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Book One O
On t maki of all the ing l-wood workben w nches wit vices, th and foot power wood turnin lathes red ng s
By Je Robin esse nson
C Copyright ○ 2007 by J. M. Robinson
Published by Lulu Press
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, mechanical or electrical, including photocopying, recording, or any other data storage and retrieval system, without the express written permission of the author.
The author who wrote this book has tried to make all of the information herein as correct and as accurate as possible. However, due to the variability of materials, local conditions, and personal skills, etc., neither the author nor the publisher assumes any responsibility for any injuries suffered or for damages or losses incurred that may result from the printed material in this book. All plans and instructions should be carefully studied and clearly understood before beginning any of the projects herein. All safety precautions should be taken, and any directions or safety regulations that should be regarded concerning any tools used, electrical and non-electrical, should be learned, understood, and complied with, without exception. Never disregard any safety procedures when it comes to using any tool, be they power tools, or hand-held blades.
This book is lovingly dedicated to my family. To my son, Seth. To my daughter, Sakura. To my beautiful wife, Yumi. To my mother, grandmother, and all the rest of my family in America, and to ojii-chan and obaa-chan (grandfather and grandmother), and all the rest of my wife’s family in Japan.
And a special hello to Father Frank Toste, from among all those involved, in help or in friendship, with the T.V. series, “M*A*S*H”, who might remember me by my Native American name, Falls Down Laughing… he is a brilliant conversationalist, a kind and witty gentleman, screen actor, and master mixer of the Manhattan, with whom I had the pleasure of sharing a plane ride between Detroit, Michigan and Portland, Maine on my way back from Japan last year. He might not remember, but his words of encouragement – though, I’m sure he didn’t realize it at the time - are among the things that led me to write this book. Thanks, Father Frank… I enjoyed our conversations very much!! ^_^
Introduction; the purpose of this book……………. 1 All-wood joinery…………………..... 4 Chapter 1 – Getting started………………………. 7 On the subject of safety……………... 7 Vice layout and construction……….. 52 Well honed blades…………………… 8 The completed workbench………….. 56 A mild rant on protective eyewear…………………... 8 Tools…………………………………. 11 The reciprocating lathe……………... 59 Sharpening………………………….. 17 Parts and construction…………….... 60 Wood threading…………………...... 23 A little on woodturning……………... 71 Reclaimed lumber………………….. 27 Store-bought lumber……………….. 28 Measure twice, cut once…………..... 29 Checking for squareness…………… 29 Cutting the wheel……………………. 76 Chapter 2 – The anatomy of a workbench……… 31 General overview…………………… 32 Building the workbench…………..... 32 Creating the bearings……………….. 78 Wheel box construction……………... 80 Building the track…………………… 82 More powerful woodturning lathes………………….. 73 Chapter 4 – Experimental project; The prototype wheel-driven lathe……….. 75 Chapter 3 – The anatomy of basic woodturning lathes……........ 59 Constructing the leg assembly…….... 34 Making the parts for the tabletop….. 39 Dovetailing…………………………… 45 Assembling the tabletop…………….. 52
Creating the armature assembly………………...... 84 The sliding point……………….……. 87 The spindle head…………………….. 90 The drive belt……………………....... 91 Creating the tool rest………………... 92 Some modifications………………….. 94 What we have learned so far……...... 95 In the books to come………………… 96 HOMEWORK………………………. 97 Resources…………………………….. 98 Acknowledgements… The “shout out” page……………...... 99 A final word………………………… 101
Creating the Handcr C g rafted Workshop Book One W 0 .
I’m not totally against power tools… in fact. if you are anything like me. and you love working with wood… back in high school. I’m not a professional writer. It is something made by hand. like they used to make in days of old. I’ve been working with wood. as a primer. drawknives. I have a few that I find quite useful at times (I’ll admit it. that with hands. just the basics. The purpose of this book.from hand tools to musical instruments . and reveled in the smell of the variety of woods in that classroom. I said gears and wooden bearings). than to buzz away at a piece of wood with a motorized grinding tool like a bat out of… uhm. that is. we will create many wooden hand tools and items – clamps.… heck? Are you anything like this? Well. If you’re a little more like me. gears and wooden bearings (that’s right. planes. I love my router) – but let’s face it… a bicycle pedal powered table saw for cutting heavy lumber just isn’t very practical. you just couldn’t wait for wood shop class. right? I’m certainly not against band saws. scribes. Now. and that’s where my experience lies… I’m no writer… so I do apologize if my writing style may seem too friendly or if I seem that I’m being too familiar with you readers out there. But most of these kinds of 1 . we will first focus on building a proper base on which to craft these wares the workbench . There is absolute beauty in a crafted thing made by a pair of woodworker’s hands. and I don’t pretend to be. Not only in the wood itself. either. but that the construction of it has beauty in its natural simplicity… especially if it’s a tool. you are also enchanted by wood’s beauty. wheel-driven machines.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One Welcome! I hope you find this series of books to be an inspiration! Are you a budding craftsman? Does the creative passion of a woodworking artist run through your veins? Are you the type of person who would more likely take the time to artfully craft a wooden object by hand. screws.and a basic machine to turn some wooden parts that will be called for in the later books’ projects.for many years now. I’m just a humble woodcrafter. you love working with your hands. making various things . and more. don’t get me wrong. can make other wonderful things. or maybe it is an old handmade wooden set of planes that a pattern maker might have used. Now. To get you to not merely follow directions written down. I’m just an honest person. is to awaken within you the budding craftsman waiting to flourish. this series of books. but to do some of your own creative and improvisational thinking as well. That’s what I do. gages. particularly if it’s in a hand crafted item… perhaps it is an all wood toy. and have lots of fun with these books. In this first book of the series however. Nothing fancy just yet. I hope you’ll be patient with my writing style. In this series of books.
You’ll find where to acquire them from in the resources section near the end of this book. so I do stress the importance of hand tools – they require no electricity (and thus are far less noisy). you will see the tap and die sets that I use to make them. shall we? Patience… we will get there. it is the chisels. but don’t have the tools yet to make wooden screws. and the hand crafting of such tools has nearly become a lost art form. like the workbench’s vices for example. But while we start from “scratch” here. nuts and bolts of wood too. Besides… you’ll need them for the workbench vices!! But why use screws at all? Shouldn’t we just use joinery? Well sure! Now. and so. you’ll need the tap and die sets. But let’s hone our skills at creating the more simple tools first. you will need to make some wooden screws. They are easy to acquire. However. we will approach the construction of older tools to take the place of the new. but again. then you’ll need to make the screws. But when I say you’ll need to make wooden screws. However. There are many other uses for wooden screws. the use of a drill press may be needed to bore a precisely square-to-the-work hole for another piece to fit into) – sacrilege? No. there may be a point at which we need to use a power tool to create a piece of a hand tool (for example. and as we move on to other things. Even drills. it isn’t so much for connecting two pieces of wood together. planes. it’s perfectly alright if your tastes allow you to use metal screws and bolts in place of these in some of the projects to come – but if you’d rather have an all-wood project. Even my little German made hand-cranked drill I found in Japan. when wielded by the hands that created them. Sometimes a little “backwards engineering” is needed to get back to the old ways. is also a kind of “joinery”. and relatively inexpensive to purchase. Such things are almost as living beings. using screws to bind two pieces of wood together. we need to talk about the making of wooden screws. and are also well crafted from fine wood and quite nice. as you will see . that’s a more complicated project that’s better suited for the books ahead.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One tools are generally the type to cut BIG pieces of lumber down to workable size. worry not! There’s nothing wrong with making some of these projects with metal nuts and bolts until you get the right tools for making wooden screws. If you want to build these projects. as projects get done.the making of 2 . Now. Perhaps in the future we can even make those as well. Well made ones are truly a beauty to behold. gouges and other such tools in which handcrafting begins. But for the many projects that we will work on. not necessarily. In this book. they allow you to put more of your soul into your work. by the way. The alternative? Well.
the reciprocating lathe. we often see them. myself. will eventually be set aside and replaced by their more natural. In that project. The mechanism is fairly ingenious in its simplicity and a great learning project indeed – but it isn’t a museum piece of master joinery . there are a small few screws used for reinforcement at certain glued points. as opposed to just dumping you into it. It’s quite functional. in some things. and make machines using all-wood joinery only. I hope to make it a fun learning experience. You will see that I make small use of a few in the construction of the reciprocating lathe project in this book. jigs and fixtures. often like to use metal screws and bolts at times. as well as gages. they’re also pretty darned useful for making all-wood take-down furniture. But to ease you into it (those of you who are new to this wonderful craft). Some tools and materials that we will use in these beginnings. They have a classic look to them. but for the larger variety. as there is nothing wrong with using metal screws of any type – woodworkers have been using them for many hundreds of years. We’ll get to know many joints such as is used in timber framing. scribes. as well as other fittings. However. There’s nothing wrong with that.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One certain clamps. made of brass like in rosewood scribes and various old style wooden measuring tools. before acquiring any knowledge or skill experience. handmade wooden counterparts… fine. after all. learning on the way. They will come into use in some of the all-wood machines we will make in books to come. I. that use them. functional works of art that are specially hand-created by you. It isn’t a shabby project at all and in fact it works quite well. and in tools both old and new. for example. I like to use those of brass. and in old Japanese joinery. which is famous for never using nails or screws or even glue. if made of wood. screws may be needed that are far too small to be of any practical use. But where wooden screws can be used. but I show you a simple and somewhat clever way to throw one together for immediate use.I show you how to build a working prototype to use. And yes. adding more to the handcrafted quality of your work. it adds more attractiveness to your work… and gives it a somewhat “old-time” beauty. vice screws. 3 . we will discuss different techniques of joinery where we can do away with metal screws altogether. and useful. and to get you better acquainted with its parts before we move on to the more advanced projects. One of my goals with these books is to ease you into the world of all-wood joinery and wood construction that uses no nails and such. in place of the wooden ones that I make. In later books. The use of brass screws and fittings often adds beauty to an expertly handcrafted tool.
The use of glues is something I like to see if I can do without. so you have to try to see in your mind how all four legs. is only wood . I don’t leave you confused. No metal screws or nails are used. you’ll see the diagrams that show the dimensions for the workbench’s leg parts. More than enough is explained. also. I also want to help you to develop a woodcrafter’s mind… you will see diagrams and such with all the data supplied for you to understand everything. through and through – and there’s a certain beauty and wonderfulness about that. say. mortises and holes should be facing in relation to each other. which is essential to have in this line of craft. Truly and all-wood item. rest assured… but to help you develop a good sense of three dimensional thinking. 4 . The entirety of the whole project however. On the other hand. the text is well descriptive of the processes.nothing but wood. I create opportunities for you to think. we’ll make slightly more complicated vices that need no glue at all. and how to cut and mortise them. slot and pin – these things are introduced here in this book. You will notice that the fact you can take the whole workbench apart actually helps out if you ever. It’s truly a highly rewarding experience.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One ALL-WOOD JOINERY – for example. There is no glue used. if possible. I try to do without it as best as I can. But usually. on page 33. You only see two legs in the diagram. gluing it all over the place. dovetailing. in the workbench project. The diagrams all show more than enough to deduce this. which I’m sure you can appreciate once you’ve got it all built by your own two hands. For example. I also try not to spell every last thing out for you. Now. and yes. functional “take-down-ability”. other than in some small parts of the vice’s working mechanism – in later books. when I make experimental projects. I throw something together out of scrap wood. such as with the workbench project. but while I don’t leave you stranded in dark mysteries. however some handmade wooden screws are used in order to help give it a good. mistakenly drill a hole into it – then it can be repaired most easily. and also to introduce you to wooden screw making. by the specs of the other parts that are fitted into them. tongue and grove.
s s. 5 . math. and all the diae gram and lots of pictures as you wi see. let’s just j make sure yo and I bot remembe the m ou th er sa basics from those experiences. Such t thinking utilizes bot hemispheres of the brain th art. an our little woodturni lathe. of st. right It’s uld t? simp than fa pler alling off a log. It’s f the great good for ter of our craft o tsmanship t that we sho ould get our brain gea a-spinni o ars in’! Once we g our work get kbench all finished f and ready. and to ma two piec of ce . an the nd rem mainder will be piece #2 – now cut a l sect tion of dow to matc #2’s len wel ch ngth”. pro obably learn ning all of these basi things in wood shop back in o ic high school… but be pa h … atient. “ “cut off 4 i inches for p piece #1. ill How wever. artis I supply all the specs. and deductive reaso d oning. rememb a bering shap pes. ms. a nd e ing we can set ou to craft w w ut wonders tha will at get anyone’s brain gears a-spinnin’ Howg s s ’. then I can exp n pect you to understand that d the dowel wou be 8” long. – and the le side for measureme eft ents. and ame th we can move on fr hen rom there. What I want is to get you to cultivate three dim mensional thinking here We all use such e. there a a few th e are hings to discuss first… I’m sure you know much of d … m th hese things already.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One – the right si for 3D m ide. etc. let’s say I tell y to take a 12” you piec of board. ever until we do. mental imag ging. e brai power w in when we co ome up with difh fere projects and their sp ent pecs on our own r inside our mind THIS is the power o the ds. ake ces boar from tha one piece if I the say rd at e… en to.
6 .Creating the Handcrafted Workshop B C g r W Book One O No let’s mo on to the first chapt ow. ove e ter of thi here first book of thi series and get is is d ourse elves started eh? d.
as safety goe besides keeping yo tools a es. back then. if well taken care of. catc ches and sl lips. What did I m make it on? Another w ? workbench. and have plen of space to stow aw all your tools nty e way r once you’re do with the so they a one em. our in a safe pla is keepi them we sharn ace. amp- sh hire. ham mmering and other noise will not bother your r neig ghbors (oh. and su uddenly yo got a gr ou ruesome gash just ag -bleedin’ aw – and what’s way d worse. ured). aren’t lyin around un ng nderfoot for you to trip over r p and mangle yo ourself with… yes. and move on from here. K f n Keep a first aid kit t handy that’s full of ban h s ndages and all that d good stuff. a p ore an person slips and cuts himself – badly – p s because of a dull blad b de… for ins stance a chisel fails to cut smo oothly. ust at ht it is. Get G yourself well orga f anized. I even remember one time I somen r how manage to sit on a chisel… uhm… h ed n … well.getti back to the subject at hand her ing re… 7 . perhaps Heck. is th deep cu since it was cut w hat ut.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One Now. k so I made it on my floor. with a dull b w blade. an we nd need to make s d sure that ba anging. let’s no go there . shall we? t ON THE SUBJECT OF SAFE T ETY… One thing I can’t str g ress enough as far h. Be well pr g repared in case of accidents. It more jag t’s gged in natu as oppo ure. mediately.that’s en w ot nough of th Let’s ju leave tha story righ where hat. ing ell pened AND honed. no! I didn’t have s? one… this was the first I m s made. unwittingl putting a my r . I remember making my first workb y bench. Mo often tha not. the hard e way many tim that yo y. Tools and sawn . ly all weight down o one knee as I placed it on on d a C-clamp… ou uch… I cus ssed loud en nough to b heard clea to Conco New Ha be ar ord. ou’ve just g to got be c careful in s such a situa ation… kne eeling over the work. we need to ma sure we have e? e ake e a pr roper place to do all our work. d dust were every t ywhere – I learned. But I digress . mes. a a and do you best to prevent ur th hem in the first place. won’t heal very cleanly. yes – there’ll be some noise mad rest assu de. that the t’s voic of experi ce ience talking g. what’s the first thing we need N here Well. osed to a cut made w with a razo or-sharp bla that ade heals cleanly and very nearly imm h y.
ca arving a re elief image of a coupl of le horse heads sticking ou of a st es’ ut table door ’s window into a bed’s headboard or s d. ious reason ns. nly y ther subject on safety is power too s ols. and app good co ply ommon sens se in comp plying with them. tie it back. such as table saws. f r t Just watch a pr rofessional woodcarve at er work using a set of chisels and gou k… uges. ban h nd saws a and the like should b well re e. But they need to be t safety glasses. of th he wielder of the tool. Now. let’s h have a little chat about eye e t prote ection. e k it out of any pow tools’ re t wer each. work king away a a big.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O Well ho oned blade do their j best. flat piece of lu at t umber. Really lon e ng 8 . as man of us Native Amer ny ricans ha ave. and common s sense. ear tting clothin ng around power tool for obvi ls. do not we loose-fit . I have long hair. an he nd the dex xterity. n but then I thro the resu t ow ulting long tail down undernea the back of my shirt. A mild rant o protectiv eyewear on ve r… Fin nally. n ath s throu the coll It needs to be well out ugh lar. u fine – if it’s long that’s fine too – but keep g. Anot Power tools. an es job nd with vir rtually no c chance of s up. be espected. It’s true. Be sure to read and u understand a all instruct tions and s safety regu ulations the ey come w with. wha I do is I keep n ble at k it tied up in abou 11 or 12 elastic hair ties d ut r down the length as I do on any other day.Nativ ve Americ can. woul certainly make log ld y gical sense that you would need them all the more when w d w using power too that fling wooden de g ols g ebris aroun at high s nd speeds. I mean cr razy long. r hair. be eing . if such a pe w d f erson in su a situati wears safety glasse it uch ion es. f our kind of y for work are those that not on protect your k.amon other thi ng ings . E Every now and again I snip off j a coupl inches ju to n just le ust keep from sittin on it. even if you are using hand u h tools like chise and gou els uges. Also. when I use a tab saw. Yes. e What’s my po oint? If you got short hair. n h. S for exam ng So mple. chips can still flick and fly into your eyes. and if y have long hair. My you yself. A y Allow me to explain… Pro oper safety glasses. It a slip all depends on the sha s arpness of th blade. what have you… they w t wear the pro roper all-ar round eye protection because they n know they need it. s l of the way.
e my ability. Am I r right? For instan you ne nce. It’s goo common sense. a all-around p protection a the as ones I’ve descr ribed – but there are d different types for di ifferent jobs s. and some d not ety r do have the full. w e we’re not al lways in a cloud of f flying wood debris. wh if ont m. I learned fr rom those o older than m and suc things me. t pointed to t p them.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One eyes in front. ? plain and sim p mple. goofy y-lookin’ goggles in w g wood shop? They did the job. on televin si ion. in presenting this inform o n g mation to all of you o there. in nstructing others in the use of tools. or to the sides of your ve. for W one thing. an I’ve seen it – first hand. A n After all. ch are even taug in schoo a ght ols. If you’re going to be m f mindful of s safety. no But d o. I have a cer a out rtain resp ponsibility – to presen with the best of nt. instruct ting the pub masses. te nd n Tha why the make saf at’s ey fety glasses with s the extra protec ctive sides. the type e of s safety glasse I describe (shown below). or any resp le ponsible person in the position o instructin others. t absolute best and safest of m the e s options rega o arding this subject. there’s more than one typ of S pe safe eyewear out there. and then wen to a spinn a nt ning lathe. If I. as a responsibl teacher. we r really shoul use all-ar ld round 9 . at th hose times w when we de with the poseal e sibility of splin nters and chips flying from our work. ever see a respectar ble wood sh teacher tell you that you b hop r t don’t need protective eyewear. as well as p protection b below. speedily Sure. p e of ng sh hould. For examp if I wer ple. ng “Don’t forge to wear th et hese safety glasses”. Remembe those b er big. but provid protectio all s de on arou und the fra ame as we – that is. and edges at the top. or an nyone in suc a positio were ch on. od n Why am I so adamant a W o about this? Well. sayin something like. hat som wood ch me hips fly into your eyes from o abov below. He makes sur that you wear the e re w correct. le do ess. ones without the all-around ey protectio and just simply a ye on. To d any less is… well. re… say. don be conten with sun n’t nt nglasses. or regular p prescription glasses. For F our type of work. wore something resem w mbling norm premal sc cription ey yeglasses. or that d “Those sun shades should be good n e enough”. all-a around prot tective eyew wear. the best he r e and safest op a ption should be present d ted. the onl protection you are getting ly n is r right in fro of them Now. eye protection. if ell you u’re only w wearing regu ular prescri iption glas sses. e glas sses frames Sounds s s? silly? It hap ppens quit often. and if I blic . o where flying wood pa w g articles prec cipitated th need for protective eyewear. es can fit over the em.
t ng ll Wi some of these tools you can craft ith f s. aid.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O spitting out wood c g chips everyw where. then I n think I would b misrepre be esenting th he whole s safety issue to a great m many peopl le. pract tical… and some are a paradox of d x funct tional geniu and star simplicity… us rk like the dowelin planes I’l show you. I won’t pretend to be some s of expe t o sort ert on it all. but some ething about all that ju ust wouldn seem very right to m n’t y me. mple. to Th tools tha you see me use in this he at book are very bare-bones basic. o e in There a some tha you may already hav are at ve. spr m rockets. and so on. ke 10 . Sim k. n recomm nor mend enou to go ou and get th if you don’t ugh ut hem d alrea own them Let’s tak a look… ady m. et’s ut the man differen tools that we will b ny nt t be using to make the projects i this book. I can’t d c emph hasize enou how wo ugh ondrous som of me these special o e ones are. Okay enough sa Now le talk abou y. and those that you may need t acquire. c worm gears.
Let’s t take a look at this nifty little y coll lection of th right he hem ere. p m planes. and a wide-he d eaded oden screw (D). Th three s w he square woo thin at the l ngs lower left (E). ruled L wn squa (A) is a must. drill and varia ls. ations ther reof. and giving it a few turns. n it’s really very simple – a small blo of y ock 11 . he and die sets f making wooden sc for crews and such (B & C). m re. In this n series of books we use th most basic of s. are do oming plan nes… here’ a closer image of o of ’s one them (shown at mid-right) as you can see. with a bent blad set into it By inw de t. f are of unusual types and may seem interestin to those of you o there s ng out seeing them for the fir time. These are nearly all of the tools used f the projects in this book for (mo in follow ore wing photos Some of these s). fe ectly round end. m rst Let’s go dow the list – a good. m t ). or ev for finishing w s ven Her we can see an array of tools. Here we see th tap are e. se erting the e of a dow into the hole at end wel e it base. W can use these to ded We make parts of certain wooden to m ools that re equire such shaping (s h such as part of the ts workbench’s vice). marked “A” through “ ”. he them – saws. wood. “Z”. it domes ts d i over the tip of the dow giving it a pero wel.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One TOO T OLS… Our means of creating w r f wonders.
differ rent widths (H). ndy. p (K). eh? Basic. or for taperin r ng objects that may re equire repe etitive motio on through holes. making the hold g dfast achie a squeez eve ze-grip on y your work. r releases the hold. pinning it to the ta able – a ge entle rap at the t back of the top end (just b behind the bent ‘gripper’ part). and a basic block s b plane (I). A tap of a ham k mmer at the top e end. it comes out nd s as a dowel from the smalle opening side. m er s Pretty cool. of di es ifferent size which allow es. suc as with parts of th h ch he vices in the workbe n ench projec ct. which is a t w tool that is u used to rout out t 12 . allow e wing you to pull you work fre and mov it ur ee ve abou These are invaluable to have. Here ou y e’s what on of them l ne looks like. ne diam Th are espe hey ecially usefu if you ne a ful eed piece of round s e stock that i thicker in the is n midd than at the ends. a you to take squa stock an make dowels t are nd out of them. e et intere esting plan – these are dowe nes e eling plane (J). Th o hey’re quite wonderful ine deed! You can even use them to do n ownsize bigger dowe into sma b els aller ones – I’ve done this in Jap pan. w which allow ws you to c create point on the en of dowe ts nds els and sta aves (see photo at bottom of previous p page). The ben holdfas (G). A f e.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O up basi handles in cabinet making. hem wn acing page. at the upper-left. c close up.for example. an turning it. e e Ne we got your basic set of chisels of ext. it work ks much th same as does a penc sharpene he cil er. Furthe we have another se of e er. fted At (F). simp and han y ple. jolts this f further dow the tabl wn letop hole just a m mite. when I could only get y metri ones. We can use these for wood n e den machin ne parts th require s hat spinning. is w what I like to call the “pencil sha arpener” – it’s a con ning plane. and needed a s ic d standard em mpirical sizing . or even if you dle want to make dowels fro your scrap t om s wood One of th is show on the fa d. The hole is tap e pered – you put the stock in thro u ough the la arger open ning side. put hrough any of the hole es We p these th that are arranged within the workbench e h’s Mo oving along we have the plow plane g. As you can see. ut. a ic t as well as for the fini ishing work on the han k ndles of homemade handcraft tools. taking a 3 cm r meter dowel down to on of 1”. tabletop. resting the bent part on your g t y work piece. are essential fo nch sts for tempora arily anchor ring down y your work to the bench while yo tool away at it.
At (M). such as in cab d binets.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One It has five blades of dif t fferent sizes [B]. You may already have a plow plane – but if not. allows yo to set w . he nd grooves for tongue an groove joinery. This is go enough for just ore ood about any o the tasks you’ll need to aca of complish in this series of books. uch he ch This is a v very good q quality. photos. and beauti u ifully crafted. At (L we see a fine and a basic b L). a marvelous sa for mak m aw king dovetai (for a ils good look a this. a Some plo planes have this part adow p ju ustable. In s th lower ph he hoto. for a vao riety of purpo y oses. g at p with a rem w movable blade. s shown abov in two p ve. We use th hese for ma aking runnin tracks for sliding ng r doors. ends. that you ca place an in the tool to cut on th push. wi flat and slightly rounded h ith d groo oves and ch hannels into wood. Here is mine. see photo on page 5). is what’s c called a do ozuki. and useful tool. see th resource page near the end of this he es book. havin two ng grades of cu g utting teeth. Plow planes come in w man varieties and type – this o ny s es one is amo the most basic. hammer. cr ong rafted from India Ros sewood. g nd su as in th workbenc project. an also ns. or Japanese J sh hoji screen and th like. Let look at t upper ph t’s the hoto the fence [A]. but this one is fixed. rugg ged. we can see the un n nderside of this plane The meta ridge at its base o e. s plane and ru along the track you rout out p uns e with the bla w ade’s edge [D]. The ridge alr lo the woo ows oden body’s bottom fac to act s ce as a stop. ly 13 . m w b and if you w a wish to find one just like this d l (o any othe tools seen in this bo or er n ook). ou which distance from t edge of your wood you the f d wan to rout ch nt hannels and grooves a d along. and allows t s d fo grooves to be cut u to 3/8” deep beor up d fo it stops. or the pull nto he – I personall prefer on the pull. al [C extends from the bottom face of the C].
ake remark kably 14 . a drill aw our and way! There e’s also a d double V-sh haped area to rest roun nd No let’s loo at just a couple more ow ok m tools. and I a highl recomm ly mend them. fo forstner. which is always good to ha a h ave tri-sq few of. etc. being that t type of saw this f cuts on the pu you ma ull. we see variou drill bits – P e us basic. els I find this also q d quite invalu uable. stock onto for dr k rilling dowe and the like. are kanna basic Japa. we see a special kind e of ra – with c asp coarse and fine sides. is a tiny square and at (V a t e. this speci rasp is m ial made from h hacksaw bla ades. re nd drill (R which i hand-cra R). S n Simply plac ce it on yo work. lea m ng y aving them lying arou at lumb m und beryards an at nd home centers. nese pla anes that al cut on th pull (for a lso he r closer lo see pag 6). Sweet deal! Mo oving on to (T). and a wonder type of drill press (S). W Which bring us gs to (Z pencils a such – you can never Z). ge At (P & Q). quare. t that I used for d drilling the tabl letop holes and (Y) is a s. sa e e’s afety glass ses! At (X). and n have too many o them! of As y can see.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O These (N & O). Why? Many . is what’s called a r ryoba noko ogiri. d anoth oldie-bu her ut-goodie. also known as a Japanese pull saw. is anked. and is simp an exten ply nsion of you ur drill (el lectric or n non) – the shank abov ve the chu is placed into the c uck d chuck of you ur drill. a. The e ey’re excell lent tools. it’s compact and light you weight. in differ o rent sizes. and cuts rasping time dow to size quite c g wn q consi iderably. – then ther is the han . tself is also moveable to accomm modate drill ling at diff ferent precis se angles ( (marked on the tool). tape measure. and fo ound it at a local ho ome center for not much r m more than 25 bu e ucks. In the pho on the le of the fa oto eft acing page. which is rful shown b below. an is move nd eable up an down th nd he armatur which it re. zip pping throu some wo ugh oods as th hough they were butter – we can see r n this tool in the p t photo shown below. n At (U). V). Then there (W). w which I have quite a few of e w – I’m often losin the silly things. M reaso ons… first. we see a brace and bit. ook. You e don’t need to go to Japan fo such thin – t o or ngs saws of this typ are also m pe made right here in the USA.
ept g and if you have the patience. as well as s straight one In the es. is capa p able of quit a lot. sand d dpaper… lo and lots of sandpap Keep a supply ots s per. we see what is kn e nown as a coping sa . with a very thin kerf. ng. Here (abo ove).Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One straight cuts as a result. keepin the ull ng blad taught. p d ne to ools like fil and rasp of varyin coarles ps ng se enesses. pre-drawn or n ke fr reehandedly this is the tool to use y. aced it. you pu into the cut. e e. the left set of t teeth are fo ripor ping along the grain. of different g o grades of co oarseness. If you ng the beco ome well e enough ade at using this. If ever you te e need to mak curved cuts. th here are two other thin (not ngs pictured) that we need – for on thing. In s nstead of pu ushing into the cut. bending the blade even o slightly. ng t plest. while bein among the sim. photo. I rem p moved the bl lade. curate cut. Keep all your tools in a handy place. he tech hniques of J Japanese joinery. y tr ree-length p pieces of big lumber – no table g sa needed there! It’s truly an inspiring aw si ight to see. If you’re ev in Japa and you see f ver an u som carpente workin on a S me ers ng Shinto shri or a Bu ine. e shap of the b pe blade also helps you align you cut by ey making a very acc ur ye. and the other thing. Then there a the two sets of teeth – in T are h the photo. keepin them ng well sharpen and hon w ned ned… which brings h us to out nex discussion sharpenin u xt n. Finally. and straigh The size and de ht. so th I can hat cut the hole square. uddhist temp using th old ple.very useful for cutting aw curved cuts. it can re e eplace a tab saw in m ble many applic cations. This tool. and the right set are g for crosscuttin against t grain. put it through a drilled hole and repla e. you m might see them usin these sa ng aws even in the mak king of b boards by ripping down 15 . y and maintai them w a in well.
Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One C g r W 16 .
the w water stone. but they go a b slower th a regula old bit han ar bench grinder. o d r . Now. sharpening and honin To g ng. You only n need water for the and so. and when shar rpening. a lot of bottl of expen les nsive sharpe ening oil st trewn about your work t kshop. I n need to say here. and the going ba to your w en ack work. th water he mixes with t particles of stone gr that’s m the s rit sc craped off and forms a slurry. As for myself I general prefer. You have now just ruine the temp of that steel. ch natural. trying to gr ust The rind a fine edge on a tool wit a high-speed e th bench grinder is a mite lik swatting a fly ke g with a Howitz It’s just way too m h zer. an a fine st g nd tone. and highly recf. you n notice ther re’s a heat t-induced d discoloration in the stee n el… a bit of yellowy y-brown. that g grinding an edge to a dull bl o lade on a b bench grin nder. that acs tu ually aids in the sharpe n ening of you blade. Here they are (abov y ve). more economica and muc more a al. I ha two – a coarse st n ave tone. a hope it k and keeps. Some are oil stones and e s. I st tart out by letting th y hem both soak in enough wate for them to be tota er m ally immersed in it for about an hour. w ed per and now need to slowly g grind down about 1/4” or more off that part j to get t mi” just to nim mally damag steel to p some ki of ged put ind an e edge on it. som are water stones. is ju sloppy. for grinding. an still some othme r nd e ers are a comb bination of b both. ent What’s the best alterna W ative? Use sharpening stones. The water soaks into the pores of the T s st tones. T fact is. better yet. ne eft. Too fast. would be a better statement. There actual are mo T lly otorized grinding whe eels made j just for sharpening bl lades. t much. you’re not keeping w em. and the gr is quite a difrit fere grade. more or m t. or blue. mer rely grind a edge to a blade just isn’t an t goo enough .they need to be hon as od d ned well.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One Shar ning S rpen Or. Less to think about. and fin on the le soaking in water. Im magine you u’re at the grinding w wheel. and you grind away at the steel o the d of blad de… sudde enly. for honing. t m le ess. ur 17 . coarse on the ri ight. lly y omm mend.
and get ready for workin ng. . Leave t other on in the wa until yo the ne ater ou are read to use it. which w w have two place for blade – blades for es es s plane above. forward sw weeps alon the ston ng ne. sure the bla has the beade e veled side face down onto the stone. sec into place. As you ca see. see d o . so all he ng o your sweeps a along the stone will go l smoo othly. allowing n d no light to pass throug between them. so lets’ fix it. ry de. an beveled face t s nd of th blade – are completely touching he each other with hout light passing thro ough. that the surfaces – stone. sharpen ning the bl lade. There also a w e’s wheel for m movement along a the le ength of th sharpenin stone. ese on this her old chisel of mine… re l you got shaky h g hands? Can’t hold the blade b still at the pro oper angle? Getting frustrate Fear no There is a tool for this ed? ot! s little problem as well! s As y can see it’s a ver dull blad you e. t n curing the ch hisel and then tighten the jig. Now. aligni the chisel to ing be at the correct angle for sh harpening. e g As sh hown above take your chisel blad e. we need to do the o same thing as ab e bove. ust terrible. p Yo might a ou also do this on a sur s rface other than the stone. the en you’re ready to sharpen! T Take out th he coarse stone. and for chisels be es elow.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O When they’ve so n oaked long enough. r de to the st tone. if it helps you see r u 18 . x An here it is! These ca be found alnd an d most anywhere… maybe yo already have t … ou h one. with the bevel all s e scratched up This is ju p. dy Okay now let’s try out the stones o y. in plac cing the c chisel into this wond derful little gizmo. No ow. bevele face dow – hold it at ed wn the corr angle so that stone and blade rect e. Repeat the sam me process with the fine stone for honin s ng. e’s beveled face are touching. h hold on just a minute here… hav t ve loose make s ely. We set the ch e hisel into the sharpening jig. turn an ning the sc crew widens or narro ows the jaw pieces. Mak gh n ke steady.
a mirrored surface. While you sharpen away. You Y don’t w want to wai until you have it roug jagged e gh. ng. de. polished blade that look like pour glass. we use the fine stone for e s Here (abo honing. u you notice a burr dev u’ll veloping on the n edge. prog gress period dically. rusty chips in t them before you sharp them a e pen again.rememb it’s hel ne ber. It’ a fact th fer ’s hat’s well w worth rem membering. It’s not h ce. Don’t worry about cle D y earing the s slurry off of the ston . casi ionally. d gleam like an icicle catc g n ching the su un. for ke rward stro okes along the stone. one or two light forward sweeps on the o s blade’s flat side will g rid of an burrs b get ny on the blade’s edge (see below). checking your . Thu umb off the slurry from the blade oce m e. edges with d deep. entirely unheard of for some craft tsman to se aside an entire day t sharpen all of the et to a blades in their shop. h have patienc and take your time. 19 . e . See ph hoto below. Again. so b ometimes doing so d once a month dependin on their work. p ks red li iquid silver. you can begin sharO pening your bl lades – mak even. Every te or twent sweeps o so. o h. Mak it a regu routine. then it’s tim to take the next h me st honing.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One bett to align i all. as lon as that su ter it ng urface is fl and smo lat. en ty or Once you’ve gotten i ground do to a it own high sheen. or polishing. or polishin the blad tep. ooth. the blade. r blad des – and in turn. lping. arpening aw until yo get way ou a mirror finish on the blad beveled surde’s d face The best thing you can do for your e. th all your handicraft will des hen r ts suff also. for your work proj jects – is to keep them maintained d. If you let your ke ular t blad suffer. to check your progress i rer in mov ving any scratch marks from the b s blade. Take your e e time Keep sha e. Pati ience is the key word here. o e Once that’s done. ove). It should . ng w You want to have a super-sharp highly p.
Also. o d If you find th during y hat your work your y tools are doing less than th job. and as of ften as nee eded. will ackle items that will look as tho s ough they were w built by a drunk monkey u k using his fe – eet such frustration are dish ns heartening and self-d discouragin and you can really do ng. even i they get exposed to if t dampne your blades will be well pro ess. If you have h tools with blad in need of sharpening des d and honing. a another goo idea is to od take one or two dro of oil an rub it onto ops nd your bla ades – don’ leave them all slippery. bu you wo ut ork with them t witho doing s your wo will su out so. our a nice d box. that’s w wonderful pe erfection. you will eith accomp oth curate cuts a shapes that and smoo and acc will leave you proud of y your good hard work or you w have poor. It’ a simple basic. log out ’s e. accor rding to you blades’ w and tea ur wear ar. ypes. and ta the tim to ake me main ntain them. worse. befo you star any projects. Ru to ust eats thr rough blade quickly . In attempting to create the project in g ts u her plish this book. ork uffer. 20 . otected. gical fact of cause and effect. e ot ng ed Once you’ve go everythin all hone up and shiny. well honed bl lades are m miracle w workers. y will hav a oth you ve rough and shab h bby lookin dowel. u y witho that. y es. Remembe it woul er.and a super thin curl of woo des od turns ou of it. This w way. and the pos ssibilities o rust settin of ng in will be pretty m much next t zero. d. ram-sha k. ’t m just kee a micro-t ep thin film of oil on them f m. Wh you sen your plan hen nd ne along a board’s edge. ore rt Main ntain them.prevent i es it. Take fo example the dowe or e eling plane If well honed. kee a wide strap of leath dry ep her wrap pped a coup of times around kan ple s nna. I cannot stres this enou c ss ugh. it’s a good idea to keep them away fr rom moistur Keep yo chisels in re. leavi a ing rough and splint h tery mess. Cuts made will be messy splintered or l y. and it d doesn’t skitter – it glid . jus be heir st patient… don’t be in an al ll-fired hurr to ry comp plete your task poorly – stop what y w See? Sharp. ldn’t hurt to set aside some time to spend share e s penin and hon ng ning all of your blade in es your shop. thin enough to read throug ut n gh. l you will have h smoo results – if not.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O Take the time to sharpen an hone all your o nd y blade of all ty es. and keep saws in a dry part of you d s ur workshop. The ng blade will not cut so muc as push off e ch h chun and piec of your s nks ces stock.
Using dull blade or g es. to ke the blad from du b eep de ulling or chipping. or what have you. even if left ou n utdoors – t this makes them idea for things like patio f al s furniture. is how accidents can happen w n. e me re-s sharpen you blade. n Planes suc as kanna as mentio ch a. Once you have all yo blades gleaming our g and raring to work at so a o ome wood. Yo owe it to your ur ou o wor and to yo develop rk. or sheathed in pouches… don’t d n … le eave them clunking a around in th same he to oolbox as sa a hamm or screw ay. and last for y d years. have a high resistance to weather h e ring as a res of sult its mineral co ontent. and when wor rking on th hem. our ping prowes as a ss woo odcrafter. due t the to min neral conten eat your blades up s nt. You Y will of ften find t that your b blades seem to go du faster w some w m ull with woods than with other This is u n rs. wdrivers. such w woods. pped up in a strap of le eather or cl loth. Ta this wel into consi ng ake ll ideration when choo n osing your w woods. am mong other which h rs. oned befo are best kept wrap ore. o e Rest block planes on their side so as k n es. But B the fact is. esp h pecially on such woods. around the body and the d blade. Okay. and take the tim to . th blade int the body of the plan when he to y ne not in use. mer. allo owing them to go dull while you work with them. Y get the picture.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One you u’re doing. I t think I’ve completely talked y th subject to death. his You Now let’s m N move on to somethin a bit o ng more interes m sting… 21 . usually due to the fact that some h t hardwoods have a very high y min neral conten such a silica. dulling th blade – o better yet retract he or t. not to put th n hem down o their bott on tom faces. T nt. as These hard dwoods include those such as tea and ak purp pleheart. do your best to keep them well p b protected – keep all your chisels and gouges in a prope box or y s er drawer. somethin fierce.
Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One C g r W 22 .
and t d threaded it. but i for is here does the same th thre eading “blin holes. we make sc ol crews and bolts. let’s s you too a 1” say ok dowel. For a closer loo at this. hing. b For exam mple. not s shown for each size set – the o e. there’s a bit of a trick to doing it right – you see. ing For F making the nuts fo your bol or or lts. w nd” which do n go not all the way th hrough a p piece of wo ood – thos that com to a s se me stop somew where without it sti w icking out o the other side of on r it – such as CD racks that are bu with t uilt dowels set in boards. Take a lo es ook at it i the in pho shown at the upp oto per-right of this f page. Now you want to . using the han. s own gth the piece un ntil the de esired effe ect is achi ieved. This is good fo making take-down furniture that reor n quires one pi q iece to attac to anothe one ch er With W this too (above). se the ok ee faci page. stock. The piece to b threaded is put int the e be d to open ning under rneath. in order to match the nut to exac fit the bolt. have the other tool. dles the tool is twisted do the leng of s. make a threa m aded hole i a board to screw in t 23 . ’s oser midway into the work p m o piece. threading straig round s ght..Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One Woo W d th adin hrea ng Now comes a more int N teresting su ubject. and ne v eeds to be remembered. There are actually tw of these tools e wo e other. which threads th inh he side of holes. Let’ take a clo look. etc we r c. and. d nto However. very important. for applying he eads to your screws. you o e ctly b need the hole you are ab n bout to thre for it ead to be 1/8” sm o maller in di iameter than that of n th round sto you thre he ock eaded for it This is t. while with this tool we can h th hread the in nsides of ho oles.
go a across the grain. At times. Why is this? Well. t h ther an all-the-w throug hole. the ad en cut them out to si and sha . tever you like. 24 .Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O it throu – so. m Le say you wanted to thread the inteet’s u i rior of a hole th was drill into the butt o hat led end of a piece of 4x4 lum o mber – but that woul be along the grain! What do you ld g ! do? Well. Whe en you’re threading the exterio of roun or nd screws). So. little square es of wood Believe it or not. the ’s ere’s a way y. If you thread the interiors of holes along y s a the grain. r ps in two – not good. if you threadi a u’re ing screw across th grain. and go from th here. Or. here w W we’d have t use some joito e nery. Now. when you thread the interiors o e of holes (n nuts). If you want to make heads on your y screw simply make a nut for it with eiws. Thi allows fo is for the thre eads of bo matchin pieces to oth ng ‘fold fingers’ with each othe and fit to h er. for the s screw to go through. u’d ite surprise at how m ed many peop start right ple off thin nking in that direction myself in n.squar m ize ape re. y might o to double. and attach a piece of w wood to the end e of th piece in question. Fo ortunately. you could al bore a m y lso much larger hole into the end. When you threa wood. th hread them across the grain. a and insert a cross-gra ained piece of wood i e into that. or you opt n ad nside or ou ut. cr he rossways as far s as gr rain is conc cerned. in you nee to consid the grain direction o ed der n of the woo For exam od. Deciding on nut sh g hat shaped ones are s thing – I find th square-s best. Take a b board. the nuts is sn’t done b by trying t thread p to pre-drilled. mple. like i the picture in above. to gi ive interior threads s r strength. or one way gh hrough – apply a than only goes part-way th ads ew y glue to the threa and scre it onto your hape is ano other bolt. and ou of will l ut the hole… even while threa h n ading them. go along the grain. To d o do stock (s otherwi would r ise result in mi ishaps – yo ou try to g a good screw goin then sud get ng. with some hole es drilled into it to th hread. threa them. most dow wels are made m along the grain – so that th don’t break g hey b so ea asily. ogether s snugly. ddenly y your nuts bu and your wood snap ust. you be a mi d. W t Where there’ a will. th the obv w he hen vious thing is that at a point a g any along its len ngth. hexagon or what nal. o It’s r really that s simple. making t . ncluded. a then drill it and and thread it. yo need to first make a ugh ou 7/8” ho and then thread the inside of it ole. then the thread will have no g ds e stren ngth – they w just fall off. there is a weak p e point just w waiting to bre eak.
and threaded the two holes together in one action.5”. so if you clamped the two boards in that example together. whimsical devices of your own imaginings. these prove to be potentially very useful in some machines we can make. Now. and so on. one wants to arrange a piece of work so that one screw passes through two boards (like in the vices later on) – how do you make it so that the threads don’t go out of sinc (between the threaded holes of the two boards). They’re simple enough to follow – give them a good looking at. Keep in mind. 1”.three turns for 1/2 of an inch . 2”. on the next page is a pictorial reminder of what we’ve gone over as far as making nuts and bolts versus wood grain direction. indeed. and gluing them together – threading a hole across the grain of that group of pieces makes a very strong nut. 25 . 1. This particular little feature of these wood threading tools allows for a means of fine-tuning some of the all-wood tools and machines that we can create. etc. in the case of the eight TPI screws. let’s imagine we created a fixture wherein there was held a cutting blade in a lathe… we could measure how much the blade could be pushed into the work piece by the turn of the handle. first we need to understand that the thread count is measured by “TPI” – that’s Turns Per Inch – usually six or eight.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One triple-ply the wood for your nuts. when used along with wooden sprocket gears that we can make – what are the possibilities? Clockwork toys. causing the screw to buckle? Well. then you only need to make sure that. that they are apart at a precise distance of whole. once they’re separated in the project. etc.. The six TPI screws can do the same – six turns for an inch . – the possibilities seem to be numerous. 2. It’s little details like this that opens doors for artists and craftsmen who have a mind for making wonders. The interesting thing with the TPI. fine-tuning adjustment mechanisms (not unlike the machine heads in guitars that tune the strings). is that. such as the 1/2” ones. Something to think about. alternating the directions of grain in each piece.one and a half turns for 1/4 of an inch – but they can also do things in increments of thirds and sixths. and commit it to memory before we move on. or half inch increments – 1/2”. and also that the pieces remain facing each other in the same way that they were when you threaded them together in one go. How? For example. fine-tuning it’s progression into the wood – four turns for 1/2 of an inch – one turn for 1/8 of an inch – a half turn for 1/16 of an inch… do you see where I’m going with this? Think about that for just a mite. the screws can all be used as worm gears. Sometimes.5”.
Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One C g r W 26 .
which usually means “FREE WOOD”. This is one of a few good ways to acquire good wood .and even entire sets – for dirt cheap. but look! This here one at the second hand store is five bucks! Snag! Sometimes I find a real gem… an old chest of drawers made from teak. good quality woods? Reclaimed lumber… …a wonderful bit of terminology. solid piece – now. mill them off. pieces of pine like that might be quite expensive. and bam! I’ve got some nice. Yeah. is largely inexpensive. But sometimes you’ll see a large pine coffee table. or it’s scratched up quite a bit. sturdy exotic wood. Okay. ready to be 27 .the type that sells old furniture and clothes and such. he’ll feel good knowing that it’ll all be recycled into fine works of craftsmanship. 1&1/4”. that many of the pieces are huge. and in other cases. First. from basic screws. 3/4”. bubinga or walnut – it was left at such a store because maybe a leg is missing. of which the tabletop is one thick. don’t scoff… allow me to explain. and so it sells for as cheaply as 20-30 dollars. I have a set of five – for 1/2”. and the store manager may not be quite a connoisseur of fine woods who knows the value of such things. as simply as can be. fine pieces of beautifully grained.other sources that have proved quite valuable to my experience. take it apart in my shop. but then pine is often inexpensive enough from the lumber yard. What’s more. are second-hand stores . and offers much to work with… and THREE. to make way to build a guest house or something – often. Now. someone is tearing down an old barn on their property.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One That’s how it’s all done. I’ll grab that! It might be terribly beaten up and no longer any good at being a piece of furniture anymore. instead of paying for some service to come and pick it up. That’s fine if you want pine. For example. you’ll find three things… ONE. we should discuss where to get our lumber. or a home center? Where is the most inexpensive place to get fine. Many times I’ll see in these places. pieces of furniture . I’d take it home. but it can still be useful. What’s the best and easiest way to acquire lumber? Is it better to get wood from a lumber yard. and we’ll be ready to make our workbench. 1”. that the owner would be more than happy to unload it all on you. and much of it is still good lumber… TWO. to vices and clamps and jigs and fixtures. Of course. that the wood is finely seasoned. you can make wonderful things with the wood threading tap and die sets. so we’ve covered a lot of ground so far – just a little more ground to cover. As long as you remember those basic rules. carefully disassembling the drawers’ dovetails. and 1&1/2” nuts and bolts – for all kinds of things. many of these things are pine furniture you might find in an inexpensive catalogue… mail order types of things you might see being used at a cheap motel.
It’s all good! Ah. and so they move the old furniture out to the sidewalk. wooden nuts for wooden bolts and screws. even if they may be of fine wood such as walnut. and cedar for my workshop. right when I’m looking for it. a walnut rabbet plane. I moved from one house to another just around the corner. but depending on the piece. some of you out there might be saying. otherwise known as fencepost lumber. yeah! Sometimes I’m into that. you might ask? Tool handles. you may ask? Well for one thing. and want to get certain pre-cut sizes 28 . solid oak and rock maple that way. I like best for aromatic red cedar. or a place that specializes in exotic woods of many types. I made a couple of workbenches! Store bought lumber… Usually however. If I don’t mind slightly higher prices. which we might find at an auction or a garage sale.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One fashioned into whatever I desire to make out of it. like outlets that supply wood for floorers and cabinetmakers – this type of place. But often enough. “Gee. South American purpleheart. why not give it a makeover. maple. I’m not sure if things are similar in your area or not. People have bought new furniture. at second-hand stores. You can always see that most of it is just… well. but here in Portland. so I used the lumber for other things. ebony tool handles. from the post lumber. I got to the lumber yard. it’s often better to reclaim the raw lumber and make something else. we often find things that have been beaten down through the ages – it’s not like seeing a valuable heirloom piece that only needs a little work. both big pieces and small. What. I just want to find the wood I’m looking for. but watch for signs of insects – you don’t want them in your home or workshop! There’s a certain type of reclaimed lumber I personally like best – because I can get it reclaimed. cherry. or buy the same stuff new if I like – and that’s 4x4 stock (which actually measures 3&1/2” x 3&1/2”). junk. If I just want to get wood to cut however I please. I go out and buy it. I have found things that yielded good quantities of birch. After all. oak. if you find something like that. are now fine boxes of oak. and took my fence with me… but then I decided not to put it up at the new place. So. and others. and the possibilities go on. Now. also. However. the rewards are worthwhile – it’s like treasure hunting! The pieces of wood that were once a desk top. I’ve gotten a lot of good. or a wardrobe shelf. and so on. Maine. What good are small pieces. we have “Big Trash Day” twice a year. turned maple chess pieces. spring and fall. and then you’ve got a lovely piece of valuable furniture!” Well.
you should alw u ways bring at least th hese two th hings… a ta measure. and unusable for your particular w d project. the many sizes of stock. Wh p herever you go to get your u g lu umber. The ti ime and place to check for perfe p ection is wh here and when you p w purchase yo wood products. our B even to a s small degre is often almost ee. On to our project! n 29 . let’s face it – f go ood. and a ape tr ri-square. always check an double c nd check you measurem ur ments. Afte all. or to mark in w o which direction to h d hand plane the wood. the ngs go t through my mind when I come up with y n p a pr roject idea. i a list of m is measuremen nts… Measure tw M wice. cut on nce… how many time have we heard this golden ru in es e s ule woo odshop at school? It’ true! Alw ’s ways. When we take down mea n asuremen and go to cut a piece to th rents. always. if ev ver. I go to my local h o home center This r. or bac etc. the w he art tw wisting and cupping th occurs in some d hat pieces of wo should b well avoi p ood be ided. in places i where the w w wood’s grain may only want to n be planed do in such a direction b own h n. and even much bigger size h es. and ch heck all alo the len ong ngth and aro ound the pi iece… I me ean. is to go ahead and double che to o d eck see if that piec would st fit the o ce till others afte that cut – will it st fit? Are you er till e sure you’re cut e tting the righ piece? ht The T best way to prevent such mish y t haps is to la abel your p pieces.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One quic ckly. b we before we cut. Bowing. Sometimes I like to go to such plac to S ces be around the wood sim e mply for inspiration purposes the sm of the w nal s… mell wood. like th 4x4s I m he mentioned a above. n unavoidable. M Make sure your pie e eces are sq quare and t true. a just the sight s and of it all brings to my mind many ideas for t d proj jects to com One of t first thin to me. gs ter t table or a p planer. that’s what er a c carpenter’s pencil is for. Us your tr se ri-square to check for squarene ess. especially in long pie u y eces. – w ck. Checking for squa g areness is another very important part of preparatio v f ons. of red ften what w forget. for th most pa – however. which way i up? is Mar with an “X” those parts to b cut rk e be awa ay… use ar rrows to show directio of ons cuts if you’re using thing such as a rous. but su things are general able to be dealt uch lly with. Ther been m re’s many a time when I’v measured a piece to cut. our p Okay. is a also a goo place to get really big od o y lum mber. precut wood is rar rely. y only to brin it home and find that it’s o ng warped. o he quir size. and n bowed so much not s along the le a ength of yo stock. that s O should be more than enough sa on that s aid subject. The best time an place this should be done is b nd s e where and w w when you ge your woo – you et od don’t want t go shelling out hard earned d to d money on o m otherwise g good quality wood. right? Use ? mar rkings to lab which f bel face of the b board is fr front. only to find tha I’ve mea y at asured wro ongly. e ve d o and cut it. dirt ch heap.
Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One C g r W
and banging away at this and that i the s in proc cess. this thing is a we 31 . we refer and ut e to w what are probably bett termed w ter worktabl les.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One How does one define a workbe H e ench? Actu ually. What else does it nee Well. either installed on it somew v n where. inion. that also has a bi of a work surit k face and places. We shou uld also co onsider on other ne th hing… whil we’re at the task of creating le th thing o his ourselves. yes! t A VICES. and that will last for y w years and y years to com me. Bu today. one vice – le make tw o et’s wo. o of heavy lumber and other mat out y terials. so t w that they do roll on’t off and whac you in th foot. or worse. a true workbenc is a benc one e ch ch sits on. we need a e ed? good place on it to put our tool while g ls we’re using a few. so you want to make some u’ll ething real lly BEEFY Something you could Y. so th we can take it and place it hat d anywhere w please. V kbench wit thout at le east one Any work vice. generous wo surface area. why not make it m ta ake-downab ble? We should make it m so omewhat e easy to disa assemble an reasnd se emble. so that we can work at it e either stand ding. solid. put your tools a jigs. b and beef workben – vy. a it ud and won fall to p n’t pieces – an it’s got to be nd goo and heav enough n to start strolod vy not ling across the floor when you’re pl g e n laning a piece of wood d. It o ck he w sh hould also have plent of place along ty es th surface t put holdf he to fasts and oth such her to ools for pin nning down your work to the n k ta able. er we’re going to be making many thin on o g ngs it. p e f hot wings and beer. It also nee to be ru eds ugged a w and be able to take a bea o ating – afte all. So we need at least h o. they kind of bench shap yeah? y’re f ped. big fy nch one that can support he o n eavy work. What W we nee to build i somethin that ed is ng is b with a g big. ork e Som mething at t right he the eight. or sitting on work stool. wha the eve ack er-livin’ cru out of. in my opi . What else? Are we forgetti anying th hing? What else does it need? Ah. like holes and slo to e. W ant heav sturdy. as “w workbenches” – and hey. ots. or better yet. is pretty much just a table – a place for pizza. I mean. b b built into it. What we wa to build is a good.
there a size dife feren nce? When wood gets milled for the r mark ket. to the apartmen eir nt. ng ilt and jigs and have two workin vices bui right in. actu ually meas sures 3&1/ x 3&1/2 Why is t /2” 2”. Th is where we h in his e need to focus on certain join n nery techniq ques.but wood is larger w d when it is gr reen. u up those s stairs. t’s gous. i a lot big it’s gger than it looks in th hat picture) Without b ). and stuff it all in half m d my smalles closet – no lie! st o Gene overvie eral ew… Okay so to reca our work y. have measured the legs to be 36” to suit o myse For you take a t elf. too this beh e ok hemoth apa art and loaded it into h little car and drove it his r to down ntown Portl land. hav a place to ve put our tools. Build ding the w workbench h… We wi ill build th from the ground up. We’ll be using “ “4x4” stock (“fencepo k ost”). Nick Zalisk – so h his roomma another friend of mine. On p o page 30. measure th distance from the floor. I deo cided to gift this b monster to a fello o big r ow craftsm and frie man. he fl to the top edge o your bac pocket… and e of ck now you have the measu urement for the r lengt of your workbench legs! Kee in th h ep mind that the th d hickness of the table will f add another 3& &1/2”. u. q quickly and easily. yo ou can see a picture of it at the place (ho e eir onestly. ould first m mention that the t lengt of the leg are optio th gs onal… after all. Sweet. and we carried it u a few flights of stai up irs with no problems at all. end. whic would bring ch b the ta abletop to a about the to of your belop tline. Justin ate. I could take it down. r you and I might not be the same heig I a t e ght. which as we know. tape measu ure… now.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O BIG – y want to try moving it through a you o g h doorwa in one pi ay iece? It’s a lot easier to do it in pieces. or i into that a apartment. ap. being able to disassem mble it. ut e’ll ese welve We start off with the first tw piece but I sho es. have places to put holdfas e sts s. just 32 . he d he ce. r Wallace and I. bit simpler to build tha way. we never would d have go otten it into that car. as w r at well. wnable. that’s w what size they are . than when w it is dry. O n Once we sta putting it art together you’ll see that it’s also a b r. just below your elbow If that’s too . and the struts that hold them i place. w ws. kbench need ds to be s strong. Let m tell you this… befo I took o me ore off for ano other trip to Nagoya. adj it to your needs. th o hrough thos se narrow doorways of their building. It would have been impossible The funn e. ere’s the cu list. startin his ng with the leg co onstruction. heav take-dow vy. ny thing is though it humong s. hence th differenc Okay. s high for you. pro ovide ple enty of wor rkspace. Japan.
Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One
When cutting with the pull saw, use your W g e tri-s square to m mark where the cut is to be mad on all f de four faces of the woo all od arou it. Mak a series of four cuts along und ke the lines – cut i the mann shown a in ner above,
using your d u drawn lines as a guide for your f cuts, and previous cut to guide subsets e quent cuts. T result s q The should be a perfect cut that wou rival tho made by a powuld ose y er tool.
Th locking pins are ea he asy. he this page. No otice that I have drille a small hole ed wher the corne of the cut re er tout will be on e. w and 5” long. I deed. using the “half and half” m g method… ch hisel off half the chun first. did you study well Great! In that top diau l? n gram. On that last page. w saw how to make t cuts with we w the the pull saw. w l . an so on. and loo at crossb ok beam #1 – the notches are made ( s (each) with two h cuts of a hand s saw. This d type of thing do not alte its struct oes er tural integ grity. Try not to go an immediat n nd tely chisel it off i right at the cuts ends. so feel free e. Look o over them c carefully an nd study th well be hem efore we mo on. In the image in the mid ddle of the last page. we can se the specs for the cr ee rossbeam and pins. we saw a b t brief descrip ption on one of the best ways to cut with a pull saw and the d w. ble cided to make the rounde ends a little d ed l longe than spec so that th would stick er cs.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O As you can see. being b shape As you might be ab to tell. encouraged to do so. s he hat e so do mak sure yo use a g ke ou good. if you so u prefe er. se that. Tak a look at the dia ke agram with the cross sbeams again. ev verything else in the cu utting list can be cu from 1& ut &1/2” x 3/4 4” stock. and be etween the cuts. 3/4” wide. Here. sturd dy hardwo ood. If yo wish to make t ou m some minor or e rnamental c changes in this proje you’re e ect. do it a little at a time. really. This is to ai in cutting out that ar – id g rea use a pull saw. hey s out a little bit m more from th outside of the he legs when instal w lled – no ne ecessary rea ason. or oak. then half of what’s left of that. as you could split s’ off th entire en of the pi he nd iece – mind the d wood grain – ins d stead. c the chunk is kn c nocked out with a ch t hisel. at th lower-left of ms . oto we see me. the unfinished c u crossbeam in the photo beo low. just thought I’d try it. until it’s don u ne. diagrams d describing th he few par of the w rts workbench that we wi ill make fi first. or any other hard y dwood. in the pho below. making th “third cu from th . or a band saw. but the height of one end is 5 t 34 . Thes se make th struts th stabilize the legs. I used map but feel free to us ple. we ca see cross p an sbeam #2. ove Constructing the leg assem mbly… Oka ay. he ut” hat diagram m. Here. then half of wh nk n hat’s t f t nd left.
T sides wi the holes placed o The ith higher are fo facing th front or back of h for he th workben he nch. one n s s f hole is place lower th the hole on the h ed han e other face. Als keep in mind the o so m direction of other things – note the tapered d s e th hrough mor rtises. This is to s he s crea a slanted floor insid the mortise for ate d de the angled ends of crossbe #2 to si on. e d the ends. the lower half of the th f hrough mor rtises. e and chisel up towards th lower ed of he dge the opposite o opening on the other side. Thes tapered locking pin are se ns the keys. equires mor rtising. litera ally. e at t then you start 1 inch lo n 1/2” ower on one side. and t the sides with the w holes placed lower are f facing th ends. to the structure o the of leg and crossbe assemb eam bly. The diae gram you see above. s eam it Note also the placem ment of drille holes ed near the tops of the legs – on one face. his Notice tha you’ll nee to make the legs at ed have the lar h rger openin of the tapered ngs th hrough mor rtises be fa acing outwa ardly (to th left and r he right) in ord for cross der sbeam 35 . n thus making th passage taper. h d for he These will receive wo T ooden scre ews that will be inse w erted in thro ough the ta abletop’s sk boards (refer to the photo on page 30 kirt to see what I mean). shou be uld don in the sa ne ame way – the only d difference being tha after that has been done. The T tapered through mo ortises in the legs. and what relati they ion have with th slanted cuts on cro h he ossbeam #2… here is where you need to do some # u’ll d of that creat o tive thinkin we talke about ng ed in the introdu n uction of th book. Round over 6”. At A the botto of page 33. crosswise. e whi pass thr ich rough.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One 9/16 and the other is 3/8”. s m e shows how the w thro ough mortises are made e. we se the om e ee diag gram showi the con ing nstruction o the of legs which re s.
Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O
#2 to fit correctl Also, n ly. note that th he placeme of the holes, near the tops o ent r of the legs need to b facing th correct d s, be he directions in their own right. T diagram s The ms give yo all the in ou nformation you need to formula this tiny puzzle, but as I men ate y ntioned b before, the p purpose of this series o of books i to make y think. R is you Remember to mark w a penci what shou be left o with il uld or right, o front or back. Whi directio or ich on should everything be facing? Let’s look at another diagram. r t-away view in the diaw Here, in the cut bove, we ca see more clearly ho an e ow gram ab all this is put toge ether. From the diagram on page 33, we see that the “ro e e oof” of the tapered through mo ortise passe through, es
cross swise, the t through mo ortise at hal of lf its he eight – the diagram he above, reinere, r force this idea. Here we can see how one es w cross sbeam is he into plac by the other, eld ce which is all lo ocked into place with the h locki pin. Fair simple, y ing rly yeah? Th part here is pretty much the most his m comp plicated par of the w rt whole proje – ect not th it is ver complica hat ry ated at all, I just mean to say tha the rest o this proje is n at of ect more simple fro here on out. But while e om w puttin together the crossb ng r beams is sim mple and easy enough we can s that it’s like e h, see maki pieces o a puzzle t fits toge ing of that ether. Maki pieces of take-dow joinery like ing wn this can be a ver rewarding and fun expec ry rienc when don correctly ce, ne y.
all together and see how eve a r. we measure and sm ell ed. after . t to remember that t on try things shou not be s loosely f as to allo for uld so fit ow wob bbling. and you shoul have fine results. moothly chiseled. ee gs st tanding in sturdy rei inforcement ready t. yet a the same time. strong foundation on which to build g g n our mighty w o workbench! Yeah! 37 . e erything st tands – is everything square and level? d Does it all st D tand withou wobbling? Great! ut ? In the pho on the next page. shoul not at ld be s tight as to require h so hammering it all in. we can oto se the end result. T only sl The light hamm mering that needs to b done here is on the l be e. ever rything else is in place. Leg of hefty lumber. d ld e Once everyth O hing is cut a mortise put it and ed. e Make sure your mor rtises are go and ood st traight. locking pin. While you b W build this li ittle mortise and teno puzzle. and waiting for the tab a bletop to be asseme bled and att b tached to it Now we have a t. e good. ves both strengthen and suppo the whole leg h n ort stru ucture. We ca see an that this simp arrangem t ple ment is actually quit sturdy in its nature and serv to te n e.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One Here is a m H more photographic vie of ew how this all co w omes toget ther.
n’t h but if it really bu f ugged me. good good… rect d.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O Let’s stand back an look at w we hav nd what ve accomp plished here mortise seem fin e… es ne. rt he braces underneath to receiv the vice h ve es’ moving parts. and as you’ll see. he p. and finally the vices them g d e mselves. not ite nd to ment tion rugged and able to take a bea o ating. They y T gener rally come in lengths of 6. This wo is thick and n’t ood k hard enough to take any o ything you can throw at it. back together. ray. 8 and 12 d 38 . In usi a few o ing of these. The alternativ would be to find suc ve e ch dimensi ions in one solid piec – think o e ce of the exp pense. c e clear into th tabletop – it he proba ably wouldn do much terrible harm. th . Now you’ll notice that th w. create a tab ble surface that is qui thick an meaty. eh d h? Th hese pieces of lumber can be fo r ound anyw where. ber omes in spru or Dou ruce uglas lumb often co fir… it isn’t r rock maple but it re e. his type of lumber has replace e-ability – let’s say I did some ething utterl bone-hea ly aded and mistakenly drilled a h hole throug a gh piece of work. make th parts of the tabletop – the wor he p rk surface. s side by side we can c e. toss in the replac i cement piec and put it all ce. Here’s whe the fun g better… ere gets … We’ll be using more “4x4” stock her l ” re. Anot w ther reason for using th his alrighty now for th next step We need to y. a it just might. framew work good and solid d… are th he drilled holes near the tops o the legs in of the corr places? Okay. eally doesn have to be. and I’ll tell you w l why. the tool tr the skir boards. and m I onl need to replace tha one piec of ly at ce lumb – I just disassemble the table ber etop. Pretty darned snazzy. are quite q versa atile in ma aking many things.
Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One
feet costing a t, about 16 to 22 bucks each, new – or free if recyc w e, cled. With these won nderful chunks of woo goodne in ody ess, the books to f follow, we will build other wor rkshop struc ctures, and a side pro also ojects whi ich include timber-fra e amed gard dening shed rustic lawn furn ds, niture and playgrou equipm und ment. Alright, now let’s first take a gand at A w der the tabletop pa of the w art workbench in its com mpleted stag (see photo below). ge o by taking a l b look at the cut list for this part of the projec o ct;
Here, we see the par of the ta rts abletop’s construction In the m n. materials co olumn, I have listed the most common choices h available tha are most readily fo a at t ound for th hese types o stock tha we will use – but of at u use your bett judgmen u ter nt… if you find, for example, tha for the c at connectors, birch is not available but ceda is plentif then n e, ar ful, th hat’s just fi ine. If you’d rather use maple fo the skirt boards ins or t stead of oak that’s k, okay too… but try t stay wit o to thin the neighborhoo of the strengths of the n od woods that are genera w ally implied by the d choices I hav suggested here. ve Once you u’ve got it a gathered up and all d eady, we ca move on to the nex step – an n xt re le take a lo at the d et’s ook diagram on the next page, showin the table p ng etop’s constr ruction;
Making the parts for the tablet M e r top… In th photo, w can see a the parts of its he we all com mpleted con nstruction – the lumbe for er the tabletop bo ody, the boa that serv as ard ves the tool tray area, the s skirt boards that s surr round and s support the whole stru ucture and box it all in, the br l races under rneath that serve as part of the v mechan t vice nisms, and the vices themselves. Let’s get started
we n need to do some s sawin ng. with the crosscu teeth of your ut y saw. and als where th so he tool tray is placed. 1/4”. m ts. s your 1/2” channel. . sing the ripping 40 . from th top and bothe tom faces. and use your y tri-sq quare to dr raw a line across at that meas surement. On you’ve gotos nce ten th accompl hat lished. is pla to aning a chan nnel dow the leng of all yo fencepo wn gth our ost stock. We see where the connectors go and ho s ow they co ome into pl lay. The f first thing t do. and bottom fac ces. o each of tw opposin sides. U the triUse -square to also transfer that line on the other faces of your e y posts so that the line go comple s. and beof tween t those lines is where yo will mak ou ke he s mply measur in re Th sawing is easy – sim from each end of the post on both top. us eat. saw into th wood on those lines. N nd Now. but he e at nel come to a stop a the chann – don’t saw throu ugh that a area. See photo below. right on wo ng down th middle – so find you centerlin he ur ne. As you can se the parts ee. we see the first parts of the tablee top to c construct. see what I mea Got the image firm in w an. measure 1/4” on e e either side o it. This is wh y here we hav ve fun wit a bit of plow plan th ning and pu ull sawing. oes etely aroun them.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O Here. and m make them 1/4” deep. m your mind? Gre Now. Are y you with me? Chec the diagra at left. a the tongu to ck am at ue. tabletop are put togeth with sim e her mof the t ple ton ngue and grove type construction.
Below. Above. cut into the end fa of o ace the post. n in f it replaces a router. we can see th skirt boa with he ards th channels plowed o he s out. abov and belo the cha ve ow annel.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One teeth on your s saw. we com N mmence to making the skirt e boar rds. those round and square. Fairly easy d yeah Okay. Let’s look at wh s hat’s left from the last cut list. so w what’s next t? Next. Th is why a plow plan comes his ne in handy – i this one particular function. and th hat’s the easy part. g d which shows all the hol placemen w s le nts. n h? now let’s w work these into e form Another easy task for the m m. dimensions to start out with. and th struts t he that go bet tween them which w receive the vice sc m. unti you meet your prev il t vious cuts – now you have cons u structed the tongues a the e at ends of your p posts! These will fit int the e to chan nnels in th short sk boards when he kirt you put it all together. keep the same size blade in it as we used p e for plowing ou the chann in the tableut nels top lumber piec – this is pretty muc the ces s ch sam operation here. will crews and such. we can see this t n in action onc again. We should rou out me n ut the channels in the skirt bo n oards like th his. T tool tray and u The y conn nectors need no too oling. r miracle wor rking plow plane! Gra the plane and ab e. on the skirt bo n ce n oards. 41 . and after th we will dovetail a hat th ends of t skirt boards for pie he the ecing together. is the measur mes ring and placement o certain h p of holes. Let’s look at the next diagram. What com next.
Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O
At (C), we h have 1&1/2” holes dri ” illed, then squared ou by chisel or coping saw ut l (see photo at lo ower-right o page 11) – I of ) perso onally prefe the copin saw, in this er ng appli ication – the are cent ese tered at 2& &1/4” up fr rom the bot ttom edge, and 7&1/2 in 2” from the end. To make sure your holes are m o e s perfe ectly square measure out the end ree, d sult, drawing o the squ out uare with your y penci before yo set to dri il, ou illing. At (D), we ha the hole to receive the t ave es e 1” vi screws – make thes holes 7/8 in ice se 8” diam meter, center at 9&1/ in from the red /2” m “left edge”, and 2&1/2” up from the botd p tom edge. e At (E), we ha the hole to receive the t ave es e vice’s support ro – these are 5/8” in diods e n ameter, and cen ntered at 3” to either side ” from the vice sc crew hole’s c center line, and 2” up from the b p bottom edge e. t ave es e At (E), we ha the hole to receive the vice’s support ro – these are 5/8” in diods e n ameter, and cen ntered at 3” to either side ” from the vice sc crew hole’s c center line, and 2” up from the b p bottom edge e. At (F), we ha the exac same thin as t ave ct ng C, with the sam centering measureme me ents, but make sure that you c m center the hole from the correc end – th is the skirt m ct his board that is to be placed o the left side, d on s and once it is th o here, you w want to see that the hole’s cente was mea h er asured from the m end that would b towards you. It’s ea – t be asy see th diagram? How the h he ? hole is close to er
Abov we see t diagram showing th ve, the m he placeme of the h ent holes in all of the ski l irt boards. Notice tha the board in this diaat ds gram a arranged with inne and outer are d er faces placed face up – this is so you ca s an r, quare (like the big on ne transfer with a sq shown i the left si of the to photo o in ide ools on page 11), the me easurements and places ments o holes to b drilled fr of be rom one ski irt board, t the corres to sponding op pposite boar rd that wo ould be pl laced acros the work ss kbench f from it, once assembled e d. At (A we have 3/4” holes centered at A), e s, 2&1/2” in from th end, and 2&3/4” u ” he d up from th bottom ed he dge. At (B we have 3/4” holes centered at B), e s, 2&1/2” in from th end, and only 2” u ” he d up from th bottom ed he dge.
the only t th hing left w need to d before the final we do t part of this project – th vices – is to do p he th dovetaili of the s he ing skirt boards edges. nt ng. I things will still fit together o If ti ightly. m Now. saw to make the holes sq w quare. ee ean ju go ahea and try to replace tiny parts ust ad o of wood tha were mi o at istakenly cu away ut fr rom the w wrong side of your markings. Simple enough. eh e h? Always rem A member to m make your c cuts – not on the lines you draw. s Once we’ve got all t that done. just as I had show back on page H s wn n 15. if your cut allows a one or ar ts tw millimet gap to h wo ter happen that does not d cause loosen ness in the end result and is t. Perse everance is a virtue. But also r remember th in this particuhis.00 fu urniture – it’s a rugge piece of equiped f ment that’s b m been made for the pur rpose of working on with light and heavy lumber. la project. don get ove t n’t erly frust trated if yo ou’re worki away at one of ing t th hese holes here in t this one particular project. an is anothe part that is remind er niscent of c n creating a puzzle wit interth lo ocking piec ces. we can do o of two things here we can mark one e… the center poin for drillin drill the hole. remem mber that th workben is not a piece of $5 his nch 5. repla aced the bla into the saw. b at es. m Remember this always – it’s ju good R s ust common sen nse. but on the waste s side of the line You can always fil and e es. e the … we can drill th hole and then. n le sand down ext wood le behind… but d tra eft … 43 . and generally beat on. we a again have the same s square hole centered at the sam height. I have sim mply taken the blade o of out the coping saw put it through the ho in w. then don’t min the eye n nd esore so much. facing up at you? Yeah you h. d It can take it. mad the ng e de roun hole squ nd uare. ade e and then cuttin along the lines. So. an finally… nd … At A (G). w getting hamm g mered. d me but 18+ +1/4” in from the end. Don’t toss away that piece of wood m t o in frustration and lose h n n. and you make a cut that’s just shy p of perfect. Make doubly su that ure your chisels are extra sh y harp for this step of s th project – the qualit of your dovetailhe ty d in directly depends up this in the most ng pon t la argest of wa ays. s’ Here again i where th H is hings get a mite inte eresting. si imply just a tiny eyesore.000. ole question. heart. Here.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One one end? And that the dia agram is sho owing the inner face. in ma N aking holes square. mea asure and d draw a squ uare around the hole and then chisel out t corners… or. got it! Okay. meas he suring and drawing ou the squar use the coping ut re. Let’s look s at a photo to se what I me here.
Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One C g r W
Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One
Dove ling D etail
Never done dovetailin before, you N e ng say? Well, let’s take a begi ? s inner’s look at it. k The concept is really ver simple. First, e s ry let’s get to kn s now two ve importan raery nt tios; 6:1, and 8:1. The d ese describe the e shap of the d pe dovetails, as to their re s espective angles – 6 for sof e 6:1 ftwoods, an 8:1 nd for h hardwoods. This is how those num . w mbers are used…
so oftwood. O course, th Of hese days th here are st tencils and various gear for cranking d c th hese marks out quite snappily, but this s book is abou getting b b ut back to basi yes? ics, Our woodwo O orking ance estors have left us a wonderful le w egacy, after all. Out of respect r f fo that, we all need to acknowle or o edge our ro every n and ag oots now gain. For this reason, and because it’s a go a e ood learnin expeng ri ience, I enc courage you to try this old meu th out. hod Alright, le look at some mor inforet’s t re mation and take a pee at this here diam ek h gram shown below; g
When using this formul if you w W la, wanted to m make dovet tails wider than 1”, si imply mea asure 1/2” in from ea mark o the ach on boar rd’s edge, onto the l lower line, connect ting the dia agonal lines to them. I you s If wan nted to mak a 1/2” wi dovetail, then ke ide you only need to have your lines inte u ersect at 3 or 4” do 3”, own from th top edge. This he . is to keep your dovetails at the prope ano r er gle, according to the ratio used, depending on whether y you’re usin hardwoo or ng od
he Here we can see th relative ease of making the mating pie of this type of m ece jo oinery – no need to m o measure mu uch, just tr race the pa attern of on onto the other… ne with a sharp pencil. A w p Again, in an doveny
Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop Book One W
tailing o other joi or inery, it’s al lways best to make y your cuts – N NOT on the line, but o e on the was side of t line. You can alway ste the u ys true-up edges and surfaces w d with a shar rp chisel o other bla later. B patient – I or ade Be can’t stress that enough. It’s also bes st, when d drawing them out in th beginnin m he ng, to mark the pieces to be cut a k s away with a an ‘x’, or whatever. This shou keep yo uld ou from c cutting out the wron segment ng ts, should y someho become distracted. you ow In a little bit, w we’ll talk a about makin ng some p practice do ovetail join on som nts me scrap w wood, and a couple of pointers wi ill be men ntioned – b before t but that, let’s g go over a little bit m more inform mation on th he project at hand. After sawing th diagonal cuts into th r he he board - see the ph hotos to th right for a he good lo at this - we’ll need to chisel out ook d the chu unks to be cut away. Let’s get a good lo at these photos whi I explain ook ile n. Now you don’t want to chisel clea t an through the chunk just yet – first, get a h k good bi into it, t ite then take th bit out b hat by chiselin at it the o ng other way, f from the edg ge of the e of the bo end oard as the p photos show w. Work away at t k this just a l little bit at a time. B patient. If you take your tim Be me, you’ll h have better r results. Once you’ve ch e hiseled awa about ha ay alf of the first dovet tail pin, fli over you ip ur work an do the re from the other side. nd est
a w . Don make the too long this is n’t em g. aside from the 6:1/8:1 thing. yo ou’re proba ably wondering. points out proba s ably the most import m tant thing t remembe Now to er. alth hough you c could make them say. really. along t same pl the lane surfa These can have d ace. tr your han at some th join at a corner. and . joining tw boards to make wo t one longer o o one. To te you the truth. y le-pin dov vetails. dovetails in varying le engths. First try some on the flat – that t is to say.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One By B now. and ust e. half that. e h You can eve stagger th lengths of a few Y en he o along a row of them. ju practice Remembe your ratios. r There. he of ing – you can put th u hem anywh here you please. You h have the kno owledge now Be w. cour rageous and be creative. er tr your hand at both. an keeping them m nd even spaced. Just follow t t the guidelines given. in bigger pieces. how w did you do? It’s no that T well u ot 47 . “Bu how man dovetails do we pu in? ut ny ut Where are the measurem e ments for t this?” Wel that’s th beauty o dovetaili ll. The y ails diagram bel d low. d Not N confide yet? Ta ent ake some scrap woo and try making a few singl od. to k know. That’s all you really have nly . thr m rowing dov vetails whe ere-ever… no measuri ing. u’ll ell man woodcra ny afters – my yself includ ded just draw them out. ry Also rem member to trace and transfer your doveta with a sharp pencil. you just do fine. ry nd hat These dovet T tails are lim mited in le ength by th thicknes of the a he ss adjoining pi iece.
connector and tool tray piec . Inversely.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O complic cated. a with Th hat’s anothe safety sub er bject – an extra e pair of hands. s snapp into pla and the whole ass ped ace. “be paall. It always g o t’s good to hav an ve extra pair arou a und. eh? B rememb there’s n But ber. that’s a I often say. very im mportant. Fo re to or example. no real or practical n need to ma them s ake so perfect that you c couldn’t fit a subatom mic particle into the joi Remem e int. e sembly is wood-scr i rewed onto the legs. o don’t go killing yourself t t g trying to ju uggle all th lumber b yourself if you’re havhat by f. is ve ery. o. it keeps his wo k thing steady for sliding the tabl gs g letop lumb into alig ber gnment (see the bottom of e m the diagram on p d page 40 for how they all fit a toget ther . 48 . you wa to do th best that you can. the bottom part show . then o we can see th this arr c hat rangement also serve to streng es gthen again any stre nst esses that might pos ssibly be c caused by the move ement of the two vices. you’ be puttin three ski boards to ’ll ng irt ogether f first. That. Let a friend he elp.but d don’t do it y there’s still yet. y don’t n you need vapor-l lock seals fo for dovetails either – i a workb it’s bench – yea ah. we ca an see how the doveta should b oriented – w ails be d so that t pieces w slide together in th the will his fashion. It isn’t ha or diffic in the s ard cult slightest wa ay to figur out . mber that you ur scrap w wood practic dovetails are just th ce s hat – practi ice. and then you’ll be putting on t final ski n the irt board. Th does tw things. one. o ant he t of course. Reme ember also that for your work o kbench. ing any trouble w it. Perfecti takes tim ion me. You’ll get the han of it soo ng on enough. let’s look at the diagram at th k he upper-ri ight of this page… In th top part o that diag he of gram. e If at that poin you need an extra pa of nt air hand then get a friend to help you out – ds. more to do firs and two once it’s all e st).it’s just easy t forget. Ther re’s one fin thing a nal about the do ovetails i the work in kbench – the ere’s a way to arrange the doveta e ailing so th when yo hat ou put all o the piece of the tab of es bletop togeth her. m ws that the left skir board’s d t rt dovetails sh hould be or riented in a way that will allow it to slide into place t that way. b especia be so w yoursel but ally with lf. then sl liding in all the tableto l op lumber. But as lon as every ng ything fits to ogether s strongly. then do on’t allow t tiny aesthet imperfectic tions ke you from building your base o eep m of operatio ons. rs l ce. in case the two you e have just aren’t enough. tient”. an there is n loosenes nd no ss.
mem mber the h holes drilled into the legs. seen …here’s one of my fav ve. we can s the scre I made from see ews 3/4” oak dowel Always u hardwoo ” ls. a we ad ” as talk about ea ked arlier in this book. m irst make them square. the were als much more easily laid out in pencil. and th hreading th holes. k After drillin holes in the boa A ng nto ard. sturdy o g oak screws Some s. he also from oa out of a 1/2” thick board. right Great – now we us the t? se thre eading tools to thread those hol to s d les rece eive a 3/4” wooden sc crew. Dav Anywho. use ods 49 . In t picture at the upp the per-right of this page. solid. ba to the p A ack project. out th hreaded it d down its en ntire length. ey so Needless to say. We al go lso ahea and make the 3/4” screws. a ak.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One A friend can also be an invaluable item n n e to k keep around your work d kshop. w with wings and beer. h are han but oak and maple are a b among the best. and cut it into 2 & 3 t 3/4” lengths I made th heads. I cut them all out – he a you can see I chose a simple squar shape y re fo the head of these p or ds particular screws – s th hese are me erely to be tightened by hand. We’ll learn hex nuts lat Now is the time to make h ter. b so this is a b o better shape allowing for a bit e. b As you ca see in th photo. s. bef m fore cutti them al out of th board. For your ing ll he F fi ones. I’v taken an he ve a 3/4” oak dowel. I like to keep a f few. Now rew. Here are or and H th ones tha I made fo the work he at or kbench – good. hardwoods a better th others for this. myself… … fo your wooden nuts a bolts. d near the tops of them? They’re 5/ in r /8” diam meter. more grab-a m ability for h hand turning than a g hexagonal sh h hape could o offer. s t vorite ones. ve!! abov Hi. abo two feet long. and often only needs ma y aintaining w pizza.
The lo m o onger on (A). is to be 7/8” in e s diam meter. midd hole for redle r ceiving the vice screw. and the on ong d short one. we ha the vice hole sets (C). ter Th smaller h he holes on ea side of the ach f large ones. ch the then using a cop ping saw to square it into o shape The cent point is at the cente of e. and drilld ing a 1&1/2” inc hole at t center point. on th upper pa of the short t he art s strut. we m ne measure 1& &1/2” – sim mpler than falling off a log. ee ey should look like once they y’re cut an nd shaped correctly. meas suring wher the cente point sh re er hould be an marking out the sq nd g quare. The short ones. T nto rt These are made m squar buy cutti one inch into each side re ing h – rem member the are 1& ese &1/2”x 3&1/2”? Well. and c centered 1& &3/4” up from f what will be the bottom ed t e dge. t e from the ends to make our cuts. ave which we have o both a lo one. and 9& &1/2” from one end – in the shor strut. Notic that the e ce ends are cut with tenon to t ns fit in the squa mortise holes we have nto are h cut in the skir boards. ee se are the struts for the vice sc crews – onc ce we ban these ou we can a ng ut. In the diagram we see t three st m. The l t larger. we can se that thes . anyways. th is m rter his to be measured from the end with the e d e short tenon. and cen- he e rly In th diagram above. h squar of 1&1/2 re 2”x1&1/2” – easy! But also notic that all b one is sh ce but horter than that one there. Ok – see that black square ma kay arked (B)? We make it the same way we made e m the sq quare morti holes in the skirt bo ise oards. th e w ch? he vices. the truts.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O what ar probably the easiest parts of th re t his whole t thing – the t three struts for the vice es. we can clear see that I am gettin increasin t ng ngly worse at this com mputer draw wing progra I’ve bee am en using fo these diag or grams… *e ehe* Well. Fin nally. ter er the piece (1&3/ from either edge). we measure 3/4” . and p /4” 7&1/ in from one of the e /2” ends. assemble th he workbe ench! What will be the first proje e ect to make on our new workbenc Well. 1” taken from each side leaves a . We’ve seen the d dimensions for them in two cut lists so f let’s se what the t far. o course! H of Haha!! 50 . are 5/8” in dia er ameter.
n m Now grab th threadin tool from the N he ng m one inch set. an thread th nd hrough both 7/8” h hole in one f swoop. it doesn’t need to be the las thing. e he gue”) 5&1/2 and ma a mark on that g 2”. So. the m measuremen for nts the placements of these holes are very similar to those on the skir boards. mee the next one at a d et distance wi ithout skip pping or ca atching thre eads resulti in ing buck kling. is to drill holes into the ta abletop lum mber – why is it the las thing? st Well. ake cut – we w want the v vice screws to go s sm moothly thr rough them. Do all of D th also with the fron long skir board. to ma sure it’s well ple or ake s Take two out of the f five – these will be e th second a fourth ones. S grab the longer vic strut wit the e ce th scre ew hole t be thre to eaded. he plicated stuf is over wi p ff ith.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One tere 1&1/2” up from th bottom edge. after all. so be ca areful. but we’ll be do r oing them t two at a tim Remem me. W o st and it doesn need to be the first thing – a n’t t it just the e t’s easier thing after all th comg. The T next-to-last thing to do here is to thre all of the holes for the vice scr ead rews four holes. e the and line up the holes (actu e ually. e so t that you do on’t get it backwards once you install it) – put 5/8” dowels i the u in sma aller holes. we need to th hread both holes toge ether as on piece. 51 . his nt rt and the sho strut – mark your faces! a ort Don’t get thi D ings backwa ards! The last t thing. from the end (t very en from the edge of th “tonthe nd. ure down th center l u hat line. and the d righ ht-end short skirt board – place the strut d e agai inst the inn face of the skirt b ner f board (the face with t channel routed out of it). bu not e rt ut exac – try n to confu them – they ctly not fuse diff in the di fer istances up from the bo ottom edges. mber the first paragrap on phs page 25? In o order to ma sure tha the ake at vice screw will turn throu one hole and e l ugh e. N ter Now. you’ll want l to m mark which way you’re facing the strut. i this helps to align th if s hem – then clamp them together tightly. when all tohe and n gether in a r g row – and f find the cen line nter down their length on th face of th lumbd he he er that will b the top of the table Measbe e. ed he and 3” to eithe side from the larger h er hole’s cent point. or half inchf es w when they ar put into p re place. Go through it a es fell h coup times o so. an then sep ne nd parate them in increm m ments of whole.
Now take a connector.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One center line – from there. and that’s it! When sliding in the connectors. do so – we don’t want to split the skirt boards apart – we’ve come too far along in this project to go destroying it and frustrating ourselves into a frenzy. and all there is left to do is to slide in the tool tray board between the channels of the last lumber. and a connector. measure 6” and mark. front. at each of these marks. and slide it to fit onto the previous connector – on the other side of that lumber. you may see that they’re quite a tight fit – do yourself a favor and sand down the corners of these things smooth – if you have to fine-tune the tongues and such with a chisel or a plane. and 6” still more. and the last. Okay. and so on. and fit its tongue into the channel in the right-end short skirt board. and an 52 . Take the 1/2” square stock connectors (remember them?) and lightly sand down the corners along the lengths. Now attach the last. and 6” more. add another connector. and the back skirt board. Take your time… have some patience… we’re almost there! Now get a friend to help you turn it over onto the tops of the whole legs and crossbeams assembly. and screw it all into place . until you run out of lumbers and connectors. standing a tri-square by the hole you’re drilling. installing the two long vice struts as you do so.there! How does it look so far? Now we have a stable surface to make our very first project to be made on this workbench – the vices! Vice layout and construction… Let’s take a look at the cut list on the following page. short vice strut. and then add a drilled lumber. Take the back. and join them together at the dovetails. and fit it into the channel on the inner face of the front long skirt board. You can see what I mean in the photo on the previous page. Remember that the longer tenon on the shorter strut goes into the square mortise of the longer strut. and right-side skirt boards. Drill 3/4” holes all the way through. short skirt board. Now. until you run out of length – you should have 11 marks in all. and so on (as indicated at the bottom part of the diagram on page 40). on each one of the two pieces. for ease of insertion. I use a brace and bit to do this – if you are as well. now we need to make sure we understand how the struts go together under the table – take a look at the photo on page 39 to see how they all fit in. The wooden rings in this list have an outside diameter of 2”. Okay. the tongues on the lumbers. take one of the undrilled lumbers. really helps to guide your doing so. I think we’re ready! Assembling the tabletop… here is where we put it all together. and the tool tray board.
two for each of the vices. 53 . 1/2” th hick). solid hardwoo and be g od. trunc cated tip. piece of go ood. draw his two concentric circles – t inner on beo c the ne ing 7/8” in diam meter. Next. ith … at le 4” squ east uare (remem mber. and th hread the tw lengths of 1” dow com wo wels pletely. we have the vice boards. Th face boa is of w he he ard oak. file and sandpap Next. us o he and sing a coping saw. and is made fr rom pine. and we’ll move on. and t outer on 2”. rou p er und over one end o with a doming plane. between the two faces that we pin our b ese work into th vice. e m.refer t the cle u ier to larg diagram o the next page. or use a ra w asp. tak the conin plane a per. a then. ke ng (a again. Now you can d w draw two crossing line bees tween opposite corners to find the c e o center of th square. and t D e thread it to receive th 1” bolt. cut out around the 2” diameter t d circ that you drew earli . Cu them ut and drill the as indic a em cated in the cutting e li and diag ists grams. the ne. The fa board is the part that meets p ace s th face of th workben skirt boa It is he he nch ard. hard s strength. to provide s strength. w nd ill with a roun w nded. b the insid dir but de ame eter is to b threaded to receive a 1” be thre eaded bolt – so don’t cut the ou utside diam meter until the inside is threaded . and taking a compass. the sam material as the skirt boards. and nd give it a goo conical sh g od hape. file an sandpaper). m y an Drill out the 7/8” inch hole.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One inside diameter of 7/8”. Th backhe in board is that which is between the face ng board and th crank ha b he andle. boards’ hole need thr b es reading. almos all the st way – the en result wi be an 80% cone. Afte that. e Take the 1” set of th hreading to ools. se and we’ll make what’s nex e xt. generous wi its size… say. or ra asp. a when tighten w ning the vic Neither of these ce.ind stea take a p ad. an a tiny nd bit of surfac flexibility for the sc b ce y crew cap and handle assembly to squish against. See the photo of co p ompleted v vice below to see more clearly what I mea here. o me t to provide g o good. ge on Now you ha the lock N ave king rings fo the for vice mechanism Set thes aside for now. being face and backing g parts.
screw in t flat end of the 1” vice the d screw all the way in. Wha I did next was ht o at to cu off four co ut orners. to 2& &1/2” deep. but you Th next thin is not re migh wish to do this. an o 1” nd use the bottoming tap – the t tool used fo for threadin blind hol (holes th come to a ng les hat stop mid-way in the woo that co nto od). You can see wh I gon u hat 54 .Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O Using the same method (do g oming the tip is not required he ere). an let the glue ws. in the center s a 7/8” h of one of the fa aces. ill hole across the grain. Thread that hole to receive a 1 screw. in effect makin an ng octag shaped piece. make one end o of each of the support rods come to a point. omes with the tap and die set. nd cure overnight. Ne apply some d ext. his ng equired. f t e Now take your 3&1/2” cub and dri bes. s glue.
in that on picture. then find the center point on a side fa and dri a 3/4” ace. let’s look at the diagram below. Now we can d gets d w make the oct m tagon shape e. As you ca see in th photo at the upan he per-left. This is d done after the gluing of the g sc crew into t screw c has com the cap mpletely dried – onc it has dr d ce ried. nex we put this screwxt -and-cap assembly in through the 1” hole of the a e f You Y can also see holes drilled thr s rough the sides of the pieces – these are 3/4” in ese diam meter. You might like to as well. way h.across. and a pencil… it’s really e easy. I al started rounding over the p lso o to of the sc op crew cap o the right. the glued-in 1” screw e 1 th herein. involving your tri-s square. or you p u e might come up with so m omething different. ill hole all the way thoug . and inh gh deed right th d hrough. bloc octagon we sim cks nal. oto ow. This is the hole for the cra hans e ank dle (which g attached last).Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One mea right here in the pho just belo an e. d Be creative. B Okay. and d drilled on o face’s c one center poin all the w through To make these nt. s e 55 . mply use a little well-known tr rick here.
a wrap it tightly aro and t ound one end. See tha they are set straigh Now. put it through. let this cure overnight. berally glue ed the rod into plac squish some of th ds ce. onto the floor r… No no. eel ow er No what? Invite your friends ove to show it off. as th will pass with time and y his s use – try going through the vice sc g crew hole with the thr reading tool one more time l to ma sure it’s well cut. ma an ama ake algam putty of sawdu y ust and glu and after having lib ue. b see that you ake s but t don’t go and re-t t thread it in the process s. Th complete workben he ed nch… Th is the en of the firs project th is his nd st hat the beginning o all our pr b of rojects to come c in thi series of books – I h is hope you enjoy your new wor rkbench. ta a gs ep ake look at it. is ing a positi that poi ion ints the screw up to th he roof – set it on tw stacks o books.and clamp it on tight. but yo don’t want ou it loose. and we screw on th he locking ring. he putty in the gluey spaces to shim it tigh nto y ht. s the c and… they fall right thro … l ough. on wo of ne on on e either side o the screw cap.sayt d ing th hings like. Now glue in th support r w he rods – if the ey are a lo oose fit (an they rea shouldn nd ally n’t be). making sure no glue oozes ont the locki ring mee to ing chanism Have thi whole thi drying in m.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O pine ba acking board. “ “There’s no nails or scr rews in it at all??” or “I want on r. 56 . paat ht. either. FIN NALLY… finally… we take the crank handles a put the through the k and em h holes that we drilled into t screw caps. and then wrap t w more around the other end… there we go! e e … I actually file a bit of a groove aro a ed ound the ends near the tips. … some leathe or er rawh hide cord. e e. an craft many nd m wond derful thing on it! Ste back. and fe proud. not so tightly as to o restrict any movem ment. and you have your re uld d y comp pleted work kbench! Yo vices ma go in a m squeakily – our ay mite worry not. if nee of w ed be. so th the wrapping e hat won’ slide off w rough use. and right up c d close again nst the pine board – ag e gain. no… we take s o. he locking ring is g g glued in p place (to th he threads only). gluin it in pla – but b g ng ace be extra c careful to o only get gl lue where it should be to fix t this in place – see to it that you do not glu anything else together u ue here… we want ev verything to still be ab o ble to move But at the same time be sure th e. tiently. – See? Now we w want to glue the oak fac ce board r right onto t this one – align all th he holes . And there ’t with t you have it! Now just screw in your vices h w v wher they shou go. e . of course! They might just flip w y t – gaz zing upon it in awe and wonder . Loo at this ph ok hoto. ne!!” and etc.
I love t heck ou of it. G everythi all sharp Get ing pened up. a it the ut This proje is simpl enough. eled th If you ha a router and woul rather ave r ld use that. u at’s e. we move on to our next F r fun-filled proje the foo ect. ot-powered wood turn ning lathe. tha just fine I’ve got one too. eh ood h? From here. and I’ll admi it. urs Now. or routed wit a router. dering the p d position of the part to be chise out). Now. what do we m N make from here? What would be a good pr e roject to wo on ork next How abo a wood machine that t? out den e can make turne wood ite ed ems? Sound like ds a go idea. Now th will be fun! he his fu 57 . and get set for some m machine mak king. I sh hould mentio here tha there’s on at one small pa of this p o art project that will eith be chise her eled out (a mite difficu operult ation for the beginning chisel user consia e g r.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One bask in the gl k lory! Heheh You’ve now he! e buil the launc pad for m lt ch many projec of cts you to take off from. and it’s ect le going to take a lot less time to cre than g eate th first project.
Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One C g r W
If we can make a mac chine that can do those two things one e s. a sc p creen door spring. ther are only two basic t re things invol lved hold ding the wo in place and spinn ood e. wind instrum ment bodies tool s. ly and those th move b a hat back and fo orth in a re eciprocating motion. and will stand w th test of ti he ime – you have the option of doing just th or also reinforcin those d hat. he nto The joining of the pieces tog gether is done primari with car d ily rpenters’ wo glue.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One Are A you rea for this one? A w ady s woodturn ning lathe… foot-powe … ered… mad out de of w wood… sou unds crazy? Why shou it? ? uld The ey’ve been made out o wood for cenof r turie even millennia. and some screws used for securing s s th pulleys in place. What exactl does a w W ly woodturning mag chin do? Wh ne hat’s involv ved? Well. except for a few p r sm parts – it uses two plumb bob three mall o bs. and a large d ro outer bit be earing – ther are also five nail re f points used in the spin p ndle. ood which is really quite stu w urdy. that was able to spin wit enough force. it is a tool that suspends l lengths of wood betw ween two p points. until som es. The recip procating la athe… This mac chine is m made almos comst pletely out of wood. let’s exam mine that f a momen for nt… basica ally. for w Now as far a all the o w. Aside from t tools use in the sh A the ed haping. ws. and spins it tow wards you for tooling and shapin u. to be used for u keeping the work piece steady in the mak e chine. machi pieces and compo ine onents wooden bea arings. handles. which turn c w continuousl in one direction. o ng points with s p small screw as you’ll see. as old-time wo ooden foot t-powered l lathes go. Let’s take a s lo at what involved here… ook t’s 59 . meone mad one out o iron and s de of steel. The piece of this machine are very es a si imple – yo might be surprised at how ou e very uncomp v plicated this all is. th here are two mao jor t types – thos that are w se wheel driven n. pulleys. Th hat’s it. g ng. ning it on an axis. T first lat type g The the we will be b w building in this book is the res ciprocating l lathe. t th then we can ma woodtu n ake urnings like chess piec woodw ces.
ng-nut sets. As far as t hardwar the re that wil go into th lathe. wn oto ow he here. let’ take a loo ll he ’s ok and see what we need here . The th one wi part hird ill be used like a jig. such as Baltic Bir – thoug it may b s rch gh be less ex xpensive to just use r regular hard dwoods. wash and win 60 . to help alig the poin d gn nts in the o other two. ly ts ware neede are som nail poi ed. wo This one is 1&1/8” outsid and 5/8” inde. h here is wh here we tak a look at ke another cut list – a this woo can be an r all od ny hardwo you cho ood oose. but fee free to us el se plywoo for the 1/4” and 1/2 stock – a od 2” as long as it is superi quality and strengt ior th. plum bobs and screen door spring can all m r n be go otten at mo any hom supply wareost me w house The onl other bit of hardw e. ” side. The large router bit bearin is mb e ng show in the pho just belo here. and someti imes they are much m more expen nsive – it all del pend on what y get and where you get ds you d u it.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O Parts and const s truction… Okay. Bearings l like this go for anyw o where between 6-12 do ollars each at some wo oodwork king tool sup pply stores. and two bolt. Th pulleys ( he (2&1/2” x 1 1&1/2” x 1/ /2”). her. me ints and scr rews for the spindle head.T photos at e The the bott tom-right of this page show one o of the thr ree pulleys. if you ca find the at thos an em se thicknesses. are made from th he The lath blocks h same p post lumber we used i the work r in kbench’s legs and ta s abletop construction. two loop screw ws b also known as screw eyes. and one of the tw . plum bobs. bu ut only tw of these cubes will actually bewo l come p of the lathe.
Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One
As A for the bolt, washe and win er ng-nut sets and the s s screw eyes, here is w , what I mea in this diagram below an w; As you ca see by t diagram to the an the m le this bolt is of the t eft, type that ha a 1/4” as se ection just u under the h head that is actually sq quare, inste of round – this is very imead d v portant. With p hout this, y may hav some you ve minor troubl tightenin the wing-nuts on m le ng th parts that use them. Be sure to find this he t particular ty of bolt. You’ll need two of p ype d th hem, as well as the washe ers and wing-nuts th go with them, and two of w hat h d th screw ey he yes. In the diagram below, we can see all the n e parts for the first part of this pro p e oject, as mentioned in the cut li on the previous m n ist p page. The sc p creen door s spring is any ywhere
Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O
between 12” and 16” long, whatever is n easiest to find. Make sure it has a good, strong p to it. N pull Note that in t diagram this m, some th hings are se elf-explanato – such a ory as the fact that all hol and groo t les oves, be the ey high or low on the piece, are centered in r e the mid ddle, between the le and right eft edges o the piece. of You’ll notice co orners cut of at a 45 deff gree an ngle – these serve no r e real purpos se, but are just there for looks – I measure ed from th corners, 1 along eac edge from he 1” ch those c corners, and from tho marks, I d ose drew lin and ma the cuts. As you wi nes ade ill soon se I did a si ee, imilar thing with two o g of the thre blocks, th will hav the plum ee hat ve mb bobs installed into them. Same reason, ju ust for look ks. On you hav cut every nce ve ything in the cut e list to size, and study the diagram be o elow, and have brough all your p h ht pieces to sh hape, we can move on to crea c ating the other o piece es. At the bottom of this pag we see how t m ge, the tw plumb b wo bobs are in nstalled into the o block When gl ks. luing them into the blo ocks, use an epoxy re a esin. Let’s look at ano other cut li with the remainder of the parts ist, s;
Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One
In that last cut list, we see the c n center find ders – simp home-m ple made tools. Take the two squares and to eac of them, draw s, ch two lines, cross o sing each ot ther, from c corner to corner, maki a big “X on one fa of ing X” ace each of the tw squares of wood. Now, h wo drill holes righ at that ce l ht enter mark w where the two lines cross – on square should ne have a 1&1/2” hole, and the other one d r shou have a 5/8” hole. These will help uld l you find the c u centers on the ends o the of dow in this p wels project (see cut list). Put the e ends of the do owels into th holes, so that he o one end is flush with the f h face of the s square with the penci markings on it – tra h il ansfer that “X” onto the dowel’ end, and now t ’s d you u’ve found your cente Once you’ve er. don that, take a look at th ne his; fi inders, and mark the c for drilling, just cap li this here diagram sh ike e hows;
es Drill the outer hole for the screws (s shown abov in gray 1” deep, and for ve, y) th nails (sh he hown abov in black 5/8”. ve, k) Don’t drill the center yet. Now saw the D piece in two - body and cap – as in the dip o d n agram in th left colu a he umn of thi page. is Now we dril the center hole at 1/4 wide, N ll r 4” in the cap, all the way through. nto y Use a cou untersink d drill bit to counterc si the hole to receive the heads of your ink es nails and scr n rews so tha they will be flush at with the surf w face of the w wood, and not stick n out. Do this on one side for the fiv nails, o ve and on the other side fo the four sc a or crews. Find the c center poin on both ends of nts th spindle b he body – into one end, dr a 5/8” rill hole, to 3/4” deep. Into the other end, drill h ” e a 1/8” hole a the way through to the hole all at the other e a end. Counte ersink this la hole, ast so that the sc o crew here w sit flush will h. The five n nails need to be certain lengths o n – if you can find them at these lengths, n’t m you’ll have to get them longer, an cut or y m nd grind them t size – if s be sure to leave g to so, good, sharp points. The central na needs g e ail to be 1/4” w o wide, and 7/ long fro head /8” om
n diagram, we can see th the e hat In that last d spin ndle head h been cut in two, be has t ecoming the spindle body, and t spindle cap – the the body being 1” in leng and the cap, g gth, e 1/2” But befor you cut it use your c ”. re t, center
gl it into th 5/8” hole in the spin lue he e ndle bod and in th other end of the spin dy. Now glue it t the bod g w to dy. r nd he Take the spindl rod. a as well as the four thi inner nails i into the hole es round a about it – b sure the heads are be eir well co ountersunk into the w wood and not sticking out. Now take t wide nai the il. an one for th body. and 3/4” long fr from head to point. Use your center e finder t mark the center of t other en to e the nd of the spindle rod. and using woo le od glue. and ins sert the rem maining fo screws – our now yo have the complete spindle. ne rews. You’l need five – out ll four for the cap. and abo an inch long. T screws a need to b 1/8” wid The all be de. Nex ou xt. holdin ng the spin ndle rod in place. keeping your scre holes w g ew well aligned.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop Book One W to poin The othe four nails need to b nt. he d ndle bod insert on of the scr dy. 64 . take the pulley blo pieces from the cu e ock ut list on p page 62. and insert it into t cap’s ce the enter hole. er be 1/8” w wide. and see this di d iagram here e.
See? Prett darned simple. an I’m nd usin the dozuk – the dov ng ki vetailing saw – to w mak the cut. I use a chis to take o the sel off wed dged part – see below. he like Take the 1/2”x3&1/ /2”x3&1/2” square ” fr rom the dia agram on page 61. we can see the arr H n rangement o the of pull leys on the block.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One On O the facin page. rrange and s screw in th pulleys. But first… B When you g the par of the p W get rts pulley bloc mechan ck nism cut a and shaped and d glue together. y ng you can see that e I’ve got the b e bench holdfast pinnin the ng bloc to the w ck workbench ( (I’ve gone t the to wor rkshop in Ja apan to ma this proj ake ject – welcome to Na agoya. Here. using the four cut m ke method show at the to of page 33. we can easily s that two pulleys see o are aligned in such a way as to allow a a ro to go f ope from the wh heel of one pulley. ike Here. eh? ty 65 . This is im d o mportant. ke ew. a screwed into all d plac Let’s tak a look at another vie ce. takin the grain direction into ng n consideration. every ybody!). l this. then we ar ed . After I make wn op this cut. e directly into the other. and glue it d to the unders of one of the point blocks. o side t li this.
g are glue it to th he body at 2” from the fixed p t point block k’s face. g resin glue o on the oute edge sur er rface only. T diagram at the abov The m ve right sa “right f ays. eft g We apply glue to the part of the left face e e t that meets the r m right surfac of the pu ce ulley block and to the bottom sur k. Aft e terwards. face” – that is. th the point facing t opposite end of th the e he body. a get them e nto and well screwed in. Let’s take a loo at how th bearing case s ok he fits into place (see the ph i hoto at the upper-le of facing page). t have to put toge ether a coup more thi ple ings. and le it dry for a et r while. After that. we build the p r pulley block. show at the abo g wn ove-right. insert it into the bear ring case.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O Now go ahead and take th lathe bod he dy board. O Okay. e rface that 66 . Make sure all you ur holes a pre-drilled! Next. Here we can se what I mean. that sid t de which f faces to the right of the machine. what’s next? Let get to th s t’s he bearing case. w washer and b bolt. it is into this that the spindle will be inserte But first we s l ed. wit the bearing side fa th acing to the right. lue ew o Now we will gl and scre this into the hine – this is going to be right up t mach again the righ side of th pulley block nst ht he b mech hanism. wit f). Make sure you have it al shaped ace ll cording to the dim g mensions in the diagram on page 61 – now take the lar router b e rge bit bearing and using an epoxy r g. Mak ee ke sure it’s glued secu s urely. a at the s and square end ( (the end with no corn ners cut off) glue this onto it. Put the pulleys in place. t pulley o the bloc the on ck base’s e extension be eing held in place with nto a nut.
Apply ying a coup of screw here. wa asher and bolt sets. glue this po to oint in nstalling the screen do spring. but now e oor b 67 . an let’s put t nt nd them togeth her. hel secure t in ple ws lps this plac Once th is done. hat utting the sliding poin together – get the sl nt liding poin base. Onc the glue dries (give it a few g ce hours). then we secure it into pla with h n e ace one of the w o wing-nut. we se the bolt t F et through the body’s e sl on the u lot underside.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One it base. slid nt ding point fi and the other fins poin block. mee the bod of the la ets dy athe. we start pu ce. an one of the fins into the ts nd i groove. b First. We see he that one of the scr ere e rew eyes is already in place – that’s where we’ll be s n w Her we can see that we g re. a shown in the folas n lo owing photo os.
an the scre nd ew goes th hrough the h hole – now just tighte w en the win ng-nut. that should point away from you tot y u. ing from coming o of the slot. with a rounded corner. Once it slid into the slot. and remember to r pre-d your ho – carefu drill oles fully. o w or knob. Place it over the b t body of the lathe so th hat the fin slides into the slot. up from t bottom face of th body. y might w to mak you wish ke some o your own These.to create a sto preventi the first fin c op. As y can see in the phot you to below. This gets g glued onto the end of the f tool rest base w which is far rthest from the m drille hole end. The shape of the tool rest ed . Ne we go t the tool r – remem ext.) place When glu e. e l is inc clined at the top. an you’ve g it all into place.flat on its side n . Here is a photo o. an old rou table th my frien Nick no uter hat nd ow has… sorry. but use t very thin scre ews. you might wish to streng h gthen 68 . the pushe through. etc screwed into p d c. uing the tool rest to the tool l rest base. want to. I opte ed to use s some plastic knobs I fou c und. an a washer and wing he nd r g-nut (or plastic/wood knob. I got from a of n. as seen in the photo n Settin in the sli below. instead of u using wing-nuts. You can m out screw this in als if you w w so. Nick! ng ider. screw on the wing-nut. do the s same – or. Tu urning the whole th hing over upside-down. nd got o Here.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O it’s tim for insta me alling the s sliding poin nt. ward the lathe work pi ds e’s iece. i simpler th falling out of a tre is han ee. an the scre t’s nd ew comes up through the drilled hole in th h d he sliding base. we see it b being instal lled in the same s way as the slidi block – with the sc ing crew ed . to rest mber that strange-shap thing in the diagra at s ped n am the bottom of pa 61? Tha the tool rest b age at’s l that’s mentioned in this ch s d hapter’s first cut t list. If you have the opportunity feel free to y. we c see the fin in the sl – can lot glue the other fin onto this .
Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One
this joining wi a couple of screws like ith e s, this photo right here show t ws; Applying the spring to the screw eye is w a lot like put tting a key on a key rin only ng, ju a little b tougher. From here we atust bit e, ta a length of rope – we don’t want nyach h w lo here, as it is too slippery… we want on w so omething li those g ike good, old-fa ashioned cotton cloth hesline rope So, now we tie es. w one on… see photo belo o e ow;
Here, in the photo be H elow, is ho it ow shou all look installed in place; uld k, nto
What’s lef We insta the rope through ft? all th pulley s he system – fir into the pulley rst, e th is attach by nut a bolt to the pulhat hed and le block ba ey ase’s extens sion, up thr rough it fr rom below, just past it axel – th from ts hen th here, up on through th next pul n he lley just above it, on the pulley b a block. Next we install the screen door sp N pring. Onc that’s don we’ll be nearly fini ce ne, e ished. Let’ take a loo at this ph ’s ok hoto;
Here is where we shou have the spindle H uld e in nstalled… r remember m marking the center
e ed No slide the sliding po over so the ow e oint o tip bi into the center ma on the other ites e ark o 70 . a gh al as pictured But befo we do a d. wrap pping the rope over and towards you a d y few turns. Here. so that it rests. set your work up w piece center p e’s point on th point of the he f centr nail. iting into th end. is simply a dry run for you to get acquain f nted with it all. N send th you Now he rope do own throug the fina pulley. witho any wo piece beout ork tween t points. O Once that’s good and on s d there all nails bi e. ore anything els se with thi machine. in from t right. and give the ot ral d ther end of your y work piece a fe gentle pe k ew ersuasions with your hammer. we need to make it stais o ble. You’ll notice th trying to get it goin hat o ng in this way. and setting th spindle into he place on the fixe point. I supng pose the word h here would b pedipula be ating . r do its thing. dfast holes in your w s workbench. comfortable spot along the e g lengt of the ro to tie a loop for your th ope y foot to use for manipulatin – or. . re work with it. The spr ring is only there to br y ring the spin nning ba so you can foot th work into ack he spinning towards y again.the rope with. wrap pping of the rope here.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O on the spindle ro od’s end? P that en Put nd through the bearing. s No find a good spot at the edg of ow ge your workbench to have y h your lathe. i not very stable – th the is his No let’s put some woo in this thing ow t od t for working on. t forward turn bein the d ng powered by the spring – not g good enoug gh. so t it doesn slip and slide all over that n’t your wo orkbench. an h the nd push it through u until that m marked center touches the point o the fixed block. giv s on d ving it a little push so the poin bites into it nt just a m mite. being urn b suppo orted by th two poin that hold it he nts tightl into plac then the foot power can ly ce. t Once there is w e wood to tu in it. we see what I mean – now wra ap the rop a few tim around the spind pe mes d dle over an towards you… th is so th nd s his he power i in your le when th work turn is egs he ns towards you – oth s herwise. you n w need to find the d cente on each end of you work piec er ur ce… set your spindle into one of the hold y e. to do the oppo osite wou have yo foot pow turning it uld our wer away f from you. First. r nails pointing u – next. then you he n can go ahead an put the sp g nd pindle end of all o this into the bearing like y did bef i you fore. and pin it to the w i workbench with a be ench holdf or two. Ne find a c ext. Now it’s g fast good and sol lidly stable and you’r able to w e.
Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One
end of your w work piece, and tighte the en scre on the sliding blo ew ock. Now y you’re read to give it a whirl! Ju bring the tool dy t ust rest to the desir point to start your w red o work, and you’re read dy! A little on w woodturning… Remember, e R even on a p professional lathe l of i iron and st teel, you d don’t just ta a ake piec of squar stock an plow of the ce re nd ff corn ners – first you work t corners off a the bit w a plan and then you bring it to with ne, n g the lathe for rounding a and shaping and g such Do the sa with thi machine also. h. ame is Now, will t N this lathe w work just l like a mod dern electric type tha made of iron cal at’s and steel? And will it wor just as ea d rk asily? The naked trut is NO. W this ki of e th With ind mac chine, it tak much more skill to operkes ate. You have to time yo cuts – move our you tool into your work when it rol tour lls war you, and pull the to slightly away rds d ool as i rolls awa from you, and repe in it ay eat this way – that how you work on a recit’s u proc cating lathe like thos from by-gone e, se days. It also d doesn’t spi your wo at in ork very high speeds, and a a result, your y as wor goes slow Look at these phot rk wer. t tos;
In the fi irst photo (below, le eft), the sp pring is rela axing to the right, the work is e tu urning awa from me, and the tool is ay drawn away from the w d y work just a slight… in the next photo (abo n ove), the spring is moving to th left as it gets pulled taught, m he d th work is spinning to he owards me, and the to is pushe into the w ool ed work piece. On a mac chine like this, you REALLY R need your to n ools to be razor sharp. I won’t li to you – getting the hang of th does ie e his ta a little d ake doing, but i isn’t too difficult. it d Be patient, a keep at it… befor an afB and t re te ernoon has gone by, yo ou’ll get the feel for e th type of m his machine. As far as woodturn s ning tools go, they g can be cheap and not-so-good, or they can p, t get to be qui expensiv but they geng ite ve, y’re erally very g good at wh they’re made to hat m do – you get what you p for. d t pay As for my yself, I actu ually found a rather nifty set of chisels and gouges at an art n d a su upply store back in Portland, Maine. e They were s T sold as “woo crafting tools” – od a term that’s a mite on the general side, in s l it descriptiv ts veness – bu the way some of ut
or that the handle’s wood is not e se oak. nd A little sandin and the a ng. me aren’t. thi simple little project (the f is salt and pepper shakers) is just that – sima ple. plain an simple. t cut nd After cutting the piece in half at the va r e alley of th V-cut. or what ha you. or roc maple. Of course. I’m forced t think th m to hat they we made wi woodtur ere ith rning in min nd. the it doesn’t matter th you didn en hat n’t spend 75 bucks on that on chisel o ne or gouge. I have them fit t m nishe – see belo ed ow. o anything like that. for say. o ck or Japanes white o ebony. 72 . Th project y see me working on in he you o the photos on th previous page is a simp he s ple salt and pepp shaker s I turned the per set. ed out. good en nough qual lity blade m material. There a e’s certa self-suff ain ficient kind of pride you d can feel from that – hand f d-making so omething with ha tools… that you made g… and m yours self. at estion. I dec cided to gra ab them an give them a try. point? The old saying “the right g. and the holes at the tops. This ed or g is a lathe for s simple proj jects… perh haps already rou stock – such und even for taking a owels – and modifying them. ong ep them ho oned enough to split a spider line in h two. A good and taave lented c craftsman ca take an a an adequate tool and ma extraordinary item that shin ake ms ne with his or her tale s ents. an nd you are well ade and sha e ept arpening an nd honing. An e r nyways. Here they are in the pict e ture below. do own its leng then th serve m gth. I love i it. I haven’t tu urned an or rnate vase from f spalte maple. B Being that I found the whole set fo for about $ $25. I m nd must say th hat they are bad at a and as lo as I kee en’t all. turned a V-c on it. d g as do maki compon ing nents for w wooden bear rings and hinges and such. an drilling o the hollo he nd out ows. how wever. like the one clearly made for fluting. and good a using the tool in que . hey my needs q quite well a good e and enough.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O these are made (like the one in the pree vious p photos). addition of cork stopp for the bases.00. d rough stock to a roundnes smoothe it h ss. or making some d s chess pieces. and I have a se of pers d et all-w wood salt a and pepper shakers – all made on my lath – that I m e he made. or even specia tool hand s al dles. some of t them are g good for m my persona woodturn al ning needs and som s. an that was that. My p tool for the right jo is true e r ob” enough… bu ut if you f find a cheap enough to that has a p ool.
I used it just fine to make those salt and pepper shakers – but there’s always room for improvement. or you might not . There are things we need to learn before we make our grand projects. with a 1/2” section of copper or brass pipe glued over it. I’ve left some room in this lathe’s design for you to expand upon – some things are obvious. so that you then can move the tool rest forward and back. in order to stay close to work pieces of different widths… right? There isn’t anything more needed to make this lathe work. Get your improvisational thinking juices flowing. Is that the next project? Well. BEEFY woodturning lathe. Table legs. you might choose to reinforce the spindle at the fixed point end. yes… sort of. and so we need a prototype to get the feel of first. you may have creative ideas on how to modify it to your tastes – feel free! Perhaps you might wish to affix this whole thing to a large plank of wood. For example. and some things hidden. This next project will be the primer for the next leap in projects in this series of books – things are going to get juuuust a mite more complicated and more demanding of our talents. starting from book two .so we need to hone our skills first. Now what we need is a big. but one that turns constantly in one direction. once we get it all right. if you have the ingenuity. Not a reciprocating one. we can make such a lathe. I’m hoping this and other projects get your creative mind to produce many new and innovative ideas and designs. towards the tool’s cutting blade. That right there is something anyone is pretty much guaranteed to make errors with on their first try. eventually – but there are many complications we need to work out first. and make it into a 1/4” groove about an inch or two long. and so. Experiment. Now we want something we can make a Louisville Slugger with.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One Once you have this made. For one example. 73 .one we can beef up with modifications. mistakes can be made. let’s build our prototype. really – as you saw. we need to make the wheel’s axis be exceedingly precise. making it into a table – a standing tool on its own. More powerful wheel-driven lathes are our next move. Bannister posts. Something to make all our mistakes on… oh yes. and we most certainly will. Allow me to explain something here. So. with ABSOLUTELY ZERO WOBBLE. and giving it legs. Something we can use to turn bowls and round boxes and the like.or perhaps you might take the 1/4” hole that was drilled into the tool rest base. You then might even put a hinge of some sort onto one of the legs of such a table. is a prototype . what we need to first make. attaching to that another beam of wood. to be tied to the drive rope – now you have a foot pedal powered lathe table… get the idea? Grow with this.
Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One C g r W
y need to take you o the steps towar that goa by honing your rds al g skills with prac ctice on prot totype proje ects. used prima arily for le earning. once you e se if you’v built it w to satis ee ve well sfaction. y uilt ng th you can first use it to turn sof woods hen n t ft fr rom balsa. se wooden part This will be very eas w ts. and as such. at rotate. is very important in th developm s he ment of understandin certain principles of this u ng ty of mac ype chinery. pe sc crap wood to be u d. the we can modify it just a w en t sm midgin to ta on toug ake gher woods.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One Her is where we climb up an evo re olutionary stage in our talents… we mov on y ve from dovetailin and woo threading and m ng od g such to making things tha spin and r h. To T get a ge eneral idea of the wo ooden bear rings we w be creat will ting in the b books to c come. functional all-w wood mach hines that w work. you have bu everythin straight and true. and what will be involved in thei different designs. a scrap w and wood. h f st over complic rly cated toys. l sy. Remembe this is a prototyp from er. wondr rous. I w want to prep pare you as best as I can for the very com a e mplicated 75 . There will be e so wood t ome threading done. we are first going ir to tr the most basic of de ry esigns. and certain types of bearin ngs. and it work just fine for you. on’t go and skip d this here projec – it’s very important to go ct y thro ough this le earning exe ercise befor atre tack king the mo difficult projects a ore t ahead. If y really are serious a you about wanti to ing mak beautifu ke ful. and w a with high quality of precision. and not jus big. a t Once this project is completed and if s d. This here is a primer into all of t T that… we are going t build a prototype o to object that we can use to “get ou feet wet b t e ur before we swim” wit Now do th. and so very ome basic joinery There ar some scr b y. to soft pine – then. There is n need for expensive or luxno r e uriously grai u ined woods here… we will use cheap pine. re rews involved in th making o the spindle. with no a ks e wobble. just v he of as in the last project. This here d out T is a “drawin board pro s ng oject”. and working o ideas. and we’re goin to use something simpler on this ng n prot totype proje – we’ll u some sm ect use mall ections of c copper pipe fitted over some e.
layin it GE f ng down and restin the round tabletop piece n. You have to trace th edge onto the paper exhe r actly – which is a mite diff y s ficult if the tabletop edge is rounded o p over. o f … we can get a big piece of 1 n 1&1/2” thic ck pine to cut a 36” di iameter whe out of. or we can go to the neare e o est center and buy a 36 diamete 6” er. being certai to make the edges meet b in m as ex xactly as I could. f abletop. I traced aro op ound it onto the o paper cut out th big circle. so do yourself a in s f favor an don’t skip out on thi project.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O works i the books ahead. circular tab ” bletop. th ant f le he drive w wheel. B ed Basically. nd ip is Okay time to gather up some scra y. o eel on a band saw. it was sure a craz y s zy again I found the center at where th n. we can do this one of two ways… . l No this all sounds f ow l fine and da andy when you read i right here but it isn as n it e. g w Turning the pape 90 degree and doin it er es. I finally figured on ta aking a HUG piece of paper. ng d p on to of that. is task to try to find the exac center of the ct f blaste thing. This second thin is actuall what I did. home c 1&1/2” thick pine. hose two lines crossed. n’t simple as it look in the wr ks ritten word. ng Now. Le get start t et’s ted! eel… Cutting the whe Here is where w make one of the mo we e ost importa parts of this whol thing. ap wood. and traced a line d along the fold of the paper onto the wood. ng ly but boy let me tell you. which is h 76 . he ed in ha Then I lay that half onto the ta alf. s some pine plankage. a a goodly and amount of glue. and folde it r. Take a look at thi diagram.
So. and most – if not all – home centers have them. and borrow it. you might ask? Well.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One usually the case with these things. they’re relatively easy to find. I might add. How did it go? Is it perfect? If so. Now unscrew the drill press from the wheel. once this part is done. so don’t go getting discouraged. and screw the drill press to the surface at those four corners. Then you have to make sure to drive your scissors along that line exactly – any deviation from this even in the slightest will show its ugly effects when you fold it in half. Now bring the drill bit’s point to the center point of your wheel (making certain that the armature on the drill press is exactly square and set for drilling 90 degrees to the surface of the wood). but in this case. and for quite a cheap price. I’m sure you might just do worlds better than I did. 77 . But as I mentioned before. if you know of anyone with a drill press with at least an 18” reach. then you cut around it. check for squareness… all around the dowel. We’ll be well on our way. with a 3/4” drill bit inserted into it (I used a spade bit). great… if you don’t. too. do we do? Do you remember me showing you that mini drill press thingy back on page 14? That’s right! That there gizmo will do the job right proper! This is one of the many instances where nothing other than it will do the job. let alone assuming if many exist. Place the mini drill press on the wheel at its center. and using your tri-square between it and the face of the wheel. and quite nicely. you need to get one… if you can’t. cutting the wheel out on the band saw. That’s the beauty with that technique – you decide where the center’s going to be first. then don’t worry. there are holes at the corners of its base for inserting stabilizing screws – they’re not always necessary. If you got one. well then you’ve got no problem – but I have my serious doubts that I can safely assume that all you readers out there can easily find one you can use. there is still one more tricky part – you have to drill a hole into the center. you should find a friend who has one. then you automatically have the center right exactly at the center. Don’t forget to have a piece of scrap wood on the underside of your work to prevent “blow-out” on the opposite face of your wheel when your drill bit plows through it. Why is that a problem. which also has to be done exactly. then great! If not perfectly perfect. perfectly square to the wood. You’ll notice that on these nifty little contraptions. It should still do well for this here experimental project. what then. In the case of the former. Either way you come up with your wheel. that is. use them. How did you do? Dare you check? Insert a 3/4” dowel into the hole. This will keep the whole device from moving even the slightest bit from where you want to drill your hole. Persevere.
need for th he Here. ile side edge o and the should f off ey fit this ins fine. are tw wo lengths of copper pipe – one that is 3/4 e 4” outside diameter. Cu a segmen of the ut nt the narrower pip and of t 5/8” do n pe. ng d gethe like this w an epox resin. er with xy Af that has all dried and cured long fter s enou ugh. the as ing ey may not fit so well – this is be l ecause such a h tool pushes the ed of the c end just a dge cut tiny bit in towards the center. a the othe one should and er be 5/8” inside diam ” meter. Set the t whee to be cen el ntered in the middle of the e f wider pipe’s le ength.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O Crea ating the be earings… Now take out th dowel an set it asid hat nd de. an more. we the set it in the wh en nto heel. Once this is don and one fits into th e ne. we have what we n and ssembly. Sand or fi s . here be elow. ed e which in turn. const truction of t axel. ue p with the same bonding m material. the owel. e he other sm moothly. We’l also need a ll d 5/8” OA dowel. Cuttin with a hackng h saw doesn’t hav the sam effect on the ve me n edges of the cut ends as d t does a pipe cutting tool. bit of allow wance for movement. Let’s take a look at th AK he primary cut list for this part of the project y r f t. Let’s take a look at yet ano k other diagr ram. Everythin is glued tohe . th we can work on th hen he We want 3/4” of the nar e ” rrow pipe st ticking out of one e of the w o end wider pipe – the dowe shouldn’t stick out at all… I just el t drew it that way to show yo that it’s there w y ou t in th diagram. Th nd he wheel a axel as reason for the tw sizes of copper pip wo pe should be clear he ere… you’l notice th ll hat one can fit inside t other on with a b n the ne. What w we’ll be n needing ne ext. wider pipe to be 2&1/2” lo – remem e ong mber abou the cut ed ut dges. throu ugh the 3/ /4” hole th we dr hat rilled throu its cent and glu it into place ugh ter. He we see the axel – we have the ere e wider pipe fitte over the narrower one. Now if th he pipe wa cut with a pipe cutti tool. each to be 6” lon and cut a section of the ng. Once the glue has e 78 . is fitted over the oak dow s wel.
of co d ourse. f m first. ou h and pull it out (without it being too lo oose). whole thing secure. sticking ou of eip g . then glue it int place. ing through bo the whee and the a oth el axel at a di iagonal will allow you to pin the d l dowel thro ough everything to secu it all. Borhe of ous . See th the larg wooden dowel wh hat ge n hich fits over everyth o hing is cent tered on th wider he se ection of p pipe. xt dle is. d Choose a spot on the outer woo e oden dowel. th way thro he ough – doing the same thing as with the wh w heel axel. and take a look at this diagram he ere.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One drie and cure we now do one more ed ed. Speaking of the spindle that’s the next S f e. leaving 3/4” of it. give it som Once yo can push it in . and kee it strong enough to withep stan some he nd eavy duty s spinning. and set them as m r side – thes will be t bearing sockets fo the se the g or whe bearings and the s eel s spindle bea arings. B ure Before glui ing the dow in. after we have made the m This uses on of the do T ne owels ment tioned at th bottom o the previo cut list. pin the ion d . G Grab a 1/4” drill bit th ” hat’s rated f use with metfor h als. in orde to secure it all er e tigh htly. 8” sh hould be f fully inserte into all of this. The t e la arge outer dowel sho ould have a 1/4” groove filed to a 1/4” de g epth around it. ed le eaving 2” s sticking out of either end. the s spindle hea – but ad th comes l hat later. and with glue. cut w tting off the excess e ends as befo The nex part of the spinore. rts bonded tog gether in These par are all b th same wa as the wh axel pa he ay heel arts. w thin to the wh ng heel. and all . Min the edges nd s. The first p to t tart part 79 . leavin 1/4” of the pipe ng t st ticking out of each s t side – this in turn sh hould all b centered on the narrower be d n pipe. h g on . it appropria bearings – let’s look at this ts ate s here bearing constructio diagram. Now we nee to cut fou 3/4” segm N ed ur ments from the wider pipe. see that it ca be wel e an push into th drilled ho with a modhed he ole icum of ease. ta another 6” secake ti of 1/4” dowel. to one s of the g w side groove. all the layers. make is the m body of the spind with m main dle. e part for us to st making. to ta your ake metal-rated 1/4” drill b and drill a hole m bit th hrough ever rything. cu n to utting off th rehe mai ining ends. If it ne eeds a little sanding. me. ut th end of the wider pi The 5/8 dowel her ipe.
on eith side of the her f whee these to corner c el. that things are d s gettin simpler. of the top ca of de f ap the box assembl When th box sides are b ly. fitting into the co g orner e heir edge cutouts we made at th tops. and mark them as su Let’s se some more. n e now that the more com mplicated parts are behind us. I m 80 . d eel struction… … Whe box cons Next. We can see. we can see tha one of the top d at e corne edges of each board is cut out along er a the edge – whe these bo e en oards will stand s next to each ot ther. here in this nex diagram. th el hat which h holds it all in – let’s ta a look at ake the cut list for this phase of the project. be e xt He we see the simplic of the base ere city of th box – tw cuts. first. he wo e s at its center. this ght. one on either side. of cours are all pine board se. In the inse at the to of ng et op the diagram. k uch. ds. he s uprig on eith side of the wheel. Remem mber that. and ng he make a cut 1/2” cuttin across th grain. ee These. we build the “whee box”. At the top. and the sid view. These he are simple cuts – I take th pull saw. op cutouts wil be ll facin each oth ng her. Let’s ta a look at how so ake ome of them should b cut. we see the bot e ttom face.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O wheel b for the wheel and spindle to b box be inserted into. her goes on top of th hem.
Apply some wood glue to a where the ca and the b w ap base join th sides.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One in f from the end. and see how we did. w see a bit of a modi we need to d to the si struts. I kn the nock it all o out. to 1/4” d deep – then takn. remem O mber those four 3/4” sece ” tion of the w ns wider pipe we cut be efore? Glu them into the 3/4” h ue o holes that a in are the box sides with epoxy resin. At A the botto of that l om last diagram we m. wheel and th spindle each get fit w he tted into th own res heir spective bea aring socke as the ets si ides come together. This will w do ide T allow room for the driv belt. we can see how L it e mos of these pieces com together – the st me box assembl and wit the “ben ends. we t ification Above. w which in tu gets urn jo oined to the base. r ch wo side near the top. and the cap on top of e d n all of that. de s These sid struts do two things – they provide stru p uctural stren ngth to the wheel e Looking at i edge-on. see how each o the two s of side struts ar cut re to s shape – these will fit i into the sid cude tout on either side of eac of the tw box ts. ing a chisel to t end. sh hould both be facing the same direction d as the wheel axel exten a nsion – that end of th axel whic is longer than the ot he ch r ther. Okay. he re in place in the whe box as nto eel ssembly. es. he and clamp it all together a t r. th nt” th also pro hey ovide part o the mean of atof ns ta aching the lathe track While we are at k. Now we y w are going to p this whe box tog put eel gether. b ly. Let’s look here. The “bent” a ve e ends of thes once th pieces ar glued se. 81 .
the is a 1/2 ere 2” wooden screw. and shou really only take a . let’s look at a photo of th use. so that th le he whole t thing can be set aside and not tak ke up so m much space in the wor e rkshop whe en not in u First. Now art ps e w. L Let’s take a l look at the c list. uts Here we see the face of th wheel bo e he ox that is to receive the lathe track – th hat which h holds the sli iding point and tool res st. T is probaThis bly one of the easiest parts of the entire e project. You’ll n notice that r right betwee the “ben en nt” parts of the side struts. he other pa that help attach the track. This is one of two that a n f are on this face of th box side and is th his e. Build ding the tra ack… From here we w m want to ma the trac ake ck and the leg at the o other end. take the tap for th e hreading ho oles from th he 1/2” thr reading set. and thre all of th 3/8” hole in ead he es 82 . uld small fe minutes to put toge ew ether. cut Th diagram above sh he m hows how the piece are sha es aped (every ything is 3/4” thick Take the tap from th 1/2” tap and k). he die set. let’s a also see if w can mak we ke this tak ke-downabl as well. he side stru in place. We wi ill be usin more 3/4 inch pin boards to ng 4” ne construct the rest o the main body of th of n he lathe. and thread the interio d ors of these two 3/8” h e holes.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O this poi of the bu int uilding of th wonderfu his ful contrap ption.
and with a little w woo glue on t od them. thre the 12” dowel co ead ” ompletely – then cut it into four 3” lengths. At A the botto of that last diagram are om m the bar nuts. it sounds kin of weird so I t nd d. Take two of the 3” len T f ngths of thre eaded dow and with a little wo glue on them. a what w are we’ll be usin for ng the lathe’s take e-down-ability. not whe you do. too complicate and sim ed. Take #1 e the die from t 1/2” th the hreading set and t. in relati to he of ion the picture of it in that la diagram Not ast m. Moving righ along her let’s tak the M ht re. remember the “bent” parts of g . take the leg an fit its ho over e nd oles th screws a the other end of th track. an the nd othe sounds li some ki of cand bar er ike ind dy – ei ither way. with ooden screw we ws just glued in. Anyways. They aren wing n n’t nuts… they bar-sha y’re aped… so I either had t call to them “bar nu m uts” or “nu bars” – one ut soun like pea nds anuts from a saloon. h ood n scre them int the whee box side with ew to el e the threaded ho until th are flush with oles hey h the surface on the other side of the b board. screw them into track w end #2 until the are flush with the su ey h urface on t other sid of that bo the de oard. k o at Next. he at r he Clamp it all togethe good an tight. T sides go into the cu en The o utouts at th bottom o track end #1.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One the diagram – t 1/2” hol in the le and the les eg in t track end # won’t be threaded. a the hole over the screws – o and es s now take tw of the ba nuts and tighten n wo ar d th hem onto th screws. of course. p gether. ke trac sides an the track ends and glue ck nd k d them all togeth – see to it that the sc m her crews on t track end # are poin #2 nting out. Now. r th wheel bo side str he ox’s ruts? Take the track t over to them fitting the remaining cutouts o m. Let’s look at a photo to see wha I mean here. e g over them. mple. these bar shou be thre uld eaded too. h he holding the track in place – like t p this. just chose “b nuts”. and thes along w the wo se. 83 . Now take the other two. er nd th once th glue drie we can put it tohen. really. wel. he es. n in.
securing it into pla g ace… like th his. Le take a q et’s quick look f first. huh? From here there are only ! ? e. ke Crea ating the ar rmature ass sembly… So! Let’s make that pedal m L mechanism now. No your la ow athe is stan nding up on its n own! Cool. shall we? Okay… it’s cut list time agai … in. five things left t do. at wha all at this will look lik once it’s p together w ke put r. we n f need to mak the tool rest. we ne to make the t to eed e pedal armature for turnin the whe l ng eel… then we need to make the sliding point… o we also need to make the spindle hea a o ad… then we also ne to make a drive be eed e elt… and finally. 84 .Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O and tigh hten two m more bar nut onto them ts m.
o chisel. and then c out cube . at its root. 3/8 then y s 8”). th hread them. one end is measu ured for ten noning – we want a e te enon that is 1/2”x1”x2 centered At 2” s 2”. o course. and threaded nut coun a d nterparts.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One That T last pho shows th finished pedal oto he syst tem. so there’s o re eally no nee to mention them in cut lists ed fr rom here on out. Here is how the a p s arms should go tod gether… loo at this ph g ok hoto. those side or parts away. Now drill the 1/2” w e hole which is centered a 1/2” from the e. At the bottom it m-right of th photo. comes in p ure of certain set le engths – use the scrap to make e th nuts for this part of the projec – drill he f ct your holes fist (in this case. nt e then we thread the hole t receive a 1/2” n d to woo screw – once that i done. ich We can se here clea that the hole in ee arly e th tenon is slightly larger th he y han the 85 . /2” rilled at each end. The T pedal ar rm’s 3/8” ho is first d ole drilled. ed wheel board so d”. s ng nter of this piece’s w s width. d Now it’s time t look at an w to nother diagr ram. Once that is do n e one. and ei d ither saw. the center poi also being 1/2” e ints in from the ends. The wheel arm that whi is er e m. an the he nd whe arm that it’s attached to – this is in eel t s turn is attache to the “w n. that every time you step d t e down on the pede al. Have a ready su n e upply of dowels hand for thread d dy ding as need ded. l p leaving the tenon remaining. We ha the ped arm and foot ave dal d bloc at the bo ck ottom of th photo. the center poin being 6” from the end. in from the end. d. cut e-shaped nuts from th – you’ll need two for this n his l part. attached bet a tween the p pedal arm and the wheel board has a 1/ hole dr w d. the we od is en cut a 1/2”x2” t through mo ortise across this. The 1” sto wood t ock that you got for the t pedal armatu parts. at m othe end. You can probably fi figure by no that ow. i turns the wheel. alon the cen having the prev viously drill hole cro led ossing this along its center. th here’s often a need for threaded do n oweling. w see the fu he we ulcrum block that the pedal arm is attached to. saw i n into the sid 1/4” des deep.
inse it om ut age ert into this. drill into one of th edges of the board so as to bore he f d throu it. These ng holes are centered at an inc in from each s ch e of th two edg that ma the cor he ges ake rners they are placed in. one that is 11/16” s nto wide. and the other bein 3/8”. Ta a thread 1/2” dow of abou 5” ake ded wel ut in len ngth. then cut t. Glue G and tightly clam this into p t mp place. his ng. and then place . N y eel Now. this o n off any remaini length o the threa a ing of aded dowe that may b sticking out of the other el be o end of the nut. there is a 3/8” hole drilled 3” into the en e ” nd of it – this is also to be thre o eaded. A o After this is done. p the 11/16” hole onto the ax of the wh xel heel. so d do rememb about t importa ber the ance of grain directio in relation to threadi this piec on ing ce. Attach the w ar l h root end of the p pedal arm t this with one to h of the cube-shap nuts yo made ear ped ou rlier. Cut off any excess length of the thre eaded dowe from thi el is. gluin it into place – now. with 2 2” sticking out over the edge of the bas g se board. you may decid to set in a couple o screws from de n of f the underside of the base. taking the 1/4” ng drill bit for use with metals. w g Here we see the placemen of the fu nt ulcrum (a refer to photo at lo also o ower-right o of page 84 Since th is 6” lon it will f 4). keeping both ends flush with the surface g s h es of the p pedal arm. nning this whole thing secure. taking the g last of the three dowels m o e mentioned at the t botto of the cu list on pa 78. pass it through the hole in the tenon then apply h n n. and gluing it into place here.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O threaded hole thro ough the m mortise – th his will allo for free movement of this mov ow ving join Now take a threaded 1/2” dowe nt. and scr rew it thro ough one s side. a into the fulu f and e crum for strengt – I didn’ do so my m th ’t yself. As for the wh s heel board. and a applying a l little wood glue to th interior threads of the fulcr he rum. but not so tightl as to rest n ly trict free movem ment and glue t nut into place. a for this end and to be the drilled and threa e d aded end. and t ugh through the axel within the n body of the whe board. Let’s now go on to the fulcrum – as yo s n ou see in t diagram on the pr the m revious pag ge. Thread t 3/8” hole to the receive a 1/2” w wood screw. but you might de y ecide to. Use the threading tap as far in as you ca e n an. ee the diagram on t last page that it has two d the e holes drilled in it. screw it in as fa as it will go. then us the botto se oming tap f threadin for ng blind ho to thre the rest of the hole oles ead e’s length. fit across t 4” wid of the b the dth base. We of cou urse want t this extra b bit sticking out towar the lathe leg at th g rds e’s he 86 . gluing it into plac and pin t g ce. he ng threads on that far side. we can se in . e d el. ying a lit wood glue to the th ttle hreads on th he far side screw it through th remainin e. e oppo osite end of the track.
basically six piecs es in all. and applying a little wo ood glue to the thre eads in the 3 hole in the wheel b 3/8” n board. ha aving only one small differl ence… each has a ho drilled into the h ole center. let’s ha a look a that diagr N ave at ram. and sh hould be able to mov freely up and down the doa ve p wel. in this here lathe we’r builde re in Alright. in ing careful to a allow for fre movemen ee nt. rt b will rest on top of the track… th other w e he one. run-of-the T t e-mill piec of hardw ce ware. one with the smaller 3/8 hole. Now. but th one is a little differ his rently ped. ks Like in the reciproca L e ating lathe project back in chap three. you’ll notice that they are almost g e id dentical. See th you ma these pi w hat ark ieces as su uch. but it still quit est’s te sent to our needs here in this pr tial e roject. e you’ll notice that the ba is comp y e ase prised of tw identica parts – b in the next diawo al but n gram. is the par of the base that b . We w be will usin a plumb bob again for this pie of ng ece the lathe. shap and is also easily findable at home cent ters and h hardware st tores most anywhe Here is what it look like.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One Take a 3” len T ngth of thre eaded 1/2” d dowel. scre it in unti it is flush with the su ew il h urface on the other s side. This is just a regular. and yo won’t h ou have any pr roblems. but th are of d hey different siz The zes. 87 . and it is d all assembled! Once all t this glue dr ries – and I mean dr ries – then you can tr the ry mec chanism ou and check how wel you ut ll did thus far. ere. gluing it into plac and agai bece. with th larger 1/2 hole. let’s look a another cu list. Do it turn sm oes moothly? Sweet! The T sliding point… Now for the sliding po N e oint. is the part o he 2” th sits und the tra hat der ack. but ag gain. glue and clamp tightly the foot L p e bloc onto the end of the wheel arm (you ck m may wish to sc y crew this in also. Attach the end o the h of whe arm wit the 1/2” hole in it to this eel th with the other cube-shape nut you made h ed earl lier. inc cluding the dowel and the bar d nut. t b pter this will be used to provide a po on whic your wo piece p oint ch ork can spin on. Lastly. at ut Very unco omplicated. I mys didn’t f self find it nece essary). wh is to o e 8” hich be threaded. ng. When w start sha n we aping these pieces.
t photo below for a good look o k. e 88 . Here in the dia agram. and two u under the base. t won’t ruin anything here. is threaded just enou for wha it needs. arpenter’s w wood glue. h cutou side fac ut cing down. so you can leave your square. My point here is only and his ust into place with Th is all ju glued i good strong ca d. set the edge . you’ll notic how the face has th ce he corners cut off in a certain w – this acway tually serves no pu urpose at all whatsoeve l er. thread som far me more. the take it o to see if en out you’ve threaded fa enough. really There’s n y. thread an inch. that’s fi but it is needed – it’s just not ine. or 3/4”. sn’t the easiest thing i the worl to go an in ld nd or er. First take es u the upper part of the base and with the u e. we see how th he pieces are all sha aped… and speaking o of which. o whateve t e without being able to see it – you have to thread a little. and five small finis shing nails just to pi it in straig while th glue drie – three in the ght he es n face. Be sur to re have the correct base piece in the cor t es rrect place when you assemble it all. when w it is all assemble than on the other. The diagram m g merely indic cates that more threa are need at one end ads ded (that which will be the bot l ttom end. … ver you The dowel. o make them n e or round… do whatev pleases y best. no I just d it for lo need. If ugh at you wan to go and thread the whole thin nt d ng. o rs or you can cut off the corners.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O that if you thr read more than wha is at neede it’s just fine… it w ed. a so on. n Le take a p et’s peek at what this all sh t hould look like once i put toge it’s ether before we e go an further w this ste Look at the ny with ep. as you can see here. a ed). did ooks.
the dges of the sideboar that ma the lath track. t upper ed ck. he hole in the face Here’s a p e e. and pla the bas piece ace se with the 1/2 hole dril w 2” lled into it. all d plumb bob – look here.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One agai the bott inst tom edge of the face. you can see th I had to take a wo chip or two. we can apply a litt wood a tle glue to the t g threads in th hole in th base he hat piece. the cutouts on both e n piec are for sitting on t “rails” o the ces the of trac that is. The rest is easy – place al of this hat y ll onto the tra o ack. cutouts fa acing up. an screw up e nd onto the dow that las bar nut to hold it o wel st o all into plac Now a we need is the a ce. photo of this. p As A we can see here. like t this. so that f the cutouts of b both pieces align. u onto the dowel. e uld plac centere on everyt ced. th is. ed thing. The back shou be rd. Once that is all glued in place lik this. as I have done. O nto ke and perhaps pi inned with a few thin nails ok u hat If you loo close. behin the nd face with its cutout just behind th 1” e. W can rds ake he We also see here. boar both in place. and s p screw the d dowel into place – th end with the shorte bit of th he h er hreading. the dowe and the back o el. and shim the o ood r s 89 .
Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O
plumb b into pl bob lace. This p particular on ne is abou 3/4” bet ut tween flat faces of i its six-side body, and about 1” between op ed pposite c corners of its body – not enoug gh differen for a dif nce fferent sized drilled ho d ole to do any good, but just o the mar off rk enough. Sometime you have to come u es e up with yo own solu our utions. Wha might be a at e good m modification here? Perhaps we could put a th hreaded hol in the sid of this, in le de order to use an ad o djusting wo screw to ood tighten a good grip onto it? S p Something t to think ab bout. time, a single, solitary scr , rew. One th hat’s WID and has threads that stand tall from DE, t f its bo Look a this photo ody. at o;
Th photo sh his hows that I was feeling arg tistic and decide to make t one kin of ed this nd stepp ped-looking – no need, no functio g on… if yo stick to the same principles of ou o e s build ding the spin ndle head in the last chapn ter, as I did, you can pretty much com up a u y me with anything. No see how I’m only u ow, w using one sc crew here? This way, I can take the work pi ? iece, and at its cente mark, simply screw it er w onto the spindle head, and move the slide ing point on ov to the o p ver other end of the f work piece, setti the poin into the other k ing nt o cente point at t er that end. W When I make the e lathe’s wheel tu towards me for too urn oling the work piece it will a w e, also continu ually keep the piece tight to the spindle head, e h due to the dire ection in w which the sc crew and spindle hea turns. Si s ad imple, effec ctive and very practical. v Ok we’re a kay, almost finis shed – there are e only a couple th hings left t do, and soon to s we’ll have an ad l ddition to ou workshop ur p!
how it com into pla mes ay Here, we see h t’s ? when it doing its job. Fairly simple, eh? The spindle hea ad… Alrig what’s next? Ah! The spind ght, dle head, o course… now, we d this exa of did act same th hing in the last project, so there’s n no need to go over it again – jus refer to th st he apter. Howe ever, I did do a couple o of last cha things d different he – I mad the cap d ere de diameter wider than the rest of the hea n ad. Why? N sure, j Not just though I’d try i ht it. Let’s tr using, in ry nstead of fi nails th ive his
and then we can try it out on light. “Why is there much of the drive shaft sticking out of the left side if the wheel box?”. or it won’t operate well at all. this makes it easier to attach both ends without tying a knot – you can’t have a knot looping around in this gizmo. it became as one continuous loop. you want the wheel to turn towards you. give it a try! Give the wheel a few turns with the foot pedal… remember. and glue it around the spindle’s drive shaft – the 1&1/2”x2” section of dowel in the top part of the wheel box. This will be another of the easiest parts of the entire project so far. I just took a regular old cigarette lighter to the ends just long enough to melt it some. or. What’s left to do here? We’ve got one last bit to make this here lathe project complete. just above the wheel – one piece on either side of the 1/4”x1/4” groove. Be careful – drippy. How is it? Does it do well? Is your drive belt tight enough? Is it too tight? I bet you’re wondering a few things here. we make the tool rest. Find the tightness it needs to be. Do this by threading the rope though the places it needs to go through to be looped around both the wheel. When you’ve got it all joined together. now we’re getting someplace! The drive belt is what transfers the power of the spinning wheel. just be a little bit more patient for just a while longer. Why? We’ll get into that part in just a bit… right now we need to get some rope. Mind you. but tight enough to have no slack. to the spinning of the work piece in the lathe. and so. and the drive shaft. but it’s just a mite thicker. 91 . or. and pulling tight to see where the ends need to be cut. When you pull it tight. We’ll get there. The package I got says 1/4”. and around the drive shaft on the copper part. there are two things we can do to beef it up just a mite. like. Later. Now. it is one of the most important parts – But first. With this nylon rope. “Why is the wheel track an inch wide when we’re only using a 1/4” rope?”. “What’s with the sandpaper?”… I’ll let you in on all of that soon enough. and join the ends together like I did. soft woods. so let’s get started on it. melting nylon burns like LAVA – don’t be careless. When you’ve got it figured out where to cut the ends for joining. Why nylon? Well. not the wood. a little prep for future modifications… Take some coarse grade sandpaper. When it hardened. and then I stuck the ends together.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One The drive belt… Okay. have it around the wheel. and into the groove between the sandpaper areas. cut them. This time we’re using some nylon clothesline rope that’s juuuuuuust a wee bit thicker than 1/4”. we don’t want it so tight that it will keep anything from moving. but for now. Next. pull the rope up over and onto the dowel section of the drive shaft.
Then. Th here is the only t his tricky part left. st You’ll notice by the dimen y nsions of th he base blo that thi looks like another jo ock. You c also see that the to corners are can e op cut off at an angle – this aga is merely e ain for look and reall isn’t nece ks. along the edge. No y st ow let’s tak a look a some diagrams to se ke at ee how the pieces c ese come into shape – at th he upper r right. is e ob for good-old. Then. s . Look here. Now let’s get to that there dio e agon cutout a the top edge of the tool nal at rest side boards. so far. so g good. part goes. we se just that As for th ee t. taki a 3/4” thick ing t piece of board . ly essary at all l. all depends on your tastes as far as this s. trusty fence pos stock. we set the oa ood ak dowel into the chan nnel. Now let’s take a look at this book’s final cut lis here. thing squar It re. You might wish to do the same. or ro h ound these or leave the whole t e.Creating the H C g Handcr rafted Workshop B W Book One O Cons structing th tool rest… he … Here is the las part of t st this project t’s construction. at 1/4” depth.the tool r edge bo e rest oard. We’v got eve ve erything els se built. using a dab of wo glue. but firs let’s look at the to rest edg st k ool ge board… we can se that the dowel is s … ee set into the top edge – this is d e done by fir rst routing a channel with a 1/2” round-nos ” se bit. Mark where 1& k &7/8” from t end is at the the top. he diagona cut at the top of the tool rest sid al e de board. for example – a plant t edge of the e and the f 92 . . t that will be explained in just a bi e it. and then dra the two lines accor a aw rding to this diagram.
only somest. now a we need to do is to glue G all d o this all togethe er… that is. we c see the edge board with A can d the oak dowel set into its edge – this edge s will provide a firm point at which to rest l o any tools upon.the result look like th he his. and hobby supply store and practi turna e. and aside from a co ouple of modification that we w discuss in just a m ns will while. pedal-p powered woodturning lathe! w g Yes. and doesn get all . g the diagonal c cut. ice in some thi ng ings. n’t glue to the rest of it al Take the side ed ll. but hey. The oak should give o d you tools good support. g lsa s. There. like chess pieces candle s. ky Now the e edge board slides right into the diagonal cut d touts at the top of the rest of e e th tool rest . This is a tool for learnin Now p s ng. It’s not very adjusta w able. Above. that wasn so n’t trick after all. e that the block is right b t k between the side e boar cutouts like this here. and only that Y ol t o – a tool res Nothing fancy. get some bal from your local arts crafts. 93 . we a now co w are ompletely finished making our wheel-driv m ven. this too rest is just that. rds’ s… s And now we can place all of this onto the A e la athe track. most of it – the edge board is a finished. ur d Great. while the work piece spins into the tool’s blade. e boar and set them into t cutouts o the rds the of base block wit wood glu and see to it e th ue. rememb that this is an exper h ber s rimental project.Creating the Hand e dcrafted Workshop Book One boar against t area ind rd the dicated and trace arou the edg marking where to make und ge. y th hing to pro ovide suppo for tooling the ort work piece.
The sandpaper provides enough frictional grip for the leather to grab onto the spindle as it pulls it into spinning. but see to it that you use it to get some practice on – this isn’t only a tool for learning how to build such things. Now when you start your lathe going. directly across from the first… now do the same. with a screw-type tightener in the side of the weight disk’s hole. but for learning woodturning on as well. Now you can work with tougher woods than balsa – try pine. edge-on-edge. Don’t overdo things and break it. and what have you. long enough to loop around both wheel and spindle. stretchy leather here. You’ll see how fun it is to work with. Finally. Practice. down the entire length of this leather strap. Remember – if you put ten pounds of. and one on the other. and your tools that cut into your work piece won’t supply so much resistance to slow things down. Thicken the shaft with more pipe or wood if needed. looping the rope to the leather strap. yeah? And it certainly can be obtained cheaply enough. I assure you. Place it onto that part of the spindle. right? But it’s simply wonderful for learning with. you built this out of scrap wood and pine. start slowly. 1/8” apart. up underneath it. in a five pound bag. see to it that you sew them together. and repeat until you’ve gotten the whole length done in this way. Now. we can modify this nifty bit of machinery to take on the job. practice. We don’t want flimsy. and tighten it into place. Don’t just be satisfied with building this thing. Draw two lines. take some waxed cotton thread and sew this directly to the rope. with a bead of rope underneath it. Once you get to the ends. right down the middle.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One stick holders. and etc. or any part of yourself. – and don’t forget. practice. What we want is tough belt strap leather.don’t hurt yourself. See to it that you have enough length. Some modifications… Now. it’ll break! 94 . and have a hankerin’ to take on something a mite meatier. once you have done quite a bit of practice with balsa. Balsa… sounds like kind of a whimpy wood to work with. You have to learn to walk before you learn to run. 1/4” along those lines from there. Take a 1/16” leather punch. and build up speed – the mass of the weight will give it proper momentum. how about that bit of the spindle sticking out of the left side of the wheel box? Take a five pound weight disk from a set of barbells – the kind that’s placed onto the end of its bar. cedar. but that it will be quite tight enough. uhm. stuff. Get yourself a 1” wide strip of leather. guiding it to be kept straight onto the spindle. This is where the inch-wide wheel channel and the drive shaft’s sandpaper come into play. Now you have a belt around your wheel and spindle. and make a hole on one line. spruce. See that it’s tight and secure .
joining all pieces as one. That things can fit together. The projects we’ve gone over in this book are just a simple taste of what will be done in the future books to come… they’re humble. now that we have completed this “primer course” book together. Maybe I’m the only one. with a hole in it. and form a base to grow from as our projects become more intricate and precise from here on out. but something about that just strikes me as profound. I’m hoping you readers out there have opened your eyes to new ideas. There will be many projects to come that will be even more fun to make. the wheel-driven lathe. basic. is that making wooden screws can be quite easy and beneficial for all-wood items. as in the crossbeams in the workbench’s leg assembly. and in the books to come. starting from book two. all-wood puzzle. will be very useful. 95 . The fact that you don’t need electricity to turn wooden objects – that a machine. and that all can be kept into place with just one wooden key. the way they are kind of like a rustic. As long as certain principles are followed. We’ve learned that some lathes operate in a reciprocating motion. such as the doweling planes that turn square stock into round dowels. we can take any seasoned hardwood branch from the back woods and make a screw worthy of a workbench vice. where art can combine with function. and maybe I’m not. We’ve seen that joinery can be somewhat artistic as well. the possibilities are numerous. locking it all tight. to do complicated tasks… they can be as simple as a block of wood. and that both of these machines can be constructed of wood. can make such things . Making hand-made bearings was touched upon here. such as the vices in the workbench project. we can see that there is much room for creativity. and a small blade attached to it. such as the afore mentioned project. made out of wood. or even take-down furniture. operated by foot power. Another thing we have seen. while others turn continuously in one direction. Other planes such as doming planes and coning planes were also discussed.is another thing that’s truly wonderful. In dovetailing. and rudimentary. greased-up iron screws really aren’t necessary after all – and if we just have the right hand tool. We have seen that tools need not be complicated things. Like the wooden vices… huge. by seeing some old ones.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One What we have learned so far… In building these projects. and that they can be used for making things we can take apart. using wood and copper pipe – a primer project for the all-wood bearings we will be creating.
simpler. They will also come into play in the basic planes we will be making. they will last a lifetime. will be made as well.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One In the books to come… Self-lubricating all-wood bearings Starting from book two. including the last lathe we’ll build. There is a certain science to it. more equipped. The crafting of wooden gears – In this series. Useful formulas and tables – There are some nifty bits of useful information we will discuss that play a very important part in woodcrafting. is a basic hand drill. for example. such as the Golden Rule (also called “Golden Mean”). and also in the fine-tuning adjustment mechanisms on wooden machines. it will be the book in which we start to make self-lubricating all-wood bearings. in order to be skilled enough for it. Wooden hinges – Hinges that are completely made of wood will also be learned in this series. Threaded wooden tools – We will be doing more wood threading. we will also be making gears. but worry not… it is really very simple. There is a whole world of joints to discuss in the following books that have many purposes. Many such things will be learned in the books ahead.we won’t need to do any blacksmithing for making blades – there’s a simple solution that I think you’ll find to be quite ingenious in its practicality. things will get more intricate. The making of planes – Some very basic. book one. and we will also learn about other types of joints. things will get mighty precise. the ultimate. For one thing. which will be explained in full detail. 96 . and if sturdy hardwoods are used. Once we reach these advanced projects. yet useful planes. and much to do. Different woods and their uses – There are many different woods. rest assured. but don’t worry . Another. wooden machine we will build in book two. All-wood joinery – Like in the workbench project in this book. slot and pin. we will be using tongue and groove. and certain types of clamps. and the Hambridge Progression. and involved. using what we have learned in this book and more. mortise and tennon. but instead of merely making screws. such as sprocket and worm gear types. and old Japanese joinery. such as rabbet planes and plow planes. each having different properties and uses. powerful woodturning lathe. such as used in timber framing. We will learn about them and their usefulness in the projects to come. We will use such bearings to make other machines. We have a lot to build. we will use threaded items to make tools – like scribes. You’ll want to make sure not to skip out on any of the projects that lead up to such things.
right? The third part of your homework is tool acquisitions – for instance. down-to-earth. Great Spirit bless him. to inspire you in this here field of craft. That’s all… pretty darned easy. craft a stool to sit on while you work at your workbench. teaching us all good-old. and I’ll always remember it. whatever – but try to get the hang of basic woodturning with these skill demanding. because you’re going to need them for many of the projects ahead. make a set of salt and pepper shakers. Assignment seven – using ideas from the joinery used in making this book’s first project. I want you to practice making MANY dovetail joints from scrap wood. if you haven’t gotten the tap and die sets for making wood screws. use the lathes that you have built in this book. and make some that join flat boards together at one even surface. but a sizeable chunk of my growing up from boyhood was spent learning a great wealth of things from him on his show on public television. folks! 97 . whittling and rustic furniture making – there are many out there. is reading… get your hands on another good book or three. We will be mostly using those of 1”. like I mentioned back on page 47. In my ignorance. you can get the hang of it all – it’s really very easy – and #2.a great and talented woodwright who really knows his stuff. Oh. I have no idea if he’s still alive or not. 3/4” and 1/2” thicknesses. get a number of lengths of doweling threaded with your threading tools. That’s all. so that #1. I’d like you to see to it that you maintain the sharpness of all your tools’ blade edges. get them. As simple as the main principles are for making dovetails. Refer to the resources page just a page ahead in this book. Assignment number five. Assignment six (is this too much here?). rudimentary machines. and read anything and everything you can get your hands on that’s ever been written by Roy Underhill . I want those of you out there who are just starting out. Be creative! Alright. to practice a few things before the next books. For your fourth bit of homework. For assignment number two. fashion a toothpick holder. old-time woodcrafting. so that you will have them handy when we get to making the projects in the books ahead. and try making the few things suggested earlier… create a set of chess pieces from your imagination. Books that deal with backwoods woodcrafting. Follow the guidelines given. that there is assignment number one.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One HOMEWORK – That’s right. and make some others that join at a corner. I said HOMEWORK. you can never get in enough practice to make them. Most of all. as to where to get them from.
can also be found in a variety of places. 1-800-537-7820 The tools that these and other sources can provide. and wonderfully so. also the basic hardware such as the plumb bobs. Box 1686 Parkersburg. spots of wood rot. I got mine from The Japan Woodworker – to request a free catalogue. The Japan Woodworker 1731 Clement Avenue Alameda.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One Resources… The wood threading tool kits that are in this book can be found in many places. remember to take good care to maintain them. Be very careful to see that you do not take on any hitch-hikers into your workshop or your home. When you acquire your tools. the doweling planes. 98 . as well as quality pieces of pre-cut wood and large lumber can all be gotten at your local home center. Shop around at all of them. or sawdust that seems to mysteriously fall out of it from somewhere. while others are humble and basic. be sure to check for signs of insect infestation. and they will last a lifetime. or even simply on the roadside. and many others. such as the mini drill press. California 94501 Their customer service phone number is. P. rasps and files. wherever you find it. I got mine from Woodcraft Supply – to request a free catalogue. and many other sensible items. an old barn to be taken down in the country. For reclaimed lumber. Check for the telltale signs. just do without it. holes in the surface that look eaten through. West Virginia 26102 Their customer service phone number is. the kanna. ranging in many functionalities. O. 1-800-535-4482 All the special planes in this book. and see what great resources are available for you to use. as well as sharpening equipment for all of your tools. Shop around everywhere you can for what best suits your needs – there are many great tools to be had out there – some can be quite expensive. If the wood is questionable. is termites… or worse. but get the job done. Woodcraft Supply. the chisels and gouges. The one thing you don’t want to invite into your workshop or home. the coning plane. the basic block plane. such as safety glasses and work gloves. the doming planes. here is their contact information below. be it from an old bookcase from a second hand store. The other tools. here is their contact information below. LLC 1177 Rosemary Rd. are of a wondrous variety. as well as many varieties of pull saws and the like. like the rosewood plow plane. You will also find a variety of protective gear. router bearings and copper pipe.
S.L. Linas Charzevskis. I also want to thank you in such a page in the books to follow this here one. Tim Page. recent or from times long past.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One Acknowledgments… The “shout-out” page To all my friends and acquaintances out there. ALL at P. Dilip Maharajan – “Hey!” Sunyee Chang – “Nihao. Julie. Cool-Fat Alan. and a good time… and even those who just were good enough to be my friends. Judy McAllister. and those whom I have only come to know by nickname. Tony Francis. Red. sharing food. Nick Zalisk. BOB. or never learned. Steven Standing Owl. drink. Kris Horton. I hope you all forgive me if your name happens to be butchered by my lack of such talents. Kiril Reznik. Wolf. Tom. little dude!”. THANK YOU!!!!!!! Now. even those who just kept me company while I tinkered away. Daniel “I want a #%$@! roast beef sandwich!!” Harrison. Victor Coffin. Kevin Bow. no matter how many times I am told. helped me build things when I needed another pair of hands. Rest assured – I remember you. Miriam Serfes.– “Hi!” Sarah “Sarah-neko” Dove. Ryan. Meadow Smith – “Haiyaaa!”. Shaun & Gabby Haines. wo de xiao mei mei!”. Edang “Yuji” Bak. Yoran. as I sincerely hold you all in the deepest of respects. Ko’. Brian “Red Dragon” Corbin. who encouraged me in the writing of this book. Dave Whirlwind Soldier. Hawk. Mike “Mr. Rick & Debbie Root & family. generally encouraging me to continue to try my best to excel in anything I do – not a mere small task. Mike & Nicky Crowley. Tim “Guido” Wilbur. Shaun. Nephilim SIR” LaPine.“You are all profoundly missed. whether their influence was great or miniscule. Tom Goodrow.” 99 . is far worse. or didn’t have room on this one page… if I’m given the chance. Dave & Abby Bouchard. Brett Batolato. There are others not mentioned here. Cindy Gallardo – “Hi!” Tim “Yakamo!” Petkis. Seth & Kosol Chim. Karen Barrier. Brian Higgins. John D’Amico. Chii. Stuart Gersen. because I’ve lost names entirely. Daniel “Perry” Comeau. Sokha & Vanny Chit. Lou Ferrebeaux. Dave Tayes. Monty “Shakuhachi-itis” Levenson. Tom & Mary Owen. In no particularly specific order whatsoever.and my memory of such spellings. Sue Hinkel. Tom Gagne. Mallo. by any stretch of the imagination. Bob Kerr and Ruth Cobb . Shirou Takahashi. Erich “Earache” LaVigne. Henrick “Hell’s Chef” Petersen. Yippah. friendship. Eric “Cherrrch” Golden. Chen Junsheng. Alison Frank. Carekee. Bryan & Kat Cobb. Zeke. Doug Daigle. Yumi. as well as those who’s last names I’ve completely forgotten. Hideya Aihara. Chuck Bishop. Tom Black Crow. Thomas & Stacey Robinson – “Hi!” Rachel Udin. I am a horrible speller when it comes to people’s names . Yuanxing Wu. Mark Wychorsky – “Hi!” my son Seth – “Luvya. Erik Peavey. Bert Serfes. Justin Wallace.
Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One C g r W 100 .
I would make little huts. I became interested in tools that could do more. and who want to make their own tools. wrapped with rawhide onto branch segments sounds a mite “cave-man like” to many people. they can make their own projects with. use the wood to build things. well… I thought it was kinda funny. and you soon will grow proficient in your skills. I strove to learn more and more. I should wrap things up here before I go and talk your ears off now. Ever since I was a young child.Creating the Handcrafted Workshop Book One A final word… Well. Remember the important things learned in this book. and sat amongst nature. but also to spread the joys and appreciation of working with wood. I enjoyed writing it. 101 . Now I have the opportunity to share all this with those who are interested. and was taught the art of making the Native American flute. it is inexhaustible – we plant trees. I added that to the list of doings on my little woods excursions. and shouts across the counter. lean-tos and lodges in the woods. crafting music as well… all from the wondrous material growing out of Mother Earth – wood. I also began to make rudimentary tools. and excel in your craftsmanship. if well taken care of. Okay. so I could spread what I’ve learned to others. Learning and practicing what some call “bushcraft”. and I wish to thank you very much for including this humble bunch of pages in your bookshelf. I was always intrigued with this natural resource… in that. about safety and maintaining your tools and blades. I always wanted to write a book on this subject. From there. that in turn. and basic machines powered by treadle wheel. making things that can make other things. can grow more and more. and making the indigenous woodwind instruments from bamboo-like cane plants and deadwood aromatic red cedar. Stone implements from quartz and flint. that about does it for this here first book. and weave various grasses into different things. It’s a twice as wonderful craft. but you’d be well surprised as to their accuracy and usefulness. I’ll leave you all with a mild bit of woodworking humor… A termite walks into a tavern. Keep at it. “Hey. Don’t forget to do your homework! It’s very important. Oh. I hope you found it enjoyable. Eventually. With flint knapping and leather work. but would still be human-powered. where’s the bar tender?!” HAHAHAHAHA!!!! AHAaa! ahaa… hehe… eh… uh… hmmm. I learned how to make puzzles and toys with wheels. and the seeds from that very same tree. When I was about 13 or so.
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