This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Book One O
On t maki of all the ing l-wood workben w nches wit vices, th and foot power wood turnin lathes red ng s
By Je Robin esse nson
C Copyright ○ 2007 by J. M. Robinson
Published by Lulu Press
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, mechanical or electrical, including photocopying, recording, or any other data storage and retrieval system, without the express written permission of the author.
The author who wrote this book has tried to make all of the information herein as correct and as accurate as possible. However, due to the variability of materials, local conditions, and personal skills, etc., neither the author nor the publisher assumes any responsibility for any injuries suffered or for damages or losses incurred that may result from the printed material in this book. All plans and instructions should be carefully studied and clearly understood before beginning any of the projects herein. All safety precautions should be taken, and any directions or safety regulations that should be regarded concerning any tools used, electrical and non-electrical, should be learned, understood, and complied with, without exception. Never disregard any safety procedures when it comes to using any tool, be they power tools, or hand-held blades.
This book is lovingly dedicated to my family. To my son, Seth. To my daughter, Sakura. To my beautiful wife, Yumi. To my mother, grandmother, and all the rest of my family in America, and to ojii-chan and obaa-chan (grandfather and grandmother), and all the rest of my wife’s family in Japan.
And a special hello to Father Frank Toste, from among all those involved, in help or in friendship, with the T.V. series, “M*A*S*H”, who might remember me by my Native American name, Falls Down Laughing… he is a brilliant conversationalist, a kind and witty gentleman, screen actor, and master mixer of the Manhattan, with whom I had the pleasure of sharing a plane ride between Detroit, Michigan and Portland, Maine on my way back from Japan last year. He might not remember, but his words of encouragement – though, I’m sure he didn’t realize it at the time - are among the things that led me to write this book. Thanks, Father Frank… I enjoyed our conversations very much!! ^_^
Introduction; the purpose of this book……………. 1 All-wood joinery…………………..... 4 Chapter 1 – Getting started………………………. 7 On the subject of safety……………... 7 Vice layout and construction……….. 52 Well honed blades…………………… 8 The completed workbench………….. 56 A mild rant on protective eyewear…………………... 8 Tools…………………………………. 11 The reciprocating lathe……………... 59 Sharpening………………………….. 17 Parts and construction…………….... 60 Wood threading…………………...... 23 A little on woodturning……………... 71 Reclaimed lumber………………….. 27 Store-bought lumber……………….. 28 Measure twice, cut once…………..... 29 Checking for squareness…………… 29 Cutting the wheel……………………. 76 Chapter 2 – The anatomy of a workbench……… 31 General overview…………………… 32 Building the workbench…………..... 32 Creating the bearings……………….. 78 Wheel box construction……………... 80 Building the track…………………… 82 More powerful woodturning lathes………………….. 73 Chapter 4 – Experimental project; The prototype wheel-driven lathe……….. 75 Chapter 3 – The anatomy of basic woodturning lathes……........ 59 Constructing the leg assembly…….... 34 Making the parts for the tabletop….. 39 Dovetailing…………………………… 45 Assembling the tabletop…………….. 52
Creating the armature assembly………………...... 84 The sliding point……………….……. 87 The spindle head…………………….. 90 The drive belt……………………....... 91 Creating the tool rest………………... 92 Some modifications………………….. 94 What we have learned so far……...... 95 In the books to come………………… 96 HOMEWORK………………………. 97 Resources…………………………….. 98 Acknowledgements… The “shout out” page……………...... 99 A final word………………………… 101
Creating the Handcr C g rafted Workshop Book One W 0 .
that is. and have lots of fun with these books. if you are anything like me. right? I’m certainly not against band saws. you are also enchanted by wood’s beauty. I’m not totally against power tools… in fact. In this first book of the series however. wheel-driven machines. don’t get me wrong. But most of these kinds of 1 . can make other wonderful things. and that’s where my experience lies… I’m no writer… so I do apologize if my writing style may seem too friendly or if I seem that I’m being too familiar with you readers out there. but to do some of your own creative and improvisational thinking as well. There is absolute beauty in a crafted thing made by a pair of woodworker’s hands. Not only in the wood itself. gears and wooden bearings (that’s right. I’m just a humble woodcrafter. It is something made by hand.for many years now. To get you to not merely follow directions written down. gages. planes. I said gears and wooden bearings). is to awaken within you the budding craftsman waiting to flourish. In this series of books. I’ve been working with wood. as a primer. than to buzz away at a piece of wood with a motorized grinding tool like a bat out of… uhm. and more. and I don’t pretend to be. I’m not a professional writer. I have a few that I find quite useful at times (I’ll admit it. we will first focus on building a proper base on which to craft these wares the workbench . I hope you’ll be patient with my writing style. or maybe it is an old handmade wooden set of planes that a pattern maker might have used. making various things . Now. you love working with your hands. either.… heck? Are you anything like this? Well. I’m just an honest person. just the basics. If you’re a little more like me. screws. and reveled in the smell of the variety of woods in that classroom. That’s what I do. Nothing fancy just yet.from hand tools to musical instruments . Now. this series of books. particularly if it’s in a hand crafted item… perhaps it is an all wood toy.and a basic machine to turn some wooden parts that will be called for in the later books’ projects. like they used to make in days of old. but that the construction of it has beauty in its natural simplicity… especially if it’s a tool. drawknives. we will create many wooden hand tools and items – clamps. you just couldn’t wait for wood shop class.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One Welcome! I hope you find this series of books to be an inspiration! Are you a budding craftsman? Does the creative passion of a woodworking artist run through your veins? Are you the type of person who would more likely take the time to artfully craft a wooden object by hand. scribes. and you love working with wood… back in high school. The purpose of this book. I love my router) – but let’s face it… a bicycle pedal powered table saw for cutting heavy lumber just isn’t very practical. that with hands.
and as we move on to other things. and are also well crafted from fine wood and quite nice. not necessarily. by the way. it is the chisels. shall we? Patience… we will get there. that’s a more complicated project that’s better suited for the books ahead. gouges and other such tools in which handcrafting begins. Even drills. and so. we need to talk about the making of wooden screws. Besides… you’ll need them for the workbench vices!! But why use screws at all? Shouldn’t we just use joinery? Well sure! Now. when wielded by the hands that created them. There are many other uses for wooden screws. worry not! There’s nothing wrong with making some of these projects with metal nuts and bolts until you get the right tools for making wooden screws. you will see the tap and die sets that I use to make them. Sometimes a little “backwards engineering” is needed to get back to the old ways. The alternative? Well. But while we start from “scratch” here. They are easy to acquire. However. we will approach the construction of older tools to take the place of the new. Even my little German made hand-cranked drill I found in Japan. nuts and bolts of wood too. then you’ll need to make the screws.the making of 2 . If you want to build these projects. you will need to make some wooden screws. there may be a point at which we need to use a power tool to create a piece of a hand tool (for example. as you will see . and the hand crafting of such tools has nearly become a lost art form. the use of a drill press may be needed to bore a precisely square-to-the-work hole for another piece to fit into) – sacrilege? No. it isn’t so much for connecting two pieces of wood together. like the workbench’s vices for example. but again. using screws to bind two pieces of wood together. they allow you to put more of your soul into your work. You’ll find where to acquire them from in the resources section near the end of this book. But when I say you’ll need to make wooden screws. Now. Perhaps in the future we can even make those as well. planes.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One tools are generally the type to cut BIG pieces of lumber down to workable size. it’s perfectly alright if your tastes allow you to use metal screws and bolts in place of these in some of the projects to come – but if you’d rather have an all-wood project. and relatively inexpensive to purchase. Well made ones are truly a beauty to behold. so I do stress the importance of hand tools – they require no electricity (and thus are far less noisy). is also a kind of “joinery”. you’ll need the tap and die sets. However. But for the many projects that we will work on. as projects get done. Such things are almost as living beings. In this book. but don’t have the tools yet to make wooden screws. But let’s hone our skills at creating the more simple tools first.
They have a classic look to them. that use them. jigs and fixtures. and make machines using all-wood joinery only. for example. we will discuss different techniques of joinery where we can do away with metal screws altogether. It’s quite functional. I like to use those of brass. vice screws. functional works of art that are specially hand-created by you. The mechanism is fairly ingenious in its simplicity and a great learning project indeed – but it isn’t a museum piece of master joinery . And yes. It isn’t a shabby project at all and in fact it works quite well. after all. the reciprocating lathe. We’ll get to know many joints such as is used in timber framing. but for the larger variety. they’re also pretty darned useful for making all-wood take-down furniture. as well as other fittings. You will see that I make small use of a few in the construction of the reciprocating lathe project in this book. and to get you better acquainted with its parts before we move on to the more advanced projects. handmade wooden counterparts… fine. before acquiring any knowledge or skill experience. scribes. Some tools and materials that we will use in these beginnings. adding more to the handcrafted quality of your work. there are a small few screws used for reinforcement at certain glued points. But to ease you into it (those of you who are new to this wonderful craft). screws may be needed that are far too small to be of any practical use. will eventually be set aside and replaced by their more natural. There’s nothing wrong with that. In later books. learning on the way. often like to use metal screws and bolts at times. which is famous for never using nails or screws or even glue. we often see them. if made of wood. and in old Japanese joinery. 3 . made of brass like in rosewood scribes and various old style wooden measuring tools. and in tools both old and new. it adds more attractiveness to your work… and gives it a somewhat “old-time” beauty. as there is nothing wrong with using metal screws of any type – woodworkers have been using them for many hundreds of years. in some things. In that project. as well as gages.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One certain clamps. but I show you a simple and somewhat clever way to throw one together for immediate use. But where wooden screws can be used. I hope to make it a fun learning experience. One of my goals with these books is to ease you into the world of all-wood joinery and wood construction that uses no nails and such. in place of the wooden ones that I make. The use of brass screws and fittings often adds beauty to an expertly handcrafted tool.I show you how to build a working prototype to use. as opposed to just dumping you into it. However. I. myself. and useful. They will come into use in some of the all-wood machines we will make in books to come.
For example. we’ll make slightly more complicated vices that need no glue at all. however some handmade wooden screws are used in order to help give it a good. The entirety of the whole project however. I also try not to spell every last thing out for you. Truly and all-wood item. through and through – and there’s a certain beauty and wonderfulness about that. I try to do without it as best as I can. functional “take-down-ability”. and also to introduce you to wooden screw making. slot and pin – these things are introduced here in this book. other than in some small parts of the vice’s working mechanism – in later books. More than enough is explained. which is essential to have in this line of craft. I don’t leave you confused. on page 33. in the workbench project. It’s truly a highly rewarding experience. But usually. mortises and holes should be facing in relation to each other. rest assured… but to help you develop a good sense of three dimensional thinking. On the other hand. Now. say.nothing but wood. 4 . so you have to try to see in your mind how all four legs. but while I don’t leave you stranded in dark mysteries. The diagrams all show more than enough to deduce this. I throw something together out of scrap wood. you’ll see the diagrams that show the dimensions for the workbench’s leg parts. No metal screws or nails are used. You will notice that the fact you can take the whole workbench apart actually helps out if you ever. which I’m sure you can appreciate once you’ve got it all built by your own two hands. I create opportunities for you to think. such as with the workbench project. I also want to help you to develop a woodcrafter’s mind… you will see diagrams and such with all the data supplied for you to understand everything. and how to cut and mortise them. gluing it all over the place. when I make experimental projects. also. dovetailing. if possible. The use of glues is something I like to see if I can do without. by the specs of the other parts that are fitted into them.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One ALL-WOOD JOINERY – for example. the text is well descriptive of the processes. tongue and grove. mistakenly drill a hole into it – then it can be repaired most easily. is only wood . There is no glue used. You only see two legs in the diagram. and yes.
“ “cut off 4 i inches for p piece #1. rememb a bering shap pes. an the nd rem mainder will be piece #2 – now cut a l sect tion of dow to matc #2’s len wel ch ngth”. and ame th we can move on fr hen rom there. ever until we do. What I want is to get you to cultivate three dim mensional thinking here We all use such e. then I can exp n pect you to understand that d the dowel wou be 8” long. ake ces boar from tha one piece if I the say rd at e… en to. Such t thinking utilizes bot hemispheres of the brain th art. an our little woodturni lathe.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One – the right si for 3D m ide. let’s just j make sure yo and I bot remembe the m ou th er sa basics from those experiences. etc. mental imag ging. and deductive reaso d oning. ill How wever. – and the le side for measureme eft ents. ms. artis I supply all the specs. a nd e ing we can set ou to craft w w ut wonders tha will at get anyone’s brain gears a-spinnin’ Howg s s ’. there a a few th e are hings to discuss first… I’m sure you know much of d … m th hese things already. let’s say I tell y to take a 12” you piec of board. and all the diae gram and lots of pictures as you wi see. It’s f the great good for ter of our craft o tsmanship t that we sho ould get our brain gea a-spinni o ars in’! Once we g our work get kbench all finished f and ready. right It’s uld t? simp than fa pler alling off a log. math. e brai power w in when we co ome up with difh fere projects and their sp ent pecs on our own r inside our mind THIS is the power o the ds. of st. pro obably learn ning all of these basi things in wood shop back in o ic high school… but be pa h … atient. 5 . s s. and to ma two piec of ce .
6 . ove e ter of thi here first book of thi series and get is is d ourse elves started eh? d.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop B C g r W Book One O No let’s mo on to the first chapt ow.
the hard e way many tim that yo y.getti back to the subject at hand her ing re… 7 . Get G yourself well orga f anized. Tools and sawn . yes – there’ll be some noise mad rest assu de.that’s en w ot nough of th Let’s ju leave tha story righ where hat. an we nd need to make s d sure that ba anging. ing ell pened AND honed. won’t heal very cleanly. Mo often tha not. with a dull b w blade. mediately. K f n Keep a first aid kit t handy that’s full of ban h s ndages and all that d good stuff. if well taken care of. osed to a cut made w with a razo or-sharp bla that ade heals cleanly and very nearly imm h y. that the t’s voic of experi ce ience talking g. I remember making my first workb y bench. back then. It more jag t’s gged in natu as oppo ure. I even remember one time I somen r how manage to sit on a chisel… uhm… h ed n … well. our in a safe pla is keepi them we sharn ace. and su uddenly yo got a gr ou ruesome gash just ag -bleedin’ aw – and what’s way d worse. and move on from here. what’s the first thing we need N here Well. amp- sh hire. shall we? t ON THE SUBJECT OF SAFE T ETY… One thing I can’t str g ress enough as far h. ly all weight down o one knee as I placed it on on d a C-clamp… ou uch… I cus ssed loud en nough to b heard clea to Conco New Ha be ar ord. a a and do you best to prevent ur th hem in the first place. is th deep cu since it was cut w hat ut. we need to ma sure we have e? e ake e a pr roper place to do all our work. let’s no go there . catc ches and sl lips. d dust were every t ywhere – I learned. ured).Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One Now. What did I m make it on? Another w ? workbench. a p ore an person slips and cuts himself – badly – p s because of a dull blad b de… for ins stance a chisel fails to cut smo oothly. perhaps Heck. ust at ht it is. But I digress . no! I didn’t have s? one… this was the first I m s made. k so I made it on my floor. mes. and have plen of space to stow aw all your tools nty e way r once you’re do with the so they a one em. as safety goe besides keeping yo tools a es. unwittingl putting a my r . ham mmering and other noise will not bother your r neig ghbors (oh. aren’t lyin around un ng nderfoot for you to trip over r p and mangle yo ourself with… yes. Be well pr g repared in case of accidents. ou’ve just g to got be c careful in s such a situa ation… kne eeling over the work.
A y Allow me to explain… Pro oper safety glasses. Be sure to read and u understand a all instruct tions and s safety regu ulations the ey come w with.Nativ ve Americ can. A mild rant o protectiv eyewear on ve r… Fin nally. Yes. what have you… they w t wear the pro roper all-ar round eye protection because they n know they need it. be espected. and common s sense. n but then I thro the resu t ow ulting long tail down undernea the back of my shirt. u fine – if it’s long that’s fine too – but keep g. S for exam ng So mple. Anot Power tools. n ath s throu the coll It needs to be well out ugh lar. an he nd the dex xterity. wha I do is I keep n ble at k it tied up in abou 11 or 12 elastic hair ties d ut r down the length as I do on any other day. and app good co ply ommon sens se in comp plying with them. ear tting clothin ng around power tool for obvi ls. as man of us Native Amer ny ricans ha ave. s l of the way. Now. an es job nd with vir rtually no c chance of s up. Really lon e ng 8 . and if y have long hair. My you yself. flat piece of lu at t umber. But they need to be t safety glasses. It’s true. when I use a tab saw.amon other thi ng ings . even if you are using hand u h tools like chise and gou els uges.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O Well ho oned blade do their j best. ban h nd saws a and the like should b well re e. f our kind of y for work are those that not on protect your k. I mean cr razy long. work king away a a big. tie it back. It a slip all depends on the sha s arpness of th blade. E Every now and again I snip off j a coupl inches ju to n just le ust keep from sittin on it. ious reason ns. ca arving a re elief image of a coupl of le horse heads sticking ou of a st es’ ut table door ’s window into a bed’s headboard or s d. do not we loose-fit . f r t Just watch a pr rofessional woodcarve at er work using a set of chisels and gou k… uges. I have long hair. Also. nly y ther subject on safety is power too s ols. woul certainly make log ld y gical sense that you would need them all the more when w d w using power too that fling wooden de g ols g ebris aroun at high s nd speeds. of th he wielder of the tool. such as table saws. be eing . let’s h have a little chat about eye e t prote ection. e k it out of any pow tools’ re t wer each. r hair. if such a pe w d f erson in su a situati wears safety glasse it uch ion es. n h. e What’s my po oint? If you got short hair. chips can still flick and fly into your eyes.
t pointed to t p them. I learned fr rom those o older than m and suc things me. for W one thing. For examp if I wer ple. there’s more than one typ of S pe safe eyewear out there. ch are even taug in schoo a ght ols. e glas sses frames Sounds s s? silly? It hap ppens quit often. and some d not ety r do have the full. If you’re going to be m f mindful of s safety. Am I r right? For instan you ne nce. as well as p protection b below. but provid protectio all s de on arou und the fra ame as we – that is. as a responsibl teacher. instruct ting the pub masses. no But d o. od n Why am I so adamant a W o about this? Well. t absolute best and safest of m the e s options rega o arding this subject. speedily Sure. I have a cer a out rtain resp ponsibility – to presen with the best of nt. o where flying wood pa w g articles prec cipitated th need for protective eyewear. ? plain and sim p mple. ng “Don’t forge to wear th et hese safety glasses”.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One eyes in front. and edges at the top. To d any less is… well. eye protection. te nd n Tha why the make saf at’s ey fety glasses with s the extra protec ctive sides. or that d “Those sun shades should be good n e enough”. A n After all. or any resp le ponsible person in the position o instructin others. hat som wood ch me hips fly into your eyes from o abov below. or to the sides of your ve. we r really shoul use all-ar ld round 9 . re… say. goofy y-lookin’ goggles in w g wood shop? They did the job. or an nyone in suc a positio were ch on. the best he r e and safest op a ption should be present d ted. If I. It’s goo common sense. wh if ont m. le do ess. He makes sur that you wear the e re w correct. p e of ng sh hould. and then wen to a spinn a nt ning lathe. if ell you u’re only w wearing regu ular prescri iption glas sses. on televin si ion. es can fit over the em. all-a around prot tective eyew wear. the onl protection you are getting ly n is r right in fro of them Now. ones without the all-around ey protectio and just simply a ye on. wore something resem w mbling norm premal sc cription ey yeglasses. e my ability. at th hose times w when we de with the poseal e sibility of splin nters and chips flying from our work. ever see a respectar ble wood sh teacher tell you that you b hop r t don’t need protective eyewear. don be conten with sun n’t nt nglasses. sayin something like. and if I blic . a all-around p protection a the as ones I’ve descr ribed – but there are d different types for di ifferent jobs s. or regular p prescription glasses. an I’ve seen it – first hand. For F our type of work. w e we’re not al lways in a cloud of f flying wood debris. the type e of s safety glasse I describe (shown below). in presenting this inform o n g mation to all of you o there. Remembe those b er big. in nstructing others in the use of tools.
to Th tools tha you see me use in this he at book are very bare-bones basic. Okay enough sa Now le talk abou y. I can’t d c emph hasize enou how wo ugh ondrous som of me these special o e ones are. o e in There a some tha you may already hav are at ve. et’s ut the man differen tools that we will b ny nt t be using to make the projects i this book. Sim k. and so on. t ng ll Wi some of these tools you can craft ith f s. and those that you may need t acquire. spr m rockets. but some ething about all that ju ust wouldn seem very right to m n’t y me. pract tical… and some are a paradox of d x funct tional geniu and star simplicity… us rk like the dowelin planes I’l show you. then I n think I would b misrepre be esenting th he whole s safety issue to a great m many peopl le. c worm gears. aid. mple.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O spitting out wood c g chips everyw where. I won’t pretend to be some s of expe t o sort ert on it all. ke 10 . n recomm nor mend enou to go ou and get th if you don’t ugh ut hem d alrea own them Let’s tak a look… ady m.
wood. drill and varia ls. and a wide-he d eaded oden screw (D). m re. “Z”. se erting the e of a dow into the hole at end wel e it base. ruled L wn squa (A) is a must. In this n series of books we use th most basic of s. Th three s w he square woo thin at the l ngs lower left (E). and giving it a few turns. marked “A” through “ ”. it domes ts d i over the tip of the dow giving it a pero wel. W can use these to ded We make parts of certain wooden to m ools that re equire such shaping (s h such as part of the ts workbench’s vice). he them – saws. p m planes. These are nearly all of the tools used f the projects in this book for (mo in follow ore wing photos Some of these s). with a bent blad set into it By inw de t. Let’s t take a look at this nifty little y coll lection of th right he hem ere. Here we see th tap are e. n it’s really very simple – a small blo of y ock 11 . ations ther reof.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One TOO T OLS… Our means of creating w r f wonders. m rst Let’s go dow the list – a good. are do oming plan nes… here’ a closer image of o of ’s one them (shown at mid-right) as you can see. or ev for finishing w s ven Her we can see an array of tools. fe ectly round end. m t ). f are of unusual types and may seem interestin to those of you o there s ng out seeing them for the fir time. he and die sets f making wooden sc for crews and such (B & C).
is w what I like to call the “pencil sha arpener” – it’s a con ning plane. a you to take squa stock an make dowels t are nd out of them. differ rent widths (H). jolts this f further dow the tabl wn letop hole just a m mite. pinning it to the ta able – a ge entle rap at the t back of the top end (just b behind the bent ‘gripper’ part). Th o hey’re quite wonderful ine deed! You can even use them to do n ownsize bigger dowe into sma b els aller ones – I’ve done this in Jap pan. ndy. and needed a s ic d standard em mpirical sizing . m er s Pretty cool. it comes out nd s as a dowel from the smalle opening side. The ben holdfas (G). p (K). fted At (F). or even if you dle want to make dowels fro your scrap t om s wood One of th is show on the fa d. simp and han y ple. a ic t as well as for the fini ishing work on the han k ndles of homemade handcraft tools. ne diam Th are espe hey ecially usefu if you ne a ful eed piece of round s e stock that i thicker in the is n midd than at the ends. We can use these for wood n e den machin ne parts th require s hat spinning. e e Ne we got your basic set of chisels of ext.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O up basi handles in cabinet making. an turning it. e et intere esting plan – these are dowe nes e eling plane (J). which is a t w tool that is u used to rout out t 12 . suc as with parts of th h ch he vices in the workbe n ench projec ct. A f e. of di es ifferent size which allow es. c close up. allow e wing you to pull you work fre and mov it ur ee ve abou These are invaluable to have. A tap of a ham k mmer at the top e end. taking a 3 cm r meter dowel down to on of 1”.for example. eh? Basic. resting the bent part on your g t y work piece. making the hold g dfast achie a squeez eve ze-grip on y your work. Here ou y e’s what on of them l ne looks like. hem wn acing page. or for taperin r ng objects that may re equire repe etitive motio on through holes. are essential fo nch sts for tempora arily anchor ring down y your work to the bench while yo tool away at it. and a basic block s b plane (I). r releases the hold. at the upper-left. when I could only get y metri ones. w which allow ws you to c create point on the en of dowe ts nds els and sta aves (see photo at bottom of previous p page). Furthe we have another se of e er. ut. put hrough any of the hole es We p these th that are arranged within the workbench e h’s Mo oving along we have the plow plane g. As you can see. it work ks much th same as does a penc sharpene he cil er. tabletop. The hole is tap e pered – you put the stock in thro u ough the la arger open ning side.
that you ca place an in the tool to cut on th push. or Japanese J sh hoji screen and th like. ou which distance from t edge of your wood you the f d wan to rout ch nt hannels and grooves a d along. cr ong rafted from India Ros sewood. You may already have a plow plane – but if not. havin two ng grades of cu g utting teeth. wi flat and slightly rounded h ith d groo oves and ch hannels into wood. and allows t s d fo grooves to be cut u to 3/8” deep beor up d fo it stops. photos. g nd su as in th workbenc project. rugg ged.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One It has five blades of dif t fferent sizes [B]. s plane and ru along the track you rout out p uns e with the bla w ade’s edge [D]. is what’s c called a do ozuki. At (M). g at p with a rem w movable blade. such as in cab d binets. The ridge alr lo the woo ows oden body’s bottom fac to act s ce as a stop. and beauti u ifully crafted. ends. and useful tool. a marvelous sa for mak m aw king dovetai (for a ils good look a this. Let look at t upper ph t’s the hoto the fence [A]. or the pull nto he – I personall prefer on the pull. Here is mine. uch he ch This is a v very good q quality. but this one is fixed. for a vao riety of purpo y oses. Plow planes come in w man varieties and type – this o ny s es one is amo the most basic. In s th lower ph he hoto. he nd grooves for tongue an groove joinery. m w b and if you w a wish to find one just like this d l (o any othe tools seen in this bo or er n ook). At (L we see a fine and a basic b L). ly 13 . We use th hese for ma aking runnin tracks for sliding ng r doors. s shown abov in two p ve. an also ns. see photo on page 5). This is go enough for just ore ood about any o the tasks you’ll need to aca of complish in this series of books. we can see the un n nderside of this plane The meta ridge at its base o e. hammer. see th resource page near the end of this he es book. a Some plo planes have this part adow p ju ustable. al [C extends from the bottom face of the C]. allows yo to set w .
Then there (W). which is rful shown b below. lea m ng y aving them lying arou at lumb m und beryards an at nd home centers. also known as a Japanese pull saw. and n have too many o them! of As y can see. we see a special kind e of ra – with c asp coarse and fine sides. are kanna basic Japa. we see variou drill bits – P e us basic. and is simp an exten ply nsion of you ur drill (el lectric or n non) – the shank abov ve the chu is placed into the c uck d chuck of you ur drill. V). In the pho on the le of the fa oto eft acing page. and cuts rasping time dow to size quite c g wn q consi iderably. t that I used for d drilling the tabl letop holes and (Y) is a s. a. nese pla anes that al cut on th pull (for a lso he r closer lo see pag 6). we see a brace and bit. being that t type of saw this f cuts on the pu you ma ull. els I find this also q d quite invalu uable. fo forstner. You e don’t need to go to Japan fo such thin – t o or ngs saws of this typ are also m pe made right here in the USA. is anked. tape measure. in differ o rent sizes. stock onto for dr k rilling dowe and the like. it’s compact and light you weight. d anoth oldie-bu her ut-goodie. an is move nd eable up an down th nd he armatur which it re. w which I have quite a few of e w – I’m often losin the silly things. n At (U). a drill aw our and way! There e’s also a d double V-sh haped area to rest roun nd No let’s loo at just a couple more ow ok m tools. – then ther is the han . tself is also moveable to accomm modate drill ling at diff ferent precis se angles ( (marked on the tool). which is always good to ha a h ave tri-sq few of. sa e e’s afety glass ses! At (X). is a tiny square and at (V a t e. ook. Why? Many . S n Simply plac ce it on yo work. ake remark kably 14 . is what’s called a r ryoba noko ogiri. etc. and fo ound it at a local ho ome center for not much r m more than 25 bu e ucks. this speci rasp is m ial made from h hacksaw bla ades.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O These (N & O). ge At (P & Q). quare. re nd drill (R which i hand-cra R). and I a highl recomm ly mend them. zip pping throu some wo ugh oods as th hough they were butter – we can see r n this tool in the p t photo shown below. M reaso ons… first. Sweet deal! Mo oving on to (T). W Which bring us gs to (Z pencils a such – you can never Z). The e ey’re excell lent tools. and a wonder type of drill press (S).
uddhist temp using th old ple. he tech hniques of J Japanese joinery. sand d dpaper… lo and lots of sandpap Keep a supply ots s per. pre-drawn or n ke fr reehandedly this is the tool to use y. photo. with a very thin kerf. If you ng the beco ome well e enough ade at using this. Here (abo ove). keepin them ng well sharpen and hon w ned ned… which brings h us to out nex discussion sharpenin u xt n. is capa p able of quit a lot. ng. you m might see them usin these sa ng aws even in the mak king of b boards by ripping down 15 . of different g o grades of co oarseness. e shap of the b pe blade also helps you align you cut by ey making a very acc ur ye. put it through a drilled hole and repla e. bending the blade even o slightly. If you’re ev in Japa and you see f ver an u som carpente workin on a S me ers ng Shinto shri or a Bu ine. If ever you te e need to mak curved cuts. th here are two other thin (not ngs pictured) that we need – for on thing. the left set of t teeth are fo ripor ping along the grain. aced it. so th I can hat cut the hole square. In s nstead of pu ushing into the cut. This tool.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One straight cuts as a result. Finally. p d ne to ools like fil and rasp of varyin coarles ps ng se enesses. keepin the ull ng blad taught.very useful for cutting aw curved cuts. Keep all your tools in a handy place. curate cut. and the right set are g for crosscuttin against t grain. we see what is kn e nown as a coping sa . Then there a the two sets of teeth – in T are h the photo. you pu into the cut. e e. y tr ree-length p pieces of big lumber – no table g sa needed there! It’s truly an inspiring aw si ight to see. and straigh The size and de ht. I rem p moved the bl lade. while bein among the sim. y and maintai them w a in well. and the other thing. it can re e eplace a tab saw in m ble many applic cations. ng t plest. as well as s straight one In the es. ept g and if you have the patience.
Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One C g r W 16 .
a lot of bottl of expen les nsive sharpe ening oil st trewn about your work t kshop. that g grinding an edge to a dull bl o lade on a b bench grin nder. T fact is. As for myself I general prefer. a hope it k and keeps. the w water stone. Im magine you u’re at the grinding w wheel. better yet. more or m t. Less to think about. but they go a b slower th a regula old bit han ar bench grinder. The water soaks into the pores of the T s st tones. or blue. ch natural. that acs tu ually aids in the sharpe n ening of you blade. sharpening and honin To g ng. coarse on the ri ight. and highly recf. t much. ent What’s the best alterna W ative? Use sharpening stones. Too fast. Here they are (abov y ve). You have now just ruine the temp of that steel. lly y omm mend. is ju sloppy. you’re not keeping w em. th water he mixes with t particles of stone gr that’s m the s rit sc craped off and forms a slurry. Some are oil stones and e s. som are water stones. and the going ba to your w en ack work.they need to be hon as od d ned well. There actual are mo T lly otorized grinding whe eels made j just for sharpening bl lades. an still some othme r nd e ers are a comb bination of b both. for grinding. more economica and muc more a al. and the gr is quite a difrit fere grade. o d r . I n need to say here. I ha two – a coarse st n ave tone. I st tart out by letting th y hem both soak in enough wate for them to be tota er m ally immersed in it for about an hour. t m le ess. Now. you n notice ther re’s a heat t-induced d discoloration in the stee n el… a bit of yellowy y-brown.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One Shar ning S rpen Or. and when shar rpening. would be a better statement. an a fine st g nd tone. and you grind away at the steel o the d of blad de… sudde enly. for honing. ne eft. ur 17 . You only n need water for the and so. trying to gr ust The rind a fine edge on a tool wit a high-speed e th bench grinder is a mite lik swatting a fly ke g with a Howitz It’s just way too m h zer. mer rely grind a edge to a blade just isn’t an t goo enough . and fin on the le soaking in water. w ed per and now need to slowly g grind down about 1/4” or more off that part j to get t mi” just to nim mally damag steel to p some ki of ged put ind an e edge on it.
so lets’ fix it. so all he ng o your sweeps a along the stone will go l smoo othly. e’s beveled face are touching. . which w w have two place for blade – blades for es es s plane above. sharpen ning the bl lade. We set the ch e hisel into the sharpening jig. As you ca see. e g As sh hown above take your chisel blad e. see d o . x An here it is! These ca be found alnd an d most anywhere… maybe yo already have t … ou h one. in plac cing the c chisel into this wond derful little gizmo. t n curing the ch hisel and then tighten the jig. ese on this her old chisel of mine… re l you got shaky h g hands? Can’t hold the blade b still at the pro oper angle? Getting frustrate Fear no There is a tool for this ed? ot! s little problem as well! s As y can see it’s a ver dull blad you e. sure the bla has the beade e veled side face down onto the stone. r de to the st tone. sec into place. dy Okay now let’s try out the stones o y. h hold on just a minute here… hav t ve loose make s ely. if it helps you see r u 18 . bevele face dow – hold it at ed wn the corr angle so that stone and blade rect e. Leave t other on in the wa until yo the ne ater ou are read to use it.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O When they’ve so n oaked long enough. turn an ning the sc crew widens or narro ows the jaw pieces. No ow. and for chisels be es elow. Now. the en you’re ready to sharpen! T Take out th he coarse stone. allowing n d no light to pass throug between them. ust terrible. that the surfaces – stone. p Yo might a ou also do this on a sur s rface other than the stone. Repeat the sam me process with the fine stone for honin s ng. ry de. Mak gh n ke steady. with the bevel all s e scratched up This is ju p. we need to do the o same thing as ab e bove. an beveled face t s nd of th blade – are completely touching he each other with hout light passing thro ough. There also a w e’s wheel for m movement along a the le ength of th sharpenin stone. aligni the chisel to ing be at the correct angle for sh harpening. forward sw weeps alon the ston ng ne. and get ready for workin ng.
o e Once that’s done. Take your e e time Keep sha e. for your work proj jects – is to keep them maintained d. en ty or Once you’ve gotten i ground do to a it own high sheen. Don’t worry about cle D y earing the s slurry off of the ston . a mirrored surface. de. checking your . ove). ooth. See ph hoto below. polished blade that look like pour glass. It should . lping. rusty chips in t them before you sharp them a e pen again. If you let your ke ular t blad suffer. Every te or twent sweeps o so. edges with d deep. 19 . the blade. th all your handicraft will des hen r ts suff also. to check your progress i rer in mov ving any scratch marks from the b s blade. While you sharpen away. we use the fine stone for e s Here (abo honing. or polishin the blad tep.rememb it’s hel ne ber. e . one or two light forward sweeps on the o s blade’s flat side will g rid of an burrs b get ny on the blade’s edge (see below). o h.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One bett to align i all. ng w You want to have a super-sharp highly p. h have patienc and take your time. Mak it a regu routine. Again. ng. casi ionally. It’s not h ce. entirely unheard of for some craft tsman to se aside an entire day t sharpen all of the et to a blades in their shop. so b ometimes doing so d once a month dependin on their work. then it’s tim to take the next h me st honing. p ks red li iquid silver. It’ a fact th fer ’s hat’s well w worth rem membering. u you notice a burr dev u’ll veloping on the n edge. Thu umb off the slurry from the blade oce m e. Pati ience is the key word here. or polishing. as lon as that su ter it ng urface is fl and smo lat. d gleam like an icicle catc g n ching the su un. r blad des – and in turn. you can begin sharO pening your bl lades – mak even. You Y don’t w want to wai until you have it roug jagged e gh. for ke rward stro okes along the stone. prog gress period dically. arpening aw until yo get way ou a mirror finish on the blad beveled surde’s d face The best thing you can do for your e.
you will eith accomp oth curate cuts a shapes that and smoo and acc will leave you proud of y your good hard work or you w have poor. that’s w wonderful pe erfection. o d If you find th during y hat your work your y tools are doing less than th job. kee a wide strap of leath dry ep her wrap pped a coup of times around kan ple s nna. I cannot stres this enou c ss ugh. Cuts made will be messy splintered or l y. worse. It’ a simple basic. ore rt Main ntain them. will ackle items that will look as tho s ough they were w built by a drunk monkey u k using his fe – eet such frustration are dish ns heartening and self-d discouragin and you can really do ng. and as of ften as nee eded. y will hav a oth you ve rough and shab h bby lookin dowel. Remembe it woul er. and ta the tim to ake me main ntain them. 20 . d. our a nice d box. log out ’s e. bu you wo ut ork with them t witho doing s your wo will su out so.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O Take the time to sharpen an hone all your o nd y blade of all ty es. ldn’t hurt to set aside some time to spend share e s penin and hon ng ning all of your blade in es your shop. ypes. If you have h tools with blad in need of sharpening des d and honing. Wh you sen your plan hen nd ne along a board’s edge. ork uffer. e ot ng ed Once you’ve go everythin all hone up and shiny. otected. Also. it’s a good idea to keep them away fr rom moistur Keep yo chisels in re. a another goo idea is to od take one or two dro of oil an rub it onto ops nd your bla ades – don’ leave them all slippery. u y witho that. jus be heir st patient… don’t be in an al ll-fired hurr to ry comp plete your task poorly – stop what y w See? Sharp. well honed bl lades are m miracle w workers. and keep saws in a dry part of you d s ur workshop. Take fo example the dowe or e eling plane If well honed. gical fact of cause and effect. In attempting to create the project in g ts u her plish this book. even i they get exposed to if t dampne your blades will be well pro ess. and the pos ssibilities o rust settin of ng in will be pretty m much next t zero. thin enough to read throug ut n gh. This w way. leavi a ing rough and splint h tery mess. l you will have h smoo results – if not. befo you star any projects. y es.prevent i es it. ram-sha k.and a super thin curl of woo des od turns ou of it. ’t m just kee a micro-t ep thin film of oil on them f m. Ru to ust eats thr rough blade quickly . The ng blade will not cut so muc as push off e ch h chun and piec of your s nks ces stock. accor rding to you blades’ w and tea ur wear ar. and it d doesn’t skitter – it glid .
Y get the picture. pped up in a strap of le eather or cl loth. our ping prowes as a ss woo odcrafter. allo owing them to go dull while you work with them. not to put th n hem down o their bott on tom faces. But B the fact is. such w woods. Once you have all yo blades gleaming our g and raring to work at so a o ome wood. do your best to keep them well p b protected – keep all your chisels and gouges in a prope box or y s er drawer. or sheathed in pouches… don’t d n … le eave them clunking a around in th same he to oolbox as sa a hamm or screw ay. dulling th blade – o better yet retract he or t. his You Now let’s m N move on to somethin a bit o ng more interes m sting… 21 . T nt. th blade int the body of the plan when he to y ne not in use. is how accidents can happen w n. You Y will of ften find t that your b blades seem to go du faster w some w m ull with woods than with other This is u n rs. and take the tim to . n Planes suc as kanna as mentio ch a. Okay. mer. or what have you. e me re-s sharpen you blade. Ta this wel into consi ng ake ll ideration when choo n osing your w woods. esp h pecially on such woods. usually due to the fact that some h t hardwoods have a very high y min neral conten such a silica. and last for y d years. Using dull blade or g es. wdrivers. am mong other which h rs.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One you u’re doing. somethin fierce. and when wor rking on th hem. Yo owe it to your ur ou o wor and to yo develop rk. due t the to min neral conten eat your blades up s nt. to ke the blad from du b eep de ulling or chipping. have a high resistance to weather h e ring as a res of sult its mineral co ontent. even if left ou n utdoors – t this makes them idea for things like patio f al s furniture. o e Rest block planes on their side so as k n es. I t think I’ve completely talked y th subject to death. oned befo are best kept wrap ore. around the body and the d blade. as These hard dwoods include those such as tea and ak purp pleheart.
Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One C g r W 22 .
threading straig round s ght. s own gth the piece un ntil the de esired effe ect is achi ieved. hing. w nd” which do n go not all the way th hrough a p piece of wo ood – thos that com to a s se me stop somew where without it sti w icking out o the other side of on r it – such as CD racks that are bu with t uilt dowels set in boards. while with this tool we can h th hread the in nsides of ho oles. you o e ctly b need the hole you are ab n bout to thre for it ead to be 1/8” sm o maller in di iameter than that of n th round sto you thre he ock eaded for it This is t. This is good fo making take-down furniture that reor n quires one pi q iece to attac to anothe one ch er With W this too (above). dles the tool is twisted do the leng of s. make a threa m aded hole i a board to screw in t 23 . se the ok ee faci page.. there’s a bit of a trick to doing it right – you see. There are actually tw of these tools e wo e other. let’s s you too a 1” say ok dowel. not s shown for each size set – the o e. Now you want to . stock. and. we make sc ol crews and bolts. and ne v eeds to be remembered. etc we r c. ’s oser midway into the work p m o piece. using the han. Take a lo es ook at it i the in pho shown at the upp oto per-right of this f page. Let’ take a clo look. very important. for applying he eads to your screws. b For exam mple. in order to match the nut to exac fit the bolt. and t d threaded it. but i for is here does the same th thre eading “blin holes. The piece to b threaded is put int the e be d to open ning under rneath. have the other tool. ing For F making the nuts fo your bol or or lts.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One Woo W d th adin hrea ng Now comes a more int N teresting su ubject. d nto However. For a closer loo at this. which threads th inh he side of holes.
with some hole es drilled into it to th hread. At times. then the thread will have no g ds e stren ngth – they w just fall off. to gi ive interior threads s r strength. cr he rossways as far s as gr rain is conc cerned. and ou of will l ut the hole… even while threa h n ading them. when you thread the interiors o e of holes (n nuts). If you want to make heads on your y screw simply make a nut for it with eiws. yo need to first make a ugh ou 7/8” ho and then thread the inside of it ole. ddenly y your nuts bu and your wood snap ust. if you threadi a u’re ing screw across th grain. you could al bore a m y lso much larger hole into the end. r ps in two – not good. To d o do stock (s otherwi would r ise result in mi ishaps – yo ou try to g a good screw goin then sud get ng. Whe en you’re threading the exterio of roun or nd screws). a then drill it and and thread it. Now. go a across the grain. little square es of wood Believe it or not. th hread them across the grain. If you thread the interiors of holes along y s a the grain. like i the picture in above. Thi allows fo is for the thre eads of bo matchin pieces to oth ng ‘fold fingers’ with each othe and fit to h er. y might o to double. or you opt n ad nside or ou ut. and attach a piece of w wood to the end e of th piece in question. tever you like. When you threa wood. the ad en cut them out to si and sha .Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O it throu – so. most dow wels are made m along the grain – so that th don’t break g hey b so ea asily. threa them. making t . m Le say you wanted to thread the inteet’s u i rior of a hole th was drill into the butt o hat led end of a piece of 4x4 lum o mber – but that woul be along the grain! What do you ld g ! do? Well. and go from th here. Fo ortunately. mple. ogether s snugly. for the s screw to go through.squar m ize ape re. the ’s ere’s a way y. th the obv w he hen vious thing is that at a point a g any along its len ngth. Why is this? Well. t h ther an all-the-w throug hole. Or. ncluded. a and insert a cross-gra ained piece of wood i e into that. u’d ite surprise at how m ed many peop start right ple off thin nking in that direction myself in n. in you nee to consid the grain direction o ed der n of the woo For exam od. Take a b board. W t Where there’ a will. So. o It’s r really that s simple. hexagon or what nal. go along the grain. you be a mi d. 24 . the nuts is sn’t done b by trying t thread p to pre-drilled. there is a weak p e point just w waiting to bre eak. or one way gh hrough – apply a than only goes part-way th ads ew y glue to the threa and scre it onto your hape is ano other bolt. Deciding on nut sh g hat shaped ones are s thing – I find th square-s best. here w W we’d have t use some joito e nery.
when used along with wooden sprocket gears that we can make – what are the possibilities? Clockwork toys. They’re simple enough to follow – give them a good looking at. first we need to understand that the thread count is measured by “TPI” – that’s Turns Per Inch – usually six or eight. once they’re separated in the project. 1”. 25 .three turns for 1/2 of an inch . or half inch increments – 1/2”. – the possibilities seem to be numerous. 2”. The interesting thing with the TPI. in the case of the eight TPI screws. let’s imagine we created a fixture wherein there was held a cutting blade in a lathe… we could measure how much the blade could be pushed into the work piece by the turn of the handle. 1. and also that the pieces remain facing each other in the same way that they were when you threaded them together in one go. Now. and threaded the two holes together in one action. The six TPI screws can do the same – six turns for an inch . whimsical devices of your own imaginings. fine-tuning it’s progression into the wood – four turns for 1/2 of an inch – one turn for 1/8 of an inch – a half turn for 1/16 of an inch… do you see where I’m going with this? Think about that for just a mite. and gluing them together – threading a hole across the grain of that group of pieces makes a very strong nut. that they are apart at a precise distance of whole.one and a half turns for 1/4 of an inch – but they can also do things in increments of thirds and sixths.5”. so if you clamped the two boards in that example together. on the next page is a pictorial reminder of what we’ve gone over as far as making nuts and bolts versus wood grain direction. the screws can all be used as worm gears. indeed. causing the screw to buckle? Well. Sometimes.. It’s little details like this that opens doors for artists and craftsmen who have a mind for making wonders. is that. 2. one wants to arrange a piece of work so that one screw passes through two boards (like in the vices later on) – how do you make it so that the threads don’t go out of sinc (between the threaded holes of the two boards). etc. such as the 1/2” ones. Keep in mind.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One triple-ply the wood for your nuts. alternating the directions of grain in each piece. and commit it to memory before we move on. How? For example. and so on. then you only need to make sure that. these prove to be potentially very useful in some machines we can make. fine-tuning adjustment mechanisms (not unlike the machine heads in guitars that tune the strings).5”. etc. This particular little feature of these wood threading tools allows for a means of fine-tuning some of the all-wood tools and machines that we can create. Something to think about.
Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One C g r W 26 .
are second-hand stores . and much of it is still good lumber… TWO. many of these things are pine furniture you might find in an inexpensive catalogue… mail order types of things you might see being used at a cheap motel. Many times I’ll see in these places. but look! This here one at the second hand store is five bucks! Snag! Sometimes I find a real gem… an old chest of drawers made from teak. bubinga or walnut – it was left at such a store because maybe a leg is missing. I’ll grab that! It might be terribly beaten up and no longer any good at being a piece of furniture anymore.other sources that have proved quite valuable to my experience. That’s fine if you want pine. pieces of pine like that might be quite expensive. but then pine is often inexpensive enough from the lumber yard. to make way to build a guest house or something – often. First. Of course. What’s more. and in other cases. we should discuss where to get our lumber. so we’ve covered a lot of ground so far – just a little more ground to cover. Now. and we’ll be ready to make our workbench. carefully disassembling the drawers’ dovetails. that the owner would be more than happy to unload it all on you.the type that sells old furniture and clothes and such. and bam! I’ve got some nice. you’ll find three things… ONE. instead of paying for some service to come and pick it up. sturdy exotic wood. fine pieces of beautifully grained. I have a set of five – for 1/2”. you can make wonderful things with the wood threading tap and die sets. ready to be 27 . solid piece – now.and even entire sets – for dirt cheap. as simply as can be. but it can still be useful. Yeah. and so it sells for as cheaply as 20-30 dollars. good quality woods? Reclaimed lumber… …a wonderful bit of terminology. or a home center? Where is the most inexpensive place to get fine. he’ll feel good knowing that it’ll all be recycled into fine works of craftsmanship. and 1&1/2” nuts and bolts – for all kinds of things. 3/4”. don’t scoff… allow me to explain. which usually means “FREE WOOD”. 1&1/4”. For example. of which the tabletop is one thick. to vices and clamps and jigs and fixtures. that the wood is finely seasoned. is largely inexpensive. from basic screws. and offers much to work with… and THREE. take it apart in my shop. someone is tearing down an old barn on their property. What’s the best and easiest way to acquire lumber? Is it better to get wood from a lumber yard. or it’s scratched up quite a bit. Okay. 1”. This is one of a few good ways to acquire good wood . But sometimes you’ll see a large pine coffee table.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One That’s how it’s all done. I’d take it home. As long as you remember those basic rules. pieces of furniture . and the store manager may not be quite a connoisseur of fine woods who knows the value of such things. that many of the pieces are huge. mill them off.
I made a couple of workbenches! Store bought lumber… Usually however. “Gee. People have bought new furniture. I go out and buy it. from the post lumber. South American purpleheart. What.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One fashioned into whatever I desire to make out of it. if you find something like that. and others. at second-hand stores. junk. which we might find at an auction or a garage sale. cherry. some of you out there might be saying. Maine. a walnut rabbet plane. and want to get certain pre-cut sizes 28 . wooden nuts for wooden bolts and screws. and so they move the old furniture out to the sidewalk. you might ask? Tool handles. or buy the same stuff new if I like – and that’s 4x4 stock (which actually measures 3&1/2” x 3&1/2”). and so on. yeah! Sometimes I’m into that. I like best for aromatic red cedar. It’s all good! Ah. Now. it’s often better to reclaim the raw lumber and make something else. I have found things that yielded good quantities of birch. After all. and then you’ve got a lovely piece of valuable furniture!” Well. oak. spring and fall. also. and took my fence with me… but then I decided not to put it up at the new place. even if they may be of fine wood such as walnut. otherwise known as fencepost lumber. turned maple chess pieces. we often find things that have been beaten down through the ages – it’s not like seeing a valuable heirloom piece that only needs a little work. I just want to find the wood I’m looking for. so I used the lumber for other things. I’ve gotten a lot of good. right when I’m looking for it. I moved from one house to another just around the corner. and cedar for my workshop. the rewards are worthwhile – it’s like treasure hunting! The pieces of wood that were once a desk top. What good are small pieces. I’m not sure if things are similar in your area or not. and the possibilities go on. or a place that specializes in exotic woods of many types. we have “Big Trash Day” twice a year. but watch for signs of insects – you don’t want them in your home or workshop! There’s a certain type of reclaimed lumber I personally like best – because I can get it reclaimed. maple. If I just want to get wood to cut however I please. you may ask? Well for one thing. But often enough. why not give it a makeover. However. I got to the lumber yard. but depending on the piece. ebony tool handles. You can always see that most of it is just… well. like outlets that supply wood for floorers and cabinetmakers – this type of place. both big pieces and small. but here in Portland. If I don’t mind slightly higher prices. So. solid oak and rock maple that way. or a wardrobe shelf. are now fine boxes of oak.
for th most pa – however. Us your tr se ri-square to check for squarene ess. let’s face it – f go ood. and even much bigger size h es. Bowing. On to our project! n 29 . Afte all. i a list of m is measuremen nts… Measure tw M wice. is to go ahead and double che to o d eck see if that piec would st fit the o ce till others afte that cut – will it st fit? Are you er till e sure you’re cut e tting the righ piece? ht The T best way to prevent such mish y t haps is to la abel your p pieces. cut on nce… how many time have we heard this golden ru in es e s ule woo odshop at school? It’ true! Alw ’s ways. y only to brin it home and find that it’s o ng warped. always. our p Okay. but su things are general able to be dealt uch lly with. that’s what er a c carpenter’s pencil is for. – w ck. b we before we cut. which way i up? is Mar with an “X” those parts to b cut rk e be awa ay… use ar rrows to show directio of ons cuts if you’re using thing such as a rous. and n bowed so much not s along the le a ength of yo stock. a just the sight s and of it all brings to my mind many ideas for t d proj jects to com One of t first thin to me. o he quir size. that s O should be more than enough sa on that s aid subject. n unavoidable. always check an double c nd check you measurem ur ments. you should alw u ways bring at least th hese two th hings… a ta measure. the w he art tw wisting and cupping th occurs in some d hat pieces of wo should b well avoi p ood be ided. e ve d o and cut it. and a ape tr ri-square. Wh p herever you go to get your u g lu umber. of red ften what w forget. The ti ime and place to check for perfe p ection is wh here and when you p w purchase yo wood products. When we take down mea n asuremen and go to cut a piece to th rents. Checking for squa g areness is another very important part of preparatio v f ons. or to mark in w o which direction to h d hand plane the wood. or bac etc. the ngs go t through my mind when I come up with y n p a pr roject idea. Ther been m re’s many a time when I’v measured a piece to cut. the many sizes of stock.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One quic ckly. I go to my local h o home center This r. dirt ch heap. only to find tha I’ve mea y at asured wro ongly. like th 4x4s I m he mentioned a above. and unusable for your particular w d project. and ch heck all alo the len ong ngth and aro ound the pi iece… I me ean. our B even to a s small degre is often almost ee. in places i where the w w wood’s grain may only want to n be planed do in such a direction b own h n. right? Use ? mar rkings to lab which f bel face of the b board is fr front. especially in long pie u y eces. precut wood is rar rely. if ev ver. is a also a goo place to get really big od o y lum mber. Sometimes I like to go to such plac to S ces be around the wood sim e mply for inspiration purposes the sm of the w nal s… mell wood. The best time an place this should be done is b nd s e where and w w when you ge your woo – you et od don’t want t go shelling out hard earned d to d money on o m otherwise g good quality wood. gs ter t table or a p planer. M Make sure your pie e eces are sq quare and t true.
Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One C g r W
one vice – le make tw o et’s wo. like holes and slo to e. er we’re going to be making many thin on o g ngs it. It also nee to be ru eds ugged a w and be able to take a bea o ating – afte all. we refer and ut e to w what are probably bett termed w ter worktabl les. I mean. or worse. and that will last for y w years and y years to com me. or sitting on work stool. W ant heav sturdy. why not make it m ta ake-downab ble? We should make it m so omewhat e easy to disa assemble an reasnd se emble. ots. either installed on it somew v n where. so t w that they do roll on’t off and whac you in th foot. or better yet. put your tools a jigs. Bu today. in my opi . wha the eve ack er-livin’ cru out of. that also has a bi of a work surit k face and places.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One How does one define a workbe H e ench? Actu ually. they kind of bench shap yeah? y’re f ped. so you want to make some u’ll ething real lly BEEFY Something you could Y. V kbench wit thout at le east one Any work vice. inion. big fy nch one that can support he o n eavy work. What W we nee to build i somethin that ed is ng is b with a g big. this thing is a we 31 . so th we can take it and place it hat d anywhere w please. a it ud and won fall to p n’t pieces – an it’s got to be nd goo and heav enough n to start strolod vy not ling across the floor when you’re pl g e n laning a piece of wood d. What we wa to build is a good. We shou uld also co onsider on other ne th hing… whil we’re at the task of creating le th thing o his ourselves. So we need at least h o. so that we can work at it e either stand ding. generous wo surface area. What else? Are we forgetti anying th hing? What else does it need? Ah. and banging away at this and that i the s in proc cess. yes! t A VICES. b and beef workben – vy. It o ck he w sh hould also have plent of place along ty es th surface t put holdf he to fasts and oth such her to ools for pin nning down your work to the n k ta able. a true workbenc is a benc one e ch ch sits on. o of heavy lumber and other mat out y terials. p e f hot wings and beer. What else does it nee Well. b b built into it. ork e Som mething at t right he the eight. we need a e ed? good place on it to put our tool while g ls we’re using a few. as “w workbenches” – and hey. is pretty much just a table – a place for pizza. solid.
Nick Zalisk – so h his roomma another friend of mine. O n Once we sta putting it art together you’ll see that it’s also a b r. startin his ng with the leg co onstruction.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O BIG – y want to try moving it through a you o g h doorwa in one pi ay iece? It’s a lot easier to do it in pieces. ny thing is though it humong s. than when w it is dry. adj it to your needs. r you and I might not be the same heig I a t e ght. and the struts that hold them i place. Sweet. hence th differenc Okay. It would have been impossible The funn e. ap. Build ding the w workbench h… We wi ill build th from the ground up. being able to disassem mble it. w ws. th o hrough thos se narrow doorways of their building. and stuff it all in half m d my smalles closet – no lie! st o Gene overvie eral ew… Okay so to reca our work y. u. which as we know. as w r at well. end. hav a place to ve put our tools. ould first m mention that the t lengt of the leg are optio th gs onal… after all. tape measu ure… now. u up those s stairs. Japan. heav take-dow vy. we never would d have go otten it into that car. actu ually meas sures 3&1/ x 3&1/2 Why is t /2” 2”. We’ll be using “ “4x4” stock (“fencepo k ost”). to the apartmen eir nt. have measured the legs to be 36” to suit o myse For you take a t elf. kbench need ds to be s strong. s high for you. he fl to the top edge o your bac pocket… and e of ck now you have the measu urement for the r lengt of your workbench legs! Kee in th h ep mind that the th d hickness of the table will f add another 3& &1/2”. ut e’ll ese welve We start off with the first tw piece but I sho es. pro ovide ple enty of wor rkspace. I could take it down. measure th distance from the floor. wnable. just 32 . whic would bring ch b the ta abletop to a about the to of your belop tline. yo ou can see a picture of it at the place (ho e eir onestly. there a size dife feren nce? When wood gets milled for the r mark ket. t’s gous. I deo cided to gift this b monster to a fello o big r ow craftsm and frie man.but wood is larger w d when it is gr reen. i a lot big it’s gger than it looks in th hat picture) Without b ). On p o page 30. just below your elbow If that’s too . or i into that a apartment. Justin ate. q quickly and easily. Let m tell you this… befo I took o me ore off for ano other trip to Nagoya. that’s w what size they are . ere’s the cu list. have places to put holdfas e sts s. he d he ce. r Wallace and I. too this beh e ok hemoth apa art and loaded it into h little car and drove it his r to down ntown Portl land. and we carried it u a few flights of stai up irs with no problems at all. Th is where we h in his e need to focus on certain join n nery techniq ques. ng ilt and jigs and have two workin vices bui right in. bit simpler to build tha way.
Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One
When cutting with the pull saw, use your W g e tri-s square to m mark where the cut is to be mad on all f de four faces of the woo all od arou it. Mak a series of four cuts along und ke the lines – cut i the mann shown a in ner above,
using your d u drawn lines as a guide for your f cuts, and previous cut to guide subsets e quent cuts. T result s q The should be a perfect cut that wou rival tho made by a powuld ose y er tool.
using the “half and half” m g method… ch hisel off half the chun first. On that last page. ove Constructing the leg assem mbly… Oka ay. If yo wish to make t ou m some minor or e rnamental c changes in this proje you’re e ect. and be etween the cuts. Tak a look at the dia ke agram with the cross sbeams again. he this page. hey s out a little bit m more from th outside of the he legs when instal w lled – no ne ecessary rea ason. if you so u prefe er. and loo at crossb ok beam #1 – the notches are made ( s (each) with two h cuts of a hand s saw. No otice that I have drille a small hole ed wher the corne of the cut re er tout will be on e. Try not to go an immediat n nd tely chisel it off i right at the cuts ends. being b shape As you might be ab to tell. w and 5” long. ble cided to make the rounde ends a little d ed l longe than spec so that th would stick er cs. just thought I’d try it. so feel free e. c the chunk is kn c nocked out with a ch t hisel. Th locking pins are ea he asy. really. making th “third cu from th . an so on. we saw a b t brief descrip ption on one of the best ways to cut with a pull saw and the d w. we ca see cross p an sbeam #2. This is to ai in cutting out that ar – id g rea use a pull saw. as you could split s’ off th entire en of the pi he nd iece – mind the d wood grain – ins d stead. or a band saw. did you study well Great! In that top diau l? n gram. or any other hard y dwood. then half of wh nk n hat’s t f t nd left. Here. the unfinished c u crossbeam in the photo beo low. do it a little at a time. oto we see me. Look o over them c carefully an nd study th well be hem efore we mo on. he ut” hat diagram m. w l . Thes se make th struts th stabilize the legs. or oak. Here. 3/4” wide. we can se the specs for the cr ee rossbeam and pins. diagrams d describing th he few par of the w rts workbench that we wi ill make fi first. then half of what’s left of that. This d type of thing do not alte its struct oes er tural integ grity. ev verything else in the cu utting list can be cu from 1& ut &1/2” x 3/4 4” stock. w saw how to make t cuts with we w the the pull saw. se that. I used map but feel free to us ple. I deed. s he hat e so do mak sure yo use a g ke ou good. at th lower-left of ms .Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O As you can see. In the image in the mid ddle of the last page. in the pho below. until it’s don u ne. encouraged to do so. sturd dy hardwo ood. but the height of one end is 5 t 34 .
e at t then you start 1 inch lo n 1/2” ower on one side. one n s s f hole is place lower th the hole on the h ed han e other face. The T tapered through mo ortises in the legs. s eam it Note also the placem ment of drille holes ed near the tops of the legs – on one face. Thes tapered locking pin are se ns the keys. This is to s he s crea a slanted floor insid the mortise for ate d de the angled ends of crossbe #2 to si on. e and chisel up towards th lower ed of he dge the opposite o opening on the other side. the lower half of the th f hrough mor rtises. Round over 6”. h d for he These will receive wo T ooden scre ews that will be inse w erted in thro ough the ta abletop’s sk boards (refer to the photo on page 30 kirt to see what I mean). litera ally. and what relati they ion have with th slanted cuts on cro h he ossbeam #2… here is where you need to do some # u’ll d of that creat o tive thinkin we talke about ng ed in the introdu n uction of th book. his Notice tha you’ll nee to make the legs at ed have the lar h rger openin of the tapered ngs th hrough mor rtises be fa acing outwa ardly (to th left and r he right) in ord for cross der sbeam 35 . e d the ends. and t the sides with the w holes placed lower are f facing th ends. we se the om e ee diag gram showi the con ing nstruction o the of legs which re s. T sides wi the holes placed o The ith higher are fo facing th front or back of h for he th workben he nch. to the structure o the of leg and crossbe assemb eam bly. At A the botto of page 33. The diae gram you see above. s m e shows how the w thro ough mortises are made e. equires mor rtising. n thus making th passage taper. Als keep in mind the o so m direction of other things – note the tapered d s e th hrough mor rtises. e whi pass thr ich rough. crosswise. shou be uld don in the sa ne ame way – the only d difference being tha after that has been done.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One 9/16 and the other is 3/8”.
Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O
#2 to fit correctl Also, n ly. note that th he placeme of the holes, near the tops o ent r of the legs need to b facing th correct d s, be he directions in their own right. T diagram s The ms give yo all the in ou nformation you need to formula this tiny puzzle, but as I men ate y ntioned b before, the p purpose of this series o of books i to make y think. R is you Remember to mark w a penci what shou be left o with il uld or right, o front or back. Whi directio or ich on should everything be facing? Let’s look at another diagram. r t-away view in the diaw Here, in the cut bove, we ca see more clearly ho an e ow gram ab all this is put toge ether. From the diagram on page 33, we see that the “ro e e oof” of the tapered through mo ortise passe through, es
cross swise, the t through mo ortise at hal of lf its he eight – the diagram he above, reinere, r force this idea. Here we can see how one es w cross sbeam is he into plac by the other, eld ce which is all lo ocked into place with the h locki pin. Fair simple, y ing rly yeah? Th part here is pretty much the most his m comp plicated par of the w rt whole proje – ect not th it is ver complica hat ry ated at all, I just mean to say tha the rest o this proje is n at of ect more simple fro here on out. But while e om w puttin together the crossb ng r beams is sim mple and easy enough we can s that it’s like e h, see maki pieces o a puzzle t fits toge ing of that ether. Maki pieces of take-dow joinery like ing wn this can be a ver rewarding and fun expec ry rienc when don correctly ce, ne y.
d ld e Once everyth O hing is cut a mortise put it and ed. and you shoul have fine results. shoul not at ld be s tight as to require h so hammering it all in. after . e good. e Make sure your mor rtises are go and ood st traight. all together and see how eve a r. we can oto se the end result. ever rything else is in place. moothly chiseled. locking pin. ves both strengthen and suppo the whole leg h n ort stru ucture. strong foundation on which to build g g n our mighty w o workbench! Yeah! 37 . and waiting for the tab a bletop to be asseme bled and att b tached to it Now we have a t. e erything st tands – is everything square and level? d Does it all st D tand withou wobbling? Great! ut ? In the pho on the next page. t to remember that t on try things shou not be s loosely f as to allo for uld so fit ow wob bbling. yet a the same time. We ca see an that this simp arrangem t ple ment is actually quit sturdy in its nature and serv to te n e. Leg of hefty lumber. we measure and sm ell ed. While you b W build this li ittle mortise and teno puzzle. T only sl The light hamm mering that needs to b done here is on the l be e.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One Here is a m H more photographic vie of ew how this all co w omes toget ther. ee gs st tanding in sturdy rei inforcement ready t.
The alternativ would be to find suc ve e ch dimensi ions in one solid piec – think o e ce of the exp pense. back together. and as you’ll see. and finally the vices them g d e mselves. toss in the replac i cement piec and put it all ce. Pretty darned snazzy. rt he braces underneath to receiv the vice h ve es’ moving parts. c e clear into th tabletop – it he proba ably wouldn do much terrible harm. his type of lumber has replace e-ability – let’s say I did some ething utterl bone-hea ly aded and mistakenly drilled a h hole throug a gh piece of work. framew work good and solid d… are th he drilled holes near the tops o the legs in of the corr places? Okay. ray. are quite q versa atile in ma aking many things. he p. good good… rect d. Here’s whe the fun g better… ere gets … We’ll be using more “4x4” stock her l ” re. the tool tr the skir boards. and I’ll tell you w l why. eh d h? Th hese pieces of lumber can be fo r ound anyw where. Now you’ll notice that th w. make th parts of the tabletop – the wor he p rk surface. 8 and 12 d 38 . This wo is thick and n’t ood k hard enough to take any o ything you can throw at it. a it just might. eally doesn have to be.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O Let’s stand back an look at w we hav nd what ve accomp plished here mortise seem fin e… es ne. create a tab ble surface that is qui thick an meaty. and m I onl need to replace tha one piec of ly at ce lumb – I just disassemble the table ber etop. They y T gener rally come in lengths of 6. In usi a few o ing of these. Anot w ther reason for using th his alrighty now for th next step We need to y. ber omes in spru or Dou ruce uglas lumb often co fir… it isn’t r rock maple but it re e. n’t h but if it really bu f ugged me. th . not ite nd to ment tion rugged and able to take a bea o ating. s side by side we can c e.
Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One
feet costing a t, about 16 to 22 bucks each, new – or free if recyc w e, cled. With these won nderful chunks of woo goodne in ody ess, the books to f follow, we will build other wor rkshop struc ctures, and a side pro also ojects whi ich include timber-fra e amed gard dening shed rustic lawn furn ds, niture and playgrou equipm und ment. Alright, now let’s first take a gand at A w der the tabletop pa of the w art workbench in its com mpleted stag (see photo below). ge o by taking a l b look at the cut list for this part of the projec o ct;
Here, we see the par of the ta rts abletop’s construction In the m n. materials co olumn, I have listed the most common choices h available tha are most readily fo a at t ound for th hese types o stock tha we will use – but of at u use your bett judgmen u ter nt… if you find, for example, tha for the c at connectors, birch is not available but ceda is plentif then n e, ar ful, th hat’s just fi ine. If you’d rather use maple fo the skirt boards ins or t stead of oak that’s k, okay too… but try t stay wit o to thin the neighborhoo of the strengths of the n od woods that are genera w ally implied by the d choices I hav suggested here. ve Once you u’ve got it a gathered up and all d eady, we ca move on to the nex step – an n xt re le take a lo at the d et’s ook diagram on the next page, showin the table p ng etop’s constr ruction;
Making the parts for the tablet M e r top… In th photo, w can see a the parts of its he we all com mpleted con nstruction – the lumbe for er the tabletop bo ody, the boa that serv as ard ves the tool tray area, the s skirt boards that s surr round and s support the whole stru ucture and box it all in, the br l races under rneath that serve as part of the v mechan t vice nisms, and the vices themselves. Let’s get started
saw into th wood on those lines. Are y you with me? Chec the diagra at left.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O Here. and als where th so he tool tray is placed. o each of tw opposin sides. On you’ve gotos nce ten th accompl hat lished. with the crosscu teeth of your ut y saw. oes etely aroun them. and m make them 1/4” deep. The f first thing t do. 1/4”. See photo below. sing the ripping 40 . We see where the connectors go and ho s ow they co ome into pl lay. but he e at nel come to a stop a the chann – don’t saw throu ugh that a area. m ts. we n need to do some s sawin ng. This is wh y here we hav ve fun wit a bit of plow plan th ning and pu ull sawing. us eat. a the tongu to ck am at ue. N nd Now. from th top and bothe tom faces. and use your y tri-sq quare to dr raw a line across at that meas surement. . As you can se the parts ee. right on wo ng down th middle – so find you centerlin he ur ne. is pla to aning a chan nnel dow the leng of all yo fencepo wn gth our ost stock. U the triUse -square to also transfer that line on the other faces of your e y posts so that the line go comple s. s your 1/2” channel. and bottom fac ces. see what I mea Got the image firm in w an. m your mind? Gre Now. tabletop are put togeth with sim e her mof the t ple ton ngue and grove type construction. we see the first parts of the tablee top to c construct. and beof tween t those lines is where yo will mak ou ke he s mply measur in re Th sawing is easy – sim from each end of the post on both top. measure 1/4” on e e either side o it.
so w what’s next t? Next. Let’s look at the next diagram.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One teeth on your s saw. T tool tray and u The y conn nectors need no too oling. abov and belo the cha ve ow annel. will crews and such. and th struts t he that go bet tween them which w receive the vice sc m. we com N mmence to making the skirt e boar rds. we can see this t n in action onc again. cut into the end fa of o ace the post. keep the same size blade in it as we used p e for plowing ou the chann in the tableut nels top lumber piec – this is pretty muc the ces s ch sam operation here. dimensions to start out with. Below. We should rou out me n ut the channels in the skirt bo n oards like th his. n in f it replaces a router. unti you meet your prev il t vious cuts – now you have cons u structed the tongues a the e at ends of your p posts! These will fit int the e to chan nnels in th short sk boards when he kirt you put it all together. Let’s look at wh s hat’s left from the last cut list. Th is why a plow plan comes his ne in handy – i this one particular function. and after th we will dovetail a hat th ends of t skirt boards for pie he the ecing together. those round and square. What com next. g d which shows all the hol placemen w s le nts. is the measur mes ring and placement o certain h p of holes. 41 . we can see th skirt boa with he ards th channels plowed o he s out. on the skirt bo n ce n oards. and th hat’s the easy part. Above. n h? now let’s w work these into e form Another easy task for the m m. r miracle wor rking plow plane! Gra the plane and ab e. Fairly easy d yeah Okay.
Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O
At (C), we h have 1&1/2” holes dri ” illed, then squared ou by chisel or coping saw ut l (see photo at lo ower-right o page 11) – I of ) perso onally prefe the copin saw, in this er ng appli ication – the are cent ese tered at 2& &1/4” up fr rom the bot ttom edge, and 7&1/2 in 2” from the end. To make sure your holes are m o e s perfe ectly square measure out the end ree, d sult, drawing o the squ out uare with your y penci before yo set to dri il, ou illing. At (D), we ha the hole to receive the t ave es e 1” vi screws – make thes holes 7/8 in ice se 8” diam meter, center at 9&1/ in from the red /2” m “left edge”, and 2&1/2” up from the botd p tom edge. e At (E), we ha the hole to receive the t ave es e vice’s support ro – these are 5/8” in diods e n ameter, and cen ntered at 3” to either side ” from the vice sc crew hole’s c center line, and 2” up from the b p bottom edge e. t ave es e At (E), we ha the hole to receive the vice’s support ro – these are 5/8” in diods e n ameter, and cen ntered at 3” to either side ” from the vice sc crew hole’s c center line, and 2” up from the b p bottom edge e. At (F), we ha the exac same thin as t ave ct ng C, with the sam centering measureme me ents, but make sure that you c m center the hole from the correc end – th is the skirt m ct his board that is to be placed o the left side, d on s and once it is th o here, you w want to see that the hole’s cente was mea h er asured from the m end that would b towards you. It’s ea – t be asy see th diagram? How the h he ? hole is close to er
Abov we see t diagram showing th ve, the m he placeme of the h ent holes in all of the ski l irt boards. Notice tha the board in this diaat ds gram a arranged with inne and outer are d er faces placed face up – this is so you ca s an r, quare (like the big on ne transfer with a sq shown i the left si of the to photo o in ide ools on page 11), the me easurements and places ments o holes to b drilled fr of be rom one ski irt board, t the corres to sponding op pposite boar rd that wo ould be pl laced acros the work ss kbench f from it, once assembled e d. At (A we have 3/4” holes centered at A), e s, 2&1/2” in from th end, and 2&3/4” u ” he d up from th bottom ed he dge. At (B we have 3/4” holes centered at B), e s, 2&1/2” in from th end, and only 2” u ” he d up from th bottom ed he dge.
w getting hamm g mered.00 fu urniture – it’s a rugge piece of equiped f ment that’s b m been made for the pur rpose of working on with light and heavy lumber. ade e and then cuttin along the lines. d me but 18+ +1/4” in from the end. nt ng. mea asure and d draw a squ uare around the hole and then chisel out t corners… or. and you make a cut that’s just shy p of perfect. meas he suring and drawing ou the squar use the coping ut re.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One one end? And that the dia agram is sho owing the inner face. got it! Okay. eh e h? Always rem A member to m make your c cuts – not on the lines you draw. repla aced the bla into the saw. Perse everance is a virtue. s Once we’ve got all t that done. Here. don get ove t n’t erly frust trated if yo ou’re worki away at one of ing t th hese holes here in t this one particular project. if your cut allows a one or ar ts tw millimet gap to h wo ter happen that does not d cause loosen ness in the end result and is t. m Remember this always – it’s ju good R s ust common sen nse. si imply just a tiny eyesore. facing up at you? Yeah you h. we can do o of two things here we can mark one e… the center poin for drillin drill the hole. Let’s look s at a photo to se what I me here. d It can take it. ole question. Simple enough. mad the ng e de roun hole squ nd uare. n le sand down ext wood le behind… but d tra eft … 43 . ee ean ju go ahea and try to replace tiny parts ust ad o of wood tha were mi o at istakenly cu away ut fr rom the w wrong side of your markings. in ma N aking holes square. e the … we can drill th hole and then. So. la project. I have sim mply taken the blade o of out the coping saw put it through the ho in w. then don’t min the eye n nd esore so much. remem mber that th workben is not a piece of $5 his nch 5. just as I had show back on page H s wn n 15. saw to make the holes sq w quare. heart. we a again have the same s square hole centered at the sam height. and generally beat on. I things will still fit together o If ti ightly. But also r remember th in this particuhis. the only t th hing left w need to d before the final we do t part of this project – th vices – is to do p he th dovetaili of the s he ing skirt boards edges. m Now. an is anothe part that is remind er niscent of c n creating a puzzle wit interth lo ocking piec ces. Don’t toss away that piece of wood m t o in frustration and lose h n n. s’ Here again i where th H is hings get a mite inte eresting. b at es. but on the waste s side of the line You can always fil and e es. Make doubly su that ure your chisels are extra sh y harp for this step of s th project – the qualit of your dovetailhe ty d in directly depends up this in the most ng pon t la argest of wa ays. an finally… nd … At A (G).000.
Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One C g r W
Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One
Dove ling D etail
Never done dovetailin before, you N e ng say? Well, let’s take a begi ? s inner’s look at it. k The concept is really ver simple. First, e s ry let’s get to kn s now two ve importan raery nt tios; 6:1, and 8:1. The d ese describe the e shap of the d pe dovetails, as to their re s espective angles – 6 for sof e 6:1 ftwoods, an 8:1 nd for h hardwoods. This is how those num . w mbers are used…
so oftwood. O course, th Of hese days th here are st tencils and various gear for cranking d c th hese marks out quite snappily, but this s book is abou getting b b ut back to basi yes? ics, Our woodwo O orking ance estors have left us a wonderful le w egacy, after all. Out of respect r f fo that, we all need to acknowle or o edge our ro every n and ag oots now gain. For this reason, and because it’s a go a e ood learnin expeng ri ience, I enc courage you to try this old meu th out. hod Alright, le look at some mor inforet’s t re mation and take a pee at this here diam ek h gram shown below; g
When using this formul if you w W la, wanted to m make dovet tails wider than 1”, si imply mea asure 1/2” in from ea mark o the ach on boar rd’s edge, onto the l lower line, connect ting the dia agonal lines to them. I you s If wan nted to mak a 1/2” wi dovetail, then ke ide you only need to have your lines inte u ersect at 3 or 4” do 3”, own from th top edge. This he . is to keep your dovetails at the prope ano r er gle, according to the ratio used, depending on whether y you’re usin hardwoo or ng od
he Here we can see th relative ease of making the mating pie of this type of m ece jo oinery – no need to m o measure mu uch, just tr race the pa attern of on onto the other… ne with a sharp pencil. A w p Again, in an doveny
Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop Book One W
tailing o other joi or inery, it’s al lways best to make y your cuts – N NOT on the line, but o e on the was side of t line. You can alway ste the u ys true-up edges and surfaces w d with a shar rp chisel o other bla later. B patient – I or ade Be can’t stress that enough. It’s also bes st, when d drawing them out in th beginnin m he ng, to mark the pieces to be cut a k s away with a an ‘x’, or whatever. This shou keep yo uld ou from c cutting out the wron segment ng ts, should y someho become distracted. you ow In a little bit, w we’ll talk a about makin ng some p practice do ovetail join on som nts me scrap w wood, and a couple of pointers wi ill be men ntioned – b before t but that, let’s g go over a little bit m more inform mation on th he project at hand. After sawing th diagonal cuts into th r he he board - see the ph hotos to th right for a he good lo at this - we’ll need to chisel out ook d the chu unks to be cut away. Let’s get a good lo at these photos whi I explain ook ile n. Now you don’t want to chisel clea t an through the chunk just yet – first, get a h k good bi into it, t ite then take th bit out b hat by chiselin at it the o ng other way, f from the edg ge of the e of the bo end oard as the p photos show w. Work away at t k this just a l little bit at a time. B patient. If you take your tim Be me, you’ll h have better r results. Once you’ve ch e hiseled awa about ha ay alf of the first dovet tail pin, fli over you ip ur work an do the re from the other side. nd est
points out proba s ably the most import m tant thing t remembe Now to er. y le-pin dov vetails. You h have the kno owledge now Be w. aside from the 6:1/8:1 thing. To te you the truth. half that. ry Also rem member to trace and transfer your doveta with a sharp pencil. alth hough you c could make them say. a w . ju practice Remembe your ratios. e h You can eve stagger th lengths of a few Y en he o along a row of them. First try some on the flat – that t is to say. cour rageous and be creative. The y ails diagram bel d low. an keeping them m nd even spaced. tr your han at some th join at a corner. in bigger pieces. thr m rowing dov vetails whe ere-ever… no measuri ing. u’ll ell man woodcra ny afters – my yself includ ded just draw them out. you just do fine. Just follow t t the guidelines given. and . That’s all you really have nly . to k know. Don make the too long this is n’t em g. along t same pl the lane surfa These can have d ace. really. ry nd hat These dovet T tails are lim mited in le ength by th thicknes of the a he ss adjoining pi iece. “Bu how man dovetails do we pu in? ut ny ut Where are the measurem e ments for t this?” Wel that’s th beauty o dovetaili ll. how w did you do? It’s no that T well u ot 47 . er tr your hand at both. yo ou’re proba ably wondering. d Not N confide yet? Ta ent ake some scrap woo and try making a few singl od. joining tw boards to make wo t one longer o o one. dovetails in varying le engths. and ust e.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One By B now. he of ing – you can put th u hem anywh here you please. r There.
then sl liding in all the tableto l op lumber. eh? B rememb there’s n But ber. That. connector and tool tray piec . Ther re’s one fin thing a nal about the do ovetails i the work in kbench – the ere’s a way to arrange the doveta e ailing so th when yo hat ou put all o the piece of the tab of es bletop togeth her. e If at that poin you need an extra pa of nt air hand then get a friend to help you out – ds. you’ be puttin three ski boards to ’ll ng irt ogether f first. an there is n loosenes nd no ss. the bottom part show . y don’t n you need vapor-l lock seals fo for dovetails either – i a workb it’s bench – yea ah. Let a friend he elp. m ws that the left skir board’s d t rt dovetails sh hould be or riented in a way that will allow it to slide into place t that way. ing any trouble w it. tient”. mber that you ur scrap w wood practic dovetails are just th ce s hat – practi ice. let’s look at the diagram at th k he upper-ri ight of this page… In th top part o that diag he of gram. s snapp into pla and the whole ass ped ace.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O complic cated. Th does tw things. Fo re to or example. then o we can see th this arr c hat rangement also serve to streng es gthen again any stre nst esses that might pos ssibly be c caused by the move ement of the two vices. You’ll get the han of it soo ng on enough. rs l ce. one. It isn’t ha or diffic in the s ard cult slightest wa ay to figur out . o ant he t of course. very im mportant. 48 . no real or practical n need to ma them s ake so perfect that you c couldn’t fit a subatom mic particle into the joi Remem e int. a with Th hat’s anothe safety sub er bject – an extra e pair of hands. e sembly is wood-scr i rewed onto the legs. Inversely. o. Perfecti takes tim ion me. you wa to do th best that you can. it keeps his wo k thing steady for sliding the tabl gs g letop lumb into alig ber gnment (see the bottom of e m the diagram on p d page 40 for how they all fit a toget ther . Reme ember also that for your work o kbench.but d don’t do it y there’s still yet. more to do firs and two once it’s all e st). “be paall. then do on’t allow t tiny aesthet imperfectic tions ke you from building your base o eep m of operatio ons. that’s a I often say. in case the two you e have just aren’t enough. b especia be so w yoursel but ally with lf. o don’t go killing yourself t t g trying to ju uggle all th lumber b yourself if you’re havhat by f. and then you’ll be putting on t final ski n the irt board. is ve ery. But as lon as every ng ything fits to ogether s strongly. we ca an see how the doveta should b oriented – w ails be d so that t pieces w slide together in th the will his fashion. It always g o t’s good to hav an ve extra pair arou a und.it’s just easy t forget.
mem mber the h holes drilled into the legs. solid. sturdy o g oak screws Some s.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One A friend can also be an invaluable item n n e to k keep around your work d kshop. k After drillin holes in the boa A ng nto ard. and often only needs ma y aintaining w pizza. Here are or and H th ones tha I made fo the work he at or kbench – good. b As you ca see in th photo. For your ing ll he F fi ones. we can s the scre I made from see ews 3/4” oak dowel Always u hardwoo ” ls. hardwoods a better th others for this. right Great – now we us the t? se thre eading tools to thread those hol to s d les rece eive a 3/4” wooden sc crew. s. d near the tops of them? They’re 5/ in r /8” diam meter. out th hreaded it d down its en ntire length. abo two feet long. ve!! abov Hi. I’v taken an he ve a 3/4” oak dowel. Now rew. m irst make them square. b so this is a b o better shape allowing for a bit e. he also from oa out of a 1/2” thick board. seen …here’s one of my fav ve. In t picture at the upp the per-right of this page. Dav Anywho. ey so Needless to say. myself… … fo your wooden nuts a bolts. and cut it into 2 & 3 t 3/4” lengths I made th heads. w with wings and beer. We’ll learn hex nuts lat Now is the time to make h ter. more grab-a m ability for h hand turning than a g hexagonal sh h hape could o offer. bef m fore cutti them al out of th board. I cut them all out – he a you can see I chose a simple squar shape y re fo the head of these p or ds particular screws – s th hese are me erely to be tightened by hand. h are han but oak and maple are a b among the best. and th hreading th holes. s t vorite ones. ba to the p A ack project. the were als much more easily laid out in pencil. I like to keep a f few. a we ad ” as talk about ea ked arlier in this book. use ods 49 . We al go lso ahea and make the 3/4” screws. a ak.
anyways. the truts. t e from the ends to make our cuts. 1” taken from each side leaves a . ee se are the struts for the vice sc crews – onc ce we ban these ou we can a ng ut. The lo m o onger on (A). and 9& &1/2” from one end – in the shor strut. midd hole for redle r ceiving the vice screw. and drilld ing a 1&1/2” inc hole at t center point. meas suring wher the cente point sh re er hould be an marking out the sq nd g quare. ave which we have o both a lo one. ter Th smaller h he holes on ea side of the ach f large ones. In the diagram we see t three st m. h squar of 1&1/2 re 2”x1&1/2” – easy! But also notic that all b one is sh ce but horter than that one there. assemble th he workbe ench! What will be the first proje e ect to make on our new workbenc Well. o course! H of Haha!! 50 . Fin nally. are 5/8” in dia er ameter. Ok – see that black square ma kay arked (B)? We make it the same way we made e m the sq quare morti holes in the skirt bo ise oards. and cen- he e rly In th diagram above. T nto rt These are made m squar buy cutti one inch into each side re ing h – rem member the are 1& ese &1/2”x 3&1/2”? Well. The short ones. th is m rter his to be measured from the end with the e d e short tenon. we can clear see that I am gettin increasin t ng ngly worse at this com mputer draw wing progra I’ve bee am en using fo these diag or grams… *e ehe* Well. ch the then using a cop ping saw to square it into o shape The cent point is at the cente of e. The l t larger. ee ey should look like once they y’re cut an nd shaped correctly. th e w ch? he vices. we measure 3/4” . We’ve seen the d dimensions for them in two cut lists so f let’s se what the t far. Notic that the e ce ends are cut with tenon to t ns fit in the squa mortise holes we have nto are h cut in the skir boards. ter er the piece (1&3/ from either edge). on th upper pa of the short t he art s strut. is to be 7/8” in e s diam meter. we ha the vice hole sets (C). and p /4” 7&1/ in from one of the e /2” ends. and c centered 1& &3/4” up from f what will be the bottom ed t e dge.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O what ar probably the easiest parts of th re t his whole t thing – the t three struts for the vice es. and the on ong d short one. we m ne measure 1& &1/2” – sim mpler than falling off a log. we can se that thes .
S grab the longer vic strut wit the e ce th scre ew hole t be thre to eaded. i this helps to align th if s hem – then clamp them together tightly. you’ll want l to m mark which way you’re facing the strut. when all tohe and n gether in a r g row – and f find the cen line nter down their length on th face of th lumbd he he er that will b the top of the table Measbe e. ed he and 3” to eithe side from the larger h er hole’s cent point. mee the next one at a d et distance wi ithout skip pping or ca atching thre eads resulti in ing buck kling. mber the first paragrap on phs page 25? In o order to ma sure tha the ake at vice screw will turn throu one hole and e l ugh e. Go through it a es fell h coup times o so. N ter Now. his nt rt and the sho strut – mark your faces! a ort Don’t get thi D ings backwa ards! The last t thing. after all. The T next-to-last thing to do here is to thre all of the holes for the vice scr ead rews four holes. e he gue”) 5&1/2 and ma a mark on that g 2”. so be ca areful. an then sep ne nd parate them in increm m ments of whole. and the d righ ht-end short skirt board – place the strut d e agai inst the inn face of the skirt b ner f board (the face with t channel routed out of it). Do all of D th also with the fron long skir board. bu not e rt ut exac – try n to confu them – they ctly not fuse diff in the di fer istances up from the bo ottom edges. ake cut – we w want the v vice screws to go s sm moothly thr rough them. is to drill holes into the ta abletop lum mber – why is it the las thing? st Well. an thread th nd hrough both 7/8” h hole in one f swoop. from the end (t very en from the edge of th “tonthe nd. or half inchf es w when they ar put into p re place. e the and line up the holes (actu e ually. we need to th hread both holes toge ether as on piece. to ma sure it’s well ple or ake s Take two out of the f five – these will be e th second a fourth ones. So. but we’ll be do r oing them t two at a tim Remem me. e so t that you do on’t get it backwards once you install it) – put 5/8” dowels i the u in sma aller holes.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One tere 1&1/2” up from th bottom edge. W o st and it doesn need to be the first thing – a n’t t it just the e t’s easier thing after all th comg. it doesn’t need to be the las thing. n m Now grab th threadin tool from the N he ng m one inch set. the m measuremen for nts the placements of these holes are very similar to those on the skir boards. ure down th center l u hat line. 51 . he plicated stuf is over wi p ff ith.
and join them together at the dovetails. for ease of insertion. on each one of the two pieces. The wooden rings in this list have an outside diameter of 2”. the tongues on the lumbers. and screw it all into place . installing the two long vice struts as you do so. and 6” more. and right-side skirt boards. and that’s it! When sliding in the connectors. and slide it to fit onto the previous connector – on the other side of that lumber. Okay.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One center line – from there. and the back skirt board. Take the back. add another connector. standing a tri-square by the hole you’re drilling. and so on (as indicated at the bottom part of the diagram on page 40). until you run out of lumbers and connectors. Remember that the longer tenon on the shorter strut goes into the square mortise of the longer strut. Take your time… have some patience… we’re almost there! Now get a friend to help you turn it over onto the tops of the whole legs and crossbeams assembly. you may see that they’re quite a tight fit – do yourself a favor and sand down the corners of these things smooth – if you have to fine-tune the tongues and such with a chisel or a plane. now we need to make sure we understand how the struts go together under the table – take a look at the photo on page 39 to see how they all fit in. and fit its tongue into the channel in the right-end short skirt board. and fit it into the channel on the inner face of the front long skirt board. do so – we don’t want to split the skirt boards apart – we’ve come too far along in this project to go destroying it and frustrating ourselves into a frenzy. and all there is left to do is to slide in the tool tray board between the channels of the last lumber. until you run out of length – you should have 11 marks in all. Now attach the last.there! How does it look so far? Now we have a stable surface to make our very first project to be made on this workbench – the vices! Vice layout and construction… Let’s take a look at the cut list on the following page. and a connector. and the tool tray board. I think we’re ready! Assembling the tabletop… here is where we put it all together. Okay. take one of the undrilled lumbers. Now take a connector. short skirt board. I use a brace and bit to do this – if you are as well. really helps to guide your doing so. and so on. measure 6” and mark. You can see what I mean in the photo on the previous page. Take the 1/2” square stock connectors (remember them?) and lightly sand down the corners along the lengths. Now. short vice strut. and an 52 . front. and 6” still more. and then add a drilled lumber. and the last. Drill 3/4” holes all the way through. at each of these marks.
and t outer on 2”.ind stea take a p ad. the ne. rou p er und over one end o with a doming plane. 1/2” th hick). m y an Drill out the 7/8” inch hole. and nd give it a goo conical sh g od hape. Th face boa is of w he he ard oak. se and we’ll make what’s nex e xt. draw his two concentric circles – t inner on beo c the ne ing 7/8” in diam meter. solid hardwoo and be g od. two for each of the vices. and we’ll move on. 53 . boards’ hole need thr b es reading. Next. e m. Afte that. ith … at le 4” squ east uare (remem mber. between the two faces that we pin our b ese work into th vice.refer t the cle u ier to larg diagram o the next page. or ra asp. w nd ill with a roun w nded. b the insid dir but de ame eter is to b threaded to receive a 1” be thre eaded bolt – so don’t cut the ou utside diam meter until the inside is threaded . Th backhe in board is that which is between the face ng board and th crank ha b he andle. us o he and sing a coping saw. cut out around the 2” diameter t d circ that you drew earli . being face and backing g parts. file an sandpaper).Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One inside diameter of 7/8”. and is made fr rom pine. or use a ra w asp. to provide s strength. piece of go ood. Now you can d w draw two crossing line bees tween opposite corners to find the c e o center of th square. an a tiny nd bit of surfac flexibility for the sc b ce y crew cap and handle assembly to squish against. the sam material as the skirt boards. The fa board is the part that meets p ace s th face of th workben skirt boa It is he he nch ard. a then. hard s strength. almos all the st way – the en result wi be an 80% cone. trunc cated tip. a when tighten w ning the vic Neither of these ce. file and sandpap Next. ge on Now you ha the lock N ave king rings fo the for vice mechanism Set thes aside for now. we have the vice boards. generous wi its size… say. ke ng (a again. o me t to provide g o good. and taking a compass. Cu them ut and drill the as indic a em cated in the cutting e li and diag ists grams. and th hread the tw lengths of 1” dow com wo wels pletely. See the photo of co p ompleted v vice below to see more clearly what I mea here. and t D e thread it to receive th 1” bolt. tak the conin plane a per. e Take the 1” set of th hreading to ools.
You can see wh I gon u hat 54 . Ne apply some d ext. Wha I did next was ht o at to cu off four co ut orners. s glue.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O Using the same method (do g oming the tip is not required he ere). in the center s a 7/8” h of one of the fa aces. but you Th next thin is not re migh wish to do this. f t e Now take your 3&1/2” cub and dri bes. an o 1” nd use the bottoming tap – the t tool used fo for threadin blind hol (holes th come to a ng les hat stop mid-way in the woo that co nto od). Thread that hole to receive a 1 screw. ill hole across the grain. nd cure overnight. make one end o of each of the support rods come to a point. screw in t flat end of the 1” vice the d screw all the way in. an let the glue ws. his ng equired. to 2& &1/2” deep. omes with the tap and die set. in effect makin an ng octag shaped piece.
mply use a little well-known tr rick here. or you p u e might come up with so m omething different. This is d done after the gluing of the g sc crew into t screw c has com the cap mpletely dried – onc it has dr d ce ried. d Be creative. I al started rounding over the p lso o to of the sc op crew cap o the right. and inh gh deed right th d hrough. and d drilled on o face’s c one center poin all the w through To make these nt. s e 55 . then find the center point on a side fa and dri a 3/4” ace. Now we can d gets d w make the oct m tagon shape e. involving your tri-s square. let’s look at the diagram below. the glued-in 1” screw e 1 th herein. oto ow. bloc octagon we sim cks nal. in that on picture. As you ca see in th photo at the upan he per-left. This is the hole for the cra hans e ank dle (which g attached last). B Okay. way h.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One mea right here in the pho just belo an e. ill hole all the way thoug . You might like to as well. nex we put this screwxt -and-cap assembly in through the 1” hole of the a e f You Y can also see holes drilled thr s rough the sides of the pieces – these are 3/4” in ese diam meter. and a pencil… it’s really e easy.across.
onto the floor r… No no. as th will pass with time and y his s use – try going through the vice sc g crew hole with the thr reading tool one more time l to ma sure it’s well cut. and you have your re uld d y comp pleted work kbench! Yo vices ma go in a m squeakily – our ay mite worry not. e e. … some leathe or er rawh hide cord.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O pine ba acking board. he locking ring is g g glued in p place (to th he threads only). not so tightly as to o restrict any movem ment. let this cure overnight. s the c and… they fall right thro … l ough. is ing a positi that poi ion ints the screw up to th he roof – set it on tw stacks o books. of course! They might just flip w y t – gaz zing upon it in awe and wonder . And there ’t with t you have it! Now just screw in your vices h w v wher they shou go. eel ow er No what? Invite your friends ove to show it off. ma an ama ake algam putty of sawdu y ust and glu and after having lib ue. on wo of ne on on e either side o the screw cap. making sure no glue oozes ont the locki ring mee to ing chanism Have thi whole thi drying in m. See tha they are set straigh Now. paat ht. an craft many nd m wond derful thing on it! Ste back. ne!!” and etc. – See? Now we w want to glue the oak fac ce board r right onto t this one – align all th he holes . e . Now glue in th support r w he rods – if the ey are a lo oose fit (an they rea shouldn nd ally n’t be). a wrap it tightly aro and t ound one end. Th complete workben he ed nch… Th is the en of the firs project th is his nd st hat the beginning o all our pr b of rojects to come c in thi series of books – I h is hope you enjoy your new wor rkbench. gluin it in pla – but b g ng ace be extra c careful to o only get gl lue where it should be to fix t this in place – see to it that you do not glu anything else together u ue here… we want ev verything to still be ab o ble to move But at the same time be sure th e. put it through. and we screw on th he locking ring. b see that you ake s but t don’t go and re-t t thread it in the process s. Loo at this ph ok hoto. no… we take s o.sayt d ing th hings like. and right up c d close again nst the pine board – ag e gain. 56 . he putty in the gluey spaces to shim it tigh nto y ht. but yo don’t want ou it loose. ta a gs ep ake look at it. and then wrap t w more around the other end… there we go! e e … I actually file a bit of a groove aro a ed ound the ends near the tips.and clamp it on tight. either. and fe proud. tiently. so th the wrapping e hat won’ slide off w rough use. berally glue ed the rod into plac squish some of th ds ce. if nee of w ed be. “ “There’s no nails or scr rews in it at all??” or “I want on r. FIN NALLY… finally… we take the crank handles a put the through the k and em h holes that we drilled into t screw caps.
Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One bask in the gl k lory! Heheh You’ve now he! e buil the launc pad for m lt ch many projec of cts you to take off from. urs Now. I love t heck ou of it. eh ood h? From here. and get set for some m machine mak king. G everythi all sharp Get ing pened up. Now. what do we m N make from here? What would be a good pr e roject to wo on ork next How abo a wood machine that t? out den e can make turne wood ite ed ems? Sound like ds a go idea. I sh hould mentio here tha there’s on at one small pa of this p o art project that will eith be chise her eled out (a mite difficu operult ation for the beginning chisel user consia e g r. ot-powered wood turn ning lathe. Now th will be fun! he his fu 57 . u at’s e. dering the p d position of the part to be chise out). eled th If you ha a router and woul rather ave r ld use that. a it the ut This proje is simpl enough. and it’s ect le going to take a lot less time to cre than g eate th first project. and I’ll admi it. or routed wit a router. we move on to our next F r fun-filled proje the foo ect. tha just fine I’ve got one too.
Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One C g r W
ws. Aside from t tools use in the sh A the ed haping. let’s exam mine that f a momen for nt… basica ally. and some screws used for securing s s th pulleys in place. ood which is really quite stu w urdy. as old-time wo ooden foot t-powered l lathes go. t th then we can ma woodtu n ake urnings like chess piec woodw ces. a sc p creen door spring. T first lat type g The the we will be b w building in this book is the res ciprocating l lathe. that was able to spin wit enough force. What exactl does a w W ly woodturning mag chin do? Wh ne hat’s involv ved? Well. pulleys. ther are only two basic t re things invol lved hold ding the wo in place and spinn ood e. it is a tool that suspends l lengths of wood betw ween two p points. The recip procating la athe… This mac chine is m made almos comst pletely out of wood. ning it on an axis. o ng points with s p small screw as you’ll see. th here are two mao jor t types – thos that are w se wheel driven n. wind instrum ment bodies tool s. and spins it tow wards you for tooling and shapin u. Let’s take a s lo at what involved here… ook t’s 59 . machi pieces and compo ine onents wooden bea arings. If we can make a mac chine that can do those two things one e s. to be used for u keeping the work piece steady in the mak e chine. for w Now as far a all the o w. g ng. except for a few p r sm parts – it uses two plumb bob three mall o bs. ly and those th move b a hat back and fo orth in a re eciprocating motion.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One Are A you rea for this one? A w ady s woodturn ning lathe… foot-powe … ered… mad out de of w wood… sou unds crazy? Why shou it? ? uld The ey’ve been made out o wood for cenof r turie even millennia. until som es. Th hat’s it. The piece of this machine are very es a si imple – yo might be surprised at how ou e very uncomp v plicated this all is. handles. he nto The joining of the pieces tog gether is done primari with car d ily rpenters’ wo glue. meone mad one out o iron and s de of steel. and a large d ro outer bit be earing – ther are also five nail re f points used in the spin p ndle. and will stand w th test of ti he ime – you have the option of doing just th or also reinforcin those d hat. which turn c w continuousl in one direction.
h here is wh here we tak a look at ke another cut list – a this woo can be an r all od ny hardwo you cho ood oose. and someti imes they are much m more expen nsive – it all del pend on what y get and where you get ds you d u it. are made from th he The lath blocks h same p post lumber we used i the work r in kbench’s legs and ta s abletop construction. As far as t hardwar the re that wil go into th lathe. let’ take a loo ll he ’s ok and see what we need here . bu ut only tw of these cubes will actually bewo l come p of the lathe. and one of the tw . The th one wi part hird ill be used like a jig. Th pulleys ( he (2&1/2” x 1 1&1/2” x 1/ /2”). Bearings l like this go for anyw o where between 6-12 do ollars each at some wo oodwork king tool sup pply stores. but fee free to us el se plywoo for the 1/4” and 1/2 stock – a od 2” as long as it is superi quality and strengt ior th. and two bolt. ng-nut sets. ly ts ware neede are som nail poi ed. such as Baltic Bir – thoug it may b s rch gh be less ex xpensive to just use r regular hard dwoods. her.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O Parts and const s truction… Okay. to help alig the poin d gn nts in the o other two.T photos at e The the bott tom-right of this page show one o of the thr ree pulleys. two loop screw ws b also known as screw eyes. plum bobs and screen door spring can all m r n be go otten at mo any hom supply wareost me w house The onl other bit of hardw e. wash and win 60 . wn oto ow he here. wo This one is 1&1/8” outsid and 5/8” inde. me ints and scr rews for the spindle head. The large router bit bearin is mb e ng show in the pho just belo here. ” side. if you ca find the at thos an em se thicknesses. plum bobs.
Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One
As A for the bolt, washe and win er ng-nut sets and the s s screw eyes, here is w , what I mea in this diagram below an w; As you ca see by t diagram to the an the m le this bolt is of the t eft, type that ha a 1/4” as se ection just u under the h head that is actually sq quare, inste of round – this is very imead d v portant. With p hout this, y may hav some you ve minor troubl tightenin the wing-nuts on m le ng th parts that use them. Be sure to find this he t particular ty of bolt. You’ll need two of p ype d th hem, as well as the washe ers and wing-nuts th go with them, and two of w hat h d th screw ey he yes. In the diagram below, we can see all the n e parts for the first part of this pro p e oject, as mentioned in the cut li on the previous m n ist p page. The sc p creen door s spring is any ywhere
Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O
between 12” and 16” long, whatever is n easiest to find. Make sure it has a good, strong p to it. N pull Note that in t diagram this m, some th hings are se elf-explanato – such a ory as the fact that all hol and groo t les oves, be the ey high or low on the piece, are centered in r e the mid ddle, between the le and right eft edges o the piece. of You’ll notice co orners cut of at a 45 deff gree an ngle – these serve no r e real purpos se, but are just there for looks – I measure ed from th corners, 1 along eac edge from he 1” ch those c corners, and from tho marks, I d ose drew lin and ma the cuts. As you wi nes ade ill soon se I did a si ee, imilar thing with two o g of the thre blocks, th will hav the plum ee hat ve mb bobs installed into them. Same reason, ju ust for look ks. On you hav cut every nce ve ything in the cut e list to size, and study the diagram be o elow, and have brough all your p h ht pieces to sh hape, we can move on to crea c ating the other o piece es. At the bottom of this pag we see how t m ge, the tw plumb b wo bobs are in nstalled into the o block When gl ks. luing them into the blo ocks, use an epoxy re a esin. Let’s look at ano other cut li with the remainder of the parts ist, s;
Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One
In that last cut list, we see the c n center find ders – simp home-m ple made tools. Take the two squares and to eac of them, draw s, ch two lines, cross o sing each ot ther, from c corner to corner, maki a big “X on one fa of ing X” ace each of the tw squares of wood. Now, h wo drill holes righ at that ce l ht enter mark w where the two lines cross – on square should ne have a 1&1/2” hole, and the other one d r shou have a 5/8” hole. These will help uld l you find the c u centers on the ends o the of dow in this p wels project (see cut list). Put the e ends of the do owels into th holes, so that he o one end is flush with the f h face of the s square with the penci markings on it – tra h il ansfer that “X” onto the dowel’ end, and now t ’s d you u’ve found your cente Once you’ve er. don that, take a look at th ne his; fi inders, and mark the c for drilling, just cap li this here diagram sh ike e hows;
es Drill the outer hole for the screws (s shown abov in gray 1” deep, and for ve, y) th nails (sh he hown abov in black 5/8”. ve, k) Don’t drill the center yet. Now saw the D piece in two - body and cap – as in the dip o d n agram in th left colu a he umn of thi page. is Now we dril the center hole at 1/4 wide, N ll r 4” in the cap, all the way through. nto y Use a cou untersink d drill bit to counterc si the hole to receive the heads of your ink es nails and scr n rews so tha they will be flush at with the surf w face of the w wood, and not stick n out. Do this on one side for the fiv nails, o ve and on the other side fo the four sc a or crews. Find the c center poin on both ends of nts th spindle b he body – into one end, dr a 5/8” rill hole, to 3/4” deep. Into the other end, drill h ” e a 1/8” hole a the way through to the hole all at the other e a end. Counte ersink this la hole, ast so that the sc o crew here w sit flush will h. The five n nails need to be certain lengths o n – if you can find them at these lengths, n’t m you’ll have to get them longer, an cut or y m nd grind them t size – if s be sure to leave g to so, good, sharp points. The central na needs g e ail to be 1/4” w o wide, and 7/ long fro head /8” om
n diagram, we can see th the e hat In that last d spin ndle head h been cut in two, be has t ecoming the spindle body, and t spindle cap – the the body being 1” in leng and the cap, g gth, e 1/2” But befor you cut it use your c ”. re t, center
Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop Book One W to poin The othe four nails need to b nt. er be 1/8” w wide. a as well as the four thi inner nails i into the hole es round a about it – b sure the heads are be eir well co ountersunk into the w wood and not sticking out. take the pulley blo pieces from the cu e ock ut list on p page 62. and ins sert the rem maining fo screws – our now yo have the complete spindle. and abo an inch long. keeping your scre holes w g ew well aligned. he d ndle bod insert on of the scr dy. and insert it into t cap’s ce the enter hole. T screws a need to b 1/8” wid The all be de. 64 . an one for th body. Use your center e finder t mark the center of t other en to e the nd of the spindle rod. Now take t wide nai the il. Now glue it t the bod g w to dy. Nex ou xt. holdin ng the spin ndle rod in place. gl it into th 5/8” hole in the spin lue he e ndle bod and in th other end of the spin dy. and see this di d iagram here e. r nd he Take the spindl rod. ne rews. and 3/4” long fr from head to point. You’l need five – out ll four for the cap. and using woo le od glue.
e directly into the other. o side t li this. using the four cut m ke method show at the to of page 33. and glue it d to the unders of one of the point blocks. After I make wn op this cut. rrange and s screw in th pulleys. he like Take the 1/2”x3&1/ /2”x3&1/2” square ” fr rom the dia agram on page 61. l this. every ybody!). I use a chis to take o the sel off wed dged part – see below. then we ar ed . an I’m nd usin the dozuk – the dov ng ki vetailing saw – to w mak the cut.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One On O the facin page. we can see the arr H n rangement o the of pull leys on the block. y ng you can see that e I’ve got the b e bench holdfast pinnin the ng bloc to the w ck workbench ( (I’ve gone t the to wor rkshop in Ja apan to ma this proj ake ject – welcome to Na agoya. But first… B When you g the par of the p W get rts pulley bloc mechan ck nism cut a and shaped and d glue together. Here. takin the grain direction into ng n consideration. ke ew. This is im d o mportant. we can easily s that two pulleys see o are aligned in such a way as to allow a a ro to go f ope from the wh heel of one pulley. ike Here. a screwed into all d plac Let’s tak a look at another vie ce. eh? ty 65 . See? Prett darned simple.
a at the s and square end ( (the end with no corn ners cut off) glue this onto it. insert it into the bear ring case. face” – that is. Make sure you have it al shaped ace ll cording to the dim g mensions in the diagram on page 61 – now take the lar router b e rge bit bearing and using an epoxy r g. that sid t de which f faces to the right of the machine. show at the abo g wn ove-right. we build the p r pulley block. eft g We apply glue to the part of the left face e e t that meets the r m right surfac of the pu ce ulley block and to the bottom sur k. it is into this that the spindle will be inserte But first we s l ed. a get them e nto and well screwed in. g resin glue o on the oute edge sur er rface only. th the point facing t opposite end of th the e he body. Let’s take a loo at how th bearing case s ok he fits into place (see the ph i hoto at the upper-le of facing page). Mak ee ke sure it’s glued secu s urely.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O Now go ahead and take th lathe bod he dy board. w washer and b bolt. wit the bearing side fa th acing to the right. e rface that 66 . Here we can se what I mean. After that. and le it dry for a et r while. T diagram at the abov The m ve right sa “right f ays. what’s next? Let get to th s t’s he bearing case. Make sure all you ur holes a pre-drilled! Next. Put the pulleys in place. g are glue it to th he body at 2” from the fixed p t point block k’s face. O Okay. wit f). Aft e terwards. lue ew o Now we will gl and scre this into the hine – this is going to be right up t mach again the righ side of th pulley block nst ht he b mech hanism. t have to put toge ether a coup more thi ple ings. t pulley o the bloc the on ck base’s e extension be eing held in place with nto a nut.
hat utting the sliding poin together – get the sl nt liding poin base. wa asher and bolt sets. We see he that one of the scr ere e rew eyes is already in place – that’s where we’ll be s n w Her we can see that we g re. Onc the glue dries (give it a few g ce hours). slid nt ding point fi and the other fins poin block. b First. an one of the fins into the ts nd i groove.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One it base. then we secure it into pla with h n e ace one of the w o wing-nut. a shown in the folas n lo owing photo os. an let’s put t nt nd them togeth her. mee the bod of the la ets dy athe. but now e oor b 67 . Apply ying a coup of screw here. glue this po to oint in nstalling the screen do spring. we start pu ce. hel secure t in ple ws lps this plac Once th is done. we se the bolt t F et through the body’s e sl on the u lot underside.
an the scre nd ew goes th hrough the h hole – now just tighte w en the win ng-nut. If you have the opportunity feel free to y. up from t bottom face of th body. but use t very thin scre ews. Once it slid into the slot. Nick! ng ider. You can m out screw this in als if you w w so.to create a sto preventi the first fin c op. i simpler th falling out of a tre is han ee.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O it’s tim for insta me alling the s sliding poin nt. I opte ed to use s some plastic knobs I fou c und. do the s same – or. that should point away from you tot y u. an a washer and wing he nd r g-nut (or plastic/wood knob. you might wish to streng h gthen 68 . to rest mber that strange-shap thing in the diagra at s ped n am the bottom of pa 61? Tha the tool rest b age at’s l that’s mentioned in this ch s d hapter’s first cut t list. we see it b being instal lled in the same s way as the slidi block – with the sc ing crew ed . ing from coming o of the slot. y might w to mak you wish ke some o your own These. Tu urning the whole th hing over upside-down. instead of u using wing-nuts.flat on its side n . an you’ve g it all into place. Place it over the b t body of the lathe so th hat the fin slides into the slot. an old rou table th my frien Nick no uter hat nd ow has… sorry. with a rounded corner. ward the lathe work pi ds e’s iece. screw on the wing-nut. Here is a photo o. As y can see in the phot you to below. want to. nd got o Here. I got from a of n.) place When glu e. the pushe through. and remember to r pre-d your ho – carefu drill oles fully. e l is inc clined at the top. we c see the fin in the sl – can lot glue the other fin onto this . o w or knob. uing the tool rest to the tool l rest base. etc screwed into p d c. as seen in the photo n Settin in the sli below. This gets g glued onto the end of the f tool rest base w which is far rthest from the m drille hole end. an the scre t’s nd ew comes up through the drilled hole in th h d he sliding base. The shape of the tool rest ed . Ne we go t the tool r – remem ext.
Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One
this joining wi a couple of screws like ith e s, this photo right here show t ws; Applying the spring to the screw eye is w a lot like put tting a key on a key rin only ng, ju a little b tougher. From here we atust bit e, ta a length of rope – we don’t want nyach h w lo here, as it is too slippery… we want on w so omething li those g ike good, old-fa ashioned cotton cloth hesline rope So, now we tie es. w one on… see photo belo o e ow;
Here, in the photo be H elow, is ho it ow shou all look installed in place; uld k, nto
What’s lef We insta the rope through ft? all th pulley s he system – fir into the pulley rst, e th is attach by nut a bolt to the pulhat hed and le block ba ey ase’s extens sion, up thr rough it fr rom below, just past it axel – th from ts hen th here, up on through th next pul n he lley just above it, on the pulley b a block. Next we install the screen door sp N pring. Onc that’s don we’ll be nearly fini ce ne, e ished. Let’ take a loo at this ph ’s ok hoto;
Here is where we shou have the spindle H uld e in nstalled… r remember m marking the center
iting into th end. then you he n can go ahead an put the sp g nd pindle end of all o this into the bearing like y did bef i you fore. Now it’s g fast good and sol lidly stable and you’r able to w e. in from t right. r nails pointing u – next. t forward turn bein the d ng powered by the spring – not g good enoug gh. ore anything els se with thi machine.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O on the spindle ro od’s end? P that en Put nd through the bearing. to do the oppo osite wou have yo foot pow turning it uld our wer away f from you. Ne find a c ext. t Once there is w e wood to tu in it. being urn b suppo orted by th two poin that hold it he nts tightl into plac then the foot power can ly ce. you n w need to find the d cente on each end of you work piec er ur ce… set your spindle into one of the hold y e. e ed No slide the sliding po over so the ow e oint o tip bi into the center ma on the other ites e ark o 70 . dfast holes in your w s workbench. and give the ot ral d ther end of your y work piece a fe gentle pe k ew ersuasions with your hammer. Here. s No find a good spot at the edg of ow ge your workbench to have y h your lathe. wrap pping of the rope here. is simply a dry run for you to get acquain f nted with it all. comfortable spot along the e g lengt of the ro to tie a loop for your th ope y foot to use for manipulatin – or. First. N send th you Now he rope do own throug the fina pulley. I supng pose the word h here would b pedipula be ating . set your work up w piece center p e’s point on th point of the he f centr nail. so t it doesn slip and slide all over that n’t your wo orkbench. O Once that’s good and on s d there all nails bi e. . The spr ring is only there to br y ring the spin nning ba so you can foot th work into ack he spinning towards y again. i not very stable – th the is his No let’s put some woo in this thing ow t od t for working on. a gh al as pictured But befo we do a d. we see what I mean – now wra ap the rop a few tim around the spind pe mes d dle over an towards you… th is so th nd s his he power i in your le when th work turn is egs he ns towards you – oth s herwise. re work with it. and pin it to the w i workbench with a be ench holdf or two. You’ll notice th trying to get it goin hat o ng in this way. we need to make it stais o ble. wrap pping the rope over and towards you a d y few turns. giv s on d ving it a little push so the poin bites into it nt just a m mite.the rope with. an h the nd push it through u until that m marked center touches the point o the fixed block. and setting th spindle into he place on the fixe point. witho any wo piece beout ork tween t points. so that it rests. r do its thing.
Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One
end of your w work piece, and tighte the en scre on the sliding blo ew ock. Now y you’re read to give it a whirl! Ju bring the tool dy t ust rest to the desir point to start your w red o work, and you’re read dy! A little on w woodturning… Remember, e R even on a p professional lathe l of i iron and st teel, you d don’t just ta a ake piec of squar stock an plow of the ce re nd ff corn ners – first you work t corners off a the bit w a plan and then you bring it to with ne, n g the lathe for rounding a and shaping and g such Do the sa with thi machine also. h. ame is Now, will t N this lathe w work just l like a mod dern electric type tha made of iron cal at’s and steel? And will it wor just as ea d rk asily? The naked trut is NO. W this ki of e th With ind mac chine, it tak much more skill to operkes ate. You have to time yo cuts – move our you tool into your work when it rol tour lls war you, and pull the to slightly away rds d ool as i rolls awa from you, and repe in it ay eat this way – that how you work on a recit’s u proc cating lathe like thos from by-gone e, se days. It also d doesn’t spi your wo at in ork very high speeds, and a a result, your y as wor goes slow Look at these phot rk wer. t tos;
In the fi irst photo (below, le eft), the sp pring is rela axing to the right, the work is e tu urning awa from me, and the tool is ay drawn away from the w d y work just a slight… in the next photo (abo n ove), the spring is moving to th left as it gets pulled taught, m he d th work is spinning to he owards me, and the to is pushe into the w ool ed work piece. On a mac chine like this, you REALLY R need your to n ools to be razor sharp. I won’t li to you – getting the hang of th does ie e his ta a little d ake doing, but i isn’t too difficult. it d Be patient, a keep at it… befor an afB and t re te ernoon has gone by, yo ou’ll get the feel for e th type of m his machine. As far as woodturn s ning tools go, they g can be cheap and not-so-good, or they can p, t get to be qui expensiv but they geng ite ve, y’re erally very g good at wh they’re made to hat m do – you get what you p for. d t pay As for my yself, I actu ually found a rather nifty set of chisels and gouges at an art n d a su upply store back in Portland, Maine. e They were s T sold as “woo crafting tools” – od a term that’s a mite on the general side, in s l it descriptiv ts veness – bu the way some of ut
some of t them are g good for m my persona woodturn al ning needs and som s. There a e’s certa self-suff ain ficient kind of pride you d can feel from that – hand f d-making so omething with ha tools… that you made g… and m yours self. hey my needs q quite well a good e and enough. t cut nd After cutting the piece in half at the va r e alley of th V-cut. and the holes at the tops. the it doesn’t matter th you didn en hat n’t spend 75 bucks on that on chisel o ne or gouge. an that was that. do own its leng then th serve m gth. o anything like that. o ck or Japanes white o ebony. for say. ong ep them ho oned enough to split a spider line in h two. I’m forced t think th m to hat they we made wi woodtur ere ith rning in min nd. d rough stock to a roundnes smoothe it h ss. at estion. I love i it. Th project y see me working on in he you o the photos on th previous page is a simp he s ple salt and pepp shaker s I turned the per set. An e r nyways. me aren’t. good en nough qual lity blade m material. This ed or g is a lathe for s simple proj jects… perh haps already rou stock – such und even for taking a owels – and modifying them. and good a using the tool in que . or that the handle’s wood is not e se oak. an drilling o the hollo he nd out ows. Here they are in the pict e ture below. A good and taave lented c craftsman ca take an a an adequate tool and ma extraordinary item that shin ake ms ne with his or her tale s ents. or roc maple.00. B Being that I found the whole set fo for about $ $25. an nd you are well ade and sha e ept arpening an nd honing. thi simple little project (the f is salt and pepper shakers) is just that – sima ple. ed out. I have them fit t m nishe – see belo ed ow.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O these are made (like the one in the pree vious p photos). I m nd must say th hat they are bad at a and as lo as I kee en’t all. My p tool for the right jo is true e r ob” enough… bu ut if you f find a cheap enough to that has a p ool. plain an simple. Of course. I haven’t tu urned an or rnate vase from f spalte maple. turned a V-c on it. or making some d s chess pieces. 72 . nd A little sandin and the a ng. or what ha you. addition of cork stopp for the bases. d g as do maki compon ing nents for w wooden bear rings and hinges and such. point? The old saying “the right g. like the one clearly made for fluting. how wever. or even specia tool hand s al dles. I dec cided to gra ab them an give them a try. and I have a se of pers d et all-w wood salt a and pepper shakers – all made on my lath – that I m e he made.
and so. and giving it legs. Not a reciprocating one. Experiment. Something to make all our mistakes on… oh yes. to be tied to the drive rope – now you have a foot pedal powered lathe table… get the idea? Grow with this. making it into a table – a standing tool on its own. Something we can use to turn bowls and round boxes and the like. once we get it all right. you might choose to reinforce the spindle at the fixed point end. we need to make the wheel’s axis be exceedingly precise.one we can beef up with modifications. yes… sort of. There are things we need to learn before we make our grand projects. Is that the next project? Well. so that you then can move the tool rest forward and back. with ABSOLUTELY ZERO WOBBLE. More powerful wheel-driven lathes are our next move. what we need to first make. or you might not . I’ve left some room in this lathe’s design for you to expand upon – some things are obvious. but one that turns constantly in one direction.or perhaps you might take the 1/4” hole that was drilled into the tool rest base. That right there is something anyone is pretty much guaranteed to make errors with on their first try. BEEFY woodturning lathe. in order to stay close to work pieces of different widths… right? There isn’t anything more needed to make this lathe work. is a prototype .Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One Once you have this made. So. For one example. mistakes can be made. really – as you saw. and we most certainly will. eventually – but there are many complications we need to work out first. you may have creative ideas on how to modify it to your tastes – feel free! Perhaps you might wish to affix this whole thing to a large plank of wood. and so we need a prototype to get the feel of first. Bannister posts. Now what we need is a big. with a 1/2” section of copper or brass pipe glued over it. we can make such a lathe. 73 .so we need to hone our skills first. Allow me to explain something here. I used it just fine to make those salt and pepper shakers – but there’s always room for improvement. Table legs. and make it into a 1/4” groove about an inch or two long. towards the tool’s cutting blade. attaching to that another beam of wood. starting from book two . let’s build our prototype. Get your improvisational thinking juices flowing. This next project will be the primer for the next leap in projects in this series of books – things are going to get juuuust a mite more complicated and more demanding of our talents. I’m hoping this and other projects get your creative mind to produce many new and innovative ideas and designs. and some things hidden. if you have the ingenuity. You then might even put a hinge of some sort onto one of the legs of such a table. Now we want something we can make a Louisville Slugger with. For example.
Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One C g r W
se wooden part This will be very eas w ts. There is n need for expensive or luxno r e uriously grai u ined woods here… we will use cheap pine. y need to take you o the steps towar that goa by honing your rds al g skills with prac ctice on prot totype proje ects. and we’re goin to use something simpler on this ng n prot totype proje – we’ll u some sm ect use mall ections of c copper pipe fitted over some e. wondr rous. used prima arily for le earning. with no a ks e wobble. and so very ome basic joinery There ar some scr b y. at rotate. the we can modify it just a w en t sm midgin to ta on toug ake gher woods. and it work just fine for you. y uilt ng th you can first use it to turn sof woods hen n t ft fr rom balsa. l sy. once you e se if you’v built it w to satis ee ve well sfaction. just v he of as in the last project. To T get a ge eneral idea of the wo ooden bear rings we w be creat will ting in the b books to c come. functional all-w wood mach hines that w work. and not jus big. I w want to prep pare you as best as I can for the very com a e mplicated 75 . and w a with high quality of precision. This here is a primer into all of t T that… we are going t build a prototype o to object that we can use to “get ou feet wet b t e ur before we swim” wit Now do th. is very important in th developm s he ment of understandin certain principles of this u ng ty of mac ype chinery. Remembe this is a prototyp from er. a scrap w and wood. pe sc crap wood to be u d. on’t go and skip d this here projec – it’s very important to go ct y thro ough this le earning exe ercise befor atre tack king the mo difficult projects a ore t ahead. we are first going ir to tr the most basic of de ry esigns.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One Her is where we climb up an evo re olutionary stage in our talents… we mov on y ve from dovetailin and woo threading and m ng od g such to making things tha spin and r h. and what will be involved in thei different designs. There will be e so wood t ome threading done. you have bu everythin straight and true. and as such. a t Once this project is completed and if s d. re rews involved in th making o the spindle. and working o ideas. to soft pine – then. and certain types of bearin ngs. h f st over complic rly cated toys. This here d out T is a “drawin board pro s ng oject”. If y really are serious a you about wanti to ing mak beautifu ke ful.
ap wood. Le get start t et’s ted! eel… Cutting the whe Here is where w make one of the mo we e ost importa parts of this whol thing. nd ip is Okay time to gather up some scra y. and traced a line d along the fold of the paper onto the wood. n’t simple as it look in the wr ks ritten word. hose two lines crossed. ng d p on to of that. or we can go to the neare e o est center and buy a 36 diamete 6” er. home c 1&1/2” thick pine. I traced aro op ound it onto the o paper cut out th big circle. being certai to make the edges meet b in m as ex xactly as I could. s some pine plankage.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O works i the books ahead. is task to try to find the exac center of the ct f blaste thing. it was sure a craz y s zy again I found the center at where th n. g w Turning the pape 90 degree and doin it er es. I finally figured on ta aking a HUG piece of paper. ng Now. so do yourself a in s f favor an don’t skip out on thi project. o f … we can get a big piece of 1 n 1&1/2” thic ck pine to cut a 36” di iameter whe out of. th ant f le he drive w wheel. ng ly but boy let me tell you. circular tab ” bletop. layin it GE f ng down and restin the round tabletop piece n. f abletop. l No this all sounds f ow l fine and da andy when you read i right here but it isn as n it e. B ed Basically. This second thin is actuall what I did. o eel on a band saw. and folde it r. a a goodly and amount of glue. You have to trace th edge onto the paper exhe r actly – which is a mite diff y s ficult if the tabletop edge is rounded o p over. Take a look at thi diagram. he ed in ha Then I lay that half onto the ta alf. we can do this one of two ways… . which is h 76 .
then you cut around it. they’re relatively easy to find. This will keep the whole device from moving even the slightest bit from where you want to drill your hole. and most – if not all – home centers have them. Either way you come up with your wheel. then don’t worry. How did it go? Is it perfect? If so. Place the mini drill press on the wheel at its center. well then you’ve got no problem – but I have my serious doubts that I can safely assume that all you readers out there can easily find one you can use. what then. You’ll notice that on these nifty little contraptions. then you automatically have the center right exactly at the center. I’m sure you might just do worlds better than I did. do we do? Do you remember me showing you that mini drill press thingy back on page 14? That’s right! That there gizmo will do the job right proper! This is one of the many instances where nothing other than it will do the job. so don’t go getting discouraged. If you got one. there is still one more tricky part – you have to drill a hole into the center. if you know of anyone with a drill press with at least an 18” reach. So. you need to get one… if you can’t. once this part is done. I might add. which also has to be done exactly. great… if you don’t. and screw the drill press to the surface at those four corners. and using your tri-square between it and the face of the wheel. there are holes at the corners of its base for inserting stabilizing screws – they’re not always necessary. Then you have to make sure to drive your scissors along that line exactly – any deviation from this even in the slightest will show its ugly effects when you fold it in half. Why is that a problem. use them. We’ll be well on our way. But as I mentioned before. but in this case. In the case of the former. let alone assuming if many exist. and for quite a cheap price. too. That’s the beauty with that technique – you decide where the center’s going to be first. and quite nicely.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One usually the case with these things. you might ask? Well. check for squareness… all around the dowel. Persevere. and borrow it. Don’t forget to have a piece of scrap wood on the underside of your work to prevent “blow-out” on the opposite face of your wheel when your drill bit plows through it. Now bring the drill bit’s point to the center point of your wheel (making certain that the armature on the drill press is exactly square and set for drilling 90 degrees to the surface of the wood). cutting the wheel out on the band saw. you should find a friend who has one. perfectly square to the wood. Now unscrew the drill press from the wheel. 77 . How did you do? Dare you check? Insert a 3/4” dowel into the hole. It should still do well for this here experimental project. then great! If not perfectly perfect. with a 3/4” drill bit inserted into it (I used a spade bit). that is.
Sand or fi s . er with xy Af that has all dried and cured long fter s enou ugh.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O Crea ating the be earings… Now take out th dowel an set it asid hat nd de. wider pipe to be 2&1/2” lo – remem e ong mber abou the cut ed ut dges. Once the glue has e 78 . are tw wo lengths of copper pipe – one that is 3/4 e 4” outside diameter. Cuttin with a hackng h saw doesn’t hav the sam effect on the ve me n edges of the cut ends as d t does a pipe cutting tool. ed e which in turn. ue p with the same bonding m material. is fitted over the oak dow s wel. here be elow. Cu a segmen of the ut nt the narrower pip and of t 5/8” do n pe. a the othe one should and er be 5/8” inside diam ” meter. ile side edge o and the should f off ey fit this ins fine. Now if th he pipe wa cut with a pipe cutti tool. Once this is don and one fits into th e ne. each to be 6” lon and cut a section of the ng. th we can work on th hen he We want 3/4” of the nar e ” rrow pipe st ticking out of one e of the w o end wider pipe – the dowe shouldn’t stick out at all… I just el t drew it that way to show yo that it’s there w y ou t in th diagram. Let’s take a look at yet ano k other diagr ram. we have what we n and ssembly. We’l also need a ll d 5/8” OA dowel. What w we’ll be n needing ne ext. const truction of t axel. the as ing ey may not fit so well – this is be l ecause such a h tool pushes the ed of the c end just a dge cut tiny bit in towards the center. He we see the axel – we have the ere e wider pipe fitte over the narrower one. need for th he Here. an more. throu ugh the 3/ /4” hole th we dr hat rilled throu its cent and glu it into place ugh ter. bit of allow wance for movement. Let’s take a look at th AK he primary cut list for this part of the project y r f t. Everythin is glued tohe . we the set it in the wh en nto heel. ng d gethe like this w an epox resin. e he other sm moothly. Th nd he wheel a axel as reason for the tw sizes of copper pip wo pe should be clear he ere… you’l notice th ll hat one can fit inside t other on with a b n the ne. the owel. Set the t whee to be cen el ntered in the middle of the e f wider pipe’s le ength.
and take a look at this diagram he ere. after we have made the m This uses on of the do T ne owels ment tioned at th bottom o the previo cut list. it appropria bearings – let’s look at this ts ate s here bearing constructio diagram.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One drie and cure we now do one more ed ed. Min the edges nd s. give it som Once yo can push it in . to one s of the g w side groove. ou h and pull it out (without it being too lo oose). e part for us to st making. and with glue. f m first. leavin 1/4” of the pipe ng t st ticking out of each s t side – this in turn sh hould all b centered on the narrower be d n pipe. to ta your ake metal-rated 1/4” drill b and drill a hole m bit th hrough ever rything. make is the m body of the spind with m main dle. see that it ca be wel e an push into th drilled ho with a modhed he ole icum of ease. 8” sh hould be f fully inserte into all of this. Speaking of the spindle that’s the next S f e. ed le eaving 2” s sticking out of either end. The first p to t tart part 79 . of co d ourse. th way thro he ough – doing the same thing as with the wh w heel axel. h g on . G Grab a 1/4” drill bit th ” hat’s rated f use with metfor h als. ing through bo the whee and the a oth el axel at a di iagonal will allow you to pin the d l dowel thro ough everything to secu it all. me. then glue it int place. all the layers. Borhe of ous . d Choose a spot on the outer woo e oden dowel. pin the ion d . cut w tting off the excess e ends as befo The nex part of the spinore. and kee it strong enough to withep stan some he nd eavy duty s spinning. w thin to the wh ng heel. in orde to secure it all er e tigh htly. the s spindle hea – but ad th comes l hat later. rts bonded tog gether in These par are all b th same wa as the wh axel pa he ay heel arts. xt dle is. and set them as m r side – thes will be t bearing sockets fo the se the g or whe bearings and the s eel s spindle bea arings. If it ne eeds a little sanding. B ure Before glui ing the dow in. ta another 6” secake ti of 1/4” dowel. leaving 3/4” of it. The t e la arge outer dowel sho ould have a 1/4” groove filed to a 1/4” de g epth around it. Now we nee to cut fou 3/4” segm N ed ur ments from the wider pipe. ut th end of the wider pi The 5/8 dowel her ipe. whole thing secure. sticking ou of eip g . See th the larg wooden dowel wh hat ge n hich fits over everyth o hing is cent tered on th wider he se ection of p pipe. cu n to utting off th rehe mai ining ends. and all .
and ng he make a cut 1/2” cuttin across th grain. he s uprig on eith side of the wheel. here in this nex diagram. be e xt He we see the simplic of the base ere city of th box – tw cuts. first. In the inse at the to of ng et op the diagram. ee These. of cours are all pine board se. of the top ca of de f ap the box assembl When th box sides are b ly. we see the bot e ttom face. one on either side. We can see. Remem mber that. I m 80 .Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O wheel b for the wheel and spindle to b box be inserted into. on eith side of the her f whee these to corner c el. Let’s ta a look at how so ake ome of them should b cut. ds. op cutouts wil be ll facin each oth ng her. fitting into the co g orner e heir edge cutouts we made at th tops. n e now that the more com mplicated parts are behind us. and the sid view. d eel struction… … Whe box cons Next. we build the “whee box”. this ght. At the top. th el hat which h holds it all in – let’s ta a look at ake the cut list for this phase of the project. These he are simple cuts – I take th pull saw. we can see tha one of the top d at e corne edges of each board is cut out along er a the edge – whe these bo e en oards will stand s next to each ot ther. that things are d s gettin simpler. he wo e s at its center. k uch. her goes on top of th hem. and mark them as su Let’s se some more.
Okay. 81 . w which in tu gets urn jo oined to the base. At A the botto of that l om last diagram we m.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One in f from the end. r ch wo side near the top. Let’s look here. see how each o the two s of side struts ar cut re to s shape – these will fit i into the sid cude tout on either side of eac of the tw box ts. b ly. and the cap on top of e d n all of that. we t ification Above. th nt” th also pro hey ovide part o the mean of atof ns ta aching the lathe track While we are at k. I kn the nock it all o out. The “bent” a ve e ends of thes once th pieces ar glued se. This will w do ide T allow room for the driv belt. Now we y w are going to p this whe box tog put eel gether. es. he re in place in the whe box as nto eel ssembly. Apply some wood glue to a where the ca and the b w ap base join th sides. w see a bit of a modi we need to d to the si struts. we can see how L it e mos of these pieces com together – the st me box assembl and wit the “ben ends. sh hould both be facing the same direction d as the wheel axel exten a nsion – that end of th axel whic is longer than the ot he ch r ther. wheel and th spindle each get fit w he tted into th own res heir spective bea aring socke as the ets si ides come together. to 1/4” d deep – then takn. ing a chisel to t end. remem O mber those four 3/4” sece ” tion of the w ns wider pipe we cut be efore? Glu them into the 3/4” h ue o holes that a in are the box sides with epoxy resin. and see how we did. de s These sid struts do two things – they provide stru p uctural stren ngth to the wheel e Looking at i edge-on. he and clamp it all together a t r.
let’s look at a photo of th use. let’s a also see if w can mak we ke this tak ke-downabl as well. You’ll n notice that r right betwee the “ben en nt” parts of the side struts. Build ding the tra ack… From here we w m want to ma the trac ake ck and the leg at the o other end. the is a 1/2 ere 2” wooden screw. he die set. and thre all of th 3/8” hole in ead he es 82 . take the tap for th e hreading ho oles from th he 1/2” thr reading set. he side stru in place.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O this poi of the bu int uilding of th wonderfu his ful contrap ption. he other pa that help attach the track. T is probaThis bly one of the easiest parts of the entire e project. Now art ps e w. and shou really only take a . L Let’s take a l look at the c list. This is one of two that a n f are on this face of th box side and is th his e. We wi ill be usin more 3/4 inch pin boards to ng 4” ne construct the rest o the main body of th of n he lathe. uld small fe minutes to put toge ew ether. uts Here we see the face of th wheel bo e he ox that is to receive the lathe track – th hat which h holds the sli iding point and tool res st. and thread the interio d ors of these two 3/8” h e holes. so that th le he whole t thing can be set aside and not tak ke up so m much space in the wor e rkshop whe en not in u First. cut Th diagram above sh he m hows how the piece are sha es aped (every ything is 3/4” thick Take the tap from th 1/2” tap and k).
h ood n scre them int the whee box side with ew to el e the threaded ho until th are flush with oles hey h the surface on the other side of the b board. thre the 12” dowel co ead ” ompletely – then cut it into four 3” lengths. a the hole over the screws – o and es s now take tw of the ba nuts and tighten n wo ar d th hem onto th screws. just chose “b nuts”. Let’s look at a photo to see wha I mean here. Now. and with a little w woo glue on t od them. really. Moving righ along her let’s tak the M ht re. it sounds kin of weird so I t nd d. in relati to he of ion the picture of it in that la diagram Not ast m. he at r he Clamp it all togethe good an tight. mple. e g over them. too complicate and sim ed. and thes along w the wo se. At A the botto of that last diagram are om m the bar nuts. Now take the other two. he es. h he holding the track in place – like t p this. r th wheel bo side str he ox’s ruts? Take the track t over to them fitting the remaining cutouts o m. Take two of the 3” len T f ngths of thre eaded dow and with a little wo glue on them. k o at Next. these bar shou be thre uld eaded too. p gether. They aren wing n n’t nuts… they bar-sha y’re aped… so I either had t call to them “bar nu m uts” or “nu bars” – one ut soun like pea nds anuts from a saloon. er nd th once th glue drie we can put it tohen. take the leg an fit its ho over e nd oles th screws a the other end of th track. Anyways. remember the “bent” parts of g . 83 . ke trac sides an the track ends and glue ck nd k d them all togeth – see to it that the sc m her crews on t track end # are poin #2 nting out. wel. T sides go into the cu en The o utouts at th bottom o track end #1. an the nd othe sounds li some ki of cand bar er ike ind dy – ei ither way. n in. of course. with ooden screw we ws just glued in. a what w are we’ll be usin for ng the lathe’s take e-down-ability. not whe you do.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One the diagram – t 1/2” hol in the le and the les eg in t track end # won’t be threaded. Take #1 e the die from t 1/2” th the hreading set and t. screw them into track w end #2 until the are flush with the su ey h urface on t other sid of that bo the de oard.
we ne to make the t to eed e pedal armature for turnin the whe l ng eel… then we need to make the sliding point… o we also need to make the spindle hea a o ad… then we also ne to make a drive be eed e elt… and finally. No your la ow athe is stan nding up on its n own! Cool. at wha all at this will look lik once it’s p together w ke put r. huh? From here there are only ! ? e. we n f need to mak the tool rest. five things left t do.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O and tigh hten two m more bar nut onto them ts m. 84 . ke Crea ating the ar rmature ass sembly… So! Let’s make that pedal m L mechanism now. Le take a q et’s quick look f first. securing it into pla g ace… like th his. shall we? Okay… it’s cut list time agai … in.
saw i n into the sid 1/4” des deep. and threaded nut coun a d nterparts. th hread them. Here is how the a p s arms should go tod gether… loo at this ph g ok hoto. at its root. Have a ready su n e upply of dowels hand for thread d dy ding as need ded. o chisel. Now drill the 1/2” w e hole which is centered a 1/2” from the e. the center poin being 6” from the end. Once that is do n e one. The 1” sto wood t ock that you got for the t pedal armatu parts. ed wheel board so d”. The wheel arm that whi is er e m. The T pedal ar rm’s 3/8” ho is first d ole drilled. d. th here’s often a need for threaded do n oweling. attached bet a tween the p pedal arm and the wheel board has a 1/ hole dr w d. i turns the wheel. an the he nd whe arm that it’s attached to – this is in eel t s turn is attache to the “w n. the center poi also being 1/2” e ints in from the ends. l p leaving the tenon remaining. ich We can se here clea that the hole in ee arly e th tenon is slightly larger th he y han the 85 . 3/8 then y s 8”). cut e-shaped nuts from th – you’ll need two for this n his l part. and then c out cube . /2” rilled at each end. w see the fu he we ulcrum block that the pedal arm is attached to. nt e then we thread the hole t receive a 1/2” n d to woo screw – once that i done. o course. alon the cen having the prev viously drill hole cro led ossing this along its center. s ng nter of this piece’s w s width. You can probably fi figure by no that ow. that every time you step d t e down on the pede al. the we od is en cut a 1/2”x2” t through mo ortise across this. so there’s o re eally no nee to mention them in cut lists ed fr rom here on out. and ei d ither saw. one end is measu ured for ten noning – we want a e te enon that is 1/2”x1”x2 centered At 2” s 2”. At the bottom it m-right of th photo. comes in p ure of certain set le engths – use the scrap to make e th nuts for this part of the projec – drill he f ct your holes fist (in this case. We ha the ped arm and foot ave dal d bloc at the bo ck ottom of th photo. at m othe end. in from the end.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One That T last pho shows th finished pedal oto he syst tem. those side or parts away. d Now it’s time t look at an w to nother diagr ram.
then cut t. drill into one of th edges of the board so as to bore he f d throu it. ying a lit wood glue to the th ttle hreads on th he far side screw it through th remainin e. gluin it into place – now. and gluing it into place here. then us the botto se oming tap f threadin for ng blind ho to thre the rest of the hole oles ead e’s length. you may decid to set in a couple o screws from de n of f the underside of the base. Ta a thread 1/2” dow of abou 5” ake ded wel ut in len ngth. taking the 1/4” ng drill bit for use with metals. w g Here we see the placemen of the fu nt ulcrum (a refer to photo at lo also o ower-right o of page 84 Since th is 6” lon it will f 4). Glue G and tightly clam this into p t mp place. but you might de y ecide to. this o n off any remaini length o the threa a ing of aded dowe that may b sticking out of the other el be o end of the nut. As for the wh s heel board. a for this end and to be the drilled and threa e d aded end. pass it through the hole in the tenon then apply h n n. keeping both ends flush with the surface g s h es of the p pedal arm. but not so tightl as to rest n ly trict free movem ment and glue t nut into place. and t ugh through the axel within the n body of the whe board. fit across t 4” wid of the b the dth base. ee the diagram on t last page that it has two d the e holes drilled in it. We of cou urse want t this extra b bit sticking out towar the lathe leg at th g rds e’s he 86 . and a applying a l little wood glue to th interior threads of the fulcr he rum. gluing it into plac and pin t g ce. Thread t 3/8” hole to the receive a 1/2” w wood screw. e oppo osite end of the track. A o After this is done. taking the g last of the three dowels m o e mentioned at the t botto of the cu list on pa 78. he ng threads on that far side. Let’s now go on to the fulcrum – as yo s n ou see in t diagram on the pr the m revious pag ge. a into the fulu f and e crum for strengt – I didn’ do so my m th ’t yself. there is a 3/8” hole drilled 3” into the en e ” nd of it – this is also to be thre o eaded. p the 11/16” hole onto the ax of the wh xel heel. and scr rew it thro ough one s side. Cut off any excess length of the thre eaded dowe from thi el is. so d do rememb about t importa ber the ance of grain directio in relation to threadi this piec on ing ce. and the other bein 3/8”. one that is 11/16” s nto wide. screw it in as fa as it will go. Use the threading tap as far in as you ca e n an. Attach the w ar l h root end of the p pedal arm t this with one to h of the cube-shap nuts yo made ear ped ou rlier. e d el.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O threaded hole thro ough the m mortise – th his will allo for free movement of this mov ow ving join Now take a threaded 1/2” dowe nt. These ng holes are centered at an inc in from each s ch e of th two edg that ma the cor he ges ake rners they are placed in. nning this whole thing secure. we can se in . inse it om ut age ert into this. N y eel Now. and then place . his ng. with 2 2” sticking out over the edge of the bas g se board.
wh is to o e 8” hich be threaded. shap and is also easily findable at home cent ters and h hardware st tores most anywhe Here is what it look like. See th you ma these pi w hat ark ieces as su uch. is the part o he 2” th sits und the tra hat der ack. Attach the end o the h of whe arm wit the 1/2” hole in it to this eel th with the other cube-shape nut you made h ed earl lier. When w start sha n we aping these pieces.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One Take a 3” len T ngth of thre eaded 1/2” d dowel. but it still quit est’s te sent to our needs here in this pr tial e roject. and it is d all assembled! Once all t this glue dr ries – and I mean dr ries – then you can tr the ry mec chanism ou and check how wel you ut ll did thus far. We w be will usin a plumb bob again for this pie of ng ece the lathe. and applying a little wo ood glue to the thre eads in the 3 hole in the wheel b 3/8” n board. with th larger 1/2 hole. let’s ha a look a that diagr N ave at ram. and sh hould be able to mov freely up and down the doa ve p wel. you’ll notice that they are almost g e id dentical. inc cluding the dowel and the bar d nut. in ing careful to a allow for fre movemen ee nt. Lastly. one with the smaller 3/8 hole. but th are of d hey different siz The zes. is the par of the base that b . but th one is a little differ his rently ped. let’s look a another cu list. in this here lathe we’r builde re in Alright. ng. run-of-the T t e-mill piec of hardw ce ware. glue and clamp tightly the foot L p e bloc onto the end of the wheel arm (you ck m may wish to sc y crew this in also. basically six piecs es in all. scre it in unti it is flush with the su ew il h urface on the other s side. Now. at ut Very unco omplicated. 87 . ere. t b pter this will be used to provide a po on whic your wo piece p oint ch ork can spin on. gluing it into plac and agai bece. but ag gain. rt b will rest on top of the track… th other w e he one. and yo won’t h ou have any pr roblems. I mys didn’t f self find it nece essary). e you’ll notice that the ba is comp y e ase prised of tw identica parts – b in the next diawo al but n gram. ks Like in the reciproca L e ating lathe project back in chap three. Do it turn sm oes moothly? Sweet! The T sliding point… Now for the sliding po N e oint. ha aving only one small differl ence… each has a ho drilled into the h ole center. This is just a regular.
t photo below for a good look o k. e 88 . t won’t ruin anything here. no I just d it for lo need. that’s fi but it is needed – it’s just not ine. The diagram m g merely indic cates that more threa are need at one end ads ded (that which will be the bot l ttom end. as you can see here. when w it is all assemble than on the other. n Le take a p et’s peek at what this all sh t hould look like once i put toge it’s ether before we e go an further w this ste Look at the ny with ep. arpenter’s w wood glue. is threaded just enou for wha it needs. Be sur to re have the correct base piece in the cor t es rrect place when you assemble it all. o whateve t e without being able to see it – you have to thread a little.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O that if you thr read more than wha is at neede it’s just fine… it w ed. … ver you The dowel. the take it o to see if en out you’ve threaded fa enough. a ed). we see how th he pieces are all sha aped… and speaking o of which. did ooks. First take es u the upper part of the base and with the u e. h cutou side fac ut cing down. sn’t the easiest thing i the worl to go an in ld nd or er. and two u under the base. so you can leave your square. If ugh at you wan to go and thread the whole thin nt d ng. set the edge . thread an inch. or 3/4”. o make them n e or round… do whatev pleases y best. My point here is only and his ust into place with Th is all ju glued i good strong ca d. you’ll notic how the face has th ce he corners cut off in a certain w – this acway tually serves no pu urpose at all whatsoeve l er. and five small finis shing nails just to pi it in straig while th glue drie – three in the ght he es n face. a so on. thread som far me more. o rs or you can cut off the corners. Here in the dia agram. really There’s n y.
u onto the dowel. the dowe and the back o el. W can rds ake he We also see here. as I have done. e uld plac centere on everyt ced. the dges of the sideboar that ma the lath track. you can see th I had to take a wo chip or two. an screw up e nd onto the dow that las bar nut to hold it o wel st o all into plac Now a we need is the a ce. t upper ed ck. and pla the bas piece ace se with the 1/2 hole dril w 2” lled into it. The rest is easy – place al of this hat y ll onto the tra o ack.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One agai the bott inst tom edge of the face. boar both in place. so that f the cutouts of b both pieces align. he hole in the face Here’s a p e e. like t this. photo of this. O nto ke and perhaps pi inned with a few thin nails ok u hat If you loo close. all d plumb bob – look here. we can apply a litt wood a tle glue to the t g threads in th hole in th base he hat piece. cutouts fa acing up. p As A we can see here. ed thing. th is. the cutouts on both e n piec are for sitting on t “rails” o the ces the of trac that is. The back shou be rd. and s p screw the d dowel into place – th end with the shorte bit of th he h er hreading. behin the nd face with its cutout just behind th 1” e. Once that is all glued in place lik this. and shim the o ood r s 89 .
Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O
plumb b into pl bob lace. This p particular on ne is abou 3/4” bet ut tween flat faces of i its six-side body, and about 1” between op ed pposite c corners of its body – not enoug gh differen for a dif nce fferent sized drilled ho d ole to do any good, but just o the mar off rk enough. Sometime you have to come u es e up with yo own solu our utions. Wha might be a at e good m modification here? Perhaps we could put a th hreaded hol in the sid of this, in le de order to use an ad o djusting wo screw to ood tighten a good grip onto it? S p Something t to think ab bout. time, a single, solitary scr , rew. One th hat’s WID and has threads that stand tall from DE, t f its bo Look a this photo ody. at o;
Th photo sh his hows that I was feeling arg tistic and decide to make t one kin of ed this nd stepp ped-looking – no need, no functio g on… if yo stick to the same principles of ou o e s build ding the spin ndle head in the last chapn ter, as I did, you can pretty much com up a u y me with anything. No see how I’m only u ow, w using one sc crew here? This way, I can take the work pi ? iece, and at its cente mark, simply screw it er w onto the spindle head, and move the slide ing point on ov to the o p ver other end of the f work piece, setti the poin into the other k ing nt o cente point at t er that end. W When I make the e lathe’s wheel tu towards me for too urn oling the work piece it will a w e, also continu ually keep the piece tight to the spindle head, e h due to the dire ection in w which the sc crew and spindle hea turns. Si s ad imple, effec ctive and very practical. v Ok we’re a kay, almost finis shed – there are e only a couple th hings left t do, and soon to s we’ll have an ad l ddition to ou workshop ur p!
how it com into pla mes ay Here, we see h t’s ? when it doing its job. Fairly simple, eh? The spindle hea ad… Alrig what’s next? Ah! The spind ght, dle head, o course… now, we d this exa of did act same th hing in the last project, so there’s n no need to go over it again – jus refer to th st he apter. Howe ever, I did do a couple o of last cha things d different he – I mad the cap d ere de diameter wider than the rest of the hea n ad. Why? N sure, j Not just though I’d try i ht it. Let’s tr using, in ry nstead of fi nails th ive his
This time we’re using some nylon clothesline rope that’s juuuuuuust a wee bit thicker than 1/4”. to the spinning of the work piece in the lathe. so let’s get started on it. or. When you’ve got it figured out where to cut the ends for joining. give it a try! Give the wheel a few turns with the foot pedal… remember. and then I stuck the ends together. you want the wheel to turn towards you. When it hardened. soft woods. or. When you pull it tight. This will be another of the easiest parts of the entire project so far. not the wood. “Why is there much of the drive shaft sticking out of the left side if the wheel box?”. this makes it easier to attach both ends without tying a knot – you can’t have a knot looping around in this gizmo. a little prep for future modifications… Take some coarse grade sandpaper. We’ll get there. and the drive shaft. it is one of the most important parts – But first.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One The drive belt… Okay. and pulling tight to see where the ends need to be cut. now we’re getting someplace! The drive belt is what transfers the power of the spinning wheel. and around the drive shaft on the copper part. and glue it around the spindle’s drive shaft – the 1&1/2”x2” section of dowel in the top part of the wheel box. and then we can try it out on light. Find the tightness it needs to be. 91 . cut them. and join the ends together like I did. just above the wheel – one piece on either side of the 1/4”x1/4” groove. The package I got says 1/4”. Do this by threading the rope though the places it needs to go through to be looped around both the wheel. “What’s with the sandpaper?”… I’ll let you in on all of that soon enough. pull the rope up over and onto the dowel section of the drive shaft. melting nylon burns like LAVA – don’t be careless. like. it became as one continuous loop. Be careful – drippy. just be a little bit more patient for just a while longer. Later. What’s left to do here? We’ve got one last bit to make this here lathe project complete. we make the tool rest. “Why is the wheel track an inch wide when we’re only using a 1/4” rope?”. With this nylon rope. there are two things we can do to beef it up just a mite. Mind you. How is it? Does it do well? Is your drive belt tight enough? Is it too tight? I bet you’re wondering a few things here. or it won’t operate well at all. Why nylon? Well. and into the groove between the sandpaper areas. but it’s just a mite thicker. Why? We’ll get into that part in just a bit… right now we need to get some rope. When you’ve got it all joined together. I just took a regular old cigarette lighter to the ends just long enough to melt it some. Now. have it around the wheel. but for now. and so. Next. but tight enough to have no slack. we don’t want it so tight that it will keep anything from moving.
. he diagona cut at the top of the tool rest sid al e de board. Mark where 1& k &7/8” from t end is at the the top. using a dab of wo glue. t that will be explained in just a bi e it. so far. all depends on your tastes as far as this s. along the edge. Now let’s get to that there dio e agon cutout a the top edge of the tool nal at rest side boards. We’v got eve ve erything els se built. Now let’s take a look at this book’s final cut lis here. but firs let’s look at the to rest edg st k ool ge board… we can se that the dowel is s … ee set into the top edge – this is d e done by fir rst routing a channel with a 1/2” round-nos ” se bit. ly essary at all l. at 1/4” depth. thing squar It re. Look here. s . st You’ll notice by the dimen y nsions of th he base blo that thi looks like another jo ock. No y st ow let’s tak a look a some diagrams to se ke at ee how the pieces c ese come into shape – at th he upper r right. Then. Then. so g good. trusty fence pos stock. and then dra the two lines accor a aw rding to this diagram. You might wish to do the same. we se just that As for th ee t. or ro h ound these or leave the whole t e. we set the oa ood ak dowel into the chan nnel. taki a 3/4” thick ing t piece of board . You c also see that the to corners are can e op cut off at an angle – this aga is merely e ain for look and reall isn’t nece ks.the tool r edge bo e rest oard.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O Cons structing th tool rest… he … Here is the las part of t st this project t’s construction. part goes. for example – a plant t edge of the e and the f 92 . is e ob for good-old. Th here is the only t his tricky part left.
g lsa s. The oak should give o d you tools good support. Above. while the work piece spins into the tool’s blade. we c see the edge board with A can d the oak dowel set into its edge – this edge s will provide a firm point at which to rest l o any tools upon. like chess pieces candle s. y th hing to pro ovide suppo for tooling the ort work piece. and only that Y ol t o – a tool res Nothing fancy. and doesn get all . ice in some thi ng ings. ky Now the e edge board slides right into the diagonal cut d touts at the top of the rest of e e th tool rest . e boar and set them into t cutouts o the rds the of base block wit wood glu and see to it e th ue. and hobby supply store and practi turna e. and aside from a co ouple of modification that we w discuss in just a m ns will while. 93 . It’s not very adjusta w able. get some bal from your local arts crafts. ur d Great. only somest.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One boar against t area ind rd the dicated and trace arou the edg marking where to make und ge. rememb that this is an exper h ber s rimental project. pedal-p powered woodturning lathe! w g Yes. e that the block is right b t k between the side e boar cutouts like this here. most of it – the edge board is a finished.the result look like th he his. but hey. rds’ s… s And now we can place all of this onto the A e la athe track. n’t glue to the rest of it al Take the side ed ll. There. now a we need to do is to glue G all d o this all togethe er… that is. we a now co w are ompletely finished making our wheel-driv m ven. This is a tool for learnin Now p s ng. that wasn so n’t trick after all. this too rest is just that. g the diagonal c cut.
with a screw-type tightener in the side of the weight disk’s hole. and repeat until you’ve gotten the whole length done in this way. Some modifications… Now. See to it that you have enough length. but see to it that you use it to get some practice on – this isn’t only a tool for learning how to build such things. What we want is tough belt strap leather. how about that bit of the spindle sticking out of the left side of the wheel box? Take a five pound weight disk from a set of barbells – the kind that’s placed onto the end of its bar. Now. take some waxed cotton thread and sew this directly to the rope. edge-on-edge. and make a hole on one line. long enough to loop around both wheel and spindle. it’ll break! 94 . Don’t overdo things and break it. and what have you. up underneath it. and have a hankerin’ to take on something a mite meatier. stretchy leather here. and tighten it into place. uhm. Finally. in a five pound bag. Practice. I assure you. cedar. 1/4” along those lines from there. Balsa… sounds like kind of a whimpy wood to work with.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One stick holders. Now when you start your lathe going. stuff. see to it that you sew them together. but that it will be quite tight enough. Remember – if you put ten pounds of. we can modify this nifty bit of machinery to take on the job. Take a 1/16” leather punch. yeah? And it certainly can be obtained cheaply enough. and your tools that cut into your work piece won’t supply so much resistance to slow things down. but for learning woodturning on as well. See that it’s tight and secure . right? But it’s simply wonderful for learning with. Once you get to the ends. This is where the inch-wide wheel channel and the drive shaft’s sandpaper come into play. Now you have a belt around your wheel and spindle. and build up speed – the mass of the weight will give it proper momentum. guiding it to be kept straight onto the spindle. down the entire length of this leather strap. You have to learn to walk before you learn to run. Draw two lines. – and don’t forget. The sandpaper provides enough frictional grip for the leather to grab onto the spindle as it pulls it into spinning. Don’t just be satisfied with building this thing.don’t hurt yourself. directly across from the first… now do the same. or any part of yourself. Now you can work with tougher woods than balsa – try pine. start slowly. We don’t want flimsy. Place it onto that part of the spindle. Thicken the shaft with more pipe or wood if needed. once you have done quite a bit of practice with balsa. and etc. you built this out of scrap wood and pine. You’ll see how fun it is to work with. practice. looping the rope to the leather strap. Get yourself a 1” wide strip of leather. and one on the other. with a bead of rope underneath it. right down the middle. practice. 1/8” apart. spruce.
made out of wood. As long as certain principles are followed. or even take-down furniture. operated by foot power. such as the doweling planes that turn square stock into round dowels.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One What we have learned so far… In building these projects. I’m hoping you readers out there have opened your eyes to new ideas. is that making wooden screws can be quite easy and beneficial for all-wood items. greased-up iron screws really aren’t necessary after all – and if we just have the right hand tool. but something about that just strikes me as profound. all-wood puzzle. Other planes such as doming planes and coning planes were also discussed. and in the books to come. can make such things . such as the afore mentioned project. and maybe I’m not. We have seen that tools need not be complicated things. We’ve learned that some lathes operate in a reciprocating motion. we can take any seasoned hardwood branch from the back woods and make a screw worthy of a workbench vice. we can see that there is much room for creativity. as in the crossbeams in the workbench’s leg assembly. There will be many projects to come that will be even more fun to make. The fact that you don’t need electricity to turn wooden objects – that a machine. Making hand-made bearings was touched upon here. In dovetailing. the possibilities are numerous. now that we have completed this “primer course” book together. and that all can be kept into place with just one wooden key. where art can combine with function. using wood and copper pipe – a primer project for the all-wood bearings we will be creating. and that they can be used for making things we can take apart. by seeing some old ones. starting from book two. locking it all tight. Like the wooden vices… huge. and that both of these machines can be constructed of wood. Another thing we have seen. will be very useful. the wheel-driven lathe. Maybe I’m the only one.is another thing that’s truly wonderful. basic. We’ve seen that joinery can be somewhat artistic as well. and a small blade attached to it. The projects we’ve gone over in this book are just a simple taste of what will be done in the future books to come… they’re humble. with a hole in it. 95 . while others turn continuously in one direction. to do complicated tasks… they can be as simple as a block of wood. and rudimentary. such as the vices in the workbench project. joining all pieces as one. and form a base to grow from as our projects become more intricate and precise from here on out. the way they are kind of like a rustic. That things can fit together.
we will be using tongue and groove. simpler. we will also be making gears. which will be explained in full detail. 96 . we will use threaded items to make tools – like scribes. for example. The crafting of wooden gears – In this series.we won’t need to do any blacksmithing for making blades – there’s a simple solution that I think you’ll find to be quite ingenious in its practicality. each having different properties and uses. book one. it will be the book in which we start to make self-lubricating all-wood bearings. such as rabbet planes and plow planes. including the last lathe we’ll build. and we will also learn about other types of joints. yet useful planes. There is a certain science to it. For one thing. All-wood joinery – Like in the workbench project in this book. such as used in timber framing. more equipped. mortise and tennon. We will learn about them and their usefulness in the projects to come. such as the Golden Rule (also called “Golden Mean”). and much to do. and the Hambridge Progression. things will get more intricate. Wooden hinges – Hinges that are completely made of wood will also be learned in this series. rest assured. They will also come into play in the basic planes we will be making. and also in the fine-tuning adjustment mechanisms on wooden machines. Useful formulas and tables – There are some nifty bits of useful information we will discuss that play a very important part in woodcrafting. but instead of merely making screws. You’ll want to make sure not to skip out on any of the projects that lead up to such things. There is a whole world of joints to discuss in the following books that have many purposes. they will last a lifetime. but don’t worry . the ultimate. and if sturdy hardwoods are used. Different woods and their uses – There are many different woods. but worry not… it is really very simple. The making of planes – Some very basic. such as sprocket and worm gear types.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One In the books to come… Self-lubricating all-wood bearings Starting from book two. slot and pin. and certain types of clamps. powerful woodturning lathe. things will get mighty precise. wooden machine we will build in book two. and old Japanese joinery. We will use such bearings to make other machines. Another. Threaded wooden tools – We will be doing more wood threading. Once we reach these advanced projects. is a basic hand drill. Many such things will be learned in the books ahead. and involved. We have a lot to build. in order to be skilled enough for it. using what we have learned in this book and more. will be made as well.
old-time woodcrafting. In my ignorance. I said HOMEWORK. get them. I want you to practice making MANY dovetail joints from scrap wood. whittling and rustic furniture making – there are many out there. if you haven’t gotten the tap and die sets for making wood screws. Follow the guidelines given. Most of all. For assignment number two. That’s all. Great Spirit bless him. craft a stool to sit on while you work at your workbench. and try making the few things suggested earlier… create a set of chess pieces from your imagination. you can get the hang of it all – it’s really very easy – and #2. Assignment six (is this too much here?). so that you will have them handy when we get to making the projects in the books ahead. Oh. make a set of salt and pepper shakers. Be creative! Alright. that there is assignment number one. because you’re going to need them for many of the projects ahead. Assignment number five. you can never get in enough practice to make them. and make some others that join at a corner. As simple as the main principles are for making dovetails. Assignment seven – using ideas from the joinery used in making this book’s first project. Refer to the resources page just a page ahead in this book. We will be mostly using those of 1”.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One HOMEWORK – That’s right. and I’ll always remember it. get a number of lengths of doweling threaded with your threading tools. is reading… get your hands on another good book or three. teaching us all good-old. 3/4” and 1/2” thicknesses. rudimentary machines. to practice a few things before the next books. whatever – but try to get the hang of basic woodturning with these skill demanding. I have no idea if he’s still alive or not. so that #1. For your fourth bit of homework. and read anything and everything you can get your hands on that’s ever been written by Roy Underhill .a great and talented woodwright who really knows his stuff. folks! 97 . like I mentioned back on page 47. I want those of you out there who are just starting out. Books that deal with backwoods woodcrafting. use the lathes that you have built in this book. as to where to get them from. I’d like you to see to it that you maintain the sharpness of all your tools’ blade edges. and make some that join flat boards together at one even surface. right? The third part of your homework is tool acquisitions – for instance. That’s all… pretty darned easy. but a sizeable chunk of my growing up from boyhood was spent learning a great wealth of things from him on his show on public television. down-to-earth. to inspire you in this here field of craft. fashion a toothpick holder.
but get the job done. such as the mini drill press. O. 98 . I got mine from The Japan Woodworker – to request a free catalogue. wherever you find it. 1-800-535-4482 All the special planes in this book. Be very careful to see that you do not take on any hitch-hikers into your workshop or your home. Shop around everywhere you can for what best suits your needs – there are many great tools to be had out there – some can be quite expensive. Check for the telltale signs. When you acquire your tools. here is their contact information below. like the rosewood plow plane. while others are humble and basic. spots of wood rot. ranging in many functionalities. just do without it. and wonderfully so. or even simply on the roadside.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One Resources… The wood threading tool kits that are in this book can be found in many places. I got mine from Woodcraft Supply – to request a free catalogue. Shop around at all of them. The other tools. here is their contact information below. For reclaimed lumber. If the wood is questionable. can also be found in a variety of places. be sure to check for signs of insect infestation. the coning plane. router bearings and copper pipe. the basic block plane. You will also find a variety of protective gear. the doming planes. also the basic hardware such as the plumb bobs. Box 1686 Parkersburg. be it from an old bookcase from a second hand store. remember to take good care to maintain them. California 94501 Their customer service phone number is. and see what great resources are available for you to use. The Japan Woodworker 1731 Clement Avenue Alameda. The one thing you don’t want to invite into your workshop or home. rasps and files. is termites… or worse. an old barn to be taken down in the country. the doweling planes. West Virginia 26102 Their customer service phone number is. as well as quality pieces of pre-cut wood and large lumber can all be gotten at your local home center. or sawdust that seems to mysteriously fall out of it from somewhere. the kanna. LLC 1177 Rosemary Rd. as well as many varieties of pull saws and the like. Woodcraft Supply. are of a wondrous variety. and they will last a lifetime. 1-800-537-7820 The tools that these and other sources can provide. as well as sharpening equipment for all of your tools. P. and many other sensible items. and many others. holes in the surface that look eaten through. the chisels and gouges. such as safety glasses and work gloves.
Stuart Gersen.” 99 . Nick Zalisk. Chuck Bishop. Shaun & Gabby Haines. Victor Coffin. Yippah. BOB.and my memory of such spellings. There are others not mentioned here. recent or from times long past. Seth & Kosol Chim. Yuanxing Wu. as I sincerely hold you all in the deepest of respects. Lou Ferrebeaux. and a good time… and even those who just were good enough to be my friends. Dave Tayes. Brian “Red Dragon” Corbin. Tim Page. Doug Daigle. Alison Frank. Rick & Debbie Root & family.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One Acknowledgments… The “shout-out” page To all my friends and acquaintances out there. Julie. because I’ve lost names entirely. Justin Wallace. no matter how many times I am told. Dave Whirlwind Soldier. whether their influence was great or miniscule. Tom Black Crow. Cindy Gallardo – “Hi!” Tim “Yakamo!” Petkis. drink. Cool-Fat Alan. Mallo. Tom & Mary Owen. Mike “Mr. THANK YOU!!!!!!! Now. Henrick “Hell’s Chef” Petersen. Bert Serfes. Hawk. I also want to thank you in such a page in the books to follow this here one. Bryan & Kat Cobb. Brett Batolato. Erich “Earache” LaVigne. Yumi. friendship.“You are all profoundly missed. Eric “Cherrrch” Golden. who encouraged me in the writing of this book. Meadow Smith – “Haiyaaa!”.– “Hi!” Sarah “Sarah-neko” Dove. Bob Kerr and Ruth Cobb . Karen Barrier. Wolf. sharing food. is far worse. Mark Wychorsky – “Hi!” my son Seth – “Luvya. Tim “Guido” Wilbur. Yoran. Tom Gagne. Zeke. Ko’. and those whom I have only come to know by nickname. Thomas & Stacey Robinson – “Hi!” Rachel Udin. Shirou Takahashi. Hideya Aihara. by any stretch of the imagination. Shaun. John D’Amico. Kiril Reznik. Daniel “Perry” Comeau. Sue Hinkel. Sokha & Vanny Chit. Monty “Shakuhachi-itis” Levenson. generally encouraging me to continue to try my best to excel in anything I do – not a mere small task. Dilip Maharajan – “Hey!” Sunyee Chang – “Nihao. Miriam Serfes. Nephilim SIR” LaPine. as well as those who’s last names I’ve completely forgotten. Daniel “I want a #%$@! roast beef sandwich!!” Harrison. Linas Charzevskis. In no particularly specific order whatsoever. Erik Peavey. Kris Horton. Steven Standing Owl. Tony Francis. Ryan. or never learned. I am a horrible speller when it comes to people’s names .S.L. Kevin Bow. Judy McAllister. little dude!”. Tom Goodrow. Dave & Abby Bouchard. helped me build things when I needed another pair of hands. or didn’t have room on this one page… if I’m given the chance. Chii. even those who just kept me company while I tinkered away. Mike & Nicky Crowley. Edang “Yuji” Bak. wo de xiao mei mei!”. I hope you all forgive me if your name happens to be butchered by my lack of such talents. Chen Junsheng. Rest assured – I remember you. Tom. Carekee. ALL at P. Red. Brian Higgins.
Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One C g r W 100 .
Learning and practicing what some call “bushcraft”.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One A final word… Well. I’ll leave you all with a mild bit of woodworking humor… A termite walks into a tavern. but also to spread the joys and appreciation of working with wood. and basic machines powered by treadle wheel. and excel in your craftsmanship. I would make little huts. and who want to make their own tools. When I was about 13 or so. I was always intrigued with this natural resource… in that. I added that to the list of doings on my little woods excursions. and was taught the art of making the Native American flute. and I wish to thank you very much for including this humble bunch of pages in your bookshelf. but would still be human-powered. but you’d be well surprised as to their accuracy and usefulness. lean-tos and lodges in the woods. Eventually. and weave various grasses into different things. With flint knapping and leather work. I became interested in tools that could do more. wrapped with rawhide onto branch segments sounds a mite “cave-man like” to many people. and making the indigenous woodwind instruments from bamboo-like cane plants and deadwood aromatic red cedar. I also began to make rudimentary tools. crafting music as well… all from the wondrous material growing out of Mother Earth – wood. that in turn. 101 . use the wood to build things. and you soon will grow proficient in your skills. that about does it for this here first book. From there. I hope you found it enjoyable. and shouts across the counter. I always wanted to write a book on this subject. Oh. so I could spread what I’ve learned to others. Okay. It’s a twice as wonderful craft. I enjoyed writing it. Remember the important things learned in this book. I strove to learn more and more. Stone implements from quartz and flint. I learned how to make puzzles and toys with wheels. and the seeds from that very same tree. Don’t forget to do your homework! It’s very important. I should wrap things up here before I go and talk your ears off now. Ever since I was a young child. well… I thought it was kinda funny. can grow more and more. they can make their own projects with. “Hey. it is inexhaustible – we plant trees. and sat amongst nature. where’s the bar tender?!” HAHAHAHAHA!!!! AHAaa! ahaa… hehe… eh… uh… hmmm. about safety and maintaining your tools and blades. Now I have the opportunity to share all this with those who are interested. Keep at it. if well taken care of. making things that can make other things.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?