# Power System

Symmetrical Components & Faults Calculations

SAMPLE OF THE STUDY MATERIAL PART OF CHAPTER 3 Symmetrical Components & Faults Calculations

3.0 Introduction
Fortescue's work proves that an unbalanced system of 'n' related phasors can be resolved into 'n' systems of balanced phasors called the symmetrical components of the original phasors. ∗ The method of symmetrical components is a general one, applicable to any polyphase system. ∗ Usually, we apply symmetrical component method to symmetrical and unbalanced 3-ϕ circuits. The term 'symmetrical' in power systems is used for a poly phase N/W if and only if all the phases are having same impedance (i.e., in magnitude as well as phase angle). A N/W is said to be balanced if and only if all the phases containing voltages / currents in same magnitude but should be displaced by same phase angle. ∗ According to Fortescue's theorem, three unbalanced phasors of a three phase system can be resolved into three balanced systems of phasors. The balanced sets of components are : 1. Positive sequence components consisting of three phasors equal in magnitude, displaced from each other by 120° in phase, and having the same phase sequence as the original phasors. 2. Negative sequence components consisting of three phasors equal in magnitude, displaced from each other by 120° in phase, and having the phase sequence opposite to that of the original phasors 3. Zero sequence components consisting of three phasors equal in magnitude and with zero phase displacement from each other. * Three sets of balanced phasors which are the symmetrical components of three unbalanced phasors. Shown in below figures. ∗

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Power System Positive Sequence Components Components

Symmetrical Components & Faults Calculations Negative Sequence Components Zero Sequence

Fig. 3.1

3.1 Components Zero Sequence Components
Considering the positive sequence components, the vector lags behind by 120 electrical leads the vector by 120° electrical since these three are also equal in and the vector magnitude

* For the positive sequence components, Stator and rotor field directions are same. Considering leads by 120° electrical, and the vector the negative sequence components, the vector lags behind by 120° electrical. * Since these three are also equal in magnitude

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only three components are we can find out linearly independent. i.e. only 3 are unknown. so superposition principle holds good. (phase sequence is abc) Page : 3 . which when operates upon a phasor rotates it by +120° without changing the magnitude of the phasor upon which it operates. and 3 unbalanced vectors and . (i.Power System Symmetrical Components & Faults Calculations * For the negative sequence components. Stator and rotor field directions are reverse. It is represented as * Assuming phases ‘a’ as the reference. the vectors. sequence component * Since all power systems considered to be linear. and zero sequence component of phase a.e.and zero negative sequence component of phase a. we have and can be resolved into three sets of balanced Since the three un balanced vectors of phase a. Out of these. Similarly resolved into a total of 9 vectors. the vector is equal to the sum of the positive sequence component of phase a. from the knowledge of the three vectors all the remaining vectors) OPERATORS: An operator 'a' is introduced. So. For zero sequence components. the relationship between the symmetrical components of phases 'b' and 'c' in terms of symmetrical component of phase 'a' can be written.

Power System Symmetrical Components & Faults Calculations or in matrix form = = [T] Where. T symmetrical transformation matrix . T-1 = inverse symmetrical transformation matrix Current instead of Voltage: I a = I a1 + I a2 + I a0 I b = a2 +a I a2 + I a0 I c= a I a1 + a2 I a2 + I a0 or in matrix form = = I a0 = (1/3) [ I a + I b + I c ] I a1 = (1/3) [ I a +a I b +a2 I c] I a2 = (1/3) [ I a +a2 I b +a I c ] Page : 4 (1/3) [T] Where. T = symmetrical transformation matrix V a0 = (1/3) [V a + V b + V c] V a1 = (1/3) [V a +a Vb +a2 V c ] V a2 = (1/3) [V a +a2 V b +a V c ] or in matrix form = = (1/3) [T-1] where.

& Z n are three phase impedances and neutral impedance Z a0 = 1/3 (Z a + Z b + Z c ) zero sequence Z a1 = 1/3 (Z a +aZ b +a2 Z c ) positive sequence Z a2 = 1/3 (Z a +a2Z b +aZ c ) negative sequence Page : 5 . When only zero sequence currents are present. Z c. Similarly. when only negative sequence currents are present.Power System or in matrix form = = (1/3) [T-1] Symmetrical Components & Faults Calculations where. T-1 = inverse symmetrical transformation matrix Average 3 – phase power in Terms of Symmetrical Components: + |V a1 | I a1 | +|V a2 |I a2 | ] P = 3 [|V a0 |I a0 | Impedance: = [Zabc] [T] = [Zabc] [T] = [T-1] [Zabc] [T] = [T-1] [Zabc] [T] (since Z012 = [Zabc] = & [Z012] = are self & mutual impedances / ) Sequence Impedance and Networks: The impedance of a circuit when positive sequence currents alone are flowing is called the impedance to positive sequence current. Z b . the impedance is called the impedance to negative sequence current. the impedance is called the impedance to zero sequence current. Let Z a.

1 Positive sequence Network: The positive sequence network of a synchronous generator is a balanced and symmetrical three phase network with positive sequence generated voltages (E a1 . Z 1 Page : 6 . I c1 ) flowing in the three phase of shown in the below figure. I b1 . Ia1 Z1 + ~ + Z1 ~ EC1 Ea1 ~ Eb1 + Z1 Ib1 IC1 Fig. E b1 . 3.Power System Symmetrical Components & Faults Calculations 3. + Ea1 ~ ‘E’ for the Generated voltage.2 The three phase system can be replaced by a single phase network as shown in the below: Ia1 Z1 Va1 ‘V’ for the Terminal voltage. 3. Fig.3 The equation of the positive sequence network is V a1 = E a1 –I a1 . in each phase and positive sequence currents (I a1 . E c1 ) in the three phase.2 Sequence N/Ws of a synchronous Generator: 3. symmetrical three phase star impedance Z.2.

2.I a2 .Z 2 3.4 The three phase network can be replaced by a single – phase network as shown in the below figure. Z2 Ia2 Va2 Fig. 3.Power System Symmetrical Components & Faults Calculations 3.3 Zero sequence Network: The equation for the zero sequence network is V a0 = .I a0 Z 0 Page : 7 .2. balanced voltages the negative sequence generated voltages are always zero. Ia2 Z2 N Z2 Z2 Ic2 Ib2 Fig.2 Negative sequence network: In any general synchronous generator which is designed to generate. 3. The negative network containing negative sequence impedance Z 2 in each phase and negative sequence currents flowing through these carrying negative sequence voltage drops as shown below figure.5 The equation for the negative sequence network is V a2 = .

∗ ∗ Balanced three phase system consists of positive sequence components only. & c respectively. If the negative sequence component are greater. The voltage of phase leads That of phase by 100° & lags That of phase by 176. the negative and zero sequence components being zero. b. negative and zero sequence component Example: The line to ground voltage on the high voltage side of a step up Transformer are 100 kV. 38 kV on phases a. the magnitude of negative sequence component cannot exceed that of the positive sequence component. The presence of negative or zero sequence currents in a three phase system introduces asymmetry and is indication of an abnormal condition of the circuit in which these components are found. Page : 8 . The current of a single phase load drawn from a three phase system comprises equal positive. Determine analytically The symmetrical component of voltage . 33 kV. If the star point is grounded through some impedance Zn. 4 – wire unbalanced system.6 The equivalent circuit for the zero sequence network is different from the positive and negative sequence networks the impedance offered to zero sequence currents depends on grounding of the star point. the magnitude of zero sequence component is one – third of the current in the neutral wire. then the zero sequence impedance is infinity.e. • The vector sum of the positive and negative sequence currents of an unbalanced three phase system is zero. In a three – phase unbalanced system.. then the equivalent zero sequence impedance is equal to the sum of the zero sequence phase impedance and is equal to 3Z n . 3.5°. . If the star point is not grounded. • ∗ ∗ Vector sum of all sequence currents in three phase unbalanced system = + + ∗ In a three phase.Power System Symmetrical Components & Faults Calculations Z0 Ia0 Va0 Fig. The resultant solely consists of three zero sequence currents i. the phase sequence of the resultant system would be reversed.

∗ Severity & occurrence of Faults: Page : 9 . ∗ The three phase fault is symmetrical faults.Power System Symmetrical Components & Faults Calculations Solution: 3.3 FAULT CALCULATIONS: Faults can be classified as two types: 1. Shunt faults Shunt faults are characterized by increase in current and decrease in voltage. 2. 2. frequency and power factor. Series faults are characterized by decrease in current and increase in voltage. The shunt type of fault are classified as: Single line to ground fault Line to Line fault Double line to Ground fault Three phase fault ∗ The first three faults are the unsymmetrical faults. 3. Two open conductors fault The series faults are classified as 1. 4. One open conductor fault 1. Series faults ∗ ∗ 2. frequency and power factor.

3. • • • • • Overvoltage caused by lightning or switching surge. other elements.Power System Symmetrical Components & Faults Calculations power transfer slg II IIg 3-∅ power Faults Time Fig. S. 3.B. High winds → topple tower. C.LLLG) Phase to phase ground (LLG) Phase to phase fault (LL) Single line to ground Faults (LG) Severity Severe Severe Less Severe Very less Occurrence 5% 10% 15% 70% • • • * 1 cause of short circuit → insulation failure.L. (10 – 12%) generator. 3. C. Insulation contamination → salt spray. Cabels (10 – 15%). abrasion. pollution. tree falls on line. salt spray. X-mer (10 – 15%) → much less common → over loading for extended periods → deterioration of insulation Page : 10 .1 Faults on T.c. motor. Mechanical causes → overheating. For.7 Fault 1) 2) 3) 4) 3-∅ (LLL. dirty insulation → conduction path → insulation failure. Most common – lines are exposed to elements of nature 60 – 70% lightning stroke → over voltage causes insulation to flash over Line to ground short circuit or line to line s. Winds an ice loading → mechanical failure of insulation.

The potential of the neutral is given as Vn =I n Z n where Z n is the neutral grounding impedance and I n is neutral current.3 Single Line to Ground Fault: 1.3. The boundary conditions are a) V a = 0 ………. phase – b and phase – are healthy. Here negative sign is used as the current flow from the ground to the neutral of the system and potential of the neutral is lower than the ground. For a 3.phase system.(3) Page : 11 . I n = I a +I b +I c = (I a1 + Ia 2 + Ia 0 ) + ( = 3Ia 0 Since the positive sequence and negative sequence components of currents through the neutral are absent. the drops due to these currents are also zero. Usually assumed the fault on phase – a for analysis purpose. 2.Power System Symmetrical Components & Faults Calculations 3.(2) c) I c = 0 ……….(1) b) I b = 0 ………. will be at ground potential unbalanced conditions such as unsymmetrical faults.3.2 Voltage of the Neutral: The potential of the neutral when it is grounded through some impedance or is isolated. Most frequently occurring fault. ∴ V n = -3I a0 Z n Ia 1 +aIa 2 Ia 0 ) + (a I a1 + a2 Ia 2 + Ia 0 ) = I a1 (1+a+a2) + Ia 2 (1+a+a2) +3Ia 0 3.

………. 3.Power System Symmetrical Components & Faults Calculations Ia Z ~ ~ Ec Eb + Z Ib + Ea ~ + Z Ic Fig.I a1 Z 1 – I a2 Z 2 – I a0 Z 0 = 0 Since I a1 = I a2 = I a0 Equation (8) becomes Page : 12 V a1 =E a. V a1 and V a2 from the sequence network equation. E a ..8 The sequence network equations are V a0 = . (3)in above three equations I a1 = I a2 = I a0 = I a/3 V a = 0 = V a1 + V a2 + V a0 Now substituting the values of V a0 .(7) Equation (1) can be written in terms of symmetrical components ……………… (8) . V a1 ..I a1 Z 1 ……………(5) The solution of these six equations will give six unknowns V a0 .(4) …. and I a2 …………………. I a1 . V a2 and I a0 .(6) I a1 = (1/3) [I a + a I b + a2 I c ] I a2 = (1/3) [I a + a2 I b + a I c ] I a0 = (1/3) [I a + I b + I c] Substituting the values of I b and I c from equations (2)..I a0 Z 0 V a2 = I a2 Z 2 Since ………….

If = single Line of Ground fault with Z f : I a1 = Ia1 Va1 and +ve. (2) .... 3.I a1 Z 0 =0 I a1 = I f = I a = I a1 + I a2 + I a0 . If the neutral of the generator is not grounded. (1) ………….. connected in series.. The three sequence networks are connected in series.. ve and zero sequence networks are Z1 ~ Z2 Ia2 Va2 Z0 Ia0 Va0 Fig..9 Conclusion: 1. 2. Line to Line Fault The line to line fault takes place on phases ‘b’ and ‘c’ The boundary conditions are Ia = 0 Ib + Ic = 0 Vb = Vc ………….Power System Symmetrical Components & Faults Calculations E a – I a1 Z 1 – I a1 Z 2 . the Zero network is open circuited...(3) Page : 13 ..

I a1 and I a2 Since I a1 = (1/3) [I a + a I b + a2 I c ] I a = (1/3) [I a + a2 I b + a I c] I a1 = (1/3) [I a + I b + I c] Substituting the values of I a .I a2 Z 2 ……………..a] I b I a0 = (1/3) [0 + I b . (4) ………………(5) ………………(6) The solution of these six equations will give six unknowns V a0 . I b and I c from equations in above three equations I a1 = (1/3) [0 +a I b .a I b ] = (1/3) [ a2 .e. and I ao .I b ] I a0 = 0 Which means for a line to line fault the zero sequence component of current is absent and positive sequence component of current is equal in magnitude but opposite in phase to negative sequence component of current.Power System a Ea Symmetrical Components & Faults Calculations Ia Z EC C Z Z Eb b Ib Ic Fig.a2] I b I a2 = (1/3) [0 +a2 I b . i. Page : 14 . V a2 .10 The sequence network equations are V a0 = -I a0 Z 0 V a1 = E a = I a1 Z 1 V a2 = .a2 I b ] = (1/3) [a. 3. V a1 ..

E a . (8) ………….. The phase difference between I a1 and I a2 for line – to – line fault should be 180° (I a1 = I a2 ).I a1 .Power System Symmetrical Components & Faults Calculations Z1 Ia1 Z2 Ia2 Va1 Va2 Ea Fig.I c = a2I a1 + aI a2 + I a0 (I a2 = .e.I a1 Z 1 = -I a2 Z 2 = I a1 Z 2 I a1 = I f = I b = . This also means that the two sequence networks are connected in opposition. Now making use of the sequence network equation and the equation (10) ∴ V a1 = V a2. 2. Line to Line fault with Z f I a1 = Double Line to Ground Fault: Here sequence networks are connected in parallel.(9) Substituting the equations (8) and (9) equations (3) Conclusion: 1.. 3.. Page : 15 . I a0 =0) = = I a1 2 …………… (7) ………….11 I a1 = -I a2 Since V b = a V a1 + aVa2 + V a0 V C = aV a1 + a2V a2 + V a0 a2V a1 + aV a2 + V a0 = aV a1 + a2V a2 V a0 ∴ V a1 = V a2 …………(10) i. positive sequence component of voltage equals the negative sequence component of voltage. The connection of sequence currents are connected in parallel.

V b and V c from the equation (2) and (3) V a0 = (1/3) [V a + 0 + 0 ] = V a/3 V a1 = (1/3) [V a +a..12 The solution of these six equations will give six unknowns V a0 .. V a1. 0 ] = V a/3 Page : 16 .. V a2 and I a0 .Power System Symmetrical Components & Faults Calculations Double line to ground fault takes place on phases ‘b’ and ‘c’ The boundary conditions are I a = 0 ………………. 0 +a2.. I a1 and I a2 ..(6) Z + Ea Ec Z C Eb Z b Ic Ib Fig..(1) V b = 0 ………………..(5) Ia V a1 = E a – I a1 Z 1 .(3) The sequence network equations are V a0 = -I a0 Z 0 V a2 = -I a2 Z 2 ……….(2) V c = 0 ……………….(4) ………. Since V a0 = (1/3) [V a + V b + V c] V a1 = (1/3) [V a + aVb + a2 V c ] V a2 = (1/3) [V a + a2V b + a Vc ] Using above three equations and substituting for V a ... 3.

13 Substituting values of I a2 and I a0 from the equation(9) and (8) I a1 = Therefore I a1 = I f =I b + I c = 3 I a0 I a0 = -I a1 I f = -3 I a1 Page : 17 ……….0 ] = V a/3 V a0 = V a1 = V a2 …………….(8) ………. 3..Power System Symmetrical Components & Faults Calculations V a2 = (1/3) [V a +a2. 0 + a.(7) Using this relation of voltages and substituting in the sequence network equations V a0 = V a1 I a0 Z 0 = E a – I a1 Z 1 I a0 = Similarly V a2 = V a1 I a2 Z 2 = E a – I a1 Z 1 I a2 = Now from equation (1) I a = I a1 + I a2 +I a0 =0 Ea + Z1 Va1 + Ia1 Fig.(9) Z2 Va2 Z0 + Ia2 Ia0 =0 .

a2 I a + a2 a I a ) Ia 1 = Ia I a2 = 1/3 (I a + a2 I b + a I c ) = 1/3 (I a + a4 I b + a2 I c ) = 1/3 (I a + a I a + a2 I c ) 2 Page : 18 . I c ) and substituting the values of I b and I c I a1 = 1/3 (I a + a.Power System Symmetrical Components & Faults Calculations Conclusion: • Zero sequence and negative sequence networks are parallel and this is in series to the positive sequence. Double line to ground fault with Z f I a1 = 3.4 Three Phase Fault The boundary conditions are I a + Ib + Ic = 0 V a = V b =V c I a is taken as reference I b = a2 I a and I c = aI a a Ia Z Ea Z ECZ Eb b C Ic Ib Fig.14 I a1 =1/3 (I a + a I b + a . 3.

Page : 19 . Negative sequence currents are present in all unsymmetrical faults. ∴ I a1 = E a / Z 1 (1 + a + a2) Symmetrical Components & Faults Calculations The frequent fault in transformer line is single line to ground fault. ∗ Positive sequence components of line and phase voltages on the star side of a star delta transformer lead the corresponding positive sequence line and equivalent phase voltages respectively on the delta side by 90°. ∗ When currents are entering a delta connected winding. Zero sequence currents are present when the neutral of the system is grounded and the fault also involves the ground. Balanced system.Vc ) =0 Since ∗ ∗ ∗ V a1 = 0 = E a – I a1 Z 1 . the following observations are made: 1. Proof: Balanced three phase system consists of positive sequence components only. and magnitude of the neutral current is equal to 3 I a0. Positive sequence currents are present in all types of faults. 2. The most severe fault nearer to generator is single line to ground fault. From the analysis of the various faults. the negative and zero sequence components being zero.Power System = =0 I a0 = 1/3 (I a + I b +I c ) =0 V a1 = 1/3 (V a + a Vb + a2 V c ) = 1/3 (V a + a Va + a2 V a ) = V a (1 + a + a2) = 0 V a1 = 1/3 (V a + a2 V b + a. ∗ Positive sequence components of line currents on the star side of a star delta transformer. lead the corresponding positive sequence line currents on the delta side by 90°. Voltages must be in the form of V b = a2V a V c = aV a From Inverse symmetrical transformation. 3. The most severe fault is 3-phase fault. positive sequence components of line currents lead the corresponding positive sequence components of phase currents (winding current) in delta winding by 90°.

sub . Generator Voltage control PV Bus:In this type of bus and are known. Here real and reactive powers are not specified only are known. Slack Bus Reference Bus Swing Bus:This bus is a special type of bus. The power flow idea is to find out the voltage at different bus bar. a4 = a3 . 3. and The unknowns are | | and are known. Types of Buses: 1. Load bus: In this type of bus. node point & the flow of power on these lines. Power System Network Page : 20 . . a = a = So for balanced 3 – ϕ system. with given constraints and specifications. Va1 =V a Load Flow * Load cannot be same for all time in the system. and are not known.Power System V012 = [T-1] Vabc = (1/3) Symmetrical Components & Faults Calculations = (1/3) = (1/3) Va ∴ 1 + a + a2 = 0 = 1/3 Va a3 = 1.station. V a0 = V a2 = 0. and 2.

16 Page : 21 .] [Who’s don’t have generator called load bus bar. 3.15 L → Load G → Generator [Those bus who has self generator are called generated bus bar. 3.] to bus s to bus m to bus ∠ gen Load Fig.Power System Symmetrical Components & Faults Calculations ~ generator ~ bus burs 1 3 2 4 5 ~ Fig.

Mathematical model of the Network T.L. But Admittance matrix Taking small example Page : 22 . injected (reactive) power into bus. Example: to bus J to bus m to bus i Bus K Fig.17 Static analysis of Power Network. – nominal π model.Power System Symmetrical Components & Faults Calculations Where injected power (real) in to bus. Bus power injection – . 3. . & For load bus So we can write (i) (ii) On the behalf of equation (i) and (ii) load bus are drawing the power.

18 equivalent π model. 3. 3.19 Page : 23 .Power System Symmetrical Components & Faults Calculations 1 3 2 Fig. Shunt admittance Fig.

(Sparse means most of the elements of Because there are 90% elements are zero. 2. So we can write equation. (Driving point admittance) → transfer admittance or mutual adce. ...N. . 1. k. Dimension of is (N × N) → N = No. 2. is symmetric matrix matrix is sparse matrix. formatting is so easy & & Z matrix comp.. of bus matrix are zero) Power Flow Equation . Page : 24 . n = 1.Power System Symmetrical Components & Faults Calculations Now power equation converting in current equation.. → self admittance. 3.

δ & elements Example: Assume a three – phase system with a sustained supply voltage of 2. Compute the magnitude of fault current for a single line to ground fault at the end of the line. convergence is affected by choice of slack bus and the presence of sense capacitor. But N. Solution: Supply voltage = 2300 V line/neutral For a single line to ground fault at “a” in Figure below. Characteristics of power flow equation Power flow equation are algebraic – static system _____________________nonlinear – Iterative solution Relate P. a b c Page : 25 .R. Gauss – Seidal method Newton Raphson (N.R. method requires more time per iteration.Power System Symmetrical Components & Faults Calculations There are two methods to solve these non –linear equations: 1. Newton Raphson method 2. Gauss – Seidal has got linear convergence.) method has got quadratic convergence and is fast as compared to Gauss – Seidal and always converge. Q in terms of V.300 volts from line to neutral and with line impedance and .

Power System Symmetrical Components & Faults Calculations then where is prefault voltage Also Page : 26 .