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All basic O'level formulae

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1 | P a g e r e t h i n k p h y s i c s . b l o g s p o t . c o m

Formulae/Equations

Symbols & Units

Density, p =

m

:

Relative Density,

p

=

p

substuncc

p

wutc

,

p = density, kgm

-3

p

m = mass, kg

: = volume, m

3

Moment or Torque is the

rotational or turning effect that a

force produces. I =FJ

I = moment/ torque, Nm

Notethat Moment or TorqueisN OT Energyand

cannot beused with theJoule(J).

F = force, N

J = distance (perpendicular fr. pivot to F), m

Hookes Law states that Force is

proportional to the extension of

spring or elastic material

provided the elastic limit is not

exceeded. F x

F = force, kgms

-2

N

s or x = displacement/ extension, m

Newtonian Laws:

1

st

Law - TheLawof Inertia

2

nd

Law - F o

F =

m(: u)

t

F =mo

3

rd

Law - Action = Reaction

o:c.: =

u +:

2

J =

u +:

2

t

: =u +ot

s =ut +

1

2

ot

2

F = force, kgms

-2

N

m = mass, kg

o = acceleration, ms

-2

: = (final) velocity, ms

-1

u = (initial) velocity, ms

-1

t = time, s

J = distance, m

s or x = displacement, m

Linear Momentum, p =m:

Conservation of Momentum,

p

totuI

before = p

totuI

after

Collision of A and B,

m

A

u

A

+m

B

u

B

=(m

A

+m

B

):

Repulsion of A and B,

m

A

:

A

=m

B

:

B

Impulse, I =Ft

p = momentum, kgms

-1

Notethat kgms

-1

kgms

-2

m = mass, kg

m

A

= mass of A, kg

m

B

= mass of B, kg

: = (final) velocity, ms

-1

u

A

= pre-collision velocity of A, ms

-1

u

B

= pre-collision velocity of B, ms

-1

:

A

= post-collision velocity of A, ms

-1

:

B

= post-collision velocity of B, ms

-1

F = force, kgms

-2

N

I = impulse, Ns kgms

-1

t = time, s

Physics Formulae & Equations

(Compiled specially for CSEC students)

2 | P a g e r e t h i n k p h y s i c s . b l o g s p o t . c o m

Formulae/Equations

Symbols & Units

Energy

Work, w =Fs

KineticEnergy, E

k

=

1

2

m:

2

(Gravitational) Potential Energy,

E

p

=mg

Power, P =

E

t

,

w = work, Nm J

F = force (in the dir. of motion), kgms

-2

N

s = displacement, m

E

k

= kinetic energy, J

E

p

= (gravitational) potential energy, J

m = mass, kg

: = velocity, ms

-1

g = gravitational field strength, ms

-2

= height, m

t = time, s

Efficiency

p =

E

out

E

n

, 100

p = [dimensionless] (can be expressed as solely

as a number or a percentage when that number

is multiplied by 100).

E

out

= energy output, J

E

n

= energy input, J

Pressure

P =

F

A

,

P =pg (in fluids)

P = pressure, Nm

-2

Pa

A = area, m

2

p = density, kgm

-3

g = acceleration of free fall, ms

-2

= change in height, m

Archimedes Principle

Upthrust (U)= TrueWeight of Body

(W1) Apparent Weight of Body

(W2)

Upthrust (U)= Apparent Weight

Lossof Body(W)

Upthrust (U)= Weight of Fluid

displaced byBody(W)

U = upthrust, N

W = weight, N

Gas Laws

BoylesLaw, PI =k

1

Charles Law,

I

I

, =k

2

PressureLaw,

P

I

, =k

3

General GasLawor CombinedGas

Equation,

PI

I

, =constont

P = pressure, Nm

-2

Pa

I = volume, m

3

I = temperature, K

k

1

,k

2

,k

3

= constants

Physics Formulae & Equations

(Compiled specially for CSEC students)

3 | P a g e r e t h i n k p h y s i c s . b l o g s p o t . c o m

Formulae/Equations

Symbols & Units

Heat Capacity, C =mc

Heat Energy,

E

H

=mc0

E

H

=ml

]

E

H

=ml

C = heat capacity, JK

-1

c = specific heat capacity, Jkg

-1

K

-1

E

H

or = heat/ thermal energy, J

0 (delta theta)= change in temperature, K

l

]

= specific latent heat of fusion, Jkg

-1

l

-1

Wave Formulae

: =

J

t

,

: =z

=

1

I

, , I =

1

,

Reflection, 0

=0

Refraction, (SnellsLaw)

sIn 0

1

sIn 0

2

=

2

=

x

1

x

2

=n

Critical Angle is the angle of

incidence of a wave when the

angle of refraction is 90,

sin0

c

=

n

1

n

2

LensMagnification

=

imogc sizc

ob]cct sizc

=

imogc Jistoncc (:)

ob]cct Jistoncc (u)

: = velocity, ms

-1

:

1

= velocity of incident wave, ms

-1

:

2

= velocity of refracted wave, ms

-1

t = time, s

I = period, s

= frequency, s

-1

Hz

J = distance, m

z = wavelength, m

z

1

= wavelength of incident wave, m

z

2

= wavelength of refracted wave, m

0

0

= angle of reflection,

0

1

= angle of incidence,

0

2

= angle of refraction,

0

c

= critical angle,

n = refractive index, [dimensionless]

n

1

= refractive index of first medium,

[dimensionless]

n

2

= refractive index of second medium,

[dimensionless]

Electricity

I =IR

P =II

P =

E

t

,

=It

R =

I

I

,

P =I

2

R

E =Pt

I =

E

,

I = voltage/ potential difference/

electromotive force (e.m.f.), V

I = current, A

R = resistance, (Ohm)

P = power, Js

-1

W

E = energy, J

t = time, s

Q = quantity of charge, As C

In Series:

R

totuI

=R

1

+R

2

+R

3

+...

In Parallel:

1

R

totuI

=

1

R

1

+

1

R

2

+

1

R

3

+

Physics Formulae & Equations

(Compiled specially for CSEC students)

4 | P a g e r e t h i n k p h y s i c s . b l o g s p o t . c o m

Formulae/Equations

Symbols & Units

Ideal Transformer

P

n=

P

out

I

s

I

p

=

N

s

N

p

=

I

p

I

s

P

n

= power input, W

P

out

= power output, W

I

s

= voltage (secondary coil), V

I

p

= voltage (primary coil), V

N

s

= number of turns (secondary coil), no

units

N

p

= number of turns (primary coil), no units

I

p

= current (primary coil), A

I

s

= current (secondary coil), A

Atomic Physics

ParticleRelationship, A =Z +N

AtomicRepresentation, X

z

A

Alpha Particle, o

Beta Particle,[

Gamma Emission, y

Half Life, I

1 2

- time taken for

half of the atoms in a radiating

substance to decay.

EinsteinsEquation describing

nuclear fusion and fission.

E =mc

2

A = nucleon (mass) number

Z = proton (atomic) number

N = neutron number

X = representing atom

o = Ec

2

4

(HeliumParticle)

[ = c

-1

0

(Electron)

y = Gamma Radiation

E = Energy, J

m = mass, kg

c = speed of electromagneticwaves(incl. light)

Abbreviations:

fr. from

dir. direction

incl. including

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