155 095 E

2013−07

Processes
Stick (SMAW) Welding

Guidelines For Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION 1 − SAFETY PRECAUTIONS - READ BEFORE USING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1. Symbol Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2. Arc Welding Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3. Additional Symbols For Installation, Operation, And Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4. California Proposition 65 Warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5. Principal Safety Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6. EMF Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 2 − PRINCIPLES OF SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 3 − SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW)PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1. Typical Stick Welding Set-Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2. Electrode And Amperage Selection Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3. Striking An Arc − Scratch Start Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4. Striking An Arc − Tapping Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5. Positioning Electrode Holder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6. Electrode Movement During Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7. Conditions That Affect Weld Bead Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8. Poor Weld Bead Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9. Good Weld Bead Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10. Typical Weld Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11. Welding Groove (Butt) Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12. Welding Tee Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13. Welding Lap Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14. Welding Horizontal Beads And Groove (Butt) Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15. Welding Vertical Beads And Groove (Butt) Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16. Welding Vertical Tee Joints And Lap Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17. Welding Overhead Groove (Butt) Joints And Tee Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18. Weld Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 4 − WELDING TROUBLESHOOTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1. Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2. Excessive Spatter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3. Incomplete Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4. Lack Of Penetration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5. Excessive Penetration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6. Burn-Through . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7. Waviness Of Bead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8. Distortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 8 8 9 10 11 12 12 13 14 15 15 16 17 18 19 20 20 20 21 21 21 22 22 22 22

Symbol Usage DANGER! − Indicates a hazardous situation which. or lying. ground. use the following equipment in order presented: 1) a semiautomatic DC constant voltage (wire) welder. if not avoided. D Do not touch live electrical parts. use of a DC. D Keep cords dry. the wire. D When making input connections. use proper tools and/or wear heavy. D Insulate work clamp when not connected to workpiece to prevent contact with any metal object. or when there is a high risk of unavoidable or accidental contact with the workpiece or ground. or scaffolds. D Additional safety precautions are required when any of the following electrically hazardous conditions are present: in damp locations or while wearing wet clothing. SIGNIFICANT DC VOLTAGE exists in inverter welding power sources AFTER removal of input power. D Do not use AC output in damp areas. or if there is a danger of falling. D Wear a safety harness if working above floor level. The possible hazards are shown in the adjoining symbols or explained in the text. The safety information given below is only a summary of the more complete safety information found in the Safety Standards listed in Section 1-5. attach proper grounding conductor first − double-check connections. away. When you see the symbol. D Do not drape cables over your body. insulated welding gloves and clothing to prevent burns. D Properly install. For these conditions. Incorrectly installed or improperly grounded equipment is a hazard. and discharge input capacitors according to instructions in Maintenance Section before touching any parts. and operate this equipment according to its Owner’s Manual and national. D Do not touch electrode holders connected to two welding machines at the same time since double open-circuit voltage will be present. wire reel. 155 095 Page 1 . The possible hazards are shown in the adjoining symbols or explained in the text.READ BEFORE USING som 2011−10 7 Protect yourself and others from injury — read. . if movement is confined. maintain. ground. ELECTRIC SHOCK can kill. D Use AC output ONLY if required for the welding process. D Clamp work cable with good metal-to-metal contact to workpiece or worktable as near the weld as practical. Only qualified persons should install. Repair or replace damaged parts at once. During operation. D Turn Off inverter. Lockout/tagout input power according to OSHA 29 CFR 1910. The input power circuit and machine internal circuits are also live when power is on. especially children. D If AC output is required. and HOT PARTS hazards. keep everybody. Disconnect cable for process not in use. And. This group of symbols means Warning! Watch Out! ELECTRIC SHOCK. Read and follow all Safety Standards. Consult symbols and related instructions below for necessary actions to avoid the hazards. free of oil and grease. and follow the related instructions to avoid the hazard. D Insulate yourself from work and ground using dry insulating mats or covers big enough to prevent any physical contact with the work or ground. drive roll housing. gratings. D Allow cooling period before working on equipment. disconnect input power. D Do not use worn. could result in death or serious injury. D Wear dry.SECTION 1 − SAFETY PRECAUTIONS . and local codes. D If earth grounding of the workpiece is required. kneeling. D Do not touch electrode if you are in contact with the work. Indicates a hazardous situation which. if not avoided. operate. D Turn off all equipment when not in use. on metal structures such as floors. and protected from hot metal and sparks. or another electrode from a different machine. D Frequently inspect input power cord for damage or bare wiring − replace cord immediately if damaged − bare wiring can kill. when in cramped positions such as sitting. will result in death or serious injury. and all metal parts touching the welding wire are electrically live. watch out. In semiautomatic or automatic wire welding. The electrode and work circuit is electrically live whenever the output is on. Maintain unit according to manual. D To handle hot parts. HOT PARTS can burn. Indicates special instructions. D Always verify the supply ground − check and be sure that input power cord ground wire is properly connected to ground terminal in disconnect box or that cord plug is connected to a properly grounded receptacle outlet. ground it directly with a separate cable. constant voltage wire welder is recommended. MOVING PARTS. 1-2. and save these important safety precautions and operating instructions. or poorly spliced cables. and repair this unit.147 (see Safety Standards). D Do not connect more than one electrode or work cable to any single weld output terminal. Touching live electrical parts can cause fatal shocks or severe burns. state. Arc Welding Hazards The symbols shown below are used throughout this manual to call attention to and identify possible hazards. use remote output control if present on unit. damaged. do not work alone! D Disconnect input power or stop engine before installing or servicing this equipment. D Do not touch hot parts bare handed. D Use only well-maintained equipment. or 3) an AC welder with reduced open-circuit voltage. undersized. hole-free insulating gloves and body protection. 1-1. NOTICE − Indicates statements not related to personal injury. D Keep all panels and covers securely in place. 2) a DC manual (stick) welder. follow. In most situations.

D Remove stick electrode from holder or cut off welding wire at contact tip when not in use. Breathing these fumes and gases can be hazardous to your health. D Wear approved ear protection if noise level is high. wire brushing. and degreasers. D Implanted Medical Device wearers should consult their doctor and the device manufacturer before going near arc welding. D Do not weld on containers that have held combustibles. D Follow requirements in OSHA 1910. D Read and understand the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) and the manufacturer’s instructions for metals. D Do not weld where the atmosphere may contain flammable dust. hot workpiece. cleaners. regulators. Sparks fly off from the weld. and grinding cause sparks and flying metal. D Read and follow instructions on compressed gas cylinders. The coatings and any metals containing these elements can give off toxic fumes if welded. or on closed containers such as tanks. plasma arc cutting. physical damage. Check and be sure the area is safe before doing any welding. chipping. sparks. such as a butane lighter or matches. D Remove any combustibles.252 (a) (2) (iv) and NFPA 51B for hot work and have a fire watcher and extinguisher nearby. D Use protective screens or barriers to protect others from flash.1 and AWS A6. Do not breathe the fumes. cuffless trousers. D Keep your head out of the fumes. coatings. tightly cover them with approved covers.1 and Z87. and hot equipment can cause fires and burns. D Wear approved safety glasses with side shields even under your welding helmet. or cadmium plated steel. gas. D Do not weld in locations near degreasing. D Use the right equipment. D Keep protective cap in place over valve except when cylinder is in use or connected for use. a cylinder can explode. and arcs. explosion. D Do not weld on coated metals. cleaning. . bulkhead. D Be alert that welding sparks and hot materials from welding can easily go through small cracks and openings to adjacent areas. D Remove all flammables within 35 ft (10. D Wearers of Pacemakers and other Implanted Medical Devices should keep away. Always have a trained watchperson nearby. or pipes unless they are properly prepared according to AWS F4. Noise from some processes or equipment can damage hearing. FLYING METAL or DIRT can injure eyes. D Work in a confined space only if it is well ventilated. open flames. and flames. D Wear oil-free protective garments such as leather gloves. Since gas cylinders are normally part of the welding process. D Shut off compressed gas supply when not in use. NOISE can damage hearing. D If ventilation is poor. D Do not weld where flying sparks can strike flammable material. warn others not to watch the arc. As welds cool. unless the coating is removed from the weld area. D If inside. drums. consumables. D Never weld on a pressurized cylinder − explosion will result. Be sure the breathing air is safe. overheating. Welding fumes and gases can displace air and lower the oxygen level causing injury or death. D Protect compressed gas cylinders from excessive heat. floor. or wool) and foot protection. ventilate the area and/or use local forced ventilation at the arc to remove welding fumes and gases. D Wear an approved welding helmet fitted with a proper shade of filter lenses to protect your face and eyes from arc rays and sparks when welding or watching (see ANSI Z49. gouging. or induction heating operations. Sparks can fly off from the welding arc. BUILDUP OF GAS can injure or kill. If this is not possible. D Connect work cable to the work as close to the welding area as practical to prevent welding current from traveling long. and Compressed Gas Association (CGA) publication P-1 listed in Safety Standards. D After completion of work. mechanical shocks. slag. D Wear approved safety glasses with side shields under your helmet. D Wear protective clothing made from durable. or spraying operations. Accidental contact of electrode to metal objects can cause sparks. or fire. The flying sparks. D Be aware that welding on a ceiling. Arc rays from the welding process produce intense visible and invisible (ultraviolet and infrared) rays that can burn eyes and skin. D Watch for fire. D Install cylinders in an upright position by securing to a stationary support or cylinder rack to prevent falling or tipping. D Use only correct compressed gas cylinders.1 listed in Safety Standards). and fittings designed for the specific application. be sure to treat them carefully. wear an approved air-supplied respirator.FUMES AND GASES can be hazardous. D Do not use welder to thaw frozen pipes. D Never drape a welding torch over a gas cylinder.0 (see Safety Standards). possibly unknown paths and causing electric shock. D Never allow a welding electrode to touch any cylinder. and keep a fire extinguisher nearby. and while wearing an air-supplied respirator. hoses. from your person before doing any welding. ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS (EMF) can affect Implanted Medical Devices. or pipes. or liquid vapors (such as gasoline). can cause them to blow up. WELDING can cause fire or explosion. such as galvanized. 155 095 Page 2 CYLINDERS can explode if damaged. flame-resistant material (leather. the area is well ventilated. and sufficient number of persons to lift and move cylinders. high shoes. The heat and rays of the arc can react with vapors to form highly toxic and irritating gases. D Turn face away from valve outlet when opening cylinder valve. spot welding. sparks. Compressed gas cylinders contain gas under high pressure. inspect area to ensure it is free of sparks. ARC RAYS can burn eyes and skin. heavy shirt. correct procedures. drums. and fire hazards. heavy cotton. D Always ventilate confined spaces or use approved air-supplied respirator. associated equipment. lead. or while wearing an air-supplied respirator. glowing embers.7 m) of the welding arc. Welding on closed containers. D Welding. maintain them and associated parts in good condition. D Keep cylinders away from any welding or other electrical circuits. Welding produces fumes and gases. D Use only correct fuses or circuit breakers. D Protect yourself and others from flying sparks and hot metal. glare and sparks. they can throw off slag. or partition can cause fire on the hidden side. Do not oversize or bypass them. and a cap. If damaged. such as tanks.

and guards closed and securely in place. D D D D STATIC (ESD) can damage PC boards. Keep high-frequency source doors and panels tightly shut. panels. panels. or any other accessories. Operation. computers. D Keep away from moving parts such as fans. D WELDING WIRE can injure. follow rated duty cycle. MOVING PARTS can injure. over. other people. D Keep away from moving parts. and down low. or guards for maintenance and troubleshooting as necessary. D Use equipment of adequate capacity to lift and support unit. D Use proper static-proof bags and boxes to store. D Perform maintenance and service according to the Owner’s Manuals. D D D 155 095 Page 3 . H. and body protection. D Do not press gun trigger until instructed to do so. 94−110) when manually lifting heavy parts or equipment. D Put on grounded wrist strap BEFORE handling boards or parts. state. D Keep equipment (cables and cords) away from moving vehicles when working from an aerial location. D Follow the guidelines in the Applications Manual for the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation (Publication No. D Reduce current or reduce duty cycle before starting to weld again. Be sure this welding machine is installed and grounded according to this manual. D If using lift forks to move unit. and national. and use grounding and shielding to minimize the possibility of interference. MOVING PARTS can injure. D Electromagnetic energy can interfere with sensitive electronic equipment such as computers and computer-driven equipment such as robots. or ship PC boards. D Keep all doors. NOT running gear. using shielded cables. D Shape tungsten electrode only on grinder with proper guards in a safe location wearing proper face. or near combustible surfaces.F. keep spark gaps at correct setting. and communications equipment. D High-frequency (H. or guards when maintenance is finished and before reconnecting input power. using line filters. ARC WELDING can cause interference. D Sparks can cause fires — keep flammables away. the user must take extra measures such as moving the welding machine. rated. If notified by the FCC about interference. keep weld cables as short as possible. Additional Symbols For Installation. D Keep away from pinch points such as drive rolls. READ INSTRUCTIONS. covers. panels. D Have only qualified persons remove doors. FALLING EQUIPMENT can injure. or any metal when threading welding wire. Read the safety information at the beginning of the manual and in each section. or servicing unit. be sure forks are long enough to extend beyond opposite side of unit. hand. OVERUSE can cause OVERHEATING D Allow cooling period. D Be sure all equipment in the welding area is electromagnetically compatible. Locate welding operation 100 meters from any sensitive electronic equipment. D Reinstall doors. D Do not overload building wiring − be sure power supply system is properly sized. D Do not point gun toward any part of the body. To reduce possible interference. D Have only qualified persons familiar with electronic equipment perform this installation. D Do not use welder to charge batteries or jump start vehicles unless it has a battery charging feature designed for this purpose.1-3. D Do not install or place unit on. RADIATION can cause interference. and local codes. such as on the floor. safety services. And Maintenance FIRE OR EXPLOSION hazard. operating. Have the installation regularly checked and maintained.F. D Wear a face shield to protect eyes and face. D Read and follow all labels and the Owner’s Manual carefully before installing. gas cylinders.) can interfere with radio navigation. D Do not install unit near flammables. stop using the equipment at once. The user is responsible for having a qualified electrician promptly correct any interference problem resulting from the installation. and protected to handle this unit. move. D Use lifting eye to lift unit only. FLYING SPARKS can injure. D Use only genuine replacement parts from the manufacturer. industry standards. covers. If interference still occurs. BATTERY EXPLOSION can injure. or shielding the work area. D Do not block or filter airflow to unit. covers. close together.

7. PA 15250-7954 (phone: 1-866-512-1800) (there are 10 OSHA Regional Offices— phone for Region 5. or induction heating operations.) This product contains chemicals. NFPA Standard 70. Chicago. website: www. Do not work next to. website: www. 1-6. including lead.cdc. and Part 1926. sit or lean on the welding power source.org and www. is available as a free download from the American Welding Society at http://www.aws.csa-international.global. spot welding. Safe Practice For Occupational And Educational Eye And Face Protection. Principal Safety Standards Safety in Welding. Standards Sales. cancer. Do not weld whilst carrying the welding power source or wire feeder. Keep head and trunk as far away from the equipment in the welding circuit as possible.com). then following the above procedures is recommended. About Implanted Medical Devices: Implanted Medical Device wearers should consult their doctor and the device manufacturer before performing or going near arc welding. from Canadian Standards Association. gouging.com). Suite 103.2. Protective measures for persons wearing medical implants have to be taken. 3. 155 095 Page 4 .global. If cleared by your doctor.ihs. website: www. EMF Information Electric current flowing through any conductor causes localized electric and magnetic fields (EMF). Arrange cables to one side and away from the operator. ANSI Standard Z87. 14501 George Carter Way. 5. website: www. 5060 Spectrum Way. American Welding Society Standard AWS A6.g. Keep cables close together by twisting or taping them. in some cases. Cutting. 1-5. Canada L4W 5NS (phone: 800-463-6727. Government Printing Office.org or purchased from Global Engineering Documents (phone: 1-877-413-5184. from National Fire Protection Association. or using a cable cover. Cutting.nfpa. known to the state of California to cause cancer. birth defects. from U. GA 30333 (phone: 1-800-232-4636. or other reproductive harm. website: www.ihs. Part 1910.ihs. Welding current creates an EMF field around the welding circuit and welding equipment. Suite 100. from American National Standards Institute. plasma arc cutting. Safety in Welding.nfpa. VA 20151 (phone: 703-788-2700. Occupational Safety and Health Standards for General Industry.gov/NIOSH). from National Fire Protection Association. 4.S. CGA Pamphlet P-1. Safe Practices for the Preparation of Containers and Piping for Welding and Cutting. restrict access for passers−by or conduct individual risk assessment for welders. MA 02269 (phone: 1-800-344-3555. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Superintendent of Documents. P.com).ansi. e.global.1. Subpart J.1. Quincy. from Global Engineering Documents (phone: 1-877-413-5184. ANSI Standard Z49. Do not coil or drape cables around your body. Subpart Q. MA 02269 (phone: 1-800-344-3555. Quincy.gov). 6. (California Health & Safety Code Section 25249. EMF fields may interfere with some medical implants. CSA Standard W117. Safe Practices for Welding and Cutting Containers that have Held Combustibles.1. 2. Do not place your body between welding cables. Atlanta. website: www.org. Chantilly. is 312-353-2220. NY 10036 (phone: 212-642-4900.org). Pittsburgh. Box 371954. and Other Hot Work. from Compressed Gas Association. OSHA. All welders should use the following procedures in order to minimize exposure to EMF fields from the welding circuit: 1.com).O. website: www. For example. Connect work clamp to workpiece as close to the weld as possible. website: www. 1600 Clifton Rd.org).1-4. pacemakers. 25 West 43rd Street. and Allied Processes.5 et seq. National Electrical Code. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).osha. Wash hands after use. American Welding Society Standard AWS F4. and Allied Processes. NFPA Standard 51B. Applications Manual for the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation. Cutting. sparky.0. California Proposition 65 Warnings Welding or cutting equipment produces fumes or gases which contain chemicals known to the State of California to cause birth defects and. Ontario. website: www.org).cganet. Title 29. Standard for Fire Prevention During Welding. website:www. New York. Safe Handling of Compressed Gases in Cylinders. from Global Engineering Documents (phone: 1-877-413-5184.

More specific information on the Stick welding procedure is provided in the following sections. However. Thin metals require less current than thick metals. It is preferable to weld on work in the flat or horizontal position. 1 Stick Welding Power Source − Constant Current (CC). called flux. The electrode outer coating. and the position of the welding. 157 858 155 095 Page 5 . The electrode core provides most of the weld filler metal. when forced to weld in vertical or overhead positions it is helpful to reduce the amperage from that used when welding horizontally. the size and thickness of the pieces to be welded. When the electrode is moved along the workpiece at the correct speed the metal deposits in a uniform layer called a bead. moving the electrode at a uniform speed. depending on the electrode being used. The Stick welding power source provides constant current (CC) and may be either alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC).SECTION 2 − PRINCIPLES OF SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW) Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) or Stick welding is a process which melts and joins metals by heating them with an arc between a coated metal electrode and the workpiece. Best welding results are achieved by maintaining a short arc. The power in a welding circuit is measured in voltage and current. The voltage (Volts) is governed by the arc length between the electrode and the workpiece and is influenced by electrode diameter. AC Or DC Insulated Electrode Holder Workpiece Work Clamp 2 3 1 4 2 3 4 Ref. The best welding characteristics are usually obtained using DC power sources. The amperage needed to weld depends on electrode diameter. and feeding the electrode downward at a constant speed as it melts. assists in creating the arc and provides the shielding gas and slag covering to protect the weld from contamination. Current is a more practical measure of the power in a weld circuit and is measured in amperes (Amps). and a small electrode requires less amperage than a large one.

(1. arc length for 1/8 and 5/32 in. A short arc with correct amperage will give a sharp. Follow recommendations of the electrode manufacturer when setting weld amperage (see Section 3-2). 2 3 3 6 1 7 Work Clamp Electrode Place as close to the weld as possible. Examine the weld bead to determine if the arc length is correct. Weld current can damage electronic parts in vehicles. Correct arc length is related to electrode diameter. Always wear 1 Make sure workpiece is clean before welding. 7 Slag Use a chipping hammer and wire brush to remove slag. (3 mm). electrodes should be about 1/8 in. Before striking an arc. diameter electrodes should be about 1/16 in. Arc length for 1/16 and 3/32 in. Tools Needed: 151 593 155 095 Page 6 . Disconnect both battery cables before welding on a vehicle. 4 5 6 Insulated Electrode Holder Electrode Holder Position Arc Length Arc length is the distance from the electrode to the workpiece. A small diameter electrode requires less current than a large one. Workpiece 5 4 2 . appropriate personal protective clothing. Remove slag and check weld bead before making another weld pass. insert an electrode in the electrode holder. Place work clamp as close to the weld as possible. crackling sound. Typical Stick Welding Set-Up ! ! Welding current starts as soon as electrode touches the workpiece.SECTION 3 − SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW) PROCEDURE 3-1.6 mm).

EASY. Electrode And Amperage Selection Chart AMPERAGE RANGE PENETRATION ELECTRODE POSITION ELECTRODE DIAMETER 6010 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 50 6011 6013 7014 7018 7024 NI-CL 308L EP EP EP.3-2. FAST LOW HYDROGEN.EN EP EP ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL FLAT HORIZ FILLET ALL ALL DEEP DEEP LOW MED MED LOW LOW LOW MIN. S-087 985-A 155 095 Page 7 USAGE DC* AC . STRONG SMOOTH. EASY. ROUGH HIGH SPATTER GENERAL SMOOTH.EN EP. PREP. FASTER CAST IRON STAINLESS 6010 & 6011 6013 7014 7018 7024 Ni-Cl 308L 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 7/32 1/4 1/16 5/64 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 7/32 1/4 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 7/32 1/4 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 7/32 1/4 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 7/32 1/4 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 3/32 1/8 5/32 *EP = ELECTRODE POSITIVE (REVERSE POLARITY) EN = ELECTRODE NEGATIVE (STRAIGHT POLARITY) Ref.EN EP EP.

2 3 S-0049 155 095 Page 8 . If electrode sticks to workpiece. If electrode sticks to workpiece. If arc goes out. electrode was lifted too high. immediately lift electrode slightly after touching work. Striking An Arc − Tapping Technique ! Welding current starts as soon as electrode touches the workpiece. then lift slightly to start arc. electrode was lifted too high. scratch-start technique is preferred for ac welding.3-3. use a quick twist to free it. Striking An Arc − Scratch Start Technique ! Welding current starts as soon as electrode touches the workpiece. The 1 1 2 3 Drag electrode across workpiece like striking a match. Electrode Workpiece Arc 1 2 3 1 Bring electrode straight down to workpiece. use a quick twist to free it. If arc goes out. 2 3 S-0049 3-4. Electrode Workpiece Arc .

travel at a uniform speed.30° 90° 90° Direction Of Welding End View Of Work Angle Side View Of Electrode Angle Fillet Welds 45° 10°. To Groove Welds produce the best results. . although tilting it ahead (in the direction of travel) will be helpful. and feed the electrode downward at a constant rate as it melts.3-5. Positioning Electrode Holder After learning to start and hold an arc. practice running beads of weld metal on flat plates using a full electrode. hold a short arc. 10°.30° 45° Direction Of Welding End View Of Work Angle Side View Of Electrode Angle S-0660 155 095 Page 9 . Hold the electrode nearly perpendicular to the work.

A 1 1 2 3 single stringer bead is satisfactory for most narrow groove weld joints. Limit weave width to a maximum of 2-1/2 times diameter of electrode.3-6. however. Electrode Movement During Welding . 2 3 S-0054-A Notes Work like a Pro! Pros weld and cut safely. a weave bead or multiple stringer beads work better. for wide groove weld joints or bridging across gaps. 155 095 Page 10 . Read the safety rules at the beginning of this manual. Stringer Bead − Steady Movement Along Seam Weave Bead − Side To Side Movement Along Seam Weave Patterns Use weave patterns to cover a wide area in one pass of the electrode.

arc length. and thickness of base metal. Conditions That Affect Weld Bead Shape . Weld bead shape is affected by electrode angle. travel speed. Electrode Angle Correct Angle 10° .3-7.30° Angle Too Small Drag Angle Too Large Arc Length Spatter Too Short Normal Too Long Travel Speed Too Slow Normal Too Fast S-0661 155 095 Page 11 .

3-8. Poor Weld Bead Characteristics 1 2 3 4 5 Large Spatter Deposits Rough. Uneven Bead Slight Crater During Welding Bad Overlap Poor Penetration 1 2 3 4 5 S-0053-A 3-9. Good Weld Bead Characteristics 1 2 3 4 5 Fine Spatter Uniform Bead Moderate Crater During Welding No Overlap Good Penetration Into Base Metal 1 2 3 4 5 S-0052-B 155 095 Page 12 .

3-10. Typical Weld Joints Groove (Butt) Joint Groove (Butt) Joint Lap Joint Tee Joint Lap Joint Tee Joint Flat Position Welds Horizontal Position Welds Groove (Butt) Joint Groove (Butt) Joint Lap Joint Tee Joint Lap Joint Tee Joint Vertical Position Welds Overhead Position Welds 804 248 155 095 Page 13 .

Groove (Butt) Joint Training Procedure 2 Practice welding butt joints on 1/8 in. Generally. Distortion will also cause the edges of a butt joint to pull together ahead of the electrode as the weld cools. 2 3 1 4 Square Groove Weld Single V-Groove Weld Double V-Groove Weld Materials up to 3/16 in. Start with a 1/8 in. (19 mm) thick and when. A grinder can also be used to prepare bevels. Create a 30 degree bevel with oxyacetylene or plasma cutting equipment. you can weld from one side only. test them as described in Section 3-18. Workpiece distortion occurs when heat is applied locally to a joint. (5-19 mm) thick.3-11. electrode. (1. (4 mm) electrode. (6 mm) plate beveled 30°. Generally. electrode for the first bead and finish with a 5/32 in.) Separate the squared edges of the material about 1/16 in. (1. (4 mm) or thicker material.6 mm) Root Face 30° 3 S-0662 155 095 Page 14 . (6 mm) material. Welding Groove (Butt) Joints Types Of Groove (Butt) Joint Welds 1 Tack Welds Prevent butt joint distortion by tack welding the materials in position before final weld.) Perform a similar exercise on 1/4 in. One side of a metal plate will “curl” up toward the weld. regardless of thickness. deposit a bead for each 1/8 in. 4 After completing the practice welds. (5 mm) thick can often be welded without special preparation using the square groove weld. when welding thicker materials it may be necessary to prepare the edges (Vgroove) of butt joints to ensure good welds. the single V-groove is used on materials up to 3/4 in. cleaning the joint between layers. On heavier plates. (Avoid thinner materials since they require greater skill. Perform a similar exercise on thicker materials. Remove scale from material after cutting. Be sure to penetrate about 1/32 in. The single or double V-groove weld is good for materials 3/16 − 3/4 in. 1/16 in. However. (You may need to adjust the weld current and travel speed to obtain the desired weld. (1 mm) beyond the bottom of the “V” or root. (3mm) of material thickness. it may be necessary to weave the top layers to fill the groove.6 mm) and make a butt weld all the way through with a 1/8 in. depositing a bead on each side of the joint and fusing one to the another (no bevel needed). Practice making a single V-groove weld on 1/4 in.

Use any of the weaving patterns shown in Section 3-6. Welding Lap Joints 1 2 3 30° Or Less 1 Electrode Single-Layer Fillet Weld Multi-Layer Fillet Weld Move electrode in circular motion. For maximum strength weld both sides of upright section. Square edge of the weld surface. 2 Single-Layer Fillet Weld 30° Or Less 1 3 Multi-Layer Fillet Weld S-0063 / S-0064 155 095 Page 15 . Hold electrode as shown to provide fusion into the corner. Remove slag before making another weld pass.3-12. 2 45° Or Less 3 Multi-Layer Deposits Weld a second layer when a heavier fillet is needed. Weld both sides of joint for maximum strength. 2 1 3 S-0060 / S-0058-A / S-0061 3-13. Weld a second layer when a heavier fillet is needed. Welding Tee Joints 1 2 Electrode Fillet Weld 1 Keep arc short and move at definite rate of speed. Remove slag before making another weld pass.

Completed Weld.3-14. When welding horizontally. Direction Of Welding 45° Make Third Weld Pass. This technique is not Single Pass Bead Weld 1 Tilt Electrode 15° Toward Direction Of Welding. Direction Of Welding 90° 30° Direction Of Welding Tilt Electrode 15° In Direction Of Travel Make First Weld Pass (Root Pass). suitable for all electrodes. Electrode Backing Strip . Welding Horizontal Beads And Groove (Butt) Joints . 2 90° Direction Of Welding 1 Bevel edges if warranted by material thickness (see Section 3-11). Make Second Weld Pass. gravity may distort the molten metal. Tack weld a backing strip to the plates to make the first weld pass (root pass) easier. 804 260 155 095 Page 16 . 90° 15° Single Pass Horizontal Groove (Butt) Joint Weld Or First Pass Of Multi-Layer Deposit 2 30° 30° Bevel Material If Necessary (See Section 3-11).

(12 mm) Wide Weld vertically by carrying the weld upward or starting at the top and welding down. Shorten Arc At Arrowheads When At Center Of Weld. suitable for all electrodes. Direction Of Welding Direction Of Welding 4th Pass OR 3rd Pass Vertical Groove (Butt) Joint Weld Subsequent Layers 804 260 155 095 Page 17 . Bevel edges if warranted by material thickness (see Section 3-11). Electrode Backing Strip . Welding Vertical Beads And Groove (Butt) Joints . Single Pass Vertical Groove (Butt) Joint Weld Or First Pass Of Multi-Layer Deposit 2 90° Direction Of Welding Arrows Show Lifting Up Of Electrode And Return To Crater. This technique is not Direction Of Welding 1/2 in (12 mm) Direction Of Welding 1 90° 1 2 Whipping Up Motion Weave Bead 1/2 in. Tack weld a backing strip to the plates to make the first weld pass (root pass) easier. Welding upward is easier and is shown in these illustrations. 90° 1st Pass 2nd Pass Hesitate With Slight Up And Down Motion. gravity may distort the molten metal.3-15. When Single Pass Bead Weld welding vertically.

suitable for all electrodes. Direction Of Welding 90° Direction Of Welding 90° Subsequent Weld Passes Shows Weaving Motion. This technique is not 90° For maximum strength. Arrows Show Lifting Up Of Electrode And Return To Crater. 90° First Weld Pass Shows Weaving Motion. Tee Joint Weld .3-16. Direction Of Welding OR Direction Of Welding Shows Weaving Motion. 90° Lap Joint Weld 804 260 155 095 Page 18 . gravity may distort the molten metal. When welding vertically. weld both sides of joint. Welding Vertical Tee Joints And Lap Joints .

3-17. 90° 90° Direction Of Welding 15° 1 When welding overhead. use the pattern shown. use a welding motion that draws arc out and slightly away from the crater to allow weld puddle to solidify. Welding Patterns Overhead Welding Technique 1 1/2 in (12 mm) 2 3 Sequence Of Multiple Weld Passes Tee Joint Weld 1/2 in. When weaving is necessary. Direction Of Welding Draw arc out and away from crater to let weld puddle soldify. Tack weld a backing strip to the plates to make the first weld pass (root pass) easier. suitable for all electrodes. Welding Overhead Groove (Butt) Joints And Tee Joints . (12 mm) Direction Of Welding 1/2 in (12 mm) 30° First Weld Pass Subsequent Weld Passes 804 260 155 095 Page 19 . Electrode Position Bevel edges if warranted by material thickness (see Section 3-11). gravity may distort the molten metal. When Groove (Butt) Joint Weld 2 welding overhead. This technique is not 1 2 Welding overhead is the most difficult welding skill to master. Electrode Backing Strip .

Corrective Actions Remove all grease. slag.3-18. A good weld bends over but does not break. Use dry electrode. Reduce arc length. oil. the arc length was probably too long. and dirt from work surface before welding. (6. Weld Test 1 2 3 Vise Weld Joint Hammer Strike the weld joint in the direction shown. 1/4 in. 3 3 2 To 3 in. the arc may have been too long or the electrode was moved incorrectly which allowed molten slag to be trapped in the weld. Possible Causes Arc length too long. examine it to determine the cause. coatings. (51-76 mm) If the weld contains bits of slag. rust. moisture. Porosity Porosity − small cavities or holes resulting from gas pockets in weld metal. If the weld is porous (many holes). Damp electrode. 155 095 Page 20 .4 mm) 2 1 2 To 3 in. If the weld breaks. This may happen on a V-groove joint made in several layers and calls for additional cleaning between layers. If the original beveled surface is visible the material was not fully melted which is often caused by insufficient heat or too fast a travel speed. Workpiece dirty. paint. (51-76 mm) 2 1 S-0057-B SECTION 4 − WELDING TROUBLESHOOTING 4-1.

Possible Causes Insufficient heat input. Workpiece dirty. Remove all grease. Corrective Actions Increase amperage. Keep arc on leading edge of weld puddle. Excessive Spatter Excessive Spatter − scattering of molten metal particles that cool to solid form near weld bead. Increase amperage. Reduce travel speed. Possible Causes Amperage too high for electrode. Joint preparation and design must provide access to bottom of groove. Corrective Actions Decrease amperage or select larger electrode. Incomplete Fusion Incomplete Fusion − failure of weld metal to fuse completely with base metal or a preceeding weld bead. oil. slag. coatings. Lack of Penetration Good Penetration Possible Causes Improper joint preparation. moisture. rust. 155 095 Page 21 . Improper weld technique. Lack Of Penetration Lack Of Penetration − shallow fusion between weld metal and base metal. 4-3. Select larger electrode and increase amperage.4-2. Arc length too long or voltage Reduce arc length or voltage. Keep arc on leading edge of weld puddle. Insufficient heat input. Improper welding technique. paint. 4-4. Adjust work angle or widen groove to access bottom during welding. Momentarily hold arc on groove side walls when using weaving technique. Select larger electrode and increase amperage. and dirt from work surface before welding. Corrective Actions Material too thick. Place stringer bead in proper location(s) at joint during welding. too high.

4-7. Increase travel speed. Use smaller electrode. Practice technique. Adjust travel speed. Base metal moves in the direction of the weld bead. Burn-Through Burn-Through − weld metal melting completely through base metal resulting in holes where no metal remains. 155 095 Page 22 . Possible Causes Excessive heat input. Weld in small segments and allow cooling between welds.4-5. Make tack welds along joint before starting welding operation. Distortion Distortion − contraction of weld metal during welding that forces base metal to move. Corrective Actions Select lower amperage. Possible Causes Unsteady hand. Improper weld technique. Use two hands. Predict anticipated weld distortion and precamber base metal. Use smaller electrode. Waviness Of Bead Waviness Of Bead − weld metal that is not parallel and does not cover joint formed by base metal. Corrective Actions Select lower amperage. 4-6. Possible Causes Excessive heat input. Excessive Penetration Good Penetration Possible Causes Excessive heat input. Corrective Actions Use restraint (clamp) to hold base metal in position. Increase and/or maintain steady travel speed. Corrective Actions 4-8. Select lower amperage for electrode. Excessive Penetration Excessive Penetration − weld metal melting through base metal and hanging underneath weld.

031 in.188 in.5 in. (.) 1/2 in.) 20 Gauge (.) 16 Gauge (.) 22 Gauge (.125 in.) .037 in.063 in.) 3/16 in.375 in. (.Notes MATERIAL THICKNESS REFERENCE CHART 24 Gauge (.) 14 Gauge (. (.25 in.313 in.) 3/8 in.) 5/16 in. (.) 1/8 in. (.025 in.078 in. (.) 1/4 in.050 in.) 18 Gauge (.

.Notes Work like a Pro! Pros weld and cut safely. Read the safety rules at the beginning of this manual.

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com or call 1-800-4-A-Miller Miller Electric Mfg. Co. Videos. Always provide Model Name and Serial/Style Number. 2013−01 .com Contact the Delivering Carrier to: File a claim for loss or damage during shipment. For assistance in filing or settling claims. An Illinois Tool Works Company 1635 West Spencer Street Appleton. Contact your Distributor for: Welding Supplies and Consumables Options and Accessories Personal Safety Equipment Service and Repair Replacement Parts Training (Schools.Owner’s Record Please complete and retain with your personal records.millerwelds.) For Service Contact a DISTRIBUTOR or SERVICE AGENCY near you.MillerWelds. contact your distributor and/or equipment manufacturer’s Transportation Department. Co. Books) Technical Manuals (Servicing Information and Parts) Circuit Diagrams Welding Process Handbooks To locate a Distributor or Service Agency visit www. ORIGINAL INSTRUCTIONS − PRINTED IN USA © 2013 Miller Electric Mfg. Model Name Purchase Date Distributor Address City State Zip Serial/Style Number (Date which equipment was delivered to original customer. WI 54914 USA International Headquarters−USA USA Phone: 920-735-4505 Auto-Attended USA & Canada FAX: 920-735-4134 International FAX: 920-735-4125 For International Locations Visit www.