$th the (r$or concurrence o* the Monetary Board" and sub+ect to such '$)$tat$ons as )ay be (ro#$ded by 'a.( <in!% the Presi$ent h s the sole uthorit. inherent in its o''ice) It ( . o' the Presi$ent to enter into tr $e !ree(ents #ith 'orei!n n tions provi$e$ un$er P)") 1C9C ( .BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 and re)$t *$nes and *or*e$tures" a*ter con#$ct$on by *$na' +ud%)ent. to the concurrence o' t le st t#o thir$s vote o' ll the (e(&ers o' the Sen te) In this li!ht% the ne!oti tion o' the VEA n$ the su&seDuent r ti'ic tion o' the !ree(ent re exclusive cts #hich pert in solel. to the concurrence o' t le st t#o-thir$s o' ll the >e(&ers o' the Sen te 'or the v li$it. ne!oti tions) While Article VII% Section 21 provi$es 'or Sen te concurrence% such pert ins onl. in Pi(entel vs) Executive Secret r.

. c nnot ssert his constitution l ri!ht0 the ri!ht o' the thir$ p rt. &e sol$) There (ust &e l # uthoriFin! its s le or lien tion &. n vs) /uin!on 0 Opos vs) E ctor n 5petitioners-chil$ren60 -ilos& . interest in the c se such th t he h s sust ine$% or #ill sust in $irect in?ur. l n$s% #hich h ve &een cl ssi'ie$ s lien &le% ( .et ev $in! 23 . ille! l con$uct o' the !overn(ent0 the in?ur. not conve. n vs) >or to0 IBP vs) 4 (or 5IBP not proper p rt. ' vor &le ction)  TELEBAP VS)C O>ELEC . &e # ive$ &.E SA>E The po#er to cl ssi'.) ARTICLE VIII 1UDICIAL DEPARTMENT Sect$on /.* Eor citiFen to h ve st n$in!% he (ust est &lish th t he h s su''ere$ so(e ctu l or thre tene$ in?ur. Jud$c$a' (o. ?e )ay a'so a((ear be*ore $t at any other t$)e. r ise$ &. o' the !overn(ent on her sole #ill) Conve.$th$n th$rty days *ro) the o(en$n% o* the re%u'ar sess$on" as the bas$s o* the %enera' a((ro(r$at$ons b$''" a bud%et o* e>(end$tures and sources o* *$nanc$n%" $nc'ud$n% rece$(ts *ro) e>$st$n% and (ro(osed re#enue )easures.er courts as )ay be estab'$shed by 'a.res$dent sha'' address the Con%ress at the o(en$n% o* $ts re%u'ar sess$on.% the.h$ch are 'e%a''y de)andab'e and en*orceab'e" and to deter)$ne .EN T.In this ?uris$iction% the Supre(e Court $opts the M"IRECT INB+RJN test) In People vs) Ver % it hel$ th t the person #ho i(pu!ns the v li$it. o' st tute (ust h ve person l n$ su&st nti l EVEN W. h ve le! l st n$in!) LA B+/ALBLLAAN TRIBAL ASS)% INC)% VS RA>OS% C21 SCRA 1C:)   PROPER PARTJ . tr ce &le to the ch llen!e$ ction0 n$ the in?ur. l n$s s lien &le &elon!s to the Presi$ent) Onl.er $nc'udes the duty o* the courts o* +ust$ce to sett'e actua' contro#ers$es $n#o'#$n% r$%hts . Con!ress)  POWER OE /OVERN>ENTS S+PERVISION OVER LOCAL  To ensure th t loc l '' irs re $(inistere$ ccor$in! to l #) xxx Inso' r s existin! le!isl tion uthoriFes the Presi$ent 5throu!h the Secret r. T xp . t x tion) 3.)o(!a"&%3. cor(orate ent$ty K the p rt. is li<el.A. #ill &e $ilute$ unless the p rt.60 /onF les vs) N rv s 5priv te citiFen not proper p rt. 1. v lu &le re l propert.0 the thir$ p rt. The +ud$c$a' (o.E ISS+ES ARE >OOT AN" ACA"E>IC% the Court still entert ins to $?u$ic te the su&st ntive ( tter i' there is !r ve viol tion o' the constitution0 to 'or(ul te controllin! principles to !ui$e the &ench% & r n$ pu&lic n$ c p &le o' repetition% . o' Loc l /overn(ent6 to procee$ ! inst loc l o''ici ls $(inistr tivel.proper p rt.er sha'' be #ested $n one Su(re)e Court and $n such 'o. h ve &een llo#e$ to sue un$er the 2)( "& )#% of !(a"$&%"d%"!a# .o#ever% &ein! (ere proce$ur l technic lit. The .6) re%$stered #oter K (ust sho# th t the ction concerns his ri!ht o' su''r !e 2. is ' irl.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 Sect$on 00.%"!$ re (et* 1) the c ses involve$ constitution l issues0 2. nother o''icer &e'ore conve.hether or not there has been a %ra#e abuse o* d$scret$on a)ount$n% to 'ac. &e ccor$e$ st n$in! to sue% provi$e$ th t the 'ollo#in! (%. in court is llo#e$ to espouse the thir$ p rt.  B+"ICIAL REVIEW . 'or concerned c$t$3ens% there (ust &e sho#in! th t the issues re o' tr nscen$ent l i(port nce #hich (ust &e settle$ e rl.20 BA/ON/ ALJANSAN/ >A-ABAJAN VS) 4A>ORA% 7C2 SCRA CC80 LI> VS) EGEC+TIVE SECRETARJ% 7:3 SCRA A78)   L urel vs) / rci % 1:A SCRA A8A* The Presi$ent ( . 1:% 233.Ls constitution l cl i()   /u$ ni vs) Sen! % Au!ust 1.% 2339* Courts re e(po#ere$% un$er the constitution l principle o' ?u$ici l revie#% to r&itr te $isputes &et#een the le!isl tive n$ executive &r nches o' !overn(ent on the proper constitution l p r (eters o' po#er) As the c se involves constitution l Duestions% the Supre(e Court is not concerne$ #ith #hether the petitioners re re l p rties in interest% &ut #hether the. nce (ust &e uthoriFe$ &. o' the election l # in Duestion0 4. vs) PC//0 -ilos& .AVE4 VS) PEA% 7:C SCRA 1. nce c n &e execute$ on &eh l' o' the !overn(ent 5Section C:% Boo< I o' the 18:A A$(inistr tive Co$e6) . 'or ta>(ayers% there (ust &e cl i( o' ille! l $is&urse(ent o' pu&lic 'un$s or th t the t x (e sure is unconstitution l0 7) 'or voters% there (ust &e sho#in! o' o&vious interest in the v li$it. s result o' the lle!e$l. The . the Presi$ent or &.ers% voters% concerne$ citiFens n$ le!isl tors ( . or e>cess o* +ur$sd$ct$on on the (art o* any branch or $nstru)enta'$ty o* the Go#ern)ent. Sect$on 01. s result)    POWER TO CLASSIEJ P+BLIC LAN"S AN" TO SELL T. l # en cte$ &. "AVI"% ET AL VS) ARROJO0 C. suin! h s su&st nti l rel tion to the thir$ p rt. 'or 'e%$s'ators% there (ust &e cl i( th t the o''ici l ction co(pl ine$ o' in'rin!es upon their prero! tives s le!isl tors)  AIWA vs) Ro(ulo% /R No) 1.Bo. the Supre(e Court in the exercise o' its $iscretion) Even #hen the petitioners h ve ' ile$ to sho# $irect in?ur.res$dent sha'' sub)$t to the Con%ress . ta>(ayer K he h s su''icient interest in preventin! the ille! l expen$iture o' (one.% the reDuire(ent o' locus st n$i ( .0 n$ 5./ (%. to &e re$resse$ &.38% B nu r.

(/ The Su(re)e Court sha'' be co)(osed o* a Ch$e* Just$ce and *ourteen Assoc$ate Just$ces. (art $n the de'$berat$ons on the $ssues $n the case and #oted thereon" and $n no case" .% not its #is$o()  EARIYAS VS) EGEC) SEC)% C1A SCRA .% the citiFenship K o' person to &e ppointe$ (e(&er o' this Court) xxx This c se is ( tter o' pri(or$i l i(port nce involvin! co(pli nce #ith Constitution l ( n$ te) As the &o$. (c A'' cases $n . (art $n the de'$berat$ons on the $ssues $n the case and #oted thereon. s peopleLs or! niF tions n$ t xp .$th the concurrence o* a )a+or$ty o* the Me)bers . sha'' be (assed reor%an$3$n% the Jud$c$ary .ers since the ( tter involves n issue o' ut(ost n$ ' r-re chin! Constitution l i(port nce% n (el. $issu $e the courts in resolvin! c se) Courts #ill $eci$e c ses% other#ise (oot n$ c $e(ic% i'* *$rst" there is !r ve viol tion o' the constitution% second" the exception l ch r cter o' the situ tion n$ the p r (ount pu&lic interest is involve$% th$rd" #hen constitution l issue r ise$ reDuires 'or(ul tion o' controllin! principles to !ui$e the &ench% & r n$ the pu&lic% n$ 'ourth% the c se is c p &le o' repetition . t s<e$ #ith the $eter(in tion o' the (erits o' con'lictin! cl i(s un$er the Constitution% the Supre(e Court is the proper 'oru( 'or resolvin! the issue% even s the BBC h s the initi l co(petence to $o so) xxx It is cle r% there'ore% th t 'ro( the recor$s o' this Court% respon$ent On! is n tur liFe$ Eilipino citiFen) The lle!e$ su&seDuent reco!nition o' his n tur l-&orn st tus &.arranto" and habeas cor(us. ( tters re not the concern o' the Supre(e Court .   PP VS) "J% 78.et ev $in! revie#) "AVI"% ET AL) VS) ARROJO% ET AL)0 SANLA-AS VS) EGEC) SEC)% C21 SCRA 9.ers< (/ E>erc$se or$%$na' +ur$sd$ct$on o#er cases a**ect$n% a)bassadors" other (ub'$c )$n$sters and consu's" and o#er (et$t$ons *or cert$orar$" (roh$b$t$on" )anda)us" -uo . 7% 233A . 233C) -ILOSBAJAN VS) ER>ITA% /R No) 1AAA21% Bul. 'a$d do.!overn(ent polic.Petitioners h ve st n$in! to 'ile the suit si(pl.% the Du li'ic tion K n .ro#$ded" that no doctr$ne or (r$nc$('e o* 'a. is #ithin the exclusive $o(inion o' the politic l &r nches o' the !overn(ent) Sect$on 4. un$er its EGPAN"E" B+RIS"ICTION) BRILLANTES VS) CO>ELEC% C72 SCRA 298% Bune 1. the a)ount a((ro(r$ated *or the (re#$ous year and" a*ter a((ro#a'" sha'' be auto)at$ca''y and re%u'ar'y re'eased.ho actua''y too. It )ay s$t en banc or" $n $ts d$scret$on" $n d$#$s$ons o* three" *$#e" or se#en Me)bers.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 revie#) PROVINCE OE BATAN/AS VS) RO>+LO% C28 SCRA A79% > . (0 @e#$e.h$ch the const$tut$ona'$ty or #a'$d$ty o* any treaty" $nternat$ona' or e>ecut$#e a%ree)ent" 'a. o' p rticul r (e sure) U+ESTIONS RE/AR"IN/ A">INISTRATIVE ISS+ANCES #ill not preclu$e the S+PRE>E CO+RT 'ro( exercisin! its po#er o' ?u$ici l revie# to $eter(ine #hether or not there # s !r ve &use o' $iscretion (ountin! to l c< or excess o' ?uris$iction on the p rt o' issuin! uthorit.AA0 ALBA-A VS) CO>ELEC% C7. (b A'' cases $n#o'#$n% the 'e%a'$ty o* any ta>" $)(ost" assess)ent" or to''" or any (ena'ty $)(osed $n re'at$on thereto. The Jud$c$ary sha'' en+oy *$sca' autono)y. SCRA 8:)  POLITICAL U+ESTIONS .ho actua''y too. (0 A'' cases $n#o'#$n% the const$tut$ona'$ty o* a treaty" $nternat$ona' or e>ecut$#e a%ree)ent" .$n% (o.h$ch under the @u'es o* Court are re-u$red to be heard en banc" $nc'ud$n% those $n#o'#$n% the const$tut$ona'$ty" a(('$cat$on" or o(erat$on o* (res$dent$a' decrees" (roc'a)at$ons" orders" $nstruct$ons" ord$nances" and other re%u'at$ons" sha'' be dec$ded . or v li$it.37* Polic.  EISCAL A+TONO>J Sect$on 1." (res$dent$a' decree" (roc'a)at$on" order" $nstruct$on" ord$nance" or re%u'at$on $s $n -uest$on.h$ch the +ur$sd$ct$on o* any 'o. No 'a. !hen the re-u$red nu)ber $s not obta$ned" the case sha'' be dec$ded en banc= . (1 Cases or )atters heard by a d$#$s$on sha'' be dec$ded or reso'#ed . The Con%ress sha'' ha#e the (o.9* +n$er Article VIII% Section C516 o' the Constitution% the Supre(e Court ( .$thout the concurrence o* at 'east three o* such Me)bers. or the @u'es o* Court )ay (ro#$de" *$na' +ud%)ents and orders o* 'o.er to de*$ne" (rescr$be" and a((ort$on the +ur$sd$ct$on o* #ar$ous courts but )ay not de(r$#e the Su(re)e Court o* $ts +ur$sd$ct$on o#er cases enu)erated $n Sect$on 4 hereo*.  Ben!Fon vs) "rilon* The Chie' Bustice (ust &e !iven 'ree h n$ on ho# to u!(ent ppropri tions #here u!(ent tion is nee$e$) 21 . A((ro(r$at$ons *or the Jud$c$ary )ay not be reduced by the 'e%$s'ature be'o. the Bure u o' I((i!r tion n$ the "OB c nnot (en$ the 'in l $ecision o' the tri l court st tin! th t respon$ent On! n$ his (other #ere n tur liFe$ lon! #ith his ' ther) Sect$on 0.er court $s $n $ssue.h$ch sha'' be heard by the Su(re)e Court en banc" and a'' other cases . Sect$on 2.n by the court $n a dec$s$on rendered en banc or $n d$#$s$on )ay be )od$*$ed or re#ersed e>ce(t by the court s$tt$n% en banc.$th$n n$nety days *ro) the occurrence thereo*.the pro&le( &ein! one o' le! lit. sit en & nc or% in its $iscretion% in $ivisions o' three% 'ive% or seven (e(&ers)  IBP vs) 4 (or * $eplo.(ent o' ( rines K is ?ustici &le .re concerne$ #ith issues $epen$ent upon the #is$o(% not le! lit.hen $t under)$nes the secur$ty o* tenure o* $ts Me)bers. 2A% 233C)  The (oot n$ c $e(ic principle is not ( !ic l 'or(ul th t c n uto( tic ll. SCRA 2.90 ACOP VS) /+IN/ONA% BR)% 7:7 SCRA . Any #acancy sha'' be *$''ed .$th the concurrence o* a )a+or$ty o* the Me)bers ." re#$se" )od$*y" or a**$r) on a((ea' on cert$orar$" as the 'a. The Su(re)e Court sha'' ha#e the *o''o.er courts $n< (a A'' cases $n .

ti(e &e'ore 'in l ?u$!(ent% the court% ?ustice or ?u$!e ( . (5 A((o$nt a'' o**$c$a's and e)('oyees o* the +ud$c$ary $n accordance . MThe court% ?ustice or ?u$!e% upon (otion or (otu proprio% ( . protection to the petitioner or the !!rieve$ p rt. or$er n.ee% or o' priv te in$ivi$u l or entit.Seven 5R)A) No) :1AA6% other#ise <no#n s the Act "esi!n tin! "e th &.86% other#ise <no#n s the "e th Pen lt. $esi!n te$ $ocu(ents% p pers% &oo<s% ccounts% letters% photo!r phs% o&?ects or t n!i&le thin!s% or o&?ects in $i!itiFe$ or electronic 'or(% #hich constitute or cont in evi$ence relev nt to the petition or the return% to pro$uce n$ per(it their inspection% cop.in! or (c) 22 .$thout the consent o* the +ud%e concerned.% the 'ollo#in! sh ll &e i(pose$* (a) the pen lt.In vie# o' the en ct(ent o' Repu&lic Act No) 87C9 or the Act Prohi&itin! the I(position o' "e th Pen lt. prescri&e other con$itions to protect the constitution l ri!hts o' ll p rties) The or$er sh ll expire 'ive 5. o' the 'ollo#in! relie's* T%." the Inte%rated Bar" and 'e%a' ass$stance to the under(r$#$'e%ed. Leth l In?ection is here&. 'or the purpose o' inspectin!% (e surin!% surve. n unl #'ul ct or o(ission o' pu&lic o''ici l or e(plo.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 (d A'' cr$)$na' cases $n . $s $n#o'#ed. the courts 'or l c< o' ?uris$iction) The hol$in! o' preli(in r. (1 Ass$%n te)(orar$'y +ud%es o* 'o. investi! tion c nnot &e t <en co!niF nce &. the &ill o' ri!hts) It is re(e$. n$ n. v il &le to n. investi! tion is 'unction o' the Executive $ep rt(ent n$ not o' the ?u$ici r. #ith the rules n$ con$itions th t ( . ''i$ vits or testi(onies o' #itnesses h vin! person l <no#le$!e o' the en'orce$ $is ppe r nce or #here &outs o' the !!rieve$ p rt.)  Li(it tions* 516 si(pli'ie$ n$ inexpensive proce$ure0 526 uni'or(0 576 not $i(inish% incre se or (o$i'. the court% ?ustice or ?u$!e) (a)   PP vs) Sol % 137 SCRA 787* In c se o' $ou&t% it shoul$ &e resolve$ in ' vor o' ch n!e o' venue) PP VS) T+BON/BAN+A% /R No) 1A12A1* Au!ust 71% 2339. or n. re here&.un$re$ Sevent. prohi&ite$) Accor$in!l.in!% or photo!r phin! the propert. h s &een viol te$ or is thre tene$ #ith viol tion &. relev nt o&?ect or oper tion thereon) The (otion sh ll st te in $et il the pl ce or pl ces to &e inspecte$) It sh ll &e supporte$ &. n$ n. &e exten$e$ to the o''icers involve$) The Supre(e Court sh ll ccre$it the persons n$ priv te institutions th t sh ll exten$ te(por r. or control o' n.-Nine 5R)A) No) A9. o' reclusion perpetu % #hen the l # viol te$ ( <es use o' the no(encl ture o' the pen lties o' the Revise$ Pen l Co$e0 or 5&6 the pen lt.ro)u'%ate ru'es concern$n% the (rotect$on and en*orce)ent o* const$tut$ona' r$%hts" ('ead$n%" (ract$ce" and (rocedure $n a'' courts" the ad)$ss$on to the (ract$ce o* 'a. (e A'' cases $n .$th the C$#$' Ser#$ce La. person #hose ri!ht to li'e% li&ert.)o(a(* P(o!%&! o" O(d%(. (e(&er o' the i((e$i te ' (il.  C. person in possession or control o' $esi!n te$ l n$ or other propert.s 'ter the $ te o' its issu nce% unless exten$e$ 'or ?usti'i &le re sons) (b)  PRO>+L/ATE R+LES concernin! the protection n$ en'orce(ent o' constitution l ri!hts% ple $in!% pr ctice n$ proce$ure in ll court% the $(ission to the pr ctice o' l #% the IBP% n$ le! l ssist nce to the un$erprivile!e$) P(od/&! o" O(d%() MThe court% ?ustice or ?u$!e% upon veri'ie$ (otion n$ 'ter $ue he rin!% ( . (e(&er o' the i((e$i te ' (il. lle!e$ to &e thre tene$ or viol te$) The inspection or$er sh ll speci'. to con$uct6 preli(in r.) SEC) 2) In lieu o' the $e th pen lt. &e i(pose$ &.:1* A (otion to ch n!e the venue o' 5 n$ uthorit. person in possession% custo$. (4 . th t shoul$ &e (ete$ is reclusion perpetu % thus* SECTION 1) The i(position o' the pen lt. Such te)(orary ass$%n)ent sha'' not e>ceed s$> )onths . o' li'e i(prison(ent% #hen the l # viol te$ $oes not ( <e use o' the no(encl ture o' the pen lties o' the Revise$ Pen l Co$e) I"$)%&! o" O(d%(.) I' the (otion is oppose$ on the !roun$ o' n tion l securit. or$er th t the petitioner or the !!rieve$ p rt. n ccre$ite$ person or priv te institution c p &le o' <eepin! n$ securin! their s 'et.. MThe court% ?ustice or ?u$!e% upon veri'ie$ (otion n$ 'ter $ue he rin!% ( . on Bune 2C% 2339% the pen lt. repe le$ or (en$e$ ccor$in!l. o' $e th is here&. su&st ntive ri!hts)  WRIT OE A>PARO  The ri!ht to en'orce n$ protect personLs ri!hts !u r ntee$ n$ reco!niFe$ &. repe le$) Repu&lic Act No) Seven Thous n$ Six . !r nt n.AN/E OE VEN+E .6 $ .% in ccor$ nce #ith !ui$elines #hich it sh ll issue) The ccre$ite$ persons n$ priv te institutions sh ll co(pl.un$re$ Ei't.% Repu&lic Act No) Ei!ht Thous n$ One .er courts to other stat$ons as (ub'$c $nterest )ay re-u$re.) The #rit covers extr le! l <illin!s n$ en'orce$ $is ppe r nces or thre ts thereo') +pon 'ilin! o' the petition or t n.) I' the petitioner is n or! niF tion% ssoci tion or institution re'erre$ to in Section 75c6 o' the Rule% the protection ( .% n$ securit.h$ch on'y an error or -uest$on o* 'a. or &. @u'es o* (rocedure o* s(ec$a' courts and -uas$7+ud$c$a' bod$es sha'' re)a$n e**ect$#e un'ess d$sa((ro#ed by the Su(re)e Court. Such ru'es sha'' (ro#$de a s$)('$*$ed and $ne>(ens$#e (rocedure *or the s(eedy d$s(os$t$on o* cases" sha'' be un$*or) *or a'' courts o* the sa)e %rade" and sha'' not d$)$n$sh" $ncrease" or )od$*y substant$#e r$%hts.L rr n ! vs) CA% 2:A SCRA .% to per(it entr. to est &lish the ri!ht o' the !!rieve$ p rt. the person or persons uthoriFe$ to ( <e the inspection n$ the $ te% ti(e% pl ce n$ ( nner o' ( <in! the inspection n$ ( . con$uct he rin! in ch (&ers to $eter(ine the (erit o' the opposition) The (ov nt (ust sho# th t the inspection or$er is necess r. (2 Order a chan%e o* #enue or ('ace o* tr$a' to a#o$d a )$scarr$a%e o* +ust$ce. L # n$ ll other l #s% executive or$ers n$ $ecrees inso' r s the. &e protecte$ in !overn(ent !enc. i(pose the $e th pen lt. or o' the privile!e$ n ture o' the in'or( tion% the court% ?ustice or ?u$!e ( . or$er n.h$ch the (ena'ty $)(osed $s rec'us$on (er(etua or h$%her.

n$ Bene'it Pro!r (% pursu nt to Repu&lic Act No) 98:1) The court% ?ustice or ?u$!e ( . le!isl tive po#er) The silence o' the Constitution on the su&?ect c n onl. lso re'er the #itnesses to other !overn(ent !encies% or to ccre$ite$ persons or priv te institutions c p &le o' <eepin! n$ securin! their s 'et.)  Aruelo vs) Court o' Appe ls% 22A SCRA CA. the Court o' Appe ls% su&or$in te ppell te court% &e'ore the c se is elev te$ to the Supre(e Court 'or uto( tic revie#% is such proce$ur l ( tter) Sect$on 5.  WRIT OE . (4 The Counc$' sha'' ha#e the (r$nc$(a' *unct$on o* reco))end$n% a((o$ntees to the Jud$c$ary. The Su(re)e Court sha'' ha#e the ad)$n$strat$#e su(er#$s$on o#er a'' courts and the (ersonne' thereo*. the Supre(e Court)  PEOPLE VS) >ATEO% Bul. The Me)bers o* the Su(re)e Court and +ud%es o* 'o. $eposit # s reco!niFe$ &.h$'$(($nes. &e oppose$ on the !roun$ o' n tion l securit. (0 The re%u'ar Me)bers o* the Counc$' sha'' be a((o$nted by the .er court or en%a%ed $n the (ract$ce o* 'a. A% 233C* While the 'un$ (ent l l # reDuires ( n$ tor. #ithin the rule ( <in! prero! tive o' the Supre(e Court th n the l # ( <in! po#er o' Con!ress) The rule llo#in! n inter(e$i te revie# &.er courts sha'' ho'd o**$ce dur$n% %ood beha#$or unt$' they reached the a%e o* se#enty years or beco)e $nca(ac$tated to d$schar%e the dut$es o* the$r o**$ce. to Rule 9A #hich reDuires onl. The Me)bers o* the Su(re)e Court and +ud%es o* 'o. *or three years" the ret$red Just$ce *or t. or on &eh l' o' the (ov nt) The (otion ( .er co''e%$ate court un'ess he $s a natura'7born c$t$3en o* the . con$uct he rin! in ch (&ers to $eter(ine the (erit o' the opposition) The court% ?ustice or ?u$!e sh ll prescri&e other con$itions to protect the constitution l ri!hts o' ll the p rties) 4 !"%$$ P(o!%&! o" O(d%() MThe court% ?ustice or ?u$!e% upon (otion or (otu proprio% ( . (0 The Con%ress sha'' (rescr$be the -ua'$*$cat$ons o* +ud%es o* 'o.h$'$(($ne Bar. po#er) RA :8AC #hich reDuires 'ull p .o years" and the re(resentat$#e o* the (r$#ate sector *or one year. exercise propriet r. ri!hts% contr r. or o' the privile!e$ n ture o' the in'or( tion% in #hich c se the court% ?ustice or ?u$!e ( . Sect$on //." a ret$red Me)ber o* the Su(re)e Court" and a re(resentat$#e o* the (r$#ate sector. is viol te$ or thre tene$ &. &or the 'o. o* the Su(re)e Court sha'' be the Secretary e> o**$c$o o* the Counc$' and sha'' . person #hose ri!ht to priv c. re'er the #itnesses to the "ep rt(ent o' Bustice 'or $(ission to the Witness Protection% Securit. (/ No (erson sha'' be a((o$nted Me)ber o* the Su(re)e Court or any 'o. is reclusion perpetu % li'e i(prison(ent% or $e th% no#here ho#ever% h s it proscri&e$ n inter(e$i te revie#) The Supre(e Court $ee(s it #ise n$ co(pellin! to provi$e in these c ses revie# &. revie# &. The Me)bers o* the Su(re)e Court and o* other courts estab'$shed by 'a.$th$n n$nety days *ro) the sub)$ss$on o* the '$st. or securit. (1 The C'er. (1 A Me)ber o* the Jud$c$ary )ust be a (erson o* (ro#en co)(etence" $nte%r$ty" (rob$ty" and $nde(endence. v il &le to n. Sect$on /:.res$dent *ro) a '$st o* at 'east three no)$nees (re(ared by the Jud$c$a' and Bar Counc$' *or e#ery #acancy.$th the consent o* the Co))$ss$on on A((o$nt)ents.on% /)R) No) 19C28% "ece(&er 18% 233. The Su(re)e Court sha'' (ro#$de $n $ts annua' bud%et the a((ro(r$at$ons *or the Counc$'.ee% or o' priv te in$ivi$u l or entit.% ho(e n$ correspon$ence o' the !!rieve$ p rt.ho actua''y too. Sect$on /0. $n the . Sect$on 6.er courts" or order the$r d$s)$ssa' by a #ote o* a )a+or$ty o* the Me)bers .er to d$sc$('$ne +ud%es o* 'o.res$dent *or a ter) o* *our years . n unl #'ul ct or o(ission o' pu&lic o''ici l or e(plo.er courts" but no (erson )ay be a((o$nted +ud%e thereo* un'ess he $s a c$t$3en o* the .. the Court o' Appe ls &e'ore the c se is elev te$ to the Supre(e Court)  Proce$ur l ( tters% 'irst n$ 'ore(ost% ' ll (ore sDu rel.h$'$(($nes and a )e)ber o* the . &e interprete$ s (e nin! there is no intention to $i(inish th t plen r. sha'' not be des$%nated to any a%ency (er*or)$n% -uas$7+ud$c$a' or ad)$n$strat$#e *unct$ons.) (d) *orty years o* a%e and" )ust ha#e been *or *$*teen years or )ore a +ud%e o* a 'o. The sa'ary o* the Ch$e* Just$ce and o* the Assoc$ate Just$ces o* the Su(re)e Court" and o* +ud%es o* 'o. A Me)ber o* the Su(re)e Court )ust be at 'east 27 .* Con!ress h s the plen r. Dur$n% the$r cont$nuance $n o**$ce" the$r sa'ary sha'' not be decreased. the Supre(e Court o' c ses #here the pen lt.er courts" the .* The CO>ELEC c nnot $opt rule prohi&itin! the 'ilin! o' cert in ple $in!s in the re!ul r courts) The po#er to pro(ul! te rules concernin! ple $in!s% pr ctice n$ proce$ure in ll courts is veste$ on the Supre(e Court)  Repu&lic vs) /in!o. (/ A Jud$c$a' and Bar Counc$' $s hereby created under the su(er#$s$on o* the Su(re)e Court co)(osed o* the Ch$e* Just$ce as e> o**$c$o Cha$r)an" the Secretary o* Just$ce" and a re(resentat$#e o* the Con%ress as e> o**$c$o Me)bers" a re(resentat$#e o* the Inte%rated Bar" a (ro*essor o* 'a. The Su(re)e Court en banc sha'' ha#e the (o. in li'e% li&ert.er courts sha'' be a((o$nted by the . Sect$on 8. O* the Me)bers *$rst a((o$nted" the re(resentat$#e o* the Inte%rated Bar sha'' ser#e *or *our years" the (ro*essor o* 'a.(ent &e'ore the St te ( .ee( a record o* $ts (roceed$n%s. en! !e$ in the ! therin!% collectin! or storin! o' $ t or in'or( tion re! r$in! the person% ' (il. It )ay e>erc$se such other *unct$ons and dut$es as the Su(re)e Court )ay ass$%n to $t.ABEAS "ATA  It is re(e$. Such a((o$nt)ents need no con*$r)at$on.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 photo!r phin! &.h$'$(($nes.er courts sha'' be *$>ed by 'a. Sect$on 9. (art $n the de'$berat$ons on the $ssues $n the case and #oted thereon.res$dent sha'' $ssue the a((o$nt)ents . (2 The re%u'ar Me)bers o* the Counc$' sha'' rece$#e such e)o'u)ents as )ay be deter)$ned by the Su(re)e Court.

-o( tsu vs) CA% 2:8 SCRA 93C* $oes not viol te Section 1C) Resolutions re not $ecisions #ithin the constitution l reDuire(ent0 the. No (et$t$on *or re#$e.$th$n t. The$r a((ro#ed annua' a((ro(r$at$ons sha'' be auto)at$ca''y and re%u'ar'y re'eased.  >IN+TE RESOL+TION . The cert$*$cat$on sha'' state .res$dent and the Con%ress an annua' re(ort on the o(erat$ons and act$#$t$es o* the Jud$c$ary. ARTICLE I+ CONSTITUTIONAL COMMISSIONS A. No dec$s$on sha'' be rendered by any court . Ne$ther sha'' he en%a%e $n the (ract$ce o* any (ro*ess$on or $n the act$#e )ana%e)ent or contro' o* any bus$ness . Sect$on 4. A case or )atter $s dee)ed sub)$tted *or dec$s$on or reso'ut$on u(on the *$'$n% o* the 'ast ('ead$n%" br$e*" or )e)orandu) re-u$red by the ru'es o* the Co))$ss$on or by the Co))$ss$on $tse'*. (/ A'' cases or )atters *$'ed a*ter the e**ect$#$ty o* th$s Const$tut$on )ust be dec$ded or reso'#ed .ay be a**ected by the *unct$ons o* h$s o**$ce" nor sha'' he be *$nanc$a''y $nterested" d$rect'y or $nd$rect'y" $n any contract . A cert$*$cat$on to th$s e**ect s$%ned by the Ch$e* Just$ce sha'' be $ssued and a co(y thereo* attached to the record o* the case and ser#ed u(on the (art$es.ned or contro''ed cor(orat$on or the$r subs$d$ar$es... Co))on . The sa'ary o* the Cha$r)an and the Co))$ss$oners sha'' be *$>ed by 'a. Such ru'es" ho." any dec$s$on" order" or ru'$n% o* each Co))$ss$on )ay be brou%ht to the Su(re)e Court on cert$orar$ by the a%%r$e#ed (arty .$th$n th$rty days *ro) rece$(t o* a co(y thereo*. (2 Des($te the e>($rat$on o* the a(('$cab'e )andatory (er$od" the court" . expl in the CourtLs $eni l since% 'or one thin!% the ' cts n$ the l # re lre $. The Const$tut$ona' Co))$ss$ons" . No Me)ber o* a Const$tut$ona' Co))$ss$on sha''" dur$n% h$s tenure" ho'd any other o**$ce or e)('oy)ent.er courts.ro#$s$ons Sect$on /. Each Co))$ss$on en banc )ay (ro)u'%ate $ts o.ho too. (1 U(on the e>($rat$on o* the corres(ond$n% (er$od" a cert$*$cat$on to th$s e**ect s$%ned by the Ch$e* Just$ce or the (res$d$n% +ud%e sha'' *orth. % CCCSCRA 728* The ( n$ te un$er Section 1C% Article VIII o' the constitution is pplic &le onl.$se (ro#$ded by th$s Const$tut$on or by 'a. (entione$ in the CA $ecision) or )atter sub)$tted .h$ch sha'' be $nde(endent" are the C$#$' Ser#$ce Co))$ss$on" the Co))$ss$on on E'ect$ons" and the Co))$ss$on on Aud$t.o Co))$ss$oners .ho sha'' be natura'7born c$t$3ens o* the .$th$n sa$d (er$od. CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION Sect$on /.n ru'es concern$n% ('ead$n%s and (ract$ce be*ore $t or be*ore any o* $ts o**$ces.er co''e%$ate courts.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 Sect$on /1.in! $ue course to petition n$ st tin! the le! l & sis thereo')  Oil = N tion l / s Co() vs) CA% 287 SCRA 29* Section 1C $oes not preclu$e the v li$it.$th$n th$rty days *ro) the o(en$n% o* each re%u'ar sess$on o* the Con%ress" sub)$t to the . (0 A case or )atter sha'' be dee)ed sub)$tted *or dec$s$on or reso'ut$on u(on the *$'$n% o* the 'ast (end$n%" br$e*" or )e)orandu) re-u$red by the @u'es o* Court or by the court $tse'*. Sect$on 2. Un'ess other. The Const$tut$ona' Co))$ss$ons sha'' a((o$nt the$r o**$c$a's and e)('oyees $n accordance .$th" or $n any *ranch$se or (r$#$'e%e %ranted by the Go#ern)ent" any o* $ts subd$#$s$ons" a%enc$es" or $nstru)enta'$t$es" $nc'ud$n% %o#ern)ent7o. in c ses Msu&(itte$ 'or $ecisionN% i)e% !iven $ue course n$ 'ter the 'ilin! o' the &rie's or (e(or n$ n$1or other ple $in!s% &ut not #here resolution is issue$ $en. Each Co))$ss$on sha'' (er*or) such other *unct$ons as )ay be (ro#$ded by 'a. or )ot$on *or recons$derat$on o* a dec$s$on o* the court sha'' be re*used due course or den$ed . o' M>e(or n$u( "ecisionN #hich $opt &. thereto *or deter)$nat$on" Sect$on /5.enty7*our )onths *ro) date o* sub)$ss$on *or the Su(re)e Court" and" un'ess reduced by the Su(re)e Court" t. Sect$on 1. The sa)e re-u$re)ents sha'' be obser#ed by a'' 'o. Sect$on 6.$thout *urther de'ay.$th$n s$>ty days *ro) the date o* $ts sub)$ss$on *or dec$s$on or reso'ut$on. (/ The C$#$' Ser#$ce sha'' be ad)$n$stered by the C$#$' Ser#$ce Co))$ss$on co)(osed o* a Cha$r)an and t. Each Co))$ss$on sha'' dec$de by a )a+or$ty #ote o* a'' $ts Me)bers any case or )atter brou%ht be*ore $t . and sha'' not be decreased dur$n% the$r tenure. Any Me)ber . The Co))$ss$on sha'' en+oy *$sca' autono)y. Sect$on /2. Sect$on 5.e#er" sha'' not d$)$n$sh" $ncrease" or )od$*y substant$#e r$%hts. no (art" or d$ssented" or absta$ned *ro) a dec$s$on or reso'ut$on )ust state the reason there*or.$th be $ssued and a co(y thereo* attached to the record o* the case or )atter" and ser#ed u(on the (art$es. Sect$on 0. (erel.h$'$(($nes and" at the t$)e o* the$r a((o$nt)ent" at 'east th$rty7*$#e years o*  /er( n > chineries Corpor tion vs) En$ . hol$ th t the petition 'or revie# shoul$ not &e entert ine$ n$ the petition to revie# $ecision o' the CA is not ( tter o' ri!ht &ut o' soun$ ?u$ici l $iscretion% hence% there is no nee$ to 'ull.e'#e )onths *or a'' 'o.h$ch $n any . Sect$on 8.hy a dec$s$on or reso'ut$on has not been rendered or $ssued .r$t$n% o* the o($n$on o* the Court.$thout e>(ress$n% there$n c'ear'y and d$st$nct'y the *acts and the 'a. re'erence the 'in$in!s o' ' ct n$ conclusions o' l # cont ine$ in the $ecisions o' in'erior tri&un ls) It is inten$e$ to voi$ cu(&erso(e repro$uction o' the $ecision 5or portions thereo'6 o' the lo#er court) Sect$on /4. on .$thout (re+ud$ce to such res(ons$b$'$ty as )ay ha#e been $ncurred $n conse-uence thereo*" sha'' dec$de or reso'#e the case 2C .h$ch $t $s based.$thout stat$n% the 'e%a' bas$s there*or.$th 'a. The Su(re)e Court sha''" .er co''e%$ate courts" and three )onths *or a'' other 'o. The conc'us$ons o* the Su(re)e Court $n any case sub)$tted to $t *or dec$s$on en banc or $n d$#$s$on sha'' be reached $n consu'tat$on be*ore the case $s ass$%ned to a Me)ber *or the .

. Sect$on 2.e # s ppointe$ &. No e'ect$#e o**$c$a' sha'' be e'$%$b'e *or a((o$nt)ent or des$%nat$on $n any ca(ac$ty to any (ub'$c o**$ce or (os$t$on dur$n% h$s tenure. the uthorit.$th$n one year a*ter such e'ect$on" be a((o$nted to any o**$ce $n the Go#ern)ent o* any %o#ern)ent7o.% su&$ivision% n$ instru(ent lit.$thout the consent o* the Con%ress" any (resent" e)o'u)ent" o**$ce" or t$t'e o* any . 22% 233..% is non-c reer civil service o''icer) . o' the !overn(ent% inclu$in! ever.$th (ro#en ca(ac$ty *or (ub'$c ad)$n$strat$on" and )ust not ha#e been cand$dates *or any e'ect$#e (os$t$on $n the e'ect$ons $))ed$ate'y (reced$n% the$r a((o$nt)ent.ho has 'ost $n any e'ect$on sha''" .$se a''o. (1 No o**$cer or e)('oyee o* the c$#$' ser#$ce sha'' be re)o#ed or sus(ended e>ce(t *or cause (ro#$ded by 'a.ees o' /OCCs% s !ener l rule% re !overne$ &.ned or contro''ed cor(orat$ons or $n any o* $ts subs$d$ar$es. (5 Te)(orary e)('oyees o* the Go#ern)ent sha'' be %$#en such (rotect$on as )ay be (ro#$ded by 'a. Sect$on 6.ed by 'a. Sect$on 1.$th the consent o* the Co))$ss$on on A((o$nt)ents *or a ter) o* se#en years . to $eci$e c ses #oul$ &e inutile unless cco(p nie$ &. en'orce$ ! inst o''ices veste$ #ith 'isc l utono(.* The Mno report% no rele seN polic.ned or contro''ed cor(orat$ons . O* those *$rst a((o$nted" the Cha$r)an sha'' ho'd o**$ce *or se#en years" a Co))$ss$oner *or *$#e years" and another Co))$ss$oner *or three years" . not &e v li$l. &r nch% !enc. (2 No o**$cer or e)('oyee $n the c$#$' ser#$ce sha'' en%a%e" d$rect'y or $nd$rect'y" $n any e'ect$oneer$n% or (art$san (o'$t$ca' ca)(a$%n. It sha'' sub)$t to the . the ch ir( n n$ (e(&ers o' the !overnin! &o r$ o' CVPC) B. po#er% or the uthorit.$thout rea((o$nt)ent. o' the v rious units o' the !overn(ent% inclu$in! $ep rt(ent% 2. It sha'' stren%then the )er$t and re.:A81% Bul. &e i(pose$)  N seco vs) NLRC% 9: SCRA 122* E(plo.ards syste)" $nte%rate a'' hu)an resources de#e'o()ent (ro%ra)s *or a'' 'e#e's and ran.$th or$%$na' charters" ta. No e'ect$#e or a((o$nt$#e (ub'$c o**$cer or e)('oyee sha'' rece$#e add$t$ona'" doub'e" or $nd$rect co)(ensat$on" un'ess s(ec$*$ca''y author$3ed by 'a. Un'ess other.A SCRA 2:2* An !enc. A'' (ub'$c o**$cers and e)('oyees sha'' ta. Sect$on 4.$n% $nto account the nature o* the res(ons$b$'$t$es (erta$n$n% to" and the -ua'$*$cat$ons re-u$red *or the$r (os$t$ons.o#ever% corpor tions #hich re su&si$i ries o' these ch rtere$ !encies% e)!)% > nil .ned or contro''ed cor(orat$ons . .res$dent .$nd *ro) any *ore$%n %o#ern)ent.ned or contro''ed cor(orat$ons or the$r subs$d$ar$es.) It (e ns th t no con$ition to 'un$ rele ses to it ( . . presi$ent #ith 'ixe$ ter( o' o''ice ppointe$ &. (0 A((o$nt)ents $n the c$#$' ser#$ce sha'' be )ade on'y accord$n% to )er$t and *$tness to be deter)$ned" as *ar as (ract$cab'e" and" e>ce(t to (os$t$ons . to he r n$ $?u$!e c ses% necess ril.e an oath or a**$r)at$on to u(ho'd and de*end th$s Const$tut$on. 22% 233:* The Constitution !r nts to the CSC $(inistr tion over the entire civil service) As $e'ine$% the civil service e(&r ces ever. The Con%ress sha'' (ro#$de *or the standard$3at$on o* co)(ensat$on o* %o#ern)ent o**$c$a's" $nc'ud$n% those $n %o#ern)ent7o. or by the (r$)ary *unct$ons o* h$s (os$t$on" no a((o$nt$#e o**$c$a' sha'' ho'd any other o**$ce or e)('oy)ent $n the Go#ern)ent or any subd$#$s$on" a%ency or $nstru)enta'$ty thereo*" $nc'ud$n% %o#ern)ent7o.  /SIS VS) CSC% 232 SCRA A88* The !r nt to the Civil Service Co((ission o' $?u$ic tor. ( . (/ The c$#$' ser#$ce e)braces a'' branches" subd$#$s$ons" $nstru)enta'$t$es" and a%enc$es o* the Go#ern)ent" $nc'ud$n% %o#ern)ent7o. the !overnin! &o r$ o' trustees o' the universit.$thout rea((o$nt)ent.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 a%e" . Sect$on 8. (4 The r$%ht to se'*7or%an$3at$on sha'' not be den$ed to %o#ern)ent e)('oyees." nor acce(t .ens$ons or %ratu$t$es sha'' not be cons$dered as add$t$ona'" doub'e" or $nd$rect co)(ensat$on.) Bein! uto( tic connotes so(ethin! (ech nic l% spont neous n$ per'unctor.$th or$%$na' charters. o' !overn(ent re'ers to n. o' tenure) A st te universit. (0 The Cha$r)an and the Co))$ss$oners sha'' be a((o$nted by the . Sect$on 0. cle r provision o' l #% respon$ent is non-c reer civil serv nt #ho is un$er the ?uris$iction o' the CSC)  CSC vs) "B>% /R No) 1. inclu$es the po#er to en'orce or or$er execution o' its $ecisions% resolutions% or or$ers) The uthorit. Sect$on 5. In no case sha'' any )e)ber be a((o$nted or des$%nated $n a te)(orary or act$n% ca(ac$ty.res$dent and the Con%ress an annua' re(ort on $ts (ersonne' (ro%ra)s.otel% is exclu$e$ 'ro( the cover !e o' the civil service)  LeveriF vs) IAC% 1. to see th t #h t h s &een $eci$e$ is c rrie$ out)  CSC vs) So?or% /R No) 19:A99% > . The C$#$' Ser#$ce Co))$ss$on" as the centra' (ersonne' a%ency o* the Go#ern)ent" sha'' estab'$sh a career ser#$ce and ado(t )easures to (ro)ote )ora'e" e**$c$ency" $nte%r$ty" res(ons$#eness" (ro%ress$#eness" and courtesy $n the c$#$' ser#$ce. No cand$date .h$ch are (o'$cy7deter)$n$n%" (r$)ar$'y con*$dent$a'" or h$%h'y techn$ca'" by co)(et$t$#e e>a)$nat$on. the Civil Service L #) But $istinction o' the ( nner the /OCC # s cre te$ (ust &e ( $e) I' the /OCC # s est &lishe$ throu!h n ori!in l ch rter 5or speci l l #6% then it ' lls un$er the civil service% e)!)% /SIS n$ SSS) . technic l Du li'ic tions0 526 there is opportunit. 'or $v nce(ent to hi!her c reer positions0 n$ 576 there is securit. A((o$nt)ent to any #acancy sha'' be on'y *or the une>($red ter) o* the (redecessor. !overn(ent-o#ne$ or controlle$ corpor tion) It is 'urther cl ssi'ie$ into c reer n$ non-c reer service positions) Ca(%%( $%(5 &% )o$ ! o"$ re those #here* 516 entr nce is & se$ on (erit n$ 'itness or hi!hl.s" and $nst$tut$ona'$3e a )ana%e)ent c'$)ate conduc$#e to (ub'$c accountab$'$ty.

72* A tr ns'er th t i(s &. &et#een the ppointee n$ ppointin! uthorit. the proper uthorit. the A$(inistr tive Co$e "OTC vs) CruF% /R No) 1A:2. !encies% institutes n$ !overn(ent-o#ne$ or controlle$ corpor tions% o' 18:A to $ecl re positions in the Civil Service pri( ril. cl i(s% the L &or Co$e pplies) Re! r$less o' the n ture o' e(plo. $is(isse$% n$ his reinst te(ent is l ter or$ere$ &. ppe l to the CSC #ithin 1. l #% en$o#e$ #ith so(e i' not ll corpor te po#ers% $(inisterin! speci l 'un$s% n$ en?o. o' resi!n tion is not !overne$ &. #hich ensures 'ree$o( o' intercourse #ithout e(& rr ss(ent or 'ree$o( 'ro( (is!ivin! or &etr . re'ers to n. n o' S n An$res% C t n$u nes vs) CA% 2:C SCRA 2A9% 188A6)  Eern n$eF vs) "el P F% 193 SCRA A. ls o' person l trust or con'i$enti l ( tters o' st te)  >WSS vs) . prescri&e$)N The (ere ' ct th t position &elon!s to the C reer Service $oes not uto( tic ll. con'i$enti l)  RESI/NATION  "i( . $ecision% rulin!% or$er% or ction o' n !enc. $ .ern n$eF% 1C7 SCRA 932* I' one is e(plo. the n ture o' the 'unctions% there exists close inti( c.% no & c<# !es c n &e # r$e$ in his ' vor) 29 .) The l st one is reDuire$ &..1* +nconsente$ tr ns'er o' the o''icer% resultin! in $e(otion in r n< or s l r.ILARIO VS) CSC% 2C7 SCRA 239* Cit. &e consi$ere$ per( nent in #hich the ppointee en?o.s) There 'ter% he coul$ !o on certior ri to the Supre(e Court un$er Rule 9.2 523326* The ppoint(ent to the positions in the C reer Executive Service ( . SCRA . e(po#ere$ &. 'or( l reDuire(ent s to 'or() It c n &e or l) It c n &e #ritten) It c n &e express) It c n i(plie$) As lon! s the resi!n tion is cle r% it (ust &e !iven le! l e''ect)  To constitute co(plete n$ oper tive resi!n tion 'ro( pu&lic o''ice% there (ust &e* 516 n intention to relinDuish p rt o' the ter(0 526 n ct o' relinDuish(ent0 n$ 576 n ccept nce &.u! vs) Bene$icto II% 7A7 SCRA 9. to Mperson #ho (eets ll the reDuire(ents 'or the position to #hich he is &ein! ppointe$% inclu$in! the ppropri te eli!i&ilit. o' the n tion l !overn(ent% not inte!r te$ #ithin the $ep rt(ent 'r (e#or<% veste$ #ith speci l 'unctions or ?uris$iction &. cts o' relinDuish(ent) The v li$it. 'unctions o' his positionN)   > teo vs) Court o' Appe ls% 2CA SCRA 2:C* The p rt. o' tenure cl use in the Constitution)   Ros les% Br) vs) >i? res% CC2 SCRA . con'i$enti l* 516 Presi$ent $ecl res the position to &e pri( ril. in$irect (etho$ to ter(in te services or to 'orce resi!n tion constitutes re(ov l) S ntos vs) CA% 7C. the Civil Service L #)   . n. or !overn(ento#ne$ or controlle$ corpor tion or loc l !overn(ent or $istinct unit therein) Instru(ent lit. 27% 233:* The Supre(e Court 'ollo#s s prece$ent% the "OTC $i$ not e''ect CruFQs ter(in tion #ith & $ ' ith n$% conseDuentl.ee is ille! ll.% > rch . 'ter retire(ent c n continue to receive such pension or !r tuit. con'er securit.e$ in /OCC% #hether re!ul r or not% the civil service l # pplies) It is not true either th t #ith respect to (one. l # or &. o' tenure)   Ach coso vs) > c r i!% 18.(ent o' & c< s l ries)   >ontecillo vs) CSC% Bune 2:% 2331* The CSC is expressl.% 233A* PCC/ Ch ir > !$ n! l El( is prohi&ite$ un$er the Constitution 'ro( si(ult neousl.9% Bul.% on t#o inst nces #hen position ( .s securit. o' the Rules o' Court i' he still 'eels !!rieve$ &.(ent or cl i(% n e(plo.% 2331* The position o' C sino Oper tions > n !er is not pri( ril. is viol tion o' the securit.* per( nent ppoint(ent c n &e issue$ onl. Le! l O''icer is pri( ril.% A7 SCRA 2:. re son o' Article 27: o' the Revise$ Pen l Co$e) 5S n!!uni n! B . &e consi$ere$ pri( ril. i' he ccepts nother !overn(ent position to #hich nother co(pens tion is tt che$)   Estr $ vs) Escritor% Bune 22% 2339* In the re o' reli!ious exercise s pre'erre$ 'ree$o(% ho#ever% ( n st n$s ccount &le to n uthorit. con'i$enti l) PA/COR VS) RILLORA4A% Bune 2. o' tenure on its occup nt even i' he $oes not possess the reDuire$ Du li'ic tions) Such ri!ht #ill h ve to M$epen$ on the n ture o' ppoint(ent% #hich in turn $epen$s on his eli!i&ilit. throu!h ch rter) This ter( inclu$es re!ul tor.in! oper tion l utono(. hi!her th n the st te% n$ so the st te interest sou!ht to &e uphel$ (ust &e so co(pellin! th t its viol tion #ill ero$e the ver. servin! s Chie' Presi$enti l Le! l Counsel) The position o' PCC/ Ch ir n$ CPLC re inco(p ti&le o''ices since the CPLC revie#s ctions o' the PC// Ch ir) It pointe$ out th t the !ener l rule to hol$ (ore th n one o''ice is M llo#e$ &. o' the !overn(ent involvin! ter(in tion o' services ( . ' &ric o' the st te th t #ill lso protect the 'ree$o() In the &sence o' sho#in! such st te interest exists% ( n (ust &e llo#e$ to su&scri&e to the In'inite) PILC vs) El( % /)R) No) 17:89.7% 523336* Rule on $ou&le co(pens tion not pplic &le to pension) A retiree receivin! pension or !r tuit. con'i$enti l upon reco((en$ tion o' o' the CSC0 526 #hen &. con'i$enti l) 5Re $* S l F r vs) > th .% usu ll. !!rieve$ &. !enc. or l c< o' it) Estr $ vs) "esierto% > rch 2% 2331* There (ust intent to resi!n n$ the intent (ust &e couple$ &. SCRA 27. the rulin! o' the CSC)  PRI>ARILJ CONEI"ENTIAL "el C stillo vs) Civil Service Co((ission% Au!ust 21% 188A* When n e(plo.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 &ure u% o''ice% instru(ent lit. the pri( r.ee in /OCC #ith ori!in l ch rter is covere$ &. the Court% 'or ll le! l intents n$ purposes he is consi$ere$ s not h vin! le't his o''ice% n$ not#ithst n$in! the silence o' the $ecision% he is entitle$ to p .

ee% #ho h s &een 'oun$ ille! ll. In no case sha'' any Me)ber be a((o$nted or des$%nated $n a te)(orary or act$n% ca(ac$ty.o Me)bers *or *$#e years" and the 'ast Me)bers *or three years" . (/ There sha'' be a Co))$ss$on on E'ect$ons co)(osed o* a Cha$r)an and s$> Co))$ss$oners . express provision o' >e(or n$u( Circul r No) 9% series o' 188A o' the CSC n$ s i(plie$ in E)O) 1:3) COMELEC C.ho ha#e been en%a%ed $n the (ract$ce o* 'a.ees Ass) vs) CA% 1A. O* those *$rst a((o$nted" three Me)bers sha'' ho'd o**$ce *or se#en years" t.% ( . ppe l the $ecision o' the Court o' Appe ls to the Supre(e Court) Appe l no# lies 'ro( $ecision exoner tin! civil service e(plo.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1  " vi$ vs) / ni /R No) 1. (2 De(ut$3e" .ste(% n$ $oes not ' ll un$er the provision on $isciplin r. Those .ees ( . (4 @e%$ster" a*ter su**$c$ent (ub'$cat$on" (o'$t$ca' (art$es" or%an$3at$ons" or coa'$t$ons .$se be re*used re%$strat$on. Dec$s$ons" *$na' orders" or ru'$n%s o* the Co))$ss$on on e'ect$on contests $n#o'#$n% e'ect$#e )un$c$(a' and baran%ay o**$ces sha'' be *$na'" e>ecutory" and not a((ea'ab'e.ho sha'' be natura'7born c$t$3ens o* the . to ach$e#e the$r %oa's throu%h #$o'ence or un'a. ?o. stri<e% the. (1 Dec$de" e>ce(t those $n#o'#$n% the r$%ht to #ote" a'' -uest$ons a**ect$n% e'ect$ons" $nc'ud$n% deter)$nat$on o* the nu)ber and 'ocat$on o* (o''$n% ('aces" a((o$nt)ent o* e'ect$on o**$c$a's and $ns(ectors" and re%$strat$on o* #oters. &$nanc$a' contr$but$ons *ro) *ore$%n %o#ern)ents and the$r a%enc$es to (o'$t$ca' (art$es" or%an$3at$ons" coa'$t$ons" or cand$dates re'ated to e'ect$ons const$tute $nter*erence $n nat$ona' a**a$rs" and" .* The present c se p rt <es o' n ct &.s" $nc'ud$n% acts or o)$ss$ons const$tut$n% e'ect$on *rauds" o**enses" and )a'(ract$ces. (5 &$'e" u(on a #er$*$ed co)('a$nt" or on $ts o.$th the concurrence o* the . The Co))$ss$on on E'ect$ons e>erc$se the *o''o.% April 28% 1888* The CSC s n !!rieve$ p rt. (0 E>erc$se e>c'us$#e or$%$na' +ur$sd$ct$on o#er a'' contests re'at$n% to the e'ect$ons" returns" and -ua'$*$cat$ons o* a'' e'ect$#e re%$ona'" (ro#$nc$a'" and c$ty o**$c$a's" and a((e''ate +ur$sd$ct$on o#er a'' contests $n#o'#$n% e'ect$#e )un$c$(a' o**$c$a's dec$ded by tr$a' courts o* %enera' +ur$sd$ct$on" or $n#o'#$n% e'ect$#e baran%ay o**$c$a's dec$ded by tr$a' courts o* '$)$ted +ur$sd$ct$on. o' retire(ent !e% he sh ll &e entitle$ not onl.  CSC vs) " co.$thout rea((o$nt)ent.ers and *unct$ons< sha'' 2A .$th the consent o* the Co))$ss$on on A((o$nt)ents *or a ter) o* se#en years . (8 @eco))end to the . it $irectl.h$ch are su((orted by any *ore$%n %o#ern)ent sha'' '$. A((o$nt)ent to a #acancy sha'' be on'y *or the une>($red ter) o* the (redecessor. o' the civil service s.res$dent" 'a.h$ch" $n add$t$on to other re-u$re)ents" )ust (resent the$r ('at*or) or (ro%ra) o* %o#ern)ent= and accred$t c$t$3enCs ar)s o* the Co))$ss$on on E'ect$ons. n$ po#er to $(inister the civil service s.res$dent .h$ch see. *or at 'east ten years.e#er" a )a+or$ty thereo*" $nc'ud$n% the Cha$r)an" sha'' be Me)bers o* the . @e'$%$ous deno)$nat$ons and sects sha'' not be re%$stered. re prohi&ite$ 'ro( stri<in! &. (6 @eco))end to the Con%ress e**ect$#e )easures to )$n$)$3e e'ect$on s(end$n%" $nc'ud$n% '$)$tat$on o* ('aces .s and re%u'at$ons re'at$#e to the conduct o* an e'ect$on" ('eb$sc$te" $n$t$at$#e" re*erendu)" and reca''.$thout rea((o$nt)ent. re(ovin! 'ro( its list o' eli!i&les those #ho ' lsi'ie$ their Du li'ic tions) This is to &e $istin!uishe$ 'ro( or$in r.res$dent and the Con%ress a co)(rehens$#e re(ort on the conduct o* each e'ect$on" ('eb$sc$te" $n$t$at$#e" re*erendu)" or reca''.hen acce(ted" sha'' be an add$t$ona' %round *or the cance''at$on o* the$r re%$strat$on . en*orce)ent a%enc$es and $nstru)enta'$t$es o* the Go#ern)ent" $nc'ud$n% the Ar)ed &orces o* the . (0 The Cha$r)an and the Co))$ss$oners sha'' be a((o$nted by the . (9 Sub)$t to the . Sect$on 0.% uthorit.e.here a((ro(r$ate" (rosecute cases o* #$o'at$ons o* e'ect$on 'a.res$dent the re)o#a' o* any o**$cer or e)('oyer $t has de(ut$3ed" or the $)(os$t$on o* any other d$sc$('$nary act$on" *or #$o'at$on or d$sre%ard o*" or d$sobed$ence to $ts d$rect$#e" order" or dec$s$on. petitioner CSC to protect the inte!rit. to & c< # !es &ut lso to 'ull retire(ent &ene'its) (/ En*orce and ad)$n$ster a'' 'a.$th the Co))$ss$on" $n add$t$on to other (ena't$es that )ay be (rescr$bed by 'a. ctions un$er Sec) CA) It ' lls un$er the provisions o' Sec) 12% p r) 11% on $(inistr tive c ses institute$ &.% s provi$e$ in Article IG-B% Sec) 7 o' the Constitution% &.$n% (o.9373% Au!ust 1C% 2337* A civil service o''icer or e(plo.) This is n inte!r l p rt o' its $ut.h$'$(($nes and" at the t$)e o* the$r a((o$nt)ent" at 'east th$rty7*$#e years o* a%e" ho'ders o* a co''e%e de%ree" and )ust not ha#e been cand$dates *or any e'ect$#e (os$t$on $n the $))ed$ate'y (reced$n% e'ect$ons.co.h$'$(($ne Bar . procee$in!s inten$e$ to $iscipline &on 'i$e (e(&er o' the s.*u' )eans" or re*use to u(ho'd and adhere to th$s Const$tut$on" or .ee o' $(inistr tive ch r!es)  CSC vs) Al& o% Octo&er 17% 233.here (ro(a%anda )ater$a's sha'' be (osted" and to (re#ent and (ena'$3e a'' *or)s o* e'ect$on *rauds" o**enses" )a'(ract$ces" and nu$sance cand$dates. The Co))$ss$on on E'ect$ons Sect$on /..h$'$(($nes" *or the e>c'us$#e (ur(ose o* ensur$n% *ree" order'y" honest" (eace*u'" and cred$b'e e'ect$ons.ste(% 'or cts or o(issions th t constitute viol tions o' the l # or the rules o' the service)  SSS E(plo.ste( n$ protect its inte!rit. $is(isse$ or suspen$e$% is entitle$ to &e reinst te$ n$ to & c< # !es n$ other (onet r. SCRA 9:9* While the Constitution n$ the L &or Co$e re silent s to #hether !overn(ent e(plo. &ene'its 'ro( the ti(e o' his ille! l $is(iss l or suspension up to his reinst te(ent% n$ i' t the ti(e the $ecision o' exoner tion is pro(ul! te$% he is lre $.n $n$t$at$#e" (et$t$ons $n court *or $nc'us$on or e>c'us$on o* #oters= $n#est$%ate and" .

st te$ th t Mthe scert in(ent o' the i$entit.o d$#$s$ons" and sha'' (ro)u'%ate $ts ru'es o* (rocedure $n order to e>(ed$te d$s(os$t$on o* e'ect$on cases" $nc'ud$n% (re7(roc'a)at$on contro#ers$es. Sect$on 9. o' H I politic l p rt. uthoriFe$ &. No (ardon" a)nesty" (aro'e" or sus(ens$on o* sentence *or #$o'at$on o* e'ect$on ru'es" and re%u'at$ons sha'' be %ranted by the .$th 'a. n$ honest elections)  LP vs) ATIEN4A% ET AL)% /R No) 1AC882.$se *$>ed by the Co))$ss$on $n s(ec$a' cases" the e'ect$on (er$od sha'' co))ence n$nety days be*ore the day o* the e'ect$on and sha'' end th$rty days a*ter.atchers $n accordance . n lo!.Rel (p !os vs) Cu(& % 2C7 SCRA 983) Sect$on 1. Sect$on 4. the Co((ission on Appoint(ents o' the previous ppoint(ent &e'ore the prohi&ition on re ppoint(ent c n ppl.res$dent . n$ to scert in its le!iti( te o''icers n$ le $ers) xxx The CO>ELEC is en$o#e$ #ith (ple M#here#ith lN n$ Mconsi$er &le l titu$e in $optin! (e ns n$ (etho$s th t #ill ensure the cco(plish(ent o' the !re t o&?ectives 'or #hich it # s cre te$ to pro(ote 'ree n$ or$erl. to one #ho h s &een ppointe$ &. Sect$on 5. Bona *$de cand$dates *or any (ub'$c o**$ce sha'' be *ree *ro) any *or) o* harass)ent and d$scr$)$nat$on. .in! hi(% the CO>ELEC en & nc # s not $iveste$ o' its ?uris$iction to revie# the v li$it.e#er" they sha'' be ent$t'ed to a((o$nt (o'' . No #otes cast $n *a#or o* a (o'$t$ca' (arty" or%an$3at$on" or coa'$t$on sha'' be #a'$d" e>ce(t *or those re%$stered under the (arty7'$st syste) as (ro#$ded $n th$s Const$tut$on. in i$ o' its ppell te ?uris$iction) .ned or contro''ed cor(orat$on or $ts subs$d$ary.April 1A% 233A* CO>ELEC h s ?uris$iction to $eci$e Duestions o' le $ership #ithin p rt. 'ilin! o' the (otion 'or reconsi$er tion suspen$s its execution) It c nnot% thus% &e use$ 2: .  L"P vs) CO>ELEC% /R No) 1. the Co((ission on Appoint(ents% #hether or not such person co(pletes his ter( o' o''ice #hich coul$ &e seven% 'ive or three . ch r cter n$ e''ect)  Co$ill vs) "e Veneci % et l)% "ece(&er 13% 2332* Section 7% Article IG-C o' the 18:A Constitution e(po#ers the CO>ELEC en & nc to revie#% on (otion 'or reconsi$er tion% $ecisions or resolutions $eci$e$ &. The Co))$ss$on )ay" dur$n% the e'ect$on (er$od" su(er#$se or re%u'ate the en+oy)ent or ut$'$3at$on o* a'' *ranch$ses or (er)$ts *or the o(erat$on o* trans(ortat$on and other (ub'$c ut$'$t$es" )ed$a o* co))un$cat$on or $n*or)at$on" a'' %rants" s(ec$a' (r$#$'e%es" or concess$ons %ranted by the Go#ern)ent or any subd$#$s$on" a%ency" or $nstru)enta'$ty thereo*" $nc'ud$n% any %o#ern)ent7 o. Un'ess other. 2:% 233. o' the s i$ Or$er o' the Secon$ "ivision) The s i$ Or$er o' the Secon$ "ivision # s . A'' such e'ect$on cases sha'' be heard and dec$ded $n d$#$s$on" (ro#$ded that )ot$ons *or recons$derat$on o* dec$s$ons sha'' be dec$ded by the Co))$ss$on en banc.et unen'orce &le s it h s not tt ine$ 'in lit. n$ its le!iti( te o''icersN is ( tter th t is #ell #ithin its uthorit.% Ee&ru r. Sect$on 2.o'$t$ca' (art$es" or or%an$3at$ons or coa'$t$ons re%$stered under the (arty7'$st syste)" sha'' not be re(resented $n the #otersC re%$strat$on boards" boards o* e'ect$on $ns(ectors" boards o* can#assers" or other s$)$'ar bod$es. Sect$on 6. pplic &le provisions therein the pertinent provisions o' the Rules o' Court sh ll &e pplic &le &. is no other th n the 'un$ (ent l l # itsel'% #hich vests upon the CO>ELEC the po#er n$ 'unction to en'orce n$ $(inister ll l #s n$ re!ul tions rel tive to the con$uct o' n election) In the exercise o' such po#er n$ in the $isch r!e o' such 'unction% the Co((ission is en$o#e$ #ith (ple M#here#ith lN n$ Mconsi$er &le l titu$e in $optin! (e ns n$ (etho$s th t #ill ensure the cco(plish(ent o' the !re t o&?ectives 'or #hich it # s cre te$ to pro(ote 'ree% or$erl. 2C% 233C* The CO>ELEC correctl. pplic tion o' the Rules o' Court is expressl. Sect$on 8.$thout a *a#orab'e reco))endat$on o* the Co))$ss$on.> ti& ! vs) Benip .) The source o' this uthorit.o% April 2% 2332* The phr se M#ithout re ppoint(entN pplies onl. Sect$on //. A *ree and o(en (arty syste) sha'' be a''o.$th the ob+ect$#e o* ho'd$n% *ree" order'y" (eace*u'" and cred$b'e e'ect$ons. $ivision) Since the petitioner se son &l. The Co))$ss$on on E'ect$ons )ay s$t en banc or $n t. to $o so% consi$erin! th t the suppletor. or in suppletor.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 REAPPOINT>ENT OE CO>>ISSIONERS . Sect$on /:..ed to e#o'#e accord$n% to the *ree cho$ce o* the (eo('e" sub+ect to the (ro#$s$ons o* th$s Art$c'e. ?o. 'ile$ >otion 'or Reconsi$er tion o' the Or$er o' the Secon$ "ivision suspen$in! his procl ( tion n$ $isDu li'.)  ISS+ANCE o' #rits o' certior ri% prohi&ition n$ ( n$ (us onl. &unds cert$*$ed by the Co))$ss$on as necessary to de*ray the e>(enses *or ho'd$n% re%u'ar and s(ec$a' e'ect$ons" ('eb$sc$tes" $n$t$at$#es" re*erenda" and reca''s" sha'' be (ro#$ded $n the re%u'ar or s(ec$a' a((ro(r$at$ons and" once a((ro#ed" sha'' be re'eased auto)at$ca''y u(on cert$*$cat$on by the Cha$r)an o* the Co))$ss$on. honest elections)  B l ?on$ vs) CO>ELEC% /R No) 199372% Ee&ru r. the Presi$ent n$ con'ir(e$ &.129.0 the ti(el. Section 1% Rule C1 o' the CO>ELEC Rules o' Proce$ure #hich provi$es th t &sent n.e rs) There (ust &e con'ir( tion &. Such su(er#$s$on or re%u'at$on sha'' a$) to ensure e-ua' o((ortun$ty" t$)e and s(ace" and the r$%ht to re('y" $nc'ud$n% reasonab'e" e-ua' rates there*or" *or (ub'$c $n*or)at$on ca)(a$%ns and *oru)s a)on% cand$dates $n connect$on .* "espite the silence o' the CO>ELEC Rules o' Proce$ure s to the proce$ure o' the issu nce o' #rit o' execution pen$in! ppe l% there is no re son to $ispute the CO>ELECLs uthorit.

the presu(ption o' re!ul rit.$th$n the t$)e *$>ed by 'a. p rticip tion o' the CO>ELEC or its personnel &e'ore the 'ilin! o' such petition re 516 to prescri&e the 'or( o' the petition0 526 to issue throu!h its Election Recor$s n$ St tistics O''ice certi'ic te on the tot l nu(&er o' re!istere$ voters in e ch le!isl tive $istrict0 576 to ssist% throu!h its election re!istr rs% in the est &lish(ent o' si!n ture st tions0 n$ 5C6 to veri'.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 s the & sis 'or the ssu(ption in o''ice o' the respon$ent s the $ul. electe$ Represent tive o' the Cth le!isl tive $istrict o' Le.$th or$%$na' charters" and on a (ost7aud$t bas$s< (a const$tut$ona' bod$es" co))$ss$ons and o**$ces that ha#e been %ranted *$sca' autono)y under th$s Const$tut$on= (b autono)ous state co''e%es and un$#ers$t$es= (c other %o#ern)ent7o. In no case sha'' any Me)ber be a((o$nted or des$%nated $n a te)(orary or act$n% ca(ac$ty. pro(ul! te rules n$ re!ul tions to i(ple(ent the exercise o' the ri!ht o' the people to $irectl. It sha'' . 71% 188A* Contests involvin! elections o' S. O* those *$rst a((o$nted" the Cha$r)an sha'' ho'd o**$ce *or se#en years" one Co))$ss$oner *or *$#e years" and the other Co))$ss$oner *or three years" .ned or contro''ed cor(orat$ons and the$r subs$d$ar$es= and (d such non7%o#ern)enta' ent$t$es rece$#$n% subs$dy or e-u$ty" d$rect'y or $nd$rect'y" *ro) or throu%h the %o#ern)ent" .et no vs) CO>ELEC% B nu r. Sect$on 0. prece$in! election)  C .here the $nterna' contro' syste) o* the aud$ted a%enc$es $s $nade-uate" the Co))$ss$on )ay ado(t such )easures" $nc'ud$n% te)(orary or s(ec$a' (re7aud$t" as are necessary and a((ro(r$ate to correct the de*$c$enc$es. propose (en$(ents to the Constitution throu!h the s.ned or he'd $n trust by" or (erta$n$n% to" the Go#ern)ent" or any o* $ts subd$#$s$ons" a%enc$es" or $nstru)enta'$t$es" $nc'ud$n% %o#ern)ent7o. ple $in!) Nothin! &e'ore its 'ilin! is co!niF &le &. the CO>ELEC% sittin! en & nc) The onl.o''ici ls $o not ' ll #ithin the ?uris$iction o' the CO>ELEC)  Loon! vs) CO>ELEC% 73.o Co))$ss$oners" . SCRA :72* The CO>ELEC ( .ho ha#e been en%a%ed $n the (ract$ce o* 'a.res$dent .h$'$(($ne Bar .h$'$(($nes and" at the t$)e o* the$r a((o$nt)ent" at 'east th$rty7 *$#e years o* a%e" cert$*$ed (ub'$c accountants . (0 The Co))$ss$on sha'' ha#e e>c'us$#e author$ty" sub+ect to the '$)$tat$ons $n th$s Art$c'e" to de*$ne the sco(e o* $ts aud$t and e>a)$nat$on" estab'$sh the techn$-ues and )ethods re-u$red there*or" and (ro)u'%ate account$n% and aud$t$n% ru'es and re%u'at$ons" $nc'ud$n% those *or the (re#ent$on and d$sa''o. the CO>ELEC un$er 5 6 Section 7 o' Article IG-C o' the Constitution% or 5&6 l # #here su&or$in te le!isl tion is uthoriFe$ n$ #hich s tis'ies the Mco(pletenessN n$ the Msu''icient st n$ r$N tests)  The CO>ELEC cDuires ?uris$iction over petition 'or initi tive onl. Sect$on 2. # . v li$l.ste(% i' th t is the onl.% throu!h its election re!istr rs% the si!n tures on the & sis o' the re!istr. At no t$)e sha'' a'' Me)bers o* the Co))$ss$on be'on% to the sa)e (ro*ess$on. to count votes) It ou!ht to &e sel'-evi$ent th t the Constitution $i$ 28 . Sect$on 1. *or at 'east ten years" and )ust not ha#e been cand$dates *or any e'ect$#e (os$t$on $n the e'ect$on $))ed$ate'y (reced$n% the$r a((o$nt)ent.$thout rea((o$nt)ent. ?o.h$ch are re-u$red by 'a.res$dent and the Con%ress" ." (reser#e the #ouchers and other su((ort$n% (a(ers (erta$n$n% thereto. (/ The Co))$ss$on on Aud$t sha'' ha#e the (o.ance o* $rre%u'ar" unnecessary" $ne>(ens$#e" e>tra#a%ant" or unconsc$onab'e e>(end$tures" or uses o* %o#ern)ent *unds and (ro(ert$es.te) not envision CO>ELEC th t c nnot count the result o' n election) COMMISSION ON AUDIT Sect$on /.s &een the &usiness o' the CO>ELEC n$ not the re!ul r courts) Such c se involves the ppreci tion o' & llots #hich is &est le't to the CO>ELEC) As n in$epen$ent constitution l &o$.ee( the %enera' accounts o* the Go#ern)ent and" *or such (er$od as )ay be (ro#$ded by 'a.$th the consent o* the Co))$ss$on on A((o$nt)ents *or a ter) o* se#en years ." an annua' re(ort co#er$n% the *$nanc$a' cond$t$on and o(erat$on o* the Go#ern)ent" $ts subd$#$s$ons"  S r(iento vs) CO>ELEC% 212 SCRA 73A* The CO>ELEC en & nc $oes not h ve the uthorit. sha'' be (assed e>e)(t$n% any ent$ty o* the Go#ern)ent or $ts subs$d$ary $n any %u$se . list o' voters% votersL ''i$ vits% n$ votersL i$enti'ic tion c r$s use$ in the i((e$i tel.ho sha'' be natura'7born c$t$3ens o* the .$th not 'ess than ten years o* aud$t$n% e>(er$ence" or )e)bers o* the . (/ There sha'' be a Co))$ss$on on Aud$t co)(osed o* a Cha$r)an and t. No 'a. 27% 2339* The con$uct o' ple&iscite n$ $eter(in tion o' its result h ve l# . ch r!e$ #ith the po#er o' en'orce(ent n$ $(inistr tion o' ll l #s n$ re!ul tions rel tive to the con$uct o' n election% ple&iscite% initi tive% re'eren$u( n$ rec ll% the CO>ELEC h s the in$isput &le expertise in the 'iel$ o' election n$ rel te$ l #s)N Its cts% there'ore% en?o.ste( o' initi tive) It $oes not h ve th t po#er un$er R)A) No) 9A7. A((o$nt)ent to any #acancy sha'' be on'y *or the une>($red (ort$on o* the ter) o* the (redecessor. The Co))$ss$on sha'' sub)$t to the . exclusivel.hate#er" or any $n#est)ent o* (ub'$c *unds" *ro) the +ur$sd$ct$on o* the Co))$ss$on on Aud$t.$thout rea((o$nt)ent. (0 The Cha$r)an and the Co))$ss$oners sha'' be a((o$nted by the . to he r n$ $eci$e these speci l c ses)  S nti !o vs) CO>ELEC% > rch 18% 188A* CO>ELEC c nnot v li$l.ned and contro''ed cor(orat$ons .e#er" . o* the %rant$n% $nst$tut$on to sub)$t to such aud$t as a cond$t$on o* subs$dy or e-u$ty. in the per'or( nce o' o''ici l $uties)  Alun n III vs) >ir sol% /R No) 13:788% Bul. or$er ( nu l count not#ithst n$in! the reDuire$ uto( te$ countin! o' & llots in R) A) :C79% the l # uthoriFin! the co((ission to use n uto( te$ election s. 'ter its 'ilin!) The petition then is the initi tor. to he r n$ $eci$e c ses t the 'irst inst nce) +n$er the CO>ELEC Rules% pre-procl ( tion c ses re cl ssi'ie$ s Speci l C ses n$ in co(pli nce #ith the provision o' the Constitution% the t#o $ivisions o' the CO>ELEC re veste$ #ith the uthorit.) Reli nce on the CO>ELECLs po#er un$er Section 2516 o' Article IG-C o' the Constitution is (ispl ce$% 'or the l #s n$ re!ul tions re'erre$ to therein re those pro(ul! te$ &.er" author$ty and duty to e>a)$ne" aud$t" and sett'e a'' accounts (erta$n$n% to the re#enue and rece$(ts o*" and e>(end$tures or uses o* *unds and (ro(erty" o.

$th e**ect$#e )echan$s)s o* reca''" $n$t$at$#e" and re*erendu)" a''ocate a)on% the d$**erent 'oca' %o#ern)ent un$ts the$r (o.IL) OPERATIONS% INC) vs Au$itor /ener l% 8C Phil :9:* COALs po#er over the settle(ent o' ccounts is $i''erent 'ro( po#er over unliDui$ te$ cl i(s% the l tter o' #hich is #ithin the (&it o' ?u$ici l po#er)   N.. h n$les pu&lic 'un$s% it ' lls un$er COA ?uris$iction) +n$er Sec) 2516% ite(% 5$6% non-!overn(ent l entities receivin! su&si$ies or eDuit. not% #ithout his consent% &e #ithhel$ n$ pplie$ to his in$e&te$ness to the !overn(ent)  >ISON vs) COA% 1:A SCRA CC. c se &rou!ht &e'ore it) A$or(eo vs) CO>ELEC% Ee&ru r. o' service)  P. There sha'' be LonF ni$ vs CO>ELEC% 711 SCRA 932* Volunt r..ers and *unct$ons and dut$es o* 'oca' o**$c$a's" and a'' other )atters re'at$n% to the or%an$3at$on and o(erat$on o* 'oca' un$ts. renunci tion &ut in co(pli nce #ith the le! l process o' #rit o' execution issue$ &. the CO>ELEC to th t e''ect) Such involunt r. o' service n$ thus% the petitioner $i$ not 'ull. liste$% or s in the c se t & r #hen the !overn(ent &orro#s (one. or in$irectl. $irectl.h$ch sha'' be deter)$ned by 'a. SCRA 1. Sect$on 1.  Socr tes vs) CO>ELEC% Nove(&er 12% 2332* Wh t the Constitution prohi&its is n i((e$i te re-election 'or 'ourth ter( 'ollo#in! three consecutive ter(s) The Constituton% ho#ever% $oes not prohi&it su&seDuent re-election 'or 'ourth ter( s lon! s the reelection is not i((e$i tel. 'ro( &ro $) Sect$on 8.  TER> OE OEEICIALS OEEICE OE ELECTIVE LOCAL  Blue B r Coconut Phils) vs) T ntuico* Corpor tions covere$ &. o' COA u$it) > ni'estl. sever nce 'ro( o''ice is n interruption o' continuit. The ter) o* o**$ce o* e'ect$#e 'oca' o**$c$a's" e>ce(t baran%ay o**$c$a's" .or l ter()  73 Bor? vs) CO>ELEC% 28.the COA $oes not h ve the exclusive po#er to ex (ine n$ u$it !overn(ent !encies) The 'r (ers o' the Constitution #ere 'ull. 'ro( or throu!h the !overn(ent re reDuire$ to su&(it to post u$it)  "BP vs) COA% B nu r. the COALs u$itin! po#ers re not li(ite$ to /OCCs) Where priv te corpor tion or entit.ned or contro''ed cor(orat$ons" and non7%o#ern)enta' ent$t$es sub+ect to $ts aud$t" and reco))end )easures necessary to $)(ro#e the$r e**ect$#eness and e**$c$ency.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 a%enc$es" and $nstru)enta'$t$es" $nc'ud$n% %o#ern)ent7o. l # (ounts to n interruption o' continuit.ers" res(ons$b$'$t$es" and resources" and (ro#$de *or the -ua'$*$cat$ons" e'ect$on" a((o$nt)ent and re)o#a'" ter)" sa'ar$es" (o. expen$itures) ARTICLE + LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Sect$on /. Sect$on 0. The Con%ress sha'' enact a 'oca' %o#ern)ent code . It sha'' sub)$t such other re(orts as )ay be re-u$red by 'a.* The ch ir( n o' COA% ctin! &.or l elections% not &." sha'' be three years and no such o**$c$a' sha'' ser#e *or )ore than three consecut$#e ter)s.A* Eor the three ter(-li(it rule to ppl.e rs 'or purposes o' countin! the consecutiveness o' n elective o''ici lLs ter(s in o''ice) Thus% in situ tion #here c n$i$ te loses in n election to ! in thir$ consecutive ter( &ut l ter #ins in the rec ll election% the rec ll ter( c nnot &e stitche$ #ith his previous t#o consecutive ter(s) The perio$ o' ti(e prior to the rec ll ter(% #hen nother elective o''ici l hol$s o''ice% constitutes n interruption in the continuit.h$ch sha'' (ro#$de *or a )ore res(ons$#e and accountab'e 'oca' %o#ern)ent structure $nst$tuted throu%h a syste) o* decentra'$3at$on . serve the 188.h$ch he . #hich h s the ?uris$iction to $eci$e n.% the loc l o''ici l .  COALS A+"ITIN/ POWER autono)ous re%$ons $n Mus'$) M$ndanao and the Cord$''eras as here$na*ter (ro#$ded. sever nce 'ro( o''ice 'or n. renunci tion o' ter( $oes not c ncel the renounce$ ter( in the co(put tion o' the three-ter( li(it) Conversel. in the ter( 'ollo#in! the thir$ consecutive ter( is su&seDuent election &ut not n i((e$i te reelection 'ter the thir$ ter()   BSP vs) COA% B nu r. The terr$tor$a' and (o'$t$ca' subd$#$s$ons sha'' en+oy 'oca' autono)y.% the express l n!u !e o' the Constitution% n$ the cle r intent o' its 'r (ers% point to onl. one in$u&it &le conclusion . 22% 2339* Retire(ent &ene'its ccruin! to pu&lic o''icer ( .-p sse$ nor i!nore$ since even #ith priv te u$it the COA #ill still con$uct its usu l ex (in tion n$ u$it% n$ its 'in$in!s n$ conclusions #ill still &in$ !overn(ent !encies n$ their o''ici ls) A concurrent priv te u$it poses no $ n!er #h tsoever o' pu&lic 'un$s or ssets esc pin! the usu l scrutin. The terr$tor$a' and (o'$t$ca' subd$#$s$ons o* the @e(ub'$c o* the .-188: ( . # re o' the nee$ to llo# in$epen$ent priv te u$it o' cert in !overn(ent !encies in $$ition to the COA u$it% s #hen there is priv te invest(ent in !overn(entcontrolle$ corpor tion% or #hen !overn(ent corpor tion is priv tiFe$ or pu&licl. 'ter the en$ o' the thir$ consecutive ter() A rec ll election (i$-# . volunt r. hi(sel'% h s no uthorit.as e'ected.A vs) COA% 229 SCRA . to ren$er or pro(ul! te $ecision 'or the co((ission) The po#er to $eci$e on issues rel tin! to u$it n$ ccountin! is lo$!e$ in the COA ctin! s colle!i l &o$. 19% 2332* The (ere ' ct th t priv te u$itors ( . len!th o' ti(e short o' the 'ull ter( provi$e$ &. o' service) The petitioner v c te$ his post 'e# (onths &e'ore the next ( . $is llo# the pprov l o' excess or unnecess r. C% 2332* The #inner in the rec ll election c nnot &e ch r!e$ or cre$ite$ #ith the 'ull ter( o' three .* COA c n v li$l. u$it !overn(ent !encies $oes not $ivest the COA o' its po#er to ex (ine n$ u$it the s (e !overn(ent !encies) The COA is neither &. Ao'untary renunc$at$on o* the o**$ce *or any 'en%th o* t$)e sha'' not be cons$dered as an $nterru(t$on $n the cont$nu$ty o* h$s ser#$ce *or the *u'' ter) *or .% involunt r.h$'$(($nes are the (ro#$nces" c$t$es" )un$c$(a'$t$es" and baran%ays.

l #% in the n tion l t xes #hich sh ll &e uto( tic ll.Section 9% Art) G o' the 18:Aconstitution provi$es th t L/+s sh ll h ve ?ust sh re% s $eter(ine$ &.$th the $nhab$tants by . l #0 576 th t M?ust sh reN sh ll &e uto( tic ll.% 233. serve$ the ter() Sect$on 5. is no (ere p ssin! $ lli nce &ut constitution ll. tr ''ic-sn rle$ ro $s o' >etro > nil ) But these l u$ &le intentions re li(ite$ &.er to create $ts o.h$ch sha'' be auto)at$ca''y re'eased to the).$th the bas$c (o'$cy o* 'oca' autono)y.6   Its 'unction is li(ite$ to the $eliver. 'or( p rt o' the !ross ccretion o' the 'un$s o' the loc l !overn(ent unit) 5Alv reF vs) /uin!on % 2.5'6 o' Rep) Act No) A82C is un$erstoo$ &. the "evelop(ent Bu$!et Coor$in tin! Co((ittee o' the e(er!in! 'isc l situ tion% the (ount eDuiv lent to 13R o' the intern l revenue llot(ent to loc l !overn(ent units sh ll &e #ithhel$N is $ecl re$ in contr vention o' Section 2:9 o' the L/ Co$e n$ Section 9 o' Art G o' the constitution 5Pi(entel vs) A!uirre% Bul. rele se$ to the L/+s) 5PROVINCE OE BATAN/AS VS) RO>+LO% C28 SCRA A79% > . this Court) The /SISLs t x-exe(pt st tus% in su(% # s #ith$r #n in 1882 &.6 INTERNAL REVEN+E ALLOT>ENT Sect$on 4.n sources o* re#enues and to 'e#y ta>es" *ees" and char%es sub+ect to such %u$de'$nes and '$)$tat$ons as the Con%ress )ay (ro#$de" cons$stent . the lo#er court n$ &." create s(ec$a' )etro(o'$tan (o'$t$ca' subd$#$s$ons" sub+ect to a ('eb$sc$te as set *orth $n Sect$on /: hereo*. v li$ l #% or or$in nce% or re!ul tion risin! 'ro( le!iti( te source) 5>>"A vs) " nilo / rin% April 1.O+T ANJ CON"ITION OE APPROVAL ERO> ANJ /OVERN>ENTAL BO"J .e rs 1882 to 188C #ere ssesse$ 71 . Loca' %o#ern)ents sha'' be ent$t'ed to an e-u$tab'e share $n the (roceeds o* the ut$'$3at$on and de#e'o()ent o* the nat$ona' .) It is not politic l unit o' !overn(ent) There is no !r nt o' uthorit.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 concerne$ (ust serve three consecutive ter(s s result o' election) The ter( serve$ (ust &e one 'or #hich he # s electe$) Thus% i' he ssu(es position &.$'' hereby be created sha'' be '$)$ted to bas$c ser#$ces re-u$r$n% coord$nat$on. other le!isl tive en ct(ent% such is n un uthoriFe$ exercise o' police po#er) The >>"A # s inten$e$ to coor$in te services #ith (etro-#i$e i(p ct th t tr nscen$ loc l politic l &oun$ ries or #oul$ ent il hu!e expen$itures i' provi$e$ &. Sect$on 6.ea'th . provisions% & rrin! loc l elective o''ici ls 'ro( &ein! electe$ n$ servin! 'or (ore th n three consecutive ter(s 'or the s (e position) .ARE IN T." $n the nat$ona' ta>es . The Con%ress )ay" by 'a.is continuous exercise o' the 'unctions thereo' 'ro( st rt to 'inish o' the ter(% shoul$ le! ll. the constitution l n$ st tutor. o' Er ncis On!Ls service respectin! the 188:-2331 ter()  >ETROPOLITAN A+T.$th$n the$r res(ect$#e areas" $n the )anner (ro#$ded by 'a. the petitioner to !r nt the >>"A the po#er to con'isc te n$ suspen$ or revo<e $riversL licenses #ithout nee$ o' n. t xes 'or the . to the(% su&?ect to con!ression l !ui$elines n$ li(it tions) The principle o' loc l utono(. the in$ivi$u l L/+s% especi ll.ay o* d$rect bene*$ts. 18% 23336) LOCAL TAGATION   There'ore% inso' r s Sec) ." $nc'ud$n% shar$n% the sa)e .ALL BE A+TO>ATICALLJ RELEASE" WIT. The +ur$sd$ct$on o* the )etro(o'$tan author$ty that . to en ct or$in nces n$ re!ul tions 'or the !ener l #el' re o' the inh &it nts o' the (etropolis) It is the loc l !overn(ent units% ctin! throu!h their respective le!isl tive councils% th t possess le!isl tive po#er n$ police po#er) 5>>"A vs) BelAir Vill !e Associ tion% 72: SCRA :796) AO No) 7A2 o' Presi$ent R (os% Section C #hich provi$es th t Mpen$in! the ssess(ent n$ ev lu tion &.   Constitution itsel' pro(otes the principles o' loc l utono(. rele se$ to the() When p sse$% it #oul$ &e re $il. Loca' %o#ern)ent un$ts sha'' ha#e a +ust share" as deter)$ned by 'a.ORTJ >ANILA "EVELOP>ENT  IRAs re ite(s o' inco(e &ec use the.n 'oca' e>ecut$#es and 'e%$s'at$#e asse)b'$es.6  Sect$on //. Each 'oca' %o#ern)ent un$t sha'' ha#e the (o. &e t <en s service 'or 'ull ter( in conte(pl tion o' the three-ter( rule% not#ithst n$in! the su&seDuent nulli'ic tion o' his procl ( tion) There # s ctu ll. virtue o' succession% the o''ici l c nnot &e consi$ere$ to h ve 'ull. o' loc l !overn(ents% n$ loc l !overn(ents re e(po#ere$ to lev.ste( Act o' 188A% the oper tive provision o' #hich is Section 78) The su&?ect re l propert. no interruption or &re < in the continuit. see th t such provision ( n$ tes th t 516 the L/+s sh ll h ve M?ust sh reN in the n tion l t xes0 n$ 526 M?ust sh reN sh ll &e $eter(ine$ &.  On! vs) Ale!re% et l)% Bune 27% 2339* ssu(ption o' o''ice constitutes% 'or Er ncis On!% Mservice 'or the 'ull ter(N% n$ shoul$ &e counte$ s 'ull ter( serve$ in conte(pl tion o' the three-ter( li(it prescri&e$ &. #ith re! r$ to tr nsport n$ tr ''ic ( n !e(ent% n$ #e re # re o' the v li nt e''orts o' the petitioner to unt n!le the incre sin!l. o' & sic services) RA A82C $oes not !r nt the >>"A police po#er% let lone le!isl tive po#er) The >>"A is $evelop(ent uthorit. s e(&o$ie$ in the Loc l /overn(ent Co$e) The St te is ( n$ te$ to ensure the utono(. Such ta>es" *ees" and char%es sha'' accrue e>c'us$#e'y to the 'oca' %o#ern)ents. the Loc l /overn(ent Co$e &ut restore$ &.2 SCRA 98. t xes% 'ees n$ ch r!es th t ccrue exclusivel.E IRA S. enshrine$ precept th t $eserves respect n$ ppropri te en'orce(ent &. 2A% 233C6  The le!isl tive is & rre$ 'ro( #ithhol$in! the rele se o' the IRA) 5ACOR" vs) 4 (or % Bune :% 233. The co)(onent c$t$es and )un$c$(a'$t$es sha'' reta$n the$r bas$c autono)y and sha'' be ent$t'ed to the$r o. the >>"ALs en &lin! l #% #hich #e c n &ut interpret% n$ petitioner (ust &e re(in$e$ th t its e''orts in this respect (ust &e uthoriFe$ &. the /overn(ent Service Insur nce S. L/+SL S.

o' his or her lter e!os c nnot inter'ere in loc l '' irs s lon! s the concerne$ loc l !overn(ent unit cts #ithin the p r (eters o' the l # n$ the Constitution) An.N o' the /overn(ent re'ers to M n. the Presi$ent or n. to l #) This is the scope o' the Presi$entLs supervisor.in! 'r nchise t x) Thou!h its ch rter exe(pte$ it 'ro( the t x% the en ct(ent o' the Loc l /overn(ent Co$e 5L/C6 h s #ith$r # such exe(ption% the Court s i$% citin! its previous rulin! in N tion l Po#er Corpor tion vs) Cit. throu!h ch rter) This ter( inclu$es re!ul tor.% Article G o' the Constitution) An M !enc.s are *a$th*u''y e>ecuted. The . uphol$in! the po#er o' L/+s to !r nt llo# nces to ?u$!es . Section . &. the Repu&lic o' the Philippines n$ thus exe(pt 'ro( re l est te t x) The Airport L n$s n$ Buil$in!s o' >IAA re propert.% Provinci l /overnor% Bune 19% 23396* The NAPOCOR is not exe(pt 'ro( p .  PPA vs) Iloilo Cit.ers and *unct$ons.% or !overn(ento#ne$ or controlle$ corpor tion% or loc l !overn(ent or $istinct unit therein0N #hile n Minstru(ent lit.N or Minstru(ent lit.ence% the Presi$ent or n. loc l le!isl tive &o$ies% no lon!er (erel. &e collecte$ &. &e exercise$ &. No (ro#$nce" c$ty" )un$c$(a'$ty" or baran%ay )ay be created" d$#$ded" )er%ed" abo'$shed" or $ts boundary substant$a''y a'tered" e>ce(t $n accordance . $ou&t #hether person% rticle or ctivit.% usu ll..o#ever% #hen Con!ress !r nts n exe(ption to n tion l !overn(ent instru(ent lit. n$ sep r tion o' po#ers o' the executive n$ le!isl tive $ep rt(ents in !overnin! (unicip l corpor tions) 5" $ole vs) COA% "ece(&er 7% 23326)  72 Le. in ' vor o' the n tion l !overn(ent instru(ent lit. re use$ &. the Chie' Executive or his lter e!o)   >IAA vs) CA% et l)% Bul.$th res(ect to co)(onent c$t$es and )un$c$(a'$t$es" and c$t$es and )un$c$(a'$t$es . is not su&?ect to control &. 'ro( loc l t x tion% such exe(ption is construe$ li&er ll. is t x &le is resolve$ ! inst t x tion) This rule pplies #ith !re ter 'orce #hen loc l !overn(ents see< to t x n tion l !overn(ent instru(ent lities)  Another rule is th t t x exe(ption is strictl. con'erre$ &.res$dent o* the .in! oper tion l utono(.$th$n the sco(e o* the$r (rescr$bed (o.er cl i(in! the exe(ption) . o' " v o vs) RTC% Br) 12% Au!ust 1:% 233. Sect$on /:. . !enc. ! inst loc l !overn(ents) The rule is th t t x is never presu(e$ n$ there (ust &e cle r l n!u !e in the l # i(posin! the t x) An.% Nove(&er 11% 233C* The & re ' ct th t the port n$ its ' cilities n$ ppurten nces re ccessi&le to the !ener l pu&lic $oes not exe(pt it 'ro( the p .(ent o' re l propert.  PRESI"ENTLS S+PERVISION  >CCIA vs) > rcos% Septe(&er 11% 1889* The po#er to t x is pri( ril. the Repu&lic is Not T x &le  /)R) No) 19. o' " v o) 5Cit. $irective there'ore &.6 Airport L n$s n$ Buil$in!s re outsi$e the co((erce o' ( n) Re l Propert. the St te or the Repu&lic o' the Philippines) The Airport L n$s n$ Buil$in!s re $evote$ to pu&lic use &ec use the. the pu&lic 'or intern tion l n$ $o(estic tr vel n$ tr nsport tion) The Airport L n$s n$ Buil$in!s o' >IAA re $evote$ to pu&lic use n$ thus re properties o' pu&lic $o(inion) As properties o' pu&lic $o(inion% the The Presi$ent c n onl.res$dent sha'' e>erc$se %enera' su(er#$s$on o#er autono)ous re%$ons to ensure that the 'a. &usiness)  N tion l Li! vs) P re$es% Septe(&er 2A% 233C* Li<e the loc l !overn(ent units% the Li! n! (! B r n! . t xes% #hich% s e rlier $verte$ to% pplies to >CIAA) Sect$on 2.(ent o' re l propert.N o' the /overn(ent% t x &le person 'or such purpose in vie# o' the #ith$r # l in the l st p r !r ph o' Section 27C o' exe(ptions 'ro( the p . t xes) It (ust &e stresse$ th t the s i$ port ' cilities n$ ppurten nces re the petitionerLs corpor te p tri(oni l properties% not 'or pu&lic use% n$ th t the oper tion o' the port n$ its ' cilities n$ the $(inistr tion o' its &uil$in!s re in the n ture o' or$in r.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 ! inst /SIS #hile the Loc l /overn(ent Co$e provisions prev ile$ n$% thus% ( .N re'ers to M n. Le%$s'at$#e bod$es o* 'oca' %o#ern)ents sha'' ha#e sectora' re(resentat$on as )ay be (rescr$bed by 'a. construe$ ! inst the t xp . inter'ere in the '' irs n$ ctivities o' loc l !overn(ent unit i' he or she 'in$s th t the l tter h s cte$ contr r. loc l !overn(ents) >IAA is not !overn(ent-o#ne$ or controlle$ corpor tion &ut n instru(ent lit. o' the N tion l /overn(ent n$ thus exe(pt 'ro( loc l t x tion) Secon$% the re l properties o' >IAA re o#ne$ &. &ec use it viol tes the principle o' loc l utono(. .) Sect$on 9. 23% 2339* >IAALs Airport L n$s n$ Buil$in!s re exe(pt 'ro( re l est te t x i(pose$ &. virtue o' v li$ $ele! tion s &e'ore% &ut pursu nt to $irect uthorit. o' the v rious units o' the /overn(ent% inclu$in! $ep rt(ent% &ure u% o''ice% instru(ent lit.ro#$nces . the Cit.on) Ben? (in /) ".$th the cr$ter$a estab'$shed $n the 'oca' %o#ern)ent code and sub+ect to a((ro#a' by a )a+or$ty o* the #otes cast $n a ('eb$sc$te $n the (o'$t$ca' un$ts d$rect'y a**ected. veste$ in the Con!ress0 ho#ever% in our ?uris$iction% it ( .h$'$(($nes sha'' e>erc$se %enera' su(er#$s$on o#er 'oca' %o#ern)ents. Sect$on /5.$th res(ect to co)(onent baran%ays sha'' ensure that the acts o* the$r co)(onent un$ts are . o' his or her lter e!os see<in! to lter the #is$o( o' l #-con'or(in! ?u$!(ent on loc l '' irs o' loc l !overn(ent unit is p tent nullit. The . &eco(e% even i' it &e conce$e$ to &e n M !enc. !encies% ch rtere$ institutions n$ !overn(ent-o#ne$ n$ controlle$ corpor tions)N It h $ lre $. O#ne$ &.:2A% N tion l Po#er Corpor tion vs) Province o' Is &el % represente$ &. l #% en$o#e$ #ith so(e i' not ll corpor te po#ers% $(inisterin! speci l 'un$s% n$ en?o. po#ers over loc l !overn(ent units) . o' C & n tu n)  When loc l !overn(ents invo<e the po#er to t x on n tion l !overn(ent instru(ent lities% such po#er is construe$ strictl.nes vs) COA% C1: SCRA 1:3* B. o' the N tion l /overn(ent% not inte!r te$ #ithin the $ep rt(ent 'r (e#or<% veste$ #ith speci l 'unctions or ?uris$iction &. o' pu&lic $o(inion n$ there'ore o#ne$ &.

to the autono)ous re%$ons sha'' be #ested $n the Nat$ona' Go#ern)ent.$th a(('$cab'e 'a.e'*are o* the (eo('e o* the re%$on. The #oters o* co)(onent c$t$es . o' loc l 'un$s% the !enuine n$ (e nin!'ul loc l utono(. There sha'' be created autono)ous re%$ons $n Mus'$) M$ndanao and $n the Cord$''eras cons$st$n% o* (ro#$nces" c$t$es" )un$c$(a'$t$es" and %eo%ra(h$ca' areas shar$n% co))on and d$st$nct$#e h$stor$ca' and cu'tura' her$ta%e" econo)$c and soc$a' structures" and other re'e#ant character$st$cs . Sect$on /9.ers o#er< (/ Ad)$n$strat$#e or%an$3at$on= (0 Creat$on o* sources o* re#enues= (1 Ancestra' do)a$n and natura' resources= (2 . The de*ense and secur$ty o* the re%$ons sha'' be the res(ons$b$'$ty o* the Nat$ona' Go#ern)ent.>ENT  Sect$on 0.$th$n the re%$ons sha'' be the res(ons$b$'$ty o* the 'oca' (o'$ce a%enc$es . Loca' %o#ern)ent un$ts )ay %rou( the)se'#es" conso'$date or coord$nate the$r e**orts" ser#$ces" and resources *or (ur(oses co))on'y bene*$c$a' to the) $n accordance . Sect$on 1.$th$n the re%$on *or (ur(oses o* ad)$n$strat$#e decentra'$3at$on to stren%then the autono)y o* the un$ts there$n and to acce'erate the econo)$c and soc$a' %ro.$th the corres(ond$n% reso'ut$on. Sect$on 0/.$th$n a (ro#$nce" .$th (atr$ot$s) and +ust$ce" and 'ead )odest '$#es.e.s.or.s.$th$n three sess$on days therea*ter. The or%an$c acts sha'' '$. *or the (ro)ot$on o* the %enera' . The or%an$c act sha'' de*$ne the bas$c structure o* %o#ern)ent *ro) the re%$on cons$st$n% o* the e>ecut$#e de(art)ent and 'e%$s'at$#e asse)b'y" both o* . The .hose charters (roh$b$t the$r #oters *ro) #ot$n% *or (ro#$nc$a' e'ect$#e o**$c$a's" sha'' be $nde(endent o* the (ro#$nce. The Co))$ttee" a*ter hear$n%" and by a )a+or$ty #ote o* a'' $ts Me)bers" sha'' sub)$t $ts re(ort to the ?ouse .$th 'a.$th$n ten sess$on days *ro) rece$(t thereo*. Sect$on /1.$se (ro#$de *or s(ec$a' courts . Sect$on 0:.reser#at$on and de#e'o()ent o* the cu'tura' her$ta%e= and (9 Such other )atters as )ay be author$3ed by 'a.$th ut)ost res(ons$b$'$ty" $nte%r$ty" 'oya'ty" and e**$c$ency" act .hose charters conta$n no such (roh$b$t$on" sha'' not be de(r$#ed o* the$r r$%ht to #ote *or e'ect$#e (ro#$nc$a' o**$c$a's.res$dent *ro) a '$st o* no)$nees *ro) )u't$sectora' bod$es.er to $n$t$ate a'' cases o* $)(each)ent.$th the (ro#$s$ons o* th$s Const$tut$on and nat$ona' 'a.h$ch sha'' be or%an$3ed" )a$nta$ned" su(er#$sed" and ut$'$3ed $n accordance .ersona'" *a)$'y" and (ro(erty re'at$ons= (4 @e%$ona' urban and rura' ('ann$n% de#e'o()ent= (5 Econo)$c" soc$a'" and tour$s) de#e'o()ent= (6 Educat$ona' (o'$c$es= (8 . (0 A #er$*$ed co)('a$nt )ay be *$'ed by any Me)ber o* the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es or by any c$t$3en u(on a reso'ut$on o* endorse)ent by any Me)ber thereo*" .h$ch sha'' be $nc'uded $n the Order o* Bus$ness . . Sect$on /4. (/ The ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es sha'' ha#e the e>c'us$#e (o.res$dent" A$ce7.h$ch sha'' be re*'ect$#e and re(resentat$#e o* the const$tuent (o'$t$ca' un$ts. (1 A #ote o* at 'east one7th$rd o* a'' the Me)bers o* the ?ouse sha'' be necessary e$ther to a**$r) a *a#orab'e reso'ut$on .$th the Art$c'es o* I)(each)ent 77 .$th$n s$>ty sess$on days *ro) such re*erra'" to%ether . A'' other (ub'$c o**$cers and e)('oyees )ay be re)o#ed *ro) o**$ce as (ro#$ded by 'a. ARTICLE +I ACCOUNTABILITY OF PUBLIC OFFICERS Sect$on /. The (reser#at$on o* (eace and order ." but not by $)(each)ent.  I>PEAC.th and de#e'o()ent o* the un$ts $n the re%$on.ub'$c o**$ce $s a (ub'$c trust.e'' as terr$tor$a' $nte%r$ty o* the @e(ub'$c o* the .res$dent" the Me)bers o* the Su(re)e Court" the Me)bers o* the Const$tut$ona' Co))$ss$ons" and the O)buds)an )ay be re)o#ed *ro) o**$ce" on $)(each)ent *or" and con#$ct$on o*" cu'(ab'e #$o'at$on o* the Const$tut$on" treason" br$bery" %ra*t and corru(t$on" other h$%h cr$)es" or betraya' o* (ub'$c trust. Sect$on /8. o* th$s Const$tut$on and the nat$ona' so#ere$%nty as .BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 n$ le vin! to their $iscretion the (ount o' llo# nces the. The Con%ress sha'' enact an or%an$c act *or each autono)ous re%$on . !$th$n $ts terr$tor$a' +ur$sd$ct$on and sub+ect to the (ro#$s$ons o* th$s Const$tut$on and nat$ona' 'a.$th$n e$%hteen )onths *ro) the t$)e o* or%an$3at$on o* both ?ouses" (ass the or%an$c acts *or the autono)ous re%$ons $n Mus'$) M$ndanao and the Cord$''eras. # nt to !r nt% $epen$in! on the v il &ilit.$th$n the *ra)e. Sect$on /2." and co)(onent c$t$es .$th the ass$stance and (art$c$(at$on o* the re%$ona' consu'tat$#e co))$ss$on co)(osed o* re(resentat$#es a((o$nted by the . The . The creat$on o* the autono)ous re%$on sha'' be e**ect$#e . C$t$es that are h$%h'y urban$3ed" as deter)$ned by 'a. is ensure$) B t n! s CATV Inc) vs) CA% C78 SCRA 729* In the &sence o' constitution l or le!isl tive uthoriF tion% (unicip lities h ve no po#er to !r nt 'r nchises) Sect$on /0. .s" the or%an$c act o* autono)ous re%$ons sha'' (ro#$de *or 'e%$s'at$#e (o.ub'$c o**$cers and e)('oyees )ust at a'' t$)es be accountab'e to the (eo('e" ser#e the) .ers" *unct$ons" and res(ons$b$'$t$es not %ranted by th$s Const$tut$on or by 'a.$th (ersona'" *a)$'y" and (ro(erty 'a.hen a((ro#ed by )a+or$ty o* the #otes cast by the const$tuent un$ts $n a ('eb$sc$te ca''ed *or the (ur(ose" (ro#$ded that on'y (ro#$nces" c$t$es" and %eo%ra(h$c areas #ot$n% *a#orab'y $n such ('eb$sc$te sha'' be $nc'uded $n the autono)ous re%$on.res$dent sha'' (ro#$de *or re%$ona' de#e'o()ent counc$'s and other s$)$'ar bod$es co)(osed o* 'oca' %o#ern)ent o**$c$a's" re%$ona' heads o* de(art)ents and other %o#ern)ent o**$ces" and re(resentat$#es *ro) non7%o#ern)enta' or%an$3at$ons .$th$n ten sess$on days" and re*erred to the (ro(er Co))$ttee . ( . The *$rst Con%ress e'ected under th$s Const$tut$on sha''" . A'' (o. Sect$on /6.h$'$(($nes. The reso'ut$on sha'' be ca'endared *or cons$derat$on by the ?ouse . +ur$sd$ct$on cons$stent ..

suspen$)   Estr $ vs) "esierto% April 7% 2331* Section 75A6 o' Article GI provi$es 'or the li(it n$ the conseDuence o' n i(pe ch(ent ?u$!(ent) Conviction in the i(pe ch(ent procee$in! is not reDuire$ &e'ore the pu&lic o''icer su&?ect o' i(pe ch(ent ( . (8 The Con%ress sha'' (ro)u'%ate $ts ru'es on $)(each)ent to e**ect$#e'y carry out the (ur(ose o* th$s sect$on.res$dent o* the .ee t ' ult% n$ $irect n$ co(pel the he $ o' the o''ice or !enc. re!ul r courts)  +. !hen the . (4 No $)(each)ent (roceed$n%s sha'' be $n$t$ated a%a$nst the sa)e o**$c$a' )ore than once .ouse sh ll &e necess r.on$ the re ch o' i(pe ch(ent procee$in!s0 he c n still &e i(pe che$)   The 18:A Constitution% the $eli&er tions thereon% n$ the opinions o' constitution l l # experts ll in$ic te th t the "eput. the S n$i! n& .ouse o' Represent tives% Nove(&er 13% 2337* $e'inition o' MTO INITIATE I>PEAC. resolution) 5"e C stro vs) Co((ittee on Bustice% B t s n P (& ns % Septe(&er 7% 188.o7th$rds o* a'' the Me)bers o* the Senate. ct un$er the supervision n$ control n$ upon uthorit. n% then respon$ent O(&u$s( n ( .6 Le$es( vs) CA% Bul.no. uthorit. o' re(ov l% suspension% $e(otion% 'ine% censure% or prosecution o' pu&lic o''icer or e(plo. l # to the n is plen r. The (resent ant$7%ra*t court . n$ st te prosecutors) "OB P nel is not preclu$e$ 'ro( con$uctin! n. There $s hereby created the $nde(endent O**$ce o* the O)buds)an" co)(osed o* the O)buds)an to be . co(ponent o' the O''ice o' the O(&u$s( n n$ ( . (6 Jud%)ent $n cases o* $)(each)ent sha'' not e>tend *urther than re)o#a' *ro) o**$ce and d$s-ua'$*$cat$on to ho'd any o**$ce under the @e(ub'$c o* the . o' Repu&lic Act No) 9AA3 thus &e rs out the conclusion th t the O''ice o' the O(&u$s( n # s inten$e$ to possess 'ull $(inistr tive $isciplin r. (2 In case the #er$*$ed co)('a$nt or reso'ut$on o* $)(each)ent $s *$'ed by at 'east one7th$rd o* a'' the Me)bers o* the ?ouse" the sa)e sha'' const$tute the Art$c'es o* I)(each)ent" and tr$a' by the Senate sha'' *orth. vs) po#er to O(&u$s( $oes not co!niF &le co!niF &le  O(&u$s( n vs) V ler % Septe(&er 73% 233. hel$ th t the O''ice o' the Speci l Prosecutor is (erel. o' the O(&u$s( n) xxx .no.$thout the concurrence o* t.* O(&u$s( n h s the uthorit.ees is not exclusive &ut is concurrent #ith other si(il rl. o' re(ov l% suspension% $e(otion% 'ine% censure% or prosecution o' pu&lic o''icer or e(plo.n as Tanodbayan" one o#era'' De(uty" and at 'east one De(uty each *or Lu3on" A$sayas" and M$ndanao..e. O(&u$s( n is not n i(pe ch &le o''icer) 5O''ice o' the O(&u$s( n vs) CA = 'or(er "eput. investi! tion o' c ses ! inst pu&lic o''icers involvin! viol tions o' pen l l #s &ut i' the c ses ' ll un$er the exclusive ?uris$iction o' the S n$i! n& .$th$n a (er$od o* one year. i(pose$) In other #or$s% it (erel.% inclu$in! the po#er to i(pose the pen lt. o' pu&lic o''ici l or e(plo.h$'$(($nes $s on tr$a'" the Ch$e* Just$ce o* the Su(re)e Court sha'' (res$de" but sha'' not #ote.er to try and dec$de a'' cases o* $)(each)ent. O(&u$s( n ( . uphol$s the O''ice o' the O(&u$s( nLs po#er to i(pose the pen lt. 28% 233. &e prosecute$% trie$ n$ punishe$ 'or cri(in l o''enses co((itte$)  REA"* Er ncisco% et l) vs) . O''ice o' the O(&u$s( n vs) CA % /R No) 1939A. either to ''ir( ' vor &le resolution #ith the Articles o' I(pe ch(ent o' the Co((ittee or overri$e its contr r.>ENTN. No (erson sha'' be con#$cted . uthoriFe$ !encies o' the !overn(ent such s the provinci l% cit. Sect$on 4. O(&u$s( n Arturo C) >o?ic % > rch C% 233. uthorit. suspen$% Section 2C o' R)A) No 9AA3 ( <es no (ention o' the Speci l Prosecutor) The o&vious i(port o' this exclusion is to #ithhol$ 'ro( the Speci l Prosecutor the po#er to preventivel.n as the Sand$%anbayan sha'' cont$nue to *unct$on and e>erc$se $ts +ur$sd$ct$on as no. concerne$ to i(ple(ent the pen lt. to $eter(ine the $(inistr tive li &ilit.on s n II vs) P nel o' Investi! tin! Prosecutors o' "OB% April 17% 233C* The po#er o' the O(&u$s( n to investi! te o''enses involvin! pu&lic o''icers or e(plo.$th (roceed.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 o* the Co))$ttee" or o#err$de $ts contrary reso'ut$on. &e llo#e$) Sect$on 2. !hen s$tt$n% *or that (ur(ose" the Senators sha'' be on oath or a**$r)at$on. A se(arate De(uty *or the )$'$tary estab'$sh)ent )ay '$.o#ever% #ith respect to the !r nt o' the po#er to preventivel.% Bune 19% 2339* the Court si(il rl..% in the exercise o' its pri( r. st !e)   A vote o' 117 o' ll the (e(&ers o' the . p ssive one 7C . The #ote o* each Me)ber sha'' be recorded. concerns the proce$ur l spect o' the O(&u$s( nLs 'unctions n$ not its ?uris$iction)  Resi!n tion &. onl. (5 The Senate sha'' ha#e the so'e (o.) The exercise o' such po#er is #ell 'oun$e$ in the Constitution n$ Repu&lic Act No) 9AA3) xxx The le!isl tive histor.$se be a((o$nted.ee 'oun$ to &e t ' ult) The l #( <ers envisione$ the O''ice o' the O(&u$s( n to &e M n ctivist # tch( n%N not (erel.procee$in! is initi te$ or &e!ins% #hen veri'ie$ co(pl int is 'ile$ n$ re'erre$ to the Co((ittee on Bustice) .* The Court h s consistentl.  O>BLS POWER TO PROSEC+TE S n$i! n& .h$'$(($nes" but the (arty con#$cted sha'' ne#erthe'ess be '$ab'e and sub+ect to (rosecut$on" tr$a'" and (un$sh)ent accord$n% to 'a.ee 'oun$ to &e t ' ult% in the exercise o' its $(inistr tive $isciplin r. n i(pe ch &le o''ici l $oes not pl ce hi( &e.6  > rDueF vs) "esierto% Bune 2A% 2331* there (ust &e pen$in! c se &e'ore court o' co(petent ?uris$iction &e'ore inspection o' & n< ccounts &. n% > rch 23% 2331* The prosecute !r nte$ &. or herea*ter )ay be (ro#$ded by 'a. ?uris$iction t <e over t n. n$ unDu li'ie$) The l # ( <e $istinction &et#een c ses &. n n$ those &.

ct or $ut.ers as no. reDuire$ &. Sect$on 9. o' RA 9AA3 !r nte$ the O(&u$s( n the po#er to $irect n.rosecutor. Sect$on 6.arrant and . The O)buds)an and h$s De(ut$es" as (rotectors o* the (eo('e" sha'' act (ro)(t'y on co)('a$nts *$'ed $n any *or) or )anner a%a$nst (ub'$c o**$c$a's or e)('oyees o* the Go#ern)ent" or any a%ency" subd$#$s$on or $nstru)enta'$ty thereo*" including government-owned or controlled corporations" and sha''" $n a((ro(r$ate cases" not$*y the co)('a$nants o* the act$ons ta. in the per'or( nce o' $uties) Sect$on /1. No 'oan" %uaranty" or other *or) o* *$nanc$a' acco))odat$on *or any bus$ness (ur(ose )ay be %ranted" d$rect'y or $nd$rect'y" by any %o#ern)ent7o. Dur$n% the$r tenure" they sha'' be sub+ect to the sa)e d$s-ua'$*$cat$ons and (roh$b$t$ons as (ro#$ded *or $n Sect$on 0 o* Art$c'e ID7A o* th$s Const$tut$on.ro)u'%ate $ts ru'es and (rocedure and e>erc$se such other (o. The e>$st$n% Tanodbayan sha'' herea*ter be . The O)buds)an and h$s De(ut$es sha'' be natura'7born c$t$3ens o* the .  PRESCRIPTION Sect$on /0. The O**$ce o* the O)buds)an sha'' en+oy *$sca' autono)y. 7. They sha'' not be -ua'$*$ed to run *or any o**$ce $n the e'ect$on $))ed$ate'y succeed$n% the$r cessat$on *ro) o**$ce. or herea*ter )ay be (ro#$ded by 'a. A'' #acanc$es sha'' be *$''ed . The O)buds)an and h$s De(ut$es sha'' ser#e *or a ter) o* se#en years .$th. (6 Deter)$ne the causes o* $ne**$c$ency" red ta(e" )$s)ana%e)ent" *raud" and corru(t$on $n the Go#ern)ent and )a.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1  U+I>PO vs) TANO"BAJAN* It is not ( teri l th t /OCC is ori!in ll.h$ch sha'' not be decreased dur$n% the$r ter) o* o**$ce. The o**$c$a's and e)('oyees o* the O**$ce o* the O)buds)an" other than the De(ut$es" sha'' be a((o$nted by the O)buds)an accord$n% to the C$#$' Ser#$ce La.h$'$(($ne Bar" and )ust not ha#e been cand$dates *or any e'ect$#e o**$ce $n the $))ed$ate'y (reced$n% e'ect$on. Sect$on /:.res$dent" the Me)bers o* the Cab$net" the Con%ress" the Su(re)e Court" and the Const$tut$ona' Co))$ss$ons" the O)buds)an" or to any *$r) or ent$ty $n ." e>ce(t those con*erred on the O**$ce o* the O)buds)an created under th$s Const$tut$on.ub'$c$3e )atters co#ered by $ts $n#est$%at$on . $n the .ers" *unct$ons" and dut$es < Presi$enti l A$-hoc E ct-'in$in! Co((ittee on Behest Lo ns vs) "esierto% 71A SCRA 2A2* Section 1. The r$%ht o* the State to reco#er (ro(ert$es un'a.ers or (er*or) such *unct$ons or dut$es as )ay be (ro#$ded by 'a.$th$n three )onths a*ter they occur. Sect$on /4.. or *$nanc$a' $nst$tut$on to the .ned or contro''ed cor(orat$on .$th due (rudence.$n% (o. o* Cha$r)an and Me)bers" res(ect$#e'y" o* the Const$tut$ona' Co))$ss$ons" and they sha'' rece$#e the sa)e sa'ary" .res$dent" the A$ce7.. It sha'' cont$nue to *unct$on and e>erc$se $ts (o.$th or$%$na' charter" to (er*or) and e>(ed$te any act or duty re-u$red by 'a.e reco))endat$ons *or the$r e'$)$nat$on and the obser#ance o* h$%h standards o* eth$cs and e**$c$ency. (5 . (2 D$rect the o**$cer concerned" $n any a((ro(r$ate case" and sub+ect to such '$)$tat$ons as )ay be (ro#$ded by 'a. The O**$ce o* the O)buds)an sha'' ha#e the *o''o. &use or i(propriet. Sect$on 8. ch rter or not) Wh t is $ecisive is th t it h s &een cDuire$ &. Its a((ro#ed annua' a((ro(r$at$ons sha'' be auto)at$ca''y and re%u'ar'y re'eased.n $nstance" any (ub'$c o**$c$a' or e)('oyee o* the Go#ern)ent" or any subd$#$s$on" a%ency or $nstru)enta'$ty thereo*" as .2* Section 17% Article GI o' the Constitution n$ Section 1.no.hen c$rcu)stances so .   > c lino vs) S n$i! n& .res$dent *ro) a '$st o* at 'east s$> no)$nees (re(ared by the Jud$c$a' and Bar Counc$'" and *ro) a '$st o* three no)$nees *or e#ery #acancy therea*ter.ee o' !overn(ent-o#ne$ or controlle$ corpor tions #ith ori!in l ch rters to per'or( n. n% 7A9 SCRA C.h$'$(($nes" and at the t$)e o* the$r a((o$nt)ent" at 'east *orty years o'd" o* reco%n$3ed (rob$ty and $nde(endence" and )e)bers o* the ." or to sto(" (re#ent" and correct any abuse or $)(ro(r$ety $n the (er*or)ance o* dut$es." to *urn$sh $t . (1 D$rect the o**$cer concerned to ta. The O)buds)an and h$s De(ut$es sha'' be a((o$nted by the . o' ill-!otten #e lth n$ not to cri(in l c ses) Sect$on /5. l # or to stop n.e'' as o* any %o#ern)ent7o.e a((ro(r$ate act$on a%a$nst a (ub'$c o**$c$a' or e)('oyee at *au't" and reco))end h$s re)o#a'" sus(ens$on" de)ot$on" *$ne" censure" or (rosecut$on" and ensure co)('$ance there. the !overn(ent to per'or( 'unctions rel te$ to !overn(ent pro!r (s n$ policies) Sect$on 5. o''icer or e(plo. The O)buds)an )ust ha#e *or ten years or )ore been a +ud%e or en%a%ed $n the (ract$ce o* 'a.hen such act or o)$ss$on a((ears to be $''e%a'" un+ust" $)(ro(er" or $ne**$c$ent.$thout rea((o$nt)ent. Sect$on //.$th co($es o* docu)ents re'at$n% to contracts and transact$ons entered $nto by h$s o**$ce $n#o'#$n% the d$sburse)ent or use o* (ub'$c *unds or (ro(ert$es" and re(ort any $rre%u'ar$ty to the Co))$ss$on on Aud$t *or a((ro(r$ate act$on.en and the resu't thereo*. (8 .n as the O**$ce o* the S(ec$a' .n" or on co)('a$nt by any (erson" any act or o)$ss$on o* any (ub'$c o**$c$a'" e)('oyee" o**$ce or a%ency" . o' Article GI pplies onl. to civil ctions 'or recover.  B+RIS"ICTION OVER /OCC (/ In#est$%ate on $ts o. (4 @e-uest any and $n*or)at$on res(ons$b$'$t$es" (ert$nent records %o#ern)ent a%ency *or ass$stance necessary $n the d$schar%e o* $ts and to e>a)$ne" $* necessary" and docu)ents.h$ch they ha#e contro''$n% $nterest" dur$n% the$r tenure.ned or contro''ed ban. The O)buds)an and h$s De(ut$es sha'' ha#e the ran.h$'$(($nes. . Sect$on /2. cre te$ &. Such a((o$nt)ents sha'' re-u$re no con*$r)at$on.*u''y ac-u$red by (ub'$c o**$c$a's and e)('oyees" *ro) the) or *ro) the$r no)$nees or trans*erees" sha'' not be barred by (rescr$(t$on" 'aches" or esto((e'. (0 D$rect" u(on co)('a$nt or at $ts o.

$'d'$*e" *'ora and *auna" and other natura' resources are o.C2 is (ere license or privile!e !r nte$ &.h$ch )ay be ac-u$red" de#e'o(ed" he'd" or 'eased and the cond$t$ons there*or.ea'th $n $ts arch$(e'a%$c . the St te to petitioner 'or the use or exploit tion o' n tur l resources n$ pu&lic l n$s over #hich the St te h s soverei!n o#nership un$er the Re! li n "octrine) Li<e ti(&er or (inin! licenses% 'orest l n$ !r Fin! le se !ree(ent is (ere per(it #hich% &.s to chan%e h$s c$t$3ensh$( or ac-u$re the status o* an $))$%rant o* another country dur$n% h$s tenure sha'' be dea't .res$dent" the A$ce7. The State sha'' (ro)ote $ndustr$a'$3at$on and *u'' e)('oy)ent based on sound a%r$cu'tura' de#e'o()ent and a%rar$an re*or)" throu%h $ndustr$es that )a. In the (ursu$t o* these %oa's" a'' sectors o* the econo)y and a'' re%$ons o* the country sha'' be %$#en o(t$)u) o((ortun$ty to de#e'o(.$n% $nto account the re-u$re)ents o* conser#at$on" eco'o%y" and de#e'o()ent" and sub+ect to the re-u$re)ents o* a%rar$an re*or)" the Con%ress sha'' deter)$ne" by 'a.res$dent" the Me)bers o* the Cab$net" the Con%ress" the Su(re)e Court" the Const$tut$ona' Co))$ss$ons and other const$tut$ona' o**$ces" and o**$cers o* the ar)ed *orces . The State" sub+ect to the (ro#$s$ons o* th$s Const$tut$on and nat$ona' de#e'o()ent (o'$c$es and (ro%ra)s" sha'' (rotect the r$%hts o* $nd$%enous cu'tura' co))un$t$es to the$r ancestra' 'ands to ensure the$r econo)$c" soc$a'" and cu'tura' ." sub)$t a dec'arat$on under oath o* h$s assets" '$ab$'$t$es" and net .$th by 'a. .atershed areas. A'$enab'e 'ands o* the (ub'$c do)a$n sha'' be '$)$ted to a%r$cu'tura' 'ands.h$ch are co)(et$t$#e $n both do)est$c and *ore$%n )ar.ub'$c o**$cers and e)('oyees o. !$th the e>ce(t$on o* a%r$cu'tura' 'ands" a'' other natura' resources sha'' not be a'$enated.  ANCESTRAL "O>AIN Sect$on /6.s. The State sha'' (rotect the nat$onCs )ar$ne . The e>('orat$on" de#e'o()ent" and ut$'$3at$on o* natura' resources sha'' be under the *u'' contro' and su(er#$s$on o* the State. ARTICLE +II NATIONAL ECONOMY 6 PATRIMONY Sect$on /.ned by such c$t$3ens.h$ch they )ay be de#oted.enty7*$#e years" and under such ter)s and cond$t$ons as )ay be (ro#$ded by 'a.$th %enera' or *'a% ran.enty7*$#e years" rene. Sect$on 0.$th *ore$%n7o.er" bene*$c$a' use )ay be the )easure and '$)$t o* the %rant. In the case o* the . Lands o* the (ub'$c do)a$n are c'ass$*$ed $nto a%r$cu'tura'" *orest or t$)ber" )$nera' 'ands" and nat$ona' (ar. C$t$3ens o* the ." based on rea' contr$but$ons to the econo)$c %ro.ab'e *or not )ore than t. ?o.e *u'' and e**$c$ent use o* hu)an and natura' resources" and .ater (o. Sect$on /8. s)a''7sca'e ut$'$3at$on o* natura' resources by &$'$($no c$t$3ens" as .e'#e hectares thereo* by (urchase" ho)estead" or %rant.ater su(('y" *$sher$es" or $ndustr$a' uses other than the de#e'o()ent o* . The Con%ress )ay" by 'a. the s(ec$*$c '$)$ts o* *orest 'ands and nat$ona' (ar.enty7*$#e years" and not to e>ceed one thousand hectares $n area.aters" )$nera's" coa'" (etro'eu)" and other )$nera' o$'s" a'' *orces o* (otent$a' ener%y" *$sher$es" *orests or t$)ber" .s sha'' be conser#ed and )ay not be $ncreased nor d$)$n$shed" e>ce(t by 'a.h$'$(($nes )ay 'ease not )ore than *$#e hundred hectares" or ac-u$re not )ore than t. In such a%ree)ents" the State sha'' (ro)ote the de#e'o()ent and use o* 'oca' sc$ent$*$c and techn$ca' resources. Sect$on 2.ned cor(orat$ons $n#o'#$n% e$ther techn$ca' o* *$nanc$a' ass$stance *or 'ar%e7sca'e e>('orat$on" de#e'o()ent" and ut$'$3at$on o* )$nera's" (etro'eu)" and other )$nera' o$'s accord$n% to the %enera' ter)s and cond$t$ons (ro#$ded by 'a..aters" terr$tor$a' sea" and e>c'us$#e econo)$c 3one" and reser#e $ts use and en+oy)ent e>c'us$#e'y to &$'$($no c$t$3ens.ab'e *or not )ore than t..nersh$( and e>tent o* ancestra' do)a$n.ho see. Such a%ree)ents )ay be *or a (er$od not e>ceed$n% t.ned by the State.e the State and th$s Const$tut$on a''e%$ance at a'' t$)es" and any (ub'$c o**$cer or e)('oyee .r$#ate enter(r$ses" $nc'ud$n% cor(orat$ons" coo(erat$#es" and s$)$'ar co''ect$#e or%an$3at$ons" sha'' be encoura%ed to broaden the base o* the$r o.e#er" the State sha'' (rotect &$'$($no enter(r$ses a%a$nst un*a$r *ore$%n co)(et$t$on and trade (ract$ces.e such act$#$t$es" or $t )ay enter $nto co7(roduct$on" +o$nt #enture" or (roduct$on7shar$n% a%ree)ents .nersh$(.ea'th= a susta$ned $ncrease $n the a)ount o* %oods and ser#$ces (roduced by the nat$on *or the bene*$t o* the (eo('e= and an e>(and$n% (roduct$#$ty as the . The Con%ress )ay (ro#$de *or the a(('$cab$'$ty o* custo)ary 'a.or.enty7*$#e years" rene.$th$n th$rty days *ro) $ts e>ecut$on. accord$n% to the uses . Sect$on 1.es" bays" and 'a%oons.th and %enera' . 71% 233:* It (ust &e e(ph siFe$ th t EL/LA No) .e'*are o* the country. The Con%ress sha''" as soon as (oss$b'e" deter)$ne by 'a.s" )ar.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 subs$stence *$sher)en and *$sh.ey ra$s$n% the -ua'$ty o* '$*e *or a''" es(ec$a''y the under(r$#$'e%ed." the s$3e o* 'ands o* the (ub'$c do)a$n . A%r$cu'tura' 'ands o* the (ub'$c do)a$n )ay be *urther c'ass$*$ed by 'a. executive ction% c n &e revo<e$% rescin$e$% c ncelle$% (en$e$ or (o$i'ie$% #henever pu&lic #el' re or pu&lic interest so reDuires) The $eter(in tion o' #h t is in the pu&lic 79 .$th &$'$($no c$t$3ens" or cor(orat$ons or assoc$at$ons at 'east s$>ty (er centu) o* . Ta. In cases o* . A (ub'$c o**$cer or e)('oyee sha''" u(on assu)(t$on o* o**$ce and as o*ten therea*ter as )ay be re-u$red by 'a.ater r$%hts *or $rr$%at$on" .res$dent )ay enter $nto a%ree)ents . The Con%ress sha'' (ro#$de" *or such (er$od as $t )ay deter)$ne" )easures to (roh$b$t 'o%%$n% $n endan%ered *orests and . The State )ay d$rect'y underta. The %oa's o* the nat$ona' econo)y are a )ore e-u$tab'e d$str$but$on o* o((ortun$t$es" $nco)e" and .  Alc nt r vs) "ENR% /R No) 191::1% Bul.ers $n r$#ers" 'a." a''o." the dec'arat$on sha'' be d$sc'osed to the (ub'$c $n the )anner (ro#$ded by 'a. A'' 'ands o* the (ub'$c do)a$n" .r$#ate cor(orat$ons or assoc$at$ons )ay not ho'd such a'$enab'e 'ands o* the (ub'$c do)a$n e>ce(t by 'ease" *or a (er$od not e>ceed$n% t...$n% c'ear'y the$r boundar$es on the %round. The .orth. .$th (r$or$ty to Sect$on 4. .$th th$s (ro#$s$on" .ets.hose ca($ta' $s o.res$dent sha'' not$*y the Con%ress o* e#ery contract entered $nto $n accordance .e''7 be$n%.s %o#ern$n% (ro(erty r$%hts and re'at$ons $n deter)$n$n% the o.e'' as coo(erat$#e *$sh *ar)$n%" . The . Therea*ter" such *orest 'ands and nat$ona' (ar.

Eilipinos) The re son is o&vious* i' the recl i(e$ l n$ is not converte$ to p tri(oni l l n$ once tr ns'erre$ to N. #hich even priv te corpor tions c n cDuire &.% 233A* To l n$s recl i(e$ &. #ithin priv te o#nership re presu(e$ to &elon! to the St te) L n$s o' the pu&lic $o( in re cl ssi'ie$ into !ricultur l% 'orest or ti(&er% (iner l l n$s% n$ n tion l p r<s) Alien &le l n$s o' the pu&lic $o( in sh ll &e li(ite$ to !ricultur l l n$s) A ho(este $ p tent% such s the su&?ect o' the inst nt c se% is one o' the (o$es to cDuire title to pu&lic l n$s suit &le 'or !ricultur l purposes) 7A .* the prohi&ition in the Constitution pplies onl. 9% 2337* "ecision $oes not & r priv te corpor tions 'ro( p rticip tin! in recl ( tion pro?ects n$ &ein! p i$ 'or their services in recl i(in! l n$s) Wh t the "ecision prohi&its% 'ollo#in! the explicit constitution l ( n$ te% is 'or priv te corpor tions to cDuire recl i(e$ l n$s o' the pu&lic $o( in) There is no prohi&ition on the $irectors% o''icers n$ stoc<hol$ers o' priv te corpor tions% i' the. PEA or throu!h contr ct #ith priv te person or entit. onl. purch se) Li<e#ise% recl i(e$ lien &le l n$s o' the pu&lic $o( in i' sol$ or tr ns'erre$ to pu&lic or (unicip l corpor tion 'or (onet r. #hen it is tr ns'erre$ to Eilipino citiFens th t it &eco(es p tri(oni l propert. c n cDuire not (ore th n 12 hect res per in$ivi$u l% n$ the l n$ thus cDuire$ &eco(es priv te l n$) B/ Su((it .% it c nnot tt in its vo#e$ purposes n$ !o ls since it c n onl. consi$er tion &eco(e p tri(oni l propert. 'ter lon! n$ costl. in the resolution o' this controvers. &e sol$ &. lien &le or $ispos &le l n$s o' the pu&lic $o( in #hich the !overn(ent coul$ not sell to priv te p rties except i' the le!isl ture p sses l # uthoriFin! such s le) Recl i(e$ l n$s ret in their inherent potenti l s re s 'or pu&lic use or pu&lic service) xxx The o#nership o' l n$s recl i(e$ 'ro( 'oreshore re s is roote$ in the Re! li n "octrine% #hich $ecl res th t ll l n$s n$ # ters o' the pu&lic $o( in &elon! to the St te  But not#ithst n$in! the conversion o' recl i(e$ l n$s to lien &le l n$s o' the pu&lic $o( in% the. $en. such s trees% pl nts n$ !ro#in! 'ruit tt che$ to the l n$ #oul$ &e li(ite$ to Eilipinos n$ Eilipino corpor tions onl. or propert. onl. l # to $(inister n$ $ispose o' recl i(e$ l n$s) The (o(ent titles over recl i(e$ l n$s & se$ on the speci l p tents re tr ns'erre$ to the N. &e le se$ n$ not sol$ to priv te p rties) These l n$s re( ine$ sui !eneris% s the onl. converte$ to p tri(oni l properties o' the St te #hich c n &e sol$ to Eilipino citiFens n$ priv te corpor tions% 93R o' #hich re o#ne$ &.iel$ to the supre( c.A is n Men$-user !enc. re uto( tic ll. the priv te respon$ents onl. n$ &rin!s it to its 'ittin! conclusion &.A% then it #oul$ &e useless to tr ns'er it to the N. o' the l tter% s #ell s to the police po#er o' the St te) Such privile!e or license is not even propert.) On the other h n$% the N. ( . n tive title s never to h ve &een pu&lic l n$) "o( ins n$ l n$s un$er n tive title re% there'ore% in$isput &l. tt ine$ &.)   Ch veF vs) PEA = A( ri% > . ri!ht% nor $oes it cre te veste$ ri!ht0 s such% no irrevoc &le ri!hts re cre te$ in its issu nce) xxx The Supre(e Court reco!niFe$ the inherent ri!ht o' ICCs1IPs to recover their ncestr l l n$ 'ro( outsi$ers n$ usurpers) Seen &.A since it c nnot le! ll. veste$ in the St te s o#ner o' the countr. 27% 2339* +n$er the Re! li n $octrine% ll l n$s o' the pu&lic $o( in &elon! to the St te n$ those l n$s not ppe rin! to &e cle rl. $ecl res ncestr l l n$s n$ $o( ins hel$ &. the Re!ister o' "ee$s% the. not &e sol$ to priv te corpor tions #hich c n onl. ( n. tr ns'er or lien te l n$s o' pu&lic $o( in) >ore i(port ntl.% c n &e sol$ to R (os-Bul lio vs) R (os% B nu r.A% it h s &een recl ssi'ie$ s p tri(oni l propert.ol$in!s Inc) vs) CA% B nu r.2. le se the s (e) The St te ( . 8% 2332* Eoreshore n$ su&(er!e$ re s 'or( p rt o' the pu&lic $o( in n$ re in lien &le) L n$s recl i(e$ 'ro( 'oreshore n$ su&(er!e$ re s re lso 'or( p rt o' the pu&lic $o( in n$ re lso in lien &le% unless converte$ into lien &le or $ispos &le l n$s o' the pu&lic $o( in)  The prev ilin! rule is th t recl i(e$ $ispos &le l n$s o' the pu&lic $o( in ( .A% et l)% Au!ust 1.% such recl i(e$ l n$s still re( in lien &le l n$s o' pu&lic $o( in #hich c n &e tr ns'erre$ onl. e''ort% the Court% s !u r$i n n$ instru(ent o' soci l ?ustice% &hors 'urther $el .% the l n$ ( . re Eilipino citiFens% 'ro( cDuirin! t pu&lic uction recl i(e$ lien &le l n$s o' the pu&lic $o( in) The. 71% 233. to Eilipino citiFens &ut not to priv te corpor tion) This is &ec use PEA un$er P" 13:C n$ EO . is t s<e$ to hol$ n$ $ispose o' lien &le l n$s o' pu&lic $o( in n$ it is onl.Qs n tur l resources) Thus% privile!e or license is not in the n ture o' contr ct th t en?o. o' the Civil Co$e) Other#ise% #e #oul$ h ve str n!e situ tion #here the o#nership o' i((ov &le propert. presu(e$ to h ve never &een pu&lic l n$s n$ re priv te)  Ch veF vs) Pu&lic Est tes Authorit. sell lien &le pu&lic l n$ to Eilipino citiFens) Ch veF vs) N.ers to r ise 'un$s 'or the S>"RP) Ero( the 'ore!oin! consi$er tions% #e 'in$ th t the A8-hect re recl i(e$ l n$ h s &een $ecl re$ lien &le n$ $ispos &le l n$ o' the pu&lic $o( in0 n$ in the h n$s o' N.in! the petition) priv te p rties% #hether Eilipino citiFens or Du li'ie$ priv te corpor tions) Thus% the so-c lle$ Eri r L n$s cDuire$ &.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 interest is necess ril. re p tri(oni l propert.N uthoriFe$ &. not t s<e$ to $ispose o' pu&lic l n$s un$er its ch rterWThe Revise$ A$(inistr tive Co$e o' 18:A) The N.A is !overn(ent !enc. in the h n$s o' the pu&lic or (unicip l corpor tion) Once converte$ to p tri(oni l propert.s protection un$er the $ue process n$ non-i(p ir(ent cl uses o' the Constitution) In c ses in #hich the license or privile!e is in con'lict #ith the peopleQs #el' re% the license or privile!e (ust . s victor.)   Eree$o( Isl n$s re in lien &le l n$s o' the pu&lic $o( in) /overn(ent o#ne$ l n$s% s lon! the. the pu&lic or (unicip l corpor tion to priv te p rties% #hether Eilipino citiFens or Du li'ie$ priv te corpor tions)   CR+4 VS) SEC) OE "ENR% 7CA SCRA 12:* RA :7A1 c te!oric ll.% Bul. s $e'ine$ un$er Article C1. tr ns'er p tri(oni l l n$s to Du li'ie$ &ene'ici ries n$ prospective &u.A &. the !overn(ent un$er Act No) 1123 re p tri(oni l propert. to o#nership o' l n$) It $oes not exten$ to i((ov &le or re l propert.

292:% Apex >inin! Co)% Inc) v) Southe st >in$ n o /ol$ >inin! Corp)% et l)0 /R No) 1. the st te (ust &e on the ( cro level% throu!h the est &lish(ent o' policies% !ui$elines% re!ul tions% in$ustr.nersh$( ut$'$t$es and other (r$#ate enter(r$ses to be o(erated by the Go#ern)ent.1A* Section 2% Article GII o' the 18:A constitution $oes not ppl.e'*are or de*ense" estab'$sh and o(erate #$ta' $ndustr$es and" u(on (ay)ent o* +ust co)(ensat$on" trans*er to (ub'$c o. Sa#e $n cases o* hered$tary success$on" no (r$#ate 'ands sha'' be trans*erred or con#eyed e>ce(t to $nd$#$dua's" cor(orat$ons" or assoc$at$ons -ua'$*$ed to ac-u$re or ho'd 'ands o* the (ub'$c do)a$n. Sect$on /8. The Con%ress )ay estab'$sh an $nde(endent econo)$c and ('ann$n% a%ency headed by the .hen the co))on %ood so de)ands.2917 = 1. Unt$' the Con%ress (ro#$des other.A::2% "i$ipio E rth-S versL >ultiPurpose Associ tion% Incorpor te$% et l) v) "ENR Sec) /oFun% et l)% > rch 73% 2339* The Constitution expressl. !ree(ents #ith in$ivi$u ls or entities in the pursuit o' visi&le oper tions) Service contr cts #ith 'orei!n corpor tions s contr ctors #ho invest in n$ oper te n$ ( n !e extr ctive enterprises% su&?ect to the 'ull control n$ supervision o' the St te) Control &.ned by such c$t$3ens" or such h$%her (ercenta%e as Con%ress )ay (rescr$be" certa$n areas o* $n#est)ents.$th (ub'$c $nterest. the !overn(ent un$er the 18A7 constitution or &e'ore the e''ectivit. The State sha'' re%u'ate and e>erc$se author$ty o#er *ore$%n $n#est)ents . retro ctivel. l #) The Court s i$ th t these !ree(ents #ith 'orei!n corpor tions re not li(ite$ to (ere 'in nci l or technic l ssist nce) The 18:A Constitution llo#s the continue$ use o' service contr cts #ith 'orei!n corpor tions s contr ctors #ho #oul$ invest in n$ oper te n$ ( n !e extr ctive enterprises% su&?ect to the 'ull control n$ supervision o' the St te)  /R Nos) 1.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 estab'$sh" and o(erate econo)$c enter(r$ses" sub+ect to the duty o* the State to (ro)ote d$str$but$#e +ust$ce and to $nter#ene .$th the a((ro(r$ate (ub'$c a%enc$es" #ar$ous (ub'$c sectors" and 'oca' %o#ern)ent un$ts" reco))end to Con%ress" and $)('e)ent cont$nu$n% $nte%rated and coord$nated (ro%ra)s and (o'$c$es *or nat$ona' de#e'o()ent. o' RA A8C2% the St te c n either $irectl.hose ca($ta' $s o. llo#s service contr cts in the l r!e-sc le explor tion% $evelop(ent% n$ utiliF tion o' (iner ls% petroleu(% n$ (iner l oils vi M !ree(ents #ith 'orei!n-o#ne$ corpor tions involvin! either technic l or 'in nci l ssist nceN s provi$e$ &.hen the nat$ona' $nterest d$ctates" reser#e to c$t$3ens o* the .ISE Sect$on //. o' the 18:A constitution) Sect$on /6.ned (ub'$c ut$'$ty or bus$ness a**ected .hose ca($ta' $s . No *ranch$se" cert$*$cate" or any other *or) o* author$3at$on *or the o(erat$on o* a (ub'$c ut$'$ty sha'' be %ranted e>ce(t to c$t$3ens o* the 7: .2918-23% B lite Co((un l Port l >inin! Cooper tive v) Southe st >in$ n o /ol$ >inin! Corp)% et l)0 n$ /R No) 1. un$ert <e the explor tion% $evelop(ent% n$ utiliF tion o' the re or it c n enter into !ree(ent #ith Du li'ie$ entities)  Repu&lic vs) Rose(oor >inin! = "evelop(ent Corp)% C29 SCRA . Sect$on /:.h$ch sha''" a*ter consu'tat$ons . Sect$on 8.$thstand$n% the (ro#$s$ons o* Sect$on 6 o* th$s Art$c'e" a natura'7born c$t$3en o* the .n"  Repu&lic vs) EGTELCO>% 7A7 SCRA 719* The oper tion o' pu&lic utilit.ho''y o. st n$ r$s n$ si(il r (e sures th t #oul$ en &le the !overn(ent to control the con$uct o' the '' irs in v rious enterprises n$ restr in ctivities $ee(e$ not $esir &le or &ene'ici l)  /R No) 1.  4 r te vs) "irector o' L n$s% C7C SCRA 722* It is the rule o' l # th t possession% ho#ever lon!% c nnot ripen into priv te o#nership) Sect$on 5. Not.ned by &$'$($nos.hen the (ub'$c $nterest so re-u$res" the State )ay" dur$n% the e)er%ency and under reasonab'e ter)s (rescr$bed by $t" te)(orar$'y ta.h$'$(($nes .2:A3-A1% The >ines A$?u$ic tion Bo r$ n$ its >e(&ers% et l) v) Southe st >in$ n o /ol$ >inin! Corp)% et l)% Bune 27% 2339.  P+BLIC +TILITIES  L Bu! l-BLl n Tri& l Ass)% Inc) vs) R (os% "ece(&er 1% 233C* Eorei!n corpor tions re con'ine$ to technic l n$ 'in nci l ssist nce) The St te itsel' ( .h$'$(($ne c$t$3ensh$( )ay be a trans*eree o* (r$#ate 'ands" sub+ect to '$)$tat$ons (ro#$ded by 'a. In the %rant o* r$%hts" (r$#$'e%es" and concess$ons co#er$n% the nat$ona' econo)y and (atr$)ony" the State sha'' %$#e (re*erence to -ua'$*$ed &$'$($nos. Ind$#$dua's and (r$#ate %rou(s" $nc'ud$n% cor(orat$ons" coo(erat$#es" and s$)$'ar co''ect$#e or%an$3at$ons" sha'' ha#e the r$%ht to o. The State )ay" $n the $nterest o* nat$ona' .. sh ll not &e exclusive)  ERANC. The Con%ress sha'' enact )easures that .$se" the Nat$ona' Econo)$c and De#e'o()ent Author$ty sha'' *unct$on as the $nde(endent ('ann$n% a%ency o* the %o#ern)ent. Sect$on 6.h$'$(($nes or to cor(orat$ons or assoc$at$ons at 'east s$>ty (er centu) o* .$th $ts nat$ona' %oa's and (r$or$t$es.Ls n tur l resources &.>inin! oper tions in the "i# l# l >iner l Reserv tion Are lies #ithin the 'ull control o' the executive &r nch o' the st te) xxx >inin! oper tions in the "i# l# l >iner l Reserv tion re no#% there'ore% #ithin the 'ull control o' the St te throu!h the executive &r nch) Pursu nt to sec) .e o#er or d$rect the o(erat$on o* any (r$#ate'y o.ho has 'ost $ts . The Con%ress sha''" u(on reco))endat$on o* the econo)$c and ('ann$n% a%ency" .res$dent" . Sect$on 9. enterin! into the necess r. to Mlicense% concession or le seN !r nte$ &. The use o* (ro(erty bears a soc$a' *unct$on" and a'' econo)$c a%ents sha'' contr$bute to the co))on %ood.$th$n $ts nat$ona' +ur$sd$ct$on and $n accordance . explore% $evelop or utiliFe the countr. In t$)es o* nat$ona' e)er%ency" .$'' encoura%e the *or)at$on and o(erat$on o* enter(r$ses .

er and s.h$'$(($nes sha'' be '$)$ted to &$'$($no c$t$3ens" sa#e $n cases (rescr$bed by 'a.. Sect$on /5.nersh$(" use" and d$s(os$t$on o* (ro(erty and $ts $ncre)ents.% Bul. o* the . Sect$on /4.ers as )ay be (ro#$ded by 'a. Sect$on /9. Acts . o#er the o(erat$ons o* *$nance co)(an$es and other $nst$tut$ons (er*or)$n% s$)$'ar *unct$ons. /overn(ent o' S n P &lo vs) Re.h$'$(($nes. ARTICLE +III SOCIAL 1USTICE 6 HUMAN RIGHTS  SOCIAL B+STICE  PL"T vs) B colo$ Cit.h$'$(($nes at 'east s$>ty (er centu) o* . Sect$on /2.  While the pursuit o' soci l ?ustice c n h ve revolution r.hen the co))on %ood so re-u$res. The State sha'' encoura%e a((ro(r$ate techno'o%y and re%u'ate $ts trans*er *or the nat$ona' bene*$t. sh ll not &e exclusive)  E stern Assur nce = Suret. c nnot &e consi$ere$ s h vin! (en$e$ petitionerQs 'r nchise so s to entitle it to exe(ption 'ro( the i(position o' loc l 'r nchise t xes)  Cit. SCRA 7. Sect$on 0/.ed. Ne$ther sha'' any such *ranch$se or r$%ht be %ranted e>ce(t under the cond$t$on that $t sha'' be sub+ect to a)end)ent" a'terat$on" or re(ea' by the Con%ress . The Con%ress sha'' estab'$sh an $nde(endent centra' )onetary author$ty" the )e)bers o* .th o* coo(erat$#es as $nstru)ents *or soc$a' +ust$ce and econo)$c de#e'o()ent.in! the rule o' strict construction o' l #s !r ntin! t x exe(ptions n$ the rule th t $ou&ts shoul$ &e resolve$ in ' vor o' (unicip l corpor tions in interpretin! st tutor. the po#er to t x% #hich c nnot &e contr cte$ # . Sect$on 0:. The (ro)ot$on o* soc$a' +ust$ce sha'' $nc'ude the co))$t)ent to create econo)$c o((ortun$t$es based on *reedo) o* $n$t$at$#e and se'*7 re'$ance.e'*are and ut$'$3es a'' *or)s and arran%e)ents o* e>chan%e on the bas$s o* e-ua'$ty and rec$(roc$ty.$''ed .s and e>erc$se such re%u'atory (o. Sect$on /1. The State sha'' (ursue a trade (o'$cy that ser#es the %enera' .h$ch c$rcu)#ent or ne%ate any o* the (ro#$s$ons o* th$s Art$c'e sha'' be cons$dered $n$)$ca' to the nat$ona' $nterest and sub+ect to cr$)$na' and c$#$' sanct$ons" as )ay be (ro#$ded by 'a.s o* the .ho) sha'' co)e *ro) the (r$#ate sector.. &ore$%n 'oans )ay on'y be $ncurred $n accordance .h$'$(($nes" o(erat$n% under e>$st$n% 'a. The Con%ress sha'' not" e>ce(t by %enera' 'a. and the re%u'at$on o* the )onetary author$ty.no." (ro#$de *or the *or)at$on" or%an$3at$on" or re%u'at$on o* (r$#ate cor(orat$ons.ned by such c$t$3ens" nor sha'' such *ranch$se" cert$*$cate" or author$3at$on be e>c'us$#e $n character or *or a 'on%er (er$od than *$*ty years. 1.hose %o#ern$n% board )ust be natura'7 born &$'$($no c$t$3ens" o* . The susta$ned de#e'o()ent o* a reser#o$r o* nat$ona' ta'ents cons$st$n% o* &$'$($no sc$ent$sts" entre(reneurs" (ro*ess$ona's" )ana%ers" h$%h7'e#e' techn$ca' )an(o.ea'th and (o'$t$ca' (o. prohi&it (onopolies) It ( n$ tes the St te to re!ul te the( #hen pu&lic interest so reDuires) Sect$on /0. The State sha'' encoura%e e-u$ty (art$c$(at$on $n (ub'$c ut$'$t$es by the %enera' (ub'$c.% 233.6 Labor 78 . Sect$on /. &re <in! the l #) 5Astu$illo v) Bo r$ o' "irectors% P.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 . They sha'' a'so be sub+ect to such other -ua'$*$cat$ons and d$sab$'$t$es as )ay be (rescr$bed by 'a. The (art$c$(at$on o* *ore$%n $n#estors $n the %o#ern$n% body o* any (ub'$c ut$'$ty enter(r$se sha'' be '$)$ted to the$r (ro(ort$onate share $n $ts ca($ta'" and a'' the e>ecut$#e and )ana%$n% o**$cers o* such cor(orat$on or assoc$at$on )ust be c$t$3ens o* the .)  Pilipino Telephone Corp) vs) NTC% C13 SCRA :2* The constitution is e(ph tic th t the oper tion o' pu&lic utilit. provisions on (unicip l t xin! po#ers% #e hol$ th t Z27 o' R)A) No) A82.hose ca($ta' $s o.n $nte%r$ty" and (atr$ot$s)" the )a+or$ty o* .7* +n$er the Constitution% no 'r nchise sh ll &e !r nte$ un$er the con$ition th t it sh ll &e su&?ect to (en$(ent or repe l #hen the pu&lic interest so reDuires) Er nchises re lso su&?ect to lter tion &. Sect$on 00.C% A7 SCRA 1.* In su(% it $oes not ppe r th t% in pprovin! Z27 o' R)A) No) A82.ned or contro''ed cor(orat$ons )ay be created or estab'$shed by s(ec$a' charters $n the $nterest o* the co))on %ood and sub+ect to the test o* econo)$c #$ab$'$ty. The State sha'' re%u'ate or (roh$b$t )ono(o'$es .% Con!ress inten$e$ it to oper te s &l n<et t x exe(ption to ll teleco((unic tions entities) Appl. The Con%ress sha'' %$#e h$%hest (r$or$ty to the enact)ent o* )easures that (rotect and enhance the r$%ht o* a'' the (eo('e to hu)an d$%n$ty" reduce soc$a'" econo)$c" and (o'$t$ca' $ne-ua'$t$es" and re)o#e cu'tura' $ne-u$t$es by e-u$tab'y d$**us$n% .$th 'a. The author$ty sha'' (ro#$de (o'$cy d$rect$on $n the areas o* )oney" ban. The Con%ress sha'' create an a%ency to (ro)ote the #$ab$'$ty and %ro.ers and cra*ts)en $n a'' *$e'ds sha'' be (ro)oted by the State.er *or the co))on %ood. The State sha'' (ro)ote the (re*erent$a' use o* &$'$($no 'abor" do)est$c )ater$a's and 'oca''y (roduced %oods" and ado(t )easures that he'( the) co)(et$t$#e.s" sha'' *unct$on as the centra' )onetary author$ty.h$'$(($nes or to cor(orat$ons or assoc$at$ons or%an$3ed under the 'a. e''ect% it c nnot ?usti'.. Go#ern)ent7 o. No co)b$nat$ons $n restra$nt o* trade or un*a$r co)(et$t$on sha'' be a''o. To th$s end" the State sha'' re%u'ate the ac-u$s$t$on" o.es% 73. Sect$on 0. In*or)at$on on *ore$%n 'oans obta$ned or %uaranteed by the Go#ern)ent sha'' be )ade a#a$'ab'e to the (ub'$c. It sha'' ha#e su(er#$s$on o#er the o(erat$ons o* ban.$n%" and cred$t.$se (ro#$des" the Centra' Ban. Unt$' the Con%ress other. Corp) vs) LTERB% Octo&er A% 2337* The constitution $oes not tot ll.or..hen the (ub'$c $nterest so re-u$res. The (ract$ce o* a'' (ro*ess$ons $n the .

een .h$ch . The State sha'' reco%n$3e the r$%ht o* *ar)ers" *ar). The State sha'' a(('y the (r$nc$('es o* a%rar$an re*or) or ste." $n the d$s(os$t$on or ut$'$3at$on o* other natura' resources" $nc'ud$n% 'ands o* the (ub'$c do)a$n under 'ease or concess$on su$tab'e to a%r$cu'ture" sub+ect to (r$or r$%hts" ho)estead r$%hts o* s)a'' sett'ers" and the r$%hts o* $nd$%enous co))un$t$es to the$r ancestra' 'ands.$th the (ub'$c sector" a cont$nu$n% (ro%ra) o* urban 'and re*or) and hous$n% . Sect$on /:.or.or.eo('eCs Or%an$3at$ons Sect$on /4.ers" .$th 'a.e''ers sha'' be underta. A%rar$an and Natura' @esources @e*or) Sect$on 2. The State sha'' (ro#$de $ncent$#es to 'ando.ardsh$(" . To th$s end" the State sha'' encoura%e and underta.e'*are and enab'e the) to rea'$3e the$r *u'' (otent$a' $n the ser#$ce o* the nat$on.n a%r$cu'tura' estates .or. The State sha'' endea#or to (ro#$de *ree )ed$ca' care to (au(ers.$n% . The State sha'' ado(t an $nte%rated and co)(rehens$#e a((roach to hea'th de#e'o()ent .or.$th 'a." and a '$#$n% .or. The (rotect$on sha'' e>tend to o**shore *$sh$n% %rounds o* subs$stence *$sher)en a%a$nst *ore$%n $ntrus$on. The State sha'' (ro)ote the (r$nc$('e o* shared res(ons$b$'$ty bet." and *or the co))on %ood" underta. Urban or rura' (oor d." underta. The State sha'' a'so (rotect" de#e'o(" and conser#e such resources.$n% cond$t$ons" ta. Sect$on 4.$n% $nto account eco'o%$ca'" de#e'o()enta'" or e-u$ty cons$derat$ons" and sub+ect to the (ay)ent o* +ust co)(ensat$on..e" $n coo(erat$on .e a((ro(r$ate hea'th )an(o.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 Sect$on 1. !o)en Sect$on /2.e $n accordance .e an a%rar$an re*or) (ro%ra) *ounded on the r$%ht o* *ar)ers and re%u'ar *ar). The State sha'' a**ord *u'' (rotect$on to 'abor" 'oca' and o#erseas" or%an$3ed and unor%an$3ed" and (ro)ote *u'' e)('oy)ent and e-ua'$ty o* e)('oy)ent o((ortun$t$es *or a''. Sect$on 5. In deter)$n$n% retent$on '$)$ts" the State sha'' res(ect the r$%hts o* s)a'' 'ando.e a#a$'ab'e at a**ordab'e cost decent hous$n% and bas$c ser#$ces to under(r$#$'e%ed and ho)e'ess c$t$3ens $n urban centers and resett'e)ent areas.e''ers sha'' not be e#$cted nor the$r d.et$n%" and other su((ort ser#$ces.o)en by (ro#$d$n% sa*e and hea'th*u' .ners. The State sha'' estab'$sh and )a$nta$n an e**ect$#e *ood and dru% re%u'atory syste) and underta. &$nanc$a' $nstru)ents used as (ay)ent *or the$r 'ands sha'' be honored as e-u$ty $n enter(r$ses o* the$r cho$ce.. Sect$on 8.a%e.ers" to rece$#e a +ust share o* the *ru$ts thereo*..h$ch sha'' endea#or to )a.$'' enhance the$r .een .$n% $nto account the$r )aterna' *unct$ons" and such *ac$'$t$es and o((ortun$t$es that . It sha'' %uarantee the r$%hts o* a'' . and $n a +ust and hu)ane )anner. It sha'' a'so (ro)ote ade-uate e)('oy)ent o((ortun$t$es to such c$t$3ens.ers and e)('oyers" reco%n$3$n% the r$%ht o* 'abor to $ts +ust share $n the *ru$ts o* (roduct$on and the r$%ht o* enter(r$ses to reasonab'e returns on $n#est)ents" and to e>(ans$on and %ro.or.ers to se'*7 or%an$3at$ons" and (eace*u' concerted act$#$t$es" $nc'ud$n% the r$%ht to str$.h$ch sha'' be d$str$buted to the) $n the )anner (ro#$ded by 'a. Sect$on /1. No resett'e)ent o* urban and rura' d. It sha'' (ro#$de su((ort to such *$sher)en throu%h a((ro(r$ate techno'o%y and research" ade-uate *$nanc$a'" (roduct$on" and )ar.e''$n%s de)o'$shed" e>ce(t $n accordance .$thout ade-uate consu'tat$on . The State sha'' (rotect .ners. The State sha'' res(ect the ro'e o* $nde(endent (eo('eCs or%an$3at$ons to enab'e the C3 .or.ners to $n#est the (roceeds o* the a%rar$an re*or) (ro%ra) to (ro)ote $ndustr$a'$3at$on" e)('oy)ent creat$on" and (r$#at$3at$on o* (ub'$c sector enter(r$ses.ners" as .$th to *oster $ndustr$a' (eace. The State sha'' (rotect the r$%hts o* subs$stence *$sher)en" es(ec$a''y o* 'oca' co))un$t$es" to the (re*erent$a' use o* 'oca' )ar$ne and *$sh$n% resources" both $n'and and o**shore.ers and e)('oyers and the (re*erent$a' use o* #o'untary )odes $n sett'$n% d$s(utes" $nc'ud$n% conc$'$at$on" and sha'' en*orce the$r )utua' co)('$ance there." e'der'y" d$sab'ed" .et$n% ass$stance" and other ser#$ces. ?ea'th Sect$on //. Sect$on 6.$'' )a.er de#e'o()ent and research" res(ons$#e to the countryCs hea'th needs and (rob'e)s.$th 'a. The State )ay resett'e 'and'ess *ar)ers and *ar). The State sha'' estab'$sh a s(ec$a' a%ency *or d$sab'ed (ersons *or rehab$'$tat$on" se'*7 de#e'o()ent and se'*7re'$ance" and the$r $nte%rat$on $nto the )a$nstrea) o* soc$ety. @o'e and @$%hts o* .e essent$a' %oods" hea'th and other soc$a' ser#$ces a#a$'ab'e to a'' (eo('e at a**ordab'e cost.e the +ust d$str$but$on o* a'' a%r$cu'tura' 'ands" sub+ect to such (r$or$t$es and reasonab'e retent$on '$)$ts as the Con%ress )ay (rescr$be" ta.o)en" and ch$'dren. Sect$on /0.$n% (rocesses a**ect$n% the$r r$%hts and bene*$ts as )ay be (ro#$ded by 'a. There sha'' be (r$or$ty *or the needs o* the under(r$#$'e%ed s$c. The State sha''" by 'a. The State sha''" by 'a.ers" and 'ando.en .or. The State sha'' re%u'ate the re'at$ons bet. The State sha'' *urther (ro#$de $ncent$#es *or #o'untary 'and7shar$n%.$th the) and the co))un$t$es . In the $)('e)entat$on o* such (ro%ra) the State sha'' res(ect the r$%hts o* s)a'' (ro(erty o.ers $n $ts o.or.hene#er a(('$cab'e $n accordance .or. Urban Land @e*or) and ?ous$n% Sect$on 9.here they are to be re'ocated. They sha'' be ent$t'ed to secur$ty o* tenure" hu)ane cond$t$ons o* .th. They sha'' a'so (art$c$(ate $n (o'$cy and dec$s$on7)a.n d$rect'y or co''ect$#e'y the 'ands they t$'' or" $n the case o* other *ar).ers sha'' rece$#e a +ust share *ro) the$r 'abor $n the ut$'$3at$on o* )ar$ne and *$sh$n% resources. &$sh.ho are 'and'ess" to o.e'' as coo(erat$#es" and other $nde(endent *ar)ersC or%an$3at$ons to (art$c$(ate $n the ('ann$n%" or%an$3at$on" and )ana%e)ent o* the (ro%ra)" and sha'' (ro#$de su((ort to a%r$cu'ture throu%h a((ro(r$ate techno'o%y and research" and ade-uate *$nanc$a'" (roduct$on" )ar.or.

res$dent$a' Co))$ttee on ?u)an @$%hts sha'' cont$nue to e>erc$se $ts (resent *unct$ons and (o.$th$n the author$ty o* the Co))$ss$on" ta.or.hose hu)an r$%hts ha#e been #$o'ated or need (rotect$on= (2 E>erc$se #$s$tor$a' (o. l #) $?u$ic tor. (1 Unt$' th$s Co))$ss$on $s const$tuted" the e>$st$n% .$n% sha'' not be abr$d%ed. &. constitution l cre tion is% nonetheless% not inclu$e$ in the !enus o' o''ices ccor$e$ 'isc l utono(. Sect$on /5. . &e  C. The r$%ht o* the (eo('e and the$r or%an$3at$ons to e**ect$#e and reasonab'e (art$c$(at$on at a'' 'e#e's o* soc$a'" (o'$t$ca'" and econo)$c dec$s$on7)a.R% lthou!h $(itte$l.R% Nove(&er 2. either &.hose test$)ony or .$th 'a.h$'$(($nes and a )a+or$ty o* .$th de)onstrated ca(ac$ty to (ro)ote the (ub'$c $nterest and . People's organizations are bona *$de assoc$at$ons o* c$t$3ens .+>AN RI/. The ter) o* o**$ce and other -ua'$*$cat$ons and d$sab$'$t$es o* the Me)bers o* the Co))$ss$on sha'' be (ro#$ded by 'a.ers.$n% (o.h$'$(($nes" as . (2 The a((ro#ed annua' a((ro(r$at$ons o* the Co))$ss$on sha'' be auto)at$ca''y and re%u'ar'y re'eased. !overn(ent o''ici l or priv te in$ivi$u l)  .n or on co)('a$nt by any (arty" a'' *or)s o* hu)an r$%hts #$o'at$ons $n#o'#$n% c$#$' and (o'$t$ca' r$%hts= (0 Ado(t $ts o(erat$ona' %u$de'$nes and ru'es o* (rocedure" and c$te *or conte)(t *or #$o'at$ons thereo* $n accordance .hose (ossess$on o* docu)ents or other e#$dence $s necessary or con#en$ent to deter)$ne the truth $n any $n#est$%at$on conducted by $t or under $ts author$ty=  Re $ EP4A VS% .TS (9 @e-uest the ass$stance o* any de(art)ent" bureau" o**$ce" or a%ency $n the (er*or)ance o* $ts *unct$ons= (/: A((o$nt $ts o**$cers and e)('oyees $n accordance . The State sha'' (rotect and (ro)ote the r$%ht o* a'' c$t$3ens to -ua'$ty educat$on at a'' 'e#e's and sha'' ta." the$r 'e%$t$)ate and co''ect$#e $nterests and as($rat$ons throu%h (eace*u' and 'a.u( n Ri!hts% 228 SCRA 11A3* li(ite$ to viol tions o' civil n$ politic l ri!hts onl.ho )ust be natura'7born c$t$3ens o* the . Act* !r ntin! n$ prosecutori l po#ers to the C.$th the @u'es o* Court= (1 . The Co))$ss$on on ?u)an @$%hts sha'' ha#e the *o''o. (0 The Co))$ss$on sha'' be co)(osed o* a Cha$r)an and *our Me)bers .$th $nternat$ona' treaty ob'$%at$ons on hu)an r$%hts= (8 Grant $))un$ty *ro) (rosecut$on to any (erson .e'' as se'*7'earn$n%" C1 .ers and *unct$ons< (/ In#est$%ate" on $ts o.re'er to Section such other 'unctions n$ $uties provi$e$ &. The State sha''< (/ Estab'$sh" )a$nta$n" and su((ort a co)('ete" ade-uate" and $nte%rated syste) o* educat$on re'e#ant to the needs o* the (eo('e and soc$ety= (0 Estab'$sh and )a$nta$n a syste) o* *ree (ub'$c educat$on $n the e'e)entary and h$%h schoo' 'e#e's.$th$n the ." *ac$'$tate the estab'$sh)ent o* ade-uate consu'tat$on )echan$s)s. re viol tions .h$'$(($ne Go#ern)entCs co)('$ance .ro#$de a((ro(r$ate 'e%a' )easures *or the (rotect$on o* hu)an r$%hts o* a'' (ersons .ho) sha'' be )e)bers o* the Bar. Sect$on /8.h$ch sha'' be a#a$'ab'e to deser#$n% students $n both (ub'$c and (r$#ate schoo's" es(ec$a''y to the under(r$#$'e%ed= (2 Encoura%e non7*or)a'" $n*or)a'" and $nd$%enous 'earn$n% syste)s" as . constitution l or le!isl tive 'i t)  People vs) Le chon% 188:* The constitution l reDuire(ent th t the eviction n$ $e(olition &e in ccor$ nce #ith l # n$ con$ucte$ in ?ust n$ hu( ne ( nner $oes not (e n v li$it. the !overn(ent) ARTICLE +IV ESTACS Educat$on" Sc$ence and Techno'o%y" Arts" Cu'ture" and S(orts ACA"E>IC EREE"O> Sect$on /.   Sect$on /6..$th$n the de)ocrat$c *ra)e. o' the $e(olition or eviction is hin!e$ on the existence o' resettle(ent re $esi!n te$ or e r( r<e$ &.REA vs) C..$th $dent$*$ab'e 'eadersh$(" )e)bersh$(" and structure. The Con%ress )ay (ro#$de *or other cases o* #$o'at$ons o* hu)an r$%hts that shou'd *a'' . Sect$on 0.$n% $nto account $ts reco))endat$ons.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 (eo('e to (ursue and (rotect" .e'' as &$'$($nos res$d$n% abroad" and (ro#$de *or (re#ent$#e )easures and 'e%a' a$d ser#$ces to the under(r$#$'e%ed .e such educat$on access$b'e to a''. The State sha''" by 'a.u( n Securit. Sect$on /9.e a((ro(r$ate ste(s to )a.= and (// .% 233C* The C.*u' )eans.R o' hu( n ri!hts . . (/ There $s hereby created an $nde(endent o**$ce ca''ed Co))$ss$on on ?u)an @$%hts. !$thout '$)$t$n% the natura' r$%ht o* (arents to rear the$r ch$'dren" e'e)entary educat$on $s co)(u'sory *or a'' ch$'dren o* schoo' a%e= (1 Estab'$sh and )a$nta$n a syste) o* scho'arsh$( %rants" student 'oan (ro%ra)s" subs$d$es" and other $ncent$#es .R0 Si(on vs) Co() on .ers o#er +a$'s" (r$sons" or detent$on *ac$'$t$es= (4 Estab'$sh a cont$nu$n% (ro%ra) o* research" educat$on" ad $n*or)at$on to enhance res(ect *or the (r$)acy o* hu)an r$%hts= (5 @eco))end to the Con%ress e**ect$#e )easures to (ro)ote hu)an r$%hts and to (ro#$de *or co)(ensat$on to #$ct$)s o* #$o'at$ons o* hu)an r$%hts" or the$r *a)$'$es= (6 Mon$tor the . or le! lit.per'or( s ( .er*or) such other dut$es and *unct$ons as )ay be (ro#$ded by 'a.

ned so'e'y by c$t$3ens o* the . (0 They sha'' $ncu'cate (atr$ot$s) and nat$ona'$s)" *oster 'o#e o* hu)an$ty" res(ect *or hu)an r$%hts" a((rec$at$on o* the ro'e o* nat$ona' heroes $n the h$stor$ca' de#e'o()ent o* the country" teach the r$%hts and dut$es o* c$t$3ensh$(" stren%then eth$ca' and s($r$tua' #a'ues" de#e'o( )ora' character and (ersona' d$sc$('$ne" encoura%e cr$t$ca' and creat$#e th$n.$'' attract and reta$n $ts r$%ht*u' share o* the best a#a$'ab'e ta'ents throu%h ade-uate re)unerat$on and other )eans o* +ob sat$s*act$on and *u'*$'')ent.% this 'ree$o( enco(p sses the utono(. (1 E#ery c$t$3en has a r$%ht to se'ect a (ro*ess$on or course o* study" sub+ect to *a$r" reasonab'e" and e-u$tab'e ad)$ss$on and acade)$c re-u$re)ents. No educat$ona' $nst$tut$on sha'' be estab'$shed e>c'us$#e'y *or a'$ens and no %rou( o* a'$ens sha'' co)(r$se )ore than one7th$rd o* the enro'')ent $n any schoo'.er lone)  +P vs) CSC% April 7% 2331* The +niversit. (/ A'' educat$ona' $nst$tut$ons sha'' $nc'ude the study o* the Const$tut$on as (art o* the curr$cu'a. h s the c $e(ic 'ree$o( to $eter(ine 'or itsel' on c $e(ic !roun$s #ho ( .  Ero( st n$point o' the e$uc tion l institution n$ the (e(&ers o' the c $e(e) The Supre(e Court sust ine$ the pri( c. sho#in! o' !r ve &use o' $iscretion% the courts ( .$thout add$t$ona' cost to the Go#ern)ent. to choose #ho shoul$ te ch n$% conco(it nt there#ith% #ho shoul$ &e ret ine$ in its rolls o' pro'essors n$ other c $e(ic personnel) This Court $ecl re$ in Ateneo $e > nil +niversit. extern l controls or pressure)N Lan%ua%e C2 . &e t u!ht% ho# it sh ll &e t u!ht% n$ #ho ( . (1 A'' re#enues and assets o* non7stoc.Ls $ecision not to con'er honors to petitioner)  L cuest vs) Ateneo% "ece(&er 8% 233.ned" )ay '$.$th$n the re%u'ar c'ass hours by $nstructors des$%nated or a((ro#ed by the re'$%$ous author$t$es o* the re'$%$on to . The contro' and ad)$n$strat$on o* educat$ona' $nst$tut$ons sha'' be #ested $n c$t$3ens o* the . U(on the d$sso'ut$on or cessat$on o* the cor(orate e>$stence o* such $nst$tut$ons" the$r assets sha'' be d$s(osed o* $n the )anner (ro#$ded by 'a.ee on pro& tion% &elon!s to the universit. Sect$on 2.ned by such c$t$3ens. (0 Educat$ona' $nst$tut$ons" other than those estab'$shed by re'$%$ous %rou(s and )$ss$on boards" sha'' be o. . $nc'ud$n% restr$ct$ons on d$#$dends and (ro#$s$ons *or re$n#est)ent.$th tra$n$n% $n c$#$cs" #ocat$ona' e**$c$ency" and other s. the courts% unless there is !r ve &use o' $iscretion in its exercise) There'ore% &sent n.h$'$(($nes.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 $nde(endent" and out7o*7schoo' study (ro%ra)s (art$cu'ar'y those that res(ond to co))un$ty needs= and (4 . s the e(plo. # s exercisin! its 'ree$o( to choose #ho ( .$n%" broaden sc$ent$*$c and techno'o%$ca' ." *or other *ore$%n te)(orary res$dents. en$o#e$ #ith the ri!ht to est &lish their policies% c $e(ic n$ other#ise% unh (pere$ &. te ch% #h t ( . te ch or #ho ( . (/ The State reco%n$3es the co)('e)entary ro'es o* (ub'$c and (r$#ate $nst$tut$ons $n the educat$ona' syste) and sha'' e>erc$se reasonab'e su(er#$s$on and re%u'at$on o* a'' educat$ona' $nst$tut$ons. (/ The State sha'' ta.$''s. &e $(itte$ to stu$. not &e $istur&e$ (uch less controlle$ &. not $istur& the +niversit. o' c $e(ic 'ree$o( over Civil service rules on AWOL% stressin! #hen +P opte$ to ret in priv te petitioner n$ even pro(ote$ hi( $espite his &sence% the +niversit.e. (1 At the o(t$on e>(ressed $n .h$ch $s o.ards be'on%" . The Con%ress )ay" ho.e#er" re-u$re $ncreased &$'$($no e-u$ty (art$c$(at$on $n a'' educat$ona' $nst$tut$ons. The (ro#$s$ons o* th$s subsect$on sha'' not a(('y to schoo's estab'$shed *or *ore$%n d$('o)at$c (ersonne' and the$r de(endents and" un'ess other. (4 The State sha'' ass$%n the h$%hest bud%etary (r$or$ty to educat$on and ensure that teach$n% .h$ch the ch$'dren or .ards $n (ub'$c e'e)entary and h$%h schoo's . Sect$on 1. (2 Sub+ect to cond$t$ons (rescr$bed by 'a.% n institution o' hi!her le rnin! h s the prero! tive to provi$e st n$ r$s 'or its te chers n$ $eter(ine #hether these st n$ r$s h ve &een (et) At the en$ o' the pro& tion perio$% the $ecision to re-hire n e(plo.no.ed to be tau%ht to the$r ch$'dren or . 5+P% et l) vs) CSC% April 7% 23316)  >or les vs) +P Bo r$ o' Re!ents% "ece(&er 17% 233C* As enunci te$ &. (2 The State sha'' enhance the r$%ht o* teachers to (ro*ess$ona' ad#ance)ent." a'' %rants" endo. Sect$on 4.. (2) Academic freedom shall be enjo ed in all institutions of higher learning. o' S n C rlos v) Court o' Appe ls% the $iscretion o' schools o' le rnin! to 'or(ul te rules n$ !ui$elines in the !r ntin! o' honors 'or purposes o' !r $u tion 'or(s p rt o' c $e(ic 'ree$o() An$ such $iscretion ( ." non7(ro*$t educat$ona' $nst$tut$ons used actua''y" d$rect'y" and e>c'us$#e'y *or educat$ona' (ur(oses sha'' be e>e)(t *ro) ta>es and dut$es.* Consistent #ith c $e(ic 'ree$o( n$ constitution l utono(.'ed%e" and (ro)ote #ocat$ona' e**$c$ency.h$'$(($nes or cor(orat$ons or assoc$at$ons at 'east s$>ty (er centu) o* the ca($ta' o* . this Court in the c se o' +niversit.r$t$n% by the (arents or %uard$ans" re'$%$on sha'' be a''o.$se (ro#$ded by 'a.e $nto account re%$ona' and sectora' needs and cond$t$ons and sha'' encoura%e 'oca' ('ann$n% $n the de#e'o()ent o* educat$ona' (o'$c$es and (ro%ra)s. continue to te ch its ' cult.)N Cle rl. v) C pulon!* MAs corpor te entities% e$uc tion l institutions o' hi!her le rnin! re inherentl.ro(r$ety educat$ona' $nst$tut$ons" $nc'ud$n% those coo(erat$#e'y o.ro#$de adu't c$t$3ens" the d$sab'ed" and out7o*7 schoo' youth .$se be ent$t'ed to such e>e)(t$ons sub+ect to the '$)$tat$ons (ro#$ded by 'a.)ents" donat$ons" or contr$but$ons used actua''y" d$rect'y" and e>c'us$#e'y *or educat$ona' (ur(oses sha'' be e>e)(t *ro) ta>. Non7teach$n% acade)$c and non7acade)$c (ersonne' sha'' en+oy the (rotect$on o* the State.

Sc$ence and Techno'o%y Sect$on /:. C7 . A'' the countryCs art$st$c and h$stor$c . The State sha'' *oster the (reser#at$on" enr$ch)ent" and dyna)$c e#o'ut$on o* a &$'$($no nat$ona' cu'ture based on the (r$nc$('e o* un$ty $n d$#ers$ty $n a c'$)ate o* *ree art$st$c and $nte''ectua' e>(ress$on.$th ath'et$c c'ubs and other sectors.$se (ro#$ded by 'a.hen bene*$c$a' to the (eo('e" *or such (er$od as )ay be (ro#$ded by 'a. The State sha'' (rotect and secure the e>c'us$#e r$%hts o* sc$ent$sts" $n#entors" art$sts" and other %$*ted c$t$3ens to the$r $nte''ectua' (ro(erty and creat$ons" (art$cu'ar'y . S(an$sh and Arab$c sha'' be (ro)oted on a #o'untary and o(t$ona' bas$s. ARTICLE +V FAMILY Sect$on 5.a%e and $nco)e= and (2 The r$%ht o* *a)$'$es or *a)$'y assoc$at$ons to (art$c$(ate $n the ('ann$n% and $)('e)entat$on o* (o'$c$es and (ro%ra)s that a**ect the). Sect$on 8. (/ The State sha'' (ro)ote (hys$ca' educat$on and encoura%e s(orts (ro%ra)s" 'ea%ue co)(et$t$ons" and a)ateur s(orts" $nc'ud$n% tra$n$n% *or $nternat$ona' co)(et$t$ons" to *oster se'*7 d$sc$('$ne" tea). The State reco%n$3es the &$'$($no *a)$'y as the *oundat$on o* the nat$on. Sub+ect to (ro#$s$ons o* 'a. Sect$on //. Sect$on 9.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 Sect$on /4.h$'$(($ne and other 'an%ua%es. Sect$on 0. S(orts Sect$on /9.e" coord$nate" and (ro)ote researches *or the de#e'o()ent" (ro(a%at$on" and (reser#at$on o* &$'$($no and other 'an%ua%es. As $t e#o'#es" $t sha'' be *urther de#e'o(ed and enr$ched on the bas$s o* e>$st$n% ." and e>ce''ence *or the de#e'o()ent o* a hea'thy and a'ert c$t$3enry.e'' as art$st$c creat$ons. The nat$ona' 'an%ua%e o* the .e ste(s to $n$t$ate and susta$n the use o* &$'$($no as a )ed$u) o* o**$c$a' co))un$cat$on and as 'an%ua%e o* $nstruct$on $n the educat$ona' syste). Arts and 'etters sha'' en+oy the (atrona%e o* the State. (0 The State sha'' encoura%e and su((ort researches and stud$es on the arts and cu'ture. Sect$on /1. It sha'' cons$der these r$%hts $n the *or)u'at$on o* nat$ona' ('ans and (o'$c$es.$th the$r re'$%$ous con#$ct$ons and the de)ands o* res(ons$b'e (arenthood= (0 The r$%ht o* ch$'dren to ass$stance" $nc'ud$n% (ro(er care and nutr$t$on" and s(ec$a' (rotect$on *ro) a'' *or)s o* ne%'ect" abuse" crue'ty" e>('o$tat$on" and other cond$t$ons (re+ud$c$a' to the$r de#e'o()ent= (1 The r$%ht o* the *a)$'y to a *a)$'y '$#$n% .h$'$(($nes $s &$'$($no. The State sha'' re%u'ate the trans*er and (ro)ote the ada(tat$on o* techno'o%y *ro) a'' sources *or the nat$ona' bene*$t. The State sha'' de*end< (/ The r$%ht o* s(ouses to *ound a *a)$'y $n accordance ." En%'$sh. The State sha'' conser#e" (ro)ote" and (o(u'ar$3e the nat$onCs h$stor$ca' and cu'tura' her$ta%e and resources" as .  Re $ in rel tion t#o-chil$ polic.ea'th const$tutes the cu'tura' treasure o* the nat$on and sha'' be under the (rotect$on o* the State .e re%u'ar s(orts act$#$t$es throu%hout the country $n coo(erat$on . (/ The State sha'' ensure e-ua' access to cu'tura' o((ortun$t$es throu%h the educat$ona' syste)" (ub'$c or (r$#ate cu'tura' ent$t$es" scho'arsh$(s" %rants and other $ncent$#es" and co))un$ty cu'tura' centers" and other (ub'$c #enues. The Con%ress sha'' estab'$sh a nat$ona' 'an%ua%e co))$ss$on co)(osed o* re(resentat$#es o* #ar$ous re%$ons and d$sc$('$nes . and as the Con%ress )ay dee) a((ro(r$ate" the Go#ern)ent sha'' ta.h$'$(($nes are &$'$($no and" unt$' other. &or (ur(oses o* co))un$cat$on and $nstruct$on" the o**$c$a' 'an%ua%es o* the . It sha'' encoura%e the . Sect$on /5. Arts and Cu'ture Sect$on /2. Th$s Const$tut$on sha'' be (ro)u'%ated $n &$'$($no and En%'$sh and sha'' be trans'ated $nto )a+or re%$ona' 'an%ua%es" Arab$c" and S(an$sh. The re%$ona' 'an%ua%es are the au>$'$ary o**$c$a' 'an%ua%es $n the re%$ons and sha'' ser#e as au>$'$ary )ed$a o* $nstruct$on there$n. n$ $ivorce) Sect$on /. It sha'' su((ort $nd$%enous" a((ro(r$ate" and se'*7re'$ant sc$ent$*$c and techno'o%$ca' ca(ab$'$t$es" and the$r a(('$cat$on to the countryCs (roduct$#e syste)s and nat$ona' '$*e.or. Sect$on /6. Scho'arsh$(s" %rants7$n7a$d" or other *or)s o* $ncent$#es sha'' be (ro#$ded to deser#$n% sc$ence students" researchers" sc$ent$sts" $n#entors" techno'o%$sts" and s(ec$a''y %$*ted c$t$3ens. The *a)$'y has the duty to care *or $ts e'der'y )e)bers but the State )ay a'so do so throu%h +ust (ro%ra)s o* soc$a' secur$ty. Sc$ence and techno'o%y are essent$a' *or nat$ona' de#e'o()ent and (ro%ress.h$ch sha'' underta. Sect$on /8. Marr$a%e" as an $n#$o'ab'e soc$a' $nst$tut$on" $s the *oundat$on o* the *a)$'y and sha'' be (rotected by the State. Sect$on /0. Accord$n%'y" $t sha'' stren%then $ts so'$dar$ty and act$#e'y (ro)ote $ts tota' de#e'o()ent. Sect$on 6. The State sha'' reco%n$3e" res(ect" and (rotect the r$%hts o* $nd$%enous cu'tura' co))un$t$es to (reser#e and de#e'o( the$r cu'tures" trad$t$ons" and $nst$tut$ons. Sect$on 2. (0 A'' educat$ona' $nst$tut$ons sha'' underta.h$ch )ay re%u'ate $ts d$s(os$t$on. Sect$on 1. The State sha'' %$#e (r$or$ty to research and de#e'o()ent" $n#ent$on" $nno#at$on" and the$r ut$'$3at$on= and to sc$ence and techno'o%y educat$on" tra$n$n%" and ser#$ces. The Con%ress )ay (ro#$de *or $ncent$#es" $nc'ud$n% ta> deduct$ons" to encoura%e (r$#ate (art$c$(at$on $n (ro%ra)s o* bas$c and a(('$ed sc$ent$*$c research.$dest (art$c$(at$on o* (r$#ate %rou(s" 'oca' %o#ern)ents" and co))un$ty7based or%an$3at$ons $n the %enerat$on and ut$'$3at$on o* sc$ence and techno'o%y..

c nnot &e ppointe$ to civili n position in the !overn(ent% inclu$in! /OCCs or their su&si$i ries) IBP vs) 4 (or * Since none o' the ( rines #ere incorpor te$ or enliste$ s (e(&ers o' the PNP% there c n &e no ppoint(ent to civili n position to spe < o') Sect$on 6. The State sha'' (rotect consu)ers *ro) trade )a'(ract$ces and *ro) substandard or ha3ardous (roducts. Sect$on 0. (/ A'' )e)bers o* the ar)ed *orces sha'' ta.ro*ess$ona'$s) $n the ar)ed *orces and ade-uate re)unerat$on and bene*$ts o* $ts )e)bers sha'' be a (r$)e concern o* the State. (2 No )e)ber o* the ar)ed *orces $n the act$#e ser#$ce sha''" at any t$)e" be a((o$nted or des$%nated $n any ca(ac$ty to a c$#$'$an (os$t$on $n the Go#ern)ent $nc'ud$n% %o#ern)ent7o.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 ARTICLE +VI GENERAL PROVISIONS Sect$on /.% in n." ado(t a ne. The author$ty o* 'oca' e>ecut$#es o#er the (o'$ce un$ts $n the$r +ur$sd$ct$on sha'' be (ro#$ded by 'a.h$ch $s o.  I>>+NITJ OE T. No co)b$nat$ons $n restra$nt o* trade or un*a$r co)(et$t$on there$n sha'' be a''o.e'*are. to u(%rade the (ens$ons and other bene*$ts due to ret$rees o* both the %o#ern)ent and the (r$#ate sectors.h$te" and b'ue" . The ar)ed *orces sha'' be $nsu'ated *ro) (art$san (o'$t$cs.ned or contro''ed cor(orat$ons or any o* the$r subs$d$ar$es.h$'$(($nes" or to cor(orat$ons" coo(erat$#es or assoc$at$ons" .h$ch sha'' be nat$ona' $n sco(e and c$#$'$an $n character" to be ad)$n$stered and contro''ed by a nat$ona' (o'$ce co))$ss$on.. The State )ay not be sued .  NATIONAL POLICE EORCE  Alun n vs) Asuncion% B nu r. na)e *or the country" a nat$ona' anthe)" or a nat$ona' sea'" . o* $n*or)at$on $nto" out o*" and across the country" $n accordance . 2:% 2333* The ne# PNP &sor&e$ the (e(&ers o' the 'or(er NAPOLCO>% PC n$ INP% ll three o' #hich ccor$in!l.e e**ect on'y u(on $ts rat$*$cat$on by the (eo('e $n a nat$ona' re*erendu).  Sect$on 5. The State sha'' estab'$sh and )a$nta$n one (o'$ce *orce" .e#er" $n t$)es o* .h$'$(($nes.nersh$( and )ana%e)ent o* )ass )ed$a sha'' be '$)$ted to c$t$3ens o* the ..ed. p rtis n politic l ctivit. Sect$on 8. (0 The State sha'' stren%then the (atr$ot$c s($r$t and nat$ona'$st consc$ousness o* the )$'$tary" and res(ect *or (eo('eCs r$%hts $n the (er*or)ance o* the$r duty.h$ch sha'' under%o )$'$tary tra$n$n% and ser#e" as )ay be (ro#$ded by 'a. The Con%ress )ay" by 'a.% except to vote) The. (0 The ad#ert$s$n% $ndustry $s $)(ressed . (4 La. or in$irectl.ho''y7o. On'y &$'$($no c$t$3ens or cor(orat$ons or assoc$at$ons at 'east se#enty (er centu) o* the ca($ta' o* . Sect$on 9.ed to en%a%e $n the ad#ert$s$n% $ndustry. ?o. *or the (rotect$on o* consu)ers and the (ro)ot$on o* the %enera' . It sha'' .$th a sun an three stars" as consecrated and honored by the (eo('e and reco%n$3ed by 'a.ned and )ana%ed by such c$t$3ens..ar or other nat$ona' e)er%ency dec'ared by the Con%ress" the . The Ar)ed &orces o* the .e an oath or a**$r)at$on to u(ho'd and de*end th$s Const$tut$on. Sect$on 4. (5 The o**$cers and )en o* the re%u'ar *orce o* the ar)ed *orces sha'' be recru$ted (ro(ort$onate'y *ro) a'' (ro#$nces and c$t$es as *ar as (ract$cab'e.$thout $ts consent. (1 . The *'a% o* the . (6 The tour o* duty o* the Ch$e* o* Sta** o* the Ar)ed *orces sha'' not e>ceed three years. sha'' ta.E STATE ERO> S+IT 5Re $ !ener l principles6 Sect$on 1. Sect$on /:. &unds sha'' be (ro#$ded there*or and due cons$derat$on sha'' be %$#en the) $n the d$s(os$t$on o* a%r$cu'tura' 'ands o* the (ub'$c do)a$n and" $n a((ro(r$ate cases" $n the ut$'$3at$on o* natura' resources.$th a (o'$cy that res(ects the *reedo) o* s(eech and o* the (ress. Sect$on //. The (art$c$(at$on o* *ore$%n $n#estors $n the %o#ern$n% body o* ent$t$es $n such $ndustry sha'' be '$)$ted to the$r (ro(ort$onate share $n the ca($ta' thereo*" and a'' the e>ecut$#e and )ana%$n% o**$cers o* such ent$t$es )ust be c$t$3ens o* the . The Con%ress sha'' re%u'ate or (roh$b$t )ono(o'$es $n co))erc$a' )ass )ed$a .res$dent )ay e>tend such tour o* duty.h$'$(($nes sha'' be co)(osed o* a c$t$3en ar)ed *orce .  +n$er the "IL/ 5C rpio Secret r. The State sha''" *ro) t$)e to t$)e" re#$e.ned by such c$t$3ens sha'' be a''o.% 239 SCRA 2836) vs) Executive CC . Such 'a. e>tens$on o* the$r ser#$ce. The State sha'' (ro#$de $))ed$ate and ade-uate care" bene*$ts" and other *or)s o* ass$stance to .h$ch sha'' be tru'y re*'ect$#e and sy)bo'$c o* the $dea's" h$story" and trad$t$ons o* the (eo('e.$th (ub'$c $nterest" and sha'' be re%u'ated by 'a. The State sha'' (ro#$de the (o'$cy en#$ron)ent *or the *u'' de#e'o()ent o* &$'$($no ca(ab$'$ty and the e)er%ence o* co))un$cat$on structures su$tab'e to the needs and as($rat$ons o* the nat$on and the ba'anced *'o.ar #eterans and #eterans o* )$'$tary ca)(a$%ns" the$r sur#$#$n% s(ouses and or(hans.hen the (ub'$c $nterest so re-u$res.h$'$(($nes sha'' be red" . (/ The o. &olishe$)  Pro'ession lis( o' the AEP c nnot en! !e% $irectl. No )e)ber o* the )$'$tary sha'' en%a%e d$rect'y or $nd$rect'y $n any (art$san (o'$t$ca' act$#$ty" e>ce(t to #ote.s on ret$re)ent o* )$'$tary o**$cers sha'' not a''o. Sect$on 2.ee( a re%u'ar *orce necessary *or the secur$ty o* the State.

Any a)end)ent to" or re#$s$on o*" th$s Const$tut$on )ay be (ro(osed by< (/ The Con%ress" u(on a #ote o* three7*ourths o* a'' $ts Me)bers= or (0 A const$tut$ona' con#ent$on.% ( <es propos ls 'or (en$(ents% it $oes not h ve the 'in l s . The *$rst e'ect$ons o* the Me)bers o* the Con%ress under th$s Const$tut$on sha'' be he'd on the second Monday o* May" /986. o' soverei!nt.$n% the rat$*$cat$on o* th$s Const$tut$on nor o*tener than once e#ery *$#e years therea*ter.n issue #hich is cle rl. h s 'ull n$ plen r.$se be d$rect'y (ro(osed by the (eo('e throu%h $n$t$at$#e u(on a (et$t$on o* at 'east t.% 2339* Cle rl. in the r ti'ic tion o' (en$(ents) A ple&iscite ( .hen rat$*$ed by a )a+or$ty o* the #otes cast $n a ('eb$sc$te .h$ch e#ery 'e%$s'at$#e d$str$ct )ust be re(resented by at 'east three (er centu) o* the re%$stered #oters there$n. reli!ious !roups n$ (ission &o r$s) Sect$on /0. is insu''icient in provi$in! 'or (ech nis( to !overn initi tives 'or constitution l (en$(ents) While the Constitution reco!niFes the ri!ht o' citiFens to propose (en$(ents% the people c nnot exercise such until Con!ress provi$es 'or its i(ple(ent tion)   A3R Eilipino o#nership  E"+CATIONAL INSTIT+TION 93R% except* Schools est &lishe$ &. !r nts such po#er) . The Con%ress )ay" by a #ote o* t. propose$ &.h$ch sha'' be he'd not ear'$er than s$>ty days nor 'ater than n$nety days a*ter the cert$*$cat$on by the Co))$ss$on on E'ect$ons o* the su**$c$ency o* the (et$t$on.e. LA>BINO VS)% ET AL) VS) CO>ELEC% Octo&er 2.% the 'r (ers o' the Constitution inten$e$ th t the M$r 't o' the propose$ constitution l (en$(entN shoul$ &e Mre $. ARTICLE +VII AMENDMENTS OR REVISIONS Sect$on /. po#ers to propose (en$(ents or to c ll convention) The !r nt to Con!ress s Constituent Asse(&l. Any a)end)ent to" or re#$s$on o*" th$s Const$tut$on under Sect$on / hereo* sha'' be #a'$d . Sect$on 2.h$ch sha'' be he'd not ear'$er than s$>ty days nor 'ater than n$nety days a*ter the a((ro#a' o* such a)end)ent or re#$s$on. the people throu!h initi tive upon petitionN is th t the entire propos l on its ' ce is petition &.res$dent on (o'$c$es a**ect$n% $nd$%enous cu'tura' co))un$t$es" the )a+or$ty o* the )e)bers o* . o' such plen r. si!n there is lre $. si!n such propos l) The 'r (ers pl inl.h$ch sha'' co)e *ro) such co))un$t$es. &ec use the s (e explicitl. the people) This (e ns t#o essenti l ele(ents (ust &e present) Eirst% the people (ust uthor n$ thus si!n the entire propos l) No !ent or represent tive c n si!n on their &eh l') Secon$% s n initi tive upon petition% the propos l (ust &e e(&o$ie$ in petition) "OCTRINE OE PROPER S+B>ISSION  Sect$on 0. i(plic tion% ll po#ers necess r. No a)end)ent under th$s sect$on sha'' be author$3ed . o' (en$(ent1revisions) +NLESS% the propose$ (en$(ents1revisions so provi$e) ARTICLE +VIII TRANSITORY PROVISIONS Sect$on /. SCRA 2:* Con!ress #hen ctin! s Constituent Asse(&l.  I>BON/ VS) CO>ELEC% 7.$th$n *$#e years *o''o. Any a)end)ent under Sect$on 0 hereo* sha'' be #a'$d . to the e''ective exercise o' princip l po#er !r nte$% such s the po#er to 'ix Du li'ic tions% pportion(ent% etc) C.ence% #hen exercisin! the s (e% it is s i$ th t Sen tors n$ >e(&ers o' the . .  /ON4ALES VS) CO>ELEC% 21 SCRA AAC* The po#er to (en$ the Constitution or to propose (en$(ents is not inclu$e$ in the !ener l !r nt o' le!isl tive po#er to Con!ress) It is p rt o' the inherent po#ers o' the people s the repositor. st te$ th t M&e'ore the. inclu$es% &. in repu&lic n st te) Con!ress ( . The Con%ress sha'' (ro#$de *or the $)('e)entat$on o* the e>erc$se o* th$s r$%ht.hen rat$*$ed by a )a+or$ty o* the #otes cast $n a ('eb$sc$te . Sect$on 1. su&?ect to ?u$ici l revie#)  There is nothin! to in$ic te th t speci l election is ll ti(es necess r.ouse o' Represent tives ct% not s (e(&ers o' Con!ress% &ut s co(ponent ele(ents o' Constituent Asse(&l. The Con%ress )ay create a consu'tat$#e body to ad#$se the .)  When Con!ress% ctin! s Constituent Asse(&l. n$ sho#nN to the people M&e'oreN the. propose (en$(ents to the Constitution (erel. on #hether or not its cts re #ithin constitution l li(its. A)end)ents to th$s Const$tut$on )ay '$. uthorit. $r 't sho#n to the()N The 'r (ers lso Menvisione$N th t the people shoul$ si!n on the propos l itsel' &ec use the proponents (ust Mprep re th t propos l n$ p ss it roun$ 'or si!n ture)N The essence o' (en$(ents M$irectl.o7th$rds o* a'' $ts Me)bers" ca'' a const$tut$ona' con#ent$on" or by a )a+or$ty #ote o* a'' $ts Me)bers" sub)$t to the e'ectorate the -uest$on o* ca''$n% such a con#ent$on. hel$ to!ether #ith !ener l elections)   TOLENTINO VS) CO>ELEC% C1 SCRA A32* There c n &e no piece (e l r ti'ic tion) Presi$enti l procl ( tion is not reDuire$ 'or e''ectivit. &e v li$l. virtue o' the $octrine o' necess r.e'#e (er centu) o* the tota' nu)ber o* re%$stered #oters" o* .BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 OPERATION OE P+BLIC +TILITIES  93R Eilipino o#nership >ASS >E"IA  133R Eilipino o#nership A"VERSTISIN/ IN"+STRJ  SANTIA/O VS) CO>ELEC% 2A3 SCRA 139* RA 9A7.

Career c$#$' ser#$ce e)('oyees se(arated *ro) the ser#$ce not *or cause but as a resu't o* the reor%an$3at$on (ursuant to . A'' (ro(ert$es" records" e-u$()ent" bu$'d$n%s" *ac$'$t$es" and other assets o* any o**$ce or body abo'$shed or reor%an$3ed under . Sect$on /9. O* the Senators e'ected $n the e'ect$on o* /990" the *$rst t. 1 dated March 04" /985 or th$s Const$tut$on sha'' be trans*erred to the o**$ce or body to .s" decrees" e>ecut$#e orders" (roc'a)at$ons" 'etters o* $nstruct$ons" and other e>ecut$#e $ssuances not $ncons$stent .$th the e>$st$n% (o'$cy" had been acce(ted.ers unt$' the *$rst Con%ress $s con#ened.$th$n one year a*ter the rat$*$cat$on o* th$s Const$tut$on" ado(t a syste)at$c ('an to e>(ed$te the dec$s$on or reso'ut$on o* cases or )atters (end$n% $n the Su(re)e Court or the 'o.res$dent )ay *$'' by a((o$nt)ent *ro) a '$st o* no)$nees by the res(ect$#e sectors the seats reser#ed *or sectora' re(resentat$on $n (ara%ra(h (0 " Sect$on 4 o* Art$c'e AI o* th$s Const$tut$on. Sect$on /2. A s$)$'ar ('an sha'' be ado(ted *or a'' s(ec$a' courts and -uas$7+ud$c$a' bod$es. The $ncu)bent Me)bers o* the C$#$' Ser#$ce Co))$ss$on" the Co))$ss$on on E'ect$ons" and the Co))$ss$on on Aud$t sha'' cont$nue $n o**$ce *or one year a*ter the rat$*$cat$on o* th$s Const$tut$on" un'ess they are sooner re)o#ed *or cause or beco)e $nca(ac$tated to d$schar%e the dut$es o* the$r o**$ce or a((o$nted to a ne. Unt$' other.res$dent under th$s Const$tut$on sha'' be he'd on the second Monday o* May" /990.h$ch ha#e not been rat$*$ed sha'' not be rene. Sect$on /8.e'#e obta$n$n% the h$%hest nu)ber o* #otes sha'' ser#e s$> years and the re)a$n$n% t..o7th$rds o* a'' the Me)bers o* the Senate.res$dent )ay const$tute the Metro(o'$tan Author$ty to be co)(osed o* the heads o* a'' 'oca' %o#ern)ent un$ts co)(r$s$n% the Metro(o'$tan Man$'a area.res$dent" the .$th the e'ect$on o* the Me)bers o* the Con%ress.res$dent o* the Senate" the S(ea. Th$s (ro#$s$on a'so a(('$es to career o**$cers .BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 The *$rst 'oca' e'ect$ons sha'' be he'd on a date to be deter)$ned by the .$th th$s Const$tut$on sha'' re)a$n o(erat$#e un'ess a)ended or re(ea'ed by the Su(re)e Court or the Con%ress.roc'a)at$on No. The $ncu)bent . A'' e>$st$n% treat$es or $nternat$ona' a%ree)ents . Sect$on /0. It sha'' $nc'ude the e'ect$on o* a'' Me)bers o* the c$ty or )un$c$(a' counc$'s $n the Metro(o'$tan Man$'a area.$se (ro#$ded by 'a.res$dent sha'' rece$#e an annua' sa'ary o* three hundred thousand (esos= the A$ce7.res$dent and A$ce7. The Senators" Me)bers o* the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es" and the 'oca' o**$c$a's *$rst e'ected under th$s Const$tut$on sha'' ser#e unt$' noon o* June 1:" /990.s not $ncons$stent .res$dent e'ected $n the &ebruary 6" /985 e'ect$on $s" *or (ur(oses o* synchron$3at$on o* e'ect$ons" hereby e>tended to noon o* June 1:" /990.res$dent and A$ce7 . Sect$on 9.roc'a)at$on No.er o* the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es" and the Ch$e* Just$ce o* the Su(re)e Court" t. Sect$on 0.hen the a(('$cab'e (er$od 'a(ses a*ter such rat$*$cat$on. Sect$on 4. In '$eu thereo*" at the o(t$on o* the e)('oyees" they )ay be cons$dered *or e)('oy)ent $n the Go#ern)ent or $n any o* $ts subd$#$s$ons" $nstru)enta'$t$es" or a%enc$es" $nc'ud$n% %o#ern)ent7 o. Sect$on 6. The *$rst re%u'ar e'ect$ons *or the . The $ncu)bent Me)bers o* the Jud$c$ary sha'' cont$nue $n o**$ce unt$' they reach the a%e o* se#enty years or beco)e $nca(ac$tated to d$schar%e the dut$es o* the$r o**$ce or are re)o#ed *or cause.$thout the concurrence o* at 'east t. Sect$on 0/.$n% the rat$*$cat$on o* th$s Const$tut$on sha'' be ent$t'ed to a((ro(r$ate se(arat$on (ay and to ret$re)ent and other bene*$ts accru$n% to the) under the 'a.hose res$%nat$on" tendered $n '$ne . The (ro#$s$ons o* the e>$st$n% @u'es o* Court" +ud$c$ary acts" and (rocedura' 'a.ned or contro''ed cor(orat$ons and the$r subs$d$ar$es.$se (ro#$ded by the Con%ress" the .o hundred *our thousand (esos each= and the Me)bers o* the Const$tut$ona' Co))$ss$ons" one hundred e$%hty thousand (esos each. Sect$on /1. 1 dated March 04" /985 and the reor%an$3at$on *o''o. Sect$on //. A'' e>$st$n% 'a. The s$>7year ter) o* the $ncu)bent . ter) thereunder. The 'e%a' e**ect o* the 'a(se" be*ore the rat$*$cat$on o* th$s Const$tut$on" o* the a(('$cab'e (er$od *or the dec$s$on or reso'ut$on o* the cases or )atters sub)$tted *or ad+ud$cat$on by the courts" sha'' be deter)$ned by the Su(re)e Court as soon as (ract$cab'e.res$dent sha'' cont$nue to e>erc$se 'e%$s'at$#e (o. A sub7(ro#$nce sha'' cont$nue to e>$st and o(erate unt$' $t $s con#erted $nto a re%u'ar (ro#$nce or unt$' $ts co)(onent )un$c$(a'$t$es are re#erted to the )other (ro#$nce.h$ch )ay be s$)u'taneous .$se" the .er courts (r$or to the e**ect$#$ty o* th$s Const$tut$on.res$dent" . Sect$on /5. A'' courts e>$st$n% at the t$)e o* the rat$*$cat$on o* th$s Const$tut$on sha'' cont$nue to e>erc$se the$r +ur$sd$ct$on" unt$' other.o hundred *orty thousand (esos each= the Senators" the Me)bers o* the ?ouse o* @e(resentat$#es" the Assoc$ate Just$ces o* the Su(re)e Court" and the Cha$r)en o* the Const$tut$ona' Co))$ss$ons" t. Sect$on 8. Sect$on /6. Sect$on 1.h$ch $ts (o. The (ro#$s$ons o* (ara%ra(hs (1 and (2 " Sect$on /4 o* Art$c'e AIII o* th$s Const$tut$on sha'' a(('y to cases or )atters *$'ed be*ore the rat$*$cat$on o* th$s Const$tut$on" . Sect$on /4. The Con%ress sha'' (ro#$de e**$cac$ous (rocedures and ade-uate re)ed$es *or the re#ers$on to the State o* a'' 'ands o* the (ub'$c do)a$n and rea' C9 .ers" *unct$ons" and res(ons$b$'$t$es substant$a''y (erta$n.ed.s o* %enera' a(('$cat$on $n *orce at the t$)e o* the$r se(arat$on.e'#e *or three years. Sect$on 2. $s (assed" the . At the ear'$est (oss$b'e t$)e" the Go#ern)ent sha'' $ncrease the sa'ary sca'es o* other o**$c$a's and e)('oyees o* the Nat$ona' Go#ern)ent.ed or e>tended . Unt$' a 'a. Sect$on 0:. In no case sha'' any Me)ber ser#e 'on%er than se#en years $nc'ud$n% ser#$ce be*ore the rat$*$cat$on o* th$s Const$tut$on. The Su(re)e Court sha''" . The *$rst Con%ress sha'' %$#e (r$or$ty to the deter)$nat$on o* the (er$od *or the *u'' $)('e)entat$on o* *ree (ub'$c secondary educat$on. Unt$' the Con%ress (ro#$des other.$th th$s Const$tut$on sha'' re)a$n o(erat$#e unt$' a)ended" re(ea'ed" or re#o. Sect$on 5. Sect$on /:.

proo' o' ctu l pre?u$ice) A#a/*a 5$. No (erson sha'' be de(r$#ed o* '$*e" '$berty" or (ro(erty .  +n$er the Constitution% the +S 'orces re prohi&ite$ 'ro( en! !in! in n o''ensive # r on Philippine territor.Co(). courts o' provision l re(e$ies0 C) Preventive suspension0 . &or those $ssued a*ter such rat$*$cat$on" the +ud$c$a' act$on or (roceed$n% sha'' be co))enced .ea'th sha'' re)a$n o(erat$#e *or not )ore than e$%hteen )onths a*ter the rat$*$cat$on o* th$s Const$tut$on. D%$ %(!o% April 7% 2331."eni l o' $ue process su''ices to c st on the o''ici l ct t <en &.s.s" or throu%h corru(t (ract$ces.) E$!(ada 5$. S%((a"o 5$ NLRC% 727 SCRA CC. &.ee t#o notices* 516 the 'irst to in'or( the e(plo. o' $irect exception) CA . ?o. Ad#ert$s$n% ent$t$es a**ected by (ara%ra(h (0 " Sect$on // o* Art$c'e DAI o* th$s Const$tut$on sha'' ha#e *$#e years *ro) $ts rat$*$cat$on to co)('y on a %raduated or (ro(ort$onate bas$s . Sect$on 02.) Re(ov l o' te(por r." nor sha'' any (erson be den$ed the e-ua' (rotect$on o* the 'a.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 r$%hts connected there. ARTICLE III 7BILL OF RIGHTS8 S%&! o" 19 P(o&%d/(a# D/% P(o&%$$B nco Esp Tol-Eilipino vs) P l nc Sect$on /.ence% 'orei!n troops re llo#e$ entr.er see<s $is(iss l 'or the ct or o(ission ch r!e$ ! inst the e(plo.e e**ect $))ed$ate'y u(on $ts rat$*$cat$on by a )a+or$ty o* the #otes cast $n a ('eb$sc$te he'd *or the (ur(ose and sha'' su(ersede a'' (re#$ous Const$tut$ons.ee% the e(plo. &or orders $ssued be*ore the rat$*$cat$on o* th$s Const$tut$on" the corres(ond$n% +ud$c$a' act$on or (roceed$n% sha'' be *$'ed .er (ust serve the e(plo. Sect$on 06. A se-uestrat$on or *ree3e order sha'' be $ssued on'y u(on sho.(ent un$er the L &or Co$e) M%(&/(* D(/.% or o' 'orei!n in'luence in !ener l) . e(plo. $ue to $verse pu&licit.h$ch . into the Philippines onl.er see<s his $is(iss l% n$ 526 the secon$ to in'or( the e(plo.hen the Con%ress so re-u$res" rat$*$ed by a )a+or$ty o* the #otes cast by the (eo('e $n a nat$ona' re*erendu) he'd *or that (ur(ose" and reco%n$3ed as a treaty by the other contract$n% State.res$dent" the Con%ress )ay e>tend sa$d (er$od." *or d$str$but$on to the bene*$c$ar$es o* the a%rar$an re*or) (ro%ra).Alle!e$ viol tions o' the ri!ht to i(p rti lit.$thout due (rocess o* 'a.o $(inistr tion is en! !e$ in $ou&le spe < in tr.here a((ro(r$ate" con#erted $nto the re%u'ar *orce. The author$ty to $ssue se-uestrat$on or *ree3e orders under .$th be re%$stered . The se-uestrat$on or *ree3e order $s dee)ed auto)at$ca''y '$*ted $* no +ud$c$a' act$on or (roceed$n% $s co))enced as here$n (ro#$ded.$th the )$n$)u) &$'$($no o. # s &le to 'ile ple $in!s) INSTANCES 4HEN HEARINGS ARE NOT NECESSARY0 1) When $(inistr tive !encies re exercisin! their Du si-le!isl tive 'unctions0 2) A& te(ent o' nuis nce per se0 7) /r ntin! &. A*ter the e>($rat$on $n /99/ o* the A%ree)ent bet.$th$n s$> )onths *ro) the $ssuance thereo*.r$#ate ar)$es and other ar)ed %rou(s not reco%n$3ed by du'y const$tuted author$ty sha'' be d$s)ant'ed. 1 dated March 04" /985 $n re'at$on to the reco#ery o* $''7%otten . Sect$on 04. 5$. Th$s Const$tut$on sha'' ta. At the ear'$est (oss$b'e t$)e" the Go#ern)ent sha'' e>(ro(r$ate $d'e or abandoned 'ands as )ay be de*$ned by 'a.$th the (ro(er court.h$'$(($nes and the Un$ted States o* A)er$ca concern$n% M$'$tary Bases" *ore$%n )$'$tary bases" troo(s" or *ac$'$t$es sha'' not be a''o. COMELEC% 78.$th$n s$> )onths *ro) $ts rat$*$cat$on. A'' (ara)$'$tary *orces $nc'ud$n% C$#$'$an ?o)e De*ense &orces not cons$stent .nersh$( re-u$re)ent there$n. SCRA AC2.ees in the !overn(ent service0 9) Issu nce o' # rr nts o' $istr int n$1or lev. . o' the Tr nsitor. #h tever &r nch o' the !overn(ent the i(press o' nullit. 'orei!n troops on n tive soil) @at$*$ed< !ebruar 2" #$%&.$ue process is s tis'ie$ even i' there # s no or l r!u(ent i' p rt.$th ."ue process cl use o' the constitution is li(it tion on !overn(ent po#ers) It $oes not ppl. S%((a"o% > rch 13% 2339In $is(issin! n e(plo. (ust &e su&st nti te$ &.) The Supre(e Court% ho#ever% c nnot ccept the & re lle! tions th t the Arro. Provisions sho# ( r<e$ ntip th. Ma& a$% Septe(&er 7% 2337.e#er" $n the nat$ona' $nterest" as cert$*$ed by the .ee o' the p rticul r cts or o(issions 'or #hich the e(plo.roc'a)at$on No.ee o' his e(plo. No trans*er or d$s(os$t$on o* such 'ands or rea' r$%hts sha'' be a''o.in! to p ss o'' s (ere tr inin! exercise n o''ensive e''ort &. Sect$on 01. Sect$on 05. the BIR Co((issioner0 A) C ncell tion o' p ssport o' person ch r!e$ #ith cri(e0  LI> VS) EGEC SEC)% April 11% 2332* Section 2. &e # .ee% other#ise% the notice $oes not co(pl.ere ac-u$red $n #$o'at$on o* the Const$tut$on or the (ub'$c 'and 'a.h$'$(($nes e>ce(t under a treaty du'y concurred $n by the Senate and" ..een the @e(ub'$c o* the . to the exercise o' priv te po#er% such s the ter(in tion o' e(plo. The order and the '$st o* the se-uestered or *ro3en (ro(ert$es sha'' *orth. Sect$on 00.erLs $ecision to ter(in te hi() The 'irst notice (ust st te th t the e(plo.ed $n the . #ith the rules) Ma& a$ 5$.$n% o* a (r$)a *ac$e case. to# r$s 'orei!n (ilit r. presence in the countr.$th the c$t$3en ar)ed *orce estab'$shed $n th$s Const$tut$on" sha'' be d$sso'#ed or" .ed unt$' a*ter the 'a(se o* one year *ro) the rat$*$cat$on o* th$s Const$tut$on.

1a#o$=o$% 72C SCRA 9:8% Election to the position o' Con!ress( n is not re son &le cl ssi'ic tion in cri(in l l# en'orce(ent) The 'unctions n$ $uties o' the o''ice re not su&st nti l $istinctions #hich li't hi( 'ro( the cl ss o' prisoners interrupte$ in their 'ree$o( n$ restricte$ in li&ert. o' (ove(ent) P%o)#% 5$. n$ i(p rti lit. SCRA . The r$%ht o* the (eo('e to be secure $n the$r (ersons" houses" (a(ers" and e**ects a%a$nst unreasonab'e searches and se$3ures o* .otel vs) Solut % Ee&) 23% 23390 9) stop = 'ris< 5li(ite$ protective se rch60 A) Ar(e$ con'lict 5# r ti(e6 :) Chec< points 5li(ite$ to visu l se rch60 8) Exi!ent n$ e(er!enc.) # iver &.T :a* 5$. P/(-a"a"% Septe(&er 7% 2332./a# P(o!%&! o" of !'% La<9 T( ##a"%$ IV 5$. po#ers o' the Presi$ent 5/u nFon vs) Vill % 1:1 SCRA 92760 11) Routine Airport Securit. virtue o' the ( n$ te o' the people #hile the l tter hol$ their o''ice &. Bo r$ upon pri( ' cie 'in$in! o' liDui$it.arrant or . CIR% A$(inistr tive "ue Process CARDINAL RE. h ve &een turne$ over to the Chinese e(& ss.. P .0 n$ 7) he1she h s ctu l intention to relinDuish the ri!ht)6 Sil his IntLl . o' its ?u$!es (ust ct on its o#n or his o#n in$epen$ent consi$er tion o' the l # n$ ' cts o' the controvers. pp rent0 n$ C) pl in vie# ?usti'ie$ the seiFure #ithout 'urther se rch con$ucte$) Ma"a# # 5$. P%o)#%% > . SCRA 2:30 PP vs) Estell % 78. the rrestin! o''icer (ust &e continuous 'ro( the ti(e o' the co((ission o' the o''ense to the ti(e o' the rrest) 2) There (ust &e no supervenin! event #hich &re <s the continuit. the police #ho h $ the ri!ht to &e there #here the. 71% 2331.InDuest procee$in!s re proper onl.arrant o* arrest sha'' $ssue e>ce(t u(on (robab'e cause to be deter)$ned (ersona''y by the +ud%e a*ter e>a)$nat$on under oath or a**$r)at$on o* the co)('a$nant and the . n$ not si(pl.The 'ollo#in! re v li$ # rr ntless se rches n$ seiFures* 1) Se rch inci$ent l to l #'ul rrest 5PP vs) Tiu Won Chu % C3.$tnesses he )ay (roduce" and (art$cu'ar'y descr$b$n% the ('ace to be searched and the (ersons or th$n%s to be se$3ed.760 2) se rch o' (ovin! vehicle 5PP vs) T (pis% C3A SCRA .%"!%#% /R No) 1A8:1A% Bune 2A% 233: Election to Con!ress is not re son &le cl ssi'ic tion in cri(in l l # en'orce(ent s the 'unctions n$ $uties o' the o''ice re not su&st nti l $istinctions #hich li't one 'ro( the cl ss o' prisoners interrupte$ in their 'ree$o( n$ restricte$ in li&ert. PROBABLE CAUSE. the >onet r.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 :) Issu nce o' seDuestr tion or$ers 8) Bu$ici l or$er #hich prevents n ccuse$ 'ro( tr velin! &ro $ 13) Suspension o' & n<Ls oper tions &. Go"Ca#%$AV%#a$&o% Bune 1% 233A. #hen C: . circu(st nces 5PP vs) "e /r ci % 277 SCRA A196% #here # rr ntless se rch # s llo#e$ #here there # s prev ilin! !ener l ch os n$ $isor$er &ec use o' n on!oin! coup0 13) Con$uct o' MAre T r!et 4oneN n$ MS tur tion "rivesN in the exercise o' (ilit r. E?%&/! 5% S%&(%!a(*% C1A SCRA . pro&le(s in such & n<) A". CA% 2:3 SCRA C33.) E.37% "ece(&er 13% 2337% Su&st ntive $istinctions exist &et#een elective o''ici ls n$ ppointive o''ici ls) The 'or(er occup. 5$. the ccuse$5 1) ri!ht to &e # ive$ exists0 2) person # ivin! h s <no#le$!e o' such ri!ht% ctu ll.60 ./ $ !%$0 1) The pursuit o' the o''en$er &.) "ecision (ust &e & se$ on the evi$ence presente$ t the he rin!% or t le st cont ine$ in the recor$ n$ $isclose$ to the p rties ''ecte$ 9) Tri&un l or &o$.Re $* Stone. to ll those &elon!in! to the s (e cl ss Fa( >a$ 5$. #hen* 1) there is prior v li$ intrusion & se$ on v li$ # rr ntless rrest in #hich the police re le! ll. ccept the vie#s o' su&or$in te A) Bo r$ or &o$. their o''ice &. or n.) S%&! o" @+nre son &le se rches = seiFures Sect$on 0.ence% not consi$ere$ s evi$ence in pl in vie#60 C) custo(s se rch 5S lv $or vs) PP% Bul. re son &le !u r ntee o' honest. re0 7) the evi$ence (ust &e i((e$i tel.SeiFure o' evi$ence in pl in vie# is ?usti'ie$ onl. present in the pursuit o' their o''ici l $uties0 2) the evi$ence # s in $vertentl. or constructivel.:260 7) seiFure in pl in vie# 5PP vs) /o% C11 SCRA :1% The counter'eit n ture o' the se ls n$ st (ps # s not pp rent n$ est &lishe$ until 'ter the. 1.% 233. virtue o' their $esi!n tion &.UIREMENTS OF DUE PROCESS IN ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS0 1) Ri!ht to he rin! #hich inclu$es the ri!ht to present oneLs c se n$ su&(it evi$ence in support thereo' 2) Tri&un l (ust consi$er the evi$ence presente$ 7) "ecision (ust h ve so(ethin! to support itsel' C) Evi$ence (ust &e su&st nti l . Proce$ure 5PP vs) SuFu<i% Octo&er 27% 23376) 4ARRANTLESS ARREST HOT PURSUIT9 R%.The position o' Con!ress( n is not re son &le cl ssi'ic tion in cri(in l l # en'orce(ent) The 'unctions n$ $uties o' the o''ice re not su&st nti l $istinctions #hich li't hi( 'ro( the cl ss o' prisoners interrupte$ in their 'ree$o( n$ restricte$ in li&ert. o' (ove(ent) USA 5$. o' the ch se) Lad#adAB%#!(a"B %! a#. shoul$ in ll controversi l Duestions ren$er its $ecision in such ( nner th t the p rties to the procee$in! c n <no# the v rious issues involve$ n$ the re sons 'or the $ecision ren$ere$ :) O''icer or tri&un l con$uctin! the investi! tion (ust &e veste$ #ith co(petent ?uris$iction n$ so constitute$ s to ''or$ person ch r!e$ $(inistr tivel. n$ the Bure u o' I((i!r tion 'or veri'ic tion) .hate#er nature and *or any (ur(ose sha'' be $n#$o'ab'e" and no search .ill vs) "io<no0 Li( vs) Eelix0 We&& vs) $e Leon0 Ro n vs) /onF les0 P p vs) > !o0 Ani ! vs) CO>ELEC) D%# Ro$a( o 5$. o' (ove(ent) L #'ul rrest n$ con'ine(ent re !er( ne to the purposes o' the l # n$ ppl. $iscovere$ &. n ppointin! uthorit.

o' co((unic tion) The invoc tion o' these ri!hts #ill not% ho#ever% 'ree hi( 'ro( li &ilit.To prevent li &ilit. is n o''ense in speci l l #s li<e the AntiWiret ppin! L #% the Secrec. o' the courts c nnot &e $is!uise$ s 'ree speech% 'or the exercise o' s i$ ri!ht c nnot &e use$ to i(p ir the in$epen$ence n$ e''icienc. ?u$!e ( . C8 . ! inst the !overn(ent n$ !encies t s<e$ #ith the en'orce(ent o' the l #) Onl. this Court n$ its ( !istr tes) Ri!ht to Priv c. person o' (e$$lin! n$ pr. #itness the co((ission o' the cri(e) PP 5$.a!!%( of )%! ! o" fo( 'a:%a$ &o()/$ of PP 5$. (0 Any e#$dence obta$ned $n #$o'at$on o* th$s or the (reced$n% sect$on sha'' be $nad)$ss$b'e *or any (ur(ose $n any (roceed$n%. viol tion o' the ri!hts n$ li&erties o' nother person% n$ reco!niFes the priv c.ers% the o''ici ls o' the ISAEP "etention Center coul$ re $ the letters) I' the letters re ( r<e$ con'i$enti l co((unic tion &et#een the $et inees n$ their l #.*u' order o* the court" or . o' cert in in'or( tion) 5Ople vs) Torres% Bul. v li$l. &et#een the ti(e o' the o''ense # s co((itte$ n$ the ti(e o' the # rr ntless rrest) I' there # s n ppre ci &le l pse o' ti(e &et#een the rrest n$ the co((ission o' the cri(e% # rr nt o' rrest (ust &e secure$) Pad ##a 5$. o' letters n$ other priv te co((unic tions) The Revise$ Pen l Co$e ( <es cri(e the viol tion o' secrets &.ers) The petitioner #ho receive$ the letters 'ro( $et inees Trill nes n$ > estrec (po # s (erel. o' nother) It lso hol$s pu&lic o''icer or e(plo. 'or the purpose o' c rr. ctin! s the $et ineesL person l courier n$ not s their counsel #hen he receive$ the letters 'or ( ilin!) In the present c se% since the letters #ere not con'i$enti l co((unic tion &et#een the $et inees n$ their l #. necess r.EGCEPT* B.UIRED . 5the ri!ht to &e let lone6 Re $* PP vs) >olin % et l)% ri!ht to priv c. o' the propert. o' co((unic tion = correspon$ence Sect$on 1. ri!hts) Ro?a$ 5$. $(inistr tive uthorities 5CI"0 BOC6 onl. priv te in$ivi$u l li &le 'or $ ( !es 'or n. o' B n< "eposit Act n$ the Intellectu l Propert.is # rr nt h vin! &een issue$ to (ore th n one o''ense) PRECISE AND MINUTE DETAIL AS TO THE PLACE TO BE SEARCHED AND THINGS OR PERSONS TO BE SEIZED NOT RE. &e # ive$ &.a!!%( of )%! ! o" fo( 'a:%a$ &o()/$ of Ca)!.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 the ccuse$ h s &een l #'ull. open the envelopes 'or inspection in the presence o' the $et inees) Th t l # is reDuire$ &e'ore n executive o''icer coul$ intru$e on citiFenLs priv c. n o''icer% the revel tion o' tr $e n$ in$ustri l secrets% n$ tresp ss to $#ellin!) Inv sion o' priv c. st te(ents th t i(p ire$ pu&lic con'i$ence in the inte!rit.hen (ub'$c sa*ety or order re-u$res other. priv te in$ivi$u ls so s to &rin! it #ithin the (&it o' lle!e$ unl #'ul intrusion &. seein! the co((ission o' the cri(e) The reDuire(ent o' the l # is co(plie$ #here the rrestin! o''icer # s #ithin n e rshot 'ro( the scene lthou!h he $i$ not person ll. st te$% his letter cont ine$ $e' ( tor.:% April 1C% 233C) S%&! o" E9 Priv c. G. # rr nt) rreste$ #ithout I" !'% . to &e se rche$ 'or n$ seiFe$ so th t the # rr nt sh ll not &e (ere rovin! co((ission) THE TEST s #oul$ &e s to #h t is to &e t <en% nothin! is le't to the $iscretion o' the o''icer executin! the # rr nt) VALLE1O VS. s to the i$entit. the !overn(ent) Ri!ht pplies onl. o' the ?u$ici r.ers% the $etention o''ici ls shoul$ not re $ the letters &ut onl. Ma(! "% 187 SCRA .% priv c.$se as (rescr$bed by 'a. to the pu&lic t l r!e &ut not to persons #ho re $et ine$ or i(prisone$) The ri!ht to priv c.UIRED.the constitution $oes not reDuire th t the thin!s to &e seiFe$ (ust &e $escri&e$ in precise n$ (inute $et il s to no roo( 'or $ou&t on the p rt o' the se rchin! uthorities0 TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION IS NOT RE.in! out 'in l 'in$in! o' viol tion o' l #) 1a&D$o" 5$. Ma&a# "o% Nove(&er 2C% 2337.the Co((issioner o' the I((i!r tion c n issue # rr nt o' rrest ! inst 'orei!ner #ho h s &een or$ere$ to &e $eporte$) SCATTER SHOT 4ARRANT. CA% 298 SCRA C32% When the l # spe <s o' cri(e co((itte$ in the presence o' n rrestin! o''icer% it is not li(ite$ to ctu ll. CA% C2A SCRA 9. 5$. Ca:/a*% /)R) No) 193A82% Au!ust 2. 27% 188:) I" !'% .) The ( <in! o' conte(ptuous st te(ents $irecte$ ! inst the Court is not n exercise o' 'ree speech0 r ther% it is n &use o' such ri!ht) +n# rr nte$ tt c<s on the $i!nit. ' ct o' their $etention% pre-tri l $et inees n$ convicte$ prisoners h ve $i(inishe$ expect tion o' priv c. Z/C/a((%-% % Bune 12% 233A. (/ The (r$#acy o* co))un$cat$on and corres(ondence sha'' be $n#$o'ab'e e>ce(t u(on 'a.The letters lle!e$ to h ve &een re $ &. reco!niFe$ in Section 7516 o' the Bill o' Ri!hts* Other ' cets o' the ri!ht to priv c. re li<e#ise reco!niFe$ n$ protecte$ in our l #s) The Civil Co$e provi$es th t PHeIver. ( . n$ pe ce o' (in$ o' his nei!h&ors n$ other personsP n$ punishes s ction &le torts sever l cts &.A% The Bill o' Ri!hts is protection ! inst the St te) The protection ! inst unre son &le se rches n$ seiFures c nnot &e exten$e$ to cts co((itte$ &. issue # rr nt. A#%=a"oB %! a#..) As lre $. o' courts or pu&lic respect !'%(%fo( n$ con'i$ence therein) Eree expression (ust not &e use$ s vehicle to s tis'.% 233. oneLs irr tion l o&session to $e(e n% ri$icule% $e!r $e n$ even $estro. Co$e) The Rules o' Court on privile!e$ co((unic tion li<e#ise reco!niFe the priv c.oLs ri!ht to priv c. the ISAEP uthorities #ere not con'i$enti l letters &et#een the $et inees n$ their l #.in! into the priv c. the $e'en$ nt6) B sis* It is expressl. ri!hts is !u r ntee th t is v il &le onl. D%# Ro$a( o% 73. K Re I!!. 'ro( tt chin! on ccount o' his letter% he invo<es his ri!hts to 'ree speech n$ priv c. o' those $et ine$ is su&?ect to Section C o' RA AC7:% s #ell s to the li(it tions inherent in l #'ul $etention or i(prison(ent) B.% person lit.ee or n. the ver. SCRA AC3% There (ust &e l r!e (e sure o' i((e$i c..It is onl. th t there &e re son &le cert int. re protecte$ in v rious provisions o' the Bill o' Ri!hts% viF* Sections10 20 90 :0 n$ 1A) 4ones o' priv c. Arro. person sh ll respect the $i!nit. or p rticul rit.

l #N) Rel te to e( ils n$ other # . unre son &le !overn(ent intrusion) Ad.A viol tion o' the Anti Wire T ppin! L # 5R)A) C2336 #hich prohi&its not onl.s o' co((unic tion) RA G@FF 7A"! 94 (%!a)) ".0 n$ the pro& &le nu(&er o' persons p rticip tin!% the tr nsport n$ the pu&lic $$ress s. o' the ( . n$ responsi&ilit. in #hose ?uris$iction the inten$e$ ctivit.hen re-u$red and . 88F SEC) C) . c<no#le$!e$ in #ritin!% the o''ice o' the cit. l # or or$in nce or in priv te propert. &e v li$ o&?ections to the !r nt o' the per(it or to its !r nt &ut t nother pu&lic pl ce) It is n in$ispens &le con$ition to such re'us l or (o$i'ic tion th t the cle r n$ present $ n!er test &e the st n$ r$ 'or the $ecision re che$) I' he is o' the vie# th t there is such n i((inent n$ !r ve $ n!er o' su&st ntive evil% the pplic nts (ust &e he r$ on the ( tter) There 'ter% his $ecision% #hether ' vor &le or $verse% (ust &e tr ns(itte$ to the( t the e rliest opportunit.e rs) S%&! o" G9 Eree$o( o' expression Sect$on 2. No 'a. o' pplic nt un$er Section : hereo') 5c6 The pplic tion sh ll &e 'ile$ #ith the o''ice o' the ( .The onl.or n$ sh ll &e $ee(e$ to h ve &een 'ile$) 5c6 I' the ( .er)$t . #ill cre te cle r n$ present $ n!er to pu&lic or$er% pu&lic s 'et. Ba*a" 5$ E(. #ith the 'ollo#in! !ui$elines* 5 6 The pplic tions sh ll &e in #ritin! n$ sh ll inclu$e the n (es o' the le $ers or or! niFers0 the purpose o' such pu&lic sse(&l. this Act) SEC) .o#ever% no per(it sh ll &e reDuire$ i' the pu&lic sse(&l. or in #ritin!% such s the provision o' tr nscripts) The potenti l ? il ter(% i' convicte$% r n!es 'ro( six (onths to six .P. the pplic nt on the pre(ises o' the o''ice o' the ( .in! o' the t pes to n.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 Ca. " $!(a! 5% O(d%( No.s 'ro( the $ te the pplic tion # s 'ile$% ' ilin! #hich% the per(it sh ll &e $ee(e$ !r nte$) Shoul$ 'or n..6 #or<in! $ .A&!8. or (unicip l &uil$in!) SEC) 9) Act$on to be ta.es* R%*%$ 5.A #ritten per(it sh ll &e reDuire$ 'or n.) .In ev lu tin! cl i( 'or viol tion o' the ri!ht to priv c.or sh ll c use the s (e to i((e$i tel.986 :) B. or the ri!ht to &e let lone is not n &solute ri!ht #here the person is pu&lic 'i!ure n$ the in'or( tion sou!ht to &e elicite$ 'ro( hi( or to &e pu&lishe$ &out hi( constitute ( tters o' pu&lic ch r cter) Z/#/%!a 5$.-ei!ht 5C:6 hours 'ter receipt o' the s (e) No ppe l &on$ n$ recor$ on ppe l sh ll &e reDuire$) A $ecision !r ntin! such per(it or (o$i'. the consent o' the o#ner or the one entitle$ to its le! l possession is reDuire$) Such pplic tion shoul$ &e 'ile$ #ell he $ in ti(e to en &le the pu&lic o''ici l concerne$ to ppr ise #hether there ( .ste(s to &e use$) 5&6 The pplic tion sh ll incorpor te the $ut.in! it in ter(s s tis' ctor.3 .en on the a(('$cat$on) K 5 6 It sh ll &e the $ut. sh ll &e $one or ( $e in 'ree$o( p r< $ul. n$% i' so% #hether th t expect tion h s &een viol te$ &. person or persons to or! niFe n$ hol$ pu&lic sse(&l.) Re $* A*%( P(od/&! o"$ 5$. !a% April 2.) A(('$cat$on re-u$re)ents)-All pplic tions 'or per(it sh ll co(pl.% in #hich c se onl.% 2339 . election c (p i!n perio$ s provi$e$ 'or &. o''ici l ctin! in his &eh l' to issue or !r nt per(it unless there is cle r n$ convincin! evi$ence th t the pu&lic sse(&l. person0 n$ 5c6 to co((unic te the contents thereo' either ver& ll.or or n. shoul$ in'or( the licensin! uthorit. &e poste$ t conspicuous pl ce in the cit. l # re not covere$ &.or is o' the vie# th t there is i((inent n$ !r ve $ n!er o' su&st ntive evil # rr ntin! the $eni l or (o$i'ic tion o' the per(it% he sh ll i((e$i tel.or o' the cit. contest the $ecision in n ppropri te court o' l #) 5'6 In c se suit is &rou!ht &e'ore the >etropolit n Tri l Court% the >unicip l Tri l Court% the >unicip l Circuit Tri l Court% the Re!ion l Tri l Court% or the Inter(e$i te Appell te Court% its $ecisions ( . o''ici l ctin! in his &eh l' sh ll ct on the pplic tion #ithin t#o 526 #or<in! $ .7 SCRA 988. EF8 entitle$ MA$option o' N tion l Co(puteriFe$ I$enti'ic tion Re'erence S.hen not re-u$red)-. o''ici l ctin! in his &eh l' $enies the pplic tion or (o$i'ies the ter(s thereo' in his per(it% the pplic nt ( .) Thus i' so (in$e$% the. c n h ve recourse to the proper ?u$ici l uthorit.or or n.-'our hours) 5e6 I' the ( . re son the ( . the consent o' the o#ner or the one entitle$ to its le! l possession is reDuire$% or in the c (pus o' !overn(ent-o#ne$ n$ oper te$ e$uc tion l institution #hich sh ll &e su&?ect to the rules n$ re!ul tions o' s i$ e$uc tion l institution) Politic l (eetin!s or r llies hel$ $urin! n.0 the $ te% ti(e n$ $ur tion thereo'% n$ pl ce or streets to &e use$ 'or the inten$e$ ctivit. Ba-a!$ "/)R) No) L-9.) 5$6 +pon receipt o' the pplic tion% #hich (ust &e $ul. # .hen it #ill t <e pl ce) I' it #ere priv te pl ce% onl.7% . in'or( the pplic nt #ho (ust &e he r$ on the ( tter) 5$6 The ction on the per(it sh ll &e in #ritin! n$ serve$ on the pplic HntI #ithin t#ent. o''ici l ctin! in his &eh l' re'use to ccept the pplic tion 'or per(it% s i$ pplic tion sh ll &e poste$ &. exception to the prohi&ition in the constitution is i' there is Ml #'ul or$er 'ro( court or #hen pu&lic s 'et. executor.) B. CA% 2. co$i'. Ca)/#o"-. &e ppe le$ to the ppropri te court #ithin 'ort. or or$er reDuires other#ise% s prescri&e$ &. is to &e hel$% t le st 'ive 5.The ri!ht o' priv c. to the pplic nt sh ll &e i((e$i tel. o' the $ te% the pu&lic pl ce #here n$ the ti(e . in pu&lic pl ce) .or or n.The provisions o' B)P) No) ::3 pr ctic ll.s &e'ore the sche$ule$ pu&lic sse(&l. SCRA . No.799% Nov) 8% 18:7% 12. or (unicip lit.) The pplic nts 'or per(it to hol$ n sse(&l. o' su(( r.% court (ust $eter(ine #hether person h s exhi&ite$ re son &le expect tion o' priv c.% pu&lic convenience% pu&lic (or ls or pu&lic he lth) 5&6 The ( .ste(P $ecl re$ null n$ voi$ 'or &ein! unconstitution l% viol tive o' the personLs ri!ht to priv c. sha'' be (assed abr$d%$n% the *reedo) o* s(eech" o* e>(ress$on" or o* the (ress" or the r$%ht o* the (eo('e (eaceab'y to asse)b'e and (et$t$on the Go#ern)ent *or redress o* %r$e#ances. the un uthoriFe$ t pin! o' priv te convers tions% &ut lso* 5 6 the possession o' such t pes #ith the <no#le$!e o' their n ture s ille! l #iret ps0 5&6 the repl . the rulin! in Re. est &lishe$ &. or (unicip l ( .or or n. #o Sa: o% Octo&er 1A% 2339.

-'our 52C6 hours 'ro( $ te o' 'ilin!) C ses 'ile$ hereun$er sh ll &e i((e$i tel. No re'$%$ous test sha'' be re-u$red *or the e>erc$se o* c$#$' or (o'$t$ca' r$%hts. i(put tion is presu(e$ to &e ( licious% even i' it &e true% i' no !oo$ intention n$ ?usti'i &le (otive 'or ( <in! it is sho#n% except in the 'ollo#in!* 1) priv te co((unic tion ( $e &. presu(ption ! inst their v li$it.28. $$resses% Chie' Bustice Arte(io V) P n! ni& n h s repe te$l. No 'a. o' uphol$in! the 'un$ (ent l ri!hts o' our people% especi ll. re!ul tes the ti(e% pl ce n$ ( nner o' the sse(&lies) In su(% this Court reiter tes its & sic polic. COMELEC% > . en$orse$ to the executive ?u$!e 'or $isposition or% in his &sence% to the next in r n<) 5h6 In ll c ses% n. restrict 'ree$o(s0 it (erel.)N Eor this re son% the so-c lle$ c li&r te$ pree(ptive response polic.9% . Mper(itsN is v li$ &ec use it is su&?ect to the constitution ll. o' expression even thou!h such suppression is onl. co((ents1re( r<s6) E ir co((ent ries on ( tters o' pu&lic interest re privile!e$ n$ constitute v li$ $e'ense in n ction 'or li&el or sl n$er) The $octrine o' ' ir co((ent (e ns th t #hile in !ener l ever. hi( s the o&?ect o' the li&elous rticle) Ever.(e(&ers o' Behov hLs #itnesses ( . ( $e no Du li'ic tion in the use o' !ener l #or$ or expression) It then 'ollo#s th t since MThe Insi$e Stor. 'or li(ite$ perio$0 n$ 76 the !overn(ent interest sou!ht to &e pro(ote$ c n &e chieve$ &. prevents the use o' exit poll $ t not onl. st te(ent ( $e therein or ct per'or(e$ &. so(e police !ents to ?usti'.5$. 'or election $ . S/)%( "!%"d%"! of S&'oo#$ of C%:/B 218 SCRA 2. ! inst the !overn(ent n$ in ' vor o' the poor% the oppresse$% the ( r!in liFe$% the $ispossesse$ n$ the #e <) In$ee$% l #s n$ ctions th t restrict 'un$ (ent l ri!hts co(e to the courts #ith he v. o' our people n$ to nurture their prosperit. vo#e$ to uphol$ the li&ert. ( $e is $ee(e$ ' lse% &ec use ever. CA% 731 SCRA 1% In or$er to ( int in li&el suit% it is essenti l th t the victi( is i$enti'i &le lthou!h it is not necess r.$thout d$scr$)$nat$on or (re*erence" sha'' *ore#er be a''o. S%&. to prevent) . v li$l. CA% 2.% Du li'ic tions% pl t'or(s or ( tter o' pu&lic $iscussion in rel tion to the election% inclu$in! the voterLs pre'erence 'or c n$i$ tes pr pu&licl.) .The prohi&ition o' pu&lic tion o' exit poll or elector l surve.s re covere$ &. ( n is presu(e$ innocent until his !uilt is ?u$ici ll.) In sever l polic. $ecision ( . re'er to the (e sure(ent o' opinions n$ perception o' voters s re! r$s to c n$i$ teLs popul rit. $e' ( tor.-soun$ Mcle r n$ present $ n!erN st n$ r$) So& a# 4%a!'%( S!a! o"$ 5$.% etc) The principle ssu(es th t the le!isl tive &o$.1 . sha'' be )ade res(ect$n% an estab'$sh)ent o* re'$%$on" or (roh$b$t$n% the *ree e>erc$se thereo*. co((ittee thereo'6 or Du li'ie$ privile!e$ 5those cont inin! $e' ( tor. prove$) S%&! o" H9 Eree$o( o' Reli!ion Sect$on 4. the protection to 'ree$o( o' expression s the. either &e &solutel. COMELEC% 727 SCRA :11.)C o' RA 8339 5E ir Election Act6 is inv li$ &ec use* 16 it i(poses prior restr int on the 'ree$o( o' expression0 26 it is $irect n$ tot l suppression o' c te!or. ?u$ici l% le!isl tive or other o''ici l procee$in! #hich re not con'i$enti l in n ture inclu$in! n.ed.o#ever% criticis( on cert in c tholic tenets n$ $o!( s $oes not constitute cle r n$ present $ n!er) To#%"! "o 5$. SCRA 973 K Eree$o( o' reli!ion $oes not prohi&it i(position o' ABS9CBN 5$. &e ppe le$ to the Supre(e Court) 5i6 Tele!r phic ppe ls to &e 'ollo#e$ &. pro?ections% &ut lso 'or lon! ter( rese rch) . th t he &e n (e$) It (ust lso &e sho#n th t thir$ p rt. le! l% (or l or soci l $ut.% the sc les o' ?ustice shoul$ #ei!h he vil. . person to nother in the per'or( nce o' n.8 SCRA . i(put tions #hich re not ction &le unless 'oun$ to h ve &een ( $e #ithout !oo$ intention or ?usti'i &le (otive% e)!)% priv te co((unic tions n$ ' ir n$ true reports #ithout n. coul$ i$enti'.The exercise o' reli!ious 'ree$o( c n &e re!ul te$ #hen it #ill &rin! &out cle r n$ present $ n!er o' su&st ntive evil #hich the St te h s $ut. 1A% 233. #oul$ &e unre son &l.% B nu r.orsh$(" .ists% not the !overn(ent) The $ele! tion to the ( . ABS9CBNB %! a#. re!ul tes the use o' pu&lic pl ces s to the ti(e% pl ce n$ ( nner o' sse(&lies) E r 'ro( &ein! insi$ious% M( xi(u( toler nceN is 'or the &ene'it o' r ll. 'or( l ppe ls re here&. Section .BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 5!6 All c ses 'ile$ in court un$er this section sh ll &e $eci$e$ #ithin t#ent.. restrictive &ec use it e''ectivel.0 2) ' ir n$ true report% ( $e in !oo$ ' ith% #ithout re( r<s% o' n. cle r% there'ore% th t B)P) No) ::3 is not n &solute & n o' pu&lic sse(&lies &ut restriction th t si(pl. 'ree$o( o' expression n$ 'ree$o( o' sse(&l.N is television pro!r (% it is #ithin the ?uris$iction o' the >TRCB over #hich it h s po#er o' revie#) Bo(=a# 5$. llo#e$) It is ver. con'uses our people n$ is use$ &. D 5. h s no pl ce in our le! l 'ir( (ent n$ (ust &e struc< $o#n s $ r<ness th t shrou$s 'ree$o() It (erel. n. re'use p rticip tin! in 'l ! cere(onies 5sin!in! the n tion l nthe(% s lutin! the 'l !% etc)6 on ccount o' their reli!ious &elie's) I-#%$ a " C( $!o 5$.%"! I"!%(f%(%"&%0 Cle r = Present " n!er B l ncin! o' Interests " n!erous Ten$enc. $iscre$it &le i(put tion pu&licl. (e ns other th n the suppression o' 'ree$o( o' expression) TESTS 1) 2) 7) of Va# d Go5%(".ors o' the po#er to issue r ll. pu&lic o''icer) A privile!e$ co((unic tion ( .P)") No) 18:9 !ives petitioner Mthe po#er to screen% revie# n$ ex (ine M ll television pro!r (s%N e(ph siFin! the phr se M ll television pro!r (sN) Thus% #hen the l # s . of F "a"&%% 27.% 2331. $iscusse$ issues $urin! the c (p i!n perio$) The prohi&ition i(pose$ &.) These l #s n$ ctions re su&?ecte$ to hei!htene$ scrutin. &uses) On the other h n$% B)P) No) ::3 c nnot &e con$e(ne$ s unconstitution l0 it $oes not curt il or un$ul.s M ll television pro!r (s%N the #or$ M llN covers ll television pro!r (s% #hether reli!ious% pu&lic '' irs% ne#s $ocu(ent r. E:(a# "a. The *ree e>erc$se and en+oy)ent o* re'$%$ous (ro*ess$on and . (e(&er o' Con!ress therein or n. Rule MTRCB 5$. privile!e$ 5those #hich re not ction &le or even i' uthor cte$ in & $ ' ith% e)!) speech &.e s i$ th t Min c ses involvin! li&ert.Election surve.

a% 2:: SCRA 1. 'or soci liFe$ housin! is 'or pu&lic use) . expropri tion procee$in!% (ust &e p i$ ?ust co(pens tion) I' the propert.) A'ter ll% it is the $ut.) This is in conson nce #ith the principle th t Mthe !overn(ent c nnot <eep the propert.in! 'oo$ pro$uct s h l l is reli!ious 'unction &ec use the st n$ r$s re $r #n 'ro( the UurL n n$ Isl (ic &elie's) B. NA4ASA6) To set ?ust co(pens tion is 5EPZA 5$./" !*6) An..Con!ress% vi Art) 12.r$#ate (ro(erty sha'' not be ta.) This is in <eepin! #ith ?ustice n$ eDuit. 'ro( priv te persons ! inst their #ill% to ' cilit te the p . E?%&/! 5% S%&(%!a(*% C3. Re $* Vill vicencio vs) Lu<& n0 > notoc vs) CA0 Silverio vs CA) Rel te to suspension o' $eplo.6 . o#ne$ is pu&lic or other#ise hel$ in trust then no co(pens tion nee$ &e p i$ 5 C !* of Ba-/ o 5$. the !overn(ent n$ shoul$ not cover reco!niFe$ exceptions li<e$ privile!e$ in'or( tion% (ilit r. The '$berty o* abode and o* chan%$n% the sa)e . La-/%$. M'or n tion l !overn(ent in'r structure pro?ectsN) R%)/:# & 5$.Rule 9A outlines the proce$ure un$er #hich e(inent $o( in ( .Section 8% Article III o' the Constitution is not !r nt &ut li(it tion o' po#er) This li(itin! 'unction is in <eepin! #ith the philosoph. &e exercise$ &. . no (e ns $oes it serve t present s the solit r. o#ner th n Rule 9A% inesc p &l. the /overn(ent) Jet &. o' the Bill o' Ri!hts ! inst the r&itr r. Na! o"a# Ho/$ ". n$ $iplo( tic secrets n$ si(il r ( tters ''ectin! n tion l securit. o' the L &or Co$e% v li$l. !ivin! the O''ice o' the >usli( A'' irs exclusive po#er to cl ssi'.e rs 'ro( the 'in lit. o' &o$e = Ri!ht to tr vel Sect$on 5. D/#a*6) ?u$ici l prero! tive Pu&lic use $oes not (e n use &.(ent o' ?ust co(pens tion $oes not entitle the priv te l n$o#ner to recover possession o' the expropri te$ lots% ho#ever% in c ses #here the !overn(ent ' ile$ to p .. !ui$eline throu!h #hich the St te ( .in! cost o' re!istr tion) I$#a. o' the !overn(ent% #henever it t <es propert.v li$ restriction on his ri!ht to tr vel) S%&! o" 79 Ri!ht to In'or( tion Sect$on 6. R%*%$6) R%*%$ 5. U" !%d P%)$ Co#a S/)%(5 $o(* U" o" 5$. G "-o*o"% "ece(&er 18% 233.. exercise o' !overn(ent l po#ers to the $etri(ent o' the in$ivi$u lLs ri!hts) /iven this 'unction% the provision shoul$ there'ore &e strictl.A/!'o( !*% 78.2 .. The r$%ht o* the (eo('e" $nc'ud$n% those e)('oyed $n the (ub'$c and (r$#ate sectors" to *or) un$ons" assoc$at$ons" or soc$et$es *or (ur(oses not contrary to 'a. C' "%$% Co. (unicip l corpor tion in its priv te c p cit. expropri te priv te propert. in ' vor o' the propert. 5p tri(oni l6% in n.) It is inconseDuenti l th t priv te entities ( .BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 !ener ll. interprete$ ! inst the expropri tor% the !overn(ent% n$ li&er ll. The r$%ht o* the (eo('e to $n*or)at$on on )atters o* (ub'$c concern sha'' be reco%n$3ed.e r perio$ li(it tion #ill encour !e the !overn(ent to p .. SCRA C8C% T <in! o' propert. Access to o**$c$a' records" and to docu)ents" and (a(ers (erta$n$n% to o**$c$a' acts" transact$ons" or dec$s$ons" as . sha'' not be abr$d%ed. P/:# & E$!a!%$ A/!'o( !*% Bul. reli!ious or! niF tion) Eor the purpose o' $e'r . ?ust co(pens tion punctu ll. o#ne$ &. n$ $ishonor the ?u$!(ent)N To &e sure% the 'ive-.e'' as to %o#ern)ent research data used as bas$s *or (o'$cy de#e'o()ent" sha'' be a**orded the c$t$3en" sub+ect to such '$)$tat$ons as )ay be (ro#$ded by 'a. prohi&ite$ supervisors 'ro( 'or(in! l &or unions) The ri!ht to stri<e $oes 'or( n inte!r l p rt o' the Ri!ht to Associ tion) S%&! o" 99 Expropri tion Sect$on 9. L . SCRA C8A% Cl ssi'. pplic &le s les n$ use t x on the s le o' reli!ious ( teri ls &.(ent o' ?ust co(pens tion) Loc l !overn(ent units possesse$ the $ele! te$ po#er o' e(inent $o( in% su&?ect to ?u$ici l revie# 5C !* of Ma" #a 5$. o' the ?u$!(ent in the expropri tion procee$in!s% the o#ners concerne$ sh ll h ve the ri!ht to recover possession o' their propert. & DaI<a' Co/"& # of !'% P' # )) "%$ 5$.$thout +ust co)(ensat$on. o#ner) While the prev ilin! $octrine is th t Mthe nonp .en *or (ub'$c use . (ore ' vor &le to the propert. ?ust co(pens tion #ithin 'ive 5.) Eor ex (ple% Section 18 o' the Loc l /overn(ent Co$e !overns s to the exercise &.% Bune 28% 233. sha'' not be $)(a$red e>ce(t u(on 'a. 8% 2332The constitution l ri!ht to in'or( tion inclu$es o''ici l in'or( tion on on-!oin! ne!oti tions &e'ore 'in l contr ct is consu(( te$) The in'or( tion% ho#ever% (ust constitute $e'inite propositions &. &ene'it s lon! s in the en$% pu&lic interest is serve$ 5A(do"a 5$. R%)/:# & 5$. 'oo$ pro$ucts s h l l% E) O) No) C9 encro che$ on the reli!ious 'ree$o( o' >usli( or! niF tion to interpret #h t 'oo$ pro$ucts re 'it 'or >usli( consu(ption) The St te h s in e''ect 'orce$ >usli( to ccept its o#n interpret tion o' the UurL n n$ Sunn h on h l l 'oo$) S%&! o" J9 Li&ert.(ent o' OEWs to SARs in'ecte$ countries) In rel tion to & il 5> notoc vs) CA0 S nti !o vs) V sDueF6. the pu&lic) As lon! s the purpose o' the t <in! is pu&lic% then po#er o' e(inent $o( in co(es into pl .*u' order o* the court.$th$n the '$)$ts (rescr$bed by 'a. loc l !overn(ent units o' the po#er o' e(inent $o( in throu!h n en &lin! or$in nce) An$ then there is Rep) Act No) :8AC% #hich covers expropri tion procee$in!s inten$e$ 'or n tion l !overn(ent in'r structure pro?ects) R%). pplies in inst nces #hen the n tion l !overn(ent expropri tes propert. 897G% #hich provi$es 'or proce$ure e(inentl. propert. n$ pu&lic or$er) Le! Fpi vs) CSC0 V l(onte vs) Bel(onte S%&! o" 89 Ri!ht to 'or( +nions o' pu&lic sector Sect$on 8. Ne$ther sha'' the r$%ht to tra#e' be $)(a$red e>ce(t $n the $nterest o* nat$ona' secur$ty" (ub'$c sa*ety" or (ub'$c hea'th" as )ay be (ro#$ded by 'a. A&! No.. C'a5%C 5$.

$thout due (rocess o* 'a. Do.$thstand$n% the absence o* the Applies to preli(in r.%"! of Ho"-Do". tellin! the truth) ccuse$ 'ro( L n$s 'or soci liFe$ housin! re to &e cDuire$ n the 'ollo#in! or$er* 16 !overn(ent l n$s0 26 lien &le l n$s o' the pu&lic $o( in0 76 unre!istere$ or & n$one$ or i$le l n$s0 C6 l n$s #ithin the $ecl re$ re s 'or priorit.5$.$th o**enses (un$shab'e by rec'us$on (er(etua . provision in the constitution% the l # or the tre t.$tnesses *ace to *ace" and to ha#e co)(u'sory (rocess to secure the attendance o* . &een Minvite$N 'or Duestionin!) PP 5$. $)(a$r$n% the ob'$%at$on o* contracts sha'' be (assed.7 .r$t o* habeas cor(us $s sus(ended.a"!a*% 73A SCRA 1. 8% 2332.% April 18% 233A K Potenti l extr $ite ( . (/ Any (erson under $n#est$%at$on *or the co))$ss$on o* an o**ense sha'' ha#e the r$%ht to be $n*or)ed o* h$s r$%ht to re)a$n s$'ent and to ha#e co)(etent and $nde(endent counse' (re*erab'y o* h$s o.er nee$ not ch llen!e ll the Duestions &ein! propoun$e$ to his client) The presence o' counsel to preclu$e the sli!htest coercion s #oul$ le $ the ccuse$ to $(it so(ethin! ' lse) .$tnesses and the (roduct$on o* e#$dence $n h$s beha'*. of USA 5$. There is no i(p ir(ent in the i(position o' the VAT ! inst re l est te tr ns ctions entere$ or per'ecte$ even prior to its i(position) The contr ct cl use is not li(it tion on the exercise o' the St teLs po#er o' t x tion s ve onl. P/(-a"a"% Septe(&er 2C% 23326) Go5%(". #here t x exe(ption h s &een !r nte$ 'or v li$ consi$er tion) 5To#%"! "o 5$. Sect$on /0.n cho$ce. Secret detent$on ('aces" so'$tary" $nco))un$cado" or other s$)$'ar *or)s o* detent$on are (roh$b$ted.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 In$ee$ counsel shoul$ not prevent n 'reel.a$#ed e>ce(t $n .% $optin! the pr ctice o' not !r ntin! & il% s !ener l rule% #oul$ &e step to# r$s $eterrin! 'u!itives 'ro( co(in! to the Philippines to hi$e 'ro( or ev $e their prosecutors) Not#ithst n$in! the rule th t & il is not ( tter o' ri!ht in extr $ition c ses% & il ( .e#er" a*ter arra$%n)ent" tr$a' )ay (roceed not. Re $* >ir n$ vs) Esco&e$o vs) Illinois) AriFon % / (&o vs) CruF% PP 5$.RA AC7: h s exten$e$ the constitution l !u r ntee to situ tions in #hich n in$ivi$u l h s not &een 'or( ll.r$t$n% and $n the (resence o* counse'. of F "a"&%6 The non-i(p ir(ent cl use inclu$es prohi&ition on ?u$ici l cts th t i(p ir contr ct) 5Ga"Co" 5$. &ree access to the courts and -uas$7 +ud$c$a' bod$es and ade-uate 'e%a' ass$stance sha'' not be den$ed to any (erson by reason o* (o#erty.h$ch #$t$ate the *ree . sha'' (ro#$de *or (ena' and c$#$' sanct$ons *or #$o'at$ons o* th$s sect$on as . &e pplie$ 'or n$ !r nte$ s n exception% onl.3SCRA C:A 23316) S%&! o" 1F9 Non-i(p ir(ent cl use Sect$on /:. The r$%ht to ba$' sha'' not be $)(a$red e#en . Where the ccuse$ # s ori!in ll.6 BLISS sites #hich h ve not . CA% 299 SCRA 2:16) The constitution l ri!ht to & il is v il &le onl. LoCada% C39 SCRA C8C% An un#ritten con'ession is in $(issi&le) S%&! o" 1E9 B il Sect$on /1. I* the (erson cannot a**ord the ser#$ces o* counse'" he )ust be (ro#$ded . investi! tion% PP vs) Sun! % 788 SCRA 92C PP 5$.6 S%&! o"$ 11 6 1@9 Custo$i l Investi! tion Ri!hts Sect$on //.et &een cDuire$0 n$ 96 priv tel. (0 In a'' cr$)$na' (rosecut$ons" the accused sha'' be (resu)ed $nnocent unt$' the contrary $s (ro#ed" and sha'' en+oy the r$%ht to be heard by h$)se'* and counse'" to be $n*or)ed o* the nature and cause o* the accusat$on a%a$nst h$)" to ha#e a s(eedy" $)(art$a'" and (ub'$c tr$a'" to )eet the . A-/ #a(% 7. (1 Any con*ess$on or ad)$ss$on obta$ned $n #$o'at$on o* th$s or Sect$on /6 hereo* sha'' be $nad)$ss$b'e $n e#$dence a%a$nst h$).et &een cDuire$0 . $evelop(ent% Fon l i(prove(ent pro!r ( sites% slu( i(prove(ent n$ resettle(ent sites #hich h ve not .$th one.hen the (r$#$'e%e o* the .S)%& a# Ad.e'' as co)(ensat$on to and rehab$'$tat$on o* #$ct$)s o* torture or s$)$'ar (ract$ces" and the$r *a)$'$es. (2 The 'a. 1/d-% O#a# aB 1(.. " $!(a!o( R%. (0 No torture" *orce" #$o'ence" threat" $nt$)$dat$on" or any other )eans . E>cess$#e ba$' sha'' not be re-u$red.To &e n e''ective counsel% l #. rreste$ &ut h s (erel.o#ne$ l n$s 5C !* of Ma"da#/*o".0 n$ 26 th t there exist speci l% hu( nit ri n n$ co(pellin! re sons 5Go5I!.hen e#$dence o* %u$'t $s stron%" sha''" be*ore con#$ct$on" be ba$'ab'e by su**$c$ent suret$es" or be re'eased on reco%n$3ance as )ay be (ro#$ded by 'a. Ga(& a% C33 SCRA 228% A con'ession ( $e to priv te person is $(ission in evi$ence) PP 5$. n$ volunt ril. (/ No (erson sha'' be he'd to ans. upon cle r n$ convincin! sho#in!* 16 th t% once !r nte$ & il% the pplic nt #ill not &e 'li!ht ris< or $ n!er to the co((unit. S%&. ?o. &e !r nte$ & il on the & sis o' Mcle r n$ convincin! evi$enceN th t the person is not 'li!ht ris< n$ #ill &i$e #ith ll the or$ers n$ processes o' the extr $ition court) S%&! o" 1G9 Ri!hts o' ccuse$ Sect$on /2. No 'a. Va##%=o% > . A'' (ersons" e>ce(t those char%ed . in cri(in l procee$in!s) The ri!ht is not v il &le in extr $ition procee$in!s th t re not cri(in l in n ture) In the &sence o' n. I"$%(!o% 127 SCRA 17.o" 5$.$'' sha'' be used a%a$nst h$).. ch r!e$ #ith c pit l o''ense &ut l ter convicte$ o' non-c pit l n$ #hich he ppe ls% & il c nnot &e !r nte$ s ( tter ri!ht 5O:o$a 5$. These r$%hts cannot be .er *or a cr$)$na' o**ense .

it is onl.ence% ccor$in! to the Court% M person ( . Ro"d%(o% /)R) No) 12.$tness a%a$nst h$)se'*. &e s Corpus Sect$on /4.8 $ue to the ' ilure o' the in'or( tion to lle!e rel tionship to the victi() It #oul$ &e $eni l o' the ri!ht o' the ccuse$ to &e in'or(e$ o' the ch r!es ! inst hi( n$% conseDuentl. E$!(ada% Bune 28% 23316) R -'! !o fa&% !o fa&% &o"f(o"!a! o" The &sence o' cross-ex (in tion &.(ous #ith pu&liciFe$ tri l0 it onl. is pen l in n ture 5li<e 'or'eiture o' propert. La"! o"% 7C7 SCRA 7AA% 23336) R -'! !o )/:# & !( a# A pu&lic tri l is not s. #ere h n$le$% the possi&ilit. A'' (ersons sha'' ha#e the r$%ht to a s(eedy d$s(os$t$on o* the$r cases be*ore a'' +ud$c$a'" -uas$7+ud$c$a'" or ad)$n$strat$#e bod$es. Ca$!(o% /)R) No) 98C31% 27 Bune 18:A% 1. evi$ence co((unic tive in n ture cDuire$ 'ro( the ccuse$ un$er $uress)N .9% 8 > . o' "NA evi$ence% i)e)% People v) V lle?o% /)R) No) 1CC9. Boa(d of M%d &a# E?a.% $eni l o' $ue process 5PP 5$. No (erson sha'' be co)(e''ed to be a . to (eet the evi$ence ! inst hi( 5S%&(%!a(* of 1/$! &% 5$.st #ho con$ucte$ the testsN) In J t r% in n tte(pt to exclu$e the "NA evi$ence% the ppell nt conten$e$ Mth t the &loo$ s (ple t <en 'ro( hi( s #ell s the "NA tests #ere con$ucte$ in viol tion o' his ri!ht to re( in silent s #ell s his ri!ht ! inst sel'-incri(in tion un$er Secs) 12 n$ 1A o' Art) III o' the ConstitutionN) The Court re?ecte$ the r!u(ent) It hel$ th t Mthe <ernel o' the ri!ht is not ! inst ll co(pulsion% &ut ! inst testi(oni l co(pulsionN% citin! A# ' 5. SCRA :7. Ga##a(d%% /)R) No) 17732. o' the victi(% n ccuse$ ppell nt ( .% S%&! o" 1J9 Spee$. The (r$#$'e%e o* the . D%$ %(!o% Nove(&er 18% 23316) "espite the lle! tion o' (inorit. Sa"d -a":a*a"% 1. $isposition Sect$on /5.9:A% 8 "ece(&er 1888% 723 SCRA 7:7% the Court hel$ th t M lthou!h ccuse$.% 2A Ee&ru r. YATAR% /)R) No) 1. 'or the l # to &e uphel$. the $e'ense $ue to the supervenin! $e th o' pl inti''1#itness $oes not necess ril. 2333% 72.ri&onucleic ci$6) Citin! the 'irst ever Supre(e Court $ecision on the $(issi&ilit. . i(plies th t the court $oors (ust &e open to those #ho #ish to co(e% sit in the v il &le se ts% con$uct the(selves #ith $ecoru( n$ o&serve tri l 5S%& of 1/$! &% 5$. n 'or 7 . Where the c se 'or viol tion o' the Anti-/r 't L # # s pen$in! 'or preli(in r. o' cont (in tion o' the s (ples% the proce$ure 'ollo#e$ in n l. t <en 'ro( hi( n$ su&(itte$ to the N tion l Bure u o' Investi! tion 'or 'orensic ex (in tion% the h ir s (ples ( . or $is(iss l 'ro( e(plo.)! o" of ""o&%"&%s ! inst presu(ption o' l # The ri!ht to &e he r$ The v !ueness $octrine (erel.8 SCRA A36) S%&! o" 179 A! inst Sel'-incri(in tion Sect$on /6. ren$er the $ece se$Ls testi(on. The ri!ht ! inst sel'-incri(in tion is v il &le in $(inistr tive he rin!s #hen the n ture o' the pen lt. "%($6 The ri!ht ! inst sel'-incri(in tion is $e'e te$ &. n$ pro& tive v lue o' "NA 5$eox. investi! tion #ith the O''ice o' the T no$& ./%C6 In the recent c se o' PEOPLE 5$.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 accused (ro#$ded that he has been du'y not$*$ed and h$s *a$'ure to a((ear $s un+ust$*$ab'e. reDuires re son &le $e!ree o' cert int. result in the loss o' the privile!e to pr ctice (e$ic l pro'ession) 5Pa$&/a# 5$. #here the evi$ence sou!ht to &e exclu$e$ is not n incri(in tion &ut s p rt o' o&?ect evi$enceN) Citin! P%o)#% 5.C . the Bill o' Ri!hts) The extr $iteeLs ri!ht to notice n$ he rin! is present onl.hen the (ub'$c sa*ety re-u$res $t.1 SCRA 2A8) It hel$ th t Mthe ri!ht ! inst sel'.322C% > .(ent6 n$ the he rin! p rt <es the n ture o' cri(in l procee$in! 5Ca:a# 5$. in $(issi&le) Where no ' ult c n &e ttri&ute$ to pl inti''1#itness% it #oul$ &e h rsh (e sure to stri<e out ll th t h s &een o&t ine$ in the $irect ex (in tion 5PP 5$. #hen the petition 'or extr $ition is 'ile$ in court.not &solute precision or ( the( tic l ex ctitu$e 5E$!(ada 5$. Va$.Fin! the s (ples% #hether the proper st n$ r$s n$ proce$ures #ere 'ollo#e$ in con$uctin! the tests% n$ the Du li'ic tion o' the n l. not &e sentence$ to $e th un$er RA A9. Ka)/"a"% 9 SCRA 13. 18% 233C% the Supre(e Court ''ir(e$ the $(issi&ilit.non. $isposition exten$s to preli(in r. then #hen he h s the opportunit. Na(&a% 2A.86) Applic &le to procee$in! th t coul$ possi&l.e rs n$ it is in$ic te$ th t the c se is o' si(ple n ture n$ # s prosecute$ 'or politic l re sons% it is hel$ th t there # s viol tion o' the ccuse$Ls ri!ht to spee$. 2332% 7:2 SCRA 182% 238% the Court% in J t r% hel$ th t in ssessin! the pro& tive v lue o' "NA evi$ence% courts shoul$ consi$er% inter li % the 'ollo#in! ' ctors* Mho# the s (ples #ere collecte$% ho# the. Sa"do5a#% 7C: SCRA CA96) A person su&?ect o' n extr $ition reDuest 'ro( nother soverei!n St te is &ere't o' the ri!ht to notice n$ he rin! $urin! the ev lu tion st !e o' the extr $ition process) An extr $ition procee$in! is sui !eneris) It is not cri(in l procee$in! #hich #ill c ll into oper tions ll the ri!hts o' n ccuse$ s !u r ntee$ &. SCRA 9896) S%&! o" 1H9 .o"!% 5$.incri(in tion is si(pl.r$t o* habeas cor(us sha'' not be sus(ended e>ce(t $n cases o* $n#as$on or rebe''$on . &e co(pelle$ to su&(it to 'in!erprintin!% photo!r phin!% p r ''in% &loo$ n$ "NA% s there is no testi(oni l co(pulsion involve$N) It cite$ P%o)#% 5. ! inst the le! l process o' extr ctin! 'ro( the lips o' the ccuse$ n $(ission o' !uiltN n$ th t Mit $oes not ppl. &e $(itte$ in evi$ence ! inst hi(% 'or #h t is proscri&e$ is the use o' testi(oni l co(pulsion or n. investi! tions) 5Ta!ad 5$.ppell nt insiste$ th t h ir s (ples #ere 'orci&l. P(%$/. $isposition o' c se) Ri!ht to spee$. the pu&lic n ture o' $ocu(ents sou!ht to &e ccesse$) 5A#.

in! circu(st nce in (ur$er c nnot ppl. o' the evi$ence o&t ine$ un$er the Rules o' CourtN) Where s% M n ex-post ' cto l # re'erre$ pri( ril. to ho(ici$e # s not ?u$!(ent o' conviction) It (erel. Servitu$e Sect$on /8. Sect$on 0/. i(prison(ent o' not excee$in! six . retro ctivel.23. S%&(%!a(*% 731 SCRA 28:6) The prohi&ition o' ex post ' cto l #s n$ &ill o' tt in$er pplies to court $octrines pursu nt to the ( xi( Mle!is interpret tio le!is vi( o&tinetN.$ce (ut $n +eo(ardy o* (un$sh)ent *or the sa)e o**ense.e r 'or o''enses punish &le &. SCRA 9326) The l # ( <in! the use o' n unlicense$ 'ire r( Du li'. i(prison(ent o' (ore th n six . precinct $ue to 'orce ( ?eure% violence or terroris(0 n$ 26 the votes not c st therein re su''icient to ''ect the results o' the election) . 'ro( cri(e is not M$e&tN #ithin the purvie# o' the constitution l provision ! inst i(prison(ent 'or non p ."escri&in! the r!u(ent s specious% the Supre(e Court hel$ Mno ex-post ' cto l # # s involve$ in the c se t & rN) It $$e$ th t Mthe science o' "NA t.$th by 'a. the ccuse$ n$ the con$ition tt che$ to it) 5PP 5$. Ya!a(% > . E?%&..) 5PP 5$.e rs) Eor this rule to & r the su&seDuent 'ilin! o' si(il r c se ! inst the ccuse$% the 'ollo#in! (ust &e est &lishe$* 16 the provision l $is(iss l h $ express consent o' the ccuse$0 26 the provision l $is(iss l # s or$ere$ &. 2:% 23326) The or$er pprovin! the ple o' !uilt. G%do( o% C32 SCRA .on$ the perio$ o' one or t#o . (/ E>cess$#e *$nes sha'' not be $)(osed" nor crue'" de%rad$n% or $nhu)an (un$sh)ent $n*'$cted. and an ord$nance" con#$ct$on or ac-u$tta' under e$ther sha'' const$tute a bar to another (rosecut$on *or the sa)e act. I* an act $s (un$shed by a 'a. (ust ' il) 5E$!(ada 5$.thus% he # s neither cDuitte$ nor # s the i(pe ch(ent procee$in! $is(isse$ #ithout his express consent) Neither # s there conviction1 It 'ollo#s then th t the cl i( o' $ou&le ?eop r$. 'ter the inci$ent% Mthe police uthorities too< pictures o' the ccuse$ #ithout the presence o' counselN) In th t c se% the Court rule$ th t Mthere # s no viol tion o' the ri!ht ! inst sel'incri(in tionN) It 'urther st te$ th t Mthe ccuse$ ( . 18% 233C6 ELECTION LA4 B%" !o 5$. D%$ %(!o% April 7% 23316) +n$er Sec) :% Rule 11A o' the Rules o' Court% provision l $is(iss l o' c se &eco(es per( nent 'ter the l pse o' one .BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 #here i((e$i tel. The $e th pen lt.r) or 2-. No (erson sha'' be $)(r$soned *or debt or non7(ay)ent o* a (o'' ta>. La&$o"% > .sic l ex (in tion to $eter(ine his involve(ent in n o''ense o' #hich he is ccuse$N) S%&! o" 189 Politic l &elie's 1 Involunt r. &e co(pelle$ to su&(it to ph.% the p . The civil li &ilit. n% is not pen l l # &ut su&st ntive l # on ?uris$iction #hose retro ctive pplic tion is constitution l 5La&$o" 5$. to Duestion o' l #% "NA pro'ilin! reDuires ' ctu l $eter(in tion o' the pro& tive #ei!ht o' the evi$ence presente$N) 5PP 5$.hereo* the (arty sha'' be du'y con#$cted.e rs) 5PP 5$.It is the CO>ELEC en & nc #hich h s the exclusive po#er to postpone% to $ecl re ' ilure o' election% or to c ll speci l election) T#o precon$itions (ust &e (et &e'ore ' ilure o' election ( . Ro. is not cruel punish(ent) There # s no tot l &olition o' the $e th pen lt."e&t% s use$ in the Constitution% re'ers to civil $e&t or one not risin! 'ro( cri(in l o''ense) Cle rl. co(petent court h s the 'orce o' l # PP vs) B &in l% . &e $ecl re$* 16 no votin! h s &een hel$ in n.r) perio$ to revive h $ l pse$0 C6 there is no ?usti'ic tion to 'ile su&seDuent c se &e.) The ConCo( h $ $ee(e$ it proper 'or Con!ress to $eter(ine its rei(position &ec use o' co(pellin! re sons involvin! heinous cri(es) 5PP 5B E&'%-a(a*% 29A SCRA 9:26) S%&! o" @F9 Non-i(prison(ent 'or "e&t Sect$on 0:. the court 'ter notice to the o''en$e$ p rt. S%&! o" 199 "e th pen lt. Ne$ther sha'' death (ena'ty be $)(osed" un'ess" *or co)(e''$n% reasons $n#o'#$n% he$nous cr$)es" the Con%ress herea*ter (ro#$des *or $t. the prosecution ! inst ccuse$ &ein! unconstitution l on the !roun$ th t resort thereto # s t nt (ount to the pplic tion o' n ex-post ' cto l #.e rs 'or o''enses punish &le &.the interpret tion pl ce$ upon the #ritten l # &. COMELEC% 7C8 SCRA A3.0 76 the 1 . No e> (ost *acto 'a. pprove$ the !ree(ent &et#een the p rties on the ple to lesser o''ense &. . or b$'' o* atta$nder sha'' be enacted.% relev nce n$ reli &ilit.. Pa!o&% 78: SCRA 926) Re "NA tests con$ucte$ &.e rs or l pse o' t#o . (/ No (erson sha'' be deta$ned so'e'y by reason o* h$s (o'$t$ca' be'$e*s and as($rat$ons.. RA :2C8% n ct #hich 'urther $e'ines the ?uris$iction o' the S n$i! n& . Any death (ena'ty a'ready $)(osed sha'' be reduced to rec'us$on (er(etua.pin! involve$ the $(issi&ilit. Sect$on /9.. (0 The e)('oy)ent o* (hys$ca'" (sycho'o%$ca'" or de%rad$n% (un$sh)ent a%a$nst any (r$soner or deta$nee or the use o* substandard or $nade-uate (ena' *ac$'$t$es under subhu)an cond$t$ons sha'' be dea't .(ent o' rent ls is covere$ &.(ent o' M$e&tN) V%(-a(a 5$. (0 No $n#o'untary ser#$tude $n any *ro) sha'' e>$st e>ce(t as (un$sh)ent *or a cr$)e . The i(pe ch(ent procee$in!s ! inst petitioner Estr $ # s not conclu$e$ s series o' events pro(pte$ the Sen te to $ecl re the i(pe ch(ent 'unctus o''icio.%(o% 788 SCRA 7:96 S%&! o" @@9 Ex post ' cto l #1&ill o' tt in$er Sect$on 00. the constitution l !u r ntee ! inst i(prison(ent) S%&! o" @19 "ou&le Beop r$. No (erson sha'' be t.

or # s ( $e $ c utel (0 n$ .0 76 #h t # s 'ile$ # s not re ll.) 9) Con!ress( n. COMELEC% "ece(&er 13% 23376 EGEC+TION PEN"IN/ APPEAL. COMELEC% C1A SCRA . COMELEC% 788 SCRA 9116 1/( $d &! o" of E#%&! o" Co"!%$!0 1) Presi$ent1Vice Presi$ent K Supre(e Court 2) Sen tor K SET Once #innin! c n$i$ te h s &een procl i(e$% t <en his o th% n$ ssu(e$ o''ice s (e(&er o' the . COMELEC% 7CA SCRA 73A.In preprocl ( tion controvers. perio$ 'or 'ilin! petition 'or certior ri run n$ expire) A. SCRA 23:.) 5F( 5a#do 5$. COMELEC% 22C SCRA 9716 With respect to Du li'ic tions o' loc l elective o''ici ls% the rec<onin! ti(e 'or co(pli nce o' resi$enc. HRET% 232 SCRA :3:6 The rule th t the 'ilin! o' n election protest or petition 'or Duo # rr nto preclu$es the su&seDuent 'ilin! o' pre-procl ( tion c se $(its o' exceptions s #here* 16 the &o r$ o' c nv ssers # s i(properl.: # 5$.ad 5$.:6 In n election contest #here #h t is involve$ is the correctness o' the nu(&er o' votes o' e ch c n$i$ te% the &est n$ (ost conclusive evi$ence re the & llots the(selves) But #here the & llots c nnot &e pro$uce$ or re not v il &le% the election returns #oul$ &e the &est evi$ence) 5L%( a$ 5$. #here the procl ( tion is & se$ on co(plete c nv ss) Where it is cl i(e$ th t cert in returns shoul$ h ve &een o(itte$ &ec use the. o' su&stitution ' ll #ithin the re l( o' the . COMELEC% 2:A SCRA A2A6 Sa(. petition 'or Duo # rr nto or n election protest &ut petition to nnul procl ( tion0 C6 the 'ilin! o' Duo # rr nto petition or n election protest # s expressl. h ve &een irretriev &l. ( $e #ithout pre?u$ice to the pre-procl ( tion controvers.Inst nces #hen ' ilure o' election ( .CO>ELEC >unicip l O''ices.o(%$9La?a% C39 SCRA 9A8% +n$er Section .o#ever% this is true onl. Ba#. the Co((ission en & n s re! r$s election c ses $eci$e$ &.RET Re!ion l1Provinci l1Cit.The $ te o' p . COMELEC% 779 SCRA C.% Rule 2A o' the CO>ELEC Rules o' Proce$ure% petition to correct the st te(ent o' votes shoul$ &e 'ile$ 'ive $ .% the &o r$ o' c nv ssers n$ the CO>ELEC c nnot loo< &e.RETLs ?uris$iction &e!ins) The ?uris$iction o' .72. the Supre(e Court re'er to 'in l or$ers% rulin!s n$ $ecisions o' the CO>ELEC ren$ere$ in the exercise o' its $?u$ic tor.ouse o' represent tives% CO>ELECLs ?uris$iction over election contests rel tin! to his election returns% Du li'ic tion en$s% n$ the . lost% the preprocl ( tion controvers.An or$er settin! the pro(ul! tion o' $r 't $ecision o' CO>ELEC $ivision is not proper su&?ect 'or certior ri &e'ore the Supre(e Court) The $ecision su&?ect to revie# &.e r prece$in! the $ .RET is not li(ite$ to the Du li'ic tions prescri&e$ un$er section9% Art) VI o' the constitution) Uuestions on st tutor. one recourse n$ th t is to 'ile petition 'or certior ri un$er Rule 9.A resolution o' the CO>ELEC en & nc is not su&?ect to reconsi$er tion n$% there'ore% n. COMELEC% 7CC SCRA 7. O''ices. CA% 2C. %"!o 5$.o#ever% the CO>ELEC c n suspen$ its o#n Rules so s not to $e'e t the #ill o' the elector te) Ga!&'a# a" 5$. o' election n$ the (ini(u( !e is co(pute$ t the $ te o' election) As ' r s Eilipino citiFenship is concerne$% it is hel$ th t shoul$ &e rec<one$ t the $ te o' procl ( tion or st rt o' the ter(% not necess ril.(ent o' the 'ilin! 'ee) 5Na5a(o$a 5$. the $ te o' election or $ te o' 'ilin! o' certi'ic te o' c n$i$ c.It is the p . is one .BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 7) C) . to he r n$ $eci$e election c ses inclu$in! pre-procl ( tion controversies in the 'irst inst nce) This po#er pert ins to the $ivisions o' the Co((ission) An. O''ices.:. COMELEC% 772 SCRA A. pollin! pl ce h s &een suspen$e$ &e'ore the hour 'ixe$ &.s 'ter the procl ( tion o' the #inner) . p rt. see<in! to r ise issues the resolution o' #hich #oul$ necessit te the CO>ELEC to pierce the veil o' election returns (ust 'ile re!ul r election protest) A-:a*a" 5$.The CO>ELEC% sittin! en & nc% $oes not h ve the reDuisite uthorit. .A co(&in tion o' t#o or (ore o' the 'ollo#in! re sons su''ice to !r nt execution pen$in! ppe l* 16 pu&lic interest or #ill o' the elector te0 526 the shortness o' the re( inin! portion o' the ter( o' the conteste$ o''ice% n$ 576 the len!th o' ti(e th t the election contest h s &een pen$in!) 5Sa"!o$ 5$.6 the procl ( tion # s null n$ voi$) 5Sa.(ent o' the 'ilin! 'ees th t vests ?uris$iction o' the court over the election protest% not the p . #ere ( nu' cture n$ other returns c nnot &e inclu$e$ &ec use the. &e $ecl re$* 16 the election in n. COMELEC% 718 SCRA C:2. or c nv ss thereo'% such election results in ' ilure to elect on ccount o' EVTEA) CHU 5$.on$ the returns% #hich re on their ' ce re!ul r n$ uthentic) A p rt. COMELEC% 1:9 SCRA C:C. it in the 'irst inst nce is null n$ voi$) A"-%# a 5$.The procl ( tion o' the #innin! c n$i$ te ( <es the pre procl ( tion controvers. $isDu li'ic tions% inclu$in! v li$it.RET) 5G/%((%(o 5$.. COMELEC% C11 SCRA 7986 I' the #inner in n election is ineli!i&le% the one #ho 'inishe$ secon$ c nnot &e procl i(e$ 5La!a$a 5$. SCRA 23:. no lon!er vi &le) .9 . or Du si-?u$ici l po#ers) The $ecision (ust &e 'in l $ecision or resolution o' the CO>ELEC en & nc% not o' $ivision% n$ cert inl.A. #ho $is !rees #ith it h s onl. constitute$0 26 Duo # rr nto # s not the proper re(e$.(ent o' the $oc<et 'ees 'or the cl i( o' $ ( !es n$ ttorne.on$ the perio$ $eprives the court o' ?uris$iction over the protest) "ue to petitionerLs ctive p rticip tion in the procee$in!% estoppel h s set in preclu$in! petitioner 'ro( Duestionin! the inco(plete p .>TC Ta" 5$. l # o' the closin! o' the votin! on ccount o' EVTEA0 or 76 'ter votin! n$ closin! the prep r tion n$ tr ns(ission or the election returns in custo$. $ecision &.Ls 'ees) M%#%"d(%$ 5$B COMELEC% 2C.(ent o' the 'ilin! 'ee is $ee(e$ the ctu l $ te o' the 'ilin! o' the election protest) The rule prescri&in! the ten-$ .RTC B r n! .) Eor hi( to # it until the CO>ELEC $enie$ his (otion #oul$ &e llo#e$ the re!l (ent r. #oul$ still &e continue$ $espite the procl ( tion o' the suppose$ #inner) Also% re $ LorenFo vs) CO>ELEC% "ece(&er 11% 2337) M ##a 5$. perio$ is >AN"ATORJ n$ B+RIS"ICTIONAL n$ the 'ilin! o' n election protest &e. pollin! pl ce h s not &een hel$ on the $ te 'ixe$ on ccount o' 'orce ( ?eure% violence% terroris(% 'r u$ n$ other n lo!ous c ses 5EVTEA60 26 the election in n.

is essenti ll. &e extr $ite$ 'or o''ense co((itte$ prior to the entr. st tute% 26 it (ust not &e un' ir or oppressive% 76 it (ust not &e p rti l or $iscri(in tor. SCRA 7C16 W r ( .or% the resultin! v c nc./ "!o$ 5$. ?uris$iction is to !ui$e court in $eter(inin! #hether the court shoul$ re'r in 'ro( exercisin! its ?uris$iction until% 'ter n $(inistr tive !enc. !r nte$ to intern tion l o''ici ls #ho ( .. inconsistent #ith it% s it $oes in c se o' n unconstitution l st tute) In the c se o' con'lict &et#een tre t. ( . the l tter o' the co(pl int #ith the proper court) PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LA4 A tre t.% there'ore% &e su&?ect o' cri(in l prosecution) 5S&'"%&D%":%(-%( 5$. ( n$ tes th t the re!ul r courts% in controversies involvin! speci liFe$ $isputes% $e'er to the 'in$in!s or resolutions o' $(inistr tive tri&un ls on cert in technic l ( tters) 5Co"(ad 6 Co. h ve &een issue$% no$ ecl r tion ( $e% n$ no ction o' the executive or le!isl tive &r nches o' the !overn(ent h $) 5US 5$. respect &ut 'in lit. represent en?o. $eter(ine the $ te o' the co((ence(ent o' # r% thou!h no procl ( tion ( . n$ st tute% the principle o' lex posterior $ero! t priori pplies.5$.e ( . Na! o"a# S!/d Fa(. su&st nti l evi$ence) 5Ka! )/"a" ". O(! C% 137 :A. .. shoul$ &e 'ille$ &. &e v il &le shoul$ 'irst exh uste$) 55da. &e exercise$ in strict co(pli nce #ith the ter(s o' the $ele! tin! l #) An or$in nce pro(ul! te$ &. A.% > .The RTCs h ve exclusive ?uri$iction over election o''enses% except ' ilure to re!ister or to vote #hich ' ll un$er the ?uris$iction o' the >TC% re! r$less o' the $ur tion o' the pen lties pursu nt to Section 29: o' the O(ni&us Election Co$e) p rt.6 it (ust &e !ener l n$ consistent #ith pu&lic polic. onl.) COMELEC 5$. repe l n existin! tre t.% C6 it (ust not prohi&it &ut ( . n$ !r ve (iscon$uct even i' it is not #or<-rel te$) The priv te li'e o' n e(plo.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 not n interlocutor.o#ever% the intern tion l or! niF tions the. 5233166 ADMINSTRATIVE LA4 Civil Serv nts ( . P%o)#%% 7.tre t. to no(in te repl ce(ent is to ( int in the p rt. uthoriFin! its loc l chie' executive to exercise the po#er o' e(inent $o( in is necess r. of 1/$! &% 5$. cri(in l investi! tion $irecte$ ! inst hi( or the execution o' pen lt.B I"&.A . prior to the 'ilin! &. o' the extr $ition tre t. CA% 2C9 SCRA 9816 The precise 'unction o' the $octrine o' pri( r. 5$. the prep r tor. i(per(issi&le 'or the people to ct throu!h their electe$ represent tives) 5Ga(& a 5$. the people in election) 5Na5a((o 5$. or e''ectivit. re!ul te tr $e% .( te o' s i$ s n!!uni n (e(&er) The re son &ehin$ the ri!ht !iven to politic l p rt. su!!est th t the people h ve the sole n$ exclusive ri!ht to $eci$e on #hether to initi te rec ll procee$in!) The Constitution $i$ not provi$e 'or n. La"! o"% 722 SCRA 193% 23336 Extr $ition is the re(ov l o' n ccuse$ 'ro( the Philippines #ith the o&?ect o' pl cin! hi( t the $ispos l o' 'orei!n uthorities to en &le the reDuestin! st te or !overn(ent to hol$ hi( in connection #ith n.% An or$in nce% s pro$uct o' $ele! te$ po#er% c nnot rise &ove st tute) Eor n or$in nce to &e v li$* 16 it (ust not contr vene the Constitution or n.C.6 one tive &e Phil LOCAL GOVERNMENT Where the hi!hest r n<in! (e(&er o' the s n!!uni n # s elev te$ to the position o' vice( . the le!isl tive &o$.M-a Ma"--a-a<a $a Da/"-a" 5$. exist #ithout procl ( tion to th t e''ect) Actu l hostilities ( . the( in their o''ici l c p cit.) 5S%&. Buris$iction. the courts not onl. o' Bustice vs) L ntion% 7C7 SCRA 7AA6) A person su&?ect o' n extr $ition reDuest ( ./ "o% C: SCRA 2C26 Consul is not entitle$ to the privile!es n$ i((unities o' n (& ss $or or (inister% &ut is su&?ect to the l #s n$ re!ul tions o' the countr. repe l prior st tute% n$ l ter st tute ( . inv li$ te tre t. C !* of Ma"da#/*o"-% 72: SCRA 17A% The po#er o' e(inent $o( in% s $ele! te$ po#er 'ro( the le!isl ture% ( . Mo(a"% 97 Phil 2C86 The sl n$er o' person c nnot &e tre te$ s ' llin! un$er the purvie# o' the i((unit.% . i((unit.) . No*"a*% 282 SCRA 2. COMELEC% 22A SCRA 1336 Ma-!a=a$ 5$.on$ $eter(in tion &. represent tion s #ille$ &. P(*&%% 27C SCRA 2. CA% C28 SCRA 2:. Ca##%=a% 2A: SCRA . La-"a$o"% 7 Phil CA26 "iplo( tic i((unit.ee c nnot &e se!re! te$ 'ro( his pu&lic li'e) 5B%("a(do 5$. i(pose$ on hi( un$er the pen l or cri(in l l # o' the reDuestin! st te or !overn(ent 5see S%&.% n$ 96 it (ust not &e unre son &le) H% ($ of A#:%(!o S/-/ !a" 5$. &solute i((unit. throu!h their represent tives) It is not constitution ll. the executive &r nch o' the !overn(ent) 54HO 5$. rec ll sse(&l. politic l Duestion n$ courts shoul$ re'use to loo< &e. en?o.C SCRA 2136 E ctu l 'in$in!s o' Du si-?u$ici l !encies #hich h ve cDuire$ expertise in ( tters entruste$ to their ?uris$ictions re ccor$e$ &. onl. D% V #a"/%5a 5. o&li! tion h s the 'orce n$ e''ect o' st tute n$ is !iven eDu l tre t(ent #ith the l tter) But the constitution ( . CA% 27. or$er o' $ivision) The prereDuisite 'ilin! o' (otion 'or reconsi$er tion is ( n$ tor. to #hich he is ccre$ite$) .716 Exh ustion o' A$(inistr tive Re(e$ies. (o$e% let lone sin!le (o$e% o' initi tin! rec ll elections) Neither $i$ it prohi&it the $option o' (ultiple (o$es o' initi tin! rec ll elections) Initi tion &. h s $eter(ine$ so(e Duestion or so(e spect o' so(e Duestion risin! in the procee$in! &e'ore the court) 5. @B PD 1FJ96) REA"* /ovLt) o' +SA vs) Pur! n n% Septe(&er 2C% 23320 Secret r.Si(pl. CA% Nove(&er 2:% 23316 There is nothin! in the Constitution th t #ill re(otel.Be'ore resorts to the courts o' ?ustice% such $(inistr re(e$ies s ( . &e re(ove$ 'ro( o''ice on cts o' $ishonest. SCRA 12.) 5L a". #ith respect to cts per'or(e$ &. is supporte$ &.) 54( -'! 5$. the people% l&eit $one in$irectl. is lso initi tion &. 2A% 233C6 Re $ "octrine o' Pri( r.

:oa 5$. E?!%#&o. reDuire(ent in the Civil Service L # th t persons next-in-r n< re entitle$ to pre'erence in ppoint(ent) 5Sa"! a-o 5$. sse(&le n$ petition the !overn(ent 'or re$ress o' !riev nces) .) B. even thou!h the $(inistr tive re(e$. le! l in n ture% 526 pu&lic interest is involve$0 576 extre(e ur!enc. is (e nt th t $erive$ 'ro( n election or ppoint(ent% ho#ever irre!ul r or in'or( l% so th t the incu(&ent is not (ere volunteer) 5CSC 5$. the ct o' relinDuish(ent) A resi!n tion i(plies n expression o' the incu(&ent in so(e 'or(% express or i(plie$% o' the intention to surren$er% renounce n$ relinDuish the o''ice n$ the ccept nce &.The N tion l Centenni l Co((ission #hich is t s<e$ to spe rhe $ the cele&r tions o' the centenn r. color o' uthorit. CAB 13: SCRA 16) . D%$ %(!o% April 12% 2332. CSC% 1A: SCRA A776 There is v li$ restriction to the exercise &. is per(issive onl.% B nu r.E"% April C% 2331)6 5. !overn(ent #or<ers o' their ri!ht to pe ce &l.to constitute co(plete n$ oper tive resi!n tion o' pu&lic o''ice% there (ust &e n intention to relinDuish p rt o' the ter(% cco(p nie$ &.) 5Ga. o' $e?ure o''icer n$ th t o' $e' cto o''icer is th t one rests on ri!ht% the other on reput tion) A $e' cto o''icer is one #ho is in possession o' the o''ice n$ $isch r!in! its $uties un$er color o' uthorit.: . C/ad%("o% C SCRA AC86 L!o !'% BARL PUBLIC OFFICERS P+BLIC OEEICIALS. vs) C. 2A% 233C6 Next in r n< rule. o' the Philippine In$epen$ence per'or(e$ executive 'unctions n$ is% there'ore% pu&lic o''ice) "EEACTO AN" "EB+RE OEEICERS "ISTIN/+IS. $ the te chers v ile$ o' their 'ree ti(e to $r ( tiFe their !riev nces n$ to $i lo!ue #ith the proper uthorities #ithin the &oun$s o' l #% no one% not the "ECS% the CSC or even the Supre(e Court coul$ h ve hel$ the( li &le 'or their p rticip tion in the ( ss ctions) RESI/NATION. ille! l or # s per'or(e$ #ithout ?uris$iction0 596 #here the respon$ent is $ep rt(ent secret r. #hose cts s n lter e!o o' the Presi$ent &e r the i(plie$ or ssu(e$ pprov l o' the l tter0 5A6 #here there re circu(st nces in$ic tin! the ur!enc.6 #here the controverte$ ct is p tentl. co(petent n$ l #'ul uthorit. o' ?u$ici l intervention 5M !(a 5$. h s not &een exh uste$ 5Co()/$ 5$.There is neither ( n$ tor. nor pree(ptor.La/(%# 5$. S/: do% 21 SCRA 12A6 5:6 #hen such re(e$.BB exclusive on POLI Consti 1 The pre( ture invoc tion o' the intervention o' the court is ' t l to oneLs c use o' ction) 5R%)/:# & 5$.E"* The $i''erence &et#een the & sis o' uthorit.% 23326 EGCEPTIONS* 516 issues re purel. 1o$o"% C28 SCRA AA7% > . 1.% # rr ntin! the conclusion th t the le!isl ture inten$e$ to llo# the ?u$ici l re(e$. is o&vious0 or 5C6 speci l circu(st nces # rr nt i((e$i te or (ore $irect ction) 5In$i n Aerosp ce +niversit.

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