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Cover Name, Cryptonym, Pseudonym, and Real Name Index A Research Historian’s Working Reference Compiled by John Earl Haynes updated April 2009 This index originated when Harvey Klehr and I were preparing our Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America.[1] When in 1995 the National Security Agency began releasing the nearly 3,000 deciphered Venona messages no systematic index was supplied. In order to keep intellectual control over the messages, I constructed two data bases. One was a summary of the portions of each message relevant to our interest in Soviet espionage in the United States or Soviet espionage involving Americans in other nations. A second data base consisted of an index of the cover names, real names, agency and institutional names, and proper titles that occurred in the Venona messages, again those message relevant to our research focus. To the cover name index I also added cover names, cryptonyms, and similar pseudonyms from other sources. The added names initially served as check on the reliability of the identifications provided by the NSA/FBI identifications provided in the NSA footnotes to the Venona messages. Many identifications in Venona are entirely clear and incontestable from the information provided the message. Others, however, are based on FBI investigations on who was where at a certain time and had access to what information and other investigatory evidence, and this background information is rarely obvious from the NSA/FBI footnote. In less obvious cases, when two or more independent sources identify the same cover name as that of the same real name, confidence in the identification increases. Further, the additional names sometimes provided real name identifications for cryptonyms that were unidentified in Venona and vice versa. When identifications differed it raised the question of which source was more likely accurate and how much weight should be given to the identification. I would add on the latter question, it is not a matter to simply comparing sources that provide cover name identifications but of also placing the identifications in

the context of non-cryptographic evidence (memoirs, testimony, court evidence, congressional hearings, political history and so on) to reach a reasonable judgment about an identification. As time and resources allow, I will add additional names. Users should keep in mind that this index was created to assist my own research work and, consequently, reflects my own priorities, habits, and concerns. Entries may contain what amount to notes to myself and may not contain information that is sufficiently familiar to me that I saw no need to note it. It also evolved over time and it the product of two major and several minor research projects, and entries created for one project reflected what was important at that time. Consequently there is considerable inconsistency in formatting and in substance. Anyone using the index should also keep in mind that cover names were changed from time-to-time and were later reused. Cryptonym “Sparrow” might designate John Smith in 1936 but designate Frank Jones in 1940. Further, a cover name might be used simultaneously on two different communications channels. “Sparrow” might designate John Smith on the 1944 KGB New York-Moscow communications line but designate Eduardo Sanchez on the KGB Mexico City-Moscow channel at the same time. Different KGB officers dealt with two channels and they would not have been confused. Consequently, different real names for the same cryptonym are not disagreements over identifications in these cases. It is due to questions of the chronology of the use of a cryptonym, different agencies and communications channels, and other ambiguities that a researcher must check the source of a cover name and identification for the context. This index is a reference to take one to sources providing information about cover names and linking them to real names; it is not a source in itself and anyone with questions about the identifications should consult the sources. Additionally, researchers should keep in mind the problem of translation of names from Russian or other languages. A Russian term used as a cover name might have several different possible meanings and be translated differently by various sources: example, the cryptonym “Gonets” used by the KGB was translated as “Express Messenger” by NSA/FBI but

one could translate the term as “Runner”. Further, there are several different systems of rendering Russian into Latin alphabet English, and different sources might use variant systems. Variants of these types are nominal and substantively are identical. In 2009 I combined the original index with the concordance I created when working with Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks in preparation for writing Spies: the Rise and Fall of the KGB in America (coauthored by Harvey Klehr and Alexander Vassiliev).[2] In order to conform to conventions Vassiliev used in his notebooks and for certain other technical reasons, the conventions in that concordance differed from those used in the earlier Venona oriented index. For example cover names in the Vassiliev notebook concordance were in double quotation marks whereas in the earlier index they were not. Consequently there is inconsistency in conventions used for entries in this combined index as well as repetition of some entries. In as much as it was created to assist my research, the inconsistencies do not confuse me, but a casual researcher should keep the inconsistencies in mind. Entries from the Vassiliev notebook concordance also have other characteristics: Transliterated Russian cover names and titles are in Bold using the BGN/PCGN system for transliterating Russian from the Cyrillic to the Latin alphabet. The BGN/PCGN system is relatively intuitive for anglophones to read and pronounce and is familiar to many American readers because it is used by major publications. In many publications a simplified form of the system is used to render English versions of Russian names, typically converting ë to yo and simplifying -iy and -yy endings to -y. That convention will be used here. The Cyrillic soft sign ! is represented by a single straight quote mark, ' and the soft sign " by a double straight quote mark, ". If the transliterated Russian is then translated, the entry will say “See ‘###’” as in: “Betti” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Betty”. If the transliterated Russian is not further translated, the entry will proceed normally with the initial cover name in Bold as in: “Frank” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB officer 1933-1935.

To avoid confusion, some names and titles that have well established Latin alphabet spellings under different transliteration systems are spelled in accordance with the their predominance in the literature. For example, “Grigory Kheifets” rather than “Grigory Kheyfets” as called for by BGN/ PCGN. In the case of Venona, a project that spanned 1943-1980 and involved many different translators, several different transliterations systems were used. Consequently, some of the transliterations in Venona differ from the BGN/PCGN transliterations used for Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks. A question mark, “?” in a name entry indicates that a part of the name is missing. For example, the entry “Allakhverdov, ?”, indicates that Allakhverdov’s given name is unknown or uncertain. ************************************************************** ********************** Many entries note a source for the subject of the entry. The two principle sources are the text or NSA/FBI footnotes to the Soviet KGB and GRU messages deciphered by the Venona project and released by the National Security Agency, designated as [source Venona][3] and from Alexander Vassiliev’s notes of KGB archival documents, designated as (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks) or a variant of that. Other sources are also used: [source Albright Kunstel Bombshell][4] [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword][5] [source Bentley FBI statement][6] [source Chambers Witness][7] [source Damaskin Harris][8] [source Feklisov Rosenbergs][9] [source Klehr Haynes Firsov Secret World][10] [source Schecter Sacred Secrets][11] [source Weinstein Perjury 1997 ed.][12] [source West Venona][13]

Index ******************************** Numbered cover names “10” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Ludwig Lore. Lore is not directly named in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks, but all of the particulars of “10” (also known as “Leo”), his journalistic work and the trajectory of his journalistic commentary on Soviet matters in the 1930s, fit Lore. In addition, Whittaker Chambers described his own contacts with Lore and comments of Soviet intelligence officers about Lore that fit with the description of “Leo” in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks. Further, Julius Kobyakov, retired senior KGB officer, identified “Leo”/“10” as Lore in 2004.[14] st “101 ” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Peter MacLean. “101-y” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “101st” “103rd” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): David Carpenter. “103-y” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “103rd” “104th” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Henry Wadleigh. “104-y” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “104st”. “105th” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Henry Collins. “105-y” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “105st”. “107th” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Felix Inslerman. “107-y” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “107st”. “11” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent at the State Department, subsource of “10”/“Leo”. Likely David A. Salmon. Also known as “Willy”. “113th” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Harry Rosenthal,. “113-y” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “113st”. “114th” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): William Ward Pigman. “114-y” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “114st”. “115th” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Lester Hutm. “115-y” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “115st”. “116th” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Harry Azizov. “116-y” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “116st”. “118th” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): F. V. Reno. “118-y” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “118st”. 12 [agent - source twelve] (GRU line) [source Venona]

“12” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent at the State Department, subsource of “10”/“Leo”. Judged by KGB to be a fake source invented by “10”/“Leo” to gain more financial benefits from KGB by pocketing the subsidy paid to “12”. Also known as “Daniel”. “13” [agent - source thirteen] (GRU line) [source Venona] “13” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1930s. “14” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1930s. “142” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): William Akets. “147” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Robert Allen (also known as George Parker). 16 [agent - source sixteen] (GRU line) [source Venona] “17” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Noel Field, mid-1930s. “18” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet source/agent, 1930s. Also known as “John”. “18”/“John’s” activities suggest John Spivak as a likely candidate. 19 [agent - source nineteen] = unidentified, meets with FDR, Churchill, Hopkins at Trident conference (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “19” [agent - source nineteen]: Harry Hopkins at Trident conference [source Mark “Venona’s Source 19”][15] Mark also discusses Lord Beaverbook as a weak candidate for 19. “19” [agent - source nineteen]: Eduard Benes at Trident conference [source West Venona] “19” [agent - source nineteen]: Laurence Duggan in mid-1930s [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “19” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Laurence Duggan starting in 1935, and appearing as Duggan as late as August 1944. In the Venona decryptions “19” appears as an unidentified source of diplomatic information in a 1943 report from Iskhak Akhmerov. Andrew and Mitrokhin identified “19” as Duggan.[16] “22” [agent - source twenty-two]: Cover name no. 22 twenty-two = Hogman, Captain. OSS (GRU line) [source Venona] “24” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1937. “29” [agent - source twenty-nine ] = unidentified (1941 KGB) [source Schecter Sacred Secrets]

“65” [agent - source sixty-five] (GRU line) [source Venona] 8th Department: address for informational (non-operational) cables (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] XXA A. [aa]: unidentified , courier (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] A. [aa]: Initial for unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] A [“A” aa] Technique = manufacture and provision of false papers (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] A Group: Section of KGB in 1947 described as dealing with violent tasks. A. [aa](initial): for Anglia, i.e. England in Russian. A Line: document forgery (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] A. Serov (ship) [source Venona] A. Sovorov (ship) [source Venona] A-20 (U.S. aircraft) “A/214” [a214](cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): ? Marianov. AAC: Army Air Corps, U.S. AAF: Army Air Force, U.S. Aarons, L.A.: Described as Treasury Department representatives in London, 1944. Possibly an error for Lehman C. Aarons, Treasury Department assistant general counsel. Abakumov, Viktor Semenovich: Senior KGB officer. Abbiate, Rolan: Vladimir Pravdin: Sergei [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Abel, ?: KGB agent slated for infiltration into Germany via the battle front, late 1941. Abel, Rudolph: pseudonym for William Fisher Abner Nas (ship) [source Venona] “Abraham” (unidentified name): (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Abram” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Jack Soble prior to September 1944 (with occasional use thereafter into the 1950s). “Abram” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Soble.[17] “Abram” (cover name): Soble, Jack (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Abramov, ?: Described as Comintern official and an “enemy of the people”. Likely Jacob Mirov-Abramov, former chief of Comintern OMS executed in 1937 in Stalin’s Terror. Abramov, Leonid Dmitrievich in U.S. from May 1940 to 31 July 1944,: Artek (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Abramovich, Rafael, president of Russian Social Democrats. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Abramov-Mirov, Jacob: Variant name in the literature for Jacob MirovAbramov. Abrams, director of Interchemical Corporation, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Abramvo, Aleksandr Stepanovich: “Demid” or “Demidov” Abt, John, misspelled Amt (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Abt, John, probably Moris ( possibly Morris? ) [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Abt, John: Soviet intelligence contact/informant. Labor lawyers and secret CPUSA member. Identified by Chambers as a member of the original “Ware group” covert CPUSA unit. On Adolf Berle’s 1939 list of those identified by Whittaker Chambers as covert Communists who were espionage risks. Brother of Marion Bachrach. Elizabeth Bentley identified Abt as having been the link between the Perlo espionage group and Earl Browder before she took over its supervision. Abt appeared in a Venona decryption under his real name in connection with Bentley’s takeover of the Perlo group, although his name was misspelled as “Amt”. It also appears in the notebooks with the misspelling “Ant” as well as correctly spelled as “Abt”.[18] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Bat”. “Academic” [Akademich] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): A 1948 cover name with unclear meaning, possibly Communist activity or espionage work. Academic Council of the Joint Institute on Nuclear Research. Academy of Sciences Accion Catolica (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Accion Nacional (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Acheson, Dean (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Achievement ” (cover name): unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Achievement” (cover name): KGB operation involving Mexico, probably attempt to gain release of Trotsky’s assassin. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Achilles” (cover name): unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] “Achilles” [Akhill] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Karl Dunts. “Acorn” (cover name): Taylor, William H. [source West Venona]

“Acorn” (cover name): Gold, Bela (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Acorn” [Zholud'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Bela (William) Gold. “Acorn” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Gold.[19] ACP: American Communist Party. “Acquaintance” (Znakomyj) (cover name): unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Active measures (tradecraft term): Aktivakhi – aktivnye meropriyatiya. Described actions taken to plant disinformation in the mainstream press and media via ostensibly non-Communist or neutral sources. “Actor” [Akter] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. Member of the Socialist Party, source on Trotskyist movement in 1937, visited Trotsky in Mexico. “Ada” (cover name): Zenejdas Gomez, Adelina [possibly an early error for Kitty Harris?] (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Ada” (cover name): Harris, Kitty (KGB U.S. & Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Ada” (cover name): Kitty Harris from 1938+ [source Damaskin Harris] “Ada” (cover name): Lowry, Helen [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Adam” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Eva Getsov. (Alternative translations: Getzov, Getzoff) “Adam” was identified in the Venona decryptions for 1944 and 1945 messages as Rebecca Getzoff.[20] While it seems likely, it is not firmly established that Eva Getsov and Rebecca Getzoff are the same person. “Adam” as a cover name for “Eva” Getzov looks like a KGB play on words (“Adam” and “Eve”). “Adam” (cover name): Rebecca Getzoff (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Adam” (cover name): Shiskin, Mikhail F. (U.K. line) [source West Venona] “Adams” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet agent, referred to as a liaison/courier agent in 1942. Likely a garble for “Adam”. Adams, Arthur: Soviet intelligence officer, GRU. Adams, James Truslow: Well-known American historian to whom Josephine Truslow Adams claimed family connections. Adams, Josephine Truslow: Secret Communist, occasional correspondent with Eleanor Roosevelt who fraudulently presented herself to Earl Browder as an intimate friend of Eleanor and Franklin Roosevelt. Adams, W.W. Astronomer, Pasadena (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Addis, Thomas: Physician at Stanford Medical School and a CPUSA activist.

“Aden” (cover name): source of the Volunteers network [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Aden” (cover name): unidentifed source at Hanford recruited by Ted Hall, married to Anta [source Albright Kunstel Bombshell] “Adjutant” [Ad''yutant] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Herbert Gaston, circa 1944. ADL: Anti-Defamation League “Adler” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB agent/ officer Berlin, 1950. “Adler” (cover name): (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Adler, Andrew H.: Writer for Film Daily. Adler, Friedrich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Adler, Solomon: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Treasury Department official and Soviet intelligence source/agent. On Adolf Berle’s 1939 list of those identified by Whittaker Chambers as covert Communists who were espionage risks. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as part of the Silvermaster espionage group.[21] Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Hello” (prior to 1941), “Sachs” (1941-1945). ADN: Allgemeiner Deutscher Nachrichtendienst (General German News Service) state news agency for the German Democratic Republic. “Advokat” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Attorney”. “Advokat” (“Lawyer”) (cover name): Hiss, Alger [source Chambers Witness] “Ad''yutant” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Adjutant”. “Aesculapius” [Eskulap] (cover name): unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] Af.: Possibly the Soviet intelligence officer Boris Morris identified as Afanasy Efimov. Afanasev, Major (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Afanasev (on ship Litke): Chuzhin, Ivan Afanasevich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Afanasev, Viktor Vasilevich, director of the fifth line for the West Coast, 1945: Sergej [Sergey] in 1945 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Africa” (cover name): Maria de la Sierra [Fisher network, KGB post WWII] [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] Agabekov, Grigory: Defecting OGPU officer who published Ch. K. za rabotoi [The Cheka at Work] in 1931. The name sometimes appears in English as Georges or Georgy Agabekov.[22] Agayant, I.: Soviet intelligence officer, Moscow Center.

Ageev, Aleksej [Aleksey] Prokhorovich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Ager, ?: Described as director of Jack Soble’s factory near Paris, 1952. “Agnes” [Agnessoy] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. References to in 1948. “Agnessoy” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Agnes”. Agranov, Yakov Samuilovich: Senior KGB officer who supervised key parts of Stalin’s Terror who was himself executed in 1938. Agricultural Adjustment Administrations, U.S. (AAA). Agricultural Commission in NY: Likely a reference to a CPUSA committee that dealt with agricultural policy matters. Agriculture, Department of, U.S. Aguilar, Attorney General (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Aguirre, Francisco (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Aguirre, Osmin Col., provisional president of El Salvador (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Agwi Prince (ship) [source Venona] “Aida” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, prior to September 1944. Likely Esther Trebach Rand. “Aida” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Rand.[23] “Aida” (cover name): Kitty Harris [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] “Aida” (cover name): (also “Klo” (cover name)): Esther Trebach Rand (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Aileron” (cover name): “Eleron” (cover name): Silverman, Abraham George (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Aileron” [Eleron] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Abraham George Silverman. “Aileron” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Abraham George Silverman.[24] “Air” [Vozdukh] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Espionage project targeting jet engines and jet propelled aircraft. “Aiva” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1950 on Mid-East / Israeli matters. “Akademich” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Academic”. Akets, William: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Described as reserve lieutenant of Army Intelligence Corps, early 1930s. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “142” (“Sh-142”).

“Akhil” (cover name): “Achilles” (cover name): unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] “Akhill” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Achilles”. “Akhmed” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, cover name Thrush prior to September 1944. “Akhmed” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent.[25] “Akhmed” (cover name): Thrush” (cover name): Dozd” (cover name): unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Akhmerov, Iskhak: names William Greinke, Michael Adamec and Michael Green. [source Damaskin Harris] Akhmerov, Iskhak: “Yung” in 1930s in U.S.,: “Albert” in WWII [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Akhmerov, Iskhak: Bill: Bill Grenke [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] Akhmerov, Iskhak Abdulovich: KGB illegal officer. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Jung” (1930s), “Mer” (1942-1944), “Albert” (starting August 1944), “Gold” (not used in the U.S. but used in a KGB book about Akhmerov that described some of his American activities). Pseudonyms Bill, Will, Michael Green, Alexander Hansen, Karl. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet intelligence officer.[26] Akhmerov, Iskhak Abdulovich: “Mer” “Mayor” and “Albert” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Akhmerov, Itzhak: “Yung” (1934), Bill (to Chambers), “Mer”, “Albert”, Michael Green [multiple sources] Akhmerova, ?: See Lowry, Helen. “Akim” (cover name): Sergej [Sergey] Grigorevich Lukianov [Lukyanov]. KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Akkord” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Chord”. “Akr” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. Described as working in the same section of OSS as Donald Wheeler in 1945. In 1948 described as involved in “(private public relations and scientific book publishing company)”. Also appears as “Akra”. “Akra” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Akr”. Aksenov, N. IA.: Soviet intelligence officer. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Semen” in 1954.

“Akta” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Angela Tuckett. References to in 1950. Contact of Klaus Fuchs in Britain, early 1940s. “Akter” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Actor”. Aktivakhi (tradecraft term): See Active measures. Akulin, NGRU, Washington: unidentified name eighty-three, #83 (NGRU line) [source Venona] Akulov, Ivan: KGB officer, Moscow Center. “Al” (cover name or work name): possibily Alexander Korotkov. “Al” (cover name): Anatoly Veniaminovich Gorsky (aka Anatoly Borisovich Gromov) [source Bentley FBI statement] “Al” (cover name): in 596 KGB NY to Moscow, 1944, possibly Juan Garcia Reyes or Erich Lapins (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Alafuzov, Rear-Admiral V. A. (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Alan” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Mikhail Korneev, KGB officer. “Alan” (cover name): Bowen, Ralph, U.S. State Dept. and YCL (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Alan” (cover name): unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Alba, Duke of: Jacobo Maria del Pilar Carlos Manuel Fitz-James Stuart. A Spanish monarchist who represented Franco’s government in London in WWII but who had a uneasy relationship with General Franco. Albam, Jacob: KGB officer/agent. Part of the Soble network. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Belov”. Albarda, John Willem, of Dutch SDLP (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Albert” [Al'bert] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Iskhak Abdulovich Akhmerov beginning in August 1944, replacing “Mer”. “Albert” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Akhmerov.[27] “Albert” was identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as Akhmerov. “Al'bert” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Albert”. “Albert” (cover name): Akhmerov, I. A. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Albert” [Al'bert] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified New York Police source of 10 / “Leo”. Judged by KGB to be a fake source. References to in 1934. Albuquerque, NM: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Sernovodsk”. Alco company. Described as a company producing perfumes. Al-drich (garbled name): Described as a State Department official in the “Trade Division” in 1938, possibly a garble for the name Aldrich. Aldrich: see Al-drich.

“Alek” (cover name): Allan Nunn May, Canadian line, (codenamed Primrose by British security) [source West Venona] “Aleksandr” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Alexander”. “Aleksandr” (cover name): unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Aleksandr Nevskij (ship) [source Venona] “Aleksandrov” (cover name): unidentified cover name, possibly used in White emigre work (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Aleksandrov, Petr Vsevolodovich: Friend of “Negro” and V.S. Rykov. “Aleksandrov’s” daughter: unidentified cover name, considered for use against FBI (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Aleksandrova: Daughter of the sister of Varvara Hamer. Alekseev, Bella (Bela?) (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Alekseev, Vasilij [Vasily] Mikhailovich: Znamenskij (on Soviet ship) Alekseeva, Lyudmila Nikolaevna: “Osa” or “Wasp” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Aleksei” [“Aleksey”] Anatoly Antonovich Yakovlev [Anatoly A. Yatskov] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Aleksei: See Aleksey Aleksej: See Aleksey “Aleksey” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Anatoly Antonovich Yatskov (also used the pseudonym Anatoly Antonovich Yakovlev). (Alternative translation: Aleksej, Alexey, Alexsei) “Aleksey” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Yatskov/Yakovlev. “Aleksey" (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): KGB officer Moscow center, 1937. “Aleksey Afanasyevich” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): KGB liaison with Armand V. Hammer in the USSR, 1953. Aleksey see Alexsey “Ales” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence (GRU) source, 1945. Alger Hiss. “Ales” was identified in the Venona decryptions as likely Alger Hiss.[28] “Ales” (cover name): Hiss, Alger (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Ales” (cover name): Hiss, Alger [Mark “Venona’s’ ‘Ales’”][29] Aleut (ship) [source Venona] “Alex” (cover name): Belyaev, A.I., Major General, Chairman of the SPPC in DC [source Venona] “Alex” (cover name): unidentified, GRU, probably Belyaev [source Venona]

“Alex: Work name Name by which Julius Rosenberg knew Alexander Feklisov. “Alexander” [Aleksandr] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Leopol Arenal. “Alexander” appears in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified cover name associated with Central and South American matters and, and Arenal would be a candidate for this Alexander.[30] “Alexander” [Aleksandr] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Boris Vinogradov. “Alexander” (cover name): Barch” (cover name): Kremer, Simon (U.K. line) [source Venona] “Alexander” (cover name): Kremer, Semyon Davidovich, a GRU officer in U.K. and Fuchs controller [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] Alexander, ?: Described as a senior U.S. State Department official, 1939. Alexander, Albert V.: Minister of Defense in the postwar British Labour government. “Alexander (Aleksandr)” (cover name): unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Alexander, James [source Venona} “Alexandrov” (“Aleksandrov”)” (cover name): unidentified cover name, possibly used in White emigre work (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Alexandrov’s” (“Aleksandrov’s”) daughter” (cover name): unidentified cover name, considered for use against FBI (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Alexei: See Aleksey. “Alexey” (cover name): Yatskov aka Yakovlev [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] Alexey: See Aleksey. Alexis, Patriarch (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Algazi, Olga: Described as ghost writer for Cardinal Spellman. “Ali” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Alexander Portnov. Alikhashkina, Aleksandr Egorovna, Soviet at Plant (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Aliksij, Archbishop: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Alim” (cover name): U.S. Ambassador to Moscow (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

All Union Society for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries: VOLKS Vsesoyuznoe Obshchestovo Dlya Kulturnoj Svyazi s Zabranitsej (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] All-Agency Committee on Post-War Plans: Not clear what specific U.S. agency is being referenced. There were a variety of ‘committees on post-war plans’ created with similar names. Allakhverdov, ?: KGB officer, Moscow Center, 1944. “Allen” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Legal KGB 1945 London, possibly Vladimir Barkovsky. “Allen” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB officer 1953. Allen, George: Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, 1948. “Allen” in Moscow [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] Allen, James S.: Soviet intelligence source/agent. CPUSA cadre and journalist. James S. Allen was the adopted name of Solomon Auerbach. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Jack”. Allen, Robert Sharon.: Soviet intelligence source. Well known journalist in Washington, 1930s-50s. Also known as George Parker. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “147”, “Sh-147”. Allied Military Occupation Administration “Allo” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Hello”. All-Union Association of the Oil and Gas Industry (Soyuzneft): Soviet agency. All-Union Society for Cultural Relations (VOKS): Soviet agency that oversaw international cultural contacts and exchanges. “Alma” (cover name): Levanas, Leo (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Alma Ata (ship) ALP: American Labor party. Alphand, Charles: French ambassador to the USSR, 1930s. “Alpinists” [Al'pinisty] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Americans, post WWII. “Al'pinisty” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Alpinists”. (Alternative translation: Mountain Climbers) Alsberg, Henry: American writer and prominent left-liberal, 1920s and 1930s. Alsop, Joseph: Influential journalist and columnist. Altman, Israel: Morris Cohen [Relevant document in THE SECRET WORLD]

Altman: see Boris Bukov. Altshuler, Lydia: Lydia (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Alvensleben, Werner von: German businessman and conservative political figure, 1920s. Amderutra: Amtorg’s shipping and dispatch office. Amer. Code Division: A 1950 reference, likely to the Armed Forces Security Agency, chief American cryptologic agency and predecessor to the National Security Agency. Amer. Comparty: American Communist Party. Amerasia: Left-wing journal involved in theft of classified U.S. government documents in 1945.[31] America: magazine. America First Committee “American” [Amerikanets] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Ruth Boerger. American Automobile Association American Bureau of Investigation: Error for Federal Bureau of Investigation. American Christian Union. American Committee of Jewish Writers, Artists and Scientists American Labor Party (ALP): Liberal-left ‘third’ party in New York, under covert Communist control by early 1940s. American Labour Party: see American Labor Party. American League Against War and Fascism: Communist controlled Popular Front body, 1930s. American Lurgy Corporation: Described as front for German intelligence. American Military Government of Occupied Territories: AMGOT. American Packer (ship) [source Venona] American Relief Administration: American private charity organized by Herbert Hoover to relieve the famine in Soviet Russia, 1921-1923. American Rubber Corporation. American Schering Co.: Medical/pharmaceuticals firm. American-Russian Trade and Engineering Consultants (Amrusco): a firm run by Vasily Delgass and his associates. Americans (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): “Townsmen”, “Townspeople”, circa 1944. “Alpinists”, post-WWII and “Brumians”, 1950. Americans for Haganah. Americo Almeida, Jose (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona]

“Amerikanets” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “American”. Amerikanskaya Tekhnika: Amtorg publication. Amerikantsev (ship), Ames, Edward: American diplomat, U.S. Embassy in Moscow, 1942-1945. Married to Russian Varvara Vassilievna Evstratova. AMGOT: American Military Government of Occupied Territories. “Ami” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Joseph Davies, circa 1944. “Amigo” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/ agent, likely Alfred Tanz. Amkino: Soviet agency that distributed Soviet motion picture films in the United States. Succeeded by Artkino Pictures, Inc. Amkniga: Official book-distributing agency in the U.S. for the Soviet state publishing house. Amminger, ?: Described as a Reichswehr office who died in the USSR circa 1930. “Amor” (cover name): Nelken Mansberger de Paul, Margarita (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Amper” (cover name in the Venona decryptions): See “Ampere”. “Ampere” (cover name): redacted [“Ampere” changed to “Roy”] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]. “Ampere” [Amper] (cover name in the Venona decryptions): “Ampere” does not occur in Vassiliev’s notebooks but is in the Venona decryptions. Venona indicates “Ampere” was married to “Cora”, “Cora” is identified in Vassiliev’s notebooks as Emma Phillips, consequently, “Ampere” was Emma Phillips’ husband.[32] Amrusco: American-Russian Trade and Engineering Consultants. Amsterdam Conference: Organized by S. J. Rutgers on instructions of the Comintern to assist in coordination the new Western European Communist parties. Amsterdam-Pleyel movement: Press and informal term for the World Committee for the Fight Against Imperialist War and Fascism that met first in Amsterdam and later issued a major appeal from the Salle Pleyel in Paris. Amt: misspelling of Abt, John J. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Amtorg: Amerikanskaia torgovaia kompaniia – American Trading Company: Soviet import-export agency in the United States. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Factory”. “Amur” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Cupid”.

“Amur” (cover name), changed to “Cupid” (cover name) changed to “Zhannet” / “Jeannette” unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Amur” (cover name): Robert Sheldon Harte [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] A.N.: Akademia Nauk: Academy of Sciences. AN USSR: Akademia Nauk: Academy of Sciences of the USSR. AN/APN-12: American military airborne interrogation and rendezvous device. AN/APS-1: American military airborne radar searching, mapping and bombing device. AN/APS-12: American military airborne fire control radar. AN/APS-2: American military radar bombsight. “Anatoli” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Anatoly”. “Anatoly” [Anatoli] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB officer/agent Berlin 1950. “Anchor” (cover name): unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] AN/CPQ-1: American military radar proximity fuse. AN-CRT-4: American military radio transmitting equipment. Anderson, ?: FBI source claimed by Samuel Dickstein in 1939. Anderson, C.D., physicist Pasadena (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Anderson, Clinton, secretary of Agriculture (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Anderson, H.L.: Senior scientist involved with construction of the first nuclear reactor at the Manhattan atomic project facility at the University of Chicago. “Andi” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Andy”. “Andreev” (cover name): unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Andreev: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] Andrey: see Andrey “Andrej” [“Andrey”] (cover name): unidentified in Moscow (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Andrej” [“Andrey”] (cover name): unidentified in New York (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Andrews, Bert: Washington reporter. “Andrey” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentifed KGB officer/ agent. References to in 1934.

“Andrey” (cover name): Byelorussian or Polish emigrant in OSS working for KGB [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] “Andy” [Andi] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified outgoing GRU station chief 1945. An...el or Ans...el: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Angel” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Tamara Ullman-Pogorelskaya. “Angelitas” (cover name): unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Anglo-Persian Oil. “Angora” [Angore] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): United States of America, 1930s. “Angore” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Angora”. Anikeev, Lt. Nicholas Michael, U.S. Navy interpreter (NGRU line) [source Venona] Anikiyev, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Anilobyednineniye: State Association of Aniline and Ink Factories. “Anisimov” (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Anita ” (cover name): unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Anita” (cover name): unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Anita” (cover name): unidentified cover name (U.K. line) [source West Venona] “Anna” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence agent, a Volga German trained for dropping behind German lines in the USSR in 1941. “Anna” (cover name): Margaret Browder [source Damaskin Harris] “Announcer” [Diktor] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): William Donovan. “Announcer (radio-announcer) = William Donovan “Ant” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Mrs. Kristel Fuchs Heineman. “Ant” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Kristel Fuchs Heineman. “Ant” (cover name): Heineman, Kristal Fuchs, sister of Klaus Fuchs (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ant, John: Misspelling for John Abt. “Anta” (cover name): unidentifed source at Hanford recruited by Ted Hall, married to “Aden” [source Albright Kunstel Bombshell] “Antelope” code name for radar source New York KGB [source Feklisov Rosenbergs]

“Antenna” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Julius Rosenberg prior to September 1944. “Antenna” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Julius Rosenberg.[33] “Antenna” (cover name): Julius Rosenberg (KGB U.S. line) [source Feklisov ] “Antenna” (cover name): Julius Rosenberg (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Anthony (Given name used as a cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Likely Anthony Blunt. U.K. cover name of KGB agent/contact with relationship to Michael Straight, 1937-1939. “Antic, Anti (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Antic’, Ante Anton [source Venona] Anti-Defamation League: (organization, institution). Ameican Jewish organization. Anti-Trust Division, U.S. Department of Justice. “Anton” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Leonid Kvasnikov, KGB officer. “Anton” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Kvasnikov. “Anton” (cover name): Francisco Anton (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Anton” (cover name): Garcia Reyes, Jose (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Anton” (cover name): Leonid Kvasnikov, engineer with Amtorg (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Anton” (cover name): Leonid R. Kvasnikov [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] “Anton” (cover name): unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Anton (Pav)” (cover name): in 596 KGB NY to Moscow, 1944, possibly Juan Reyes or Erich Lapins (Anton may be Mexico City cover name and Pav is his NY cover name) (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Antonoff, N. C.: See N.C. Antonov. “Antonov (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Antonov, N.C.: Former employee of Amtrog oil department, 1930. Also known as N.C. Antonoff. Anwar, Mohammed [RTsKhIDNI document on him] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Anya” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified international courier for illegal station, 30s. References to in 1934, 1938. AOMOS or A.O.M.O.S.: Administrative Department of the Militia of Moscow Oblast.

Apor, Baron Gavor (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Apparatus” (cover name): apparat” (cover name): unidentified, may just be KGB jargon (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Apresyan, Stepan: Mai [source Feklisov ] Apresyan, Stepan Zakharovich: Soviet intelligence officer. Acting chief of KGB station in New York in 1944 and chief of the San Francisco station in 1945. Apresyan was identified in the Venona decryptions as a KGB officer with the cover name “May”. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “May”. Apresyan, Stepan Zakharovich Soviet Vice-Consul N.Y. February 44 to March 45: Maj [May] Apresyana, Aleksandra Grigorevna: Zoya (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Apriyevsky, Petr: member of the USSR Osoaviakhim, 1932. “Apteka” (cover name): Drugstore” (cover name): unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] ARA: American Relief Administration Aragon, Louis: French poet and Communist. Aralov, Simon I.: Senior GRU officer, 1920s, 1930s. Arancibia Laso, Hector (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Arch” [Duga] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Frank Ullman. Archibald, E.W.: Described as an official of the State Department. Suspected of being a fake name in a fraudulent document. “Archimedes” [Arkhimed] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB officer in U.S., 1935. Arcos: Soviet foreign trade agency in the United Kingdom. Arcos-America: predecessor to Amtorg. “Arena” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Gerald Graze, 1943-1945.[34] “Arena” (cover name): Mary Wolfe Price (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Arenal, Captain Alberto (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Arenal, Leopol [Leopolo]: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Mexican Communist. Leopol Arenal helped to organize and participated in an armed assault on the Mexican home of Leon Trotsky, the exiled Soviet leader, in 1940. Elizabeth Bentley identified Leopol Arenal as one of Jacob Golos’s secret correspondence through a mail drop via his sister-in-law Rose Arenal. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Alexander”.[35] Arenal, Luis: Rafail (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Arenal, Rose: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Elizabeth Bentley identified Rose Arenal as a mail drop used by Jacob Golos to remain in contact with covert American and Mexican Communist in Mexico, chiefly engaged in anti-Trotsky operations.[36] “Arfar” (cover name): unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Argentina: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Rio” “Argo” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Ernest Hemingway. Argun (ship) [source Venona] “Aristides” (cover name): unidentified, Argentinian, 30 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Arkady” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer/ agent, Vienna KGB station, 1954. Arkhangelsk (ship) [source Venona] “Arkhimed” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Archimedes”. “Arkhip” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer, 1934, likely in Berlin. Arktika (ship) “Arkus” (cover name): unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Arma Engineering: Machine and tool company in New York. Armasha: Diminutive form of Armand. “Armor” (cover name): Bronya” (cover name): redacted employee at Bell Aircraft, Buffalo. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Armor” [Bronya] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Harold Smeltzer starting in October 1944. A technical intelligence source at Bell aircraft. References to in 1945. “Armor” (earlier “Stamp”) was identified in the Venona decryptions as a redacted name for a source at Bell Aircraft in New York.[37] Armour, Lester (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Armour, U.S. Ambassador (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Army General Staff: unrecovered (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Army Security Agency, U.S.: Chief U.S. cryptologic service. Successor to Army Signals Intelligence Service and predecessor to the National Security Agency. Arnall, Ellis: Democratic Governor of Georgia, 1943-1947. Arnaud: see Arno Arnautov, Victor Michael (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

“Arno” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Harry Gold, October 1944 to 1950. “Arno” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Harry Gold.[38] “Arno” (cover name): Harry Gold after May 1944 [source Feklisov] “Arno” (cover name) (also translated as “Arnaud” and “Arnold”: Harry Gold (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Arnol'd” (cover name in the Venona decryptions): See “Arnold”. “Arnold” (cover name): “Arnol” (cover name): Fakir” (cover name): unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Arnold” [Arnol'd] (cover name in the Venona decryptions): Andrew Steiger. “Arnold” does not appear in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks but “Fakir” appears as is identified as Andrew Steiger. In the Venona decryptions, “Fakir” was unidentified but indicates that the cover name was changed to “Arno” in October 1944.[39] Aronberg, Mrs. Philip (real name). Aronberg, Philip: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Veteran CPUSA cadre. GRU agent Nicholas Dozenberg stated that he had recruited Philip Aronberg for GRU assignments and a 1942 KGB document in the Comintern archives indicates he had a connection with KGB.[40] Aronoff, Edwin: Described as a lawyer and secret Communist whom Browder consulted in 1945. Aronovich, ??: Described as an employee in the visa section of the American embassy in Paris. “Arrow” (cover name): Strela” (cover name): unidentified cover name [linked to Carpatho-Russians] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Arrow: See Strela. “Arsen” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, Communist, technical intelligence 1942. Associated with Julius Rosenberg. “Arsenal” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): U.S. War Department. “Arsenal” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the U.S. War Department. “Arsenij” [“Arseny”] (cover name): “Arsenius”: Andrej [Andrey] Ivanovich Shevchenko, Soviet representative at Bell Aircraft (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Arseny” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer. “Arseny” was identified in the Venona decryptions as KGB officer

Andrey Ivanovich Shevchenko. Shevchenko may be the pseudonym used the in the U.S. by KGB officer Andrey Ivanovich Raina. “Art” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Helen Koral beginning in September 1944. “Art” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Helen Koral.[41] “Art” (cover name): Koral, Helen [Aleksander Koral in one note] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Artek” (cover name): Abramov, Leonid Dmitrievich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Artem” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): A. Slavyagin, KGB officer. “Artem” was identified in the Venona decryptions as likely the cover name of either G. N. Ogloblin or M.N. Khvostov, two young Soviet diplomatic staff. Those latter two names may be pseudonyms, and A. Slavyagin identified in Vassiliev’s notebooks as “Artem” may be the real name of one of the former. “Artem” (cover name): Artonius” (cover name): Soviet KGB students: G. N. Ogloblin or M.N. Khvostov (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Artemenko, Kozma Petrovich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Artemis” (cover name): KGB INO hq [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] “Arthur” (cover name): Artur” (cover name): Iosif Grigulevich [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] “Arthur” (cover name): Bisson, Thomas Arthur [BEW, IPR] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Arthur” (cover name): Bisson, Thomas Arthur (GRU line) [source Venona] “Arthur” (cover name): see Artur “Arthur” See “Artur” Arthur: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] Artiksnab: Unidentified Soviet agency, 1933. “Artist” [Khudozhnik] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Described as Jacob Golos’s source at McClure’s Newspaper syndicate in 1939. Likely Elizabeth Bentley. Artkino Pictures, Inc.: Soviet agency that distributed Soviet motion picture films in the United States. Successor to Amkino. “Artur” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Illegal operating in Mexico, 1941-1943, with “Express Messenger” as one of his couriers. Likely Iosif R. Grigulevich. References to in 1944 and 1947. (Alternative translation: Arthur) “Artur”) was identified in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified KGB officer in Central and Sourth

America and is linked to “Express Messenger. “ Grigulevich is identified with the cover name “Arthur” in the early 1940s when operating in Central and South America in Andrew and Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield and the Schecters, Sacred Secrets. Robert Louis Benson also concluded that the unidentified “Artur” cover name in the Venona decryptions on several South American communications lines was Grigulevich.[42] “Artur” (cover name): (Arthur) Grigulivich, Iosif in South America in WWII, (probably Venona Artur: Arthur) [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Artur” (cover name): Arthur” (cover name): unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Artur” (cover name): Arthur unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Artur” (cover name): unidentified [U.K. line GRU] [source Venona] Artuzov, Artur Khristyanovich: Chief of INO OGPU, 1931-1935. Executed in Stalin’s Terror, 1937. Arunah Abel (ship) [source Venona] Aseev, Major Pavel Nikolaevich, Assistant Military Attache, DC [source Venona] Ashkhabad (ship) [source Venona] Asimow, Morris: source metallurgist for Carnegie Illinois Steel for Chambers and Bykov network.[43] Asimow, Morris: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Asimow told the FBI that in the mid-1930s he was a metallurgist for Carnegie Illinois Steel, a Chicago subsidiary of U.S. Steel, and he covertly furnished Soviet agent William Crane with formula for making steel alloys.[44] Whittaker Chambers, without providing a name, noted that Boris Bykov’s network included an industrial spy at the laboratory of a Chicago steel firm. However, Chambers did identify William Crane as part of his and Bykov’s apparatus. The FBI interviewed Crane, he cooperated in part, and that let the FBI to Morris Asimow. See Azizov, Harry. Asmussar (ship) [source Venona] “Aspirant” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Graduate Student.” Assembly of International Student Organizations: Unclear what organization is referenced. ASSR: Avtonomnaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika — Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.

“Aster” (cover name): Astra” (cover name): unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Astrologer” [“Zvesdochet”] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See T. Keith Glennan. “Ataman” (cover name): Boleslaw K. Gebert (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Ataman” (cover name): Pavlyuchenko (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Atherton, Ray: State Department official, 1944. “Athlete” [Atlet] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Agent or source circa 1948-49. “Atkins: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Atlet” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Athlete”. “Atom” (cover name): unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 ?? (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Atomic Energy Commission, U.S. (AEC). “Attila” (cover name in Venona): Likely Linn Farish. “Attila” (cover name): Farish, Linn Markley, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Attlee, Clement: British Labour Party leader and Prime Minister in 1945. “Attorney” [Advokat] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, late 20s and deactivated early 30s. Attwood, Stephen S., Professor Wave Propagation Group, division of War Research Columbia University (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Aubry, Jacques (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Auchincloss, Gordon (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Auchincloss, John (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Aufha?user, Siegfried: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Augur” (cover name): Avgur” (cover name): unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “August” [Avgust] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer. Likely Gavriil Panchenko. “August” is described as Julius Rosenberg’s KGB control officer in the late 1940s. Alexander Feklisov identifies Rosenberg’s case officer as Gabriel (Gavriil) Panchenko.[45] “Australian Woman” (cover name): Mitynen, Francia Yakilnila aka Patterson, Edna Margaret (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Austria: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Zoniya”, 1950. “Author” [Avtor] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1939-1941. Likely Corliss Lamont. Author in 1939-41 was described as “a millionaire. Chairman of the Society of Friends of the Sov. Union. Recruited in Moscow”. Corliss Lamont was a millionaire, chairman of the Society of Friends of the Soviet Union, and had visited Moscow. “Author” [Avtor] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Vladimir Borisovich Morkovin in 1945. “Author” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Morkovin. Avanesov, V. (ship) “Avangard” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Vanguard”. Avdeyev, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Averescu, Alexander, Field Marshal, Rumanian figure (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Avgust” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “August”. Avia Corporation. Aviakhim: Soviet volunteer society that promoted aviation and chemical industries. Later merged with a military civil defense organizatin, Oso, to form a broad civil defense organization – Osoavikhim. “Aviator” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent reporting to the KGR San Francisco station, 1943. Context suggests a Soviet with some official Soviet connection. Avinavitsky, ?: Red Army general, chief of the War Academy of Chemical Defense in the 1930s, executed in Stalin’s Terror. Avtodor: Early Soviet society promoting automobiles and roads. “Avtor” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Author”. “Avtor” (cover name): Author” (cover name): Morkovin, Vladimir Borisovich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Azerbaijan: Soviet tanker ship. Azerbajdzhan, ship (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Azizov, Harry: Described as a former employee of a steel-smelting company in Chicago. A December 1948 Gorsky memo Chambers/Karl’s group name.[46] Chambers in Witness did not discuss a Harry Azizov. However, see Asimow, Morris. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “116th”. Azneft: Soviet oil industry agency.

XXB B.: initial of redacted employee at Republic Aviation (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] B.: Initial of an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent in Mexico in 1950. B. (initial of a real name in the Venona decryptions): See Joseph Bauer. B-25J (U.S. aircraft) B-29 (U.S. aircraft) “Bab” and Bab’s wife (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agents, references to in 1950. “Bab” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Described as “A senator, vice chairman of the Senate Finance Committee. Visited the USSR”. References to in 1933 as having been a circa-1928 contact via an questionable agent. Likely Senator William H. King (D. Utah), who visited the USSR in 1923 and in 1933 was the ranking majority member of the Senate Finance Committee. The Senate Finance Committee, like other Senate committee, did not have a “vicechairman”, but the ranking majority member was the second ranking position after the chairman. (Alternative translation: Bob). “Bab” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): described in 1934 as employed by the International Press Division of DOS. (Alternative translation: Bob). Babanov, Captain [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] Babcock, E.B. biologist, CA, Babievskij (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Babin in Moscow [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] Babin, Thomas: Brem (GRU line and KGB Line) [source Venona] Babushkov, Soviet aviation worker (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Babylon” San Francisco (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Babylon” [Vavilon] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): San Francisco “Bachelor” [Kholostoy] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1934. Described as technical source recruited in Germany, stopped cooperating in U.S. Bachrach, Marion: Soviet intelligence source. Secret Communist, John Abt’s sister. Secretary to one term (1937-1938) U.S. Representative from Minnesota John Bernard, a Farmer-Labor Party member aligned with

the CPUSA (he formally joined the CPUSA later in his life). On Adolf Berle’s 1939 list of those identified by Whittaker Chambers as covert Communists who were espionage risks. KGB sent the Comintern a vetting inquity about her in 1942, and received a positive report.[47] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Reyna”. “Back Street” [Zakoulok] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): British Foreign Office. Badger, E.B., and Sons: Major American construction company. Badigin, Captain (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Bagayev, ?: Described as an employee fired from Amtrog, 1930. Bagdatiev, Sergey: Bolshevik leader of Armenian background. Bagratovich, Arutyunov Nikolaj [Nikolay] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bailey, H.: Described as head of United Press in 1944. Bailey, Josiah, Senator (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bain, G.W. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Baird, Joseph (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Bak” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): David Weintraub. Baker, Nicholas: Pseudonym used by Niels Bohr when visiting the Manhattan atomic project. Baker, Oliver Edwin: leading authority agricultural geography, USDA. Baker, Rudy: Senior CPUSA cadre and head of its covert arm from 1938 until the end of WWII. Baker appears in the Venona decryptions under his Comintern cover name of Son” [Syn] and is a likely candidate for the cover name Rudy” [Rudi] in the GRU line.[48] Candidate for the cover name “Rudy”. Bakhmetyev, Boris Alexandrovich: Ambassador to the United States of the Russian Provisional government, engineer and philanthropist. Baklanov: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Bal..”. , possibly “Balloon”: Atomic bomb (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Balakirev, Mily A.: Russian composer. Balamut, ?: Golos recommended for recruitment on technical line in 1942. Balasy, Antal, a Hungarian diplomat, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Bald Mountain” [Lysaya Gora] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): The project to investigate/cultivate Time magazine and its staff as an private intelligence agency that could be infiltrated and used as a source. Baldwin, Calvin. B.: Assistant chair of CIO-PAC and former administrator of Farm Security Administration. Secret Communist.[49]

Baldwin, Calvin Benham Beanie (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Baldwin, military correspondent of NYT [source Venona] Baldwin, Roger: Leading figure in the American Civil Liberties Union. Baliyev, Nikita: Head of the cabaret-theater “The Bat”. Balkhash (ship) [source Venona] Ball, Joseph: U.S. Senator (R. MN, 1939-1948) Ballenstedt, George: Described as New York Police official involved in antiradical activities. “Ballona” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Balloon”. “Balloon” [Ballona] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Atomic bomb. A partially decoded cover name, “Bal...”, appeared in the Venona decryptions that NSA/FBI judged from the context to likely be “Balloon” and atomic bomb. Ballot (ship) [source Venona] Baltenko, Col,: Lanov: cipher officer, Moscow] [source Venona] “Bank” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): U.S. State Department. “Bank” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the State Department. “Bank”: U.S. State Department (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Banker, Colonel of USAAF (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Bankers” [Bankiry] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): In 1939-1945 cover name for project of cultivating Trotskyists. “Bankiry” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Bankers”. “Bar” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Institution to which Charlie/ Cedric Belfrage was connected in 1943. Likely the British SIS’s American arm, British Security Coordination. “Bar” was identified in the Venona decryptions as British Security Coordination. “Bar”: British intelligence (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Barabanshchikov, Major P.T., engineer in SGPC left U.S. in May 1943 [source Venona] “Baranov”: inidentified U.S. KGB line, (source Venona) “Barash, Vladimir”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Barbo”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Barbot or Barbeau, Lieutenant, (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] “Barcelo Fere, Ricardo Jose (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Barch”: Alexander: Kremer, Simon (U.K. line) [source Venona] “Barcza, Gyorgy von Naglyasony, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Barge”: unidentified (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

“Bark” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): CPUSA member used by Akhmerov to run a restaurant in DC in 1942. “Bark” appeared in the Venona decryptions as unidentified.[50] “Bark”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bark: See “Kora”. Barkley, Alben: U.S. Senator (D. Kentucky), later Vice-President of the United States. Barkley, Alvin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Barkov, Peter Georgievich, employee of the Naval neighbors Naval GRU (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Barkov, Yurij M., commercial officer, Vancouver, 44-45 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Barkovsky, Vladimir B.: KGB officer in London, later at Moscow Center. Candidate for cover names “Allen” and “Glan”. Barnett, A. G.: Described as an official of the Department of the Interior. Suspected of being a fake name in a fraudulent document. “Baron”: Sedlacek, Karel (U.K. line, [West Venona]) Barr, Joel: “Meter” also “Scout” (source Venona) Barr, Joel: “Scout” also “Meter” [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] Barr, Joel: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Secret Communist, electrical engineer with Army Signal Corps laboratories. Member of Julius Rosenberg’s technical intelligence apparatus. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent. Secretly defected to the USSR when Julius Rosenberg was arrested.[51] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Scout” prior to September 1944, then “Meter”. Barrios, Mariano Carrasco, Chilean Lawyer, Chilean consulate in Paris, 1937, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Barromeo, Tony: Recommended as candidate for KGB contact in 1949 by Martha Dodd. Barron, Victor: American Comintern agent who died after arrest in the failed Prestes coup in Brazil. Barrows, Alice: Employee U.S. Office of Education from 1919 to 1942, staff CPUSA’s Abraham Lincoln School in 1944, and in 1948 official of the Progressive Party. In a 1945 Venona message KGB reported that she gave a source unspecified information under unclear circumstances. Invoked the fifth amendment to questions regarding

CPUSA membership from a congressional committee.[52] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks “Young Woman”. Barrows, Alice, U.S. government employee, 1920-42, Abraham Lincoln School in Chicago in 1944. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Bars” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Leopard”. Baruch, Bernard (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Baruch, Bernard: Prominent American financial leader and influential public figure. Baruch, Herman: Brother of Bernard Baruch. “Base” [Baza] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Alexander Portnov’s house in Philadelphia Basedow’s disease: A thyroid disorder better known in the U.S. as Graves disease. “Basque (Bask) ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Bass” / “Bas”: Burd, Michael (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Bat” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): John Abt. (Abt’s cover name appears to be an anagram of his real name.) Bat, The [Letuchaya Mysh]: Russian cabaret-theater (1918-1928) run by Nikita Baliyev. Batcheller, Hiland G, Deputy chairman War Production Boarrd; (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Batchelor, Highland G.: Described as vice chairman of operations at the WPB, 1945 Bates, Bureau of standards (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bates, Chemical Warfare Section of War Department (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Batrak”: Farm hand: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Batt, William Loren: Vice-Chairman of the U.S. War Production Board, 1941-1945, specialized in industrial materials, machinery, and tools issues. Batt, William Loren (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Battagloa, Ugo (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Battering Ram” [Taran] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified aviation expert, target of recruitment visited USSR, 1937. Battet, Rear Admiral R.M.J.; (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] “Battle”: See “Boy”. Batumi (ship)

“Bauer”: Lieutenant Hein, Czech army in exile (U.K. line, [West Venona]) Bauer, Joseph: Candidate for “Bugle”. Bauer worked at Republic Aviation in New York at the time when “Bugle” was active. A September 1944 KGB cable stated that KGB source “Stamp”/Smeltzer (employed at Bell Aircraft) had introduced “Arseny”/Shevchenko to “‘Stamp’s’ friend ‘B.’” (an initial of a real name), who was identified as working at Republic Aviation. “B”. provided “Arseny” with information on Republic Aviation’s work on the American version of the German V-1 ram jet missile. The message also relates that Julius Rosenberg provided information on the same project. FBI/NSA identified “B”. but redacted the name (as it did for “Stamp” as well), likely indicating that when confronted, “B”. had cooperated with FBI. In reports on the Rosenberg case, the FBI asked David Greenglass about his knowledge of Harold Smeltzer and Joseph Bauer and of possible Julius Rosenberg’s contact with them. This suggests that by that point the Venona message on “Stamp” and “Bugle” had been broken, Smeltzer and Bauer identified, and FBI was checking with Gold to see if he knew of any Rosenberg contact with them because of the common link over the American V-1. This suggests that Bauer is a candidate for the name behind the initial “B”. who later appears in the Venona decryptions in November 1944 and in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks in 1945 with the cover name “Bugle”.[53] Bayer, Karl: Described as pro-Nazi German-American. “Bayer, Theodore, president of Russky Golos publishing Company”: Simon (GRU line) [source Venona] Bayer, Theodore: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Senior CPUSA official. President of the CPUSA-aligned Russky Golos Publishing Company and manager of Soviet Russia Today. Elizabeth Bentley stated that Jacob Golos identified Bayer as a GRU source. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source for GRU (GRU cover name “Simon”).[54] Baykin, Rear-Admiral Alexander E. “Baza” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Base”. “Bazarov: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bazarov, Boris: “Nord”, illegal NY, 1930s [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Bazarov, Boris: KGB illegal station chief mid-30s. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Nord”. Bazhin, Evgenij Nikolaevich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

“Beam” [Luch]: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Beam, Jacob: US State Department Chief, Division of Central European Affairs (1947-49). “Beam” [Luch] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer, 1933-1934. Described as a medical doctor working under Red Cross cover. Likely Dr. Grigory Rabinovich, a KGB officer operating under Red Cross cover who arrived in the U.S. in 1933. “Beam” [Luch] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Frank Oppenheimer in 1943. “Beam” [Luch] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1948. “Beanco”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Bear”: Medved: unidentified Republican party leader (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Bear Cubs” [Medvezhata] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Republicans and Republican Party, circa 1944. “Bear Cubs” were identified in the Venona decryptions as Republicans. “Bear Cubs”: Medvezhata: Repubican party (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Bearing”: Mechaev, Ivan Vasilevich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Beaver, L.D., Missouri (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Beaver-Cloth” [Bobrik] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. First name William and worked for the Red Cross at some point in 1942-1944. Appears to have been a Communist recruited via CPUSA channels. “BeaverCloth” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent in 1943.[55] “Bebnostin”: Belyakov (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Beck” [Bek] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Sergey Kurnakov starting in September 1944. “Beck” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Kurnakov.[56] Bedennyj (ship) Bederson, Benjamin: Target of recruitment. Member of the Army Special Engineer Detachment at Manhattan atomic project Los Alamos, later a senior physicist. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Wrench”. Beecroft, Eric Armour, a BEW official [source Venona] Beer: See “Bir”.

“Beetle ” (cover name): unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Beetle” [Zhuk] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, associated with the “Park and Davis” firm, an unknown entify. “Beginner” [Novichok]: See “Novice”. “Beigel, Rose, former wife of Luis Arenal”: Roza (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Beiser, George, Bell aircraft engineer. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Bek” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Beck”. “Beck” (cover name): Sergey Kurnakov (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Beker, Johanna Koenen: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Daughter of the prominent German Communist William Koenen. After the Nazi seizure of power in Germany, Johanna Beker moved to Moscow where she worked as a translator for American businessmen. By her own testimony, she was recruited by the KGB in 1937 to spy on visiting Americans and then sent to the United States in 1939. KGB assigned her to the network run by Jack Soble and Robert Soblen in 1942. She worked for Soblen as a courier and later testified against him at his trial in 1961. Candidate for cover names “Clemence” and “Lee”.[57] “Belenkiy, Aleksandr”: GE plant worker (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Belfrage, Cedric”: Charlie [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Belfrage, Cedric”: UCN/9 nine, of British Security Co-ordination office. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] [UCN/9 is all prior to Oct 1943 using the code book that was poorly broken. The unidentified Charlie in Venona is November 1943 and later, all under the well broken code book. Possibly UCN/9 is simply Charlie in the poorly broken code book] Belfrage, Cedric: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Officer of British Security Coordination Office. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as one of her singleton espionage sources. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[58] Identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as a Soviet source/agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Charlie” in 1944. Belgorod (ship) [source Venona] Belikov, Aleksander Fedorovich, assistant Naval Attache DC May 1943 [Naval GRU line] [source Venona]

Belikov (NGRU line) [source Venona] Belinskij (ship) [source Venona] Belitsky, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. “Belka” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Squirrel”. “Belka”: Squirrel: unidentified, may be Anne Sidorovich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bell, director of Bell aircraft (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Bell, Nancy, sister of Kitty Harris”: Push Button (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Bell Telephone Laboratories: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Administration”. Belogorod (ship) [source Venona] Belonyuk, Grigorij (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Belov” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Jacob Albam. “Belov, chief of Radio Department (NGRU line) [source Venona] Bely ”: Russian for White, retired KGB asset West Coast [source Damaskin Harris] “Belyaev, A.I., Major General, Chairman of the SPPC in DC”: Alex [source Venona] Belyaev: Described as a French musical publishing form. Belyaev, Peter Aleksandrovich, inspector of Soviet Government Purchasing Commission at aircraft plants: “Mikhajlov” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Belyaev, Petr Aleksandrovich: Soviet intelligence officer, technical intelligence, 1943, inspector of Soviet Government Purchasing Commission at aircraft plants and identified as “Mikhailov” (as “Mikhajlov”) in the Venona decryptions. Cover name in Vassiliev notebooks: “Mikhailov”. Belye (Russian political terminology): See Whites. “Ben” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet station chief in San Francisco, mid-30s. “Ben” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified, known to Alexander Koral in the 1930s, possibly associate of Rosenbliett network. “Ben”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bendix corporation. Major aviation, electronics, and automotive parts supplier. Bendix, Vincent: Inventor and chief owner Bendix corporation.

Benes, Bohus (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Benes, Bohus: Soviet intelligence contact. Czechoslovak government-inexile consul, San Francisco. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Boss”. Benes, Eduard [Bene!, Eduard]: Leading figure of the Czechoslovak government-in-exile. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Brother”. Benes, Edward, Eduard Benes / Bene! [West asserts Benes is agent nineteen 19, as is also the view of Cecil Phillips and Lou Benson](KGB U.S. line Benetskaya, ?: Described as an employee fired from Amtrog, 1930. Bengz, Grace Ellen: Contact of “Liberal” and “Grin”. Benito [Rodriguez Gutierrez, Benito] (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Benjamin”: Fedchenkoff, Metropolitan Benjamin J. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Benjamin, David: party name of Ben Davidson [source Chambers Witness] Benjamin Dixon (ship) [source Venona] Benson, Elmer: Former U.S. senator and governor of Minnesota (FarmerLabor) and head of the National Citizens Political Action Committee. Bentley, Charles P.: Elizabeth Bentley’s father. Bentley, Edwin L.: Elizabeth Bentley’s paternal grandfather. Bentley, Elizabeth: Soviet intelligence agent. Assistant and lover of Jacob Golos, liaison between CPUSA and Soviet intelligence and creator of several espionage networks of covet Communists that he linked to KGB. After Golos’ death Bentley took over supervision of his networks until KGB took direct control in 1944. Defected 1945. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[59] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Artist” in 1939, “Clever Girl” (circa 1940 until August 1944), then “Myrna”. “Bentley, Elizabeth”: Good Girl Clever Girl Smart Girl = Umnitsa: Myrna (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Benton, William Burnett: U.S. Senator (D. CT, 1949-1953), Assistant Secretary of State, 1945-1947. Benzherskiy, Rudolf Berard, Armand: Senior French diplomat in Washington, 1945-1949. Berdecio, Marion Davis: Married name of Marion Davis. See Marion Davis. Berding, Andrew: Senior OSS officer.

“Bereg” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Shore”. “Bereg” (cover name): Coast or Shore” (cover name): cover name for an unidentified ministry (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Berestetskij [unidentifed] Berezin, Col. Pavel F. Soviet attache for Air”: Orleans: [source Venona] “Berg” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Alexander Koral. “Berg” appeared in the Venona decryptions as unidentified but in a context that suggests Alexander Koral.[60] “Berg” / “Senor”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Berg”: unidentified, apparently different person from one changed from “Senor” to “Berg” in 1944 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Berg, Major [source Venona] Berger, ?: Described as a contact of Martha Dodd in Berlin, possibly Gottlob Berger. Berger, Gottlob: Senior SS officer. “Berger, Harry (pseudonym): see Arthur Ewert. Berger, Jospeh Isadore”: U.S. delegate Reparations Commission, non de plum of Jeremiah Digges, personal secretary of the chairman DNC, Hannegan, Robert E. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Berger, Stanley: Soviet intelligence officer/agent, 1940. “Beria, Lavrentij Pavlovich”: Petrov (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Beria, Lavrenty: Long-time Stalin associate. Became chief of the NKVD in late 1938 and held the post until 1946. Stalin later gave Beria the additional duty of supervising of the Soviet atomic bomb project as well as other important wartime assignments. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Pavel” and “Petrov”. Beriya: See Beria. Berkey, C., geologist NY, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Berkhahn, Gunther J. F”.: Carlos (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Berkman, Alexander: Leading American Anarchist (Russian-born) deported to Soviet Russia in 1919, became highly critical of Soviet communism, and moved to Britain in 1921 and then to France. Berlin, ?: Soviet intelligence officer/agent know to Jacob Golos and later arrested in the purge of the security services. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Stark”. Berlin, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930.

Berman, Boris: KGB officer, chief of the Berlin station in the early 1930s. Later an aide to A.A. Slutsky. Murdered in Stalin’s Terror. Bernard, Merrill [source Venona] Bernaut, Elsa: Reiss, Elsa, widow of Ignance Reiss (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Berne, Paul”: Berney, Paul, miss translation of Paul Burns (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Berni” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Berny”. Bernstein, Bernard: Treasury Department official, Colonel, U.S. Army, and Financial Adviser to General Dwight D. Eisenhower for Civil Affairs and Military Government, 1942-45; Director, Finance Division and Division of Investigation of Cartels and External Assets, U.S. Group Control Commission for Germany, 1944-45. Bernstein, Colonel Bernard, director Finance Division, U.S. Control Commission for Germany, 1944-45, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bernstein, Joseph Milton: “Marquis” / “Markiz”: (GRU line) [source Venona] Bernstein, Oscar: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Lawyer, used for organizing covers. A 1948 Gorsky memo Chambers/Karl’s group name.[61] Chambers did not discuss Oscar Bernstein in Witness. Bernstein, Walter Sol [source Venona] Bernsten, Richard: Spelling error in the original for Bransten, Richard. “Berny” [Berni] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1945. Head of an unidentified group. Possibly a CPUSA apparatus. Berny (party name): Bernard Redmont. Berry, Edward, biologist Baltimore (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Berzin, Yan Karlovich: founder and long-time chief of GRU. Executed in Stalin’s purge of the intelligence services in the late 1930s. Bethe, Hans (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Betti” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Betty”. “Betty” [Betti] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Vasily Zarubin in 1935 and later 1930s. Beurton, Ursula ((real name): Married name of Ursula Kuczynski. Bevan, Aneurin: British Labour Party politician prominent on the left wing of the party. Bevin, Ernest: British Foreign Secretary, Labour government, 1945.

BEW: Board of Economic Warfare, U.S. BEW, Bureau of Economic Warfare”: Warehouse: Sklad (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Beymut, ?: Described as a associate of Robert Oppenheimer and Ernest Lawrence. Appears to be a variant spelling of John Veymut. Bezrukov, Nikon (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Biberman, Herbert: Hollywood writer. Recommended as candidate for KGB contact in 1949 by Martha Dodd. “Biberovich, Vladislav: “Zeus” [Ukrainian, naturalized Canadian, in Canadian war censorship office] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Bibi”: redacted (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bidault, Georges-Augustin: French political figure and head of three French governments, 1946-1950. Biddle, Francis, Attorney General, September 1941 to 30 June 1945 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Big House”: C.I., Comintern: Bol’Shoj Dom (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Big House”: KGB [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] “Big House” [Bol'shoy Dom] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Communist International. “Big House” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the Communist International. “Big Town” [Bolshoj Gorod] [Bolshoy Gorod] (cover name in Venona, Naval GRU line 1943): Likely New York City Bigelow, E. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Bill” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentifed KGB officer/agent. References to in 1935. “Bill”: a Chambers’ Soviet intelligence contact (Chambers thought Estonian or Finn) [source Chambers Witness] “Bill”: Iskhak Akhmerov [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] “Bill”: Iskhak Akhmerov [source Bentley FBI statement] “Bill of Exchange” / “Veksel” / “Wechsel”: Oppenheimer, Julius Robert: (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bill (party name): William Browder. “Bir” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Alfred Slack starting in October 1944. (Alternative translation: Beer) “Bir” (translated as “Beer”) appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, earlier “Ell”.[62] “Bir”/ Beer also “Ell” unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Bircanin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Birg [possibly Birge, Raymond Thayer, physicist, Berkeley.] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Birkin, ?: Soviet intelligence officer, Moscow Center Biryuzov, Sergey Semenovich: Senior Soviet general, 1945. Bishon, Charles (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bissell, John T.: Senior U.S. Army counterintelligence officer. Bisson, Thomas Arthur (BEW, IPR, GRU line): “Arthur” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bitkin, Anatolij [Anatoly] Nikolaevich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Black” / “Edwards”: Gerhart Eisler, mid-30s Comintern pseudonym [source F. Firsov] “Black”: Black, Thomas Lessing, KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Black” [Cherny] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Thomas Black prior to October 1944. “Black” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Thomas Black.[63] Black, Hugo: Justice, U.S. Supreme Court. Black, Thomas Lessing: Soviet intelligence source/agent, technological line. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[64] Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Black” [Cherny] (prior to October 1944), then “Peter”. Black, Thomas Lessing, chemist, Organics, Inc.: “Black” / “Peter” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Black”: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] Blair & Co.: Described as American financial firm, 1927. Baird, W. J.: [source Venona] Blaisdell, Thomas: Described as the supervisor of Victor Perlo at the WPB. “Blanco” [Blanko] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, member of Julius Rosenberg’s technical intelligence apparatus, 1943. “Blanie, Lacques (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Blank, Jacques”: Jacques Blankart (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Blankart & Co (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Blanko” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Blanco”. “Blerio” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Stanislav Shumovsky, KGB officer, aviation espionage. “Blerio” translated as “Bleriot” was identified as Shumovsky in the Venona decryptions.[65]

“Bleriot”: Stanaslav Shumovsky: KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bleriot: see “Blerio” “Blin” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Pancake”. “Blin” or “Pancake” (cover name): Stone, Isidor Feinstein (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Blizky” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Near”. “Block” [Blok] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Stephen Urevich starting in September 1944. “Block” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent.[66] Block, Louis: Secret Communist, staff of Social Security Board, friend of Gregory Silvermaster in the 1930s. “Blok” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Block”. “Blok (cover name): “Block”; “Rybolov” / “Osprey” or “Fisherman”; “Kin” or “Keen”; unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bloom, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bloom, Solomon: U.S. Representative (D. NY) 1923-1950. Bloomfield, Samuel, manager of the Progressive Book Shop in Washington (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bluel, Maurice (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Blue-Tit” / “Sinitsa”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Blue Tit” [Sinitsa] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Vladimir Stepankowsky. “Blue Tit” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet source whose activities were compatible with those of Stepankowsky. Blum, Leon: French socialist political leader, 1930s, prime minister of a popular front government, 1936-1937. Blumberg, Albert: Chief of the CPUSA in Maryland and the District of Columbia. Blunt, Anthony: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Cambridge don, art expert, and British intelligence officer during WWII who was a Soviet agent from the mid-1930s onward, one of the “Cambridge Five”.[67] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Anthony” (given name used as a cover name, 1937-1939), “Tony” (1940-42), & “Johnson” (1946). “Boar”: Churchill (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Boar” [Kaban] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Winston Churchill. “Boar” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Churchill.

Board of Economic Warfare, U.S. (BEW): Predecessor to the Foreign Economic Administration. “Boatman” [Lodochnik] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): ? Glushinsky. References to in 1935. “Boatswain” /“Botsman”: Henry Wallace(KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Bob” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Boris Krotov, Soviet intelligence officer in the U.S., 1947-1950 NY. “Bob” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Boris Krotov on the London-Moscow channel in 1945. “Bob” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Robert Menaker, early 1940s. “Bob” was identified in the Venona decryptions in 1943-1944 as Robert Menaker.[68] “Bob” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): KGB source/agent in 1935. Likely Robert Menaker but possibly someone else. “Bob”: Boris Krotov, KGB officer London (U.K. line, [West Venona]) “Bob”: Robert Owen Menaker (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Bob”: Sidorovich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Bob”: Whittaker Chambers [source Chambers Witness] Bob: Robert Miller’s party name. Bob (work name/pseudonym): Work name/pseudonym by which Harold Glasser referred to Alger Hiss when communicating with KGB. “Bobrik” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Beaver-Cloth”. (Alternative translation: Castor) “Bobrow, Robinson”: Richard (GRU line) [source Venona] “Bobwik”: Beaver-cloth (Russian hair style): unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Bochek, Aleksandr Pavlovich”: Vovchek (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bochkarev, Grigory Emelyanovich: Crew on the Soviet tanker “Azerbaijan”. Bochkareva, Maria Leontievna: Member of the 1st Russian Women's Battalion of Death organized under the Kerensky government. Author of a memoir, Yashka: My Life As Peasant, Exile, and Soldier (1919), written with the assistance of Isaac Don Levine. Executed by the Bolsheviks in 1920. (Alternative translation: Mariya Bochkarëva). “Bochkovsky, ?: Described as a Ukrainian nationalist leader in exile. “Bodson”: unidentified, likely GRU officer [source Venona]

Boerger, Frederic: Described as sister of Ruth Boerger and daughter of Frederick G. Boerger, either an error for Fredericka or a confusion with the father’s name. Boerger, Frederick G.: Father of Ruth Boerger. Boerger, Ruth: Soviet intelligence contact, American Communist, wife of GRU officer Arnold Ikal. Part of the Robinson/Rubens case. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “American”. “Boets”: Fighter: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Boev” (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Boevoj”: Petrov on Tsiolkovskij (ship) (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Bog”: God unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bogart, Michael: Born in Odessa, Russia as Mikhail Samoylovich Bogart. Soviet intelligence source/agent. Technical source on the West Coast. Bother of Burton Perry. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Sam”. “Bogdan” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer. References to in 1945. Bogdanov, George Vladimir (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bogdanov, Ivan”: real name Bogdanovich, (NGRU line) [source Venona] Bogdanov, Piotr A.: Chairman of Amtorg, 1930. “Bogdanovich”: Bogdanov, Ivan, real name (NGRU line) [source Venona] Bogdenko, Rear Admiral V. L”.: unidentified name cb (NGRU line) [source Venona] Bogomolov: unidentified name , may be Aleksandr Bogomolov, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bogomolov, Aleksandr E., Soviet Ambassador to Allied Governments in London, 1941-1943 [source Venona] Bogomolov, Alexandr: Soviet ambassador to France, 1949 Boguslavskij, Boris Mikhajlovich: Sukhumskij Bohle, ?: Described as German agent working against the Soviets. Bohlen, Charles: Senior American diplomat and Soviet specialist. Bohr, Niels: Danish physicist working with the British atomic bomb program. Bohr, Niels (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Bojkij” “Bojky” / “Perky”: Jay, Norman (WMCA commentator) (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bok, B.J. astronomer from Cambridge, Mass (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Bok”: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Bol”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Bolaslav, John Wrzesinski aka Bolaslav, John Corvin”: Korvin, Boris (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Bolles, E. Blair: Journalist and official of the Foreign Policy Association, late 1940s. “Bolshakov”: unidentified KGB line, Venona Bolshakov, Ivan G.,: Soviet Minister of Film, 1946-1953. Bolshevik (ship) [source Venona] Bolsheviks: Extremist wing of the Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party led by Vladimir Lenin, opponents of the Mensheviks, later adopting the name Communists. Bolshoj Okhotnik (ship) Bol'shoy Dom” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Big House”. “Bolshoj Gorod” (Bolshoy Gorod) (cover name in Venona, Naval GRU line 1943): see “Big Town” “Bolt” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Inoke N. Varie (also know as Innokenty Nikol. Vorozheyka). “Bolt” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent.[69] “Bolt”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Bom” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Bomb”. “Bomb” (cover name): Stimson, Henry L. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Bomb” [Bom] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): U.S. Secretary of War, circa 1944. Boncescu, in OSS (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bonham Carter, Oliver (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Bonnet, Henri: French ambassador to the U.S., 1947-1948. Bonnet, Henri (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Book (KGB tradecraft term): A passport or other travel and identification documentation. Bookbinder, George: OSS officer. Bookman, Henry: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Boos”.[70] Boorstein, Isidore: J. Peters [source Chambers Witness] “Bor” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Richard Waldo. Borah, William: U.S. Senator, 1907-1940 (R. Idaho). Bordovsky, ?: Soviet official involved in advanced technology. Borges, Thomas Pampeu Acciloly (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Boris” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer/ agent in 1947 described as having been in the U.S. in an earlier period. “Boris”: Aleksandr Saprykin, cipher clerk, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Boris”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Boris, in Moscow”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Borisenko, Konstantin (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Borisenko, Sysoeva, Morozovskaya: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Borisov”: Chief KGB 5th Cryptographic directorate in Moscow. Ivan G. Sheveley in 1943-1946. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Borisov”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Borisov: unidentified in Moscow (NGRU line) [source Venona] Borisovsky-Meltser, ?: KGB officer, Anglo-American sector, late 1920s. “Bormann, Martin: Senior Nazi official. “Born”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Born, Max: Leading theoretical physicist. Borodavko, Lt. Aleksandr Vladimirovich lost Red Banner award book. (NGRU line) [source Venona] Borodin, ?: described as official of Soyuzbumaga. Borodin, Norman: Soviet intelligence officer/agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Granite”. Borovich, Sidney [Target for recruitment] (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Borovyj, Leo Judah”: Stevens, Gordon (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Borovyj, Pavel (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Boruch” [Borukh] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentifed agent, NY residencey. References to in 1935. “Borukh” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Boruch”. “Boss”: Yakubovskij (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Boss” [Khozyain] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Bohus Benes. “Boss” [Khozyain] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1940-1943. Likely Henry Bookman. Described as owning a women’s fashion salon in which the KGB invested $5,000.

First name Henry. An FBI investigation of Iskhak Akhmerov’s activities established that “Henry Bookman”, the owner of “Henry Bookman Inc”. provided business cover for Akhmerov’s activities.
[71]

“Botsman” / “Boatswain”: Henry Wallace(KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Bough” [Suk] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1945. “Bough” under the transliteration “Suk” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. Bowen [Bouen], Ralph, U.S. State Dept. and YCL”: Alan (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bowen, Sue, wife of Ralph Bowen, YCL (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bowers, Claude: U.S. ambassador to Spain, 1933-1939. “Boy” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Charles Flato in 1944-45.[72] “Boy” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): William Sherman, December 1945 (note overlap with Charles Flato).[73] “Boy” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Dodd, William, jr., 1936-1939.
[74]

Boyarsky, ?: Lieutenant Colonel of State Security. Boyd, Helen: Maiden name of Helen Boyd Duggan. Boyev, ?: Senior Soviet official, 1933. Boyev, Ivan V.: Chairman of Amtorg, mid-1930s. Bradley, Omar: Senior American Army general. Bragg, Peter N.: Chemist involved in the Manhattan atomic project. “Brahms”: ..ev but otherwise unidentified (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Brahms” [Brams] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence source. William Perl is a candidate for “Brahms”. Brakhtman, ?: Soviet naval officer, rank junior captain. “Brams” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Brahms”. Bransten, Louise, candate for Map unidentified female (KGB Line, San Francisco) source Venona] Bransten Louise (real name). Soviet intelligence source/agent. Born in San Francisco in 1908, the only child of a wealthy Jewish merchant who founded a produce company, Louise Rosenberg inherited more than a million dollars from her parents. Married and then divorced from Richard Bransten, a prominent Communist journalist, she was active in the American-Russian Institute in San Francisco. Her association

with Grigory Kheifets, diplomat at the Soviet consulate in San Franciso (and KGB San Francisco station chief) was so close that she was frequently referred to as his mistress. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Map”. Bransten, Richard: see Minton, Bruce. “Bras” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Klaus Fuchs, 1950s. “Brat” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Brother”. “Brother” changed to “Thomas” (cover names): unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Bratsky” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Fraternal”. (Alternative translation: Brothers, Brother Organization) Brauchitsch, German Field Marshal, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Brauchitsch, Walther von: Senior Wehrmacht commander. “Braun” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, recruited in 1940, out of contact early 1941. (Alternative translation: Brown.) “Brave” [Smel'y]: See “Plucky”. “Brecher, Ludwig: Romanian name of Louis Dolivet. Brecht, Berthold”: [Poet: Viertel, Berthold or Brecht, Berthold] (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Brecht, Bertold: Soviet intelligence contact/informant. Refugee German dramatist and KGB informant on fellow refugee Germans. In the Venona decryptions a KGB informant with the cover name “Poet” appears whom NSA/FBI identified as either Berthold Brecht or Berthold Viertel. “Bredan”: Keeney, Philip (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Bredis, ?: Officer in the OO OGPU in 1930. Breen, David”: Chambers, Whittaker [Weinstein Perjury 1997 ed.] “Breen, David”: Whittaker Chambers fake passport name [source Chambers Witness] “Breit, Gregory., Bureau of Standards (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Breme” / “Brem”: Babin, Thomas, (GRU & KGB line) [source Venona] Brent, Joe: Described as a journalist, intelligence source used by Samuel Dickstein. Bretiel, Sam: Described as a U.S. officer delivering a report on heavy bombers. Brichanskij, Pavel Ivanovich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Bridgeman, Percy, physics Cambridge, Mass (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bridges, Harry “Brigadier” [Brigadir] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB agent, NY station, inventor of some sort, possible Russian immigrant, mid-30s. “Brigadir” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Brigadier”. Briggs, Lloyd Cabot (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Briggs, Richard: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Alfred Slack supplied technical information to the Soviets via Briggs when working at Eastman Kodak in the late 1930s.[75] Likely candidate for the cover name “Film”. “Brilov”: Starygin (on ship Emba) (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Brion”: Shvetsov, Boris (U.K. line, [West Venona]) “Brit” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Armand Labis Feldman. Feldman was the pseudonym of Iosif V. Volodarsky. Britain: “Island” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] British embassy in the U.S.: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Whirlpool”. British Security Coordination Office: An arm of British SIS established in New York with U.S. government permission. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Bar” (1943). Briton, N. biologist NY (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Broadway” [Brodvey] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): OSS London station cover name for British SIS, 1945. Brobsky, Joseph: CPUSA’s attorney in the 1930s and 1940s. Broda, Engelbert: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Refugee Austrian physicist at Cambridge, secret Communist and KGB source. Also known as Bertl Broda. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Eric” (1943-44), “Quid” in 1945 “Eric”/Broda appears to be identical with the Soviet source “K”. in West and Tsarev and Andrew and Mitrokhin.[76] “Brodvey” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Broadway”. Bromley, Robert (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bron, Saul: Director of Amtorg, 1920s. Bronislava, Litovkina: See Litovkina Moroz. “Bronya” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Armor”.

“Bronya”: Armor [Armour]: redacted employee at Bell Aircraft, Buffalo. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Brook: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] Brooks, ?: Described by Charles Kramer in 1945 as a former associate of James Byrnes (U.S. Senator and Secretary of State). Possibly U.S. Senator Charles Brooks (R. Illinois). “Brother”: Brat, later Thomas, unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Brother” [Brat] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Eduard Benes, circa 1944. “Brother” [Brat] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, technical intelligence, 1943, probably aviation related. “Brother” is associated with “Emulsion” in 1943, and likely “Brother” is “Emulsion’s brother” from 1938. “Brother” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, cover name changed to “Thomas” in October 1944.[77] William Plourde is a candidate for “Thomas”/“Brother”. A deciphered KGB cable suggested that William Plourde, an engineer at Bell aircraft, was a KGB source but no cover name for him was given. Plourde, then, would be a candidate for “Brother”/“Thomas”. [78] “Brother Organization” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Fraternal”. Brotherhood of Ukrainian Catholics (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Brother-in-law” (Svoyak): unidentified (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Brothers” [Bratsky] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Fraternal”. Brothman, Abraham: Konstruktor: “Constructor”: Ekspert: “Expert” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Brothman, Abraham: Konstruktor: “Expert” [source Feklisov] Brothman, Abraham: Soviet intelligence source/agent. A chemist. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as a Soviet source with whom Jacob Golos worked. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/ agent. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Constructor” prior to October 1944, changed to “Expert” in October 1944 and appeared as “Chrome Yellow” by February 1945 and thereafter.[79] Broverman, Fred: Described as business associate of Jack Soble, 1952. Browder, Earl: “Helmsman”: Rulevoj (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Browder, Earl: Rulevoy or “Helmsman” [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword]

Browder, Earl: Soviet intelligence contact/informant. General Secretary of the CPUSA, supervised CPUSA assistance to Soviet intelligence. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as authorizing and overseeing her and Jacob Golos’s cooperation with Soviet intelligence. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent. Identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as a Soviet source/agent. Identified in Comintern documents as assisting Soviet intelligence.[80] Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Helmsman” (1942-1945), “Shaman” (1946-). Browder, Gladys: Earl Browder’s first wife. Browder, Irena: Wife of Earl Browder. Born in Russia in 1895, to a father with German citizenship, Raisa Borisovna Luganovskaia (also known as Raisa Berkman) grew up in Lithuania, then part of the Russian Empire. She was trained as a lawyer, married an early Bolshevik, and herself joined the Bolsheviks in 1917 in Kharkov, Ukraine. According to a Comintern biography she was very active in the Bolshevik Revolution and served “in 1918--in Kharkov, Provincial Commissar of Justice, with emergency powers”. A commissar of justice in Bolshevik practice supervised trial court judges, heard appeals from trial courts, and had the power to change trial court actions. After the Revolution she became a member of the presidium of the Soviet state court in Moscow. She held a variety of responsible Communist party and Soviet state positions during the 1920s, travelled to Germany and France on unspecified missions, and in 1933 entered a program of advanced studies at the International Lenin School specializing in American studies.[81] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Peasant”. Browder, Margaret: “Gin” / “Anna” [source Damaskin Harris] Browder, Margaret: Soviet intelligence agent in Europe in the 1930s.[82] Sister of Earl Browder. Browder, Rose: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Also known as Rose Euler. Wife of William Browder, contact between KGB and Earl Browder. Browder, William: Soviet intelligence contact/informant. Brother and assistant to Earl Browder. Party name Bill. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[83] “Brown”: unidentified source (U.K. line, [West Venona]) Brown Brothers: International banking firm.

Brown, Fred: Party name/pseudonym of CPUSA cadre who worked with Italian-American in the 1930s. Also known as Mario Alpi. Birth name possibly F. Marini. Brown, John: Abolitionist activist executed for his violent attempt to organize a revolt of black slaves. Brown: See “Braun”. Brown, Walter F.: U.S. Postmaster General, 1929-1933. Brown, Walter Lyman: Official of the ARA. BRP: Bratstvo Russkoy Pravdy (Brotherhood of Russian Truth), a White Guard emigre organization. Bruce, David K.: American Ambassador to France, 1949-1952. “Brumia” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): United States of America, 1950. “Brumians” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Americans, 1950. “Brun” [Bryun] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentifed KGB agent/officer, early 1930s. Brush pass (tradcraft): A brief encounter, often unspoken and appearing as a momentary brushing together between strangers, where something is passed between courier/case officer and agent. “Momentalka” in Russian. Bruslov, Yury Mikhailovich: KGB officer Washington Station, late 1940s, 1950. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Pavel”. “Brusov”: unidentified (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Brüning, Heinrich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Bryansk (ship) [source Venona] “Brykin”: unidentified [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] Bryukhanov, Nikolay Pavlovich: Bolshevik leader, People's Commissar of Finances, 1926-1930. Executed in Stalin’s Terror, 1938. Bryun (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Brun”. Bryzgin, Nikolaj [Nikolay] Yakolevich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Buben” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Louis F. Budenz. “Bubi” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence agent. Likely Leo Helfgott based on Simon Rosenberg’s (S-7) statements to the FBI in the Armand Feldman case. References to in 1937. Buchman, Henry: Khosyain: “Employer” [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Bucyrus: American manufacturer of excavators and massive mining equipment.

“Budanov”: Olkhov (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Budd Aircraft. “Buddy” [Priyatel'] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent, diplomat with the Czechoslovak embassy in Washington. Budenny (ship) Budenz, Louis F.: Soviet intelligence contact/informant. Senior CPUSA official who assisted Soviet intelligence, defector 1945. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as assisting Jacob Golos’s intelligence activities. Budenz testified that in the late 1930s he had direct contact with Soviet intelligence and assisted with recruiting agents to penetrate the Trotskyist movement and in the early 1940s as a senior party officer was aware of CPUSA assistance to Soviet espionage. [84]. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Buben”, “Tambourine”. Budenz, Luis Francis: Spelling garble, see Budenz, Louis Francis. “Bugle”: Gorn: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Bugle” [Gorn] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent, technical intelligence, likely aviation. References to in 1945, 1948. “Bugle” appeared in the Venona decryptions in November 1944 as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, likely aviation related.[85] Joseph Bauer is a candidate for “Bugle”. “Builder” [Stroitel'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, Communist, technical intelligence, 1942. Associated with Julius Rosenberg. Bukharin, Nikolay: Senior Bolshevik leader executed in the Great Terror. Bukhartsev, Dmitri: Soviet intelligence agent, likely a co-optee. Izvestia correspondent, Berlin. Liaison with Martha Dodd, 1936 (prior to Pioneer). Bukhartsev later testified in one of the Moscow Trials in 1937 and confessed to being part of a Trotskyist conspiracy. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Emir”. Bukhgol’ts, wife of (GRU line) [source Venona] “Bukinist”: Second Hand Bookseller: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bukov, Barna: See Bukov, Boris. Bukov, Boris: Soviet intelligence officer/agent. GRU illegal officer. In 1939 Walter Krivitsky, a senior KGB defector, identified as Boris Bykov of GRU as a Soviet control officer known to Whittaker Chambers as Peter. In his 1939 autobiography, Krivitsky, who had been a GRU

officer before shifting to the KGB in the mid-1930s, also identified Bykov as the chief of GRU operations in the U.S. in 1936-1939. Am entry in GRU: Dela i Liudi [GRU: Cases and People] for “Bukov (Altman) Boris Yakovlevich”, lists Bukov as “Illegal station chief of Razvedupr [GRU] in the U.S.A. (1936-1939)”. Likely Altman was a Jewish birth name with Bukov as a Russianized replacement. The Chambers’ “Bykov” and GRU’s “Bukov” are the same person is made even clearer when it is understood that Chambers told the FBI that Krivitsky had pronounced “Bykov” as “boo-koff”. One should also note that the Russian Cyrillic letter “y” is pronounced with a Latin alphabet “u” sound. What is unclear is why Krivitsky (or his translator/editor in 1939) would transliterate the name as Bykov, usually pronounced “bi-koff”, rather than Bukov.[86] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Jerome”. Bulganin, Nikolay A.: Senior Soviet official, part of Stalin’s inner circle after WWII. Bulkley, Robert: U.S. Senator, 1930-1939 (D. Ohio). “Bull” [Byk] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1945. Bulletin Business Review: Likely a garbled title for a journal described as edited by Harry Magdoff. Bulletin of the Opposition: Trotskyist journal. Bullitt, William: American diplomat and first U.S. ambassador to the USSR.
[87]

Bullitt, William C.: “Caliph”: Kalif (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Bumblebee” [Shmel'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): David Greenglass in October 1944, paired with the cover name “Wasp” for his wife. “Bumblebee” was identified in the Venona decryptions as David Greenglass in November 1944 By December 1944 Greenglass’s cover name in the Venona decryptions appeared as “Caliber”, likely changed when KGB noticed that it was already using “Bumblebee” as the cover name for the journalist Walter Lippmann.[88] “Bumblebee” [Shmel'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Senior journalist, 1945. Likely Walter Lippmann. “Bumblebee” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Walter Lippmann in the fall of 1944 and into 1945.[89] “Bumblebee”: Shmel: David Greenglass (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Bumblebee”: Shmel: Walter Lippmann, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bund Deutscher Madchen[90]: League of German Girls. Burce, David (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Burd, Michael [Weisburd] of Midland Export Corp.: “Tenor” / “Bass” / “Bas” / “Ten” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Burdett, Winston: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Burdett was recruited via the CPUSA on Comintern instructions in 1940 and assisted Soviet intelligence while working as a war correspondent in Europe for several years before dropping out. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as assisting Soviet espionage. After initial denial, he eventually admitted his involvement to the FBI and, in 1955, to a congressional investigating committee.[91] Candidate for the cover name “Eagle”. Bure, Emile-Clemant-Charles [nee Dreux] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Bureau” [Byuro] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Intourist. Bureau of Education, U.S.. Burgess, Anthony = Mädchen [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Burgess, Guy: British diplomat and Soviet agent. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Madchen”. Burke, Jack B.: Described as a Communist who worked on the staff of Senator La Follette’s Civil Liberties Subcommittee in the late 1930s, later in OSS. Burkhard, George: I.F. Stone contact in Berlin. Burkhardt, Carl: International Red Cross official Burlakov, Vasiliy [Vasily] I., (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Burland, E. G.: Described as a director of Blair & Co., former ARA official. Burns, General (NGRU line) [source Venona] Burns, James H.: U.S. Army General, considered for appointment as U.S. ambassador to the USSR in 1942. Burns, Paul, NSA/FBI shows as Berne and Bernay, but clearly is ti Burns. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Burse” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Seminary”. Bursler, Norman (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Bursler, Norman: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent. KGB sent Comintern a vetting inquiry about him in 1944.[92] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Sur”. Burslov, Yury: Soviet intelligence officer/agent, U.S. late 1940s.

Burt, ?: A Soviet intelligence officer met Stanley Graze at Burt’s wedding in Costa Rico in 1976. “Burtsenko”: Zhukov: KGB Probationer on Soviet ship (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] Busbey, Fred: U.S. Representative, 1943-1945 (R. IL) Bush, Vannevar: Leading American engineer and scientific administrator. Headed the Office of Scientific Research and Development in WWII. Bushuev, Vasilij [Vasily] , Soviet seaman deserter. (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Businessman”: unidentified source (U.K. line, [West Venona]) “Butberg, ? (real name), and Baron Butberg’s White Guard group. “Butcher”: redacted (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Bute, E.T.: Described as a scientist involved in the Manhattan atomic project. Spelling unconfirmed, alternative translations Butte or But. Butkov, ?: KGB officer, Moscow Center. Butler, George: Described as State Department official, 1948. Butler, Neville: Senior official in the British Foreign Office, 1945. Butler, Nicholas Murray: President of Columbia University and winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931. Butler, W.: Described as chief of the Airplane Bureau Division, WPB, 1945. Butler, William: U.S. Senator, 1923-1927 (R. MA). Butorov, seamen deserer (NGRU line) [source Venona] Butosov, ?: Official of the People’s Commissariat of the Defense Industry. Butterworth, J.E., General, chief of conservation Branch, Services of Supply, US Army. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Butti, Peter: Described as a relative of Gregory Silvermaster in the Soviet Union. “Button” [Knopka] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1938. Butz, ? (real name), and the “Butz affair”: Unknown. “Byk” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Bull”. “Bykov, Boris”: Peter [source Chambers Witness] Bykov, Boris: see Bukov, Boris. Byrd, Harry F.: U.S. senator (D. Virginia). Byrnes, James F.: U.S Senator (D. SC) and U.S. Secretary of State, 1945-47. Byrnes, James F. Director of Office of War Mobilization and Reconversion (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Byuro” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Bureau”.

“Byvalov”: Lovanov, Vasilij [Vasily] Nikolaevich XXC C. [CC]: redacted except for first letter C. linked to Rosenberg (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] C.: Center, KGB headquarters in Moscow. “C-1” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S-1”. “C-10” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S-10”. “C/10” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S/10”. “C-100” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S-100”. “C/16” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S/16”. “C-17” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S-17”. “C-2” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S-2”. “C/2” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S-2”. “C/3” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S/3”. “C-5” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S/5”. “C-6” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S-6”. “C-7” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S-7”. “C/7” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S/7”. “C-8” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S-8”. “C/8” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “S/8”. “Cabaret”: Office of the Co-ordinator of Inter-American Affairs (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Cabaret” [Kabare] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs (Rockerfeller committee). “Cabaret” was identified in the Venona decryptions as as the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs. “Cabin” [Izba] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Office of Strategic Services, OSS starting in 1942. KGB cover name for OSS was “Izba”, in Vassiliev’s notebooks translated as “Cabin”. KGB cover name for FBI was “Khata”, in Vassiliev’s notebooks translated as “Hut”. Izba and Khata have overlapping meanings in Russian (with Khata as a generic peasant’s hut) and one could reverse the chosen translation. “Izba” was identified in the Venona decryptions as OSS starting in 1942 but Venona translated “Izba” as “Hut” rather then “Cabin”. Cadillac (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Caen”: Los Angeles [source Venona] Caesar Rodney (ship) [source Venona] Café Society: New York City nightclub linked to the CPUSA. Caine: See “Kane”. Cairncross, John: Soviet intelligence source/agent, U.K. His espionage did not become public until 1990 with the publication of Andrew and Gordievsky’s The KGB.[93] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Liszt”. Cairo, Arrigo (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Caldwell, Sylvia: pseudonym used by Sylvia Callen when she infiltrated the SWP. Also [Doxsee, Sylvia Lorraine Callen] [Sylvia Franklin] [Sylvia Callen]: Satyr: Satir (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Caldwell, Sylvia (pseudonym): See Callen, Sylvia. Pseudonym used by Sylvia Callen when she infiltrated the Socialist Workers Party for the KGB. “Caliber” [Kalibr] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): David Greenglass, December 1944-March 1950. “Caliber” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Greenglass.[94] “Calibre ( Kalibr)”: David Greenglass (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Caliph”: Kalif: William C. Bullitt (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Callahan”: James Michael Callaham, ship’s clerk, described as a “trustworthy dockworker”, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Callen, Sylvia [Doxsee, Sylvia Lorraine Callen] [Sylvia Franklin] [Sylvia Caldwell]: Satyr: Satir (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Callen, Sylvia: Secret Communist, KGB anti-Trotskyist penetration agent under the name Sylvia Caldwell; secretary for James Cannon, chief of the Socialist Workers Party (Trotskyist). Also known as Sylvia Franklin and Sylvia Lorraine Doxsee. Married for a period to American Communist and KGB agent Irving Zalmond Franklin. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[95] Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Satyr” until August 1944, then “Rita”. “Callistratus”: Kalistrat: Fomin, Aleksandr (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Callistratus” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Alexander Feklisov. “Callistratus” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Aleksandr Fomin, pseudonym used in the U.S. by KGB officer Alexander Feklisov when under diplomatic cover. Calvo Ramirez, Roberto: Zapata (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Camacho, Maximino Avila, brother of (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Camilla”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] “Camille”: unidentified source GRU (U.K. line, [West Venona]) “Camille” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Camp 1” [Lager' 1] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Oak Ridge Manhattan atomic project facility. “Camp 1” appeared in the Venona decryptions as unidentified Manhattan atomic project facility and in a context that suggests Oak Ridge. “Camp 2”: Los Alamos [source Feklisov] “Camp 2” [Lager' 2] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Los Alamos Manhattan atomic project facility. “Camp 2” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the Los Alamos Manhattan atomic project facility. “Camp U” [Lager' Y]: See “Camp Y”.[96] “Camp W” [Lager' W] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Hanford, Washington facilities of the Manhattan atomic project, also know as “Site W”. “Camp X” [Lager' X] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Reference in a Harry Gold report of a meeting with Klaus Fuchs with reference to the Manhattan atomic project in New Mexico, i.e. Site Y. “Camp Y” [Lager' Y] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Los Alamos Manhattan atomic project facility, also known as “Site Y”. “Camp-1” [Camp #1]: an atomic site [probably Oak Ridge] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Camp-2” [Camp #2]: Los Alamos atomic site (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Campbell”: Kempbel: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Campbell, D.H., biologist CA (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Camphor”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Canada: “Forest” / “Lesovia” (GRU line) also “Land” / “Kray” (KGB line) [source Venona] Canada: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Territory”. Cannon, James: American Trotskyist leader, chief of the Socialist Workers Party. Canon: misspelling, see Cannon, James.

“Canopus”: Kanop, in U.S. State Department (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Cantacuzen, Matthew [Chaca-Cantacuzin?, Matea] Rumanian figure (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Cantor” [Kantor] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1942-44. Appears to have been a Communist recruited via CPUSA channels. “Cantwell, Lloyd”: Whittaker Chambers [source Chambers Witness] Capa, Robert: prominent WWII American war photographer. Cape Charles (ship) [source Venona] “Cape Spencer (ship) [source Venona] “Capitalist”: Harriman, W. Averell (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Captain”: Kapitan: FDR (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Captain” [Kapitan] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Franklin D. Roosevelt. “Captain” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Roosevelt. Captain Voronin (ship) [source Venona] “Captain’s deputy” [zamestitel' Kapitana]: Henry Wallace. Capte Porpoise (ship) [source Venona] Carbon Corporation. Cardenas, Lazaro (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Careful” [Ostorozhny]: See “Cautious”. Carl: see Karl. Carlisle, Kitty: Described as mistress of Bernard Baruch. “Carlos”: appears to be Soviet in the Office, not Casanova Subercaseaux: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Carlos”: Berkhahn, Gunther J. F. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Carlos”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Carlos” [Karlos]: Christian Casanova Subercaseaux (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Carmen”: Karmen, unidentifed covername of a courier (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Carmen” [Karmen] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Helen Koral prior to August 1944. “Carmen” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Helen Koral.[97] Carnegie, Andrew: Industrialist and philanthropist. “Carnero”: unidentified ; (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] “Caro”: Jürgen Kuczynsky GRU line in U.K. [source Feklisov Rosenbergs]

Carp Export and Import Company: Company directed by Sam Carp. “Carp” [Karp] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent, described as having been compromised by 1950 along with “Sima”/Coplon. Valentin Gubichev, a Soviet intelligence agent, is a likely candidate for “Carp” in as much as he was arrested when meeting with Coplon. Carp, Sam: Immigrant from Tsarist Russia (Ukraine), birth name as Carpowski, and Vyacheslav Molotov’s American brother-in-law. On Adolf Berle’s 1939 list of those identified by Whittaker Chambers as espionage risks.[98] Carpeau, Joas Maria; (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] “Carpenter” [Plotnik] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): ? Plavnik. Carpenter, David: CPUSA cadre, active in both the open party in the Baltimore-Washington area and with party publications (Daily Worker and New World Review) and in the party’s covert arm. Birth name David Zimmerman. Identified by Whittaker Chambers as assisting with his GRU/CPUSA network. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “103rd”. Carr, Wilbur: Assistant Secretary of State, 1933-1937. Carrillo Marcor, Alejanbro: Texas (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Carrillo, Rafael (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Carroll, Fred (party name): Soviet intelligence source/agent San Francisco area. Likely party name of Robert Soblen. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Roman”. “Roman” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Robert Soblen. “Carter”: Coleman, Eugene Franklin [possible spy] (NGRU line) [source Venona] Carter, Edward C.: General Secretary of the Institute for Pacific Relations and chairman of the Russian War Relief Fund. Carter of the Institute of Pacific Affairs (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Carthage”: Washington (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Carthage” [Karfagen] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Washington, DC. “Carthage” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Washington. Carton, Martinez (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Caruso, Enrico: Well-known Italian opera tenor. Casa Italiana: Italian cultural institution. “Casada”: Kasada: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Casanova Subercaseaux, Christian”: Carlos [Karlos] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Cashier” [Kassir] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Harry Dexter White (prior to change to “Jurist” in 1941). Cashier (Kassir) = White, Harry Dexter probably in 1939 [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Cassidy, journalist (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Castle, William R.: Under Secretary of State and Ambassador to Japan in the Herbert Hoover Administration. “Castor” [Bobrik]: See “Beaver-Cloth. “Cat” [Ket] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Mary Price in August 1944. “Catalyst”: Katalizaton: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Catalyst” [Katalizator] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, scientific source, involved in radioactivity. An immigrant, likely Russian, daughters in USSR in 1942, studied in Germany, friend of physicist Aristid Victorovich Grosse, knows George Gamow. “Catalyst” appeared in the Venona decryptions as unidentified.[99] “Catcher” [Lovets] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, Russian immigrant, former insurance agent. Catherine: Name by which Bentley knew Helen Lowry [source Bentley FBI statement] “Cathode” [Katod] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, XY Line scientific-technological intelligence, mid-30s. “Cautious” [Ostorozhny] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Julius J. Joseph. “Cautious” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Julius Joseph.[100] “Cautious” [Ostorozhny]: Joseph, Julius J. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Cavalryman” [Kavalerist] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Sergey Kurnakov prior to September 1944. Kurnakov, a Russian immigrant, wrote on military matter for the CPUSA-aligned journal Ruski Golos [Russian Voice]. Kurnakov is not named as “Cavalryman” in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks, but is identified as a writer for Ruski Golos and “Cavalryman” was identified in the Venona

decryptions as Sergey Kurnakov. Venona also shows that Kurnakov’s cover name “Cavalryman” was was later changed to “Beck”.[101] “Cavalryman”: Kavalerist: Kurnakov (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] CC CPSU: Central Committee, Communist Party of the Soviet Union. CC VKP(b): Central Committee, All-Union Communist Party (Bolshevik): Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Palace”. Cde.: comrade. “Cecil” [Sesil'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Bluma Carp, 1935. “Cecil” [Sesil'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Lauchlin Currie, 1944. “Cedar”: Perry, Burton (Borton Perri) (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Cedar” [“Sedar”] (cover name in the Venona decryptions): Burton Perry in 1944.[102] “Center”: KGB HQ in Moscow. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Center [Tsentr]: KGB tradecraft term for its headquarters in Moscow. Centkiwicz, Stanislaw (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Central Committee, All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks): Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Palace”. Central Institute on Atomic Research, GDR. Central Negro Youth Union of America [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] “Cerberus”: Tserber: unidentified cover name [or transliteration of surname such as Cerber or Zerber] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Cerberus” [Tserber] and “Cerberus’s” wife (cover name in Vassiliev Notebooks): Likely Philip and Mary Jane Keeney. “Cerberus” and wife are described as former GRU agents with some prior connection to OSS. “Cerebus’s” wife was described as obtaining a job in the UN Secretariat the latter half of 1948. “Cerberus” also appeared in the Venona decryptions in 1945 as an unidentified GRU agent who may have lost touch with GRU. The Keeneys were recruited by GRU in 1940 and shifted to KGB in 1945. Philip had worked for OSS for a time and Mary Jane took a post with the U.N. in June 1948.[103] Chabanov, Konstantin A.: See Chugunov, Konstantin A. Chabot (ship) [source Venona] Chadwick, James: Senior British atomic scientist in the bomb project. Chaliapin, Boris: Described as the son of the Russian opera singer Feodor Chaliapin. Chalmers, Henry: U.S. commerce Department official, early 1930s.

Cham, Michael K.: Soviet intelligence source/agent, technical intelligence. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Spline” until October 1944 then “Noise”. “Spline” and “Noise” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source in the aviation industry for which there were several candidates, all of which were redacted.[104] “Chamber” [Palata] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): U.S. Department of Justice, listed in a table of cover names circa November 1944. “Chamber” [Palata] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): U.S. Bureau of Standards, listed in one marginal reference to a January 1945 document.[105] Chamberlain, William: Moscow correspondent for the Christian Science Monitor, 1922-34. Chambers, Eve: Eve Dorf (party name) [source Chambers Witness] Chambers, Whittaker: Soviet intelligence source/agent chiefly for a GRU linked CPUSA based network in Washington in the mid-1930s. Dropped out 1938, partial disclosure to authorities in 1939 but no full disclosure until the end of 1948. Discussed his activities in a detailed autobiography. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Karl”.[106] Candidate for the pseudonym Robert Zelnis. “Chambers, Whittaker”: Karl: Harold Phillips: Lloyd Cantwell: David Breen: Arthur Dwyer Chancey, Martin: Senior member of the Maryland CPUSA. Chandler, Albert (Happy): Commissioner of Major League Baseball. “Channel-pilot” / “Lotsman”: Henry Wallace (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Chap”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Chap” [“Chep] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Zalmond David Franklin. “Chap” was identified in the Venona decryptions under “Chap” and “Chen” as Salmond Franklin, a variant spelling of Zalmond Franklin.[107] Chapa, Esther: Lata, former wife of Rosendo Gomez Lorenzo (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Chapaj” [or “Chapay”]: Klimenkov, Petr Vasilevich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Chaplin, Charlie: World famous motion picture comic of the 1920s and 1930s.

Char... unidentified name, may be real or cover. possibley Charles Flato. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Charles”: Charls: Charlz: Klaus Fuchs (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Charles”: Fuchs, Klaus [source Albright Kunstel Bombshell] “Charles”: Fuchs, Klaus [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Charles”: Klaus Fuchs [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] “Charles”: Klaus Fuchs [source Sudoplatov] “Charles” [Charl'z] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Klaus Fuchs starting in October 1944. “Charles” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Fuchs.[108] “Charles” was identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as Fuchs. Charles, Frieda: wife of Bert Cochran [source Venona] Charley: See Charlie. “Charli” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Charlie”. (Alternative translation: Charley) “Charli 7” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Charlie 7”. “Charlie”: Cedric Belfrage [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Charlie”: Leon Minster [source Chambers Witness] “Charlie 7” [Charli-7] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, NY station mid-1930s (may be same as one of the other 1930 Charlies). References to in 1937. “Charlie” [Charli] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Cedric Belfrage, 1944. “Charlie” appeared in the Venona decryptions as unidentified but the context would fit Belfrage.[109] “Charlie” was identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as Belfrage. “Charlie” [Charli]: unidentified Soviet intelligence contact, described as Browder’s courier in 1942. “Charlie” [Charli] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB agent/officer 1931, used against Trotskyists. “Charlie” [Charli] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Chief of the London KGB station in 1935. “Charlie” [Charli] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, technical intelligence, consultent for Du Pont, chemist 1930s. References to in 1934, 1938. Charlie [Charli]: Pseudonym used by Joseph Katz in 1944 and 1945.[110][111] “Charlie” [Charli]: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Charl'z” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Charles”.

“Charon”: Kharon: Grigory Khejfets [Kheifetz or Keifits of Kheifets] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Charon” [Kharon] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): KGB officer Grigory Kheifets. “Charon” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Kheifets. Chase, Charles F.: John Sherman’s fake passport name [source Chambers Witness] Chase, Joseph, Lt. j.g. assistant naval attache in Moscow (NGRU line) [source Venona] Chatsky, ?: GPU chief at Amtorg, 1929. “Chauffeur” [Shofer] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1939. Likely technological intelligence. Chautemps, Camille: French political figure. Chavycha (ship) [source Venona] “Chaynaya” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Tea Shop” (Alternative translation: “Tea Room”). “Cheetah” [Chita] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, Seattle, maritime and Naval intelligence. Has three sons. References to in 1936-1939. “Cheetah” (as “Chita”) appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified contact on the Moscow-San Francisco channel in 1944, but it is uncertain if this 1944 “Cheetah” is “Cheetah” of the mid-1930s. Cheka: Vserossiyskaya Chrezvychaynaya Komissiya po Borbe s Kontr Revolyutsiyey i Sabotzzhem [All-Russian Extraordinary Commission to Combat Counterrevolution and Sabotage]. “Chekh” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Czech”. “Chekh”: Czech: Menaker, Robert Owen (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Chekh”: Czech: Soble, Jack (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Chekhov”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Chekists (KGB jargon): KGB personnel, particularly officers. “Chekov (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Chemist”: Khinik: unidentified cover name, probably Kamenev, Ivan Efimovich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Chemist” [Khimik] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Robert Oppenheimer, September 1944. “Chen”: redacted in 1943: Zalmond David Franklin in 1944?? (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Chen”: Zalmond David Franklin in 1944?? [alternative translation of Chap?] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Chen, Hansheng: Covert agent of the Communist Party of China from 1920s to the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. Chen operated in the United States in the 1930s.[112] Also known as Hanshen Chen and Henshen Chen. Chen: See “Chap”. “Chep” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Chap”. Cherkasov, ?: KGB officer, 1945. Chernigovskij (on ship Emba) Chernikov, ?: White Russian leader, BRP activist. Chernin, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Chernousanov (NGRU line) [source Venona] Chernousov, Ivan Pavlovich: Crew on the Soviet tanker “Azerbaijan”. Chernov, Victor (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Cherny” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Black”. “Chernyakova or Chernyaova (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Chernyj” / “Black”: Thomas L. Black (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Chernyj, S.I”.: Kirillov (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Chernyshevskij (ship) [source Venona] Chertok, ?: Described as a Zionist leader in 1939. “hertova: See Sara Weber. “Chess Knight (Kon’)”: Siquiros, Jose David Alfaro (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Chess Player”: Polish Jewish agent West Coast U.S., dentist [source Sudoplatov] “Chessplayer” or “Chess Player”: Polish Jewish dentist in San Francisco, KGB agent [source Damaskin Harris] “Chester” (party name used as a cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Bernard Schuster. “Chester” was Schuster prior to June 1943 when KGB replaced “Chester” with “Echo”, but “Chester” occasionally was still used later, likely because “Chester” remained Schuster’s party name. “Chester” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Schuster.[113] “Chester” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Robert Oppenheimer in 1944 and 1945. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: changed to “Yew” after KGB realized confusion with “Chester”/Bernard Schuster.

“Chester”: Bernard Schuster’s party name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] [source Feklisov ] Chester Valley (ship) [source Venona] “Cheta”: Pair/Couple: Fisher, Nicholas and Maria (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Chetverka”: foursome: four KGB students (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Chetvertushkin, B. A.: Described as connected to the Tchaikovsky Hall in Moscow in 1965. Chiang Kai Shek, Madame [source Venona] Chiang Kai-Shek (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Chiang Kai-shek: Leader of of the Nationalist Chinese government. Chicago Grain Exchange. Chichayev, I.: KGB liaison with OSS in London, 1944. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “John”. Chicherin, Georgy Vasilyevich: Bolshevik leader, People's Commissar of Foreign Affairs,1918 -1930. “Chief”: unidentified cover name, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Chief Administration on the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy: Soviet nuclear research agency. Chief Department of the Civil Air Fleet, USSR: GUGVF “Chief” [Shef] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Nikolay Novikov in 1945. Chikirisov, ?: Militia (Police) Lieutenant, 1942. Chikov, V.V.: Described as Amtorg official, 1920s. Child, C.M. biologist CA (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Childs, Jacob ‘Jack’: Mid-level CPUSA cadre, involved in its covert apparatus.[114] Husband of Rosalyn. Possible candidate for “Olsen”. Childs, James R. [Charge d’affairs] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Childs, Morris, possibly Olsen in Venona, not identified in NSA/FBI notes Childs, Morris: Senior CPUSA official. District organizer (head) of the Chicago area Communist Party from 1938 to 1945.[115] Candidate for “Olsen”. Childs, Rosalyn Pearl: Wife of Jack Childs. Candidate for party name/cover name Rose Olsen and cover name “Phlox”. Rosalyn Pearl Citron worked for the Comintern in Moscow from 1936 to 1938 and upon return to the U.S. as a contact between the CPUSA headquarters and its covert arm in where she met and married Jack Childs in 1940.

Chimilowski, Joseph: Alternate spelling for Joseph Chmilevski. “Chinovnik” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Official”. “Chio” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Cio”.[116] Chipchin, Nissen or Nelson (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Chita” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Cheetah”. “Chita”: unidentified (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Chivin, ?: an operative of Yakov Serebryansky’s special operations (sabotage, kidnapping and assassination) group. Refused to return to the USSR. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Smith” in 1930s. “Chizh” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Siskin”. The chizh is a Eurasian finch known as a siskin in English. Chizhakov (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Chizhov (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] ChK: Cheka. Chkalov, V. (ship) [source Venona] Chmilevski, Joseph: Soviet intelligence source/agent. (Alternate spelling: Chimilowski, Joseph) Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Relay” prior to September1944, then “Serb”. “Relay” and “Serb” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. “Chord” [Akkord] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): the Morros/Stern music company project. Chou En-Lai (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Chrome Yellow” [Kron] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Abraham Brothman. “Chrome Yellow” / “Chrome Pigment”: Kron: redacted (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Chuck: party name of Charles Kramer, 1945. Chugaj: Soviet at “Plant” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Chugunov, Konstantin. A.: KGB officer. (Also known as Konstantin A. Shabanov or Chabanov). Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Shah”. Chupikova, Ekaterina [Lykyanov’s mother-in-law] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Churchill, Winston: British Prime Minister. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Boar”, “Pere” (circa 1944). Churchill, Winston: “Boar” also “Per”/“Peer” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Chuzhin, Ivan Afanasevich”: Afanasev (on ship Litke) (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Ciechanowski, Jan: Ambassador of the Polish government-in-exile in the U.S. in WWII. “C-II” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): “S-2”. “Cio” [Chio]: Mildred Price in 1944. CIO, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ciokloxa, Adam Polish Socialist on Polish National Council in London, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] CIO-PAC: See CIO-Political Action Committee CIO-Political Action Committee: political arm of the Congress on Industrial Organizations. “Circle”: Krug: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Circle” [Krug] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Silvermaster apparatus. “Circus” [Tsirk] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): U.S. Department of State, 1939-1940. Civil Affairs Division: Department of War and U.S. Army organization overseeing occupation and civil-military relations in theaters of operations. Civil Service Commission, U.S. Clabb, ?: Described as second secretary of the US Embassy in Chungking, 1942-43 CLAC: Combined Liberation Areas Committee “Clan” [Klan] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Cliveden Set (U.S.) Clarence, John: Described as journalist for ADN and author of or chief source of an article about Klaus Fuchs in the Empire News in 1959. “Clarion”: unidentified , / (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] “Clark”: Gouzenko, Igor (Canadian line, [West Venona]) “Clark” or “Clarke” [Klark]: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] Clark, D. [Clarke, Delbert, bureau Manager of NYT in DC] [source Venona] Clark, D. Worth: U.S. Senator, 1939-1945 (D. Idaho) Clark, Lance: Vincent Reno party name [source Chambers Witness] Clark, Mark General (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Clark, Mark: U.S Army general in WWII and President Truman’s representative to the Vatican in 1951. Clark, Tom, Attorney General (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Clark, Tom C.: U.S. Attorney General, 1945-1949. Clarke, Delbert [Clark, D. ), bureau Manager of NYT in DC] [source Venona] Clark-Kerr, Archibald (1st Baron Inverchapel): British diplomat, ambassador to Moscow in WWII, ambassador to the U.S. in the late 1940s. “Claude”: Clayton, Walter S. [Australian line] [West Venona] “Claude” [Klod] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer, NY station, 1948. “Claude” is described as directly supervising Morris and Lona Cohen. Yury Sokolov is identified as the KGB officer directly supervising the Cohens in this period in Albright and Kunstel’s Bombshell and, consequently Sokokov is a candidate for “Claude”.[117] Clay, Lucius D.: U.S. Army General, Military Governor, American sector of occupied Germany. Clay, Marjorie: Wife of General Lucius Clay. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Missis”. Clayton, ? U.S. Army officer member of “The Twelve Apostles” [source Venona] Clayton, W., assistant to the Secretary of State (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Clayton, William Lockhart: Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs, DOS, 1944-45 “Clemence” ( Clemens ): Klemens: “Lee” / “Li”: unidentified, redacted possibly Johanna Becker (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona][West treats Clemens and Lee as different persons [West Venona] “Clemence” [Klemens] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, cover named changed to “Lee” in September 1944. (Alternative translation: Clemens) “Clemence” was identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent but the name was redacted. “Clemence” in the Venona decryptions was changed to “Lee” in September 1944.[118] Johanna Becker is a candidate for “Clemence” and “Lee”. Clements, F. biologist CA (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Clerk [Chinovnik]: See “Official”. “Clever Girl” [Umnitsa] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Elizabeth Bentley, circa 1940 until August 1944. (Alternative translations Miss Wise, Smart Girl, Good Girl) “Clever Girl” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Bentley.

“Clever Girl” [Umnitsa] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified, 1934 cover name of the wife of the director of General Electric. Russian, married him in the Soviet Union. “Clever Girl”, “Smart Girl”, “Good Girl”: Umnitsa: Bentley, Elizabeth (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Cliveden Set: Label created by British Communist journalists and accepted widely of a conspiratorial aristocratic appeasement-minded and proGerman social network. Named for Cliveden, the country home of Nancy Astor (Viscountess Astor), one of the alleged appeasementminded arristocrats. “Club”: section of U.S. Justice Dept. dealing with USSR (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Club” [Klub] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Justice Department, U.S., especially the internal security section of the Justice Department. Club (party name): CPUSA, 1946. Club in reference to the CPUSA was used in an autobiography written by Harry Magdoff in 1946. “Coal” [Ugol'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): OSS London station cover name for British SIS, 1945. “Coast”: unidentified name for a place (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Coca-Cola company: “Ro” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Cochran, Bert, aka Alexander Goldfarb, E. R. Frank, Herb Coulton, Bert Coltrell, SWP leader, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Codovilla (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Coe, Charles J.: Also known as Bob Coe and Robert Coe. Secret Communist activist. President of Harold Ware’s Communist-front Farm Research Incorporated, edited its publication, “Facts for Farmers”, wrote for the CPUSA’s Political Affairs under the pseudonym Robert Digby and appeared in the Daily Worker as late as February 1950.[119] Coe, K.V.: Identified as someone Harold Glasser had know before 1945. Coe, Robert D.: State Department official, late 1930s. Coe, Virginius Frank: Soviet intelligence source. Known as Frank Coe. On Adolf Berle’s 1939 list of those identified by Whittaker Chambers as covert Communists who were espionage risks. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as part of the Silvermaster espionage group. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Peak”.[120] Coe, Virginius Frank: “Peak” / “Pik” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Coffee, John: U.S. Representative (D. WA). Coffin: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Cogswell, Virginia: Girlfriend of Fritz Kuhn recruited as a source by Samuel Dickstein. Cogswell was a witness in New York state’s 1939 prosecution, conviction, and imprisonment of Kuhn for financial irregulars. Also known as Virginia Overshiner. “Cohen”: Scottish, and Chambers thought him a CI reprsentative [source Chambers Witness] Cohen, ?: Golos recommended for recruitment on technical line in 1942. Cohen, Benjamin: New Deal advisor, State Department official, 1945. Cohen, Jack: Described as a student Communist at Oxford in the mid-1930s. Cohen, Lona: KGB liaison agent [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] Cohen, Lona: “Lesle” [Lesley Lesli] [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Cohen, Lona: Lesli [Leslie] [source Albright Kunstel Bombshell] Cohen, Lona: Soviet intelligence source/agent. American, secret Communist. Birth name Petka. Wife of Morris Cohen. Convicted of espionage in Great Britain and later exchanged for a British subject held by the USSR.[121] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Leslie”. Cohen, Morris: “Louis” / “Volunteer” [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Cohen, Morris: “Volunteer” [source Albright Kunstel Bombshell] Cohen, Morris, (1910-1995): “Louis”: Israel Altman Cohen, Morris: Soviet intelligence source/agent. American, secret Communist. Convicted of espionage in Great Britain and later exchanged for a British subject held by the USSR.[122] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Volunteer”. Cohen, Sidney: Harold Glasser's brother-in-law. Cohen, Solomon: Described as an assistant of Joseph Brodsky. Cole, GDH (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Coleman, Eugene Franklin: “Carter” (NGRU line) [source Venona] Coleman, Frederick William Backus: U.S. Minister, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, 1920s. Collado, Emilio: Economist and international finance specialist, Senior official first at the Treasury and later at DOS. Collard, Dudley: British attorney. “Colleague” [Kollega] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Bella Joseph. Wife of Julius Joseph and employed in the photographic section of OSS. “Colleague” appeared in the Venona decryptions as the

unidentified cover name of someone in a photographic section of an unidentified agency and is compatible with Bella Joseph.[123] “Colleague”: Carl Marzani [West Venona] “Colleague”: Kollega: unidentified name works in the photographic section pictorial division [JEH: NSA/FBI footnote assumes this is reference to OWI photographic section, but OSS had a photographic section too] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Colleagues” [Kollegi] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): KGB file name for political contacts in Washington. Collins, Henry: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Secret Communist, midlevel official in a variety of agencies in the 1930s and 1940s. Identified by Chambers as a member of the original “Ware group” covert CPUSA unit. Identified as active in the CPUSA covert arm by Hope Hale Davis, Nathaniel Weyl, and others.[124] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “105th”. Collins, J. Lawton: Senior American Army general. Colodny, Hyman: Member of “Vendor’s” CPUSA espionage group. Activist in CPUSA Washington, DC in early 1940s. Columbie (ship) (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Combat Information Center (journal): Internal U.S. Army journal. “Combat: See “Boy”. “Combine”: Kombinat: People’s Commissariat for Foreign Trade (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Combined Liberation Areas Committee: U.S. Department of State committee. Comintern: see Communist International. Comite des Forges (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Commerce, Department of, U.S.. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Tea Shop”. “Commerce Department”: Tea Shop (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Committee of Civil Liberties: Reference to the 1936-1941 Subcommittee Investigating Violations of Free Speech and the Rights of Labor (chaired by Senator William La Follette) of the U.S. Senate Committee on Education and Labor. Also known as the La Follette committee. Committee of Free Germans [source Venona] Committee of Information: In the fall of 1947 the MGB foreign intelligence directorate was combined with the foreign intelligence arm of Soviet military intelligence (GRU) to form a combined foreign intelligence

agency, the Committee of Information (KI). The MGB remained as a separate agency but with only domestic responsibilities. However, in the summer of 1948 many of the military personnel in KI were returned to the Soviet general staff to reconstitute a foreign military intelligence arm and reconstitute GRU as a foreign intelligence agency. KI sections dealing with the new Soviet dominated Eastern European regimes as well as Soviet émigrés were returned to the MGB in late 1948. Finally, in 1951 the KI’s foreign intelligence functions were returned to the MGB, and the latter evolved into the KGB in 1954. Committee of Liberation (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Committee on Cultural Liaisons with Foreign Countries, USSR. Committee on Emigration: Likely a reference to the U.S. House Committee on Immigration and Naturalization. Committee on Investigation of the Munitions Industry, U.S. Senate: Chaired by Senator Nye. Also known as the Nye Committee Commonweal magazine (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Communist, Communists: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Fellowcountryman”, “Fellowcountrymen”. Communist International Youth (journal): likely a garbled title for a journal associated with the Young Communist International. Communist International: Also known as Comintern. Communist International”: Big House (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Communist Party, USA: CPUSA. Also know as American Communist Party, Comparty, CP. and ACP. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Fraternal”, “Fellowcountrymen organization”, “Club”, “Brothers”. Communist, The (journal): theoretical journal of the CPUSA, predecessor to Political Affairs. Comorera, Juan (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Comparty: Communist Party. “Competitors”: hostile intelligence agency (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Competitors (tradecraft term): KGB term for intelligence officers or the intelligence and security agencies of any nation regarded as hostile or potentially hostile. “Complex” [Kombinat] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): U.S. Service and Shipping Corporation, 1943-1945, “Complex” [Kombinat] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): People’s Commissariat of Foreign Trade, USSR (NKVT) in 1941.

Compton, Arthur (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Compton, Arthur: Senior scientist involved in the Manhattan atomic project, directed the “Metallurgical Laboratory” at the University of Chicago where the first atomic pile with a self-sustaining atomic reaction was achieved. Comrade X: KGB report reference to GRU illegal Kogan brought into the U.S. covertly by ship in 1941. Conant, James B.: Chemist, president of Harvard University and chairman of the National Defense Research Committee in WWII. Conason, Emil: New York medical doctor close to the CPUSA. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Invalid”.[125] “Concern” [Kontsern] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): William R. Hearst. “Concessionaire” [Kontsessioner] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Julius Hammer. “Condenser” [Kondensator] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent. Likely Kenneth Richardson. Long term technical source/agent. “Condenser” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Kenneth Richardson. “Condenser”: Richardson, Kenneth (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Condon, Edward U.: Physicist. Director of the National Bureau of Standards. Briefly deputy to Oppenheimer at Los Alamos. Conius, Boris: Son-in-law of Sergey Rachmaninoff: Connally, Thomas: U.S. Senator (D. Texas). Connally, Tom, Senator (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Constantine” [Konstantin] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent/source, 1945 (Alternative translation: Konstantine). Constantinova, Katia: Variant of Konstantinova, Katerina. “Construction ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Construction”: Spain (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Constructor” [Konstruktor] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Abraham Brothman prior to October 1944. “Constructor” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Brothman.[126] “Constructor”: Konstruktor: Abraham Brothman (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Consul” [Konsul] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, early 30s.

Consulate, USSR: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Plant”. “Contact”:: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Continent” [possibly Australia] (NGRU line) [source Venona] Contracting (tradecraft term): 1930s KGB term for formal recruitement, especially on the XY line. Also know as “signing on”. “Contractor” [Podryadchik] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1945. Likely Alexander Saffian. “Contractor” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Alexander Saffian.[127] “Contractor”: Podryadchik: Alexander Saffian (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Contreras, Carlos (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Cooke, Maurice Bacon: Soviet intelligence source/agent associated with Gayk Ovakimyan. Cooke was identified as a KGB contact in Armand Feldman’s FBI file. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Octane”. “Cookie ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Coolidge, Calvin: President of the United States, 1923-1929. Coolidge, Harold (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Cooper”: Maxim: Vasily Mikhailovich Zarubin = Zubilin [source Feklisov] Cooper, Hugh L.: Chairman of the American-Russian Chamber of Commerce, 1932. Cooper, K.: Described as general manager of Associated Press, 1944. Co-optee (tradecraft term): A Soviet diplomatic, technical, or trade official) detailed to assist Soviet intelligence activities when a professional officer is not available with the appropriate skills or in the appropriate position. “Copericus” [Kopernik]: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Coplon, Judith: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Analyst in the foreign agents registration (counter-intelligence) section of the Justice Department. KGB sent the Comintern a vetting inquity about her. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent. She was arrested in 1949 in the act of turning over Justice Department documents to Valentin Gubichev, a Soviet intelligence agent working under the cover of employment by the United Nations.[128] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Sima”. Coplon, Judith: “Sima” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Cora” [Kora] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Emma Phillips. Soviet intelligence source/agent. “Cora” was a cover name in the Venona decryptions whose identity was established but which NSA redacted when it released the messages. The Venona messages indicated that “Cora” was married to another Soviet source, cover names “Roy” and “Ampere”, who was also identified but whose identify was also redacted.[129] “Cora” [Kora]: redacted, wife of Ampere (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Corchran, ? (garbled real name): (Korkran in Russian.) Described as a U.S. senator in 1945. No senator in the 79th congress had a name close to this. However, the writer of the report, KGB officer, Bodgan, referred to all members of congress as senators, for example, identifying the chairman of a U.S. House committee as a senator. Possibly this is a reference to Representative John J. Cochran (D. Missouri). Corcoran, Thomas: White House aide in the early New Deal, later highly influential lobbyist and lawyer with strong ties to the Democratic Party Corcoran, Tom (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Corday, Charlotte (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Cordell”: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Cork” [Probka]: Pinsly, William (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Corneille”: Korney appears to be Soviet in the Office,: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Cornet” [Kornet] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified friendly but non-recruited diplomatic source of legal KGB officer “Frank”, mid-30s. Cornford, John: British Communist recruited for the International Brigades at Cambridge University, died in the Spanish Civil War. “Corporal”: Kapral:: Edward Stettinius, Jr. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Corporal” [Kapral] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Edward Stettinius, Jr. “Corporal” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Stettinius. “Corpus” [Korpus] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Western Electric company. “Cort”: likely Mike Cort aka Floyd Cleveland Miller Cosmos Club, Washington, DC..

Costigan, Howard: Head of the Washington [state] Commonwealth Federation and a secret member of the CPUSA. Costra, Louis: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Cot, Pierre: Daedalus [Dedal] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Cot, Pierre: Soviet intelligence source/agent. French politician (Radical Party) who advocated strong French alliance with the USSR. Identified by KBG defector Walter Krivitsky as a Soviet source. After the fall of France in 1940, Cot fled France and offered his services to the USSR via the CPUSA. Received the Lenin Peace Prize from the USSR in 1953. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent with the cover name “Daedalus”.[130] Council of People’s Commissars, USSR. Council on Foreign Relations, USA. “Country”: Strana: USA (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Country House”: Dacha: U.S. embassy, Moscow. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Country” [Strana] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): USA. “Country” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the USA. “Countryside” [Derevnya] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified but likely Mexico. “Countryside” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Mexico. “Countryside”: Mexico (Countryside is Derevnya in Russian ) (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Couple’ or ’Pair”: ’Cheta’: Fisher, Nicholas and Maria (KGB line) [source Venona] Courageous [Smel'y]: See “Plucky”. “Courier” [Kur'er] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. An American detective, source for “Grin”/ Spivak. Couve de Murville, Maurice (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Coventry”: unidentified cover name (GRU line) [source Venona] Cover name no. 22 twenty-two: Hogman, Captain. “Cowboy”: Rosal Diaz, Amaro, Spanish pro-Communist Socialist] (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Coworkers (tradecraft term): Soviet military, naval and air attachés. CPA: Communist Party of America, more formally, the CPUSA. CPE: Communist Party of England, more formally, the CPGB. CPGB: Communist Party of Great Britain.

CPSU: Communist Party of the Soviet Union. “Crab” [Krab] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, head of an illegal line, 1948. “Cradle” [Kolybel'] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): New York University. “Cranberry” [Klyukva] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): U.S. Army Security Agency, 1948. Crandall, Harlan W.: Mid-level government official involved in the 1941 theft of Civil Service Commission records for commercial purposes. Crane, William Edward: “Keith” [source William Crane FBI file]: Pete [source Tanenhaus Whittaker Chambers ] Cricher, A. Lane: U.S. Commerce Department official, early 1930s Cripple Creek (ship) [source Venona] Crist, William I.: British general. “Critic”: Kritik: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Cromwell, James H.R.: American financier, husband of Doris Duke, and major Democratic Party fundraiser. “Crook” [Zhulik] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Samuel Dickstein. Crouch, Paul: CPUSA organizer who became a FBI informant and witness. Crouch, Sylvia: CPUSA member, wife of Paul Crouch. “Crow”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Crow Bar”: Lom: unidentified, possibly garble of Pasha (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Crowley [Krouli] of FDIC (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Crowley, Leo, FEA head, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Crowley, Leo: Senior government war administrator, director of the Board of Economic Warfare, Foreign Economic Administration, and other posts. “Crucian”: Karas: Ivancic, Anton (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] CSSR: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. C/t: Cipher telegram Cudahy, John Clarence: Senior American diplomat, 1930s. Cummings, Homer Stille: U.S. Attorney General, 1933-39. “Cupid”: Amur: unidentified: also “Zhannet”: Jeannette (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Cupid” [Amur] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent, assigned to anti-Trotsky work, 1939. Likely Robert Sheldon Harte. “Cupid” (under the transliterated Russian as “Amur”)

was identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as Robert Sheldon Harte.
[131]

Currie, Lauchlin: Page [Pazh] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Currie, Lauchlin: Soviet intelligence source/agent. His ties to the Washington Communist underground went back to the mid-1930s. Chambers described him as working with the underground as a fellow traveler rather than a party member. Adolf Berle’s 1939 notes on his conversation with Chambers have Chambers describing Currie as someone who cooperated with the underground but who “never went the whole way”. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as part of the Silvermaster espionage group. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[132] Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Page” (1942-1946), “Cecil” (to Akmerov in 1944), “Vim” (1948). Curry (Kerri?): unidentified, probably an American Troskyist? (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Curtiss, John Sheldon (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Curtis-Wright aircraft. Curtius, Julius: German foreign minister, 1929-1931. Cushing, Richard James: American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. Archbishop of Boston from 1944 to 1970, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1958. Cutting, Suydam (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Cyrano” [Sirano] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, Paris, 1947. “Czech”: Chekh: Abram: Soble, Jack (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Czech”: Chekh: also “Bob”: Menaker, Robert Owen (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Czech” [Chekh] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Jack Soble starting in September 1944. “Czech” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Jack Soble.[133] Czernin, Ferdinand / (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] XXD “D”.: [dd] unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “D., Mrs”. (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Harry Gold reference to Kristel Fuchs Heineman. D work, possibly sabotage from Diversiya (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

D’ya... (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] D'Abernon, Edgar Vincent, 1st Viscount D'Abernon: British politician, diplomat, and writer. “Dacha” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): U. S. embassy in Moscow 1943. “Daedalus” [Dedal]: Pierre Cot (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Daily Worker (newspaper): CPUSA daily newspaper. Daimler-Benz. Dajton: Dighton: [GRU cipher clerk] [source Venona] “Dak” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Described as Trotskyist, potential target of cultivation. Likely James Cannon. “Dak” was identified in the Venona decryptions as James Cannon.[134] “Dak”: James P. Cannon (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Daladier, Édouard: French political figure. Dallin, Mrs. David J.: Lidiya Estrina (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Dalstroy (ship) [source Venona] Damanchuk, Simon: Ukrainian nationalist. “Dan” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Stanley Graze. “Dan” appeared in the Venona decryptions as unidentified but in a context that suggests Stanley Graze.[135] “Dan”: unidentified source, possibly American in London in 1945 (U.K. KGB line) [source Venona] Dan: unidentified [JEH: message about Russian exiles, probably real name reference to Menshevik Theodore Dan] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Danaher, John: U.S. Senator, 1939-1945 (R. CT) “Dandy”: unidentified source (U.K. line, [West Venona]) Dangic' (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Daniel'”(cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Daniel”. “Daniel” [Daniel'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified DOS subsource of KGB source “10”/“Leo”. Judged by KGB to be a fake source invented by “10”/“Leo” to gain more financial benefits from KGB by pocketing the subsidy paid Daniel. Also known as “12”. Daniel Willard (ship) [source Venona] Daniels, Josephus: Secretary of the Navy, 1913-1921. “Danilov”: unidentified, may be Vladimir V. Gavrilyuk (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Danya” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, 1945. “Dar” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Gift”.[136] “Dar”: Gift: Kasparov, Grigory (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Dara” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. Assisted in recruiting informants among German refugees on the West Coast. Darcy, Samuel: Senior CPUSA leader expelled in 1944 for criticizing Earl Browder's leadership. Dark (tradecraft term): When information is gained “in the dark” it means that the informant does not know he or she is giving the information directly to a Soviet intelligence officer. When someone is used “in the dark” it means the intelligence officer has misled the person used as to exactly who he or she is assisting. Someone misled into believing he or she is delivering information to the CPUSA rather than directly to the KGB is said to used “in the dark” even though the person assumed that the ultimate recipient of the information was the USSR. Darling, Byron Thorwell: Soviet intelligence source/agent, scientific intelligence. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Huron” until October 1944, then “Ernst” until February 1945, then it reverted to “Huron” once more. Darling, Mrs. Byron: Soviet intelligence source/contact. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Lida”. “Dasha”: Wicher, Maria [mother of Fora Wovschin] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Dashman, Saul, Scotia NY (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Dauber, M. of Dauber and Pine Bookshop, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Daugherty, Harry Micajah: U.S. Attorney General, 1921-1924. “Daughter”: Voge, Marietta, née Jirku, wife of Noel Voge (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Daugs, Willi, German businessman (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Davey [Unidentified] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] David (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks, a given name used as a cover name): David Smilg. Davidson, Ben: David Benjamin (party name) [source Chambers Witness] Davidson, Gerald: Described as OSS officer/staff.

Davies, Joseph: Businessman, U.S. ambassador to the USSR in the 1930s, advisor to President Roosevelt on Soviet matters. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Ami”. Davies, Joseph E. Davies, Ralph (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Davila, Carol [Charles] A., Rumanian figure: “Docker” [Ducker]: “Daker” [Doker] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Davis” / “Devis” / “Dlinnyj” / “Long”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Davis” / “Devis” / “Spark”: unidentified [unclear if this is “Davis”/”Long”] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Davis” [Devis] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Norman Hight after October 1944.[137] Davis is not directly named in Vassiliev’s notebooks as Hight. However. “Davis” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent whose cover name was earlier “Long”, and “Long” is identified in Vassiliev’s notebooks as Norman Hight.[138] “Davis” [Devis] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Valentin Borisovich Markin, illegal KGB station chief early 1930s. References to in 1933. Davis, Elmer: Senior American journalist and chief of the Office of War Information in WWII. Davis, James: Los Angeles police chief, 1933-1938. Davis, Marion Berdecio born Marion or Marian Davis, married Berdecio [Marian?]: “Lou” / “Lu” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Davis, Marion: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Married name: Marion Davis Berdecio. Davis was identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet intelligence source with the cover name “Lou”. Comintern records contain a 1944 KGB vetting inquiry about Davis. Davis in 1944 worked on the staff of the Office of Naval Intelligence at the U.S. Embassy in Mexico and later for the Office of Inter-American Affairs in Washington.[139] The Office of Inter-American Affairs was absorbed into the State Department in 1946, and Davis is a candidate for the cover name “Lou” that appears in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks as associated with the State Department in 1946. Davis, Norman H.: Senior American diplomat, in the mid-1930s referred to in the press as “ambassador-at-large”, although this was not an official title at the time. Davis: unidentified in Portland (NGRU line) [source Venona]

“Davydov” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer/agent, New York KGB station 1952. Davydov (ship) [source Venona] Dawson, William, U.S. Ambassador to Uruguay (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Day, Stephen: U.S. Representative, 1941-1945 (R. IL) “Dayvin”: code name for New York KGB radar source [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] D.B. (initials): Described as a representative of the Department of the Treasury sent to Moscow in 1945. De Alba, Adolfo Orive: “Okh” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] De Frutas (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] De Gaulle: “Ras” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] de Gaulle, Charles: Leader of the Free French. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Ras”. de la Sierra, Maria: “Africa” [Fisher network, KGB post WWII] [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] De Lacey, Hugh: U.S. Representative (D. Washington, 1945-1946), secret member of the CPUSA. de Lozoada, Enrique S. (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] de Paul, Santiago, son of Nelken Mansberger de Paul, (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] De Sancha, Tomas”: brother of Jose Sancha Padros (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] De Sveshnikov, Valdimir Vladimirovich: see Sveshnikov, Valdimir Vladimirovich. De Sveshnikov, Valdimir Vladimirovich DeSveshnikov, also see Svechnikov. Source for Chambers & Bykov network, ballistics expert. [source William Crane FBI] Dead drop (tradecraft term): A dead drop or dead letter box, is a location used to secretly pass items between two people, without requiring them to meet. Deak, Frank, Columbia University and Pan-American airways (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Dean, Gordon: Chairman of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 1950. Dean, Mary: Sister of Faye Glasser. Dean, Sidney: Faye Glasser's brother-in-law.

Deane, ??: Described as head of the American Secretariat on the German occupation Control Council. Deane, John R. (real name) and the Deane mission. General John R. Deane headed the U.S. military mission in Moscow, 1943-1945. Deans, Antonio Gomez: Oliver (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Dear: See “Dir”. Debs, Eugene: American Socialist leader in the early 20th century. Debuchi, Katsuji: Japanese ambassador to the U.S., early 1930s. Declerc, general (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Decree”: Dekret: Lend Lease (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Decree” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): U.S. Lend Lease program and agency, circa 1944. “Decree” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Lend Lease. “Ded” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Grandfather”. “Ded”: Grandfather, possibly Maksim Litvinov, Soviet Ambassador (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Dedich?; (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] “Dedushka”: Grandpapa: Evgeny Kiselev (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Deer: See “Dir”. Degan, Thomas: Described as New York Police official involved in antiradical activities. “Deighton”: contact of Irving Nelson [West Venona]) “Deighton”: Dighton: Dajton [probably GRU cipher clerk] [source Venona] “Deka”: Sounding Board: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Dekabrist (ship) Dekanosov, Vladimir Georgievich , Head of cipher and communications of NKID] (NGRU line) [source Venona] Dekanozov, Vladimir G.: Deputy chief of NKID, 1940-1947. “Dekret” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Decree”. del Vayo, Julio Alvarez: Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War, a Socialist (PSOE) who supported close alliance with Communists and the Soviet Union. del Vayo, ?Oulio Alvarez, of Spain (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Delano, Luis (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Delgass, Basil: See Vasily Delgass. Delgass, Vasily: Vice-president of Amtorg, defected 1930. Testified to Rep. Hamilton Fish’s Special Committee to Investigate Communist

Activities, asserted that Amtorg was used as a cover for espionage. Also know as Basil and Basilie Delgass. Delonier, ?: Described as Boris Morros’s banker. Demchenko, Vasilij [Vasily] Nikolaevich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Demid” or “Demidov”: Abramvo, Aleksandr Stepanovich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Democratic National Committee. Dempsey, John J.: U.S. Representative (D. NM) Denikin, Anton and Dinikinists: Tsarist Army general and leader of antiBolshevik White forces in the Russian Civil War. Denisenko, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Dennis, Eugene: Ryan [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] ( Dennis, Eugene, (Dzhin, Denis, Dennis) (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Dennis used a Comintern party name of “Tim Ryan”. Dennis, Eugene: Senior CPUSA leader, second ranking leader under Earl Browder in the early 1940s, chief of the party after Browder’s fall in 1945 until 1959. Comintern and KGB records documents Dennis’s role in inserting covert Communists into OSS and OWI.[140] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Physician”. Denny, Harold: New York Times Moscow correspondent. “Dent”: unidentified, likely GRU officer [source Venona] “Department”: American Russian Institute “Depo” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Depot”. “Depot”: War Production Board (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Depot” [Depo] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): War Production Board, U.S. “Depot” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the War Production Board. Depres, posibly Joseph Deprez of Free French (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] “Deputy ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Deputy”: Wallace, Henry [West Venona] “Deputy”: Zamestitel: Possibly Harry Hopkins or possibly Henry Wallace (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Deputy” [Zamestitel'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Laurence Steinhardt. References to in 1939. Der Tog, Zionist newspaper (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Derbi” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Derby”.

“Derby” [Derbi] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Henry Linschitz. “Derevnya” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Countryside”. Deribas, Terenty D.: Senior KGB officer, Executed in Stalin’s Terror, 1937. “Derivat” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Derivative”. “Derivative” [Derivat] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): N.M. Ellias. Dern, George H.: U.S. Secretary of War, 1933-1936. Deryabin (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Desiatka” / “The Ten” (Ten Spot, Ten-ruble note, Tenner) cover name for ten Soviet students who worked for KGB (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Designer: See “Constructor”. Desna (ship) Desnan (ship) [source Venona] Despres, Emile (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Despres, Emile: Senior official in OSS economics division, later with the State Department in 1945. “Desyatym” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Tenth”. “Detective” [Detektiv] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Martin Dies. “Detektiv” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Detective”. Deutsch (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Deutsch, Alfred (pseudonym): Arnold Deutsch’s Austrian passport name. Deutsch, Arnold: Senior KGB illegal officer. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Stephan”. “Devis” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Davis”. Davis in Russian can also be spelled Deyvis. “Devis”: Davis: also “Dlinnyj”: Long: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Devushka” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Young Woman”. “Devyatkin”: KGB Probationer on Soviet ship (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] Devyatkin, Boris: GRU officer in the US. in the late 1920s, early 1930s using the pseudonym Dick Murzin.[141] Dewavrin, Andre Lucien Charles Daniel: Passy, Col (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Dewer, ?: Describes as first secretary of the U.S. Embassy in Iran, 1950. Dewey, Thomas: Governor of New York (1942-1954) and Republican presidential candidate in 1944 and 1948. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Kulak”.

Dewey, Tom: Fist: Kulak (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Deyvis” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Davis”. Davis in Russian can also be spelled Devis. “Dezhiro”: Describes as of French Mission: possibly Giraud. (NGRU line) [source Venona] Délano, Luis Enrique, Chilean Consul in Mexico City, 1940-1947 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] d-f: delo-formulyar: card file. “Diana” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, New York station 1938. “Diana” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified source or agent, 1942, thought to have some access to Harry Hopkins’s secretary. “Diana” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence agent, transferred to the U.S., contact established 1941, reference to in 1943. May be the same as “Diana” 1942. “Dick”: Dik: Bernard Schuster (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Dick”: GRU officer (U.K. line, [West Venona]) “Dick” [Dik] (cover name in Venona): Bernard Schuster. Dick or Dik [unidentified GRU cipher clerk], (NGRU line) [source Venona] Dick (pseudonym): Elizabeth Bentley’s pseudonym for Donald Wheeler. Dickstein, Samuel: Soviet intelligence source/agent. U.S. Representative (D. New York, 1923-1945). Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Optant” (1937), then “Crook”. Dickstein’s Committee: U.S. House Special Committee on Un-American Activities, 1934-1937. Also known as the McCormack-Dickstein committee. “Dicky” [Diki] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent 1945, a radio journalist/commentator. Likely Johannes Steele. “Dicky” was identified in the Venona decryptions as journalist Johannes Steele.[142] “Dicky”: Dicki: Diki: Steele, Johannes (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Dieckhoff, Heinrich: German Ambassador to the U.S., 1938. Diehl: Birthname of Grohol, Mary: Lenson, Marianne: Gringo (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Diels, Rudolf: Protege of Hermann Goring and head of the Prussian political police (predecessor to the Gestapo) in 1933-34. Dies, Martin: U.S. Representative (D. Texas, 1931-1945, 1953-1958), chairman of the U.S. House Special Committee on Un-American

Activities (Dies committee, 1938-1944). Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Detective”. Dietrich, Rudolf (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Diettmar, Kurt, German commentator Digest (journal): Unidentified journal, apparently an internal U.S. military journal of some sort. “Dighton”: Dajton [probably GRU cipher clerk] [source Venona] “Dik” (cover name in Venona): See “Dick”. “Dik” / “Dick”: Bernard Schuster (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Diki” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Dicky”. “Diktor” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Announcer”. “Diktor” (Dictor) or “Radio-Announcer” (Announcer): William Donovan: (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Dili”: unidentified cover name [JEH; looks like Chinese Nationalist intelligence] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Dimitrievich, Victor: Described as OSS officer/staff. “Dina” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): wife of Dan (Stanley Graze), Mrs. Stanley Graze. “Dina” / “Dinah”: Mrs. Ray Gertrude Kahn (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Dinah” / “Dina”: Mrs. Ray Gertrude Kahn (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Diplomat ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Diplomat”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Dir” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Mary Price from late 1941 to August 1944. (Alternative translations: Dear, Deer). “Dir” appeared in the Venona decryptions as Mary Price. “Dir ”: Price, Mary Wolfe (KGB U.S. line) [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Dir”: Price, Mary Wolfe (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Direction Finder”: Kovoj, Anatolij [Anatoly] Vasilevich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Directive echelon: Soviet idiom for the upper leadership apparatus of the CPSU. “Director ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Direktsiya” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): A See “dministration”. (Alternative translation: Directorate). “Discovery”: See “Godsend”. “Disk”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Distant Neighbors”: KGB in Naval GRU lingo [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] Division of Studies and Progress Reports: section of UNNRA. Division of the American Republics, U.S. Department of State. Dixon, ?, of Montelier company [source Venona] “Dlinny” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Long”. “Dlinnyj” / “Long” / “Davis”: Devis: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Dmitriev, Evgenij [Evgeny] Aleksandrovich, third secretary of NY consulate, head of Couriers and Cipher office: “Si” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Dmitrieva, Aleksandr Nikolaevna: (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Dmitriy” or “Dmitry”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Dneprostroj (ship) [source Venona] Dobbs, Farrell, member Socialist Workers Party (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Dobrokhotov, ?: Senior Soviet official, 1953. Dobrolet: Early Soviet society promoting civil aviation. Dobrovolsk, Nikolay Stepanovich: Described as a mentally-ill Moscow citizen. Dobrowolski, Stefan (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Dobson: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Dock”: Navy Department (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Dock” [Dok] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): U.S. Department of the Navy. “Dock” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the Navy department. “Docker” [Ducker]: “Daker” [Doker]: Davila, Carol [Charles] A. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Doctor” [Doktor] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Maurice Frocht, early 30s. “Doctor” [Doktor] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1934 supplied false passports. Dodd, Jr., William: “President” [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Dodd, Jr., William E.: “Sitsilla” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Dodd, Martha: Maiden name of Martha Dodd Stern. See Martha Dodd Stern. Dodd, William: Historian, Democratic party activist, U.S. ambassador to Germany, 1933-1938.

Dodd, William, jr.: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Son of Ambassador William Dodd. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[143] Identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as a Soviet source/agent. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Boy” (1936-1939) and “President” (1939-1948). Dodge, Ethel Geraldine Rockefeller (Mrs. M. Hartley Dodge): Purchased the building housing the Soviet consulate in 1946 and declined to renew the lease on terms acceptable to the USSR. “Dodger”: Lovkach: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Dog” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Mastiff”. “Dok” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Dock”. “Doktor” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Doctor”. (Also see Vrach.) Dolbin, Grigory: Soviet intelligence officer, U.S. 1946-47. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Grigory”. “Dolchik”: unidentified (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Dolivet, Johanna: Described as the German wife of Louis Dolivet prior to his marriage to Beatrice Straight. Dolivet, Louis: Brother-in-law of Michael Straight and head of the Free World Association. Also know as Ludovici Udeanu and Ludwig Brecher. Romanian born, naturalized French cititizen active in French Communist politics in the 1930s in association with Pierre Cot and Willi Munzenberg and a leader of La Rassemblement Universal Pour La Paix, an anti-Fascist front with strong Communist and Soviet ties. Escaped the fall of France and came to the United States in 1940. Brother-in-law of Michael Straight. Later a wellknow figure in the Hollywood movie industry. Dolzhenko, Anatoliy (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Dom” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Home”. “Dom”: House: unidentified in Moscow (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Dombi” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Domby”. “Domby” [Dombi] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Emanuel Schwartz. Domeratzky, Louis: U.S. Commerce Department official, early 1930s. Domevskaya, Olga (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Don” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Alexander Koral in 1936 until August 1944. “Don”: John Sherman [source Chambers Witness] “Don”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Don”: Uribe Galdeano, Vicent] (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Donal'd” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Donald”. “Donald”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] “Donald”: William Ludwig Ullmann (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Donald” [Donal'd] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): William Ludwig Ullmann begining in August 1944 (after “Polo”), changed to “Pilot” in September 1944. “Donald” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Ullmann.[144] Donald, U.S. Captain, “Who is loyal to us” (NGRU line) [source Venona] Donbass (ship) [source Venona] Donchenko, Moisej Nikolaevich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Donini, Ambrogio (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Donovan, James: Prominent New York attorney, 1960s. Donovan, William: “Diktor” “Radio Announcer” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Donovan, William: U.S. Army genral, organizer and commander of OSS. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Announcer”. DOP: Delo Operativnoy Perepiski: Operational Correspondence file. “Dora” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Helen Silvermaster. “Dora” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Helen Silvermaster.[145] “Dora”: Helen Witte Silvermaster (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Dorian” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Thomas A. Fineberg. “Dorian” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified courier 1934 between Davis’ KGB illegal station and the legal station. “Dorin” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): George Eltenton. Dorkarkhanova: Wife of S. A. Vasilyev. Dorn, Walter: OSS official. Dorogov, Vasily Georgievich: Soviet intelligence officer. Dorokhov: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] Dorosi, ?, of rubber section WPB [source Venona] “Dorothy” [Dorotti] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Mildred Price. “Dorotti” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Dorothy”. Dorr, Russell: Senior OSS officer, Turkey. DOS: Department of State, U.S. Sometimes referred to in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks as MID, Russian abbreviation for the Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In those cases, MID is translated as DOS. “Douglas”: Duglas: Joseph Katz (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Douglas aircraft company. “Douglas” [Duglas] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Joseph Katz beginning in August 1944, changed to “X” in September 1944. “Douglas” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Katz.[146] Douglas, Helen Gahagan: U.S. Representative (D. CA, 1945-1950. Douglas, Lewis W.: U.S. ambassador to London, 1947-1951. Douglas, Melvyn: Well known Hollywood actor, 1930s-1960s. Husband of Helen Gahagan Douglas. Dowel: See “Spline”. Downey, Sheridan: U.S. Senator (D. CA, 1939-1951). Doxsee, Sylvia Lorraine Callen: Sylvia Franklin: “Satyr” / “Satir” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Dozd”: Thrush: also “Akhmed”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Drachuk, P.F. (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Dragon” [Drakon] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Robert Van de Graaff. “Drakon” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Dragon”. Draper, William H., Jr.: Undersecretary of the Army, 1947-1949. Dreyfus, U.S. Ambassador in Iran (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Drogojowski, married to Nataliya Aszkenazy (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Drone” [Truten'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, subsource of “Talent”. “Drop”: Mosely, Philip, Russian section of OSS and U.S. State Dept. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Drozd” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Thrush”. Drozdov, Leo: Described as OSS officer/staff. Drozdova, Mariya (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Drug” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Friend”. “Drugg” [Friend ]: Stennes, Walther [Walter] [ appears to be KGB Tokoyo or Asian channel] cited to Courier of Russian Intelligence May 1991. [source Schecter Sacred “Secrets] “Drugstore” / “Apteka”: unidentified, possibly an institution , 1945 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] DST: Direction de la Surveillance du Territoire, Frence counter-intelligence agency. “Dubki” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Oaklings”.

Dubna: Russian city, cite of major Soviet nuclear research facilities. Dubois: unidentified source (U.K. line, [West Venona]) Dubois, A. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Dubois, Josiah E., Jr.: Senior advisor to Secretary of Treasury Morgenthau. DuBois, Josiah Ellis, Assistant the the Secretary of the Treasury, representative to Reparations Commission. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Dubrovsky, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. “Duche” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Sergey M. Shpigelglaz. “Ducker”: Daker: Davila, Charles A. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Duclos, Jacques: French Communist Party leader and nominal author of a Soviet composed article in Les Cahiers du Communisme denouncing Earl Browder’s reforms of the CPUSA as ideologically unacceptable.
[147]

“Duga” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Arch”. Duggan, Helen Boyd: Wife of Laurence Duggan. Cognizant of and supported her husband’s activities of Soviet intelligence. Duggan, Laurence: “19” in 1930s [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Duggan, Laurence: “Frank” [Frenk]: Knyaz: “Prince” / “Sherwood” [Shervud] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Duggan, Laurence: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Duggan joined the State Department in 1930 and served as Latin American Division chief, 1935-37, then chief of the Division of the American Republics (merger of the Latin American and Mexican Divisions). On Adolf Berle’s 1939 list of those identified by Whittaker Chambers as covert Communists who were espionage risks. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent. Identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as a Soviet source/agent. Identified as a KGB source by Hede Massing. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “19” (and variants “Nineteen” and “Nineteenth”) starting in 1935. Briefly designated as “Official” by the Legal station in 1935. Designated as “Frank” in Iskhak Akhmerov reports in 1942-1943, but also continues to be referred to as “19” in this period in other documents. Appeared as “19” again in August 1944. A Moscow directive changed his cover name from “19” to “Sherwood” in August 1944, then “Prince” starting in September 1944.[148] Duggan, Stephen P.: Father of Laurence Duggan, professor at CCNY and founder of the Institute for International Education.

“Duglas” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Douglas “Duglas”: Douglas: Joseph Katz (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Dukanovic’ (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Duke, Doris: Wealthy heiress. “Duke” [Gertsog] unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Dukhobors ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Dulles, Allan (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Dulles, Allen: Senior OSS official, later Director of Central Intelligence. Dulles, Clover Todd: Daughter of Allen Dulles, served in OSS. Dulles, John Foster Dulles, John Foster: U.S. Secretary of State, 1953-1959. Dumay, Henry: Described as correspondent of Victor Hammer, 1945-1948. Dunaievski, Grisa (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Dunaievski, Isaac”: Lar (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Duncan, Rear Admiral J. US. Naval attache Moscow, 42-43, (NGRU line) [source Venona] Duncan: unidentified probably Admiral J. Duncan (NGRU line) [source Venona] Dunn, James, U.S. State Dept. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Dunn, James: U.S. State Department official, foreign service officer. Dunning, John (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Dunning, John: Columbia physicist and leader of work on gaseous diffusing uranium separation. Dunts, ?: KGB agent slated for infiltration into Germany via the battle front, late 1941. Dunts, Karl: KGB officer or agent, worked with Harry Gold, 1936-38. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Achilles”. Dupont, Alfred (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] DuPont Corporation “Durant”: redacted (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Durant, William James: Prominent historian, philosopher and writer. Duranty, Walter: New York Times Moscow correspondent in the 1930s. Durbrow, Elbridge: Senior American diplomat, chief of DOS East European division in WWII. Durmashkin, Ilya Lvovich: Russian immigrant to the United States, member of the Communist Party and an employee of Amtorg. He returned to the USSR in the early 1930s and executed as a Trotskyist in 1938.
[149]

Dutch Harbour (NGRU line) [source Venona] Dutsch, Julius (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Duval, Colonel (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Duver”: probationer in Vadim’s office (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Duya”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Duya’s son”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] D.V.: Dalniy Vostok: the Far East. “Dvina (ship) [source Venona] Dvoichenko-Markov, Demetrius”: Hook: Khuk (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Dvoichenko-Markov, Eufrosina”: Masha (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Dvorets” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Palace”. Dwight, E.V., Jr. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Dworkin, Euzebiusz (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Dyadenko, Ivan Ivanovich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Dyadya” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Uncle”. Dybenko, Pavel: Senior Red Army officer, late 1920s. Dzerzhinsky, Felix E.: Organizer and first chief of Cheka. “Dzhanetta” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Jeanette”. “Dzhek” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Jack”. “Dzhek” / “Jack”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] “Dzhems” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “James”. “Dzherom” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Jerome”. “Dzhon” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “John”. “Dzhon”: John: also “Gudson”: Hudson: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Dzhoni” / “Johnny”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] “Dzhonson” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Johnson”. “Dzhunior” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Junior”. Dzhurma (ship) [source Venona] Dziedzic, Frank Jones, employee of Thomas Black at National Oil Products. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] XXE “E-14”: unidentified (KGB San Francisco) with E. Pugachev (ship) [source Venona] “Eagle”: Orel: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Eagle” [Orel] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent. Described as a journalist and sent to Europe. Reference to in 1942. “Eagle” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified source in deactivated status in 1944.[150] The journalist Winston Burdett is a candidate for “Eagle”. Burdett, who later testified regarding his cooperation with KGB, was a journalist, worked for the Brooklyn Eagle at the time of his recruitment, and assisted KGB in Europe from 1940 to 1942 while working as a war correspondent. “Eagle Owl” [Filin] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Elmer Davis. Easley, Ralph: Head of the National Civic Federation and conservative antiCommunist activist. Eastern Airlines (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Eastern Division of the I.S.: likely a reference to the Eastern Division of the German intelligence service. Eastman, Max: A well-know radical writer in the 1910s and 1920s sympathetic to Bolshevism, associated with Leon Trotsky in the late 1920s and increasingly anti-Stalinist and anti-Communist in the 1930s and later. Eaton, Charles A. (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Eaton (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Eble, Francis Xavier A.: U.S. Commissioner of Costoms, 1929-1933. ECFEP: European Combined Foreign Economic Policy committee. Echelon (Soviet idiom): See Directive echelon. “Echo”: Bernard Schuster (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Echo”: Bernard Schuster [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] “Echo”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 [not “Echo”/ Schuster of 1944-45] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Echo” [Ekho] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Bernard Schuster beginning in June 1943. “Echo” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Schuster.[151] “Eck” [Ek] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Victor Perlo. Ecker, Ira: Senior American Army Air Force general. Eckhard, Jonis [Louis Owen Eckhard], Bell Aircraft engineer (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Economist”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ed: Party name for Edward Fitzgerald, 1940s. “Eddi” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Eddie”.

“Eddie” [Eddi] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Albert Kahn. Eddy, William A.: Senior OSS officer. Edelman, Mary: Sister of Jacob Golos. Eden, Anthony (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Edit” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Edith”. “Edith” [Edit] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks, given name used as a cover name): Soviet intelligence source/agent. Likely Edith Tudor Hart. “Edith” was identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as Edith Tudor Hart. “Edith” was identified in West and Tsarev as Edith Tudor Hart.[152] “Edith” [Edit] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. Recruited in Paris. References to in 1948. “Editor”: Konstantin Umansky [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] “Editor” (Redaktor): Umansky or Umanskij, Konstantin A., Soviet Ambassador to Mexico] (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Editorial Office” [Redaktsiya] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): TASS. “Editorial Office” was identified in the Venona decryptions as TASS. “Editorial Office”: Redaktsiya: Tass (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Eduard” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence liaison with Jones York, likely Emanuel Locke. References to in 1937, 1938.
[153]

“Eduard”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Edward”: unidentified source, KGB (U.K. line, [West Venona]) “Edwards” / “Black”: Gerhart Eisler, mid-30s Comintern pseudonyms [source F. Firsov] Edwards, R. M.: Described as an official of the State Department. KGB suspected it was a fake name in a fraudulent document. Edwards, Robert: Left Socialist British politician. Leader of the Independent Labour Party, a left split from the Labour Party. Edwards, Vice Admiral Richard S.[NGRU line] [source Venona] “Efim”: Makarov, Semen I, KGB [Australian line, West’s Venona] Efimov, Afanasy: Described by Boris Morris as one of his Soviet intelligence officer contacts in Vienna. “Efrem”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Efremov, Konstantin Alekseevich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Efron, David: Argentine resident in U.S. since 1932, link to Council for Pan American Democracy. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Egipko ”: unidentified name au (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Egor”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Egorichev, Capt (1st Rank) I.A. Soviet Naval Attache DC”: unidentified name five, #5: unidentified name ninety-one, #91: unidentified name ce (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Egorn”: Ejorn: Nathan Einhorn (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ehrenburg, Ilya (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Ehrenburg, Ilya: Soviet writer. Einhorn, Nathan: “Egorn” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Einstein, Albert: Theoretical mathematical physicist. Described as a cousin of Hans Mayer. Eisenberg, ?: Golos recommended Eisenberg’s recruitment on technical line in 1942. Eisenbert, Werner (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Eisenhower, Dwight: Commander of Allied forces in Western Europe, later U.S. president. Eisenhower, Mamie: Dwight Eisenhower’s wife. Eisenhower, Milton: Brother of President Eisenhower. Eisler, Gerhart: “Black” / “Edwards” mid-30s Comintern pseudonyms [source F. Firsov] Eitingon, General Leonid Aleksandrovich: “Pierre” [source Sudoplatov] Eitingon, General Leonid Aleksandrovich: “Tom” [source Sudoplatov] Eitingon, General Leonid Aleksandrovich (Ejtingon)]: “Tom” (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Eitingon, Leonid: See Eitingon, Naum. Eitingon, Matthew: Executive of a New York fur company described as involved in the Robinson/Rubens passport fraud case. Eitingon, Naum Isakyevich: More often know as Leonid Eitingon. Soviet intelligence officer. Used the cover name “Tom” during much of his long career that included tours in the United States and Mexico, supervision of Leon Trotsky’s murder, and other tasks. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Tom”. “Ek” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Eck”. “Ekho” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Echo”. EKOSO: Economic Conference. “Ekspert” / “Expert”: Abraham Brothman (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

EKU OGPU: Ekonomicheskoye Upravlenie (EKU), OGPU's economic directorate. “El'” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Fir”. (Alternative translation: Spruce) “El” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Alfred Slack prior to October 1944. Variant of “Ell”. “El” and “Ell” both appears as the cover name Alfred Slack in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks. It is not clear if this was a artifact of the KGB cipher system or carelessness by whoever wrote the reports cited. “Ell” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent whose cover name was changed to “Bir” in October 1944.[154] See “Ell”. “El”: unidentified cover name [Compare with El/Fir and Ell/Beer??] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “El’ Russian for Fir (Spruce)”: Keenan, Helen Grace Scott (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Elbrus (ship) [source Venona] “Elder” [Starshy] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Harold Urey. (Alternative translation: “Senior”) “Eldorado”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Eleanor [daughter of Gertsog, Frank Iosifovich (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Electric Pole” [Polyus] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, technical line. Described as employed at DuPont and a source until 1941 when investigated by FBI. (Polyus is pole in the sense of an electric or magnetic pole and is the cover name of a technical espionage source. To minimize confusion with Pole as someone from Poland, it is here translated as Electric Pole rather than simple as Pole.) “Electrician” [Elektrik] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent 1940. “Elektrik” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Electrician”. “Element”: Martynenko, Stepan Filippovich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Elena”: Elena Enriqueta Huerta Muzquiz (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Elena”: Seda: Vazquez Gomez, Elena (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Eleron” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Aileron”. “Eleron”: Aileron: Silverman, Abraham George (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Eliacheff, Boris: “Palm” (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Elias” / “Elija” / “Ilya” unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Elitcher, Max: target of recruitment, 1944 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Elijah” / “Elias” / “Ilya” unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Elisha”: Kurnakov’s son (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Elizabeth, II: Queen of the United Kingdom. “Elizarov”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Elkin”: Kalinin [probably not Tikhon Ivanovich] (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Elkina, Vera G. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Ell” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Alfred Slack prior to October 1944. Variant of “El”. “El” and “Ell” both appears as the cover name Alfred Slack in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks. It is not clear if this was a artifact of the KGB cipher system or carelessness by whoever wrote the reports cited. “Ell” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent whose cover name was changed to “Bir” in October 1944.[155] See “El”. “Ell” / “L” / “Bir” / “Beer”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Ella: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Ellen”: unidentified source, GRU (U.K. line, [West Venona]) Ellenbogen, Wilhelm (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Elli” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Elly”. Ellias, N.M.: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Chemist, worked at Dupont, recruited in 1934, deactivated 1938. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Derivative”. Ellinger, ?: Described as BEW official. “Ellis”: unidentified , (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Elly” [Elli] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): GRU source in British intelligence identified by Igor Gouzenko. “El'man” (cover name or possible real name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Elman”. “Elman” (cover name or possible real name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Described as a traitor by KGB in 1938. “Elsa ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Elsa”: unidentified source, New York [West Venona]

“Elsa” [El'za] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Helen Lowry (mid-1945) (Alternative translation: Elza). “Elsa” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Lowry.[156] “Elsa” [Elza]: Lowry, Helen, wife of Akhmerov, niece of Earl Browder. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Elsa (nick name): see Poretsky, Elisabeth. Elson, Rae: Also know as “Ray Elson.’ Bentley identified Elson as a longtime courier for the KGB who at KGB direction replaced Bentley at the United States Service and Shipping Corporation.[157] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Irma”. Eltenton, George Charles: Soviet intelligence source/agent.[158] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Dorin”. “Eltsov”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Eltsov, D.I. [ensign in Soviet Navy] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Eltsov, Junior Lt (NGRU line) [source Venona] Elvehjem, C.A., Wisconsin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “El'za” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Elsa”. “Elza”: Helen Lowry [source Damaskin Harris] Elza: See “Elsa”. “Em” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Medes Grineff starting in July 1942, changed to “Zam” by October 1943. EM: [possibly from Emigratsiya] penetration of anti-Soviet refugee societies. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Ema”: Mamlyga, Vitalij [Vitaly] Semenovich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Emba (ship) [source Venona] Embassy of the USSR: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Trust”. Embassy of the USSR: Cover name in Venona: “Trust”. Emelyanov, ?: An official connected to the Soviet Chief Directorate on the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy. Emelyanova, Ksenia Arkhipovna, possibly mother of Patriot (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Emerson, Edwin: American journalist, pro-German. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Star”. Emery, Edith: Emery had been born in Hungary in 1905 and came to the U.S. in 1930 as an exchange student at Bryn Mawr and got a M.A. there in 1931 and then studied economics at the Brookings Institution. In the U.S. she used the names Andrea Emery (her Hungarian given name

was “Ondra”) and Edith Emery. She went to Hungary in 1932 to obtain a divorce from her Hungarian husband, returned to the U.S. in 1932 and taught economics at Fordham and Bennington. In 1933 she married Edmund Stevens and became a U.S. citizen. They, however, divorced in 1935. She also completed a Ph.D. in economics at Columbia and worked as an economist for the New Deal’s Resettlement Administration and later for the Bureau of Indian Affairs. She also married Roy Hudson, a senior official of the CPUSA, in 1936. Emery worked in the CPUSA Washington underground in the mid-1930s. When Whittaker Chambers described the activities of his CPUSA-GRU network in the mid-1930s to the FBI, he mentioned one woman in contact with the network whose name he remembered as “Andre Embrey” and whom he described as Hungarian, the girlfriend of CPUSA offical Roy Hudson, and a secret Communist who worked for a government agency. Chambers identified a picture of Emery as the woman he had remembered as Embrey.[159] Candidate for the cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Squirrel”. Emery, Edith Ondra (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Emigres: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Guests”. “Emiliya”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]. See “Emma”. “Emir” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): ? Bukhartsev. “Emma” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Helen Lowry. The New York KGB station proposed changing Lowry’s cover name from “Stella” to “Emma” in September 1944, but it does not appear that this change was adopted. “Stella” continued to appear as Lowry’s cover name into 1945. New York KGB station’s proposed cover name shifts of 2 September 1944 are in the White notebook #1, p. 55 and in the Venona decryptions 1251, New York to Moscow, 2 September 1944. The substantive text is nearly identical, indicating that Alexander Vassiliev made his notebook entry from a copy of the cable sent to Moscow. One minor difference between Vassiliev’s notes and the cable as deciphered by NSA is that Vassiliev’s notes have the New York station proposing changing “Stella” to “Emma” while NSA’s deciphered version has the New York station suggesting changing “Stella” to “Emiliya”. The difference between “Emma” and “Emiliya” may be a product of a minor error in NSA’s recreation of the KGB code book.

Emmett, Beatrice: Described as a cousin of Milton Golos. Married name Kligman. Emory, Edith: see Emery, Edith. “Employer”: Khosyain: Buchman, Henry [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Employer” [Khozyain]: See “Boss”. “Emulsion” [Emul'siya] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, technical intelligence at Eastman Kodak 1938 and as a technical intelligence source in 1943, probably aviation related. Likely but not certainly these two “Emulsions” are the same. “Emulsion” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified technical intelligence sources in the aviation industry in 1943. “Emulsion” changed to “Signal” in the Venona decryptions in October 1944.[160] “Emulsion’s” brother (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1938, brother of “Emulsion”. “Emul'siya” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Emulsion”. “Emulsiya”: Emulsion: also “Signal”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Endelman, Michael (pseudonym): GRU agent know to Elizabeth Bentley who used the work name “Marcel” and had American identification as Michael Endelman.[161] Endelman is presumed to be a pseudonym. Cover name/work name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Marcel”. “Enemigo”: unidentified (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Enemy” [Vrag] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Walter Krivitsky. Engels, ??: Described as executive officers of Telefunken, 1945. Engels, ?: Described as a Telefunken top manager. “Engineer”: unidentified cover name (possibly Jones York?) (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Engineering Research Corporation. Enigma: See “Riddle”. “Enimego”: Unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Enk”: Unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Enormaz”: (usually “Enormos”) “Enormous”: Manhattan project: U.S. Atomic energy project and in some occurrences uranium 235. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Enormous” [Enormoz] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): cover name given to the espionage project targeting the Anglo-American atomic

bomb development and the Manhattan atomic project. “Enormous” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the Manhattan project. “Enormous” was identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as the Manhattan project. “Enormoz” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Enormous”. “Enormoz”: U.S. atomic bomb project [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] Enthusiast (ship) [source Venona] Entich, Otto, German businessman (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Entoni” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Anthony”. Epshteyn, Shakhne: Described as associate of Julius Hammer at Pravda. Epstein, ?: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Steamship ticket sales agent in NY, assisted in providing fake passports. Epstein, Israel: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Polish born, raised in China by Communist parents. Journalist and Communist activist. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Minaev”. Epstein, Jacob: “Harry-2” / “Harry”: Garri (KGB U.S. and Mexico City line) [source Venona] Epstein, Julius, brother in law of Nelson Chipckin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Epstein, Mrs. Jacob: aka Wilson, Ruth: “Nona” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Epstein, Sidney: Washington Times-Herald writer. Equitemby: Described as a major American insurance company. Likely a spelling/translation garble. Equitable Life Insurance is a possible candidate for the referenced company. Ercoli (Comintern party name): Italian Communist leader Palmiro Togliatti. Erdman, Commander, Robert Park, Feb. 43 was in charge of Liaison with Soviets crews for minesweepers bing built by Tampa Shipbuilding Corporation, head of the Natives (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Eremin”: unidentified in DC (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Ergossco” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Eric” / “Erik”: redacted: Leona Vivian Franey (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Eric”: unidentified, likely GRU officer [source Venona] “Eric” [Erik] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Engelbert Broda, 1942-44, U.K. “Eric”/Broda appears to be identical with the unidentified Soviet source “K”. in West and Tsarev and Andrew and Mitrokhin.[162]

“Eric” [Erik] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB officer/agent, early 1930s. “Erie”: unidentified, changed to “George” or “Leader” (a decoding problem) in October 44 then Moscow ordered changed to “Ernest” in February 1945. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Erie” [Iri] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Paul G. Nahin. “Erie” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified scientific source/agent.[163] “Erik” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Eric”. “Erik”: Eric: redacted: Leona Vivian Franey (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Erikh”: unidentified, KGB source in DOS, mid 1930s [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Erlich, Leon: Soviet intelligence informant. Elizabeth Bentley identified Erlich as a technical writer on the aviation industry paid by Jacob Golos to provide information and articles on aviation subjects.[164] Erlygin, Evgeny: Soviet POW interviewed by American intelligence. Ermachenko, Captain-Lieutenant (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Erna” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence contact. Described as traveling with “Betty”/Zarubin in 1935 to the U.S. to get passports renewed. Very likely Vasily Zarubin’s wife, Elizabeth Zarubin. “Ernest”: former “Erie”: unidentified cover name changed to “George” or “Leader” [possible decoding problem) in October 44 then Moscow ordered changed to “Ernest” in February 1945. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Ernest”: unidentified former “Huron” changed to Ernest in Oct 1944 but this was canceled by Moscow February 1945, and reverted to “Huron”. See “Erie” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Ernest”: cover name in the Venona decryptions that appears in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks as “Ernst”, likely a minor error by in Venona recreation of the Soviet code book. “Erni” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Ernie”. “Ernie” [Erni] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1948. “Ernst” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Noel Field in 1936. “Ernst” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Byron Darling from October 1944 to February 1945. In the Venona decryptions “Huron”/Darling

was changed to “Ernst”/Darling in October 1944 but this was canceled by Moscow Center in February 1945, and the cover name reverted to “Huron”/Darling.[165] “Ernst” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Paul Nahin, 1945. “Ernst” under the alternative translation as “Ernest” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified scientific source/agent (the former “Erie”) from February 1945 onward.[166] “Ernst” or “Ernest”: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Erofey” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, London, 1946. “Ersh” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Ruff”. (Ersh is Russian for a type of fish known as Ruff or Ruffe in English but also has several other meanings, including that of a mixed beer and vodka drink.) Ervin, Charles W.: Socialist and prominent American civil libertarian, 1920s. “Eskulap” / “Aesculapius”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] Estonian Legion Estrina, Lidiya”: Mrs. David J. Dallin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Estrina, Lidiya: Former Trotskyist activist in France in the 1930s, married to David J. Dallin in the United States. Ethridge, Mark F.: Senior American diplomat, 1945. Etinger, ?: Described as a manager at Julius Hammer’s pencil factory. Eugene (party name): Described as clandestine CPUSA figure in Washington, DC, in the mid-1930s known to Victor Perlo. Euler, Rose: see Rose Browder. “Eureka” / “Evrika”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Eurofeem” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, London, 1946. European Combined Foreign Economic Policy committee: U.S. State Department committee. “Evans” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): John Veymut. Also spelled in the notebooks as “Veytmut” and and “Beymut”. Evans, Robert: Joseph Freeman pseudonym on masthead of New Masses [source Chambers Witness] Evdokimov, Dmitri M. “Evgenev”: Petr Nikolaevich Kubatkin, head of First (Foreign Intelligence) Chief Directorate in June 1946. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Evgeny” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, 1942. Evropmar, John (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Evstratova, Varvara Vassilievna: Russian born wife of Edward Ames. “Ewald”: Soviet intelligence officer know to Chambers: Ikal, Arnold (real name): pseudonyms Robinson, Donald: Reubens, Adolf (Robinson/ Reubens case)[167] Ewert, Arthur: Real name German Communist and Comintern agent in Brazil in 1936 who was using the pseudonym of Harry Berger. Excelsior newspaper (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Experimental Center Y: see Site Y. Experimental Center X: see Site X. Experimental Center W: see Site W. “Expert”: Brothman [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] “Expert”: Ekspert: Brothman, Abraham: Konstruktor: Constructor (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Express Messenger” [Gonets] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Richard Setaro. “Express Messenger” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Setaro.[168] “Express Messenger [Gonets] = redacted”: Ricardo Setaro (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Eyring, H, chemist Princeton (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Eysu” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): ? Heim. “Ezh” / “Hedgehog”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ezhov, Nikolaj [Nikolay] Efremovich: “Zharov “ “Ëmiliya”: Cover name in the Venona decryptions: See “Emiliya”. XXXF F. Dzerzhinskiy (ship) [source Venona] “Faber” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB office, slated for illegal station chief in the U.S., 1940. Fabergé: Cosmetics firm owned by Communist sympathizers. “Fabrika” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Factory”. Fabritsius (ship) [source Venona] Fabrizi, ? General: Contact of Martha Dodd in 1937.

Face, ?: Reference to a possible DOS employee in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks.. (Possibly a cover name.) “Factory”: Amtorg (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Factory” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Cover name for the Manhattan atomic project used by Harry Gold with Klaus Fuchs. “Factory” [Fabrika] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Amtorg. “Factory” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Amtorg. “Fadeev”: Shestak (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Fahy, Jack Bradley: “Maxwell” (NGRU line) [source Venona] Failed and failures (tradecraft term): KGB idiom for a source/agent/officer who could no longer be used because they had been compromised or exposed by arrest or identification by hostile security authorities or who defected or left service without KGB permission. Fainberg, ?: Associated with Amtorg in 1924 according to Vasily Delgass.. Fairfax-Cholmeley, Elsie: Soviet intelligence source/agent. British wife of Israel Epstein. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Girl Friend”. “Fairy” [Feya] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1938. “Fakir” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Andrew Steiger prior to October 1944. “Fakir” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent.[169] In the Venona decryptions, “Fakir” became “Arnold” in October 1944. “Arnold”/ Steiger does not occur in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks. “Fakir”: Arnol: Arnold: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Falcon” [Sokol] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source, Douglas aviation draftsman 1930s. References to in 1935, 1937, 1938. Fall, Albert B.: U.S. Secretary of the Interior, 1921-1923. False flag (tradecraft term): When an officer/agent induces someone to assist or provide material by pretending the destination for the material is a nation (the ‘flag’) or customer other than it really is. For example, a technical agent working for KGB may induce a colleague to steal technical information by pretending it is commercial industrial espionage for a domestic or foreign corporate rival rather than espionage on behalf of the USSR. “Fan”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Fanton” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Believed to be an error in the original for “Foton”. Far Eastern Commission: Allied diplomatic commission established to review peace and occupation terms in Asia after the surrender of Japan. Far Eastern Republic: Soviet republic established in former Russian Far East and Siberia in 1920, fully absorbed into the USSR in 1922. Farish, Linn Markley: Soviet intelligence source/agent, OSS officer in Yugoslavia. Cover name in the Venona decryptions “Attila”. Farish, Linn Markley, senior liaison officer with Tito from September 1943, parachutist, killed 9 September 1944: Attila (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Farley”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] Farley, James: Franklin Roosevelt’s campaign manager in 1932 and later Postmaster General. “Farm”: Foreign Economic Administration (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Farm Credit Administration, U.S. “Farm hand” / “Batrak”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Farm” [Khutor] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): U.S. Foreign Economic Administration (FEA), December 1944. “Farm” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the Foreign Economic Administration. Farm Security Administration, U.S. Farm: See Ferma. Farnsworth, John: Former U.S. Naval officer arrested for espionage on behalf of Japan in 1936. Farouk I: King of Egypt. Farrell, Michael: Described as the head of an American displaced persons agency in Austria in 1950. Fast, Howard: Soviet intelligence contact. Popular writer and Communist. “Faun” [Favn] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB officer, 30s, New York station. “Favn” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Faun”. Favorov, Petr Aleksandrovich, Engineer Captain-Lieutenant (NGRU line) [source Venona] FBI: “Khata” (a peasant’s hut) (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “FBI” (cover name): Meca Sanches, Fernando (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Fe...”.: partial of unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] FEA: Foreign Economic Administration, U.S. Fedchenkoff, Benjamin J., Metropolitan of the American-Russian Orthodox Church in NY: Benjamin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Federal Laboratories: a private U.S. armor and arms firm. Federal Reserve Board: U.S. Federated Press. Also known as Federated Labor Press. Left-wing news agency of the 1920s-1940s.. Fedichkin, D.G.: Soviet intelligence officer, Moscow Center. “Fedor” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Gyorgi Sokolov. (Alternative translation: Fyodor). “Fedorov”: Terentev (on ship Emba) (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Fedorov, Evgenij Konstantinovich, Head of Chief Directorate of the HydroMeteorological Service in Moscow (NGRU line) [source Venona] Fedoseev, I.I. (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Fedosimov, Pavel Ivanovich: Soviet intelligence officer/agent. Likely the real name (or diplomatic pseudonym) behind “Stepan” in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks for the acting chief of the New York station 1947-1948. Cover name “Stepan” in the Venona decryptions in 1944. [170] In the Venona decryptions, “Stepan”/Fedosimov arrived at the New York KGB station in 1944. Fedosimov, Pavel Ivanovich: “Stepan” [some early Venona decryptions give Fedosimov as the real name behind “May”/”Maj” but this is an error corrected later] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Fedotov, ?: Described as Bolshevik in America that Julius Hammer assisted in escaping to the Soviet Union. Fedotov, Al. Mihkailovich: Described as someone Boris Morros met in Moscow. Fedotov, Anton Nikolaevich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Fedotov, Leonid Nikolaevich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Fedotov, Petr V.: Senior KGB official Moscow, 1940s. Pseudonym: Petr Vasilyevich Ivanov. Fedotov [possibly Anton Nikolaevich Fedotov, Leonid Nikolaevich Fedotov, 3rd secretary in NY, or Vasilij [Vasily] Fedotov, a trade official] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Fedotov, Vasilij [Vasily] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Fedya” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): William Remington. (Alternative translation: Ted or Teddy: Fedya is a diminutive of Fedor, and Fedor is the Russian equivalent for Theodore.) Feinstein, Isidor: Birth name of I.F. Stone. See Stone, I.F. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Pancake”. Feis, Herbert: Senior State Department official, 1930s. Feiz, Herbert: misspelling of Herbert Feis. Feklisov, Alexander: “Kalistrat” / “Fomin” (source Feklisov) Feklisov, Alexander: KGB officer. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Callistratus”. “Callistratus” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Aleksandr Semenovich Fomin, the pseudonym Feklisov used when under diplomatic cover in the U.S.[171] Feklissov, Alexander: aka Fomin, Aleksandr Semenovich, U.S. name for Feklissov: “Kalistrat” / “Callistratus” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Feldman, Armand Labis (pseudonym): Soviet intelligence officer, real name Iosif V. Volodarsky. Also know as Armand Lavis Feldman. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Brit”. Feldman, Armand Lavis: Volodarsky, I.V. KGB officer in the U.S. in 1930s, dropped out and moved to Canada, interned early in WWII, cooperated with Canadian RCMP to avoid deportation to USSR, RCMP turned information over to FBI. “Felipe”: Grigulevich, Iosif R.: “Maks” and “Arthur” [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Felix”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Fellow Travelers” [Poputchiki] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Foreigners at Soviet institutions and local Soviet citizens who are permanent residents in the country. “Fellowcountryman” and “Fellowcontrymen” [Zemlyak, Zemlyaki] (cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Local Communists, members of the CPUSA or other fraternal Communist party/organization. “Fellowcountryman” was identified in the Venona decryptions as a member of the CPUSA. “Fellowcountryman party”: CPUSA (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Fellow-countrymen”: Zemlyaki: CPUSA members (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Felson, Milton, ( Felsen correct spelling ) IB, OSS (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Female Teacher” [Prepodavatelnitsa] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): KGB agent in Moscow, 1946, used to cover the Hammer family. Ferdinand, Prince Louis: Prince of Prussia, member of the Hohenzollern family, and successor to the abolished German monarchy in the 1930s. Ferguson, Duncan: secretary and bodyguard for Mrs. Trotsky, 1944 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Ferma” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified institution that David Greenglass tried to get a job at in 1949. Ferma means farm in Russian, but khutor is another Russian word that is also often translated as farm, and “Khutor” was used by KGB as the cover name for the Foreign Economic Administration, and “Khutor” was translated as “Farm” in the Venona decryptions. Rather than confuse matters, here “Khutor” is also translated as “Farm” while “Ferma” is left in its transliterated form. Fermi and/or Oppenheimer: “Star” [source Sudoplatov] Fermi, Enrico: Italian physicist, leading scientist on the Manhattan atomic project. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Vector”. Fermi, Enrico (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Fernald, M.. biologist from Cambridge, Mass. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Fernandez de Castro, Jose Antonio: “Machado” (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Ferra, Ricardo Jose Barcelo, Argentinian was in Garibaldi brigade in I.B. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Ferro” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Alexander N. Petroff after October 1944.[172] “Ferro” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Petroff. “Ferro” / “Fin”: Aleksandr N. Petroff (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Ferro”: Throssell, Ric [Australian line, [West Venona] “Ferz'” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Queen”. Fetvays, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Feuchtwanger, Leon: Soviet intelligence source. Refugee German writer and KGB informant on exiled Germans. Feuer, Lewis: Philosophy instructor at CCNY. Described by Jacob Golos as source of information on FDR and Churchill in 1941. Lewis Feuer later in life became a highly productive writer on philosophy and

intellectual history. Associated with Communist and Trotskyist circles in the 1930s and 1940s he became an ardent opponent of New Left radicalism in the 1960s and 1970s. “Feya” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Fairy”. Feyn: see David Fine. Field, Frederick Vanderbilt: Wealthy secret Communist, active in the Foreign Policy Association, the Institute for Pacific Relations, and headed the American Peace Mobilization, a Communist front group of the NaziSoviet Pact period. Field, Henry [source Venona] Field, Hermann: Brother of Noel Field. Secretly imprisoned in Communist Poland in 1949 as part of the “Fieldist” conspiracy. Released in 1954 when a Polish defector, Jozef Swiatlo, revealed his imprisonment. Field, Kate: Wife of Hermann Field. Maiden name Kate Thornycroft. Field, Noel: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Field joined the U.S. State Department in 1926. By 1936 he was a mid-level official working on international arms limitation negotiations and U.S. cooperation with the League of Nations. In 1936 he resigned his position in the U.S. State Department to take a post with the League of Nations. Identified as assisting Soviet espionage KGB by defector Hede Massing and by his own statements to Hungarian Communist security police. On Adolf Berle’s 1939 list of those identified by Whittaker Chambers as covert Communists who were espionage risks.[173] Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “17” and “Ernst”. Field, Philip [target for recruitment], (NGRU line) [source Venona] Fierlinger, Captain Jan, Information officer of the Czechoslovak consulate in New York: Ofitser: Officer (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Fifth line: security of Soviet merchant fleet and personnel (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Fighter” / “Boets”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Fil” / “Phil”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] Filger, of Dresdner Bank (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Fil-Go, A. (abbreviation for A. Fil......skij of Fil...skoj (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Filin” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Eagle Owl”. “Filip” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Philip”. “Filipp”: Philip: unidentified (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

“Film” [Plenka] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent at Eastman Kodak 1938. Richard Briggs is a likely candidate for Film. “Filosof”: Philosopher: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Filov”: KGB Probationer on Soviet ship (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] “Fin” / “Ferro”: Aleksandr N. Petroff (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Finansist” / “Financier”: Joseph Muchnik (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Find”: See “Godsend”. Fine, David: Described as lieutenant serving with the U.S. occupation government of Germany, 1945. The family name was spelled Feyn in Russian and, in addition to Fine, alternative translations are Fein and Fane. Fineberg, Thomas A.: Target of recruitment. Describes as a physicist at Manhattan atomic project Los Alamos, studied at University of Chicago. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Dorian”. Finestone, Maxwell: In 1947 Julius Rosenberg revived his WWII apparatus for the KGB but sought new contacts as well. In 1948 Rosenberg is described as cultivating “Plumb” who was described as an active student Communist at an unidentified college. After Julius Rosenberg was arresed, a cell mate informant told the FBI that Julius Rosenberg has identified Finestone as someone he had recruited. Interviewed by the FBI, Finestone admitted that he had been a young Communist at Cornell University in the late 1940s and knew Julius Rosenberg but claimed he had dropped out the the party his senior year (1949) because of the pressure of school work and had no involvement in espionage. But James Weinstein, a fellow young Communist had Cornell, stated that Finestone had told him that he had dropped out to do secret work for the party. The FBI also developed evidence that Finestone had been associated with Alfred Sarant, a veteran member of Rosenberg’s apparatus when at Cornell, and Finestone later had lived for some months in 1949, apparently rent free since his own income was nearly non-existent, at an apartment in New York that had been the residence of Alfred Sarant, William Perl and Joel Barr (all members of Julius Rosenberg’s technical intelligence apparatus), and a site where much of the Rosenberg group’s photographic work was performed.[174] Candidate for the cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Plumb”. “Fink”: Pantsyrnyj, Capt. (First Rank) Pavel A. (NGRU line) [source Venona]

“Fink” [Stukach]: See “Informer”. “Finogenov”: in the “Store” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Fir”: Fir tree (Russian El'): Keenan, Helen Grace Scott (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Fir” [El'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/ agent. Likely Helen Grace Scott Keenan. Described as the secretary of French journalist Geneviève Tabouis. “Fir” (Alternative translation: Spruce) was identified in the Venona decryptions as Helen Grace Scott Keenan.[175] First Chief Directorate: Foreign intelligence arm of the KGB. See Pervoe Glavnoe Upravlenie -- PGU. First Line: political intelligence (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Fischer, Louis: An influential American journalist of the 1930s, early enthusiast for the Republican cause and for the International Brigades and covert courier for Comintern funds to Spain. Fish, Hamilton: U.S. Representative, 1919-1945 (R. NY) Fisher, ?: KGB agent slated for infiltration into Germany via the battle front, late 1941. Fisher (Boyko), Nicholas and Maria: “Cheta” / “Pair”/”Couple” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Fisher [Rybolov]: See “Fisherman”. Fisher, Vilyam Genrikhovich, born William Fisher, (1903-1971) in England then taken by mother to Russia, active in Soviet intelligence since 1927, illegal rezident in U.S. 1948-1950, arrested by FBI in 1957, exchanged for Gary Powers in 1962: Mark, Martin Collins: Emil Goldfus: Rudolph Ivanovich Abel: Fisher, Vilyam Genrikhovich, who took the name of a fellow agent Rudolf Ivanovich Abel, code name Mark [source Damaskin Harris] “Fisherman” [Rybolov] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Stephen Urewich until September 1944. “Fisherman” “Rybolov”, with alternative translation as “Osprey”, appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. “Fisherman” is not directly identified as Urevich in Vassiliev’s notebooks. However, “Fisherman” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent later changed to “Block”. “Block” in Vassiliev’s notebooks is identified as Stephen Urewich. Therefore, “Fisherman” is Urewich.[176]

“Fisherman”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Fisherman”: unidentified source New York [West Venona] “Fist” / “Kulak”: Dewey, Tom (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Fitin, Lt. General Pavel M., head of KGB foreign intelligence operations,: “Victor” / “Viktor” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Fitin, Pavel (1907-1972), KGB chief of foreign operations 1939-1946 Fitin, Pavel: Senior KGB officer, chief of KGB foreign intelligence in WWII. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Victor”. Fitzgerald, Edward: Father of source Edward Fitzgerald. Fitzgerald, Edward: Soviet intelligence source/agent.[177] Secret Communist and economist with the WPB and the FEA. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as part of the Perlo espionage group. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Ted”. Fitzgerald, Edward J.: “Ted” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Fitzgerald, Edward Penrose: “Greyhead” (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Fitzgerald, Mary: Mother of source Edward Fitzgerald. “Fizkul'turniki” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Gymnasts” (Alternative translations: Physical Fitness Enthuiasts, Athletes, Physical culturalists). Flanagan, Hallie: Drama teacher at Vassar. Flato, Charles [source Venona] Flato, Charles: Soviet intelligence source/agent. On the staff of the Board of Economic Warfare in WWII and later on the Senate Labor and Public Welfare committee. Flato was identified in the Venona decryptions as a KGB source. KGB sent Comintern a vetting inquiry about him in 1944.[178] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Boy”. “Fledgling” [Ptenets] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Richard Koral (Alternative translation: Nestling). Fleischman: Family owners of Fleischman’s Yeast company. Fleisher, ?: Described as OSS officer/staff. Fleming, president of Association of Terrestrial Magnetism [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] “Floke” or “Floks” or “Phloke” or “Phlox”: Rose Olson (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Floks” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Phlox”.

“Flora” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Ruth Rivkin, staff of UNRRA. “Flora” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified cover name reporting on UNRRA.[179] “Flora”: unidentified cover name or possible Flora Wovschin (KGB U.S. line) Flosdorf, Earl W.: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Outpost”. Flowers, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930.Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley: High profile Communist organizer in the 1920s and 1930s. Fochs: see Fox. “Fogel'” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Fogel”. “Fogel” / “Vogel” / “Pers” / “Persian”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Fogel” [Fogel'] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Russell McNutt prior to September 1944. “Fogel” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent.[180] “Foks: See Fox. “Foks” / “Fox”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Foley, ?: Described as U.S. Consul General, 1941. Folkoff (Folkov), Isaac”: Uncle (Dyadya) (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Folkoff, Isaac: Senior member of the California Communist party and West Cost liaison between the KGB and the CPUSA. On Adolf Berle’s 1939 list (with his name spelled “Volkov”) of those identified by Whittaker Chambers as covert Communists who were espionage risks, Folkoff was identified in the Venona decryptions as assisting Soviet espionage and having the cover name of “Uncle”.[181] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Uncle”. “Fomin”: unidentified, radio operator with marine transport cover (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Fomin, Aleksandr: Pseudonym used by Alexander Feklisov when in the U.S. under diplomatic cover. Fomin, Aleksandr Semenovich [Feklissov]: “Kalistrat” / “Callistratus” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Food Store” [Gastronom] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): People’s Commissariat of Foreign Trade, USSR. (Narodny Komissariat Vneshney Torgovli: NKVT).

For Russia: Described as a newspapers published by NANG’s leadership in Bulgaria. Forbes: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] Foreign Agents Registration Section: Section of U.S. Justice Department involved in counter-espionage operations. Foreign Economic Administration, U.S. (FEA): Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Villa” (1942 to November 1944, “Farm” (December 1944-) Foreign Office, U.K.: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Back Street”. Foreign Policy Association. “Forest” / “Lesovia”: Canada (GRU line) [source Venona] Forge: See “Gorn”. Formayster, ?: GPU counterintelligence officer, 1924. Formidable (ship) [source Venona] “Forpost” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Outpost”. Forrestal, James: U.S. Secretary of the Navy, 1944-1947, Secretary of Defense, 1947-1949. Forward: Jewish newpaper with a Social Democratic orientation. Fosdick, ?: Probably Henry Emerson Fosdick, prominent liberal Baptist minister. Foster, Jane: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Concealed Communist. Foster worked for the Board of Economic Warfare in 1942 and then in the Indonesian section of the Office of Strategic Services from 1943 to 1945. Foster was identified in the Venona decryptions as an Soviet intelligence source/agent. Indicted for espionage as part of the Sobel apparatus but was abroad at the time of indictment and refused to return for trial. Also known as Jane Foster Zlatowski.[182] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Slang”. Foster, Jane [Zlatowski], in Netherlands Study Unit, to BEW, to OSS: “Slang” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Foton” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Photon”. “Foton” or “Photon”; Pritomanov, Leonid G. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Fotos..”.: KGB Probationer on Soviet ship (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] Foulkes, Charles: Canadian general. “Foursome” / “Chetverka”: four KGB students (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Fourth line: (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Fovitsky, ?: Described as editor of Novoye Russkoye Slovo and rector of the Russian People’s University. “Fowler”: Lovestoneist delegate to CI congress [source Chambers Witness] Fowler, Glenn: Scientist involved in the Manhattan atomic project. “Fox” / “Foks”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 0 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Fox, ?: Associated with Amtorg in 1924 according to Vasily Delgass. Fox, ?: (Foks in Russian) Described as a State Department official, 1945. (Alternative translation: Fochs) Foxcroft School: Elite girls’ preparatory school. Fraina, Louis: Leading figure in the creation of the Communist Party of America in 1919 and its first international secretary and representative to the Comintern. Francy, Leona Oliver: Spelling error for Franey, Leona Oliver. François-Poncet, André: French ambassador to Germany, 1931-1938. Franey, Leona Oliver: Chief librarian at Bell Aircraft. She and her husband were in the early stages of recruitment by KGB when approached by FBI and agreed to work as double agents. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Zero” until October 1944, then “Eric”.[183] Franey, Leona Vivian, Librarian at Bell Aircraft: “Nul” / “ Zero” / “Erik” or “Erika” / “Eric” or “Erica” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Frank” and Frank’s wife (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent and wife (contact), 1948. Warned to leave USA when FBI surveillance noticed. “Frank” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Laurence Duggan’s designation in reports of “Mer” in 1942-1943. “Frank” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Duggan.[184] “Frank” was identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as Duggan. “Frank” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB officer 1933-1935. “Frank ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Frank”: Duggan, Laurence [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Frank” / “Frenk”: Laurence Duggan (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Frank”: Moosen, Arthur (GRU line) [source Venona] “Frank”: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] Frank, Karl: Paul Hagen [KGB U.S. Line0 [source Venona]

Frank, Pete: Described as a connection of Harold Glasser in 1945. Frankel, Jan: Austrian Trotskyist activist who came to the U.S. in the late 1930s and became a influential figure in the American Trotskyist movement. Frankfurter, Felix: New Deal activist and U.S. Supreme Court Justice. Frankfurter, Gerda: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Candidate for the circa-1937 cover names “Rita” or “Valet”.[185][186] Franklin Institute of Research: May be a garble for the Benjamin Franklin Institute of Technology. Franklin, Salmond, see Franklin, Zalmon Franklin, Sylvia: Doxsee, Sylvia Lorraine Callen: “Satyr” / “Satir” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Franklin, Zalmond David: Veteran KGB courier and agent. Also known as Irving Zalmond Franklin, Salmond Franklin, and Franklin Zelman. American Communist and veteran of the Spanish Civil War. Married for a time to Sylvia Callen/Caldwell. There are indications that Franklin, who did considerable covert work for the Soviets, at time deliberately transposed his name and used spelling variations. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[187] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Chap”. Franklin, Zalmond [or Salmond] David: “Chen” in 1944 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Franklin, Zalmond, see Franklin, Salmond Franks, Oliver: British ambassador to the U.S., 1948. “Frantsuz” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Frenchman”. Fraser, Leon, former head of Bank for International Settlements. Fraser, Speir, Meyer and Kidder: Wall Stree. law firm. “Fraternal” [Bratsky] (cover name): Refers to a local Communist party, such as the CPUSA, or used broadly to refer to other local Communistaligned institutions. “Fraternal” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the CPUSA. “Fraternal”: CPUSA (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Fratkin, ?: Soviet employee of Amtorg. “Fred” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source, late 1938. “Fred”: Fred Rose, MP Canada [source Venona] “Fred”: unidentifed (KGB line, Venona)

Fred ??: First name of an FBI agent discussed in American military intelligence records in 1937. Free Europe: Possibly a truncation of “Radio Free Europe” “Freedman” [Fridman] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Bernard Schuster, October 1944. Freeman, Harry: American journalist working for TASS. Brother of Joseph Freeman. “Freeman, Joseph”: on masthead of New Masses as Robert Evans [source Chambers Witness] Freeman, Joseph: Prominant pro-Communist writer.[188] “Fregato”: redacted (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Freiheits Partei: Described as an organization that Alfred Stern had aided at some point in the past. French Committee of National Liberation “Frenchman” [Frantsuz] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Leon Theremin. Frey, Andrew of OWI in Lisbon, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Frey, Richard N. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Freyd, ?: Described as Polish government-in-exile official in London, 1945. “Fridman” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Freedman”. “Fridrikh” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Friedrich”. “Friedman”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Friedman, J. B, of Treasury, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Friedrich” [Fridrikh] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Contact of Klaus Fuchs in Britain. “Friend” / “Priyatel”: Lange, Oscar (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Friend” [Drug] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified 1945 target of recruitment suggested by Harold Glasser. Described as someone connected to the “Nat’l Association of Amer. Industries”, 1946.[189] “Friend” [Drug] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB officer or agent, New York Station. References to in 1933. Friends of the New Germany: Pro-Nazi German-American organization. Friends of the Soviet Union: Originally founded in 1921 as Friends of Soviet Russia, FSU raised funds to support the USSR and promote its interests. It was covertly controlled by the CPUSA. Frinovsky, Mikhail Petrovich: Senior KGB official, chief of State Security 1937-1938. Executed in 1940.

Frisch, Otto: Exiled German scientist and key member of the British atomic bomb program and later part of the British contingent in the Manhattan atomic project. Frocht, Maurice: Soviet intelligence source/agent, early 1930s A medical doctor. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Doctor”. Fromm, German General, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Frontiers (journal): Described by Harry Magdoff as a “progressive” college student newspaper. “Front-Line Figher” / “Frontovik”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Frost” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Boris Morros. Morros anglicized his Russian family name of “Moroz” as Morros. Moroz is also the Russian work for frost. His cover name, then, is a play on his Russian family name. “Frost” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Morros.[190] “Frost” was identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as Morros. “Frost”: Khavalov, Capt. Nikolaj [Nikolay] A., assistant representative of the Portland office of SGPG] (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Frost”: Moroz ( Morros ), Boris Mikhajlovich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Frost”: Moroz ( Morros ), Boris Mikhajlovich (KGB U.S. line) [source Andrew Metrokhin Sword] Fry, Jack: President of Trans World Airlines. FUA [unidentified, possibly a U.S. firm] [source Venona] Fuchs, Emil Julius Klaus: “Rest” / “Charls” / “Charlz” / “Charles” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Fuchs, Emil Klaus: Father of Klaus Fuchs. Fuchs, Gerhard: Brother of Klaus Fuchs. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Kin”, 1951. Fuchs, Klaus: “Charles” [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] Fuchs, Klaus: “Charles” / “Rest” Andrew Metrokhin Sword] Fuchs, Klaus: “Charles” [source Albright Kunstel Bombshell] Fuchs, Klaus: “Charles” [source Sudoplatov] Fuchs, Klaus: “Rest” [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] Fuchs, Klaus: Full name Emil Julius Klaus Fuchs. Soviet intelligence source/ agent. German refugee physicist, naturalized British subject. Senior scientist in the Manhattan atomic project. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[191] Identified in Andrew and

Mitrokhin as a Soviet source/agent. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Rest” (1943 - October 1944), “Charles” (October 1944 1950), and “Bras” (1950s). Fulbright, William: U.S. Senator (D. Arkansas). Fuller, Helen: Soviet intelligence contact/informant (possibly unaware) in the Justice Department via William Dodd, jr. in 1939. “Funicular”: possibly gaseous diffusion plant k25 Clinton, TN (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Furtseva, Ye.: Described as someone who met with Victor Hammer in 1964. “Fyodor: See “Fedor”. XXG G...”.: partial of redacted (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “G” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): KGB source in Paris, 1950. G.: Initial of someone described as a members of the New York State Democratic Committee. G2: U.S. Army designation for military intelligence function. Gabin, Yetta: Wife of Fred Shuneman and described as both the sister of Philip Aronberg’s wife and the sister of Earl Browder’s wife (unlikely). “Gabriel'” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Gabriel”. “Gabriel” [Gabriel'] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Likely Gavriil Panchenko. “Gadfly” [Ovod] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent/contact of “Brit”/Feldman, 1937. Gafencu, Grigore, Rumanian figure (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gahagan, Helen: See Helen Gahagan Douglas. Gaines, Gaines”: Chambers pseudonym for an underground Communist [possibly Webster Clayton Powell ??] [source Chambers Witness] Gajic' (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Galbraith, Kenneth (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Galdames, Carlos Robles: “Grisha” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Galeazzi, Enrico: Vatican administrator. Galkovich, ?: Described as Soviet General Consul in San Francisco in the 1930s. Gallardo, Isabel a Chilean, married to American Lorren Hay, a captain in Marines, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Gamil'ton” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Hamilton”.

Gamow, George: Ukrainian-born physicist. Defected from USSR in 1932 and became a U.S. citizen in 1940. “Gans” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Hans”. “Gapon” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. Douglas Aviation high-altitude specialist who rebuffed Shumovsky in 1935 but was in contact with the KGB in 1942. Garanin, F.A.: KGB officer transferred from Cuba to Washington as an attaché of the Soviet embassy. References to in 1945. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Son”. Garber, Ossip: New York photographer convicted in 1939 of passport fraud in connection with the Robinson/Rubens case. Garcia, Julian Gomez of POUM in exile in Mexico: Gorkin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Garcia Reyes, Jose: “Anton” (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Gard” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Guard”. “Gard”: Guard: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Garden” [Sad] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified institution, described as something whose branches in various countries that the OSS might make use of. Gardyj, Petr (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Garicker, ?: Described as a Ford company representative in Persia in 1924. Garin, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Garinova, Kira (NGRU line) [source Venona] Garlin, Sender (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Garner, John Nance: Vice-President of the United States, 1933-1941. Garreau, Roger , French diplomat (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Garri” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Harry”. “Garri”: Epstein, Jacob (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Garson, Eugene ”: Gradison, Evgenij Sergeevich, emigrated from China, U.S. citizen 1943, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gartenberg, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. “Garv” / “Havre”: redacted, at one time worked for British intelligence (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Gassen”: unidentified American woman (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gaston, Herbert: Senior U.S. Treasury official. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Adjutant”, circa 1944. “Gastronom” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Food Store.

“Gastronome”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Gaullists: “Rasists” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gaullists: Free French and supporters of Charles de Gaulle. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Rasists”. Gauss, Clarence E.,U.S. diplomat, Asia (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gautier, Marcel, Counsellor to French Delegation: “Kurd” (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Gavrilov, Timefej Evstigneevich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Gavrilyuk, Vladimir V., (Gavriluk) may be “Danilov” (KGB U.S. line), may be “Mok” (GRU line) [source Venona] Gavronsky-Minor, Anna: Asya Minor-Gavronskaya (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gay, ?: KGB officer, Moscow center. “Gay” [Gey] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Trotskyist leader, possibly Max Shachtman. Gayle, Lt. Col. William T. U.S. Army [source Venona] GB (G.B.): Soviet State Security. GD: See SD. Russian initials for State Department: Gosdep, or Gos(udarstvenny) Dep(artament). GDR: German Democratic Republic (East Germany). Gebert, Boleslaw K., Polish citizen resident U.S. 1912 to 1947 returned to Poland.: Ataman (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Gel”: unidentified name, connection with a periodical (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gellhorn, Martha: Journalist and wife of Ernest Hemingway for a period. General Aircraft: British aircraft manufacturing corporation. General Electric corporation. General Fleischer (ship) [source Venona] General Motors corporation. General Vatutin (ship) [source Venona] “Generalov, ?: State Security officer, 1942. Gennadi: see Gennady “Gennadi” [“Gennady”]: Ovakimian, Gaik [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] “Gennadi” [“Gennady”]: Ovakimyan ( Ovakimian ) [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Gennadij” [“Gennady”]: Gaik Badelovich Ovakimyan ( Ovakimian ) (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Gennady” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): KGB officer Gayk Badalovich Ovakimyan. (Alternate transliteration Guennady, sGennaki, Gennadiy). “Gennady” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Ovakimyan. “Gennady” was identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as Ovakimyan. “Genri” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Henry”. “Genri”: Henry: Malisoff, William M. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Genrikh” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Heinrich”. George Cohan (ship) [source Venona] “George” [Georges?]: possibly a decoding error and maybe “Leader” in October 44 Moscow ordered changed to “Ernest” in February 1945.: “Erie”: unidentified, [KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] George, Harrison: Senior CPUSA cadre involved in covert Comintern and Profintern activities in the 1930s. George, Walter: U.S. Senator (D. GA). George Walton (ship) [source Venona] George: work name of Gayk Ovakimyan with Alfred Slack. “George” [Zhorzh] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Paul Nahin from October 1944 to 20 February 1945. “George” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/ agent.[192] George [Zhorzh] (cover name/party name): George Perazich, 1945. Georges, Alphonse (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Georges, General Alphonse (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Georgy” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB officer, 1930s, NY station. “Gergelevich” (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Gerig, Benjamin: “Oswald” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “German” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Gherman”. German, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Gershwin, Ira: Well-know American music composer. Gerson, Virginia: Described as OSS officer/staff. Gert [Gerth, Hert, Herth]: Henri L.: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Gertsog”: Duke: unidentified cover name or possibly the name Herzog (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gertsog, Frank Iosifovich: father of Eleanor (NGRU line) [source Venona] Gertsog, Lidiya Alekseevna, was born 1908, (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Getsov, Eva: Soviet intelligence agent, courier work. (Alternative translations: Getzov, Getzoff) Employee, Jewish Welfare Board. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Adam”. “Adam” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Rebecca Getzoff. While it seems likely, it is not firmly established that Eva Getsov and Rebecca Getzoff are the same person.[193] Getzoff Rebecca: “Adam” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Getzoff, Rebecca: see Getsov, Eva. “Gey” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Gay”. “Gherman” [German] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Armand V. (Armasha) Hammer in 1952. Gibson, Hugh: U.S. ambassador to Brazil at the time of the abortive Prestes coup. “Gid” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Guide”. “Gidro” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Hydro”. “Gidrostroy” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Hydroelectric Construction Project”. “Gift” / “Dar”: Kasparov, Grigory (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Gift” [Dar] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): KGB station chief San Francisco, 1944. Likely Grigory Kasparov. “Gift” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Kasparov. “Gifted” [Sposobny] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent, technical intelligence 1940. (Alternative translations: Talented, Able) Gilchrist, Thomas: Chief Assistant United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York in 1955-57. Gillman, Joseph: Thought by Victor Perlo to have had contact with Soviet intelligence at some point. Staff of WPB during WWII. Discharged from the War Assets Board for suspected Communist activity. Gilyak (ship) [source Venona] Gimbel, ??: One of the owners of the Gimbel department stores, references to in 1951. “Gin”: Margaret Browder [source Damaskin Harris] Ginsburg, David (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Gipsy”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Giraud: possibly “Dezhiro”, of French Mission (NGRU line) [source Venona] Giraud, Henri [source Venona]

“Girl Friend” [Podruga] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Elsie FairfaxCholmeley. “Girl Friend” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent.[194] “Girlfriend”: Podruga: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Girl”: See “Young Woman”. “Git” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent 1943. Described as giving a positive evaluation of Franz Neumann. “Git” appeared in the Venona decryptions as unidentified in 1943.[195] “Git”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gitlow, Benjamin: Leading American Communist from the party’s founding until expelled in 1929. Later a fervent anti-Communist.[196] GKO: Gosudarstvenniy Komitet Oborony - State Defense Committee. Gladilin, Segej (Sergey) (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Glading, Percy: Soviet intelligence source/agent in Britain. A senior CPGB activist, Glading worked closely with Soviet intelligence. In 1938 he was arrested, convicted, and imprisoned for espionage targeted at the Woolwich Arsenal. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Got”.[197] Gladkov, ?: Described as Trotskyist traitor on staff of Amtorg in 1928-33. Gladkov, Lieutenant General P. V.: Chief of Naval SMERSH. “Glan” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB officer, London, who met with “Eric”/Broda in 1943. Both Andrew and Mitrokhin and West and Tsarev have KGB officer Vladimir Barkovsky meeting with “K”, an unidentified Soviet source who appears to be identical with “Eric”/Broda. Barkovsky, then, is a candidate for “Glan”. It is not clear that “Glan” in Britain in 1943 is the same as “Glan” the unidentified KGB officer at the New York Station in the late 1930s and early 1940s. “Glan” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified legal KGB officer, New York Station, References to in 1938, 1940. “Glan” appeared in the Venona decryptions as unidentified Soviet officer/agent with the Soviet Government Purchasing Commission in 1942. “Glan”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Glancy, General, U.S. Army [source Venona] Glasko, Dimtrij Adamovich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Glasser, Abraham: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Department of Justice lawyer from the mid-1930s to 1941. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Morris”. Glasser, Faye: Wife of Harold Glasser. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Roma”. “Glasser, Harold”: Ruble: Rouble (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Glasser, Harold: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Senior Treasury Department official and economist. KGB sent Comintern a vetting inquiry about him in 1944. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as part of the Perlo espionage group. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent. Identified by Chambers as a source/agent.[198] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Ruble”. Party name: Henry. Glasser, John: Described in a 1944 KGB report on a conversation with GRU’s American division chief as a Treasury Department official who in 1938-40 had been prepared for recruitment by GRU agents, though GRU did not give its consent for Glasser’s recruitment. Described also as secret Communist who worked with Josef Peters’ intelligence group. Likely an error for Harold Glasser. Glauber, Roy: A brilliant young scientist, in 1943, during his sophomore year at Harvard University, he was recruited to work on the Manhattan Project, where (at age 18) he was one of the youngest scientists at Los Alamos. At Los Alamos he shared a room for a time with his former Harvard classmate Theodore Hall. In 2005 he received the Nobel Prize in Physics. Glavatom: Directorate for the Utilization of Atomic Energy of the Council of Ministers, USSR. Glavkontsesskom: Chief Concession Committee. Glavnyk Morskoj Shtab (GHSh) Naval General Staff (NGRU line) [source Venona] Glavpromkadr: Chief Administration for the Training of Industrial Cadres. Glavsevmorput: Chief Administration of the Northern Sea Route. Glazer, Juliet: Married name of Juliet Stuart Poyntz. See Juliet Stuart Poyntz. Gleason, Leverett: Publisher of Reader’s Scope, described as a secret Communist. Glennan, T. Keith: Engineer and scientific administrator. Member of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 1950. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Astrologer” Glinka, Mikhail: Russian composer.

“Glinsk” (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Glory”: unidentified female source, Canberra traffic Australian line [West Venona]) “Glory” [Slava]: Ilya Elliott Wolston in 1943, 1945 use is likely Wolston or unidentified. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Glory: see “Slava” Glushinsk, ?: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Smuggler from the prohibition era who helped to bring illegals to US from Canada. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Boatman”. “Glycerine”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Gnat” / “Komar”: Kravchenko, Viktor (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Gnat” [Komar] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet defector, 1944. (Alternative translation: Mosquito.) Likely Victor Kravchenko. “Gnat” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Victor Kravchenko. Gnedin, Evgeny: Soviet diplomat in Berlin, KGB co-optee, liaison with Martha Dodd in 1936. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Pioneer”. “Gnom” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Gnome”. “Gnom”: William Perl [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] “Gnome”: Mercader, Jaime Ramon (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Gnome”: William Perl (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Gnome” [Gnom] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): William Perl prior to September 1944. “Gnome” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Perl.[199] “Goboy” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Oboe”. Gochenour, Howard: Soviet intelligence source. Chemist and industrial espionage source recruited by Alfred Slack, perhaps by a false flag recruitment. Gochnour admitted to FBI that he supplied information to Slack, claiming that Slack said it was for a South American buyer, not the Soviets.[200] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Young”. “God” / “Bog”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Goddard, Robert H.: American pioneer rocket developer. “Godfather” [Kum] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1948. “Godfather” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent in 1944 but it is unclear if this is the same person. Brother of “Godsend” and “Relative”.

“Godmother” [Kuma] or “Godfather” [Kum]: unidentified name: “Kuma” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Godoy, Juan Gaytan: “Juan”: Khuan (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Godsend” [Nakhodka] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, technical line related to atomic bomb project. Described as studying at the University of Chicago in 1947 and that the KGB wanted him to return to his previous employment at the Los Alamos atomic facility. Brother of “Relative” and “Godfather”. Goebbels, Joseph: Senior Nazi propagandist. Goerdeler, Carl F.: Leading figure in an anti-Hitler conspiracy in Germany during WWII. Goerdeler, in Germany (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Goering, Herman (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Goering, Hermann: Senior Nazi and head of German Luftwaffe. Goff, Irving: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Secret Communist, International Brigade veteran, and OSS officer. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Tyazh”. Gogoleva: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Gold” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Iskhak Akhmerov’s cover name when in China in the 1930s and at other points in his career. Gold, Bela: “Acorn” [Zholud] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gold, Bela: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Industrial sociologist, worked for the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on War Mobilization and Office of Economic Programs in the Foreign Economic Administration. Also known as William (Bill) Gold. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as part of the Silvermaster espionage group.[201] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Acorn”. Gold, Harry: “Goose” / “Gus” also “Arnaud” / “Arno” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gold, Harry: “Guss” / “Goose” also “Arno” after May 1944, used Raymond for contact with Fuchs [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] Gold, Harry: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Gold, an industrial chemist, was recruited for Soviet industrial espionage operations in the U.S. in the 1930s and became an active courier for the New York KGB office’s scientific-technical espionage operations as well as the liaison for several subagents. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[202] Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks:

“Goose” prior to October 1944, “Arno” (October 1944-1950), “Mad” (1950-). Also used Raymond, Martin, and Frank Kessler as work names and pseudonyms with some of his sources. Gold, Sonia Steinman: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Wife of Bela Gold, employed in the Treasury Department. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as part of the Silvermaster espionage group.[203] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Zhenya”. Gold, Sonia Steinman: “Zhenya” / “Sonya” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gold, William (Bill): See Gold, Bela. Goldberg: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Goldberg, Arthur: OSS officer. Labor lawyer associated with CIO leader Philip Murray, anti-Communist liberal. Later Secretary of Labor, justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, and American ambassador to the UN. Goldberg, Elliot: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Described as an engineer for an oil equipment company in New York. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Smart”. Goldberger, Alexander: J. Peters [source Chambers Witness] Goldblat, Sam (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Goldblatt, Saul (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Goldman, Emma: Leading American Anarchist (Lithuanian-born) deported to Soviet Russia in 1919, became highly critical of Soviet communism, and moved to Britain in 1921. Goldman, (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] Goldsmith, Hyman H.: Physicist in the Manhattan atomic project. Goldsmith in Enormous? (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] Goldstein, Ben (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Golikov, Peter Alekseevich, chief of Department of Marine Transportion SGPC (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Gollancz, Victor: Socialist British book publisher, founder of the Left Book Club, close to the CPGB. Golodnitsky, Samson: Father of Harry Gold. Golos, Dmitry Naumovich: Russinized name of Milton Golos. Golos, Jacob: “Sound” / “Zvuk” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Golos, Jacob: “Sound” [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Golos, Jacob: “Zvuk” [“Sound”] [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] Golos, Jacob: Soviet intelligence agent. Russian emigrant, senior official of the CPUSA and liaison between the party and Soviet intelligence.

Birth name Yakov Naumovich Tasin but he appears to later have used Rasin, Raisin, and Raisen, anglicized versions of Tasin, in the U.S. as private family names. His public name in the U.S., however, was Jacob Golos. “Golos” was in origin a party name: “Golos” means “Voice” in Russian. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as the creator and supervisor of CPUSA espionage networks linked to KGB and which she took over after his death.[204] Identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as a Soviet source/agent. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Sound” (a KGB verbal play on his Golos/Voice name); pseudonym-work name with many of his sources: John. Golos, Milton: Son of Jacob Golos, sent to the USSR in the mid-1930s. Also known as Sam Rasin or Raisin. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Youthful”. Golos, Silvya Solomonovna: Jacob Golos’s wife. Birth name Ginzburg. Born in Lithuania. Also know as Celia Rasin or Raisin and Celia Golos. Golovin, Nikolaj [Nikolay] Alelseev: “Grimm” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Golovin, Petr Dmitreich (on ship Litke): “Storm” (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Golovkin”: unidentified cover name official in Moscow (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Golubev, Captain first rank, commander of Tuapse naval base. [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] Golwinne, Henry [source Venona] “Gomer” / “Homer”: Maclean, Donald D. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Gomer” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Homer”. Gomez Deans, Antonio: “Oliver” (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Gomez Lorenzo, Rosendo, editor of magazine Tiempo: Wolf (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Gompers, Samuel: President of the American Federation of Labor. Gompertz, Hedda: See Massing, Hede. Gonchar, Captain-Lieutenant (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Gonets” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Express Messenger. (Alternative translation: Messenger) “Gonets” was translated as “Express Messenger” in the Venona decryptions, and to avoid confusion, that translation is adopted here.

“Gonets” / “Express Messenger”: redacted: Setaro, Ricardo (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gontloff, Vadim Feodor: aka Victor Kendall (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gontsov, Vadim: Camp Ritchie graduate 1943 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gonzales (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Goodfellow, Colonel Preston (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Goodman, Milton: Described as head of World Tourists prior to Jacob Golos. Goodrich, James P.: Republican Governor of Indiana, 1917-21. “Goose” / “Gus”: Harry Gold (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Goose” / “Gus” [Harry Gold’s cover name until October 1944 when changed to “Arno” so use after that date may to Gold or may be unidentified] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Goose” [Gus'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Harry Gold prior to October 1944. “Goose” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Harry Gold.[205] “Gor” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Joseph Gregg (alternative translations Gore, Hor) “Gor” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent of American diplomatic information on South America, a context compatible with Gregg’s position in the Office of the Co-ordinator of Inter-American Affairs.[206] “Gor” [possbily Gore, possibly Hor ]: “Horus” [Egyptian god]: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gorb, ?: Assistant head of OGPU INO, 1932. Gorbunov, ?: KGB officer, Berlin 1945. Gorbunov, N. P.: Described as manager of the Sovnarkom. Gorchoff, George”: Gustav (GRU Line) [source Venona] “Gordon”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gordon, Joel: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Secret Communist. Member of Victor Perlo’s network, although one not discussed by Elizabeth Bentley. Employed in a variety of U.S. agencies from the mid-1930s to the end of the 1940s. On the staff of UNRRA in WWII. In 1952, while on the staff of the United Nations, invoked the fifth amendment to refuse to answer questions by the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee regarding his Communist links and participation in

espionage. Subsequently discharged by the Secretary-General of the U.N.[207] Party name Joel. Gordon, L. (female) former CPUSA committee officer. Probably Lottie Gordon “Gore”: see “Gor” “Gorkin”: Julian Gomez Garcia of POUM (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Gorn” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Bugle”. (Alternative translation: Forge). “Gorn” appeared in the Venona decryptions translated as “Bugle”.[208] That precedent is followed here. “Gorn” / “Bugle”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gorokhova, Lida (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Gorozhanin” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Townsman”. Gorsky, Anatoli [Anatoly] Veniaminovich: “Vadim” [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Gorsky, Anatoly: see Gromov, Anatolij [Anatoly] Borisovich, KGB resident in DC late 1944,: [Bademus] Vadim (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gorsky, Anatoly Veniaminovic: KGB officer, chief of its U.S. legal station in 1944-1945. Used Anatoly Gromov as his pseudonym when under diplomatic cover at the Soviet embassy in Washington. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet officer/agent. Identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as a Soviet agent/officer. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Vadim”. “Gory” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Mountains”. “Gosti” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Guests”. “Gostinitsa” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Hotel”. “Got” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/ agent in Britain in 1937. Likely Percy Glading. “Got” was identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as Glading. Gotesborg (ship) Gouzenko, Igor: GRU cipher officer who defected in Canada in 1945.[209] GPU: Gosudarststvennoye Politicheskoye Upravleniye (State Political Directorate), predecessor to KGB. Grabar, ?: Described as an art expert who advised Victor Hammer. Grabski, Polish exile official (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Grachev, Aleksandr Petrovich, Fifth Line officer: “Petr” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Gradison, Evgenij Sergeevich, emigrated from China, U.S. citizen 1943, changed name to Eugene Garson, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Graduate Student” [Aspirant] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent in Europe, 1948. Grafpen, Grigory: Senior KGB officer. Executed in Stalin’s purge of his security services in the late 1930s. Grafpen, T. G.: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. “Grandfather” [Ded] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): USSR Consul Genenal in New York or the USSR’s ambassador. “Grandfather” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the Soviet Consul General in New York and also as possibly the USSR’s ambassador. At places in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks, “Grandfather” is clearly designated as the Soviet consul general in New York, but other occurrences place “Grandfather” at the embassy in Washington, suggesting the ambassador. “Grandfather” / “Ded”: “Probably Maksim Maksimovich Litvinov, Soviet Ambassador to US” 1942 1943 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Grandfather” / “Ded”: Evenij (Eveny) Kiselev Soviet Consul General in New York 1944 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Grandpapa” / “Dedushka”: Evgeny Dmitrievich Kiselev Soviet Consul General in New York(KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Grandson”: unidentifed, Australian line, [West Venona]) “Grandson” (“Vnuk”): unidentified (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Granich, Grace: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Veteran CPUSA and Comintern operative. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as a talent spotter for Jacob Golos.[210] “Granit” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Granite”. “Granite” [Granit] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Norman Borodin. “Grant ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Grant”: unidentified cover name: (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Grant”: Col Nikolai Zabotin, Sov Military Attaché, Ottawa. (Ottawa line GRU) 1944 [source Venona] Grant, James P.: Official of the U.S. Economic Cooperation Administration. Grau San Martin, Ramon (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Grauber: redacted but clearly error for Glauber, Roy (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Graur, Andrey Grigoryevich: Senior KGB officer. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet officer/agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks “Vetrov”. Graves, ?: Described as son of the late General Graves and as a “Competitor”, 1941. Graves, William S.: U.S. Army general commanding the American Expeditionary Force in Siberia. Gray, Adaline, journalist [aka pen name Joel Lee] [source Venona] Gray, Robert Bromley (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Graze, Alfred: Father of sources Gerald and Stanley Graze. Graze, Cyril: Brother of sources Gerald and Stanley Graze. Graze, Garry: Brother of sources Gerald and Stanley Graze. Graze, Gerald: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Employed by a variety of U.S. government agencies from the mid-1930s to the late 1940s. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Arena”. Graze, Minnie Freeman: Mother of sources Gerald and Stanley Graze. Graze, Mrs. Stanley: Wife of Stanley Graze. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Dina”. Graze, Ruth: Wife of Gerald Graze. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Rina”. Graze, Stanley: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Employed by a variety of U.S. government agencies from the mid-1930s to the late 1940s, including the War Production Board, OSS, and the State Department. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Dan”, party name Stan. “Green” / “Grin”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Green: See “Grin”. Green, Henry: Described as managing director of the national citizens committee dealing with treaties with Tsarist Russia. Green, Joseph C.: Senior State Department official. Green, Michael (pseudonym): Iskhak Akhmerov. Green, P.: Sergei (Sergey) Gusev [source Chambers Witness] Green: pseudonym by which Joseph Katz referred to Joseph Gregg in 1945.
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Green, U.S. Warrant Officer (NGRU line) [source Venona] Green, William, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Green, William: President of the American Federation of Labor. Greenberg, Michael: Soviet intelligence source/agent. British-born, Greenberg had become a secret Communist while a student at

Cambridge university in the 1930s. In 1942 he became an China specialist for the Board of Economic Warfare and an assistant to that agency’s de facto head, Lauchlin Currie. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as one of her singleton espionage sources sho provided information via Mary Price.[212] Greenberg is a very strong candidate for the cover name “Yank”. Greenglass, Barbara Helene: David Greenglass’s daughter. Greenglass, David: “Bumblebee” / “Shmel” / “Calibre” [Caliber]: Kalibr (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Greenglass, David: Kalibr [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] Greenglass, David: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Bumblebee” (October - November 1944), “Caliber” (December 1944-March 1950), “Zinger” (March 1950-). Greenglass, Ruth: “Osa” / “Wasp” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Greenglass, Ruth: Soviet intelligence source/agent. David Greenglass’s wife. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Margarita” prior to October 1944, “Wasp” (October 1944-1950), and “Ida” (1950-). Greenglass, Steven Lawrence: David Greenglass’s son. Greens [possibly non-Soviet intelligence agency] (NGRU line) [source Venona] Gregg, Joseph: Soviet intelligence source/agent. On the staff of the Office of the Co-ordinator of Inter-American Affairs. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as one of her singleton espionage sources.[213] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Gor”. Pseudonym used by Joseph Katz in in 1945 in referring to him: “Green”. “Gregoire” [Greguar] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, Paris, 1950. “Gregor” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source. Subsource of “Leo”. Economist. References to in 1934. “Gregory”: unidentified cover name and not Ogloblin or Khvostov (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gregory, Louise Hoyt, Biologist NY (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Greguar” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Gregoire”. Greinham, Betty: Described as asking to represent in Moscow an American firm for which she worked. (Alternative spellings: Greinam, Grainam, Grainham, Graynam),

Greinke, Bill: Iskhak Akhmerov [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] Greinke, William (pseudonym): Iskhak Akhmerov. Grew, Joseph: Senior American diplomat, Under Secretary of State, 1944, and often Acting Secretary of State in 1945. Grew, U.S. State Dept. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Grey, Wheeler (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Greya: unidentified Trotskyist “Greyhead”: Fitzgerald, Edward Penrose (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Grieg: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] Griffin, Bernard: English prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. Archbishop of Westminster from 1943 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1946. Griffis, Stanton: U.S. ambassador to Poland, 1947-1948. “Grigoriy” or “Grigory”: unclear, possibly G. N Ogloblin or M.N. Khvostov (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Grigory” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Grigory Dolbin, 1946-1947. “Grigory” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified legal KGB officer Washington 1938. Grigulevich, Iosif: “Arthur” / “Maks” after WWII [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] Grigulevich, Iosif R.: KGB illegal officer in the U.S. in the late 1930s and active in Central and South America then and later. Identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as a Soviet agent/officer.Grigulevich is identified with the cover name “Arthur” in the early 1940s when operating in Central and South America in Andrew and Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield and the Schecters, Sacred Secrets. Robert Louis Benson also concluded that the unidentified “Arthur” [“Artur”] cover name in the Venona decryptions on several South American communications lines was Grigulevich.[214] Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Yuz” and variant “Yuzik” (1938-1939) and “Arthur” (1944, 1947) Grigulevich, Iosif R.: “Maks” / “Felipe” / “Artur” [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Grimeril': Birth name of Grigory Markovich Kheifets. “Grimm” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB officer, possibly cipher officer, late 1930s. “Grimm” in 1944 was identified

in the Venona decryptions as KGB officer Nikolay Alelseev Golovin who may have been a cipher officer. “Grimm”: Nikolaj [Nikolay] Alelseev Golovin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Grin” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): John Spivak. The cover name is thought to derive from the popular Russian writer of the 1920s, Alexander Grin, but treating it phonetically would produce Green. “Grin” is used here. “Grin” as “Green” appeared in the Venona decryptions as unidentified and in a context highly compatible with Spivak.[215] Grineff, Medes: Soviet intelligence source recruited under a false flag. Russian immigrant, chemist. Industrial espionage source recruited by Alfred Slack for money and with a false flag story that information on nylon was for a South American industrial buyer. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Em” starting in July 1942, “Zam” by October 1943. “Grinev”: See Grineff. “Gringo”: Grohol, Mary: Lenson, Marianne, née Diehl (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Grisha” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): KGB officer Grigory Markovich Kheifets. Not used during his American tour. “Grisha”: Carlos Robles Galdames (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Grobba, Fritz: Senior official in Nazi foreign ministry’s Near Eastern department. Grohol, Mary: Lenson, Marianne, née Diehl: “Gringo” (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Grokhovich [Gronowica, Antoni] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gromov, ?: Senior KGB officer, 1950. Gromov, Anatolij [Anatoly] Borisovich, KGB resident in DC late 1944,: [“Bademus”] “Vadim” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gromov, Anatoly: Anatoly Gorsky’s pseudonym when under diplomatic cover in the U.S. in 1944-1946. Gromrach (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gromyko, Andrey Andreyevich: Senior Soviet diplomat and Stalin associate. Gromyko, Andrey, Soviet Ambassador in DC: “Stepfather”: Otchim (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gross, Abel: Chambers’ pseudonym for source at Bureau of Standards (likely Ward Pigman) [source Chambers Witness]

Gross, Feliks (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Grosse, Aristid Victorovich: Russian born scientist, target of recruitment but brushed off approaches and dropped. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Neutron”. Grosse, Lev: Brother of A. V. Grosse. Group A.: Section of KGB in 1947. Described as dealing with violent tasks. Group leader or group handler (tradecraft term): An agent (non-professional KGB officer) or even a source who supervises a group of other agents/sources and subsources. In Russian gruppovik or agentgruppovik: group leader or handler. Later the argot was changed to agent-gruppovod after KGB realized that in Russian slang “gruppovik” had developed a second meaning – group sex. “Growth” / “Odessite”: unidentified source, [ source Venona ] “Growth” [Rost] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, changed from “Odessan” in September 1944. “Growth” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, earlier “Odessan”.[216] Groza, Petru, Rumanian figure (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] GRU: Glavnoye Razvedyvatelnoye Upravleniye –Chief Intelligence Directorate. The Soviet military intelligence agency. GRU GSh VS: Chief Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Armed Forces – Soviet military intelligence. Grube, Herich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Grudinko: unidentified, likely GRU officer [source Venona] Grulio, representative of Russian War Relief in Moscow (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Grunther, ?: Described as an American general. “Gruzchik” / “Stevedore”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Gruzd” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Mushroom”. The cover name in Russian, “Gruzd”, is a type of milk mushroom or milkagaric. Grzynsky (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] GUAP: Chief Administration of the Aircraft Industry (Soviet). “Guard” / “Gard”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Guard” [Gard] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, 1943, appeared to have contacts inside American intelligence agencies. “Guard” appeared in the Venona

decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent in 1943 that appeared to be operating from London. Guberniy: A prerevolutionary Russian administrative unit equivalent to a county or state. Gubichev, Valentin: Soviet intelligence officer/agent. Soviet employee of the United Nations arrested in 1949 when meeting with Judith Coplon to accept stolen U.S. government documents. May have been a KGB co-optee. His family name was rendered in English in accounts of the Coplon case as Valentine Gubitchev.[217] Gubichev is a highly likely candidate for the cover name “Carp” in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks. Gubitchev, Valentine: See Gubichev, Valentin. Guchkov, N. I.: Describes as former mayor of Moscow and figure in the Russian-American Chamber of Commerce, 1924. Guderian, Heinz: Leading Wehrmacht general. “Gudson” / “Hudson” also “Dzhon”/ “John”,: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Gudzon” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Hudson”. Gueiros Lima; (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] Guerin, Albert (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Guerney, in OSS (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Guest, Raymond (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Guests” [Gosti] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Emigres. Guffey, Joseph: U.S. Senator (D. PA). GUGB: Chief Administration of State Security. GUGVF: Main Department of the Civil Air Fleet. “Guide” [Gid] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, CPUSA member, 1948-1950. Described as having a Ph.D. Guild: See “Workshop”. GULAG: Glavnoe Upravlenie Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagere' — Chief Directorate of Corrective Labor Camps. Gulay, Ivan (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gulden, Royal Scott: Head of the secret anti-Semitic Order of ’76 in the 1930s Gulick, L.: Chief of a division of the War Production Board. Also spelled Gullick in the notebooks. “Gulina”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Gullick, L.: see L. Gulick. Gumpertz, Hedwiga: Variant of Hedda Gumpertz. See Hede Massing. Gumperz, Hedda: See Hede Massing. Gunter, ?: Described as “Colonel Gunter” and having close relations with the German Attache in Washington in 1941. Gunter, ?: Described as an assistant to Harold Glasser at Treasury in 1945. Gurchot, Charles: Soviet intelligence source. Born in France (1898) naturalized as a U.S. citizen in 1921. PhD. in chemistry (Cornell University), instructor in pharmacology at University of California, Berkeley Medical School, specialist in cancer research. Gurchot was well know in the cancer research field for his work on Vitamin B-17. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Park”. Gurevich, ?: Described as a Soviet official, 1927, connected to Glavkontsesskom. Gurfein, Murray: Senior OSS officer in Turkey dealing with Bulgarian matters. Gurfinkel, Isaac: Wald, Benjamin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gurnkina,Lilian Joanovna (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Guron” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Huron”. “Gus'” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Goose”. “Gus” / “Goose”: Harry Gold (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Gus” / “Goose”: Harry Gold’s cover name until October 1944 when changed to Arno so use after that date may to Gold or may be unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gusev, Fedor: Senior Soviet diplomat, 1940s. Gusev, Makhail Maksimovich, director of Amtrog in U.S. in June 1944: “Matchmaker” / “Svat” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gusev (NGRU line) [source Venona] Gusev, Petr D.: Pseudonym of KGB officer Peter Gutzeit when in the U.S. Gusev, Sergei (Sergey): P. Green [source Chambers Witness] “Guss” / “Goose”: Harry Gold [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] “Gustav” (GRU Line): Gorchoff, George [source Venona] Gutenberg, B., seismological laboratory, Pasadena (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gutierrez, Joaquin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Gutshneker, ?: Had some relationship to Yelizaveta Gorskaya (Zarubina).

Guttsayt, Petr Davydovich: See Gutzeit, Peter. ‘Guttsayt’ is BGN/PCGN transliteration of the Russian name, but the ‘Gutzeit’ spelling is widespread in the literature and is adopted here to avoid confusion. Guttsayt, Taissia Mikhaylovna: See Gutzeit, Taisa Gutzeit, Peter Davydovich: Soviet intelligence officer/agent. Chief of the KGB New York station, mid-1930s, recalled in late 1938 and later executed in Stalin’s purge of his security services in the late 1930s. (Alternative translation: Guttsayt, Petr) Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Nikolay”. Pseudonym in the U.S.: Petr D. Gusev. Gutzeit, Taisa Mikhalovna.: Wife of Peter Gutzeit “Gymnast”: YCL (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Gymnasts” [Fizkul'turniki] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Young Communist League and YCL members and circa 1944. “Gymnasts” were identified in the Venona decryptions as YCL members. “Gypsy”: Kitty Harris [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] “Gypsy”: Kitty Harris early 30s, [source Damaskin Harris] XXH Ha??, John, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Haan, Ilsu [source Venona] Haas, Loren George, engineer at Bell (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Haas, Loren: Soviet intelligence source/agent at Westinghouse and Bell Aircraft in New York. Haas cooperated with FBI and worked as a double agent, supplying approved information to KGB.[218] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Hong”. Haber, William: New Deal consultant on social security policies. Hackner, Lt. Allan Jacob (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Hadari, Gideon: U.S. intelligence officer, operating in Mid-East, Iran and Israel. “Hadre” [Khadr] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1945. Ha...GA..., Otto (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Hagen, Paul, aka Karl Frank [worked for Short Wave Research - OSS] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Haight, Norman: See Hait, Norman. Hait, Norman: Soviet intelligence source/agent. (Spelling of the name is unconfirmed a alternative translations are: Hayt, Hight, Hite, Haight).

Described as an engineer for Sperry Gyroscope Company in New Jersey. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Long”. “Long” appeared in was identified in the Venona decryptions as and was changed to “Davis” in October 1944.[219] Halder, German General, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Halifax, Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of: Senior British government official and diplomat. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Legate”. Halifax, Lord, British Ambassador in Washington. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Hall, Theodore: “Mlad” [source Albright Kunstel Bombshell] Hall, Theodore A.: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Young physicist in the Manhattan atomic project. Secret Communist. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source.[220] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Mlad”. Hall, Theodore Alvin: “Young” / “Mlad” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Hall, Thomas (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Hallas, in OSS (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Halperin, Maurice: “Zayats” / “Hare” or “Stowaway” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Halperin, Maurice: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Chief of the Latin American Division of the Research and Analysis section of the OSS (1943-1945). After World War II he became a Latin American specialist for the U.S. State Department (1945-1946). Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as one of her singleton espionage sources.[221] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Hare”. Halpern, Aleksadr J., chief of minorities sub-section of British Security Coordination in NY (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Halpern , Alexander, described as secretary to Kerenski 1943 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Hamilton, Fowler [Antitrust Division of Justice, 39-42, then BEW] chief of Enemies Countries Branch of BEW [source Venona] “Hamilton” [Gamil'ton] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent in U.K. Described as a member of the Central Committee of CPGB. Hamilton, Walton: Husband of Irene Till, Harold Glasser's first wife. Hammer, Armand: Soviet intelligence contact. Businessman specialized in international trade, particularly trade with the USSR. Son of a

founding member of the CPUSA. Conduit for Comintern subsidies of the CPUSA.[222] Hammer, Armand Victorovich: Son of Victor Hammer. Known as Armasha Hammer. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks “Gherman”. Hammer, Charles: Son of Victor Hammer and Irene Wicker. Hammer, Harry: Son of Julius Hammer, brother of Armand (the elder) and Victor Hammer. Hammer, Julius: A founding member of the CPUSA. Also known as Yuly Yakovlevich Hammer. Medical doctor involved in promoting international trade with the USSR in the early 1920s and sought to break the informal Western economic boycott of the new Soviet state. In partnership with his son Armand received several industrial and economic concessions from the USSR in the 1920s. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Concessionaire”. “Hammer” [Molot] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): USSR. Hammer, Nancy: Daughter of Victor Hammer and Irene Wicker. Hammer, Olga Vadina: Wife of Armand Hammer (the elder) in 1943. Hammer, Rozalya Semenovna: Mother of Victor Hammer. Hammer, Varvara: First wife of Victor Hammer. Russian, maiden name Varvara Dmitriyevna Kartasheva. Hammer, Victor: Son of Julius Hammer and younger brother of Armand Hammer. Russian version of name: Victor Yulyevich Hammer. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Sonny” (1930s-1950s), “Screw” (1940s-1960s), note overlap. Hammer, Yuly Yakovlevich: Russianized version of the name of Julius Hammer. Hank (party name): Harry Magdoff. Hankey, Maurice (1st Baron Hankey): Senior British civil servant and cabinet member. Hanna, Augusta: Described as German-born widow of American Ambassador to Guatemala, Matthew Hanna, and U.S. State Department employee, 1936. Hannegan, Robert: Postmaster General and Chairman of the Democratic Party. Hannegan, Robert E., Chairman of DNC (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Hans”: unidentified, likely GRU officer [source Venona] “Hans” [Gans] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Representative of the KGB apparatus in the GDR, 1960.

Hanse, ?: Described as someone who might become a aide to President Roosevelt in 1933. Hansen, R.: Soviet intelligence contact/informant on U.S. politics 1932. Merchant marine ship captain. Hapgood, Norman: Journalist and editorialist. Prominent left-liberal and civil libertarian in the 1920s. U.S. ambassador to Denmark, 1919. Har..., ...l [partial, unidentified] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Haraday” [possibly “Faraday”]: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] “Hardy”: unidentified, likely GRU officer [source Venona] “Hare” / “Zayats” / “Stoaway”: Maurice Halperin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Hare see Rabbit “Hare” [Zayats] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Maurice Halperin. “Hare” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Halperin.[223] Harnack, Mildred: Married name of Mildred Fish. An American, she met German Arvid Harnack at when Arvid was pursuing graduate work at the University of Wisconsin in 1926. They returned to Germany where Dr. Arvid Harnack became a senior civil servant in Reich Ministry of Economics. Both were secret Communists. In WWII Arvid became a leader of a GRU-linked espionage network known as the “Red Orchestra”. Arrested by Nazi security services, both were executed.[224] “Harold”: Garold: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Harrier”, see “Hen-Harrier”: Hull, Cordell Harriman, Averell: American businessman, diplomat, and government administrator. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Men” (beginning in December 1944[225] ) Harriman, W. Averell: “Men”: Capitalist (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Harris, ?: Covert contact of Harold Glasser at some point, probably several years, prior to 1945. Harris, Kitty: “ADA” (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Harris, Kitty: “Aida”: Gypsy [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] Harris, Kitty: “Ada” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Harris, Kitty: “Gypsy” (in early 30s): “Norma” (mid 30s): “Ada” (later 30s) [source Damaskin Harris] Harris, Lement: Senior CPUSA official. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as deeply involved in CPUSA covert work and assisting Jacob Golos.
[226]

Harrison, Fena: Described as OSS officer/staff. “Harry”: Harry-2: Jacob Epstein (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Harry” [Garri] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Grigory Rabinovich, 1937-1939. Harry Line (ship) [source Venona] Harsch, Joseph C.: Foreign correspondent for the newspaper Christian Science Monitor. Hart, Edith Tudor: Soviet intelligence agent, U.K.[227] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Edith”. Hart, Edward Joseph: U.S. Representative (D. New Jersey) and chair of the U.S. House Committee on Un-American Activities in 1945. Harte, Robert Sheldon: Soviet intelligence source/agent.[228] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Cupid”. Harte, Robert Sheldon: (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Harte, Robert Sheldon: “Amur” [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Harvey, Oliver: British ambassador to France, 1948-1954. Haskell, John H. F.: Colonel in OSS, tentatively chosen by General Donovan to head the Moscow OSS office if the Soviets agreed to KGB-OSS cooperation. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Yankee” in 1944. Hassel, Ulrich von: Leading figure in an anti-Hitler conspiracy in Germany. Hatch, Carl A.: U.S. Senator (D. New Mexico). Hatch, U.S. Lieutenant (NGRU line) [source Venona] Hau, in Germany (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Havre”: Garv: redacted, at one time worked for British intelligence (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Hawkins, ?: Described as a FBI agent, 1942. Hawkins, William G, pilot and production man (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Hayden, Stuart, journalist working for OSS [source Venona] Hayes, Carlton (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Hayes, Carlton J. H.: U.S. Ambassador to Spain, 1942-1945. Haynes, Lawrence L.: Mid-level government official involved in the 1941 theft of Civil Service Commission for commercial purposes. Hayt, Norman: See Hait, Norman Hazard, John [Assistant administrator of Soviet Union Supply office of Lend Lease] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Hazel Grouse” [Ryabchik] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): File connected to the Hammer family. Healey, Arthur: U.S. Representative (D. MA). Heard, Captain William A. (NGRU line) [source Venona] Hearst newspapers. Hearst press Hearst, William Randolph: newspaper publisher. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Concern”. “Hedgehog” / “Ezh”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Heifetz, Jascha: Lithuanian-born American violin virtuoso. (Also know as Yasha Heifetz). Heifetz, Yasha: See Jascha Heifetz. Heilig, Theodore: (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Heim, ? [Eym in Russian]: Described as an anti-Communist German journalist. Heiman, Beatrice: Daughter of Julius Heiman. Secretary to Soviet ambassador Konstantin Umansky in 1945. Heiman, Jacob [source Venona] Heiman, Julia: Daughter of Julius Heiman and sister of Beatrice. Former wife of Joseph Gregg. Contact of GRU illegal Arthur Adams. Employed by TASS. Heiman, Julius: Immigrant from Russian and a naturalized citizen. In the early 1920s Heiman, who worked in the jewelry business and was a secret Communist, converted Soviet subsidies that came in the form of jewelry into cash. Treasurer for the American bureau of the Profintern, 1920s. In the 1930s and early 1940s he undertook a variety of support tasks for GRU. Father of Beatrice and Julia Heiman. Heineman, Kristal Fuchs, sister of Klaus Fuchs: “Ant” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Heineman, Kristel Fuchs: Soviet intelligence contact. Sister of Klaus Fuchs. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Ant”. “Heinrich” [Genrikh] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentifed KGB officer. References to in 1934. Helen: contact name used by Mrs. Zarubin. Helen: Party name of Helen Tenney. Helen: Work name Unidentified, known to Alexander Koral in the 1930s, possibly associate of the Rosenbliett network.

Helen: work name of Elizabeth Zarubin with Franz Neumann. Helfand, Lev Borisovich, aka Leon Helfand, Leon Moore, defected to U.S. from Italy in July 1940 when recalled to Moscow. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Helfgott, Leo: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Helfgott was a medical doctor and cancer specialist. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Bubi”. The identification of “Bubi” as Helfgott is based on the overlap between what is said of “Bubi” in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks and Simon Rosenberg’s (“S-7”) statements to the FBI in the Armand Feldman case.[229] “Hell” [Khell] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence agent. Likely Floyd Cleveland Miller. References to in 1941. Described as working in the Trotskyist publishing house Pioneer Publishers. Cover name changed to “Lion” in August 1944. Miller was identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet agent engaged in anti-Trotsky work with a partially broken cover name “Khe..”, consistent with “Khell”– “Hell” in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks. Heller, Fred: Associate of Thomas Black, 1930s. Heller, Peter: Elizabeth Bentley romantic interest, 1945.[230] Hellman, Lillian: Prominent American writer and covert Communist. “Hello” [Allo] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Solomon Adler (prior to “Sachs”, which appears in 1941). “Helmsman”: Rulevoj: Earl Browder. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Helmsman” [Rulevoy] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Earl Browder. “Helmsman” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Browder. “Helmsman” was identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as Browder.
[231]

Hemingway, Ernest: Soviet intelligence contact/informant, 1941-49. Popular American novelist. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Argo”. Henderson [Loy?] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Henderson, Loy W.: Senior American diplomat and Soviet specialist in the 1920s and 1930s. “Hen-Harrier” / “Lun”: (Ring Tail?): Hull, Cordell (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Henri L.: unidentified,: “Gert” [Gerth, Hert, Herth] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Henry”: Genri: Malisoff, William M. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Henry”: young German Communist sailor courier [source Chambers Witness] Henry, ?: Described as an American industrialist, 1965. Henry Costin (ship) [source Venona] Henry, Count: Described as a “White” who worked on Soviet codes for antiBolshevik organizations. “Henry” [Genri] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent. Likely William Malisoff staring in October 1944. “Henry” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Malisoff. References to in 1945. Henry, Lou (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Henry: Party name of Harold Glasser. Henry Richardson (ship) [source Venona] Henry: Work name Name by which Julius Rosenberg knew Semen Semenov. Henwood, Wilfred Darcy (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Herbert: Soviet GRU officer, Whittaker Chambers contact, ex-tank officer Herbert, Edward Joseph: Pseudonym used by Vasily Zarubin, 1934-1940. Hercogs Jekabs (ship) (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Hercules Powder Company: Dupont subsidiary, maker of explosives. Herder: See “Herdsman”. “Herdsman”: unidentified (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Herdsman” [Pastukh] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Anton Lavrentyevich Nikunas, 1943. “Herdsman” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidetified technical source compatible with Nikunas. Hering, Dorothy: Described as agent of Frank Prince of the Anti-Defamation League. Herman: Chambers knew Valentine Markin as Herman [source Chambers Witness] Herman, ?: Identified as a GRU officer who confessed being a Trotskyist and German spy in the late 1930s. Hernandez Tomas, Jesus: “Pedro” (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Hernig, ?: Described as head of the science division of the East German CC SED, 1960. Hertz, ?: Described as New York Commissioner of Docks in 1932. However, John McKenzie held the position at that time. Hertz, Gustav: Nobel prize winning (1925) German physicist who worked on the Soviet atomic project after WWII.

Hess, H.H., geologist Princeton (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Hess, Rudolf (NGRU line) [source Venona] Hewellyn, ?: Likely a garble for Llewellyn. Described as a British official with the British mission to the Manhattan atomic project. Heywood Broun (ship) [source Venona] Hibben, James Herbert: Soviet intelligence source. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Solid” until October 1944, “Reed” in June 1945. Hibben’s real name does not appear in Vassiliev’s notebooks, but “Solid”/“Reed” is described as chief of the Chemical Division of the U.S. Tariff Commission, a position James Hibben held at the time. FBI also identified Hibben as an associate of Soviet agent Mary Price and had information that he was using his position to access documents on military explosives that were unrelated to his official duties.[232] Hickerson, John D.: Deputy Director, State Department Office of European Affairs (1944-47). “Hicks”: Burgess, Guy) (U.K. Line) [West Venona] “Hicks” [Khiks] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Guy Burgess. “Hicks” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Burgess. Hight, Norman: See Hait, Norman. Hightower, journalist (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Hildebrand, J.H. Chemist, CA (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Hildring, John: U.S. Army general and chief of the Civil Affairs Division. Hill Group: Informal term for secret CPUSA members who worked for the Congress on Capitol Hill. Hillenkoetter, Roscoe: First director of the CIA, 1947-1950. Himmler, Heinrich: Head of National Socialist Schutzstaffel (SS). Hindenburg, Paul von: German military leader in WWI, later president of the German republic prior to Hitler taking total power. Hirard, P.: Described as a secretary at the French embassy in Berlin and a contact of Martha Dodd in Berlin. Hirschfeld, Hans: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Hirshfeld, Samuel (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Hirshman, A.O.: Described as OSS officer/staff. “Hirt” [Khirt] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer/agent who got a passport via Jacob Golos.

Hiskey, Clarence: Soviet intelligence source. Chemist and secret Communist working at the Manhattan Project facilities at the University of Chicago. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Ramsay”. Hiss, Alger: Chambers heard Hiss referred to as “Advokat” by his GRU contact [source Chambers Witness] Hiss, Alger: “Ales” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Hiss, Alger: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Government lawyer and senior American State Department official. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent. Identified by Whittaker Chambers and Nathaniel Weyl as a member of the “Ware group” covert CPUSA unit. On Adolf Berle’s 1939 list of those identified by Whittaker Chambers as covert Communists who were espionage risks. Convicted of perjury in 1950 for denying his espionage relationship with Whittaker Chambers in 1937-1938. Documented as assisting Soviet espionage by the “Baltimore” and “Pumpkin Papers”, by the testimony of Hede Massing, Whittaker Chambers and Elizabeth Bentley and by Noel Field’s debriefing by Hungarian Communist security police.[233] Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Jurist” (1936), “Ales” (1945), “Leonard” (1948-1950). Hiss, Donald: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Government lawyer and official in the Labor and State Departments. Identified by Chambers as a member of the original “Ware group” covert CPUSA unit and as assisting Chambers CPUSA-GRU espionage apparatus. On Adolf Berle’s 1939 list of those identified by Whittaker Chambers as covert Communists who were espionage risks.[234] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Junior” (1948). Hiss, Robert (garbled name): Described as a State Department official with progressive views in 1938, likely an error for either Alger Hiss or Donald Hiss, the only Hisses at DOS at the time of the September 1938 reference to Robert Hiss. Hite, Norman: See Hait, Norman. Hitlerjugend: Hitler Youth. Ho Ying-Chin, General, Chinese Minister of War, 1930-1944, [source Venona] Hoettl, William: Deputy chief of the Nazi SS Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA) or Reich Security Main Office. Hoffman, Paul: Business executive and President Truman’s administrator of the Marshall Plan.

Hogman, Captain: cover name 22 twenty-two (GRU line)[source Venona] Hoinko, Tadeusz (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Hola” (cover name in Mitrokhin): Melita Stedman Norwood.[235] Holcomb, General Marine (NGRU line) [source Venona] Hollis, Roger: Senior British security official, chief of MI5. Holman, Rufus: U.S. Senator, 1939-1945 (R. OR) Holmes, U.S. State Dept. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Home” [Dom] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): USSR, 1941-1944. “Homer” / “Gomer”: Maclean, Donald D. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Homer” [Gomer] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Donald Maclean. “Homer” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Maclean.[236] Honaker, ?: Described as U.S. Consul General in Stuttgart, 1937. “Hong” [Khong] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Loren Haas. Hoodless, Carter: Associate of Abraham Brothman. “Hook”: Khuk: Dvoichenko-Markov, Demetrius (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Hoover, Herbert: Former President of the U.S. Strong candidate for the cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Secretary”. Hoover, Herbert (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Hoover, J. Edgar: Director of the FBI. Weak candidate for the cover name in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Secretary”. Hoover, J. Edgar (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Hopewell Report (1944) (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Hopkins, ?: Described as Commerce Department official, early 1930s. Hopkins, Harry: Possibly “Deputy” / “Zamestitel” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Hopkins, Harry: Head of the Works Progress Administration and other New Deal agencies in the 1930s, secretary of Commerce in the late 1930s, and during WWII, chief personal adviser to and representative of President Franklin Roosevelt. Hor: see “Gor”. Horn: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] Horne, Vice Admiral Frederick J.; (NGRU line) [source Venona] Horthy, Admiral, of Hungary. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Horthy, Miklós: Regent (dictator) of Hungary, 1920-1944. Horton, Robert (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Horus”: Gor [Egyptian god]: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Horwitz, Louis D. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Hospital” / “GOSPITAL'”: Prison (KGB Mexico City) 1944 [source Venona] “Hotel” [Gostinitsa] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): British Secret Intelligence Service (SIS, also known as MI6), 1944-1945. Houghton, Harry: Senior official of Mazak corporation. “House” / “Dom”: unidentified in Moscow, in KGB traffic [source Venona] [See “Dom”/“Home”] “House” “Dom”: unidentified institution in GRU traffic c [source Venona] House Special Committee on Un-American Activities, U.S.: Also known as the McCormack-Dickstein committee, 1934-1937 and the Dies committee, 1938-1944. Howard, Roy: Leading American newspaper publisher. Hromadka, Joseph L. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Hub” [Uzel] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Project to investigate and collect information from Walter Lippmann. “Hudson”: Gudson: “John”: Dzhon: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Hudson” [Gudzon] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence agent/informant. Used as a telephone contact point between Klaus Fuchs and Harry Gold, 1945. “Hudson” appeared in the Venona decryptions as unidentified in 1944 and his cover name in the Venona decryptions was changed to “John” in October 1944.[237] “Hudson’s” activities in the Venona decryptions included work in the KGB’s “first line” (political intelligence), placing Soviet sources in Jewish and Zionist organizations, and maintaining liaison with various Soviet sources. Hudson, Roy (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Hudson, Roy: Senior CPUSA official. Huettig, Lester Marx: See Hutm, Lester. Huettig, Lester Marx source at Remington Arms in Bridgeport, CT, for Chambers & Bykov network [source William Crane FBI file]. “Hugh”: Alfred Sarant [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] “Hughes” / “Khyus”: Alfred Sarant (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Hughes” [Kh'yuz] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Alfred Epaminondas Sarant. “Hughes” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Sarant.[238] Hughes, Charles E.: Secretary of State, 1921-1925.

Hughes, Howard: American aviation industrialist. Huhnefeld, Baron (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Hulburd, David: Senior Time magazine editor, 1941. Hull, Cordell, in 1944: “Lun” / “Hen-Harrier” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Hull, Cordell: U.S. Secretary of State in the Roosevelt administration. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Mechanic”. Hull, E.: Described as member of the Michigan CPUSA Central Committee in late 1937. Hull’s committee (description): A 1935 description of a DOS counterintelligence committee. The Department of State had several shortlived committees in this period that discussed what might be done about the growing problem of German, Japanese, and Soviet espionage. Hume, Donald: Described as a convict friend of Klaus Fuchs when in prison. Humphrey, Hubert H.: U.S. Senator (D. MN) and Vice-President of the United States (1965-1969). Hunter, John: Described as a Department of State official, 1945. Hurauzescu, Radu, Rumanian figure (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Hurley, Ambassador Hurley, Patrick (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Huron”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Huron [Guron] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Byron T. Darling prior to October 1944 and from February 1945 and later. “Huron” appeared in the Venona decryptions as unidentified, a scientific source in the Venona decryptions assigned at one point to contact Manhattan project physicists.[239] “Hut” / “Izba”: Venona (KGB U.S. line) translated “Izba”, cover name for the OSS, and that part of COI that became OSS as “Hut” (Izba is a somewhat broader term for hut than is “Khata”, cover name for the FBI. Khata is a generic peasant’s hut). Also see “Cabin” [“Izba”] “Hut” / “Khata”: FBI [source Venona] “Hut” [Khata] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). KGB cover name for FBI was “Khata”, in Vassiliev’s notebooks translated as “Hut”. KGB cover name for OSS was “Izba”, in Vassiliev’s notebooks translated as “Cabin”. Izba and Khata have overlapping meanings (with Khata as a generic peasant’s hut) and one could reverse the chosen translation. There is at least

one instance in Alexander Vassiliev notebooks when “Hut” in context appears to refer to British counter-intelligence (MI5) rather than FBI.
[240]

Hutchins, Grace: Sociably prominent writer and secret Communist, she assisted the CPUSA-GRU apparatus of which Whittaker Chambers was a part. After Chambers defected and was in hiding, Hutchins delivered a message to his brother-in-law that if he gave her Chambers’ location, she would guarantee the safety of Chambers’ wife and children.[241] Hutm, Lester: Described as former employee of the Frankford Arsenal. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “115th”. A 1948 Gorsky memo Chambers/Karl’s group name.[242] Chambers did not discuss a Lester Hutm in Witness. However, Chambers noted that among the sources that reported to Boris Bykov, the GRU officer to whom Chambers also reported, was someone at an arms manufacturer. In his statement to the FBI Morris Asimow stated he had introduced William Crane of Bykov’s network to Lester Marx Huettig, who worked for Remington Arms in Bridgeport, CT, with an eye for obtaining information on automatic loading of shells. Possibly these are the same. However, while the first names are identical, the family names, Hutm and Huettig, while having some similarity, are not identical, and the Frankford Arsenal near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is not Remington Arms at Bridgeport, Connecticut. Huysmans (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]Hyde, Arthur M.: U.S. Secretary of Agriculture in the Hoover administration. “Hydro” [Gidro] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Radio Corporation of America, circa 1944. “Hydroelectric Construction Project” [Gidrostroy] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Hanford, Washington facilities of the Manhattan atomic project (Site W). XXI I”.: initial of unidentified name [II] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] I. unidentified [II] (GRU line) [source Venona] Ibarruri, Dolores (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Ic”: possibly Josip Rubinic [Rubinovic] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Iceberg”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Ickes, Harold: Secretary of Interior in the FDR administration. “Ida” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Ruth Greenglass, 1950. “Ide”: Yaz: Krafsur, Samuel (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Ide” [Yaz'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Samuel Krafsur. The Ide is a type of fish found in Europe and Asia. “Ide” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Krafsur.[243] “Idea” [Ideya] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Merle Weinberg (Mrs. Joseph Weinberg). “Idealist” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentifed Soviet intelligence source/agent, early 30s. “Ideya” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Idea”. Ievlev, A.M.: KGB officer, Berlin 1945. I.G. Farbenindustrie: German industrial concern. Igarka (ship) “Igla” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Needle”. “Igla” / “Needle”: York, Jones Orin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ignatev, A., Lieutenant General (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Igor” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer/agent. Likely Konstantin Mikhailovich Kukin. “Igor” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Konstantin Mikhailovich Kukin, Counselor Soviet embassy, London in 1943. “Igor” was identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin and in West and Tsarev as Kukin and as chief of the London station beginning in 1943. “Igor”: Kukin, Konstantin Mikhailovich, Counselor Soviet embassy, London (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Igor”: unidentified cover name [not Kukin] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Igor”: Kukin, Konstantin Mikhailovich London 1944-47 [source Andrew and Mitrokhin] “Igor”: Kukin, Konstantin [scource West & Tsarev] Igor (given name, real name): Friend of Armand Victorovich Hammer at the Moscow Institute of Foreign Languages. Ikal, Arnold A.: Ikal, a GRU officer of Latvian origina, worked in the United States in the 1930s, falsely obtaining U.S. citizenship under the name Adolph Arnold Rubens by claiming he had immigrated to the United States as a child. In 1935 he married an American Communist, Ruth Boerger. The GRU recalled Ikal to Moscow in late 1937, and he returned with his wife, traveling with another set of false American

passports as Mr. and Mrs. Donald L. Robinson. Ikal was arrested in Stalin’s purge of his security services and sent to the Gulag, where he died. His wife was imprisoned for a time but released after agreeing to refuse American embassy assistance and never to leave the USSR. IKKI: Executive Committee of the Communist International. Ikonnikov (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Iks” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “X”. “Iks”: X: Katz, Joseph (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ilf, Ilia: Soviet writer who toured the U.S. in 1935-1936. Ilich, Soviet ship (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ilichev, Aleksandr Fuderovich, DC People’s Commissariat for Foreign Trade (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ilichev, Ivan Ivanovich: Chief of GRU, 1942-1943. Executed in 1943. Ilk, ?: Senior KGB officer, Moscow, 1935. Illegal (KGB tradecraft term): A KGB officer who had no diplomatic status, operated using false identities, pretended to have no official connection of the Soviet state, and often pretended to be non-Russian. Ilmen (ship) [source Venona] “Il'ya” (real name used as a cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Ilya”. “Ilya” / “Elijah” / “Elias”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Ilya” [Il'ya] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer, likely chief of the Mexico City station in 1950. “Ilya” [Il'ya] (real first name used as a cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See Ilya Elliott Wolston. Immigration and Naturalization Service, U.S. Imperial Union: Likely a reference to the Russian Imperial Union Order, a Russian monarchist organization chartered in 1929 by white emigres living abroad. “Imperialist” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Walter Lippmann. “Imperialist” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Lippmann. “Imperialist”: Walter Lippmann, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Impressive: See “Solid”. In Fact: Left-wing journal founded by Bruce Minton and George Seldes. Indel: Abbreviation of Ministry of Foreign Affairs “Indian ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Indian” / “Indeets”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Indian Student Society of America [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] Indianapolis (ship) [source Venona] “Indians”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Industriya (ship) [source Venona] INFO: KGB Information Department Informal Policy Committee on Germany (IPCOG): U.S. interpartmental agency, 1944-1945. “Informator” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Bruce Minton. Also known as Richard Bransten. The Russian original word “Informator”, is usually translated as “Informer”. However, KGB also used the Russian word “Stukach” as a cover name, and “Stukach” can be and was translated as “Informer” in the Venona decryptions. (“Informator” did not appear in the Venona decryptions). To avoid confusion, here “Stukach” is translated as “Informer” and “Informator” is kept in its transliterated form as “Informator”. “Informer”: Stukach: Joseph Katz (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Informer” [Stukach] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Joseph Katz prior to August 1944. “Informer” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Joseph Katz.[244] Ingalls (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Inis”: Luis Sancha, brother of Jose Sancha Padros (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Innkeepers”: anti-C.P. Poles (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] INO: Inostranny Otdel, or Foreign Department of Cheka/GPU/OGPU/GUGB that supervised foreign intelligence. Later became the INU, Foreign Intelligence Directorate of NKGB/GUGB/MGB, and later the PGU, First Chief Directorate of KGB. INO NKTP: Foreign Department of the People’s Commissariat of Heavy Industry (Soviet). Inslerman, Felix: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Photographer for Chambers’ GRU/CPUSA network. Trained in the Soviet Union. Identified by Chambers as a source/agent. Confessed to FBI in 1954. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “107th”. Instantsiya (Soviet idiom): See Directive echelon. Institute: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Institute for Social and Religious Research.

Institute of International Education: Organization founded by Stephan Duggan and later led by Laurence Duggan. Institute of Pacific Relations. “Intelligensia”: Haldane, J.B.S. [ U.K. line] [West Venona]) Interchemical Corporation, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Interim Research and Intelligence Service (IRIS): State Department organization that absorbed OSS’s Research and Analysis branch after OSS’s dissolution in September 1945. “Intermediary” [Posrednik] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, technical intelligence, 1947, 1948. International Committee to Combat Communism: Likely a variant for the “Committee to Combat Communism”, a short-lived umbrella organizations of many different anti-Communist groups organized in 1931 under the leadership of U.S. Representative Hamilton Fish. International Committee for Political Prisoners: Founded in 1924 to seek improved treatment or release of of Menshevists, Social Revolutionaries, Anarchists, and other dissenters in the USSR. International Committee to Aid Prisoners: See International Committee for Political Prisoners. International Monetary Fund. International Organization to Combat the Comintern: Described as active in 1924. International Peace Congress. International Peace Conference. International Secretariat: The headquarters agency of Leon Trotsky’s Fourth International, a pale rival to the Soviet-sponsored Communist (Third) International. International Student Society: Unclear what specific organization is referenced. International Student Service [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] International Student Union [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] International Workers Organization: Described as financing a Russianlanguage newspaper circa 1919. Interns: See “Probationers”. Inter-Professional Association: Leftist professional association of the 1930s. Intourist: Soviet government travel agency that handled almost all travel to the USSR by non-Soviet citizens.

“Invalid” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Dr. Emil Conason. “Invention” (“Izobretenie)”: Paloma, Senator, former Governor of Yucatan (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Inverchapel, Lord: see Archibald Clark-Kerr. Inya (ship) [source Venona] Ioffe, ?: Soviet intelligence officer, 1937. Ioffe, Adolph Abramovich: Bolshevik leader, 1920s. Iosif ?: Unidentified Russian emigrant in the U.S. who wrote to a friend in the USSR in 1935 about Boros Morros’s visit to the USSR. Ipatiev, Vladimir: Emigre Russian scientist, oil specialist, on Northwestern University chemistry faculty in the 1930s. “Ipatov”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] IPCOG: Informal Policy Committee on Germany. “Ira”: Maria Andreevna Tolstikova nee Lebedeva (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Iraqi Oil. “Iri” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Erie”. “Irina ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Iris”: Sonia’s GRU case officer [U.K. line ] [West Venona] IRIS: Interim Research and Intelligence Service, remnant of OSS placed with DOS. “Irma” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Rae Elson. “Iron document”: genuine document (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Irsakaev, Alyadin, Amtorg official [source Venona] I.S.: Likely Intelligence Service. Isaacs, Harold: American Trotskyist activist. Isaak, Rosa (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Isaak, Rose: Executive secretary of the Russian-American Institute. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[245] Likely candidate for the cover name “Rona” in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks. Isachenkov [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] Isakov, Admiral (NGRU line) [source Venona] Iska Asatiani (ship) [source Venona] “Iskrenny” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Sincere”. “Island” / “Ostrov”: Great Britian (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Island of Tears” [Ostrova slez] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Reference to a operation of some sort that yielded ‘proceeds’ of some sort that involved Jacob Golos and the officer/agent Martinez. “Island” [Ostrov] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Great Britain. “Island” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Great Britain. “Islanders”: British (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ismailoff, Mrs. Nathalie Kubilina: Kulibini-Izmajlova (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Isra” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): English variant of Izra. Italian Information Library: Italian cultural institution sponsored by the Italian government. ITL: Ispravitelno-Trudovoi Lager' – Correctional Labor Camp, i.e., the GULAG. Iturriaga, Jose, Mexican Communist Lawyer (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Ivan” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB agent/officer, New York station, 1956. “Ivan”: unidentified (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Ivan, Aleksandr Mikhajlovich Ivancic, Anton: “Crucian” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Ivanov”: John Scott (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ivanov, B. S.: Senior KGB officer, Moscow, 1966. Ivanov in Moscow: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ivanov, Petr Vasilyevich: Pseudonym used by Petr Fedotov. Ivanov (ship), Ivanov, Vasilij [Vasily] (seaman) (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Ivanov, Vasily Vasilievich: Lermontov: engineer, under Purchasing Commission cover, 1942-1946 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Ivanova”: unidentified but possibly Mariya Ivanovna Kikareva, wife of John Scott (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ivanovsky-Sigaloff: Described as the Russian stage name of Eugene Sigalov. Ivanovsky-Sigalov (stage name): see Sigalov, Evgeny. “Iveri”: Mikhail Konstantinovich Kalatozov, director of Leningrad Film Studio (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Ivy”: Emma Harriet Joseph (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Izabello”: Zabellov, Ivan

“Izba” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): see Cabin. “Izba” / “Hut”: Izba is a somewhat broader term for Hut than is Khata, cryptonym for the FBI. Khata is a generic peasant’s hut): OSS, and that part of COI that became OSS (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] [See “Cabin”/“Izba”] Izhitskij, General (Izicki) (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Izotov, ?: Captain of the tanker “Azerbaijan”. Izotov (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Izra” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Donald Wheeler. “Izra” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Wheeler.[246] “Izra”: Donald Wheeler (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Izvekov, Nikolaj [Nikolay] Nikolaevich, aricraft engineer (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Izvestiya: Leading Soviet newspaper. XXJ J..... [JJ] (ship) [source Venona] Jachimowicz, Aleksandr (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Jack” [Dzhek] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Bernard Schuster, December 1943. “Jack” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified GRU source/agent in 1943 who appeared to play an intermediary role with CPUSA, and Schuster, who also performed that role for KGB, would be a candidate for performing that task for GRU as well.[247] “Jack” / “Dzhek”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] “Jack”: unidentifed source in OSS [West Venona]) “Jack”: unidentifed source, U.K. line [West Venona]) “Jack” [Dzhek] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): James Allen, late 1940s, early 50s. “Jack” [Dzhek] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Olga Neyman in 1944. “Jack” [Dzhek] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB officer, London 1947. “Jack” [Dzhek] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB officer/agent, likely at Moscow Center. References to in 1934. Jack: Pseudonym by which Elizabeth Bentley knew Joseph Katz. [Bentley FBI statement] Jackson Bolsey [or Bolsey Jackson?] [source Venona]

Jackson, Gardner Pat: Liberal/left journalist, erratic Popular Front ally of the CPUSA. Employed in several New Deal agencies in the 1930s.[248] Jackson, George: Pseudonym used by “Solid”/Hibben in signing receipts for KGB payments. Jackson, Robert H.: Chief U.S. prosecutor at the German War Crimes trials, 1945-1946, justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. Jackson, Robert (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Jacob” / “Yakov” also “James”: William Perl (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Jacob: See “Yakov”. Jacobs, Sara: see Weber, Sara. Jacobson, Herman R.: S-1 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Jacobson, Herman: Soviet intelligence source/agent, references to in 1933. American. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/ agent in 1944 and working at that time for Avery Manufacturing Company.[249] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “S-1”. Jacobson, John M.: Secret member of the CPUSA and political activist in Minnesota and nationally with CIO-PAC Jacson Frank [Jackson]: Mornard, Jacques: pseudonyms of Mercader, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Jaffo, David.: McClure newspapers source in Riga regarding Russian matters, 1938-1939. Former member of the Kerensky government. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Voyager”. Jaksch, Wenzel of Sudeten party (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “James” [Dzhems] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Thomas Schwartz, 1935, described as former German consul. “James”: William Perl 1945 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] James, Edwin L.: Managing editor of the New York Times. James, K.: Described as “editor-in-chief” of the New York Times, likely a garble for Edwin L. James. James Lykes (ship) [source Venona] James Schureman (ship) [source Venona] “Jane”: GRU source U.K. line [West Venona] “Jannet” [Zhannet] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, courier, 1943. “Jannet”/“Zhannet” (translated as “Jeannette”) appeared in the Venona decryptions in 1944 as an unidentified Soviet intelligence

source/agent considered for courier work and is likely the same person.[250] Jansen, Marta: Described as Louis Dolivet’s secretary in France, wife of a Polish journalist named Stasek. “Japanese” [Yaponets] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, early 30s. Jared Ingersoll (ship) [source Venona] “Jaspar” [Zhaspar] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Vasily Zarubin in 1928. “Jaures”: Zhores: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Jay, Norman: “Perky”: Bojkij (WMCA commentator) (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Jean”: Zhan: Setaro, Ricardo (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Jean” [Zhan] (cover name in the Venona decryptions): Richard Setaro, October 1944. “Jeanne” / “Zhanna”: Krotkova, Christina (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Jeanette” [Dzhanetta] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer/agent, link between illegal and legal station. References to in 1935. “Jeannette” / “Zhannet” (cover name in Venona): The Venona project translated “Zhannet” as “Jeannette. “Zhannet” is translated as “Jannet” in the Vassiliev notebooks. “Jeannette” appeared in the Venona decryptions in 1944 as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent considered for courier work and is likely the same as “Jannet” in Vassiliev’s notebooks.[251] Jebb, Hubert Miles Gladwyn (Baron Gladwyn): Senior British diplomat. Jemchuk or Pearl, target of recruitment KGB [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] Jenney, Hellen: Spelling error in the notebook for Helen Tenney. Jeranko, Stanislaus (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Jerome”: Labarthe, Andre André (U.K. GRU line) [source Romerstein Breindel Venona Secrets][252] “Jerome” [Dzherom] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Boris Bukov. Jerome, V.J.: Senior CPUSA official, supervised cultural and intellectual matters for the party leadership. Close associate of Jacob Golos, and Elizabeth Bentley identified Jerome as having brought Cedric Belfrage to Golos’s attention as a potential source.[253] “Jerry”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] Jessup, Philip: Senior American diplomat.

Jevdevic’ (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Jewish Committee: Probably American Jewish Committee. Jewish Congress: Probably American Jewish Congress. “Jim” [Dzhim] (cover name or party name): Unidentified espionage recruiter of “Liberal” (Frank Palmer). “Jim (Dzhim)”: Pasko, Lt. Georgij Stepanovich, secretary to Soviet Naval Attache, DC (NGRU line) [source Venona] Jimenez: phonetic of someone suspected by OSS of being Soviet source (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Jiminez, Manuel T.: Secret Communist, International Brigade veteran, and OSS officer. Name sometimes spelled Jimenez. Jiminez, Michael A.: Secret Communist, International Brigade veteran, and OSS officer. Name sometimes spelled Jimenez. Jimenez, Jose Savedra (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Jirku, Marietta: Voge, Marietta, née Jirku, wife of Noel Voge: Daughter J.L.M. Curry (ship) [source Venona] Joe (party name): Julius Joseph party name. Joe (work name): Unidentified GRU agent known to Bentley. Joel (party name): Joel Gordon’s party name. “John”: Beurton, Len U.K. line [West Venona] “John”: Dzhon:: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] “John”: Dzhon: also “Gudson”: Hudson: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “John”: name used by Yatskov with his contacts [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] “John”: unidentifed GRU source, U.K. line [West Venona] “John”: unidentified Soviet Bentley contact [Bentley FBI statement] John Barry (ship) [source Venona] John Bell (ship) [source Venona] John Bull: British magazine. John Calhourn (ship) [source Venona] John Dix John Hold (ship) [source Venona] John Drayton (ship) [source Venona] “John” [Dzhon] (cover name in the Venona decryptions): “John” appears in the Venona decryptions as the cover name of a unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent whose cover name earlier was “Hudson”. [254] “Hudson” appears in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks. “John” [Dzhon] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): I. Chichayev in 1944.

“John” [Dzhon] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Boris Morros, post WWII. “John” [Dzhon] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1930s. Also known as agent “18”. “18”/“John”’s activities suggest John Spivak as a candidate. John Garret (ship) [source Venona] John Hold (ship) [source Venona] John Laurence (ship) [source Venona] John Morgan (ship) [source Venona] John Powell (ship) [source Venona] John Sherman”: Don [source Chambers Witness] John: Work name under which Alexander Koral knew “King” of the NY KGB station, 1932. John: Work name used by Jacob Golos 1943. John: Work name Yatskov used with Harry Gold. “Johnny” / “Dzhoni”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] “Johnson”: Blunt, Anthony, U.K. line [West Venona] “Johnson” [Dzhonson] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Anthony Blunt in 1946. “Johnson” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent in the U.K. that is compatible with Blunt. Johnson, Clyde L.: CPUSA organizer and cadre assigned to work in the student movement, unemployed movement, and Southern sharecropper organizing in the 1930s. Johnson, Eric (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Johnson, Eric: Head of the Motion Picture Association of America. Johnson, Herschel V.: U.S. ambassador, Sweden, 1941-1946. Johnson, Hiram: U.S. Senator, 1917-1945 (R. CA). Johnson, Hugh S.: Administrator of the National Recovery Administration. Johnson, Lyndon: President of the United States, 1963-1969. Johnson, the U.S. Ambassador to Stockholm (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Johnson, Vladimir (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Johnston, Louis: U.S. Secretary of Defense, 1949-1950. Johnstone, Betty Lloyd (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Joint Institute on Nuclear Research (OIYaCh): Soviet-led international nuclear research agency. Jordana, Spanish Foreign Minister (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Jose ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Jose”: Jose Pepito (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Jose” [Khoze] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified source/ agent of KGB Washington Station, 1946. Describes as a cryptographer at the Yugoslavian embassy, speaks only Croatian, later described as a traitor. Jose Pepito: “Jose” (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Joseph, Bella: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Worked for OSS in WWII. Wife of Julius Joseph. Elizabeth Bentley identified Bella Joseph as a Communist.[255][256] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Colleague”. Joseph Bradley (ship) [source Venona] Joseph, Emma Harriet: “Ivy” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Joseph Johnston (ship) [source Venona] Joseph, Julius J.: Ostorozhny: “Cautious” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Joseph, Julius: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Secret Communist, worked from 1943 to 1945 for Office of Strategic Services. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as one of her singleton sources. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[257] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Cautious”. Joseph Stalin (ship) [source Venona] Josephson, Barney: Manager of Café Society (a CPUSA-aligned New York night club), brother of Leon Josephson. Josephson, Leon: Veteran Communist involved in CPUSA covert work. Arrested in Denmark in 1935 in association with a GRU agent. Member of “Vendor’s” CPUSA espionage group. Joshua Thomas (ship) [source Venona] “Jota” (Khota): Sala, Victorio (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Jour” [Zhur] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB officer/agent, NY 1951. “Journalist” [Zhurnalist] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, early 30s. “Juan”: Khuan: Juan Gaytan Godoy (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Juan Juares (ship) [source Venona] “Juan” [Khuan] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1946. “Juanita”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Judey, Herman (Hermann) Latvian immigrant Employee SGPG, husband of Sara Sonia Veksler. [source Venona] Judey, Sara Sophie (Sonya), nee Veksler / Weksler a.k.a. Daugavpils Latvian immigrant Employee SGPG. [source Venona] “Judge”: unidentified KGB San Francisco line [source Venona] Judson, Major Frederick (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Jui, N. K.: party name of Dr. John Reinecke Haraii 1930s [source Larry Cott] Jukes: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Julia”: Yuliya: Olga Khlopkova (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Julia”: Yuliya: unidentified cover name [not Olga Khlopkova] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Julia” [Yuliya] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): O. V. Shimmel, KGB officer/agent, 1945. “Julia” occured in the Venona decryptions in a number of messages as the cover name of Olga Khlopkova, a Soviet consulate staff member and KGB operative. Khlopkova may be the pseudonym used in the U.S. by O. V. Shimmel. “Julia” [Yuliya] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent in Washington in Laurence Duggan’s circle, mid-1930s. “Julia” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence contact of Iskhak Akhmerov, a KGB illegal officer, described in a 1944 message as having been out of contact for several years and currently living near Lake Geneva in New York on resources of a wealthy father. It is unclear if the “Julia” of Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks in the mid-30s in Washington in Laurence Duggan’s circle is the same “Julia” referenced in the 1944 Venona message.[258] “Juliet No. 2” [Dzhul'et No. 2] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Boris Vinogradov’s cover name for Martha Dodd in 1937. See Martha Dodd Stern. Jung, ?: Described as a contact of Martha Dodd in Berlin. “Jung” [Yung] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): KGB officer Iskhak Akhmerov, 1930s. “Junior” [Dzhunior] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Donald Hiss, References to in 1948. Junkers Corporation of America “Jupiter”: Yupiter: also “Original”: Odd Fellow, unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Jurist” [Yurist] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Alger Hiss, 1936.

“Jurist”: White, Harry Dexter [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Jurist”: Yurist: Harry Dexter White (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Jurist” [Yurist] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Harry Dexter White, 1941-August 1944. “Jurist” was identified in the Venona decryptions as White.[259] “Jurist’s” wife (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Anne Terry White, wife of Harry D. White. In a 27 June 1945 report by a KGB officer, “Bogdan”, on a meeting with Charles Kramer, Kramer was asked of his work in the CPUSA undergrond in Washington in the 1930s. Bogdan reported, “On Cde. Vadim’s assignment, I asked him to remember the names of those individuals whom he handled while working as a courier agent for Steve (at the time, he handled ‘Jurist’s’ wife)”.[260] “Steve” was the cover name of Josef Peters, chief of the CPUSA covert apparatus in the mid-1930s. “Jurist” was the cover name for Harry Dexter White from 1941 to August 1944, it was changed to “Lawyer” in August 1944 then changed to “Richard” in September 1944, and appeared as “Reed” in July 1945. “Jurist” was an obsolete cover name for White at the time of “Bogdan’s” report, but that “Jurist”/White is likely referened is supported by a 22 June 1945 “Vadim”/Gorsky cable to Moscow Center “At one time, M. [“Mole”/Kramer] had also worked on the connection between “Peter” [Josef Peters] and “Richard” [H.D. White] (through “R’s” wife)”.[261] Here Kramer is unambiguously identifed as a link between Josef Peters and Harry White’s wife. “Bogdan’s” reference to “Jurist’s wife” appears to have been simply an obsolete use of White’s cover name prior to “Richard”. Justice, Department of, U.S.. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Chamber”. “K...”.: initial of cover name for Romanenko, Alexander (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “K”.: initial of unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “K”.: Cover name for an unidentified Soviet source in West and Tsarev and Andrew and Mitrokhin that appear to be identical with “Eric”/Broda in Vassiliev’s notebooks.[262] “K-11”: unidentified source KGB San Francisco line [source Venona] “K-13”: unidentified source KGB San Francisco line [source Venona] “K-14”: unidentified source KGB San Francisco line [source Venona] KA: Krasnaya Armiya: Red Army (NGRU line) [source Venona]

K.A. and KA: See R.A. and RA. (Krasnaya Armiya – Red Army) “Kaban” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Boar”. (Alternative translation: Wild Boar). “Kaban”: Boar: Churchill (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kabare” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Cabaret”. Kachalova, Maria Fedorovna, secretary and interpreter to Soviet Attache DC Nov. 42-Sept 46, Kaftanov, Sergey: Official of the Soviet State Committee of Defense. Kagan, Ellen: Ellen Pozner: sister of Vlad Pozner (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kagan, Harry: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Employed by the Soviet Government Purchasing Commission. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as an agent of Jacob Golos to watch and report on any suspect activities of other SGPC employees.[263] Candidate for cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Vendor”. Kaganovich, Mikhail: Senior Bolshivik and Soviet official directing defense and aviation industry. Accused of sabotage by siting aviation plans in the western USSR that were overrun in the Nazi invasion, he shot himself in 1941. “Kahn” [Kan] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. References to in 1948. “Kahn” ( Khan )” / “Selim Khan” / “Zelimkhan”: unidentified cover name, candidate A. Landy (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kahn, ? (real name or possible cover name): Employee of DOS, had lunch with Anatoly Gorsky in the latter’s offical capacity in 1944. (Alternative translation: Khan). Kahn, Albert (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Kahn, Albert: Stridently pro-Stalinist journalist and secret member of the CPUSA. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as a source on refugee Ukrainians for Jacob Golos.[264] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Eddie”. “Kahn” [Kan] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent with close ties to CPUSA, 1948. “Kahn” occured in the deciphered Venona cables in 1944 and, while unidentified by NSA/FBI, was likely Avram Landy, a senior CPUSA official who supervised party work among ethnic groups. But whether “Kahn”/Landy of 1944 is this 1948 “Kahn” is unclear. Kahn, Mrs. Ray Gertrude: “Dina” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Kain: See “Kane”. Kairtsev (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Kaiser, Henry J. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kaiser” [Kayzer] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence contact, friend of Harold Glasser. Described as American Army captain in Italy in 1944, then working in the Treasury Depatment in Washington, and appointed to the staff of the Allied Control Commission in Austria. Formerly active in the Washington CPUSA network. Kaiser Wharf Kakhetia (NGRU line) [source Venona] Kalabic' (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kalatozov, Mikhail Konstantinovich: Soviet intelligence contact/agent. Director of Leningrad Film Studio and representative of the Soviet film industry in Hollywood in WWII. Kalatozov was identified in the Venona decryptions with the cover name “Iveri”. Kaleson, Greta: Married Klaus Fuchs in 1959. “Kalibr” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Caliber”. “Kalibr” / “Calibre”: David Greenglass (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kalibr”: David Greenglass [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] “Kalif” / “Caliph”: William C. Bullitt (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kalinchenko (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Kalinin”: unidentified [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] Kalinin, Mikhail Ivanovich: Bolshevik leader and official Soviet head of state, 1919-46. Kalinin [probably not Tikhon Ivanovich]: “Elkin” (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Kalinin, Tikhon Ivanovich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Kalinnikov, John: Accused in 1930 of being a key figure in the antiBolshevik (and imaginary) Industrial Party. “Kalistrat” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Callistratus”. “Kalistrat”: Aleksandr Fomin / (Alexander Feklissov): (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kalistrat”: Feklisov/Fomin (source Feklisov) Kallet, Arthur: Soviet intelligence contact/informant, via “Liberal”/Frank Palmer, prior to 1933. Kalmanson, I: Russian emigre.

Kamaeva, Anna Fedorovna: “Zina” [KGB U.S. Mexico City line] [source Venona] Kamark, ?: Described as a contact of Harold Glasser at some point. Kamchatka (ship) [source Venona] Kamchetneft (ship) “Kamen'” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Kamen”. “Kamen” [Kamen'] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, 1946. Kamen' in Russian is usually translated as stone. However, in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks there is another cover name, “Stoun”, that is also translated as “Stone”. To avoid confusion, in the translated notebooks, the cover name “Stoun” will be translated as “Stone” while the cover name “Kamen'” will be transliterated as “Kamen”. Kamen, Martin: Soviet intelligence contact/informant. Chemist in the Manhattan atomic project’s work at University of California, Berkeley. Kamenev, Ivan Efimovich: probably “Chemist”: Khinik (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kamenev, Ivan: Soviet intelligence officer. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Photon”. “Photon” appears in the Venona decryptions as KGB officer Leonid G. Pritomanov, likely Kamenev’s pseudonym in America. Kamenev (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Kamensky, ?: Soviet intelligence officer. Executed in Stalin’s purge of his security services in the late 1930s. “Kamfora”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kan” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Kahn”. “Kan”: probably garble for “Caen” [L.A.] Kandyn..., Senior Lieutenant (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Kane” [Keyn] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Senator Claude Pepper. (Alternative translation: Kain and Caine). Kanevets, ?: name in the Whalen documents, 1930. “Kanop” / “Canopus”: unidentified, in U.S. State Department (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kant” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Harry Magdoff prior to 29 December 1944 (when changed to “Tan”). “Kant” was identified in

the Venona decryptions as Magdoff in May 1944 messages.[265] Note September-December 1944 overlap with “Kant”/Zborowski. “Kant” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Mark Zborowski starting in September 1944. “Kant” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Zborowski in September 1944 - April 1945 messages.[266] Note September-December 1944 overlap with “Kant”/Magdoff. “Kant” (after September 1944)”: Mark Zborowski: (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kant” (prior to September 1944)”: Harry Samuel Magdoff (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kantor” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Cantor”. “Kanuk” / “Canuk”: Moszulski, Roman of Polish Telegraph Agency correct spelling Moczulski (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kapitan (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Captain”. Kapitan Smernov (ship) [source Venona] Kapitsa, Petr Leonidovich: Soviet physicist, contributed to the Soviet atomic bomb project. Kaplan, Irving: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Secret Communist. Economist employed as the associate director of the New Deal National Research Project in the mid-1930, later on the staff of the Justice Department, War Production Board, Foreign Economic Administration, Treasury Department in WWII, and for the Department of Economic Affairs of the United Nations. In 1952 he invoked the Fifth Admendment to refuse to answer questions from a congressional committee about participating in a conspiracy to overthrow the U.S. government. He was then fired by U.N. Secretary General Trygve Lie. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as part of the Silvermaster espionage group.[267] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Tino”. Kaplun, Elena, wife of Timofej Kapuln of Amtorg (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kaplun, Timofej Yakovlevich, Vice-President of Amtorg (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kapral” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Corporal”. “Kapral” / “Corporal”: Edward Stettinius, Jr. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kara (ship) [source Venona] Karaga (ship)

“Karfagen” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Carthage”. Karin, ?: Soviet intelligence officer/agent know to Jacob Golos and later arrested in the purge of the security services. “Karl” (cover name/work name): Whittaker Chambers, 1930s. “Karl” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Robert Tselnis, described as an American GRU agent who defected in 1939. Likely a pseudonym for Whittaker Chambers or a confusion of another agent with Chambers. “Karl” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/ agent, technical line, 1944-1945. Likely William Stapler. Described as “chemical engineer at the Hercules Powder Company. With us since ’34”. Prior to October 1944 designated as “Ray”.[268] “Karl” was identified in the Venona decryptions but the real name was redacted by NSA. “Karl” / “Skat” / “Ray”: redacted (KGB line) [source Venona] Karl Libknekht (ship) Karl Marx (ship) Karl: Work name early 1930s work name used by Iskhak Akhmerov. Karlag: One of the Gulag’s largest camps, in northern Kazakhstan. “Karliki” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Midgets”. Karlos: see Carlos “Karlov”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Karmen” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Carmen”. “Karmen” / “Carmen”, unidentifed covername of a courier (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Karmen, ?: A unidentified Soviet described as having known Robert Capa in the Spanish Civil War. “Karo” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Jürgen Kuczynski. Karoly, ?: Described as someone denied a visa to enter the United States at the request of the Horthy government. “Karp” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Carp”. Karp, Bluma: Russian-immigrant Russian translator in the Office of Naval Intelligence, 1935-1937. Cultivated as possible source of intelligence on the U.S. Navy. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Cecil”. Karp Export and Import Company: See Carp Export and Import Company. Karpekov, Nikolaj [Nikolay] Prokopevich, Soviet KGB student: “Ural” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Karpov”: Kulbitskij (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Karpov, Abram”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Karski, Jan (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Karsner, Rose: Prominent American Trotskyist. Kartasheva, Varvara Dmitriyevna: See Varvara Hammer. “Kasem-Bet?, Aleksandr Kasem-Beg? possibly Pauk”: Spider (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kasenkina, Oksana Stepanovna: Teacher with the Soviet diplomatic delegation in New York who, when recalled to the USSR, attempted to defect by leaping from a high window from a Soviet diplomatic building. The ensuing diplomatic incident ended with the U.S. offering and her accepting asylum in the U.S.[269] Kashalot (ship) [source Venona] Kashirstroj (ship) Kasilov, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Kasparov, Grigory: KGB officer, chief of the San Franciso station in 1944 under diplomatic cover as vice-consul. Identified in the Venona decryptions as Soviet intelligence officer/agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Gift”. Kasparov, Grigory, vice-consul in San Francisco replacing Kheifets: “Gift” / “Dar” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kassir” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Cashier”. “Kassir” (“Cashier”): White, Harry Dexter probably in 1939 [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Kasyenkina: See Kasenkina. “Katalizaton” / “Catalyst”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Katalizator” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Catalyst”. “Katod” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Cathode”. Kats, M.: Described as connected to Soviet journal Tribuna. “Katya” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer supplied with business cover by Boris Morros in the mid-1930s for work in Berlin, likely Vasily Zarubin. “Katya” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Catherine Morros, late 1940s. “Katya” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, 1944. “Katya”: Golovina, Ekaterina Nikitichna (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Katz”: Walter Lippmann, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Katz, Joseph: “Stukach” / “Informer” / “Douglas” / “Iks” / “X” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Katz, Joseph: “X” [source Schecter Sacred Secrets]

Katz, Joseph: Soviet intelligence agent. One of the KGB’s most active American agents. KGB liaison with Jacob Golos and Elizabeth Bentley. Bentley knew Katz under the pseudonym Jack. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet agent.[270] Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Informer” prior to August 1944, “Douglas” in August 1944, “X” starting in September 1944. Katz, Otto: Covert Comintern operative, active in many of Willi Munzenberg’s front organizations. Executed in 1952 in the Czechoslovak Slansky purge. Katzel, M. (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Kaunert, Rose (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kavalerist” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Cavalryman”. “Kavalerist” / “Cavalryman”: Sergey Kurnakov (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kavurina, Miss ?: Described as Amtorg employee with links to Trotsky. Kayak (ship) [source Venona] “Kayzer” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Kaiser”. “Kazachok”: Boy-Servant: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kazakevich, Vladimir: Pro-Communist American academic of Russian origin. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as assisting Jacob Golos.[271] An instructor at U.S. Army school in WWII. Kazakov, Stepan Ivanovich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Kazaniev, ?: KGB officer, Moscow 1944. “Kazbek”: KGB Probationer on Soviet ship (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] “Kaznachej” / “Purser”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kaznachey” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Treasurer”. Kedrovsky, John: Russian Orthodox priest in America and leader of the “Living Church” movement seeking accommodation with Bolshevik authorities. “Keel” [Kil] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Alexander Petroff after October 1944.[272] “Keen” / “Kin”: Wicher, Enos Regnet after January 1945 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Keen” / “Kin” unidentified cover name [fall 1944, does not appear to be Wicher] also “Block” / “Rybolov” / “Osprey” or “Fisherman” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Keenan, Helen Grace Scott: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Also known as Helen Scott. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/ agent.[273] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Fir”. Keenan, Helen Grace Scott: “Fir” (“El'”)r (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Keeney, Mary Jane [GRU] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Keeney, Mary Jane: Soviet intelligence source/agent.[274] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Cerberus’s” wife. Keeney, Philip Olin: Soviet intelligence source/agent.[275] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Cerberus”. Keeney, Phillip Olin [GRU] in KGB line: “Bredan” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Keith: Pete: work names of a photographer for Chambers [source Chambers Witness] Keldysh, Mstislav Vsevolodovich: President of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, 1961 - 1978. Kellerberg, Monsignor: Described as aide to Cardinal Spellman. Kellex Corporation: Subsidiary of Kellogg Construction Company, carried out major Manhattan atomic project contracts. Kelley, John: Described as an organizer of the National Committee for Recognition of Soviet Russia. Kelley, Robert F.: Chief of the State Department East European Division in the early and mid-1930s until its merger into the European Division. Kellogg, Frank: Secretary of State, 1925 – 1929. Kellogg: W.M. Kellogg Construction Company, major contractor for the Manhattan atomic project. “Kelly”: unidentified (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Kemp” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, described as having been involved in atomic espionage but was by 1948 “completely revaled”. Kenig, ?: Described as a prominent general, likely French, 1948. Kennan, George (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kennan, George: Senior DOS adviser on Soviet matters. Kennedy, Joseph: Chemistry instructor at the University of California, Berkely, who assisted Glen Seaborg in using the cyclotron to produce plutonium in 1941.

Kennedy, Joseph: Former U.S. ambassador to Britain. Kennedy, Robert: U.S. Senator (D. NY) “Kennel”: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Kent”: Skryagin, Capt. Nikolaj [Nikolay] Alekseevich, assistant Naval Attache, DC (NGRU line) [source Venona] Kent, Sally: Described as assistant to Ruth Shipley at DOS. “Kepri” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. Described as female, staff of FEA, then joined the State Department and worked on South American matters References to in 1945. Kerensky, Alexander: Exiled leader of the republican government that replaced the Tsar after the February 1917 revolution in Russia that was subsequently overthrown in the Bolshevik coup of November 1917. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Loser”. Kern, attorny, RP, close to Dewey [source Venona] Kerr Commission: Press label for a 1943 subcommittee of the House Appropriations Committee headed by Rep. John H. Kerr (D. NC) that investigated several executive agency employees for possible left extremist ties and recommended denying appropriations for their salaries. Erroneously described in Vassiliev’s notebooks by a KGB officer as “Kerr’s Senate committee”. Kerr, Philip, Marquess of Lothian,: British ambassador to the U.S., 1939-1940. Kerr, Sir A. Clark, British Ambassador in Moscow (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kershbaum, Dr., former worker in German military chemical industry [source Venona] Keslitzin, Alexander J. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kesselring, Albert: Senior Luftwaffe officer, later field marshal. Kessler, Frank: Work name used by Harry Gold. “Ket” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Cat”. “Key” [Klyuch] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1930s, likely technical intelligence. “Keyn” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Kane”. (Alternative translations: “Kain”, “Caine”. Keynes, John M.: British monetary expert and economist. KGB: Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti: Committee for State Security. “Kh” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “X”.

Khabarovsky (ship) [source Venona] Khachaturian, Aram: Soviet composer. “Khadr” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Hadre”. “Khal” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent described as a contact of Elizabeth Bentley in 1944. (Khal is Russian for a plaited bread.) Kharchenko, ?: Former Soviet supervisor of Iosif ?. Kharlamov, Rear Admiral N. M. Soviet military Mission, London, 41-46 (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Kharon” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Charon”. “Kharon” / “Charon”: Grigory Khejfets [Kheifetz Kheifets] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Khata” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): see “Hut”. “Khata” (peasant’s hut, a more generic term that Izba (OSS) which also can be translated as Hut: FBI (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Khavalov, Capt. Nilolaj A., assistant representative of the Portland office of SGPG]: Frost (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Khazar”: unidentified cover name [Naturalized citizen, probably Yugoslav] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kheifets, Grigory Markovich: KGB officer. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet officer/agent. Birth name Grimeril. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Grisha” (1930s) and “Charon” (1941-1944), Kheifetz: See Kheifets, Grigory. Kheifits, Girgory: “Kharon” [source Damaskin Harris] Kheifits: See Kheifets, Grigory. Khejfets [Kheifetz or Kheifets or Kheifits], Grigory Markovich, Soviet viceconsul, in San Francisco, from 1941 to 6 July 1944: Kharon: Charon (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Khelen” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks) See “Helen”. “Khell” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Hell”. Kherson (ship) Kheyfets: See Kheifets, Grigory. “Khiks” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Hicks”. “Khimik” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Chemist”. Khimushin, Soviet engineer [source Venona] “Khirt” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Hirt”. “Khiton” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Tunic”.

Khlopkova, Olga: Possibly a real name but more likely the pseudonym of a Soviet intelligence officer/agent with the cover name “Julia” in the Venona decryptions. “Julia” in Vassiliev’s notebooks is identified as O. V. Shimmel. Khlopkova, Olga Valentinovna: “Julia” / “Yuliya” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Khmyrov, Capt (3rd Rank) Evgenij A., Soviet Mring Inspector (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Kholostoy” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Bachelor”. “Khong” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Hong”. “Khorek” / “Polecat”: Trotskyist (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Khor'ki” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Polecats”. “Khosyain” / “Employer”: Buchman, Henry [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] [See “Boss” [Khozyain] and Bookman, Henry] Khotimsky, ?: KGB illegal officer early 30s. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Namesake” (1934). “Khoze” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Jose”. “Khozyain” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Boss”. (Alternative translation: Owner, Employer) “KhOZYaJSTVENNOE UPRAVLENIE”: Economic Directorate, technical intelligence: KhU (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Khram” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Temple”. Khrameev, Vasilij [Vasily] Ivanovich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Khrushchev, Nikita S.: Chief of the CPSU and leader of the USSR, 1953-1964. KhU line: KGB scientific-technical espionage line of work. KhU is a transliteration of the Russian Cyrillic letters that pictorially resemble the Latin letters “XY” but are the phonetic equivalent of “Kh” and “U”. However, often in English the KhU line is designated with the Latin alphabet letters “XY”, a transfer without transliteration of the Russian Cyrillic letters. See XY line. “Khuan” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Juan”. “Khudozhnik” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Artist”. “Khuk” / “Hook”: Dvoichenko-Markov, Demetrius (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Khurgin, ?: Associated with Amtorg in 1924 according to Vasily Delgass.

“Khutor” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Farm”. (Alternative translation: farmstead, settlement) “Khutor”: Foreign Economic Administration. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Khvat” or “Vulture”: scientific source of New York KGB [source Feklisov] Khvostov, M.N. or G. N. Ogloblin, KGB Soviet students, “Artem” “Artonius” (unclear): (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Khyus”: Hughes: Sarant (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kh'yuz” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Hughes”. “Khzar”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] K.I.: Communist International. KI (K.I.): Committee of Information. “Kid” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Mary Price in early 1941. “Kid”: Price, Mary Wolfe [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Kiernik, Wanda (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kiev (ship) Kikareva, Mariya Ivanovna, wife of John Scott”,: possibly Ivanova (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kil” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Keel”. “Kil”: Aleksandr N. Petroff (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kilgore Committee: Press term for the Subcommittee on War Mobilization of the Senate Military Affairs Committee chaired by Senator Kilgore. Kilgore, Harley M.: U.S. Senator (D. West Virginia). Kilgore, Senator (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kimov”: KGB Probationer on Soviet ship (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] “Kin” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See Gerhard Fuchs, 1951. “Kin” / “Keen” / “Blok” / “Block” / “Rybolov” / “Osprey” or “Fisherman”: unidentified cover name [fall 1944, does not appear to be Wicher] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kin” / “Keen”: Wicher, Enos Regnet after January 1945 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kin”: Yartsev, Boris, married to Stockholm reezident Stockholm line, [West Venona] Kincaid, Admiral “King” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Julius Rosenberg, 1950. “King” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB agent/ officer, KGB illegal station mid-1930s, earlier “Walter”; likely also “James” and possibly “John”. References to in 1934, 1936.

King, Admiral Ernest King, Ernest: U.S. Navy Admiral and Chief of Naval Operations. King George V (ship) [source Venona] King, Mackenzie: Canadian Prime Minister (1935-1948). King of Italy [source Venona] King, William Henry: U.S. Senator, Utah, 1917-1941, Democrat. King was an early opponent of American recognition of or trade with the Soviet Union and supporter of American aid to anti-bolshevik forces. He traveled to Russian in 1923, met with Soviet officials and Armand Hammer, and returned to the U.S. an advocate of American trade as a means of ameliorating the Soviet state. He remained an associate of the Hammer family, assisting Julius in getting an American passport after his release from prison for performing an illegal abortion and introducing Armand into elite political circles in Washington.[276] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Bab”. Kingsbury, John: Prominent social worker and public health advocate and ardent admirer of the USSR. Kinsky, Leonid [Kinskj] (KGB U.S. line and San Francisco line) [source Venona]) “Kinsman”: Rodstvennik: also “Solidnjy”: Solid: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kinsman” (Rodstevennik) (cover name in the Venona decryptions): Likely James H. Hibben. “Kinsman” does not appear in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks. But in the Venona decryptions, “Solid” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified technical source in 1943 and 1944” that was name changed to “Kinsman” in October 1944.[277] And “Solid” is identified in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks as Hibben. However, the “Kinsman” cover name may not have been implemented because “Solid” had become “Reed” in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks by 1945. See “Solid”. “Kiosk”: unidentified cover name Soviet organization in U.S. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kipp, ?: Described as a German diplomat and suspected of being a German intelligence officer. Kipura, ?: Described as an Austrian film actor, 1935. “Kir” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Ivan Morozov. Worked with Harry Gold, 1939-1940. References to in 1945, 1950 “Kira ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Kirby Smith (ship) [source Venona] Kirichenko, Timofej Fred “Kirill”: Panshin, Nikolaj [Nikolay] Georgievich [KGB Bogota line] [source Venona] “Kirillov” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB agent/ officer 1950. “Kirillov”: Chernyj, S.I. (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Kirillov, Viktor, Soviet KGB student”: Sullen: Ugryumyj (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kirillyuk: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] Kirilyk, (possibly Kirillyuk): unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] Kirov, S. (ship) [source Venona] Kirov, Sergey: Senior Bolshevik leader killed under unclear circumstance in 1934. Kirovskij, R.K. (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Kirsanov, Aleksej [Aleksey] Sergeevich, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kis” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF), circa 1944. “Kis”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Kiselev, Evenij: “Grandfather” “Grandpapa” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kisilev, Evgeni: Soviet diplomat. Soviet consul general in New York, 1942-1944. Know in the American press at the time Eugene Kisselev. Kislitsin, Filip V.: KGB officer and colleague of Vladimir Petrov. Kisov (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Kiss, ?: Described as the leader of “Link”, described as an OSS-connected clandestine group in Bulgaria. Kistiakovski, George (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] (misspelling of Kistiakowsky) Kistiakowsky, George: Senior scientist in the Manhattan atomic project, head of the implosion department. Kistiakowsky, George (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Spelled as Kistiakovski. “Kit” / “Whale”: unidentified name of institution (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kite” (“Korshun”): unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Kittovsky, Klaus: Described as grandson of Emil Fuchs.

“Kiy”: unidentified KGB source in DOS, mid 1930s [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Kizhuch (ship) [source Venona] K/k: Konspirativnaya kvartira, a safe house. KKK: (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kladov, Captain Daniel Garvilovich: Soviet naval intelligence agent in U.S. 1943. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kladov: unidentified probably Daniel G., (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Klan” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Clan”. “Klara”: Stridsberg, Augustina (formerly Jirku) (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Klara Tsetkin (ship) Klarin, Pavel: Assistant station chief New York KGB 1941 real name Pastelnyak [source Feklisov] Klarin, Pavel P. (pseudonym): Pavel P. Pastelnyak’s pseudonym in the U.S. Klarin was identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet officer/ agent with the cover name “Luka”. Klarin, Pavel P., Soviet Vice-Consul in New York, KGB: “Luka” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Klark” / “Clark”: GRU officer London U.K. line [West Venona] Klas Horn (ship) [source Venona] “Klava”: Mercader, Caridad (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Kleckowski, Karl von: Described as source for an OSS report on Jappanese intelligence in Turkey. “Kleiman”: unidentified (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Klein, ?: Described as executive officers of Telefunken, 1945. Klein, Julius: Director of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce in the U.S. Department of Commerce in the 1920s. Kleinmade, ?: Described as a Telefunken top manager. Klejm... (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Klemens” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Clemence”. “Klemens” / “Clemence” / “Li” / “Lee”, unidentified, redacted (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kligman, ?: Husband of Beatrice Emmet. Kligman, Beatrice: Married name of Beatrice Emmett, described as a cousin of Milton Golos. “Klim” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer in Rome or Vienna, 1950, likely Vitaly Pavlov.[278]

“Klim”: KGB resident in Ottawa, unidentified, 1942 [Pavlov?] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Klim”: unidentifed in New York traffic [West Venona] “Klim”: Vitaly Pavlov [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] Klimenkov, Petr Vasilevich: “Chapaj” [or “Chapay”] (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Klin” / “Wedge”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Klistrat”: Calistratus = Aleksandr Fomin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Klo” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/ agent, after September 1944. Likely Esther Trebach Rand. “Klo” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Rand.[279] “Klod” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Claude”. Klopstock, Hanna: Soviet intelligence source/contact, German Communist in London, U.K., 1946 Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Marta”. “Klotik”: partial identification as “ ...enko” “Klub” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Club”. Kluge, German Field Marshal, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Klyuch” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Key”. Klyuchnikov, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Klyukva” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Cranberry”. Kmenets-Podolsk (ship) [source Venona] Kneeland, Hildegarde: Soviet intelligence contact/informant, 1944. Goverment statistician. Described as a secret Communist in FEA in contact with Victor Perlo. Knezevic' (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Knight” / “Rytsar”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Knocker [Stukach]: See “Informer”. Knopinsky, ?: Described as official of Glavkontsesskom. “Knopka” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Button”. Knowland, William: U.S. Senator (R, CA) Knox, Frank: U.S. Secretary of War. Knox, Secretary of the Navy Knoxville, TN: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Novogorsk”. “Knut” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Whip”. “Knyaz'” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Prince”. “Knyaz” / “Prince”: Laurence Duggan (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Knyazeva, Galina Vadimovna: Sister of Olga V. Hammer

Ko, ?: Soviet scientist, linked to Nikolay Vavilov. Koba, Nikolay Danilovich: Crewman on the Soviet tanker “Azerbaijan”. Kobilsky, Ivan: Soviet POW interviewed by American intelligence. Kobulov, Bogdan: Senior aide to Lavrenty Beria. Kobushko, ?: Acquaintance of Victor Hammer. “Koch” / “Kokh”: Duncan C. Lee (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Koch” [Kokh] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Duncan Lee. “Koch” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Lee.[280] Kochetkov, Andrej, Soviet airman of Soviet Government Purchasing Commission (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kofman, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. “Kogan” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified GRU illegal infiltrated into the U.S. via San Francisco on a Soviet ship. “Kogan” / “ucn/16”: KGB Probationer on Soviet ship (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] “Kokh” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Koch”. Kokhnovskij: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Koks” / “Cox”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] Kolbe (on ship Emba) (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Kolchak veteran: Someone who served with the anti-Bolshevik forces of Tsarist Admiral Aleksandr V. Kolchak. Kolesnikov: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kolkhoznik (ship) “Kollega” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Colleague”. “Kollega”: Colleague: unidentified name works in the photographic section pictorial division (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kollegi” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Colleagues”. Kollontay, Alexandra: Bolshevik leader and Soviet diplomat. “Kolo”: Kosanovic, Sava N. [Kosanovic ?] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kolodny: See Colodny. Kolomenskij: unidentified (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Kolomoytsev, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Kolpovsky, Konstantin Mikhaylovich: “Mikhajlovich” / “Mikhaylovich” (KGB line) {source Venona] “Kolstov” (or “Kolstov”): unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kolumba (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Kolybel'” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Cradle”. “Kom”: a secretary of the USSR Embassy (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Komar” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Gnat”. “Komar” / “Gnat”: Kravchenko, Viktor (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kombinat” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Complex”. “Kombinat”: Combine: People’s Commissariat for Foreign Trade (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Komiles, Soviet ship (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (KPD): Communist Party of Germany. Komsomol’sk (ship) Komsomolets Arktiki, ship Komsto: Commission of the Council of Labor and Defense, USSR. Kondensator” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Condenser”. “Kondrashov, S.: KGB officer, Moscow, 1966. Konenkova, Margareta”: Lukas, [source Sudoplatov] Konius, Boris: See Conius, Boris. “Konkurenty” (cover name/tradecraft term): “Competitors”. Konnikova (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Konoe, Fumimaro: Japanese Prime Minister, January-August 1939. Konovalets, Yevhen: Ukrainian nationalist leader. Konovalov, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Konrad, Inga: Described as Austrian paramour of Michael Farrell. Konspirativnaya kvartira (k/k): safe house. Konspiratsia: KGB tradecraft term for the rules and practices of covert work and conspiracy. “Konstantin” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Constantine”. Konstantinov, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Konstantinov, Bohlen M. Soviet Union representative in Lanchow. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Konstantinova, Katerina: Former wife of Leon Theremin. Also know as Katia Constantinova. Konstantinovic, Mikhail, member of Jugoslav governement of 1939-41 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Konstruktor” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Constructor”. (Alternative translation: Designer) “Konstruktor”: Abraham Brothman [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] “Konstruktor” / “Constructor”: Abraham Brothman (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Konsul” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Consul”. “Kontora” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Office”.

“Kontora” / “Office”: KGB apparatus in Soviet Consulate in NY (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kontraktatsiya (tradecraft term): See Contracting. “Kontsern” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Concern” “Kontsessioner” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Consessionaire”. Kopelevich, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Kopoe, ?: Described in 1941 as former Japanese Prime Minister, likely an error for Fumimaro Konoe, Japanese Prime Minister, January-August 1939. “Kopylov”: Korolev, Mikhail Nikolaevich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kora” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Cora”. Kora means bark or rind in Russian. However, “Kora” was translated phonetically as “Cora” in the Venona decryptions, and, additionally, there is a separate cover name “Bark” spelled phonetically in Russia as “Bark”. Consequently, here “Kora” is translated as “Cora”. “Kora” / “Cora”: redacted, wife of “Ampere”/“Roy” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Koral, Alexander: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Long-time KGB courier in partnership with his wife Helen. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[281] Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Don” from 1936 until August 1944, “Senor” in August 1944, “Berg” starting in September 1944. Koral, Gilbert: Son of Alexander and Helen Koral. Koral, Helen: “Art” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Koral, Helen: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Long-time KGB courier in partnership with her husband Alexander. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[282] Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Carmen” prior to August 1944, “Miranda” in August 1944, “Art” starting in September 1944. Koral, Richard: Soviet intelligence contact. Son of Alexander and Helen Koral. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Fledgling”, “San”. Koral, Sylvia: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Secretary in the code section, Office of War Information. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Lok”. “Korchagin”: Paposhinskij Koreshkov, A.A.: co-author of KGB book Station Chief Gold. Korin, Pavel: Soviet painter of the 1930s-1960s.

Korneev, Mikhail: Soviet intelligence officer/agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Alan”. “Kornet” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Cornet”. “Korney” / “Kornej” / “Corneille”: Soviet KGB student: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kornienko, ?: Soviet intelligence officer Moscow Center, 1939. “Korobov” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer in London, 1947. Identified in the Venona decryptions in 1944-1945 as KGB officer Nikolay Ostrovsky in the U.S; Ostrovsky could have been a pseudonym. “Korobov”: Ostrovskiy, Nikolaj [Nikolay] P. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Korolev, Konstantin Konstatinovich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Korolev, Mikhail Nikolaevich: Kopylov, new KGB agent, Purchasing Commission cover. 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Korotkov, Alexander Mikhailovich: Head of KGB illegals department, 1948. “Korporant”: members CPUSA (KGB U.S. line and GRU line) [source Venona] “Korpus” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Corpus”. Korvin, Boris: Bolaslav, John Wrzesinski aka Bolaslav, John Corvin (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Koryak (ship) Kosanovic, Sava N. Yugoslav journalist, politician, in Yugoslav government when Germany invaded, later Tito government official: “Kolo” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Koshkin, Semen Ivanovich, engineer (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kositsyn, Vladimir: Emigre, White Russian activist. Kosov (or Kossov), Simon: Described as naval architect and Amtorg official. Kossar, Vladimir (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kostrov” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer. Liaison with KGB with the Alfred and Martha Stern, 1949. Kostsyushko, Lyubov Nikolayevna: Mother of Olga V. Hammer. Maiden name Olga Vadina Root. Also know as Lyubov Nikolayevna Kostsyushko-Valyuzhinich. Kostsyushko-Valyuzhinich, Lyubov Nikolayevna: See Lyubov Nikolayevna Kostsyushko.

Kostyagin, Pavel (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Kosygin, Alexsey Nikolayevich: Senior Soviet official. “Kotets”: KGB Probationer on Soviet ship (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] “Kotov”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Koum”: Serbian emigrant in OSS working for KGB [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] Kovalchuk, Tofil (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Kovalenko, Father,: Described as chairman of the Russian Committee on Refugee Affairs at the Vatican. Kovalenok, E. V.: Soviet intelligence officer, Moscow, 1950. Kovarsky, ?: Described as faculty supervisor of Englebert Broda at Cambridge University. “Kovelenko”: Petrov: KGB Probationer on Soviet ship (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] Kovoj, Anatolij [Anatoly] Vasilevich: “Direction Finder” (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Kowalewski, Stanislaw (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kozinets, Vasilij [Vasily] K. (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] KPCh: Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. KPD: Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands: Communist Party of Germany. KR: KGB’s KR line was counter-intelligence. K-r: the first letter and, perhaps, the last letter of the real name of “Richard”, an otherwise unidentified Soviet intelligence officer in 1939. “Krab” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Crab”. Krabolov II (ship) [source Venona] Krafsur, Samuel: “Ide” / “Yaz” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Krafsur, Samuel: Soviet intelligence source/agent. CPUSA member and veteran of the International Brigades. In 1944 KGB queried Comintern regarding Krafsur’s bone fides. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[283] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Ide”. Kramer, Charles: “Plumb” / “Lot” and probably “Mole” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kramer, Charles: Soviet intelligence source. Birth name Krivitsky. An economist, worked for the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on War Mobilization, the Office of Price Administration and after WWII on the Senate Labor and Public Welfare committee. Identified as part of

the Ware Group and the Washington C.P. underground in the 1930s by Whittaker Chambers, Nathaniel Weyl, Lee Pressman, and Hope Hale Davis. On Adolf Berle’s 1939 list of those identified by Whittaker Chambers as covert Communists who were espionage risks. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as part of the Perlo espionage group. KGB sent Comintern a vetting inquiry about him in 1944.[284] Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Mole”, “Plumb”. Krasin, Leonid B.: Senior Bolshevik official, People's Commissar of Foreign Trade, 1920-1924. Krasinskij (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Krasnaya Armiya (K.A. and KA): Soviet Red Army. Krasnoarmeets (ship) Krasnoe Znamya (ship) [source Venona] Krasnogvardeets (ship) Krasnoye Znamya (ship) [source Venona] Krasnyj Oktyabr (ship) [source Venona] Krause, Max: Described as a German scientist involved in Nazi rocket research. Possibly a mistake for Max Kramer. Kravchenko, V. (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Kravchenko, Victor: Soviet engineer for the Soviet Government Purchasing Commission who publicly defected in 1944 and wrote an antiStalinist book. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Gnat”. Kravchenko, Viktor, Soviet defector: “Gnat” / “Komar” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kravchuk, Political officer on Vanzetti (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kray” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Territory”. [In the Venona decryptions “Kray” was translated as “Land”.) Krayevsky, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Krayevsky, B.: Amtorg official, 1924-1925. Kremer, Semen: GRU officer, cover as secretary to the military attaché in London, 1941. Kremer, Semyon Davidovich: “Alexander”, a GRU officer in U.K. and Fuchs controller [source Feklisov Rosenbergs]. Kreshin, Boris Mikhailovich: Soviet intelligence officer. Also known as Borukh Moiseyevich Kresshin. “Krestyanin” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Peasant”. Krieger, Sam: party name of Clarence Miller [source Chambers Witness]

Krikoriantz-Grigorieff, Nicolai I. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kritik” / “Critic”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Krivitsky, Charles: Birth name of Charles Kramer. Krivitsky, Walter: Senior GRU officer who shifted to the KGB in the mid-1930s, defected in 1937. His autobiography, In Stalin's Secret Service, had considerable impact on public opinion in the U.S.[285] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Enemy”. KRO: Kontrrevolyucionny otdel – Counterintelligence Department of the OGPU. Kroger, Helen: Pseudonym used Leona Cohen in Great Britain when she was arrested for espionage in 1961. Kroger, Peter: Pseudonym used Morris Cohen in Great Britain when he was arrested for espionage in 1961. “Krok” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Yury Vasilievich Novikov. Krokhin, Konstantin Ivanovich: “Nestor” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kron” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Chrome Yellow”. “Kron” / “Chrome yellow” / “Chrome Pigment”: redacted unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kropachev, ?: Soviet intelligence officer, Moscow Center, 1941. Kropotov, ?: KGB officer, Berlin station early 1930s. “Krot” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Mole”. “Krot” / “Mole”: unidentified cover name (probably Charles Kramer) (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Krotkova, Christina, typist and translator to Kravchenko in 1945: “Zhanna” / “Jeanne” / “Ols” / “Ola” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Krotov, Boris Mikhailovich: Soviet intelligence officer in the U.S., 1947-1950 NY. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Bob”. “Bob” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Boris Krotov on the London-Moscow channel in 1945. Krub, Julius Albert, Chairman of War Production Board, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Krug” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Circle”. “Krug” / “Cricle”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Krupp: A reference to either Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach or his father, Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach, leading figures of the

German munitions and armaments firm Friedrich Krupp AG HoeschKrupp in the 1930s. Krutikov, Deptury Commissar of Foreign Trade (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Krutikov (NGRU line) [source Venona] Krylenko, Eliena Vassilyenva: Wife of Max Eastman. Krylenko, Nikolay.: Prominent Soviet prosecutor in the Terror, later arrested and shot. “Kryshi” (tradecraft term): See “Roof”. “Kryshka” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Lid”. (Alternate translation: Cover) “Krysy” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Rats”. “Kryuchkov, Vladimir Alexandrovich: Chief of the KGB, 1988-1991. KSA or CSA: possibly initials for an organization (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kuban (ship) Kuchin, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Kuchinsky, Urgen: Variant spelling. See Kuczynski, Jurgen. Kuchinsky, Ursula: Variant spelling. See Kuczynski, Ursula. Kuczynski, Jurgen (Jürgen): Soviet intelligence source/agent. Refugee German Communist in Great Britain. Academic economist, employed by the U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey. Brother of Ursula Kuczynski. Spelling variant: Urgen Kuchinsky. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Karo”. Kuczynski, Ursula: Soviet intelligence source/agent, GRU. German Communist in Great Britain. Sister of Jurgen Kuczynski. Married name: Ursula Beurton. Also know as Ruth Werner. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent. Partially disclosed her activities in an autobiography.[286] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Sonya”. Kuczynsky, Ursula: “Sonya” GRU U.K. [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] Kuczynsky, Jürgen: “Caro” GRU line in U.K. [source Feklisov] Kuczynsky: Spelling variant of Kuczynski. Kudlaj (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Kudryavtsev, Sergej [Sergey] N., First Secretary of USSR embassy, Ottawa”: Lion (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kuechler, German Field Marshal (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kuhn, Fritz: Chief of the German-American Bund.

Kuhn, Loeb, & Co.: Major American international banking firm. Kujbyshev, V. (ship) Kukin, Konstantin Mikhailovich: Soviet intelligence officer/agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Igor”. Kukin, Konstantin Mikhailovich, Counselor Soviet Union embassy, London: “Igor” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] [source Andrew and Mitrokhin] [source West & Tsarev] “Kulak” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Thomas Dewey, crica 1944. “Kulak” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Dewey. “Kulak” / “Fist”: Dewey, Tom (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kulbitskij [Kulbitsky], ?: “Karpov” (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Kulchinsky, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Kulibini-Izmajlova: redacted (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kulichenko (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Kulma Minin (ship) [source Venona] Kulsky, ?: Described as legal counsel of the Polish government in London. “Kum” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Godfather”. “Kuma” / “godmother” or “Kum” “Godfather”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kunoly, ?: Described as Czechoslovak envoy to Argentina, 1948. “Kurd”: Gautier, Marcel, Counsellor to French Delegation] (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Kurekhin (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Kur'er” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Courier”. Kuritsina, Irina P. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kurnakov, Sergej [Sergey] Nikolaevich, former Czarist cavalry officer in 1940s writing for pro-Sov publications in U.S.: Kavalerist: Cavalryman: “Bek” / “Beck” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kurnakov, Sergey Nikolaevich: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Former Tsarist cavalry officer who had immigrated to the U.S. and become a Communist. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/ agent.[287] Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Cavalryman” prior to September 1944, then “Beck”. “Kurnevskij” [“Kurnevsky”]: Konstantine Andreevich Orlov, KGB under Purchasing Commission cover, New York. 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kurort” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Spa”.

Kurskij [Kursky], Senior Lt (NGRU line) [source Venona] Kursky, Ivan Ivanovich: Second husband of Varvara Hammer. “Kurt” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer. References to in 1938. “Kurt”: Smelyj: Plucky: probationer, unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kurtz, ?: Described as an American Army general in Germany, 1948. Kurtz, A.T.: FBI agent, 1942. Kusevitsky, Sergey: Conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. Kutrzeba, Professor, Polish exile figure (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kuybyshev: City in Siberia, USSR. Kuyumzhitsky, Angelo: Bulgarian OSS contact in Turkey. Described as a leader of “Link”, which was described as a OSS-connected clandestine group in Bulgaria. Kuzbas: Soviet industrial colony in Siberia in the 1920s staffed by radical Americans and other foreign volunteers. Kuziv (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kuzlyakin, Petr Fedorovich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Kuznetsov, F.: Soviet intelligence officer, Moscow Center, 1948. Kuznetsov [not seaman deserter] (NGRU line) [source Venona] Kuznetsov, Soviet seaman deserter, (NGRU line) [source Venona] Kuznetsova, Elizaveta Mitrofanova (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Kvant” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Quantum”. “Kvant” / “Quantum”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kvashnin, Ivan (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Kvasnikov, Leonid Romanovich: Soviet intelligence officer/agent. Engineer at Amtorg. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/ agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Anton”. Kvasnikov, Leonid Romanovich: “Anton” [source Feklisov] Kvasnikov, Leonid Romanovich, engineer with Amtorg: “Anton” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kvazhishevskiy [Michal Kwapiszewski] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Kvid” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Quid”.Lamont, Robert P.: Secretary of Commerce, 1929-1932. Kwapinski, Jan: Polish socialist, in Sikorsky cabinet, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Kwapiszewski, Michal (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Kyzychi: chairman of the Slav Congress (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] XXL “L” / “Beer”: unidentified KGB U.S. line [source Venona] “L”.: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] L. (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Initial of an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent in Mexico in 1950. L., Henri (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] L.: Initials of someone described as a close friend of New York Governorelect Herbert Lehman in December 1932. “L-3”: (L3) unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] La Follette (LaGuardia), Robert: Progressive leader of the early 20th century. U.S. senator from Wisconsin on Republican and Progressive tickets. Progressive Party candidate for president in 1924. La Guardia, Fiorello (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Labor Action: Journal associated with the American Trotskyist movement. Labor Age: Journal edited by Louis Budenz Labour Age: Error for Labor Age.. Labour Party: Error for American Labor Party. LAC: Liberated Areas Committee “Lackey” / “Lakej”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Lacquer ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Ladoga (ship) Ladygin, Soviet seaman (NGRU line) [source Venona] Ladyshkin, Soviet seaman (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Lager' X” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Camp X”. “Lager'” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Camp”. “Lagov”: Pavlov, ?? (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Laidler, Harry: Socialist historian. Laird, Stephen: “Yun” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Laird, Stephen: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Time magazine writer, radio broadcaster, journalist, and filmmaker. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[288] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Yun”. Lamont, Corliss: Soviet intelligence agent. Recruited but not clear if ever used. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Author”.

Lamut (ship) Lan, Irving [source Venona] “Lana” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, CPUSA member. Described as on the staff of the commercial attaché of the Yugoslav Embassy, late 1940s. Lancaster, William journalist (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Land” / “Kraj” (“Kray”): Canada (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Land” / “Kray”: see “Territory” “Kray” was translated as “Land” in Venona but as “Territory” in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks. Landau: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Landau, Jacob (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Landes, Lewis: Chairman of the National Committee for Recognition of Soviet Russia, 1933. Landf, German economics minister (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Landon, Kirk A.: Executive Secretary, National Committee for the Recognition of Soviet Russia, 1933. “Landscape” [Peyzazh] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Related to William Weisband, may be a cover name for the operation of running Weisband. Landy, Avram: Senior CPUSA official who supervised party work among ethnic groups. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as assisting Jacob Golos in anti-Trotsky activities.[289] Lang, unidentified, possibly in DOS, (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] Lange, Oscar: “Friend” / “Priyatel” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Langer, William of Research and Analysis branch of OSS [source Venona] Langmuir, I., Schenectady (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Lanning, Just: Described as OSS officer in London, 1945. “Lanov”: Baltenko, Col, GRU cipher officer, Moscow] [source Venona] “Lanya”: possibly Mrs. Joseph Rappoport (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Lapid, Jarry [Jerry?] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Lapins, Erich: “Anton” / “Pav”: possibly Juan Garcia Reyes or Lapins (“Anton” may be Mexico City cover name and “Pav” is New York cover name): In 596 NY to Moscow, 1944 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Lar”: redacted or Isaac Dunaievski in Venezuela ?? (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Laredo ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Larichev, Viktor: Accused in 1930 of being a key figure in the fictitious antiBolshevik Industrial Party. Larin: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Larry” [Leri] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Nikolay Statskevich. “Laszl”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] “Lata”: Chapa, Esther: former wife of Rosendo Gomez Lorenzo (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Latin American Division, U.S. Department of State. Latvian legion “Laurel”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Laurel” [Lavr] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer, New York station. References to in 1938 and 1942. “Laurel” appeared in the Venona decryptions as unidentified KGB officer/agent operating from the Soviet Government Purchasing Commission in 1942, likely the same person. Lauterbach, Richard, an employee of Time, Inc, and concealed CPUSA: “Pa” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Lauterbach, Richard: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a secret Communist and candidate for recruitment as a Soviet source/agent: cover name “Pa”.[290] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Pa”. “Lava”: Schultz, Marian Miloslavovich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Lavr” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Laurel”. Lavr in Russian is the diminutive for the name Lavrenty. However, it was translated in the Venona decryptions as Laurel and to reduce confusion, that practice is adopted here. “Lavr”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Lavrentev, Petr Vasilevich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Lavrentyev, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Lawrence, Ernest: American experimental physicist and leading figure on Manhattan project. Lawrence, Ernest (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Lawyer” [Lojer]: Harry Dexter White (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Lawyer” [Loyer] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Harry Dexter White in August 1944.[291] Lazarus, Abe: Described as a student Communist at Oxford in the mid-1930s.

“Lazutchiki” (KGB file title in the Vassiliev notebooks): See “Spies”. (Alternate translation: Scouts) “Lazutchiki” is not much used in modern Russian, with “shpiony” the preferred term for spies. “Le” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified agency in which Josef Peters worked in Moscow in the 1930s. Le Baron, William (LeBaron): Hollywood producer. “Leaf”: Donald Maclean [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] “Leaf”: Donald Maclean [source Sudoplatov] “Leaf”: unidentifed source London KGB [West Venona] “Leaf”: see List. “League”: U.S. government (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “League” [Liga] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): U.S. government. “League” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the U.S. government. League of Struggle Against Communism: Likely a reference to the Committee to Combat Communism. League of Women Shoppers: 1930s activist organization close to the CPUSA. Leahy, William, Admiral Leahy, William: U.S. Navy Admiral and chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Lebedeff [Lebedev], Sgt. Andrew M. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Lebedenko, Professor (NGRU line) [source Venona] Lebedev, Aleksandr A. (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Lebedev, Major Boris Ivanovich, first secretary Soviet Military Attache, DC [source Venona] Lebedinsky, ?: Soviet intelligence officer/agent know to Jacob Golos and later arrested in Stalin’s purge of his security services. Leclercq (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Ledi, ? (possibly Ladi, Laddy): Roman Catholic priest. “Lee” / “Li” / “Klemens” / “Clemence”: unidentified, redacted possibly Johanna Becker (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Lee, Duncan C.: “Koch” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Lee, Duncan Chaplin: Soviet intelligence source/agent. In 1945 Bentley told the FBI that Lee was a source for her CPUSA/KGB network.[292] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Koch”. Party name and pseudonym used by Elizabeth Bentley: Pat. “Lee” [Li] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, September 1944, earlier “Clemence”. Johanna Beker is a candidate for “Clemence”/“Lee”. “Lee” appeared

in the Venona decryptions as an Soviet intelligence source/agent, identify redacted, earlier “Clemence”.[293] Leeds, ?: Described as the pseudonym of ? Levy. Leeds Company: Described as distributor of sheet music in the United States. “Leg”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Legal (KGB tradecraft term): KGB activities operating from Soviet diplomatic offices by officers who were openly Soviet officials and had protected diplomatic status. “Legat” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Legate”. “Legate” [Legat] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Lord Edward Halifax. Lehman, Herbert: American government administrator and politician, later governor of New York and U.S. Senator (D. NY). Head of UNRRA. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Orderly”. Lehman’s Committee: See UNRRA. Lehrs, ?: Described as a figure in the Russian-American Chamber of Commerce, 1924. Father of John Lehrs. Lehrs, John: American vice-counsul Latvia, official in American Relief Administration in Russia. Leica: KGB’s preferred camera for photographing documents. Leichter, Otto (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Leitner, Rudolph: Described as a German in the U.S. with some connection to the Nazi regime. Lemaigre-Dubreuil, Maurice (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Lemoing, Edmund (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Len, Ivan (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Lena Goldfields: Gold mining district in Siberia near the Lena river. Lencsyski, Machla: Name on the fraudulent American passport of the wife of Comintern agent Harry Berger when arrested in Brazil. Lend Lease: “Decree” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Lend Lease: U.S. program of supplying WWII allies with industrial and war material. Cover name in Vassiliev notebooks “Decree”. Lenin, Vladimir: Dominate figure in the Bolshevik movement. Leningrad Institute of Physics and Technology. “Lens” / “Linza”: Michael Sidorovich [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] “Lens” / “Linza”: Mikhajl Sidorovich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Lens” [Linza] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence agent running a safe house in the interior of the U.S. Likely Michael

Sidorovich. “Lens” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Michael Sidorovich who ran a safe house in Cleveland, Ohio.[294] Lenson, Marianne, née Mary Ann Diehl: Grohol, Mary: “Gringo” [KGB U.S. and Mexico City line] [source Venona] “Leo” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Ludwig Lore. Lore is not directly named in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks, but all of the particulars of “Leo” (his journalistic work and the trajectory of his journalistic commentary on Soviet matters in the 1930s) fit Lore. In addition, Whittaker Chambers described his own contacts with Lore and comments of Soviet intelligence officers about Lore that fit with the description of “Leo” in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks. Further, Julius Kobyakov, retired senior KGB officer, identified “Leo” as Lore in 2004.[295] “Leon” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Error for Leona. “Leona” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, late 1930s, via “Jung” (Iskhak Akhmerov). Deactivated when Akhmerov recalled in 1939. “Leona” appears in a single 1944 Venona cable and was described an an unidentified female asset of the New York KGB, attempting to get a job with the Office of War Information and with a husband who appeared to have been an employee of a large New York radio station who was aware of his wife’s connection with Soviet intelligence.[296] It is uncertain that Venona’s 1944 “Leona” was the same person as “Leona” in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks. “Leona”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Leonard” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Alger Hiss, 1948-1950. “Leonid” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer/ agent, New York, early 1940s. First name Aleksey. Likely Aleksey N. Prokhorov. “Leonid” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Aleksey N. Prokhorov. “Leonid” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer/ agent, 1935. Unclear if “Leonid” of 1935 is “Leonid”/Prokkhorov of the early 1940s. “Leonid”: Prokhorov, Aleksej [Aleksey] Nikolaevich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Leonidov, ?: Described as someone Boris Morros met in Moscow. Leonov, Mikhail Grigorievich: Described as director of Vienna Film Studio.

“Leopard” [Bars] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. Journalist. References to “Leopard” operating overseas in 1942. (Alternative translation: Snow Leopard). Lepin, ?: KGB agent slated for infiltration into Germany via the battle front, late 1941. Lequerica, Jose Felix (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Leri” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Larry”. “Lermontov”: Ivanov, Vasily Vasilievich,: engineer, under Purchasing Commission cover, 1942-1946 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Lerner, editor of P.M. [source Venona] Lerner, L [Adolf Larner or Adolf Lerner] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Leschinsky, Solomon: See Lischinsky, Solomon. Common misspelling of the name found in government records and in historical literature. Leshing, Michael S. (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Lesley”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Lesley: See “Leslie”. “Lesli” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Leslie”. (Alternative translation: Lesley) “Lesli” [Leslie Lesley]: Cohen, Lona [source Albright Kunstel Bombshell] “Leslie” [Lesli] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Lona Cohen. “Leslie” as “Lesley” appeared in the Venona decryptions as unidentified but in a context that would be compatible with Lona Cohen.[297] “Leslie” was identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as Lona Cohen. “Leslie” (“Lesli”): Cohen, Lona [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Lesovia” / “Forest”: Canada (GRU line) [source Venona] Lesser, Alexander: Described as OSS officer/staff. Lets: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] Lette Guimares, Jayme; (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] Leubringer, George: Described as State Department advisor to Isador Lubin. Leuscher, in Germany, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Lev” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Lion”. “Lev”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Lev ?: Described as business associate of Boris Morros Levanas, Leo: “Alma” (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Levedev, ??: “Arkangel”: KGB Probationer on Soviet ship (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] Levenson, L. of Electro-Physical Lab (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Lever” [Rychag] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Benjamin Smilg.

Leverett, Miles: Engineer involved in designing early atomic reactors as part of the Manhattan atomic project. “Levi”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Levin” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, 1950-1951. “Levin”: Piterskij [Pitersky], Capt. Nilkolaj Alekseevich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Levine, Benjamin: Described as providing information on Walter Krivitsky via an Amtorg lawyer in 1940. Levine, Isaac Don: Anti-Communist journalist. Levis or Leavis: unidentified, Christian name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Levitskij, Andrej [Levitsky, Andrey] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Levy, ?: Described as someone having the rights to state the opera “War and Peace” in the U.S. Pseudonym “Leeds, ?” Levy, Edward: Described as U.S. deputy attorney general on anti-trust activities, 1945 Lewis, James H.: U.S. Senator, 1931-1939 (D. IL). Lewis, John L.: President of the United Mine Workers and the Congress of Industrial Organizations in the 1930s. “Lewis” or “Louis” or “Luis”: unidentified, male. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Lewitt: probably Morris Lewitt “Leytenant” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Lieutenant”. Lezin, Ben Bernardovich [Russian by birth, chief electrician at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton] (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Lgov”: Malygin (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Li” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Lee”. “Li” / “Lee” / “Klemens” / “Clemens”: unidentified, redacted (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Libau, Morris, offered information on Eastern front, 1944 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Libby, Willard Frank: Physical chemist in the Manhattan Project at Columbia University, working on gaseous diffusion separation and enrichment of the Uranium-235. “Liberal” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Frank Palmer, mid-1930s to 1942.

“Liberal” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Julius Rosenberg (September 1944-1950). “Liberal” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Rosenberg. “Liberal”: Rosenberg Julius (KGB U.S. line) [source Feklisov ] “Liberal”: Rosenberg Julius (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Liberated Areas Committee: US. Department of State committee. Lichtensztul, Joseph (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Lid” [Kryshka] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent. Likely George Samuel Wuchinich. “Lid” is described as linked to Perlo’s group, of Serbian origin and working in OSS’s Balkan department. Wuchinich was of Serbian background and served with OSS on Balkan operations. Wuchinich is identified in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks as linked to the Perlo group. “Lida” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent. References to in 1937. “Lida” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Mrs. Byron T. Darling in 1944. Lieber, Maxim: Soviet intelligence agent. Immigrant from Poland, naturalized U.S. citizen. Lieber, a literary agent, was a Communist and undertook a variety of tasks for the CPUSA underground and Soviet intelligence in the 1930s, including assisting Whittaker Chambers’ GRU-linked apparatus. Chambers’ stated that Lieber had the cover name “Paul” in the underground.[298] Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Paul”, “Pol”. Liebling, Estelle: Described as voice teacher. “Lieutenant” [Leytenant] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Frederick Vinson. Life Magazine “Liga” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “League”. “Light” / “Svet”: Raev, Aleksandr Andreevich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Light” [Svet] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer/agent. Likely Aleksandr Andreevich Raev. (Raev may the the diplomatic pseudonym of Alexander Rogov.) “Light” was identified in the Venona decryptions as KGB officer Aleksandr Andreevich Raev.[299] Likus, Nazi Ministry of Foreign Affairs or Ribbentrop’s Bureau (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Lily”: Olkhine, Eugenie [redacted in 239 1945] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Lina”: Zoya Semonova Myakotina, clerk at consulate, NY (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Linchpin” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Lever”. Lincolnians: American veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Battalion and other Americans who served the International Brigades in the Spanish Civil War. Lindbergh, Charles: Well know American pilot/hero and spokesman for antiintervenionism/isolationism. Lindbergh (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Lindley, Ernest: Journalist, correspondent for the Washington Post. Lindorf, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Lindsay, John: Mayor of New York City, 1966-1973. Lindsey (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Line A (KGB tradecraft term): Work on KGB line A involved disinformation and deceptive “active measures” operations. “Link”: Weisband, William [West Venona] “Link”: Zveno: unidentified name, possibly Weisband (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Link” [Zveno] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Described as an OSS connected clandestine group in Bulgaria headed by Kiss and Angelo Kuyumzhitsky. “Link” [Zveno] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1930s and early 1940s. Likely William Weisband. “Link” was described as having worked for KGB on the West Coast and as liaison with aviation technology source “Needle” (Jones York). In 1950 York identied Weisband as a Soviet liaison in contact with him in California in the early 1940s. “Link” was described as serving North Africa, Italy, Britain, and France after entering American Army. Weisband’s work as a translator for the Army Signal Corps took him to North Africa, Italy, Britain, and France. “Link” appeared in the Venona decryptions as unidentified but in a context suggesting William Weisband as a strong candidate for “Link”.[300] Linley, Ernest of Newsweek [source Venona]

Linschitz, Henry: Target of recruitment. Physical chemist who worked at the Manhattan atomic project Los Alamos. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Derby”. “Linza” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Lens”. “Linza”: Lens: Michael Sidorovich [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] “Linza”: Lens: Mikhajl Sidorovich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Lion”: Sergej [Sergey] N. Kudryavtsev (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Lion” [Lev] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Holland Roberts in March and September 1944. Note overlap of this cover name with Floyd Miller/“Hell” who became “Lion” in August 1944. “Lion” [Lev] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Floyd C. Miller. Miller, who earlier had the cover name “Hell”, was shifted to “Lion” in August 1944. Note overlap with “Lion”/Roberts. Lipatsk [unidentified town] (GRU line) [source Venona] Lipkina: Family name of Charles Kramer’s mother. Lippmann, Walter: “Imperialist” / “Shmel” / “Bumblebee” / “Katz” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Lippmann, Walter: Journalist and commentator. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Imperialist”, 1941-1944, and “Bumblebee”in late 1944 and 1945. Lipski, Josef; (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] “Lira” / “Lyra”: Strong, Anna Louise (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Lischinsky, Solomon: Soviet intelligence source. (Also known as Solomon Leschinsky) Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as part of the Perlo espionage group but one who in her contact with the group never provided any information.[301] Born in 1908 in Canada, doctorate from the University of Toronto in mathematics. Worked as a statistician and economist for the U.S. State Department, the House Select Committee Investigating National Defense Migration (Tolan Committee) and for the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. Lisitsyn: Possibly the pen name of S. A. Vasilyev. “List” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Liszt”. In Russian “List” is translated “Leaf” in the sense of the leaf or page of a book. However, Alexander Vassiliev, along with Nigel West, Oleg Tsarev and Vladimir Chikov, maintain “List” in in the case of John

Cairncrost was phonetic Russian Cyrillic for the Hungarian pianist and composer Franz Liszt.[302] Lister Forja, Enrique Rodriguez (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Liszt” [List] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): John Cairncross in the U.K., 1941. “Liszt” [List] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence contact, 1948, cultivated by Julius Rosenberg. (Alternative translation: “Leaf”.) “Literator” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Writer”. Litke (ship) [source Venona] Litvinenko, Mikhail (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Litvinov, Maksim, Soviet Ambassador: “Ded” / “Grandfather” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Litvinov, Maxim: Senior Soviet diplomat. Liveit-Levit, ?: KGB officer, 1930s. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Ten”. Livell, John: Described as attaché for oil at the US embassy, Cairo. “Liza” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Martha Dodd Stern (1936-1950s). “Liza” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Martha Dodd Stern.[303] “Liza” was identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as Martha Dodd Stern. “Liza”: Martha Dodd Stern (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Liza”: Martha Dodd Stern [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Liza”: Samojlova, Marfa Pavlovna (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Liza”: unidentified secretary of Pozner, Vladimir Aleksandrovich, U.S. War Department (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Lloyd” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent linked to Silvermaster, 1946. Likely an error of Ludwig Ullmann, once referred to as Lloyd Ullmann in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks. “Loach” [V'yun] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1938. (Loach is type of fish found in Europe, Asia, and North Africa.) “Lobus” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Alfred Marshak. “Location-Y”: Los Alamos [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] (see Camp-Y)

Locke, Emanuel Soviet intelligence agent. In 1954 confessed to having been the courier between Jones York and the KGB.[304] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Eduard”. Lockheed aircraft. Lodge, John: Republican governor of Connecticut, 1951-1955. “Lodochnik” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Boatman”. Loeb, Aaron: Amtorg employee. Husband of Sylvia Loeb. Loeb, Leonard Benedict physicist Berkeley (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Loeb, Sylvia: Amtorg employee with a brother described as a regional organizer of the NY Trotskyists. “Loesh”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] “Logan” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence contact, candidate for recruitment. Linked to Charles Kramer and Bella Joseph, 1945. “Lojer”: Lawyer: Harry Dexter White (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Lok” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Sylvia Koral. Lok Baton (ship) “Lom” / “Crow Bar”: unidentified, possibly garble (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Lomakin, Yakov Mironovich: Soviet diplomat. Lomakin, Yakov Mironovich: “Rusakov” (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Lombard, ?: French military attaché in Washington. London, U.K.: Sidon (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] London, U.K.: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Sidon”. London, Joan: Jack London's daughter. Long, Boaz: U.S. Ambassador to Ecuador, 1942. Long, Breckinridge: U.S. Assistant Secretary of State, 1924-1944 “Long” [Dlinny] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Norman Hait prior to October 1944. “Long” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent but in a context that would fit Norman Hait. “Long” in the Venona decryptions was later changed to “Davis”.[305] “Long” [Dlinnyj]: Davis [Devis]: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Long, Leo: Soviet intelligence source/agent. British, recruited by Anthony Blunt while at Cambridge.

“Loper” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Appears to be a spelling garble for “Loyer”. “Lopez”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Lord” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1938. “Lord ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Lord, ?: Described as American general and associate of Generals Eisenhower and Bedell Smith. Lord, Royal B.: American Army general. Lore, Ludwig: Soviet intelligence source/agent.[306] Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “10”, “Leo”. His given name “Ludwig” was also used as a cover name. Lorimer, Frank W. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Los Angeles Evening Herald and Express. Los Angeles Times “Loser” [Neudachnik] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Alexander Kerensky. Losovskij [Losovsky] (ship) [source Venona] “Lot” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Plumb”. “Lot Department”: unidentified institution (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Lothian, Lord: See Philip Kerr. “Lotos” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Lotus”. “Lotsman” / “Channel-pilot”: Henry Wallace (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Lotus” [Lotos] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent. References to in 1933. “Lou” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Described as someone connected to State Department. References to in 1946. Marion Davis (married name Marion Davis Berdecio) is a likely candidate for “Lou”. “Lou” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Soviet intelligence source/agent Marion Davis in 1944 and 1945. Davis in 1944 worked on the staff of the Office of Naval Intelligence at the U.S. Embassy in Mexico and later for the Office of Inter-American Affairs in Washington.[307] The Office of Inter-American Affairs was absorbed into the State Department in 1946. “Lou”: Davis, Marion (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Loud, Gordon, in OSS (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Louis” / “Lui”: Stern, Alfred K. [also see Louis and Lewis] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Louis” [Lui] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Alfred Stern. “Louis” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Stern.[308] “Louisa”: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] Lovanov, Aleksandr Fedorovich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Loverett, ?: Described an an American scientist involved in high energy atomic machine design. (Spelling unconfirmed, alternative translation: Laverette). “Lovets” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Catcher”. Lovett, Robert A.: Special Assistant to Secretary of War, 1940-41; Assistant Secretary of War for Air, 1941-45; Under Secretary of State, 1947-49; Deputy Secretary of Defense, 1950-51; and Secretary of Defense, 1951-53. Lovett, Robert Morss: Prominent left-liberal and civil libertarian in the 1920s. In the early 1940s an Interior Department official investigated by the Kerr Commission. “Lovkach” / “Dodger”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Lowman, Lodge V.: Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, early 1930s. Lowry, Helen: “Elza” [source Damaskin Harris] Lowry, Helen: “Madlen” / “Ada” [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Lowry, Helen: Soviet intelligence agent. Also known as Akhmerova, wife of Iskhak Akhmerov. Kansas-born American and the niece of CPUSA chief Earl Browder. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as one of her KGB contacts under the pseudonym Catherine. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Madeline” in 1937-39, “Nelly” (late 1939?/ 1940-August 1944), “Stella” (August 1944 to mid-1945), “Emma” (proposed change by New York station in September 1944, but this does not appear to have been implemented), and “Elsa” (mid-1945).[309] Lowry, Helen: “Elsa” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Loyer” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Lawyer”. Lozovsky, Solomon: Former head of the Profintern, and in 1946 head of the Soviet Information Bureau (a subsection of the Foreign Policy Department of the CPSU) and a member of the Central Committee of the CPSU. Executed in 1952 as part of Stalin’s purge of Jews. Lubell, Samuel, assistant to Baruch (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Lubin, Isador, Special statistical Assistant to the White House 1941-1945, U.S. representative, later Associate Representative on Allied Reparations Commission. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Lublin Poles (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Lucas, Scott: U.S. Senator (D. Illinois). Luce, Henry.: Publisher of Time magazine. “Luch” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Beam”. “Luchador ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Luchezarov”: unidentified, Probationer (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Lucia: real first name of sister-in-law of “Mar” cover name “Olivia” [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Lucy”: Rosessler, Rudolf, U.K. line [West Venona] “Lucy” [Lyusya] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Olga Borisovna Pravdina. “Ludwig” [Lyudvig] (given name used as a cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Ludwig Lore. Luga (ship) “Lui” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Louis”. “Lui”: Louis: Stern, Alfred K. [also see Louis and Lewis] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Lui”: unidentified [not Stern] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Luis”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Luis Sancha, brother of Jose Sancha Padros: “Inis” (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Luiza” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Error in the original for “Liza”. “Luka” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Pavel Panteleimovich Pastelnyak who used the pseudonym Pavel P. Klarin in the U.S. “Luka” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Pavel P. Klarin. “Luka”: Luke: Pavel P. Klarin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Luka”: Pavel Pastelniak [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] “Luka”: Pavel Klarin (Pastelnyak) [source Feklisov] Lukianov, Sergej [Sergey] Grigorevich [Lukyanov]: “Akim” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Lukomsky, ?: Soviet intelligence source/agent, anti-White tasks. Described as working as secretary of Chernikov of the BRP. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “S-8”.

“Lun” / “Hen-Harrier” (or “Ring Tail”): unidentified name in 1943, in 1944 became cover name for Cordell Hull (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Lunacharskij [Lunacharsky] (ship) “Lund”: unidentified illegal in U.S., German nationality (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Lurie, Louis: Described as Republican Party treasurer. Lus, Clare [possibly Clare Luce] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Luxi” [Lyuksi] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent in France in the 1930s. Lyakhovka, Nikilaj Fedorovich: “Shatunov” (on ship Soviet) “Lydia”: Altshuler, Lydia (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Lynch”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] “Lyonman”: unidentifed GRU source London, U.K. line [West Venona] Lyons, ?: Described as New York Police official involved in antiradical activities. Lyons, Eugene: UPI Moscow correspondent and anti-Communist writer. “Lyons” [“Lion”]: Kudryavtsev, Sergej [Sergey] N., First Secreary of Soviet embassy] (GRU line) [source Venona] Lyons: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Lyra” / “Lira”: Strong, Anna Louise (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Lysaya Gora” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Bald Mountain”. “Lyuba”: not identified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Lyubon”: a Soviet in Purchasing commission. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Lyubshin (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Lyudmila” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Varvara Hammer. “Lyudvig” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Ludwig”. “Lyuksi” (cover namein Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Luxi”. Lyushkov, Genrich Samuelovich: Senior KGB officer who defected to the Japanese in 1938. “Lyuskin”: unidentified probationer a Soviet in Purchasing commission. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Lyusya” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Lucy”. “Lyusya ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Lyusya”: Tronova, Olimpiada Grigorevna, probationer [Soviet intelligence agent], Soviet KGB student in U.S. 1942. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Lyzhniki” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Skiers”. XXM “M” (Cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): KGB used single letters to indicate special activities such as eaves-dropping, listening devices, reading private letters, and so on. In this case, “M” appears to be a reference to suspected listening devices installed in the Soviet embassy by the FBI.[310] M. Gorkij [Gorky] (ship) [source Venona] M. Kutozov (ship) [source Venona] M [“M” MM] ”: surveillance (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] M. [MM]: unidentified, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Maas, Melvin: U.S. Representative, 1935-1945 (R. MN) Mabel: unidentified , (NGRU line) [source Venona] MacArthur, Douglas: U.S. Army general, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in the Southwest Pacific Area. MacDaniels, Commander (NGRU line) [source Venona] MacGuire, U.S. Army officers of “The Twelve Apostles” [source Venona] “Machado”: Fernandez de Castro, Jose Antonio] (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Machnikowski: See Makhnikovsky, T. Ya. Machray, Robert: British writer on foreign policy. MacIntyre, Marvin: President Roosevelt’s White House executive secretary, 1937-1943. Mack, Gerstel, Treasury (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Mack (party name): Maurice Halperin’s party name. Mackay, Clarence Hungerford: American cable and telegraph businessman. Mackey, William (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Maclean, Donald: “Leaf” [source Sudoplatov] Maclean, Donald: “Leaf” [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] Maclean, Donald: First in the mid-1930s“Waise” (German for Orphan) or “Sirota” in Russian, changed to “Lirik” or “Lyric Poet”, changed to “Stuart” 1938 [source Damaskin Harris] Maclean, Donald D.: “Homer”: Gomer (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Maclean, Donald: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Recruited at Cambridge University, one of the “Cambridge 5”. Joined the British foreign office and served as a senior British diplomat at the U.K. embassy in Washington in the mid-1940s. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Waise” (in the U.K. in the 1930s), “Homer” (in the U.S., 1944-1945). Maclean, Melinda: Soviet intelligence contact. American-born wife of Donald Maclean. Worked as courier between her husband and KGB. MacLean, Peter: Soviet intelligence source/agent. (Spelling unconfirmed: alternative translations: Maclean, McLean) A 1948 Gorsky memo Chambers/Karl’s group name.[311] Chambers did not discuss a Peter MacLean in Witness. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “101st”. MacLeish, Archibald: Poet, New Deal activist, and Assistant Secretary of State, 1945. MacMorris, Rear-Admiral (NGRU line) [source Venona] MacSherry, ?: Described as a U.S. Army general, official in the U.S. occupation government of Germany. “Mad” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Harry Gold, 1950. “Madchen” [Medkhen] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Guy Burgess. (German, Mädchen, for Girl) “Madchen” was identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as Guy Burgess. “Mädchen”: Anthony Burgess [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Madeleine: See “Madeline”. “Madeline” [Madlen] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Helen Lowry in 1937-39. Madison, Louis E.: Described as OSS officer/staff. “Madlen” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Madeline”. “Madlen”: Lowry, Helen [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Magazin” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Store”. “Magda”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Magdoff, Harry Samuel: “Kant” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Magdoff, Harry: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as part of the Perlo espionage group. KGB sent Comintern a vetting inquiry about him in 1944. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Kant” prior to 29 December 1944, then “Tan”.[312] Party name: Hank. Magidov (Magidoff), Robert: American correspondent in Moscow, Russian born American citizen.1944 [source Venona]

Magidova, Nila,: wife of Robert Magidov, 1944 [source Venona] Magidson, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Magil, A. B.: Senior CPUSA official, ideologist. “Magnat” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Magnate”. “Magnate” [Magnat] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, technology: armor, armored vests, bugging equipment in 1930s, targeted for revival in 1943. Magnikovsky, ?: Amtorg official mentioned by Vasily Delgass in 1931. Magnuson, Warren: U.S. Senator (D. Washington). “Mai”: Stepan Apresyan [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] Maisky: See Maysky. Maissurov, Donald K”.: Lt. ...rov, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Maj” / “May”: Stepan Zakharovich Apresyan, [early FBI/NSA footnotes give “May” as Pavel Fedosimov but this was later corrected] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Majkop (ship) [source Venona] “Major Key” “Mazhor”: Misluk, Vyacheslav Aleksandrovich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Mak”: Makarov, Sergej [Sergey] Vasilevich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Mak”: unidentified cover name, probably Makarov (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Mak”: Zborowski, Mark [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Makar” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Mikhail Sumskoi, KGB officer/agent. References to in 1945. Makarov, Sergej [Sergey] Vasilevich: “Mak” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Make, I.R.: Described as an official of the Department of the Interior. Suspected of being a fake name in a fraudulent document. Makhajlov (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Makhnev, Vasily: Senior deputy to Lavrenty Beria. Makhnikovsky, T. Ya.: Amtorg aviation specialist, defector 1927. Variant spelling: Machnikowski. Makhov, ?: Described as a White émigré working at Douglas Aircraft. “Makied” (real name or possible cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1948. Makogon (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Makov”: William Pinsly (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Maks”: Grigulevich, Iosif R.: [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Maks”: Iosef Romvoldovich Grigulevich after WWII [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] “Maks” / “Max”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] “Maksim” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Maxim”. “Maksim”: Vasily Mikhailovich Zubilin [real surname, Zarubin, 1894-1972) Second Secretary Soviet Embassy in DC, chief of Soviet intelligence in New York from 1942-August 1944, Deputy chief of Foreign Intelligence 1945-1948, then dismissed. [source Venona] “Maksim”: Vasily Zarubin aka Zubilin [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Maksim (Maxim) = Vasily Zubilin (Zarubin) ] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Maksim Gorky (ship) [source Venona] Maksimenko, Captain 1st rank (NGRU line) [source Venona] Maksimovich, Lt. Col Vladimir Vasilievich, May 1943 Soviet Assisant Naval attache for air [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] Maksimovich: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] Malaksianov, Mikhail Nikolaevich: Crewman on the Soviet tanker “Azerbaijan”. Malamount, ?: Described, inaccurately, as Joan London's husband. Maleev, Aleksander, Alekseevich, SGPC June 43-Sept 46 [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] Malenkov, Georgy Maximilianovich: Senior Soviet leader, part of Stalin’s inner-circle. Mali: See Mally. Malik, Yakov A.: Soviet ambassador to the United Nations from 1948 to 1952, and from 1968 to 1972. Malisoff, William M., born in Russia, 1895, naturalized, PhD. Columbia, expelled for faking lab work, 1943-45, owner and manager of United Laboratories, Died 1947.: “Talent” / “Talant” also “Genri” / “Henry” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Malisoff, William Marias: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent. Cover names in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Talent” prior to October 1944, then “Henry”.[313] Malisov, William Marias see Malisoff Malkov, Commercial attache (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Mally, Theodore: Soviet intelligence officer. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Man”. “Malody” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Youthful”. Malov, ? (real name, possibly a cover name): Soviet intelligence officer/ agent, Costa Rico, 1976. Malsksin, Mikhail (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Malvin: unidentified (GRU line) New Tulmudist [source Venona] “Malyar” / “Painter”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Malygin, Andrej [Andrey] Vasilevich: “Lgov” (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Malyshev, Mikhail Vladimerovich: “Thornton” (NGRU line) [source Venona] Malyshevich, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Mamayev, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Mamlyga, Vitalij [Vitaly] Semenovich: “Ema” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Mamulov, ?: KGB officer, Moscow, 1945. “Man” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Theodore Mally. (Alternative translation: Mann) “Man” as “Mann” was identified as Theodore Mally in West and Tsarev. “Manager”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] Mandel, Ben: Bert Miller (party name) [source Chambers Witness] Mandell, George (Jeroboam Rothschild), French politician (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Mangan, ?: Described as an American Trotskyist in France. Mangan (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] Mangel, Joaquin Manuel Gutierrez (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Maniu, Julius (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Mann, Heinrich: KGB informant on German exiles. Refugee German novelist. Mann, Henry (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Mann, James H.: Described as a Treasury Department representative in London, 1945. Mann: See “Man”. Mann, Thomas Mannstein, German Field Marshal Manuel, Fritz: Member of the staff of the Kilgore Committee. Manuilov (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Manuilsky, Dmitry: Senior Comintern official and leading Stalinist. Manych (ship) [source Venona] “Map” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Louise Bransten. “Map” appeared in the Venona decryptions as unidentified but in a context that suggests Louise Bransten.[314] “Map”: unidentified female (KGB Line, San Francisco) [Louise Bransten candidate] [source Venona] “Mar”: unidentifed Soviet source in Manhattan project [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Marcantonio, Vito: U.S. Representative (American Labor Party, NY). “Marcel” (cover name/work name in Vassiliev notebooks): GRU agent described as know to Bentley. Likely Michael Endelman. Elizabeth Bentley in 1945 told the FBI of her relationship in the mid-1930s with a GRU agent introduced to her as “Marcel” and who had American identification as Michael Endelman.[315] Marcus, Ralph: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Marcuse, Herbert H. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Marcuse, Herbert: Target of recruitment. Refugee German sociologist, naturalized American. Analyst for OSS. Margaret: work name of Olga Pravdin [source Bentley FBI statement] Margaret Brent (ship) [source Venona] “Margarita” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Ruth Greenglass, prior to October 1944. “Margarita” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent on Trotskyists 1941. “Margarita”: redacted [born in U.S. in 1933 went to Karelia with family, then worked for Moscow Daily News, 42-45 for U.S. censorship, then for UNRRA abroad. married in 1947. ] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Margo”: Nelken Mansberger de Paul, Margarita (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Maria” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Likely Myra Soble, wife of Jack Soble. Marianov, ?: Russian emigrant, via France, removed from the agent network mid-30s. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “A/214”. “Mario”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Maritime Labor Board: U.S. government agency. “Mark”: unidentifed GRU officer, U.K. line [West Venona] “Mark”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Markarian, ?: Soviet intelligence officer, Moscow, 1940. “Markiz” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Marquis”. Markin, Valentin: Soviet intelligence officer/agent. Chief of the illegal residence in the U.S. 1933-1934. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Davis”. Markin, Valentine: Known to Chambers as Oskar and Herman: [source Chambers Witness] “Markov”: Vasili Dimitrovich Mironov [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] Markov, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Markova, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Markovin, Vladimir Borisovich: Spelling error for Morkovin, Vladimir Borisovich. “Marquis” / “Markiz”: Bernstein, Joseph Milton (GRU line) [source Venona] “Marquis” [Markiz] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. References to in 1948. “Marquis” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Joseph Milton Bernstein, but this was on a GRU communications channel and likely has no relation to this KGB “Marquis”. “Mars” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB officer, 1930s, NY station. References to in 1937. “Mars” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent on the continent known to Klaus Fuchs. “Mars”: Vasily V. Sukhomlin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Marshak, Alexander: Error in the original notebooks for Alfred Marshak. Marshak, Alfred: Geneticist at University of California, Berkeley. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Lobus”. Marshall, George (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Marshall, George: General, U.S. Army chief of staff, later U.S. Secretary of State. “Marsky” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence agent reporting on Victor Hammer in the USSR, 1947. “Marta” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Hanna Klopstock in U.K., 1946 “Marta” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. Described as recruited by “Echo”/Schuster. Martens, ?: KGB agent slated for infiltration into Germany via the battle front, late 1941.

Martens, Ludwig Christian Alexander Karlovitch: Russian Bolshevik and head of the Soviet Russian Information Bureau, the unofficial embassy of the new Soviet regime in the U.S. in 1919-192o. “Martha”: Lecoutre, Alta U.K. line [West Venona] “Martin” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer, Rome, 1950. Martin aircraft company. Martin, Joseph: Representative, U.S. House (R. MA, 1925-1966). Speaker of the House, 1947-48 and 1953-54. Martin Maria: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Martin”: unidentified [KGB line] [source Venona] “Martin”: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] Martin: Work name used by Harry Gold with Alfred Slack. “Martines” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Martinez”. “Martinez” [Martines] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent. References to in 1939. Martins, M.: wife of the Brazilian ambassador to the USA. Marty, André: (San Francisco line KGB) 1943 [source Venona] Martynenko, Stepan Filippovich: “Element” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Marx, ?: Described as Berlin representative of Blair & Co., 1927. Marx, Louis: Toy manufacturer. “Mary”: unidentifed GRU source, U.K. line [West Venona] Mary Luckenbach (ship) [source Venona] Mary [Meri]: Work name for Elizabeth Bentley in dealings with KGB agents/ officers. “Mary” [Meri] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Hede Massing but may have been loosely used also as a joint cover name for Hede and Paul Massing. “Mary” [Meri] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer/agent, in Berlin 1934. “Mary” [Meri] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified, 1935, described as a cousin of Rep. Maury Maverick, friend and subsource of Frank Palmer/“Liberal”. “Mary” [Meri] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, illegal under “Nord” 1934, described as providing a communications receiving point in Paris.

“Mary” [Meri] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, Great Britain, 1942. Marzani, Carl: (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Marzani, Carl: “Nord” in post WWII period [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Marzani, Carl: Joined the OSS in 1942 and by 1945 had become deputy chief of presentation branch, which prepared charts, graphs, and other pictorial displays of OSS information. When the OSS dissolved, he stayed with a section transferred to the State Department. In 1947 he was convicted of fraud for concealing Communist membership on various State Department employment documents. Although he denied guilt at the time, he later acknowledged Communist loyalties. Identified as a Soviet agent in the 1960s in Andrew and Mitrokhin. A retired KGB officer, Oleg Kalugan, identified Marzani as a contact and recipient of KGB funds for his left-wing publishing house in the 1960s.[316] Masaryk, Jan: Hungarian political leader who attempted to cooperate with Communists after WWII. Died under unclear circumstances (likely suicide but possibly murder) in 1948. Masaryk, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Masha”: Dvoichenko-Markov, Eufrosina (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Mashenka” (on ship Litke): Osipenko, Kondratij [Kondraty] Filippovich (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Mashiashvili, Soviet Engineer [source Venona] Maslov, S. V.: KGB officer, Moscow, 1966. Maslov: unidentified in Moscow (NGRU line) [source Venona] Maslovskij [Maslovsky], A.J. (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Mason, Noah: U.S. Representative (D. IL) Massig..., probably Massigli, Rene, chairman of first meeting in Algiers of Advisory Concil to Allied Congrol Commission for Italy [source Venona] Massigli, Rene: French ambassador to London, 1944-1954. Massigli, Rene (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Massing, Hede: Soviet intelligence agent. Austrian/German Communist, Cominternist, GRU, and KGB agent. Also known as Hedda Gompertz and Hedda Gumperz. Married to Paul Massing. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[317]

Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Redhead”, “Mary”. Candidate for the cover names “Rita” or “Valet” circa-1937. Massing, Paul: Soviet intelligence agent. Social scientist at Columbia University’s Institute of Social Research, veteran of the Marxist Frankfurt School. Cominternist, GRU, and KGB agent. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Peter”, Vacek”. “Mary” also may have been used loosely as a joint cover name for Hede and Paul Massing. “Master”: probably Soviet Ambassador in U.S. (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Master”: unidentifed GRU source U.K. line [West Venona] “Master”: unidentified (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Master of the Country House”: Khozyajn Dachi: U.S. Ambassador in Moscow. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Master” or “Master Craftsman” or “Mastercraftsman”: Sheppard, Charles Bradford (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Mastercraftsman”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] “Mastercraftsman” or “Master Craftsman”: Christiansen, Wilber N. U.K. line [West Venona] “Masterov” (cover name/tradecraft term in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Masters”. “Masters” [Masterov] (cover name/tradecraft term in Vassiliev’s notebooks) term for KGB sources and agents (but not for KGB professional officer) in 1948 (earlier “Probationers”). “Mastiff” [Dog] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1944. “Matchmaker” [Svat] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Chairman of Amtorg. “Matchmaker” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the chairman of Amtorg. “Matchmaker”: Svat: Gusev, Makhail director of Amtrog (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Mateo ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Material password (tradecraft term): A recognition signal, an object of some sort, known to the source and kept at Moscow Center or at a KGB station. Should the need arise for a KGB officer/agent unknown to the source need to approach him, then the signature object could be carried by the officer/agent and used to establish his bone fides. A well know signature of this sort was the torn Jell-O box panel used by KGB courier Harry Gold to establish his bone fides with David Greenglass when meeting him for the first time. Alternately, the

material recognition signal might be to wear a tie of a certain color or carry a certain ordinary object in a specified hand. Also sometimes referred to as a “signature”. “Matros” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Sailor”. “Matros”: Sailor: Truman, Harry (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Matros”: Sailor, unidentifed cover name in 1942 [too early for Truman??] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Matthew Deady (ship) [source Venona] “Matthews”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] Matthews, J.B.: Former Socialist and ardent fellow traveler who became an ardent anti-Communist and investigator for the U.S. House Special Committee on Un-American Activities (Dies committee). Mature: See “Solidny”. “Matus” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB agent in France used to compromise Louis Dolivet. “Matus”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Matveen, V.V. (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Matvej”: or “Matvey” Schwartz, Milton (GRU line) [source Venona] “Mauli”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] “Maurice”: or Moris or Morris unidentified (GRU line) [probably an GRU Talmudist] [source Venona] Maverick, Maury: U.S. Representative (D. Texas, 1935-1939). “Max”: Maks: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] “Max”: unidentifed source, New York traffic [West Venona] “Maxim”: also Cooper: Vasily Mikhailovich Zarubin / Zubilin [source Feklisov] “Maxim “ (Maksim): Maksim Zubilin (Zarubin) [source Venona] “Maxim” [Maksim] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Vasily Mikhailovich Zarubin, early 1940s. “Maxim” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Vasily Zubilin, the pseudonym Zarubin used in the U.S. “Maxwell”: Fahy, Jack Bradley, employee of U.S. Dept of Interior, entered Army April 1943 (NGRU line) [source Venona] “May” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer. Likely Stepan Apresyan. “May” was identified in the Venona decryptions as KGB officer Stepan Apresyan.

“May”: Maj: Stepan Apresyan, [early FBI/NSA footnotes occcasionally gives Pavel Fedosimov but this was corrected later] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] May, Allan Nunn: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Part of the British contingent sent to assist the American atomic bomb project, he worked chiefly in Canada but visited several American facilities as well. His role as a Soviet spy was revealed when Igor Gouzenko defected in 1945 and identified several Soviet espionage sources. May confessed and was tried in 1946, pleading guilty to a charge of violating Britain's Official Secrets Act.[318] Mayakoskij [Mayakosky] (ship) [source Venona] Maybank, Burnet: U.S. senator (D. SC). Mayer, Ferdinand L. OSS-war crimes investigation (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Mayer, Hans: Cousin of source “A/214” and described as nephew of Albert Einstein. Mayer, Rene (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Mayer, René: Prominent French political figure, post-WWII. Mayers.Ya. Z.: Senior Soviet official, 1924. May-Johnson bill: 1945 U.S. House of Representatives legislation, supported by the Truman administration, setting up a government commission to control nuclear research and development. “Mayo”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Mayor” / “Mer”: Akhmerov, Iskhak (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Mayor” / “Mer”: Unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] Mayor: see “Mer”. Maysky, Ivan: Senior Soviet diplomat. “Mazhor” / “Major Key”: Misluk, Vyacheslav Aleksandrovich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Mazurkiewicz, Ladislaw (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] McAdoo, William G.: Secretary of the Treasury, 1913-1918, U.S. Senator, 1933-1938 (D. CA). McAdoo, William G. Jr.: Partner in his father’s law firm. McAllister, ?: Described as a U.S. Army colonel and aide to John Reynolds. McCann, Frazier: Contact of Alfred Stern in 1942. McCarthy, Joseph: U.S. Senator (R. WI) McClintock, Chargé in Finland (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] McClure Newspaper syndicate.

McCormack, Alfred: OSS officer who became the chief of the Interim Research and Intelligence Service (IRIS) after OSS’s dissolution. McCormack, John: U.S. Representative (D. 1027-1970) McCormick press McCullen, ??: Described as a New York City utility official. McCurdy, ?: Described as supervisor at the “Badger” firm in the USSR. McDermott, Michael: Described as New York Police official involved in antiradical activities. McDermott, Michael J. (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] McDowell, Robert F.: OSS officer in Yugoslavia, 1944. McFarlane, ?: Described as an American OSS officer. McGrath, Howard: U.S. Senator (D. RI, 1947-1949), Attorney General, 1949-1952. McGregor, Robert M.: Described as OSS officer/staff. McGuire, Matthew F.: Assistant Attorney General, 1941. McIntyre, James Francis: Archbishop and later Roman Catholic Cardinal in the United States. McKellar, Kenneth: U.S. Senator (D. TN, 1917-1952). McLaurin, Robert: Husband of Kathleen Spellman. McLin, ?: Described as a junior British officer who urged support of Tito’s Partisans rather than Mihailovic’s Chitniks in Yugoslavia. McMahon, Brein: U.S. Assistant Attorney General, 1935-1939, U.S. Senator (D. CT, 1945-1952). McMillan, Edwin: Scientist at the Radiation Laboratory at the University of Califoriana, Berkeley, involved in the Manhattan atomic project. McNeil, Hector: Minister of State in the postwar British Labour government. McNut, Russell: Spelling error for McNutt, Russell. McNutt, Ernest: Father of Russell McNutt and secret Communist. McNutt, Russell: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Fogel” prior to September 1944, then “Persian”.[319] McNutt, Waldo: Brother of Russell McNutt and secret Communist. Mead, James: U.S. Senator (D. NY). Meca Sanches, Fernando: “Fbi” (cover name) (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Mecader, Jorge (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Mecenko, Paul (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Mechaev, Ivan Vasilevich: “Bearing” (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Mechanic” [Mekhanik] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Cordell Hull. “Mechanic’s” assistant (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): An Assistant Secretary of State under Cordell Hull. “Mechanic’s” assistant appeared in June and October 1939. “Mechanic's” assistant in June 1939 was George S. Messersmith, Assistant Secretary of State from 1937 to 1940. “Mechanic’s” assistant in October 1939 likely was Assistant Secretary of State Adolf A. Berle, Jr. “Mechanic’s” deputy (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Under Secretary of State Sumner Welles. Mediator: See “Intermediary”. “Medic” [Medik] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, described as part owner of the “American Schering Co”. “Medik” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Medic”. “Medkhen” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Madchen”. “Medved” / “Bear”: unidentified Republican party leader (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Medvedev”: Soviet at Plant (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Medvedeva, Nadezhda Ivanova: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Medvezhata” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Bear Cubs. Meeks, John: Described as representative of Cardinal Spellman in Rome, 1950. Meiss, Evelyn: Sister of Faye Glasser. Meiss, Fred: Brother-in-law of Faye Glasser. Mejean (Mezhan ?), ?: Described as American security official in Paris, 1950. “Mekhanik” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Mechanic”. Melamed, Lev Nikolaevich: Described as an early contact between Boris Morros and the KGB. Melamed: Variant of Melament. See Melament. Melament, Joseph: Soviet intelligence agent. Provided safe house for KGB in New York City. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Old Man”. The exact spelling of this name is uncertain. Melament appears in White notebook #1, p. 58, were Joseph Melament (“Old Man”) and his daughter Leah Melament (“Teacher”) are described and Joseph is

noted as having been born in Ukraine in 1874. Lea Melament is also identified by Boris Morros as an espionage contact he used in New York.[320] A second spelling occurs in the Black notebook, p. 79, where the cover name “Teacher” (female) is given for “Melamed, teacher at a music School in NY”. The 1930 census showed a third spelling with a Joseph Melement born 1874 in Russia living in Bronx, New York, with a daughter Leah Melement. Melament, Leah: Soviet intelligence agent. The exact spelling of this name is uncertain (See Moseph Melament entry). Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Teacher”. Melay, Ralph: May be a garble for Ralph M. Easley, head of the National Civic Federation. Melement: Variant of Melament. See Melament. Mellon, ?: Described, inaccurately, as Joan London's husband. Also known as Malamount. Mellon, Andrew W.: Secretary of the Treasury, 1921-1932. Mellon, Paul (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Mellow, Colonel Melnikov, Petr: Soviet POW interviewed by American intelligence. “Melnoskij” [“Melnosky”]: unidentifed probationer, captian on Staryj Bolshevik (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Melville, Cecil: Described as a British journalist and writer. “Men” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Averell Harriman, beginning in December 1944. “Men” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Harriman.[321] “Men”: Harriman, W. Averell (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Menaker, Mrs. Robert Owen, and Time magazine (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Menaker, Robert Owen: Soviet intelligence source/agent, working extensively on anti-Trotsky tasks and missions in Central and South America. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/ agent. Appeared to have cooperated with the FBI in the 1950s.[322] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Bob” (late 1930s, early 1940s). Menaker, Robert Owen, representative of Midland Export in Chili: “Bob” / “Chekh” / “Czech” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Mendelson, ??: Described as wealth Catholic widow

Mensheviks: Moderate wing of the Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party, opponents of the Bolsheviks. Menshikov, ?: Described as an official in UNRRA. Menzhinskij [Menzhinsky] (ship) [source Venona] Menzhinsky, Vyacheslav Rudolfovich: Chairman of the OGPU from 1926 to 1934. “Mer” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Iskhak Akhmerov, 1942-1944. KGB illegal officer Iskhak Akhmerov was referred to in Vassiliev’s notebooks in Russian Cyrillic as both “#$%” and “#&%”, words so phonetically close that both are transliterated under the BGN/PCGN transliterations system identically as “Mer”. "#$ means nothing in Russian while "%$ means “Mayor” Whether this use of two phonetically close cryptonyms for the same person was a product of confusion on the part of KGB cipher clerks, an artifact of the ciphering system, or two distinct cryptonyms for the same person is unclear. To reduce confusion, here the transliteration “Mer” will be used for both. “"#$”/“Mer” and “"%$”/”Mayor” both occur in the Venona decryptions as cover-names for Akhmerov. “Mer” / “Mayor”: Akhmerov, Iskhak Abdulovich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Mer” / “Mayor”: Unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] Mercader, Caridad: “Klava” (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Mercader, Jaime Ramon: “Gnome” (KGB Mexico City line): Mornard, Jacques aka Frank Jackson [Jacson]: “Rita” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Mercader, Luis (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Mercader, Ramón: “Raymond” [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Mercanton-Spiri, Victoria: “Toto”: Pozner, Victoria (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Mercury”: unidentified, (San Francisco line KGB) 1945 [source Venona] “Meri” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Mary”. “Meri”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Merkon, Sarah: Described as the wife of Davrun Wittenberg. Merkulov, Vsevolod: People's Commissar of State Security of the USSR (February 1941- July 1941). Deputy People's Commissar of the NKVD when the NKGB again fell NKVD as GUGB, 1941-1943,. In 1943 the GUGB separated from the NKVD, Merkulov became head of the NKGB from July 1943 until 1946.

Meshkova, Zoya Nikolaevna (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Messenger: See “Express Messenger”. Messersmith, George S.: U.S. Assistant Secretary of State from 1937 to 1940. Metallurgical Laboratory: Manhattan atomic project University of Chicago facility where the first atomic pile (reactor) with a self-sustaining atomic reaction was achieved. “Meteor”: unidentifed Soviet officer New York [West Venona] “Meteor”: unidentified, possibly Soviet officer (GRU line) [source Venona] “Meter”: Joel Barr [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] “Meter” [Metr] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Joel Barr starting in September 1944. “Meter” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Barr.[323] “Method” [Metod] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Joseph Weinberg. “Metod” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Method”. “Metr” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Meter”. “Metre”: Metr: Meter: Joel Barr (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Metro”: an official Soviet office of some sort (GRU line) [source Venona] Metro Goldwyn Mayer “Mew”: Mev: British Ministry of Economic Warfare (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Mexico: “Countryside” (Derevnya) (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Meyer, Agnes: Part owner of the Washington Post, wife of Eugene Meyer, publisher of the Post. Meyer, Dr. ?: Described as pro-Nazi German emigre. Mezentsev, ?: Emigre White Russian. Mezhan (Mejean?), ?: Described as American security official in Paris, 1950. M.F.: Initials of person who authored a report on American diplomatic recognition of the USSR, December 1932. MGB: Ministry of State Security. MGPPIYa: Moscow State Institute of Foreign Languages MGU: Moscow State University. “Mi”: probably Chile (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Michael, ?: Described as a lawyer for Amtorg, 1940. “Michel”: unidentified (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Michel: See “Michelle”.

“Michelle” [Mishel'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1930s. (Alternative translation: Michel) “Michman”: midshipman: warrent officer: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Michurin (ship) “Microphone” [Mikrofon] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1944, connected to Jacob Golos. “Microphone” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent connected to the Soviet Government Purchasing Commission. “Microphone”: Mikrofon: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] MID: Military Intelligence Division of the U.S. War Department (Army intelligence). Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Spa”. MID: Ministerstvo Inostrannykh Del: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, USSR. When used as a reference to the U.S. Department of State, translated as DOS. Middle Front Class Organization: Described as a late 1930s CIO-linked organization to mobilize professionals and others in support of CIO goals. Possibly a garble for an affiliate of Labor’s Non-Partisan League. “Midgets” [Karliki] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Socialist Revolutionaries. “Midshipman”: Michman: warrent officer: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Midshipman”: unidentified source New York [West Venona] Mieczzyslawski, Witold (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Mielke, Erich: Chief of the GDR Stasi: Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS / Ministry for State Security), 1957-1989. Mihailovic, Draza: Yugoslav general and leader of the Chetnik resistance to Nazi occupation of Yugoslavia. Opponent of the Communist Partisan resistance led by Josip Tito. MIIYa: Moscow Institute of Foreign Languages. Mije Garcia, Antonio (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Mikaelyan, G.: New York resident who corresponded with Armand V. Hammer, 1952. “Mikelon”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

“Mikhail”: Parkhomenko, Georgij [Georgy] Mikhajlovich “Mikhailov” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer, technical intelligence, 1943, probably aviation related. Likely Petr Aleksandrovich Belyaev, inspector of Soviet Government Purchasing Commission at aircraft plants and identified as “Mikhailov” (as “Mikhajlov”) in the Venona decryptions. Mikhailov, Pavel P. or Mikhajlov, Pavel P. Soviet Vice-Consul, NY] (true name was possibly Menshikov or Meleshnikov): “Moliere” (GRU line) [source Venona] Mikhailov, Pavel real name Pavel Melkishev: “Moliere” GRU station chief New York, vice-consul [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] “Mikhajlov”: Peter Aleksandrovich Belyaev, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Mikhajlov”: unidentified, may be Peter Belyaev (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Mikhaylov” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Mikhailov”. “Mikhajlovich” / “Mikhaylovich”: Likely Konstantin Mikhaylovich Kolpovsky, 1944 (KGB line) {source Venona] “Mikheev”: Pavel Panteleimovich Pastelnyak (Pastelniak) [source Sudoplatov] Mikhelevich, ?: Former Soviet supervisor of Iosif ?. Mikolajczyk, Stanislaw (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Mikoyan, Anatas: People’s Commissar of Foreign Trade in Moscow (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Mikoyan (ship) [source Venona] “Mikrofon” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Microphone”. Miks [probably error for Mije] (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Miles, William [Target for recruitment] (NGRU line) [source Venona] Militant, The (journal): American Trotskyist journal. Military Intelligence, U.S.: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks “Spa”. Military Intelligence: “Spa” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Miller, Bert: party name of Ben Mandel [source Chambers Witness] Miller, Clarence: Sam Krieger (party name) [source Chambers Witness] Miller, Floyd Cleveland: Soviet intelligence agent, anti-Trotsky work. Miller was identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet agent.[324] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Hell”. “Miller, Floyd Cleveland”: Mike Cort: “Khe..”. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Miller, James Walter”: Vague (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Miller, Robert: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Secret Communist. Employed by the Office of the Co-ordinator of Inter-American Affairs and the State Department. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as one of her singleton espionage sources.[325] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Mirage”. Miller, Yevgeny Karlovich: Tsarist general and emigre kidnapped by KGB in Paris in 1937 and died during his transport to the USSR. “Milli” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Millie”. “Millie” [Milli] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer/agent, 1940. Mills, Ogden: U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, 1932-1933. Mills, Sir Percy (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Milton” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Bela Gold. Also known as William Gold. “Mim”: Mikhailov, Mishail, KGB officer New York [West Venona] “Mimosa” [Mimoza] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent. References to in 1939. “Mimoza” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Mimosa”. Minakov: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Minayev” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Israel Epstein. Minin, Ivan (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Minin [possible GRU cipher officer Moscow (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Minister”: unidentified GRU source, U.K. line [West Venona] “Ministerstvo” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Ministry”. “Ministry” [Ministerstvo] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Westinghouse corportation, circa 1944. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, USSR: Ministerstvo Inostrannykh Del (MID). Mink, George: CPUSA trade union activist, Comintern activist. Arrested in Denmark in 1935 in association with GRU agent. Minkin, A.E.: Senior Soviet official, 1924. Chief Concession Committee under the Sovnarkom. Minneapolis (ship) [source Venona] Minor, Eser (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Minor, Robert G., OSS in Belgrade (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Minor-Gavronskaya, Asya: Gavronsky-Minor, Anna (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Mins, Leonard Emil: “Smith” (Smit): (GRU line) [source Venona]

Minsk (ship) Minster, Leon: Charlie [source Chambers Witness] Minton, Bruce: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Also known as Richard Bransten. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as assisting Jacob Golos as a talent spotter.[326] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Informator”. Mipais, S.: Described as editor-in-chief of the New York Herald-Tribune, 1944. “Mira”: unidentified . (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Mirage”: unidentified (reporting on U.S. State Department, South American matters) (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Mirage” [Mirazh] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Robert Miller. “Mirage” appeared as an unidentified Soviet source in the Venona cables, and the context supports identification of “Mirage” as Miller.
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“Miranda” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Helen Koral begining in August 1944. “Miranda” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Helen Koral.[328] “Miranda” / “Art”: probably Helen Koral (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Mirazh” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Mirage”. Mirendorf, in Germany (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Mirna” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Myrna”. “Mirna” [Myrna]: Bentley, Elizabeth (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Miron” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer/ agent, New York. References to in 1947, 1952. Mironov, Vasili Dimitrovich: “Markov” [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] Mironov, Vasily D.: Soviet intelligence officer. Likely author of the “anonymous letter”. Charged Vasily Zarubin with treason in a letter to Joseph Stalin. Sent to the Gulag after an KGB review.[329] Miroshnikov, ?: Described as an Amtorg defector, 1920s. Mirov-Abramov: Chief of Comintern OMS, executed in Stalin’s Terror. Also know as A. L. Mirov Abramov. “Misha” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): KGB source in Moscow, likely staff of the Savoy hotel. Mishakov, ?: KGB officer, 1950. “Mishel'” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Michelle”. Mishuga, ?: Ukrainian nationalist.

Misluk, Vyacheslav Aleksandrovich: “Mazhor” / “Major Key” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Mission to Moscow, film “Missis” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See Marjorie Clay. “Mitchell”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] Mitchell, George: Official in the Resettlement Administration, 1930s. “Mitron”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] Mitskevich, ?: KGB agent slated for infiltration into Germany via the battle front, late 1941. Mitynen, Francia Yakilnila, Soviet illegal: pseudonym Patterson, Edna Margaret: “Australian Woman” (NGRU line) [source Venona] MKhAT: Moscow Art Theater. MKO, radio call sign (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Mlad” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Theodor Hall. (Alternative translation: Young). “Mlad" (Theodor Hall) as a cover name is pared with “Star” (Saville Sax) as in the Russian expression "y star, y mlad" (old and young people). Hall, a physics prodigy and Harvard graduate at age 18, offered his services to the KGB at age 19, assisted by his friend Saville Sax, only a few years older. The KGB deemed them “Mlad” and “Star”. “Mlad” sometimes rendered as “Young” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Hall.[330] “Mlad”: Bruno Pontecorvo [source Sudoplatov] “Mlad”: Hall, Theodore [source Albright Kunstel Bombshell] “Mlad”: KGB source in atomic program at Los Alamos, [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] “Mlad”: Young: Theodore Alvin Hall (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Mladorros club: Described as refugee White Russian club. MMF: Ministry of the Maritime Fleet, i.e., Soviet Navy Department. Moczulski, Roman [correct spelling]: Moszulski, Roman: Muszulsky, Ponan: “Canuck” / “Kanuk”, staff of Polish Telegraph Agency (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Modest” / “Modeste”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Modeste” / “Modest”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Modesto, Juan (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Modina, Yekaterina: Maiden name of Russian-born wife of Boris Morros.

“Mogimenskij” [“Mogimensky”]: navigator on Argun (ship) (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Mogoleva”: unidentified [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] “Mok”: possibly Gavriluk, Vladimir V. (GRU line) [source Venona] Mokhovaya: a street in central Moscow where several Soviet party and Comintern facilities were located. Mol (Mol’), Mikhail Nikolaevich, Capt. (3rd Rank) SGPC (NGRU line) [source Venona] Molchanov, Boris Stepanovich “Mole” [Krot] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Charles Kramer. “Mole” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent but in a context compatible with Kramer.
[331]

“Mole” [Krot]: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Moley, Raymond: Senior advisor to President Roosevelt in 1933. “Moliere”: Mikhailov, Pavel, real name Pavel Melkishev GRU station chief New York, vice-consul [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] “Moliere”: Mikhailov, Pavel P. or Mikhajlov, Pavel P. Soviet Vice-Consul, NY] (GRU line) [source Venona] “Moliere”: Pavel Makhailev [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] ?? “Moliere” [Mol'er]: Pavel P. Mikhajlov (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Molinari, Alessandro (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Molot” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Hammer”. (Molot in Russian is a hammer in the sense of a sledgehammer, as in the hammer in the Soviet “hammer and sickle”.) Molotkovsky, ?: Described as an “enemy of the people” and former head of the foreign department of the PP, an unknown Soviet entitiy. Molotov, Mrs. V.: see Zhemchuzhina, Polina. Molotov, Vyacheslav: Senior Soviet diplomat and member of Stalin’s inner circle. Momentalka: See brush pass. “Mon” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Bernard Redmont. “Mon” occured in the Venona messages as an unidentified Soviet source compatible with identification of “Mon” as Redmont.[332] “Mon”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Mona” / “Regina”: real first name of wife of “Mar”, a atomic source [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Mongol (ship)

Monnet, Jean (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Monoelsky, Vasily Dmitrievich: Soviet POW interviewed by American intelligence. Monroe, Rear Admiral (NGRU line) [source Venona] Monroe, W.: Described as an American orchestra conductor. “Monti”: Alexander Feklisov made up name for chemical engineer source, atomic [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] “Moon”: Luna [presumed female]: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Mooney, Edward Aloysius: American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. Archbishop of Detroit between May 31, 1937 and his death in 1958, elevated to the cardinalate in 1946. Moore, Leon: Helfand, Lev Borisovich, aka Leon Helfand, defected to U.S. from Italy in July 1940 when recalled to Moscow. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Moore, R. Walton: Senior American diplomat. Assistant Secretary of State, 1936. Moore, Tom: Senior Engineer involved in design of the first atomic reactors as part of the Manhattan atomic project. MOPR: Mezhdunarodnoye Obshtchestvo Pomoshtchi Revolutzioneram – International Organization for Assistance to Fighters of the Revolution. Comintern-linked body whose affiliates provided legal and other assistance to imprisoned Communists and their allies. “Mor” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent know to Elizabeth Bentley in 1944. Probably an error for “Mon” (Bernard Redmont). “Mora” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. Described as Henry Morgenthau’s secretary and a target of recruitment. Moran, William H.: Director of U.S. Secret Service, 1917-36. “Moravskij” [“Moravsky”]: Osobka-Morawski, Edward Boleslaw (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Mordzhinskaya, ?: State Security Major, Deputy chief of information section, KGB First Directorate, 1944. “Morgan”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] Morgan, Henry (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Morgan, Junius (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Morgan (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona]

Morgan: Pseudonym used by Boris Morros in written contact with KGB in 1950. Morgenthau, Henry, Jr.: “Nabob” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Morgenthau, Henry, jr.: Secretary of the Treasury. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Nabob”. “Moris” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Morris”. “Moris”: Maurice: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] “Moris”: probably Abt, John in 1939 [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Morkovin, Vladimir Borisovich: Soviet intelligence contact/informant. Engineer/scientist at Bell Aricraft. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Author”.[333] Morkovin, Vladimir Borisovich, aerodynamicist at Bell aircraft Niagara Falls: Avtor: “Author” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Mormacdale (ship) [source Venona] Mormacrio (ship) [source Venona] Mornard, Jacques aka Frank Jackson [Jacson]: Raymond Mercader: “Rita” (KGB U.S. line): “Gnome” (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Moros: variant of Boris Morros’s family name. Moroz, Isaak Mikhailovich: Brother of Boris Morros. Also known as Zaromsky. Moroz, Aleksandr Mikhailovich: Brother of Boris Morros. Arrested in 1937 and executed in Stalin’s Terror. Moroz: Boris Morros’s family name in Russian. Moroz, Bronya: Sister of Boris Morros. Moroz, Litovkina: Sister of Boris Morros. Also know as Litovkina Bronislava. Moroz, Lyubov Grigorievna: Wife of Aleksandr Moroz. Moroz, Mendel Isaevich: Father of Boris Morros. Moroz, Savely Mikhailovich: Brother of Boris Morros. Sentenced to prison by the KGB for political crimes in 1943. Moroz, Yuly Mikhailovich: Brother of Boris Morros. Sentenced to prison by the KGB for political crimes with sentence defered during service in the Red Army. Moroz, Zlatina,: Sister of Boris Morros. Morozov, ?: KGB officer, Moscow Center, 1940 (Senior Detective Officer). Morozov, Ivan Ivanovich: Soviet intelligence officer/agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Kir”. Know as Stan to Harry Gold. Morozov: Russian variant of Boris Morros’s family name.

Morozov (ship) Morozovskaya, Zinovyeva and Strepetov (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Morris” [Moris] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Abraham Glasser. Morris, Newbold: New York City political figure, 1930s-1950s. Morris, see Moris Morrison, John Alexander, deputy chief of the Russian section of OSS [source Venona] Morros, Boris: “Frost” [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Morros, Boris: Soviet intelligence source/agent. A Russian immigrant who anglicized his birth name as Boris Morros, his family name has different versions in KGB files: Moroz, Morozov, Moros, and Morros. A Hollywood music producer, Morros was turned by the FBI and became a double agent.[334] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Frost”, “John” (after WWII). Morros, Catherine: Russian-born wife of Boris Morros. Also know as Ekaterina Yefimovna, Ekaterina Modina, and Ekaterina ModinaZaslavskaya. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Katya”. Morros (Moroz), Boris Mikhajlovich: “Frost” V. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Morros, Richard: Son of Boris Morros. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Reed”, 1950. Morse, H.M. from Princeton (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Mortimer, Wyndham: Senior CPUSA official. “Moryak” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Seaman”. “Moryak” or “Seaman”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Moscow: “Smyrna” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Moscow: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Smyrna”. Moscow Institute of Foreign Languages (MIIYa). Moseley, John (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Mosely, Philip, Russian section of OSS and U.S. State Dept.: “Drop” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Mosier, Harold D.: U.S. Representative (R. OH). Mosk, E.A.: Described as OSS officer/staff. Moskovsky, ?: Described as chief of SovExportFilm Moskva (ship) [source Venona] Mosley, Walter Allen: A zoologist. Mosquito: See “Gnat”. Moss, B.S.: Described as husband of Kitty Carlisle.

“Motinov” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified incoming GRU American station chief 1945. Mountain Climbers: See “Alpinists”. “Mountains” [Gory] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Geographic cover name, likely Switzerland. Mowrer, Edgar (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Mowrie possibly Maury, a U.S. Marine, rank major (NGRU line) [source Venona] MPR: Mongolian People’s Republic. M.R.S.: Described as a film company run by Richard Morros. Muchnik, Joseph: Finansist: “Financier” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Mudrak, Aleksandr Mitrofanovich, Senior Lieutenant, Red Fleet (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Mudrets” / “Sage” unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Mudryj, Vasilij [Vasily] [Vasily] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Mueller, Leonora [source Venona] Mukhin (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Mulyarov, ?: Soviet intelligence officer/agent. Soviet internal security officer who worked with Henry Ware in Moscow in the mid-1930s. Arrested in Stalin’s late-30s purge of the security services. Munzenberg, Willi: Comintern popular front propagandist, organized the World Congress Against Imperialist War. (Alternative translations Münzenberg, Münzenburg). Muravev, Andrej [Andrey] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Muromtaev, Eric [source Venona] Muromtsev, ?: GRU colonel in Moscow and chief of the its American division in May 1944. Muromtsev, Ilya: Described as a former colonel and former Military Academy instructor, runing a laboratory for Westinghouse in Pittsburgh. Murovtsev, ?: GRU colonel Muromtsev’s name given this spelling in one entry in the notebooks. Murphy, ?: Described as New York Police lieutenant who visited the U.S. Service and Shipping Corporation in 1945. Murphy, Robert D. Senior American diplomat. [source Venona] Murphy, Thomas: Prosecuting U.S. attorney in the Hiss trials. Murray, James: U.S. Senator (D. Montana). Murray, Philip (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Murray, Philip: President of the CIO and the United Steel Workers of America. Murray, Senator, Montana (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Murray, Thomas E.: Engineer-businessman, member of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 1950. Murzin, Dick: Pseudonym of GRU officer Boris Devyatkin in the US. in the late 1920s, early 1930s.[335] “Muse”: Muza unidentified cover name female in OSS (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Muse”: Tenney, Helen [West Venona] “Muse” [Muza] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Helen Tenney. “Muse” appeared in the Venona decryptions as unidentified but in a context that would fit Tenney.[336] “Museum” [Muzey] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): VOKS – AllUnion Society for Cultural Relations. “Mushroom” [Gruzd] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Willard Park. “Music” [“Muzik”]: Radio. (GRU line) [source Venona] “Musician” [“Muzikant”]: Radio operator. (GRU line) [source Venona] “Musician”: unidentified (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] Muste, Abraham: American radical. “Musya”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Muszulsky, Ponan: “Canuck”: Kanuk [Moszulski, Roman, of Polish Telegraph Agency: Kanuk ] correct spelling Moczulski, Roman (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Mutterperl, William: Birth name of William Perl. “Muza” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Muse”. Muzak corporation “Muzey” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Museum”. Muzquiz, Elena Huerta: “Southerner” (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Müller, Frank: Described as German intelligence agent in the U.S., 1936. MVD: Ministry of Internal Affairs MVTU: Moscow Higher Technical School. Myakotina, Zoya Semenovna, clerk and wife of Mikhajl Shalyapin: “Lina” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Myakotnykh, N.S.: Soviet intelligence officer, East Berlin, 1958. “Myra” [Mirra] (Given name used as a cover name): Myra Soble.

“Myrna” [Mirna] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Elizabeth Bentley after August 1944. “Myrna” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Bentley.[337] Myrna [Mirna]: Bentley, Elizabeth (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Myrsikov (ship) [source Venona] XXN N. (initial of a cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified contact of “James” (KGB officer). References to in 1934. N line (KGB tradcraft term): KGB “N” line was its illegal (no diplomatic cover) apparatus. Nabal, ?: Described as French Trotskyist leader. “Nabob” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Henry Morgenthau, jr. “Nabob” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Morgenthau. “Nabob”: Henry Morgenthau, Jr. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] NACA: National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, U.S.: Cover name in Vassiliev notebooks “Workshop”, circa 1944. Nadai, A. L. from Weston (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Nadyusha”: Spasnachev (KGB line) [source Venona] Nahin, Paul Gilbert: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Chemist, PhD, Union Oil Company, CA. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Erie”, “George” (October 1944 to 20 February 1945), then “Ernst”. [338] “Erie”, “George” and “Ernst” (under the variant “Ernest”) appeared in the Venona decryptions as unidentified Soviet intelligence source/ agents compatible with Paul Nahin. Venona cryptanalyst’s choice of “Ernest” rather than “Ernst” was likely a minor error in creating the Soviet code book. “Naked”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Nakhodka” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Godsend”. (Alternative translations: “Disctovery”, “Find”.) NAM: National Association of Manufacturers. “Namesake” [Teska] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): ? Khotimsky, KGB illegal. References to in 1934. NANG: National Alliance of the New Generation. Napoli, Nichola, president of Artkino, distributor of Russian films in Western Hemisphere (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Napoli, Nicolai: Head of Artkino Pictures, Inc. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as associated with Jacob Golos’s covert work but she had no knowledge of his specific activities. Napoli was identified in the Venona decryptions as a source of information from the CPUSA about persons seeking contact with KGB.[339] Napopovskiy, Waclaw [W. Narajowski] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Napravnik, Eduard: Czech conductor and composer best known as the principal conductor of the Imperial Marinsky Theatre in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Narkom: Soviet shorthand term for the minister of a Soviet government ministry. Narkomat: Soviet shorthand term for a Soviet government ministry. Narkomindel: Narodnyj Kommissariat Inostrannikh Del (also NKID), People's Commissariat of Foreign Affairs. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Syndicate”. Narkomprod: People’s Commissariat of Provisions. Narkomtyazhprom: People’s Commissariat of Heavy Industry. “Nat”: redacted and unidentified leading Communist in California (KGB line) [source Venona] Nat’l Association of Amer. Industries: Likely a garble for National Association of Manufacturers. “Nata” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1948. Natalia Ivanova Sedova-Trotsky: “Starukha” / “Old Woman” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Natasha”: unidentified (KGB line) [source Venona] Nathan, Robert: New Deal administrator. National Academy of Sciences. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA): Predecessor to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Cover name in Vassiliev notebooks: “Workshop”, circa 1944. National Alliance of the New Generation (NANG): Anti-Bolshevik emigre organization. National Broadcasting System: Error for National Broadcasting Corporation. National Bureau of Standards, U.S.: In Alexander Vassiliev’s Black notebook “Chamber” is listed in a marginal notation as the cover name for the National Bureau of Standards but in White notebook #1 “Chamber” is identified as the cover name for the U.S. Department of Justice.

National Citizens Political Action Committee (NC-PAC): Sponsored by the CIO’s Political Action Committee to mobilize professionals, business, and others in support of CIO-PAC programs. National Civic Federation: Progressive-era alliance of American businesses and labor leaders that sought to resolve disputes arising between industry and organized labor. Strongly anti-Communist. National Committee for Recognition of Soviet Russia. National Defense Commission: likely a garbled title for one of the numerous wartime agencies in Washington during WWII. National Defense Research Committee: Arm of the U.S. Council of National Defense from 1940 to June 1941 to direct and explore advanced military technology such as radar and atomic bombs. In June 1941 it became an advisory body to the Office of Scientific Research and Development that took over direction of actual projects. National oil administration: Likely a reference to the Petroleum Administration for War, a WWII industrial mobilization agency. National Research Council: Arm of the National Academy of Sciences that sponsored research projects. National Resources Board: New Deal agency, 1934-1935, succeeded by the National Resources Planning Board. National Resources Planning Board: New Deal government agency. National Student Union [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] National U.S. Administration: Described as an organization with which Charles Kramer was involved in 1935-1936, likely a garble for the WPA’s National Research Project. “Natives” [Tuzemtsy]: possibly term for Americans or the American liaison with Soviet naval personnel. (NGRU line) [source Venona] NAUS: North American United States, Soviet acronym for the United States in the 1920s and 1930s Naval Research Laboratory: Described as associated with the U.S. Navy in 1945. Navigator or Shturman, unidentified Mexican Labor leader in KGB files on Kitty Harris but in Venona as Vicente Lombardo Toledano [source Damaskin Harris] Navy Department: “Dock” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Navy, Department of the, U.S.: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Dock”. “Dock” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the Department of the Navy.

“Naygel'” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Nigel”. “Nazar” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer/ agent. Likely Stepan Nikolaevich Shudenko. “Nazar” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Shudenko. “Nazar”: Shudenko, Stepan Nikolaevich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Nazarov, Aleksandr, ship traffic control 1944-1945 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Nazhim (ship) (KGB line) [source Venona] NBS: Error for NBC. Neal: See “Nil”. “Near” [Blizky] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent. Near neighbors: Naval GRU term for the Red Army GRU [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] Ned (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Edward Fitzgerald party name. Nedeltshe, Petr Semanovich of (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Nedich, General Milan; , (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] “Needle” [Igla]: York, Jones Orin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Needle” [Igla] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Jones York. “Needle” was identified in the Venona decryptions as York.[340] Nefteexport: Soviet oil export agency. “Negr” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Negro”. Negrin, Juan (KGB U.S. and Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Negro” [Negr] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB agent, Moscow, 1940s. Negro Youth Movement [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] Negro Youth Union of the South [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] Nehru, ?: Described as financial counselor at the Indian Embassy in Washington, 1951. Neighbors [Sosedi] (KGB idiom): KGB term for GRU, the Soviet military intelligence agency. The term apparently derived from the two agencies occupying nearby buildings in Moscow in the early 1920s. GRU later moved across the city, but the term stuck. Both agencies used the term in references to the other. Neighbors: Used by GRU and KGB in reference to each other. (GRU and KGB line) [source Venona] Neil: See “Nil”. Neiman, D. Princeton (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Neiman: See Neyman. Neimann: See Neyman. “Nejtron” / “Neutron”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Neli”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Nelken Mansberger de Paul, Margarita: “Amor” [KGB U.S. and Mexico City line] [source Venona] “Nelli” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Nelly”. “Nelly” [Nelli]: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Nelly” [Nelli] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Helen Lowry, 1939August 1944. “Nelly” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent in 1944.[341] Nelson, ?: Described as American citizen, director of Amtorg, 1931. Nelson, ?: Described as pro-Nazi German emigre. Nelson, ?: Described as an American Army officer, major, liaison with Soviet forces. Nelson (ship) [source Venona] “Nemo” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): William Pinsly, starting in October 1944. “Nemo” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Pinsly.[342] “Nemo”: Pinsly, William (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Nenets (ship) [source Venona] Nenni, Prepera of Italian Socialists (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] NEP: Novaya ekonomicheskaya politika — New Economic Policy. Neruda, Pablo (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Nesterov, ?: Aleksey Rykov’s secretary in Moscow. “Nestor”: Krokhin, Konstantin Ivanovich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Neubacher, Hermann: A senior Nazi official in the Balkans. “Neudachnik” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Loser”. Neumann, Franz: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Anti-Nazi German exile in the U.S. After American entered WWII Neumann became an analyst in the German section of OSS. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Ruff”. “Ruff” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent in OSS.[343] “Neutron”: Nejtron: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Neutron” [Neytron] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Aristid Victorovich Grosse in 1942. “Neutron” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified in 1942.[344] Neva (ship) (KGB line) [source Venona]

“Nevsky” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, 1945. New Construction Project: See Novostroy. New International: Journal associated with the American Trotskyist movement. “New Republic, The. New York City: “Tyre” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] New York City: Cover name in Venona, Naval GRU line: “Big Town” (1943) New York City: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Tyre” New York Post. New York University: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Cradle”. Newhouse, W.H., MIT (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Newman, John (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Newton: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] Neyman, ?: Described as someone who disappeared in Moscow during the Terror and Ambassador Davies sent a cable to Washington regarding him. (Alternate translations, Neiman, Neimann). Neyman, Jerzy: Husband of Olga Neyman. A leading theoretical statistician, professor of mathematics and director of the statistics laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley. Neyman, Olga Vladimirovna: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Also known as Olga Solodovnikova, sister of “Soba”. Russian-born wife of Jerzy Neyman. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Jack”. “Neytron” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Neutron”. Nezhlin [probably NYC] (GRU line) [source Venona] Nicholas, Nikola [Nicholas George Nicholas](KGB line) [source Venona] “Nick”: Nelson, Irving C. [West Venona] “Nick”: Nik: Sabatini, Amadeo (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Nick”: unidentifed fifth line Soviet officer] “Nick”: Velson, Irving Charles (GRU line) [source Venona] “Nick” [Nik] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent. Likely Amadeo Sabatini. References to in 1941, 1943, 1948. “Nick” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Amadeo Sabatini.[345] Nier, Alfred O.: Scientist involved in the Manhattan atomic project. “Nigel”: Straight, Michael [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Nigel”: Straight, Michael [source West & Tsarev]

“Nigel” [Naygel'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Michael Straight. “Nigel” was identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as Straight. Nigel is identified in West and Tsarev as Straight. “Nik” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Nick”. “Nik”: Nick: Sabatini, Amadeo (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Nikitin”: Pogonin, Vladimir Illarionovich (KGB line) [source Venona] “Nikitin”: unidentified (KGB line) [source Venona] Nikitin, Aleksandr, seaman deserter (KGB line) [source Venona] Nikitin, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich: Soviet intelligence contact/informant. Described as about 40 years old. Engineer for the American Rubber Corporation. Provided materials on synthetic rubber. Nikitin, Captain (2nd Rank) [probably not same as Nikitin in the “Sally” operation] (NGRU line) [source Venona] Nikitin [unidentified in the “Sally” operation] (NGRU line) [source Venona] Nikolaev (KGB line) [source Venona] Nikolaev, Vladimir Semenovich (KGB line) [source Venona] “Nikolaeva”: covername for son of Taradonova (KGB line) [source Venona] Nikolaevskaya, Aleksandra Georgievna (KGB line) [source Venona] “Nikolaj” or “Nikolay”: unidentified (KGB line) [source Venona] “Nikolay” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Vyacheslav N. Zakharov, 1949 “Nikolay” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Peter Gutzeit. Nikolay Nikolaevich, Grand Duke: See Nikolay Nikolaevich Romanov. Nikolay Nikolaevich Romanov, Grand Duke: Tsarist family member and military commander. Nikolayevsky, Boris: Described as a refugee Menshevik leader in the U.S. “Nikol'sky” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Nikolsky”. “Nikolsky” [Nikol'sky] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): KGB officer who dealt with Varvara Hammer in 1941. “Nikon” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, 1960s. Nikunas, Anton Lavrentyevich: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Described as a U.S. citizen of Latvian origin, a professor, chemist, and paleontologist. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Herdsman”. “Nil” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Nathan Sussman after September 1944. (Alternative translations Nile, Neil, Neal). “Nil” appeared in the Venona decryptions as unidentified member of Julius Rosenberg’s technical intelligence apparatus.[346]

“Nil”: Nile or Neil or Neale, former “Tu..”.: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Nile: See “Nil”. Nimitz, Chester: Admiral, U.S. Navy. “Nina ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Nina”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Nine”, “the nine” group of nine Soviet students who worked for KGB (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Nineteen” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “19”. “Nineteenth” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “19”. “Ninotchka”: 1939 American motion picture that mocked Soviet communism. Nislerman, Felix: Misspelling of Inslerman, Felix. Nixon, Richard: Vice-President of the United States. Nixon, Russell: Secret Communist, staff of UEW-CIO, and official in the U.S. occupation government of Germany. NKGB: People’s Commissariat of State Security. NKID: Narodny Kommissariat Inostrannikh Del (Narkomindel), People's Commissariat of Foreign Affairs. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Syndicate”. NKO: Narodny Kommisariat Oborony, People’s Commissariat of Defense, USSR. NKOP: People’s Commissariat of the Defense Industry. NKTP: Narodny Kommissariat Tiazheloi Promyshlennosty, People’s Commissariat of Heavy Industry NKVD: Narodnyi Kommisariat Vnutrennikh Del, People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs. NKVMF: People’s Commissariat of the Navy, USSR. NKVT: Narodny Komissariat Vneshney Torgovli – People’s Commissariat of Foreign Trade, USSR. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Food Store”. NKVT, People’s Commissariat of Foreign Trade (NGRU line) [source Venona] “NN-32”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Noah”: Noj or Noy: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Noah” [Noy] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent 1943. Described as having known Marcuse

in Germany. Described as working on the staff of Robert Jackson in the war crimes prosecutions. “Noah” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent providing material on internal German politics.[347] “Nobility”: Montagu, Ivor, the Honorable U.K. line [source West’s Venona ] Nogin (ship) “Noise”: Shum: also “Shponka”: Spline: redacted (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Noise” [Shum] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Michael K. Cham starting in October 1944.[348] “Noise” appeared in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet intelligence source/agent but the NSA/FBI identification of the real name was redacted.[349] “Noj” or “Noy” / “Noah”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Nomad”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] “Non” (“Nona”): Wilson, Ruth Beverly, wife of Jacob Epstein (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Nona”: Wilson, Ruth [Jacob Epstein’s wife] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Non-Ferrous Metals Association: Reference to the British Non-Ferrous Metals Research Association, an agency that undertook much of Britain’s wartime atomic bomb research. “Nook”: British Foreign Office (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Nora” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified female KGB illegal, planned for use in the U.S. but diverted to Central or South American work. References to in 1942. “Nora” appeared in the Venona decryptions as unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent in Mexico, 1943-1945.[350] “Nora”: unidentified cover name, Mexico operations (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Nord” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Boris Bazarov. “Nord” was identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as Bazarov. “Nord”: Boris Bazarov (KGB illegal officer) [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Nord” (in post WWII period): Marzani, Carl [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Norma” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/ agent. Likely Kitty Harris. Described as having received a passport

via Golos with the help of the Communist Party of Canada. “Norma” was identified in Costello and Tsarev’s Deadly Illusions and in Damaskin’s Kitty Harris as Kitty Harris.[351] “Norma”: Kitty Harris (mid-30s) [source Damaskin Harris] “Norman” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1950. Norman, Henry: Described as someone in London with some link to the atomic bomb project being cultivated or recruited by both KGB and GRU in 1944. Norman, Jay, (WMCA commentator)”: Bojkij [Bojky]: “Perky” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Norman, Montagu: Governor of the Bank of England from 1920 to 1944. Norman: Pseudonym used by Semen Semenov with some of his agents. Norris, George: U.S. Senator, 1913-1943 (R. & Ind., NE). Norstad, Lauris: Senior USAF general. North Africa: “Shore” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] North Africa: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Shore”. North, Joseph: Soviet intelligence contact/informant. Senior CPUSA official. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as a talent spotter for Jacob Golos who connected William Remington to the Golos/Bentley apparatus[352] Northrop aircraft. Nortman, Bernard P.: Soviet intelligence contact/informant. Economist who worked at times for the OPA, OPM, FEA, and, after WWII, the DOS. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as having been in her CPUSA unit at Columbia University in 1936-1937 and of having been in contact with her in 1944 but not a source for her networks. Confronted by the FBI, Nortman was evasive and uncooperative but admitted meeting Bentley, denied being a Communist, but allowed that he had attended Communist-aligned meeting when a student at Columbia in 1937. FBI investigations established that in 1945 he was in close touch with Victor Perlo and visited the dental office of Dr. Bernard Weinstein in New York, an office the FBI regarded as a communications node where Soviet sources left and picked up messages.[353] Norwood, Melita Stedman: Soviet intelligence source/agent, U.K. A secret Communist and secretary at the British Non-Ferrous Metals Research Association, an agency that conducted much of Britain’s wartime

atomic bomb project. When publicly revealed as a Soviet source by Vasily Mitrokhin in 1999, she proudly admitted her many years of work as a Soviet spy. Her cover names in Mitrokhin’s material were “Tina” in 1944 and later “Hola”.[354] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Tina”. Nosaka, Sanzo: leading Japanese Communist who spend part of the 1930s in the U.S. Party name/cover name: “Okano”. Nosovitsky, Jacob: Member of the Russian federation of the Communist Party of America and informant for the U.S. Justice Department. Nosovitsky worked as a courier for Ludwig C.A.K. Martens’ Soviet Russian Information Bureau and escorted Louis Fraina on first trip to Europe as international secretary of the CPA. Nothilfe: Likely the Technische Nothilfe, founded in 1919 by Germany’s Weimar government, the Technical Emergency Corps was initially created for security against striking labor unions that controlled critical public services and utilities. Later the organization was utilized as a reserve group of technically trained specialists that responded to emergencies as a result of natural catastrophe. It became a national organization in 1933 and after 1937 it was integrated into the overall Order Police (Ordnungspolizei). In this role it was charged with the responsibility to respond to public dangers that might result from war or other threats. Novack, Evelyn (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Novack, George (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Novice” [Novichok] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1939-40. “Novichok” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Novice”. (Alternative translation: Beginner). Novikov, Nikolay: Soviet diplomat, 1945. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Chief” and “Wolf”. Novikov, Yury Vasilievich: Soviet intelligence officer/agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Krok”. Novobratsky, ?: Senior KGB officer, 1943. “Novogorsk” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Knoxville, TN. Novoseltseva, Anna Petrovna: “Java” (KGB line) [source Venona] Novosibirsk (ship) (KGB line) [source Venona] “Novostroy” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Oak Ridge atomic facility (Could be translated as “New Construction Project”)

Novoye Russkoye Slovo [New Russian Word]: Russian-language newspaper in the United States. Novy Mir [New World]: Communist-aligned Russian-language journal published in the United States. Novyj Shlyakh (New Pathway) (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Nowa Polska (New Poland, newspaper) (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Noy” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Noah”. NRA: National Recovery Administration. NTR: KGB scientific technical intelligence. “Nul'” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Zero”. “Nul”: Zero: Leona Vivian Franey (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Null” [Nul'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Zero”. Nuorteva, Santeri: Finnish Bolshevik. Edited Raivaaj [Pioneer], a radical Finnish Socialist newspaper published in Fitchburg, Massachusetts, later the ambassador (unrecognized) to the United States of the shortlived Finnish Red republic. After the defeat of the Finnish Red government in a civil war, Nuorteva joined the Russian Soviet Government Information Bureau in the United States. He left the U.S. in 1920 and served in a variety of Soviet government positions in the 1920s. Nyatin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Nyaton”: unidentified name probationer [Soviet intelligence agent] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Nye Committee: see Committee on Investigation of the Munitions Industry, U.S. Senate. Nye, Gerald: U.S. Senator, 1925-1945 (R. ND). “Nyna”: unidentified source New York [ West’s Venona ] XXO O.: unidentified (KGB line) [source Venona] O’Brien, ?: Described as the Pope’s representative in America in 1930. O’Connor, John J.: U.S. Representative, 1923-1939 (D. NY). O’Dwyer, Brig. General William V. Chief of Allied Control Commission’s (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] O’Dwyer, Paul: Liberal-left New York City political figure and attorney for Alfred and Martha Stern in 1957.

O’Hara, Joyce, of American Chamber of Commerce (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] O’Neal, ?: Described as a U.S. senator in 1945 who wanted Charles Kramer to work for the Democratic National Committee. Likely a misunderstanding by “Bogdan”, the Soviet intelligence officer writing the report, for a reference to Sam O’Neill, publicist for the DNC. There was no senator in the 79th congress with a name resembling O’Neal. O’Neal, Sam, publicity director of the DNC (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Oak Ridge atomic facility: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Camp 1”, “Novostroy”, and “Site X” “Oak”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Oaklings” [Dubki] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Dead drops. Ob (ship) (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Obera League: Described as an anti-Bolshevik organization in 1924. “Objective” [Ob"yektiv] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1945-1948. Very likey Ann Sidorovich. Hosted a safe house with “Lens”/Michael Sidorovich. “Objective”: Obyektiv: Ann Sidorovich [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] “Oboe” [Goboy] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentifed KGB officer/agent, NY station. References to in 1935. Obraztsov, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. “Ob"yektiv” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Objective”. Ochakov (ship) (KGB line) [source Venona] “Octane”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Octane”: unidentified soure who met with Ovakimyan ( Ovakimian ) when he was arrested [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] [John Walsh says Justice Department attorney who was meeting with Ovakimyan ( Ovakimian ), FBI wanted him fired, but he was only transferred to OPA to a senior position.] “Octane” [Oktan] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Dr. Maurice Bacon Cooke, 1938-1945. “Octane” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent.[355] “Odd Fellow”: Jupiter: unidentified [source Venona] Odessa (ship) [source Venona] “Odessan” [Odessit] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent prior to September 1944, then changed to “Growth”. “Odessan” appeared in the Venona

decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, later changed to “Growth”.[356] “Odessit” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Odessan”. “Odessit”: Odessite: Odessan [someone from Odessa]: unidentified cover name: Rost: “Growth” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Odissey” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Odysseus”. ODVU: Organization for the Rebirth of Ukraine. O'Dwyer, William: Mayor of New York City, 1946-50. “Odysseus” [Odissey] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): William Taylor. “Office”: Kontora: KGB apparatus in Soviet Consulate in New York (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Office” [Kontora] (KGB jargon): The KGB Station. Office of Arms and Munitions Control, U.S. Department of State. Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations, U.S. Department of State. Office of Naval Intelligence, U.S. (ONI): U.S. Navy’s intelligence branch. Office of Price Administration, U.S. (OPA): wartime agency Office of Production Management, U.S. (OPM): wartime agency. Office of Scientific Research and Development: U.S. military research agency in WWII. Office of the Coordinator of Information: Predecessor to OSS and OWI. “Officer”: Ofitser: Captain Jan Fierlinger, Information officer of the Czechoslovak consulate in New York. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Official” [Chinovnik] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Laurance Duggan, 1935. (Alternative translation: Clerk). Used by KGB legal station when it briefly considered cultivating Duggan before being informed that the illegal station had already done so. Offie, Carmel: Senior CIA official, late 1940s. Oformleniye (tradecraft term): See Processing. Oglivie, Irimescu, Rumanian figure (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ogloblin, G. N. or M.N. Khvostov, KGB Soviet students: “Artem” “Artonius” “Artem-Artonius” (unclear): possibly “Grigoriy”/ “Grigory” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ognev, Vasily Ivanovich: Pseudonym used by Vladimir Pravdin in a meeting with “Quantum”. Ogoltsov, Sergey I.: Senior KGB officer, Moscow Center.

OGPU: Ob'edinennoye Glavnoye Politicheskoye Upravleniye [Unified State Political Directorate]. “Ohm ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Ohsol, Johann Gottfried: Also know as John Ohsol and Johann Petrovich Ohsol. Amtorg official. OIYaCh: Joint Institute on Nuclear Research. “Okano” (cover name/party name): Sanzo Nosaka, a leading Japanese Communist who spend part of the 1930s in the U.S. “Okh”: Adolfo Orive De Alba (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Okho”: possibly Ojo, Spanish for eye: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Okhotsk (ship) [source Venona] Okhranka: Tsarist internal security and political police service. Derived from the full name Okhrannoye otdeleniye or Security Section. Okov, Yury: Described as GRU officer and one-time lover of “Zora”. “Oktan” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Octane”. “Okun” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Perch”. “Okurov” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Santa Fe, NM. “Ola”: Ols: Krotkova, Christina (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] [ Sera Veksler according to West’s Venona ] Olay, Garcia (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Olazov, V.: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Old” / “Star”: Sax, Saville (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Old Man: Chambers covert West Coast contact [source Chambers Witness] “Old Man”: Leon Trotsky (KGB U.S. line) [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Old Man”: Starik: Leon Trotsky (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Old Man” [Starik] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Emil Fuchs, 1950. “Old Man” [Starik] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer/agent of the New York KGB station, 1952. “Old Man [Starik] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Leon Trotsky, 1937-1942. “Old Man” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Leon Trotsky. “Old Man” [Starik] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Joseph Melamed, 1944. “Old”: See “Star”. “Old Woman”: Starukha: Natalia Ivanova Sedova-Trotsky (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Olds”: unidentified cover name ?? (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Oleg” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Mikhail Sergeevich Vavilov. “Oleg” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Vavilov. “Oleg”: Vavilov, Mikhail Sergeevich (KGB line) [source Venona] Oliphant, Marcus (Mark) Laurence Elwin: Australian scientist and key member of the British atomic bomb program and later part of the British contingent in the Manhattan atomic project. “Oliver”: Antonio Gomez Deans, [KGB U.S. and Mexico City line] [source Venona] Oliver Ellsworth (ship) [source Venona] “Olivia”: Lucia ? (Lucia is the real first name of sister-in-law of “Mar”) [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Olkhine, Eugenie: “Lily” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Olkhov”: Budanov (KGB line) [source Venona] “Olsen” (likely a party name used as a cover name): Possibly Morris Childs or Jack Childs. Identified as, “husband of Rose Olsen”, and in the Venona decryptions as “district leader of Fraternal in Chicago”.[357] The CPUSA district organizer for Illinois in 1944 was Morris Childs. Rosalyn Childs, wife of Jack Childs, however, is a better candidate for Rose Olsen than Morris Childs’ wife. “Olsen” appeared in the Venona decryptions as the unidentified leader of the Chicago area CPUSA in 1944. “Olsen”: not identified in Venona but possibly Morris Childs (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Olsen, Rose” [Olsen, Roza] (likely a party name used as a cover name): Soviet intelligence agent, linked to a senior CPUSA cadre. Rosalyn Childs is a candidate for Rose Olsen. Rosalyn Childs was married to Jack Childs, a full-time CPUSA functionary whose work for the party was obscure and probably connected with its underground. “Rose Olson” and Olsen’s wife appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent in 1944.[358] Olsen, Roza: See Olsen, Rose. Olson, Orville: Described as a contact of Harold Glasser 1945. Likely Orville Olsen, secret Communist, worked in Washington in WWII, later head of the Progressive Party in Minnesota. Olson, Rose: “Phlox”: Jack Childs wife, linked to Morris Childs, sister-inlaw?] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Omega” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): A 1937 intelligence project on arms and military technology.

Omelchenko, Ye. I.: Described as writer on American economic matters, 1926. OMS: Otdel Mezhdunarodnykh Svyazey. International Relations Department, often referenced to the OMS of the Communist International. “Omut” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Whirlpool”. “On” / “He”: Vazquez Gomez (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] ONI: Office of Naval Intelligence, U.S. OO NKVD: Osoby Otdel NKVD, the NKVD’s “special department” that conducted counter-intelligence security. OO OGPU: Osoby Otdel OGPU, the OGPU’s “special department” that conducted counter-intelligence security. OPA: Office of Price Administration, U.S. Operative (tradecraft term): KGB terminology for a professional intelligence officer. Does not include agents or sources (probationers) or cooptives from other Soviet agencies. “Operator” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source. Likely Hazen Sise. Operator is described as a contact of Elizabeth Bentley and working in Washington “for the Canadian motion-picture representative office”. Elizabeth Bentley identified Hazen Sise, a secret Canadian Communist, veteran of the Spanish Civil War (medical unit), and Washington representative of the Canadian National Film Board, as one of the sources for her network.[359] OPM: Office of Production Management, U.S. Oppen: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] [redacted possibly either ? or ?] [source Venona] Oppenheimer, Robert and/or Fermi, Enrico: “Star” [source Sudoplatov] Oppenheimer, Frank: Nuclear scientist. Brother of Robert Oppenheimer. Secret member of the CPUSA. Target of recruitment. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Beam”. Oppenheimer, J. Robert: Nuclear scientist and scientific director of the Manhattan project. Secret member of the CPUSA. Brother of Frank Oppenheimer. Target of recruitment. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Chester” (early 1944 to mid-1945), “Chemist” (September 1944), “Yew” (late 1944-1945). Oppenheimer, Julius Robert: “Veksel” / “Wechsel” / “Bill of Exchange” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Optant” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Samuel Dickstein, 1937. Ordensburgen: Term for elite Nazi schools.

Order of ‘76: Secret anti-Semitic society in the 1930s. “Orderly” [Sanitar] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Herbert Lehman, 1943-1944. Ordynski, Ryszard (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Orear, Standley (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Orel” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Eagle”. “Orel”: Eagle: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Organization for the Rebirth of Ukraine (ODVU): Ukrainian nationalist organization. Orgaz, General, Commander of Spanish troops in Morocco, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Original”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Orlando, ?: Described as a member of William McAdoo’s law firm. “Orleans”: Berezin, Col. Pavel F. Soviet attache for Air [source Venona] Orley, Aleksandr (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Orloff, Nicholas,: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[360] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Osipov”. Orloff, Nicholas V. [Orlov Nikoaj Vladimirovich]: “Osipov” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Orlov”: unidentified (KGB line) [source Venona] Orlov, ?: Soviet intelligence source/agent who received passport via “Sound” mid- to late-1930s. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Plumb”. Orlov, Andrey Romanovich: “Volkov” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Orlov, Ivan Timofeevich: Soviet intelligence officer/agent. References to in 1949. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Starter”. Orochen (ship) [source Venona] Orozco, Sgt Joseph W. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Orphan”: Maclean, Donald: “Waise” (German for Orphan) or Sirota in Russian [ source Damaskin] Orphan: See “Waise”. Orsatti, Frank: Hollywood figure. Orsatti, Victor: Hollywood figure. Orsod-1 (title): Described as an American directive of mid-1945 regarding relations with Germany. “Osa” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Wasp”. “Osa” / “Wasp”: Lyudmila Nikolaevna Alekseeva (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Osa” / “Wasp”: Ruth Greenglass (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Oscar” [Oskar] (First name used as a cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Oscar Bernstein, references to in 1948. Osechko, ?: Soviet official, 1923, either GPU or NKID. Osenberg, Werner: University of Hannover engineering scientist who headed the Nazi regime’s Wehrforschungsgemeinschaft (Military Research Association). “Osip” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet diplomat, vice consul, New York City 1934, seconded to KGB. Osipenko, Kondratij [Kondraty] Filippovich: “Mashenka” (on ship Litke) (KGB line) [source Venona] “Osipov” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/ agent. Likely Nikolay W. Orloff. “Osipov” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Orloff.[361] “Osipov”: Nicholas Orloff [Nikoaj Vladimirovich Orlov] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Osipov”: Tarulis (KGB line) [source Venona] Osipov, Aleksandr Petrovich: Pseudonym used by Gayk Ovakimyan when meeting with General Donovan and General Deane in Moscow. Osipovich, Nadia Morris: “Watchdog” (KGB line) [source Venona] “Oskar” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Oscar”. Oskar: Chambers knew of Valentine Markin as Oskar. [source Chambers Witness] Osmussar (ship) [source Venona] Osoaviakhim: Society to Assist Defense, Aviation and Chemical Development, USSR. “Osprey” / “Block”: unidentifed source [West Venona] “Osprey” / “Keen”: unidentifed source [West Venona] Osprey: See “Fisherman”. OSS: “Hut”/ “Izba” (see “Cabin”) (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] OSS: Office of Strategic Services, U.S. Ost (ship) (KGB line) [source Venona] “Ostap” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer. Viennese station chief, 1950. “Ostap” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent in Mexico 1957. “Ostap” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent who had known “Vendor”.

Ostermann, ?: described as pro-Nazi German emigre. “Ostorozhny” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Cautious”. (Alternative translations: Careful, Watchful). “Ostorozhny” / “Cautious”: Joseph, Julius J. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ostroukhov, Aleksandr Eliseevich, July 1943, SGPC (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Ostrov” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Island”. “Ostrova slez” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Island of Tears”. Ostrovskiy, Nikolaj [Nikolay] Pavlovich, Soviet represeantive at Bell Aircraft, Buffalo”: Korobov (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ostrovsky, Nikolay: Soviet intelligence officer working under SGPC cover in the U.S. in WWII. May be a pseudonym. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Korobov”. Ostrow, Walter W.: U.S. vice consul in Zurich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Oswald”: Gerig, Benjamin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Otchim” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): “Stepfather”. Otero, Carmen: Mexican attorney assisting Alfred and Martha Stern in 1957. Otroshchenko, ?: Senior KGB official, Moscow, late 1940s. “Ots”: unidentified cover name: (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Otto” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): KGB officer/agent, possibly at KGB Moscow. References to in 1933. “Otto”: unidentified KGB source U.K. line [West Venona] Otto, Archduke (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Oumansky, Constantine: See Konstantin Umansky. “Ours” [Svoi] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet citizens on assignment, 1941. “Outpost” [Forpost] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Earl W. Flosdorf, 1937-1943. Ovakimian, Gai: “Gennadi” [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] Ovakimian: See Ovakimyan. Ovakimyan ( Ovakimian ), Gaik: “Gennadi” [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Ovakimyan ( Ovakimian ), Gaik Badelovich: “Gennadij” / “Gennady” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ovakimyan, Gayk Badalovich: Soviet intelligence officer, chief of the KGB legal station in the U.S. from the late 1930s until arrested and

expelled in 1941. (Alternative translation: Ovakimian) Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Gennady”. Work name with Alfred Slack: “George”. Pseudonym: Aleksandr Osipov. Overchuk (KGB line) [source Venona] Overshiner, Virginia: See Virginia Cogswell. “Ovespyan”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] OVIR: Otdel viz i registratsy — Visa and Registration Office. “Ovod” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Gadfly”. OWI: Ratsiya: “Radio Station” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] XXP P. Osipeko (ship) [source Venona] P-70 (U.S. aircraft) (KGB line) [source Venona] “Pa” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1945. Likely Richard Lauterbach. Identified as a source at Time magazine and a former Moscow correspondent. “Pa” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Richard Lauterbach, Time journalist and former Moscow correspondent.[362] “Pa”: Lauterbach, Richard (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Pa..., Antonio (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Pacelli, Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni: Pope Pius XII. “Padua” or “Padva”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Padua’s” wife or “Padva’s” wife: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Page” [Pazh] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Lauchlin Currie, 1942-1948. [Page as in a knight’s pageboy]. “Page” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Currie.[363] “Page” [Pazh]: Lauchlin B. Currie, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Paige, ?: Jacob Golos recommended Paige for recruitment for technical intelligence in 1942. “Painter”: [Malyar]: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Pair” / “Couple” [Cheta]: Fisher, Nicholas and Maria (KGB U.S. line) (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Pal” [Pel] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Nathan Gregory Silvermaster, 1942 until August 1944. “Pal” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Silvermaster.[364]

“Pal” Pel: Nathan Gregory Silvermaster (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Pal”: Silvermaster, Greg [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Palace” [Dvorets] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Central Committee All-Union Communist Party (bolshevik), 1941-1944. “Palata” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Chamber”. “Paleev, ?: Described as the leader of a Russian theater troupe, 1920s. “Palm”: Eliacheff, Boris (KGB line) [source Venona] Palmer, ?: Described as a former American intelligence agent, a detective in 1938, in contact with Samuel Dickstein, and “known to us”. Palmer, Alexander Mitchell: U.S. Attorney General, 1919-1921. Initiated U.S. government crack-down on radical extremists in the “Palmer raids”. Palmer, Frank: Soviet intelligence source/agent, early- to mid-1930s. Journalist and editor with with the left-aligned Federated Labor Press. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Liberal”. Palmer, Richard: asking questions of Soviet agent “Julia", 1944 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Palom” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. Described as having gone to Algeria in 1944. Paloma, Senator, former Governor of Yucatan: “Invention” [Izobretenie] (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Pan American Airlines. “Pancake” Blin: Stone, Isidor Feinstein (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Pancake” [Blin] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): I.F. Stone, 1936-1945. Panchenko, Gavriil: Soviet intelligence officer, late 1940s. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “August” and (likely) “Gabriel”. Panov, ?: KGB officer, Moscow Center, 1940. Panov, Nikolaj [Nikolay] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Pan-Pacific Trade Union Secretariat: Profintern-affiliated agency operating in Asia. Panshin, Nikolaj [Nikolay] Georgievich: “Kirill” [KGB Bogota line] [source Venona] Panteleev, Bishop Alexis (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Panteleev, Senior Lieutenant (NGRU line) [source Venona] Pantsyrnyj, Capt. (First Rank) Pavel A”.: Fink (NGRU line) [source Venona]

Pantyukhov, Oleg: Founder of the Boy Scout movement in Russia and prominent anti-Communist emigre. Panyushkin, Aleksandr Semenovich: Soviet Ambassador and station chief of the KGB legal station, 1947. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Vladimir”. Papanek, Jan: Czech information office. “Papen ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Papen, Franz von: German political leader of the Catholic Center Party who collaborated with the Nazi regime. Papilov: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Papochka”: Affectionate form of “Papa” in Russian. “Paposhinskij” [“Paposhinsky”]: Korchagin (KGB line) [source Venona] Parahyba; (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] Paramount Pictures. Pargeer, Adam Polish Socialist on Polish National Council in London, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Park” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Charles Gurchot, 1944-1945. “Park”: U.S. Army General Staff [Joint Chiefs, presumably] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Park and Davis company. Park, Willard: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Staff of the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as one of her singleton espionage sources.[365] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Mushroom”. Parker, George (pseudonym): Robert Allen. Parkhomenko, Georgij [Georgy] Mikhajlovich: Mikhail (KGB line) [source Venona] Parlanti, Parlantino (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Parp, Willard (misspelling): See Park, Willard. Pash, Boris T. (KGB line) [source Venona] “Pasha” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): KGB officer, early 30s, oil expert. “Pasha” in Argentina (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Pasko, Lt. Georgij [Georgy] Stepanovich, secretary to Soviet Naval Attache, DC: “Jim” (Dzhim) (NGRU line) [source Venona] Passov, Zelman Isaevich: [Sometimes spelled Pasov in English] Head of KGB (NKVD) foreign intelligence, 1938, arrested and later executed

in Stalin’s purge of his security services. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Reggie”, work name “Comrade Vasily”. “Passy, Col”: Andre Lucien Charles Daniel Dewavrin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Pastelniak, Pavel: “Luka” [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] Pastelnyak, Pavel Panteleymonovich: Soviet intelligence officer. Used the pseudonym of Pavel Klarin when operating in the U.S. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Luka”. Pastelnyak, Pavel (real name): Pavel Klarin [source Feklisov] Pasterlyak, Pavel Panteleimovich [Pastelniak], may be the birth name of Pavel Klarin. See Luka, Mikheev. [source Venona] Pastoev, Vsevelod Vladimirovich (KGB line) [source Venona] Pastor: see “Herdsman” “Pastukh” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Herdsman”. (Alternative translations: Pastor, Shepherd, Herder). Pastukhov, S. K.: Senior Soviet official, 1924. Pastukhov [Vladimir Pastuhov, in U.S. since 1941 on Czechoslovak diplomatic passport] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Pasvolsky, Leo (KGB line) [source Venona] PAT: acronym for Polish Telegraphic Agency (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Pat (party name): Duncan Lee’s party name and pseudonym used by Elizabeth Bentley for him. Pat [unidentified name] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Patek, Jan (real name) Soviet intelligence source/agent, late 1940s. Diplomat at the Czechoslovak embassy in Washington. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Plucky”. Pathy, George S. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Paton: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Patriarch”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Patrick”: unidentified (KGB line) [source Venona] “Patrick [unidentified, GRU cipher clerk, DC} “Patriots”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Patterson, Edna Margaret: “Australian Woman”: Mitynen, Francia Yakilnila (NGRU line) [source Venona] Patterson, Eleanor Medill (‘Cissy’): Publisher, Washington Times-Herald. Patterson, Gardner: Described as Treasury Department representatives in London, 1944.

Patterson press (KGB line) [source Venona] Patterson, Robert: U.S Under Secretary of Secretary of War, 1940-45, then Secretary of War. Patton, George S. [source Venona] Patton, James (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Pauk” Spider: possibly Aleksandr Kasem-Bet? Kasem-Beg? (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Paul'” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Paul”. [Russians tend to treat Paul' as the rendering into Russian Cyrillic of the German version of Paul as distinguished from Pol', Russian Cyrillic rendering of the the French version of Paul.] Pavel is the Russian equivalent of the Western European/Anglo Paul. “Paul”: Maxime Lieber [source Chambers Witness] “Paul” [Pol]: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Paul”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] “Paul” [Paul'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, 1948. “Paul” [Paul'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Peter Rhodes, 1941-1944. “Paul” [Paul']: (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Pseudonym treaded as a cover name. Likely Maxim Lieber. “Paul” was used by a GRU agent who approached Harold Glasser in 1940 in connection with “Karl’s” group. Whittaker Chambers identified “Paul” as the pseudonym of Lieber and discussed has role in the party underground and as part of GRU espionage activities.[366] Note that while Glasser reported he was approached by “Paul” [Paul'], KGB officers in their summaries often substituted “Pol” [Pol’] a Russian variant of Paul, for Paul', the other Russian version of Paul. Pauley, Edwin W.: Head the U.S. delegation to the Allied Reparations Commission. Pauley (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Pauli, W., physicist NY (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Pav” (“Anton)”: in 596 NY to Moscow, 1944, possibly Juan Garcia Reyes or Erich Lapins (Anton may be Mexico City cover name and Pav is New York cover name) (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Pavel” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Lavrenty Beria, early 1940s. “Pavel” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified authoritative official at Moscow center.

“Pavel” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Yury Bruslov, late 1940s. Pavel in Moscow (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Pavlenko, Evgenij [Evgeny] Vasilevich, Soviet aviation worker (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Pavlichenko, Professor Thomas K. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Pavlob”: Lagov (KGB line) [source Venona] Pavlov, Vitaly: “Klim” [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] Pavlov, Vitaly: KGB officer, Moscow center. References to in 1940, 1942. Pavlunovsky, I.P.: Head of the chief military mobilization administration of the NKTP. Pavlyuchenko: “Ataman” (KGB line) [source Venona] “Pazh” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Page”. “Pazh”: Page: Currie, Lauchlin B. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] PC: People's Commissariat. Peabody, Major [source Venona] “Peak” Pik: Coe, Virginius Frank (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Peak” [Pik] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Frank Coe. “Peak” appeared in the Venona messages as Coe.[367] “Pearl” [Zhemchug] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1943. Pearson, Drew: Prominent Washington journalist. Pearson, Lester: Canadian political leader, foreign minister and prime minister. “Peasant” [Krestyanin] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Irena Browder, 1944. Pebz, Horst (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Pecchio, Eduardo (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Pechkovskaya, Tsiliya Mikhailovna: Described as the sister of Savely Moroz. “Pedro ”: Hernandez Tomas, Jesus (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Pedro”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Peer” [Per] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Winston Churchill, circa 1944. “Peer” was identified as Churchill in the Venona decryptions. “Peer” [Per] (cover name in Venona): Winston Churchill. Pekchio, Eduardo: see Pequeño, Eduardo. “Pel” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Pal”. “Pel”: Pal: Nathan Gregory Silvermaster (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Pelipenko, Aleksy: Soviet intelligence informant. Priest of Ukrainian National Church. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as one of Jacob

Golos’s sources, via Vladimir Stepankowsky, on Ukrainian nationalist activities.[368] Peluffo, Orlando, General Foreign Minister of Argentina (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Pen”: Pero: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Penney, William (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Penter, W: Described as member of the Michigan CPUSA Central Committee in late 1937. People’s Commissariat of the Fishing Industry (KGB line) [source Venona] People’s World (KGB line) [source Venona] People's Commissariat of Foreign Affairs, USSR (NKID): Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Syndicate”. Pepper, Claude: U.S. Senator (D. FL.) Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Kane”. Pepper, Senator Claude: referred to with initial P. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Pequeño, Eduardo: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Businessman in Caracas, Venezuela. (The Russian transliterates as Pekchio) Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Siskin”. “Siskin” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/ agent in Central or South America. “Per” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Peer”. “Per” Peer: Churchill (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Perazich, George: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Official of the Yugoslav section of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as part of the Perlo espionage group.[369] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks (may be a party name): “George” (1945). “Perch” Okun: Tkach, Mikhail (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Perch” [Okun] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1942-1944. Likely Mikhail Tkach. “Perch” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Tkach.[370] Perdigao, (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] Pere Pastor, Rudolfo (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Perelman, Morris. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Perepelkin, ?: Described as a Russian/Soviet aviation figure, once in the U.S. and known to Col. Pierce as Mr. Perry of Pratt and Whitney. (Spelling unconfirmed.)

Peric, Ivan, Yugoslav and member of OSS mission to Yugoslavia in 1943 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Periphery” [probably outside major cities in U.S.] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Perkins, Francis: U.S. Secretary of Labor, 1933-1945 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Perkins, Milo: New Deal administrator associated with Henry Wallace. Perkins of Philadelphia ordnance arsenal [source Venona] Perl, William: “Gnome” also “Yakov”/“Jacob” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Perl, William: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Aeronautical scientist working on advanced technology military projects. Birth name Mutterperl. Member of Julius Rosenberg’s technical intelligence apparatus. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/ agent.[371] Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Gnome” until September 1944, then “Yakov”. Also a candidate for “Brahms”. Perlo, Helen Menaker: Wife (second) of Victor Perlo. Helen Menaker Perlo was the niece of Robert Menaker, a Soviet intelligence agent. Perlo, Katherine Wills: First wife of Victor Perlo. See Katherine Wills. Perlo, Rachel: Mother of Victor Perlo. Perlo, Samuel: Father of Victor Perlo. Perlo, Victor: “Raider”/“Reyder” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Perlo, Victor: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as the chief figure in the Perlo espionage group. KGB sent Comintern a vetting inquiry about him in 1944.[372] Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Eck” and “Raid”. Perov, Vasily Grigorevich: Russian painter, 19th century. Perry, Burton (Borton Perri): “Cedar” (KGB line) [source Venona] Perry, Burton: Soviet intelligence source. Perry was identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source with the cover name “Cedar” and having an older unidentified brother, also a Soviet intelligence source, with the cover name “Sam”.[373] “Sam” is identified in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks as Michael Bogart. “Pers” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Persian”. “Pers”: unidentifed [source Venona] “Perseus” [Persey] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Mistake by Alexander Vassiliev in the notebook for “Pers”/“Persian”.

“Perseus” also “Mlad”/“Youngster” aka Arthur Fielding: unidentified Soviet source, American physicist in the Manhattan Project. Likely a faked composite by Vladimir Chikov and the SVR combining part of the story of Theodore Hall with misdirection and distortion.[374] “Persey” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Perseus”. Pershing, General (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Persian” [Pers] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Russell McNutt starting in September 1944. “Persian” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent with attributes compatible with McNutt.[375] “Persian” [Pers] (cover name in Venona): unidentified. “Persistent” (cover name in Venona): unidentified, San Francisco KGB 1944 Pervukhin, Mikhail: Vice-Chairman of the Soviet Council of Peoples Commissars. “Peshekhonov” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer in Prague, 1957. Petain, Henri Philippe: Leader of the French Vichy regime. Pete also Keith: photographer for Chambers [source Chambers Witness] Peter: Bykov, Boris [source Chambers Witness] “Peter”: Thomas L. Black, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Peter” [Piter] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Thomas Black starting in October 1944. “Peter” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Black.[376] “Peter” [Piter] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Jack Soble in early 1945. “Peter” [Piter] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer/agent of the New York KGB station in 1952. “Peter” [Piter] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Paul Massing in 1939. “Peter” [Piter] (cover name/work name): Josef Peters, 1930s. “Peter” [Piter] (first name used as a cover name): Peter Rhodes, 1944. Peterlongo, Silvio (cp) (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Peters, J., also know as: Isidore Boorstein, Alexander Goldberger, Steve [source Chambers Witness] Peters, Josef: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Senior CPUSA official and head of its covert arm from 1932 to 1938. Also known as Peter, J. Peters, Joseph Peters, Alexander Stevens, Sandor Goldberger, Silver, Isidore Boorstein, Steve, Steve Lapin, and Steve Miller. On Whittaker Chambers’ 1939 Berle list. Identified in the Venona

decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[377] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Storm” as well as work names/cover names “Peter” and “Steve”. “Peterson”: unidentified, suspected American competitor (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Peterson, Maurice: British ambassador to the USSR, 1948. “Petr” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, 1945. “Petr” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Described as a “White: who reported to American military intelligence on Soviet espionage. “Petr”: Grachev, Aleksandr Petrovich, Fifth Line (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Petr”: unidentified cover name [Not Grachev], Pravdin’s assistant in 1945 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Petr”: unidentified in New York (KGB line) [source Venona] Petroff, Aleksandr N., of Curtiss-Wright Aircraft Corp.: “Ferro”/ “Fin” also “Kil” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Petroff, Alexander N.: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Employee of CurtissWright Aircraft Corporation. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[378] Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Keel” until October 1944, then “Ferro”. Petroleum Administration for War, U.S.: wartime agency. Petroleum Reserve Corporation: Wartime government corporation affiliated with the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. Petronovic: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Petropavlovsk: unidentified [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] Petropavlovsk (ship) [source Venona] “Petrov” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Very senior offical at Moscow Center, 1944, cited as highly interested in “Enormous”. Likely Lavrenty Beria. “Petrov” was identified in the Venona decryptions on the U.S.-Moscow line as a senior official at Moscow Center and on the Mexico City line as Lavrenty Beria. Beria also supervised the Soviet atomic bomb program. “Petrov ”: Beria, Lavrentij [Lavrenty] Pavlovich (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Petrov”: Beria, Lavrenti [Lavrenty] [West Venona] “Petrov”: redacted , probably Aleksandr Petroff (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Petrov”: unidentified KGB in Moscow (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Petrov”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Petrov”: unidentified (KGB line) [source Venona] Petrov, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Petrov, A.: manager of the Amtorg engineer department, suspected of plans to defect 1932. Petrov, Evgeny: Soviet writer who toured the U.S. in 1935-1936. “Petrov” on Tsiolkovskij [Tsiolkovsky] (ship): Boevoj [Boevoy] (KGB line) [source Venona] Petrov: see Petroff. Petrov, Sergey: Chief of aircraft section of Amtorg, 1930. Petrov, Vladimir M.: KGB officer at its Canbera station, defected to Australia in 1954. Petrovsky, ?: Described as manager of GUAP in the U.S. Petrovsky, D.: Described as official of the Chief Administration for the Training of Industrial Cadres. Pettigrew, M.W.: Senior American officer, U.S. Military Mission, Moscow. “Petya”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Pevets” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Singer”. “Peyzazh” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Landscape”. Pezenti, ?: Described as Italian Deputy Minister of Finance, 1944. Pezet (Pezey) (Pesez), Jean (Zhan Peze) (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] PGU: Pervoe Glavnoe Upravlenie – First Chief Directorate, KGB’s foreign intelligence arm. “Phil” Fil: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] Philby, Harold Adrian Russell ‘Kim’: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Senior British SIS officer. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Sohnchen”. Philip, Andre (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Philip” [Filip] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Senior KGB headquarters officer, late 1930s. “Philip” (Filipp): unidentified (KGB line) [source Venona] Philips, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Philips, returned U.S. diplomat to India, [source Venona]

Phillips, Emma: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Cora”. “Cora” was identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent but whose real name was redacted.[379] Phillips, Tracy (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Phillips, William: Senior American diplomat, Under Secretary of State, 1933-1936. Philoon, Wallace Copeland: Described as U.S. Assistant Military Attache at Peking, China, 1923. “Philosopher” Filosof : unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Phlox” Floks: Rose Olsen: unidentified cover name [female, married] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Phlox” [Floks] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Rose Olsen in 1944. “Photon” (Foton): Pritomanov, Leonid G. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Photon” [Foton] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Ivan Kamenev. In the Venona decryptions “Photon” was identified as the cover name of Leonid G. Pritomanov, likely Kamenev’s diplomatic pseudonym. Physical Fitness Enthusiasts [Fizkul'turniki]: See “Gymnasts”. “Physician” [Vrach] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Julius Hammer, 1950. “Physician” [Vrach] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Eugene Dennis in 1945. Physics Institute of the AN USSR (Ukraninan Soviet Socialist Republic). Piasetskaya, Adelia: Described as married to a Canadian and allowed to enter the U.S. “Pick” [Pik]: see Peak. Pickhardt, Captain Adolf von Scheven, (NGRU line) [source Venona] Pier, Joaquin Olaso (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Pier” [Pirs] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent recruited 1928 then contact lost early 30s. Pierce, Colonel ?: Soviet intelligence source/agent, financial motivation, aviation source. Described as age 50 in 1933. Once identified as as having the cover name “S-II” but this is a error or an overlap with the “S-2”/”S-II” identified as a female secretary in naval aviation, Department of the Navy. “Pierre”: Leonid Eitingon [source Sudoplatov] Pigman, William Ward: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Staff member of the U.S. Bureau of Standards. Identified by Chambers as a source/ agent. Under FBI questioning in the late 1940s Pigman denied

having delivered material to Chambers but admitted he had met on several occasions in 1936–1938 with David Carpenter, Chambers's assistant. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “114th”. “Pik” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Peak”. “Pik” “Pick”, “Peak”: Coe, Virginius Frank (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Pika, Ivan Matveevich (KGB line) [source Venona] Pike, James: Described as New York Police official involved in antiradical activities. “Pike” [Shchuka] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, scientific-technological intelligence, mid-30s, avoided contact in 1942. Pike, Sumner T.: Member of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 1946-51. Pilipenko, Ivan Ilich (KGB line) [source Venona] “Pillar”: Stolp: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Pillar” [Stolp] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1936, providing information on the Far East. “Pillar” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent in 1944 but it is unclear if this is the same person as “Pillar” of 1936.[380] “Pilot” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Ludwig Ullmann after September 1944. “Pilot” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Ullmann.[381] “Pilot”: also Polo: Ullmann, William Ludwig (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Pilsudski, Jozef (Józef Pi&sudski): Polish nationalist, chief of Polish forces in its war for independence, first Chief of State (1918–1922) and dictator (1926–1935) of the Second Polish Republic. Pilyar, ?: Soviet official, 1924. Pinchot, Gifford: Governor of Pennsylvania, 1931-1935. “Pink” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/ agent. Likely David R. Wahl. Described as employed by the Foreign Economic Administration during WWII and after WWII, working at the American Jewish Conference and as executive secretary of American for Haganah. All of these attributes fit Wahl. Pinkus, ?: Described as station chief of German intelligence in New York who recruited Ilya Durmashkin in 1927. Pinsly, William, employee of Curtiss-Wright, Williamsville, NY,: “Cork” also “Makov” also “Nemo” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Pinsly, William: Soviet intelligence source/agent at Curtiss-Wright aircraft. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[382] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Nemo”. “Pioneer” [Pioner] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): ? Gnedin. Pioneer Publishers: Publishing house aligned with the American Trotskyist movement. “Pioner” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Pioneer”. “Pirs” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Pier”. Pirverdyan, Arakel Samsonovich (KGB line) [source Venona] Pishchevaya (ship) [source Venona] Pishchevaya Industriya (ship) [source Venona] Piskunov, Sergej [Sergey] Aveianovich Colonel, chief of Aviation department of Mlitary division of SGPC, DC [source Venona “Piter” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Peter”. Piterskij [Pitersky]: unidentified name eighty-five, #85: unidentified name cp (NGRU line) [source Venona] Pitersky, Nilkolaj Alekseevich Pitersky, in convoy office in U.S.: “Levin” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Pitovranov, Yevgeny Petrovich: Senior KGB officer, Moscow Center. PK: Perlyustratsiya Korrespondentsii — screening of correspondence. “Plant”: Zavod: Soviet Union Consulate (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Plant” [Zavod] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): USSR consulate in New York. Platkips (probably error for Plotkins) Lieutenant, U.S. interpreter (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Plato” Platon: Pozner, [Posner] Vladimir Aleksandrovich, U.S. War Department (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Platonov, Ivan Alekseevich (KGB line) [source Venona] Plavnik, ?: Soviet intelligence source/agent, courier, talent spotter, early 1930s. Described as insurance agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Carpenter”. Playfair, Edward: Senior official in Britain’s Treasury ministry. Plechko, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. “Plenka” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Film”. Pleven, Rene (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Pleyel: See Amsterdam-Pleyel movement. Plotkins, Lieutenant Maurice Frank [Platkips in text], Lieutenant, U.S. interpreter, staff of Erdman (NGRU line) [source Venona]

“Plotnik” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Carpenter”. Plourde, William: A deciphered KGB cable suggested that William Plourde, an engineer at Bell Aircraft, was a KGB source but no cover name for him was given. William Plourde is a candidate for “Thomas”/“Brother”, a Soviet aviation source.[383] Plourde, William Alfred, engineer with Bell in Buffalo (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Plucky”: Smelyj: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Plucky” [Smel'y] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Jan Patek. “Plumb”: Lot [Russian for sounding lead or plumb]: Charles Kramer (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Plumb” [Lot] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): ? Orlov, circa 1938. “Plumb” [Lot] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Charles Kramer, 1944. “Plumb” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Kramer.[384] “Plumb” [Lot] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence contact. Described as being cultivated by Julius Rosenberg in 1948 and who headed a small group of secret Communist students at a college. Maxwell Finestone is a candidate for “Plumb”. “Pluto” [Pluton] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. Recruited in Paris. References to in 1948. “Pluton” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Pluto”. PM: Leftist New York newspaper. Podolsky, Boris: Soviet intelligence source. Theoretical physicist. Cover name in Vassiliev notebooks: “Quantum”. “Podruga” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Girl Friend”. “Podryadchik” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Contractor”. “Podryadchik”: Contractor: Alexander Saffian (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Podzieny (newspaper) (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Poet”: Viertel, Berthold or Brecht, Berthold (KGB line) [source Venona] Poganin, probably error for Pogonin or a cover name (KGB line) [source Venona] “Pogonin, Vladimir Illarionovich, Purchasing Commission, Ru Moryakov [Ru Moryakov”: Razvedyvatelnoe Upravelenie Moryakov, Naval GRU] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Pohoretsky, M, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Pokrovsky, Georgy Petrovich: Soviet intelligence officer/agent. References to in 1949. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Sasha”.

Pokrovsky, Yakov (Jacob) Lvovich: Russian refugee, associate of the Soviet illegal “Smith”. “Pol'” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Pol”. Russian variant of the name Paul. “Pol” “Pol'” “Paul”: unidentified cover name associated with “Ales” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Pol” “Pol'” “Paul”: unidentified cover name associated with South American operations (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Pol” [Pol'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Likely Maxim Lieber. Harold Glasser in 1940 reported to the KGB that in 1940 he was approached by “Paul”, who claimed to be recontacting members of “Karl’s” (Whittaker Chambers’) GRU-linked mid-1930s group of which Glasser had been a part. While Glasser reported he was approached by “Paul” [Paul'], KGB officers in their summaries often substituted “Pol” [Pol’] a Russian variant of Paul. Whittaker Chambers identified “Paul” as the pseudonym of Lieber and discussed has role in the party underground and as part of GRU espionage activities.[385] “Pol” [Pol'](cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source described as being used “in the dark” by “Guard” and being prepared to be send to France by a U.S. agency on an intelligence mission in 1943. “Pol-2” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Likely “Friends of the Soviet Union” organization. “Polack” [Polyak] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, XY line. References to in 1944. Pole, Dewitt, The Chief of the Nationalities branch of the IZBA [OSS] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Polecat” (Polecats) “Khorek”: Trotskyist (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Polecat” (Polecats) Trotskyist (KGB U.S. line) [source Dmitri Volkogonov papers] “Polecats” [Khor'ki] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Trotskyists. “Polecats” were identified in the Venona decryptions as Trotskyists. Poletayev, M.: Director of Tsentrosoyuz in America, 1926. Political Affairs: Theoretical/ideological journal of the CPUSA. Pollak, Oskar of Austrain party (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Pollitt, Harry: Chief of the British Communist Party (CPGB) in the 1930s and 1940s.

Pollock, Frederick: Described as OSS officer/staff. Pollock, James Kerr, philosopher from Ann Arbour (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Polo” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Ludwig Ullmann until August 1944. “Polo” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Ullmann.
[386]

“Polo”: also Pilot: Ullmann, William Ludwig (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Polpred.: Russian abbreviation for plenipotentiary representative, i.e. ambassador. Poltava (ship) [source Venona] Poluyanov, Aleksandr Nikolaevich of SGPC (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Polyak” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Polack”. Polyak is more formally translated as “the Pole” or “Pole” in the sense of someone from Poland. However, there is another cover name, “Polyus”, that translates as “Pole” in the sense of an electric or magnetic pole. To minimize confusion, “Polyak” is here translated as the less formal “Polack”. “Polyakov”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Polyakov, I.: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Polyakov (ship) [source Venona] “Polyus” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Electric Pole”. (Polyus is a pole in the sense of an electric or magnetic pole and is the cover name of a technical espionage source. To minimize confusion with Pole as someone from Poland, “Polyus” is here translated as “Electric Pole”.) “Pomar”: member of Pomar family, possibly Fausto Pomar Aguilar, Secretary-General of the Society of the Soviet union, sister Teresa Pomar, married to Rafael Carrillo, (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Pomerance, Josephine: Unaware source of Soviet intelligence agent “Grin”/ Spivak. Daughter of Maurice and Alma Wertheim. Niece of Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau, jr. (Alma Wertheim was his sister). “Poney” [Poni] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1948. “Poni” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Poney”. Ponomarenko, Petr (KGB line) [source Venona]

Pons, Lily: French-American operatic soprano. Pontecorvo, Bruno”: Mlad [source Sudoplatov] “Pool”: British Embassy, U.S. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Pop” or “Priest”, agent recurited by Abraham Einhorn in U.S. [source Damaskin Harris] Pope, Frederick: President of Standard Aniline Products Corporation, partner in the international investment firm of Pope & Richardson, and a consulting engineer to the chemical industry. Also know as Colonel Frederick Pope. “Popen”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Popitz, Nazi Finance minister, Prussia, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Poputchiki” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Fellow Travelers”. Popyrev, ?: Described as Amtorg official, 1920s. Poretsky, Elisabeth: wife of Ignace Poretsky (also known as Ignace Reiss). Nickname “Elsa”. Poretsky, Ignace: Senior KGB officer, defected in Western Europe in 1937 and murdered by KGB operatives. Also known as Ignacy Poretsky, Ludvig Poretsky, Natan Poretsky, and Ignace Reiss. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Raymond”. Porfire, Walter (pseudonym): Described as a pseudonym used by Walter Krivitsky in 1940.[387] Portable Radio Set (Ratsiya): See “Radio Station”. Portable Radio Transmitter (Ratsiya): See “Radio Station”. “Portable Two-Way Radio” (Ratsiya): See “Radio Station”. “Porter”: unidentified GRU source U.K. line [West Venona] Porter, Paul (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Portnov, Alexander: Russian sculptor who lives in Philadelphia. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Ali”. Porubov, Roman Deevich (KGB line) [source Venona] “Posrednik” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Intermediary”. Post, Richard: State Department offcial. On the Lee list of DOS security cases. Described as a contact of Harold Glasser in 1945. “Postman”: unidentified function (KGB line) [source Venona] Potemkin, Dmitrij [Dmitry] Mikhaylovich, assistant Tass rep in Mexico City”: Vega (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Poteshkin, ?: Soviet ambassador in Rome, 1930. Potrubach, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Poultry Dealer”: unidentified source GRU U.K. line [West Venona]

Poverman, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Powell, Webster Clayton”: possibly Chambers’ Egmont Gaines? [source Chambers Witness] “Power”: Pauer: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Poyntz, Juliet Stuart: Founding member of the CPUSA, directed its women's department and the New York Workers School in the 1920s, and on the staff of the Friends of the Soviet Union and International Labor Defense. In 1934 she dropped out of open party activities and into Soviet intelligence work. She disappeared from her New York City residence in 1937 and a police investigation turned up no clues to her fate.[388] Pozner, Ellen: Kagan, Ellen: sister of Vladimir Pozner (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Pozner, [Posner] Vladimir Aleksandrovich, U.S. War Department,: Platon / “Plato” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Pozner, Vladimir: Russian working in East German film in mid-1950s. In World War II Pozner had been a Soviet intelligence source in the United States.[389] Pozner, Victoria: Victoria Mercanton-Spiri: Toto (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] PP: Unknown Soviet entity. Prastalo, Branco (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Prater, J. E.: Described as a FBI agent, 1942. Prato, Carlo A.: Described as OSS officer/staff. Pratt, Gertrude, wife of Elliot Pratt (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Pratt and Whitney Company. Pravda (ship) [source Venona] Pravdin, Vladimir: aka Abbiate, Rolan: “Sergei” [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Pravdin, Vladimir Sergeevich: Soviet intelligence officer. Also known as Roland Abbiate and Rossi. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet intelligence officer. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Sergey”. Pravdin, Vladimir Sergaevich of Tass, in U.S. 19 Oct 1941 to Autume 1943, and Jan 1944 to 11 March 1946: Sergej / “Sergey” / Sergei / Sergius (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Pravdina, Olga Borisovna: Wife of KGB officer Vladimir Sergeevich Pravdin. Also known as Olga Pravdin. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Lucia” and “Shura”. Pravdina, Olga, Vlad Pravdin’s wife (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Pravdyuk, Vasilij [Vasily] Vasilievich, Secretary to Soviet Naval Attache from May 1943”: Twist (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Prepodavatelnitsa” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Female Teacher”. “Preserve”: an unidentified atomic bomb facility (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Preserve” [Zapovednik] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Los Alamos Manhattan atomic project facility in February 1945. “Preserve” was identified in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Manhattan atomic project facility but possibly Los Alamos. “President” [Prezident] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Dodd, William, jr., 1939-1948. “Press”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Pressman, Lee (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Pressman, Lee: Soviet intelligence contact/agent. Government attorney and chief legal advisor to the CIO. Identified by Chambers as a member of the original “Ware group” covert CPUSA unit.[390] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Vig”. Prestes, Carlos; (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] Prestes, Luís Carlos: Brazilian Communist leader. “Prezident” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “President”. “Price”: unidentified, likely GRU officer [source Venona] Price, Mary: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as one of her singleton espionage sources.[391] Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Kid” (early 1941), then “Dir” (late 1941 to August 1944), “Cat” (August 1944), and “Zone” (starting in September 1944). Price, Mary Wolfe: “Dir” / Dear also “Arena” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Price, Mary Wolfe: “Dir” / Dear also “Kid” [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Price, Mildred: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Secret Communist. Sister of Mary Price. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as a talent spotter and

source for the Golos/Bentley apparatus.[392] Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Cio” (1944) and “Dorothy” (1944). Price, W. Z.: Described as an FBI agent, 1942. Priest or Pop, U.S. agent of Abraham Einhorn [source Damaskin Harris] Prieto, Dr. Luis Beltram (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Prieto, Indalecio, Spanish Socialist leader (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Prigarin, Alexis V.: Chairman of Amtrog, 1926. “Prince”: Duggan, Laurance [source Venona] Prince, Frank (real name). Investigator employed by the Jewish AntiDefamation League to research anti-Semitic, Nazi, and Fascist organizations. Also worked for the U.S. House’s McCormackDickstein or Special Committee on Un-American Activities. “Prince” [Knyaz'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Laurence Duggan, after September 1944. “Prince” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Duggan.[393] Pritomanov, Leonid G.: Soviet diplomat with the cover name “Photon” in the Venona decryptions. May be the diplomatic pseudonym for Ivan Kamenev. Pritomanov, Leonid G.: “Foton” / “Photon” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Pritt, D. N.: Left Socialist British politician. As a Labour Party member of Parliament he urged an alliance with USSR. Expelled from the Labour Party in 1940 due to his support for the Soviet invasion of Finland. Privalon, Evgenij [Evgeny] Mikhajlovich (KGB line) [source Venona] “Private”: unidentified (KGB line) [source Venona] “Priyatel'” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Buddy”. “Priyatel” “Friend”: Lange, Oscar (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Priyut” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Shelter”. “Priyut” Shelter: UNRRA (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Probationers” [Stazhery] (cover name/tradecraft term in Vassiliev’s notebooks): KGB sources and agents, 1930s, early 1940s, later replaced by “Masters”. A probationer was someone who was not a professional KGB officer but who was knowingly undertaking some task for the KGB. (Alternative translation: intern)

“Probationers”: Soviet intelligence agent, appears to be not a Soviet professional KGB intelligence officer. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Processing” [Oformleniye] (tradecraft term): KGB term covering gathering background information, cultivating, vetting, and, if indicated, eventually preparing for recruitment a person of interest. “Prodavets” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Vendor”.’ (Alternative translation: Seller) “Prodavets”: Salesman: KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Prodesco: Product Exchange Corporation, predecessor to Amtorg. “Professor” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB agent, NY station, ran covert radio. References to in 1934. “Professor”: Rose, Frederick Australian line [West Venona] “Professor”: unidentified (KGB line) [source Venona] Profintern: Russian acronym for the Red International of Labour Unions, Comintern’s trade union affiliate. “Profsoyuz” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Trade Union”. Prokhorov, Aleksej [Aleksey] Nikolaevich: “Leonid” (KGB U.S. line and Mexico City line) [source Venona] Prokhorov, Aleksey Nikolaevich: Soviet intelligence officer. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Leonid”. Prokofyev, ?: Described as a Soviet official, 1927, concerned with economic matters. “Prometey” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Prometheus”. “Prometheus” [Prometey] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): File connected to the Hammer family. Pronsky, D.N.: Soviet intelligence officer, Moscow, 1960. Protsenko, Aleksej [Aleksey] Emelyanovich (KGB line) [source Venona] “Provinces” [Provintsiya] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Latin America / South America. “Provinces” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Latin America. “Provinces”: Latin America (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Provintsiya”: See “Provinces”. Prudnikov, ?: Soviet intelligence officer, Moscow Center. References to in 1939, 1941, 1948. Pshenichny, P.: Soviet intelligence officer, Moscow Center, 1939. Psittacosis: Parrot fever, regarded as potential bacteriological weapon.

“Ptenets” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Fledgling”. Public Works Administration (PWA): New Deal work relief agency. Puerto Rican (ship) [source Venona] Pulechka: A Russian card game. “Purser”: Kaznachej: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Purubov, Roman Sergeevich (KGB line) [source Venona] “Push Button ”: Bell, Nancy, sister of Kitty Harris (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Pushkov”: unidentified [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] Putnam, ?: Described as a chemist who gave Jacob Golos of the CPUSA his scientific paper on how to extract gold from sea water and asked him to send it to USSR. Possibly G. L. Putnam. Puzzle [Zagadka]: See “Riddle”. Pyatiletka (ship) Pyatnitsky, Osip: Leading Bolshevik and VKP(b) representative on the ECCI. Executed in 1938 in Stalin’s Terror. XXQ “Quantum” Kvant: unidentified] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Quantum” [Kvant] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source, atomic information, 1943. Likely Boris Podolsky. “Quantum” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source who in mid-1943 provided detailed information about the gaseous diffusion method of separating U-235 from U-238, an early achievement of the Manhattan atomic project. [394] Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks do not directly provide a real name for “Quantum” but, along with corroborating what was in the Venona decryptions, add these identifying details that identify Podolsky. “Queen” [Ferz'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, recruited in 1940, out of contact early 1941. “Quid” [Kvid] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Engelbert Broda in 1945. “Quiroga, Casares (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

XXR R. [“R”] [RR]: unidentified illegal (KGB line) [source Venona] “R’s wife” (“Richard’s wife”): Anne Terry White. R.A. [K.A.] and RA [KA]: Red Army. “Rab” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Slave”. Rabbit: See “Hare”. “Rabin”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Rabinovich, Grigory L.: Medical doctor and KGB officer sent to the U.S., 1933-1939, under Russian Red Cross cover to supervise penetration of the Trotskyist movement. Also known as Gregory Rabinowitz and Gregory Rabinowich. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Beam” (1933-1934) and “Harry” (1937-1939). Rabinowich, Gregory: See Rabinovich, Grigory. Rabinowitz, Gregory: See Rabinovich, Grigory. Rabis: Union of Art Workers, USSR. Rabkin, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. “Rachel”: unidentified source in Europe [West Venona] “Rachel’s people” in Brussels (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Rachmaninoff, Sergey: Russian composer and pianist. Racotta, Alexandru, Rumanian figure (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Radek, Karl: Bolshevik leader and Cominternist. Arrested in Stalin’s Terror in 1937 and died in the GULAG. Radio Corporation of America: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Hydro”. “Radio Station” [Ratsiya] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Initially “Donovan’s Committee”, i.e., the Office of the Coordinator of Information, in late 1941 and the first half of 1942. After the Office of the Coordinator of Information was split into OSS and OWI in June 1942, “Radio Station” became the cover name for OWI while “Cabin” became the cover name for OSS. “Radio Station” was identified in the Venona decryptions as OWI. “Radio Station” or perhaps “Wireless” [Ratsiya]: OWI (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Radio Announcer”: see “Announcer”. “Radio Announcer” “Radio-Announcer” [Diktor]: William Donovan: (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Raduga” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Rainbow”.

Raev, Aleksandr Andreeevich: Soviet intelligence officer. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a KGB officer with the cover name “Light”. Possibly the pseudonym of KGB officer Alexander Rogov.[395] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Light”. Raev, Aleksandr Andreevich: “Svet” / “ Light” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Rafail”: Luis Arenal (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Raid” [Reyd] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Victor Perlo. “Raid” (as “Raider” [Reyder] rather than “Raid”) was identified in the Venona decryptions as Perlo. The difference between Venona’s “Raider” and “Raid” given in Vassiliev’s notebooks is likely a matter of Venona code breakers making a minor error in reconstructing the KGB code book. “Raider” Reyder: Victor Perlo (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Railway Worker”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Rain, Bill: Enos Wicher’s party name in Wisconsin. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Raina, Andrey Ivanovich: Senior Soviet intelligence officer, Moscow Center 1948-1950. Served in the U.S. earlier. “Rainbow” [Raduga] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Espionage project targeting radar. Rainey, Henry T.: U.S. Representative, 1923-1934 (D. IL). Rajk, Laszlo: Senior Hungarian Communist leader executed in a Stalin-era purge by the Communist regime in Hungary in 1949. Ralph Waldo Emerson (ship) [source Venona] Ram [Taran]: see “Battering Ram”. Ramirez, General (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ramirez, Guillerma Atria, Chilean consul in LA, C.P. since 1939 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ramishvili, Semen Spiridonovich (KGB line) [source Venona] Ramsay, David: Described as a intelligence contact known to Victor Perlo in 1945. “Ramsay” or “Ramsey” [Ramzay]: NSA/FRI footnote speculated it could be real name, that of Norman Foster Ramsey (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Ramsay” [Ramzay] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Clarence Hiskey. “Ramsay” appeared in the Venona decryptions as a unidentifed target

of recruitment associated with the Manhattan atomic program in a context that would fit Hiskey.[396] “Ramzay” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Ramsay”. Ramzin, Leonid: Soviet professor of engineering accused in 1930 of being a key figure in the [mythical] anti-Bolshevik “Industrial Party”. Rand, Esther Trebach: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent targeted against Zionist and Jewish organizations.[397] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Aida” until September 1944, then “Klo”. Rand, Esther Trebach: “Aida” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Randolph”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] Randolph: Pseudonym used by the American Communist Party representative to the Comintern. Rankin, John: U.S. Representative (D. MS). Rapid : unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Rappoport, Joseph (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Rappoport, Mrs. Joseph: “Lanya” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Ras” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Charles de Gaulle. “Ras” was identified in the Venona decryptions as de Gaulle. “Ras”: Charles de Gaulle (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Rasin, Celia: Jacob Golos’s wife. Also know as Celia Raisin, Celia Raisen, and Celia Golos and in a Russianized form as Siliya Samoylovna Golos. Rasin, Jacob: Surname used by Jacob Golos and his family in the U.S. Also known as Jacob Raisin. Rasin, S. (ship) [source Venona] Rasin, Samuel: Jacob Golos’s American-born son. Also know as Samuel Raisin, Milton Golos and Dmitry Golos. “Rasists” [Rasisty] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Gaullists. “Rasists” were identified in the Venona decryptions as Gaullists. “Rasisty” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Rasists”. The cover name in Russian, Rasisty, translates as Racists, but in this case the cover name is derived from "Ras," the cover name for Charles de Gaulle, and “Ras” is not a Russian word. “Rasisty”, then appears to be a pun based on de Gaulle’s cover name. Raspiska (tradecraft term): See Signature. Rastvorov, Yury A.: KGB officer at its Tokyo station, defected in 1954 to the U.S.

“Rat”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Rats”: Zionists (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Rats” [Krysy] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Zionists in particular but applied broadly to Jewish ethnic organization that were not under Communist leadership. “Rats” were identified in the Venona decryptions as Zionists and Jews. “Ratsiya” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Radio Station”. (Alternative translations: Portable Radio Transmitter, Portable Radio Set, Portable Two-Way Radio.) “Ratsiya” was translated in the Venona decryptions as “Radio Station”. While not the preferred translation, “Radio Station” is used here to conform to the Venona precedent. “Ratsiya”: Radio Station: OWI (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Rausching, Hermann (KGB line) [source Venona] “Rawson, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ray, George D. design engineer (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Ray” / Skat: also “Karl”: redacted (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Ray” [Skat] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent, technical line, prior to October 1944, later changed to “Karl”. Very likely William Stapler. As “Karl” described as “chemical engineer at the Hercules Powder Company. With us since ’34”. “Ray” was identified in the Venona decryptions but the real name was redacted by NSA.[398] Raykhmanm ?: Deputy Chief, Second Chief Directorate of the MGB, 1946. “Raymond” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Ignace Poretsky, mid-1930s. Also known as Ignace Reiss. “Raymond” (as “Raimond”) is identified in West and Tsarev as Poretsky/Reiss. “Raymond” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Harry Gold. Gold also used Raymond as a pseudonym with some of his sources. “Raymond”: Harry Gold, contact named used with Fuchs [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] Rayner: unidentified, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Razd': unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Razin: unidentified [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] Razin, ?: Soviet official, Soviet Government Purchasing Commission, friend of Lauchlin Currie in 1942. Razinovsky, ?: Russian in Washington. RCA: Radio Corporation of America.

Reader’s Scope magazine. Readers Digest (KGB line) [source Venona] Reber, Sam: Described as a State Department official. Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC): U.S. government credit and investment agency. Recordac company. “Rector” [Rektor] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): George Zlatowski. Red Army (R.A. and RA): Popular term for the “Workers and Peasants Red Army” until the name change in 1946 to the Soviet Army. Red Cross. Redacted name in the Venona decryptions, a journalist born 1899, brother of a well know journalist born 1897, name also redacted, likely the redacted names are Leon and Drew Pearson, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Redacted name in Venona, living in Cleveland (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Redacted name in Venona, described as a Socialist Revolutionary to be recruited by COI [source Venona] “Redaktor”: Umansky, Konstantin Aleksandrovich on the Mexico City and San Francisco lanes, possibly “Seal” on New York lane. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Redaktsiya” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Editorial Office”. “Redaktsiya” Editorial Office: Tass (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Redeker, Nadine: Soviet intelligence source/contact of Elizabeth Bentley. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Youth”. “Redhead” “Red head”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Redhead” [Ryzhaya] (female) (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Hede Massing. “Redhead” occured in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified cover name in a context that suggests that it was Massing and was later identified as Massing in retrospective NSA histories.[399] “Redhead” [Ryzhy] (male) (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence contact in 1946 that appears to be in official diplomatic circles.[400] The cover name, “Ryzhy”, is the masculin form of Readhead in Russian. “Ryzhaya”, the feminine form of Redhead in Russian, is the cover name for Hede Massing. Redin, Nikolay Grigorevich: “Vladislav” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Redmont, Bernard: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Staff of the Office of the Co-ordinator of Inter-American Affairs. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as one of her singleton espionage sources.[401] Party name: Berny. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Mon”. “Redzhi” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Reggie”. “Redzhi”: Reggie [unidentified name] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Reed”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Reed or Reid of WPB [source Venona] “Reed” [Rid] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): James H. Hibben, references to in January-June 1945. Former cover name “Solid”. “Reed” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified technical line source in November 1944 and is compatible with being Hibben.[402] “Reed” [Rid] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Harry Dexter White, references to in July-October 1945. “Reed” [Rid] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Richard Morros in 1950. “Reefs” Rify Rifi: Fisher, Nicholas and Maria (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Reese, William Albert: Garble for Albert Reese Williams. Reespan, David: Described as a WPB official, 1945. Reeves, Admiral (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Ref” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Contact of Klaus Fuchs in Britian. Refrigerator II (ship) [source Venona] “Reggie ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Reggie”: Redzhi [unidentified name] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Reggie” [Redzhi] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Zelman Passov. “Regina” described as the real first name of the wife of “Mar”): “Mona” [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Register (party term): A person with official CPUSA membership was said to be on the CPUSA “registry” or “register”. A person said to be on a “special” or “secret” register was a official CPUSA member but his or her membership was not with an ordinary party unit and the secret member did not participate in regular party activities. Instead, the record of membership was know to only select senior party cadre and dues were paid only to especially designated liaison persons who kept in touch with the secret member.

Reichsluftshubtzbundt: National Air Defense League: German civil air defense and air-raid warning organization in the 1930s. Reichswehr: National Defense – title of the German army from 1919 until 1935, it was renamed Wehrmacht (Defence Force). Reidel, ?: Described as German military attache in Sweden who offered OSS information on Soviet air power. Reigh Count (ship) [source Venona] Reinhardt, Gunther: Described as agent of Frank Prince of the AntiDefamation League. Reinhardt, Max: Emigre German theatre director, ran a well-know acting school in New York. Reinstein, Boris: Born in Russian and exiled for political agitation at the turn of the century. In 1901 he immigrated to the U.S. and became active in Daniel De Leon’s Socialist Labor Party. When in Sweden in 1917 on an SLP mission, he was won over to the Bolshevik cause and returned to Russia. Reinstein became Comintern official and undertook a number of Comintern missions. Reis (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] Reiss, Elsa (pseudonym): See Poretsky, Elisabeth. Reiss, Elsa, widow of Ignance Reiss, Elsa Bernaut (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Reiss, Ignace (pseudonym): see Poretsky, Ignace. Rejn, Nikolay Midhajlovich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Rektor” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Rector”. “Relative” [Rodich] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1948. Brother of “Godsend” and “Godfather”. “Relay” “Rele” Unidentified. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona][403] “Relay” [Rele] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Joseph Chmilevski prior to September 1944. “Relay” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent.[404] “Rele” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Relay”. “Rembrandt”: Sancha Padros, Jose] [KGB Mexico City and U.S. line] [source Venona] Remington, William: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Economist with the War Production Board and Commerce Department. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as one of her singleton espionage sources.[405] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Fedya”.

“Rench” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Wrench”. “Rene”: Valentine Ryabov (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Reno, Franklin Victor: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Also known as Vincent Reno. Mathematician (statistician) at the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Grounds working on advanced military technology. On Adolf Berle’s 1939 list of those identified by Whittaker Chambers as covert Communists who were espionage risks. Confronted by the FBI, in 1949 he confessed that he had supplied technical data to Chambers’ espionage apparatus in the mid-1930s. In 1952 he pled guilty to perjury and was imprisoned for submitting deceptive information on his federal employment and security applications.[406] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “118th”. Renouveau: French Jewish agricultural society. Renown (ship) [source Venona] “Rentera [unknown] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Repair”: Mecader affair (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Repubican party: “Bear Cubs” “Medvezhata” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Republicans and Republican Party: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Bear Cubs”. Reputable [Solidny]: See “Solid”. “Reservation [Zapovednik]: See “Preserve”. “Reservist”: territorial colonel in Ministry of Supply, London, U.K. line [West Venona] Resettlement Administration: New Deal agricultural agency. Residency [Rezidentura] (KGB tradecraft term): See Station. Resident [Rezident] (KGB tradecraft term: See Station Chief. “Rest” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Klaus Fuchs prior to October 1944. “Rest” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Fuchs.[407] “Rest”: Klaus Fuchs (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Rest”: Klaus Fuchs [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] “Rest”: Klaus Fuchs [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Retterson, Dorothy: Sister of Edward Fitzgerald. Reubens, Adolf: aka Donald Robinson (Robinson/Reubens case), pseudonyms of Arnold Ikal[408] Reubens, Mrs. Adolf: pseudonym of Ruth Boergers (Robinson/Reubens case)

Revizorov, Pavel: “Vitalij” [“Vitaly”] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Reyd” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Raid”. Reyes, Hector Paysse (KGB line) [source Venona] Reyes, Juan Garcia”: Al or Anton (Pav) in 596 NY to Moscow, 1944, possibly Reyes or Erich Lapins (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Reyna” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Marion Bachrach. (“Reyna” is here transliterated and retained as the cover name without translation. Possible translations include: Reina, Rhine, Rain, Rhein, and Rein.) Reynan: See Ryan. Reynolds, ?: Described as as aide to Secretary of Commerce Henry Wallace. Reynolds, John Hazard: Socially prominent and wealthy CPUSA sympathizer. President of U.S. Service and Shipping Corporation, a cover business used by Elizabeth Bentley and Jacob Golos.[409] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Scott”, 1943-1945. Rezident (tradecraft term): Resident, see Station Chief. Rezidentura (tradecraft term): Residency, see Station. “Rezner”: Shatu (on ship Soviet) (KGB line) [source Venona] RGASPI: Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History. RGF, radio call sign (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Rheiner, Samuel: Hollywood producer. “Rhine”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Rhodes, Ione: Belgian-born wife of Peter Rhodes. Rhodes of Lend-Lease division of War Department [source Venona] Rhodes, Peter, OWI (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Rhodes, Peter: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Journalist. The Comintern archive contains a February 1940 coded cable from Rudy Baker, chief of the CPUSA’s covert arm and liaison with Soviet intelligence, reporting Rhodes had not gone to Bucharest, Rumania as planned earlier and, consequently, was unable to make his scheduled contact there with Soviet agents. A year later, while conducting a surveillance of Jacob Golos, liaison between KGB and the CPUSA, the FBI observed him meeting with Peter Rhodes. Elizabeth Bentley identified Rhodes as a KGB source with whom contact was lost and reported KGB tasked her with attempting to restore contact via Rhodes’ wife. Deciphered Venona cables also documents attempts to restore contact with Rhodes in 1945.[410] Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Paul” and “Peter” (first name used as a cover name.)

Rhone [Rona]: See “Rona”. Ribbentrop, Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von: Nazi foreign minister(KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ribbentrop’s Bureau (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact: Nazi-Soviet treaty of August, 1939. Also known as Hitler-Stalin Pact. Rich, Stephan Sandi (GRU line) [source Venona] “Richard” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Harry Dexter White starting in September 1944. “Richard” was identified in the Venona decryptions as White.[411] “Richard” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, illegal, came with his wife to U.S. in 1939 from Harbin, China. “Richard”: Adolf Reubens (of Robinson-Reubens) [source Chambers Witness] “Richard”: Harry Dexter White (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Richard”: Harry Dexter White [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] “Richard”: unidentified cover name may be a journalist and not White (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Richard Alvey (ship) [source Venona] “Richard” on the GRU line: Bobrow, Robinson [source Venona] “Richard” [Rishar”] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer, Paris, 1949. Richardson, Kenneth: “Condenser” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Richardson, Kenneth: Soviet intelligence source/agent, technical line. Employee of World Wide Electronics. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent with the cover name “Condenser”.[412] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Condenser”. Richelieu (ship) [source Venona] Rickenbacker, Eddie “Rickshaw” [Riksha] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Described as someone connected to the “Nat’l Association of Amer. Industries”, 1946. “Rid” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Reed”. “Riddle” [Zagadka] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source. Described as Senator Robert Wagner’s secretary.

Riddleberger, James William: American diplomat Central and Southern European specialist. “Riksha” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Rickshaw”. Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolay: Well-known Russian composer. “Rina” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Ruth Graze. Ring Tail: see “Hen Harrier” Rinis, Joseph A.: Member of “Vendor’s” CPUSA espionage group. Student at International Lenin School. CPUSA Maryland cadre. Active in FAECT. Rinn, Serfej (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Rio” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Argentina crica 1944. “Rio” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Argentina. “Rio ”: unidentified 1945 appears to be a cover name for a person but might be Argentina (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Rio”: Argentina 1943 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Rios, President (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Rishar” [Rishar”] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Richard”. Riss, Nat: Misspelling of Nat Ross. “Rit”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Rita”: Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. Described as used by Iskhak Akhmerov (along with the unidentified agent “Valet”) in mid-1930s for surveillance of “Leo” (Ludwig Lore) Candidates for “Rita” include Hede Massing and Gerda Frankfurter.[413][414] “Rita” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Sylvia Callen starting in August 1944. “Rita”: Jacques Mornard aka Frank Jackson [Jacson] aka Mecader, or possibly the Mecader affair (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Rita”: [probably E.N. Vaganova, traveling with Elena Nikitichna Kukin or possbily Shushaeva or Tchelovekova also with her.] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ritchie, Albert: Democratic governor of Maryland, 1920-1935. Rivera, Diego: Mexican muralist and radical. Rivkin, Ruth: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Staff of UNRRA. Roommate of Helen Tenney. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as one of her singleton espionage sources.[415] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Flora”.

RKKA: Raboche-Krest'yanskaya Krasnaya Armiya – Workers and Peasants Red Army, popularly called the “Red Army”. Official title of the USSR’s army until it was retitled the “Soviet Army” in 1946. RKO: Counterintelligence Department, GPU, 1924. R.K.O. Pictures RKP: Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya partiya — Russian Communist Party. “Robert” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Nathan Gregory Silvermaster beginning in August 1944. “Robert” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Silvermaster.[416] “Robert” was identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as Silvermaster. “Robert” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): ? Rosenstein, early 1930s “Robert”: Gregory Silvermaster [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] “Robert”: Gregory Silvermaster [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Robert”: Gregory Silvermaster (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Robert”: unidentified in KGB Moscow to NY 227 1945, appears to be connected to GRU and may not be Silvermaster. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Roberts, ?: Described as counselor, British embassy, Washington, 1945. Roberts, Elena (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Roberts, Holland: Secret Communist, Soviet intelligence contact. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Lion”. Robertson, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Robeson, Paul: Well-known pro-Soviet Black American singer. Robin Doncaster, Ship (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Robins, Raymond: Prominent member of the American Red Cross commission in Russia at the time of the Bolshevik coup, he later became an ardent defender of Soviet policy. Robinson, Arthur H.: in R&A branch, OSS [source Venona] Robinson, Donald, pseudonym, aka Reubens, Adolf (Robinson/Reubens case): Arold Ikal (real name)[417] Robinson, Geroid T.: Chief of OSS Russian analytic section. Robinson, Joseph: U.S. Senator, 1913-1937 (D. Ark). Robinson, Mrs. Donald: Reubens, Mrs. Adolf: Ruth Boergers (real name) (Robinson/Reubens case) “Rocco” [Rokko] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer/agent, mid 1930s. “Rock” [Rok] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Sol Leshinsky.

Rockefeller Commission or Rockefeller Committee: Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs headed by Nelson Rockefeller. Rockefeller, John D.: American businessman and philanthropist. Rockefeller, Nelson A. (KGB line) [source Venona] “Rocko” [Rokko]: See “Rocco”. Rod [Shtok]: See “Stock”. “Rodich” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Relative”. Rodina (ship) Rodionov, K.: Soviet intelligence officer, Moscow Center. Rodman, Samuel Jacob, teacher, journalist, with UNRRA after WWII (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Rodney (ship) [source Venona] Rodregez, Manuel Francis: Pseudonym used by Iosif Grigulevich. “Rodstevennik” (cover name in the Venona decryptions notebooks): See “Kinsman”. “Rodstvennik” / “Kinsman”: also “Solidnjy” / Solid: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Roger”: unidentified name, chief of the Institute: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Rogers, Leighton, PR officer for Bell Aircraft and liaison with Soviets for Lend-Lease matters (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Rogers, Pauline: Secret Communist, leader of the American League Against War and Fascism in New York City. Associate of Elizabeth Bentley in her early days in the CPUSA.[418] Also know as Pauline Rosen and Pauline Royce. Rogge, O. John: Prominent liberal. Attorney for David and Ruth Greenglass. Rogov, ?: A unidentified Soviet described as having known Robert Capa in the Spanish Civil War. Rogov, Alexander: “Svet” of Soviet military intelligence [soruce Alexander Feklisov] Rogov, Alexander: Soviet intelligence officer/agent. Identified by Alexander Feklisov as the real name of KGB officer under diplomatic cover as Aleksandr Raev: cover name “Light”.[419] Rogov (NGRU line) [source Venona] Rojo Gomez, Javier: “Snow Leopard” / “Bars” (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Rok” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Rock”.

“Rokko” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Rocco”. (Alternative translation: Rocko) “Roland” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. Recruited in Paris. References to in 1948. Rollins, ?: Described as assistant to Virginia Cogswell. Rollins, Richard: Described as a intelligence source used by Samuel Dickstein and investigator for the House Special Committee on UnAmerican Activities (McCormack-Dickstein committee).[420] “Rom” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, London, 1944. “Roma” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Faye Glasser. “Roman” (cover name): Soviet intelligence officer/agent, 1943-1944. Likely Robert Soblen. Described as a doctor and using the party name Fred Carroll. “Roman” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Robert Soblen.[421] “Roman” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence agent, a Volga German trained for dropping behind German lines in the USSR in 1941. “Roman”: redacted professor [West Venona] “Roman”: Robert Soblen (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Romanenko, Alexander Ivanovich, employee of International Banking Corportation , Harbin office of National City Bank, worked for John Curtis: K. for K.... initial of cover name. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Romanian Oil. “Rona” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/ agent, 1942-44 period, identified as “Rose ?”. A likely candidate for “Rona” is Rose Isaak, executive secretary of the American-Russian Institute in San Francisco. Isaak was identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent. Alternative translation: the French river “Rhone”. Ronnby, ?: Described as a German national in Moscow, 1924. RONO: Rayonny otdel narodnogo obrazovaniya — Regional Department of Public Education. Roof [Kryshi]: KGB jargon for cover for a covert activity. Roosevelt, Alice Longworth: Daughter of President Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt, Eleanor: Wife of President Franklin Roosevelt. Roosevelt, Elliott: Son of Franklin Roosevelt and a liberal activist.

Roosevelt, Franklin D.: President of the United States. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Captain”. Root, Vladimir Nikolayevich: Brother of Olga V. Hammer. Name also given as Vladimir Vadimovich Root. Root, Yelena Anatolyevna: Wife of Vladimir Root. Roper, Daniel: U.S. Secretary of Commerce, 1933-1938. Ropp, Stefan (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Rosa”: unidentified source, London KGB line [West Venona] Rosal Diaz, Amaro, Spanish pro-Communist Socialist: Cowboy (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Rose ?: Real given name of the real name behind the cover name “Rona”. Likely Rose Isaak. Rose, Fred: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Born in Poland and an activist in the Communist Party of Canada since the mid-1920s, Rose had been imprisoned in 1930–1931 for sedition. As a result of the NaziSoviet Pact, the CPC opposed Canada’s participation in the war against Nazi Germany. After it was banned in 1940 as a disloyal organization, more than a hundred of its leaders were interned. Rose, along with party leader Sam Carr, secretly fled to the United States to avoid capture. After the Nazi attack on the Soviet Union in 1941, the CPC reversed course and supported the war effort. Rose surfaced and was briefly interned in 1942 for authoring antiwar pamphlets during the Nazi-Soviet Pact period. He was released in October 1942 after signing an “Understanding” that he would “do no act which might be of injury to the Dominion of Canada, of the United Kingdom, or any of His Majesty’s Dominions, or any Allied or Associated Powers”. GRU defector Igor Gouzenko’s materials showed that Rose had at that point already volunteered his services to the GRU. Elected to Parliament in 1943 as a candidate of the Labour-Progressive Party, as the Canadian Communist Party then called itself, he was reelected in 1945. Gouzenko’s material identified Rose as assisting GRU espionage, he was arrested tried, convicted and sentenced to six years in jail, stripped of his parliamentary seat, and later deported to Communist Poland. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as having connected Hazen Sise to the Golos/Bentley apparatus.[422] Rose: See “Vardo”. Rosenberg, ?: Identified as a Nazi agent by source “Fir”/Grace. Rosenberg, Allan (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Rosenberg, Allan: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Economist, Foreign Economic Administration. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as part of the Perlo espionage group. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[423] Party name: Roy. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Sid”. Rosenberg, Ethel [source Venona] Rosenberg, Ethel: Soviet intelligence contact/informant. Wife of Julius Rosenberg and sister of David Greenglass. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet intelligence contact/informant.[424] Rosenberg, Julius: “Antenna” also “Liberal” (KGB U.S. line) [source Feklisov ] Rosenberg, Julius: “Antenna” also “Liberal” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Rosenberg, Julius: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Engineer and chief of an espionage network of Communist engineers. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[425] Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Antenna” until September 1944, “Liberal” (September 1944-1950), “King” (1950-). Rosenberg, Louise: See Bransten, Louise. Rosenberg, Simon: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Born November 1899 in Poland. Came to the U.S. in 1924 and became a naturalized citizen in 1930. Employed by Amtorg in 1930 in Pittsburgh and Cleveland. In 1931 went to the USSR and was recruited by KGB at that time. Returned to the U.S. and did a variety of espionage tasks for Gayk Ovakimyan and Armand Feldman. Cooperated with the FBI after he was confronted during the Feldman investigation in the 1940s.[426] Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Simon”and “S-7”. Rosenbliett, Philip: Soviet intelligence agent, chief of a GRU-linked espionage apparatus early to mid-1930s. A dentist. Family name also often spelled Rosenbliet. On Adolf Berle’s 1939 list of those identified by Whittaker Chambers as covert Communists who were espionage risks.[427] Ronsebliett is a candidate for the cover name “Tenth” in Vassiliev’s notebook. Rosenfeld, George: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Liaison with Col. Pierce in Washington, D.C. Rosenfeld, Julius: Described as OSS officer/staff. Rosenman, Samuel Irving: Aide to President Roosevelt.

Rosenstein, ?: Soviet intelligence officer/agent, probably illegal, early 30s. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Robert”. Rosenthal, Harry: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Employee of an insurance company in Philadelphia. A 1948 Gorsky memo Chambers/Karl’s group name.[428] Chambers did not write of anyone resembling Rosenthal. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “113th”. “Rosita”: unidentified, likely GRU officer [source Venona] Rosoff, David A.: See Rozov, D. A. Ross, ?: Soviet intelligence officer, London, 1950. Ross, Nat: Senior CPUSA official. Directed organizing in South in the early 1930s, then led the Minnestoa-Dakotas party district, and served as CPUSA representative to the Comintern in the late 1930s. Rossi, ?: Described as secretary to Ercoli and a Socialist. Rossi, Bruno, physicist (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Rost” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Growth”. “Rost” / “Growth” also “Odessit” / “Odessite” “Odessan” [someone from Odessa]: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] ROSTA: Russian Telegraph Agency, predecessor of TASS. “Roston” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified 1945 target of recruitment suggested by Harold Glasser. Described as someone connected to the State Department in 1946. Roth, ?: Described as Jacob Golos’s doctor in 1943. Rothschild, John (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Rouble” / “Ruble”: Glasser, Harold (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Rouen” “Ruan”: (GRU line) Col. Ilya Mikhajlovich Saraev, GRU Washington [source Venona] Rouke, Walter aka Walter Ketley, bodyguard and secretary to Natalia Ivanova Sedova-Trotsky (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Rousse, ?: Described as French Trotskyist leader. ROVS: Russian Combined Services Union, a White Russian emigre organization. “Roy” (cover name in the Venona decryptions): Husband of Emma Phillips. “Roy” does not occur in Vassiliev’s notebooks but is in the Venona decryptions.[429] Venona indicates “Roy” was married to “Cora”, and “Cora” is identified in Vassiliev’s notebooks as Emma Phillips. Roy, ?: Described as assistant military attaché of the US Embassy in Chungking, 1942-43.

“Roy”: redacted, Cora’s / Kora’s husband, also “Ampere” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Roy (party name): Allan Rosenberg’s party name. “Roza”: Rose Beigel, former wife of Luis Arenal (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Rozenberg, Julius: Spelling error. See Rosenberg, Julius. Rozengauz, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Rozov, D. A.: Chairman of Amtorg in the late 1930s. Know in the American press as David A. Rosoff. RRSA - R.R.R.S.A.: Russian Refugee Relief Society. RSDRP: Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party. RSFSR: Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika — Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic RSHA: Nazi SS Reichssicherheitshauptamt – Reich Security Main Office. RU: Razvedyvatelnoye Upravleniye – “Intelligence Directorate” of the Soviet armed forces. More often called GRU. “Ruan” / “Rouen”: (GRU line)Col. Ilya Mikhajlovich Saraev, GRU Washington [source Venona] “Rubin” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Ruby”. “Rubin” / “Ruby”: Tolstikov, Valentin Efimovich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Rubin, Gerald: Soviet intelligence contact/informant of some sort sent to California with difficulty with the assistance of Jacob Golos. Rubin, Helen: Teachers' union figure who knew Harold Glasser, 1936. Rubinic [Rubinovic], Josip: “Ic” possibly (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Rubinstein, Mikhail (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Rubl'” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Ruble”. “Ruble”: Glasser, Harold (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Ruble” [Rubl'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Harold Glasser. “Ruble” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Harold Glasser.
[430]

“Ruby” / “Rubin”: Tolstikov, Valentin Efimovich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Ruby” [Rubin] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence agent, 1945. “Rudakov”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Rudd, Irving Glen (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Rudenko, Leonid: Chairman of the Soviet Government Purchasing Commission in the U.S. Rudenko, Leonid, General, chairman of The Soviet Government Purchasing Commission in the U.S. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Rudi” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Rudy”. “Rudi”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] Rudlin, Walter, head of economic intelligence section of FDA (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Rudol'f” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Rudolf”. “Rudolf”: unidentified KGB officer [West Venona] Rudolf [Rudol'f] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer, 1936, Berlin. Rudolph [Rudolf], P...., the father of [redacted] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Rud...ovich”: Yakor: KGB Probationer on Soviet ship (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] “Rudy” [Rudi] (cover name/party name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence contact. Likely Rudy Baker. Described as being in a position to assist in training some covert radio operators in the U.S. for KGB work in 1942. Rudy Baker, head of the CPUSA covert arm and who had considerable experience with covert radio operations. “Rudy” Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source linked to CPUSA and likely Rudy Baker.[431] “Ruff” “Ersh”[432]: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Ruff”: Neumann, Franz [West Venona][some confusion here, in text West identifies Ruff as Neumann but not in appendix, where Neumann is “Ruppert”] “Ruff” [Yersh] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Franz Neumann. “Ruff” occured in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet source in the OSS.[433] (Ruff is a type of fish.) Rugg, Wilton: Chambers pseudonym for link to Harry White (Rober Coe?) [source Chambers Witness] “Ruhr” [Rur] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent with close CPUSA ties, 1948. “Rulevoj” [Rulevoy]: Helmsman: Earl Browder (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Rulevoy” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Helmsman”.

“Rulevoy” / “Helmsman”: Browder [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Rumyantseva (KGB line) [source Venona] Rundstedt, Gerd von: Leading Wehrmacht general. Rundstedt, German General (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Rupert” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): V.V. Sveshnikov. “Rupert”: source in Army Signals Intelligence Serivce [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] [Likley Feklisov red herring for Weisband] “Ruppert”: Neumann, Franz L. [West Venona] [some confusion here, in text West identifies “Ruff” as Neumann but not in appendix, where Neumann is “Ruppert”.] “Rur” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Ruhr”. “Rusakov”: Lomakin, Yakov Mironovich (KGB line) [source Venona] Russchnitt, Edgar, Rumanian figure (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Russchnitt, Max, Rumanian figure (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Russell, F.W., Captain, U.S. military intelligence (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Russell, H.N. astronomer, princeton (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Russi, Bruno (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Russian Center: unidentified in America (KGB line) [source Venona] Russian Information Bureau: Unofficial Soviet office in Washington prior to diplomatic recognition. Russian People’s University: Private “White” Russian institution in New York, 1920s. Russian Refugee Relief Society (R.R.R.S.A.): White refugee organization. Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP): Tsarist era Marxist party in Russia, divided between the moderate Mensheviks and the extremist Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin. Russian Voice: See Russky Golos. Russian-American Financial Syndicate: Described as a anti-Bolshevik coordinating body Russian-American Institute: Cultural organization that promoted SovietAmerican friendship. Russicum, Pontificum Collegium: Vatican college dedicated to studies of culture and spirituality of Russia founded in 1929 by Pope Pius XI, who was impressed by large number of Russian refugees fleeing Bolshevik persecution of Christianity. Russki [Russky] Golos: Voice of Russia, emigre magazine (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Russky Golos [Russian Voice]: Russian-language newspaper aligned with the CPUSA. Rust, Heinrich: Described as an associate of ? Ronnby in 1924. Rutenberg, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Ruthenberg, Charles: Leader of the early Communist movement in the USA. Rutovskij’s [Rutovsky’s] apartment: address in Moscow (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] R.V.: See Russian Voice. RVV (Morse RWW), radio call sign (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Ryabchik” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Hazel Grouse”. Ryabinin, I.I.: Ryabov (KGB line) [source Venona] “Ryabov”: Ryabinin, I.I. (KGB line) [source Venona] Ryabov, Valentine Vasilevich, 2nd secretary Soviet Legation Montevideo: “Rene” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Ryan”: Dennis, Eugene [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Ryan, Tim: Comintern party name of Eugene Dennis. Ryan, Bishop (KGB line) [source Venona] Ryan, George: Pseudonym used by Norman Borodin in contact with Duggan. “Rybak” “Fisherman”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Rybak, ?: Soviet intelligence source/agent targeting Ukrainians. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Ukrainian”. Rybnikor, ?: Described a official of the Yugoslav Film Committee, 1950. “Rybolov” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Fisherman”. (Alternative translation: Fisher, Osprey) “Rybolov” “Osprey” or “Fisherman”: also “Blok” / “Block”: also “Kin” / “Keen”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Rybolov”: unidentifed probationer on Staryj Bolshevik (KGB line) [source Venona] “Rychag” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Lever”. (Alternative translation: Linchpin.) Rykov, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Rykov, Alexei Ivanovich: Leading Bolshevik official and member of the politburo of the Soviet party in the 1920s. Purged by Stalin on charges of right deviation and executed in 1938. Rykov, Vladimir Semenovich: Boy friend of Aleksandrova, 1954. “Rytsar” / Knight: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Ryzh..”.: unidentified (KGB line) [source Venona] “Ryzhaya” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Redhead” (female). “Ryzhy” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Redhead” (male). RZHV (Morse RVW), radio call sign (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] XXS S (abbreviation of cover name): Source in Justice Department, 1945. Possible abbreviation for “Sima”. S. (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Initial of an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent in Mexico in 1950. “S...., Viktor Vasilevish (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “S-1” “s1” Herman R. Jacobson (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “S-1” “s1” [“C-1”] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Herman Jacobson. “S-1” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Jacobson.[434] “S-10” “s10” [“C-10”] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentifed Soviet intelligence source/agent, early 30s, used against Ukrainians. “S/10” [“C/10”] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Variant of “S-10”. “S-100” “s100” [“C-100”] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB agent/officer. References to in 1935. “S/16” “s16” [“C/16”] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1935, White line. “S-17” “s17” [“C-17”] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, likely Russian immigrant. “S-2” “s2” : redacted, cousin of redacted (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “S-2” “s2” [“C-2”] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. Female secretary in the Aviation Division of the Department of the Navy, source from early 30s through WWII. Also appears as “S-II” and “S/2”. “S-2” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/ agent, female, age 45 in 1944.[435] “S/2” [“C/2”] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Variant of “S-2”. “S/3”, “s3” [“C/3”] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1930s. “S-5” “s5” [“C-5”] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. Engineer from the scientist Ipatiev’s group.

“S-6” “s6” [“C-6”] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentifed Soviet intelligence source/agent. Source early 30s, chemical engineer in War Department Chemistry laboratory. “S-7” “s7” [“C-7”] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Simon Rosenberg. “S/7” “s8” [“C/7”] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Variant of “S-7”. “S-8” / “s8” unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “S-8” “s8” [“C-8”] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): ? Lukomsky in 1935. “S-8” was identified in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent in 1945.[436] Uncertain if the two are the same person. “S/8” [“C/8”] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Variant of “S-8”. SA: Sturmabteilung – "Storm Division”, usually referred to as Storm Troops. Sabatini, Amadeo: “Nik” / “Nick” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Sabatini, Amadeo: Soviet intelligence source/agent.[437] Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet agent with the cover name “Nick”. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Nick”. “Sachs” / Saks / Sax: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Sachs” [Saks] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Solomon Adler, 1941-1945. “Sachs” appeared in the Venona cables as an unidentified Soviet source and the context of the Sachs messages is compatible with Adler.[438] Sacks, Alexander, [Saks] Economic Warfare section of U.S. Justice Dept. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Sad” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Garden”. Sadovnikov, Valentin Matveevich: Soviet intelligence officer/agent identified in the Venona decryptions with the cover name “Said”. Sadovnikov, Valentin Matveevich: “Said” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Safe House (tradecraft term): (Konspirativnaya kvartira in Russian) A residence (house or apartment) maintained by agents or other trusted persons (such as CPUSA members vouched for and assigned by CPUSA leaders working with KGB) where a source may meet with a courier or KGB officer. Sometimes the hosts of a safe house will also act as couriers for the source. Saffian, Alexander: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[439] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Contractor”. Safonov, Sen. Lt; (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Sage” “Mudrets”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Said” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer/agent, 1945. “Said” was identified in the Venona decryptions as probably Valentin Matveevich Sadovnikov. “Said”: Sadovnikov, Valentin Matveevich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Sailor” Matros: Truman, Harry (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Sailor” Matros: unidentifed cover name in 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Sailor” [Matros](cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Harry Truman. “Sailor” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Truman. Saint Olaf (ship) [source Venona] Sakhalin (ship) Sakharovsky, Aleksandr Mikhailovich: Director of KGB PGU, First Chief Directorate, 1956-71. Saklatwala, Shapurji: Indian-born British Communist. “Saks” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Sachs”. (Alternative translation: Sax) Sala, Victorio: “Jota” (Khota) (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Salesman” [Prodavets]: KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Salikh” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent in a government agency, 1948. Salisbury, Harrison: American journalist, Moscow correspondent. “Sally”: Mitynia, Francia, aka Edna Patterson [source Venona] Salmon, David A.: Soviet intelligence source/agent.. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Willy” and “11”. Salnevich, B. and Salvevich, I. (brothers): Likely emigre While Russians in Finland. “Salt” [Solt] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): U.S. Office of Naval Intelligence.[440] “Sam” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Alexander Tolchin, 1933-1934. “Sam” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Michael Bogart, 1943-1945. “Sam” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source but as working in California and as the younger brother of Burton Perry, also a Soviet source.[441] “Sam” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer, 1950. “Sam” Sem: unidentified cover name senior worker in FBI (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Sam”: unidentified, younger brother of Burton Perry (KGB line) [source Venona] Sam (party name): party name for Gregory Silvermaster 1943. Samarin, Mikhail: Soviet teacher with the Soviet diplomatic delegation in New York who defected in 1948. Samartsev, ?: State Security officer, 1942. Samojlov, Captian-Lieutenant (NGRU line) [source Venona] Samojlova, Marfa Pavlovna: “Liza” (KGB line) [source Venona] “Samsondi”: Bethlen, Court Gabor (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Samsonov, ?: Soviet intelligence officer/agent know to Jacob Golos and later arrested in the purge of the security services. Samuel Huntington (ship) [source Venona] “San” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Richard Koral, son of Alexander Koral. San Francisco: “Babylon” [Vavilon] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] San Francisco: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Babylon” Sancha Padros, Jose: “Rembrandt” (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Sancha Padros, Tomas (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Sanders, Everett: Executive secretary to President Coolidge, 1925-1929. “Sandi” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Sandy”. “Sandi” [not translated, but likely “Sandy”] (GRU line): Rich, Stephan [source Venona] “Sandy” [Sandi] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, described as part of “Nick’s” group in 1948. “Sanitar” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Orderly”. Santa Catalina (ship) [source Venona] Santa Fe: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Okurov”. “Santiago”: Santiago de Paul, son of Nelken Mansberger de Paul, killed in battle (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Santo”: unidentified codename in Australian line [West Venona] Sapieha, Prince ?: Social friend of Martha Dodd. Saposs, David: New Deal official and anti-Stalinist left liberal. Saprykin, Aleksandr Pavlovich, cipher clerk, May 1944: “Boris” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Saraev, Col. Ilya Mikhajlovich, GRU Washington joined Red Army 1918, arrived in U.S. march 1941,: “Rouen” / “Ruan” (GRU line) [source Venona]

Sarant, Alfred: “Hugh” [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] Sarant, Alfred Epaminondas: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Member of Julius Rosenberg’s technical intelligence apparatus. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent. Secretly defected to the USSR when Julius Rosenberg was arrested.[442] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Hughes”. Sarant, Alfred Epaminondas: “Hughes” Khyus (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Sarayev”: unidentified [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] Sargent, Orme: Senior British diplomat. “Sarin” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Davrun Wittenberg. “Sasha” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Georgy Pokrovsky. “Sasha”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Sashnov”: senior mechanic probationer on Argun (KGB line) [source Venona] “Satir” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Satyr”. “Satir” “Satyr”: redacted: Sylvia Lorraine Callen Doxsee: [Sylvia Caldwell] [Sylvia Franklin’ [Sylvia Callen] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Satyr” “Satir”: Sylvia Lorraine Callen Doxsee aka Sylvia Franklin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Satyr” [Satir] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Sylvia Callen prior to August 1944. “Satyr” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Callen.[443] Sauerman Alfred: also known as Alfred von Saurma-Douglas. Saurma-Douglas, Alfred von: see Alfred Sauerman. “Saushkin” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Sergey Romanovich Striganov. Savchenko, Sergey R.: Senior Soviet intelligence officer at Moscow Center, 1950. Savery, William: Professor of Philosophy, University of Seattle, 1918-1919. “Savin”: KGB Probationer on Soviet ship (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] Savin, Sergej [Sergey] Nikolaevich, SGPC engineer (NGRU line) [source Venona] Savitskij [Savitsky] in Moscow (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Savlevich, Captain Third Rank (NGRU line) [source Venona] Sawyer, Charles: U.S. ambassador, Belgium, 1945. “Sax” or “Sachs” or “Saks”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Sax, Saville: “Old” / “Star” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Sax, Saville: Soviet intelligence agent. Young Communist and college roommate and friend of Theodore Hall. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet agent.[444] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Star”. Schacht, Hjalmar: Leading economics and finance official in the Nazi government in the 1930s. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Scheffer, Paul: Moscow correspondent of the Berliner Tageblatt. Schenck, Joseph: chairman of Twentieth Century Fox film company. Scherer, Marcel: Member of “Vendor’s” CPUSA espionage group. CPUSA cadre, offical of the Federation of Architects, Engineers, Chemists and Technicians (FAECT-CIO). Brother of Paul Scherer. Scherer, Paul: Member of “Vendor’s” CPUSA espionage group. Brother of Marcel Scherer. Schiff, Jacob: American international banker, head of the international banking firm of Kuhn, Loeb, & Co. Schimmel, Herbert: Secret Communist, on the staff of a variety of Federal agencies, including the House Select Committee Investigating National Defense Migration and served as chief of investigation, Senate Subcommittee onWar Mobilization (Kilgore Committee). After WWII worked for the U.N.’s Division of Economic Stability and Development. Thought by Victor Perlo (Perlo memo 15 March 1945) to have some clandestine connection. Invoked the Fifth amendment to refuse to answer Congressional questions about his covert Communist links. He was subsequently fired by the U.N.[445] Schimmel, Herbert S., chief of investigation, Senate Subcommittee onWar Mobilization, Kilgore Committee (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Schink, E.F.: Garble for Frederick John Schink. Schink, Frederick John: Soviet intelligence contact/informant, via “Liberal”, prior to 1933. Schmidt, Orris: Described as administrator working in U.S. occupation government of Germany on economic matters. (Alternative translation: Shmidt) Schmoll, Fromberg Bank (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Schneider of WPB [source Venona] Schocken, T. D.: Described as OSS officer/staff. Scholtz, H.W.: Described as an American “specialist” at the “E. B. Badger” plant #3 in Kuybyshev Siberia, USSR.

Schon, Hubert: Contact of Harold Glasser at some point. Schrader, Captian Alvert E, (NGRU line) [source Venona] Schultz, Marian Miloslavovich: “Lava” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Schumacher, Kurt: Leader of the German SPD after WWII and antiCommunist. Schuman, Irving George: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Amadeo Sabatini (former KGB agent) in early 1950s told FBI the he and Irving George Schuman had been assigned by his KGB superior, Joseph Katz, to surveil KGB defector Walter Krivitsky in 1939. An entry in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks on “Veil” associates him with Katz and Sabatini.[446] While suggestive, the evidence is not sufficient to conclude that Schuman was “Veil”. Schuman, Robert: French Foreign Minister, 1948-1950. Schuster, ?: Described as executive officer of Telefunken, 1945. Schuster, Bernard: “Chester” also “Echo” also “Dik” also “Yug”/“South” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Schuster, Bernard: “Chester” also “Echo” (KGB U.S. line) [source Feklisov] Schuster, Bernard: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Senior CPUSA cadre. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as assisting Jacob Golos’s covert work.Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent. [447] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Chester” (a party named used as a cover name), replaced with “Echo” (June 1943), “Jack” (December 1943), and “Freedman” (October 1944). Schuyler, Cortlandt Van R.: U.S. Army general, chief of American mission in Rumania in 1945. Schwartz, Bert D.: Described as OSS officer/staff. Schwartz, Emanuel: Target of recruitment. Mathematician who had worked at the Manhattan atomic project facility at Los Alamos. Parents born in Russia and naturalized in Canada. Also known as E. Shagam. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Domby”. Schwartz, Milton: “Matvej” [Mayvey] (GRU line) [source Venona] Schwartz, Thomas: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Described as a former German Consul. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “James”. Schwellenbach, Secretary of Labor (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Sco” Ssho: Secret Cipher Office (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Scorpion”: Paramonov, Sergei J. U.K. line [West Venona]

“Scott” [Skott] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Arthur Wynn in Great Britain, 1944. “Scott” in described in West and Tsarev as a significant KGB source in Britain but is not identified.[448] Scott, Helen: see Keenan, Helen Grace Scott. Scott, John: “Ivanov” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Scott (Keenan), Helen Grace: “El”/ “Fir” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Scott” [Skott] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): John Reynolds, 1943-1945. Scott, Walter: Walter Franz Maria Stennes (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Scout”: Joel Barr [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] “Scout” [Skaut]: Joel Barr (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Scout” [Skaut] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Joel Barr prior to September 1944. “Scout” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Barr.[449] Scouts: See “Lazutchiki”. “Screw” “Vint”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Screw” [Vint] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Victor Hammer, 1940s-1960s. Scriagin, ?: Soviet diplomat in Washington, 1945. Scribners Commentator (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Scripps-Howard: American newspaper chain. “Scylla” “Sitsilla”: William E. Dodd, Jr. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Seaborg, Glen: Physical chemist, Nobell prize winner. Senior scientist on the Manhattan atomic project. “Seafarers”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Seal”: possibly Konstantin Aleksandrovich Umansky. Umansky is Redaktor on the Mexico City and San Francisco lanes. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Seal”: unidentifed source New York KGB traffic [West Venona] “Seal” [Tyulen'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Konstantin Umansky. “Seal” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Umansky. “Seaman”: Petrov, Vladimir in Stockholm traffice [West Venona] “Seaman”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Seaman” [Moryak] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, technical line, 1943. “Seaman” appeared in the Venona decryptions as a unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent.[450]

Sebastian, Georgy Karlovich: Hungarian-born German citizen, a musical conductor who worked in Hollywood and the USSR, mid-1930s. “Sebezh” [unidentified city] (GRU line) [source Venona] Sechkin, ?: Soviet intelligence source/agent. An engineer for Torpedo Corp., around 45 years old, NY. Second line: ethnic/emigree groups (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Second” [Vtoroy] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, early 1930s. Secret Intelligence Service (SIS, also known as MI6): Britain’s foreign intelligence agency. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Hotel” (1944-1945). “Secretary” [Sekretar] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): ? Hoover, very probably Herbert Hoover but possibly J. Edgar Hoover, described as part of “Transatlantica” conspiracy/organization. Secretary of War, U.S.: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Bomb”, circa 1944. At that time the Secretary of War was Henry Stimson. SED: Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands (Socialist Unity Party of Germany). Ruling Communist party of the GDR. A product of the forced merger of the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD) with the Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (KPD). “Seda”: Vazquez Gomez, Elena (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Sedar” (cover name in the Venona decryptions): See “Cedar”. “Sedov” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, 1942. Chief of the San Francisco station prior to Kheifets. Sedov, Lev: Son of Leon Trotsky. Seemonov, [Semyonov] Semyon: “Tven” [source Andrew and Mitrokhin] Segre, Emilio (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Segre, Mario (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Sekretar” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Secretary”. Seldes, George: Journalist and secret Communist. Select Committee Investigating National Defense Migration: U.S. House select committee, 1940-1943, chaired by Rep. John H. Tolan (D. California). Know as the Tolan Committee. Selevich: (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Selim Khan” “Zelimkhan” also “Kahn” / “Khan”: unidentified cover name, candidate A. Landy (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Selit..”.: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Seller [Prodavets]: See “Vendor”. Seller, Richard: Described as secretary to Congressman Hugh De Lacy. “Selo” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Village”. “Selyan”: possible cover name or real name possibly Badrig Selian, Secretary General of Armenian Progressive League of America. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Sem” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Sam”. “Semen” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Simon”. (Semen is the Russian equivalent of Simon. When the cover name appears to apply to an American, it is translated as Simon. When it applies to a Russian, it is kept as Semen.) “Semen” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet worker at Soviet World’s Fair exhibition in 1939. “Semen” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): N. Ia. Aksenov in 1954. “Semen” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer, 1948. “Semen” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer at Moscow Center. “Semen ”: Proshin, Pavel Osipovich, cipher officer (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Semen”: unidentified in Moscow, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Semen ?: Friend of Armand Victorovich Hammer at the Moscow Institute of Foreign Languages. Semenov, Nikolaj [Nikolay] Aleksandrovich (KGB line) [source Venona] Semenov, Semen Markovich: Soviet intelligence officer/agent. (Alternative translations Semyon Semyonov). Birth name Alexander Taubman. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet officer/agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Twain”. Known as Simon to Harry Gold. Semenov, Semen Markovich: “Tven” / “Twain” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Semichastnov, Major-General Ivan Fedorovich, Commissariat for Foreign Trade (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Seminary” [Burse] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): A university, likely the University of Chicago. Semyonov, Semyon Markovich: See Semen Markovich Semenov. Semyonov [Semenov], Semyon Markovich: “Twain” or “Tven” [source Feklisov Rosenbergs]

Semyonov [Semenov], Semyon real name Alexander Taubman [source Usdin] Sendik, Josif Moiseevich, Capt. 1st rank, head of Soviet Union routing and convoy office in DC. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Senga [Ship] Senior [Starshy]: See “Elder”. “Sen'or” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Senor”. “Senor” also “Berg”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Senor” [Sen'or] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Alexander Koral in August 1944. “Senor” changed to “Berg” in September 1944. “Senor” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent in 1944 whose cover name was changed to “Berg” in September 1944.[451] “Senya” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Morton Sobell, late 1944 and 1945. “Senya”: Morton Sobell [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] “Serb” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Joseph Chmilevski starting in September 1944. Earlier “Relay”. “Serb” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent with an artificial leg, an attribute that matchs Chmilevski.[452] “Serb” also “Relay”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Serb”: source of the “Volunteers” network [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Serebryanov, Yakov: Variant of Yakov Serebryansky. Serebryansky, Yakov Isaakovich,: Senior KGB officer, head of a 1930s KGB special operations group that specialized in sabotage, kidnapping, and assassination. Also known as Yasha Serebryanov. Sereda, Georgij [Georgy] Danilovich (KGB line) [source Venona] Seregin, Ivanovich of purchasing commission (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Seres”: Subasic, Ivan, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Sergeant”: unidentified source London GRU U.K. line [West Venona] “Sergeev”: KGB Probationer on Soviet ship (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] Sergei: see Sergey “Sergei”: Sergej [Sergey]: Pravdin, Vladimir Sergaevich of Tass (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Sergej: see Sergey

“Sergej” [“Sergey”]: Afanasev, Viktor Vasilevich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Sergej” [“Sergey”]: unidentified [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] “Sergej” [“Sergey”]: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Sergey” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Vladimir Pravdin. “Sergey” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Pravdin. Sergeyev, ?: Describes as “Deputy People’s Commissar” and associate of Anatoly Gorsky. References to in 1945. Sergievsklj, Boris, U.S. State Dept. consultant (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Sergio”: unidentified journalist in Venona but likely Lisa Sergio, left WMCA broadcaster (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Sergius” Sergej [Sergei] [Sergey]: Vladimir Pravdin, Tass (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Sernov”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Sernovodsk” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Albuquerque, NM. “Serov” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Head of KGB station in Vienna, early 1950s. (Possibly this is real name Serov rather than a cover name.) “Serov”: unidentified name probationer [Soviet intelligence agent] or possbily Makhail Vasilevich Serov, assistant Chairman of the purchasing commission and associate of Zubilin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Serov, Ivan Aleksandrovich: Senior KGB officer, later head of the KGB, 1954-1958. Serov, Makhail Vasilevich, assistant Chairman of the Soviet Union purchasing commission and associate of Zubilin, 1944 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Serpa”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Sesil'” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Cecil”. Setaro, Ricardo: Express messenger: Gonets (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Setaro, Richard: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Journalist, deputy chief of the Latin American department of CBS radio. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Express Messenger” prior to October 1944, then “Jean”.[453] Sevastopol (ship) [source Venona]

Seversky, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Seversky Aircraft: Designed and build military aircraft, later renamed Republic Aviation. Sevmorput, Northern Sea Route Directorate (NGRU line) [source Venona] Sevzaples (ship) Seyss-Inquart, Arthur: Senior Nazi government official. Sforza: (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Sh... ” [partial decryption]: Lombardo Toledano, Vicente (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Sh”: code name for rich American funding Kitty Harris in Paris 1938-39 for KGB [source Damaskin Harris] S.H.: Initials of someone described as a CPUSA member contacted by Commissioner of Docks, Mr. Hertz, in 1932. “Sh-142” [sh142] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): William Akets. “Sh/142” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Variant of “Sh-142”. “Sh-147” [sh147] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Robert Allen. Shabanov, Konstantin A.: See Konstantine A. Chugunov. Shabanov was likely Chugunov’s pseudonym in the U.S.. Shabanov, Konstantina: “Shah”/ Shakh (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Shachtman, Max: American Trotskyist leader. Candidate for cover name “Gay” in Vassiliev’s notebooks. SHAEF: Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force. Shagam, E.: see Schwartz, Emanuel. “Shah” “Shakh”: Shabenov, Konstantina (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Shah” [Shakh] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Konstantine. A. Chugunov. “Shah” occured in the Venona decryptions as the cover name of Soviet diplomat and KGB officer Konstantin A. Shabanov or Chabanov. Likely Shabanov was Chugunov’s pseudonym. Shajdayuk, Leonid Ivanovich: “Lebedev” (on ship Litke) (KGB line) [source Venona] “Shakh” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Shah”. Shakhnazarov, ?: Soviet official known to Victor Hammer, 1957. Shakhov, Aleksej [Aleksey] Ivanovich (KGB line) [source Venona] Shakhurin, Vladimir: Described as a friend of Victor Hammer and the son of a high Soviet official who shot and killed the daughter of Konstantin Umansky and then killed himself. Shaliapin, Mikhail A.: see Shalyapin, Mikhail A.

Shalyapin, Mikhail A.: Soviet intelligence officer/agent. (Alternative translations: Shaliapin, Chaliapin). Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet officer/agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Stock”. Shalyapin, Mikhail A., Clerk at consulate: “Shtok” / “Stock” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Shaman” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Earl Browder, 1946-. (Alternative translation: Sorcerer) Shapiro, ?: Described as Soviet plenipotentiary in Lithuania. Shapiro, ?: Jacob Golos recommended for recruitment on technical line in 1942. Shapiro, Henry: United Press correspondent in Moscow. Shaplin, Joseph (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Sharapov, ?: KGB officer, references to in 1943 and 1950. Sharapov, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Sharia, ?: Soviet intelligence officer. Sharkov, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. “Sharp-Sighted”: Solovev, Valentin Lukyanovich (KGB line) [source Venona] Shatov, V. S.: Described as official of Turksib. Shatu (on ship Soviet)”: Rezner (KGB line) [source Venona] “Shatunov (on ship Soviet)”: Lyakhovka, Nikilaj Fedorovich (KGB line) [source Venona] Shaturstroj (ship) Shaw of Ceramic divison of WPB [source Venona] Shawcross, Hartley: U.K. Attorney General and prosecutor in Klaus Fuchs’s trial. Shaytukhov, A. I.: KGB officer, Moscow, 1965. “Shch”: Shchrkoldin, Aledsej (KGB line) [source Venona] Shchanova (or Shchapova), Tanya: Described as a girl friend of Armand V. Hammer, 1950 Shchekoldin, Aleksey, chief of the Foreign Communications Section, Moscow. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Shcherbakov, Soviet seaman deserter, (NGRU line) [source Venona] Shchors (ship) [source Venona] Shchrkoldin, Aledsej: “Shch” (KGB line) [source Venona] “Shchuka” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Pike”.

“Sheat-Fish” “Som”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Shebarshin, Leonid Vladimirovich: Chief of PGU KGB, 1989-1991 Sheen, Fulton: Prominent Roman Catholic priest, later a bishop.. (KGB line) [source Venona] “Shef” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Chief”. Sheffer, Paul: Described by Jacob Golos in 1944 as someone involved with the public exposure as a Communist of a doctor and relative of Harry Dexter White named Volman or Volper. Sheftel, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. “Sheik” Sheikh Shekh: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Shel (ship) Shelepin, Aleksandr: Chief of the KGB, 1958-1961. Shell Union Oil Corporation. Shelon (ship) [source Venona] “Shelter”: Priyut: UNRRA (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Shelter” [Priyut] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, UNRRA. “Shelter” was identified in the Venona decryptions as UNRRA. Shepardson, Whitney H.: Senior OSS officer. Shepherd [Pastukh]: See “Herdsman” Sheppard, Charles Bradford, radio enginees with Hazeltine Elecronics Corp Litle Neck, NY: “Master” or “Master Crafsman” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Sheppard, Edith Rebecca nee Strick, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Sherman, Isaac J.: American, director of Amtorg, 1924. Sherman, Rear Admiral Forrest Percival; (NGRU line) [source Venona] Sherman, Roger: Signer of the Declaration of Independence. Sherman, William: Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1944. Linked to Perlo espionage apparatus. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Boy”. Shershnev, ?: KGB officer, 1945. “Shertaks”: unidentified book keeper in NY docks, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Shervud” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Sherwood”. “Sherwood” Shervud: Laurence Duggan (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Sherwood, Colonel, [source Venona]

Sherwood, Eddie: Described as guide for a American touring group in the USSR, early 1930s or late 1920s. “Sherwood” [Shervud] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Laurence Duggan beginning in August 1944, changed to “Prince” in September 1944. “Sherwood” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Duggan.[454] Sherwood, William: Communist, associate of Michael Straight and Donald Wheeler at Oxford. American. (Unclear if this is the same William Sherwood as the contact of Harold Glasser.) Sherwood, William: Contact of Harold Glasser, 1945. “Shestak”: Fadeev (KGB line) [source Venona] “Shestov”: unidentified “probationer” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Shevchenko, Andrej [Andrey] Ivanovich: “Arsenij” [“Arseny”] “Arsenius” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Shevchenko, Andrey Ivanovich: Soviet intelligence officer. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Arseny”. Shevelev, Lt Gen Ivan G.: Head of KGB 5th Directorate (Cryptography). Shevtel, Doctor (KGB line) [source Venona] Shevtsov: unidentified, may be a real name. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Shevvchuk, P.P. on Soviet ship: “Vendor” (KGB line) [source Venona] Shields, Jimmy: Senior British Communist official. Shimkin, Victor: Described as publisher of Novoye Russkoye Slovo. Shimmel, O. V.: Soviet intelligence officer/agent. Shimmel likely used the psuedonym of Olga Khlopkova in the U.S. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Julia”. Shipley & Co.: International banking firm. Shipley, Ruth: Head of DOS passport bureau. Shirmanov: (KGB line) [source Venona] Shirokov: (KGB line) [source Venona] Shiyk, Andrew: Soviet intelligence source/agent since 1934. Hungarian embassador to the U.S. 1946. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Shumsky”. “Shkiper” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Skipper”. Shlyapnikov, Rudolf Petrovich: Senior KGB officer, 1957. “Shmel'” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Bumblebee”. “Shmel” / “Bumblebee”: David Greenglass (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Shmel” / “Bumblebee”: Walter Lippmann (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Shmidskij” [“Shmidsky”]: unidentified (KGB line) [source Venona] Shmitkhen, ?: Soviet intelligence officer, Moscow, 1937. Shmufatyanov: KGB Probationer on Soviet ship (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] “Shofer” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Chauffeur”. “Shop”: Civil Service Commission (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Shore”: North Africa (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Shore” [Bereg] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): North Africa. “Shore” was identified in the Venona decryptions as North Africa. Shoshman: (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Shostakovich, Dmitri: Soviet composer. “Shou” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Show”. “Show” [Shou] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): U.S. government body, probably the House Committee on Un-American Activities. Shpigelglaz, Sergey M.: Senior Soviet intelligence officer. Also known as Mikhail Shpigelglas. (Alternative translations in the literature of his family name: Spiguelglass). Executed in Stalin’s purge of his security services in the late 1930s. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks “Duche”. “Shponka” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Spline”. “Shponka” / “Spline” also “Shum” / “Noise”: redacted. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Shrewd” [Srud] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent, technical intelligence 1940. Sh/t: See C/t. “Shtabist” / “Staff-man” “Staff man”: unidentified, in army in 1944 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Shtamp” (cover name in the Venona decryptions): See “Stamp”. Shtemenko, Sergey M.: Soviet general, chief of staff, late 1940s. “Shtok” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Stock”. The original Russian, Shtok, is translated as Rod. The Venona project, however, took “Shtok” as phonetic and translated it as “Stock”. To avoid confusion, “Stock” is also adopted here. “Shtok” “Stock”: Shalyapin, Mikhail A., Clerk at consulate (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Shtorm” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Storm”.

Shturman or Navigator, unidentified Mexican Labor leader in KGB files on Kitty Harris but in Venona as Vicente Lombardo Toledano [source Damaskin Harris] Shudenko, Stepan Nikolaevich: Soviet intelligence officer/agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Nazar”. Shudenko, Stepan Nikolaevich: “Nazar” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Shugunov: see Chugunov. Shulberg, Seymore: Described as OSS officer/staff. Shulga, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Shulgin, Vasilij [Vasily] Alekseevich, 1944 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Shulkind, ?: Described as a friend of the Robert Switz’s wife. “Shum” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Noise”. “Shum” “Noise” also “Shponka” / “Spline”: redacted (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Shumakov, Boris: Russian brother-in-law of Helen Silvermaster. Shumakova, K.P.: Sister of Helen Silvermaster in the Soviet Union. Shumovsky, Stanaslav: “Bleriot”, KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Shumovsky, Stanislav: Soviet intelligence officer. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet officer/agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Blerio”. “Shumsky” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Andrew Shiyk. Shumyatsky, Boris Z.: Senior Bolshevik official on mission in Persia, 1923-1924. Executed in Stalin’s Terror in 1938. Shuneman, Fred: Member of CPUSA and Communist Party of Canada, radio operator for the KGB station in 1934-35. Described as married to Yetta Gabin. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Williams”. “Shura” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Olga Pravdina. “Shurin”: cover name or wife’s brother (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Shurin”: unidentified, likely GRU officer [source Venona] Shuvalov, ?: Described as the father of Varvara Hammer. Shvetsova or Shatsova, Sophia, wife of Lev Helfand. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Si” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Manager of the Soviet Consulate in New York, circa 1944. “Si” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the cover name used for the third secretary of Soviet NY consulate, Evgeny Aleksandrovich Dmitriev.

“Si”: Dmitriev, Evgenij [Evgeny] Aleksandrovich, third secretary of NY consulate, head of couriers in Cipher office. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Si..., Ruth, possibly Sikes, Ruth [source Venona] Sicco, Ualter (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Sid” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Allan Rosenberg. “Sidney” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer/ agent, illegal station. References to in 1940. “Sidon” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): London, U.K. “Sidon” was identified in the Venona decryptions as London. “Sidon”: London (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Sidorovich on Soviet ship: “Bob” (KGB line) [source Venona] “Sidorovich, Ann”: Objective: Obyektiv [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] Sidorovich, Ann: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks “Objective”. Ann Sidorovich was identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet intelligence source/agent, but under the cover name “Squirrel”. See “Objective” and “Squirrel” for an explanation of the Venona project’s error on “Squirrel”.[455] Sidorovich, Anne: possibly “Belka” / “Squirrel” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Sidorovich, Michael: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Member of Rosenberg’s technical intelligence apparatus. Michael Sidorovich was identified in the Venona decryptions as an Soviet intelligence source/agent with the cover name “Lens”.[456] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Lens”. Sidorovich, Michael: “Lens” Linza [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] Sidorovich, Mikhajl [Michail Michael]: “Lens”/ Linza (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Siebert, Hans: Described as a leader of German Communists in London in 1946. Sieloff, Erich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Siemens Incorporated Sigal, ?: Described as Amtorg employee with links to Trotsky. Sigaloff, Eugene: Described as Russian immigrant applying for job in Chicago in 1935. Sigalov, Evgeny: Variant of Eugene Sigaloff.

“Signal” (cover name in the Venona decryptions): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, aviation after October 1944, earlier cover name “Emulsion”.[457] Signing on (tradecraft phrase): KGB idiom for the formal recruitment of an agent. Also known and “contracting”. “S-II” [C-II] [sii s2] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Colonel ? Pierce. (Not same as female secretary “S-II”/”S-2”). “S-II” [C-II] [sii s2] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Variant of “S-2”, a female secretary source in the U.S. Department of the Navy. Sikorski, Wladyslaw: Leader of the Polish government-in-exile until 1943. Sikorsky (NGRU line) [source Venona] Silas Mitchell (ship) [source Venona] Silcox, ?: Described as an “intermediary” between Amtorg and American companies, 1928. “Sili, ?: KGB officer, Moscow Center, 1936. “Silver”: unidentified source of the Volunteers network [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Silver Legion: Also known as Silver Shirts. American fascist organization led by William Dudley Pelley. Silverberg, Tom: Described as a secret Communist employed at the Manhattan atomic project’s Chicago facility. Suspected of being a Communist by the FBI and Military security and, consequently, the Army drafted him and assigned him away from atomic work. Silverman, Abraham George: Soviet intelligence source/agent. In 1942 Silverman became civilian chief of analysis and plans to the assistant chief of the Army Air Force Air Staff for Material and Service. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as part of the Silvermaster espionage group. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent. [458] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Aileron”. Silverman, Abraham George: “Aileron”/ Eleron (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Silvermaster, Arkady: Brother of Gregory Silvermaster. Silvermaster, Helen Witte: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Wife of Nathan Gregory Silvermaster. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as part of the Silvermaster espionage group. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[459] Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[460] Party name: Sam. Cover names in

Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Pal” and then “Robert” (starting August 1944). Silvermaster, Helen: “Dora” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Silvermaster, Nathan Gregory: “Pal” [Pel] also “Robert” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Silvermaster, Nathan Gregory: “Robert” [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] Silvermaster, Nathan Gregory: “Pal” also “Robert” [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Sil'vi” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Sylvia”. “Sima” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Judith Coplon. “Sima”: Coplon, Judith (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Simon”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Simon” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See Simon Rosenberg. “Simon”: Bayer, Theodore, president of Russky Golos publishing Company (GRU line) [source Venona] Simonenko: (KGB line) [source Venona] Simpson, Renata: Described as a sister of Ursula Kuczynski. Sinarquists: (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Sincere” [Iskrenny] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent in Moscow, early 1930s. Sinclair, Upton: American writer, 1930s-1950s. “Sindikat” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Syndicate”. Sinelnkov, Vasilij [Vasily] Alekseevich (KGB line) [source Venona] “Singer” [Pevets] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentifed source early 30s, possibly a stenographer. Siniavsky, ?: Soviet official involved in high technology acquisition. “Sinitsa” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Blue Tit”. (Alternative translation: “Titmouse”). “Sinitsa”/ “Blue-Tit”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Siqueiros, Jose David Alfaro: possibly “Sonya” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Siquiros, Jose David Alfaro: “Chess Knight” / “Kon'” (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Sirano” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Cyrano”. “Sirota”: Maclean, Donald: “Waise” (German for Orphan) or Sirota in Russian [source Damaskin Harris] SIS: Secret Intelligence Service, U.K. Also known as MI6.

Sise, Hazen: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Elizabeth Bentley identified Hazen Sise, a secret Canadian Communist, veteran of the Spanish Civil War (medical unit), and Washington representative of the Canadian National Film Board, as one of the sources for her network. [461] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Operator”. “Siskin” / “Chizh”, Soviet in the Office unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Siskin” [Chizh] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Eduardo Pequeño. Siskin (a type of bird) occured in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified cover name of a Soviet agent operating in South and Central America.[462] “Siskin” /Chizh”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Sister”: Burnie, Frances, Australian line [West Venona] Sister branch or organization (KGB tradecraft term): GRU, Soviet military intelligence agency. Site W: Manhattan atomic project designation for its facilities at Hanford, WA. Site X: Manhattan atomic project designation for its facilities at Oak Ridge, TN. Site Y: Manhattan atomic project designation for its facilities at Los Alamos, NM. Sites, George: Described as American pro-Nazi activist. “Sitsilla” / “Scylla”,: William E. Dodd, Jr. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Russian version of Scylla, as in Scylla and Charybdis. Sizov, ?: Soviet military attache in London, 1944. SK: Reference unclear. May be “Sovetskaya Koloniya" – Soviet Colony. Skala (ship) “Skart”: Smart: unidentified to be called “Eliot” in a meeting. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Skat” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Ray”. (Skat is translated as skate, the name for ray fish, not roller skates or ice skates. “Skat” was translated in the Venona decryptions as “Ray” and that precedent if followed here to minimize confusion.) “Skat”: Ray: also “Karl”: redacted (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Skate: see “Ray”. “Skaut” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Scout”. “Skaut”: Joel Barr (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Skiers” [Lyzhniki] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Britains, English, post war. “Skiers” appeared in the Venona decryptions as unidentified. “Skij” [“Sky”]: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Skinner, Herbert: Scientist in the British atomic program, late 1940s. “Skipper ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Skipper” [Shkiper] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent in Mexico. Likely someone with close ties to the Soviet embassy. “Skipper” appears in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet contact in Mexico.[463] “Sklad” / “Warehouse”: BEW (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Sklare, Joseph, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Skoropadskij [Skoropadsky], Paul, son of (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Skoryukov, ?: Soviet diplomat at the San Francisco consulate in 1941. “Skott” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Scott”. “Skrib”: unidentified cover name in Alaska in late 1944 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Skryagin, Capt. Nikolaj [Nikolay] Alekseevich, assistant Naval Attache, DC: “Kent” (NGRU line) [source Venona] Skryaginskij [Skrayginsky] (KGB line) [source Venona] Skvirsky, Boris: Amtorg official in the 1920, later Soviet embassy staff. Skvortsov, Soviet seaman (NGRU line) [source Venona] Slack, Alfred: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Chemist at Eastman Kodak in Rochester, New York and Holston Ordnance Works in Kingsport, Tennessee.[464] Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “El” and “Ell” prior to October 1944, then “Bir”. “Slang”: Jane Foster (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Slang” [Sleng] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Jane Foster. Also known as Jane Foster Zlatowski (married name). “Slang” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Foster.[465] “Slava” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Ilya Elliott Wolston. “Slava” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Wolston.[466] “Slava” / “Glory”: Ilya Elliott Wolston in 1943, 1945 use is likely Wolston or unidentified. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Slave” [Rab] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source, possibly a U.S. government employee, involved with furnishing false immigration or passport documents, 1935. Described as motivated by money rather than ideology.

“Slave” [Rab] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, Communist, technological intelligence, 1942. Associated with Julius Rosenberg. “Slavin”: unidentified (Naval GRU line) [source Venona] Slavyagin, A. (real name) Soviet intelligence officer/agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Artem”. “Sleng” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Slang”. Slepenkov, Assistant Naval Attache in Sweden (NGRU line) [source Venona] Slepenkov [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] Slonim [Mark Slonim? Russian emigre]: (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Slough”: unidentified, likely GRU officer [source Venona] Slutsky, Abram Aronovich: Senior KGB officer, headed the KGB foreign intelligence service from May 1935 to February 1938, died under myterious circumstances during the Terror (likely murdered) and subequently denounced as an enemy of the people. Sluzhba Vneshney Razvedki: SVR – Foreign Intelligence Service (Russia), successor to the foreign intelligence branch of the KGB. SM: Sovet ministrov — Council of Ministers (formerly the Council of People’s Commissars). “SM”: Unidentified American military radio or radar devise “Small” / “Malyj”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Smart” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Elliot Goldberg, engineer for an oil equipment company in New York. “Smart” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified technical source/agent passed to GRU with instructions for GRU to call him “Eliot”.[467] “Smart”: Skart: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Smekhov, Chief Petter Officer of Mironych got drunk (NGRU line) [source Venona] Smeltzer, Harold: Soviet intelligence source/agent, technical intelligence, Bell aircraft. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Armor”. “Armor” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent with attributes that fit Smeltzer and as having the cover name “Stamp” until October 1944 when he became “Armor”.[468] “Smel'y” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Plucky” (Alternative translations: Brave, Courageous) “Smelyj”: Plucky: also “Kurt”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

SMERSH: Smert Shpionam [Death to Spies]. Chief Counterintelligence Directorate of the USSR People’s Commissariat of Defense. KGB special detarchment, 1943-1946, charged with counter-intelligence duties as well as harshly suppressing disaffection and malingering in the Red Army as well as. Smilg, Benjamin: Soviet intelligence source/agent, aviation technology. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Lever”. Smilg, David: Considered for recruitment. Younger brother of “Lever”/ Benjamin Smilg. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “David”. “Smirna” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Smyrna”. Smirnoff, Victor: Variant spelling of the head of Amkino, Victor E. Smirnov. “Smirnov”: one of the KGB “students” (KGB line) [source Venona] Smirnov, Anatolij [Anatoly] Nikolaevich (KGB line) [source Venona] Smirnov, Lieutenant Commander (NGRU line) [source Venona] Smirnov, Victor E.: Head of Amkino. Smirnova, Nina Stepanovna (KGB line) [source Venona] “Smit” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Smith”. Smith, ?: Assistant to the Secretary of State, 1938. Smith, Ben: British Labour Party member of parliament described as slated to take over Llewellyn’s duties with the British delegation to the Manhattan Project. Smith, Berton F.U.: Garble for Smith, Burton J.W. Smith, Burton J.W.: American who wrote a letter to Stalin in 1930 offering his services to the USSR and the Communist cause. Smith, Cyril: Head of the plutonium metallurgy group during the Manhattan Project. Smith, Gerald (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Smith, Howard Kingsbury: American journalist. Smith, Howard W.: U.S. representative (D. VA) Smith, Jessica: Editor of Soviet Russia Today/New World Review. Communist. Wife of Harold Ware and, after his death, John Abt. On Adolf Berle’s 1939 list of those identified by Whittaker Chambers as covert Communists who were espionage risks.[469] Smith, Julia: Elizabeth Bentley’s maternal grandmother. Smith, Paul, Boston Lawyer (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Smith, Paul: Described as active in Massachusetts politics and a friend of Tom Corcoran “Smith” [Smit] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): ? Chivin early 1930s.

“Smith” (Smit): Mins, Leonard Emil (GRU line) [source Venona] Smith, Ted, seaman-telegraphist, English, IB veteran (NGRU line) [source Venona] Smith, Thomas (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Smith, Walter Bedell: U.S. Ambassador to the USSR, 1946-1948, former U.S. Army general. “Smith’s line”: Espionage activity supervised by unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent “Smith”, 1938. Smithers, Peter H.B.O., British Assistant Naval attache (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Smodlaka, Josip, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Tito’s Provisional Partisan regime (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Smolnyj (ship) [source Venona] Smyka, Anastasia Illarionovna: Crew on the Soviet tanker “Azerbaijan”. “Smyrna”: Moscow (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Smyrna” [Smirna] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Moscow. “Smyrna” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Moscow. Smyrnov, Russian envoy Iran [source Venona] Smyth, Henry DeWolf.: Physicist, participant in the Manhattan atomic project, member of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 1949-1954. “Snegirev” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Valentin A. Sorokin. (Alternative translation: Sneguirev). “Snegov” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Boris Sokolov. SNK: Sovet narodnykh komissarov — Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR. Snopkov, Maksim Rodionovich (KGB line) [source Venona] Snopkova, Agrafina Kirillovna (KGB line) [source Venona] Snow, Helen Foster: See Wales, Nym. “Snow Leopard” / “Bars”: Rojo Gomez, Javier (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Snow: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] Snyder, John: U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, 1946-1953. “Soba” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, operating outside the U.S. and brother of Olga Neyman. Sobell, Morton: Considered a candidate for “Relay” but rejected.[470] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “obell, Morton: “Senya” [source Feklisov Rosenbergs]

Sobell, Morton: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Engineer and member of Julius Rosenberg’s technical intelligence apparatus. Convicted of espionage in 1951 and imprisoned.[471] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Senya” (1944-1945), “Stone” (1951). Soble, Jack: “Abram”: also “Chekh”: Czech (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Soble, Jack: Soviet intelligence officer/agent. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Abram” until September 1944 (with occasional use thereafter), then “Czech”, appears as “Peter” by early 1945, then “Czech” once more. Soble, Myra: Soviet intelligence agent. Wife of Jack Soble. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Myra” and candidate for “Maria”. Soblen, Robert (Brother of Jack Soble and sometimes referred to as Robert Soble): “Roman” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Soblen, Robert: Soviet intelligence agent. Used extensively for anti-Trosky work in Europe and America. A medical doctor. Party name Fred Carroll. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks “Roman”. Sobol, ?: Soviet intelligence officer. Executed in Stalin’s purge of his security services in the late 1930s. Socialist Party, U.S. Socialist Revolutionaries (SR): Left-wing populist political movement in the Tsarist era. Alexander Kerensky of the SR led the provisional government established by the February 1917 revolution in Russian that was overthrown in the Bolshevik coup of November 1917. The SRs easily won the popular vote for the Constituent Assembly established by the provisional government, but the Assembly was dispersed by force by the Bolsheviks. Elements of the “left SR” corroborated with and were absorbed by the Bolsheviks. Most SRs, however, were anti-Bolshevik and exiled SRs were a large element among the anti-Bolshevik refugee Russians. Society for Technical Aid to Soviet Russia: Provided private relief and industrial assistance to the USSR in the 1920s. Covertly run by the CPUSA. Society of Friends of the Soviet Union: See Friends of the Soviet Union. Society of the Friends of the USSR (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] SOE: Special Operations Executive, British commando, covert operations military agency.

Sogolow, Boris: Variant of Sokolov, Boris. Described as brother-in-law of Eugene Sigaloff who emigrated to Germany. “Sohnchen” [Zenkhen] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See Kim Philby (From the German Söhnchen) Sokirkin, Aleksej [Aleksey] P., (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Sokol” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Falcon”. Sokolnikov, Grigory Yakovlevich: Senior Bolshevik leader. Finance commissar in the 1920s. Imprisoned in the Terror and died in the Gulag. Sokolov, ?: Described as a professor in Moscow in 1949. Sokolov, Boris: Brother-in-law of Evgeny Sigalov, described as emigrating from Russia to Germany in the 1920s. Sokolov, Boris K.: Soviet intelligence officer/agent. Soviet diplomat, cooptee for KGB Washington Station. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Snegov”. Sokolov, Georgy Alexandrovich: KGB officer 1949, deputy station chief in Washington late 40s. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Fedor”. Sokolov, Ivan Alexeevich, clerk in Soviet Naval Attache office in DC, (NGRU line) [source Venona] Sokolov, Ivan Alexeevich [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] Sokolov, Yury: Soviet intelligence officer, New York Station 1948. Candidate for the cover name “Claude”.[472] Sokov, Andrek Kuzmich (KGB line) [source Venona] “Sol” (first name used as a cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Sol Leshinsky. Solana [ship] (NGRU line) [source Venona] Soldatov (KGB line) [source Venona] “Solid” [Solidny] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): James H. Hibben prior to October 1944. “Solid” appeared in the Venona decryptions as unidentified technical source in 1943 and 1944. In the Venona decryptions “Solid” was changed to “Kinsman” in October 1944. “Kinsman” does not does not appear in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks and the name may not have been implemented because “Solid” had become “Reed” in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks by 1945. Additionally, a New York KGB station Venona cable shortly after the shift from “Solid” to “Kinsman” stated that the reported change in “Solid” cover name was garbled. “Reed” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified technical intelligence source in

November 1944, and this likely was “Reed”/Hibben. Hibben’s real name does not appear in Vassiliev’s notebooks, but “Solid”/“Reed” is described as chief of the Chemical Division of the U.S. Tariff Commission, a position James Hibben held at the time. FBI also identified Hibben as an associate of Soviet agent Mary Price and had information that he was using his position to access documents on military explosives that were unrelated to his official duties.[473] “Solidnjy” / “Solid” also “Rodstvenni” also “Kinsman”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Solidny” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Solid”. (Alternative translations: Reputable, Impressive, Mature) Solovev (ship), (KGB line) [source Venona] Solovev, Valentin Lukyanovich: “Sharp-Sighted” (KGB line) [source Venona] Solovitz, Netty: Described as OSS officer/staff. Solovyov, ?: Described as a professor in Moscow in 1949. “Solt” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Salt”. “Solt” [Salt ]: U.S. Army G-2 counter-intelligence (KGB line) [source Venona] “Som” / “Sheat-Fish”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Somary, Felix, German-Swiss financier Somervell, Brehon Burke: Commanding General, U.S. Army Service Forces, WWII. Somervell, General, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Son”: Rudy Baker, chief of CPUSA covert arm, in WWII Comintern and KGB traffic. [source Klehr, Haynes, Firsov Secret World] “Son” / “Syn”: unidentified CPUSA official dealing with KGB in WWII (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Son” [Syn] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): KGB officer F.A. Garanin. References to in 1945, 1946. Sondergaard, Gale: Wife of Herbert Biberman. Recommended as candidate for KGB contact in 1949 by Martha Dodd. “Sonia”: Kuczynsky, Ursula U.K. line [West Venona] “Sonny” [Synok] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Victor Hammer, used in 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s. Sonny [Zenkhen]: See “Sohnchen”. “Sonya” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Ursula Kuczynski.

“Sonya”: possibly Jose David Alfaro Siqueiros (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Sonya”: Ursula Kuczynsky [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] “Sonya” / “Zhenya”: Sonia Steinman Gold (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Sorcerer [Shaman]: See “Shaman”. Sorge, Richard: GRU officer who ran highly successful networks in China and Japan. Arrested by Japanese security and executed. Sorokin, Valentin A.: Soviet intelligence officer. Cover in the U.S.: staff of Sovinformburo, 1946. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Snegirev”. “Sosedi” (cover name/tradecraft term in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Neighbors”. Sosin, Veniamin Efimovich (KGB line) [source Venona] Sosluzhivtsy (Tradecraft/cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Coworkers”. Sosnkovski, General Kazimierz (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] “Sotsul” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. Employee of Rumanian embassy. Sotto, ?: Described as the second secretary of the Chilean embassy in the USA. “Sound”: Golos, Jacob [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Sound” [Zvuk] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Jacob Golos. “Sound” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Golos.[474] “Sound” [Zvuk]: Jacob Golos (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “South” / “Yug”: Schuster, Bernard (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Southern”: unidentified, may be a place (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Southern Council for Human Welfare: Civic activist body led by Popular Front liberals and secret Communists. “Southerner ”: Muzquiz, Elena Huerta (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Sovdepia: A derogatory name for Soviet Russia by those hostile to Bolshevik rule. Derives from an abbreviation for the Russian term, Sovet Deputatov: "Council of Deputies" Sovetskaya Latviya (ship) [source Venona] SovExportFilm: Soviet film production agency. Soviet Government Purchasing Commission (SGPC): Soviet agency that supervised Soviet Lend-Lease purchases in the U.S.

Soviet Information Bureau: Soviet foreign information and propaganda agency. Soviet Review: likely a confusion with Soviet Russia Today. Soviet Russia Today. Soviet (ship) [source Venona] Sovinformbureau: Soviet Information Bureau. Sovnarkhoz: Council of the National Economy. Sovnarkom: Sovet narodnykh komissarov (SNK) — Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR. Soyuz: See Union. Soyuzbumaga: All-Union Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry. Soyuzintorgkino: Soviet agency that distributed Soviet films abroad and obtained foreign films for Soviet distribution. Soyuzneft: All-Union Association of the Oil and Gas Industry. Sozykin, Fedor (KGB line) [source Venona] Söhnchen: See “Sohnchen”. “Spa” [Kurort] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): broadly, U.S. military intelligence, the Military Intelligence Division of the War Department and Army G-2. “Spa” was also identified as U.S. military intelligence in the Venona decryptions.[475] “Spa”: Military Intelligence (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Spaatz, Carl: Senior American Army Air Corps and USAF general. Spalding, Sidney P.: Supervisor for American firm “Badger” in USSR. “Spark” also “Davis”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Sparks, H.: Described as member of the Michigan CPUSA Central Committee in late 1937. “Sparta” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Moscow, 1950. “Spartans” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviets, 1950. “Spasnachev”: Nadyusha (KGB line) [source Venona] Special work (party idiom): Covert work of some sort. Speer, Albert: Nazi German minister for armaments and war production. Spellman [Cardinal?] (KGB line) [source Venona] Spellman, Francis Joseph Cardinal: Leading Roman Catholic prelate in America. Spellman, John: Brother of Cardinal Spellman. Spellman, Kathleen: Niece of Cardinal Spellman. Spellman, Martin: Brother of Cardinal Spellman. Spenser, Frank: Teachers union figure who knew Harold Glasser, 1936.

Speransklj, Captain Konstantin, Soviet Meterological mission (NGRU line) [source Venona] Sperry Corporation. “Spider” / “Pauk”: possibly Aleksandr Kasem-Bet? Kasem-Beg? (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Spies” [“Lazutchiki”]: Title of a KGB file containing reports on American counter-intelligence and espionage carried out in the U.S. by German and Japanese intelligence agencies. “Spirited”: unidentified covername Australian line [West Venona] Spivak, John: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Radical journalist and secret Communist who specialized in investigation and exposure of rightists. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as carrying out covert tasks for Jacob Golos.[476] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Grin”. Candidate for the cover names “18” and “John”. “Spline” / “Shponka”: also “Shum” / “Noise”: redacted (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Spline” [Shponka] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Michael K. Cham until October 1944. “Spline” was identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet intelligence source/agent but FBI/NSA redacted the name.[477] “Sposobny” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Gifted”. “Spring” [Vesna] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): ? White. “Spruce” [El']: see “Fir”. “Spruce” or “Fir” / “El”: Keenan, Helen Grace Scott (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Squirrel” [Belka] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence agent, courier. References to in 1945, 1947, 1950. “Squirrel” is described as the “wife of ‘Hudson’” Edith Emery is a candidate for “Squirrel”. Emery was married to CPUSA official Roy Hudson. (There is also an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent with the cover name “Husdon”.) Emery had worked as a courier for the CPUSA covert apparatus in the 1930s, and she was the subject of a badly broken New York KGB message to Moscow on 3 July 1942. Just five days after the garbled KGB cable to Moscow about Emery, General Fitin of the KGB asked the Comintern to provide whatever information the Comintern had on Emery as well as on two other persons associated with her. While exactly what the 1942 KGB cable and Fitin’s query were about is not clear, this was a period when the

KGB was reviewing and in some cases reviving dormant Comintern and GRU networks, and these documents may part of that process of vetting Emery for being taken on as a courier. “Squirrel” as a cover name was identified in a single 1945 Venona message that also discussed “Lens” (Michael Sidorovich) and NSA/FBI suggested that “Squirrel” was possibly Ann Sodorovich. Based on Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks, this was mistaken. Instead, “Squirrel” was a courier who serviced a safe house hosted by “Lens” and “Objective” (Michael and Ann Sidorovich).[478] SR (S.R.): Socialist Revolutionaires SRT: Soviet Russia Today. “Srud” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Shrewd”. SS: Schutzstaffel, German for "Protective Squadron”, elite security/military formations directly controlled by the National Socialist German Workers Party. Stachel, Jack: Senior CPUSA official. Staff, Joshua (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Staff-man” “Staffman” / “Shtabist”: unidentified cover name in army in 1944, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Stakhanovite ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Stalinabad (ship) [source Venona] Stamoinen, Irjosaa, Finn, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Stamp” / “Shtamp”: redacted employee at Bell (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Stamp” (Shtamp) (cover name in the Venona decryptions): Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet intelligence source/agent for a source at Bell Aircraft in New York and whose real name was redacted. “Stamp” became “Armor” in October 1944. “Armor” is identified in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks as Harold Smeltzer, therefore “Stamp” was Harold Smeltzer.[479] Stan (party name): Stanley Graze. Stan: Work name Ivan Morozov used with Harry Gold. Stanarm, Hans (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Standard Aircraft Product, U.S. firm [source Venona] Standard Oil Company. Standard Oil (KGB line) [source Venona] Standley, Ambassador (NGRU line) [source Venona] Standley, William: USN admiral and U.S. Ambassador, Moscow, 1942-43.

Stanisic': (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Stanley”: Philby, Kim U.K. line [West Venona] “Stanley” [Stenli] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1938. Technical intelligence.[480] Stapler, William: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Thomas Black identified Stapler as a Soviet industrial espionage source. Black’s description of Stapler’s activities matches the activities of the Soviet source “Ray” (later changed to “Karl”) in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks. “Ray”/“Karl” also appeared in the Venona decryptions, and NSA/FBI analysis identified the real name but redacted it. However, a 1951 FBI memo reviewing Venona noted that nine persons that Venona demonstrated were assisting Soviet espionage were deceased. One of those listed as deceased was Stapler. That, along with Black’s evidence, indicates that the redacted name in the Venona decryptions for “Ray”/“Karl” was William Stapler.[481] Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Ray” prior to October 1944, then “Karl”. “Star” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Saville Sax, 1944-1945. “Star” (Saville Sax) as a cover name was pared with “Mlad” (Theodore Hall) as in the Russian expression "y star, y mlad" (old and young people). Hall, a physics prodigy and Harvard graduate at age 18, offered his services to the KGB at age 19, assisted by his friend Saville Sax, only a few years older. The KGB deemed them “Mlad” and “Star”. “Star” sometimes rendered as “Old” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Sax.[482] “Star” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Colonel Edwin Emerson, mid-30s. “Star” “Old”: Sax, Saville (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Star”: Oppenheimer and/or Fermi [source Sudoplatov] Star [Zvezda]: See “Zvezda.” “Starik” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Old Man”. Starikov, ?: Soviet intelligence officer, Moscow, 1960. “Stark” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See ? Berlin. Starker, ?: Described as an aide to Hermann Neubacher. Starkov, Vladimir Borisovich (KGB line) [source Venona] Starnes, Joseph: U.S. Representative (D. AL) Starr, George J.: Described as an FBI agent, 1942. “Starshy” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Elder”. (Alternative translation: Senior)

“Starter” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Ivan Timofeevich Orlov. “Starukha”: Old Woman: Natalia Ivanova Sedova-Trotsky (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Starygin (on ship Emba)”: Brilov (KGB line) [source Venona] Staryj Bolshevik (ship) [source Venona] Stasek, ?: Described as a Polish journalist and husband of Marta Jansen. Stasha: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] Stasova, Elena: Prominent Bolshevik. Stassen, Harold: Former Republican governor of Minnesota, national Republican political figure. State, Department of, U.S.. Referred to as SD, DOS, and MID. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Surrogate” (1930s), “Circus” (circa 1939-1941), “Bank” thereafter. State Security Commission: a body under the Council of Ministers of the USSR. StateD: translation of “Indel”, abbreviation for Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Station Chief Gold: Title of a 1984 internal KGB book about the career of KGB officer Iskhak Akhmerov issued to students at the KGB training academy, the Andropov Red Banner Institute. Written by KGB Colonels A.E. Vassiliev and A.A. Koreshkov. Station Chief [Rezident] (tradecraft term): The commander of the KGB or GRU station. Station [Rezidentura] (tradecraft term): The KGB or GRU organization in a country. Often there were two types, a legal station and an illegal station. The legal station had officers and staff holding formal diplomatic status and recognized as Soviet staff attached to a legal Soviet entity such as a Soviet embassy or consulate and ostensibly performing normal diplomatic duties. The illegal station consisted of officers and agents (both Soviet and native) who did not have diplomatic status and in the case of the Soviet officers, often had false identifies as a native or an immigrant. Statskevich, Nikolay V.: Soviet intelligence officer/agent. References to in 1949. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Larry”. Stazhery (tradecraft term): See “Probationers” (Alternative translation: Interns) Stechishin, Miroslay (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Steel Engineer (ship) [source Venona]

Steel, Johannes: Soviet intelligence contact/informant. An informant for “Grin”/Spivak. Naturalized American of German origin. Pro-Soviet left-wing journalist and commentator. Steel is identified in the Venona decryptions as assisting KGB in recruitment.[483] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Dicky”. Steele, Johannes: “Dicky” / “Diki” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Stefan” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Stephan”. Steffens, Lincoln: Well-known American writer, ardent ally of the CPUSA. Steiger, Andrew J.: Soviet intelligence source. A journalist, he chiefly wrote on Soviet and Far Eastern topics and occasionally worked as a literary translator of Russian. Louis Budenz, testified that Steiger was a secret member of the CPUSA.[484] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Fakir”. Steinbeck, John: American writer. Steinberg, Isadore, artist, War Department, CPUSA [source Venona] Steinhardt, Laurence: Businessman and American diplomat. U.S. Ambassador to the USSR, 1939-1941. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Deputy”. “Stella” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Helen Lowry, August 1944 to mid-1955. “Stella” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent whose activities were compatible with Lowry. “Stella”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Stella”: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] Stenek Travel Bureau: Described as a front for German intelligence in the U.S. “Stenli” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Stanley”. Stennes, Walter: “Drug” / “Friend” [source Damaskin Harris] Stennes, Walter Franz Maria: pseudonym Scott, Walter (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Stennes, Walther [ Walter ]: “Drugg” / “Friend” [appears to be KGB Tokoyo or Asian channel] cited to Courier of Russian Intelligence May 1991. [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] “Stepan” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer and acting chief of the New York station 1947-1948. Likely Pavel I. Fedosimov. “Stepan” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Pavel Ivanovich Fedosimov, arriving at the New York station in 1944.

It is likely but not certain that Venona’s “Stepan”/Fedosimov is the “Stepan” of Vassiliev’s notebooks. “Stepan”: Pavel Ivanovich Fedosimov (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Stepan Razin (ship) [source Venona] Stepankiwsky, Volodimir: See Vladimir Stepankowsky. Stepankowsky, Vladimir: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Activist in Ukrainian nationalist circles. Also know as: W. J. Stepankowsky and Volodimir Stepankiwsky. Elizabeth Bentley identified Stepankowsky as a source for Jacob Golos on Ukrainian ethnic activities.[485] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Blue Tit”. Stepankowsky, W. J.: See Vladimir Stepankowsky. “Stepanov” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Alexander Korotkov. “Stepanov”: unidentified (KGB line) [source Venona] Stepanov, G.A., Vice-Admiral, acting chief of Naval Staff: unidentified name twenty-four, #24 [[NGRU line] [source Venona] “Stepfather” [Otchim] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet Ambassador to the U.S. “Stepfather” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Soviet Ambassador Gromyko. “Stepfather” / “Otchim”: Andrey Gromyko, Soviet Ambassador in DC (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Stephan” [Stefan] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Arnold Deutsch Stephen J. Field (ship) [source Venona] Stephenson, William, head of British Security Co-ordination office, NY (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Steppin, Irving: Pseudonym used by Valentin Markin. Stern, Adolf: Error for Alfred Stern. Stern, Alfred K.: “Louis” / “Lui” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Stern, Alfred K.: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Louis”. Stern, Martha Dodd: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[486] Identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as a Soviet source/agent. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Juliet No. 2” (1937), “Liza” (1936-1950s) Stern, Martha Dodd: “Liza” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Stern, Monroe: Soviet intelligence contact/informant, 1947. Stern, O., Carnegie Institute in Pittsburgh (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Stern, Robert: Adopted son of Alfred and Martha Stern. “Stetsenko” / Shchedryj: KGB Probationer on Soviet ship (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] Stetsenko, A. G.: Comintern personnel department official. Stettinius, Edward, Jr.: Businessman, senior U.S. official, U.S. Secretary of State in 1945. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Corporal”. Stettinius (NGRU line) [source Venona] Steve: pseudonym/work name used by J. Peters [source Chambers Witness] “Steve” [Stiv] (pseudonym used as a cover name in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks): Josef Peters. “Stevedore” / “Gruzchik”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Stevens, Donald: Described as an associate of Michael Straight, 1938. Stevens, Eddie (Edmund) (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Stevens, Gordon: Borovyj, Leo Judah (KGB line) [source Venona] Steyn, ?: Described as a relative of Genrich Lyushkov. Stillwell, Joseph, General [source Venona] Stimson, Henry L.: “Bom” / “Bomb” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Stimson, Henry L.: U.S. Secretary of State, 1929-1933, Secretary of War, 1940-1945. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Bomb”. Stipanovic, Branco (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Stiv” (pseudonym used as a cover name in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Steve”. “Stoaway” / “Zayats”: Maurice Halperin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Stock” [Shtok] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Mikhail A. Shalyapin. “Stock” [Shtok]: Shalyapin, Mikhail A., Clerk at consulate (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Stokes, Thomas L.: Senior reporter for Scripps-Howard newspapers. Stokowski, Leopold: Well-known conductor of major American orchestras. “Stolp” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Pillar”. “Stolp”/ “Pillar”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Stone, ?: Described as Canadian ambassador to the U.S. Stone, ?: Described as American composer living in Mexico, agent of Boris Morros’s music company. Stone, I.F.: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Stone appeared in the Venona decryptions under the cover name “Pancake” as meeting with a KGB officer and discussing recruitment or reestablishment of an earlier

relationship. Also in the notebooks under his birth name, Isidor Feinstein. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Pancake”.[487] Stone, Isidor Feinstein: “Pancake” / “Blin” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Stone” [“Stoun”] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Morton Sobell, 1951. While Sobell’s name is not given in the notebooks, “Stone” is described as sentenced to thirty years in prison in the Rosenberg trial, a fact fitting Morton Sobell and no one else. Stone, William T.: Official at BEW, supervisor of Gregory Silvermaster. Stool Pigeon [Stukach]: See “Informer”. “Store” / “Magazine”: The Soviet Government Purchasing Commission in the U.S. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Store” [Magazin] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet Government Purchasing Commission “Store” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the Soviet Government Purchasing Commission. “Storm”: Golovin, Petr Dmitreich (on ship Litke) (KGB Line, San Francisco) [source Venona] “Storm” / “Shtorm”: unidentified cover name but not Golovin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Storm” [Shtorm] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Josef Peters. Storm occured in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified cover name and one that is consistent with it being Peters.[488] “Stoun” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Stone”. Stowaway: see “Zayats” Strabolgi, Geraldine: Wife of Joseph Montague Kenworthy, 10th Baron Strabolgi. Strabolgi, Lord (Joseph Montague Kenworthy, 10th Baron Strabolgi): Chief Labour government whip in the British House of Lords in the postwar Labour government. Strachey, John: Left Socialist British politician and writer. Aligned with the CPGB in the 1930s but returned to the Labour Party in 1940. Straight, Michael: “Nigel” in 1930s [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Straight, Michael: “Nigel” [source West & Tsarev] Straight, Michael: Soviet intelligence source.[489] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Nigel”. Straight, Whitney Willard: Brother of Michael Straight. “Strana” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Country”. Strange, Heinz (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Strassenman. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Strassman, Antony: Described as German intelligence agent in the U.S., 1936. Strauss, George R.: Left Socialist British politician. Expelled from the Labor Party in 1939 for supporting an alliance with the CPGB. “Strela” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Garble for “Stella”.[490] Stridsberg, Augustina (formerly Jirku): “Klara” (KGB line) [source Venona] Striganov, Sergey Romanovich: Soviet intelligence officer/agent. Soviet diplomat. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Saushkin”. “Stroitel'” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Builder”. Strokov, ?: KGB officer, 1947. Strong, Anna Louise: “Lira” / “Lyra” (KGB line) [source Venona] Strong, George V.: U.S. Army general, G-2. Struggle [Boy]: See “Boy”. Struve, O., astronomer Wisconsin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Stuart”: Maclean, Donald after 1938 [source Damaskin Harris] Stuart (NGRU line) [source Venona] Student League Against War and Fascism: A reference to the youth/student section of the American League Against War and Fascism. Study (KGB tradecraft term): Vetting, a thorough background check on the target. “Stukach” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Informer”. Stukach literally mens Knocker in Russian with the connotation of one who gives information on other people gained by going around and knocking on doors and windows and peering inside. Translations include Fink, Stool Pigeon, or Informer. Venona translated “Stukach” as “Informer”, and to avoid confusion, “Stukach” is here translated as “Informer”. “Stukach” / “Informer”: Joseph Katz (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Sturdza (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Suarez Lopes, Luis (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Subcommittee on War Mobilization of the U.S. Senate Military Affairs Committee: Chaired by Senator Harley Kilgore and known as the Kilgore committee. Subercaseaux, Christian Casanova: “Carlos” [Karlos] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Suchan (ship) [source Venona] Sudoplatov, Pavel A.: Senior KGB officer, Moscow Center, early 1940s.[491] Sudykoff [Sudakov], Stephen (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Suk” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Bough”. “Suk”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Sukhomlin, Vasily, employed by the Czechoslovak Information Service in the US, 1941-45, Russian, former SR: Mars (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Sukhomlin, Vasily Vasilyevich: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Sukhoy”. “Sukhoy” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See Vasily Vasilyevich Sukhomlin “Sukhumskij” [“Sukhumsky”]: Boguslavskij [Boguslavsky], Boris Mikhajlovich (KGB line) [source Venona] “Sul'fo” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Sulpho”. “Sullen” / “Ugryumyj”: Kirillov, Viktor (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Sullivan, ?: Described as aide to Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau. “Sulpho” [Sul'fo] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1943. Acquired materials about the biological warfare. Sulzberger, Arthur Hays (KGB line) [source Venona] Sumskaya, ?: Soviet embassy stenographer. Sumskaya, Anna Yulyevna: Mother of Varvara Dmitriyevna Hammer. Sumskoi, Mikhail Mikhailovich: Soviet intelligence officer/agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Makar”. Sun Fo?: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Sun Teng Yang, General (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF): AngloAmerican and other allied forces military command for Western Europe. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Kis”. Supreme Junta of National Unity, (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Suprun, Fedor, Soviet airman of Soviet Government Purchasing Commission (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Sur” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Norman Bursler. “Surrogate” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): U.S. Department of State, 1930s. Suslov, Mikhail A.: Senior Soviet official, part of Stalin’s inner circle after WWII.

Sussman, Nathan: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Engineering classmate of Julius Rosenberg. Source in Julius Rosenberg’s technical intelligence apparatus. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Tuk” prior to September 1944, then “Nil”. Suvarin, Boris: French Communist leader, early 1920s (sometimes spelled Souvarine). Suvorin, ?: Know to Mark Zborowski. Likely a figure in the Russian emigre community. Suvorov (ship) [source Venona] “Svat” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Matchmaker”. “Svat” / “Matchmaker”: Gusev, Makhail Maksimovich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] SVAT: Sovetskij Voennyj Attashe: Soviet Military Attache office. [source Venona] Sven, ?: Soviet intelligence source source on Max Eastman in 1932. Described as the brother of Eliena Vassilyenva Krylenko. Sverdlova, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Sveshnikov, Valdimir Vladimirovich: Soviet intelligence source/agent, military technology. A 1948 Gorsky memo Chambers/Karl’s group name.[492] Chambers noted that among the sources that reported to Boris Bykov was a ballistics expert at the War Department. In statements to the FBI he identified Valdimir Vladimirovich De Sveshnikov as the ballistics expert. Inteviewed by the FBI, De Sveshnikov said he was first approached by Soviet intelligence in the mid-1920s and from 1931 to 1938 or 1939 he furnished Soviet intelligenge with industrial and military patents as well as military journals and received regular payments in return. The addition of “De” to the family name was a convention some emigre Russians adopted to indicate aristocratic origin (authentic or assumed). Sveshnikov, Valdimir Vladimirovich aka De Sveshnikov and DeSveshnikov, a. Source for Chambers & Bykov network, ballistics expert. [source William Crane FBI] “Svet” (cover name in the Venona decryptions): See “Light”. “Svet” / “Light”: Raev, Aleksandr Andreevich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Svet”: Rogov, Alexander, of military intelligence [source Feklisov ] “Svoi” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Ours”. SVR: Sluzhba Vneshney Razvedki – Foreign Intelligence Service of Russia.

Swanson, Claude: U.S. Senator, 1910-1933 (D. VA). “Swede”: unidentified in Venona (possibly a reference to Alexander Orlov in the Spanish Civil War) (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Swindler [Zhulik]: See “Crook”. Swing, Raymond Gram Switz, Robert Gordon: Soviet intelligence source/agent. American, born 1904, attended private prep schools, then University of Besancon, University of Strassbourg, and University of Paris. Recruited by a Russian friend in New York, worked for GRU in 1932-1933, contact with a GRU source, former Young Communist League member and U.S. Army Corporal Robert Osman in Panama. Identified by French security while on a GRU mission to France in 1933, imprisoned for nine months, cooperated with French and American authorities and released.[493] Switzerland (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Cover name “Mountains”. Swystunn, Wasyl (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Sylvia” [Sil'vi] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer/agent. References to in 1940. (Likely the wife of Arnold Deutsch.) “Syn” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Son”. “Syn”/ “Son”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Syn” / “Son”: Rudy Baker, chief of CPUSA covert apparatus, WWII. [source Klehr Haynes Firsov Secret World] Synchromatic company: Described as a firm which manufactures equipment for the U.S. atomic program in 1949. “Syndicate” [Sindikat] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): People's Commissariat of Foreign Affairs, USSR. “Syndicate”/ Sindikat: Peoples’s Commissariat of Foreign Affairs. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Synok” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Sonny”. Szilard, Leo: Hungarian-American physicist and senior scientist on the Manhattan atomic project. Szwalbe, Stanislaw: Left Polish Socialist who collaborated with the Communists after WWII. XXT

T”.: [TT] unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “T” [TT] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): World Tourists. Tabouis, Genevieve (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Tabouis, Geneviève: Refugee French journalist/writer, editor of the New York based anti-Vichy newspaper Pour la victoire. Taft, Robert (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Taft, Robert: U.S. Senator (R. OH). Taganrog: Soviet ship (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Tagore”: Kolesnikov, Aleksandr Grigorevich (KGB line) [source Venona] Taigonos (ship) [source Venona] Takahashi: unclear reference to a Japanese political element allegedly linked to Trotskyism. “Tal-1” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Paul Williams. “Talant” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Talent”. “Talent” / Talant: William M. Malisoff (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Talent” [Talant] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent of scientific-technological intelligence, mid-30s. Likely William Malisoff. “Talent” was identified in the Venona decryptions as William Marias Malisoff (Malisov) prior to October 1944.[494] “Talmudist” [cover name for a technical position in GRU office, probably crytographic] [source Venona] “Tan” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Harry Magdoff, 1945-1948. “Tan” appeared only once in the deciphered Venona traffic, in a 1945 message, and was unidentified; but the context was consistent with it being Magdoff.[495] “Tan” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer/agent tentatively planned to be sent to U.S. in 1934. “Tan”: unidentified cover name [possible Perlo group] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Tanenbaum, ?: Jacob Golos recommended for recruitment on technical line in 1942. Tank Destroyer T-70 [source Venona] “Tanya”: Tery, Simone: Simone Terry Jacquet De Chabas (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Tanz, Alfred: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Amigo”. Taradin, Aleksej [Aleksey], Soviet Naval Attache in Stockhom. Aug 42-Dec. 46

Taradina, wife of Aleksej [Aleksey] Taradin, Soviet Naval Attache in Stockhom. Aug 42-Dec. 46 (NGRU line) [source Venona] Taradonova, Olga Ignatevna (KGB line) [source Venona] “Taran” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Battering Ram. Taran, Lev Grigoryevich: Manager of Russky Golos. “Taras” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. Described as a female hair cutter assigned to anti-Trotsky work. References to in 1932. Tarasov, Lev A.: “Yury”: Yurij (Resident, Mexico City) Tarasov was first sec in Mexico until Dec 1944 [KGB Mexico City line and U.S. line) [source Venona] Tarasov, Yuri: “Lev”: real name Yuri [Yury] Vasilevsky code [source Damaskin Harris] Tarnopolsky: See Tarr, Shifra. Tarnovskaya - Randegger: Described as wife of an Italian Banker. Tarr, Shifra: Soviet intelligence source/agent targeted at Trotskyist movement. Described as the widow of the Communist Tarr/ Tarnopolsky. “Tarulis”: Osipov (KGB line) [source Venona] Tasin, Yakov Naumovich: Birth name of Jacob Golos. TASS: Telegraf-noye agentstvo Sovetskogo Soyuza —Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union, Soviet news agency. Cover name in Vassiliev notebooks “Editorial Office”. “Tasya” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent. References to in 1937. “Tasya”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Tattersell, Herbert W.: “Artiste” (U.K. line) Tatyana ?: Given name of the girlfriend of Armand Victorovich Hammer at Moscow State University. Taylor, ?: Described as U.S. official negotiating with the Polish government in London. Taylor, ?: Described as someone who accompanied Glenn Fowler to the U.K. in 1941 on a Manhattan Project related task. Taylor, Geoffrey Ingram: British physicist and key member of the British contingent in the Manhattan atomic project. Taylor, G.I. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Taylor, Glen: U.S. Sentor (D. Idaho, 1945-1950). Progressive Party candidate for vice-president in 1948. Taylor: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] Taylor, William H.: Acorn [source West Venona] Taylor, William: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Treasury Department official. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as part of the Silvermaster espionage group. Taylor sued the Washington Daily News in 1954 for libel for its coverage of Bentley’s statement that he was part of an espionage ring. Not wanting the expense of a trial, the newspaper settled the suit out of court and withdrew its statements about Taylor. Bentley was upset by the paper’s retreat, and she herself never retracted her description of Taylor. Taylor’s lawyers prepared a wideranging study that assailed Bentley as a liar and fraud and circulated it widely to the press. The FBI answered with a memo that replied point-by-point and supported Bentley’s credibility.[496] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Odysseus” Tchaikovsky, Pyotr Ilyich: Well-known Russian composer. Tea Room: see “Tea Shop”. Tea Shop”: Commerce Department (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Tea Shop” [Chaynaya] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): U.S. Department of Commerce, circa 1944. “Tea Shop” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the Commerce Department. “Teacher” / “Uchitelnita” (female): unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Teacher” [Uchitel'nitsa] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Leah Melament.[497] Technic Research: Reference to the organization Consumers Research. “Technican”: Nosov, Fedor A. TASS KGB Australian line [West Venona] “Technician”: unidentifed source GRU London U.K. line [West Venona] “Ted” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Edward Fitzgerald. References to in 1944. “Ted” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Fitzgerald.[498] “Ted”: Fitzgerald, Edward J. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Teddy: See “Fedya”. Tedeschi, Luis (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Telberg, Ina: analyst in Far East Division of OSS (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Teller, Edward: Hungarian-born senior American theoretical physicist and a leading figure in the Manhattan atomic project, pioneer in development of the Hydrogen fusion bomb. Teller, Edward (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Temple”: White House (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Temple” [Khram] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): White House circa 1944. “Temple” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the White House. Temporary Commission on Ration Questions: The specific body referenced is unclear. “Ten” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): ? Liveit-Levit, Soviet intelligence officer/agent, 1930s. “Ten”: Michael Burd (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Tennessee Valley Association: Mistake for Tennessee Valley Authority Tennessee Valley Authority: U.S. government regional hydroelectric and flood-control agency. Tenney, Helen: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Analyst of the OSS’s Spanish division during World War II, after the OSS dissolved, she became an employee of the Strategic Services Unit (intelligence) of the Department of State working on Soviet matters. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as one of her singleton espionage sources. KGB sent Comintern a vetting inquiry about her in 1944.[499] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Muse”. “Tenor”: Burd, Michael (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Tenth” [Desyatym] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent. Described as someone who recommended Alexander and Helen Koral to the KGB for courier work. Philip Rosenbliett, who recommended the Korals to the KGB, is a candidate for “Tenth”. In a marginal annotation to the passage about “Tenth”, Vassiliev wrote “10 -- Rosenbliett?”[500] This confuses “Tenth” with the digital cover name “10”, the cover name of Ludwig Lore. Terenev (KGB line) [source Venona] Terentev, Aleksandr (KGB line) [source Venona] Terentev (on ship Emba): Fedorov (KGB line) [source Venona] Terentij [Terenty] (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Ternej [Terny] (ship) [source Venona] Terrell, Frederick: Elizabeth Bentley’s maternal grandfather.[501] Terrill, Mary Charlotte: Maiden name of Elizabeth Bentley’s mother.

“Territory” [“Kray”] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Canada. “Kray” translated as “Land” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Canada. Tery, Simone [Simone Terry Jacquet De Chabas]: “Tanya” (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Teska” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Namesake”. “Texas ”: Carrillo Marcor, Alejanbro (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Tharnycroft: Misspelling of Thornycroft. Thayer, Charles: Senior CIA official, late 1940s. The Great Conspiracy (KGB line) [source Venona] The Hour (KGB line) [source Venona] Theophilus: Metropolitan Theophilus Pashkovsky of the American-Russian Orthodox Church in San Francisco (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Theremin, Leon: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Frenchman”. “Third line”: (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Thomas” also “Brother” / “Brat”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Thomas, Elbert (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Thomas, Elbert: U.S. Senator (D. Utah). Thomas, J. Parnell: U.S. Representative (R. NJ). Thomas, Lowell: Radio and television journalist. Thomas McKean (ship) [source Venona] Thomas, Norman: Leader of the Socialist Party in the 1930s. Thomas: Pseudonym used by Sergey Kurnakov. Thomas, R.J.: President of the UAW in 1945. “Thomas” [Tomas] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent. “Thomas” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent whose cover name was “Brother” until changed to “Thomas” in October 1944.[502] William Plourde is a candidate for “Thomas”/“Brother”. A deciphered KGB cable suggested that William Plourde, an engineer at Bell, was a Shevchenko source but no cover name for him was given. Plourde, then, would be a candidate for “Thomas”.[503] Thomas’s committee (description): House Committee on Un-American Activities when chaired by Rep. J. Parnell Thomas (R. NJ).

Thompson, assistant editor of Time, anti-Soviet , Craig Thompson? (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Thompson, Robert (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Thorez, Maurice: French Communist leader. “Thornton”: Malyshev, Mikhail Vladimerovich (NGRU line) [source Venona] Thornycroft, Priscilla,: Wife of German Communist Hans Siebert and the sister of Kate Thornycroft Field. Through Embassy Eyes: Authored by Martha Dodd [Stern] in 1939.[504] “Thrush” / “Dozd” also “Akhmed”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Thrush” [Drozd] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. Cover name changed to “Akhmed” in September 1944. “Thrush” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agen, cover name changed to “Akhmed” in September 1944.[505] Tietjen: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Tikhomirov, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Tikhomirova, Aleksandra Vasilevna (NGRU line) [source Venona] Tikhomirova, Elena Nikolaevna (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Tikhon” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified KGB chief of station Paris, postwar, chief of station, U.S., 1952. “Tikhon” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent at Northrup mid-1930s. References to in 1942. Tikkakoski (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Till, Irene,: Harold Glasser's first wife. Timok Ship Timoshek (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Timoshenko, S.G., math CA (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Timoshina, ?: Soviet embassy stenographer. “Tina” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent in British atomic project. Likely Melita Stedman Norwood. “Tina” is described as born in 1912, a secret Communist, and a secretary with the British Non-Ferrous Metals Research Association, all of which fit Norwood. “Tina” was also identified as Norwood in Andrew and Mitrokhin. “Tina” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent in the U.K.[506]

“Tina” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Described as someone known to Alexander Koral in the 1930s, possibly an associate of the Rosenbliett network.[507] “Tino” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Irving Kaplan. “Tir” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Tyre”. Tirana, Rifa (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Tis” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Yew”. Tishkov, A.: KGB officer at Moscow Center, 1946, 1953. Titmouse: see “Sinitsa”. “Tito”: Ugalde, Petro (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Tito, Josip Broz: Yugoslav Communist leader. Tixier, Adrien (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Tkach, Mikhail: Editor of the Ukrainian Daily News and Communist activist. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Perch”. Tkach, Mikhail: “Perch” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Tkachev, Vasilij [Vasily] Ilich (KGB line) [source Venona] “Tobi” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Toby”. Tobol (ship) “Toby” [Tobi] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1938. “Todd”: an employee of Tass. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Todd Shipyards (KGB line) [source Venona] Todo: unidentified, possibly a Mexican publication] (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Todrin, Moses (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] TOF Tikhookeanskij [Tikhookeansky] Flot [Soviet Pacific fleet] (NGRU line) [source Venona] Togliatti, Palmiro: Italian Communist leader, Comintern party name Ercoli. Togmach, Mustafa: Pseudonym used in China by Iskhak Akhmerov. Tolan Committee: Press label for the U.S. House Select Committee Investigating National Defense Migration chaired by Rep. John H. Tolan (D. CA). Tolchin, Alexander: Soviet intelligence source/agent, industrial espionage, early 1930s. Described as a Russian Jewish engineer in Detroit. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Sam”. Toledano, Vicente Lombardo: Mexican labor leader aligned with the Communist party.

Tolstikov, Valentin Efimovich: “Ruby” / “Rubin” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Tolstikova, Maria Andreevna nee Lebedeva: “Ira” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Tom” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer/agent, under “Nord” 1934. Described as dealing with West Coast Japanese tasks. Naum “Leonid” Eitingon is a strong candidate for “Tom”. Eitingon used “Tom” as a cover name during much of his career. Senior KGB officer Pavel Sudoplatov in his memoir wrote of Eitingon working on the American West Coast in the 1930s.[508] “Tom ”: Eitingon, General Leonid Aleksandrovich (Ejtingon)] (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Tom”: Leonid Eitingon [source Sudoplatov] “Tom”: [Sorvin], Aleksej [Aleksey] Ivanovich, head of tank department of SGPC in DC (GRU line) [source Venona] “Tom”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Tomas” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Thomas”. “Tomas” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, 1948, under Amtorg cover. “Tomas”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Tomchin, ?: Soviet intelligence officer/agent know to Jacob Golos and later arrested in the purge of the security services. Tomiak, Jan ...wa (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Tommi” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Tommy”. “Tommy” [“Tommi”] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, New York, 1930. “Tomson”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] “Toni” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Tony”. “Tony” [Toni] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent, member Cambridge group, U.K. 1940-1942, friend of Michael Straight. Likely Anthony Blunt. “Tony” was identified in Andrew and Mitrokhin as Blunt. “Tony” [Toni] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified member of KGB illegal station 1936. “Tonya”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Topalovic, Zhivko, head of the Jygoslav Social Democratic party in 1944 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Torpedo Corporation.

“Toto”: Victoria Mercanton-Spiri: Pozner, Victoria (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Tourist”: Hill, James, Australian line [West Venona] Tovstykh, Aleksandr Vasilevich, October 1943, SGPC (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Townsman”: U.S. citizen male, Americans (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Townsman” [Gorozhanin], also “Townsmen” and “Townspeople” [Gorozhane] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): American and Americans circa 1944. “Townsman” was identified in the Venona decryptions as an Amererican. “Townswoman”: U.S. citizen female (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Trachtenberg, Alexander: Senior CPUSA official involved with its publishing and financial activities. “Trade Union” [Profsoyuz] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): the Soviet Communist Party organization within Soviet institutions in the U.S. “Trading House”: unidentified institution (GRU line)[source Venona] Train, Rear Admiral Cecil, (NGRU line) [source Venona] Trakhtenberg (on Soviet ship): “Sem” (KGB line) [source Venona] Tramm, ?: American scientist, described as assistant to Robert Van de Graaff. “Transatlantic” and “Transatlantica” [Zaatlantik and Zaatlantika] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Suspected anti-Soviet conspiracy/ organization operating under the cover of McClure Newspaper syndicate. Transbalt (ship) [source Venona] “Treasurer” [Kaznachey] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. Described as on the staff of the U.S. Embassy in Moscow 1940, recruited prior to departure from the U.S. but contact not established in Moscow as of early 1941. Treasury, U.S. Department of the. Tree, Dorothy: Wife of Michael Uris. Recommended as candidate for KGB contact in 1949 by Martha Dodd. “Trel” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Trill”. “Trest” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Trust”. Tretyakovka: Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow. “reuil, Raymond, (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] “Tribune”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Trilisser, Mikhail Abramovich: Chief of foreign intelligence for ChekaOGPU, 1922-1929, then worked in Comintern foreign operations

under the name Mikhail Aleksandrovich Moskvin. Arrested in Stalin’s Terror and executed. “Trill” [Trel] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): File name for documents on illegal U.S.-Canada border crossing. “Trio”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Tronova, Olimpiada Grigorevna, probationer [Soviet intelligence Lyusya (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Tross, Vera (KGB line) [source Venona] Trotsky, Leon: “Old Man” / “Starik” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Trotsky, Leon: “Old Man” (KGB U.S. line) [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] Trotsky, Leon: Leader of the 1917 Bolshevik coup. Exiled rival of Joseph Stalin. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Old Man” and “Tyuk”. Trotsky, Natalia Ivanova: Natalia Ivanova Sedova-Trotsky: “Old Woman”/ “Starukha”: (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Trotskyists: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks “Tyuks”, 1930s. Troyanovsky, Aleksandr A.: First Soviet ambassador to the United States, 1934-1938. Trudfront (ship) [source Venona] Truman, Bess: Wife of President Truman. Truman, Harry”: Matros: Sailor (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Truman, Harry: President of the United States. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Sailor”. Truman, Margaret: Daughter of President Truman. Truman, U.S. Army officers of The Twelve Apostles [source Venona] Trushin, Vasilij [Vasily] Ivanovich, diplomatic courier (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Trust”: Soviet Embassy (KGB line) [source Venona] “Trust” [Trest] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Embassy of the USSR. “Trust” was identified in the Venona decryptions as the Soviet embassy. “Truten'” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Drone”. “Ts-16” [ts16]: unidentified (KGB line) [source Venona] TsAGI: Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute. “Tsekh” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Workshop”. Tsekolskiy , Edward [E. Cenkalski] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Tselnis, Robert [Tsel'nis]: Described as a GRU group handler in late 1930s who defected. Possibly a pseudonym for Whittaker Chambers, who was a GRU group handler who defected in the late 1930s, although this is a pseudonym never before linked to Chambers (or anyone else). Reported as a GRU response to a query from KGB as to the identify of the GRU agent “Karl” and may be a confusion or misunderstanding because “Karl” is elsewhere in the notebooks identified as Whittaker Chambers. The Russian, Tsel'nis, could be translated as Zelnis. “Tsentr” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Center”. Tsentrosoyuz: USSR Central Union of Consumer Societies. “Tserber” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Cerberus”. “Tserber” / “Cerberus”: unidentified cover name [or transliteration of surname such as Cerber or Zerber] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Tsiolkovskij [Tsiolkovsky] (ship) [source Venona] “Tsirk” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Circus”. TsK VKP(b): Central Committee All-Union Communist Party (bolshevik) “Tskganov”: unidentified (KGB line) [source Venona] Tsukerman, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Tsuryupa, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Tu..”.: Nil: partial of unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Tu..”.: partial of unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Tuapse (ship) [source Venona] “Tuba” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Vienna, 1950. Tuballoy: Manhattan atomic project term for certain types of natural uranium prior to enrichment. “Tube Alloys”: British cover name for its WWII atomic bomb project. Tuckett, Angela: Assistant Editor of the British Daily Worker. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Akta”. Tuckman, Lewis: Member of “Vendor’s” CPUSA espionage group. “Tuk” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Nathan Sussman, a member of Julius Rosenberg’s espionage apparatus prior to September 1944. A partially decoded cover name, “Tu..”, appeared in the Venona decryptions as a unidentified member of Julius Rosenberg’s technical intelligence apparatus, likely a partial decoding of “Tuk”.[509] Tukhachevsky, Mikhail: Successful Red Army commander in the Russian civil war, leader of Red Army forces in the Polish-Bolshivik war,

reformed the Red Army in the late 1920s and 1930s with advanced doctrines, made Marshal of the Soviet Union in 1935 aged only 42. Arrested on in 1937 in Stalin’s Terror and charged with organization of "military-Trotskyist conspiracy" and espionage for Nazi Germany. Tukhachevsky and eight other leading military commanders were convicted, and executed in June 937. “Tulip”: Zborowski, Mark [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Tulip” /“Tulpan” “Tyulpan”: Zborowski, Mark (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Tulip” [Tyul'pan] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Mark Zborovsky prior to September 1944. “Tulip” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Zborovsky.[510] Tumantsev (KGB line) [source Venona] Tunets (ship) [source Venona] “Tunic” [Khiton] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, described as part of “Nick’s” group in 1948. Tupolev, Andrey Nikolayevich: Leading Soviet aircraft designer and head of a design bureau. “Tur”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Turaev, Aleksandr Semenovich (KGB line) [source Venona] Turbin, Georgy Vasilyevich: Amtorg official, mid-1920s. Turkmen (ship) Turksib: Turkestan-Siberian Railroad. Tuwin, Julian in Venona traffic as Tuwin: Tuwim or Tuvin, unidentified, likley Julian Tuwin, Polish Poet. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Tuzov”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Tven” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Twain”. “Tven”: S. Semyonov [Semenov] [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Tven”: S. Semyonov [Semenov] [source Albright Kunstel Bombshell] Tveryanovich, ?: Soviet engineer at the Soviet Government Purchasing Commission. “Twain” / “Tven”: Semenov, Semen Markovich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Twain” [Tven] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): KGB officer Semen Markovich Semenov. “Twain” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Semenov.

Twentieth Century Fox (KGB line) [source Venona] “Twist”: Pravdyuk, Vasilij [Vasily] Vasilievich, Secretary to Soviet Naval Attache from May 1943 (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Tyazh” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/ agent. Likely Irving Goff. “Tyosca” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): ? Khotimsky. Soviet intelligence officer/agent, illegal early 30s. “Tyre”: New York (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Tyre” [Tir] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): New York City. “Tyre” was identified in the Venona decryptions as New York. “Tyuk” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Leon Trotsky, 1930s. “Tyuks” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Trotskyists, 1930s. “Tyulen'” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Seal”. “Tyul'pan” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Tulip”. “Tyulpan” / “Tulip”: Mark Zborowski (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] XXU Ubico, Jorge (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Uchitel'nitsa” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Teacher”. (A female teacher.) UCN: Unidentified Cover Name. Venona project designation for an unbroken code group for a cover name [source Venona] “UCN/12”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “UCN/13”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “UCN/14”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “UCN/16”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “UCN/19”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “UCN/20”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “UCN/21”: unidentified name cover-name is .....d (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “UCN/22”: Johnstone, Betty [West Venona][U.K. line??] “UCN/22”: unidentified name last syllable is “gel” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “UCN/28”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “UCN/29”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “UCN/30”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“UCN/4”: Sergej [Sergey], Vladimr Pravdin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “UCN/41”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “UCN/6”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “UCN/7”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “UCN/9”: Cedric Belfrage, British Security Co-ordination office. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Udarnik (ship) [source Venona] Udeanu, Ludovici: Rumanian name of Louis Dolivet. Udet, Ernst: Senior Luftwaffe officer, 1930s. Uellen (ship) [source Venona] UFWA: United Federal Workers of America. Ugalde, Petro, Chilean Consul in Cuba: “Tito” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Uglov” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, 1948, may be chief of station in U.S. “Ugol'” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Coal”. “Ugryumyj” / “Sullen”: Kirillov, Viktor (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] UK RSFSR: Ugolovnyj Kodeks Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika — Criminal Code, Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic Ukhov, German A. (KGB line) [source Venona] “Ukrainets” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Ukrainian”. “Ukrainian” [Ukrainets] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): ? Rybak, a source on left Ukrainians. Ukrainian Canadian Committee (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ukrainian Immigration: Precisely what organizations is being referenced is unclear. Ukrainian National Federation (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ukrainian National Organization: Anti-Soviet Ukrainian nationalist organization. Ukrainian National Organization (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ukrainian National Union (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ukrainian Self-Reliance League (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ukrainian Voice (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ulanov [Ulanovski, Ulanovsky], Alexander Petrovich, known as Ulrich and Walter to Chambers [source Chambers Witness]

Ulanova, Nadya (Ulanovskaya): “Elaine” [source Tanenhaus Whittaker Chambers] Ulbricht, Walter: First Secretary of the SED from 1950 to 1971 and ruler of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). Ule, Alexander: Described as a writer for PM, 1946. Ullman, Frank: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Source on military tanks 1938. Described as a Jew from Austria. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Ural” and “Arch”. Ullmann, Lloyd: Error for Ludwig Ullmann. Ullmann, William Ludwig: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Polo” prior to August 1944, “Donald” in August 1944, “Pilot” starting in September 1944. Ullmann, William Ludwig: “Polo” also “Pilot” also “Donald” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ullman-Pogorelskaya, Tamara: Wife of Frank Ullman. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Angel”. Ulrich: Alexander Ulanov, Chambers’ Soviet intelligence contact [source Chambers Witness] Umansky, Konstantin: Senior Soviet diplomat. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Seal”. Umansky, Konstantin: “Editor” [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] Umansky, Konstantin Aleksandrovich: possibly “Seal”. Umansky is “Redaktor” / “Editor” on the Mexico City and San Francisco lanes. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Umberto-Badoglio (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Uminsky, Celia: Mother of Harry Gold. “Umnitsa” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Clever Girl. “Umnitsa” / alternate translation “Clever Girl” / “Smart Girl” / “Good Girl”: Bentley, Elizabeth (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Umnyshkova, wife of Aleksej [Aleksey] Umnyshkov, secretary in Soviet Naval Attache office Stockhom,, Nov. 42-Sept 44. (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Uncle” / “Dyadya”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Uncle” [Dyadya] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1933.

“Uncle” [Dyadya] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Director of the Soviet Government Purchasing Commission, circa 1944. (Note overlap with “Uncle”/Folkoff] “Uncle” [Dyadya] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent and senior CPUSA leader in California and liaison with KGB, 1943-1945. Likely Isaac Folkoff. “Uncle” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Isaac Folkoff.[511] [Note overlap with “Uncle”/Director of SGPC] “Uncle” / “Dyadya”: Folkoff (Folkov), Isaac (KGB line) [source Venona] Unger, Menashe, chairman of the American Committee of Jewish Writers, Artists and Scientists (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] unidentifed industrial spy and head of lab at steel company [source Chambers Witness] Unidentifed person [unknown to Soviets, too] summer 1944, delivered atomic information to New York Soviet Consulate [source Venona] unidentified industrial spay at arms company [source Chambers Witness] unidentified industrial spy ballistic expert at War Department [source Chambers Witness] “unidentified name aj”: Vorontsov (NGRU line) [source Venona] “unidentified name am” (NGRU line) [source Venona] “unidentified name au”: Egipko (NGRU line) [source Venona] “unidentified name bi” [cipher clerk (NGRU line) [source Venona] “unidentified name bn” (NGRU line) [source Venona] “unidentified name bt” (occasionally noted as Egorichev but that does not seem right) (NGRU line) [source Venona] “unidentified name cb”: Bogdenko (NGRU line) [source Venona] “unidentified name ce”: Egorichev (NGRU line) [source Venona] “unidentified name cm” (NGRU line) [source Venona] “unidentified name cp”: Piterski (NGRU line) [source Venona] “unidentified name cx” (NGRU line) [source Venona] “unidentified name da”: Akulin (NGRU line) [source Venona] “unidentified name eighteen”, #18 (NGRU line) [source Venona] “unidentified name eighty-five”, #85: Piterskij [Pitersky] (NGRU line) [source Venona] “unidentified name eighty-three”, #83: Akulin (NGRU line) [source Venona] “unidentified name fifty-four”, #54 (NGRU line) [source Venona] “unidentified name five”, #5: Egorichev, Capt (1st Rank) I.A. Soviet Naval Attache DC] (NGRU line) [source Venona]

“unidentified name forty-five”, #45 in Moscow (NGRU line) [source Venona] “unidentified name forty-two”, #42”: Vorontsov, M.A., Captain (First Rank) (NGRU line) [source Venona] “unidentified name nine”, #9 in Moscow (NGRU line) [source Venona] “unidentified name ninety-four”, #94 (NGRU line) [source Venona] “unidentified name ninety-one”, #91: Egorichev, (NGRU line) [source Venona] “unidentified name one”, #1 [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] “unidentified name sixteen”, #16: unidentified name bf: [cipher officer, Moscow] (NGRU line) [source Venona] “unidentified name thirteen #13 [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] “unidentified name thirty-eight”, #38 (NGRU line) [source Venona] “unidentified name twenty”, #20 [Head of OVS prior to Egipko] (NGRU line) [source Venona] “unidentified name twenty-four”, #24 [Stepanov, G.A., Vice-Admiral, acting chief of Naval Staff] (NGRU line) [source Venona] Unidentified New York City passport office staff in contact with Jacob Golos for false passports. Unidentified person who left information on the Manhattan atomic project at a Soviet office in New York in January 1944. Unidentified person in Spanish consulate, NY in contact with Jacob Golos for false Spanish passports. Unidentified radar source recruited by Morris Cohen in 1942, [source Albright Kunstel Bombshell] Unidentified, radio engineer a director at Sperry labs, on electro mechanical gun sights and aircraft controls, ships, [Target for recruitment], (NGRU line) [source Venona] Unidentified, radio engineer at Sandy Hook Army Signal Corps lab, wife CPUSA. [Target for recruitment] (NGRU line) [source Venona] Unidentified seven men in contact with KGB, recruited by OSS for assignments in Yugoslavia, but contact lost. Unidentified source is an Ameican working as a clerk in the Strategic Directorate of Allied Joint Staff. (NGRU line) [source Venona] Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent at U.S. embassy in Riga, 1924. Unidentified target of recruitment by Harry Gold described as at the Philadelphia Naval Yard and a unionist.

Unidentified two men in contact with KGB, recruited by OSS, sent to Britain, contact retained. Unidentified two men in contact with KGB, infiltrated into Spain, contact lost by KGB. Unidentified, working at steel foundry in Harrison NJ, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Union Carbide corporation. Union for the Salvation of Russia: Anti-Bolskevik, White organization. Union of American Youth in the Struggle for a Free World [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] Union of Young American Farmers [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] Union [Soyuz]: USSR, early 1940s. Union [Soyuz] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigations in 1949. Union Tours travel agency. United Distillers of America Inc. United Federal Workers of America (UFWA): Small CIO union under Communist leadership. United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA). American-funded wartime relief and rehabilitation agency. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Shelter”. United States government: “League” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] United States government: “League” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks). Universal Service: Hearst newspapers press agency. University of Chicago: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Seminary”. University of Florence, Italy. University of Perugia, Italy. UNKVD: Internal Soviet regional branch of NKVD. UNO: United Nations Organization. UNRRA: United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Shelter”. Unshlikht, Iosif Stanislavovich: Polish-born Bolshevik. Deputy chief of GRU, 1920s, executed in Stalin’s Terror. Untermyer, Samuel: Prominent American lawyer and civic activist. “Ural” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Frank Ullman. “Ural”: Karpekov, Nikolaj [Nikolay] Prokopevich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Uralmash (ship) [source Venona]

Urbanites (Townsmen)”: Gorozhane: Americans (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Urenev, Vasilij [Vasily] Petrovich, director of Factory Technical school (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Urevich, Stephen: See Urewich, Stephen Urewich, Stephen: Soviet intelligence source/agent. (Alternative spelling Urevich). Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Fisherman” until September 1944, then “Block”. “Block” and “Fisherman” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent.[512] Urey, Harold (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Urey, Harold: Leading American physicist. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Elder”. Uribe Galdeano, Vicent Don (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Uris, Michael: Hollywood writer. Recommended as candidate for KGB contact in 1949 by Martha Dodd. Uritskij [Uritsky] (ship) [source Venona] Uritsky, Semen: Chief of the GRU, 1937, later executed. Urtel, ??: Described as executive officer of Telefunken, 1945. Urzua, Avelino, Chilean diplomat (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] U.S. ambassador in Berne [source Venona] U.S. government: “League” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks). U.S. government: “League” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]. U.S. Rubber Company. U.S. Service and Shipping Corporation: Cover business set up by Jacob Golos and run by Elizabeth Bentley after World Tourists was forced to registered as an agent of the Soviet government. World Tourists continued to exist, headed by Golos, and functioned as a subcontractor to U.S. Service and Shipping. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Complex”. U.S. State Departmen: “Bank” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] USA: “Country” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Usatov, Vasiliy [Vasily]: Soviet POW interviewed by American intelligence. USIA: United States Information Agency. Ussuri (ship) [source Venona] Utekhin, ?: Senior KGB officer Moscow Center, 1951. Uzbekistan (ship) [source Venona] “Uzel” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Hub”.

XXV V. [vv]: initial of redacted, engineer, Swiss, born in Hungary, to U.S. in 1922, worked with Sikorsky and for North American, and Consolidated. Living in L.A. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “V”.: likely initial of unknown cover name or name connected with Boris Morros (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Vacek: See “Vatsek”. “Vachnadze”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Vadim” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Anatoly Gorsky. “Vadim” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Gorsky under his diplomatic pseudonym of Anatoly Gromov. “Vadim”: Gorsky, Anatoli [Anatoly] Veniaminovich [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Vadim”: Gromov, Anatolij [Anatoly] Borisovich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Vague”: Miller, James Walter (KGB line) [source Venona] Vajli, Major Andrew, Chief of Eastern European Sector of NIS (NGRU line) [source Venona] Vakhrushev, ?: Deputy department head of the Committee for Cultural Relations in Moscow in 1957. Val (nick name): Victor Perlo’s nick name, 1944-1945. Valedares, Portela (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Valentina”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Valerij” [“Valery”]: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Valet” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Jan Winter in 1944. “Valet” [Valeta] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. Described as used by Iskhak Akhmerov in mid-1930s for surveillance of “Leo” (Ludwig Lore) along with the unidentified agent “Rita”. Candidates for “Valet” include Hede Massing and Gerda Frankfurter.[513][514] “Valeta” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Valet”. Valle, Alfonso Castro, Mexican diplomat (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Val'ter” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Walter”. Vambery, Rusztem (Free Hungarian Movement) (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“Van” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Likely Jean Van Heijenoort, early 1940s. “Van” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, 1948 “Van”: probably Jean Louis Maxime Van Heijenoort: Jean Louis Maximo, aka Marc Loris, 4th International secretary (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Van Alen, William (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Van de Graaff, Robert: American scientist. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Dragon”. van der Lubbe, Marinus: Dutch Communist executed in Germany for arson attack on the German Reichstag. Van Heijenoort, Jean: French-born mathematician and personal secretary to Leon Trotsky from 1932 to 1939. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Van” (early 1940s). Van Tassel, Alfred: Secret Communist. Employed National Research Project in the mid-1930s and later by the Labor Department, War Production Board, War Assets Administratin, Senate Small Business Committee, and the U.N. Technical Assistance Administration. In 1952 Van Tassel invoked the Fifth Amendment to refused to answer congressional committee questions regarding covert CPUSA membership.[515] He was subsequently fired by U.N. Secretary General Trygve Lie. Victor Perlo in a 15 March 1945 memo thought Van Tassell had Soviet contact. “Vanda” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Wanda”. Vandenberg, Arthur H. (KGU.S. Senator (R. MI) (KGB line) [source Venona] Vandenberg, Hoyt . Senior Army Air Force and USAF general (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Vanderschmidt, Fred: Executive at Newsweek magazine. “Vanguard” [Avangard] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1930s, NY station. Vanin, ? (real name, possibly a cover name): Senior KGB officer, Moscow Center, 1957. “Vano”: unidentified, likely GRU officer [source Venona] Vanzetti (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Vardo” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Elizabeth Zarubin, early 1940s. Also known as Yelizaveta Zarubina. (Vardo means Rose in

Georgian.) “Vardo” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Elizaveta Zarubin. “Vardo”: Elisavetz [Elizabeth] Y. Zubilina [Zarubina] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Varie, Inoke N.: Soviet intelligence source/agent, technical source. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Bolt”. Varitskij, [Varitsky], V. (ship) [source Venona] Varno Bank (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Vashch: Name by which Alfred Stern referred to Vasily Zarubin. Vasilevsky, Aleksandr Mikhaylovich: Soviet general and minister of defense, 1949-1953. Vasilevsky, Lev: Senior KGB officer, chief of the Mexico City station in 1944 under the name Lev Tarasov. Later a senior official at Moscow Center. Vasiliev, Andrej [Andrey] Evtrovich (KGB line) [source Venona] “Vasily” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Zelman Passov. Vasilyev, ?: Described as connected to the Central Committee of the VKP(b). Vasilyev, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Vasilyev, S. A.: Described as Amtorg engineer, associate of A. Petrov and Vasily Delgass and head of the magazine Amerikanskaya Tekhnika. “Vasin” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): William Weisband, in 1950, after “Zhora”. Vassiliev, A.E.: co-author of KGB book Station Chief Gold. Vassiliev, S.A.: Amtorg engineer, 1926, suspected of being a British agent. “Vasya” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent at Amtorg, 1934. “Vatsek” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Paul Massing. (Alternative translations: Vacek, Watsek). Vatseti (ship) [source Venona] Vava: Affectionate form of "Varvara" in Russian. “Vavilon” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Babylon”. Vavilov, K.: Soviet diplomat, 1946. May be garble for Mikhail S. Vavilov. Vavilov, Mikhail Sergeevich: Soviet diplomat and Soviet intelligence cooptee caring out KGB tasks. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Oleg”. Vavilov, Mikhail Sergeevich: “Oleg” (KGB line) [source Venona] Vavilov, Nikolay: Leading Soviet geneticist. Arrested and died in prison for failing to support Lysenkoism.

Vaynshteyn, Grigory Isakovich: NKID official arrested as a Menshevik in 1939. Vazquez Gomez: On: “He” (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Vazquez Gomez, Elena: Elena: Seda (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Veatch, Roy: State Department official, Office of the Advisor on International Economic Affairs, 1937-38. Vechernyaya Moskva. “Vector” [Vektor] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Enrico Fermi. “Vega ”: Potemkin, Dmitrij [Dmitry] Mikhaylovich, assistant Tass rep in Mexico City] (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Veil” [Veyl'] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, worked for KGB at World Fair 1939. References to in 1941, 1943, and 1945 and described as among “ a group of valuable agents who are used for the station’s operational activities (surveillance, background checks, removals, eavesdropping, etc)”.[516] Irving George Schuman is a candidate for “Veil”. “Veksel” / “Wechsel” / “Bill of Exchange”: Julius Oppenheimer (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] [May be a deciphering garble for “Vector”/ Fermi.] Veksler, Sara Sophie Sonia (Sonya) birth name of Sara Sophie Judey (Weksler) Latvian immigrant Employee SGPG. [source Venona] “Vektor” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Vector”. Velikotskij, Nikolaj Vasilevich [Velikotsky, Nikolay], [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] Velson, Irving Charles: “Nick” (GRU line) [source Venona] “Vendor”: Shevvchuk, P.P, (KGB line) [source Venona] “Vendor” [Prodavets] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent. American Communist, former group handler for Jacob Golos.[517] Harry Kagan is a candidate for “Vendor”. “Vendor’s” group (description): Group handled for Jacob Golos by “Vendor”. Group included Leon Josephson, Hyman Colodny, Joseph Rinis, Lewis Tuckman, Marcel Sherer, and Paul Sherer. Venfilm: Vienna Film Studio, a Soviet-linked film studio in Vienna in 1950. “Vera”: Nadezhda: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Verlinsky, ?: Described as a Soviet film industry representative in Hollywood in 1935.

“Vernon” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, U.K., 1942. Verond, Captain of Soviet ship Vanzetti [source Venona] Vesco, Robert: American international financier accused of massive embezzlement and looting of corporate funds by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. “Veselov”: unidentified (KGB line) [source Venona] Veshchestvenny parol' (tradecraft term): See Material Password. “Vesna” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Spring”. “Vest” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “West”. Vetluga, ship [source Venona] “Vetrov” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Andrey Graur. “Veyl'” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Veil”. Veymut, John: Described as a secret Communist, physicist, worked on Enormoz. Also spelled in the notebooks as “Veytmut” and “Beymut”. May be a garble for Weymouth. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Evans”. Veytmut: See Veymut, John. “Vic” [Vik][518] (familiar nick name): Victor Perlo. “Vick” [Vik][519] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Henry Ware. “Vick” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1943.[520] “Vick” / “Vik”: [unidentified name] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Victor” / “Viktor”: Lt. General Pavel M. Fitin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Victor Emanuel [source Venona] “Victor” (in Mexico): unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Victor”: Unidentified 1944 Soviet intelligence contact who provided a letter of introduction for use by KGB in contacting a potential recruit.[521] [source Venona] “Victor” [Viktor] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Pavel Fitin. “Victor” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Fitin. Victor: work name used by Gayk Ovakimyan with “Solid”. Victorious (ship) [source Venona] Vidal-Amoros, Antonio, in Grenada (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Vienna: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Tuba”, 1950. Vienna Film Studio (Venfilm): a Soviet-linked film studio in Vienna in 1950. Viereck, George Sylvester: Pro-Nazi German-American journalist.

Viertel, Berthold: Possibly “Poet” (other possibility Berthold Brecht) (KGB line) [source Venona] “Vig” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Lee Pressman. “Vig” as a cover name may be Wig, which can be written in Russian both as Vig and Uig. But the cover name may come from Whigs (the 19th century British political party. Here it is left as “Vig”. “Viganiya” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Yugoslavia, 1950. Viggo Hansteen (ship) [source Venona] “Vik” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Used in Russian for both “Vic” and “Vick”. Here rendered as “Vic” when referring to the familiar nick name for Victor Perlo and rendered as “Vick” as a cover name. “Vik”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Viker”: unidentified GRU source, U.K. line [West Venona] “Vikhrov”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Viktor” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Victor”. “Viktor”: unidentifed probationer, electrician on Staryj Bolshevik (KGB line) [source Venona] “Viktor”: unidentified, not same as Moscow “Viktor” also in New York to Moscow 317 1942 and Moscow to Mexico City 681 1944 and 312 1945 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Viktorov (KGB line) [source Venona] Vilensky, Dora (pseudonym) Used by Celia Golos on a 1931 passport. Vilensky, Isidor (pseudonym) Used by Jacob Golos on a 1931 passport. Vilga (ship) [source Venona] “Villa” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Foreign Economic Administration (1942 to November 1944) “Village ” / “Selo”: a country, possibly Guatemala (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Village” is also identified as Mexico in a single message, but the Russian is not given and may be a translation alternative for “Derevnya” translated as “Countryside” which is Mexico. “Village” [Selo] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Philadelphia, 1945. Ville D’Anvers (ship) [source Venona] “Villi” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Willy”. “Vil'yams” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Williams”. “Vim” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Lauchlin Currie. Vinal, George Wood [Naval GRU line] [source Venona]

Vinogradov, Boris: Soviet intelligence officer. Executed in Stalin’s purge of his security services. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Alexander”. Vinogradov (ship) [source Venona] Vinogradov (Vinrov), Nicholas (KGB line) [source Venona] Vinokurov, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Vinrov (Vinogradov), Nicholas (KGB line) [source Venona] Vinson, Frederick M.: Secretary of the Treasury, 1945. “Vint” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Screw”. “Virginia”: redacted (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Vishnevskaya, suspected as competitor (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Visson, Andre, journalist. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Vit” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent in Montreal, Canada: materials on wireless communications equipment. References to in 1937. “Vita”: female unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Vita-Finzi, Paolo (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Vitalij” [“Vitaly”]: Revizorov, Parel (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Vitalij” [“Vitaly”]: unidentified cover name, probably Revizorov (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Vitto” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, illegal mid-1930s. (“Vitto” is of Persian origin.) VKP(b): Vsesoyuznaya kommunisticheskaya partiya (bolshevikov): All Union Communist Party (bolshevik). Title of the Soviet Communist party. Later retitled the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). Vladeck, Baruch Charney: American Jewish labor leader, Socialist, and manager of the Jewish Daily Forward. “Vladim”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] [possibly Amtorg official] [source Venona] “Vladimir” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Aleksandr Panyushkin, ambasador to the U.S. and KGB station chief, 1948. “Vladimir”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Vladimir Mayakovskij [Mayakovsky] (ship) [source Venona] “Vladimirov” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent who supervised the infiltration of the GRU illegal “Kogan” into San Francisco via a Soviet ship in 1941. Vladimirov, Aleksandr Sergeevich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Vladimirov, Yu.: Soviet intelligence agent, co-optee at the U.N., late 1940s. “Vladislav”: Redin, Nikolay Grigorevich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Vlasov, ?: Soviet intelligence officer, New York, 1956. Vlasov, Andrey A.: Soviet Army general captured by Germany who collaborated and formed a volunteer force of anti-Bolshevik Russians to fight the USSR. Vlasov’s army VMAT Voenno-Morskoj AttachU, Naval Attache (NGRU line) [source Venona] VMF Voenno-Morskoy Flot, Navy (NGRU line) [source Venona] VMN [V.M.N.]: vysshaya mera nakazaniya: Supreme Penalty: execution. Vneshtorg: People’s Commissariat of Foreign Trade. Vogaska (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Voge, Marietta, née Jirku, wife of Noel Voge: “Daughter” (KGB line) [source Venona] Vogel, Hans, of the SPD (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Voice of Russia: Russki [Russky] Golos, emigre paper (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Vojkov (ship) Vojtyuk (KGB line) [source Venona] VOKhIMU: Military Chemical Administration. VOKS: All-Union Society for Cultural Relations, Soviet agency that oversaw international cultural contacts and exchanges. Vol, ?: Associated with Amtorg in 1924 according to Vasily Delgass. “Volk” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Wolf”. Volkhovstroy (ship) [source Venona] Volkonskaya, ??, Princess: Described as a Vatican secretary. “Volkov”: Andrej [Andrey] R. Orlov, employee of Soviet government Purchasing Commission (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Volkov, Anatole: Son of Helen Silvermaster and stepson of Gregory Silvermaster. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as acting as a courier for his stepfather.[522] Volkov, B.P, Lieutenant, jg, on the Ship Revolyutsioner (NGRU line) [source Venona] Volkov, Captain First rank, [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] VOLKS Vsesoyuznoe Obshchestovo Dlya Kulturnoj Svyazi s Zabranitsej, All Union Society for Cultural Relatins with Foreign Countries (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona]

Volman, ?: Described by Jacob Golos in 1944 as a doctor and relative of Harry Dexter White that had GRU connections and that White rejected assisting him in the 1930s. Possibly a garble for Dr. Abraham Wolfson, Communist and brother-in-law of White’s wife. Volodarskly, L. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Volodarsky, Iosif V.: Soviet intelligence officer. His name appeared in Vassiliev’s notes as both Volodarsky and Volozersky, and Vassiliev states that both versions were in the archival records. (Alternative spellings in the literature: Volodarski and Wolodarski) Volodarsky used the pseudonym Armand Labis Feldman in the U.S. in the 1930s. He dropped out of KGB work in the U.S. in the late 1930s and moved to Canada, was interned early in WWII, and cooperated with Canadian RCMP to avoid deportation to USSR. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Brit”. Volodarsky, I.V.: Armand Lavis Feldman, KGB officer in the U.S. in 1930s, dropped out and moved to Canada, interned early in WWII, cooperated with Canadian RCMP to avoid deportation to USSR, RCMP turned information over to FBI. So not a double, but a dropout turned informant or defector source, a retired RCMP counter intelligence officer, 1999 NSA cryptologic history conference Volodin, ?: Described as Bolshevik in America that Julius Hammer assisted in escaping to the Soviet Union. “Volok”: redacted (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Volonter” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Volunteer”. Volozersky, I.V.: see Volodarsky, I.V. Volper, ?: Described by Jacob Golos in 1944 as a doctor and relative of Harry Dexter White that had GRU connections and that White rejected assisting him in the 1930s. Possibly a garble for Dr. Abraham Wolfson, Communists and brother-in-law of White’s wife. “Volt”: unidentified KGB in Purchasing Commission 1942 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Voltaire” (possbily “Volterra”): unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Volunteer” [Volonter] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Morris Cohen. “Volunteer” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent.[523] “Volunteer”: Morris Cohen, [source Albright Kunstel Bombshell] “Volunteer”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Volynsky, ?: Associated with Amtorg in 1924 according to Vasily Delgass. Von Arvim, General (NGRU line) [source Venona] Von Eckhardt, Tibor: president of the Internatonal Organization for an Independent Hungary (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Von Klem, Nazi Ministry of Foreign Affairs (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Von Wiegand, Karl H.: Hearst newspapers correspondent in Berlin. Vonsiatsky, Anastase Andreyevitch: Founder and chief of the emigre Russian National Revolutionary Labor and Workers Peasant Party of Fascists. Voosling, Wayne: Described as a Life magazine correspondent who worked for OSS in 1945. (Alternative translation: Vusling) Voronin, A. I.: Senior MVD officer, Moscow, 1953. “Voronov”: unidentified name KGB resident (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Voronov: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] Vorontsov. M.: KGB officer, Moscow Center, 1948. Vorontsov, M.A., Captain (First Rank): “unidentified name forty-two”, #42: unidentified name aj (NGRU line) [source Venona] Voroshilov, Kliment: Soviet military leader, part of Stalin’s inner circle. Voroshilov: unidentified , Gryaznov: unidentified , Filina: unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] Vorovsky, Vatslav Vatslavovich: Bolshevik leader and diplomat, early 1920s. Vorozheyka, Innokenty Nikol.: See Varie, Inoke N. Voska, Captain Emil (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] VOSR: Velikaya Oktyabr'skaya Sotsialisticheskaya Revolutsia: Great October Socialist Revolution. Vostok (ship) “Vovchek”: Aleksandr Pavlovich Bochek (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Voyager” [Voyazher] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): David Jaffo. “Voyazher” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Voyager”. “Vozdukh” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Air”. “Vozdukh” / “Air”: jet propulsion “Vrach” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Physician”. Vrach is more commonly translated as Doctor, but in the notebooks “Doktor” is also used as a cover name, consequently “Physician” is used to reduce confusion between what are in Russian two entirely different cover names. “Vrag” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Enemy”.

VSNH: Vysshy sovet narodnogo khozyaystva — the Supreme Council of the National Economy. Vtoraya Pyatiletka (ship) Vtoraya (ship) “Vtoroy” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Second”. Vuchinich, George Samuel: Spelling variant. See George Samuel Wuchinich. U.S. Army assigned to OSS, [source Venona] “Vud” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Wood”. “Vulture” /“Khvat”: scientific source of New York KGB [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] Vusling, Wayne: See Wayne Voosling. VVS: Voyenno-vozdushnye sily (Military Air Force). Used in Vassiliev’s notebooks as abbreviation for U.S. AAC (Army Air Corps) and U.S. AAF (Army Air Force). Vybory (ship) [source Venona] Vyshinskiy, Andrej [Andrey] (KGB line) [source Venona] Vyshinsky, Andrey: Senior Soviet official, part of Stalin’s inner circle. “V'yun” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Loach”. Vzdornykh, Petr (KGB line) [source Venona] XXW Wadleigh, Henry Julian.: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Known as Julian Wadeligh. An official in the foreign trade agreements section of the Department of State, he testified in 1949 that he had furnished Department of State information to Whittaker Chambers’ espionage apparatus. On Adolf Berle’s 1939 list of those identified by Whittaker Chambers as covert Communists who were espionage risks. Identified by Chambers as part of his CPUSA/GRU espionage network.[524] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “104th”. Wagner, Herbet A.: German scientist involved in Nazi rocket research. Wagner, Max: Printer who printed the Whalen documents. Wagner, Robert F., Jr.: Mayor of New York, 1954-1965. Wagner, Robert F.: U.S. Senator (D. New York). “Wagram”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Wahl, David: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Pink”.

Waise [Wayze] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent in the U.K. in the 1930s. (Waise is German for Orphan). Very likely Donald Maclean. “Waise” was identified as Donald Maclean in Andrew and Mitrokhin and West and Tsarev.[525] “Waise”: Maclean, Donald: [source Damaskin Harris] Waites, ?: Described as a USIA official in China, 1949. Wald, Benjamin aka Isaac Gurfinkel (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Waldemar”: unidentified (GRU line) probably a code person, [source Venona] Waldo, Richard: President of McClure Newspaper syndicate. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Bor”. Wales, Nym: Pen name of Helen Foster Snow. Wallace, Henry: “Lotsman” / “Channel-pilot” (also once, probably in error, a message listed Wallace as “Botsman” / “Boatswain” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Wallace, Henry: Vice President of the United Stats, Secretary of Commerce, and 1948 presidential candidate of the Progressive Party. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “‘Captain’s’ deputy” (1944). Walley or Whallye or Valli: unidentified , (NGRU line) [source Venona] Walsh, ?: Described as critic of the USSR. Possibly Father Edmund Walsh of Georgetown University. Walsh, David: U.S. Senator, 1919-1947 (D. MA). “Walter”: Alexander Ulanov Chambers’ Soviet intelligence contact [source Chambers Witness] Walter, James: Described as reporter/writer for the Washington Times-Herald in 1947. “Walter” [Val'ter] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, illegal officer. Later cover names “King” and likely “James”. References to in 1934. “Walter” [Val'ter] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. Known to Alexander Koral in the 1930s, possibly associate of Rosenbliett network. May be the same as “Walter”, the Soviet intelligence officer/agent in 1934. Wanamaker, Rodman: Head of Wanamaker department stores, 1930. “Wanda” [Vanda] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, an illegal, 1948. War, Department of, U.S. :“Arsenal” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks).

War Department: “Arsenal” (and in one message as “Depot” but other Venona messages assign “Depot” to the War Production Board) (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] War Production Board: “Depot” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks). War Production Board: “Depot” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Warburg, banker and OWI (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Warburg, Max: Described as a German banker and Felix Warberg’s brother. Ward, American consul in Vladivostok, [source Venona] Wardwell, Allen of Russian War Relief (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Ware, Alissa: Communist sympathizer and courier to deliver Soviet funds to the German Communists in 1940. Mother of Henry Ware. Ware, Harold: CPUSA agricultural specialist, organizer of party covert networks in Washington in the early 1930s. Ware, Henry: Soviet intelligence informant/contact. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Vick”. “Warehouse” / “Sklad”: BEW (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Waring: unidentified (KGB line) [source Venona] Waring, William Van (KGB line) [source Venona] Warior (ship) [source Venona] Warner Brothers (KGB line) [source Venona] Warning, Dorothy: Described as writer and intelligence source used by Samuel Dickstein. Warren, Earl: Republican governor of California. Washburn, ?: Described as associate of Andrew Mellon and proposing terms for American diplomatic recognition of the USSR. Possibly Albert H. Washburn, U.S. Minister to Austria. Washington, DC: “Carthage” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Washington, DC: “Carthage” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks). Washington Merry-Go-Round: Book on national politics written by journalists Robert Allen and Drew Pearson in 1931. “Wasp” / “Osa”: Alekseeva, Lyudmila Nikolaevna, Alexeef, Ludmilla (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Wasp” / “Osa”: Ruth Greenglass (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Wasp” [Osa] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Ruth Greenglass, beginning October 1944-1950. “Wasp” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Ruth Greenglass.[526] “Watchdog”: Nadia Morris Osipovich (KGB line) [source Venona] Watchful [Ostorozhny]: See “Cautious”.

Watsek: See “Vatsek”. Watson, Goodwin B.: Chief broadcast analyst of FCC, investigated by the Kerr Commission. Watson, Thomas: Head of International Business Machines (IBM). “Wayze” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Waise”. Weber, ?: Described as attempting to influence Henry Wallace. Possibly Frederick Palmer Weber, an economist (Ph.D, U of VA, 1940), who served on the staff of the the Tolan and Kilgore committees, a leading researcher for CIO-PAC, the directed Progressive Party work in the South in 1948, and later associated with a variety of CPUSA-linked bodies. Invoked the fifth amendment to refuse to answer questions when a congressional committee inquired about his relationship to the Communist party.[527] Weber, (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] Weber, Sara: Target in Trotskyist movement. Also known as Sara Jacobs and Chertova. “Wechsel” “Veksel” “Bill of Exchange”: Julius Oppenheimer (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Wedge” / “Klin”: unidentified cover name [once identified as Enee R. Wigher and but also as unidentified] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Wegner, H.H.: Walk-in to the Soviet embassy in 1948. Stated he was a chemist working in a secret laboratory in Alaska where they were creating a small A-bomb and offered to sell blueprints for $220,000. Weimut, John: Described as a secret Communist, physicist, worked on Enormoz. (Spelling unconfirmed, alternative translation: Veimut). Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Evans”. Weinberg, Joseph: Soviet intelligence source. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Method”. Weinberg, Merle: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Idea”. Weiner, William: Senior CPUSA cadre, supervised party finances. Weinstone, William: Senior CPUSA official. Weintraub, David: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Weintraub worked for a variety of government agences such as the National Research Project, War Production Board, State Department, UNRRA, and the United Nations. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Bak”. Weisband, William: Soviet intelligence source/agent from the 1930s to 1950, working as a couriers and liaison with sources. Cover names in

Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Link” (1930s-1945), “Zhora” (1945-1950), “Vasin” (1950-). Weisberg, Harold: Secret Communist fired from the staff of Senator La Follette’s Civil Liberties subcommittee in 1939 for leaking information to the CPUSA and later on the staff of OSS. In 1947 Weisberg was discharged from his analyst position in the State Department after FBI turned up information on his Communist background. Weisblat, Edward Stanislaus, (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Weisbord, Albert: Communist trade union organizer in the late 1920s. Welles, Benjamin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Welles, Benjamin Sumner: Senior American diplomat, Assistant Secretary of State 1933-37, Under Secretary of State 1937-43. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Wells, Carveth: Popular travel writer and explorer. Welsh, Mary: Described as source of information for Jacob Golos on German radio propaganda, 1941. Werner (KGB line) [source Venona] Werov: unidentified name [Serov?] Probationer (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Wertheim, Maurice: New York banker, former brother-in-law of Secretary of the Treasury Morgenthau, father of Josephine Pomerance. “West”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “West”: unidentified source London KGB U.K. line [West Venona] “West” [Vest] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Soviet intelligence officer/agent, 1942. Western Electric company: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Corpus”. Westinghouse corporation: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Ministry”. Wetter, Father: Described as the Jesuit rector of Russicum. “Whale” / “Kit”: unidentified name of institution (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Whale”: unidentified (KGB line) [source Venona] Whalen, Grover: New York Police Commissioner. Wheeler, Burton K.: U.S. Senator, 1923-1947 (D. MT).(KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Wheeler, Donald: “Izra” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Wheeler, Donald: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Worked for the Research and Analysis Division of the Office of Strategic Services. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as part of the Perlo espionage group. KGB sent Comintern a vetting inquiry about him in 1944. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[528] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Izra”. Wheeler, George Shaw: Brother of Donald Wheeler. Economist who worked for the National Labor Relations Board, the Department of Labor, War Production Board and the U.S. military government of Germany. Forced out of U.S. government service in 1948 for suspected Communist ties, he defected to Communist Czechoslovakia in 1950. [529] Candidate for one of the Wheelers named in White #3, p. 60. Whig: See “Vig”. “Whip” [Knut] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1944, part of the Perlo espionage apparatus. “Whirlpool” [Omut] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): British embassy in the U.S., circa 1944. White, ?: Described as head of Gregory Silvermaster’s division at BEW but in the context appears to be a reference to Harry D. White of the Treasury Department. White, ?: Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1930s. Given a payment of $8,000. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Spring”. White, Anne Terry: Wife of Harry Dexter White. Referred to in Vassiliev’s notebooks as “R’s wife” (“Richard’s” wife) and “Jurist’s wife”. White Guard: Soviet political terminology for supporters of the Tsar but applied widely to any opponents of the Bolshevik regime. “White Hares” “White rabbits” / “Belyaki” White Russian emigres (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] White, Harry Dexter: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Assistant Secretary of the Treasury. On Isaac Don Levine’s list of those identified to Berle in 1939 but not on Berle’s list from that meeting. Chambers identified White as part of his espionage apparatus and the espionage product he save from 1938 and produced in 1948 included several pages in White’s handwriting. Identified by Elizabeth Bentley as part of the Silvermaster espionage group. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[530] Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Cashier”, then “Jurist” (1941-August 1944),

changed to “Lawyer” in August 1944, changed to “Richard” in September 1944, appeared as “Reed” in July 1945. White, Harry Dexter: “Jurist” also “Kassir” [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] White, Harry Dexter: “Jurist” / “Yurist” also “Lawyer” / “Lojer” also “Richard” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] White, Harry Dexter: “Richard” [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] “White House”: Temple (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Whitefish” / “Sig”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Whites: Soviet political terminology for supporters of the Tsar but applied widely to any opponents of the Bolshevik regime. Whitmore, F.C. from PA (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Whitney, Thomas (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Wicher, Enos Regnet, stepfather of Flora Don Wovschin: “Kin” / “Keen”. Bill Rain, Enos Wicher’s party name in Wisconsin [alternative translations: Rain, Rayne, Reyn, Rhein, Rhine, Ryan] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Wicher, Maria [Mrs. Enos Regent, Mrs. William A. Wovschin, mother of Fora Wovschin]: “Dasha” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Wicker, Irene: Wife of Victor Hammer in 1943. Wickstrom, Oscar: Described as involved in the Robinson/Rubens passport fraud case. “Wig”: See “Vig”. Wiley, John C.: U.S. Consul General in Antwerp, 1936. Will, Stephen: Recommended as candidate for KGB contact in 1949 by Martha Dodd. Will: Work name One of Iskhak Akhmerov’s work names in the early 1930s. Will: Work name Work name of an unidentified person (but possibly not Iskhak Akhmerov) known to Alexander Koral in the 1930s. Willen, Rose (pseudonym?): Signer of a 1944 letter to Ramsay/Hiskey urging cooperation with the bearer of the letter. William Clark (ship) [source Venona] William Keever (ship) [source Venona] William Osler (ship) [source Venona] William Welch (ship) [source Venona] William: Work name Helen Koral’s memory of Iskhak Akhmerov’s work name in the 1930s.

“Williams”: unidentified (GRU line) [source Venona] Williams, Albert Reese: Pro-Soviet American writer and journalist in the 1920s and 1930s. Williams, Lt. Col. R. N.: Described as head of the Russian department of the U.S. Army Military Intelligence Division. Williams, Paul: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Subsource of “Talent”. Known as Paul Williams, his full name has been given as Paul Elisha Williams and Elisha Paul Williams. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Tal-1”. Williams, Paulo: Variant of Williams, Paul. Williams, R. N.: Lt. Colonel, U.S. Army intelligence officer, 1930. “Williams” [Vil'yams] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Fred Shuneman. Willison, George [assistant to publicity director of DNC] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Willison, George: Described as publicist for the Democratic National Committee in 1945. Willkie, Owen, Otis, Farr and Gallagher legal firm (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Willkie, Wendell: Corporate lawyer, Republican candidate for president in 1940. Willkie-Morgan group: Appears to be a reference to Wendell Willkie, moderate Republican identified with high finance, and the Morgan banking interests. Wills, Katherine: First wife of Victor Perlo. “Willy” [Villi] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/agent at Department of State, 1934-1935. Likely David A. Salmon. Recruited by “Leo”/Lore. Described as providing “copes of reports addressed to the State Department from ambassadors, consuls, and U.S. military attachés in Europe and East Asia” that were judged “very valuable”. Described as “chief of the DOS’s communications and archives division”, and having a DOS salary of $5,600. (“Willy” was motivated by money, not ideology, and received a KGB stipend of $6,000 in addition of the U.S. government salary.) David Salmon was chief of DOS’s “Division of Communications and Records” in 1934 and 1935 and his salary at the time was $5,600.[531] Salmon’s division included DOS’s codes and cipher office and both distributed

and archived State Department sensitive diplomatic communications. Also known as “11”. “Willy” [Villi] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence contact connected with “Ramsay”/Hiskey, 1944. Wil.......rn (ship) [source Venona] Wilson (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Wilson, Carroll L.: General manager of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission until 1950. Wilson, Charles (KGB line) [source Venona] Wilson, Hugh R.: Senior American diplomat. “Wilson, Ruth Beverly, wife of Jacob Epstein”: Non (Nona) (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Winant, John: U.S. ambassador, London, 1941-1946. Winogradow, Boris: See Boris Vinogradov. Winter, Gustav, of the Czechoslovakian SDP (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Winter, Jan: Described as on the staff of the Rockerfeller’s Committee (Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs). Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Valet” in 1944 Wirt, William A., and “Wirt Affair”: Nationally known k-12 school administrator. In 1934 Dr. Wirt attended a Washington cocktail party at the home of Alice Barrows. Wirt claimed that at the party a member of President Roosevelt’s “brain trust” (as the press named them) of advisors had told him that FDR was a manipulated front man for a Communist plan to take power and would be replaced with an American “Stalin”. A U.S. House committee chaired by Rep. Alfred Bulwinkle (D. NC) heard Wirt’s testimony. His charges faded when those he identified turned out to be obscure bureaucrats and left-wing journalists rather than prominent FDR advisors. “Wite” / “Bely” in Russian, retired KGB asset West Coast [source Damaskin Harris] Witt, Art: Described as a Communist at the Works Progress Administration in 1934. Witte, Aleksandr: Brother of Helen Silvermaster, resident of Soviet Union. Witte, Elena Petrovna: Birth name of Helen Silvermaster. Witte, Petr: Father of Helen Silvermaster, resident of Soviet Union. Witte, Vladimir: Brother of Helen Silvermaster, resident of Soviet Union. Witte, V.P.: Sister of Helen Silvermaster in the Soviet Union.

Wittenberg, Davrun (or Darren): Spelling unconfirmed, possibly Vittenberg. Described as an associate of Harold Urey and friend of Emil Conason. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Sarin”. Wittfogel, Carl August (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Wohl, Paul: A colleague of Walter Krivitsky with whom he had a falling-out in 1940 over a loan. Wohlforth, Robert M, chief of the Economic Warfare section of U.S. Justice Dept., NYC, in error listed in as Woolworth (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Woldemar”: unidentified, probably an GRU “Talmudist” [source Venona] “Wolf”: Gomez Lorenzo, Rosendo, editor of magazine Tiempo (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Wolf, Felix: GRU officer in New York in 1925. Wolf was accused of being a Trotskyist and executed in Stalin’s purge of his intelligence and security services in the late1930s.[532] “Wolf” [Volk] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Nikolay Novikov. Wolff, Robert Lee, Chief of the European-African Division, Balkan section, OSS (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Wolfson, Abraham: Dentist in New Jersey and active Communist. Married to Ruth Terry, sister of Anne Terry, Harry Dexter White’s wife. Wolfson and Ruth Terry divorced in 1934. White remained in touch with Wolfson. Woll, Matthew: American Federation of Labor official and strong antiCommunist. Wollner, Herbert J, of U.S. Treasury [consulting chemist] [source Venona] Wolston, Ilya Elliott: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Jack Soble’s nephew (son of one of Jack’s sisters). A U.S. Army intelligence officer in WWII assigned to Russian-related tasks. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[533] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Slava”. Wolston, Ilya Elliott: “Slava” also “Glory” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Women’s League for Peace and Freedom. Wood, Robert E.: WWI U.S. Army general, later chairman of Sears, Roebuck company. Wood, Roberts, physicist Baltimore (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Wood” [Vud] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified target of recruitment as a liaison and recruitment agent, 1942. Some relation to oil matters.

Wooden, W. H.: President of American Car & Foundry Co., active in the American-Russian Chamber of Commerce. “Woolworth”: Wohlforth, Robert [West Venona] Workers (Communist) Party: Title of the CPUSA for part of the 1920s. Workers Party of America: Title of the CPUSA for part of the 1920s. Workers Party: Title of the Max Shachtman’s splinter from the Socialist Workers Party. Works Progress Administration (WPA): New Deal work relief agency. “Workshop” [Tsekh] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), circa 1944. World Enterprises: Described as one of Boros Morros’s film companies. World Monopoly and Peace: Book authored by James Allen, 1946. World Peace Committee World Tourists: Travel agency run by Jacob Golos and secretly controlled by the CPUSA. Worms et Cie, Paris Bank (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Wovschin, Flora Don: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Secretary in the Office of War Information. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent.[534] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Zora”. Wovschin, Flora Don: “Zora” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] WP: Workers Party, likely a reference (1943) to the Workers Party of Max Shachtman or possibly to the Socialist Workers Party of James Cannon. WPB: War Production Board, U.S. “Wrench” [Rench] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Benny Bederson. Wright Field: U.S. Army Air Force and later U.S. Air Force facility in Ohio where advanced aviation equipment was developed and tested. “Writer”: seaman on the SS Malines, [West Venona] “Writer” [Literator] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Cover name for a Soviet intelligence agent to be left behind enemy lines. Wuchinich, George Samuel: Target of recruitment. Officer in OSS of Serbian origin. Wuchinich (spelled Vuchinich) was identified in the Venona decryptions as providing information to a GRU source. Wuchinich invoked the Fifth Amendment to avoid answering questions from a Congressional committee regarding his Communist background and espionage connections.[535] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Lid”.

Wulfson, ?: Soviet trade official in Paris in 1937. Wuorinen, John Henry (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Wynn, Arthur: Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1944. Described as radio expert and Communist in U.K. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Scott”. XXX “X” / “Iks”: Katz, Joseph (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “X”: Katz, Joseph [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] “X” [Iks] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Joseph Katz. (The cover name in Russian is “Iks”, not the Cyrillic letter “X”.) “X” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Katz.[536] “X” [X] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Designation given the GRU agent “Kogan” in a 1941 KGB report. In the original text indicted by the Russian Cryillic letter “X”. The Russian “X” transliterates as “Kh”, but in this case is functioning in the same way as the Latin “X”, indicating an unnamed person, and is here left as “X”. “X” [X] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, mid-1920s. Possibly a ROSTA correspondent in the U.S. who reported to KGB. In the original text indicted by the Russian Cryillic letter “X”. The Russian “X” transliterates as “Kh”, but in this case is functioning in the same way as the Latin “X”, indicating an unnamed person, and is here left as “X”. X-2: OSS counter-intelligence division. X line: see XY line. X2: see X-2. XP-58 (KGB line) [source Venona] XY line: KGB scientific-technical line of work. While often rendered in English with the Latin alphabet letters “XY”, this is a transfer without transliteration of the Russian Cyrillic letter “XY”, which when transliterated from Russian would be KhU. “XY line”: scientific and technical intelligence [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] XXY

Yagoda, Genrikh Grigor'evich: People's Commissar for Internal Affairs (chief of the NKVD, predecessor to the KGB) from 1934 until 1936. Yagoda implemented the early Moscow Trials and beginning stages of Stalin’s Great Terror. Replaced in 1936, he was arrested as a traitor in 1937 and accused of being part of a Trotskyist-Bucharinist conspiracy. He was tried and executed in 1938. Yakhontoff, Victor Alexandrovich: Soviet intelligence contact/informant Former Tsartist general turned pro-Soviet. “Yakov” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, 1952, likely operating from Vienna, liaison with Boris Morros in Europe in 1952. “Yakov” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): William Perl starting in September 1944. “Yakov” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Perl.[537] “Yakov” (alternative translations as “Jacob”): William Perl (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Yakov”: unidentified cover name [probably not Perl] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Yakov”: William Perl [source Feklisov Rosenbergs] Yakovlev, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930. Yakovlev, Anatoly Antonovich: Pseudonym used by Anatoly Antonovich Yatskov in the U.S. (KGB line) [source Venona] Yakovlev, Captain 2nd Rank, acting Deputy head of Operations directorate of the Naval Staff [Naval GRU line] [source Venona] Yakubovich, Mikhail Petrovich (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Yakubovskij, Vasiliy Pavlovich [Yakubovsky, Vasily]: “Boss” (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Yakushev, M.N. (KGB line) [source Venona] Yakut (ship) [source Venona] Yakutsk ship “Yan”: unidentified, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Yan Tomp (ship) “Yang” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/ agent. (Alternative translation: Young] Likely Howard Gochnour. “Yank” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/ agent. Described as male and a secretary of “Page” (Lauchlin Currie) in 1943 and providing valuable information about China via “Dir”/

Mary Price. Michael Greenberg is a very strong candidate for “Yank”. “Yankee” [Yanki] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, 1938. “Yankee” [Yanki] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): John H.F. Haskel in 1944. “Yanki” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Yankee”. Yaovskij [Yaovsky]: (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Yaponets” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Japanese”. “Yar”: unidentified (KGB line) [source Venona] “Yarosh”: unidentified (KGB line) [source Venona] “Yasha” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/ agent in unidentified agency. Partially identified as Dmitry Vladimirovich ?. “Yasha” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, an illegal, early 1930s. “Yasha Case”: Unclear reference in 1937 to the arrest of an operative of some sort in the USSR. Possibly a reference to the arrest of senior KGB special operations officer Yakov “Yasha” Serebryansky, during Stalin’s purge of his security services. Yatskov, Anatoly A. [Yakovlev, Anatoly Antonovich]: “Aleksej” [“Aleksey”] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Yatskov, Anatoly Antonovich: Soviet intelligence officer. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet officer/agent under his pseudonym as Anatoly Antonovich Yakovlev. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Aleksey”. Known as John to Harry Gold. “Yaz'” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Ide”. “Yaz” / “Ide”: Krafsur, Samuel (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Yefimovna, Ekaterina: Wife of Boris Morros, Catherine Morros. Yegorechev may be variant of Egorichev, if not unidentified (NGRU line) [source Venona] Yegovor (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Yel'” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “El'” Yeliseyev, P.: KGB officer, Moscow, 1966. “Yersh” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Ruff”. “Yew” [Tis] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Robert Oppenheimer, 1944-1945.

Yezhov, Nikolay: People's Commissar for Internal Affairs (head of the NKVD/KGB) on September 26, 1936, supervised the most lethal period of the Great Terror. Removed from office in November 1938, arrested in April 1939, executed February 1940. “York, Commander (NGRU line) [source Venona] York, Jones Orin”: Igla: Needle: 0 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] York, Jones Orin: Soviet intelligence source/agent, Los Angeles. Aviation engineer. York was identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet intelligence source/agent.[538] Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Needle”. Yost, Charles: Assistant chief of the Office of Arms and Munitions Control in State in 1937-38. “Young”: Mlad: Theodore Alvin Hall (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Young: See “Mlad”. Young: See “Yang”. “Young Woman” [Devushka] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Alice Barrows. Youngster: See “Mlad”. “Youth” [Yunosha] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Nadine Redecker. “Youthful” [Malody] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Milton Golos, Jacob Golos’ son. Yudenich, Nikolay Nikolaevich: Russian general who commanded a major White army in the Russian Civil War. “Yug” / “South”: Bernard Schuster (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Yugoslavia: Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Viganiya”, 1950. “Yuliya” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Julia”. “Yuliya” / “Julia”: Olga Khlopkova (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Yuliya” / “Julia”: unidentified cover name [not Olga Khlopkova] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Yun” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Stephen Laird. References to in 1942. “Yun” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Laird.[539] “Yun”: broadcaster and commentator, Stephen Laird (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Yung” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Jung”. “Yung”: Akhmerov in 1930s in U.S. [source Andrew Mitrokhin Sword] “Yunona” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Former wife of “Yun” (Stephen Laird), described as knowing of his espionage work and of having informed her new husband.

“Yunosha” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Youth”. “Yupiter” / “Jupiter” also “Original” / “Odd Fellow”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Yur”: unidentified, cover name or real name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Yurij” [“Yury” “Yuri”]: Lev A. Tarasov ( Vasilevsky ) (Resident, Mexico City) (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Yurist” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Jurist Yurkevich, Vladimir I. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Yurt” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence officer/agent, Vienna, 1954, who had a safehouse. “Yury” as “Yuriy”: Lev A. Tarasov ( Vasilevsky ) (Resident, Mexico City) (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Yusupova, Princess Irina Felixovna: Prominent White exile. “Yuz” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Iosif R. Grigulevich, 1938-1939. “Yuzik” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Appears to be a variant of “Yuz”. Iosif R. Grigulevichh, 1938-1939. XXZ “Z” [zz](cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent. Reference to “Z” having failed or been exposed by early 1945. May be the same as “Z” reporting on OSS in 1944. Likely “Z” for “Zayats”, i.e. “Hare”/Maurice Halperin. “Zaatlantik” and “Zaatlantika”(cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Transatlantic” and “Transatlantica”. Zabellov, Ivan: “Izabello” (KGB line) [source Venona] Zablodowsky, David: Identified by Whittaker Chambers as active in the Communist covert apparatus in the mid-1936, acting as a mail drop for Joseph Peters. Active in a number of CPUSA front groups and remained active in them after the Nazi-Soviet Pact. An OSS officer in WWII. Zablodowsky later admitted acting as a mail drop for Chambers but denied Communist affiliation and espionage.[540] Zabotin, Nikolay: Soviet military attaché and GRU station chief the USSR’s Canadian legation at the time of Igor Gouzenko’s defection in 1945. Zacharias, Captain Ellis M., (NGRU line) [source Venona] “Zagadka” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Riddle”. (Alternative translations: Puzzle, Enigma).

Zagrav, ?: Described by OSS as running an intelligence apparatus in the USSR from Rumania for the Nazis. Zaikin, Dmitrij [Dmitry] Ivanovich, Soviet vice consul in NY (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Zajchenko, Aleksej [Aleksey] Yanovich (KGB line) [source Venona] Zajtsev, Ivan Dmitrievich, representative of Sevmorput in DC (NGRU line) [source Venona] Zajtsev (KGB line) [source Venona] Zakharov, Matvei Vasilevich: Senior Soviet general. Zakharov, Vyacheslav N.: Soviet intelligence officer, cipher clerk. References to in 1949. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Nikolay”. “Zakoulok” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Back Street”. “Zam” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Medes Grineff. “Zamestitel'” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Deputy”. “Zamestitel' Kapitana” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “‘Captain’s’ deputy”. “Zamestitel” / “Deputy”: Harry Hopkins or Henry Wallace (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Zamoskvorechye: a district of Moscow south of the Kremlin. Zander. Lt. Randolph (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Zapata ”: Calvo Ramirez, Roberto (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] Zaporozhchenko, ?: KGB officer, 1943. Zaporozhstal: acronym for Zaporozhye Integrated Iron and Steel Works. “Zapovednik” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): See “Preserve”. “Zare”: Elena Konstantinovna Gorbunova, secretary to Mikhail Kalatozov, representative of the Soviet film industry in California (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Zaret, Daniel Abraham [Spanish War veteran] [source Venona] Zaromsky: See Isaak Moroz. Zarubin, Elizabeth: Soviet intelligence officer. Also know as Yelizaveta Zarubina. Birth name: Yelizaveta Yulyevna Gorskaya (Rozentsvaig). Wife of Vasily Zarubin. Used the pseudonym of Elizabeth Zubilin. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Erna” (1935), “Vardo” (early 1940s) Zarubin, Vasily: “Maksim” in U.S. in WWII [source Damaskin Harris] Zarubin, Vasily Mikhaylovich: Chief of the New York KGB station and senior KGB officer in the U.S., arrived 4 January 1942 and departed

24 August 1944. Cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Jaspar” (in Germany, 1928), “Katya” (1934?), “Betty” (1935 and later 1930s), “Maxim” (early 1940s). Pseudonym in Germany as a Paramount talent scout: Edward Joseph Herbert, 1934-1940. Pseudonym under diplomatic cover in the United States, Vasily Zubilin. Zarubin, Vasily Mikhailovich: “Cooper” also “Maxim”, pseudonym Zubilin [source Feklisov ] Zarubin, Vasily [Zubilin, Vasily Mikhajlovich]: “Maxim” /“Maksim” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Zarubina, Anna Yakovlevna: First wife of Vasily Zarubin, prior to Elizabeth. Zarubina, Yelizaveta: See Elizabeth Zarubin. Zaslavsky, ?: First husband of Boris Morros’s wife. Zaslavsky, ?: Former Soviet supervisor of Iosif ?. Zassman, Walter: Described as a contact of Harold Glasser at some point (Spelling unconfirmed: alternative translation: Sassman or Sussman). Zaustinsky: Special company established to purchase aircraft engines for the USSR. Zavenyagin, Avraamy P.: Senior deputy to Lavrenty Beria. “Zavod” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Plant”. “Zayats” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Hare”. (Alternative translation: Rabbit Stowaway) “Zayats” / “Hare” or “Stowaway”: Maurice Halperin (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Zbarsky, ?: Described as a Soviet scientist working on bactericides. Zborowski, Mark: “Tulip” also “Kant” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Zborowski, Mark” “Mak” also “Kant” also “Tulip” [source, Dmitrii Volkogonov papers, Library of Congress] Zborowski, Mark: Soviet intelligence officer/agent, largely focused on antiTrotsky work in the 1930s and early 1940s. Identified in the Venona decryptions as a Soviet source/agent. Convicted of perjury and imprisoned in 1962. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Tulip” until September 1944, then “Kant”.[541] Zebulon Vance (ship) [source Venona] Zeitler, German General, (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Zeitzler, Kurt: Senior German army officer. Zelman, Franklin: See Franklin, Zalmond David. Zelnis, Robert: See Tselnis, Robert.

“Zemlyak”, “Zemlyaki” (cover names in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Fellowcountryman”, “Fellowcountrymen”. “Zemlyaki”: Fellow-countrymen: CPUSA member (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Zenit” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Zenith”. Zenith corporation: Radio and electronic corporation. “Zenith” [Zenit] (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, member of Julius Rosenberg’s revived network in 1948. “Zenkhen” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Sohnchen”. Zenzimov, Vladimir (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Zenzinov, Vladimir [editor of Za Svoboda] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Zepp”: unidentified, likely GRU officer [source Venona] “Zer”: unidentified (KGB line) [source Venona] “Zero” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, female source on staff of the Nye committee, mid-1930s, described as Jewish. Described as working for a U.S. Senator in 1942. “Zero” / “Nul” : Leona Vivian Franey (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Zero” [Nul']: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Leona Oliver Franey until October 1944.[542] Alternative translation “Null”. This “Zero”, spelled Nul' in Russian, is not the same cover name as “Zero”, spelled Zero in Russian. “Nul'” was translated as “Zero” in the Venona decryptions and to avoid confusion that translation is used here. “Zero” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Franey.[543] “Zerro” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Zero”. Likely a spelling error for Zero. “Zeus”: Biberovich, Vladislav [Ukrainian, naturalized Canadian, in Canadian war censorship office] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Zh.: initial of unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Zh-42” [zh42](cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, political line, at USDA in 1945, then UNRRA. “Zhan” (cover name in the Venona decryptions): See “Jean”. “Zhan” / “Jean”: Setaro, Ricardo (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Zhan Kahn” “Khan”: unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Zhan Zhores (ship)

“Zhana” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/ agent of KGB Washington Station 1946 at the Rumanian embassy. “Zhanna” / “Jeanne”: Krotkova, Christina (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Zhannet” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Jannet”. “Zhannet”: Jeannette: also “Amur”: Cupid, unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Zharov”: Ezhov, Nikolaj [Nikolay] Efremovich , (KGB line) [source Venona] “Zharov” [possibly Jaroff or Jarow], unidentified, an owner or proprietor in New York (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Zharov”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Zhaspar” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Jaspar”. Zhdanov, Andrey A.: Senior Soviet ideologist, part of Stalin’s inner circle after WWII. “Zhemchug” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Pearl”. Zhemchuzhina, Polina: Birth name Pearl Karpovskaya. Her brother immigrated to the U.S. and adopted the name Sam Carp. She maried Vyacheslav Molotov and occupied senior posts in the People’s Commissariat of Food Industry of the USSR; from July 1936, she was the Head of the Chief Administration of the Perfume, Cosmetics, Synthetics, and Soap-making Industry. When she visited the U.S. in 1936 as the head of the Soviet perfume conglomerate she used the name Olga Karpovskaya. In November 1937, she became a Deputy People’s Commissar. Arrested and sent to the Gulag in 1948 during Stalin’s anti-Jewish purge. Released after Stalin’s death. “Zhenya” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Sonia Steinman Gold. “Zhenya” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Sonia Gold.
[544]

“Zhenya”: probably Sonia Steinman Gold (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Zhilo (KGB line) [source Venona] “Zhizel” / “Giselle”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Zholud'”/ “Acorn”: Gold, Bela (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Zholud'” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Acorn”. “Zhora” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): William Weisband in 1945-1950. “Zhores” “Jaures”: unidentified (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Zhorzh” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “George”.

“Zhuk” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Beetle”. Zhukov, Georgy Konstantinovich: Chief Soviet military commander in WWII. “Zhulik” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Crook”. (Alternative translation: Swindler) “Zhur” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Jour”. Zhurbenko, ?: Soviet intelligence officer, Moscow, 1937. “Zhurnalist” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Journalist”. Ziev, Paul J.: Russian, director of Amtorg, 1924. Ziffer, Bernard (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Zilbermeister: birth name of Nathan Gregory Silvermaster. Zimny, John Anthony (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Zina”: Kamaeva, Anna Fedorovna] (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “Zinger” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): David Greenglass, March 1950-. Zinoviev, Grigory: Senior Bolshevik leader at the time of the Bolshevik coup and a leading figure in the Soviet government in the 1920s. Ziomback, Frank, production man (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Zionists: “Rats” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Zisman, Y.L.: Correspondent of Iosif ? in 1935. Zlatowski, George: Soviet intelligence source/agent. Veteran of the International Brigades and secret Communist, he became a U.S. Army intelligence officer in WWII and with the occupation of Austria. Husband of Jane Foster. Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks: “Rector”. Zlatowski, Jane Foster: See Jane Foster. Zlotovsky, ?: (Spelling unconfirmed. Alternative translation: Zlotowski) Described as a Polish scientist in the Manhattan atomic project with which the Soviets had only official contact. “Znamenskij” [“Znamensky”] (on ship Soviet): Alekseev, Vasilij [Vasily] Mikhailovich (KGB line) [source Venona] Zolotnitsky, ?: Described as a friend of Victor Hammer. Zoltowski, Janusz (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Zon” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Zone”. “Zona” ? “Zone”: unidentified female (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Zone” [Zon] (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Mary Price starting in September 1944. “Zone” appeared in the Venona decryptions as an

unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent with attributes compatible with Price.[545] “Zoniya” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Austria, 1950. “Zora” (cover name in Vassiliev notebooks): Soviet intelligence source/ agent. Likely Flora Don Wovschin. “Zora” was identified in the Venona decryptions as Flora Don Wovschin.[546] “Zora”: Wovschin, Flora Don (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Zorin”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Zorin, Velerian A.: Senior Soviet official, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1947-55 and chairman of the Committee of Information (KI) in 1950.. “Zouave”: unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Zoya”: Apresyana, Aleksandra Grigorevna (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Zoya”: Zarubina, Aleksandra [West Venona] Zubilin, Elizabeth: Pseudonym used by Elizabeth Zarubin. Zubilin, Vasily Mikhajlovich: “Maksim” (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] vice-counsul in Soviet consulate, NYC, Dec 1941 to July 1943. Real name Zarubin. Zubilina, Elisavetz [Elizabeth] Y.: “Vardo”: (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Zubrev, Ivan Petrovich, KGB, engineer, under Purchasing Commission cover, 1942-1943 (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Zuev”: Purubov, Roman Sergeevich, (KGB line) [source Venona] “Zveno” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Link”. “Zveno” / “Link”: unidentified name (may be William Weisband, Philips) (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “Zvesdochet” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Astrologer”. “Zvezda” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): Unidentified Soviet intelligence source/agent, references to in 1937. Zvezda means Star in Russian. However, there are two other cover names that use “Star”, spelled phonetically in Cyrillic Russian, in the notebooks. To reduce confusion “Zvezda” is simply transliterated from Cyrillic to the Latin alphabet rather than translated to Star. “Zvuk” (cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks): See “Sound”. “Zvuk”: Golos, Jacob [source Schecter Sacred Secrets] “Zvuk” / “Sound”: Jacob Golos (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] Zworykin, Vladimir Kozmich: Electronic engineer and pioneer of early television. Zyavkin, ?: Name in the Whalen documents, 1930.

Zyryanov, Gennadij [Gennady] Aleksandrovich from DC to Purchasing Commission in Seattle [source Venona] XX Partials: ?? Nikolaevich, Nikolaj [Nikolay], on ship Soviet”: ..em..ov (KGB line) [source Venona] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] ? Rafael (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “...azo, C.P. (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] ...d”: UNC/21 ...d unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] “...ee, Geoffrey (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] ...ek”: unidentified (KGB line) [source Venona] “...em..ov”: ?? Nikolaj [Nikolay] Nikolaevich (on ship Soviet (KGB line) [source Venona] “...enko”: Klotik (KGB line) [source Venona] “...er”: unidentified [not Foster] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “...esson”: partial unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “...ev”: Brahms (KGB line) [source Venona] “...gel”: UCN/22 (KGB line) [source Venona] “...inov”: partial unidentified name possibly Verinov (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “...is”: partial name who had an article in 6 July 19?? American Magazine about U.S. intelligence organizations (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] ...kup [...koop] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “...leau Roebiah (ship) [source Venona] ...maha (ship) [source Venona] ...man”: unidentified (KGB line) [source Venona] “...o”: unidentified (KGB line) [source Venona] “...olins”: partial of unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “...or ”: unidentified (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] “...ov ”: of Soviet embassy (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

“...ovtsev”: partial of unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] ...rey, chief engineer of firm Carbide Trio [unidentified name] (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] “...ris”: partial of unidentified name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] ...rov, Lt. possibly Donald K. Maissurov (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona] ...skij [...sky] (KGB Mexico City line) [source Venona] ...ssy: unidentified (KGB U.S. Line) [source Venona] “...zul or ....zule”: partial of unidentified cover name (KGB U.S. line) [source Venona]

Return to Responses, Reflections and Occasional Papers // Return to Historical Writings

[1] John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999). [2] John Earl Haynes, Harvey Klehr, and Alexander Vassiliev, Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009). [3] NSA/FBI footnotes to the Venona messages released by the National Security Agency as well as the Venona monographs prepared by Robert Louis Benson and other documents of the Venona project Images of the Venona documents, organized by chronology, are available on the Web at: < http://www.nsa.gov/public_info/declass/venona/index.shtml >. Other Venona related documents and Benson’s highly useful monographs are also accessible from that site. Benson’s monographs include: Robert L. Benson, The Venona Story (Ft. Meade, MD: Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency, 2001); Robert Louis Benson, The KGB and GRU in Europe,

South America, and Australia: Venona Historical Monograph #5, pamphlet, Venona Historical Monograph (Fort Meade, Maryland: Center for Cryptologic History, n.d. (October 1996)); Robert Louis Benson, The KGB in San Francisco and Mexico City: The GRU in New York and Washington: Venona Historical Monograph #4, pamphlet, Venona Historical Monograph (Fort Meade, Maryland: Center for Cryptologic History, n.d. (July 1996)); Robert Louis Benson, The 1944–45 New York and Washington-Moscow KGB Messages: Venona Historical Monograph #3, pamphlet, Venona Historical Monograph (Fort Meade, Maryland: Center for Cryptologic History, n.d. (March 1996)); Robert Louis Benson, The 1942–43 New York-Moscow KGB Messages: Venona Historical Monograph #2:, pamphlet, Venona Historical Monograph (Fort Meade, Maryland: Center for Cryptologic History, n.d. (October 1995)) Robert Louis Benson, Venona: New Releases, Special Reports, and Project Shutdown: Venona Historical Monograph #6, pamphlet, Venona Historical Monograph (Fort Meade, Maryland: Center for Crytologic History, n.d. (September 1997)); Robert Louis Benson, Introductory History of Venona and Guide to Translations, pamphlet, Venona Historical Monograph (Fort Meade, Maryland: Center for Cryptologic History, n.d. (July 1995)). [4] Joseph Albright and Marcia Kunstel, Bombshell: The Secret Story of America’s Unknown Atomic Spy Conspiracy (New York: Times Books, 1997). [5] Christopher M. Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB (New York: Basic Books, 1999). [6] *Elizabeth Bentley, “Elizabeth Bentley FBI Deposition of 30 November 1945” (1945).* [7] Whittaker Chambers, Witness (New York: Random House, 1952). [8] Igor Damaskin, Kitty Harris: The Spy with 17 Names, assisted by Geoffrey Elliott (London: St Ermin’s, 2001). [9] Alexander Feklisov and Sergei Kostin, The Man Behind the Rosenbergs, trans. Catherine Dop (New York: Enigma Books, 2001).

[10] Harvey Klehr, John Earl Haynes, and Fridrikh Igorevich Firsov, The Secret World of American Communism (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995). [11] Jerrold L. Schecter and Leona Schecter, Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History (Washington, DC: Brassey’s, 2002). [12] Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Random House, 1997). [13] Nigel West, Venona: The Greatest Secret of the Cold War (London: HarperCollins, 1999). [14] Chambers, Witness, 387–92; Julius Kobyakov, “ALES/Hiss,” HDiplo, 22 March 2004, < http://www.h-net.org/~diplo/ >. [15] Eduard Mark, “Venona’s Source 19 and the Trident Conference of May 1943: Diplomacy or Espionage?” Intelligence and National Security 13, no. 2 (April 1998). [16] See “Source No. 19” in Appendix A, John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press [Nota Bene], 2000). Andrew and Mitrokhin, Sword and the Shield. [17] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [18] The “Ant” misspelling was in the original KGB document and Vassiliev in the notebook noted that this was a misspelling of “Abt.” Elizabeth Bentley, “FBI Deposition, 30 November 1945, FBI File 65–56402, Serial 220,” 51–54, 105; Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000], 340. [19] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [20] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [21] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 26.

[22] Grigorii Sergeevich Agabekov, Ch. K. Za Rabotoi [The Cheka at Work] (1931). Published in the U.S. as: *G. S. Agabekov, “OGPU, the Russian Secret Terror” (1931).*. [23] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [24] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [25] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [26] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [27] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [28] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [29] Eduard Mark, “Who Was ‘Venona’s ‘Ales’? Cryptanalysis and the Hiss Case,” Intelligence and National Security 18, no. 3 (Autumn 2003). [30] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [31] Harvey Klehr and Ronald Radosh, The Amerasia Spy Case: Prelude to McCarthyism (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996). [32] Venona 1791 KGB New York to Moscow, 20 December 1944. In this message “Cora’s” husband is referred to by both the cover name “Ampere” and “Roy.” FBI/NSA judged that both referred to the same person, redacted the real name in both cases. [33] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [34] “Arena” appeared in Venona and was identified by NSA/FBI as the cover name of Mary Price in messages of April and May 1944 and as unidentified in a message of June 1943. Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. In light of the detail supplied in the Vassiliev notebooks, NSA/FBI’s identification of “Arena” in the Venona cables as Mary Price appeared to be incorrect.

[35] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 10–11. An unidentified cover name “Alexander” appears in Venona associated with Central and South American operations, and Arenal would be a candidate for that “Alexander.” Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [36] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 10–11. [37] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [38] Appendix A (“Arnold” used rather than the correct “Arno”), Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [39] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [40] “Comintern Apparatus Summary Report,” 15 December 1944, serial 3702, FBI Comintern Apparatus file; Klehr, Haynes, and Firsov, Secret World, 46–49. [41] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [42] Andrew and Mitrokhin, Sword and the Shield, 99–101; Schecter and Schecter, Sacred Secrets, 61–62; Robert L. Benson, Venona Story, 50. [43] Sam Tanenhaus, Whittaker Chambers: A Biography (New York: Random House, 1997), 115. [44] Tanenhaus, Whittaker Chambers, 115. [45] Feklisov and Kostin, Man Behind, 283, 286. [46] Anatoly Gorsky, “Failures in the USA (1938–48),” in Black Notebook, Alexander Vassiliev, 77–79. [47] On Bachrach Communist background and her work for Rep. Bernard, a strong ally of the CPUSA, see Klehr, Haynes, and Firsov, Secret World, 318–19 and Hope Hale Davis, Great Day Coming: A Memoir of the

1930s (South Royalton, Vt.: Steerforth Press, 1994), 69; John J. Abt, Advocate and Activist: Memoirs of an American Communist Lawyer, assisted by Michael Myerson (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993), 40–41. [48] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. On Barker’s role as head of the CPUSA covert apparatus, see Klehr, Haynes, and Firsov, Secret World, 59–60, 83–95, 99–103, 119–21, 147–50, 205–15, 225, 230–32, 147–48. [49] On Baldwin’s secret Communist allegiances, see John Gates to Joseph Starobin, undated, Box 10, folder 2, Philip Jaffe Papers, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. [50] Venona 975 KGB New York to Moscow, 11 July 1944. [51] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; Steven Usdin, Engineering Communism (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005). [52] Venona 3706 KGB Washington to Moscow, 29 June 1945; Testimony of Alice Barrows, 28 June 1953, U.S. Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, Interlocking Subversion in Government Departments [Hearings] (Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1953), part 12, 830–40. [53] Venona 1327 KGB New York to Moscow; Report on Paul Gibson interview with David Greenglass, 30 July 1953, FBI Rosenberg file, see ref batch 24, 65-15478, serial 296 [54] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; Elizabeth Bentley and Hayden B. Peake, Out of Bondage: The Story of Elizabeth Bentley (New York: Ivy Books, 1988), 104. [55] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [56] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [57] Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000], 372.

[58] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; Bentley and Peake, Out of Bondage, 42–43, 92, 95. [59] Bentley, “Deposition 1945”; Bentley and Peake, Out of Bondage; Kathryn S. Olmsted, Red Spy Queen: A Biography of Elizabeth Bentley (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002); Lauren Kessler, Clever Girl: Elizabeth Bentley’s Life in and Out of Espionage (New York: HarperCollins, 2003); Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [60] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [61] Gorsky, “Failures in the USA,” 77–79. [62] Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [63] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [64] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [65] "Blerio" after Louis Bleriot, French engineer who had crossed the English channel in 1909. [66] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [67] Straight provided a partial account of his recruitment and relationship with Soviet espionage in Michael Whitney Straight, After Long Silence (New York: W.W. Norton, 1983). Additional information is provided in John Earl Haynes, “Speak No Evil, Michael Straight: After Long Silence,” Chronicles of Culture 7, no. 11 (1983); Sidney Hook, “The Incredible Story of Michael Straight,” Encounter [Great Britain], December 1983; Robert King, “Treason and Traitors,” Society 26, no. 5 (July-August 1989); Weinstein, Perjury [1997], 183–84; Nigel West and Oleg Tsarev, The Crown Jewels: The British Secrets at the Heart of the KGB Archives (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999), 112–13, 116, 130–34, 174; Robert Cecil, “The Cambridge Comintern,” in The Missing Dimension: Governments and Intelligence Communities in the Twentieth Century, ed. Christopher M.

Andrew and David Dilks (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1984). John Costello, Mask of Treachery (New York: W. Morrow, 1988). [68] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [69] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [70] Serials 813, 816, 843 of Iskhak Akhmerov FBI file 65-57905. Andrew and Mitrokhin translate Bookman’s real name from the Russian as “Buchman” and translate the cover name as “Employer.” Andrew and Mitrokhin, Sword and the Shield, 106, 109. [71] Serials 813, 816, 843 of Iskhak Akhmerov FBI file 65-57905. Andrew and Mitrokhin translate Bookman’s real name from the Russian as “Buchman” and translate the cover name as “Employer.” Andrew and Mitrokhin, Sword and the Shield, 106, 109. [72] The original word in Russian is !"# (Boy), and '() in Russian is translated as Battle, Combat, or Struggle but terms of that sort were rarely used as cover names. However, '() phontically transliterated into English is Boy. Often KGB used Cyrillic to phonetically spell out an English word, and Boy is the translation choice made here. [73] Ibid. [74] Ibid. [75] Katherine A.S. Sibley, Red Spies in America: Stolen Secrets and the Dawn of the Cold War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004), 110; Robert J. Lamphere and Tom Shachtman, The FBI-KGB War a Special Agent’s Story (Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1995), 167–68. [76] British Security Service files Engelbert Broda (KV 2/2349-2354), released 4 September 2006 < http://www.mi5.gov.uk/output/ Page526.html >. See also the unidentified cover name “K.” that appears to be identical with “Eric”/Broda in Nigel West and Oleg Tsarev, The Crown Jewels: The British Secrets at the Heart of the KGB Archives (London:

HarperCollins, 1998), 231–33, 236; Andrew and Mitrokhin, Sword and the Shield, 114–15. [77] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [78] Venona 1151 KGB New York to Moscow, 12 August 1944. [79] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 13–14; Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; “Expert” does not occur in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks. The shift from “Constructor” to “Expert” is documented in Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [80] See Bentley, “Deposition 1945”; James G. Ryan, Earl Browder: The Failure of American Communism (Tuscaloosa, Ala.: University of Alabama Press, 1997); Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; Klehr, Haynes, and Firsov, Secret World, 232–58. [81] Two earlier autobiographies of Raisa Browder were also found. Both contain substantially the same information, including that of holding “extraordinary powers” as a commissar of justice. See R. Luganovskaia 1932 AUCP(b) autobiography, 17 June 1932, RGASPI 495-261-3264; R. Luganovskaia 1933 ILS autobiography, 19 March, 1933, RGASPI 495-261-3264. [82] Klehr, Haynes, and Firsov, Secret World, 238–43. [83] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [84] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 38; Louis Budenz affidavit, 11 November 1950, “American Aspects of the Assassination of Leon Trotsky,” U.S. Congress, House of Representatives, Committee on Un-American Activities, 81st Cong., 2d sess., U.S. House Committee on Un-American Activities, American Aspects of Assassination of Leon Trotsky. (Washington: U. S. Govt. Print. Off., 1951), part 1, v-ix; Louis F. Budenz, Men Without Faces: The Communist Conspiracy in the U. S. A. (New York: Harper, 1950), 123–26; Jimmy Randall Grant, “Louis Francis Budenz: The Origins of

a Professional Ex-Communist” (Ph.D. diss., University of South Carolina, 2006). [85] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [86] W. G. Krivitsky, In Stalin’s Secret Service (New York: Enigma Books, 2000), 236; V. M. Lurie and V. IA. Kochik, GRU: Dela i Liudi [GRU: Cases and People] (Sankt-Peterburg Moskva: Neva Olma-Press, 2002), 356. We thank Russian historian Svetlana Chervonnaya for calling our attention to this entry. Tanenhaus, Whittaker Chambers, 548, n. 16. [87] See: Will Brownell and Richard N. Billings, So Close to Greatness: A Biography of William C. Bullitt (New York: Macmillan, 1987); Michael Cassella-Blackburn, “William C. Bullitt: Fear and Loathing of the Soviet Union, 1917–1948” (Ph.D. diss., Syracuse University, 1997). [88] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [89] Venona 1289, KGB New York to Moscow, 9 September 1944; Venona 1291 KGB New York to Moscow, 9 September 1944; Venona 1312 KGB New York to Moscow, 14 September 1944; Venona 1507 KGB New York to Moscow, 23 October 1944; Venona 1805 KGB New York to Moscow, 23 December 1944; Venona 1814 1815 KGB New York to Moscow, 23 December 1944; Venona 781 - 787 KGB New York to Moscow, 25-26 May 1945. [90] Spelled “Maedchen” in the notebook. [91] Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000], 76–77; Federal Bureau of Investigation, “‘Existing Corroboration of Bentley’s Overall Testimony,’ 6 May 1955,” in Silvermaster File (FBI File 65–56402), Serial 4201; Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 11; Bentley and Peake, Out of Bondage, 254–55, 327; Winston Burdett testimony, 29 June 1955, U.S. Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, Strategy and Tactics of World Communism (Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1955), part 14. [92] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; New York FBI field office to Hoover and FBI Washington Field Office, 1 February 1946,

Serial 442, “FBI Silvermaster File 65–56402”; Klehr, Haynes, and Firsov, Secret World, 316–17. [93] Christopher M. Andrew and Oleg Gordievsky, KGB: The Inside Story of Its Foreign Operations from Lenin to Gorbachev (New York, NY: HarperCollinsPublishers, 1990). [94] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [95] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [96] The original Cyrillic Russian transliterates as “Lager U” and literally translates as “Camp U,” but in this case KGB, knowing that the Manhattan atomic project designation for its facilities at Los Alamos was “Site Y”, chose to treat the Cyrillic Russian letter “Y” (which is actually the equivalent of “U” in the Latin alphabet) as the Latin “Y” rather than the actual Cyrillic equivalent of the Latin “Y”, the letter “*”. [97] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [98] Adolf Berle, “Underground Espionage Agent [Transcription of Berle’s Notes of 2 September 1939 Interview with Whittaker Chambers],” in Interlocking Subversion in Government Departments [Hearings], U.S. Senate Internal Security Subcommittee (Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1953), part 6, pp. 329–30. [99] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [100] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [101] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [102] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [103] See “The Librarian Spies,” pp. 177-180, and Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000].

[104] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. “Noise” is identified in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks as Cham. “Spline” appears earlier but is unidentified. The shift of “Spline” to “Noise” is documented in Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [105] Alexander Vassiliev, Black Notebook [2007 English Translation], trans. Philip Redko (1993–96), 114. [106] Chambers wrote in his autobiography that he was known as “Carl” in the Communist covert apparatus in Washington. Carl and Karl are spelled identically in Russian and always transliterate from the Russian as “Karl.” Chambers, Witness, 336. On Chambers’ role in Soviet espionage, see: Weinstein, Perjury [1997]; Tanenhaus, Whittaker Chambers. [107] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [108] Appendix C, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [109] Venona 1905 KGB New York to Moscow, 17 November 1943; Venona 776 KGB New York to Moscow, 31 May 1944; Venona 928 KGB New York to Moscow, 1 July 1944. [110] Reference to Charley as Helmsman/Browder’s courier in a late 1944 report is a possibly reference to Joseph Katz. Vassiliev, Black, 189. [111] [112] Hansheng Chen, Si Ge Shi Dai di Wo [My Life During Four Ages], assisted by Xuefang Ren (Beijing, PRC: Zhongguo wen shi chu ban she Xin hua shu dian Beijing fa xing suo fa xing [Chinese Culture and History Press], 1988). [113] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [114] From the early 1950s onward, with his brother Morris, a FBI informant. See: David J. Garrow, The FBI and Martin Luther King, Jr.: From “Solo” to Memphis (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001) ; John

Barron, Operation Solo: The FBI’s Man in the Kremlin (Washington, D.C.: Regnery Pub., 1995). [115] From the early 1950s onward, a FBI informant during which time he was assigned by the CPUSA supervising the transfer of subsidies from the USSR to the CPUSA and acted as a liaison between the CPUSA and the CPSU. See: Garrow, The FBI and Martin Luther King, Jr.: From “Solo” to Memphis; Barron, Solo. [116] Alexander Vassiliev comment: From “Cio-Cio-san,” the character in the opera “Madame Butterfly.” [117] Albright and Kunstel, Bombshell, 184–85. [118] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [119] Testimony of Charles J. (Robert) Coe, 11 June 1953, U.S. Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, Interlocking Subversion, part 11, 707–23. [120] U.S. Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, Interlocking Subversion, part 16, 1219–21; “FBI Silvermaster File 65–56402,” serial 2024; Frank Coe testimony, 13 August 1948, U.S. House Committee on UnAmerican Activities, Hearings Regarding Communist Espionage in the United States (Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1948), 914–28; Frank Coe interview, 4 June 1947, serial 2530, “FBI Silvermaster File 65–56402”; Benjamin Mandell report on Frank Coe, 12 November 1953, U.S. Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, Interlocking Subversion, part 16, 1073; Testimony of Virginius Frank Coe, 1 December 1952, U.S. Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, Activities of United States Citizens Employed by the United Nations (Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1952), 227–56; Felix Belair, Jr., “World Fund Ousts Aide who Balked at Red, Spy Queries,” New York Times (4 December 1952); Testimony of Frank V. Coe, 20 October 1953, Committee on Government Operations U.S. Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Hearings, Transfer of Occupation Currency Plates -Espionage Phase, Part 1 (Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1953), 20; Frank Coe, “A Leap That Has Made History,” China Reconstructs [Peking, PRC] (January 1959); Robert Alden, “Frank Coe Lauds Red China’s Work,”

New York Times (21 February 1959), 4; UPI, “China Catching Up, U.S. Economist Says,” Washington Post (1 January 1959); Harvey Schwartz, “Red China Assails U.S. Communists,” New York Times (16 August 1964), 77; Sidney Rittenberg, The Man Who Stayed Behind, assisted by Amanda Bennett (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993), 251; Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000], 143–45, 345; Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [121] Albright and Kunstel, Bombshell. [122] Ibid. [123] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [124] Chambers, Witness; Davis, Great Day; Nathaniel Weyl, Encounters With Communism (Philadelphia, PA: Xlibris, 2004). [125] William Herrick in his autobiography says Emil Conason was his cousin. William Herrick, Jumping the Line: The Adventures and Misadventures of an American Radical (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1998), 39–41. [126] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [127] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [128] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; Klehr, Haynes, and Firsov, Secret World, 294–95. On the Coplon case, see “Judith Coplon: The Spy Who Got Away with It” in John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Early Cold War Spies: The Espionage Trials That Shaped American Politics (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006) and Marcia Mitchell and Thomas Mitchell, The Spy Who Seduced America: Lies and Betrayal in the Heat of the Cold War: The Judith Coplon Story (Montpelier, VT: Invisible Cities Press, 2002). [129] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000].

[130] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; Klehr, Haynes, and Firsov, Secret World, 233–38. [131] Andrew and Mitrokhin, Sword and the Shield, 87. [132] Chambers, Witness, 468; Berle, “Espionage Agent”; Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 25, 43; Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [133] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [134] Venona 670 KGB New York to Moscow, 11 May 1944; Venona 727 KGB New York to Moscow, 20 May 1944; Venona 826 KGB New York to Moscow, 7 June 1944. [135] Appendix C, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [136] Dar is the Russian word for gift. Alexander Vassiliev, however, states that he believes that “Dar” was intended as a simple name and not “Dar” as the word meaning Gift. However, “Dar” also occurred in Venona and was translated as “Gift.” Rather than confuse matters, the Venona precedent is accepted in the translation used here. [137] Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [138] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [139] .Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; Klehr, Haynes, and Firsov, Secret World, 307. [140] Klehr, Haynes, and Firsov, Secret World, 259–86. [141] Statement of Nicholas Dozenberg, 4 October 1949, U.S. House Committee on Un-American Activities, Hearings Regarding Communist Espionage (Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1951), 3540; Herbert Romerstein and Stanislav Levchenko, The KGB Against the “Main Enemy”: How the Soviet Intelligence Service Operates Against the United States (Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1989), 16.

[142] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [143] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [144] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [145] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [146] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [147] Harvey Klehr, John Earl Haynes, and Kyrill M. Anderson, The Soviet World of American Communism (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998), 91–106. [148] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; Hede Massing, This Deception (New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1951), 206–11; Berle, “Espionage Agent”. [149] Durmaskhin under the spelling Dourmashkin appears in CPUSA records. Klehr, Haynes, and Firsov, Secret World, 145–46. [150] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [151] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [152] West and Tsarev, Crown Jewels. [153] Eduard” was not directly identified in Vassiliev’s notebooks. However,
Jones York later cooperated with the FBI and identified the photograph of Emanuel Locke as his liaison with the KGB in this period. Locke, confronted by the FBI, confessed to having worked as the courier between York and Shumovsky in this period. R. B. Hood to Director, 14 April 1950, serial 57; San Francisco FBI memo, 27 June 1954, serial 136, Jones Orin York FBI file 65-2223.

[154] Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [155] Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944.

[156] Elsa is used for Lowry in some notes prior to mid-1945, but appears to beVassiliev’s annotations that Lowry later had the Elsa cover name. Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [157] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 58–61, 63–64, 85–89, 97, 102. [158] Chemist at Shell Oil in California, Eltenton was a British subject who had worked for some years in the Soviet Union. In the U.S. he was an activist in the Federation of Architects, Engineers, Chemists and Technicians, a small Communist-led CIO union. “Comintern Apparatus Summary Report,” 15 December 1944, FBI Comintern Apparatus file, serial 3702, see also memo of 1 November 1944, serial 3378. [159] New York FBI report of period 1 December 1946 through 31 March 1947, Comintern Apparatus file, serial 5427; Whittaker Chambers, “Statement to the Federal Bureau of Investigation,” 11 May 1949, reproduced in Edith Tiger and Victor Rabinowitz, eds., In Re Alger Hiss: Petition for a Writ of Error Coram Nobis (New York: Hill and Wang, 1979), 79–80. [160] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [161] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 6–9. [162] West and Tsarev, Crown Jewels, 231–33, 236; Andrew and Mitrokhin, Sword and the Shield, 114–15. [163] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [164] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 30. [165] Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944 and Venona 164 KGB Moscow to New York, 20 February 1945. Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [166] Venona’s deciphering of the cover name as “Ernest” rather than “Ernst” likely results in the minor difference in Russian of the rendering of

“Ernst” and “Ernest” and a minor error in recreated the Soviet code book. Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [167] Alan Cullison, “The Lost Victims,” Associated Press Wire Service, 9 November 1997. [168] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [169] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [170] Venona 585 KGB New York to Moscow, 29 April 1944; Venona 586 KGB New York to Moscow, 29 April 1944; Venona 601 KGB New York to Moscow, 2 May 1944; Venona 611 KGB New York to Moscow, 3 May 1944; Venona 852 KGB New York to Moscow, 16 June 1944; Venona 915 KGB New York to Moscow, 28 June 1944; Venona 1160 KGB New York to Moscow, 14 August 1944; Venona 1275 KGB New York to Moscow, 7 September 1944. [171] Feklisov and Kostin, Man Behind. [172] Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [173] Berle, “Espionage Agent”; Mária Schmidt, “Noel Field -- The American Communist at the Center of Stalin’s East European Purge: From the Hungarian Archives,” American Communist History 3, no. 2 (December 2004); Mária Schmidt, Battle of Wits - Beliefs, Ideologies and Secret Agents in the 20th Century (Budapest, Hungary: XX. Század Intézet, 2007); BerndRainer Barth and Werner Schweizer, Der Fall Noel Field: Schlüsselfigur der Schauprozesse in Osteuropa, assisted by Thomas Grimm, Arte Edition (2 vols, Berlin: BasisDruck, 2005–7); Flora Lewis, Red Pawn: The Story of Noel Field. (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1965); Massing, This Deception. [174] Vassiliev, Black, 131; Ronald Radosh and Joyce Milton, The Rosenberg File (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997), 307–14; Steve Usdin, “Sarant, Barr, Perl,” 3 January 2006, posting on H-HOAC <http://hnet.msu.edu/cgi-bin/logbrowse.pl?trx=lm&list=h-hoac>.

[175] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [176] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [177] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 51, 53–54, 56, 80; Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; Klehr, Haynes, and Firsov, Secret World, 312–15. [178] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. Klehr, Haynes, and Firsov, Secret World, 312–15. [179] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [180] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [181] Berle, “Espionage Agent”; Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [182] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [183] Memo on Leona and Joseph Franey, 5 August 1944, FBI Comintern Apparatus file (FBI file 100-203581), serial 2919; Memo on Leona and Joseph Franey, 21 August 1944, FBI Comintern Apparatus file, serial 2989; FBI memo on Shevchenko, 30 October 1944, FBI Comintern Apparatus file, serial Serial 3379; FBI memo on Shevchenko, 9 December 1944, FBI Comintern Apparatus file, serial 3612; Leona Franey testimony and Joseph Franey testimony, 6 June 1949, “Soviet Espionage Activities in Connection with Jet Propulsion and Aircraft,” U.S. Congress, House of Representatives, Un-American Activities Committee, 81st Cong., 1st sess.; Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [184] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [185] Hede Massing in her autobiography wrote that in in January or February of 1937, she and Gerda Frankfurter were assigned to surveil Ludwig Lore by two senior Soviet intelligence officers, Boris Bazarov (known to her under the work name Fred) and Bill (a work name used by

Iskhak Akhmerov). Another agent, a Russian know to her as Anton, also assisted on occasion with the surveillance. Massing, This Deception, 139, 182–83, 195, 202–4, 218–19. [186] [187] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [188] Freeman was a CPUSA member for years but was forced to leave due to his unwillingness to submit to close supervision of his writings but remained an ally of the party. [189] “Friend” appears in Venona in 1944 as the cover name of Oscar Lange, but “Friend” in Venona was a translation of “Priyatel'” rather than “Drug” and was an entirely different cover name. [190] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [191] Appendix C, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [192] Venona 912 KGB New York to Moscow, 27 June 1944. [193] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [194] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [195] Venona 846 KGB New York to Moscow, 3 June 1943. [196] Benjamin Gitlow, I Confess: The Truth About American Communism (New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., inc., 1940); Benjamin Gitlow, The Whole of Their Lives: Communism in America--a Personal History and Intimate Portrayal of Its Leaders. (New York: C. Scribner’s Sons, 1948). [197] We thank John McIlroy and Alan Campbell for bringing our attention to Glading.

[198] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; Klehr, Haynes, and Firsov, Secret World, 312–15; Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 52, 55–57; Chambers, Witness, 430. [199] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [200] Alfred Slack FBI file #65-59183. [201] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 28; Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [202] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [203] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 25, 27. [204] Bentley, “Deposition 1945.” [205] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [206] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [207] U.S. Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, Activities United Nations, pt. 1, 24–25; A U.N. administrative panel later awarded Gordon $122,500 compensation, a large sum at the time. U.S. Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, Activities of United States Citizens Employed by the United Nations (Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1954), 6–7. [208] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [209] Robert Taschereau and Roy Lindsay Kellock, Royal Commissioners, The Report of the Royal Commission Appointed Under Order in Council P.C. 411 of February 5, 1946 to Investigate the Facts Relating to and the Circumstances Surrounding the Communication, by Public Officials and Other Persons in Positions of Trust, of Secret and Confidential Information to Agents of a Foreign Power. June 27, 1946 (Ottawa: E. Cloutier, printer to the King, 1946); Igor Gouzenko, The Iron

Curtain, ed. and trans. Andy O’Brien (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1948); Robert Bothwell and J. L. Granatstein, eds., The Gouzenko Transcripts: The Evidence Presented to the Kellock-Taschereau Royal Commission of 1946 (Ottawa, Ont.: Deneau, 1982). [210] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 41. [211] “Report by “X” dated 11.01.45 about the meeting with ‘Raid,’” KGB file 45100 v.1, p.75, Alexander Vassiliev, White Notebook #3 [2007 English Translation], trans. Steven Shabad (1993–96), 75–76. Elizabeth Bentley noted “Green” as a pseudonym used for Gregg by his KGB liaison. Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 46. [212] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 43. [213] Ibid., 45–46, 79–80, 94. [214] Andrew and Mitrokhin, Sword and the Shield, 99–101; Schecter and Schecter, Sacred Secrets, 61–62; Robert L. Benson, Venona Story, 50. [215] In the Venona decryptions it was unclear if “Green” was a cover name or a real name, and if the latter, then it might be Abner Green. Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000], 351. Vassiliev’s notebooks, however, establish that “Grin” was John Spivak’s cover name. [216] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. Cover name dating based on Venona 1251 KGB New York to Moscow, 2 September 1944. [217] On the Coplon case, see “Judith Coplon: The Spy Who Got Away with It” in Haynes and Klehr, Earl Cold War Spies and Mitchell and Mitchell, Spy Who Seduced America. [218] Sibley, Red Spies, 114–15; U.S. House Committee on UnAmerican Activities, Soviet Espionage Activities in Connection with Jet Propulsion and Aircraft (Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1949).

[219] Cover name shift based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [220] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; Michael Dobbs, “Unlocking the Crypts: Most Spies Code Revealed Escaped Prosecution,” Washington Post, 25 December 1995; Michael Dobbs, “Code Name ‘Mlad,’ Atomic Bomb Spy,” Washington Post, 25 February 1996, 1, 20–21; Albright and Kunstel, Bombshell. [221] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 33–34, 39, 79–80; Don S. Kirschner, Cold War Exile: The Unclosed Case of Maurice Halperin (Columbia, Mo.: University of Missouri Press, 1995). [222] Klehr, Haynes, and Firsov, Secret World, 26–30; Klehr, Haynes, and Anderson, Soviet World, 132–35; Edward Jay Epstein, Dossier: The Secret History of Armand Hammer (New York: Random House, 1996). [223] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [224] V. E. Tarrant, The Red Orchestra (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996). [225] Venona 1766 KGB New York to Moscow, 15 December 1944, refers to the U.S. Ambassador to the USSR (Harriman) as “henceforth, Men.” However, Harriman appears as “Capitalist” in Venona both before and after this message. Venona 827 KGB New York to Moscow, 7 June 1944; Venona 83 KGB New York to Moscow, 18 January 1945; Venona 781 - 787 KGB New York to Moscow, 25-26 May 1945; Venona 310 KGB San Francisco to Moscow 8 June 1945. “Capitalist” does not appear in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks. [226] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 14, 92, 97, 99, 101–2. [227] Born Edith Suschitzky in Austria; her rather a radical Socialist. She trained as a kindergarten teacher and photographyer. She became a Communist and undertook Soviet intelligence missions in France and Great Britian in the late 1920s. In 1933 she married Dr. Alex Tudor Hart, a left-

wing medical doctor sympathetic to the Communist Party and moved to Britain. She worked for KGB as a courier and link to British Communists and refugee Austrain Communists in Britain. West and Tsarev, Crown Jewels, 273–74. [228] Albert Glotzer, Trotsky: Memoir & Critique (Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1989), n307; Andrew and Mitrokhin, Sword and the Shield, 87–88. [229] FBI Armand Labis Feldman file, FBI file 61-7574, serial 642. [230] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 85. [231] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [232] “FBI Silvermaster File 65–56402,” serial 557; “James Herbert Hibben,” Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 49,6 (1959), 196; Stuart G. Hibben, Aristocrat and Proletarian: The Extraordinary Life of Paxton Pattison Hibben (Tamarac, FL: Llumina Press, 2006); Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [233] Weinstein, Perjury [1997]; Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000], 167–73; Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America – The Stalin Era (New York: Random House, 1999), 12,38–49, 165, 269; Schmidt, “Noel Field”; Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 105. [234] Berle, “Espionage Agent”; Weinstein, Perjury [1997], 154, 196. [235] Andrew and Mitrokhin, Sword and the Shield, 115–16. “Hola” does not occur in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks. [236] Appendix C, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [237] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. Dating of cover name shift based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944.

[238] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [239] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [240] Moscow Center to London KGB station, 30 September 1945, KGB archival file 84490 v. 1, p. 128, in Alexander Vassiliev, Yellow Notebook #1 [2007 English Translation], trans. Philip Redko (1993–96), 77. [241] Weinstein, Perjury [1997], 96, 146, 280, 342. [242] Gorsky, “Failures in the USA,” 77–79. [243] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [244] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [245] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [246] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [247] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [248] Nathaniel Weyl in his memoir writes that Jackson attempted to join the CPUSA in 1934 while working for a government agency but Harold Ware turned him down on the grounds that his excessive drinking was too risky for the covert party organization in Washington. Weyl, Encounters With Communism, 24–25. [249] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [250] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [251] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [252] Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America’s Traitors (Washington, D.C.: Regnery, 2000). [253] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 42–43.

[254] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. Dating of cover name shift based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [255] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 32; Appendix B, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [256] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [257] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 30–32, 78–80, 84; Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [258] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [259] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [260] Vassiliev, White #3, 96. [261] Ibid., 98. [262] West and Tsarev, Crown Jewels, 231–33, 236; Andrew and Mitrokhin, Sword and the Shield, 114–15. [263] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 66, 106. [264] Ibid., 28–29. [265] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [266] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [267] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 26; U.S. Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, Activities of United States Citizens Employed by the United Nations (Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1953); U.S. Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, Activities United Nations. [268] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944.

[269] Oksana Stepanovna Kasenkina, Leap to Freedom (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Co., 1949). [270] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; Bentley, “Deposition 1945”. [271] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 36. [272] Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [273] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [274] “The Librarian Spies,” pp. 177-180 and Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; Background memoranda of Philip and Mary Jane Keeney, “FBI Silvermaster File 65–56402,” serial 2127; U.S. House Committee on Un-American Activities, Testimony of Philip O. Keeney and Mary Jane Keeney and Statement Regarding Their Background: Hearings (Washington: U. S. Govt. Print. Off., 1949), 221–77. [275] “The Librarian Spies,” pp. 177-180 and Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; Background memoranda of Philip and Mary Jane Keeney, “FBI Silvermaster File 65–56402,” serial 2127; U.S. House Committee on Un-American Activities, Keeney Testimony. [276] Markku Ruotsila, British and American Anticommunism Before the Cold War (London and Portland, OR: Frank Cass, 2001), 93–97, 124, 146, 168, 189, 191; Steve Weinberg, Armand Hammer: The Untold Story (Boston: Little, Brown, 1989), 59, 66, 99. [277] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [278] “Klim” was identified as Pavlov in Romerstein and Breindel, Venona Secrets, 44. [279] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [280] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000].

[281] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [282] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [283] Klehr, Haynes, and Firsov, Secret World, 306; Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [284] Davis, Great Day, 68–69; Weyl, Encounters With Communism; Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000], 354–55; Weinstein, Perjury [1997], 96, 106, 156, 185–85, 224–25, 231–35; Earl Latham, The Communist Controversy in Washington: From the New Deal to McCarthy. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1966), 107; Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 51– 52, 54, 56, 105; Klehr, Haynes, and Firsov, Secret World, 312–15. [285] Walter G. Krivitsky, In Stalin’s Secret Service; an Exposé of Russia’s Secret Policies by the Former Chief of the Soviet Intelligence in Western Europe (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1939). See also Gary Kern, A Death in Washington: Walter G. Krivitsky and the Stalin Terror (New York: Enigma Books, 2003). [286] Ruth Werner [Ursula Kuczynski], Sonya’s Report (London: Chatto & Windus (Random Century Group), 1991). [287] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [288] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [289] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 36. [290] During Whittaker Chambers’s years at Time magazine, he became a fierce anti-Communist. For a period in 1944 and 1945, Chambers was in charge of the Foreign News department, where his editing of stories to bring out matters that depicted the USSR in a poor light, enraged several correspondents who demanded that publisher Henry Luce remove him. Chambers identified the ringleaders of the revolt as John Hersey, Theodore White, Charles Wertenbaker, John Scott, and Richard Lauterbach. Lauterbach, described by one scholar as “the correspondent Chambers trusted least,” had been Time’s correspondent in Moscow. Chambers, Witness, 498;

Tanenhaus, Whittaker Chambers, 182; Appendix D, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [291] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [292] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 34–36, 40, 52, 57, 78–80; Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [293] Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000], 372. [294] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [295] Chambers, Witness, 387–92; Julius Kobyakov, “ALES/Hiss,” H-Diplo, 22 March 2004, < http://www.h-net.org/~diplo/ >. [296] Venona 975 KGB New York to Moscow, 11 July 1944. [297] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [298] Lieber relationship with Chambers and activities in the party underground are discussed in Chambers, Witness, 44–48; Weinstein, Perjury [1997]. [299] Likely a pseudonym used by a KGB officer operating under diplomatic cover in the U.S. [300] Appendix A and B, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. Jones York statement of 6 October 1953 in William Wolf Weisband background memo, 27 November 1953, in Office of Security, National Security Agency, reproduced in Robert Louis Benson and Michael Warner, Venona: Soviet Espionage and the American Response 1939–1957 (Washington, D.C.: National Security Agency; Central Intelligence Agency, 1996), 167–69. See also Robert Louis Benson and Michael Warner, “Who Was William Weisband?” in Venona: Soviet Espionage and the American Response 1939– 1957, Robert Louis Benson and Michael Warner (Washington, D.C.: National Security Agency; Central Intelligence Agency, 1996), xxviii. [301] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 52, 55, 57.

[302] West and Tsarev, Crown Jewels, 145; Vladimir Chikov, Stalin’s Atomic Spies: KGB File N. 13676 [Unpublished American Edition of Comment Staline a Volé la Bombe Atomique Aux Américains: Dossier KGB no 13676], trans and afterword by Gary Kern (1995). [303] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [304] York cooperated with the FBI and identified the photograph of Emanuel
Locke as his liaison with the KGB in 1936-1938. Locke, confronted by the FBI, confessed to having worked as the courier between York and Stanislav Shumovsky in this period. R. B. Hood to Director, 14 April 1950, serial 57; San Francisco FBI memo, 27 June 1954, serial 136, Jones Orin York FBI file 65-2223.

[305] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [306] On Lore, see Kern, Death in Washington, 40–41; Chambers, Witness, 387–92; Weinstein, Perjury [1997], 102, 168n, 282–83, 288, 300, 302, 356, 361. [307] .Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; Klehr, Haynes, and Firsov, Secret World, 307. [308] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [309] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. In Alexander Vassiliev notebooks Elsa is used for Lowry in some notes prior to mid-1945 but are not in quotations and appear to be Alexander Vassiliev’s personal references to Lowry using the “Elsa” cover name. Lowry was Earl Browder’s half-niece. [310] Vassiliev, Black, 52. [311] Gorsky, “Failures in the USA,” 77–79. [312] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 51, 54, 56; Klehr, Haynes, and Firsov, Secret World, 312–15. See “Kant” entries for overlap with “Kant” as the cover name for Mark Zborovski in September - December 1944.

[313] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [314] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. “Map” is identified as Bransten Gregg Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb: The Tangled Lives and Loyalties of Robert Oppenheimer, Ernest Lawrence, and Edward Teller (New York: Henry Holt and Co., 2002), 92–94, 119–22, and 192–93. [315] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 6–9. [316] Andrew and Mitrokhin, Sword and the Shield, 226; Oleg Kalugin, The First Directorate: My 32 Years in Intelligence and Espionage Against the West, assisted by Fen Montaigne (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1994), 48–50. [317] Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000], 362–63, 377; Weinstein and Vassiliev, Haunted Wood, 4–10, 13, 35, 44, 48, 249–51, 298; Massing, This Deception. [318] Bothwell and Granatstein, The Gouzenko Transcripts: The Evidence Presented to the Kellock-Taschereau Royal Commission of 1946, 74, 97; U.S. Congress Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, Soviet Atomic Espionage (Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1951), 58; Taschereau and Kellock, Royal Commission.. [319] McNutt also appears to be the man behind the cover name Monti in Feklisov and Kostin, Man Behind, 97–100. Feklisov described “Monti” as not a KGB cover name but one he created for his book. [320] Boris Morros, My Ten Years as a Counterspy, assisted by Charles Samuels (New York: Viking Press, 1959), 47, 50, 55. [321] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. Cover name dating based on Venona 1766 KGB New York to Moscow, 15 December 1944. [322] Robert Owen Menaker came from a radical family. His father, imprisoned for revolutionary activities in Russia, emigrated to American and

as co-owner of a handkerchief factory. Determined not to exploit his workers, the elder Menaker abandoned manufacturing for farming and named his sons after revolutionaries and radicals -- Peter Kropotkin Menaker, William Morris Menaker, Robert Owen Menaker, and Frederick Engels Menaker. One of Robert Menaker’s nieces was married to the Soviet spy Victor Perlo. Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; Daniel Menaker, The Old Left: Stories (New York: Knopf, distr. by Random House, 1987), [323] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [324] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [325] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 16–17, 54–46. [326] Ibid., 32–33. [327] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [328] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [329] Ben Fischer, “‘Mr. Guver’: Anonymous Soviet Letter to the FBI,” Newsletter of the Center for the Study of Intelligence, no. 7 (WinterSpring 1997): 10–11; Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000], 44–46. [330] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [331] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [332] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [333] “Author” was identified in Venona as Morkovin. In one of the Venona messages Andrey Shevchenko, a KGB agent operating as a Soviet aircraft inspector, described Morkovin as cautious, friendly to Soviet Union but not aware that Shevchenko was a Soviet intelligence officer. [334] Morros, My Ten Years as a Counterspy.

[335] Statement of Nicholas Dozenberg, 4 October 1949, U.S. House Committee on Un-American Activities, Hearings Regarding Communist Espionage, 3540; Romerstein and Levchenko, KGB, 16. [336] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [337] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [338] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944 and Venona 164 KGB Moscow to New York, 20 February 1945. [339] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 44; Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [340] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [341] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [342] Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944; Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [343] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [344] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [345] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [346] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [347] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [348] Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [349] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [350] It is possible the “Nora” was a garble or confusion for “Norma”/Kitty Harris.

[351] John Costello and Oleg Tsarev, Deadly Illusions (New York: Crown Publishers Inc., 1993); Damaskin, Kitty Harris: The Spy with 17 Names. [352] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 47. [353] Serial 2078, FBI Washington Field Office to Director, 21 February 1947; Serial 2349, FBI Washington Field Office report, 21 April, 1947, interview with Bernard Nortman; Serial 1978, all in “FBI Silvermaster File 65–56402”. [354] Andrew and Mitrokhin, Sword and the Shield, 115–16, 127. “Hola” does not appear in Cover name in Vassiliev’s notebooks. [355] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [356] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [357] Venona 619 KGB New York to Moscow, 4 May 1944. [358] While unidentified in the released Venona messages, Rosalyn Childs is suggests as a candidate for Rose Olson/Olsen in Robert L. Benson, Venona Story. David Garrow in Garrow, The FBI and Martin Luther King, Jr.: From “Solo” to Memphis takes the view that ?? [359] Alexander Vassiliev, White Notebook #2 [2007 English Translation], trans. Steven Shabad (1993–96), 10; Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 50. [360] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [361] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [362] Appendix A and D, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [363] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [364] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000].

[365] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 32–33. [366] Chambers, Witness, 44–48. Lieber’s covert work and relationship with Chambers is also discussed extensively in Weinstein, Perjury [1997]. [367] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [368] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 29. [369] Ibid., 52, 55, 57. [370] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [371] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [372] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 40, 51–57, 78–80, 105; Klehr, Haynes, and Firsov, Secret World, 312–15. [373] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [374] Chikov, Stalin’s Atomic Spies: KGB File N. 13676 [Unpublished American Edition of Comment Staline a Volé la Bombe Atomique Aux Américains: Dossier KGB no 13676]; Vladimir Chikov, “How the Soviet Secret Service Split the American Atom,” New Times [Russia] 16 & 17 (23–30 April 1991); Gary Kern, “The PERSEUS Disinformation Operation,” H-HOAC, 17 February 2006, Http://h-net.msu.edu/cgi-bin/ logbrowse.pl?trx=lm&list=h-hoac; “The Perseus Myth” in Albright and Kunstel, Bombshell. [375] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [376] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [377] Klehr, Haynes, and Firsov, Secret World, 71–83, 91–97, 106– 10, 124; Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000], 367, 378–79; Weinstein, Perjury [1997], 8, 38–39, 225, 262, 302.

[378] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [379] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [380] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [381] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [382] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [383] Venona 1151 KGB New York to Moscow, 12 August 1944. [384] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [385] Chambers, Witness, 44–48. Lieber’s covert work and relationship with Chambers is also discussed extensively in Weinstein, Perjury [1997]. [386] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [387] Porfiryev was the family name of Krivitsky’s wife. Gary Kern states that Krivitsky used the pseudonym of Walter Poref in the U.S. in 1940. Kern, Death in Washington, 300. [388] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 3–4; Dorothy Gallagher, All the Right Enemies: The Life and Murder of Carlo Tresca (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1988), 170–76; Bentley and Peake, Out of Bondage, 108, 176–77; Chambers, Witness, 36; The FBI conducted an extensive and fruitless investigation into Poyntz's disappearance: FBI Poyntz file 100-206603. [389] Venona 1132 1133 KGB New York to Moscow, 13 July 1943; 1930 KGB New York to Moscow, 21 November 1943. [390] Gilbert J. Gall, Pursuing Justice: Lee Pressman, the New Deal, and the CIO (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999); Latham, Controversy, 107–9; Joseph P. Lash, Dealers and Dreamers: A New Look at the New Deal (New York: Doubleday, 1988), 218, 326, 434–37.

[391] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 15–17, 33–35, 39, 43–44, 53–54, 71, 74, 77, 80, 91, 94–95.; Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [392] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 34, 43–44, 80. [393] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [394] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [395] KGB officer Alexander Feklisov wrote that his successor in the U.S. was Alexander Rogov who had the cover name “Svet,” i.e. “Light.” Feklisov and Kostin, Man Behind, 150. [396] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [397] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [398] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [399] Robert L. Benson, Venona Story, 36. [400] Vassiliev, Black, 61. [401] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 47–50, 79–80. [402] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [403] In Venona 976, New York KGB to Moscow, 11 July 1944, the cryptonym “Relay” has a footnote that reads, “possibly Morton Sobell.” Morton Sobell himself has claimed that this is evidence of the unreliability of all Venona identifications because “Relay” is identified as have an artificial leg or possibly using leg braces, and Sobell had neither. Morton Sobell, rosenbergtrial.org (2002)An Examination of the Authenticity of the Venona “Intercepts.”<http://rosenbergtrial.org/docsobven.html>. In fact, Sobell’s objection is without merit. There are four Venona messages relevant here. Venona 943, New York KGB station to its Moscow headquarters, 4 July 1944, mentioned a Soviet source cover named “Relay,” whose identity is

unknown. This is the message noting the “Relay” had an artificial leg or a brace. The NSA/FBI footnote said that the “Relay” covername was later changed to “Serb” and that “Serb” was as yet “unidentified.” as well. Venona 976, New York KGB to Moscow, 11 July 1944, also mentioned RELAY and here the NSA/FBI footnote said “possibly Morton Sobell.” However, Venona 1251, New York KGB to Moscow, 2 September 1944 stated that the “Relay” covername had been changed to “Serb” with the NSA footnote stating, “‘Relay’ has been tentatively identified as Morton Sobell. However, the only other reference to SERB is in New York’s no. 50 of 11 January 1945 and would not appear to refer to Sobell.” Finally, Venona 50, New York KGB to Moscow, 11 January 1945, has “Serb” in the message and “Serb” is unidentified in the NSA/FBI footnotes. The reasonable way to look at the identification of “Relay” / “Serb” is to look at all four messages, not just one. NSA/FBI analysts had RELAY or SERB unidentified in two messages, had a third in which “Relay” is “possibly Morton Sobell” but then had a fourth in which the analysts withdraw their tentative Sobell identification. That NSA/ FBI did not conclude “Relay” or “Serb” as Sobell is clear to any reasonable researcher. Sobell’s objection is a contrivance. [404] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [405] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 47–49. [406] Berle, “Espionage Agent.” [407] Appendix C, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [408] Cullison, “The Lost Victims.” [409] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 14–15, 18, 59–62, 86, 89, 94–104. [410] Son [Rudy Baker] to Comintern, 22 February 1940 Archive of the Secretariat of the Executive Committee of the Communist International: coded correspondence with Communist Parties (1933-1943), RGASPI 495-184-4 (1939-1940 file); New York FBI office memorandum, 3 December 1945, serial 292; Washington FBI office memo, 1 November 1946, serial 464; Scheidt to Hoover, 31 January 1947, serial 1976, all in FBI Silvermaster

file (FBI file 65-56402); Venona 1221 KGB New York to Moscow, 26 August 1944; Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 37, 87; Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [411] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [412] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [413] Hede Massing in her autobiography wrote that in in January or February of 1937, she and Gerda Frankfurter were assigned to surveil Ludwig Lore by two senior Soviet intelligence officers, Boris Bazarov (known to her under the work name Fred) and Bill (a work name used by Iskhak Akhmerov). Another agent, a Russian know to her as Anton, also assisted on occasion with the surveillance. Massing, This Deception, 199– 205. [414] [415] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 41. [416] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [417] Cullison, “The Lost Victims.” [418] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 3, 8. [419] Feklisov and Kostin, Man Behind, 150. [420] Rollins authored: Richard Rollins, I Find Treason: The Story of an American Anti-Nazi Agent (New York: W. Morrow, 1941). [421] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [422] Taschereau and Kellock, Royal Commission, 111–18; Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 11, 50. [423] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 52, 54–55, 57; Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000].

[424] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [425] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; Radosh and Milton, Rosenberg File (1997); Usdin, Engineering Communism; Feklisov and Kostin, Man Behind. [426] FBI Armand Labis Feldman file, FBI file 61-7574, serials 315, 339, and 743. [427] Richard H. Tourin, Memoirs and Adventures (New York, NY: Privately published, 2003); Sibley, Red Spies, 33, 80, 261n116,262n122; Berle, “Espionage Agent”. [428] Gorsky, “Failures in the USA,” 77–79. [429] Venona 1791 KGB New York to Moscow, 20 December 1944. In this message Cora’s husband is referred to by both the cover name Ampere and Roy. FBI/NSA judged that both referred to the same person, redacted the real name in both cases. [430] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [431] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [432] Ersh or Ërsh (Yorsh) could be Ruff, a type of fish but could also be brush (for a lamp chimney), notched nail or spike, hair sticking up (? topknot?), or a drink based on a mixture of beer and vodka.

[433] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [434] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [435] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [436] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [437] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000].

[438] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [439] Appendix C, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [440] In Venona, “Salt” was identified as possibly Army intelligence. [441] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [442] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; Usdin, Engineering Communism, [443] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [444] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; Albright and Kunstel, Bombshell. [445] U.S. Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, Activities.. United Nations, 15. [446] Kern, Death in Washington, 319; FBI memorandum, “Existing Corroboration of Bentley’s Overall Testimony,” 6 May 1955, “FBI Silvermaster File 65–56402,” serial 4201; Vassiliev, Black, 176. [447] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 45; Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [448] West and Tsarev, Crown Jewels, 116, 274–76, 278. [449] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [450] Venona 388 KGB New York to Moscow, 18 March 1943; Venona 899 KGB New York to Moscow, 11 June 1943; Venona 1200 KGB New York to Moscow, 23 August 1944; Venona 1267 KGB New York to Moscow, 6 September 1944; Venona 1332 KGB New York to Moscow, 18 September 1944. [451] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [452] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000].

[453] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. “Jean” does not appear in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks. [454] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [455] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. Ann Sidorovich was identified as “Objective” in Feklisov and Kostin, Man Behind, 142. [456] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [457] Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [458] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 24–27, 52; Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [459] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 18–23, 25–27; Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [460] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 18–28, 34, 40, 45, 52, 56, 74–75, 80, 91, 94, 104–5; Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [461] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 50. [462] Venona 747 KGB New York to Moscow, 25 May 1944; Venona 1142 KGB New York to Moscow, 10 August 1944; Venona 1621 KGB New York to Moscow, 20 November 1944; Venona 1691 KGB New York to Moscow, 1 December 1944; Venona 500 KGB Moscow to Mexico City, 12 August 1944. [463] Venona 653 KGB Moscow to Mexico City, 15 November 1944; Venona 559 KGB Moscow to Mexico City, 7 September 1945. [464] Radosh and Milton, Rosenberg File (1997), 152–53; Sibley, Red Spies, 110–12.

[465] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [466] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [467] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [468] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [469] Berle, “Espionage Agent.” [470] In Venona 976, New York KGB to Moscow, 11 July 1944, the cryptonym “Relay” has a footnote that reads, “possibly Morton Sobell.” Morton Sobell himself has claimed that this is evidence of the unreliability of all Venona identifications because “Relay” is identified as have an artificial leg or possibly using leg braces, and Sobell had neither. Sobell, An Examination of the Authenticity of the Venona “Intercepts.”<http:// rosenbergtrial.org/docsobven.html>. In fact, Sobell’s objection is without merit. There are four Venona messages relevant here. Venona 943, New York KGB station to its Moscow headquarters, 4 July 1944, mentioned a Soviet source cover named “Relay,” whose identity is unknown. This is the message noting the “Relay” had an artificial leg or a brace. The NSA/FBI footnote said that the “Relay” covername was later changed to “Serb” and that “Serb” was as yet “unidentified.” as well. Venona 976, New York KGB to Moscow, 11 July 1944, also mentioned RELAY and here the NSA/FBI footnote said “possibly Morton Sobell.” However, Venona 1251, New York KGB to Moscow, 2 September 1944 stated that the “Relay” covername had been changed to “Serb” with the NSA footnote stating, “‘Relay’ has been tentatively identified as Morton Sobell. However, the only other reference to SERB is in New York’s no. 50 of 11 January 1945 and would not appear to refer to Sobell.” Finally, Venona 50, New York KGB to Moscow, 11 January 1945, has “Serb” in the message and “Serb” is unidentified in the NSA/FBI footnotes. The reasonable way to look at the identification of “Relay” / “Serb” is to look at all four messages, not just one. NSA/FBI analysts had RELAY or SERB unidentified in two messages, had a third in which “Relay” is “possibly Morton Sobell” but then had a fourth in which the analysts withdraw their tentative Sobell identification. That NSA/FBI did not

conclude “Relay” or “Serb” as Sobell is clear to any reasonable researcher. Sobell’s objection is a contrivance. [471] Radosh and Milton, Rosenberg File (1997); Usdin, Engineering Communism. [472] Albright and Kunstel, Bombshell, 184–85. [473] “FBI Silvermaster File 65–56402,” serial 557; Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944; Venona 1509 KGB New York to Moscow, 23 October 1944; Venona 1557 KGB New York to Moscow, 6 November 1944. [474] The cover name “Sound” is a play on Golos’s name, which means Voice in Russian. [475] There is one reference to “kurort” as a term for prison, but that appears to have been ironic slang and not a cover name. Alexander Vassiliev, White Notebook #1 [2007 English Translation], trans. Steven Shabad (1993– 96), 3. [476] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 29–30, 66. [477] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [478] Venona 927, 928 KGB New York to Moscow 3 July 1942; Fitin to Dimitrov, 8 July 1942, Archive of the Dimitrov Secretariat of the Comintern, RGASPI 495-74-485; Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [479] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. Dating of cover names based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944 [480] A weak candidate for “Stanley” would be Stanley Glass. “Stanley” appears in association with industrial spies “El” (Alfred Slack) and “Film” (Richard Briggs) Glass, a chemist, was associated at the time with

Slack and Briggs. See Alfred Slack FBI file, FBI file # 65-59183, serials 230, 281, 292, 298, 302, 333, 608. [481] Interview with Thomas Black, 20 June 1950, pp. 195-205, 257-260, Philadelphia file, Thomas L. Black, 65-4332-1-B-17 FBI FOIA “Julius Rosenberg et al.”; Ladd to Director, 28 February 1951, “This memorandum is designed ...,” page 19 of the FBI FOIA “Venona” released to Daniel P. Moynihan, part 1, <http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/venona.htm>; Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. Stapler is likely the source Feklisov gives the cover name “Knvat” or “Vulture” in Feklisov and Kostin, Man Behind, 55–56. [482] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [483] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [484] Raymond Arthur Davies and Andrew J. Steiger, Soviet Asia, Democracy’s First Line of Defense (New York: Dial Press, 1942); Henry Agard Wallace, Soviet Asia Mission, in collaboration with Andrew J. Steiger (New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1946); Whitman Bassow puts his death in Russia in the late 1960s. Whitman Bassow, The Moscow Correspondents: Reporting on Russia from the Revolution to Glasnost (New York: W. Morrow, 1988), 146; Testimony of Louis Budenz, 23 September 1953, U.S. Senate Committee on Government Operations, Executive Sessions of the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Government Operations (Washington, DC: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 2003), vol. 3, 1915. [485] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 29. [486] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [487] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [488] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [489] Straight provided a partial account of his recruitment and relationship with Soviet espionage in Straight, After Long Silence. Additional information is provided in Haynes, “Speak No Evil, Michael Straight: After

Long Silence”; Hook, “The Incredible Story of Michael Straight”; King, “Treason and Traitors”; Weinstein, Perjury [1997], 183–84; West and Tsarev, Crown Jewels, 112–13, 116, 130–34, 174; Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [490] Vassiliev, White #1, 55. [491] Pavel Sudoplatov, et al., Special Tasks: The Memoirs of an Unwanted Witness, a Soviet Spymaster (Boston: Little, Brown, 1995). [492] Gorsky, “Failures in the USA,” 77–79. [493] Ralph De Toledano, “Stalin’s Hand in the Panama Canal,” in Plain Talk: An Anthology from the Leading Anti-Communist Magazine of the 40s, ed. Isaac Don Levine (New Rochelle, N.Y.: Arlington House, 1976). [494] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. Dating of cover names based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. Although Venona indicates that “Talent” was changed to “Henry” in October 1944, it may not have been implemented. “Henry”/Malisoff did not appear in Venona while “Talent” appeared in December 1944. [495] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [496] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 25–26; Federal Bureau of Investigation, “‘Existing Corroboration of Bentley’s Overall Testimony’.” [497] The exact spelling of this name is uncertain. In the Black notebook, p. 79, the cover name “Teacher” is given for “Melamed, teacher at a music School in NY.” In White notebook #1, p. 58, Joseph Melament (“Old Man”) and his daughter Leah Melament (“Teacher”) are described. Lea Melament is also identified by Boris Morros as an espionage contact he used in New York. [Boris Morros, My Ten Years as a Counterspy: As Told to Charles Samuels, assisted by Charles Samuels (New York: Viking Press, 1959), 47, 50, 55.] The 1930 census shows a Joseph Melement born 1874 in Russia living in Bronx, New York, with a daughter Leah Melement. [498] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000].

[499] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 38–41, 71, 79–80, 84; Klehr, Haynes, and Firsov, Secret World, 316–17. [500] Alexander Vassiliev, Yellow Notebook #2 [2007 English Translation], trans. Philip Redko (1993–96), 83. [501] Misspelled in Alexander Vassiliev’s notebooks as Frederick Turrell. [502] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [503] Venona 1151 KGB New York to Moscow, 12 August 1944. [504] Martha Dodd, Through Embassy Eyes (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1939). [505] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [506] Andrew and Mitrokhin, Sword and the Shield, 115–16, 127. [507] In 1938 Ludwig Lore told the journalist Herbert Solow about a Soviet agent cover-named “Tina.” Solow related this to Whittaker Chambers, who stated that he also knew “Tina,” and that Lore’s relationship with “Tina” was a good reason for Chambers, a defector by this time, to avoid Lore. Weinstein, Perjury [1997], 283. [508] Pavel Sudoplatov, et al., Special Tasks: The Memoirs of an Unwanted Witness, a Soviet Spymaster (Boston: Little, Brown, 1994), 83–89. [509] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [510] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [511] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [512] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000].

[513] Hede Massing in her autobiography wrote that in in January or February of 1937, she and Gerda Frankfurter were assigned to surveil Ludwig Lore by two senior Soviet intelligence officers, Boris Bazarov (known to her under the work name Fred) and Bill (a work name used by Iskhak Akhmerov). Another agent, a Russian know to her as Anton, also assisted on occasion with the surveillance. Massing, This Deception, 199– 205. [514] [515] U.S. Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, Activities United Nations, pt. 1, 8. [516] Vassiliev, Black, 176. [517] “Vendor” occurs in a 1945 Venona message as the cover name of Soviet citizen P.P. Shevvchuk, but he appears to be a KGB security informant on a Soviet ship docking in the U.S. and is clearly a different “Vendor.” [518] Vik is used in Russian for both “Vic” and “Vick.” Here rendered as “Vic” when referring to the familiar nick name for Victor Perlo and rendered as “Vick” as a cover name. [519] Vik is used in Russian for both “Vic” and “Vick.” Here rendered as “Vic” when referring to the familiar nick name for Victor Perlo and rendered as “Vick” as a cover name. [520] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [521] Venona 1020 KGB New York to Moscow, 20 July 1944. [522] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 28. [523] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [524] Berle, “Espionage Agent.”

[525] Andrew and Mitrokhin, Sword and the Shield, 60; West and Tsarev, Crown Jewels, 94. [526] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [527] Testimony of Frederick Palmer Weber, 21-22 April 1953, U.S. Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, Interlocking Subversion, part 4, 177. [528] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 52, 54–55, 57; Klehr, Haynes, and Firsov, Secret World, 312–15; Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [529] Candidate for one of the Wheelers named in White #3, p. 60. [530] Bentley, “Deposition 1945,” 20, 25–27, 55; Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [531] Salmon, David Alden entries in the 1934 and 1935 editions of U.S. Department of State, Register of the Department of State, July 1, 1934 (Washington, DC: U.S. Govt. Print. Off, 1934). [532] Felix Wolf was one of the professional names of Werner Rakov (sometimes spelled Rakow, also known as Vladimir Bogdanovich, Vladimir Inkov, Vladimir Borisovich Kotlov and Nikolay Krebs) (1893 - 14 Sept. 1937). An ethnic German born in Latvia, he was a founding member of Communist Party of Germany (KPD), a Comintern functionary (1920-1922, GRU officer in Austria (1922-23) and Germany (1923-24), and the first GRU station chief in the United States (1925-27) working under the cover of Amtorg and studies at Columbia University. Expelled from the KPD in 1928 for belonging to Trotskyite opposition, readmitted in 1929; again expelled in 1933 and readmitted in 1934. Soviet security police arrested him on 17 July 1936 and executed him on 14 September 1937. [533] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [534] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000].

[535] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]; Testimony of George S. Wuchinich, 4 June 1953, U.S. Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, Interlocking Subversion, part 11. [536] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [537] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [538] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [539] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [540] U.S. Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, Activities United Nations, pt. 1, 150–54. [541] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. See “Kant” entries for overlap with Kant as the cover name for Harry Magdoff in September - December 1944. [542] Cover name dating based on Venona 1403 KGB New York to Moscow, 5 October 1944. [543] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [544] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [545] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000]. [546] Appendix A, Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000].