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CHAPTER 1
1.0 INTRODUCTION:
An art and science of determining the relative position of point on above or beneath the
surface of the earth by means of angular and linear measurements is defined as
Surveying. It is the most important subject matter before and during all engineering
works like civil engineering works such as designing and construction of highways, water
supply systems, irrigation projects, buildings etc. The application of surveying requires
the knowledge of mathematics, physics, and to some extent, astronomy. Surveying
basically consists of collecting data and information about the terrain of the topography of
the proposed area, land use, property and the state boundaries, the charting of coastlines
and navigable streams and lakes, the location of valuable mine deposits etc. It is a
framework for the conception, design and execution of any engineering work. The
information about these features are gathered by measuring the horizontal and vertical
distances between the objects, by measuring the angle between the lines and by
establishing points by predetermined angular and linear measurements. The actual
measurements are accompanied by mathematical calculations for determining distances,
angles, directions, locations, elevations, areas and volumes. The information thus
collected is then portrayed graphically by the construction of maps, profiles, cross-
sections and other diagrams.
The main objectives of surveying courses allocated for civil engineering students
is to promote them the basic knowledge of different surveying techniques relevant to civil
engineering works in their professional practice. The completion of all surveying courses
including 15 days survey camp work organized by the Department of Civil Engineering,
Khwopa Engineering College will give better enhancement to students to use all
surveying technique covered in lecture classes.
Survey Camp is a part of the third-year Bachelor's degree in Civil Engineering
course, third year first semester, carrying a total of 100 marks. The total duration of the
survey camp was 15 days, from 12
th
Kartikto 26
th
Kartik 2069.
The work done during the camp duration can be categorized into three main
projects:
1. Topographical survey
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2. Bridge site survey
This is a detail report of the works, which were performed by group no. B3,
having fivemembers, during the camp period. It briefly explains the working procedures
and technique used by this group during that camp period. In addition, it also contain
observations, calculations, methods of adjustment of error, main problem faced during
work and their solution, results of all calculations and their assessments with some
comments is presented in a concise form.
1.1 OBJECTIVES OF SURVEY CAMP:
The main objective of this survey camp allocated for civil engineering students is to
consolidate and update their basic knowledge of different surveying techniques relevant
to civil engineering works. Working in actual field conditions enhances their theoretical
and practical knowledge and increases their confidence that is beneficial to their
professional practice in the near future.
The main objectives of the survey camp are as follows:
- To become familiar with the surveying problems that are arise during the field
works.
- To became familiar with the parts of the instruments, their functions and handling
the surveying instruments for its use in surveying.
- To become familiar with the spirit and importance of teamwork, as surveying is
not a single person work.
- To complete the given project in scheduled time and thus knows the value of time.
- To collect required data in the field in systematic ways.
- To compute and manipulate the observed data in the required accuracy and
present it in diagrammatic and tabular form in order to understand by other
engineers and related personnel easily.
- To tackle the mistake and incomplete data from the field while in office work.
- To know the complete method of report preparation.

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1.2METHODOLOGY:
The methodology of the surveying is based on the principle of surveying, which includes:
Working from Whole to the Parts
Independent Check
Accuracy Required
Consistency in Work

1.3INDEX MAP/LOCATION MAP:

1.4 PROJECT AREA:
The description of the project area is as follows:
Nepal Electricity Authority Training Center (NEATC), Kharipati,Bhaktapur is about 18 k
m North East of Kathmandu. The area to us for survey is about 200 ropanis of land with
varieties of land. (i.e. jungle, vegetation, human settlement etc)
.The details of the area is as follows
Country: Nepal
Region: Central Development Region
Zone: Bagmati
District: Bhaktapur
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Location: NEATC premises for Topographical Survey Nagarkot,Dolalghat of
Kavre for Bridge Site Survey NEATC premises for Road Alignment Survey.
1.5 LOCATION ANDACCESSIBILITY:
Our Survey Camp site was located near about 2741'16"N and 8527'20"E, at the altitude
of 1362 m and about 16 km East of Kathmandu. The area allocated to us for survey is
about 292065.62 sq m. of land with variable land features and almost all the man made
mentors like road, sports ground building and pond etc.
It took about twenty minutedriveto reach Kharipati from Libali, Bhaktapur. The project
site is situated in the range of about 1330 m. above mean sea level.
i) Region: Kharipati VDC and Nagarkot VDC
ii) District: Bhaktapur
iii) Zone: Bagmati
1.6TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY
Kharipati has gentle and steep topography differing from places to places. The area
contains ground features ranging from steep slopes to flat grounds. These features were
shown by contours. The geological structure is in good condition, so there is no any
geological disasters and eruption. Soil types are found similar to any other part of
Bhaktapur i.e. soft clay, irrigated by river and well suitable for cultivation. And the bridge
site, Cha Khola perennial however the flow decreases considerably during dry seasons.
Different types of rock exposure are seen most of them are amphibolites, gneiss,
sandstones, schists etc.
1.7RAINFALL,CLIMATE AND VEGETATION:
The weather is moderate between autumn seasons. During the camp period temperature
was fluctuating from maximum to minimum of it just similar to the annual temperature
variation and rain fall around Kathmandu valley is:-
Temperature: maximum 25
o
C to minimum 4
o
C
The atmosphere was cool in the morning with high value of humidity.
Most of the empty spaces of the project area were full of vegetation but without
cultivated land except for some land around canteen area. Ordinary grassland covered
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most of the areas. Presence of few plants, trees and bushes made environment green and
pleasant.
1.8 DESCRIPTION OF WORK
Topographic Survey: -
Objective: To make the topographic map with engineering requirements.
Location: premises of NEATC
Salient Features: Total Numbers of major traverse stations = 14
: Total numbers of minor traverse stations = 2
: Contour Interval = 1m
: Scale of map = 1:1000in major, 1:500 in minor
: Detailing = Total Station
Check: Plane Table
Leveling: -
Objectives: Two pegs test was carried out. As our auto level was within precision no
correction was needed.
Location: premises of NEATC
Silent Features: Transfer of RL from BM to CP1
Transfer of RL from CP1 to major station
Transfer of RL from major station to minor station
Bridge Site Survey:
Objectives: To fix the bridge axis and topographic map of the existing site along with the
L-section, X-section of river.
Location: Dolalghat, Kavre
Salient Features: No. of stations used :Topographic map at 1:200
Contour Interval 1m
Cross section up to 150m on upstream and 75m on downstream at 10m
interval.
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- Objectives: to make L-section, X-section and topographic map of area of the site
- Location: premises of NEATC
- Salient feature: Map scale = 1:500
Cross section at every BC, EC & MC and 20m interval with minimum
of 5m and 10m left and right details.

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CHAPTER 2
2.0TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY:
The survey in which the position of natural and artificial features on both plan and
elevation are determined is known as topographical survey. From the survey data,
topographic maps that depict these natural and cultural features are produced using
various types of lines and conventional symbols. Topographic is simply the graphical
representation of positions of the earth's surface. In other words topographical surveying
is the process of determining the positions of natural and artificial features of the locality
by means of conventional signs up on a topographical map. Topographic surveys are
three-dimensional; they provide the techniques of plane surveying and other special
techniques to establish both horizontal and vertical control. Hence the fieldwork in a
topographical surveying consists of three parts.
It establishes both horizontal and vertical control.
It locates the contours.
It also locates the details such as rivers, streams, lakes, roads, houses, and
trees etc.

2.1OBJECTIVES
The main objective of topographical survey is to prepare the topographical map of
the given area with horizontal control and vertical control on required accuracy.
2.2. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA
The area, where surveying was performed, is situated at NEA training center,
Kharipati, Bhaktapur. The major traverse was run throughout the land area, which cover
the full area of the NEA. Our objective was to prepare a topographic map of the given
small area, which is a part of the NEA area. So, we were assigned to prepare the
topographic map of the area including the two Dormitories and all the natural and
manmade features that may come in the general survey work. The two identical and
symmetrical Dormitories were situated at southern side of NEA Training Center building.
The rest of the area includes grassland with bushes near the walls of the site and backyard
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of the dormitories. The far south-west area consists closed exit gate with an guard house
and a drain pond opposite to it.
2.3 NORMS (TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS)
o Reconnaissance was conducted at first. A close traverse (major and minor) around
the perimeter of the area was formed by making traverse stations. In the selection
of the traverse station, it was made sure that the stations were inter-visible and
maintained the ratio of maximum traverse leg to minimum traverse leg 3:1 for
minor traverse and 2:1 in the case of major traverse.
o The traverse legs were measured in the forward and reverse directions by Total
station note that discrepancy between forward and backward measurements
should be greater than 1:2000.
o Traverse angles were measured on two sets (both 0 set and 90) of reading by Total
station. Note the difference between the mean angles of two sets reading should be
within 1.
o Determined the R.L. of traverse stations by fly leveling from the given arbitrary
B.M. Perform two-peg-test before the start of fly leveling. Note the collimation
error should be less than 1:10000. Maintain equal foresight and back sight
distances to eliminate collimation error. Permissible error for fly leveling is
25k mm, Where k =distance (km)
o R.L of B.M. = 1340.000m
o Balance the traverse. The permissible angular error for the sum of interior angles
of the traverse should be less than n x 1 minute for Major Traverse and n x
1.5 minutes for Minor Traverse (n = no of traverse station). For major and minor
traverse the relative closing error should be less than 1:2000 and 1:1000
respectively.
o After computing the coordinate of the control points, they are ready to be plotted.
Full size drawing sheets i.e. A1 size is divided into gridlines of 5cm square. The
gridlines are made with the help of beam compass. Both the major and minor
traverse is plotted to 1:1000 for major traverse and 1:500 for minor traverse. The
plotted traverse is made at the centre of the sheet with the help of least coordinates
and high coordinates.
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o Then detail survey of the given sub area was carried out by tachometry with
reference to the major and minor traverse, which have been already plotted. Use
conventional symbols for plotting.
2.4 EQUIPMENTS:
- Theodolite
- Staffs and ranging rods
- Tapes
- Plumb bob
- Level
- Compass
- Plane table
- Compass
- Spirit level
- Marker
- Hammer
- Pegs
- Arrows
- Total Station
2.5 METHODOLOGY
The methodology of surveying is based on the principle of surveying which are listed as
below:-
Working from whole to a part
Independent check
Consistency of work
Precision maintained
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2.5.1 RECONNAISSANCE (RECCE)
Recce means the exploration or scouting of an area. In survey, it involves walking around
the survey area and roughly planning the number of stations and the position of the
traverse stations. Recce is primarily done to get an overall idea of the site. This helps to
make the necessary observations regarding the total area, type of land, topography,
vegetation, climate, geology and inter-visibility conditions that help in detailed planning.
The following points have to be taken into consideration for fixing traverse stations.
- The adjacent stations should be clearly inter-visibility
- The whole area should include the least number of stations possible.
- The traverse station should maintain the ratio of maximum traverse leg to minimum
traverse leg 1:2 for major and 1:3 for minor.
- The steep slopes and badly broken ground should be avoided as far as possible, which
may cause inaccuracy in tapping.
- The stations should provide minimum level surface required for setting up the
instrument.
- The traverse line of sight should not be near the ground level to avoid the refraction.
Taking the above given points into consideration, the traverse stations were fixed. Thus,
permanent fixing of the control points completes recce. So for better planning, detailed inspection
of the area to be surveyed (NEA) was performed by the method known as
RECONNANISSANCE (RECCE) survey.
2.5.2 TRAVERSING
Traversing is a type of surveying connecting number of survey lines forming the
framework. It is also a method of control surveying. This survey consists of the
measurement of a) Angles between successive lines or bearings of each line.
b) The length of each line.
The directions and the lengths of the survey lines are measured with the help of total
station. If the co-ordinates of the first station and the bearing of the first line are known,
the co-ordinates of all successive points can be computed as follows:
X
B
= X
A
+ L Cos Where, L=Length of traverse leg
Y
B
= Y
A
+ L Sin =Bearing of that leg
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There are two types of traverse. They are as follows:
1. CLOSE TRAVERSE
If the figure formed by the lines closes at a station i.e. if they form a
polygon or it starts and finishes at the points of known co-ordinates then the
traverse is called closed traverse.
2. OPEN TRAVERSE
If a traverse starts and finishes at points other than the starting point or
point of known co-ordinates, then the traverse is called open traverse.

(i) Closed Loop Traverse (ii )Closed (Linked) Traverse (iii) Open Traverse
Fig: Types of Traverses
BALANCING THE TRAVERSE:
During the computation of the traverse, we need to balance the traverse because of the
different errors in the field measurement. There are different methods of adjusting a
traverse such as:
Bowditch method
Transit method
Graphical method
Axis method

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The basis of these methods is on the assumptions that the errors in linear
measurements are proportional to L and that the errors in angular measurements are
inversely proportional to L where L is the length of a traverse leg.
The Bowditchs Rule is commonly used to balance a traverse where linear and
angular measurements are of equal precision. The total error in latitude and in the
departure is distributed in proportion to the lengths of sides. The Bowditch rule gives the
correction as,
Traverse that of Perimeter
Leg That of Length Dept or Lat in Error Total
Dept or Lat To Correction
_ _ _
) _ _ _ ( * .) _ .( _ _ _
_ _ . _ _ =

2.5.3 ADJUSTMENT OF ANGULAR ERROR AND BEARING:
The error (e) in a closed traverse due to bearing may be determined by comparing
the two bearings of the last line as observed at the first and last stations of traverse. If the
closed traverse, has N number of sides then,
Correction for the first line = e/N
Correction for the second line = 2*(e/N)
And similarly, correction for the last line = N*(e/N) = e
In a closed traverse, by geometry, the sum of the interior angles should be equal to
(2n-4)*90 where n is the number of traverse stations. If the angles are measured with the
same degree of precision, the error in the sum of the angles may be distributed equally
among each angle of the traverse.
2.5.4 DISCREPANCY AND LINEAR MISCLOSURE:
In order to measure the lengths of the sides of the traverse, two ways measurement
(forward and backward) is done with the help of total station.
The difference in values obtained by forward and backward measurement is called
discrepancy
. The reciprocal of mean of the two measurements divided by the discrepancy is called
precision.
Both the discrepancy and the precision for each traverse leg should be within the given
limits.
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Mathematically,
Discrepancy = Forward length - Backward length &,
Linear precision = 1 / (Mean length / Discrepancy)
2.5.5 MAJOR TRAVERSE
Traversing is a type of survey in which a number of connected survey lines form a
framework enclosing the area to be surveyed. Working from whole to part is the
principle. So, the whole area is enclosed by number of control points of which details are
necessary. The skeleton of lines joining those control points, which covers the whole
entire area, is called Major Traverse. Work on Major traverse must be precise. So two-set
of reading should be taken for Major Traverse. For convenience, the readings are taken
by setting the theodolite at 0
o
0'0" for one set and 90
o
00'00" for the second.
In the KHEC Survey Camp, two traverses - major and minor had to be established. The
major traverse had 14 control stations including two given control points and the ends of
the given control line. The control stations were named as M1,M2 and so on CP1 and
CP2 were the two given control points and the leg ratio of maximum traverse leg to
minimum traverse leg was maintained within 1:2. The discrepancy in length between the
forward measurements and the backward measurements of all the traverse legs was within
1:2000. Four sets of total station readings were taken for measuring the horizontal
traverse angles. The difference between the mean angles of two sets of readings was
within a minute1 or all the angles.
2.5.6 MINOR TRAVERSE
It is not sufficient to detail the area by enclosing with the help of major traverse.
Minor traverse is that one which runs through the area to make detailing easy. Minor
Traverse covers only small area. Less precise work than that of major traverse is
acceptable so that single set reading is sufficient minor traverse. The minor traverse had 2
control stations and enclosed the dormitories and its premises. The control stations were
named as m1 and m2 on along with two control stations common for both the major and
the minor traverses. The leg ratio of maximum traverse leg to minimum traverse leg was
maintained within 1:3. The discrepancy in length between the forward measurements of
all the traverse legs was within 1:1000.

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2.5.7 Orientation
Orientation is the process of determining the position or location of unknown points with
the help of location of known points.
In other words orientation is the analytic analysis in which coordinate (x,y,z) of unknown points
is fixed out by sighting known points from two or three points whose coordinate are already
established or known.
Generally,depending upon he basis setting up the instrument, there are two method of orientation
,which are as follows:
A) Intersection
B) Resection
A) Resection
It is the method of deterring the position of the point by observing horizontal
direction from it to previously fixed points. It is an ideal method of placing additional
control points around a survey area in positions eminently suitable for detailing or setting
out.
Analytical method of resection are
I. Two points problem method
II. Three points problem method A
Collins method
(-45) method a m2

B
b

c
C
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Known points are:
Co-ordinate of M12 = A (2676789.625, 3301777.737) = 2223127
Coordinate of CP = B (2676866.898, 3301818.333) = 89410
Coordinate of M11 = C (2676837.184, 3301678.509) =47473
Calculation of Bearings:
Bearing of AB = tan
-1

= 615939"
Similarly,
Bearing of BA=2415939"
Bearing of AC=1712949"
Bearing of CA=3512949"
Bearing of CB=235913"
Bearing of BC=2035913"
On solving this, we get
< a=bearing of AC- bearing of AB=1093010"
Similarly,
< b=38026"
< c=322924"
K1=

= -0.692
K2=

= 0.784
K3=

= 1.507
Finally,
Y Y= =

= 3301704.368
X =

=2676841.494
Hence coordinate of m2 are
E = 2676841.494m
N = 3301704.368m

Conclusion:
Hence the independent co- ordinates of minor station m2 were calculated adopting
the principles of Resection .
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B) Intersection
Intersection is the procedure of determining the position of the unknown points
with the help two known points. Intersection is done by taking angular measurements
from the known point to the unknown points. The distances between the known and
unknown points are measured by solving the triangle by using sine law and the triangle
should be well conditioned as non of the angles should be less than 30 and not more than
90.
In our camp , we have to find out the height of coordinates of the water tower.
m2 H1 TOWER

d

H2
M11
A6M1
1= 1491415"
2= 255710"
x = 44835"
Using sin law in ABC,

Now,
H2=227.100m
H1 =237.091m
Bearing of m2M11 = 23519 20"
Bearing of M11m2 = 5519 20"
Bearing of m2T = Bearing of m2M1- 1 = 865 6"
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Bearing of M11T = Bearing of M11m2 + 2 = 8116 31"
F Fr ro om m m m2 2T T, ,
Y Y = =M M2 2T T c co os s( (b br r. . o of f m m2 2T T) )= =1 16 6. .1 18 88 8m m
X X = =M M2 2T T s si in n( (b br r. . o of f m m2 2T T) )= =2 23 36 6. .5 53 38 8m m
Thus the coordinates of the Tower are
E = 3301720.428 m
N =2677078.175 m
From M11T,
Y =M11T cos(br. of M1T)=42.034m
X =M11T sin(br. of M1T)=272.893m
Thus the coordinates of the Tower are
E = 3301720.543 m
N =2677078.353 m
From inst. St at m2,
H=237.091m
RL=1343.219m
HI=1.34m
== 90- 8141 20"= 818 40"
RL of T = RL+HI+H tan <
= 1379.214m
From inst. St at m2,
H=277.100m
RL= 1342.476m
HI=1.36m
= 27716 50"- 270= 818 40"
RL of T = RL+HI+H tan <
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= 1379.237m
Height of tower is= (1379.237+1379.214)/2 =1379.226m

The Site for the survey camping was the NEA Training Center. The topographic
map of given area was prepared as per the given norms and specification.
The project of topographical survey was felt very effective and we felt as if we were
appointed as an engineer and working as per the norms and specification provided.
Further it is very interesting while using Total station. In this modern age of surveying,
Theodolite seems to be ineffective in comparison to the Total station. After the traverse
was plotted in grid sheet we used plane tabling method to check whether our calculation
and plotting was correct or not. Finally checks were successful and we got it right.
We were able to familiarize ourselves with the different practical approaches applied in
surveying in the actual field condition. We experienced the difference between working
in a smaller area and working in a larger area. Along with gaining a lot of confidence
regarding the use of the instruments, we also felt the responsibility of planning, executing,
and completing a project. As a whole, we understood the value of teamwork and mutual
coordination in the execution of any project. Completion of survey work within the period
and under the required precision was one of the major tasks that we had achieved during
the camp.

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CHAPTER 3
3.0 TOTAL STATION:
3.1 INTRODUCTION:
A total station is an optical instrument used a lot in modern surveying and
archaeology and, in a minor way, as well as by police, crime scene investigators, private
accident re-constructionists and insurance companies to take measurements of scenes. It
is a combination of an electronic theodolite (transit), an electronic distance meter (EDM)
and software running on an external computer known as a data collector
With a total station one may determine angles and distances from the instrument
to points to be surveyed. With the aid of trigonometry and triangulation, the angles and
distances may be used to calculate the coordinates of actual positions (X, Y, and Z or
northing, easting and elevation) of surveyed points, or the position of the instrument from
known points, in absolute terms.
Some total stations also have a GPS interface which combines these two
technologies to make use of the advantages of both (GPS - line of sight not required
between measured points; Traditional Total Station - high precision measurement
especially in the vertical axis compared with GPS) and reduce the consequences of each
technology's disadvantages (GPS - poor accuracy in the vertical axis and lower accuracy
without long occupation periods; Total Station - requires line of sight observations and
must be set up over a known point or within line of sight of 2 or more known points).
Most modern total station instruments measure angles by means of electro-optical
scanning of extremely precise digital bar-codes etched on rotating glass cylinders or discs
within the instrument. The best quality total stations are capable of measuring angles
down to 0.5 arc-second. Inexpensive "construction grade" total stations can generally
measure angles to 5 or 10 arc-seconds.
Measurement of distance is accomplished with a modulated microwave or infrared
carrier signal, generated by a small solid-state emitter within the instrument's optical path,
and bounced off of the object to be measured. The modulation pattern in the returning
signal is read and interpreted by the onboard computer in the total station. The distance is
determined by emitting and receiving multiple frequencies, and determining the integer
number of wavelengths to the target for each frequency. Most total stations use a purpose-
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built glass Porro prism as the reflector for the EDM signal, and can measure distances out
to a few kilometers, but some instruments are "reflectorless", and can measure distances
to any object that is reasonably light in color, out to a few hundred meters. The typical
Total Station EDM can measure distances accurate to about 3 millimeters or 1/100th of a
foot.
Some modern total stations are 'robotic' allowing the operator to control the
instrument from a distance via remote control. This eliminates the need for an assistant
staff member to hold the reflector prism over the point to be measured. The operator
holds the reflector him/herself and controls the total station instrument from the observed
point.
The basic principle of Total Station is that the distance between any two points
can be known once the time light takes to travel the distance and back and the velocity of
light is known. Then the following relation, which is already programmed in the memory
of the instrument along with other correction factors, calculates the required horizontal
distance and is displayed on the LCD screen.
SETUP:
1. Place tripod approximately over a known point locking legs at a convenient height
so machine will be at or lower than eye level and the legs are at equal distances
from each other. Eyeball the head of the tripod so it is as close to level as possible.
Be sure the legs of the tripod are firmly planted into the ground.
For smooth surfaces (such as concrete, asphalt, or tile), use folding metal
tripod footing to secure the legs.
2. Remove instrument carefully from casing with both hands. Place on top
(supporting with top handle) of tripod and tighten centering screw below platform
into instrument, aligning the three corners of machine and platform. Use sight
tangent screw on back side of LCD display to center the instrument over the exact
known point to be surveyed.

3.2 POWER AND PREPARATION
a. Attach one of the batteries to the side of instrument with the clamp side up. Press
any one of the five buttons below the display to turn on machine. It shall beep and

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the display should indicate the instrument is not level and must be leveled and
indexed (precisely level internal components).
To switch power off, hold ESC button and press indicated button that
corresponds to OFF on the display.
If the battery is at a low level, the following will be displayed, Battery is
low!-switch batteries and charge the drained one using provided jack.
Prior to storing the instrument for its next use, check the status of both
provided batteries. If either is only ENTIRELY drained, charge overnight
using given equipment.
b. Locate the horizontal level bubble above the LCD display. Rotate instrument by
loosening the horizontal clamp and align the display with any two of the leveling
screws. Tighten or loosen the left screw so bubble is in center. Rotate instrument
clockwise to the next two screws and again use the left one to center bubble.
Rotate to the final two pair of screws and center bubble. Check stationary leveling
bubble to see if it is center. If not, repeat previous leveling process.
If the error message Tilt out of range is displayed, it is indicating the
instrument is off-level. Relevel the instrument.
c. To index the vertical circles, loosen the vertical clamp, and manually rotate the
telescope either way twice. The beep should be heard and the zenith angle (ZA
vertical angle) will appear on the LCD display.
d. Loosen the horizontal clamp and rotate the instrument clockwise twice to index
the horizontal circles. The beep is heard again and the horizontal angle (HAR) is
displayed.
Vertical and horizontal indexing has now been completed.
pressing ESC) opens a section which contains several (up to 3) pages. To scroll
through these pages to reach other options, press button left of the yellow ESC
f. Set the target and instrument height by pressing Ht. in S-O mode. Measure the
target height by reading the measurement on the reflector pole at the clamp (set at
any arbitrary height suitable for job). Measure the instrument height by taping the
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distance from the black point on side of instrument (level with center of telescope)
to the known point on ground.
Be sure to note the units used (currently default set at feet and decimal
fractions of feet; see manual to change to metric units) and height of
instrument and target in the field book.
When using two reflecting poles, be sure to set each at same height.

3.3 ANGLE MEASUREMENT:
1. Sight the first point (focus with eye piece and align center hairs with center of
reflector) using the horizontal clamp and the fine motion screw. Set the angle to
zero by pressing 0SET in THEO mode. Sight the second target and read the HAR
on the display.
If you wish to read the angle by rotating the instrument to the left, press
R/L in THEO mode (display will read HAL or HAR for left or right
respectively).
2. For higher accuracy, the average of a number of readings can be taken using
repetition. Sight the first target and press REP in THEO mode. Press BS (back
sight) then sight the second target. Press FS (fore sight) and the angle between the
two will be displayed. Sight the first target again, presses BS, and site the second
target again and press FS. The average of the two readings will be displayed.
Repeat up to 10 times for higher accuracy.
3. The slope of the line being shot can be displayed as a percentage by pressing
ZA% in THEO mode. This is read as VA and gives the percentage grade of the
parameter is set to Horizontal 0 instead of Zenith 0 but performs the same
function.

23

Fig:Total Station

3.4 DISTANCE AND ANGLE MEASUREMENT:
This is the most useful and suggested method. The working procedure is described
as follow:
1. Sight target and select for slope, horizontal, or height (SHV) measurement. Press
Sdistto start the measurement and STOPto end. The distance, vertical, and
horizontal angle are displayed. Press SHVto view the other measurements
(Horizontal distance or Height difference).
2. To measure the horizontal distance several times and display the average, sight the
target and press H-distin THEOmode. Three measurements are taken and the
average (H-A) is displayed after a few seconds.
24

* The most recently taken data can be recalled and displayed by pressing
RCLin the EDM mode.
3.5 COORDINATE MEASUREMENT:
This is not much more useful. So co-ordinate measurement is not suggested for
use.
1. In order to begin the coordinate measure, set the initial coordinates of the station.
This is done by pressing the S-O button at the main menu. Then press the Stn-P
button on the second page of the S-O menu. Choose the Input button, then set the
initial coordinates and press ENTER.
2. Sight the target and press COORD in S-O mode, then press STOP to end the
measurement. The coordinates of the target are given with respect to the initial
starting position (0,0,0) and designated direction to be North.
3.6 MEASURING THE DISTANCE BETWEEN 2 POINTS:
1. Sight the first position and press either Sdist, Hdist, or Vdistin EDM mode to start
the measurement. Stop the measurement by pressing the STOP and sight the next
point. Press MLM on the same page to start the measurement, the press STOP to
stop the measurement. The slope, horizontal, and height difference between the
two points is displayed. This can be repeated as many times as necessary.
2. The slope may be read as a percentage by pressing S% in the same mode after the
missing line measurement has finished. This displays the percent grade between
the two points.

3.7 DISTANCE SETTING-OUT MEASUREMENT:
1. To find the direction and distance of a point set out a wanted distance from the
instrument station, sight the reference direction and press 0SET in THEO mode to
set the HAR at 0. Turn theodolite until the required angle is displayed and locks
the horizontal movement.
2. Press ESC to go to basic mode and go to S-O mode. Go to S-O_D for the data and
input the desired distance to set out. Set the reflecting prism in the sighting line
25

and press SO_Hdto start the distance measurement. The difference between the
desired distance and the measured distance is displayed on the 1
st
line.
3. Move the reflecting prism towards or away from the Instrument until H distance
becomes 0m to determine the point at the desired distance.
* If there is negative (-) data: Move prism away from Instr.
* If positive (+) data: Move prism towards Instr.
* Press STOP to end the measurement.
3.8 COORDINATES SETTING-OUT MEASUREMENT:
a. Set the station coordinates and initial azimuth angle. Press S-O_P in S-O mode
and input the desired coordinates for N and E and press YES to store the data.
Press SO_HA in S-O mode to start the angle measurement. The setting-out
horizontal angle, HA is displayed. Use the horizontal clamp and fine motion screw
to turn theodolite until HA reads 0 00 00 and lock the clamp.
b. Sight the reflecting prism on the sighting line and press SO_HD and move
reflecting prism until H reads 0m as in part 3 of the distance setting-out
measurement.

3.9 LEVELLING
Leveling is a branch of surveying, the objectives of which are:
To find the elevation of given points with respect to a given or assumed
datum.
To establish points at a given elevation or at different elevations with respects
to a given or assumed datum.
Two types of leveling are used in general Engineering practices, namely direct
leveling (spirit leveling) and in-direct leveling (trigonometric leveling).
DIRECT LEVELLING:
It is the branch of leveling in which the vertical distances with respect to a
horizontal line (perpendicular to the direction of gravity) may be used to determine the
relative difference in elevation between two adjacent points. A level provides horizontal
26

line of sight, i.e. a line tangential to a level surface at the point where the instrument
stands. The difference in elevation between two points is the vertical distance between
two level lines. With a level set up at any place, the difference in elevation between any
two points within proper lengths of sight is given by the difference between the staff
readings taken on these points. By a succession of instrument stations and related
readings, the difference in elevation between widely separated points is thus obtained.
Following are some special methods of direct (spirit) leveling:
DIFFERENTIAL LEVELING:
It is the method of direct leveling the objective of which is solely to determine the
difference in elevation of two points regardless of the horizontal positions of the points
with respect of each other. This type of leveling is also known as fly leveling.
PROFILE LEVELING:
It is the method of direct leveling the objective of which is to determine the
elevations of points at measured intervals along a given line in order to obtain a profile of
the surface along that line.
CROSS SECTIONING:
Cross-sectioning or cross leveling is the process of taking levels on each side of main line
at right angles to that line, in order to determine a vertical cross-section of the surface of
the ground, or of underlying strata, or of both.
At every 20m chainage the readings were taken for cross sectioning. The RL were taken
where the change in slope was noticed or remarkable points were noticed or else at 5m
and 10m both left and right. Autolevel was used for this purpose. Cross sectioning was
plotted on the graph.
RECIPROCAL LEVELING:
Reciprocal leveling
1For transferring the RL across the bridge reciprocal leveling was performed. This
method eliminates the error due to focusing, collimation, earths curvature and refraction
of atmosphere etc.
True difference in elevation between A and B = H = h
a
- (h
b
-e)
Also the true difference in elevation = H = (h
a
'- e)-h
b

27

Taking the average of the two differences we get the difference in elevation between A
and B.

.

INDIRECT LEVELING:
Indirect method or trigonometric leveling is the process of leveling in which the
elevations of points are computed from the vertical angles and horizontal distances
measured in the field, just as the length of any side in any triangle can be computed from
proper trigonometric relations.
The first operation is required to enable the works to be designed while the second
operation is required in the setting out of all kinds of engineering works. Leveling deals
with measurements in a vertical plane.
consists of the following:
Setting up the level: The operation of setting up includes fixing the instrument on
the stand and leveling the instrument approximately.
Levelingup: Accurate leveling is done with the help of foot screws and with
reference to the plate levels. The purpose of leveling is to make the vertical axis
truly vertical and horizontal line of sight truly horizontal.
Removal of parallax: Parallax is a condition when the image formed by the
objective is not in the plane of the cross hairs. Parallax is eliminated by focusing
the eyepiece for distinct vision of the cross hairs and by focusing the objective to
bring the image of the object in the plane of cross hairs.
)] ' ' ( ) [(
2
1
b a b a h h h h H + =
28

LEVEL:
To check for the permanent
adjustments of level two-peg test method
should be performed. Two staffs were placed
at A and B of known length (about 60 m).
First the instrument was setup on the line
near B and both staff readings (Top, Middle,
and Bottom) were taken. Then, the
instrument was setup at the middle C on the
line and again both staff readings on A and
B was taken. Then computation was done in
order to check whether the adjustment was
within the required accuracy or not.
The error obtained was within the
given permissible error. So, the permanent
Inst. Set Up
Object
Station
Mean(H)
=(T+M+B)/3
Mean-
M
(<1mm)
Top
(T)
Mid
(M)
Bottom
(B)
Mid of A and B
A 1.290 1.165 1.040 1.165
B 1.357 1.229 1.103 1.22966667
Near A
A 1.302 1.297 1.293 1.29733333
B 1.623 1.360 1.101 1.36133333
True level difference between A and B = Ha-Hb = h1 = 0.06466667
Apparent level difference between A and B = Ha'-Hb' = h2 =0.064
Collimation Error = h1-h2 =0.00067
Horizontal distance between pegs A & B (H) = 50 m
Precision = e/H =1: 71428.57143
BOOKING AND REDUCING LEVELS:
There are two methods of booking and reducing the elevation of points from the

29

Height of the Instrument method
Arithmetic Check: BS F.S. = Last R.L. First R.L.
Rise and Fall method
Arithmetic Check: BS F.S. = Rise fall = Last R.L. First R.L.
FLY LEVELING:
The RL of Given TBM1 point was found by transferring the level from Known
BM.In this method auto level was used and the level was transferred directly by taking
BS and FS at every Turning Point.
For transferring the RL across the bridge reciprocal leveling was performed. This method
eliminates the error due to focusing, collimation, earths curvature and refraction of
atmosphere etc.
True difference in elevation between A and B = H = h
a
- (h
b
-e)
Also the true difference in elevation = H = (h
a
'- e)-h
b

Taking the average of the two differences we get the difference in elevation between A
and B.

LEVEL TRANSFER TO MAJOR AND MINOR TRAVERSE STATIONS:
The R. L of the temporary benchmark was then transferred to the control stations
of the major and minor traverse. The closing error was found to be within the permissible
limits. The misclosure was adjusted in each leg of the leveling path by using the
following formula:
Permissible error = 25\K mm.
Where k is perimeter in Km
)] ' ' ( ) [(
2
1
b a b a h h h h H + =
30

Actual Error (e) = BS F.S. = Last R.L. First R.L.
Correction i
th
leg=-(e x (L
1
+ L
2
+.+ L
i
)/P
Where L
1
, L
2
L
i
are Length of 1
st
2
nd
,..i
th
leg.
P is perimeter
Relative Precision= 1/(p/e)
3.10 DETAILING
3.10.1 TACHEOMETRY:
Tachometry is a branch of angular surveying in which the horizontal and vertical
distances of points are obtained by optical means. Though it has less accuracy, about
1/300 to 1/500, it is faster and convenient than the measurements by tape or chain. It is
very suitable for steep or broken ground, deep ravines, and stretches of water or swamp
where taping is impossible.
The objective of the tachometric survey is the preparation of the topographic map
or plan with both horizontal and vertical controls. For the survey of high accuracy, it
provides a check on the distances measured by tape.
The formula for the horizontal distance, for the tachometer with the additive constant
0.00 and multiplying constant 100.00 is,
H= K S Cos
2

The formula for the vertical distance is,
V = (K S Sin2)/2 = HTan
K = Multiplying Constant (Generally = 100)
= Vertical angle on Theodolite.
Thus knowing the V value, reduced level (R. L.) of instrument station, Height of
instrument (H. I.) and central wire reading (R) the R. L. of any point under observation
can be calculated as:
R. L. of Point = R. L. of Instrument Station + H. I. + V- R

31

3.10.2 CONTOURING:
A contour is an imaginary line, which passes through the points of equal
elevation. It is a line in which the surface of ground is intersected by a level surface.
Every fifth contour lines must be made darken. While drawing the contour lines, the
characteristics of the contours should be approached.
The characteristics are as follows:
Two contours of different elevations do not cross each other except in the case of
an overhanging cliff.
Contours of different elevations do not unite to form one contour except in the
case of a vertical cliff.
Contours drawn closer depict a steep slope and if drawn apart, represent a gentle
slope.
Contours equally spaced depict a uniform slope. When contours are parallel,
equidistant and straight, these represent an inclined plane surface.
Contour at any point is perpendicular to the line of the steepest slope at the point.
A contour line must close itself but need not be necessarily within the limits of the
map itself.
A set ring contours with higher values inside depict a hill whereas a set of ring
contours with lower values inside depict a pond or a depression without an outlet.
When contours cross a ridge or V-shaped valley, they form sharp V-shapes across
them. Contours represent a ridgeline, if the concavity of higher value contour lies
towards the next lower value contour and on the other hand these represent a
valley if the concavity of the lower value contour, lies toward the higher value
contours.
The same contour must appear on both the sides of a ridge or a valley.
Contours do not have sharp turnings.
3.11 METHODS OF CONTOURING:
Taking the reading at the change point on the ground does the indirect method of
locating contours. The interpolation method is used to draw the contour lines.
32

Interpolation of contours is done by estimation, by arithmetic calculations or by graphical
method. The eye estimation method is extremely rough and is used for small-scale work
only.
There are two method of locating contour:
i) The Direct Method:
In this method, the points of equal elevations are found directly on the field. The
horizontal control of the point is found by the help of plane table.
ii) The Indirect Method:
In this method, some suitable guide points need not necessarily be on the contour.
There are some of the indirect methods of location the ground points:
a) Square Method
b) Cross- Section Method
c) Tachometric Method
Interpolation is the process of spacing the contours proportionately between the
slopes of the ground between the two points is uniform. The interpolation of contour cans
be done on following three ways:
1) ESTIMATION:
2) ARITHMETIC CALCULATION:
Generally, arithmetic calculation method of interpolation is used to draw the
contour lines and is performed as follows:
. _ _ _ _ . _ _
) _ _ . _ . ( * .) _ . Re _ _& . _ _ _ . _ _ . (
int _ _ _ .
Pts Known Two of RL in Difference
Scale in Dist Hz Pt qd Pt One of RL in Diff
Po Contour of Dist =

3) GRAPHICAL METHOD:
Generally, we use arithmetic method of interpolation to draw the contour line.
3.11 COMPUTATION AND PLOTTING
For the calculations as well as plotting, we applied the coordinate method (latitude
and departure method). In this method, two terms latitude and departure are used for
calculation. Latitude of a survey line may be defined as its coordinate lengths measured
33

parallel to an assumed meridian direction. The latitude (L) of a line is positive when
measured towards north, and termed Northing and it is negative when measured towards
south, and termed Southing. The departure (D) of a line is positive when measured
towards east, and termed Easting and it is negative when measured towards south, and
termed Westing. The latitude and departures of each control station can be calculated
using the relation:
Latitude = L Cosu
Departure = L Sinu
Where, L=distance of the traverse legs
u=Reduced bearing
If a closed traverse is plotted according to the field measurements, the end of the
traverse will not coincide exactly with the starting point. Such and error is known as
closing error.
Mathematically,
Closing error (e) = {(EL)
2
+ (ED)
2
}
Direction, tan = E D/EL
The sign of EL and ED will thus define the quadrant in which the closing error lies.
The relative error of closure = Error of Closure / Perimeter of the traverse
= e / p= 1 / (p / e)
The error (e) in a closed traverse due to bearing may be determined by comparing
the two bearings of the last line as observed at the first and last stations of traverse. If the
closed traverse, has N number of sides then,
Correction for the first line = e/N
Correction for the second line = 2e/N
And similarly, correction for the last line = Ne/N = e
In a closed traverse, by geometry, the sum of the interior angles should be equal to
(2n-4) x 90 where n is the number of traverse sides. If the angles are measured with the
same degree of precision, the error in the sum of the angles may be distributed equally
among each angle of the traverse.
34

The Bowditchs method or the compass rule is mostly used to balance a traverse
where linear and angular measurements are of equal precision. The total error in latitude
and in the departure is distributed in proportion to the lengths of the sides.
Mathematically,
- Correction in departure of a side of traverse
= (Total Dept. Misclosure / Traverse Perimeter)*(length of that side)
- Correction in latitude of a side of traverse
= (Total Lat. Misclosure / Traverse Perimeter) * (length of that side)
In order to measure the lengths of the sides of the traverse, two ways taping
(forward and backward) is done. In difficult areas where taping is not possible, other
methods like the subtense bar is used. The difference in values obtained by forward and
backward taping is called discrepancy. In addition, the reciprocal of the discrepancy
divided by the mean of the two measurements is called precision. Both the discrepancy
and the precision for each traverse leg should be within the given limits.
Mathematically, Discrepancy = | Forward length - Backward length |
And Linear precision = 1 / (Mean length / Discrepancy)
The coordinates of traverse station were found out by resection. The resection point was
selected at the top of hostel building from where all the known points can be sighted. The
coordinates of known points are given below.
PLOTTING OF MAJOR & MINOR TRAVERSE:
The traverse was made closed in order to check the sum of interior angles, which
should be equal to (2n-4)*90 degrees, where n= number of control points. (Traverse
stations or legs).
The bearing of the one of the stations with another adjacent station was found out
compass. The bearing of other traverse legs were obtained from the help of bearing of
preceding line and the included angle at the particular station.
After computing the co-ordinate of each of the control points, they were made
ready to plot in grid paper. Both major and minor traverses were plotted to 1:1000 scales.
The plotted traverse was made at the center of the sheet with the help of least co-ordinates
and highest co-ordinates.
35

The site for survey camping was NEA Training Center. The pattern was very
suitable because all the facilities for engineering work were available with the good
environment of doing work.The arrangements of the survey instruments were appreciable
although there were some faulty instruments that made the fieldwork time consuming.
Some instruments like theodolite, levels etc. do not given the accurate reading. Some
other problems during the field works were during fly leveling during transferring the
R.L. from given benchmark to the CP due to the by traffics disturbances.
The given Topography survey camp work was finished within the given span of
time. The subject survey needs practice as much as possible. For surveying, theory can
only taken as the introduction but if there is practice, there will be much gain of
knowledge about the techniques of surveying. Thus, this camp helps us by practicing the
survey work to gain the much essential knowledge as far as possible. It is better to say
that it provides us a confidence to perform survey and apply the techniques at any type of
problem facing during the actual work in the future career.The whole area of NEA
Training Center was divided in number of plots. A single group had to complete a single
plot following the routine provided. Then from the control stations details were taken by
tachometry. Recorded data's were established by MS-excel and the drawing was prepared.
After computing the co-ordinate of each of the control points, they were plotted in grid
paper. Both major and minor traverse were plotted to 1:1000 and 1:500 scale respectively.
The plotted traverse was made at the center of the sheet with the help of least co-ordinates
and highest co-ordinates. Contouring was done with the help of arithmetic interpolation.

36

CHAPTER 4
4.0 BRIDGE SITE SURVEY
4.1 INTRODUCTION
This part of the Survey Camp deal with the bridge site survey at Dolalghat where a
narrow river flowed. The structures that are constructed with the objective of connecting
two places separated by deep valleys or gorges or rivers and streams are basically known
as BRIDGES. The bridges are usually a part of roads making the roads shorter and hence
economical. In countries like Nepal, where there are a lot of uneven lands and plenty of
rivers, bridges are the most economic and efficient ways to join two places by road in a
convenient way. The bridge site surveying was conducted in a Dolalghat.
4.2. OBJECTIVES:
Following are the objectives of Bridge site survey:
- To select the best location in terms of convenience, economy and geological stability.
- To calculate the length of the bridge axis via triangulation.
- To take sufficient data of the details including the spot heights, around the bridge in
order to prepare a topographical map of the area, cross section of the river at certain
intervals and longitudinal section of the river.

4.3BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA
Bridge site survey was done over cha khola river. The site is surrounded with
stepped grassy fields. Its flow direction is north to south. There is plain ground as well as
highly sloping ground on some places surrounding. There is big and small stones on the
river.
4.3.1HYDROLOGY, GEOLOGY AND SOIL
In both sides of the river there was steep slope that was the main obstacle. The
river was seasonal where water flow in high speed during rainy season and less at dry
season.

37

4.4NORMS (TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS)
The following norms were followed while performing the bridge site survey:
- Determining the length of the bridge axis and control point fixing was done by the
method of triangulation. While forming triangles one of the angles of the triangles
were greater than 120
o
or less than 30
o
.
- The triangulation angle was measured on two sets of readings by theodolite and the
difference between the mean angles of two sets of readings had to be within 1.
- Transferring the level from one bank to another bank had to be done by the method
of reciprocal leveling.
- The scale for plotting of our topographical map is 1:500.
- In order to plot the longitudinal section of the river, data had to be taken along the
river bed upto150 m upstream and at least 75 m downstream. However it was not
possible in our case.
- The plot for the longitudinal section along the flow line was done in a scale of 1:50
for vertical and 1:500 for horizontal.
- For the cross section profile, data had to be taken at 10 m intervals both upstream
and downstream, and one at the bridge axis.
4.5EQUIPMENTS USED
- Total station
- Tapes
- Auto Level
- Compass
- Hammer
- Pegs
- Tripod

38

4.6METHODOLOGY:
The various methods were performed during the bridge site survey such as
triangulation, leveling, Tachometry, cross section, L-section etc. The brief descriptions of
these methodologies are given below
4.6.1RECONNAISSANCE
For the purpose of the shortest span, the stations were set perpendicular to the
flow direction. The riverbanks were not eroded and were suitable for bridge construction.
The chance of change of direction of river on the selected axis line was nominal.
4.6.2 SITE SELECTION:
The sites was chosen such that it should be laid on the very stable rocks or hill
slope at the bed of river as far as possible and not affect the ecological balance of the flora
and fauna of the site area. The bridge axis should be so located such that it should be
fairly perpendicular to the flow direction and at the same time, the river width should be
narrow from the economical point of view and the free board should be at least 5m. The
starting point of bridge axis should not in any way lie or touch the curve of the road.
4.6.3 TRIANGULATION
For the determination of the approximate span of the bridge axis Triangulation
was performed. The triangulation stations were taken as the control points for detailing.
Following criteria is met in this process:
Two points on either bank of the river were fixed as control points and one of the
sides of the triangle was taken as the bridge axis.
The base line was measured accurately measured by two-way tapping and interior
angles were measured by taking two sets of reading by theodolite.
The accurate span of bridge was computed by applying sine rule.
To minimize the plotting error well-conditioned triangles were constructed i.e. the
angles greater than 30 degree, less then 120 degrees and nearer to 60 degree. The
best triangle is equilateral triangle.

39

Fig: Bridge Triangulation
4.7TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY
- A total of 4 control stations were selected along the banks. Thus a traverse was
formed running across the river, covering a distance of 150m upstream and 75 m
downstream.
- The method of triangulation was used for the determination of the bridge axis as
well as the traverse legs, which also served as checks on our work.
- And the triangulation angles with two sets of reading were taken using a
theodolite. Details of the objects around the bridge along with their spot heights
were taken from these control stations by tachometric method.
- While transferring the R.L. from the given benchmark to the control stations, fly
leveling was done. And for transferring the R.L. from one point to another point
across the bridge axis, reciprocal leveling was done.
- All the internal angles were measured using Totalstation. Then Sine Law was used
to calculate the lengths of the other legs of the triangulation series along with the
proposed bridge axis.
4.8LONGITUDINAL SECTION (L-SECTION)
The L-Section of the river is required to give an idea about the bed slope, nature
of the riverbed, and the variation in the elevations of the different points along the length
of the river. Keeping the instrument at the control (triangulation) stations on the river
banks, the different detailing points along the center line of the river at an interval of
about 10m up-to a 150m upstream and 75 m downstream is taken.
The R.L.s of the traverse stations being known previously by reciprocal leveling; the
levels of the different points on the river were calculated.
A
B
C
D
40

4.9CROSS SECTION
Cross sectioning of river at a point extends laterally on either side of the center line of the
river at right angle to the L-section.
At every 10m chainage the readings were taken for cross sectioning. The reading were
taken where the change in slope was noticed or remarkable points were noticed or at 10m
interval. Totalstation was used for this purpose.
Cross sectioning was plotted on the graph at a scale of 1:100vertically and 1:100
horizontally
4.10 LEVELING
Transferring R.L. from B.M. to control points:
The R.L of benchmark BM = 622.00 m was given and was transferred to the triangular
stations from the B.M. by fly leveling along the road turning points by taking the back
sight reading to the bench mark which should be within the given accuracy. Reciprocal
leveling transferred the R.L. to the opposite bank of the river.
RECIPROCAL LEVELING:
For transferring the RL across the bridge reciprocal leveling was performed. This method
eliminates the error due to focusing, collimation, earths curvature and refraction of
atmosphere etc.

41

True difference in elevation between A and B = H = ha- (hb-e)
Also the true difference in elevation = H = (ha '- e)-hb'
Taking the average of the two differences we get the difference in elevation between A
and B is given by H=1/2[(ha-hb) + (ha-hb)]
The bridge site survey was performed to gain idea for selecting the bridge axis.
Triangulation was performed to get the length of the proposed bridge. Similarly, the
cross-section and longitudinal section were performed. The X-section was performed at
the interval of 10m. The longitudinal section was about 150m upstream and 75m
downstream. In addition, details were taken from the respective stations. The cross-
section was taken at the banks of river and at the middle of the river to get the profile of
the flowing river. In addition, we marked the high flood level and low flood level.
Similarly, we transferred the reduced levels of the stations from the known benchmark.

42

CHAPTER 5
5.0 ROAD ALIGNMENT SURVEY AND GEOMETRIC DESIGN
5.1INTRODUCTION
Roads are specially prepared ways between different places for the use of
vehicles, people and animals. It is an accepted fact that of all the mode of transportation,
road transport is the nearest to the people. The passengers and the goods have to be first
transported by road before reaching a railway station or a port or an airport. The road
network alone could serve the remotest villages of the vast country like ours. In countries
like Nepal, where there are less chances of airways and almost negligible chances of
waterway, roads form a major part of the transportation system. Therefore, it would not
be an exaggeration in saying that the roads have an utmost importance.
This part of the survey Camp dealt with road alignment survey done at in Nepal
Electricity Authority Training Center, Kharitapi. The duration of the survey was two
days.
5.2OBJECTIVES
Road Alignment Survey was done to accomplish the following objectives:
- To choose the best possible route for the road such that there were a minimum number of
Intersection Points (I.P.) thereby decreasing the number of turns on the road.
- To design smooth horizontal curves at points where the road changed its direction, in
order to make the road comfortable for the passengers and the vehicles traveling on it.
- To take sufficient data of the details including the spot heights, around the road segment
in order to prepare a topographical map of the area, cross section of the road at certain
intervals and longitudinal section of the road segment, hence making it convenient to
determine the amount of cut and fill required for the construction of the road.
5.3TOPOGRAPHYAND GEOLOGY OF THE AREA
The starting point of the route was the CP1 major station. The site is surrounded
with various type of ground features with grass in most of the part. The route selected by
our group B3 with 11 I.P. and minimum grade of 0.1%and maximum grade of 7%. There
are several rise and fall along the route needing lots of cutting, and filling.
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The road alignment survey was done at Nepal Electricity Authority Training Centre
Bhaktapur. The area was having steep slopes as well as plane land. The area was ideal for
survey for hill road. Steep slopes and drastic change in alignment made the work more
challenging and more interesting. The area was full of clay and exposed rocks particularly
of metamorphic type. The area having steep slopes, but few slopes were unstable and
there was chance of slide, so slope protective works are necessary.
5.3.1HYDROLOGY AND GEOLOGY:
The road had to go along a damp route that was much undulated. The place was
damp and clayey. There were no large boulders or rocks of any kind along the proposed
site.
5.3.1.1SOIL:
When the soil surface is inclined, there is a component of gravity that tends to
move the soil downward. If along the potential slip surface in the soil the stress produced
by gravity exceeds the shear strength of the soil along the potential failure surface, the
slope will become unstable. Obviously, the shear strength of soil is largely depends upon
the type of soil. Cohesive soil has more shear strength than others do. The hard and dense
soil is best for slopes. Other kinds of soils were not found along our proposed route.
5.4NORMS (TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS)
While performing the road alignment survey, the following norms were strictly
followed:
- Simple horizontal curves had to be laid out where the road changed its direction,
determining and pegging three points on the curve - the beginning of the curve, the
middle point of the curve and the end point of the curve along the centerline of the road.
- The radius of the curve had to be greater than 15m and
- Cross sections had to be taken at 20 m intervals and also at the beginning, middle and end
of the curve, along the centerline of the road - observation being taken on either side of
the centerline.
- Plan of the road had to be prepared on a scale of 1:500.
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- L-Section of the road had to be plotted on a scale of 1:1000 horizontally and 1:100
vertically.
- The cross section of the road had to be plotted on a scale of 1:100 (both vertical and
horizontal).
- The amount of cutting and filling required for the road construction had to be determined
from the L-Section and the cross sections.

5.5EQUIPMENTS USED
- Theodolite
- Staffs
- Ranging rods
- Tapes
- Level
- Compass
- Hammer
- Pegs
5.6 METHODOLOGY:
5.6.1 RECONNAISSANCE
The reconnaissance survey was carried out starting from the main road to the low
elevated region along the graveled road. Pegging was done at different places and the
possible I.P.s were also numbered and pegged. The condition of inter-visibility was
checked at each step.
5.6.2 HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT
The locations of the simple horizontal curves were determined carefully considering
factors like the stability of the area, enough space for the turning radius, etc. The I.P.s was
fixed so that the gradient of the road at any place was less than 7%. After determining the
I.P.s for the road, theodolite was stationed at each I.P. and the deflection angles measured.
The distance between one I.P. and another was measured by two way taping.
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The horizontal curves were set out by angular methods using theodolite at I.P. and tape.
Horizontal alignment is done for fixing the road direction in horizontal plane. For this, the
bearing of initial line connecting two initial stations was measured using compass. The
interior angles were observed using Theodolite at each IP and then deflection angles were
calculated.
Deflection angle = (360 or 180) - observed angle

Fig: Simple circular horizontal curve
Where,
BC: Beginning of curve
EC: End of curve
MC: Midpoint of curve
IP: Apex distance
If +ve, the survey line deflects right (clockwise) with the prolongation of preceding line
and deflects left if ve (anti-clockwise). The radius was assumed according to the
deflection angle. Then the tangent length, EC, BC, apex distance along with their
chainage were found by using following formulae,
Tangent length (T L) = R x tan (A/2)
Length of curve (L.C) = 3.142 x R x A/180
Apex distance = R x 1/ (Cos (A/2)-1)
R
Tangent Length, BC
1
IP = R Tan A/2
Apex distance, IPMC
1
= R(secA/2-1)
Length of chord, BC
1
MC
1
EC
1
=2RSinA/2

IPBC= IPEC: Tangent length
A : External deflection angle

A
MC
EC
O
BC
IP
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Chainage of BC = Chainage of IP TL
Chainage of MC = Chainage of BC +LC/2
Chainage of EC = Chainage of MC + LC/2
The BC and EC points were located along the line by measuring the tangent
length from the apex and the points were marked distinctly. The radius was chosen such
that the tangent does not overlap. The apex was fixed at the length of apex distance from
IP along the line bisecting the interior angle.
After performing the necessary calculations, the points T1 and T2 were fixed at a distance
equal to the tangent length from I.P. using a tape. Then the line bisecting the internal
angle at the I.P. was found out with the help of a theodolite. And on this line, a peg was
driven at point M at a distance equal to the apex distance (VM) from the I.P. Then the
necessary calculations were done, thus giving the required numerical values of the
different parameters.
5.6.3 VERTICAL ALIGNMENT
Vertical profile of the Road alignment is known by the vertical alignment. In the
L-section of the Road alignment, vertical alignment was plotted with maximum gradient
than 12 %. In the vertical alignment, we set the vertical curve with proper design. Vertical
curve may be either summit curve or valley curve. While setting the vertical alignment, it
should keep in mind whether cutting and filling were balanced or not.
5.7LEVELING
The method of fly leveling was applied in transferring the level from the given
B.M. to all the beginnings, mid points and ends of the curves as well as to the points
along the center line of the road where the cross sections were taken. After completing the
work of one way leveling on the entire length of the road, fly leveling was continued back
to the B.M. making a closed loop for check and adjustment. The difference in the R.L. of
the B.M. before and after forming the loops should be less than 25\k mm, where k is the
total distance in km.
5.8LONGITUDINAL SECTION
nature of the ground and the variation in the elevations of the different points along the
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length of the road and also to determine the amount of cutting and filling required at the
road site for maintaining a gentle slope. In order to obtain the data for L-Section, staff
readings were taken at points at 20 m intervals along the centerline of the road with the
help of a level by the method of fly leveling. And thus after performing the necessary
calculations, the level was transferred to all those points with respect to the R.L. of the
given B.M. Then finally the L-Section of the road was plotted on a graph paper on a
vertical scale of 1:100 and a horizontal scale of 1:1000.
5.9CROSS SECTION
Cross sections at different points are drawn perpendicular to the longitudinal
section of the road on either side of its centerline. Cross sections are also equally useful in
determining the amount of cut and fill required for the road construction. Cross sections
were taken at 5m intervals along the centerline of the road and also at points where there
was a sharp change in the elevation. While doing so, the horizontal distances of the
different points from the centerline were measured with the help of a tape as well as staff
and the vertical heights with a measuring staff. The R.L. was transferred to all the points
by performing the necessary calculations and finally, the cross sections at different
sections were plotted on a graph paper on a scale of 1:100 both vertical and horizontal.
5.10CALCULATIONSAND PLOTTING
After the work of taking the data was completed, all the necessary calculations
were done and tabulated in systematic order. The calculations were done in order to
compute the Chainage of the different distinct points of the road using the following
relations:
Chainage of beginning of curve, BC
1
= Chainage of I.P. - Tangent length
Chainage of mid point of curve, MC
1
= Chainage of BC
1
- 1/2* Curve length
Chainage of end of curve, EC
2
= Chainage of BC
1
- Curve length

Similarly,
Chainage of an I.P. = Chainage of previous I.P. + I.P. to I.P. distance.
The R.L. of the different points was also computed using this formula.
R.L. of a point = R.L. of station + Height of Instrument + H * Tan u - Mid wire reading
Where, u = Vertical Angle
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Hence, with the required calculated data regarding the road site in hand, the plan was
plotted on a scale of 1:500, L-Section on a graph paper on a scale of 1:1000 horizontal
and 1:100 vertical and the cross section at different points also on a graph paper on a
scale of 1:100 (both vertical and horizontal).
All the data, calculation (in a tabulated form) and the drawings of the necessary plan,
longitudinal section and the cross section of the road are attached with this report.
In spite of the different kinds of obstacles in the field, our group was successful in
completing the fieldwork as well as the office work in time. In the field, we had spent
quite some time discussing the route of the road and also in designing the curves, which
led to good results, The grade change was very sharp which created nuisance in working
with the Auto Level. However, all the group members were very cautious and tried their
best to get error free data and calculations. The road had to be designed on a sloping
ground, so our group members felt the restrictions during the cutting and filling.
Moreover, after performing this road alignment survey, we were able to build up our
confidence in designing roads at difficult terrain taking factors like economy,
convenience and its use into consideration.

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