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QUALITATIVE & QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

Editor: Stephen Murray

OVERALL FRAMEWORK
RESEARCH DATA

SECONDARY DATA

PRIMARY DATA

QUALITATIVE DATA

QUANTITATIVE DATA

EXPLORATION

DESCRIPTION

CAUSE AND EFFECT

KEEP IN MIND THAT …
• Qualitative research generally deals in words, images and the subjective • Quantitative research generally deals in numbers, logic and the objective

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Agenda Definition  When to use? Types FOCUS GROUPS IN DEPTH INTERVIEW PROJECTIVE TECH. • Research used in range of activities from exploratory designs to means of completing explanations • Qualitative research assumes that people have meaningful actions or experiences that can be interpreted Pros&Cons .

HOW” *RICHNESS OF DATA *BEST TO START WITH. ...QUALITATIVE RESEARCH POPULARITY COMES FROM: *ECONOMICAL *FLEXIBLE *OPENS A DOOR TO “WHY.

opportunity or information requirements • Interest in obtaining insights for motivational /social (group) or emotional and attitudinal (individual) factors • In IR: primary data of events or personalities supporting explanations and argument • (Cf. new service development or repositioning current product .QUALITATIVE RESEARCH • Identification of a given question. In marketing: for new product launch.

informal atmosphere • 1-3 hour duration Goal: • Learn and understand what people say and why? Pros&Cons . Characteristics: • 6-12 people • Lead by a trained moderator • in-depth discussion on 1 particular topic or concept • Relaxed.QUALITATIVE RESEARCH FOCUS GROUPS Agenda Definition  When to use? Types FOCUS GROUPS IN DEPTH INTERVIEW PROJECTIVE TECH.

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH FOCUS GROUPS PLANNING THE FOCUS GROUP STUDY CONDUCTING FOCUS GROUP STUDY ANALYSIS AND REPORTING THE RESULTS .

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH FOCUS GROUPS ADVANTAGES Synergy DISADVANTAGES Representativeness Spontaneity Speed Security Misjudgement Flexibility Inexpensive Lack of analysis Moderator Subjectivity  .

institution or community) . current status and/or environmental factors that interact for each group (individual. Mexico Qualitative Research Types: • Case studies • Developmental research • Historical research • Ethnograph studies • • • Case Studies: Purpose: to do an in depth study In brief: Background.QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGN Qualitative Research: • Examples • Case studies on effect of vocational training in Papua • Ethnographic studies on indigenous populations in Oaxaca.

• • • • • • • • • • Characteristics of Case Studies: It gives very detailed information about individuals / group / community It may give a detailed explanation of a complete life cycle or part of it Number of cases studied may be small but the number of variables studied are usually more in-depth (e.g. checking on current situation. development and/or previous educational experience Process may involve studying previous situation. if compared to a survey) Developmental Research: Conducted to research on the development of individuals / group / institution / community TWO TYPES: Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Historical Research: Used to gain information on an event. and to predict if the same situation will occur again Conclusion on previous event is done based on collected facts and evidences to answer why and how the event and repercussions occurred Useful to solve questions that involve sensitive issues Important for systematically & objectively collecting and defining facts and evidences • • • .

records etc. paintings. news reports.) Secondary source (materials or information collected from primary sources – e. speech text. and the researcher explores and test his hypothesis . signatures.• • • • • • • Procedure for Historical Research: Define the problem Specify source of evidence Collect evidence / reference materials Primary source / original (observation or witnesses of events or authentic objects – e. immigrant children) Involves widespread observations (participant & nonparticipant) • Here often starts research without hypothesis – hypothesis is developed in the process of observations. films. chemical analysis etc.. artifacts.) Internal critique: conducted after authenticity of source of information is confirmed – involves evaluation of collected evidences– is it important? Required? • • • • • Able to explain the researched phenomenon? Prepare the report Ethnographic Research: In-depth study of natural behaviours in a culture or social group Purpose – to understand relationships between behaviour and culture – Example: In education – to understand schooling process (e.g.g.g. documents Critique of evidences – – External critique: confirming if collected sources are genuine and reliable (authenticity of paintings.

attitudinal and behavioral data from the subject Pros&Cons . • A well trained interviewer+interviewee • Interviewee is exposed to set of probing questions • Usually face to face • Interviewer encourages the interviewee to talk more Goal: • To collect as much as memory.QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN-DEPTH INTERVIEW Characteristics: Agenda Definition  When to use? Types FOCUS GROUPS IN DEPTH INTERVIEW PROJECTIVE TECH.

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN-DEPTH INTERVIEW Applications: -Interviews with professionals -Interviews with witnesses -When detailed probing is needed -Discussion of sensitive. confidential issues -When strong. social norms exist -Interviews with competitors .

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN-DEPTH INTERVIEW ADVANTAGES Concentrated DISADVANTAGES Expensive issue maximum probing Free exchange of information Easier to arrange Best for intimate. sensitive issues Flexibility Time consuming Exhausting for Interviewer Interviewer errors Respondent bias or reliability .

beliefs.org/wiki/Qualitative_marketing_research .QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUE Definition:* Agenda Definition  When to use? Types FOCUS GROUPS IN DEPTH INTERVIEW PROJECTIVE TECH. • These are unstructured prompts or stimulus that encourage the respondent to project their underlying motivations. or feelings onto an ambiguous situation • They are all indirect techniques that attempt to disguise the purpose of the research Pros&Cons *Source: http://en.wikipedia. attitudes.

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES Projective Techniques Word Association Sentence Completion Tests Cartoon Tests Role Playing Third-Person Techniques Picture Interpretation /Story Telling .

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES Types: 1. . Word Association Customers are required to show response to the concept they are told within 2-3 sec.

com/images/uploaded/NikeBAM.nielsenbuzzmetrics.QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES *Source: http://www.gif .

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECH. 2. usually when . Sentence Completion Customers are required to complete sentences or stories in their own words • • • • People who are concerned about ecology … When I think of a city … I drink a Coca-Cola. Starbucks reminds me of… .

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECH. Cartoon Tests . 3.

• Hth • Hntfyf • hngfhn WALMART Let’s see if we can pick up some house wares at Walmart .PROJECTIVE TECH.QUALITATIVE MARKETING .

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECH. 4. Role Playing • Respondents are asked to assume the behavior of someone else • Useful for emphatic approaches for conflict resolution Sales Supervisors are asked to become Sales Represantatives. . and vice versa.

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECH. Third Person Way of learning respondents feelings or opinions by asking them to answer for a third party : “your neighbour” “most people” “typical person” . 5.

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECH.Picture Interpretation A technique whereby respondents are shown a picture and are asked to tell a story describing it . 6.

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECH. ADVANTAGES Elicit DISADVANTAGES Participation responses that subjects would be unwilling to give Underlying Motivations. Beliefs. Attitudes of the respondents Skills are required to analyse the responses Expensive .

Probing of individual Low respondents 3. Involve unusual No behavior or questioning 9. Uncovering Low subconscious information 6.QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Criteria 1. Discovering innovative High information 7. Degree of Structure Relatively high 2. Moderator bias Relatively medium 4. Obtaining sensitive Low information 8. Interpretation bias Relatively low 5. Overall usefulness Highly useful Focus Groups Depth Interviews Projective Techniques Relatively medium Relatively low High Medium Relatively high Low to high Relatively medium Relatively high Medium to high High Medium Medium Low High To a limited extent Useful Yes Somewhat useful .

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH SURVEY SURVEY METHOD: • STRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIRE • GIVEN TO A SAMPLE OF A POPULATION • DESIGNED TO GAIN SPECIFIC INFORMATION .

SURVEY Survey Methods Telephone Personal Mail Electronic In-Home By appointment Random Personal Interviewing E-mail Internet Traditional Telephone Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing Mail Interview Mail Panel .QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH .

EXPERIMENTATION EXPERIMENTATION METHOD: • Scientific investigation in which • an investigator manipulates and controls one or more independent variables and • observes the dependent variable for variation concomitant to the manipulation of the independent variables.* .QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH .

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH ADVANTAGES Specific DISADVANTAGES Limited research problem Clear independent and dependent variable High level of reliability Minimum personal judgement outcomes due to structured method Unability to control the environment Expensive(large number of respondents) .

unstructured.COMPARISON OF QUALITATIVE-QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH CHARACTERISTICS Research Objectives Type Of Research Type Of Questions QUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVE Discovery of new Validation of ideas.semiMostly structured structured. and feelings relationships Usually Descriptive and exploratory causal Openended.estimates. probing .insights facts.

COMPARISON OF QUALITATIVE-QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH contd.CB. DSS. Descriptive. MR. CHARACTERISTICS Time Of Execution Sample Size Type Of Analyses Researcher Skills QUALITATIVE Short Time Frames Small Subjective. Sociology.causal Statistics. Interpretitive Psychology. Decision Models Representativeness Limited Good . Social Psychology QUANTITATIVE Usually long time frames Large Statistical.

feelings or behaviour • Focus Groups • In depth Interviews • Projective Techniques .SUMMARY • Qualitative methods focus on generating exploratory initial/progressive insights into questions and problems • Depth probing of hidden attitudes.

Descriptive (Surveys) Causal (Experimentation) . whereby response options are pre-determined • Usually to be administered to significantly large numbers of people.SUMMARY • Quantitative Research is interested in using formalised. standard structured questioning.

jpg .OVERALL FRAMEWORK Source: http://www.com/RoadMapt400c.informedbusinessdecisions.