An Ghniomhaireacht urn Chaornhnü Comhshac








Environmental Protection Agency
Ardcavan, Wexford, Ireland.

Telephone: +353-53-47120

Fax: +353-53-47119

© Environmental ProtectionAgency 1997

Parts of this publication may be reproduced without further permission, provided the
source is acknowledged.


Publishedby the Environmental Protection Agency, Ireland.

ISBN 1 899965 46 7 Price Ir15






3 Table7.1 Table7.1 Table2.13 Table6.7 Table5.1 Table9.2 Table 8.1 Table5.10 Table5.1 Physicaland chemical characteristics ofwaste water and their sources Typicalcharacteristics of urbanwastewater Reported inhibition thresholdlevels Typicalperformance data for selected aeration devices Comparison betweenFIM ratio and sludgeage Operating at a high FIM ratio (low sludge age) Operating at a low F/M ratio (high sludge age) Operational relationships betweenRAS and WAS Loadingand operational parameters for activatedsludge processes Applications of activated sludge process variations Whitefoam Excessivebrownfoams Black foams Classification of activated sludges Sizeof micro-organisms used in wastewater treatment Operating costsofKillarney wastewater treatment plantduring 1995 Classification of percolating filters Ponding on percolating filters Upflow or downflow submerged filters Chemical phosphorus removal performance Nutrient removal process selection and application Membrane type and application Typicalheadlosses acrossvarious treatmentunits Odourthresholds of common odourous gases Odourpotential from wastewatertreatmentprocesses A-weighting adjustments Conversion ofoctave levels to A-weighted levels Approximate range ofnoisereduction Reported inhibition thresholdlevels Technologies available for the pretreatment of industrial discharges Pretreatment optionsfor selected discharges 6 9 17 26 32 32 32 33 34 39 40 40 40 41 43 45 51 54 59 66 69 72 75 Table 10.2 Table5.5 Table 11.1 Table 10.1 Table5.vi TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER LiST OF TABLES Table2.2 Table 10.4 Table 10.3 Table5.8 Table5.4 Table5.2 Table6.2 Table3.9 Table5.1 Table 11.3 79 80 81 82 83 85 86 88 .3 Table 10.1 Table6.12 Table5.11 Table5.5 Table5.6 Table5.2 Table 11.

2 Figure 9.6 Figure5.8 Figure 5.9 Figure 5.1 Figure 12.1 .13 Figure 5.3 Figure9.4 Figure 4.2 Figure 4.4 Figure5.17 Figure 6.5 Figure6.7 Figure6.6 Figure 7.1 Figure 3.1 Figure7.14 Figure 5.11 Figure 5.2 Figure 5.4 Figure6.5 69 69 73 74 75 77 77 87 89 Figure 11. time and initial MLSS concentration for goodsettlingmixed liquors Activated sludge growthcurve A-Bactivatedsludge process Completely mixed activated sludge system Plug flow activated sludge system Tapered aeration Step feed Pasveeroxidation ditch Carouseloxidation ditch Sequencing batchreactor Deep shaft activated sludge Predominance ofmicro-organisms in relationto operating conditions Powerrequirements as a function of mixed liquorDO Oxygenconsumption Percolating filter Transport mechanism acrossthe biofilm Diffusion across the biofilm Hydraulic effectofrecirculation on humustanks Configurations of percolating filters Rotating biologicalcontactor Sparge pipes for aeration Submerged biological aeratedfilters Biological pre-denitrification and the effectof recirculation ratio Biological post-denitrification Simultaneous biological nitrification and denitrification Dosing pointsforthe chemical precipitation ofphosphorus Illustration ofcell mechanism for Prelease and luxury uptake Phostripprocess ModifiedPhoredox.6 Figure6.2 Figure7.3 Figure 3.3 Figure5.2 Figure 2.3 Figure7.8 Figure 9.3 Figure 3.4 Figure9. A2/O.7 Figure 5.15 Figure 5.3 Figure 6.CONTENTS vii UST OF HGURES Figure 1.1 Figure 9.5 Figure 7.7 Figure 7.1 Figure 5.VIPprocess Sourceof pumpingheadlosses Pump systemhead curve Hydraulic profilefor a secondary waste water treatment plant Types ofpumpsand applications Centrifugal pumpperformance curves Methodsof flow balancing Management systemof a waste water treatment plant 22 22 23 25 26 28 34 35 35 36 36 36 37 37 38 38 44 45 45 48 49 49 50 52 56 57 58 65 65 65 67 67 68 Figure7.5 Figure 4.12 Figure 5.1 Figure2.4 Figure 7.8 Waste watertreatment plantoverview Growthrate of micro-organisms as a functionofpH Typicalcomposition of urbanwastewater Diurnaland seasonal flow variations to a treatment plant Metabolism and transportmechanisms in bacterial cells Examples ofprotozoa and rotifera Relativepredominance oforganismsused in wastewater treatment Bacterial growth curve Settling theory Circular radialflow settlement tank Rectangular horizontal flow settlement tank 3 6 7 8 14 14 15 15 19 20 21 21 Imhofftank Inclined settlement system Dissolved air flotation Activated sludge process Aeration devices Comparison of aeration efficiency and depth ofimmersion ofaerators Settling velocity v.6 Figure 5.10 Figure 5.2 Figure 3.3-stage Bardenpho process UCT.3 Figure 4.1 Figure 4.4 Figure 4.16 Figure 5.2 Figure 6.1 Figure 2.1 Figure 6.5 Figure5.

Kilkenny Co. NickGray. BillyFitzgerald.Universityof Dublin Mr. Council Mr. Denis McGuire. O'Sullivan& Co. John O'Nynn. RichardFoley. Galway Co. (representing the County and CityManagers Association). Department ofthe Environment Dr.R.QuaestorAnalytic Ltd. Daniel O'Sullivan. SligoRegional Technical College Dr. . JohnKilgallon. Tipperary S. The Agency personnel involved in the preparation and production of this manual were Gerry Carty.Co. Mr. Barry& Partners Mr.viii TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Agency wishes to acknowledge those who contributed to and reviewed this manual. Council Mr. Kilkenny. MartinBeirne. Mr. Ltd. Mr. Forbairt Mr. Council Dr. Owen Boyle. P. Paul Ridge.Co. FintanMcGivem. McCarthy & Partners Mr. Environmental HealthOfficers' Association Mr.C. A review panelwas established by theAgency to assistin the finalisation of themanual and we acknowledge below those persons who took the time to offer valuable information. advice and in many cases comments and constructive criticism on the draftmanual. M. J. Waterford Co. both of whom commented on the draftmanual. Prof. Pettitand Company Mr. Gerard O'Leary and Brian Meaney. Michael Rodgers. E. University CollegeGalway The Agency also wishes to acknowledge the assistance of Engineering Inspectors of the Department of the Environment and the Sanitary Services Sub-committee of the Regional Laboratory.G.B. Eanna O'Kelly. Jones Environmental (IRL) Ltd.H. ChrisBateman.Forbairt Mr. JerryGrant. Ken McIntyre. Michael Hand. Mr.

operation or use ofall orspecified classes ofplant. and shall if so directed by the Minister. specfy andpublish criteria and procedures.PREFACEix PREFACE The EnvironmentalProtectionAgency was established in 1993 to license. supervision. management.a sanitary authority shall. use. 1992. maintenance. operation and use of the processes and equipment required for the secondary treatment of wastewater. The Agency hopes that it will provide practical guidance to those involved in plant operation. Where criteria and procedures are published by the Agency. maintenance. Theseshouldbe returnedto the Environmental Management and Planning Division at the Agency headquarters on the enclosed User Comment Form. It providescriteria and procedures for the proper management. haveregardto them. supervision. In Section 60 of the Environmental Protection Agency Act. This manual on Primary. it is stated that "the Agency may. which in the opinion of the Agency are reasonable and desirable for the purposes of environmental protection. in relation to the management. Secondary and Tertiary Treatment sets out the general principles and practices which should be followedby those involved in the treatment of urban waste water. Where reference in the document is made to proprietary equipment. sewers or drainagepipes vestedin orcontrolledor usedby a sanitaryauthority for the treatment or disposalofany sewage or other effluent to any waters ". this is intended as indicating equipment type and is not to be interpreted as endorsing or excluding any particularmanufacturer or system. regulateand control activities for the purposesofenvironmental protection. maintenance and supervision. . Criteria and procedures in relation to the treatment and disposal of sewage are being published by the Agency in a numberof manuals under the general heading: 'Waste Water Treatment Manuals'. The Agency welcomes any suggestions whichusers ofthe manual wishto make. in the performance ofits functions.

.] concentration of. km oxygentransfercoefficient kilometre kilopascal kP m mg MLSS MLVSS mm rn/s litre metre milligram mixed liquor suspended solids mixed liquor volatile suspended solids millimetre metresper second Newton National Accreditation Board oxygenation capacity N NAB OC .. oils and grease gram hour hertz Integrated Pollution Control International Standards Organisation kilogram of the EPA FIM FOG g h Hz IPC ISO kg K. parameter Agency Environmental Protection Agency biochemical oxygen demand five-day biochemical oxygendemand centimetre chemical oxygendemand BOD BOD5 cm COD °C degreesCelsius day dissolved d DAF dB(A) DO DWF EC50 ar flotation decibels (A-weighting filter that simulates the subjective response of the human ear) dissolved oxygen dry weatherflow concentration of toxin required to cause a specified effect on 50% test organisms Environmental Protection Agency food to micro-organism ratio fats.x TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER ABBREVIATIONS [.

e. PHB Pascal population equivalent polyhydroxyl butyrates parts per million return activated sludge ppm RAS RBC s SCFA S.I.ABBREVIATIONS xi Pa p. SSA SS SSVI SVI TOC TSS UWWT WAS rotatingbiological contactors second short chain fatty acids statutory instrument specific surface area suspended solids specific sludge volumeindex sludgevolume index total organic carbon total suspended solids urban wastewater treatment waste activated sludge .


1 TREATMENT Section 60 • • • collecting systems. of the Environmental Protection 1992 permits the Agency to specify Act. which has set the following limits: • improvemaintenance practices. • create an awareness of the extent and uses of theequipment provided.5 mg/i are not exceeded.I. The limits can apply to one or both parameters.1 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER 1 1. 1992 (Urban Waste Water Treatment) Regulations. It is essential to ensure that the characteristics of waste water entering a treatment plant do not affect the performance of the plant. Note that safety procedures (acceptable to the Health and Safety Authority) must be adopted in operating urban waste water treatment plants and nothing in this manual should be construed as adviceto the contrary. which in the opinion of the Agency are reasonable and desirable for the purposes of environmental This manual is prepared in protection. 1994 (S. • ensurethat assetsprovidedare maintained.000 and 100. 1994 to transpose into Irish law EU Directive 91/271/EEC. 20 mg/l BOD and 30 mg/i SS) which was set by the UK Royal Commission on Sewage Disposal in 1912. secondary urban waste water treatment plants were designed to a 20/30 standard (i. 25mg/i 125mg/i 35mg/i The Regulations allow for a limited number of samples to fail providedthat in the case of BOD. which interalia encourages industry to reducethe load entering the sewer system. Agency and publish criteria and procedures. . TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER OF WASTEWATER 1. The purposeofthis manualis to: ensure that waste water treatment plants are operatedto the highest possiblestandards. 250 mg/i 02 and 87.e. these provide a framework for action to deal with the pollution threat from urban waste water. Discharges of industrial wastewater io sewersare licensed under Section 16 of the Local Government (Water Pollution Acts) 1977 and 1990 or Section 85 of the Environmental Protection Agency Act. • provide operators with essential process theory.2 LEGISLATION The EnvironmentalProtectionAgency Act. in respect of waste water treatment and should be read in conjunction with the manual prepared on preliminary treatment. COD and SS respectively. This standard has now been superseded and the current quality requirements of secondary treatment plant outflows are outlined in the Urban Waste Water Treatment (UWWT) Regulations. COD SS BOD • developmanagement skills. This also places a responsibility on sanitary authorities to operate treatment plantsefficiently. provide operators with a knowledge of treatment standards. 1. treatment plants and monitoring ofdischarges. • educate operators and equip them with the essentialskills. 1992. 419 of 1994) were enacted on 14 December. Traditionally.000. Larger agglomerations must comply with standards of 1 mg/i P and 10 mg/i N. and For discharges to sensitivewaters the Regulations prescribe annual mean limits for total phosphorus (2 mg/i P) and total nitrogen (15 mg/i N) where the agglomeration population equivalent is between 10. accordance with the foregoing. the limits of 50 mg/i 02. Specific requirements apply in relationto: It is important that the costs incurred by sanitary authorities in treating industrial waste water are recouped under the "Polluter Pays" principle.

Nitrification/denitrification and biological phosphorus removal can be incorporated at this stage and will reduce nutrient concentrations in the outflow.3 OVERVIEW OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT Waste water treatment can involve physical. and implementing an effective maintenance programme.g.4 ROLE OF THE PLANT OPERATOR Individual sectionsof this manual outlinethe role of the plant operator in the management. rags and large solids are removed.1. preventative For additional advice on the operation and maintenance of plants. standards removal. and thus avoiding in fixed media or suspended growth reactors of waste waters takes place using activated sludge. reference should be made to: the manufacturers' and suppliers' manuals of operation.R. and the training programmes implemented by the Tipperary (N. These processes are described in greater detail in the preliminary treatment manual (EPA. Chemical treatment is used to improve the settling abilities of suspended solids prior to a solids removal stage or to adjust the properties or components of waste water prior to biological treatment (e.1995). rotating biological contactors. The The first stage of waste water treatment takes place in the preliminary treatment plant where material such as oils. grit. Primary settlement is sometimes used prior to biological treatment. meeting the standards for sensitive waters whereprescribed. A generalised layout of a waste water treatment plant is shown in Figure 1. Biological treatment The plant operator should manage the plant with the following objectives: where required. term is often used in reference to nutrient Sludge treatment can be a significant part of a waste water treatment plant and involves the stabilisation and/or thickening and dewatering of sludge prior to reuseor disposal. operating the waste water treatment plant efficiently. constructed wetlands or variantsof these processes. biofiltration.) training group. County Council/FAS Tertiary treatment refers to processes which are used to further reduceparametervalues belowthe . grease. Secondary settlement separates the sludge solids from the outflow of the biological stage. minimising energy consumption. set out in national regulations. 1. pH adjustment.2 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER 1. meeting the emission limits set in the UWWT Regulations for secondary treatment systems. fats. maintenance and operation of each process. chemical or biological processes or combinations of these processes depending on the required outflow standards. Radial or horizontal flow tanks are normally employed to reduce the velocity of flow of the waste water such that a proportion ofsuspended mattersettles out. reduction of heavy metals or nutrient adjustment). It may also be used for precipitating phosphorus in conjunction with biological phosphorus treatment. minimising odours nuisance complaints.

1 WASTEWATERTREATMENTPLANTOVERVIEW .1 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER 3 Collection network StormWaterReturn SludgeLiquors Return r Pretreatment works and stormwater overflow + Stormwater balancing/storage Primarysedimentation — — Biological treatment Process I RAS recycle • Secondary settlement or clarification *___ % J — Sludge treatment/storage r--+ Nutrient removal — — — — i 4 Sludgere-use/disposal Receiving water Sludge Wastewater Processes described in this manual FIGuRE1.


unfiltered and undecanted. dilution rate. this is a subset of suspended solids and represents that fraction of suspended solids that will settle in a given period. These characteristics and their sources are listed in Table 2. The COD test does not. which takes 5 days. toxic substances. colloidal suspended solids: The UWWT Regulations allow for the BOD5 test to be replaced by anotherparameter. Generally comprised of 70% organic and 30% inorganic solids and can be removed by physical or mechanical means. The method of measurement for the BOD5 test in the UWWTRegulations requires: settleable solids: • • that the sample is homogenised. They tend to refer to organic and inorganic solids that rapidly decay. nature of bacterialseed and presence ofanaerobic organisms.1. The test Formunicipal wastewater it is generallypossible The strength ofwaste water is normally measured using accurate analytical techniques. total organic carbon (TOC)or total oxygen demand(TOD) if a relationship can be established between BOD5 and the substitute parameter. The more common analyses used to characterise waste water entering and leaving a plant are: to establish a relationship between COD and BOD. however. Chemical oxygen demand (COD): The COD test uses the oxidising agent potassium dichromate (specified in the UWWTRegulations) Dissolvedsolids refers to that fraction of solids that passthrougha 0. .2 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 5 2. It is possible to assess the performance of a wastewater treatment plant by measuring the BOD5 of the inflow and the outflow. to oxidise organic matter in the sample. about 50% of solids present in urban waste water derive from the waste products of animal and vegetable life.2 PARAMETERS BY WHICH WASTE WATER IS MEASURED Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD): BOD is the amount of oxygen used by organisms while consuming organic matter in a waste water sample. nitrification. Once a correlation has been established. chemical and biological constituents.45 jimfilter paper. 2. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN WASTEWATER 2. Sometimes called the combustible fraction or volatile solids as these can be driven off by high temperature. gravel and silt. Include sand. these refer to solids that are not truly dissolved and yet do not settle readily. such as temperature of incubation. • • • • • • BOD5 COD TSS pH total phosphorus total nitrogen Total suspended solids (TSS): This is the sum of the organic and inorganic solids concentrations and can be subdivided into: suspended solids: which represent the solids that are in suspension in the water. organic solids: inorganic solids: these substances are inert and are not subject to decay. and that a nitrification inhibitoris added. differentiate betweenbiodegradable and non-biodegradable organic matter. is extensively used because it takes less time (about 3 hours)than other tests such as the BOD5.1 Urban waste water is characterised in terms of its physical. Many factors can influence this test. the COD test can be a very useful indicatorfor theoperation and controlof the plant.

chlorides Heavy metals Nitrogen pH Phosphorus Gases Hydrogen sulphides. If the pH ofthe waste water is outside the range 5-10. Metcalf&Eddy. and colonmetric determination orthophosphate. surface-water infiltration pH: This is theconcentration of hydrogen ions in solution and indicates the level of acidity or alkalinity ofan aqueous solution.1 PHYSICALAND CHEMICALCHARACTERISTICS OF WASTE WATER AND THEIR SOURCES (Mod. 5 6 7 8 9 pH FIGURE 2. fats.methane Oxygen Domestic waste water. natural decay of organic materials Decomposing waste water. surfactants. inflow/infiltration Domestic and industrial wastewater - Physical properties Odour Solids Temperature Chemical constituents Organic: Carbohydrates. commercial and industrial waste water Domestic. domestic water supply.1 illustrates the effect of pH on bacterialgrowth. there may be considerable interference with biological processes.namely: orthophosphate: polyphosphates: dissolved inorganic phosphate (P043) complexcompounds generally derived from detergents dissolved and suspended organically boundphosphate: organic phosphates Totalphosphorus analysis requirestwo steps: conversion of and polyphosphates bound to dissolved organically phosphorus orthophosphate. industrial waste water Domestic water supply. soil erosion. volatile organics Pesticides Phenols Domestic. 1991) CHARACTERISTIC Colour SOURCES Domestic and industrial wastewater. commercialand industrial wastewater Agricultural wastewater Industrial waste water Natural decay of organic materials Other Inorganic: Alkalinity. Total phosphorus: This parameter is normally divided into threefractions. Figure 2. groundwater infiltration Industrial waste water Domestic and agricultural wastewater Domestic. domestic and industrial wastewater. proteins. commercial and industrial waste water natural runoff Decomposition of urban wastewater Domestic water supply.6 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER TABLE 2.1 GROWTH RATE OF MICROORGANISMS AS A FUNCTIONOF pH of the dissolved . oils and grease.

volume 1.EPA. This programme is designed to measure the performance and proficiency of each participating laboratory on a regular basis by objectively reviewing the analytical results produced. The third schedule of the UWWT Regulations specifies a total phosphorus limit for discharges to sensitive water bodies. This is normally require a balanced diet. the Agency has established a laboratory intercalibration programme. To monitor the BOD:N:P ratio the BOD.) In instances where phosphorus is a growth limiting nutrient the discharge of waste water containing phosphorusmay stimulate the growth of vegetation in the water body. achieved by niaintaining the level of BOD:N:P in the waste water at about the ratio 100:5:1.3 LABORATORY ACCREDITATION It analyses be certifiedby a third party accreditation scheme such as that administered by the National Accreditation Board. 2. 1992.4 PLANT LOADING of the inflow and composition of waste water is ofcritical importance to the design Measurement . Duplicate analyses are also undertaken by the participating laboratories to estimate the precision oftheresults withineach laboratory. BOD(C) : Nitrogen(N) : Phosphorus(P) ratio: In order to operatesatisfactorily. micro-organisms a step towards formal accreditation. This parameter is a growth limiting nutrient in marine environments and a limit is specified in the UWWT Regulations for discharges to sensitive water bodies.9% 100% 4 800 mg/I 1000mg/i Dissolved solids Non-settleable solids (colloidal) 4 70mg/I 200 mg/i 130 mg/I FIGURE2.2 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 7 Water 99. Domestic sewage is not normally deficient in these elementsbut industrial effluents maybe and this can lead to a nutrient deficiency in the inflow to a plant. total nitrogen and total phosphorus analytical resultsare used. 2. is desirable that laboratories undertaking Total Nitrogen: This refers to the sum of measurements of total oxidised nitrogen (nitrate and nitrite) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (ammonia and organic nitrogen). As Appendix A provides examples of forms which operators are encouraged to use in order to standardise analyses and reporting. Identical samples are sent to participating laboratories and the results compared to each other.S.2 TYPICAL COMPOSITIONOF URBANWASTEWATER (U.

1 HYDRAULIC LOADING The flow entering an urban waste water treatment plant includes: domestic waste water. industrial waste water discharges: data can be obtained from discharge licences issued in accordance with the Local Government (Water Pollution) Acts 1977 and 1990 or the IPC licence issued under the EPA Act. 2. it is common to design the plant for a maximum 3 times Dry Weather Flow (DWF).4. and may wellbe desirable up to at least 5. For large scale treatment plants.e.000p.3 illustrates diurnalflow variation. season. an example of Appendix B contains a summary table of the characteristics of some common industrial discharges. Alternatively. day to day. 1992. 2.2 ORGANIC LOADING the waste water treatment plant will be determinedby the volume and strength of the industrial waste water in addition to the population served.e. The flow entering a plant can vary from hour to hour.000p.4.3 DIURNAL ANDSEASONAL FLOW VARIATIONS . the scale of plant and the cost implications of a higher design coefficient are less significant and the figure is normally taken as 4 to 6 times DWF depending on whether the sewerage system is combined or partially separate.8 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER and operation of both the collection system and thetreatment plant. This approach is generally followed for treatment plants up to 2. an industry's metered water consumption figurescan be used: infiltration: surface water and storm water (except in separate systems). The organic loading entering 120 100 80 60 40 nteter I 20 0 00:00 I 02:00 I I (1)4:00 I I 06:00 I I 08:00 I I I 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 Hours TO A TREATMENTPLANT FIGURE 2. On smaller plants. week to week and season to Figure 2.

and 3 . S. The Regulations prescribe that the population equivalent of a plant (organic load) is to be "calculated on the basis of the maximum average weekly load entering the treatment plant during the year.100 100 • are regularly calibrated and maintained to manufacturers' specifications. Pb. K.4.2 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 9 The UWWT Regulations define one population equivalent (p. Hg.3 RETURN SLUDGE LIQUORS Where sludge dewatering processes are used. the separated water or liquor from the process is generally returned to the main treatment stream. Ag. Concentration mg/I BOD COD solids Suspended 100-300 250 . Similarly. sludge return and excess sludge.5-1. . It is important that process instruments such as suspended solids and dissolved oxygenmetersare: Typical values of the principal constituents of urban wastewater are given in Table2.fats and grease Total inorganic constituents (Na. Instruments should be capable of detecting concentrations from 30 mg/i to several -percent solids. Cr. Flow proportional sampling should be used in orderto account for diurnal variations in flow and wastewater strength. excluding unusual situations such as thosedue to heavyrain". <1mg/i each The daily organic load to a plant may be calculated usingthe following formula: EQUATION2. Ca. Mg.2 TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF URBANWASTEWATER Parameter . high concentrations of heavy metals can accumulate in sludge liquors as can large concentrations of phosphorus (where biological P removal is practised). thedifficultyof choosinga locationto obtain a representative sample.e. Si.1 Organic load Optical instrumentation exists for monitoring the suspended solids in the inflow and outflow as well as the more concentrated flows such as mixed liquor.2 TABLE 2.daily flow inm3/day and BODconcentration in mg/I.0% of the average incoming flow and can contribute BOD concentrations of 200-5000 mg/i to the process stream. The COD test results should always be used in addition to the BOD5test results. Ni. located in areas whererepresentative samples can be obtained. Large concentrations of ammonia (3002000 mg/I) may be present in return liquors and these can prove toxic to biological treatment units. The COD test in particular is a fast and reliable method of establishing the organic load contributed from an industrial premises.350 Total nitrogen(as N) Ammonia (NH3 as N) Organic phosphorus(as P) Inorganic phosphorus (as P) 20 . This can amount to 0. process instrumentation is now available that will assist the operator in the control of the waste water treatment plant. Zn) 50 .10 Oils. Industrial and domestic loads may be seasonal and hence it is important that the organic load entering the plant is accurately measured.30 1 -2 • • • appropriate for the intended application.800 100. 2. Cl. Note: Organic loadis expressed in kg/day.85 10 . 2. Cu.) as the load resulting from 60g of BOD5. The prudent management of return liquors should ensure that theydo not harm the biological treatment process and that they are adequately diluted or pretreated ifdetrimental effectsare expected. Commonproblems encountered with these probes include: = Daily flow x BOD 1000 • • solidsbuild-up on optical surfaces. Fe) Heavy metals (Cd.5 INSTRUMENTATION With improvements in technology.

Accuracy expresses how close a probe reading is to the true value of theparameter being measured. Suspended and dissolved solids and some gases such as chlorine. For optimum performance. radio based systemsshould be considered. and .g.6 TELEMETRY ameasurement instrument for the variable(s). chemical parameters (e. The systemcan be designedto meet requirements unique to a plant. pressure. a control loop. sludge growth rate).8 The INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS level of instrumentation and computer control required at a waste water treatment plant will essentially depend on: the size and complexity ofthe plant.g.7 SCADA SYSTEMS There are a number of variables that can be measured and controlled on a waste water treatment plant. Telemetryis the remote interrogation of a process plant for the control of equipment and the monitoring of parameters. the qualifications of personnel available (including instrumentation people). SCADA systems typically monitorand control all streams through the plant and archivethe data received.model and serial number. In remotesituationswhere telephone links are not practical. the date ofinstallation. Processcontrol systems like 'Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition' (SCADA) monitor these variables and implement actions in response. DO). the a type. The following basic information should be retained at the plant for each instrument being used: a the manufacturer. and • the maintenance and calibration manual. Dissolved oxygen (DO) meters are used to monitor levels of oxygen available in the aeration tankto sustainbiological activity. a computer display. servicing and maintenance. hydrogen sulphide. carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide can interfere with the measurement of dissolved oxygen. thehours ofmannedoperation. and a controller. the number of operators required and their skills. probes should be regularlycleaned. leasedtelephone lines. Such systems (or combination of systems) are highly practical for short duration transmissions such as calling out personnel after a specified incident has occurred. turbidity. a signal transmitting device.g. • stray light causingerroneous results. of data • • private telephone lines.10 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER • the need to take a sample at the probe for calibration purposes. consideration should be given to its use. 2. Telemetry links are important as incidents arising at small treatment plants may have severe repercussions if not corrected quickly. pH. 2. The systems typically include: The accuracy of a probe should be obtained from themanufacturer's literature. and air bubbles in the sample. temperature). Techniques available for the transmission include: 2. VHFradio. and thecostsinvolved. Theseinclude: physical parameters (e. Examples include the breakdown of aeration equipmentor the escape of sludges over secondary settlement tank weirs. For small treatment plants where the cost of continuous human presence for control and monitoring purposes would be excessive. flow. and biological parameters (e. any process data neededfor problemsolving. modems via standard telecommunication line.

If automatic controls are selected. automatic or computer control. the accuracy needed. the operating range. The economics of instrumentation and controls should be compared with the savings achievedby plantautomation. the response time of process variables and the frequency of operator input. decisions shouldbe madeconcerning the numberofcontrol elements and loops. .2 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 11 the type of control: manual. supervisory.


these single-celled organisms directly break down the polluting matter in waste waters. are used to break down the substrate (food)into a form whichcan be more readilyused by the bacteria for the maintenance and propagation of life. . stalked ciliates and rotifers. Therefore. These bacteria tend to be slower growing than the heterotrophs.1 WASTE WATER FLORAAND FAUNA The biology of waste water treatment is based on the consumption of organic matter by micro- organisms which include bacteria. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF WASTE WATERS 3. (i) Organic matter+ 02 bacteria+ enzyme CO2 + H2O + Energy (ii) Organicmatter+ P + NH3 + 02 + Energy bacter. Nitrateis reduced to nitrogen gas during these denitrification reactions and the gas bubbles away to atmosphere. fats and proteins. Anaerobic processesare most commonly used for thepretreatment ofhigh strength industrial wastes and for the digestion of sludges. These animals requiretime to become established in a treatment facility and will appear and predominate in the order of flagellates. Nitrifying bacteria oxidise ammonia Higher life forms in the waste water treatment food chain include protozoa and rotifers. + 1NH4+5 Nitrosomonas 2 2N02 + 2H2O + 4H + Energy > 2NO3 + Energy 2NO2 + 02 Nttrobarter Under anoxic conditions. for example in long sewers or in sludge storage tanks. An operator's job is to regulate these micro-organisms so that they perform in an efficient and economic way. Heterotrophic bacteria break down organic material like carbohydrates. Foul odours are associated with generally septic conditions. many heterotrophic bacteria have the ability in the absence of dissolved molecular oxygen to utilise the oxygen contained in nitratemolecules. in urban waste water treatment plants. Anaerobic bacteria operate in the absence of oxygen. their doubling time can be measured in hours (and sometimes minutes). are most often encountered under septic conditions where oxygen is not available or has become depleted. The two basic reactions for carbonaceous oxidation can be represented as follows: (which is either present in the waste water or is produced from the breakdown of proteins and other nitrogen rich organic compounds) to nitrite and nitrate under aerobic conditions. New cell material enzyme Autotrophic bacteriaderive their cell carbonfrom CO2 and use a non-organic source of energy for growth. Bacteriacan be sub-divided into differentgroups but in all cases their metabolism is based on the mechanism illustrated in Figure 3. algae and protozoa. these are characterised by the BOD and CODof a waste water. oxygen is required in breaking down the substrate. a knowledge of their metabolism is necessary in orderto controlthe process effectively. These are illustrated in Figure 3. These compounds are generally easily biodegradable and so the bacteria thrive and enjoy high growth rates. Anaerobic bacteria thrive in the absence of oxygen and. For aerobic bacteria.1. free swimming ciliates. Facultative micro-organisms have the abilityto operateaerobically or anaerobically. They are sensitive to environmental changes such as toxic shock loads. viruses. They consume any loose suspended material thus ensuringa clear outflow.3 BioioGicL TREATMENT 13 3.2. Their function is to prey on bacteriaand on larger solid particles that have not been consumed by bacteria. Enzymes. The relative quantity of these animals when viewed through a microscope is an excellent indicatorof the state ofhealth of a biological treatment system and in the hands ofan experienced operator can be as indicative as chemical analyses. Bacteria are lower life forms and occupy the bottom of the wastewater treatment food chain. both internal and external. Bacteria are the most populous of the microorganisms used in waste water treatment.

1 METABOLISMAND TRANSPORT (CRS Group. the bacterial population will increase at an exponential rate. theoretically. Many bacterial processes are continuous and operate.3 illustrates the inter-relationship between the . they interact. causing modifications to each other's population and activities. not to promote growth. Every effort should be made to control a process at the desired point in order to maintain the bacterial population in an unstressed condition. At time zero. snails and insects. the bacteria begin to absorb substrate. bacteria die off and other bacteriafeed on the dead cells. The substrate is consumed at high rates until it becomes limiting. the cycle will begin again.4. at a constant food loading rate at a particular point on the curve. 1978) Bacterialand protozoan populations do not exist in isolation. As the shortage of substrate becomes more critical. Figure 3. Although protozoa remove bacteriaby predation. it is in short supply.2 EXAMPLESOFPROTOZOAAND ROTIFERA Still higher in the food chain are nematodes and higher worms. 3. ifa bacterialmass is returnedto a food rich environment. k ciliates Rotifer Stalked Amoeba Flagellate Free swimming ciliate FIGuRE3.2 BACTERIAL GROWTH Under batch conditions bacterial growth can be predicted usingthe growth curve illustratedin Figure 3. As energy becomes available for reproduction.14 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER New cells - ftO jProductsof respiration Free particle organics MECHANISMS IN BACTERIALCELLS FIGURE 3. At this point. treatment of waste water occurs at a faster rate whenboth classesofmicro-organism are present.e. The metabolism of the bacteria then slows down to a conventional rate and will eventually become stationary. In this mode sufficient substrate exists only to maintain life. This process is called endogenous respiration or cryptic growth and results in a decrease in the massof bacteria. animals important to waste water treatment and their relative abundance. i.

4 BACTERIAL GROWFHCURVE . 1985) Lag phase Exponential Declining growth Endogenous respiration or log growth and stationary E I- Conventional aeration zone Extended aerationzone C Contact time FIGuRE3.3 RELATIVE PREDOMINANCE OF ORGANISMS USEDIN WASTEWATERTREATMENT (Wheatley.3 BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT 15 sects and worms 1 Higher life forms Lower life forms )trophlc bacteria. fungi uspended& dissolved Tganic matter Percolating filter process FIGURE 3.

For example. to a large extent. protozoa. A (6.16 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER 3. on the constituents of the waste water undergoing treatment. 1992. Table 3. Chronic toxicity occurs slowly (over days or weeks) and results in process failure due to a gradual accumulation of toxic material in the biomass.g.7150%=) 0. The composition of waste water entering the treatment plant should be monitored on a dailybasis. Many materials such as organic and inorganic solvents. grease and hair can affect the operation of mechanical plant. inorganic and organic substances. Temperature and pH can also.1 lists the inhibitory levels reported for some metals.3 INHIBITION itself but may eventually result in clogging of the filter media. The net effect of inhibition is an increase in the plant loading. Damage to protozoa in the activated sludge process can lead to a turbid outflow which maypersistfor days while damage to grazing micro-organisms in a percolating filter (e. Where significant levels of toxicity are suspected in an industrial discharge entering the sewer. The extent to which inhibition may cause a problem in waste water treatment plant depends. affect the biological activity in the plant. The dischargeof these materials from industrial activities shouldbe controlled underthe licensing provisions of the Local Government (Water Pollution) Acts. consideration should be given to the installation of pretreatment devices (such as screens. There are two forms chronic.134% solution would cause 1% inhibition. Toxic materials in the wastewater can selectively inhibit single species of micro-organism. Other materials such as oils. data on the respiration rate and microbial inhibition potential shouldbe obtained. rotifers) will take time to exhibit . A toxin with an EC50 (Effective Concentration which causes 50% toxicity) of 6. 1977 and 1990. Appendix C lists some of the toxic and non-toxic parameters that are commonly associated with various industrial sectors.7% means that a 6. of the waste water treatment plant is dependent upon the activity of microorganisms and their metabolism which can be dramatically affected by the presence of toxic material in the raw waste water. oil separators or dissolved air flotation) or monitoring equipment (in the case of temperature and pH) in order to control their dischargeto the foul sewer. This happens rapidly. heavymetals and biocides can inhibit the biological activity in the treatment The performance plant. thereby adding 1% to the effective BOD loadto the plant. and the Environmental ProtectionAgency Act. Industrial outflows and domestic waste waters may react with one another in the collection system and enhance or reduce the overalltoxicityin an unpredictable way. inhibition of one species of bacteria in the two species chain responsible for nitrification can lead to nitriterather than nitratebeing present in the outflow. The toxicity of industrial discharges to microorganisms is measured by respiration inhibition (a reduction in the 02 consumption rate) and its measurement should be considered where the treatment plant may be subject to shock loads of toxic material. fats.7% solution of the toxin in the waste water would cause 50% inhibition. individually or in combination. of toxicity: acute and Acute toxicity occurs when the level of toxic material in the waste water is high enough to inactivate the biological activity. Where significant levels of such materials are present in an industrial discharge.



• flocculent settling: 4. particles form a blanket which then settles and consolidates as a mass. Figure 4.2 PRIMARY SETTLEMENT TANKS settling particles join together increasing their density and settling ability. tanks are generally circularor Primary settlement rectangularin shape and are illustrated in Figure 4. it is common for all four types of settlement to occur in a settlement tank simultaneously. Theseare: FIGURE 4. Primary sludges are usually more dense (and more The unstable) than secondary sludges. PRIMARY TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER 4. shape and size remain constant during settlement.3 respectively. • discrete settling: this applies to sand and grit. BOD is reduced by 20-50% and the bacterial count by 25-75%.2 and Figure4. Conventional of particles is slow and is only made very the possible by weight of new particles pressing down on the sludge layer. This type of settlement is associated with primary settlement tanks. The pH is generallyunaffected by primary settlement. In addition. tank is from the settlement secondary supernatant clearer thanthat from the primary settlement tank. The manner in which solids settle out in a settlement tank is of vital importance to the operation of the waste water treatment plant. The settlement of solids is concentration dependent and in situations where high suspended solids are present. .1 PROCESS DESCRIPTION • compression settling: activated sludge units and filters are normally preceded by percolating treatment units commonly called primary sedimentation or settlement tanks or primary clarifiers. where the particles' physical properties such as specific gravity. 50-70% of suspended solids are removed in primarysettlement tanks. Theirpurposeis to reduce the velocity of the incoming waste water stream thereby allowing the settleable solids to fall to the bottomof the tank. There are four types of settlement which are dependent on the type of solids present in the liquid.1 illustrates the settling pattern that occurs when a uniform but concentrated suspension is placed in a graduated cylinder. Typically. both hindered and compression settling can occur in addition to discrete and flocculent settling. • hindered settling: this is associated with the settlement of activated where sludge.1 SErFLINGTHEORY In practice. €ompression Settlement tanks that follow biological treatment are called secondary settlement tanks or final clanfiersand these units separate solids that have beengenerated through biological activity. the main difference is the density of the sludge they handle.4 PRIMARY TREATMENT 19 4. Primary and secondary settlement tanksoperatein almostexactly the same way.

return liquors from other treatment stages (e. • design criteria being exceeded: the most important criteria being the retentiontime in the tank which is usually about 2 hours at maximum flow.e. sludge dewatering) which may contain suspended solids with varying settlement qualities. Extends above the watersurface and prevents floating material from reaching the outflow channel. Notwithstanding the above. Collectsthe outflow and carries it to the next treatment stage. Ensuresequal flow along the periphery of the outflow channel. The conventional system consists of a septic tank and a percolation area. FIGURE 4. methane gas) is economically viable because of the high level of substrate available as opposed to waste activated sludge where the substrate has already been substantially digested.2 CIRCULAR RADIAL FLOW SETTLEMENTTANK Scumbaffle The efficiency of the primary settlement tank is dependent on a numberof factors. Resource recovery (i.20 TREATMENT OFWASTE WATER Rotary sludge scraper Part Stilling box Outflow weir Outflow channel Rotary sludge scraper H Reduces the velocity and distributes flow radially through the tank. including: • the type of solids present inthe waste water: this will typically be influenced by the type and quantity of industrial waste entering the plant. primary sludge lends itself well to anaerobic digestion and resource recovery as well as to the production of well stabilised sludges. the overflow (surface loading) rate which is typically 28. Percolation areas are also known as seepage fields or beds. subsurface areas or soil absorption systems.g. • the length of time the waste water is in the collecting system: degradation of the waste water can generate gas bubbles (H2S) as a result of anaerobic conditions and this can affect the settlementof solids. removed regularly to prevent septicity which can cause floating sludge: and 4. Moves the sludge downthe floor slopeto the collection hopper. The collectedscum is directed by a surface skimmer to a scum box from whereit is typicallydischarged withthe excess sludge.3 SEPTIC TANKSAND IMHOFF TANKS The oldest type of primary treatment is the septic tank which has been often used to provide waste water treatment for single houses and small communities.8-36 m3/m2/day (at peak flow) and the weir overflow rate measured in m3/mlday. • sludge withdrawal: sludge should be .

ferric chloride. The compartments are partially separated from each other thus preventing digestion gases or digesting sludge particles in the lower section from entering/returning to the upper section. attracts non-settleable suspended solids and encourages settlement.4 shows a typical cross section of an Imhoff tank. lime and polymercan be added to the incoming waste water to produce a floc. Moves the sludge alongthe floor to collection hopper. Figure 4. which will form an insoluble compound that adsorbs colloidal matter. Waste water flows through the upper compartment and the settled solids are allowedto digest in the lower compartment. the removal of suspended solids significantly reduces the extent of clogging in the subsurface percolation area. Chemical treatment can be used to enhance settlement in the these tanks. Any gas or sOlids risingarerouted to thegas vent or scum outlet.4 IMHOFF TANK .hopper— A — HD Purpose __ J jnei direction I i Outflow flow Sludge scraper mechanism H Part Inlet baffle Outflow weir Outflow channel Sludge scraper Distributes the inflow evenly and prevents short-circuiting along the tank surface. Collects the outflow and carries it to the nexttreatmentstage.4 PRIMARYTREATMENT 21 Outflow weir Influent Inlet baffle Scum baffle Sludge outlet Sludge . aluminium sulphate (alum).3 RECTANGULARHORIZONTALFLOW SETTLEMENTTANK The main function of a septic tank is to act as a primary settlement tank removing some of the BOD and the majority of the suspended solids from the waste water. Scumbaffle Extends above the water surface and preventsfloating material from reaching the outflow channel. Chemicals such as drawoff Sludge FIGURE 4. FIGURE 4. The extra chamberof an Imhoff tank prevents the re-suspension ofsettledsolids and allows for their decomposition in the same unit. The collectedscum is directed by a surface skimmerto a scum box from whereit is typically discharged withthe excess sludge. Ensures equal flowalong the length ofthe outflow channel.

oil and grease.5 INCLINED SETTLEMENTSYSTEM Some drawbacks of tube and lamella settlers include: • a tendency to clog due to an accumulation of removed upstream. The increased surface area is provided by a series of inclined plates (lamellae) or tubes (which may be circular. square. Ettlertt air flotation (DAF) involves the dissOlution of air in waste water by pressurising it in a pressure vessel. This method is cheaper to purchase and operate and is generally available on a smaller scale for use in package plants. Dissolved A variation on the process called dispersed air flotation does not use expensive pressure vessels and pumps to entrain air in the waste water.5 DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATION the use of a smaller tank thereby saving capital costs. the sudden decreasein pressure causes the air to come out of solution as micro-bubbles which will attach themselves to solid particles in the waste water and make them float. DAF is not commonly applied for the routine separation of solids and liquids in urban waste water but is more frequently used on difficult wastes or for the pretreatment of effluents.6 DISSOLVEDAIR FLOTATION . Tube and lamella settlers are commonly used with package plants on a small scale in order to economise on space and costs. tube surfaces which may cause septicity and Tube and lamella settlement tanks should be frequently drained down and the plates or tubes cleaned to remove any accumulated material. They may be installed in circularsettlement tanks but are more frequently used in new rectangular units. Other applications have included the thickening of mixed liquor wasted directly from the activated sludge aeration basin. and • the accumulation of sludge on the plate or theoutflow quality to deteriorate. They are set at an angle greater than 40° so that settled sludge falls to the base ofthe tank from where it may be removed by conventional methods of desludging. for example. Due to a lack of storage capacity they may require more frequent desludging than other systems.22 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER 4.bo FIGURE 4. and an increased capacity in an overloaded tank by retrofitting.4 TUBE AND LAMELLASETTLERS Inclined surfacesin a settlement tank increase the effective surface area available for settlement and also increase efficiency by more closely approximating to ideal settlement theory. FIGURE4. mechanical devices such as rapidly rotating impellers incorporating air sparges provide small bubbles which will attach themselves to solid particles. fats and grease. hexagonal or other) occupying up to 70% of the tank depth and lying less than 30 cm beneath the water surface. DAF tanks can be circular or rectangular in shape. Instead. When the air saturated waste water is released to the flotation tank. Oprtoool nebooio. in the removal of fats. These materials should be growth of plants and biofilmson the plates or tubes. As in a gravity settlement tank. Typical tube size or diameter is 25-50mm. Providing an increased available surface area can result in: 4. The result is a floating mat of sludge on the surface which is skimmed off. drretronel belt thickened nlndge Lmdi ttk. the retention period must be long enough to allow for adequate separation of the solid and liquid fractions. Clarified waste water exits under a solids retention baffle.

tank.1) have remained thesame. To maintain the desired micro-biological mass in the aeration Aeration tank Q Secondary settlingtank Si Se SR Q = inflow. particles. yeast.mg/I FIGu15.1 PROCESS DESCRIPTION The activated sludge processwas developed in 1914 by Arden and Lockett. It was so called becauseit involved the produciion of an activated mass of micro-organisms capable of aerobically stabilising the organic content of a waste.m3/day S = waste activated sludge suspended solids. The basic unit of operation of the activated sludge process is the floe.mg/I SR = return activatedsludgesuspended solids. m3 V = secondarysettlement tankvolume. Waste water is introduced into an aerated tank of micro-organisms which are collectively referred to as activated sludge or mixed liquor. the basic units (Figure 5. mg/I Qw = waste activated sludge. m3 S = outflow suspended solids. sludge is returned to the aeration tank (RAS) while an excess due to biological growth is periodically or continuously wasted (WAS). Following a period of contact betweenthe wastewater and the activated sludge. which maintain the activated sludge in suspension. To operate the process on a continuous basis.1 ACTIVATEDSLUDGEPROCESS .5 ACTIVATEDSLUDGE 23 5. the floe must be separated in the secondary settlement tank and returned to the aeration tank. the outflow is separated from the sludge in a secondary settlement tank. mg/I = aeration tank volume. This mass is irregular in shape and helps to collect pollutants. and Worms). fungi. both organic and inorganic. Aeration is achieved by the use of submerged diffused or surface mechanical aeration or combinatidns thereof.m3/day S. mg/I MLSS = mixed liquor suspended solids in the aeration tank. m3/day QR = returnactivatedsludge. = inflowsuspended solids. The floe is suspended in the aeration tank and consists of millions of aerobic micro-organisms (bacteria. ACTIVATED SLUDGE (SUSPENDED GROWTH) PROCESSES 5. protozoa. absorption or entrapment. Though many configurations of this process now exist. The concentration at which the mixed liquor is maintained in the aeration tank affects the efficiency of treatment. coagulants and impurities that have come together and formed a mass. in the waste water by adsorption.

This is a crude method of Well developedflocs consist of filamentous and non-filamentous organisms with the latter being the dominant species as these are better floc formers. the remainder being carried over to the outflow (or to a tertiary treatment stage). The activated sludge process depends on the activity of these aerobic microorganisms and consequently. Microscopic examination will reveal very few flagellates and amoebae and a large number of free swimming ciliatesand some stalked ciliates. it is possible to estimate the balanced equation: C6H1206 + 6O — 6C02 exact oxygen requirement by writing down a + 6H20 To completely oxidise one glucose molecule. • The oxygenaddedmust: satisfy the inflow biological oxygen demand.including the hydraulic and organic loading rates.0. the amount of solids in the aerationtank.. the test does not distinguish between the organic and inorganic fraction of the solids. MLSS concentrations are measured and used by operators to monitorthe biomass levels present in the aeration tank. however. like MLSS. accurate control of oxygenin the aeration tank is vital. 5.1 THEORY The ensuring a suitable environment exists for the micro-organisms. and to the control and disposal of scum and supernatants. only well developed flocs settle out in the secondary settlement tank. and maintain a concentration of between I and 2 mg/I dissolved oxygen in the mixed liquor. the characteristics of the inflow . This fraction is called the mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) and. The organic fraction can be analysed by subsequently burning off the organic fraction of the filtered sample at 500 ± 50°C.3. • the volume of the aeration tanks and secondary settlement tanks required accommodate seasonal variations. the operator is required to react to several dynamic situations. theoretical oxygen requirement can be calculated by assuming that the biodegradable matter is converted to carbon dioxide. For day to day monitoring of the wastewater treatment plant the use ofMLSS is sufficient. However. A good mixed liquor will consist of light brown masses which tend to clump together and settle at a uniform rate. 6 molecules of oxygen are required. The convenience of the test. such theoretical calculations become . Too much or too little oxygenin the aeration tank is undesirable for different reasons.2 MIXEDLIQUOR SUSPENDED SOLIDS The solids present in the aeration tank of an activated sludge process are termed mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) while the liquid suspension is called mixed liquor. If the simple sugar glucose is the only compound in the waste water. • the amount of oxygen needed to satisfy the respiratory requirements of the organisms present.24 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER Although all flocs have a specific gravity of approximately 1. Too much oxygen adds unnecessary cost due to increased power consumption and too little can decrease the metabolism of the micro-organisms and the efficiency of the process. is expressed as mg/I. water and energy.3 OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS AND TRANSFER Oxygen (dissolved in the mixed liquor) is To achieve thedesired outflow quality objectives. 5. generally outweighs this disadvantage. 5. monitoring the micro-organisms present in the system. These situations have interrelated factorssomeofwhich are: required for respiration by the micro-organisms in the aeration tank. Different activated sludge processes operate at different MLSS values for different process objectives. In reality however. Hydraulic retention time is critical in the aeration tank as the waste water needs adequate contact time with the floc to be "consumed" by what ever means. The MLSS concentration is usually measured by filtering a small sample of mixed liquor through fibre glass filter paper.

• the type. Oxygen is supplied by three basic methods as illustrated in Figure 5. theoretically. ______ — air Combinedsurfacemixingand submerged diffuse aeration liii •: •'.5 ACTIVAtED SLUDGE 25 complex becauseof the diversity compounds found in wastewater.3. Theseunits are divided into threecategories: - • • porous or fine pore diffusers.sideview and end view oflaterals • Submergedair diffusion • mechanical agitation of the waste water promoting the entrapment of air from the atmosphere.3. then the oxygen demandfor the conversion of ammonia to nitrate must be taken into account. and • other devices such as jet aerators. .2 AERATIONDEVICES 5. aspirating aeratorsand u-tubes. of the chemical Mechanical surfaceaerator with (or without)drafttube If nitrification is required.2. • • 5. The transfer of oxygen depends on factorssuch as: V •0 0 •• :-. Diffusersare traditionally dividedinto coarse and fine bubble systems. .1 Diffusers Diffused air systems use diffusers which break up theair streaminto bubbles.2. 2NH4 + 302+ nitrifying bacteria— 2N02 + 4H+ 2H20 2N02 + 02 + nitrifying bacteria—* 2N0 : • I :. Surface mechanical aeration equipment with a vertical axis consists of different impeller types. .J 1\ 5.. and • combinations of mechanical and diffused systems.': . . the finer the bubble the greater is the oxygen mass transfer. • the depth of submergence. • non-porous diffusers. They are broadly classified into vertically or horizontally mounted equipment and into submerged or surface aeration equipment.4 . radial-axial or axial. : •- • submerged diffusion usingair blowers. The amount of oxygen supplied to the waste water and the power consumed by the aerator is dependent on the depth of submergence of the . and • thegeometry of the tank. mixers or rotating brushes to induce drafts (either upwards or downwards) or violent agitation to achieve oxygen transfer.• . •. : . • • ________________________________________ FIGURE 5.3.. • the air flowrate.2 TYPES OF EQUIPMENT Most aeration equipment is of proprietary manufacture and is constantly being upgraded and refined.2: . size and shape ofthediffuser.2 Mechanical aeration to the waste water Mechanical aeratorsuse paddle wheels. namely centrifugal.-.

The a-value is used to compensate between the measured and actual values of KLawith regard to surface tension.3 shows.26 TREATMENT OFWASTE WATER aerator.mm characteristics of the water. The solubility of oxygen in water is temperature dependent. kgO2/kWh Oxygen Fine bubblediffusers Coarsebubblediffusers Vertical shaft aerators Horizontal shaft aerators The oxygen transfercoefficient following factors: temperature: 2. expressed as kgO2IkWh. the outlet weir may be adjusted either manually or automatically (in response to a signal from a dissolved oxygen probe).5 0. therefore the aerator should be checked to ensure that the depth of immersion does not exceedthe required oxygentransfercapacity.3.3 COMPARISON OFAERATION EFFICIENCYAND DEPTHOFIMMERSIONOF AERATORS (Rachwal& Waller. T-2O KLa(T) — TT L'La(2O0C)t where 0 is a temperature correction factor typically taken as 1. Aeration is started and the rate of oxygenation of the liquid is measured Residual dissolved oxygen is removed . Power consumption typically increases with the depth of immersion of the aerator.1 TYPICAL PERFORMANCEDATA FOR SELECTEDAERATIONDEVICES To alter the liquid surface level.1.024 for aeration devices and T is the temperature at which the test is carried out. In the example. by recording the DO at regular intervals. and Aerator immersion.2 up to 2. These are the and a 13-values.0 .0 is affected by the <ontal - aerator mixing intensity. a point will be reachedwhere the oxygentransferwill not always increase in tandem with an increase in power. Aeration equipment is a significant energy user. The oxygen transfer rate of selected aeration systems is presentedin Table5.8. operation at low speed should be exercised whenever possible in order to save energycosts. tank geometry and mixing intensity.3 TRANSFER EFFICIENCY Aeration equipment is compared by theamount of transferred oxygen per unit of air introduced to the waste water under standard operating conditions (temperature. To determine the oxygen transferefficiency of an aerator in clean water the following procedure is used. This is controlled by raising or lowering theaeratoror the liquid surface level. tankgeometry.1 FIGuiu5. However. 5. Mass transfercoefficients are usually measured in clean water whichdoes not have the same surface tension as wastewater. TABLE 5. so: EQUATION5. 1982) Many treatment plants nowadays have two speed mechanical aerators or variable speed motor control.1. The oxygen transfer coefficient (KLa) may then be determined. Vertical aerato Aeration Device TransferRate. At such plants. Two coefficients are used to compensate for the difference between measured and actual values. as Figure 5.2. chemical matrix and depth of immersion). from the liquid by adding sodium sulphiteand a catalyst (cobaltchloride).0 up to 2. after two thirds immersion no appreciable increase in oxygen transfer occurred but the power consumption increased by a further 30%.

BODe) . The difference accounts for BOD removej in primary settlement.0.83 Q [(Amm.75) becomes 1. • that dissolved oxygenconcentrations of 1 to 2 at average A typical design equation to determine the total oxygen demandin an activated sludge system is as follows: 5.98 with a valueof 0. When treating crude unsettled sewage. = inflowammoniacal nitrogen (mg/I) Amen.3Q(Ammi-Amme) nitrification oxygen demand To predict the oxygen transfer rates for mechanical surface aerators based on field measurements the following relationship is used: EQUATION5. mg/I C520 = = oxygen saturation concentration waterat 20°C. typically 1. the anoxic zone term is not included. These values are related to the design of the tank used during the test procedure.2 respectively.7 to 0. .3. 5.Nel oxygen derived from denitrifiation in ananoxiczone OD= mass ofoxygen required(g/h) OTRf = where: C520 SOTR[CS C 0T-20.5 ACTIVATEDSLUDGE 27 EQUATION 5. the first term (0.4-0.5 mgfl are maintained and peakloads respectively.024 For diffused aeration systems the C value is The aeration device must be capable of maintaining the activatedsludge in suspension in the aeration tank.Amm). The presence of salts. = outflow ammoniacal nitrogen(mg/I) N5 = outflow nitratenitrogen (mg/I) OTR SOTR = = = = transfer rate under field conditions in a respiring operating actual oxygen system. 3-values are used to account for the differences in the solubility of oxygen due to constituents in the waste water. MLSS endogenous oxygen demand +4.a ) BOD= inflowBOD(mg/I) BOD. - cz= KLa(wastewater) K (tapwater) . Values may vary from 0. corrected to account for oxygen saturation . = outflow BOD(mg/I) Amm.95 being commonly used.4 PRACTICAL APPLICATION Operating rules of thumb are: Typical a-values for diffused and surface aerators are in the range of 0.8 and 0.2. kgO2/kWh standard oxygen transfer rate In a non-nitrifying plant. C for tap waterat field operating conditions. The factor is computed as: EQUATION5. the motor and shaft efficiencies and other losses must be taken into account.6-1. The value of N5 depends on the recycle ratio of nitrified effluent.5 EQUATION _____ ____ OD = 0.2 concentrations higher than those measured at atmospheric pressure.4 where: . mg/I oxygen saturation concentration operating oxygen concentration in waste for tap water. • total demand +2VA. In calculating the aeration or mixing power requirements of a system. particulates and detergents may affect the oxygen transfer rate. and mg/l and 0. kgO2/kWh under test conditions at 20°C and zero dissolved oxygen. This can lead to discrepancies when applied to other'tank shapes.3 • that the aeration equipment is capable of supplying twice the average oxygen demand.75 Q (BOD . The power required for complete mixing varies from 10 to 30 W/m3 depending on the tank volume and on the hydraulic pumping efficiency of the aeration equipment. carbonaceous oxygendemand - C20(waste water) __________________ C520(tapwater) where C20 is the saturation concentration of oxygen at 20°C.mg/I 0 temperature correction factor.

Values as low as 50 ml/g indicatea very good settling sludge and For routine monitoring of sludge settleability. of The purpose a secondary settlement tank is to: MISS 1518) mg/i 6 • remove suspended solids. however. bases the design of the settlementtank on the solids loading rate.4 shows how the settling velocity is related to varying concentrations of mixed liquor.! '1 I / I I ___________ drawoff rate and solids flux.4 CLARIFICATION OF MIXED LIQUOR valuesgreaterthan 120 ml/g indicate poor settling characteristics. TIMEAND INITIALMLSS CONCENTRATION FOR GOOD SETTLINGMIXED LIQUORS (IWPC. there are disadvantages to the test.8 m3/m2/day.4 SETTLING VELOCITYV. The volume of settled sludge (in 1 litre) is read after this period and the SVI is computed usingthe following formula: EQUATION5. Successin meeting the outflow quality objectives of the treatment system depends on the While settleability of the mixed liquor. A sludge which settles well has a value of 80 mug or less. Design overflow rates are lower in a secondary settlement tank than in a primary settlement tank. Solids (or sludge) mass flux.5 SLUDGESE1TLEABILITY The sludgevolume index (SVI) is used to assess the settling qualities of sludges. the settleability of the sludge (SSVI) and the return sludge flowrate. Overflow rates are typically 21-28. Activated Sludge. 1987) where SVI (mllg) is the volume in millilitres occupied by lg of settled sludge and MLSS is expressed in mg/I. The diagrams show how the settling velocity varies with MLSS concentration and that the maximum settling velocity decreases as the MLSS concentration increases.28 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER 5. weir placement and shape. Adequate retention time must be allowed in the settlement tank to allow good separation of the mixed liquor.6 E j4 0 0 2000 4000 6000 MLSS. sludge settleability and LS220(I mg/I 4 I. Figure 5. The SVI test is carried . MLSS. 10 - / I I \ss 3 4 5 6 7 8 35181 _______________________ m 2 9 10 Ii 12 13 14 Time mins) 18 U > U 5.mg/I SVI Volume of settled sludge (mI/I) x 1000 MLSS (mg/I) FIGURE 5. and • returnsettledsludge to the aerationtank. settlement of solids is prevented from occurring in the aeration tank by the action of the aeration equipment. The SVI is measured by filling an Imhoff cone (or 1 litre graduated cylinder) with mixed liquor from the aeration tank and allowing the mixture to settle for 30 minutes. Other design parameters to be considered include tank depth. the SVI test is adequate. expressed as kg/m2h. the secondary settlement tank is designedto promotesettlement.

5.5 ACTIVATEDSLUD(]E 29 out underquiescent conditions and therefore does not mirror the hydraulic conditions in the settlement tank where there is always some degree of turbulence and flocculation. • • the level ofthe sludge blanket. The control strategies are based on either maintaining a target MLSS concentration in the aeration tank or a target sludge blanket level in the secondary settlement tank. sludge production variations and changes in the settling characteristics of the sludge. To overcome these problems the stirred specific volume index (SSVI). To successfully use this control the operatorwill haveto be awareofthe variations in diurnal flow. The visibility depth is a useful guide in assessing the performance of a secondary settlement tank. and • maintaining a solids balance across the • maintaining a solids balance across the secondary settlement tank. Many process problems are caused by secondary settlement tanks not performing efficiently. The ability to respond . should be used. The test gives a better simulation of the settling pattern in the settlement tank due to reduced walleffectsat high MLSS. traditionally used in design studies. resulting in interference in the rate of settlement. Settlement is measured in a special settling column where wall effects are reducedby a stirrer rotating at one revolution per minute. Depending on the density of a settled sludge (which is indicated by the SVI or SSVI).of the sludge solids. Other problems with the test include denitrification of the sludge and flotation of the sludge solids. in m3/day. The RAS flow rate (QR). to changes in inflow loading rates by adjusting RAS flowratesis vital to good plant performance. - Using the sludgesettleability test. • the concentration of suspended solids. Theseinstruments measure: Ifthesludge blanketlevel is used as a control. aeration tank. All RAS flowrates should be adjustable either manually or by using inverter driveson variablespeed pumps.7 R = Settled sludgevolume(ml/ I) xQ(m3 / day) l000ml I—Settledsludgevolume(ml/1) / A solids balance across the aeration tank may be used to determine the sludge return rate: EQUATION5. wall effects may occur in the measuring cylinder. At MLSS concentrations in excess of 2500 mg/I. The sludge returned contains micro-organisms that have the ability to feed on organic matter in the wastewater. It measures the turbidity of the liquid by dipping a graduated disc to a depth at which it is no longervisible.8 Solids entering = Solidsleaving the aeration tank theaeration tank If settled sludge is not returned quickly to the aerationtank or if it becomes septic. • the turbidity ofthesupernatant. The mixed liquor is maintained at a constant temperature. the return flow rate is based on the sludge volume index (SVI).the treatment efficiency will be affected.6 RETURN ACTIVATED SLUDGE(RAS) The purpose of RAS is to maintain an adequate numberof micro-organisms in the aeration tank to deal with the load (food) entering the plant. the returnactivated sludge flowrate. • the sludgesettleability test. Many techniques are employed to determine the return sludge rate. may be calculated from the following equation: EQUATION5. The more common controltechniques are: • observation ofthe sludge blanketheight. the operatorwill be required to adjustthe RAS rate to maintain a targetlevel in the secondary settlement tank. the volume of return activated sludge will needto be altered in order to maintain the desired mass of sludge solids in the aeration tank. and • theconcentration ofdissolved oxygen. RAS flow rates are 50 to 100% of the waste water flow rate (DWF) for large plants and up to 150% of DWF for smallerplants. Having up to 150% of DWF in RAS pumping capacity will improve the flexibility of a plant in responding to varying operating conditions. Typically. Instrumentation has been developed to monitor their performance.

the biological population and the oxygen input. this equation can be rearranged to determine the RAS flow rate (QR) in m3/day: EQUATION 5. - SR MLSS. Typically. S1.10 5. referring to Figure 5. Excess activated sludge generated The F/M ratio is an important control parameter as the quantity of biomass present will influence the removal efficiency. Since the operator has no direct control over what is received at the plant.1': Q . two different activated sludge processes can havethe same process efficiency by operating at the same FIM ratio. is small in relation to SR and can therefore be neglected. this equation can be rearranged to determine the RAS flow rate (QR) S F/M= kgBOD/day kgMLSS where: kgBOD / day = BOD(mg/1)xQ 1000 in m3/day: EQUATION5. In other words: EQUATION 5. Concentrated sludge is generally removed from the secondary settlement tank or from the return sludge line. EQUATION 5. Mixed liquor can also be extracted directly from the aeration tank. referringto Figure5.12: EQUATION5. S.12 The solids loading Solids entering thesecondary settlementtank Solids leaving thesecondary settlement tank or.30 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER or.9 SOLIDS LOADING RATE (F/M RATIO) rate or the food to microratio is defined as the ratio between the organism mass of food entering the treatment plant and the massof micro-organisms in the aeration tank.7 WASTEACTIVATED SLUDGE (WAS) as a result of from the has to be removed biological activity system to maintain the desired MLSS in the aeration tank. The F/M ratio relates to the biological state of the plant and is independent of the size of the aeration tank.SR+ Qw Sw + (Q . 1AS and WAS pumps are located in the same chamber.1: MLSS (Q + QR) = QR . is small in relation to SR and and can therefore be neglected. SR = MLSS (Q + QR) Assumingthat the inflow suspended solids term.Qw) S Assuming that the effluentsuspended solids term.9 QR — 5. Hence.8 PROCESS CONTROL IN THE ACTIVATED SLUDGESYSTEM The activatedsludge systemis controlled by the removal of WAS.13 kgMLSS = kgBOD/day F/M Aeraonrnnk _______________ FrJ::J : tIiog rnnk Seondr If the actual mass of MLSS is less than the desired mass of MLSS then the concentration of MLSS must be allowed to increase by reducing . the most critical parameter here is the maintenance of the microbiological population. If the operatoris aware of the load entering the plant he can ensure that sufficient biomass (micro-organisms) is present in the aeration tankto react with the load. the optimum or desired mass of MLSS may be calculated by re-arranging Equation 5.11 QR = and kgMLSS= MLSSVA 1000 MLSS. Si + QR.Sw SR — MLSS 5. This is necessary to maintain the critical balance between the inflow (food supply). Control over the microbiological population is achievedby: maintaining a constant Food to Microorganisms ratio (FIM): or maintaining a constantsludge age.Q — MLSS A solids balance across the secondary settlement tank may also be used to determine the sludge returnrate. Where the optimum FIM ratio has been determined.Q-Qw.

3. is in mgIl and Qw is in m3/day.17 5. Table5.5 ACTIVATEDSLUDGE 31 the amount of sludge wasted from the system. i. Table A plantoperating at the high end of the F/M ratio spectrum is characterised by a low concentration of MLSS and a low sludge age. Waste 5. It is calculated from the quantity of active solids in the system divided by the daily loss ofactive solids from the system: Sludge age EQUATION5. the sludge wasting rate and the mass of suspended solids in the system. otherwise the qualityof the outflow will be affected.4. Sufficient time must be allowed for the microorganisms in the system to react with the waste water.2 sets out a comparison of FIM ratio and sludge age. If the actual mass of MLSS is greater than the desired mass of MLSS then a proportion of the mixed liquor must be wasted from the system.e. the amount of sludge which .16 Sludge age= 5. Between these two extremes a satisfactory operating FIM and sludge age should be chosen. The wastage rate may be calculated from the following mass balance: EQUATION 5. including suspended solids discharged with the outflow. the volume of final settlement.12 ADVANTAGES OFHIGH ANDLOW F/M RATIOS ( w 5w+ MLSS(VA+Vc) (Q_QW)Se J The concentration of suspended solids in the outflow is normally small compared to the concentration in the WAS and so the term (QQw)Secan be ignored.10 SLUDGEAGE is defined as the total mass of sludge contained in the aeration tank divided by the total mass ofsludgewasted daily. However. EQUATION5.11 COMPARISON BETWEEN F/M Actual kgMLSS — Desired = mass of sludge kgMLSS solids to be wasted. Both methods rely on regulating the rate of growth and metabolism of the microbial population. 5. Sludge age and mean cell residence time are taken to mean the same and relate to the length of time the bacterial celllfloc remainsin the activatedsludge system.14 needs to be wasted on a daily basis in order to maintain this can be quantified using the formula: EQUATION 5. A plant operating at the low end of the F/M ratio spectrum is characterised by a high concentration of MLSS and a high sludge age. The plant operating manual should be consulted to determine the initial operating conditions but this may need to be adjusted in time to cater for (MLss(vA+VC) Sludgeage=I w5w ] The sludge age is influenced by the volume of aeration. S RATIOANDSLUDGE AGE water treatment plants can be operated using eitherthe FIM ratio or the sludge age. Maintaining a constant F/M ratio requires fewer analytical results at the treatment plant in comparison to•use of the sludge age technique. The advantages and possible problemsof operating in this mode areoutlined in Table5.6 outlines the operating parameters associated with various modes of operating an activated sludge plant and shouldbe referredto in determining what is a high or low F/M ratio.15 Q massof sludgesolids wasted x 1000 SW where mass of sludge solids wasted is in kg/day. Conversely. iftoo much time is allowed the micro-organisms tend to die off and the outflow will contain "fine" solids because large portions of the floc will be inactive. kg The WAS flow rate (Qw) is then computed using thefollowing relationship: EQUATION 5. The advantages and possible problemsof operating in this mode are outlinedin Table5.18 = MLSS(VA + Vc) Sludge age x Sludge age measures the length of time (in days) that the sludge solids are held within the system. Where the optimum or desired sludge age has been determined. both methods are interrelated and changing one control affects the other control.

Enhanced growth of filamentous organisms. Possibleproblems There are fewer micro-organisms in the systemso the abilityto deal with shock loads ofBOD. Poor sludge quality. kg of MLSS and kg of sludge wasted.g. Operates well when BUDis variable or high. The return ratio is dependenton the The return ratio is the same as in MLSSand the RAS concentrations. wastewater composition or temperature. Design solids flux for the secondary settlement tank maybe exceeded resulting in suspended solids in the outflow. the F/MRatio. E/M. Maintaining the required dissolved oxygen concentration can be difficult. Constant load: select the desired Waste a percentage of total solids MLSS and maintain it by wasting regularly. TABLE 5. pHortoxicity is reduced. TABLE 5.3 OPERATINGATA HIGH F/M RATIO (LOW SLUDGE AGE) TABLE 5. pH.2 COMPARISONBETWEENF/M RATIO AND SLUDGEAGE Parameter Sludge production F/Mratio Operation at low FIM produces less sludge than a high FIM. . Reduced foaming problems.4 OPERATINGAT A LOW FIM RATIO (HIGH SLUDGE AGE) Advantages Reduced power consumption because less oxygen is required by the system. Variable load: maintain a constant 20% of the solids will have to be ratio by adjusting MLSS as inflow removed daily. Sludge age Operation at a high sludge age produces less sludge than a low sludge age. e. Withconstantloading to the planta good qualityoutflow is produced. to controlsludge age to 5 days. Advantages The high MLSS will helpto buffer changesin BOD. the correctamount ofsolids. changes. Deterioration in the qualityof the final outflow. Measurements required kg Sludge return of MLSS. Possibleproblems Inadequate food for the population of microorganisms. inflow BOD. concentration and dailyflowrate. thedesired mode of operatiom the characteristics ofthe inflow. Connection Control A low F/Mequates to a high sludge A low sludge age equates to a high age. The operating F/M of a plantis influencedby: the BUD load (including variability) and temperature (ambient and waste water) and seasonal changes.32 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER changes in the process or the inflow to the plant.

000 mg/I MLSS. or • decreaseRAS and increase WAS. 5.8-1. Greater nitrification is achieved at lowerloading ratesand longersludge ages. How&ier. • increase WAS and hold RAS constant. a higher MLSS should be maintained in the aeration tank during the winter than during the summer. Sludge production is 0.1 Sludge Settling age 'I' rate AlterRAS.5-1. the operatorcan: • decrease RAS flow rate and hold WAS constant. It digests best howeverwhen mixed with primary sludge. Subdivisions within these categories are based mainlyon flow and methodof aeration. • decrease WAS flow rate and leave RAS • increase RAS and decreaseWAS.000-12. constant RAS L L Change I I • J I I I I Key: I Increase Decrease As a general rule of thumb. constant WAS Increase RAS Decrease RAS Increase WAS Decrease WAS Increase RASlDecrease WAS Decrease RAS! Increase WAS . Waste Solids L 1' Changes in F/Mratio . . By adjusting thesolidsconcentration. the desired F/M or sludge age can be achieved. Table 5. or constant. or Conventional aeration is preceded by a primary settlement stage and operates at loading rates greater than 0. To decrease the MLSS concentration. 5. A high quality outflow is produced and nitrification is possible. The solidsconcentration can be modified by more than one method.l. conventional and high rate.5 outlines changes in the operational procedures which will affect the process operation. The operator has various optionsopen to the modify the sludgeage and the MLSS: To increase the sludge age and the FIM ratio the operatorcan: • increase RAS flow rate and leave WAS constant.5 OPERATIONAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN RAS AND WAS RAS cone. .2 kgBOD/kgMLSS. The divisions are based on the organic and hydraulic loading rates and retention times.day. Operation at a desired F/M ratio or sludge age is dependenton the controlof mixed liquorsolidsin thesystem.0 kg dry solids/kg BOD removed and the RAS has a concentration of 8. the operator should be aware that by changing the solids concentration other aspects of the process may be affected.13 PROCESS VARIATIONS IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE The activated sludge process is classified into threebroad categories: low rate. This is equivalent to 0.J I T I I I L I L i . This is because of decreased biological activity due to lowertemperatures.5 ACTIVATEDSLUDGE 33 TABLE 5.13.6 gives a summary of the operating parameters foreach of the processesdescribed.2% dry solids and requires thickeningor dewatering prior to recovery or disposal. AlterWAS. or Conventional aeration sludge digests reasonably well as there will be some unoxidised organic matter remaining.1 CONVENTIONAL AERATION Table 5.

5 .1.5. The loading rates are in the ranges of 3-6 kgBODIkgMLSS.6. much of the sludge produced by cell multiplication is consumed by endogenous respiration (the consumption of dead cellular material by other micro-organisms). Highrate Conventional Extended aeration aeration aeration Because extended aeration is operated to the right of the bacterial growth curve (Figure 5.6 LOADING ANDOPERATIONAL PARAMETERS FORACTIVATEDSLUDGE PROCESSES Process FIM kgBOD/d kgMLSS BOD loading kgBOD/ m3.16 0.5-0. Extended aeration roughing stage prior to another biological process.34 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER TABLE 5. .30 0. thereis little food in the system to support the micro-organisms present.1.0 1.0-2.2 EXTENDED AERATION is a low rate activated sludge process operating at low organic loading rates and FIM ratios with long hydraulic retention times and sludge ages.5 . Extended aeration plantsare often used as package plantsfor smallcommunities.6 HIGH RATE ACTIVATED SLUDGE High rate activated sludge processes are generally applied to strong industrial wastes (e.5 20.14 3 .1.1.5 -0.25 . It is operatedat a high loading rate and short retention time for the purpose of removingthe more easily oxidised organic matter.2-0.6.0 0. The sludge is well stabilised because of the low concentrations of organic matter remaining.95 0.d Hydraulic retention time hours Sludge age days MLSS mg/I 20003000 20006000 50008000 BOD removal efficiency % Sludge production kgDS/kgBOD removed Conventional aeration Extended aeration 0. Downstream unit processes are operatedat low to conventional rates to achieve satisfactory emissionlimit values. Competition is active and high quality outflows are produced.5 -3.5 .7 .10 0. It is usually used without primary settlement and nitrification is normally achieved.d respectively (Gray. Contact time — FIGURE 5.5 ACTIVATEDSLUDGEGROWTH CURVE A 5.13.3 5 . for example extended aeration or biofiltration.15 0.5 . the sludge may be putrescible and must be kept aerobic if stored. As a result.2 Pure 02 Deep shaft 0.5 .5 0.6 kg dry solids/kg BOD removed.0 3- 10 30008000 2000- 90 .85 4 -5 6000 5.5).10 Highrate activated sludge 1. However.d and 0.5 .0 0. As a consequence.15-0.8.05 -0.0.6 1. dairy or brewery) which require partial treatment in a practical application of high rate activated sludge is the A-B (Absorption-Biooxidation) process developed in Germany.5 0.25 -0.0.6 -4.5 1.g. the quantity of sludge produced can be as low as 0.30 kgBOD/kgMLSS.10 90-95 90.30 2.0 3. This is a two stage activated sludge process with the first highly loaded A-stage bufferingthe second more conventionally loaded B-stage. typically 60-70% of applied BOD.95 60-70 0.

Plug flow has the advantage of discouraging the excessive growth of filamentous organisms which can cause settlement problems in thesecondary settlement tank. and In plug flow systems (Figure 5. • completely mixed.6 A-B ACTIVATEDSLUDGE PROCESS 5.5 ACTIVATEDSLUDGE 35 1990). stepfeeding. sequencing batchreactors.8) the tank shape is long and narrowwith a length to width ratio of at least 12:1 (or the equivalent of at least 8 completely mixed tanks in series). If the FIM is sufficiently low in the latter stages of the tank. high intensity. The main characteristic of a plug flow configuration is a high ratio of organic loading (i. Absorption (A) stages can be retro-fitted to existing plants. much of the oxygen is consumed by nitrification and endogenous respiration. There is little longitudinal mixing in a plug flow tankexceptfor that which is caused by diffused aeration.7 COMPLETELY MIXEDACTIVATED Waste sludge Waste sludge SLUDGESYSTEM FIGURE 5. • plug flow. the organic loading rate to an A-B system may be 50% greater than that to a comparably sized single stage activated sludge plant. FIM) to the mixed liquor at the beginning of the tank. Completely mixed tanks are generally square or rectangularin shape with a length to width ratio less than5:1. the concentration of available substrate and MLSS are the same throughout the tank. 5. Overall.1 COMPLETELY MIXED Completely mixed activated sludge systemsare the simplest. The lack of longitudinal mixing reduces the ability to handle shock loads. In this mode. anoxic and anaerobic tanks for control of filamentous bulking. as the liquor flows through its length. . the inflow is rapidly mixed throughout the wholetank so that DO. A-stage aeration Settlement tank B-stage aeeation Settlement tank soluble BOD are uniform throughout. denitrification and biological phosphorus removal respectively. The lower loading rates to the B-stage result in good BOD removal and nitrification at sludge ages of up to 25 days. • • • a a taperedaeration.14 PROCESS CONFIGURATIONS IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE of aeration basins encompasses a broad range of tank and operating configurations which can be broadly divided into the following The design categories. in new plants.e. An advantage ofa completely mixed tank is that shock loads are rapidlydispersed and diluted. the omission of primary settlement tanks can save capitalcosts. Even oxygen demand Uniformconcentration ofsubstrate and MLSS FIGURE 5. sludge re-aeration. There is no primarytreatment of inflow so the load to the A-stage can be highly variable. Both the feed and return activated sludge are added at the beginningof the tank. Uniform distributionensures that the outflow mixed liquor is identical to the mixed liquor in the aeration tank.14. MLSS and Plug flow activated sludge plants allow for easy modification to provide contact. there is little dilution of the inflow so micro-organisms may be affected by toxic material. substrate is used up and the mass of microorganisms increases due to cell reproduction. therefore. High floc loading (FIM) to the A-stage contributes to good sludge settling and dewatenng characteristics.142 PLUG FLOW 5. oxidation ditch.

denitrification and biological phosphorus removal. object of ensuring complete oxidation of any stored substrate by providing extra oxygen. up to three times as many diffusers may be required (in order to satisfy the oxygen requirement) compared with the end of a tank where food is scarce and hence oxygen demand is low.9 TAPERED AERATION The original oxidation ditch was developed by Pasveer in 1953. At the beginning ofthe tank where the FIM ratio is high. This also has the beneficial effect of discouraging the growthof filamentous micro-organisms. tapered aeration is used to modulate the air supply to meet the individual oxygen requirements of each section. nitrification. The oxidation ditchoperatesas a closed loop channel with aeration supplied by mechanical surface aerators and/or diffusers located on the floor of the ditch which provide both oxygenation and horizontal movement to keep the mixed liquorin suspension.e.8) involves aerating the RAS while it flows between the secondary settlement tank and the aeration tank with the . A specialised configuration of activated sludge known as the oxidation ditch is commonly used. Figure 5. It negates the benefits of having a plug flow tank in the first placeand is not commonly applied. In order to avoid providing excess oxygen where it is not needed. [4 FIGu1u 5.14.4 STEP FEEDING The use of step or incremental feeding can avoid the need for tapered aeration by providing two or more inflow points along the first 50-70%of the length of the tank. To increase the circuit length.8 PLUG FLOWACTIVATEDSLUDGESYSTEM 5.6 OXIDATION DITCH FIGURE5. This has the effect of evening out the BUD load and oxygen requirements as in a completely mixed systemand also increases the ability to handle shock loads.10 STEPFEED 5.36 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER High FIM High oxygen demand Low oxygen demand length:wid Decreasing substrate concentration Increasing MLSS WAS Sludge re-aeration(ifrequired) RAS FIGURE 5.11 shows the basic oxidation ditchconfiguration.12 is commonly used.14.14. i. 5. 5.3 TAPERED AERATION As the organic load is consumed along a plug flow tank. This ensures that the bacteria are "hungry" on introduction to the inflow and will absorb the maximum amount of substrate for stabilisation. the carousel configuration shown in Figure 5. the oxygen demand decreases.14.5 SLUDGE RE-AERATION Sludge re-aeration (Figure 5. Since then it has undergone numerous modifications and improvements and nowadays provides the same range of treatment objectives as plug flow reactors.

dissolved oxygen and substrate are consumed. Biological or physico-chemical nutrientremoval are possible.12 CAROUSEL OXIDATIONDITCH An oxidation ditch possesses properties attributable to both completely mixed and plug flow reactors.7 SEQUENCINGBATCH REACTORS Most activated sludge plants perform the two fundamental aspects of the activated sludge processin two tanks. High intensity systems such as pure oxygen and deep shaft increase the amount of available oxygen so that this demand can be satisfied. it acts as a completely mixed On the other hand.14. New waste water and seed (if necessary) is added and the cycle repeats itself. Aeration is stopped to allow the mixed liquorto settleand the clear supernatant is decanted off. With the addition of separate anaerobic tanks. Hydraulic and organic rates and loading sludge ages can be controlled in SBRs so a full range of treatment objectives can be achieved.8 HIGH INTENSITY SYSTEMS anoxicor low DO zones in nitnfyingplants at the design stage. one for aeration and one for solids separation. These systems are generally used on high strength industrial wastes and tend to be of high capitaland/oroperating cost. due to its closed loop circulation. an oxidation ditch can be modifiedfor biological phosphorus removal. as in a plug flow tank.11 PASVEER OXIDATION Overflow weir FIGURE 5. 5. there may be deficiencies of DO 5. .14. In one respect. Sequencing batch reactors allow for both processesto be carried out in one tank (Figure 5. longitudinal mixing.13). The tank is firstly charged where the potential rate of reaction by the microorganisms cannot be achievedbecause of a lack of oxygen. These gradients allow for the incorporation of naturally occurring and seededwith new waste water and RAS and is aerated until the BUD is satisfied. In treatment plants with a constant or periodic high loading. as the flow progressesfrom one aerator to another. DO and substrate gradients are evident downstream from surface aerators.5 ACTIVATEDSLUDGE 37 DITCH FIGURE 5. due to poor system.

Return Inflow Outflow ste [I_ø. By increasing the saturation concentration of oxygen.14. As the depth and pressure of a liquid increases.8. Sludge settlement is poor due to attached micro-bubbles on the bacterial floes and flotation has on occasion been used successfully instead of settlement. Pure oxygen systems operate as open or closed systems. Circulation of the mixed liquor (up to 30 times) down the shaft ensures maximum stabilisation of the waste water.1 Pure Oxygen Process At constanttemperature and pressure. 5. like conventional aeration. Closed systems have the advantage of minimal loss of expensive oxygen to atmosphere FIGURE 5. a degassing stage could . air to oxygenate water. more dissolved oxygen becomes available to the microorganisms thus ensuring that DO is non-limiting for metabolism.38 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER High intensity systems can be operated. inflowwaste water Fill whereas open systems must have an efficient gas transfer mechanism to ensure maximum dissolution of gas prior to dispersal to the atmosphere. If 100% oxygen is used. At the top of the shaft is a headertank where inflow and RAS are added. Alternatively. so does its saturation concentration of air.13 SEQUENCING BATCHREACTOR air 5.14 DEEPSHAFT ACTIVATED SLUDGE Using The process is carried out in a shaft drilled into the ground.2 Deep shaft 11 1 Aeration Event sequence Settlement[t - I The deep shaft process operatesat depthsof up to l5Om for the purpose of increasing the rate of oxygen transfer by increasing the pressure (and hence the saturation concentration of DO) in the liquid at the bottomof the shaft. lined and divided by a partition into downflow and upflow sections. at various points on the bacterial growth curve and sludge production depends on how theyare operated. Partial systems are where the pure oxygen maybe switched on on demand during periods of high loading. Permanent systems operate using pure oxygen constantly. This increased transport across the gasfliquid interface helps satisfy the elevated oxygen demands of micro-organisms under high loading rates.8. oxygen has air a fixed saturation concentration in water. Pure oxygen has found application as permanent or partial systems. saturation concentration may not be reached because air contains only 21% oxygen.14. An increased gradient increases the force driving the oxygen into solution. the available oxygen is increased five-fold thus increasing the gradient and decreasing the gap between the saturation concentration and the actual concentration.ciarified WAS FIGURE 5.

the waste sludge from an extended aeration process is less likely to putrefy and cause an odour nuisance. completely mixed V V 1 or Conventional aeration. As well as creating an unsightly appearance in the plant this can lead to odours and windblown foam. if the foam becomes excessive.10 illustrate the potential causes for each type of problem and suggest correctiveactions. Due to the high rate of absorption of organic matter. Nitnficationand denitrification are possible. plug flow. 5. anoxic zone Conventional or extended aeration.15 NUISANCE The main sources of nuisance from an activated sludge plant are odours from waste activated sludge storage and aeration blower noise.8.. 5. anoxic zone. However.9 and Table 5. Because of its more highly stabilised condition. Table 5. Table 5. High rate processes have a significant odour potential.5 ACTIVATEDSLUDGE 39 be used prior to secondary settlement. 1990) Process type Used for.16 FOAMING Many well operated activated sludge plants have a small layer of light chocolate coloured foam covering up to 30% of the aeration tank. Excessive build-up of foam can result in walkways and plant equipmentbeing coveredby foam during windy conditions. plug flow extended " V V V V V fr' Conventional or extended aeration. the operation of the plant will be affected. TABLE 5. brown and blackfoams. BOD removal Nitrification Denitrification 1 P removal P removal V Biological Chemical Conventional or extended aeration.7 APPLICATIONSOF ACTIVATED SLUDGEPROCESSVARIATIONS (modified from Gray. plug flow. Problem foams can be divided into white. a lot of biodegradable/putrescible material remainswhich can generate odours if the waste activated sludge is allowedto become anaerobic. anaerobic zone V V V V 1 High rate activated sludge Pure oxygen systems V V V V .

8 WHITEFOAM Associatedwith New plant Low sludge age Overloaded plants Low MLSS HighFIM Caused by Inadequate returnof sludge from secondary settlement tank to aeration basin Low MLSS Excessive wasting ofactivated sludge Highorganic loading after a prolonged periodoflow loading (e. (filamentous micro-organism) Plants with sludge re-aeration Hihsludgeae Caused by Low F/M Greater than normal sludge production because of seasonal changes.9 ExcEssivE BROWNFOAMS Associated with Plants operating at low loading rates Plants capable ofnitrification Significant presence ofNocardiaspp. increase the FIMratio and decrease the sludge age Remove scum at the RAS pumping area Examine the sludgewasting schedule TABLE 5.g. weekends) Toxic material Low or high pH Change in temperature Low dissolved oxygen P or N deficiency Corrective action Shock hydraulic loading or solids washout Poordistribution offlow and solids to secondary settlement tanks Check return sludge rate Maintain the sludge blanket at 0. This can occur during the transition from winter to summer which can promote increased microbiological activity due to highertemperatures Unplanned sludge wasting event If nitrification is not required.10 BLACK FOAMS Corrective action Associated with Low dissolved oxygen Anaerobic conditions Dyes from industrial sources Increase aeration Decrease MLSS Corrective action Investigat.eindustrial sources .40 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER TABLE 5.Om from the bottom of the secondary settlement tank Increase the MLSS in the aeration tank by not wasting sludge Seed the aeration plantand take steps to prevent the entry of toxic material Monitor/inspect the discharge of significant industrial discharges Balance the distribution of flow to the secondary settlement tanks TABLE 5.3-l.

18. grey or white in colour with poor settling characteristics (SVI >150mug). or solids overload. . not ashing. fluffy sludge particles in the secondary settlement tank.1 RISING SLUDGE Denitrification occurs in secondary settlement tanks when oxidised nitrogen is reduced to molecular nitrogen in the absence of dissolved oxygen. The cause of solids washoutis normally attributable to one or more of thefollowing: velocity should be checked and compared with the designvalue. 5. baffles and weir levels. Table 5. the sludge becomes lighterthan water and rises to thesurface. The operatorshouldcheck all flow meters. of 90-120 mlIg indicating Rising sludge (denitrification) Due to the entrapment of nitrogengas bubblesproducedduring denitrification. To prevent suspended solids from overloading secondary settlement tanks. often seen in plants operating between conventional and extendedaeration. Non-filamentous ordispersedgrowth hulking: sludge floc has a largearea and usually contains bound water. This phenomenon can occur despitethe settleability test indicating satisfactory settling characteristics. When two or more secondary settlement tanksare in use it is important to ensure that all weirs are set to equal heights. transparent. • hydraulic overload. Ashing The presence of dead cells.5 ACTIVATEDSLUDGE 41 5. To check whether there is sufficient secondary settlement tank capacity.11 CLASSIFICATIONOF ACTIVATED SLUDGES Type ofsludge Normal Description Brown with a musty odour.18 SLUDGETYPES Before attemptingto deal with specific problems at the plant the operatormust identify the various types of sludges that can be encountered at a plant. • equipment malfunction. sludge wastage rates shouldbe increased. denitrification. causing them to rise. Small dense sludge particles suspended in the secondary settlement tank. Pin point floc Bulking sludge Straggler floe This can occur during periods of low MLSS and appears as small.17 SOLIDS WASHOUT Solids washout occurs when large amounts of sludge solids are present in the secondary settlement tank. sludge particles and grease on the surface of the secondary settlement tank. To check for hydraulic overload. inflow data should be examined for the possibility of abnormal flows and infiltration. Filamentous hulking: light brown. pumps (particularly RAS). SVI good settling characteristics. the upward flow 5. Bubbles of N2 adsorb to solid particles.11 classifies sludges into a number of categories. If the 30 minute cone test releasesbubblesafter it has been stirred. is occurring. A number of conditions contribute: TABLE 5.

a The problemmaybe resolved by: • increasing the F/M ratio and decreasing the sludge wasting rate.e. the major problem with this form of bulking is poor consolidation of sludge.18. and Sphaerotilus natans. Clumping sludge may also occur during the summerwhen temperatures are high. is operating efficiently. tannery waste or septic waste water. .4 FILAMENTOUS BULKING * blanket will contain nitrate concentrations in excess of5 mg/I. Also. maintaining dissolved oxygenabove 2 mg/I • high temperature: rising sludges are often a summer phenomenon. 5. High nitrate concentrations may also occur in effluentsfrom industrial sources.than 0. and Beggiatoa spp.3 PIN-POINT FLOC This is characteristic of plants which are operating at low F/M andlor where there is excessive turbulence in the aeration tank causing "shearing" of the floc.g. too high or low pH values. low dissolved oxygen concentration in the aeration tank. 2 -4 mg/I). the sludge may settle but not flocculate. Thoughthe quality of supernatant may still be good. The dead cells will not settle. Fungi predominate at low pH. check that grease removal equipment.05). Filamentous bulkingcan be caused by: • increasing the return activated sludge flow rate. brewery waste can promote the growth of Thiorhrix spp. For example. The possible causesare: • extremely low F/M (less.5 mg/I).g. or industrial waste waters with a high sulphide content. Maintaining the desired F/M ratio in the aeration tank can be difficult because thinner RAS reducesthe MLSS concentration. oils and grease to establish whetherunusually high levels are present. the presence of fungi will indicate a low pH industrial discharge. industrial wastewaterswith high BOD. N or other nutrients. 5.18. and monitoring the inflow for fats. the type of filamentous organism may have to be identifiedin order to understand the nature of the problem. • decreasing the sludge age which reduces nitrification. sludge blanket in the secondary settlement tank will have a low dissolved oxygen (<0. or as a remporan'measure.42 TREATMENT OFWASTE WATER • nitrif'ication: this will require a long sludge age to enable the slow growing nitrifying bacteria(whichoxidise ammonia to nitrate) to be present in significantconcentrations. and the the sludge * (i. The problem can be overcome by: decreasing the sludge age. 5. Clumps of sludge may appear on the surface of the secondary settlement tank when the sludge is being retained in the secondary settlement tank for too long a period. insufficient levels of P. widely fluctuating organic loading rates.18.2 ASHING Ashing is occasionally associated with dead cells and other sludge particles or grease floating on the surface of a settlement tank. e. Rising and clumping sludge maybe resolvedby: Filamentous bulking occurs when filamentous organisms extend in significantnumbers from the floc into the bulk solution. high wastewater temperatures. e. A similarcondition calledsludge clumping occurs when plants are operated at low F/M's and nitrification takes place. Iffilamentous bulkingis taking place on a regular basis. adding a flocculating agent. such as baffles. This mayoccur if industrial loadsenteringthe treatment plant are deficient in these nutrients and dilute the nutrient concentration in the aeration tank. which can promote the growth of Thiotrix spp. or low F/M ratio.and MLSS containing high grease concentrations.

may indicatethat septic conditions are prevalentin the collecting system. For example. 1992) • • • Micro-organismgroup Rotifers Free swimming ciliates Stalked ciliates ______ Flagellates Amoeboids J Size.18. 5. micro-organism as being responsible for a particular function in waste water treatment. The identification of the micro-organisms present in a sample ofmixed liquorand thebeneficial use of this information requires a lot of experience and reference shouldbe madeto standard texts. At longersludge ages. Each plant will operate under differentconditions and individual • decreasing the sludge wasting rate. this can indicatea long sludge age. This can occur in certain high F/M situations. Anoxic selector zones have been appliedto certain bulking/foaming conditions. thereby increasing the MLSS and the sludge age. TABLE 5.18. and food. which mayresult from too high a sludge wasting rate. an examination of the mixed liquormay yield47% rotifers. sludge age and SVI.100-300 40-175 5-60 10-30 . oxygen. particularly during process start-up. selector or contact zones have been used to restrict the growth of filamentous bacteria by providing floc forming bacteria with a competitive edge that makes them more ctominant. An experienced operator can assess an activated sludge plant by examining daily the microbial population of the mixed liquor.6 STRAGGLER FLOC is characterised by small. the identification of the the types of micro-organisms present. and • not wasting sludge during periods of high organic loading. diversity communities and the mobility of the microorganisms are invaluable guide to the health and status of a plant and to predicting operational problems in the early stages. • low MLSS. APHA. 400 . Where low F/M bulking has been a problem. The causes of straggler floc are: Straggler The micro-organisms can be observed using a microscope with a magnification between 100X and 400X. The micro-organism population will reflect their environment and be influenced by the contents of the mixed liquor and thus the incoming waste water. A high FIM ratio results which favours the floe formers. This can be used by the operator to provide the optimum conditions for growth. It can be seen that flagellates (lower life forms) predominateat high FIM or low sludge age whenthe floes are light or dispersed. 26% stalked ciliates and 23% free swimming ciliates.12 SIzE OFMICRO-ORGANISMS USED INWASTEWATERTREATMENT 5.5 ACTIVATEDSLUDGE 43 Thiotrix spp.inn micro-organisms. as a group. The high FIM ratio at the start of a plug flow tank is the reason that this configuration is more successful than completely mixed systems in preventing the development of filamentous bacteria. Figure 5. 5.1 MONITORING BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY floe • over aeration. and transparent fluffy sludge particles in the settlement tank. If such a situationexists the operator shoulddecrease sludge wasting. It is difficult to isolate a particular species of 5.19 BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY affect the performance of the activated sludge processinclude: The factors which (Standard Methods.15 illustrates the relative predominance of micro-organisms versus FIM. and • batchsludge wasting. The problem maybe resolved by: characteristics will be empirically established with time.19. of each the of the predominance type. However. An extra zone is provided before an aeration tank where the RAS and inflow are mixed for a short hydraulic retentionperiod (1530 minutes based on the average flowrate).5 NON-FILAMENTOUS BULKING Bulking can occur without filamentous organisms being present. the rotifers and worms (higher life forms) become more predominant and this can sometimes indicate a poorer effluent quality and an over-oxidised sludge.

. 1988).44 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER Good settling Stragglers Pin floc Rotifers Nematodes 0 0 Freeswimming ciliates Stalked ciliates Rotifers Free swimming ciliates Nematodes Stalked ciliates Rotifers Free Stalked ciliates Flagellates Amoeboids Low High Flagellates Amoeboids Sludge age FIM swimming ciliates Flagellates Amoeboids Freeswimming ciliates Flagellates Amoeboids High Low SvI IN RELATIONTO OPERATINGCONDITIONS FIGuiu5.15 PREDOMINANCEOF MICRO-ORGANISMS (New York SDEC.

The operation of a treatment plant requires -power and this accounts for a significant portion (22% in 1995) of the annualoperating costs. operating costs may be reduced without compromising the quality of the final discharge.C. £ 48..5 ACTIVATEDSLUDGE 45 5. 40. If nitrification is not required.689 219. TABLE 5. Table For design purposes. if continuously operated.e. nd — — . Care should be exercised in reducing the sludge age as this can be accompanied by a higher SVI and the production ofmore waste sludge.. To reducethe energyconsumption: LoadingratestoKillarney WWTPin 1995 Average load: 21..6 20 1.000 P.-... Adjustments may be made to the activated sludge process in order to reduce the power demand.3 : Oxygendemandi(nitrification . operating at a sludge age between 6-10 days will satisfy the carbonaceous oxygen demand..20 ENERGY 5. Typically.127 25.000 % oftotal 22 30 11.C. .000 P. mg/l 5 6 Urban waste water treatment plants are normally designed to take account of future growth and seasonal factors.287 43. The process controls which can be optimised include: 0 V V • thenumberof units in operation. 3 4 Mixed liquor DO.16 shows that twiceas much energy is required to transfer a unit of oxygen to the mixed liquor at a DO of 5 mg/I as it does at a DO of 2 mg/I.000 25. and 5 V • return activated sludge flowrates and concentrations.- 4 11.5 mg/I based on the average weekly and peak load respectively.788 7. Figure 5.000p.---. days TOTALS 100 FIGuRE5. will utilise a significant amount of energy.-. • dissolved oxygen concentrations.13 OPERATING COSTSOFKILLARNEY WASTEWATERTREATMENTPLANTDURING 1995 FIGURE 5. By identifying the various units which contribute to power costs. it was stated earlier that aeration equipmentshould be selected to provide 1 to 2 mg/I and 0..16 POWERREQUIREMENTS ASA FUNCTIONOFMIXED LIQUORDO Unit Power Labour Chemicals [Maintenance Sludge disposal Laboratory Other Cost.432 66.13 gives the breakdown of costs associated with the operation of Killarney waste water treatment plantfor 1995. the DO requirement during the night-time will be lower than during the day because the organic loadis considerably less.17 shows the oxygen consumed during carbonaceous BOD removal nitrification. sludge age. / 5-dayBOO 15 Sludge age.677 2.5 Figure 5. Adjusting aerator performance to match the oxygen requirement of the mixed liquor can result in significant energy savings. The figure shows that carbonaceous removal requires about 30-40% less power than the power required to satisfy both carbonaceous and nitrogenous BOD. Winterload: Late summer load: 12.17 OXYGENCONSUMPTION RAS and WAS pumps.

. TSS and general microscopic analysis is required: • analytical balance. BOD5 test nitrification inhibitor. fume hood. microscope fridge. DO meterand BODaccessories. where possible. 5. • • glucose and glutamic acid as BOD standard and BOD seed. pH meter. and specify a smaller impeller size if operating at wash and reagentbottles.e. the electricity utility tariff system. use individual RAS pumps for individual use vanable speedcontrols for WAS pumps. homogeniser. desiccator. buffer chemicals.21 LABORATORY EQUIPMENT distilledde-ionised water. i. pipettes graduated cylinders and Imhoff cone. the installation of a standby generator or a dualmains supply is advisable. use variable speed drive or multi-speed controls instead of fixed speed installations. oven and incubator (20°C). • • • • • filter papers. calciumchloride solution and ferric chloride solution. • the low end ofpumpcapacity. and An energy efficient strategy within the plant should also include selection of the appropriate Also. filtration apparatus and vacuum pump. COD. The following is a general list of equipment that should be available at waste water treatment facilities where routine monitoring for BOD. Where loss of power could pose a significant threat to the environment. of a availability standby generator may result in a financial saving as well as having a strategic piece of equipment for other occasions. a SCADA system (section 2. magnesium sulphate solution. phosphate buffer solution. operating with CODkit. settlement tanks. The records providedby. thermometer.46 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER • • • • avoid. Laboratory facilities at a waste water treatment plant will depend both on the level of expertise available on site and on the proximity of a fully equipped laboratory. throttled discharge valves. for example.7) will inter alia assist in monitoring the energyusage at the plant and also highlightpoints ofhigh energyuse.

the film increases in thickness and any excessis removed by one oftwo mechanisms: percolating or trickling filters: these are made up of beds of packed media. A submerged aeration systemis requiredin aerobicprocesses. The resulting film or slime contains the micro-organisms necessary to treat the applied waste water.2. Many variations on the arrangement of structure. bioflim and fixed film are terms relating to a treatment process where bacterial growth attaches itself to a surface. media and distribution systems are available. They are intensive biofilm processes where large quantities of biomass are supported inside a tank through which the waste water is passed. rotating biological contactors (RBC): these • the passage of liquid between the media causes a continuous erosion of small amounts • of biofilm. The slime layer is characterised by zoogleal growth which is viscous and jelly-like and contains bacteriaand other micro-organisms.6 BI0FILMs 47 6. Fixed film processes can be sub-divided into units with: packed media (percolating filters and some submerged filters). and moving or buoyant media (rotating biological contactors and other submerged filters). As the bacteria grow in numbers. slow growing nitrifying bacteria . The medium provides support for the growth of micro-organisms and applied waste water flowing in a downward direction through a medium provides food for these microorganisms. the micro-organisms feed upon and remove the substances contained in the waste water. BOHLM (ATTACHED GROWTH) PROCESSES larger submerged filters tend to be highly engineered unit processes although simpler package versions have been developedfor use as smallwastewater treatment plants. the size and thickness of the slime layer is partly controlled by the liquid flowing through the medium. The bacterial population resident in the slime layer depends on a number of factors including the nature and loading rate of the applied waste water. Circular percolating filters offer better distribution of waste water and are less cumbersome and have more easily maintained mechanical parts. block the filter media or result in high solidsyields. • sloughing of biofilm is a rapid loss of large quantities submerged (aerated) filters: these units have been commercially developed over the last ten years with claims ofhigh loading rates and efficiencies and low land area requirements. Biofilm processesare categorised as follows: 6. Thus. Biofilm processes are usually preceded by primary settlement to remove gross settleable solids which may interfere with oxygen transfer to the micro-organisms.or units allow the growth of a biofilm on large diameter discs or structured modules. A central horizontal shaft rotates the discs or modules thereby exposing the biofilm sequentially to the waste water and to the atmosphere.2 PERCOLATING FILTERS 6.2 BIOLOGICAL SLIME The basic bacterial unit in bioflimprocessesis the biological slime layer that grows on the support medium. Thus.1 PROCESS DESCRIPTION Attached growth. The media used are highly permeable. It is typically The result of anoxic or anaerobic conditions arising deep within the biofilm which can cause gas production and reduce the ability of the biofilm to adhere to the medium. The of biofilmwhichis most noticeable when the biofilm has become thick. The level of erosion is dependent on the rate of liquidflow over the biofilmand on the thickness of thebiofilm. the word "filter" does not imply any straining or separation of solid material. On more lightly loaded plants or near the base of bacteria beds. 6. Rectangular filters are more oldfashioned and were used on largetreatment plants where activated sludge or submerged filtration would typically be applied today.1 SHAPES AND CONFIGURATIONS Two shapes of percolating filter exist: circular and rectangular. At normal loading rates heterotrophic carbonaceous bacteriaand fungipredominate.2. 6. Rectangular deep bed filters are often used now as high rate filters.

The liquid flow path is random but intricate and good shapes will maximise contact between the liquid and the biofilm. Different channel widths are available for different applications and bacterial growth rates. • a consistent size distribution and weight density. a sphere ofdiameter20 mm will have an SSA of 298 m/m3 and a sphereof diameterI m has an SSA of 6 m2/m3. the greater the l0 l0 SSA.2. a low cost.2. high durability. structured or randomly packed plastic or stone shapes which vary in size from 4 mm to 200 mm.85 x m2. and FILTER FIGuIu6. the grazing fauna decreasesludge production and increase the settleability of sludge solids.larvae and adult dipteran flies (e. • resistance to chemicalattack. A medium is requiredto have: Diffusionof substrate and oxygen takes place by virtue of concentration gradients. liquid pathswhichdo not easily clog. For example. Psvchoda). Although smaller sizes will provide a greater SSA for bacterial growth. Media used in the past include granite. and specific surfacearea is the total surface area per unit volume of medium expressed as square metres per cubic metre of total volume occupied. the voids tend to clog more easily which limits the passage of liquid and air. They are constructed of corrugated sheets bonded together to form long intricate flow paths for the liquid. Thus the smallerthe particle. Similarly.48 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER will developand compete with the faster growing heterotrophs. The mass transferoperation is illustrated in Figure 6.1 PERCOLATING 6.3 MEDIA advection. the 2 The a high surface area per unit volume. The greater the difference in substrate and oxygen concentration between the biofilm and the bulk liquid. SSAs are highly variable and range in size from 50 m2/m3 up to 600 m2/m3 for some of the most specialised media. 6. The movement of substrate and dissolved oxygen through a biofilm is dependent upon two mechanisms: diffusion. The grazing fauna are most active during the warmer months and this accounts for the drop-off in activity ofpercolating filters duringthe winter.5 x m3 and therefore an SSA of 1208 m2/m3. Higher life forms which grazeon the slime are represented successively by rotifers. a volume of 6. blast furnace clinker. Photosynthetic algae and bacteria will reside near the surface of a percolating filter. a sphere of diameter 5 mm will have a surface area of 7.g. which would otherwise be turbid. In consuming slime. nematode and annelidworms. The food chain is topped by birds which consume the insects and worms near the surface of a bacteria bed. ciliated protozoa will consume any free suspended bacteriain the liquid film and so clarify the outflow. Modern media tend to be engineered plastics designed to maximise specific surface area2 (SSA) and hence bacterialpopulation. structured plastic bales. On maturetreatment plants. midges and other insects. Random packed media are made up of very large numbers of individual pieces which sit on a filter floor with no ordered pattern. The surface is often roughenedto maximise retention of biomass and to prevent complete sloughing of the surface.4 MASS TRANSFER ACROSSSLIME INTERFACES Retainingwall Rotary distnbulor The composition of the bacterialslime may differ In I — Underdraln • EIflunhnnI roddrng under different applications and loading rates but the transportmechanism of oxygen and nutrients to the bacterial cells remains the same.2. Structured mediaare usually supplied as bales up to I m3 in size which are fitted like bricks into a filter. .

5 DISTRIBUTION OF FEED As a biofllm grows and increases in thickness.e. Advection is the movement of substrate and oxygen throughchannels in the bioflimstructure. The .2 TRANSPORTMECHANISM ACROSS THE BIOFILM Waste water is applied to the top of a percolating filter using mechanical distribution equipment. Non-uniform distribution of feed can be a problem with these systems. 300-600 mm is typically required. a rotarydistributor. Dosing siphons are used to prevent flow to a distributorwhen the head falls below that necessary to cause the arms to rotate. rotates in a horizontal plane above the filter bed. Disadvantages includethe lack of easy access for maintenance and the potential for uneven distribution of waste water. liquid must find an alternative flow path of less resistance. low dissolved oxygen conditions may exist deep within the slime layer and the generation of gas by anaerobic processes may enhance sloughing ofthe biofllm. Biofilm: Anaerobic and aerobic layers Air [0J 1/ Atmosphere Decreasing02 and substrate concentrations due to diffusionthrough liquid and biofilm layers FIGURE 6. Consequently. thus. Circular distribution systems are usually rotated by using the applied head of water. 6.6 BIOFILMS 49 greater will be the gradient or driving force by which diffusionoccurs. If any one area of a filter bed becomes more cloggedthan another(due to either poor liquid distribution or the break down of media).3. 6. The sparge holes on the arms often use splash plates to increase the spread ofthe fallingliquid. Fixed immobile distributors are not commonly encountered except in small or package percolating filter plants and in some biotowers. Wheresubstrateloading is high or the slimelayer is thick. This compensates forthe difference in the distance that particular sparge holes have to travel (i.2. travelling distribution arms apply the feed to the bed.whichconsistsof a central vertical column with two to four arms at right angles to each other. the spaces between the media particles decrease in size and restrict the liquid flow. This may cause significant short-circuiting thus reducing contact time and causingincomplete treatment ofthe wastewater. Typically.2. the surface of a bacteriabed may become cloggedunless the biofilm thickness is controlled and any excess biofilm removed.3 DwFusIoN ACROSS THE BIOFILM Direction oftravel of liquidwaste containing organic matter Direction of diffusion through slime layer Decreasing dissolvedoxygen concentration Decreasing substrate concentration FIGURE 6. each sparge hole shouldwet a similarplan area of filter bed. The filter floor is sloped to a collection channel at either the centre or the periphery of the bed. On rectangular beds. their circumference of travel). see Figure 6.6 OUTFLOW COLLECTION (UNDERDRAINS) At the base of the percolating filter is the underdrain or collecting system. The distance between sparge holes near the centre of a circular bed is greater than that at the periphery.

- Filter Q Humustank 2Q _6\. this is usually done in secondary settlement tanks called humus tanks so called becauseof the humus like nature of the sludge produced by percolating filters.4. the hydraulic load to the humus tank must be maintained within the design range. is advisable where the settlement/humus tank does not have adequate hydraulic capacity. for example.10 COLD TEMPERATURE OPERATION A number of changes occur in a percolating filter during cold weather: bacterial metabolism slows down. of plastic perforated pipe or steel wedgewire construction.2. A dilute inflow will distribute the substrate more evenly throughout the depth of the bed..2. Therefore. Excessive growthcan clog a percolating filter. in effect. flies and other insectsstop breeding. the exception being for anoxic denitrifying filters.8 FINAL OR SECONDARY SETTLING The erosion of biofilm from the medium used in percolating filters.:_ Filler Q 2Q 2Q -Hç7---QHumustank 6. Whether designed for 3 DWF or 6 DWF.50 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER underdrains consist channels which: of a network of precast 6. short circuiting of air in packed bed reactors can generate channels through a medium which can provide an easy path for a liquid. Similar consideration must be made for peak flows which will substantially dilute the incoming waste water. Poor distribution of air. of the outflow in a biofilm process dilutes the inflow and increases the hydraulic loading rate. and . these solids must be separated from the liquid. Humus sludge can be processed separately but is frequently returned to the primary settlement tanks for co-settlement. Underdrain durability is important as access for maintenance (except perhaps on raised or high rate plants) is not possible without first removing the medium.and to maximise theerosionof dead and excessive biofilm. Q — _{ç7__f_ FIGURE 6.III. and allow air flow. A similar ratio of recirculated unsettled effluent will not change the humus tank throughput.2. Recirculation of unsettled outflow. • support themedia. The increased hydraulic loading rate achievedthrough recirculation has two functions: Recirculation to keep the media wet during periods of low flow. For example.2. is usually caused by clogging of a bacteria bed which is often the result of poor liquid distribution. The methods used vary from the natural draught used on percolating filters to activated sludge-like blower and fine- bubble diffuser systems on some submerged aerated filters. Air distribution is important to ensure all areas of a bed of micro-organisms remain aerobic. 6.7 OXYGEN SUPPLY Biofilm processes used for urban waste water treatment are generally aerobic. A 1:1 recirculation ratio of settled effluent will double the flow passing through a humus tank. as illustrated in Figure 6. oxygenmust be supplied. assuming satisfactory design and installation. These were traditionally precast blocks laid on the floor but nowadays can be. RBCs and some submerged filters is a continuous process and the removed solids are carried away in the outflow.9 RECIRCULATION collectthe treatedwastewater. Before discharge to a water body. a low food to micro-organism ratio.4 HYDRAULICEFFECTOF RECIRCULATION ON HUMUS TANKS 6. A problem regularly encountered with older percolating filters has been the deterioration and collapse of the underdrain system leading to short-circuiting and poor outflow quality. Other types of submerged filters require periodic backwashing to remove excess sludge. Low substrateconcentrations at the top of a percolating filter encouragethe growth of bacteria instead of fungi and also discourage excessive growth by operating at what is.

but not at the same rate.2.6 BJORLMS 51 • worms.1 and illustrated in Figure 6.0 .3.28. This excess biomass.0.d Nitrification Unlikely Configurationused Single filtration Highrate filtration Notes: m3/m2.1 Single stagefiltration At low organic loading rates.d . particularly during mild weather.8 Partialto full Singlewith recirculation or two-stage filtration Organic loading 0. particularlyat the highly loaded top part of the bacteria bed.24 .6 Yes kg BOD/m3.08 .48 0. sludge tends to be well stabilised and endogenous respiration is not uncommon.0-2.5.1. Nitrification does decrease significantly below about 10°C so ammonia concentrations in the outflow may increase.0 or greater No Roughing filtration 4.0 Very high rate 28 -47 0. a single pass through a bacteriabed is sufficient to ensure full carbonaceous oxidation.11.1.d Lowrate 1.1 CLASSIFICATION OF ''"' APThJ(' IIT TL'D Parameter Hydraulicloading m3/m2.0.6 1.2. bacterial metabolism.9. combined with the increasing activity of higher life forms.5 0.4 .the activity ofa percolating filter decreases.0. and the medium. With the arrival of spring the above changes reverse. usually stone.0. Thus.0.75 Intermediate rate High rate 9. 6.8 .96 0. hence nitrification is generally good.11 CLASSIFICATION AND CONFIGURATION OF FILTERS The outflow quality from percolating filters is dependent on their hydraulic and organic loading rates which are in turn governed by the inflow. Due to long retention periods and low biofilm removal rates. This is commonly called the spring slough and occurs to a greater or lesser extent on all percolating filter plants. Loading rates are also sufficiently reducedin the bottom of the bed to allow nithfying bacteria to grow. on their loading rates or on a combination of both. Examples of some of these configurations are described in Table 6. increases and the biofilm increases in thickness. odours and filter flies are common sources of nuisance. Few modern plants are constructed to operate at such low loading rates due to costconstraints. 6. on a well sized and maintained plant this shouldnot result in a deterioration in outflow quality.insects and other mobile invertebrates migrateto the warmerdepths ofthe bed. causes a slough which can continue for up to 4 weeks at the beginning of spring. however.8 . the plant configuration and recirculation rates.5 . Percolating filters are generally classified based on either their physical configurations.d — Sludgeproduction kg TSS/kgBOD. Dosing siphons are used to ensure the distributors keep turning. Bed depths are about 2.0 0.32 0.48 . which is deep enough for nitrification to occur. TABLE 6.d kg total suspended solidsproduced/day perkg BODremoved kgBOD/m3. Thus.0.6 .d m3 applied flow/day per m2 bed surface area kg applied BUD/day per m3 bed volume(totalbed volume ifusingmultiplestages) kgTSS/kgBOD.5 m. is generally no larger than 40-50 mm. Due to the extent of treatment.

Recirculation combined with larger media sizes up to 100 mm reduces the clogging caused by an increased organic loading rate.5 CONFIGURATIONSOF PERCOLATINGFILTERS At intermediate loading rates. A minimum wetting rate is often necessary for such media (to prevent the biofilm from drying out) so continuous recirculation may . Modern intermediate rate percolating filters would generally employ a plastic medium and outflow recirculation. recirculation of treated effluent may be necessary to dilute the inflow and hence the localised organic loading rate at the top of the bacteriabed. Often this is not continuous but is only operated during periods of high loading and is eithermanually or timer controlled. Recirculation may also be used to improve nitrification on plants where the organic load has gradually or suddenly increased causing deterioration in outflow quality.52 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER Alterna ye Single filtration Single filtrationwith recirculation Multi-stage filtration Filter1 Filter2 Filter 1 leads Filter2 leads Alternatingdouble filtration FIGuiu6.

11.2. the hydraulic loading rate and the medium used. Usually a frame with a thin skin of corrugated steel shields the medium from external elements. Sludge production is higher than on low rate plants and will depend on such factors as the contents of the waste water.2 High rate filtration High rate filters may be larger in diameter and depth and use a larger medium than low and intermediate rate filters. Downstream processes then operate at more conventional loading rates. • toxic components in the waste water. the addition of bacterial culture may provide the necessary microbial population to treat the waste water. Older plants may have largerock or similar media up to 100 mm in size. Modern designs will use either a structured or open random packed medium. Biofllm erosion is continuous so sludge production is high but insect problems are low. up to 12 m deep with very high hydraulic loading rates. The above is easy to arrange when two filters are being constructed. sometimes selectively affecting heterotrophs or autotrophs. Fixed nozzle or channel distribution systems are often used on biotowers as are rotary distributors. Recirculätion is usually required to keep the media wet and to dilute the inflow. odour and fly nuisances are therefore reduced. so biomass and therefore sludge production rates are high. but not eliminated. most soluble BOD is used in the production of new cells. one will become more cloggedthan the other due to the higher organic load being appliedto'it. The lead filter is thereforechanged periodically (period to be established empirically) and the excess biomass removed with the aid of lowerorganic loading rates. forced aeration using blowerscan be used. At high organic loading rates and low retention periods. SignificantBOD removal is possible but nitrification will not occur. as powder to be reconstituted or as live culture to be grown and developed in an on-site facility prior to dosing. organic or toxicloads. a smaller medium increases the concentration of biomass in contact with the waste water and hence the process efficiency.11. the first filter will remove the more easily biodegradable BOD and the second will complete the carbonaceous oxidation and nitrification of the waste water. On more heavily organically loaded filters.2. The process is applied to trade effluents where the roughing filter typically removes 50-70% of the BOD. 6.6 BIOFILMS 53 be necessary. Percolating filters operating modified for series use. In the first stage.4 Two-stage filtration 6. High rate and roughing filters are often succeeded by another percolating filter '(or activated sludge plant). alternating double filtration has been appliedbut is little used today. Dosing can be by batch (e. Two or more percolating filters in series can be used to produce high quality outflows. Start-up bioaugmentation may be requiredfor 2-3 months. High voidage structured media are used. A typical roughing filter will be square or rectangular. Different media have different wetting rates and this must be taken into account in the design of a recirculation system and its relationship to incoming flow. When starting up a plant. .1 15 Bioaugmentation and nutrient deficiencies Some plants have a poorly maintained bacterial population causedby such factors as: • poor nutrient balancein thewaste water. In this case there is some difference between the media used in either unit. 6.g. Typically.2. Such large reactors are commonly called biotowers. a large medium ensures that clogging or ponding does not occur while in the second more lightly loaded stage. or • periodic excessive removal of biomass caused by shock hydraulic. each for a distinct function.2. Engineered structures are usually required to support the media. High recirculation ratios up to 5:1 are used to prevent the build-up of biomass. As both units will have identical (and probably small) media. where two identical parallel filters are to be 6.11. Bacterial culture is supplied in different forms such as dehydrated gels in porous support bags. Higherflow rates through the bacteria bed and increased sloughing rates reduce the opportunity for insect larvae to lodge and mature.3 Roughing filters at very high rates are generally used as pre-treatment stages where further treatment occurs downstream. Poor distribution of liquid and air can occur on biotowers leading to occasional odour nuisance. culture can also be used to colonise the filter bed and reduce the time it takes for a filter to reachfull operating capacity. In such cases. a bucket every day) or by timed or metered pump.

1992) Solutions Cause Excessive organic loading with insufficient hydraulic loading. Build-upof rags and debrison the filter surface blocking flow. Mediumtoo small or not uniform in size*. Replace medium.54 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER 6.2.2. on percolating filter plants results from the loss of open space or the filling of voids between the media causing liquid to collect and pond on the surface. Improve primary settlement. Any loose material will thenbe washed away with the restarted flow.12. Increase hydraulic load periodically. Where severe ponding occurs.12 COMMON OPERATING PROBLEMS 6. Breaksup too easily or cements/degrades under chemical attack. Poor screening ofraw waste water. Excessive organic loading. Ponding may be a yearround problem but on some plants it occurs in late winter/early spring whenbacterial and slime growth increases dramatically but the grazing population has yet to become active. A filter can be flooded for up to 24 hours. Ponding may affect local areas or the entire surface area of a bed.2. Care should be taken when releasing the flood to avoid hydraulically overloading the humus tanks and washing solids into the final outflow channel. effects and solutions are explained in Table 6. Any existing oxygen is quickly depleted and the biofilm growths become anaerobic and loosen or liquefy. Improve screening. Long term Install or improve recirculation systemto increase hydraulic load to necessarylevel. Rapidbiofilmgrowth and clogging of voids. Medium unsuitable. Percolation through the bacteriabed is either very slow or non-existent. Increaserecirculation to avoid larvalbuild-up. Accumulates in the voids between the media.1 Ponding arid spring sloughirig slough the recirculation rate should be increased to preventthe clogging of the medium. Stopping the flow to a filter for several hours will cause the biofilmto dry out and it can be removed or loosened using a rake. Effect Temporary Periodically washout using pressure washeror by stopping distributor over affected area. Manually dig out the excess or wash out by increasing flow. Poor primary settlement. Increase recirculation. the percolating filter can be flooded or dried out in order to remove excess growth. * On olderplants. The flooding or drying out of a bacteria bed are measures of last resort: the primary ponding control method should be to prevent it from occurring in the first placeor to stop it at the early stages using the methods least likely to affect the outflow. The causes. Becomes blocked by biofilmgrowth or smallerpiecesfill voids between larger pieces. To minimise the effects of the spring Ponding TABLE 6.2 PONDING ONPERCOLATINGFILTERS (US EPA. Excessivegrowthof insect larvaeor snails.2. Manual collection of debris and disposal. Manually dig or rake medium to redistribute it and remove excessive biofilm. . This type of ponding generally occurs in percolating filters with small or degraded media and is often solved by the heavy spring slough which is caused by the increased activity of micro-organisms both inside and outside of the biofilm. as outlined in Table6.this may be due to the breakdown ofmedia overyearsor decades.

However.6 BIOFILMS Hydraulic flow problems other than ponding can be caused by the clogging of distribution arms. Loading rates to RBCs shQuld not exceed 5 g soluble BOD/m2. Other RBC media use textured or otherwise modified surfaces with one common purpose: to increase the specific surface area of the medium and thus reduce the overall plant size and cost.2 Humustanks solids in a humus tank outflow High suspended can be caused by a numberofconditions: • heavysloughing ofbiomass from thefilters. by a peripheral drive on the discs or by air bubbles actingtangentially on vanes attached to the discs. if repairs are promptly carried out. leaves or other debris removed. long term effects such as ponding are unlikely. there are many variations on the market supplied by numerous manufacturers.hydraulic or toxic loads. High solidsloads which adversely affect a humus tank and which are associated with increased sloughing of a percolating filter may be solved by: • minimising the solids washed out by operating a higher recirculation the tank. vent pipes or collection underdrains. 6. If the outflow is recirculated from a point between the percolating filter and the humus tank. It may be that recirculation rates are too high. • high hydraulic loading or short-circuiting through the humus tank. Anaerobic biofilms do not adhere to the support medium very well. the maximum hydraulic load to a humustank must not be exceededin doingthis. The problem is often remedied by increasing the frequency of sludge withdrawal from the tank so that dissolved oxygen does not become depleted thus preventing anoxic conditions from developing in the firstplace. Floating sludge in a humus tank is generally causedby gasification or denitrification occurring in the consolidated sludge at the bottom of the tank. free and immersed) for settled waste water or 7. The rotation of the discs is driven either by a geared motorconnected directly to the shaft. while treatment efficiency may suffer in the short term. Highhydraulic loads result ifthe tank is too small for the flow being passed through it. • • shock organic.d for raw waste water. Most RBCs are supplied as proprietary package plants often in conjunction with package primary and secondary settlement tanks and thus plants can easily have additional units put on-line or taken off-line. Refer to manufacturers' literature for significant variations. This flexibility of operation of RBCs has been a major selling point particularly with smaller customers. the flow is not slowed down enough for all of the settleable solids to fall from suspension. that is.2. recirculation rates can be increased to dilute incoming organic loads or toxins.3 ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTORS The rotating biological contactor (RBC) is a biofllm process in which the biofilm support medium is cycled between being submerged where it comes into contact with the waste water and being emergedwhere the biofllm is exposed to air.12. Percolating filters are less susceptible to shock loads than other biological processes but There are a large varietyof support mediaon the market but the characteristic unit consists of closely spaced (20-30 mm apart) plastic discs 1-3 m in diameter rotating around a horizontal shaft. It is important that these are inspected regularly and any rags. Recirculation pump failure during periods of high flow can increase the effective organic load to a percolating filter and. Proper design and maintenance of the tank and particularly the outflow weirs should prevent this from happening. 55 the knock-on effects are often seen at the humus tanks due to poor settleability or carry over of solids. Short-circuiting may be caused by a buildup of consolidated solids in the cornerof tanks or by poor inflow distribution or by uneven outflow weirs (all weirs shouldbe set to the same height). All unit processes shouldbe protected from shock loads. and sludge floatedby denitrification.5 g total BOD/m2.and rate before increased sloughing of biomass occurs. then the latter is unaffected by the increased hydraulic loads. Not all RBC media are discs. • ensuring there is no short-circuiting through • removing settled solids as frequently as possible while still allowing for good consolidation to occur. 6. Shock loads are best dealt with prior to the percolating filter plant.d (expressed in terms of the total surface area of media. .

nitrification. Fat and grease can leave deep deposits on the biodiscs thus reducing the available treatment area. The sludge is often returned to the primary settlement tank for cosettlement or stabilisation.35 mIs so the rotation frequency will depend on the disc diameter. settlement stage. the sludge production and how it is separated the requirement or not of a separate secondary the outflow characteristics. There are many configurations. from the liquors. shapes. A biofilm is attached to and grows on a submerged medium 'which may be under active aeration.56 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER overcome by using stronger shafts and bearings and self-start motors with sufficient strength to overcome any imbalances on the biodiscs. For this reason. BOD removal. Although common in the past. 6. and the relationship with other processunits. It is important not to allow bridging of the biofllm between discs. This is often due to a low hydraulic loading. the term 'submerged filter' also refers to units which do not have any aeration equipment and which do not support biological growth. Septicity of settledsludge is remedied by removing the sludge more frequently. suspended solids removal). sizes and media available and the different systems can be differentiated by: thedirection of flow: upflow or downflow. but have probably been best known as BAFs. Some RBCs suffer from grit and sludge settlement in the aeration stage. generation of a light feathery sludge which does not settle well. Tapered spacing of discs in an RBC.6 ROTATING BIOLOGICAL FIGURE CONTACTOR The speed of rotation of the biodiscs should not exceed 0. variety Submerged filters They have been called submerged biological aerated filters and biological aerated flooded filters. If the RBC stops the emerged biomass will become exposed to the air and it maydry out and break off the discs. the term used in this manualwill be submergedfilters. Scrapers between the discs have been used to prevent the biofilm from exceeding a certain depth. Many RBCs operate in a plug flow mode with little back-mixing of waste water: This is accomplished by having a number of compartments with weirs or other separators betweenstages. the organic and hydraulic loading rates which depend on the function (e. There is little natural erosion of biomass so backwashing is required periodically to prevent the unit from becoming clogged due to excessive biomass growth. allows for high rates of biofilm growth in the initial stages of the process. this problem has largelybeen . 6. 6.1 PRINCIPLE OFOPERATION The sludge produced by an RBC is settled in a secondary settlement tank. Odours have been associated with biodiscs but these are generally caused by organic overloads or septicity caused by deep biofilms or settlement of sludge in the aeration tank. with larger spaces at the upstream end.g. Organic overloads may be remedied by providing additional treatment units or by recirculating the outflow to dilute the incoming waste water. rate and may be associated with the filters combine someof the principles Submerged of thebiofilm and activated sludge processes. However.4 SUBMERGED FILTERS are marketed under a wide of names for a wide variety of purposes. The rotation of the biodiscs must also prevent settlement of solids in the aeration tank. A fast rotation speed may erode the biofilm partiy by the scouring action of the water and partly by centrifugal force and a slow rotation speed may not sufficiently aerate the biofilmor erode excess biomass. this is caused by the septicity of the settled material and should be treated as an earlywarning to desludge the aerationtank.4. the aeration of aerobic processes or the nonaeration of anoxic processes. this will result in a serious imbalance in the distribution of weight on the disc medium which may cause the shaft to fracture when the RBC is re-started.

The smallest media used are for suspended solids removal wherethere is no aeration. 6.4. Some manufacturers sell both upflow and downflow systems. although cheaper versions have been developed.4 AERATION SYSTEM Blowers and aeration equipment similar to that used in activated sludge are often used.3. Plastic media have been found to be most durable and least likely to break up. and . Mediatypes are basedaround: • structured media which are similar to that used in percolating biotowers and may be used in eithermode.6 BI0F!LMs 57 6. the process is a physical filtration. Directionof liquidflow Liquid flow nozzles • buoyant random granular media used in upflow reactors which range in size from 4 mm to 10 mm and are madeof plastics such as polyethylene. Typically.25-2. Some of the advantages of each mode of operation are shown in Table 6. Sunken media reactors have used lateral aeration pipes with fine to coarse sparge holes of 1-2 mm diameter with separate pipes for outflow collection and backwash water provision.4. flow can travel either upwards or downwards. FIGuIu 6.4. The smallermediaremove a • 0. expanded shale and plastic extrusions can be used in eithermode. Media which do degrade can exit the reactor with the outflow or clog up the interstices causing short-circuiting ofliquid. cost.7 SPARGE PIPES FOR AERATION Additional capacity is required in the aeration equipment to provide backwash air. Smaller media may be used for nitrification where less biofilm growth occurs and the reaction rate is much slower. .dayfor nitrification. this is provided by additional standby or dedicated air blowers although variable speed blowers are also used.4.5 LOADING RATES Loading rates are similar to or higher than conventional aeration plants: In terms ofsize. larger proportion of solids. More conventional rates are of the order of 1-4 rn/hr. submerged filters do not depend on gravity to draw the flow downwards through a bed of media. Combined air/liquid laterals have been developed which provide aeration and liquid flow to and from the base ofa reactor(Figure6.2 UPFLOW OR DOWNFLOW Unlike percolating filters. • hydraulic loading rates up to a maximum for suspended solids removal processes of about 10 rn/hr.0 kgBOD/m3.25-1. 6.3 MEDIA SELECTION The choice of medium used depends to some extent on whether upflow or downflow mode is used. 6. the largest media will be used for carbonaceous oxidation as maximum void space is needed for rapid biofilm growth. Smooth surfaces are acceptable in carbonaceous oxidation as maximum sludge removal is desirable. Media are chosen for their properties of surface roughness and specific surface area (SSA).7). (Calculatedfrom: m3 flow appliedlhourper m2 media bed surface area. durability and size distribution. • 0. Smooth media are used in order to ensure maximum solids removal during backwash. Because the medium is submerged. m3/m2.0 kgNH3-N/m3.hr= m/hr). Sparge holes • packed (sunken) random granular media whichrange in size from 2 mm to 10 mm and are made up of materials as diverse as volcanic pumice. polypropylene or expanded polystyrene whose specific gravity is one or just less thanone. The pipework must also be sized adequately to accommodate the increased pressure. A roughened surface ensures that all the biomass is not removed during backwash and that re-start is as rapid as possible.day for carbonaceous oxidation (expressed in terms of m3 total empty bed contact volume).

upward flow Effluent collection to backwash water storage tankand further treatment Backwash liquor outlet inlet inlet & backwashwaterinlet Waste Floating granular media. downward flow Waste water inlet_-! U I—' outlet . upwardflow •— I -l Backwash water reservoir collection to further treatment Dirty waste water Medium Aerationinlet I Cleaned waste water Air Waste water Sludge —inlet Sludge outlet FIGURE 6. Backwashliquor _Aeration inlet .. • •. • 1 Effluen collection to backwashwater storagetank and further treatment & backwash waterinlet Sunken granular media.8 SUBMERGEDBIOLOGICALAERATEDFILTERS .58 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER Sunken granular media.

Washwater reservoirsitsabove medium so no additional wash water tanks needed. Less intermixing or intergrading of granular media occUrs. air flow is increased by 2-3 times to expand the medium and dislodge excessive attached or interstitial solids. such as rags. Morecomplete use ofthe media depth. This allows for more successful stratification for nitrification. the hydraulic head loss acrossthe bed increases. scour 6. Off-gases are scrubbed by clean outflow at top of reactor. Upflow systems with a raised aeration grid will allow denitrification if a carbon source is applied. Variations in the sequence for backwashing granular media exist depending on the manufacturer and type of process but the basic sequence is as follows: • • inlet flow stops. the bed remainssubmerged. Fewer odours. 1993) Advantages Upflow submerged filters Good inflow distribution across' the bottom of a bed. Separatebackwash water tanks mean a smaller depth of water above the aerators so smallerheadlosses result.and stopped. Using tightly packed granular media. Mediaand inflow channels are more accessible for maintenance.4. combined with the air scour. This is called the air scour. air stripping ofvolatilecompounds can occur with air passing throughdirty wastewater in the top of the tank.6 BACKWASH REQUIREMENTS / AIR SCOUR Excessive • bacterial slime growth (as in percolating filters) can cause clogging of the medium. Advantages tDownflowsubmerged filters The media acts as a physiéal barrierto block any debris. The • air is' continuesflushing out the bed. backwash water is introduced (either upflow or downflow) and.3 UPFLOW ORDOWNFLOWSUBMERGED FILTERS (Uptoneta!. As biomass builds up on the medium and it becomes more clogged. into place. washes the loosened solids from the reactor. In downflow. These do not need to be as large as the biological reactors becauseof increased head loss can be used as a trigger for backwash to take place. it may completely block the bed in time. hydraulic erosion during normal operation does not occur so backwashing of the medium bed clears it of excessive growth. Some reactors combine a relatively low organic loading rate with nitrification while othersrequire additional reactors operated in series in order to nitrify. Research on pilot scale has claimed better reaction kinetics probably due to more efficientdistribution of air and liquid and hence more effective use of reactorvolume. the higher hydraulic loading rates that are possible. Reduced localised headloss build-up and increased possible flow velocities.6 BIçWILMs 59 TABLE 6. which could not be accessedat thebase of an upflow system. Most biological submerged filters require a solids removal stage to remove any residual suspended solids from the outflow.backwash takes place on a timed basis with headloss being used as an override in abnormal hydraulic or organic loads. Suspended solids become trapped throughout the full depth. Submerged gravel or sand filters are often used. Backwash water • water scourstops and the medium settles back . Other downflow reactors use a raised aeration grid such that the bottom of the bed is unaerated and acts as a physical filter. Moreusually. Smallerprocessair volumes and headlosses are claimed.

because of the cost of operating large blowers. treating the outflow from existingplant. excessive biomass growth and grit settlement on the reactor floor may cause hydraulic blockages and shortcircuitingto occur.60 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER normal flow is re-introduced. 6. or of aerobic submerged filters may the DO in the tank is continuously measured and the blowerscontrolled accordingly. the layers containing the heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteriashould not become mixed up as the autotrophswill be unable to compete effectively against the heterotrophs. Structured mediawill also satisfy this function. 6.e. in the case of some upflow reactors. because of the slower growth rate of nitrifying bacteria. backwashing at least once every 24 hours. larger plants may include airflow controls based on one of the following criteria: during periodsof high flow. The recovery period must not be longer than the backwash frequency. This is called the recovery period. It is stored in separate 6. Some of the applications include: additional carbonaceous capacity operating in parallel with existingplant. additional nitrification capacity operating in series with existing plant. the rate of removal is greater than the growth rate.8). The protocol can be governed eitherby flowmeters or by pre-programmed diurnal flow variations. anoxic pre-treatment for denitrification and organic loadreduction to downstream existing plant.and tertiary polishingor solids removal operating after secondary settlement. This technology is frequently used in activated sludge processes. preliminary many have been used to extendthe capacity of existingplants. the tightly packed nature of the medium ensures an outflow which is low in suspended solids.4. Due to the high rate of biomass growth in reactors designed for carbonaceous oxidation.8 RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER UNIT PROCESSES While many submerged aeratedfilters have been as new applied plant incorporated with works. Frequently where available land area does not permit expansion in conventional plant. moving bed biofilmreactorsmay require periodic removal ofmaterial settledon the floor. will require backwashing at frequencies between weekly and monthly depending on the organic load. Thus.7 OUTFLOW CHARACTERISTICS High quality outflows are possible using submerged filters due to their intensity of operation and the concentration of biomass supported by the biological units. Where carbonaceous BOD removal and nitrification are to be carriedin one unit operation then a submerged aerated filter with a medium that will remainstratifiedduring backwash should be used. Solids removal reactors are backwashed at least daily and often more frequently depending on the solids load. many smaller plantsoperate using a continuous minimum air flowrate with little regard for the resulting oversupply during periods of low flow or low organic loading. Although structured media reactors do not generally require frequent backwash. on some processes the firstflush of outflow needs to be recycled because of large concentrations of suspended solids. Sucha medium will typically be a heavy granular sunken medium which expands but does not become mixed during the air and water scours. On a monthly basis. However. scouring of the medium using high hydraulic loading rates will remove excess biomass and draining the liquid through purpose installed valves in the reactor floor will flush out any settled solids or grit.4.9 DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONTROL The operation be adversely affected by a lack of dissolved oxygen. i. Reactoroutflow is generally used for flushing the clean backwash water tanks or.e. The backwash frequency will vary depending on thefunctionofthefilter and on the growth rate of the micro-organisms inside.4. reactors will require medium during backwash. Similarly. submerged filters may achieve the expansion required in a smaller footprint. If the frequency of backwash of nitrifying reactors is too high. i. i. the nitrifying bacteria may be washed out. In filtration units. above the medium (see Figure6.e. additional blower capacity is brought on line either by ramping up variable speed blowersor by starting extra units. Nitrifying reactors. .

rags. Odours may result particularly from downflow filters (see Table6.2 Mediumloss proprietary submerged filter system on the market. it is relatively easy to cover these units and provide odour abatement processes.4.6 BI0FILMs 6.3) or from waste sludge storage tanks. However.4. During this period an increase in medium loss may be apparent either by observing the outflow or the level of medium in the tank (ifpossible). It is important in such eventsto have sufficient storage capacity (in the wet well for example) for action to be takenin order to avoid untreated effluent being discharged through overflows. .10 COMMON OPERATING PROBLEMS 6.4. This can be controlled by use of acoustic enclosures.6. 6. Possible causes of a blockage may include sediment or grit buildup. 6.4. If the medium settles in the primarysedimentation tank. If it is not buoyant. • an increased hydraulic loading resulting in a greater resistance to flow across the medium bed. if the headloss increases abnormally then an unscheduled backwash may override the system timer. highlights the importance of fine screening of influent waste water where submerged filters The main sources of nuisancein submerged filter plants are odours and noise.3 Power failure Many submerged filter plants are power dependent and in the eventof a power failurewill not operate. Increased headloss across a filter bed maybe caused by: Submerged 61 A medium may begin to break down as it approaches the end of its design life. Due to their compact size. it may settle in pipes or tanks and cause blockages. The designer or operatorshouldassess: Some medium loss takes place from almost every • whetherthe manufacturer has quantified this? • what is the acceptable loss of medium before replacement becomes necessary? and • where does the lost medium go to and what effect will it haveon other unit processessuch as primary settlement tanks. The difficulty in cleaning a submerged medium once it has become fouled by material such as rags. as discussed in section 6. If themedium is buoyant it may end up floating on the surface of primarysettlement tanks or sludge thickeners.4.11 NUISANCE • an increased organic loading resulting in higherbiomass growth rates. Noise nuisance results generally from the operation of aeration blowers.4.10.10. 6.10. pumps and other equipment? Will it be discharged with the plantoutflowand affectthe effluent quality? Most media are lost during backwash and therefore end up in the waste sludge system.1 Unscheduled backwashing filters generally backwash at scheduled times in order to ensure consistency of operation. or • a blockageof the medium or pipework. inefficient air or water scour or uneven distribution of flow betweenfilters. it maycause damage to pumpsor other equipment because of its grittynature. areto be used.


2 THE REMOVAL NEED FOR NUTRIENT 7. biomass weighing 111 kg with COD of 138 kg would be produced. Basically. NH3 + H20 NH4 + OH a Therefore. phosphorus is normally less abundant than nitrogen in freshwater and it is frequently the growth limiting factor regulating algal and plant development. the term 'nutrient' generally refers to compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus which are responsible for enrichment of water bodies and which cause eutrophication which detrimentally impacts on water resources. more than double the COD in a typical waste water.1 DEFINITION OF NUTRIENT REMOVAL In wastewater treatment. The build-up of lime scale on the mediaof these units has been a major problem in their operation. nitrogenis the growth limitingnutrient. However. and they produce more sludge. The ammonia in the stripping air may be removed by two methods: . Nutrient removal involves reducing the concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen in the waste water so as to prevent algal and other photosynthetic aquatic plant growth in the receiving waters. Urban waste water is generally collected and directed to a discharge point or to a treatment plant and thus the point of entry to the aquatic environment can be pinpointedand controlled.1 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL NITROGEN REMOVAL Physico-chemical methods 1992 (Urban Waste Water Treatment) Regulations. have not been widely applied in waste water treatment because: of nitrogen removal • they are generally more expensiveto operate thanbiological treatment.1 Nutrients in the environment come from two major source types: point and diffuse. Diffuse sources may be characterised by run-offfrom agricultural or non-agricultural land.3. this is a relatively small amount when compared to the remainder which must be removed from waste waters where these are deemed to promote excessive enrichment of sensitive water bodies. • they produce a poorer effluent quality than biologicaltreatment. a dischargecontaining30 mg/i N has the potential toproduce a CODof600 mg/i in an equivalent volume ofwater. if the pH of a wastewater is increased and the liquid brought into contact with air.3. illustrates the effect of nutrients on the environment. In relationto plant needs. It is now well established that phosphorus and nitrogen are the principal nutrients controlling algal and rooted plant growth in water. provision has been made for the definitionof sensitive areas. it is the conversion and removal of compounds containing nitrogen and phosphorus so as to avoid enrichment of water bodies. Similarly. 1992. In the Environmental Protection Agency Act. NUTRIENT REMOVAL PROCESSES 7. Cooling or other simple towers may be used as contactors and lime or caustic soda for pH adjustment. algae can be representedby C1H263O110N16P. The following example from Randall et al. It is termeda point source. If 1 kg ofphosphorusis completely assimilated by algae and used to manufacture new biomass (from photosynthesis and inorganic elements). Article 5(6) of the UWWT Directive (91/271/EEC) requires that the identification of sensitive areas is reviewed at intervals of no more than four years. In estuarine and coastal water.3 MECHANISM AND APPLICATION OF NITROGEN REMOVAL 7. This assumesthat Air stripping ofammonia As the pH increases. In the course of biological waste water treatment nutrients are taken up by microorganisms. a greater proportion of ammonia converts fromNH4 to NH3. 1994. Theseare more difficult to control and reduce. a gradient will exist across the gas/liquid interface and ammoniawill be strippedto the air. Thus a discharge containing 6 mg/i P could potentially result in COD production in an equivalentvolume ofreceiving water of828 mg/i. Ten areas have been identified based on the sensitivity of receiving water bQdies to nutrient enrichment and eutrophication and are listed in Appendix D. 7.7 NUTRIENT REMOVAL 63 7. 7.1. Within an urban waste water treatment plant nitrogen and phosphorusmay also be removed from return liquors arising in sludge dewatering plants.

N03 Nitric oxide. denitrification (reduction of nitrate sequentially to nitrite. Anoxic zones can occupy 25-40% of the total capacity of an activated sludge lane and can therefore provide significant savings in the energy required for aeration. Subsequent dechlorination of the waste water stream may be required.2). NH.5H20+ 2. N03 4. nitrified effluent again provides the nitrate but the carbon source is provided by dosing a carbon rich chemical such as methanol (CH3OH). Nitrous oxide. On lowly loaded plants. The nitrate and nitrite produced during nitrification become the oxygen source for heterotrophic bacteria which utilise the available BOD. In the activated sludge process. nitricoxide. these conditions will be providedin a separate reactor which may precede or succeed the biofilters themselves.N2U Nitrogen.1.2 BIOLOGICAL NITRIFICATION AND DENITRIFICATION The processes for biological nitrogenremoval can be incorporated or retrofitted into both activated sludge and percolatingfilter plants. a stepwise reaction takes place which results in the conversion ofanimonium to nitrogen gas.3. If the reactor succeeds the biofilter (Figure 7. Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification is possible on some proprietary submerged filters (see Figure 7. the actual organic load carried forwardto the aerated section of a plant is reduced. up to 25% additional oxygenation and volumetric capacitymaybe required.÷l. Undesirable by-products may result from the chlorination process. This allows for more complete treatment of an effluent or improved nitrification downstream. or by passing the gas through a scrubber to redissolve the ammonia in water which can be treated separately to the mainprocess stream. what is required are: bacteria.5H+ l. oxidised nitrogen as the oxygen source and a carbon source. The overall mechanism follows the route of nitrification (oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and nitrate) and source and recirculated nitrified biofilter effluent (either settled or unsettled. In essence. Sludge production is high when operated at high loading rates.5N+1 .3. thereby increasing its BOD. shock loads and hydraulic washout mean that nitrifiers require more stable conditions and longer hydraulic and solids retention times than heterotrophic carbonaceous bacteria. if the reactor precedes the biofilter.6:1 will achieve a 95-99% conversion to N2. 7. denitrifying Nitrification Ammonia.3). NO 4. Denitrification is an anoxic process which takes place in the absence of dissolved oxygen. Organic carbon from the incoming wastewater and nitrate provided in the RAS are utilised by the microorganisms. the natural zeolite clinoptilolite is selective for the ammonium ion in preference to other ions present in solution. In utilising the oxygen contained in the RAS to satisfy incoming BUD. . This is termed pre-denitrification and is illustrated in Figure 7. 7. particularly in plug flow tanks. Nitrite. nitrification can occur automatically due to the capacity remaining after carbonaceous oxidation.64 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER by passing the gas through a filter for biological removal. For example. N2 In modifying an existingplant for nitrification. A filtered waste water can be passed through a bed of zeolite to effecta 90-97% ammonium removal.1.5HOCl In percolating filter processes. Such dosing processes are controlled to avoid excess methanol getting into the effluent stream. nitrous oxide and nitrogen).3.1.3 Breakpoint chlorination By addingchlorine to a waste water. Anoxic zones may have the added benefit of improving the settleability of mixed liquor and of helping to control bulking and filamentous bacterialgrowth. Submerged unaerated reactors are generally used and good results have been achievedat high hydraulic and organic loading rates.5C1 A stoichiometric ratio of C12:NH3-N = 7. depending on the natureofthe reactor) provides the nitrate.2 Ion exchange Zeoliteshavebeen found effective in many water. settled sewage is used as the carbon -' O. 7. N02 4. Their slower growth rate and susceptibility to conditions are providedin a separate anoxic zone at the front end of a nitrifying plant. Nitrite. waste water and industrial applications as molecular filters which can distinguish molecules at the ionic level. N02 4. Nitrate. Conventionally. NH3 4' Denitrification Nitrate. Anoxic zones are low dissolved oxygen areas or tanks with weir or baffle overflows to the aeration lanes.



Mechanical mixers are generally requiredto keep the mixed liquorin suspension. Biological denitnfication processes generally recirculate nitrified effluentas a source of nitrate. This means that 100% removal can never be achieved. Only the nitrate contained in the recirculated stream will be removed; thus, referring to Figure 7.1, if the recycle ratio is 1:1, then a maximum 50% NO3 removal is possible,

i.e. only half of the flow is recirculated. If the recycle ratio is 3:1, then a 75% removal is possible. Obviously, the recycle ratio becomes limitingdue to hydraulic constraints on the plant and allowances must be made for periods of high flow. As many plants are designed for a throughput of no more than 3 DWF, there are practical limitations on the amount of NO3
removal possible.

1:1 recirculation ratio = 50%removal


Denitrification reactor

Alternate recirculationpoint


2:1 recirculation ratio = 66% removal

Q,m3/d Biological treatment

or a.s. anoxic zone

Pumping Secondarysettlement chamber ortertiary filtration


Nitrified C-source




Effluent Anoxic









exists in three main forms in waste water; ortho-phosphate, polyphosphate and organic phosphate. During aerobic treatment, the latter two forms are converted to ortho-phosphate which is the easiest form to precipitate using chemical addition. Metal salts are generallyused for the precipitation of phosphate according to the reaction:

The Fe3 oxidation state is the active form of the iron salts. Fe2 must therefore be oxidised to Fe31 before it becomes viable. Therefore, if Fe2 is dosed into a primary settlement tank, it will gradually become oxidised as it passes through the treatment plant. Active Fe3 is thus available after the biological stage to react with any newly available ortho-phosphate. This can avoid the need for expensive -metering equipment and dosing of chemicals near an effluent discharge point. Chemical dosing immediately before a percolating filter plant may cause a buildup of insoluble precipitate on the surface of the filter
bed which can cause ponding. Adequate hydraulic loading rates will reduce the effects of ponding. Phosphorus removal chemicals can be corrosive and hazardous substances and due regard must be paid to the appropriate health and safety literature. Tanks for liquid storage must be constructed and bunded to the appropriate building regulations and chemical deliveries by contractors should be fully supervised. Dosing pumps are generally of the adjustable diaphragm or peristaltic type and are themselves bunded or contained within the bounds of the tank bund.

M3 + P043

—÷ MPO4

of ferric (Fe3), and ferrous (Fe2) iron and aluminium are most suitable (Table 7.1). Ferric sulphate has been commonly applied although ferrous sulphate is increasingly being used. The metal salt can be appliedat a numberof different points:
Suiphates and chlorides prior to primary sedimentation;

at the biological stage; or priorto the secondary clarification stage. Figure 7.4 illustrates the most commonly used
locations. Effluent dosing phosphate concentrations of 0.1 mg/I P are theoretically possible depending on the chemical used and on the dosing point, although a concentration of 0.2 mg/i is more likely to be achievedin practice.

A control system for

chemical dosing may be the process performs required satisfactorily and to minimise overuse of the chemical. The control regime can use the following criteria: ensure continuous constant dosing rate - based on an average influent load; attenuation of the load will take place in the treatment plant; timed constant dosing rate - e.g. for periods of known high flow/load; on-line feed-forward control - chemical dose is proportional to the measured flowrate or P concentration; and redox potential or feedback control - chemical dose is proportional to the measured redox or effluent P concentration; this needs empirical setup.





ratio 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

Effluent mg/IP 2 to 3

Dosingpoint (see Figure 7.4) Simultaneous




to 2


Fe2, Al3

Pre Post
0.5 to 1 Simultaneous

Fe2 Fe2, Al3
AI3 Fe3

It must be remembered when dosing chemicals to waste waters to ensure that concentrations in the
effluent stream do not significantly affect the receiving water. Any probesused will need to be maintained and calibrated at specified intervals.

2.0 1.5





Simultaneous precipitation


Primary settlement

Biological treatment



7.4.2 BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL Biological phosphorus removal is dependent mainly on the ability of the bacterium Acinerobacter spp. to release phosphate under anaerobic conditions and to absorb it under aerobic conditions. The role of this bacteriumin the process has only recently become understood and its basic biochemistry is illustrated in Figure 7.5. The mechanism of P removal by Acinetobacter spp. follows this sequence:

• the ortho-phosphate is metabolised by the cell and excess quantities are stored in the cell as

poly-phosphate. The storage of excess phosphate is known as 'luxury uptake' of P and it is this particularability of the cell that is exploited in the nutrientremoval process.

• under

anaerobic conditions, readily biodegradable organic matter (i.e. BOD) becomes fermented to short chain fatty acids (SCFA): These are stored in the cell as polyhydroxyl butyrates (PHB). This is fuelled from the energy released by the hydrolysis of storedpoly-phosphates;

• under aerobic conditions the stored PHB

oxidised and energy is released allowing the assimilation of soluble ortho-phosphate;

Thus, if the cell is cycled between anaerobic and aerobic zones in an activated sludge plant, P will be alternately released and taken up. Growth of the Acinetobacrer population occursas a result of organic matterutilisation and this excess must be removed as waste sludge. Phosphorus is thus removed from the waste water stream via the waste activated sludge. The ability of Acinetobacter to assimilate organic matter in the anaerobic zone gives it a competitive edge over non-facultative heterotrophic bacteria; therefore its population can grow to sufficient size to remove large amounts of P. Bacterial selectionof this type is similar to that which may be used in controlling the growth of filamentous bacteriain bulkingactivated sludges.




Anaerobic conditions Cell

P released from cell
ortho-phosphate energy

Aerobic conditions

LuxuryP uptaketo cell
phb polyhydroxyl butyrate poly-P. = poly phosphate SCFA = shortchainfatty acid, e.g. acetate, butyrate


7) began as a denitrifying reactor when it was observed that it removed large quantities of phosphorus. contains the removed Recycle ratios vary from process to process and will depend on local conditions and on empirically derived operating conditions and parameters and will generally be set up when a plant is commissioned. which is now P-free is recycled as normal to the aerobiczone where it readily absorbs more P. • sufficient SCFA must be present to ensure there is sufficient PHB stored for use in the aerobic zone. Some weak waste waters are deficient and require the addition of SCFAs (typically as dosed chemicals like acetic acid or as septic primarysludge liquors which are generated either in sludge storage tanks or purpose built fermenters). phosphorusis removed with the primary sludge. nitrification and phosphorus uptake. the sludge must be kept aerobic. • the anoxic zone ensures that nitrate is removed and prevents oxygenation of the anaerobic zone (where the anoxic zone precedes the anaerobic zone). Thus a combination of the above techniques are applied. Improvements to the Bardenpho have added anaerobic zones and the result was the modified Phoredoxor A2/O process. Under anaerobic conditions the phosphate contained in the waste activated sludge will be released. If the sludge is anaerobically digested. combined biological nutrient removal (BNR) is most viable at present in the activated sludge process. Temporary SCFA supplements may •be required for such occasions. • enoughDO must remain in the settlement tank to ensure that the settled sludge remains aerobic and that P is not released to the liquid phaseand hence to the outflow. thus.on storage. The following outlines the function of each zone in the combined N & Premoval plant: FIGURE 7. A number of patented variations of the activated sludge process are available as retrofits or as new plant. and • dissolved oxygen and nitrate must be excluded from the anaerobic zone.5 COMBINED BIOLOGICAL N AND P REMOVAL Although someresearchhas been carried out on biological nutrient removal in submerged filters. Thus. Wet weather can dilute a normally strong waste water. The P-rich supernatant is dosed with lime to form a calcium phosphate precipitate and this is settled out in the primary settlement tank. and • as the P is contained within the solid fraction. In this process. A secondanoxiczone was removed as denitrification rates were slow due to a lack of carbonaceous material. avoid returning P-rich supernatant liquors to the mainprocess stream. The proportion The Bardenpho process (Figure 7.68 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER A number of process conditions must be met to ensure successful P removal (Day. concentrates the mixed liquor andprovidesthe return activated sludge and the waste activated sludge which phosphorus. so rainfall can upsetP release. The sludge. which must be kept aerobic. Some of these are illustrated below. the clarifier. 7. good solids capture is necessary in the secondary settling tank. a sidestream (30-35%) of the return activated sludge is taken to an anaerobic 'stripper' tank where P is released into solution. was the first combined N and P removal system. High recycle ratios of nitrified effluent from the aerobic zone to the anoxic zone ensure a minimal amount of nitrate is returned to the anaerobic zone thus minimising the amount of oxygen in the . The PhoStrip process (Figure 7. Nitrogen is removed by exposing the RAS to anoxic conditions before returning it to the aerationbasin.6). 1995) and these include: of nitrate removed is dependent upon the recirculation ratio: the aerobic zone performs carbonaceous oxidation. developed in the 1960s and 1970s.6 PHOSTRIP PROCESS • the role of the anaerobic zone is to provide an oxygen free zone for the generationof SCFAs and the release ofortho-phosphate.

A multi-celled (at least 2 cells per zone) version of the UCT is marketed in the USA as the VIP (Virginia Initiative Plant). anaerobic zone.8 UCT.under development removal .7 NUTRIENTREMOVAL 69 system and maxiniising the P release. VIP PROCESS The UCT (University of Cape Town) process (Figure 7. This provides for some flexibility of operation and for the best empirically derived treatment configuration to be used. When the anoxic zone effluent is recirculated to the Many new and retrofitted plants have used variable speed pumps and flexible piping to connect the process stages and to provide recycles. A2/O.8) protects the anaerobic zone fully from any nitrate contained in the return activated sludge. it is nitrate free thus ensuring maximum P release.7 MODIFIED PHOREDOX. TABLE 7. Bench scale or pilot studies are advisable prior to applying BNR to ensure that the waste wateris suitable. Close control of the volume of mixed liquor recycle ensures good nitrate removal. Anoxic Arroxic Anaerobic WAS WAS 0 Anaerobic Aerobic [J Aerobic FIGURE 7. V separate reactor required V separate reactor required V denitrification using external C-source ChemicalP precipitation Biological P V V : . The nitrate rich RAS is returned to the anoxic zone where it is mixed with the mixed liquor recycle to remove all residual nitrate. 3STAGE BARDENPHOPROCESS FIGURE 7. The a BardenphofPhoredox process requires COD:Total N ratio greater than 10 to ensure complete denitrification and a COD:P ratio greaterthan40 to maximise phosphorus removal. V not applied V not usually applied V V complex.2 NUTRIENTREMOVALPROCESSSELECTIONAND APPLICATION Activated sludge Biological V' Percolating filter RBC Submerged filter V V V nitrification Additional capacity orupgradeson separate units generallyrequired Biological V V separate reactor requiredwith recirculation .1 I' separate reactor required with recirculation V denitrification usingsewageas C-source Biological V unusual .


the pH and the concentration of interfering substances which may reduce the effectiveness ofthe disinfectant. 8. It is a strong oxidisingagent and reacts with any organic matter present in the water. salmonella and enteric viruses. 200 of 1994. The principal physical methods rely on enhanced removal of solids and membrane technologies. the type and concentration of chemicals used. Chlorination of treated urban waste water can result in the production of toxic compounds including trichloromethanes and chloramines that can have longterm adverse effects on the beneficial uses of the waters to which they are discharged. As a result of the large concentrations of organic matter in waste waters. therefore the lowerthe pH. 230 of 1996. The pathogenic micro-organisms to be removed include faecal coliforms and streptococci. and the bathing water directive (76/160/EEC). Disinfection has not been extensively practised in Europe to date. On contact with water. Chemical disinfectants include chlorine. Chlorine may be applied in a number of forms such as chlorine gas. as implemented by S. the more effective is the process.!. For complete disinfection. However. further treatment is necessary. higher doses are required (than in drinking water treatment) in order to achieve similar levels of disinfection.I. - NH2CI+H2O (monochloramine) NHC12 + H2O (dichioramine) NHCI2 + HOC1 Nd3 + H20 (nitrogen trichloride) The main techniques for the disinfection ofurban waste water fall into threemain categories: Chemical. and Irradiation.3 OZONEDISINFECTION Ozone gas (03) can be used as a disinfectant even though it does not leave a residual in the water being treated. Dechlorination of discharges is possible but cost comparisons will be required due to additional process equipment and their associated costs. Activated sludge and biofllm systems will disinfectthe waste water to some degree but few achieve greater than 90% -removal of pathogenic micro-organisms. Monochloramine and dichloramine are the dominant species and are less potent disinfectants than hypochlorous acid. in the USA a large proportion of discharges are disinfected using chlorine. depending on how much treatment the waste water has received (that is. ozone and hydrogen peroxide. HOCI is by far the more potent disinfectant. sanitaryauthorities mayin futurehaveto consider theuse of disinfection. Chlorine will also react rapidly with ammonia in the waste water to produce a series of chloramines in solution as follows: NH3 + HOd NH2C1 + HOC1 Disinfection of urban waste water is the destruction of disease bearing micro-organisms or pathogens. 155 of 1992 and S. DISINFECTION 8. Ultra-violet (UV) light is the principalmethod of irradiation used. sodium hypochlorite or chlorine dioxide. Physical. on how much organic matter is remaining).8 DISINFECTION 71 8. the residual remaining. The factors influencing the performance of chemical disinfectants are the contact time. It is a highly reactive oxidising . in order to comply with EU directives such as: • • the shellfish directive (79/923/EEC).1 INTRODUCTION 8. It is distinct from sterilisation which involves the complete destruction of all organisms in the liquid being treated. the efficiency of mixing. as implemented by S. Gray (1989) quotes dosing rates ranging from 2 to 15 mg C12/1.I. elemental chlorine is hydrolysed and ionises to hypochiorous acid (HOCI) and the hypochiorite ion (OCI). and contact times of 20-30 minutes.2 CHLORINE DISINFECTION Chlorine is widely used in drinking water treatment for the disinfection of surface and groundwater.

viruses and inorganic ions • • • theelimination ofodours. The effectiveness of UV radiationdepends on the dose received by the micro-organisms and this depends on: • • the intensity of the radiation (the most effective wavelengthis 254nm). Disinfection is typically achieved within5 minutesat dosage ratesof 5-50 mg 0311. • • thecontact time at therequired dose.1 ppm. 0.the off-gas is destroyed either catalytically using metal oxide catalysts or in a furnace heated to 300°C.1-1 Ultrafiltration 0.72 TREATME4TOF WASTE WATER agent and rapidly forms free radicals on reaction with water. This means that a person working near an ozone handling area should be able to smell ozone at concentrations far below the OEL. The gas is bubbled hardness salts. The advantages ofozonedisinfection include: Membrane type Microfiltration Size (Mm) Suitable to remove bacteriaand someviruses bacteriaand viruses bacteria.02 ppm.1 MEMBRANETYPE AND APPLICATION through the water being treated and any remaining ozone in. Membrane technology TABLE 8.1 Reverse osmosis <0. Periodic cleaning therefore required. thepath length from the source to the microorganisms. Lamps are prone to interference from chemical constituents of the waste water such as ferric and . • • the high costofproduction.1 details the uses of sometypesofmembranes. Table 8.001-0. and the potentialto cause localisedair pollution.4 ULTRA-VIOLET DISINFECTION Ultra-violet light is produced by a special mercury discharge lamp. making its supply dependent only upon a source of power. The odour thresholdof ozone has been reported at 0. the 8-hour occupational exposure limit (OEL) of ozone in air is 0. on how much organic matteris remaining). microfiltration will remove most viruses and therefore the additional expense of ultrafiltration may not be justified. depending on the level of treatment received by the waste water (that is. For example. 8. Ozone reacts with organic matterin the waste water and this ozone demand must be satisfied before efficient disinfection commences. and ozone can be generated from air. the oxidation of residual organic compounds. and the quality of the waste water (particularly with regardto turbidity).5 MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY is an emerging technique for the removal of bacteria and viruses. It is generated on-site in ozone generators by passing dry air or oxygenthrougha high voltage electric field.001 • The disadvantages disinfectant include: of using ozone as a Operators should initially decide on the level of disinfection required and then examine the removal efficienciesof the various options. of the lamps is 8. The membrane pore size dictates the particle sizes whichwill be removed and will also influence the capital and operating costs.

Head lossesin a systemare caused by flow being retarded by the effects of friction between the moving liquid and the walls of the pipe or channel and also by the presence of fittings. • overflow of tanks and channels does not occur. and • in a gravity system. flowsplitters.1 illustrates the head to be overcome by differenttypes ofpumpingsystems. • pipe velocities are adequate for self-cleansing thereby preventing deposition. Pressure is measured in terms ofheight of water. H hfS I pump H reservoir Pump with suction lift Pump with suction head H = hd + h + hid + hfS FIGuIF 9. Properly designed hydraulics are important to ensurethat: Once the waste • flow to unit processes are not exceeded during high flow periods.1 H = hd .2 HEAD LOSSES A fluid will flow through a section of pipe or channel only when a driving force is applied. and is Figure 9. In a gravitysystemthe head is providedby thedifference in level between the inlet and the outlet and is called the static head. This force is the pressure difference over that section of pipe or channel. constrictions. 9. of equalimportance processes are the hydraulic gradients that drive the liquid flow throug4i a plant. HYDRAULICS OF A WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT 9. flowmeters.h + hfd + hfS SOURCE OF PUMPINGflEADLOSSES (New York SDEC. • interstage pumpsareproperly sized. valves. Thus. theenergy providedmust be sufficient to overcome the difference in level plus all headlosses. to ensure that flow is possible in a section ofpipe or channel: • sewer and outfall surcharge is prevented. etc. 1988) . calledthe head. the difference in level must be large enough to accommodate all headlosses. In a pumped system the inlet is lower than the outletand the requiredpumpingheadis produced by a pump.1 INTRODUCTION water treatment plant unit have been selected.9 HYDRAULICS 73 9. • in a pumped system. expressed in meters.

using a nomograph to convert all fittings into equivalent theoretical straight pipe runs. flumes and penstocks. reference jstemea flow Fric should be made to hydraulics. Pipe fittings may be taken into account in the calculation of total head losses usinga number of methods: as an empirically derived percentage increase in total head loss. h hfd is head dueto friction on the discharge side. 1990) Figure 9. and channel obstructions such as weirs. With suction lift (when the source is below the centre line of the pump) this term is positive. Static head standard texts on 9. In designing the hydraulics of a plant. increases with increasing flow rate. weirs. a designer will start at either end and calculate the hydraulic drops or rises back to the opposite end taking all tanks. Static head losses are independent of the liquid flow rate and are only changed by physically altering the system. is the static suction head or the height of liquid between the reservoirand the pump. junctions and flowmeters. channels. For details. hydraulic analyses of waste water treatment plants are carried out using one of a number ofsoftware packages on the market. or using empirically derived formulae whichwill calculate the actual head loss across each individual fitting.000 m3/d. friction losses will account for about 10% of the total losses. Figure 9. is the static discharge headwhichis the height of water standing abovethe pump.3 HYDRAULIC PROFILES FIGURE 9. differenthead losses will existbetween the units.2 illustrates how the resistance to flow caused by static and friction head constitutes the total system head.74 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER H hd is the total headof the system. Depending on the unit processes and the inter-stage connections. peripheral weirs on settlement tanks. In a well sized system.3 shows a hydraulic profile calculated for a plant with a maximum throughput of 15. penstocks and other flow obstructions into account. Head loss due to friction however. Most frequently. valves.2 PUMP SYSTEMHEADCURVE (WPCF. In addition to the above losses. minorhead losses occur as a liquid encounters the following: • pipe fittings such as bends. Site topography can be altered by burying or raising process units: typically to provide sufficient headas far as the outfall. Many waste water treatment plants are constructed on sloping land to take advantage of topography. with suction head (when the source is abovethe centre line of the pump) it is negative as it helps the pump. .1. flow splitting and flow combining chambers. The hydraulic profile will indicate the height to which any return flows (such as return activated sludge) must be lifted to prevent interference with the hydraulics of the plant. pipes. actual losses at a particular treatment plant will be highlysite specific. hf is headdue to friction on the suction side. A hydraulic profile maps out the hydraulic gradient line from the inlet of the waste water treatment plant to the outfall thus ensuring that hydraulic losses have been adequately accounted for. pipe and tank entrances and exits. pipe fittings. Typical lossesare shown in Table 9.

95 Maximumw.8-4.0 0.9 Primary sedimentation Aeration tank Percolating filter .2 4.16 w.3 HYDRAULICPROFILE FOR ASECONDARYWASTEWATERTREATMENTPLANT (Metcalf& Eddy.7 .0 2.0-5.0 5.s.s.0 0.8 20.0 3.5-0. = water surface el. 1991) .000 0.0 0. enlargement.5 6. 22.7 0. the weir freefall allowance and the head allowance for future expansions of the treatment facility should be included.5-4.High rate.9 0.0-10. for plants ofp. 23.Low rate 0.0 3. • profiles are prepared at peak flow (which accounts for the largest head loss through a treatment unit).9-1. profilesare prepared for all flow paths.rock media . average flow and minimum flow.07 to outfall heightsnot to scale Top ofwall el. channels and attachments is the sum of the head losses due to entrance.000 0. = elevation in metres FIGURE 9.1 TYPICAL HEADLOSSES ACROSS VARIOUS TREATMENTUNITS TreatmentUnit Headloss range.0-12. el. • Primarytanks Upstream Units Aerationtanks Final clanfiers el.e.0 8.6-0. The head loss over weirs and other hydraulic controls.7-0.0-4.1 3.0-6.0 1. exit contraction.7-0.5-0. valves and meters. V-notch weir el.8-1.0-8.High rate.8 0.7-1. fittings.9 HYDRAULICS 75 TABLE 9. 23.0-5. in metres.6-0.plastic media sedimentation Secondary Qasim (1994) outlined the basic principles that must be considered when preparing a hydraulic profile through a plant and these are summarised as follows: • the total head loss through connecting pipework. 23.35 V-notch weir V Maximumw. 500 2. gates.s.

is used when selectinga pump. The flowrate of a pump can be checked by the following methods: install a flowmeter.3m/s) in connecting piping and conduits shouldbe maintained to ensure that solids do not settleout. speed and pump discharge. the inlet should discharge at or above the top water level of the vessel. Their operation is characterised by a cavity which cyclically operates as a suction and discharge chamber. • to fill a vessel or a tank of known volume where all other inputs and outlets have been isolated. configuration of the impeller all have an influence on the amount of liquid a pump can handle. (e. friction losses in pressure conduits must be included. Positive displacement pumps are not usually submersible but can be operated using variable speed drives. or -: 9. Most pumps have an optimum range where maximum flow is possible with an acceptable headloss and efficiency. . Archimedean screw pumps are used mainly for lifting raw waste water and for re-lifting return activated sludge. Variable speedcentrifugal pumps which use inverterdrives are widely available and are used to vary impeller speed to change the flowrate. Positive displacement pumps are often selfpriming and some can be allowedto run dry for short periods of time. rotary lobe. The characteristic pumpcurve Figure 9. if it takes 5 minutesto fill 1000 litres. Submersible pumps are fully sealed against water ingress. Centrifugal pumps are more used in commonly pumping waste water while positive displacement pumps are frequently used forpumpingsludge. a minimum velocity (normally taken as O.5). Variable speed control must take into account the need to attain self-cleansing velocities in the dischargepipes.33 Lls). Centrifugal pumps rely on the force imparted to a fluidby a rotating impellerto drive it towardsthe The size. themaximum levels in thereceiving water at theoutfall must be established. Macerators are often required upstream of these pumps in order to protect them from large objects that may block the pump. To ensure a constant fixed head on the pump. Centhfugal pumps can be operatedin a dry well or submerged in a wet well. piston or ram and progressive cavity pumps. It allows a pump to be selected based on the flowrate it is capable of achieving against a certain head of water at a certain efficiency with regard to power input per unit volume pumped. What is being measured is the time it takes to fill or drain a known volume. and the depth and grade of open channel is kept in such a way that the water surface at the design flow corresponds to the hydraulic profile: Examples of positive displacement pumps are diaphragm. The volume that can be pumped is governed by the size ofthe pumpand its speedof rotation.76 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER the total head loss through a treatment plant is the sum of the headlosses in the treatment units and in the connecting pipework and attachments.then the flowrate is 1000 litres/S mm or measure the time it takes 3.g.4 PUMPS Pumps used in waste water treatment fall into two main categories: centrifugal and positive displacement. which is produced by the manufacturer.

1990) Discharge.5 CENTRIFUGALPUMPPERFORMANCE CURVES .9 HYDRAULICS 77 Di Hoist -Discharge Wetwell submersible pump Dry wellpump Discharge Archimedean screw liftpump FIGuI9. lIs -* (WPCF.4 TypitsOFPUMPS AND APPLICATIONS a) Varyingimpeller diameters b) Varyingrotational speed 4 4 EEE 25cm 20cm E Ce 30cm 1750 rpm 1500rpm 1250rpm Discharge. 115 - FIGUIu9.


0.2 SOURCES 10. The potential sources of odours associated with bioflimprocesses include: • • • • • • insufficient oxygen. Table 10.223 Noxious sulphur compounds are generated under anaerobic conditions. given sufficient oxygen. In general.1 INTRODUCTION activities associated with sludge disposal and handling.037 0. a result of hydraulic inadequate wetting of the media.1.01 0. The table also highlights the problemof detecting some ofthese compounds as many are perceived at levels below which they can be detected by modem Oxidised compounds result instrumentation. overloading or clogging.2 lists the more common odour generating processes in waste water treatment plants and ranks them in order of their potential for odourgeneration. they are eventually broken down to carbon dioxide and water.004 0.0012 0. however. These intermediate products are responsible for the "musty"odour associated with biological processes.021 0. • noise.83 Detection threshold. • • visual impact. pests. and • releaseofodorous gases (dissolved in the primaryoutflow) resulting from the discharge over the weir. TABLE 10. CONTROL OF NUISANCE 10. the table shows that the greatest potential for odour generationis associated with preliminary treatment and with - The potential sources of odours associated with primarysettlement include: • inadequate scum removal.1 0 CONTROL OFNUISANCE 79 10.0037 0. then to aldehydes and ketones.01 0. when sufficient oxygen is available in secondary treatment works. then to carboxyacids and finally to carbon dioxideand water.1 ODOURS Ethylmercaptan Chlorophenol 0. from the intermediate breakdown of and fats in the carbohydrates. ppm 0. ponding.000029 0. .00019 0.016 0.1 ODOUR THRESUOLDSOF COMMON ODOROUS GASES The potential nuisances which may arise in connection with a waste water treatment plant are those which relate to: • odour. Though odours can ariseat the secondary treatment stage. Odour thresholds for some odorous gases which have been encountered at waste water treatment plants are illustrated in Table 10.and inadequate ventilation (stagnant airflow). proteins present waste water.0077 - Odours arising from urban waste water treatment plantscan be grouped into two classes. hydrocarbons are broken down to alcohols. OFNUISANCE Allyl mercaptan Ammonia Hydrogen sulphide 10. and Compound Odour threshold.016 - in the caseofsomebioflimprocesses.0026 0. septic conditions as organic overload. and their odour can be very noticeable even at low concentrations.2. and oxidised compoundssuch as aldehydes.00005 0. ppm Acetaldehyde 0.00047 0. namely: Crotylmercaptan Dibutylamine Ethylamine Methylaniine Skatole Pyridine • • reduced compounds such as hydrogen suiphide. • infrequent removal ofsettledsolids.

Biological treatment processes are not generallya major source of odour. peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite. and the sludge removal system.centrifuge.and in the tank (major in the aeration poor mixing ofthe mixed liquor. using potassium permanganate. Activated sludge maintaining aerobic conditions tank.1. Secondary settlement tanks similar controls to primary units except that withdrawal rates can be increased to 1. cleaning is critical as odours can occur more quickly due to the mixed liquor being more biologically active.1995) It is not uncommon in areas where treatment Process Flow equalisation Sludgehandling Sidestream returns Pre-aeration Screening . The potential sources of odours associated with secondary settlement tanks include: maintaining the velocity of the mixed liquor in the tankat a minimum of O.2.3. reducing the turbulenceat the weir overflow by reducing the height of the drop between the weir overflow and the channel. In summary. These are discussed in detail in sections 7. the scumremoval system.80 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER TABLE 10.drying beds. a wind barrier if wind is a Bioflimprocesses The potential sources of odours assOciated with activated sludge processes include: inadequate oxygen levels source).3. Secondarysettlement Tertiary filtration the biological breakdown of Sludgethickening and holding Aerobic digestion Anaerobic digestion Thermal conditioning frequent sludge withdrawal ensuring that solids residence times of 1 hour at average flow conditions are established.2 of the Preliminary Treatment Manual.5 to 2 hours.1. chemical oxidation oftheodourscan be achieved ozone. preventing septic conditions by reducing hydraulic retention times and increasing the frequency ofsettled solids scraping.15m/s. Biological oxidation is possible by passing the off-gases through beds of peat or compost where the microbial flora break them down.2 ODOUR CONTROL (.1 and 7. The control of odours from primary and biological treatment processes is commonly achieved by operational practices such as: High High Gritremoval Primary settlement Suspended growth systems High Low Moderate High Low Low High Moderate Moderate High High High Fixedfilm Chemical Primarysettlement frequent cleaning of scum scrapers and pits thereby reducing greaseand scum. and forcedair circulation (upflowor downflow). and constructing problem. . Storagelagoons Dewatering (vacuum. belt and filter press.composting).and wetting ofthe wallsofthe aeration tank.2 ODOUR POTENTIALFROM WASTE WATERTREATMENTPROCESSES 10. recirculation of outflow. Odour potential High High High High plants are close to residential areas that primary settlement tanks are covered and the off-gases ductedto chemical and biological treatment units.

a filter to differentiate between sounds of different frequencies. sludge removal pumps and sludge dewatering equipment. dB(A)) the noise instrument analyses the sound in terms of the A-weighting curve (human response) and then gives a single figure in dB(A). Care should be taken in using masking agents as in some cases the resultant total odour can be worse than the original odour. Measuring equipmentwhich reports results as dB(A) approximates the subjective human response to that noise. temporal and quality -1 The following example illustrates the principleof obtaining an A-weighted sound pressure level from the frequency analysisof a machine. the conversion process would be carried out automaticallyand the meterwould indicatea singlereading of86. or intermittent? A noise measurement in dB(A) from a sound level meter does not give any information about the frequency or spectral components of the noise being measured.10 CONTROL OF NUISANCE 81 10. The impact of the masking agent is dependent on environmental conditions and is only suitable for low strength Odour emissions. for example. When a sound pressurelevel is measured using the A-weighted network (i. which in this case will be: Noise(at a receptor)= 10 logjo[1U50"° + 10hb0+ ofthe noise. dB -26 -16 -9. The temporal aspect of the sound refers to the assessment of noise over a given period. At wastewater treatment plants Noise — 2k 4k 8k potential noise sources are mechanical equipment such as grit blowers. These work by combining with the original odour and producing a total odour which is less objectionable. The adjustments which the instrument makes to compute the dB(A) value are illustrated in Table 10. Hz 63 125 A-weighting adjustment.3 NOISE is a pressurephenomenon and is defined as unwanted sound.3 SHORT TERM ODOUR PREVENTION TABLE 10.3 A-WEIGHTING ADJUSTMENTS Masking agents can be used as a short term solution to an odour problem. for example. Noise monitoring equipment uses io'° + = 86. In essence the sound level meter adjusts the level of individual frequency bands of noise to broadly correspond to the response of the human ear in determining the total noise level in dB(A). The octave centre frequencies and measured sound pressure levels are given in columns 1 and 2 ofTable 10.4. Column 3 gives the A-weighting network adjustment appropriate to each frequency (as mentioned in Table 10. The physical characteristics of noise from a waste water treatment plant which shouldbe quantified in an assessment are the: level. -3 0 +1 +1 i 250 500 1k 10.2.3dB(A). As a general rule of thumb a 10 dB(A) increase represents a doubling in loudness.3 dB(A) When the machine noise is measuredon a sound level meter with the A-weighting network selected. Column 4 is the computed A-weighted corrections for eachfrequency. 60 dB(A) would be perceived to be twice as loud as 50 dB(A). aeration equipment. The overall level in dB(A) ofthe machinenoise is calculatedfrom the equationfor the addition of decibels. I Octave band centrefrequency.3 above).3 which indicates that at low frequencies the human ear has a relatively low response.e. is the noise transient . Sounds with frequencies around 3 kHz are going to be assessed subjectively as being much louder than soundsaround32 Hz eventhoughthe soundsmay havethe same soundpressure level. compactors. scrapers.

and this can be provided by the envelope of the building where the equipment is housed or through the use of equipment enclosures. For general acceptability. For small sources such as fans. the noise level at noise sensitive locations should be withinthe following ranges: Night: Day: 35 . for the various noise in the control of noise is the selectionof low noise emission equipmentwhere new plant is being purchased or existing plant is The first step . various noise treatments exist for external equipmentand theyinclude: barriers such as walls and landscaping which intercept the direct sound path between the noisesource and the receiver: partial or complete enclosure: lagging or double wall construction. It is important to note that any tonal or impulsive qualities detected during the measurement period normally attract a penalty. frequency analysis can be carried out on the measured noise. Thirdly. in the event of dispute.45 dB(A) 45 . discrete and repeated noise events which are less than one second's duration. exist for most normally equipment and the sound level over a stated distance (normally one power metre) should be noted. whereas the sound pressure depends on the distance from the source to the receptor. Monitoring of environmental noise arising from urban waste water treatment plants should be performed in accordance with the International Standard. the noise level can simply be calculated as follows: 64 82 78 84 80 44 27 SWL= SPL+ 20 Logdistance from source + 8 Where: 250 500 1k 73 75 84 SWL = Sound PowerLevel SPL = Sound Pressure Level 0 +1 +1 2k 4k 8k 81 45 26 -l Therefore. However. for an item of equipment whose reference distance is one metre: SWL= SPL + 8 The quality of the noise refers to whether the noise is impulsive or abrupt in nature or whether it containsclearly audible tonal components such as hisses or whines. pumps etc.4 CONVERSIONOF OCTAVELEVELS TO A-WEIGHTEDLEVELS Octave band centre frequency (Hz) Measured sound pressure level(dB) (2) 76 A-weighted A- adjustment (dB) weighted pressure level (db(A)) (3) -26 -16 -9 (1) 63 125 (4) 50 48 Noise specification sheets being replaced.82 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER TABLE 10.1 NOISE CONTROL Table 10. 10. Otherfactors may effect the noise received such as acoustic screening and wind effects.. The quality of the noise can normally be assessed subjectively.3. the noise level at a receptor point decreases with distance from the source. motors. and attenuators or silencers. For the propagation of noise outdoors. typically +5 dB(A) to the measured value. It should be noted that sound power is independent of its location. ISO 1996: Acoustics and Measurement ofEnvironment Noise. Impulsive noise is regarded as being a feature if there are audible. to establish its tonal component.55 dB(A) The second stepin controlling noise should be the use of sound insulation.5 gives a range of approximate noise reduction possible treatments.





increasing the recirculation rate which has the effect of washing the larvae off the

Treatment method

Achievablenoise reduction, dB(A)
5 101520 253O —

• on percolating filters, maintaining


ofthedistribution arm clear at all times;and applying an approved insecticide to the filter

the gates

Barrier Partial enclosure Complete enclosure Attenuators












10.4 VISUAL IMPACT Careful site selection and a good layout within the plant can contribute to minimising visual nuisance. Due regard should be given to cleanliness and operation to ensure that unsightly The features are kept to a minimum. environmental impact statement (if one was prepared) should be consulted to ensure that any mitigating measures proposed are implemented.

From an operational .point of view the key issues on a treatment plant are:
adequate landscaping;

• • • •

maintenance of a neat and tidy site;

protection of exposed surfaces from splashing, lichen, algal or fungal growth; maintenance of site fencing and boundary screening in goodcondition; prevention of aerosols and foaming from the aeration tank;and regular painting buildings.

of gates, doors and

10.5 PESTS
The fly Psychoda is the chief nuisance insect associated with some biofilm processes. These flies require an alternative wet and dry environment for growth and are normally associated with low rate systems. Controls include:





A significant number of
industrial premises waste to the discharge public sewer for which a media licence under the Water Pollution single Acts (processed by local authorities) or an Integrated Pollution Control licence (processed by the EPA) is required.

(WEF, 1994)


Inhibition threshold

for activated sludge,

The performance of the waste water treatment plant is dependenton the performance of microorganisms and their metabolism can be dramatically affected by the presence of toxic material in the raw waste water. Toxic compounds such as heavy metals and biocides can inhibit the biological activity in the treatment plant. Table 11.1 lists some of the inhibitory levels reported for metals, inorganics and organic
substances. The fourth schedule of the Environmental Protection Agency Act, 1992 (Urban Waste WaterTreatment) Regulations, 1994 (S.!. No 419 of 1994), requires that industrial waste water entering collecting systems and urban waste water treatment plants be subjected to such pretreatment as is required in orderto:

Total Chromium
Chromium HI Chromium VI Copper Lead Nickel Zinc Arsenic Mercury Silver Cyanide Ammonia Iodine

1-100 10-50


0.1-5.0, 10-100 1.0-2.5 0.3-5.0

0.1-1, 2.5 as Hg(II) 0.25-5.0 0.1-5

• •

protect the health of staff working in collecting systems and treatment plants; ensure that collecting systems, waste water treatment plants and associated equipment are not damaged; ensure that the operation of a waste water treatment plant and the treatment of sludge are not impeded; ensure that discharges from treatment plants do not adversely affect the environment or prevent receiving waters from complying with otherCommunity Directives; and


25 - 30 500

Anthracene Benzene 2-Chlorophenol Ethylbenzene Pentachlorophenol

100-500, 125-500

200 0.95,50
50-200, 200

ensure that sludge can be disposed of safely in an environmentally acceptable manner.


As mentioned in section 1.1 of this manual, safety procedures (acceptable to the Health and Safety Authority) should be adopted when operating urban wastewater treatment plants and nothing in this manual should be construed as advice to the contrary. This advice is also applicablefor work carriedout on the collection system.

200 100-500


Potential problems from industrial waste water may be associated with hydraulic overloads, temperature extremes and with excessiveamounts

Licensing of industrial waste water dischargesis complicated by the fact that raw materials and processesmay change. where significant periodic variations in the discharge are diverted and subsequently allowedto bleed back into the process stream at a controlled rate. fats and grease. data on the respiration rate. where significant levels of toxicity are suspected. explosive and flammable materials.2 TECHNOLOGIESAVAILABLEFOR THE PRETREATMENT Physical Chemical Chemicaloxidation Chemical precipitation Chromium reduction Coagulation Cyanidedestruction Electrochemical oxidation Hydrolysis Neutralisation Biological Activated sludge Biofilm systems Carbonadsorption Distillation Filtration Ion exchange Microfiltration and ultrafiltration Reverse osmosis Dissolvedair flotation Flocculation Oil and greaseskimming Oil and water separation Sedimentation Steam stripping Solventextraction . grease and hair can affect the operation of plant and equipment. In addition. Table 11. where the total flow from the process is collected in alternate tanks and allowed to equalise. fats. Where significantlevels are present in an industrial discharge. the sanitary authority should obtain background information on the variability of the flow. suspended solids. While one tank is filling. OFINDUSTRIALDISCHARGES TABLE 11. acidicor alkaline wastes. Flow equalisation or balancing of the industrial waste water may therefore be advisable prior to entry to the foul sewer to avoid problems at the treatment plantlater. All industrial waste discharging to the foul sewer should be fully characterised.1 FLOW EQUALISATION waste water containing volatile. or corrosive gases. pollutantlevels and temperature (as appropriate). intermittent flow diversion. anotheris being discharged. pretreatment or monitoring equipment should be considered in order to control and monitortheir discharge into the foulsewer. To assess whether this is required. The four basic methods for flow equalisation are: alternating flow diversion.2 lists the technologies which are commonly used to remove industrial pollutants priorto discharge to a sewer. algal and microbial inhibition potential shouldbe obtained. inorganic or organic wastes. and 11. Appendix C lists some of the toxic and non-toxic parameters that are commonly associated with various industrial sectors.86 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER • • • • • • oil. odorous. Non-toxic materials such as oils. Fluctuations mayoccur in the flowrate as well as in the type and concentration of the contaminants.

where multiple streams are combined in order to reduce their variance.PRETREATMENT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE 87 completely mixed combined flow systems.4 HEAVY METALS Outflow FIGURE 11.2 FATS. The effect of FOG on the treatment system depends on the type of FOG present. The primary effect of heavy metals on the treatment process is decreasedbiological activity of the micro-organisms. Outflow Intermittent flowdiversion Treatment plant Inflow2 Inflow1 Inflow3 Completely mixed combined flowsystem fMixingj__J Outflow - In reatmen Completely mixed fixedflowsystem 11. petrol stations. animal and mineral origin. Recovery systems include evaporation. dolomitic quicklime. where a completely mixed holding basin is employed and provides a constant discharge to the treatment plant. electrodialysis. sodium bicarbonate. OILSAND GREASE (FOG) The term FOG includes materials of vegetable. dolomitic hydrate. There is wide scope for the reuse-of FOG which has been recovered by gravity settlement. The different designs are illustrated in Figure 11. This slow degradation can affect the activity of micro-organisms at the plant by preventing the transfer of oxygen or slowing down the degradation of other organic material. 1994) 11. pumpingstationsand at the treatment plant. This may be appropriate for waste water emanating from restaurants. The simplestform of removal of FOG is gravity separation. and completely mixed flow system. FOG can affect the operation of monitoring equipment such as dissolved oxygen probes. As a guide. biological removal and ultrafiltration. industry should be encouraged to recover as much as is economically viable. 11. pH probes and other instrumentation requiredto effectively control the process. calcium oxide.1. centrifugation. electrolytic recovery and ion exchange.3 pH NEUTRALISATION A strongly acidic or alkalinewaste may seriously affect the collection system as well as the treatment process. reverse osmosis. Other techniques include dissolved air flotation. Also.1 METHODS OF FLOW BALANCING (WEF.thereforeneutralisation prior to entry to the collection systemmaybe required. The toxicity of individual metals varies and certain metals become more toxic when combined with others. dolomitic limestone.5 ORGANIC CONSTITUENTS Industrial wastes can contain high levels of organic matter and/orlow levels of nuthents and may require some form of treatment prior to discharge to the collection system. certain metals can combine with organic compounds and cause mutagenicity (changing of the genetic makeup) and/or teratogenicity (abnormal tissue development in embryos). caustic soda (sodium hydroxide). Though technologies exist for the removal of heavy metals from waste water. High levels of heavy metals in waste water may prohibitsludge from being used in agriculture. Appendix B lists the waste water characteristics from the mainindustrial categories. sodium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide. Pretreatment of FOG from industrial processes may be required to avoid blockages in the collection system. This assumescompatibility between the constituents in each stream. hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. 11. highcalcium limestone. Acids used to rieutralise alkaline wastes include sulphuric acid. filtration. calcium carbide and calcium hydroxide). FOG recovered from restaurants can be purified and reused as animal feed. lflfl_JIl_Jatn_ r_00Ji [n]__ Alternatingflowdiversion Inflow ualisation basinI Outflow The most common bases used to neutralise acidic wastes are lime (which may come in the form of high-calcium hydrated lime. Animal and vegetable oil tend to be broken down in the treatment system but oils of mineral origin typically degradeslowly. carbon dioxide (as carbonic acid). For example. hotels and .

equalisation. gravity separation. gravity separation. chemical oxidation. coagulation. biological treatment Gravity separation.coagulation/precipitation. centrifugation. biologicaltreatment Screening. 1994) Industry Food processing. neutralisation. The selection of the pretreatment optionwill depend on: waste water charactenstics . and fish Fruit and vegetable Breweries and distilleries Pharmaceuticals Screening. flotation. gravity separation. flotation. flotation. neutralisation.adsorption Gravity separation.flow and chemical composition.coagulation. neutralisation.3 PRETREATMENTOPTIONSFOR SELECTEDDISCIIARGES (WEF. biological treatment. adsorption. flotation. and BATNEEC (best available technology not entailing excessivecost). 11 3 site constraints. shock loads. biological treatment Screening.equalisation.88 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER Many pretreatment systems are available which will protect a waste water treatment plant from. Someof the options available are listedin Table TABLE 11. solvent extraction. neutralisation. pretreatment limits imposed in either a single media licence or an integrated pollution control licence. oxidation. biological treatment. dairies Typical pretreatmenttechnologies Equalisation. biological treatment Equalisation. poultry. coagulation. for example. removal of whey Meat. biological treatment.equalisation. solvent extraction. gravity separation. biological treatment Organic chemicals Plasticsand resins Leathertanning and finishing . coagulation/precipitation Screening.

12.1.2 INITIAL ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW The initial environmental review would: • quantification of the environmental effects of the treatment plant. It is the responsibility of management to ensure that a satisfactory quality of outflow is achieved at a reasonable cost. assess current performance. operational control of the treatment plant. policy and practices at the plant. This exercise should be repeated on at least an annual basis to assess the performance of the plant. documentation and maintenance records of the treatment plant. • routineservicing. make a list of recommendations including.and monitoring programme and frequency of analysis.1 MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND AUDIT SCHEME A schematic of a management and audit scheme is illustrated in Figure 12. plans and timescales.1 MANAGEMENTSYSTEMOF A WASTEWATERTREATMENTPLANT . • • equipment replacement. FIGu1u 12. preventative maintenance. and auditsof the plant.12 MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL 89 12. The management systemshouldaddress: organisation and responsibilities ofpersonnel involved in operating the treatment plant. quantification of inflow to the plant. A management system should be developed to ensure that the treatment objectives are achieved. MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL The primary function of an urban waste water treatment plant is to treat waste water in a consistent and reliable manner in order to meet required standards. objectives. • emergency response. • • • examine the current. • 12.

etc. measurement and testing to ensure that the control procedures are effective. The records will also assist the operator in demonstrating the extent to which the objectives and targetsfor the plant havebeen achieved. The objectives and targets must be clear and achievable. 12. Technician.5 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS REGISTER The environmentaleffects register will provide a basis for analysing and documenting the environmental effects of the waste water treatment plant and communicating these effects to relevant parties. Appropriate training should be for all personnel. Senior Executive Engineer/Chemist. external) The objective This involves two factors: measurement of the standards achieved. procedures and systems to ensure that the activities of the plant operatorwhichhave an impact on the waste water treatment plant performance are carried out in accordance with specified procedures.4 ORGANISATION AND PERSONNEL The organisationalstructure and responsibilities of each individual should be written down. Assistant Engineer/Chemist. receiving water upstream. 12. Executive Engineer/Chemist.8 THE AUDIT of an audit (either internal or is to evaluate the plant performance. These entries could include analysis of inflow. verification. and measurement of the effectiveness of the system or management process which have beenused.6 OPERATIONAL CONTROL are a set of documented practices. For agglomerations which fall within the UWWT Regulations a significant aspect of this policy will already be prescribed. 12. downstream.9 SECTOR REPORTS sector reports refer to the data to be submitted to the EPA to assist in producing the national reports on urban waste water treatment as required. They must be budgeted for and an annual budget should be prepared.90 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER 12.). County Engineer. Records of all staff provided and training qualifications shouldbe maintained. The 12. 12.e. together with information on sludge treatment. the records required by: management: and legislation (in particular the discharge standards set in the UWWT Regulations). Procedures for identifying training needs and allocation of sufficient resources to allow training needs to be fulfilled should be established. This would typically be achievedunderthree sub-sections: The operational controls control procedures to ensure activities take. and . place within parameter limits. outflow. The goal is a comprehensive set of objectives and targets involving all participants (County Manager. Caretaker etc. corrective actions to be taken to change the control parameters whenfailures occur.3 ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AND OBJECTIVES The environmentalpolicy and objectives of the sanitary authority will establish the policy for the treatment plant.7 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT DOCUMENTATION AND RECORDS The environmental managementdocumentation and records will cover a wide range of topics to provide the necessary evidence of compliance with the specified standards. reuse and disposal. i. Staff Officer. 12.

ManualofPractice No.SUGGESTED FURTHER READING 91 SUGGESTED FURTHER READING Eikelboom.Manualsof British Practicein WaterPollution Control. 1991. • IWEM.P.ManualsofBritishPractice in WaterPollution Control. Activated Sludge. • IWPC. 3rd Ed.F. Activated Sludge. Waterand SoilDiv.Disposal and Reuse. 1987.. Wastewater Engineering. Volumes 1. van Buijsen. . N.O. Treatment. 1980. Tertiary treatment.. • Metcalf& Eddy. McGraw and Hill • WaterPollution ControlFederation (WaterEnvironment Federation).. • IWPC..D. Box 214.. USA. 211 Ed. Microscopic SludgeInvestigation Manual. Handbook of UK Wastewater Practice.. NL-2600 A E Delft. 11. PrimarySedimentation.J. Theory and Practice.J. Operation of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants. Publishing Company. H. 1981. 1994. TNO Research Institute for Environmental Hygiene. 1990. Oxford University Press.H. 2 & 3. • Gray.


V.B. 304-309. Guideon NutrientRemoval Process Selection.R.. • Metcalf& Eddy. 1993. R.. Waller.August 1996. Thomas. M.Wastewater Engineering.. a a IWPC. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.. (editor). Texas. WaterTreatment Plantsfor Biological NutrientRemoval.F. Publishing Co.. • Gray. J. • Foot. American WaterWorksAssoc. IWPC. WRc Publication no. WasteWaterand Sludge Treatment Processes. 1988. Inc. McGrawand Hill Publishing Company. FR0253. & WaterEnvironment Federation. HealthEducation Service. 1994.. Technomic • Rachwal. In Oxidation Ditch Technology.S. ActivatedSludge. R. 8. M.C. Edinburgh. volumes 1 & 2.... • Cooper. • Gray.ManualofBritishPractice in WaterPollution Control. N.E..Volume 5. • Randall et. P. International Conference. Schroeder.. 1992.. NS1O2. Environmental Protection Agency. Towardsgreaterefficiency.S. Inc. • Day. 1996. Oxford University Press.... StandardMethods forthe Examination ofWaterand WasteWater.. GlossaryofTerms used in Water Pollution Control. New York StateDepartment ofEnvironmental Conservation. al. Design and RetrofitofWaste • Skrentner..A.Wastewater Treatment Plants: Planning.. 1989. Activated Sludge.G. Technomic Publishing Co. M. 1992. Operational aspects of three 'selectors' in relationto aeration tankecologyand stable foam formation. 1995. • 3' Ed. Instrumentation handbook for water and wastewater treatment plants..J. 1994. Day..F.J. C.. (editors). Disposal and Reuse.F. 84-92. Treatment.Waste WaterTreatmentManuals: Preliminary Treatment. U. 1. FWRPublication no.IWEM. Operator'sPocketGuide to Activated Sludge.publishedby American Public Health Assoc. Manual of Instruction for Wastewater TreatmentPlant Operators.F.Water Quality.J. • CRSGroupEngineers.J. 18th Edition. Separate reject water treatment reducesnitrogencost-effectively.. Part 1. C.. Forster. a a ENFOBriefingSheet 28: Sewage Treatment. Oxford University Press 1989. WaterQualityManagement Library. P.ManualofBritishPractice in Water Pollution Control.J.REFERENCES 93 • REFERENCES a Bowman. 1987. Lough Ree: an investigation of eutrophication and its causes. 1991. . Theory and Practice. * Tchobanoglous. Cooper. • Qasim. Inc.P. E. Amsterdam. • Thorndahl. Page 2. 7. 1992.M. 1978 a Day. 1995.. Consultants. Process optionsforphosphorus and nitrogen removal from wastewater..Environmental Protection Agency.D. 1975. 1985. N.. WWI. Biology ofWastewater Treatment. 1990. Inc. Designand Operation. G.IWEM. 1982. Robinson.

Blackwell Scientific Publications. • Upton. • Wheatley. Oxford. Odor Controlin Wastewater Treatment Plants. Operation ofMunicipal W WaterTreatment Plants. .J. Wastewater treatment and by-product recovery. FD-3. 11. • WaterEnvironment Federation. Waste WaterTreatmentby Biological Aerated Filters. 1995. Manual of Practice No. Preparedby WEF & ASCE.The Choice Exists... Manual ofPractic 22. Stephenson.EPA. Voli & 2. Operation of Wastewater TreatmentPlants. Manual of Practice No. Volumes1. D. T.S.LatestDevelopments.94 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER • U. 4th Ed. Field Study Training Program. BAF . A.Upflowor Downflow . 1990. 1992. Criticalreports on appliedchemistry 11. 1985. University. 2 & 3.. • WaterPollution ControlFederation (WaterEnvironment Federation). Paperpresentedat Cranfi Symposium.. • WaterEnvironment Federation. Pretreatment ofIndustrialWastes. In Topics in Wastewater Treatment. 20 Jan 1993.

GLOSSARY 95 GLOSSARY Activated sludge. occasionally filamentous. The oxidation of carbon basedcompoundsultimately to CO2 and H20. Biological (aerated) filter. The oxygen is generally supplied for use by aerobic micro-organisms. Micro-organisms. Used to check eddies and promote a more uniform flow through a tank. Ciliates. . A layerof micro-organisms and their productsattached to a support medium. Biomass. nitriteand sulphate. Bulking. A scum baffle is used for retainingscum. Biotower. Anaerobic. producedwhensewageis continuously aerated. A configuration of percolating filter using a high loading rate designedfor the removal of the easily biodegradable BOD. A solids-liquid separation stage used in primary and secondary treatment in which heavier material sinks to the bottom and lighter material floats to the water surface. Biological oxygen demand. The BOD is a measure of the rate at which micro-organisms use dissolved oxygen in the bacterial breakdown of organic matter (food) under aerobic conditions. Aerator. A class ofprotozoans distinguished by short-hairs on all orpart oftheir bodies. A condition in which oxygen is not available in the form ofdissolvedoxygen ornitrate/nitrite. The COD is generally greater than the BOD as the chemical oxidising agentwill often oxidise more compounds than is possible underbiologicalconditions. Anoxic. May be constructedof structured bales of plastic media stacked up to 12 m in height. The inability of an activated sludge to settle causing it to float on the settlement tank surface or to be carriedover with the outflow. See Submerged filter. The total weightof activated sludge orbiologicalfilm. A condition in whichelementary oxygen is availableand utilised in the free form by bacteria. Bacteria. protozoa and other micro-organisms with a significant proportionof inert debris. Carbonaceous oxidation. COD is a measure of the amount of oxygen consumed from a chemical oxidising agent under controlled conditions. The BOD5 test indicates the organic strength of a waste water and is determined by measuring the dissolved oxygen concentration before and after the incubationof a sample at 20°Cfor five days in the dark. typically Baffle.A flocculent microbial mass of bacteria. 1 Jim diameter). generally quantified by the Biological OxygenDemand (BOD)parameter. A mechanical device used for dissolvingoxygen in water. Clarifier or settling tank or sedimentation tank. of simple structure and very small size (average unicellular rods or rounded cells (cocci). A condition in which oxygen is available in the form of oxidised inorganic compoundssuch as nitrate. Adsorption. An inhibitormay be added to prevent nitrification from occurring. Bioflim. A surface phenomenon involving the adhesion of molecules to interfaces with which they are broughtinto contact. Aerobic. Chemical oxygen demand.

The reduction of nitrate to molecular nitrogen (N2) under anoxic conditions. Also used to express the quantity of biomass produced per quantity of BOD removed (kg dry solidsproduced per kg BOD removed) Dry-weather flow (DWF). Used in biofilm processes to control the thicknessof biofilm on the medium. the mixed liquor is returned at a high rate with the aim of bringing about considerable oxidation and aerobicdigestion of the organic matterin the activated sludge. An activated sludge process whereby the waste water is subjected to periods of aeration of 5-14 hours at F/M ratios between0. As applied to sewage treatment. Grease.25 mm on any one day.e. Eutrophication. A common cause of sludge bulkingin the activated sludge process. A source of carbon must be added.When the sewage flow is mainly domestic in character. Common types are thiothrix and actinomycetes. one in the summer and one in the winter. free fatty acids. Foul sewer.96 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER Consolidation. The removal of attached biofilmgrowth by the washing action ofa flow of liquid. Extended aeration.5. a liquid which flows out of a process or system. A sewerconveying sewage.15. In sewage treatment. Denitrification. Effluent. the average daily flow to thetreatment worksduring seven consecutive days withoutrain (excluding a period which includes public or local holidays) following seven days during whichthe rainfall did not exceed0. The typeofsolvent used for its extraction shouldbe stated. amongst other things. and other non-fatty materials. The squeezing out of water held between flocs or particles caused by the weight of further settlement of particles above. The nitrate is used as an oxygensource by heterotrophic bacteriain the absenceof molecular oxygen. treated to a greater or lesserextent. Drysolids content (of sludge). Food Microorganisms — kg BOD day I kg MLSS The E/M ratio indicatesthe mode ofoperation of an activated sludge process. . Preferably. which flows out of a section ofthe treatment plant. With an industrial sewage the dry-weather flow should be based on the flows during five working days if production is limitedto that period. shouldbe averaged to obtain the average dry-weather flow. A measure of the amount of food available to micro-organisms in an activated sludge process.excluding fainwater or surface water. wastewater of domestic or industrial origin. The over enrichment of a water body by nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate causing. An activated sludge process wherebythe waste water is subjected to prolonged aeration at F/M ratios less than 0. grease includes fats. waxes.2 and 0. Erosion. Food to micro-organism (FIM)ratio. calcium and magnesium soaps. Organisms that grow in a thread or filamentous form. the mixed liquoris returned at rates similar to the incoming flow with the object ofremovingBODand sometimes nitrogen. Expressed in terms of the BOD loading againstthe massof micro-organisms. Endogenous respiration or cryptic growth. Conventional aeration. oils. but more particularly the domesticor industrial wastewater. Filamentous bacteria. expressed as a percentage or as mg/kg. i. the flows during two periods in the year. A stage in bacterial growth where dead bacterial cells are consumed in the absence ofother organic substrates. or from the treatment worksas a whole.mineraloils. excessiveplant growth and oxygendepletion. The weightof drysolidsper unit weight of sludge.

ashes. Compounds (typically of nitrogen and phosphorus) which cause enrichment of water bodies whenpresent in sufficient concentrations. Outfall. A biologicalwaste water treatment method using an immobile support medium for the growthofa bacterial slime that consumes organic matterunderaerobic conditions. . Thefriction head is the energy lost by friction in the suction and the delivery pipes. The volumetric flow in relation to the hydraulic capacity of the collecting system or treatmentplant. Namedafter the nature ofthehumussolids separated. Photosynthesis. Metabolism. Plugflow. Enrichment causes eutrophication. Imhoff tank. plus friction head. Milligrams per litre (mg/I). cinders. The utilisation by micro-organisms of nutrients (organic matter. A configuration of activated sludge plant whereby there is (theoretically) no longitudinal mixing between influent and effluent flows. The suspension of bacterial flocs or solids in an activated sludge plant which firstly adsorband then metabolise organic matter. A secondary settlement stage succeeding the percolating filter process. In SI units the equivalent is gm/m3. Longitudinal mixing. plus velocityhead. A primary settlement tank incorporating an integral sludge storage tank. The effluentfrom a sewer or treatment plantdischarged to a water bodyviaan outfall.GLOSSARY 97 Grease trap. Nitrification. A receptacle designedto collect and retaingrease and fatty substances in kitchen wastes or in an industrial wastewater and installed in the drainagesystembetweenthe point ofproduction and the sewer. Oxygenis also produced. Hydraulic load. It is abrasive in character and may vary in composition seasonally. Soil originating from vegetablewashing and preparation is also classified as grit. Used for expressing concentration of impurities in a wastewater or effluent. gravel. Grit. Outflow. compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus. The heavy mineral matter in sewage. such as silt. including losses at bends and obstructions. Percolating filter.water and inorganic salts usingsunlight as a source ofenergy. The total head against which a pump is to deliver is made up of the static head. Nutrients. Head. trace elements) necessary to sustain life and to proliferate. Humus tank. A mechanism by which plants synthesise materials (mainly carbohydrates) from carbon dioxide. A pipe/channel length to width ratio of at least 12:1 is normally required. Mixed liquor suspended solids. The mass of organic polluting matter discharging from a sewer expressed as kg organic matterper m3 offlow. inorganic matter. The velocity head is the energy per unit weightof liquid being pumped due to its velocity. from the minimum level of the liquidin the wet well to the point of discharge. The back-mixing of liquid in the opposing directionto the main flow as it moves through a pipeor vessel. metal and glass. The static head is the actuallift. Applied particularly to the point at whicha sewer or the effluent from a treatment plantdischarges into a receivingwater. sand. Not normally constructed nowadays. Organic load.The sequential oxidation of ammonia and ammonium firstly to nitriteand then to nitrateby the autotrophic bacteriaNitrosomonas and Nitrobacter. The site of discharge of a liquid from a pipe.

Receiving water. A plate orboard whichdips below the surface of sedimentation tanks to prevent scum flowing out with the effluent. usually involving removal ofsettleable solids. Return activated sludge (RAS). Septic. greaseand soaps together with particles of plastic and sludge which floats on the surface of settlement tanksor digesters. Pretreatment ofa sludge refers to conditioning before dewatering. Primarytreatment. Returnliquors. The volume and strength of a waste water expressed in terms of an equivalent population. flowing or otherwise. estuary which an outfalldischarges. Protozoa. Alsotermeda 'scum board'. river.The re-introduction oftreatedeffluentto a treatment stage with the objective of reducing the concentration of pollutants in incoming waste water in order to protect the process from overloading or clogging due to excessivebiomass growthor from toxicity.) = BOD5(mg/l) x flow(m3 /day) 0. A condition produced by lack of dissolved oxygen and oxidised nitrogen (nitrate or nitrite). The first major stage of treatment following preliminary treatment in a sewage works. Also sometimes the removal ofoil and greasefrom sewage. Typically used in smallschemes and package plants. Rotating biologicalcontactor. or sea into Recirculation. prior to sedimentation. The term is also applied to the effect of a blockage caused by inert substances appliedto a bed. Putrefaction can occur. oils. A body of water. lake.e. Ponding. The blockage of the interstices between the medium on a percolating filter caused by the excessive growth of bacterialslime. the population equivalent of a waste wateris therefore calculated usingthe relationship: Population Equivalent (p. such as a stream. Population equivalent. Microscopic animals characterised by short hairs on theirend. An attached growth biofilmprocess using rotating support media. Rotifers. A group of motile microscopic animals (usually singlecelled and aerobic) that sometimes cluster into colonies and often consumeas an energy source.98 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER Pollutant. The waste water providesthe food for the bacteria.060kg BODper capitaper day. The treatment which an industrial wastewater receives at the source before discharge into the public sewer. Closing the activated sludge loop by drawing bacterial floc from secondary settlement tanks to be mixed with incoming waste water.060 x i03 Preliminary treatment. . Scumbaffle. The impairmentofthe suitability ofwater for someconsidered purpose. A layer of fats. Pretreatment. Scum. assuming a production of 0. The removal or disintegration of gross solids in sewage and the removal of grit. A material or compound whichhas a detrimental effect on the environment (aquatic. Water separated in sludge dewatering processes which is typically high organic strength and is returnedto the maintreatment plant inlet. air or land) Pollution.

A submerged fixed film biological waste water treatment systemdeveloped mainly within thelast fifteen yearswith claimsfor low footprintand high treatment intensities. The sound pre'ssure which we hear is dependent on thedistance from the sources and theacoustic environment (or soundfield)in which thesoundwaves are present. A condition where flow backs up downstream. A physical solid-liquid separation process in which solid particles sink when the velocity of flow decreases belowa critical value. A portion of the sludge drawn from the secondary settlement tank whichis wasted due to the continuous growth of new micro-organisms during the activated sludge process. The total mass of sludgecontained in an activated sludge aerationand settlement tank divided by the total massof sludge wasteddaily. They are desludged 2-4 timesper year. Substrate. The liquid overflow is then distributed over a percolation area for dispersion in the natural environment. Sound power and sound pressure. A waste water treatment system whereby the settlement of heavy material and flotation of lighter material occurs in a tank. Sound power is independent ofthe environment in which it is located. it normally comprises the soluble biodegradable organic fraction of the waste water. Sludge age. Soundpower is the cause and soundpressureis the result. including suspended solids discharged with theoutflow. Septic tanks are sometimes used as precursors to small scale biologicalwaste water treatment systems. In waste water treatment processes. . Settlement.GLOSSARY 99 Septic tank. Used to control the MLSS in the aeration tank atthe requiredconcentration. A sound source radiates power and this results in a sound pressure. Canbe aided by using chemicals to coagulate and flocculate the solid particles to increase their density. See Percolating filter. A system of remote monitoring of plant and equipment using radio links and central control rooms. Surcharge. in a pipe or channel due to a lack of hydraulic capacity Telemetry. Submerged filter. Waste activated sludge (WAS). Particularly valuable foralarm situations. A (food) substance that becomes changedby enzymes duringa bacteriological process. Trickling filter.


• a sampling monitoring sheet. . a sample analysis reportform. dilution scheme for BOD.and laboratory sheet forbiochemical oxygendemand(BOD5).APPEt'DICES 101 APPENDICES APPENDIX A: STANDARD FORMS This appendixprovidesexamples of the formswhich operators areencouraged to use to standardise and Those included are: sampling reporting.

MLSS mg/l Temperature °C Ammoniamg/I N Total Nitrogenmg/I N Total Phosphorus mg/I P Comments: Signed: (PrintedName ofanalyst) .102 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER SAMPLE ANALYSIS REPORT FORM SAMPLE ANALYSIS REPORT FORM Reportto: Sample/s from: Sample/s takenby: Received at Hours: Name and addressof laboratory: Dateofreport: Sampling date: / / By: Laboratory No: Sample Description Sample Time BODmg/102 COD mg/l 02 Suspended Solidsmgfl .

APPENDICES 103 SAMPLE MONITORING SHEET EFFLUENT SAMPLING SHEET Nameand Address of Laboratory: NameofPlant: Laboratory No: Container Marking: Sample Description: SamplingLocation: Temperature °C: Sample takenby: Personcontacted: GRAB SAMPLES: Sampling date: Sample Time: FLOWMEASUREMENT V-notch Angle 0: Head (cm): Weir Width (cm): Flume Width (cm): Head(cm): Head(cm): Units Meterreading COMPOSITE SAMPLE Date Start Finish Time Flow meterreading Units COMMENTS: .


Dilution Factor


ml of

To (ml)


ml of

To (ml)

No. 1

Dilution No. 2

1:2 1:3 1:4 1:5

4-12 6-18 8-24
20-60 30-90 40- 120

125 100

500 450
500 500

1:2 1:3













50-150 60- 180


500 450

1:25 1:30

1:30 1:40

















Laboratory sheet for BiochemicalOxygenDemand
Date Time Analyst Incubator temperature (°C)


Laboratory No. Salinity (%)
Dilution DO0 DO5 DO6

mg/i 02

mg/I 02

mg/i 02

BOD mg/i 02

Duplicate Sample No. Dilution water Blank Deionised N/A* N/A*



water Blank
Standard** *N/A



- Not applicable

** Dry reagent grade glucose and reagentgrade glutamic acid at 103°C for 1 hour. Add 0.150g glucose and 0. 150g glutamic acid to distilled water and diluteto 1 litre(BODestimated@ 198± 0.5 mgfl). Prepare freshlybeforeuse and dilute 10 ml to 500 ml with dilutionwater for use as QC standard. Acceptable level for duplicate samples = ± 25%.


Industry Flow



tiR: C
pH Nitrogen Phosphorus



Meat products


High extremely





high Milk handling Intermittent

extremely high Low average






Cheese products


Extremely high


Extremely high




high Alcoholic Beverages Intermittent


Low - high





high Soft drinks
Textiles Intermittent


Low - high

Averagehigh High alkaline



Intermittent continuous







Continuous variable Intermittent Low

Extremely high

Extremely high Low

Acid alkaline Acidic



Metalfinishing Fruit and

Averagehigh Average extremely



Average extremely


Acid alkaline




high Low - high

high Low high

Paperand allied


Averageextremely high


Neutral (mech. pulping)



Pharmaceutical products Plastics and

Continuous intermittent Continuous variable


Low- high Low - high


Acid alkaline





Acid alkaline

Fats and Grease • .RECOVERY OR PROCESSING OF NON FERROUS METALS. Total Nitrogen. Total Phosphorus.APPENDICES 107 APPENDIX C: INDUSTRIAL DISCHARGES Parametersotherthan BOD. SINTERING OR CALCINING OF METALLIC ORES (PRINCIPALLY LEAD. THEIR COMPOUNDS OR OTHER ALLOYS a Mineral oil Cadmium Mercury • • • • Organohalogens Zinc Chromium VI Total Chromium • • • • • a EC list 1 (76/464/EEC) Nickel Silver Lead Chromium VI Total Chromium • EC list 1 (76/464/EEC) TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF WOOD WITH PRESERVATIVES • a • • • • • • • • • EC list 1 (76/464/EEC) Chromium VI TotalChromium Organohalogens Phenols Arsenic Mineral Oil (Interceptor) • • • Tin Zinc Copper METAL MINING AND MINERAL QUARRYING • • a Oils.Fats and Grease MineralOil (Interceptor) ROASTING. DISTILLING AND MALTING • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Cadmium Mineraloil Mercury Lead Zinc Copper Nickel Chromium VI MANUFACTURE OF DAIRY PRODUCTS Total Chromium MineralOil (Biological Treatment) MANUFACTURE OF COATING MATERIALS Oil PRODUCTION. ZINC. Fats and Grease • MineralOil (Interceptor) Oils.Fats and Grease MineralOil (Interceptor) Oils. COD.Fats and Grease MineralOil (Interceptor) Mineral Oil (Effluent) Thallium MineralOil (Biological Treatment) Oils. Fats and Grease MineralOil (Interceptor) BREWING. RENDERING OF ANIMAL BY-PRODUCTS • • Oils.andAmmonia which may be presentin an industrial discharge and which may affecttheoperation of secondary treatment plant. pH. IRON ORE) MANUFACTURE OF FISH MEALAND FISH OIL o Oils.

FACING AND FLOOR BRICKS AND ROOF TILES * Mineral Oil Suiphide Fluoride Total Chromium Cadmium Zinc Copper Mineral Oil (Interceptor) Mineral Oil (Biological treatment) • MELTING OR PRODUCTION OF IRON OR STEEL EC List 1 (76/464/EEC) Benzene. BONDING AGENTS. ORGANIC OR ORGANOMETALLIC.108 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER OPERATIONS INVOLVING COATING WITH ORGANO-TIN COMPOUNDS EC List 1 (76/464/EEC) Organo-Tin Copper Mineral Oil Metals Organohalogens Phenols Cyanide Mercury Tin Lead Chromium VI COARSE CERAMICS INCLUDING REFRACTORY BRICKS. PESTICIDES. 345 of 1994) FELLMONGERING OF HIDES AND TANNING OF LEATHER Oils. PROCESSING OR USE OF FERROUS METALS IN FOUNDRIES • • • • MineralOil Phenols Cadmium Mercury OR FINISHING OF Oils. INORGANIC. Fats.RECOVERY. VETERINARY. Fats and Grease • • • • MineralOil Cadmium Mercury EC List 1(76/464/EEC) Lead Zinc Chromium VI • • MineralOil (Interceptor) EC List 1 (76/464/EEC) Chromium VI TotalChromium Nickel TotalChromium Sulphide Phenols DYEING. GLUES. STONEWARE PIPES. VITAMINS INVOLVING HEAVY METALS) Oils. Fats and Grease Organohalogens Phenols Mercury Nickel Cobalt Lead EC List 1(76/464/EEC) Otherparameters depending on Resins and Binders MANUFACTURE OF CHEMICALS (INCLUDING OLEFINS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES. INTERMEDIATES.No. TREATMENT FIBRES OR TEXTILES PRODUCTION. PHARMACEUTICAL. FERTILISERS. and Grease EC List 1 (76/464/EEC) Chromium VI TotalChromium Arsenic Cadmium .I. Toluene and Xylene Genetically ModifiedOrganisms (S.

Fats and Grease Mineral Oil (Interceptor) Mineral Oil (Effluent treatment) Organohalogens Phenols Mercury Nickel Silver Lead Aldrin. Fats and Grease MineralOil (Interceptor) Phenols Cyanide • • ChromiumVI MANUFACTURE OF SYNTHETICFIBRES • a a Total Chromium Cadmium • • • • Tin Zinc Copper • a a MineralOil (Biological treatment) EC List 1 (76/464/EEC) PROCESSING OF ASBESTOSOR MANUFACTUREOR PROCESSING OF • ASBESTOSBASED PRODUCTS MANUFACTUREOF GLASS FIBRE OR MINERAL FIBRES. Endrin. Isodrin • • • • • a Sulphide SLAUGHTERING • a a Oils. DRAWING PLANTS AND ROLLINGMILLS a Oils. Fats and Grease Lead Nickel Zinc Chromium VI Total Chromium Copper EC List 1 (761464/EEC) a a a MANUFACTURE OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND PRINTEDCIRCUIT BOARDS • • a • • • • • • Oils. Toluene and Xylene Mothproofing agents(as Cl) Organophosphorus pesticides • • ELECTROPLATING Oils. AND PRODUCTION OF GLASS Cyanide MANUFACTURE OF VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL OILS AND FATS a Oils. Fats and Grease Mineral Oil (Interceptor) Mineral Oil (Biological treatment) • • • • • • a MineralOil (Biological treatment) Phenols Lead Arsenic Fluoride a PROCESSING OF IRON AND STEEL IN FORGES.APPENDICES 109 • • • • • • • • • • • Zinc a Tin Lead Copper MineralOil (Interceptors) MineralOil (Biological treatment) Organochionne pesticides Benzene. Fats and Grease MineralOil (Interceptor) Chromium VI • • MineralOil TotalChromium Arsenic Fluoride Copper .Dieldrin. Fats and Grease MineralOil (Interceptor) Oils.

Co. to Leixlip Co. 0. River Boyne Co.5 km section downstream Tullamore. Cavan Lough Ree Lonthe River Shannon . Wholelake. Meath. Downstream of sewage treatment works outfall at Knockthomas to entry into LoughCullin. Downstream of Osberstown sewage treatment works reservoir. on the River Shannon Lough Leane Co. Mayo River Liffey River Nenagh 6. From sewage treatment works at Longford to entry into the River Shannon. Wholelake. of sewage treatment works outfall in Wholelake. Offaly Lough Derg Downstream of sewage treatment works outfall in Nenagh to entry into Lough Derg. Tipperary RiverTullamore Co. Navan. Wholelake. Article5(6) of the Urban WasteWaterTreatment Directive(9l/271IEEC)requiresthat the identification of sensitive areas is reviewed atintervalsofno more than four years. Kildare.Kerry Lough Oughter Co. Longford River Castlebar Co. Meath River Camlin Co.110 TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER APPENDIX 0: SENS 1VE AREAS Ten areas are designated as sensitive in the the Urban WasteWaterTreatment Regulations.5 km section downstream of sewage treatment works outfall at Blackcastle. Co.

3 Total Free swimming ciliates Stalked ciliates Rotifers Worms . Randomly scan each slideand count the numberofeach typeofmicro-organism. Determine the numberfrom each group and assess predominance. and sample location. 3. . 2. Relative predominance 1 2 3 Method 1. temperature. 4.time. Record the date. 1 Slide No. Examinea minimum of threeslidesper samplewith one drop of mixed liquorper slide. 2 Slide No.APPENDICES 111 APPENDIX E: MICROSCOPY EXAMINATION FORM Date: Time: Temperature AM/PM °C By: Sample Location: Micro-organism Group Amoebae Flagellates Slide No. .


Ardcavan.USERCOMMENT FORM 113 USER COMMENT FORM NOTE: Completed conmientsto be forwarded to: The Environmental Management and PlanningDivision.Primary. Wexford Document Title:Waste Water TreatmentManuals .secondary andtertiarytreatment CONTENTS: STYLE: INFORMATION: SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE EDITIONS: NAME ORGANISATION ADDRESS DATE PHONE FAX . Environmental Protection Agency.


50for each additionalitem. Dublin 4.(1995) Waste WaterTreatment Manual Preliminary Treatment. complete this order form and fax or post it to: EPA. (phone 016602511. (1995) Landfill Manual Landfill Monitoring. (1996) £10 £15 NationalWasteDatabase . for the price quoted plus p&p of Irf1 for the firstitem ordered and Ir±0. Publication Title No. (1995) Stateofthe Environment Reportin Ireland.ofCopies Tick here to receiveafull list ofEPA publications(no charge) Name U Addre Phone: Fax: .Martin's House. fax 01-6605848). (1997) £15 £5 £5 £15 £15 £30 a £15 £15 £15 £5 WaterTreatmentManual Filtration. (1996) The Quality of Drinking Waterin Ireland A Reportfor the Year 1995and Review ofthe Period 1993-1995.Reportfor 1995.SELECTED PUBLICATIONS 115 SELECTED EPA PUBLICATIONS UrbanWaste WaterDischarges in Ireland: A Report for 1994-1995 (1997) Handbook on Urban Wastewater Treatment. (1996) Municipal Waste Characterisation. (1996) WasteCatalogue and Hazardous Waste List. (1995) Dioxinsin the Irish Environment An assessment based on levels in cows' milk (1996) and its Causes LoughReeAn Investigation ofEutrophication Pesticides in Drinking WaterResultsofa PreliminarySurvey Dec '94-Dec '95 Smoke & SulphurDioxide A Summary ofResults from LocalAuthorityMonitoring Networks (1996) £20 £5 £2 Afull list ofpublications is available on request (see below). St.Publications' Sales.. Payment by cheque/postal order. AN GHNIOMHAIREACHT UM CHAOMHNU COMHSHAOIL ORDER FORM If you wish to order further copies of this publication or any of those listedabove. Waterloo Rd. (1996) Landfill Manual investigations forLandfills.

ADVISORYCOMMITTEE The Agency is assisted by an Advisory Committee oftwelve members.in an improper manner. RESPONSIBILITIES The Agency has a wide range of statutory duties and powers underthe Act. to act on its own initiative. on the basis of integrated pollution control (IPC) and the application of best available technologies for this purpose. 1992 and underthis legislation the Agency was formally established on 26 July. preparation and implementation of a national hydrometric programme for the collection.ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY ESTABLISHMENT The Environmental Protection Agency Act. located in Dublin. Castlebar and Monaghan. under the legislation. the setting of environmental quality objectives and the issuing ofcodes of practiceon matters affecting the environment. Independent is assured through the selection the promotion of environmentally sound . or anyone acting on its behalf. STATUS • The Agency is an independent public body. • • the monitoring of environmental quality. as provided in the legislation.Cork. Its sponsor in Government is the Department of the Environment. • • advising public authorities in respect of environmental functions and assistinglocal authorities in the performance oftheir environmental protection functions. including landfills and the preparation and updating periodically of a national hazardous wasteplan for implementation by other bodies. and the publication ofperiodic reportson the state of the environment. volumes and flows of water in rivers. it is a specific offence to attemptto influence theAgency. lakes and groindwaters. both in relation to theAgency and to the Minister. Under the legislation. The members are appointed by the Ministerfor theEnvironment and are selected mainly from those nominated by organisations with an interest in environmental and developmental matters. and generally overseeing the performance by local authorities of their statutory environmental protection functions. regulation of all significant waste recovery activities. MANAGEMENT The Agency is managed by a full-time Executive board consisting of a Director General. The assignment. The main responsibilities of the Agency include the following: the establishment of an eco-labelling scheme.and four Directors. practicesthrough.the encouragement of the use procedures for the Director ofenvironmental audits. independence. was enacted on 23 April.for example. including the establishment ofdatabases to which the public will haveaccess. The Agency's headquarters are located in Wexford and it operates five regional inspectorates. of direct responsibility for a wide range offunctions underpins this • • the promotion and co- ordination of environmental research. The Executive Board is appointed by the Government following detailedprocedures laid down in the Act. 1993. 1992. Kilkenny. ORGANISATION the licensing and • the licensing and regulation of large/complex industrial and other processes with significant polluting potential. The Committee has beengiven a wide range of adiisory functions underthe Act. analysis and publication ofinformation on the levels. Generaland Directorsand the freedom.