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# Physics Formulae & Equations

## (Compiled specially for CSEC students)

1 | P a g e r e t h i n k p h y s i c s . b l o g s p o t . c o m

Formulae/Equations

Symbols & Units
Density, p =
m
:

Relative Density,
p

=
p
substuncc
p
wutc
,
p = density, kgm
-3
p

## = relative density, [dimensionless]

m = mass, kg
: = volume, m
3

Moment or Torque is the
rotational or turning effect that a
force produces. I =FJ
I = moment/ torque, Nm
Notethat Moment or TorqueisN OT Energyand
cannot beused with theJoule(J).
F = force, N
J = distance (perpendicular fr. pivot to F), m

Hookes Law states that Force is
proportional to the extension of
spring or elastic material
provided the elastic limit is not
exceeded. F x

F = force, kgms
-2
N
s or x = displacement/ extension, m

Newtonian Laws:
1
st
Law - TheLawof Inertia
2
nd
Law - F o
F =
m(: u)
t

F =mo
3
rd
Law - Action = Reaction

o:c.: =
u +:
2

J =
u +:
2
t
: =u +ot
s =ut +
1
2
ot
2

F = force, kgms
-2
N
m = mass, kg
o = acceleration, ms
-2
: = (final) velocity, ms
-1
u = (initial) velocity, ms
-1
t = time, s
J = distance, m
s or x = displacement, m

Linear Momentum, p =m:
Conservation of Momentum,
p
totuI
before = p
totuI
after

Collision of A and B,
m
A
u
A
+m
B
u
B
=(m
A
+m
B
):

Repulsion of A and B,
m
A
:
A
=m
B
:
B

Impulse, I =Ft
p = momentum, kgms
-1
Notethat kgms
-1
kgms
-2

m = mass, kg
m
A
= mass of A, kg
m
B
= mass of B, kg
: = (final) velocity, ms
-1
u
A
= pre-collision velocity of A, ms
-1
u
B
= pre-collision velocity of B, ms
-1
:
A
= post-collision velocity of A, ms
-1
:
B
= post-collision velocity of B, ms
-1
F = force, kgms
-2
N
I = impulse, Ns kgms
-1

t = time, s

Physics Formulae & Equations
(Compiled specially for CSEC students)

2 | P a g e r e t h i n k p h y s i c s . b l o g s p o t . c o m

Formulae/Equations

Symbols & Units
Energy
Work, w =Fs

KineticEnergy, E
k
=
1
2
m:
2

(Gravitational) Potential Energy,
E
p
=mg

Power, P =
E
t
,

w = work, Nm J
F = force (in the dir. of motion), kgms
-2
N
s = displacement, m
E
k
= kinetic energy, J
E
p
= (gravitational) potential energy, J
m = mass, kg
: = velocity, ms
-1
g = gravitational field strength, ms
-2
= height, m
t = time, s

Efficiency
p =
E
out
E
n
, 100
p = [dimensionless] (can be expressed as solely
as a number or a percentage when that number
is multiplied by 100).
E
out
= energy output, J
E
n
= energy input, J

Pressure
P =
F
A
,
P =pg (in fluids)

P = pressure, Nm
-2
Pa
A = area, m
2

p = density, kgm
-3

g = acceleration of free fall, ms
-2
= change in height, m

Archimedes Principle
Upthrust (U)= TrueWeight of Body
(W1) Apparent Weight of Body
(W2)

Upthrust (U)= Apparent Weight
Lossof Body(W)

Upthrust (U)= Weight of Fluid
displaced byBody(W)

U = upthrust, N
W = weight, N

Gas Laws
BoylesLaw, PI =k
1

Charles Law,
I
I
, =k
2

PressureLaw,
P
I
, =k
3

General GasLawor CombinedGas
Equation,
PI
I
, =constont

P = pressure, Nm
-2
Pa
I = volume, m
3
I = temperature, K
k
1
,k
2
,k
3
= constants

Physics Formulae & Equations
(Compiled specially for CSEC students)

3 | P a g e r e t h i n k p h y s i c s . b l o g s p o t . c o m

Formulae/Equations

Symbols & Units
Heat Capacity, C =mc

Heat Energy,
E
H
=mc0
E
H
=ml
]

E
H
=ml

C = heat capacity, JK
-1
c = specific heat capacity, Jkg
-1
K
-1
E
H
or = heat/ thermal energy, J
0 (delta theta)= change in temperature, K
l
]
= specific latent heat of fusion, Jkg
-1
l

## = specific latent heat of vapourization, Jkg

-1

Wave Formulae
: =
J
t
,
: =z
=
1
I
, , I =
1

,

Reflection, 0

=0

Refraction, (SnellsLaw)

sIn 0
1
sIn 0
2
=

2
=
x
1
x
2
=n

Critical Angle is the angle of
incidence of a wave when the
angle of refraction is 90,
sin0
c
=
n
1
n
2

LensMagnification
=
imogc sizc
ob]cct sizc
=
imogc Jistoncc (:)
ob]cct Jistoncc (u)

: = velocity, ms
-1
:
1
= velocity of incident wave, ms
-1

:
2
= velocity of refracted wave, ms
-1

t = time, s
I = period, s
= frequency, s
-1
Hz
J = distance, m
z = wavelength, m
z
1
= wavelength of incident wave, m
z
2
= wavelength of refracted wave, m
0

## = angle of incident wave,

0

= angle of reflection,
0
1
= angle of incidence,
0
2
= angle of refraction,
0
c
= critical angle,
n = refractive index, [dimensionless]
n
1
= refractive index of first medium,
[dimensionless]
n
2
= refractive index of second medium,
[dimensionless]

Electricity
I =IR
P =II
P =
E
t
,
=It

R =
I
I
,
P =I
2
R
E =Pt
I =
E

,

I = voltage/ potential difference/
electromotive force (e.m.f.), V
I = current, A
R = resistance, (Ohm)
P = power, Js
-1
W
E = energy, J
t = time, s
Q = quantity of charge, As C

In Series:
R
totuI
=R
1
+R
2
+R
3
+...

In Parallel:
1
R
totuI
=
1
R
1
+
1
R
2
+
1
R
3
+

Physics Formulae & Equations
(Compiled specially for CSEC students)

4 | P a g e r e t h i n k p h y s i c s . b l o g s p o t . c o m

Formulae/Equations

Symbols & Units
Ideal Transformer
P
n=
P
out

I
s
I
p
=
N
s
N
p
=
I
p
I
s

P
n
= power input, W
P
out
= power output, W
I
s
= voltage (secondary coil), V
I
p
= voltage (primary coil), V
N
s
= number of turns (secondary coil), no
units
N
p
= number of turns (primary coil), no units
I
p
= current (primary coil), A
I
s
= current (secondary coil), A

Atomic Physics
ParticleRelationship, A =Z +N
AtomicRepresentation, X
z
A

Alpha Particle, o
Beta Particle,[
Gamma Emission, y
Half Life, I
1 2
- time taken for
half of the atoms in a radiating
substance to decay.
EinsteinsEquation describing
nuclear fusion and fission.
E =mc
2

A = nucleon (mass) number
Z = proton (atomic) number
N = neutron number
X = representing atom
o = Ec
2
4
(HeliumParticle)
[ = c
-1
0
(Electron)