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What is Pilot Pollution?

Simply speaking, when the number of strong cells exceeds the active set size, there is pilot pollution in the area. Typically the active set size is 3, so if there are more than 3 strong cells then there is pilot pollution. Definition of strong cell: pilots within the handover window size from the strongest cell. Typical handover window size is between 4 to 6dB. For example, if there are more than 2 cells (besides the strongest cell) within 4dB of the strongest cell then there is pilot pollution.

Explain Soft and Softer handover? Give some advantage and disadvantage for soft handover
In Soft Handover, the UE connection consists of at least two radio links established with cells belonging to different RBSs. In Softer handover, the UE connection consists of at least two radio links established with cells belonging to the same RBS. It acts as macro diversity since UE is connected to more than one radio link at any given point, adds redundancy and reduces interference. However there is a tradeoff between soft/softer handover & system capacity. A UE involved in Soft/Softer Handover uses several radio links, more DL channelization codes, and more DL power than a single-link connection. Consequently, if all the UEs connected to a particular RNC are considered, more resources are needed in the RBSs, more resources over the Iub and Iur interfaces, and more resources in the RNC. For this reason, the number of radio links involved in the Soft/Softer handover must be limited.

What is Significance of Eb_No?


Eb_No is related to QOS of a service which in terms related to bit error rate. Technically it is the minimum signal to noise needed by infrastructure equipment after despreading it signal. This is a value used to compare different infrastructure vendors. Eb_No changes with the service type. For AMR 12.2 is ~ 4db for Node B For AMR 12.2 is ~ 8db for MS

CPICH stands for Common Pilot Channel in UMTS and some other CDMA communications systems.

In WCDMA FDD cellular systems, CPICH is a downlink channel broadcast by Node Bs with constant power and of a known bit sequence. Its power is usually between 5% and 15% of the total Node B transmit power. Commonly, the CPICH power is 10% of the typical total transmit power of 43 dBm. The Primary Common Pilot Channel is used by the UEs to first complete identification of the Primary Scrambling Code used for scrambling Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH) transmissions from the Node B. Later CPICH channels provide allow phase and power estimations to be made, as well as aiding discovery of other radio paths. There is one primary CPICH (P-CPICH) for each Cell, which is transmitted using spreading code 0 with a spreading factor of 256, notationally written as [1] Cch,256,0. Optionally a Node B may broadcast one or more secondary common pilot channels (S-CPICH), which use arbitrarily chosen 256 codes, written as Cch,256,n where . The CPICH contains 20 bits of data, which are either all zeros, or in the case that Space-Time Transmit Diversity (STTD) is employed, is a pattern of alternating 1's and 0's for transmissions on the Node B's [2] second antenna. The first antenna of a base station always transmits all zeros for CPICH. A UE searching for a WCDMA Node B will first use the primary and secondary synchronization channels (P-SCH and S-SCH respectively) to determine the slot and frame timing of a candidate P-CCPCH, whether STTD is in use, as well as identifying which one of 64 code groups is being used by the cell. Crucially this allows to UE to reduce the set of possible Primary Scrambling Codesbeing used for PCPICH to only 8 from 512 choices. At this point the correct PSC can be determined through the use of a matched filter, configured with the fixed channelisation code Cch,256,0, looking for the known CPICH bit sequence, while trying each of the possible 8 PSCs in turn. The results of each run of the matched filter can be compared, the correct PSC being identified by the greatest correlation result. Once the scrambling code for a CPICH is known, the channel can be used for measurements of signal quality, usually with RSCP and Ec/N0. Timing and phase estimations can also be made, providing a reference that helps to improve reliability when decoding other channels from the same Node B. Pilot signals are not a requirement of CDMA, however, they do make the UE's receiver simpler and improve the reliability of the system.

Interview Question & Answer For 3G / WCDMA / UMTS


UMTS interview questions: 1) What are the RRC states? a. Cell DCH b. Cell FACH c. Cell PCH d. URA PCH 2) Describe different RRC States? a. Cell DCH:

When UE is switched ON, it assumes the CELL_DCH State by default. It exists when UE really requires UL/DL dedicated resource. UE is characterized at cell level according to its current Active set. Logical channels DCCH+DTCH are mapped to transport channel DCH. E.g. Voice call(CS), Video telephony(CS+PS) b. Cell FACH: This happens when, (1) UE doesnt require continuous circuit connection with n/w, but DL packets will work. (2) UE is forced to release the n/w resources to decrease the congestion problems (flipflop between DCH and FACH). (3) Eventual location updates to support CELL_PCH and URA_PCH states (flip-flop between FACH and PCH). E.g. Call on hold(CS), File downloading(PS) No dedicated UL/DL is provided. However, UE will keep monitoring to DL common transport channel FACH continuously and receives packet data meant for UE itself. When UL transmission is required, it uses RACH for 1-2 frames or CPCH for few more frames, depending on common access procedures; still UL transmission will be discontinuous. UE is known on cell level, but this time its based on the last cell update it made. c. Cell PCH: This happens when UE doesnt require an active connection(common/dedicated). But still needs to be connected, as its expecting a n/w initiated or terminated call(CS or PS) in future. So, no UL transmission is allowed. Selects a PCH(based on algo.) and keep monitoring (receiving) it in discontinuous mode(DRX). Can commute only into CELL_FACH state. E.g. No outgoing call or data receive for long time UE is still identified on cell level, but now in the cell where UE made its last update, when it was in CELL_FACH state. At regular time interval, UE would have to move in CELL_FACH state to update the location area. If UE is traveling, this update will become frequent because of changing cells.

In some cases UE can have the transition from CELL_DCH to CELL_PCH, but not vice versa; it has to go via CELL_FACH. d. URA PCH: This can be considered as a general case of CELL_PCH state. Because all the characteristics are same except one. That is, UE is known on URA(UTRAN Registration Area) level rather than cell level. It listens to PCH(and updates URA when required). If UE is traveling continuously from one cell to another. It would have to transit multiple time to CELL_FACH state for location update. By assigning URA_PCH state, this condition is avoided, since 1 URA contains one or more cells and vice versa. 3) In which conditions UE will be in Cell FACH state? This happens when, UE doesnt require continuous circuit connection with n/w, but DL packets will work. UE is forced to release the n/w resources to decrease the congestion problems (flip-flop between DCH and FACH). Eventual location updates to support CELL_PCH and URA_PCH states (flip-flop between FACH and PCH). E.g. Call on hold(CS), File downloading(PS) 4) What is the difference between Cell PCH and URA PCH state? UE is known on URA(UTRAN Registration Area) level rather than cell level If UE is traveling continuously from one cell to another. It would have to transit multiple time to CELL_FACH state for location update. By assigning URA_PCH state, this condition is avoided, since 1 URA contains one or more cells and vice versa 5) What is U-RNTI? URNTI is a 32bit identity. SRNC identifier + SRNTI makes URNTI 6) Describe the CELL search procedure? The Cell Search procedure can be summarised into the following steps: a. Cell Selection: Determine the cell whose received carrier power is the strongest b. Slot Synchronisation: the UE reads the P-SCH of the strongest carrier and feeds the received signal through a matched filter (that is matched to the Primary Synchronisation Code). The slot timing is detected via detection of peaks in the output of the matched filter.

c. Frame Synchronisation and Scrambling Code Group Identification: the UE reads the S-SCH of the strongest carrier, and correlates the received signal with all the possible 64 Secondary Synchronisation Codes. The output that gives maximum correlation gives the group of the Primary Scrambling Code used in the cell. This process also gives the frame timing since the Secondary Synchronisation Code is different for each slot and the group tells the mapping between slots and SSCs. d. Scrambling Code Identification: The UE attempts then to read the P-CPICH so as to extract the Primary Scrambling Code used in the cell. The P-CPICH is always scrambled by the Primary Scrambling Code of the cell and is spread a factor 256 and an OVSF whose index is zero. Since the Primary Scrambling Codes are grouped into 64 groups of 8 Scrambling Codes and the S-SCH has given the Scrambling Code group only 8 possibilities remain. So the P-CPICH is unscrambled separately withevery possible Scrambling Code (8) in the group and only one output will produce correct results and the Primary Scrambling Code of the cell is determined. e. Read Broadcast Information: Since the P-CCPCH is always scrambled by the Primary Scrambling Code of the cell (which has now been determined) and is always spread using SF=256 with OVSF index=1, The UE can read the P-CCPCH without any problem. The PCCPCH carries the BCH where system information blocks are broadcast throughout the entire cell. The UE can acquire at this stage various information (e.g. Spreading Factors, OVSF indexes and Scrambling Codes used in other downlink channels, important parameters for PRACH transmission, Measurement Parameters, Transport Formats etc.) and can then decodeother downlink channels, initiate a PRACH procedure, performs some specific measurements etc. 7) Radio bearer configuration mappings? Signalling radio bearer RB0 shall be used for all messages sent on the CCCH (UL: RLC-TM, DL: RLC-UM). Signalling radio bearer RB1 shall be used for all messages sent on the DCCH, when using RLC unacknowledged mode (RLC-UM). Signalling radio bearer RB2 shall be used for all messages sent on the DCCH, when using RLC acknowledged mode (RLC-AM), except for the RRC messages carrying higher layer (NAS) signalling. Signalling radio bearer RB3 and optionally Signalling radio bearer RB4 shall be used for the RRC messages carrying higher layer (NAS) signalling and sent on the DCCH in RLC acknowledged mode (RLC-AM). Additionally, RBs whose identities shall be set between 5 and 32 may be used as signalling radio bearer for the RRC messages on the DCCH sent in RLC transparent mode (RLC-TM). 8) What are the types of hand over?

Here are following categories of handover (also referred to as handoff): Hard HandoverHard handover means that all the old radio links in the UE are removed before the new radio links are established. Hard handover can be seamless or nonseamless. Seamless hard handover means that the handover is not perceptible to the user. In practice a handover that requires a change of the carrier frequency (inter-frequency handover) is always performed as hard handover. Soft Handover Soft handover means that the radio links are added and removed in a way that the UE always keeps at least one radio link to the UTRAN. Soft handover is performed by means of macro diversity, which refers to the condition that several radio links are active at the same time. Normally soft handover can be used when cells operated on the same frequency are changed. Softer handoverSofter handover is a special case of soft handover where the radio links that are added and removed belong to the same Node B (i.e. the site of co-located base stations from which several sector-cells are served. In softer handover, macro diversity with maximum ratio combining can be performed in the Node B, whereas generally in soft handover on the downlink, macro diversity with selection combining is applied. Generally we can distinguish between intra-cell handover and inter-cell handover. For UMTS the following types of handover are specified: Handover 3G -3G (i.e. between UMTS and other 3G systems) FDD soft/softer handover FDD inter-frequency hard handover FDD/TDD handover (change of cell) TDD/FDD handover (change of cell) TDD/TDD handover Handover 3G - 2G (e.g. handover to GSM) Handover 2G - 3G (e.g. handover from GSM) The most obvious cause for performing a handover is that due to its movement a user can be served in another cell more efficiently (like less power emission, less interference). It may however also be performed for other reasons such as system load control. 9) What are types of measurements? Intra-frequency measurements: measurements on downlink physical channels at the same frequency as the active set. A measurement object corresponds to one cell.

Inter-frequency measurements: measurements on downlink physical channels at frequencies that differ from the frequency of the active set and on downlink physical channels in the active set. A measurement object corresponds to one cell. Inter-RAT measurements: measurements on downlink physical channels belonging to another radio access technology than UTRAN, e.g. GSM. A measurement object corresponds to one cell. Traffic volume measurements: measurements on uplink traffic volume. A measurement object corresponds to one cell. Quality measurements: Measurements of downlink quality parameters, e.g. downlink transport block error rate. A measurement object corresponds to one transport channel in case of BLER. A measurement object corresponds to one timeslot in case of SIR (TDD only). UE-internal measurements: Measurements of UE transmission power and UE received signal level. UE positioning measurements: Measurements of UE position. 10) What is paging? Why paging is required? Paging: This procedure is used to transmit paging information to selected UEs in idle mode, CELL_PCH or URA_PCH state using the paging control channel (PCCH). Paging can be initiated : Upper layers in the network may request paging, to e.g. establish a signaling connection. UTRAN may initiate paging for UEs in CELL_PCH or URA_PCH state to trigger a cell update procedure. UTRAN may initiate paging for UEs in idle mode, CELL_PCH and URA_PCH state to trigger reading of updated system information. UTRAN may also initiate paging for UEs in CELL_PCH and URA_PCH state to release the RRC connection. 11) Type of Paging? Paging Type 1 Paging Type 2(UE dedicated paging) 12) When dedicated paging is used? a. This procedure is used to transmit dedicated paging information to one UE in connected mode in CELL_DCH , CELL_FACH or CELL_PCH (FDD only) state. Upper layers in the network may request initiation of paging.

b. For a UE in CELL_DCH, CELL_FACH or CELL_PCH (FDD only) state, UTRAN initiates the procedure by transmitting a PAGING TYPE 2 message on the DCCH using AM RLC. When not stated otherwise elsewhere, the UTRAN may initiate the UE dedicated paging procedure also when another RRC procedure is ongoing, and in that case the state of the latter procedure shall not be affected. c. UTRAN should set the IE "Paging cause" to the cause for paging received from upper layers. If no cause for paging is received from upper layers, UTRAN should set the value "Terminating cause unknown". 13) In what situation UE goes to CELL PCH and URA PCH states? a. Cell PCH: This happens when UE doesnt require an active Connection(common/dedicated). But still needs to be connected, as its expecting a n/w initiated or terminated call(CS or PS) in future b. URA PCH: In Cell PCH UE is still identified on cell level, but now in the cell where UE made its last update, when it was in CELL_FACH state.At regular time interval, UE would have to move in CELL_FACH state to update the location area. If UE is traveling, this update will become frequent because of changing cells. If UE is traveling continuously from one cell to another. It would have to transit multiple time to CELL_FACH state for location update. By assigning URA_PCH state, this condition is avoided, since 1 URA contains one or more cells and vice versa 14) What is Cell Update Procedure? What are various Cell Update causes?

Uplink data transmission: For FDD, if the variable H_RNTI is not set, and for TDD:
if the UE is in URA_PCH or CELL_PCH state; and if the UE has uplink RLC data PDU or uplink RLC control PDU on RB1 or upwards to transmit:

perform cell update using the cause "uplink data transmission". Paging response: if the criteria for performing cell update with the cause specified above. are not met; and if the UE in URA_PCH or CELL_PCH state, receives a PAGING TYPE 1 .message fulfilling the conditions for initiating a cell update procedure.

perform cell update using the cause "paging response".

Radio link failure: if none of the criteria for performing cell update with the causes specified above in the current subclause is met:
if the UE is in CELL_DCH state and the criteria for radio link failure are ,or if the transmission of the UE CAPABILITY INFORMATION message fails.

perform cell update using the cause "radio link failure". MBMS ptp RB request: if none of the criteria for performing cell update with the causes specified above in the current subclause is met; and if the UE is in URA_PCH, Cell_PCH or Cell_FACH state; and if the UE should perform cell update for MBMS ptp radio bearer request, perform cell update using the cause "MBMS ptp RB request". Re-entering service area: if none of the criteria for performing cell update with the causes specified above in the current subclause is met; and if the UE is in CELL_FACH or CELL_PCH state; and 2> if the UE has been out of service area and re-enters service area before T307 or T317 expires:
3> perform cell update using the cause "re-entering service area".

RLC unrecoverable error: if none of the criteria for performing cell update with the causes specified above in the current subclause is met; and if the UE detects RLC unrecoverable error [16] in an AM RLC entity:
perform cell update using the cause "RLC unrecoverable error".

Cell reselection: if none of the criteria for performing cell update with the causes specified above in the current subclause is met:

if the UE is in CELL_FACH or CELL_PCH state and the UE performs cell re-selection; or if the UE is in CELL_FACH state and the variable C_RNTI is empty:

perform cell update using the cause "cell reselection". Periodical cell update: if none of the criteria for performing cell update with the causes specified above in the current subclause is met; and if the UE is in CELL_FACH or CELL_PCH state; and if the timer T305 expires; and if the criteria for "in service area" and if periodic updating has been configured by T305 in the IE "UE Timers and constants in connected mode" set to any other value than "infinity":
perform cell update using the cause "periodical cell update".

MBMS reception: if none of the criteria for performing cell update with the causes specified above in the current subclause is met; and if the UE is in URA_PCH, Cell_PCH or Cell_FACH state; and if the UE should perform cell update for MBMS counting , perform cell update using the cause "MBMS reception".
15) What is Active set? Active Set is defined as the set of Node-Bs the UE is simultaneously connected to (i.e., the UTRA cells currently assigning a downlink DPCH to the UE constitute the active set). 16) What is Monitor set and detected set Cells? a. Cells, which are not included in the active set, but are included in the CELL_INFO_LIST belong to the Monitored Set. b. Cells detected by the UE, which are neither in the CELL_INFO_LIST nor in the active set belong to the Detected Set. Reporting of measurements of the detected set is only applicable to intra-frequency measurements made by UEs in CELL_DCH state. 17) What are the various types of RNC? a. Serving RNC

b. Drift RNC c. Controlling RNC 18) What is the use and difference between CRNC, Drift RNC and SRNC? RNC from which the UE is currently getting Served or connected to is called SRNC or Serving RNC. During a soft handover procedure the RNC UE is moving to, is called Drift RNC. The RNC which controls the movement of UE from Serving RNC to the Drift RNC is called Controlling RNC. 19) What is initial direct transfer message? What is the use? The initial direct transfer procedure is used in the uplink to establish a signaling connection. It is also used to carry an initial upper layer (NAS) message over the radio interface. 20) What is security mode command? Why it is used? Security mode command is a RRC Message, The purpose of this procedure : To trigger the start of ciphering or to command the restart of the ciphering with a new ciphering configuration, for the radio bearers of one CN domain and for all signalling radio bearers. It is also used to start integrity protection or to modify the integrity protection configuration for all signalling radio bearers 21) What is CCTrCH? A Coded Composite Transport Channel is the result of combining (multiplexing) several Transport Channels of the same type; i.e.: we can have a CCTrCh made up of one or several DCHs, a CCTrCh made up of DSCHs. One exception is that we can have one or several FACHs multiplexed with a PCH on the same CCTrCh. A better notation would be for example: CCTrCh4DCH: A CCTrCh consisting of 4 DCHs CCTrCh3FACH: A CCTrCh consisting of 3 FACHs CCTrChPCH,2FACH: A CCTrCh consisting of the PCH and 2 FACHs 22) What is compressed mode? Higher layers can request a UE to monitor cells on other frequencies (FDD, TDD), or other systems (GSM). This implies that the UE has to perform measurements, on the other

frequencies/systems and thus higher layers command the UE to enter Compressed Mode. The UTRAN need to send to the UE all the parameters for the Compressed Mode. Compression Methods: When in Compressed Mode the information normally transmitted during a 10 ms frame is compressed in time sothat gaps of adequate length are created. To achieve this one of three mechanisms Puncturing

This method is NOT applicable to downlink.


Spread Factor Reduction Actually halving the Spread Factor. So with this method if SF is used in non-compressed frames then SF/2 is used in the compressed frames. Higher Layer Scheduling

Higher Layers set restrictions so that only a subset of allowed TFCs are used in Compressed Mode.
Compressed Mode Parameter: TGSN (Transmission Gap Starting Slot Number): A transmission gap pattern begins in a radio frame, called firstradio frame of the transmission gap pattern, containing at least one transmission gap slot. TGSN is the slot numberof the first transmission gap slot within the first radio frame of the transmission gap pattern; TGL1 (Transmission Gap Length 1): Duration of the first transmission gap within the transmission gap pattern, expressed in number of slots; TGL2 (Transmission Gap Length 2): Duration of the second transmission gap within the transmission gap pattern, expressed in number of slots. If this parameter is not explicitly set by higher layers, then TGL2 =TGL1; TGD (Transmission Gap Start Distance): Duration between the starting slots of two consecutive transmission gaps within a transmission gap pattern, expressed in number of slots. The resulting position of the second transmission gap within its radio frame(s) shall comply with the limitations of TS 25.101 (Ref [2]). If this parameter is not set by higher layers, then there is only one transmission gap in the transmission gap pattern; TGPL1 (Transmission Gap Pattern Length): Duration of transmission gap pattern 1; TGPL2 (Transmission Gap Pattern Length): Duration of transmission gap pattern 2. If this parameter is not explicitly set by higher layers, then TGPL2 = TGPL1. The following two parameters (integers) control the transmission gap pattern sequence start and repetition:

TGPRC (Transmission Gap Pattern Repetition Count): Number of transmission gap patterns within the transmission gap pattern sequence; From Figure 10 it seems TGPRC is even, therefore the number of slots in TG Sequence is: 0.5*TGPRC (TGPL1+TGPL2) TGCFN (Transmission Gap Connection Frame Number): CFN of the first radio frame of the first pattern 1 within the transmission gap pattern sequence. 23) What is FACH measurement occasion? GAPs in S-CCPCH to perform measurement on Different Frequencies or Interrat resection. 24) MIB/SB/SIB details? MIB: The Scheduling of MIB is Static. 25) Why we perform Channelisation or spreading before scrambling? Before sending a data we need to identify the channel to send the data. A particular Channelisation code is the identity for the channel. Hence we use Channelisation code to select the channel and then scramble it so as to send the identity of the UE over the channel 26) When TMSI , P- TMSI , IMSI , IMEI used? TMSI (GSM-MAP): The TMSI (GSM-MAP) shall be chosen if available. The IE "LAI" in the IE "Initial UE identity" shall also be present when TMSI (GSM-MAP) is used, for making it unique. P-TMSI (GSM-MAP): The P-TMSI (GSM-MAP) shall be chosen if available and no TMSI (GSMMAP) is available. The IE "RAI" in the IE "Initial UE identity" shall in this case also be present when P-TMSI (GSM-MAP) is used, for making it unique. IMSI (GSM-MAP): The IMSI (GSM-MAP) shall be chosen if available and no TMSI (GSM-MAP) or P-TMSI is available. IMEI: The IMEI shall be chosen when none of the above three conditions are fulfilled. 27) What is Auto attached?

Auto Attach

Enabled

Disabled

When Power On

If MNO I It will perform a combined Attach If NMOII It will do a LAU and Attach.

If UE is Location updated i.e. SIM LAI is same as Cell LAI Then it will do nothing. If UE is not Location updated i.e. SIM LAI differs from the Cell LAI then UE will perform Location Area Update Will do a PS attach then the PS call.

PS Call

Same RRC connection can be used for the PS call.

28) Why we do a Combined Attach? If the network operates in Network Mode Of Operation I i.e. NMO I and GPRS MS that operates in Mode A or Mode B will do a simultaneous IMSI attach for GPRS and non GPRS services and shall use the Combined GPRS attach, combined and periodic routing area updating procedures instead of the corresponding MM specific procedures IMSI attach and normal and periodic Location area updating. 29) When UE triggers Event 3A Measurement Report? Event 3A:The Estimated Quality of currently used UTRAN frequency is below a certain threshold and the estimated quality of the other system is above a certain threshold. 30) How many transport channels will be configured when a CSV and a PSD call is simultaneously going on? Five transport channels will be configured. 1 for 4 SRBs 3 for CSV 1 for PSD 31) When event 2A, 2B, 2C,2E occurs? Event 2a: Change of best frequency Event 2b: The estimated quality of the currently used frequency is below a certain threshold and the estimated quailty of a non-used frequency is above a certain threshold. Event 2c: The estimated quality of a non-used frequency is above a certain threshold

Event 2d: The estimated quality of the currently used frequency is below a certain threshold Event 2e: The estimated quality of a non-used frequency is below a certain threshold 32) When event 1A 1F Event occurs? event 1A: A Primary CPICH enters the reporting range event 1B: A primary CPICH leaves the reporting range event 1C: A non-active primary CPICH becomes better than an active primary CPICH event 1D: Change of best cell event 1E: A Primary CPICH becomes better than an absolute threshold event 1F: A Primary CPICH becomes worse than an absolute threshold 33) Where CK and IK gets generated? In RRC CK and IK gets generated. 34) Where CK and IK gets stored? In USIM CK and IK will get stored. 35) Where the Security procedure will start? Security Procedure will start in RRC but Ciphering will start for AM and UM data security procedure will start at RLC layer. And for TM mode security procedure start at MAC layer. 36) What are the mandatory SIBs which UE has to read before campign campaign? SIB 1, 3,5,7,11 37) What are the important RACH parameters and which SIB contains this information? SIB 7/5 38) Which SIB contains S criteria information? SIB 3

3G/WCDMA interview questions and answers

Some useful questions/answers on 3G/WCDMA/UMTS technology like....


What is a typical NodeB/UE sensitivity level? What is UE maximum transmit power in your link budget? What is difference between dBi and dBd? How does TMA work? What is processing gain for CS and PS services? How to calculate maximum number of users on a cell? Why is Eb/No requirement lower for PS than for CS?

Why is Eb/No requirement lower for PS than for CS? PS has a better error correction capability and can utilize retransmission, therefore it can afford to a lower Eb/No. CS is real-time and cannot tolerate delay so it needs a higher Eb/No to maintain a stronger RF link.

What is a typical NodeB sensitivity level?


The service and load determines the NodeB sensitivity; in general, in a no-load condition, the sensitivity is between -115dBm to -125dBm. For Ericsson, the NodeB sensitivity level is calculated at around: CS12.2: PS-64: PS-128: PS-384: -124 dBm -119 dBm -115 dBm -115 dBm

Define Active Set? Pros and Cons of having a small or longer Active Set
Active Set consists of group of cells that takes part in soft/softer handover & measure by UE. Typical size of Active set is 3 or 4 & generally a standard practice in all WCDMA networks.

A small active set size may provide more resources available due to less soft/softer handover but at the expense of handover gain thereby reducing the capacity & link redundancy.

How does TMA work?


A TMA reduces system noise, improves uplink sensitivity and leads to longer UE battery life. Sensitivity is the minimum input power needed to get a suitable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the output of the receiver. It is determined by receiver noise figure, thermo noise power and required SNR. Thermo noise power is determined by bandwidth and temperature, SNR is determined by modulation technique, therefore the only variable is noise figure. The cascading noise figure can be calculated by Friis equation (Herald Friis): NFt = NF1 + (NF2-1)/G1 + (NF3-1)/(G1*G2) + ... + (NFi-1)/(G1*G2*...*Gi) As the equation shows, the first block imposes the minimum and the most prominent noise figure on the system, and the following blocks imposes less and less impact to the system provided the gains are positive. Linear passive devices have noise figure equal to their loss. A TMA typically has a gain of 12dB. There are typically top jumper, main feeder and a bottom jumper between antenna and BTS. A TMA placed near antenna with a short jumper from antenna provides the best noise figure improvement the noise figure will be restricted to the top jumper loss (NF1) and TMA ((NF2-1)/G1), and the remaining blocks (main feeder and bottom jumper) have little effect. To summarize, a TMA has a gain thats close to feeder loss.

What is the processing gain for 384 Kb/s service?


Processing Gain= 10 log (Chip rate /Bit rate) =10*Log(3840/384) =10*log (10) =10*1 =10

Define Processing Gain for WCDMA?


Processing Gain is ratio between rate of spreaded signal and rate of non spreaded signal. Processing Gain = 10 log (Chip rate /Bit rate)

What is typical TMA gain?


TMA typically has a 12 dB gain; however, the effective gain comes from noise figure reduction and the gain is close or equivalent to the feeder loss.

Why is there soft handover gain?


Soft handover gain comes from the following: Macro diversity gain over slow fading. Micro diversity gain over fast fading. Downlink load sharing over multiple RF links. By maintaining multiple links each link could transmit at a lower power, resulting in lower interference therefore a gain.

What is Hard Handover in UMTS? When will it happen?


Hard Handover in UMTS is a break before make type Handover It can happen in the inter RNC boundaries where there is no Iur link.

What is a typical soft handover gain in your link budget?


CS-12.2k: PS-64k: PS-128k: PS-384k:

3dB (UL), 2dB (DL) 1dB (UL), 0dB (DL) 1dB (UL), 0dB (DL) 1dB (UL), 0dB (DL)

Brief describe the advantages and disadvantages of soft handover?


Advantages: Overcome fading through macro diversity. Reduced Node B power which in turn decreases interference and increases capacity.

Reduced UE power (up 4dB), decreasing interference and increasing battery life. Disadvantages:

UE using several radio links requires more channelization codes, and more resources on the Iub and Iur interfaces.

What are the pros and cons (advantages and disadvantages) of TMA?
On the upside, a TMA reduces system noise, improves uplink sensitivity and leads to longer UE battery life. On the downside, TMA imposes an additional insertion loss (typically 0.5dB) on the downlink and increases site installation and maintenance complexity.

Why TMA are installed at the top near the antenna and not the bottom near the NodeB?
Based on Friis Equation, having a TMA near the BTS will have the top jumper and main feeder losses (noise figures) cascaded in and a TMA will not be able to help suppress the losses.

What is Cell Breathing and why?


The cell coverage shrinks as the loading increases, this is called cell breathing. In the uplink, as more and more UE are served by a cell, each UE needs to transmithigher power to compensate for the uplink noise rise. As a consequence, the UEwith weaker link (UE at greater distance) may not have enough power to reach theNodeB therefore a coverage shrinkage. In the downlink, the NodeB also needs to transmit higher power as more UE arebeing served. As a consequence UE with weaker link (greater distance) may not bereachable by the NodeB.

What is cell selection criterion?


Cell selection is based on:

Qmean: the average SIR of the target cell. Qmin: minimum required SIR. Pcompensation: a correction value for difference UE classes.

S = Qmean - Qmin - Pcompensation


If S>0 then the cell is a valid candidate. A UE will camp on the cell with the highest S.

What is SIR?
What is SIR?

SIR is the Signal-to-Interference Ratio the ratio of the energy in dedicated physical control channel bits to the power density of interference and noise after dispreading.

What is Eb/No?
By definition Eb/No is energy bit over noise density, i.e. is the ratio of the energy per information bit to the power spectral density (of interference and noise) after dispreading.

Eb/No = Processing Gain + SIR

For example, if Eb/No is 5dB and processing gain is 25dB then the SIR should be -20dB or better.

What is Eb/No requirement for HSDPA?


The Eb/No requirement for HSDPA varies with user bit rate (data rate), typically 2 for768kbps and 5 for 2Mbps.

Whats Difference between RSCP,RSSI and EcNo?


ots people have some confusion related to RSCP,RSSI and EcNo. Here is the solution.

RSSI is Rx level before descrembling. Its just RxLev of UARFCH. Discuss Your Optimization Problem at Our Forum CPICH_RSCP is Rx level after descrembling. CPICH_Ec/No is result of filtering after dechanalization. In dBm is: RSCP=RSSI+EcNo

Power control In WCDMA


Open Loop Inner Loop Outer Loop Open Loop Power control-The Open loop power control technique requires that the transmitting entity measures the channel interference and adjusts its transmission power accordingly. This can be done quickly, but the problem is that the interference estimation is done on the received signal, and the transmitted signal probably uses a different frequency, which differs from the received frequency by the systems duplex offset. As uplink and downlink fast fading (on different frequency carriers) do not correlate, this method gives the right power values only on average. Inner Loop-In this method the received signal-to interference ratio (SIR) is measured over a 667- microsecond period (i.e., one time slot), and based on that value, a decision is made about whether to increase or decrease the transmission power in the other end of the connection. Note that the delay inherent in this closed-loop method is compensated for by making the measurements over a very short period of time. The transmit power control (TPC) bits are sent in every time slot within the uplink and the downlink.

There is not a neutral signal; all power control signals contain either an increase or decrease command. Outer Loop-The outer loop power control functions within the base station system, and adjusts the required SIR value (SIRtarget), which is then used in the inner loop control. Different channel types, which can be characterized by, for example, different coding and interleaving methods, constitute a channels parameters. Different channel parameters may require different SIRtarget values. The final result of the transmission process can only be known after the decoding process, and the resulting quality parameter is then used to adjust the required SIR value. If the used SIR value still gives a low quality bit stream,

then the outer loop power control must increase the SIRtarget value. This change in the outer loop will trigger the inner loop power control to increase the mobile station transmission power accordingly.

What are the Eb/No targets in your design?


The Eb/No targets are dependent on the service: On the uplink, typically CS is 5 to 6dB and PS is 3 to 4dB PS is about 2dB lower. On the downlink, typically CS has 6 to 7dB and PS is 5 to 6dB PS is about 1dB lower.

How is Initial RACH Power is calculated?


The initial power on the PRACH - the power of the first preamble - is determined according to equation

P_PRACH = L_PCPICH + RTWP + constantValueCprach

Where L_PCPICH is the path loss estimated by UE since it knows transmit & receive CPICH power RTWP is received Total Wideband Power(uplink interference) measured by RBS . constantValueCprach is used by the UE to calculate the initial power on the PRACH . This parameter is configurable and decides at which level below RTWP preamble ramping will start.

How much power usually a NodeB is allocated to control channels?


The power allocated to control channels may depend on equipment vendor recommendation. Typically no more than 20% of the total NodeB power is allocated to control channels, including CPICH. However, if HSDPA is deployed on the same carrier then the total power allocated to control channel

may go up to 25 to 30% because of the additional HSDPA control channels required.

What are Events that can trigger the HSDPA Cell Change?
Event 1d HS Change of Best Cell in the Active Set Event 1b or Event 1c Removal of the Best Cell from the Active Set

How does UE camp (synchronize) to a NodeB?


1. UE uses the primary synchronization channel (P-SCH) for slot alignment (TS synchronization). 2. After aligning to NodeB time slot, UE then uses secondary synchronization channel (SSCH) to obtain frame synchronization and scrambling code group identification. 3. UE then uses scrambling code ID to obtain CPICH, thus camping to a NodeB.

How many slots are there in a WCDMA Frame? How big is a frame in ms. how many chips are there in a slot?
WCDMA Frame is 15 slots wide. It is 10ms in length. There are 2560 chips in one slot. Chip rate is 3840 Kc/s Length of frame = 10 ms Number of chips in a frame = 3840 *10=38400 chips. Number of chips in a slot = 38400/15= 2560 chips

Congestion Indicators for EUL


Congestion Indicators for EUL Iub overload problems are solved by flow control for Enhanced Uplink highspeed data services. For EUL increased delay is measured internally and thedata flow from RBS in UL is throttled according to measurements recorded,therefore there is no congestion as such but rather the transmission rate of thedata is slowed down in the uplink direction when potential overload is detected.There are counters which can be used to monitor when the Iub tends towardscongestion for EUL services. When that happens it should be considered toexpand the Iub capacity for EUL services.

How many time Inner Loop Power Control happens and what type of fading it compensates?
How many time Inner Loop Power Control happens and what type of fading it compensates? Ans:1500Hz and compensates Fast Fading.

How much is your HSDPA (max) link power?


HSDPA link power is typically 4 to 5dB below the maximum NodeB maximum output power. For example, for 43dBm maximum NodeB power the HSDPA link power is 39dBm.

How Power Control is implemented in HSDPA?


Initial Power is set in the same way as open Loop Power control of DCH & there is no further power control on HSDPA Shared Channel HS-DSCH. The Channel Rate is controlled by adaptive modulation & coding formats. The principles and functionality of the power control for the HSDPA associated dedicated channels are the same as for the DPCH power control. HS-DPCCH power is an offset relative to DPCCH depending upon whether the UE is in soft handoff or not. The Power for HS-SCCH is fixed.

What is channelization code?


Channelization codes are orthogonal codes used to spread the signal and hence provides channel separation, that is, channelization codes are used to separate channels from a cell.

What's the difference between "dB", "dBm", and "dBi"


I keep seeing people using the terms "dB", "dBm", and "dBi" interchangeably, when they actually mean very different things. So, here's a little background on the correct usage of the terms. Sorry if this is covered in the FAQs and links, but from the posts here, I don't think people have read them thoroughly. A dB is a RELATIVE measure of two different POWER levels. There's also dB relative to VOLTAGE levels, but I won't go into those, as we're mostly concerned with POWER levels in our discussions here. 3dB is twice (or half) as much, 6dB is four times, 10dB is ten times, and so on. The formula for calculating gain or loss in dB is: 10log P1/P2. It's used for stating the gain or loss of one device (P1) IN RELATION to another (P2). Thus, I can say that an amplifier has 30 dB of gain, or I have 6dB total feedline loss. I CANNOT say, M y amp

puts out 30 dB, or I have a 24dB antenna, as you must state what you're referencing it to, which is where the subscript comes in. The dB by itself is not an absolute number, but a ratio. For amplifiers, a common reference unit is the dBm, with 0dBm being equal to 1 milliwatt. Thus, an amp with an output of 30dBm puts out 1 Watt. How much gain it has is a different matter entirely, and you can have two different amps, each with an output of 30dBm (1Watt), that have different gains, and require different levels of drive power to achieve their outputs. You can also have two different amps with the same gain that have different output powers. There's also dBW (Referenced to 1 WATT), but you generally only use those when dealing with Big Stuff, as 30dBW is 1000w, and way beyond what we deal with here! For antennas, a common reference unit is the dBi, which states the gain of an antenna as referenced to an ISOTROPIC source. An Isotropic source is the perfect omnidirectional radiator, a true Point Source, and does not exist in nature. It's useful for comparing antennas, as since its theoretical, its always the same. It's also 2.41 dB BIGGER than the next common unit of antenna gain, the dBd, and makes your antennas sound better in advertising. The dBd is the amount of gain an antenna has referenced to a DIPOLE antenna. A simple dipole antenna has a gain of 2.41dBi, and a gain of 0dBd, since we're comparing it to itself. If I say I have a 24dB antenna, it means nothing, as I haven't told you what I referenced it to. It could be a 26.41dBi antenna (24dBd), or a 21.59dBi (also 24dBd!) antenna, depending on what my original reference was. The difference is 4.81dB, a significant amount. Most antenna manufacturers have gotten away from playing this game, but the reference will be different in different fields. Commercial antennas tend to be rated in dBi, as the people buying them understand it, and Amateur Radio antennas tend to be dBd, as Hams are very familiar with dipoles. Sorry to go on for so long, but as an Engineer, it bugs me a bit to see things like this!

Pilot Channel failure - High Downlink Interference


Symptoms:
From the drive test, following symptoms will be observed by using TEMS: Received Ec/No of the pilot channel is less than 16dB and Received RSCP of the pilot channel is high enough to maintain the connection,e.g. > - 100dBm and DL RSSI is very high and The connection finally drops.

Reason 1 no dominant cell Solution:The most direct and effective way to solve this problem is to increase the pilot channel power Primary CPICH power of the desired cell. Reason 2 dominant interferer Solution:The simplest solution to overcome this problem is to include the overshooting cell into the neighboring cell list. This means the interferer now becomes a useful radio link. Reason 3 low best serving PPilot/PTot Solution:The received Ec/No of the best serving pilot channel is very low (near or less than 16dB) even though there is no other cell. It means the pilot power setting is not large enough to fulfill existing downlink load. Solution 1 The best solution is to add a new site with good coverage control at the problematic area. Solution 2 The direct but ineffective solution is to increase the pilot channel power Primary CPICH power of the problematic cell. With high pilot power, the common channel powers and the required power for the downlink DPCHs will be increased. At the end, the ratio of the PPilot/PTot does not increase much.

DBi DBd
dBi refers to the decibel gain in relation to an "Isotropic Radiator." That is a theoretical antenna which radiates energy equally in all directions (as a perfect sphere.) dBd refers to decibel gain in relation to a dipole antenna. That antenna has a dBi gain of 2.15. So, an antenna that has a 4 dBd gain would be a 6.15 dBi gain antenna.
EIRP

Effective Isotropic Radiated Power is actual power transmitted in the main lobe after taking in account all cable losses and antenna gain. Based on a theoretical isotropic antenna. So if an antenna is specified as having a gain of 15dBd that = 17.15dBi. For exposure calculations we use dBis.
EIRP or ERP

Another abbreviation we come across when dealing with antennas is EIRP or ERP. EIRP/ERP = the power fed to the antenna in watts multiplied by the numeric gain of the antenna. It is normally expressed in watts. EIRP is effective isotropic radiated power, ERP is effective radiated power. By convention EIRP is calculated using dBis and ERP using dBds.
Antenna performance

Antenna performance is measured in dBi (the antennas gain/loss over a theoretical isotropic antenna) dBd (the antennas gain/loss over a dipole antenna)

dBi = dBd + 2.15 dBd = dBi 2.15


Gain or Loss

When referring to: Gain or Loss its dB. Power its dBm or dBW. Voltage its dBV or dBV. Antennas its dbi or dBd
Conversion

To convert from dBm to dBW subtract 30 e.g. 40dBm = 10dBW.


Antenna Gain

When antenna gain is referred to in dBs, it can be dBi or dBd. Whether i or d is used depends on what the antenna is referenced to. If its i then the ratio is against a theoretical Isotropic radiator. A point source that radiates equally in all directions, it cannot be manufactured. If its d then the ratio is against a half wave dipole. The difference between the two is that a dipole has a gain over the theoretical Isotropic radiator of 2.15 dBs. I.e. a numeric gain of 1.64.
Types of antenna

There are 3 types of antennas used with mobile wireless, omnidirectional, dish and panel antennas. Omnidirectional radiate equally in all directions Dishes are very directional Panels are not as directional as Dishes.

What is Pilot Pollution?


Simply speaking, when the number of strong cells exceeds the active set size, there is pilot pollution in the area. Typically the active set size is 3, so if there are more than 3 strong cells then there is pilot pollution.

Definition of strong cell: pilots within the handover window size from the strongest cell. Typical handover window size is between 4 to 6dB. For example, if there are more than 2 cells (besides the strongest cell) within 4dB of the strongest cell then there is pilot pollution.

What are the possible causes for a Drop Call on a UMTS network?
There are several reasons for RAB Drop in WCDMA network. Poor Coverage (DL / UL) Pilot Pollution / Pilot Spillover

Missing Neighbor SC Collisions Delayed Handovers No resource availability (Congestion) for Hand in Loss of Synchronization Fast Fading Delayed IRAT Triggers Hardware Issues External Interference

How to calculate maximum number of users on a cell?


To calculate the maximum number of users (M) on a cell, we need to know: W: chip rate (for UMTS 3,840,000 chips per second) EbNo: Eb/No requirement (assuming 3dB for CS-12.2k) i: other-cell to in-cell interference ratio (assuming 60%) R: user data rate (assuming 12,200 kbps for CS-12.2k) : loading factor (assuming 50%) Take 12.2kbps as example: M = W / (EnNo * (1 + i) * R) * = 3,840,000 (3 * (1 + 0.6) * 12,200) * 0.5 = 32.8 The number of users could also be hard-limited by OVSF code space. Take CS12.2k for example: A CS-12.2k bearer needs 1 SF128 code. Total available codes for CS-12.2k = 128 2 (1 SF64) 2 (4 SF256) = 124. Consider soft-handover factor of 1.8 and loading factor of 50%: 124 / 1.8 *.05 = 34 uers/cell.

What are the possible causes for an IRAT Failure?


There are several reasons for IRAT failure in cellular network optimization. Major 4 reasons which played good role in WCDMA Optimization. Missing 2G relations Non availability of 2G Resources Poor 2G Coverage Missing 3G Relations
Sample questions are here. What is processing Gain? Processing gain is the ratio of chip rate over data bit rate, usually represented in decibel (dB) scale. For example, with 3.84MHz chip rate and 12.2k data rate, the processing gain is: PG12.2k = 10 * log (3,840,000 / 12,200) = 25dB How to Calculate Max Numbers of Users in Cell? To calculate the maximum number of users (M) on a cell, we need to know: W: chip rate (for UMTS 3,840,000 chips per second) EbNo: Eb/No requirement (assuming 3dB for CS-12.2k) i: other-cell to in-cell interference ratio (assuming 60%) R: user data rate (assuming 12,200 kbps for CS-12.2k) : loading factor (assuming 50%) Take 12.2kbps as example: M = W / (EnNo * (1 + i) * R) * = 3,840,000 (3 * (1 + 0.6) * 12,200) * 0.5 = 32.8 The number of users could also be hard-limited by OVSF code space. Take CS12.2k for example: A CS-12.2k bearer needs 1 SF128 code. Total available codes for CS-12.2k = 128 2 (1 SF64) 2 (4 SF256) = 124. Consider soft-handover factor of 1.8 and loading factor of 50%: 124 / 1.8 *.05 = 34 uers/cell.

What are the conditions you typically set to trigger IRAT handover?
RSCP and Ec/Io are used to trigger IRAT handover: 1. RSCP -100dBm.

2.

Ec/Io -16dBm.