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Dr. Victor B. Cline

Table of Contents

Introduction 2
Defining Pornography and Obscenity 2

Effects on Adults 3
Data From Clinical Case Studies 3
Addiction 3
Escalation 4
Desensitization 4
Acting out Sexually 4
Pornography's Impact on Psychosexual Development 5
Conditioning Into Deviancy 5
All Sex Deviations Appear To Be Learned Behaviors 6
A Common Pathway To Self Inflicted Sexual Illness 6
Imprinting The Brain With Sexual Images 7
The Research on Aggressive Pornography (Porno-Violence) 7
The Effects of The 'Rape Myth' on Pornography-Consumers 7
The Effects on Non-Violent Pornography 8
Pornography's Effects on Sexual Satisfaction and Family Values 8
1986 Attorney General's Commission on Pornography 8
1970 Presidential Commission on Obscenity And Pornography 8
Sex Offenders' Use of Pornography 9
Gary Bishop, Serial Killer 9
Ted Bundy, Serial Killer 9

Effects On Children 10
Spillover Effect on Children 10
Effects of Dial-A-Porn on Children 10
Acquiring The Values Which Permeate Hardcore Porn 11
Influences of Rock Music Porn 11
Pornography As A Training Manual 12
Child Pornography 12

Other Considerations on Pornography's Effects

People Are Affected By What They See 12
Use of Sexually Explicit Films To Change Sexual Behavior and Attitudes 12
Pornography As A Form of Sex Education 13
Why Some Claim 'No Effects' 13
The Feminist Position on Pornography 13

Research Methodology 14

In Conclusion 15

Endnotes 17
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Pornography's Effects On
Adults and Children
nity must determine that the material:
Introduction ■ Taken as a whole, appeals to a prurient
hether pornography has any sig- (sick, morbid, shameful, or lascivious) interest
nificant harmful effects on con- in sex;
By Dr. Victor B. Cline

W sumers continues to be a contro-

versial issue, not only for average
citizens but also for behavioral
scientists. This is not surprising in
light of the fact that two national
commissions--the Majority Report of the 1970
■ Depicts sexual conduct in a patently offen-
sive manner (i.e., goes beyond contemporary
community standards with regards to depic-
tions of sexual content or activity); and
■ Taken as a whole, lacks serious literary,
Presidential Commission on Obscenity and artistic, political, and scientific value.
Victor B. Cline earned his Ph.D. Pornography and the 1986 Attorney General's
at the University of California,
Berkeley and is presently a psy-
chotherapist specializing in fami-
ly/marital counseling and sexual In common parlance, it (pornography) usually means "material
addictions. He is also Professor that is sexually explicit and intended primarily for
Emeritus of Psychology at the
University of Utah, Salt Lake the purpose of sexual arousal."
City, Utah,
president of
Marriage & he material has to meet all three tests

Commission on Pornography--came to diamet-
Family Enrich- rically opposed conclusions about this matter. before it can be found obscene in the
ment (a nation- Some social commentators claim that eyes of the law and its distribution pro-
wide seminar pornography is mainly a form of entertainment, hibited. This means that something could be
group) and possibly educational, sometimes sexually regarded as "pornographic" but still not be
author/editor arousing, but essentially harmless. Or, they obscene, such as an explicit sex film produced
of numerous claim, at the very least, that there is no good and used to teach medical students about human
scientific arti- scientific evidence of harm. Other social com- sexuality, or a film or book with serious artistic
cles and books, mentators claim more dire consequences and and/or literary value which has some explicit
including the give as examples recent cases, played up by the sexual content.
book, "Where Do You Draw the media, of sex-murderers who have claimed that Thus, the Supreme Court has protected a wide
Line? Explorations in Media Vio- pornography "made them do it." variety of sexual matter in movies, books, maga-
lence, Pornography, and Censor- zines and in other formats from being prohibited
ship." for sale and exhibition to adults (there is a
Great appreciation is expressed
Defining Pornography stricter standard with respect to minors). Under
for permission to use materials and Obscenity the Miller test, however, the distribution of
from Dr. Cline's presentation at pornographic material which is obscene, such as
the National Family Foundation

o ascertain something about pornogra- most of what has been called "hardcore," can be
Workshop, Pittsburgh, PA, Nov. phy's effects, we first need to define it. prohibited and penalties proscribed.
1990; in the book "Media: Chil- The word "pornography" comes from The distribution of obscenity is prohibited on
dren and the Family;" Dolf Zill- the Greek words "porno" and "graphia" mean- the federal level and on the state level in over 40
mann et al (eds.), New Jersey: L. ing "depictions of the activities of whores." In states. While enforcement of obscenity laws has
Erlbaum & Assoc. (1993); and common parlance, it usually means "material increased in recent years, particularly at the fed-
from his article in "The World & that is sexually explicit and intended primarily eral level, enforcement is at best sporadic in
I" (Dec. 1992). for the purpose of sexual arousal." many parts of the nation.
"Obscenity," however, is a legal term which This lack of enforcement, especially at the
was defined by the U.S. Supreme Court in its state and local levels, may be attributable, in
1973 Miller v. California decision. For some- part, to the view of many people and, in particu-
thing to be found obscene, and therefore unpro- lar, public officials that pornography is essen-
tected by the First Amendment, a judge or a tially harmless or, at the least, that there is little
jury representing a cross section of the commu- or no real evidence of harm.

Effects On Adults
Data From Clinical The first change that happened was an to their extreme addiction to the material
addiction-effect. The porn-consumers got in terms of having their whole lives con-
Case Studies hooked. Once involved in pornographic sumed by it: sitting for hours masturbating
materials, they kept coming back for more to adult material and needing progressively

n reviewing the literature on the and still more. The material seemed to stronger, heavier, harder material to give
effects of pornography, there is a vari- provide a very powerful sexual stimulant them a bigger kick. Like an alcoholic or a
ety of evidence suggesting risk and the or aphrodisiac effect, followed by sexual drug addict they are looking for that big
possibility of harm from being immersed release, most often through masturbation. kick and they need more just to keep them
in repeated exposure to pornography. The pornography provided very exciting at that level of feeling 'OK.'" 1
These data come primarily from three and powerful imagery which they fre- One of my patients was so deeply addict-
sources: quently recalled to mind and elaborated on ed that he could not stay away from
in their fantasies. pornography for 90 days, even for $1,000.
■ Clinical case history data Once addicted, they could not throw off It is difficult for non-addicts to compre-
■ Field studies their dependence on the material by them- hend the totally driven nature of a sex
■ Experimental laboratory type studies. selves, despite many negative conse- addict. When the "wave" hits them, noth-
quences such as divorce, loss of family, ing can stand in the way of getting what
Clinical case history data come from the and problems with the law (as with sexual they want, whether that be pornography
offices of professional health care person- assault, harassment or abuse of fellow accompanied by masturbation, sex from a
nel treating individuals with sexual dys- employees). prostitute, molesting a child, or raping a
functions, as well as from I also found, anecdotally, that many of woman.
clergy and attorneys who An example might help
counsel or provide services to illustrate this problem.
sexually troubled individuals. Ralph was a sexual
Also, in this category is the addict, married 12 years
evidence provided by sexual with three children. He
addicts affiliated with such was active in his church
national support groups as and held sincere, high
"Sexaholics Anonymous," or moral principles. He
in treatment at such centers as believed in the Ten Com-
the Institute for Behavioral mandments and opposed
Medicine at Golden Valley, adultery. Yet his particu-
Minnesota. lar cycle involved
As a clinical psychologist, I pornography-use, fol-
have treated, over many years, lowed by paid sex with
approximately 300 sex prostitutes. After each
addicts, sex offenders, or oth- incident, he begged God
er individuals (96% male) for forgiveness and swore
with sexual illnesses. This includes many my most intelligent male patients appeared that it would never happen again. But it
types of unwanted compulsive sexual act- to be the most vulnerable--perhaps because did, again and again.
ing-out, plus such things as child molesta- they had a greater capacity to fantasize, Since the trigger of each adulterous act
tion, exhibitionism, voyeurism, sado- which heightened the intensity of the expe- was pornography-use, we decided to try
masochism, fetishism, and rape. With only rience and made them more susceptible to to free him from his dependence on this
several exceptions, pornography has been being conditioned into an addiction. material. I asked him to write me a check
a major or minor contributor or facilitator While any male is vulnerable, attorneys, for $1,000, indicating that I would return
in the acquisition of their deviation or sex- accountants and media people seemed, in it if he went 90 days without using
ual addiction. my experience, most vulnerable to these pornography. Ralph loved to hang on to
However, where pornography was a con- addictions. This is simply an anecdotal his money and was quite attracted to our
tributor or facilitator, regardless of the impression. strategy. "There's no way I'd look at dirty
nature of the sex deviation or addiction, I However, Sgt. Bob Navarro, a longtime videos or magazines if I knew it would
found a four-factor syndrome common to investigator of the porno industry with the cost me a thousand dollars!" he said.
nearly all of my clients, with almost no Los Angeles Police Department, has com- He managed to resist temptation
exceptions, especially in their early mented, "Believe it or not, the higher their remarkably well for a while. But on the
involvement with pornography. education, the more prone these people are 87th day, he drove past an "adult" book-
to becoming addicted to this material, and, store in an unfamiliar city while on a
of course, the more money they have to business trip. He slammed on the brakes,
1. Addiction spend on it...Many people have testified as entered the store, and went virtually
berserk for 90 minutes. When I saw him the easily sense this, and often felt very lonely next to him. The individual turned out to be an
following week, he tearfully confessed that and rejected. undercover city vice-squad officer. The
he had lost his $1,000. Since he had gone I have had a number of couple-clients Deputy Mayor was arrested, booked, and
87 days "sober," I decided to give him where the wife tearfully reported that her found guilty in a subsequent trial. This distin-
another chance. husband preferred to masturbate to pornog- guished public servant left the office shamed
So we started another 90-day "sobriety" raphy than to make love to her. and humiliated, his career in shambles.
cycle. We both felt that if he could go 87
days, he could certainly make 90 if we tried 3. Desensitization Marriage Threatened: A 36-year-old mar-
again, especially if it meant recovering his ried male, college-educated, a professional
$1,000. and very successful financially, had an

he third phase that happened was
This time he went only 14 days before he addiction to pornography, masturbation and
desensitization. Material (in books,
relapsed. He lost his money, which was giv- frequenting massage parlors where he had
magazines or film/videos) which was
en to a charity. He was extremely commit- paid sex. He had an excellent marriage, four
originally perceived as shocking, taboo-
ted to quit in order to save his marriage and children and was very active in his church,
breaking, illegal, repulsive or immoral,
to live in harmony with his religious princi- where he assumed important positions of
though still sexually arousing, in time came
ples. But that was not the case. In my opin- responsibility. While he felt guilty about his
to be seen as acceptable and commonplace.
ion, even if he had given me $10,000, he engagement in illicit sex, which was con-
The sexual activity depicted in the pornogra-
still would have relapsed. When the wave trary to his religious, ethic, and personal val-
phy (no matter how antisocial or deviant)
hits them, these men are consumed by their ues and had the potential of seriously dis-
became legitimized. There was increasingly
appetite, regardless of the costs or conse- turbing his marriage if found out, he com-
a sense that "everybody does it" and this
quences. Their addiction virtually rules their pulsively continued to do that which, at a
gave them permission to also do it, even
lives. rational level, he did not want to do.
though the activity was possibly illegal and
His problem came to light when he infect-
contrary to their previous moral beliefs and
2. Escalation personal standards.
ed his wife with a venereal disease. This
created many serious and disturbing conse-
quences in his life and marriage.

he second phase was an escalation-
effect. With the passage of time, the
addicted required rougher, more
4. Acting Out Sexually Incest: A 30-year-old single male, religious-
explicit, more deviant, and "kinky" kinds of ly active and very committed to his faith,

sexual material to get their "highs" and he fourth phase that occurred was an had a history of pornography-addiction. He
"sexual turn-ons." It was reminiscent of increasing tendency to act out sexu- was too shy and backward to ask adult
individuals afflicted with drug addictions. ally the behaviors viewed in the females on dates. So he developed intimate
Over time there is nearly always an increas- pornography that the porn-consumers had relationships with his four-and seven-year-
ing need for more of the stimulant to get the been repeatedly exposed to, including com- old nieces and their girlfriends which culmi-
same initial effect. pulsive promiscuity, exhibitionism, group nated in his repeatedly sexually molesting
If their wives or girlfriends were involved sex, voyeurism, frequenting massage par- them. The modeling of explicit sexual activ-
with them, they eventually pushed their part- lors, having sex with minor children, rape, ity in the "adult" pornography which he con-
ners into doing increasingly bizarre and and inflicting pain on themselves or a part- sumed helped fuel his sexual appetite and
deviant sexual activities. In many cases, this ner during sex. This behavior frequently interest in these children.
resulted in a rupture in the relationship when grew into a sexual addiction which they Because of his guilt over what he was
the woman refused to go further--often leading found themselves locked into and unable to doing, he eventually sought professional
to much conflict, separation or divorce. change or reverse--no matter what the nega- help. However, his state had a "disclosure
Being married or being in a relationship tive consequences were in their life. law" which required that he be reported to
with a willing sexual partner did not solve Many examples of negative effects from state officials for his sexual abuse of these
their problem. Their addiction and escala- pornography-use come from the private or children. Because of his cooperative attitude
tion were mainly due to the powerful sexual clinical practice of psychotherapists, physi- and the fact that he sought treatment on his
imagery in their minds, implanted there by cians, counselors, attorneys, and ministers. own, he was placed on probation, received
the exposure to pornography. They often Here we come face to face with real people long term psychotherapy and is now living a
preferred this sexual imagery, accompanied who are in some kind of significant trouble or more normal life.
by masturbation, to sexual intercourse itself. pain. A few examples might illustrate this.
This nearly always diminished their capaci- Serial Rapist: I was asked to consult on a
ty to love and express affection to their part- Deputy Mayor Arrested: The 46-year-old case where a Phoenix-Tucson area professional
ner in their intimate relations. The fantasy Deputy Mayor of the City of Los Angeles person, president of his firm and head of his
was all-powerful, much to the chagrin and attended a west L.A. porn theater one after- church's committee on helping troubled chil-
disappointment of their partner. Their sex noon a few years ago. While watching the dren, was found to be a serial rapist who had
drive had been diverted to a degree away sex film, he became so aroused that he violently raped a number of women at gun or
from their spouse. And the spouse could started to sexually assault a patron sitting knife-point in the Arizona area. In doing the

background study on him, I found him to Pornography's Impact development. As he notes, healthy mature
come from an exemplary background and people do not behave in these ways.2
trouble-free childhood. He was an out- On Psychosexual Development However, he states, there are millions of
standing student in high school and college. people who appear manifestly healthy, but

His wife, children, business, and church t should be noted that other kinds of who also harbor substantial latent sickness-
associates had not the slightest inkling of data which bear on these issues come es which are residues of developmental
his double life or dark side. The only sig- from therapists who see symptoms of arrests or abnormal development which
nificant negative factor in his life was an arrested development in the psychosexual may find expression in sexual perversions.
early adolescent addiction to pornography growth of the heavy consumers of pornog- Thus, viewing pornography, most of which
which, for the most part, was kept secret raphy they are treating. depicts perverse behavior, activates the
from others. This gradually escalated over An example would be psychiatrist Harold developmental sexual arrests which exist in
a period of years, eventually leading to Voth, who is on the faculty of the Karl millions of people.
spending many hours and incurring great Menninger School of Psychiatry in Topeka, He sees these people as developing a kind
expense in "adult" bookstores, looking at Kansas. Dr Voth sees pornography as typi- of addiction for pornography, thus receiv-
violent video-porn movies and masturbat- cally depicting perverse sex, degradation ing many exposures to it over time. These
ing to these. through sex, violent sex, and transient, pornographic stimuli promote regressive
His first rape was triggered by seeing a meaningless sex Ðall of which are reflec- behavior rather than more mature behavior.
close resemblance in the woman he assault- tions of incomplete and abnormal human Dr. Voth sees such exposure as especially
ed to the leading character in a damaging to the young
porn movie he had seen earlier in TREATING SEX/PORN ADDICTIONS who are on the threshold of
the day. Reality and fantasy had entering into an active sex-
become extremely blurred for him ual life. For them, these

orn addictions are usually the precursor of later full-scale sexual addic-
as he acted out his pathological vital processes should be
tions. In my experience two things need to happen when treating these
sexual fantasies. guided toward greater
maturity, not retrogressive-
First the addict (and spouse, if they have one) should be treated together by a
Most Frequent Consequences: ly toward perversion or
sexual addiction specialist. They will both need marriage counseling also.
However, in my clinical experi- transient, meaningless sex.
Since the innocent spouse is wounded too, she (or he) also needs help. In the
ence, the major consequence of As he states, "Society and
process, you also mobilize the innocent spouse to be part of the healing team.
being addicted to pornography is individuals alike can only
You donÕt neglect them. You all work together. And there is one cardinal
not the probability or possibility be harmed when we legit-
rule: Òno secrets.Ó Secrets ÒkillÓ you. If there is any kind of relapse it must be
of committing a serious sex crime imize abnormal behavior."
acknowledged, put on the table and processed in the counseling session. If you
(though this can and does occur), Dr. Voth also notes that
hide or lie your illness worsens.
but rather its disturbance of the some men become dissatis-
Second Ð you need to join a weekly support group such as S.A. (Sexaholics
fragile bonds of intimate family fied with their wives whom
Anonymous) with their 12-step program. This is a cousin to Alcoholics
and marital relationships. This is they believe to be inade-
Anonymous. ItÕs free. All it costs is your time Ð maybe an hour and a half a
where the most grievous pain, quate (and vice versa) after
week. In my experience this can be very helpful. And in that group you
damage, and sorrow occurs. viewing the exaggerated
choose a sponsor Ð someone with long-term sobriety who you can call to get
There is repeatedly an interference sexual prowess as depicted
help, advice and support anytime 24 hours a day. You can usually locate these
with or even destruction of by the typical pornograph-
groups by looking in the telephone book business pages under Sexaholics
healthy love and sexual relation- ic movie. He suggests that
Anonymous. Or you could call A.A. who can usually tell you where to go.
ships with long term bonded part- society has the responsibil-
I find that for this experience to be helpful you need to attend at least 90%
ners. If one asks if porn is respon- ity to protect itself from
of their weekly meetings. If your addiction is particularly virulent or you also
sible or causes any sex crimes, the itselfÐthat is, from the ele-
have chemical addictions,then you should attend at least two group meetings a
answer is unequivocally in the ments within society which
week until you start getting your behavior under control. The core of A.A.Õs
affirmative, but that is only the harm it. He sees pornogra-
and S.A.Õs success in supporting healing is the fellowship and bond that devel-
"tip of the iceberg." phy as appealing to sexual-
ops between the wounded attendees plus the 12-step program and the influence
In some patients, I find that there ity at its worst, and since
of the Òhigher power.Ó
is an almost instant addiction, mature sexuality is so
I have found that the average social worker, psychologist, or psychiatrist
while with others, it may take 5- essential to the heterosexu-
will ordinarily not have the training, expertise or special skills to do sex addic-
10 years of erratic exposure to get al bond and to family life,
tion therapy. This may require you to do some research to locate the appropri-
hooked. But, like a latent cancer, he believes steps should be
ate therapist. Even going to an ordinary Òsex therapistÓ wonÕt help either.
it almost never disappears on its taken to clearly identify
Most have been trained to help individuals with sexual dysfunctions to Òturn
own or reverses its course unless pornography as unhealthy
onÓ to healthy sex, not to turn off compulsive addictive sex behavior. One
there is some therapeutic interven- with many risks associated
thing you could do to find the right therapist would be to attend a meeting or
tion. with its consumption.
two of S.A. and ask the other attendees who they have found particularly help-
ful in counseling.
EditorÕs note: A fuller discussion of Dr. ClineÕs treatment and therapy sugges-
tions can be found at
Conditioning into Deviancy All Sex Deviations Appear Other related studies by D.R. Evans and B.T.
Jackson support his thesis. They found that
To Be Learned Behaviors deviant masturbatory fantasy very significantly

ther cause/effect data come from the con-
affected the habit strength of the subject's sexual
ditioning laboratories of investigators

he best evidence to date suggests that most deviation.9
such as Dr. Stanley Rachman. In his
research, he demonstrated that, with the use of or all sexual deviations are learned behav-
iors, usually through inadvertent or acci-
highly erotic pictures, sexual deviations could be
dental conditioning. There is no convincing evi- A Common Pathway To Self
created in adult male subjects in a laboratory set-
ting. He was actually able to condition, in two dence, to date, suggesting the hereditary transmis- Inflicted Sexual Ilness
separate experiments, 100% of his male subjects sion of any pathological sexual behavior pattern
such as rape, incest, pedophilia, exhibitionism, or
into a sexual deviancy (fetishism).3

promiscuity. n my treatment of hundreds of primarily male
Additionally, the work of R.L. McGuire, author
As McGuire explains it, as a man repeatedly patients with paraphilias (sexual pathology), I
of a study, "Sexual Deviations as Conditioned
masturbates to a vivid sexual fantasy as his exclu- consistently have found that most men are
Behavior: A Hypothesis," suggests that exposure
vulnerable to the effects of masturbatory
to special sexual experiences (which could
conditioning to pornography with a consequence
include witnessing pornography), and then mas-
of sexual ill health, because we are all subject to
turbating to the fantasy of this exposure, can
sometimes later lead to participation in deviant
National Poll of Mental the laws of learning, with few or no exceptions.
Health Professionals In my experience as a sexual therapist, any indi-
sexual acts. 4
vidual who regularly masturbates to pornography
The considerable literature on therapy for sex
is at risk of becoming, in time, a sexual addict, as
deviates suggests that their sexual orientation can In a national poll of mental health
well as conditioning himself into having a sexual
sometimes be changed (reconditioned) with the professionals by Drs. M. Lipkin and
deviancy and/or disturbing a bonded relationship
use of explicit sex films as a therapeutic tool.5 D.E. Carnes, 254 psychotherapists
with a spouse or girlfriend.
If these data are valid, then one must also allow reported that they had come across cas-
A frequent side effect is that it also dramatically
for the possibility that deliberate or accidental es in their clinical practices where
reduces their capacity to love (e.g., it results in a
exposure to pornography or deviant real life sex pornography was found to be an instiga-
marked dissociation of sex from friendship, affec-
experiences can also facilitate the conditioning of tor or contributor to a sex crime, per-
tion, caring, and other normal healthy emotions
individuals into sexual aberrations. sonality disturbance, or antisocial act.
and traits which help marital relationships). Their
Psychologist Patrick Carnes (currently the lead- Another 324 psychotherapists report-
sexual side becomes in a sense dehumanized.
ing U.S. researcher on sexual addictions) has pub- ed cases where they suspected such a
Many of them develop an "alien ego state" (or
lished a series of research and data-based books, relationship to exist. While a larger
dark side), whose core is antisocial lust devoid of
bringing to national awareness the problem of number of other professionals, respond-
most values.
out-of-control, compulsive sexual behavior. His ing to the survey, had not found such
In time, the "high" obtained from masturbating
latest volume documents a host of serious legal, relationships in their clinical practice,
to pornography becomes more important than real
marital, and health consequences of such compul- the responses of the 578 psychothera-
life relationships. It has been commonly thought
sions. 6 pists that did find such a harm-relation-
by health educators that masturbation has negligi-
He found that among 932 sex addicts studied, ship (or suspect same) certainly cannot
ble consequences, other than reducing sexual ten-
90% of the men and 77% of the women report be ignored or disregarded, especially
sion. Moral objections aside, this may be gener-
pornography as significant to their addictions. He when a health hazard is involved.
ally true, but one exception would appear to be in
also found that two common elements in the early
the area of repeatedly masturbating to deviant
etiology of sexually addictive behavior are child-
pornographic imagery (either as memories in the
hood sexual abuse and frequent pornography
mind or as explicit pornographic stimuli), which
accompanied by masturbation.
risks (via conditioning) the acquiring of sexual
Rather ironically, Dr. Carnes also found that
sive outlet (introduced by a real life experience or addictions and/or other sexual pathology.
many therapists (psychologists, psychiatrists, and
possibly pornography), the pleasurable experi- It makes no difference if one is an eminent
social workers) suffer from sexual addictions and
ences endow the deviant fantasy (rape, molesting physician, attorney, minister, athlete, corporate
inappropriate "acting out" sexual behavior. As he
children, injuring one's partner while having sex, executive college president, unskilled laborer, or
put it,"One of the discoveries that emerged from
etc.) with increasing erotic value. The orgasm an average 15-year-old boy. All can be condi-
our survey is that women addicts seeking help are
experienced then provides the critical reinforcing tioned into deviancy.
often sexually abused by their therapists."
event for the conditioning of the fantasy preced- The process of masturbatory conditioning is
Therapists have also found their malpractice
ing or accompanying the act.8 inexorable and does not spontaneously remiss.
insurance rates rising dramatically in recent years,
McGuire indicates that any type of sexual devia- The course of this illness may be slow and is
due in part to lawsuits brought against significant
tion can be acquired in this way, that it may nearly always hidden from view. It is usually a
numbers of their colleagues who have sexually
include several unrelated deviations in one individ- secret part of the man's life, and like a cancer, it
abused or exploited clients in the course of treat-
ual and that it cannot be eliminated even by mas- keeps growing and spreading. It rarely ever
ment. This suggests that compulsive sexual
sive feelings of guilt. His paper cites many case reverses itself, and it is also very difficult to treat
behavior is a problem even for practitioners in the
histories to illustrate this type of conditioning.
therapeutic community.7
and heal. Denial on the part of the male addict ardous. It could potentially condition some male women."
and refusal to confront the problem are typical viewers into having reoccurring sexual fantasies Drs. Malamuth and Donnerstein also found that
and predictable, and this almost always leads to (vividly imprinted into the brain by the watching films, depicting a woman as saying that
marital or couple disharmony, sometimes divorce epinephrine) which they might repeatedly mastur- she enjoys being raped, increased male accep-
and sometimes the breaking up of other intimate bate to and then, later, be tempted to act out as tance of interpersonal violence against women
relationships. sexual advances toward female minors--especial- and tended to increase the male's acceptance of
ly if they were in Girl Scout uniforms. rape myths (such as believing that women enjoy
Imprinting the Brain These authors conclude, "There can be relative-
with Sexual Images The Research On Aggressive ly long-term, antisocial effects of movies that por-
Pornography (Porno-Violence) tray sexual violence as having positive conse-
quences" (e.g., the woman indicated she enjoyed

he work of psychologist James L.
being raped, or she said "no" when she really

McGaugh at the University of California, ggressive sexual crimes against women are
Irvine, needs mention here. His findings a very serious and escalating problem in meant "yes" while being sexually assaulted).
(oversimplifying considerably) suggest that mem- the United States. Recent Senate Judicia- The literature on aggressive pornography is
ories of experiences, which occurred at times of ry Committee hearings concluded that rape has rather impressive in its consistency in suggesting
emotional arousal (which could include sexual increased four times as fast as the overall crime a variety of harms or possibility of antisocial out-
arousal), get "locked into the brain" by an adrenal rate over the last decade. And, in fact, the United comes from exposure to this material. This
gland hormone, epinephrine, and are difficult to States leads the world in rape statistics with a rape should not be surprising after 40 years of research
erase. This may partly explain pornography's rate four times that of Germany, 13 times as much on film and TV violence arriving essentially at
addicting effect. Powerful sexually arousing as England, and 20 times as much as Japan. 11 the same conclusion. 13
memories of experiences from the past keep In recent years, there has been a considerable Dr. Malamuth and associates further found that
intruding themselves back on the mind's memory body of research on aggressive pornography, when college males were exposed to sexually vio-
screen, serving to stimulate and erotically arouse much of it found in hard "R-rated" films. Many lent pornography, such as rape and other forms of
the viewer. If he masturbates to these fantasies, of these films are also broadcast unedited on sexual violence, two-thirds of the male subjects,
he reinforces the linkage between sexual arousal cable TV and later are available to children in following such exposure, indicated an increased
willingness to force a woman into sex acts if they
were assured of not being caught or punished.
In similar research by Seymour Feshback and
The results of this research suggest the possibility of associates, 51% of "normal" UCLA males indi-
conditioning viewers into associating sexual arousal with cated the likelihood of emulating a sadomasochis-
tic rape (seen in porn material they had been
inflicting injury, rape, humiliation, or torture on females. exposed to) if they were assured of not getting
caught. 14

and orgasm, with the particular scene or image nearly every video store in America. The typical The Effects Of The 'Rape Myth'
repeatedly rehearsed in his mind. 10 film shows nude females, or females in sexually
One might quickly see the risks involved with arousing situations and postures, being raped, tor- On Pornography-Consumers
large numbers of males being exposed to the fol- tured, or murdered.

lowing film. This 8 mm motion picture film, The results of this research suggest the possibil- n a study by Mills College sociologist,
marketed out of Los Angeles, depicts two Girl ity of conditioning viewers into associating sexual Diana Russell, it was found that the depic-
Scouts in their green uniforms selling cookies arousal with inflicting injury, rape, humiliation, or tion and dissemination of the "rape myth"
from door to door. At one residence they are torture on females. Where these films are avail- (e.g., that most women really enjoy having sex
invited in by a mature, sexually aggressive adult able on videotapes (which most are), these can be forced upon them) were significant elements in
male, who proceeds to instantly seduce them and repeatedly viewed in the privacy of one's resi- reducing inhibitions to the use of violence,
subject them to a number of unusual and extreme- dence and masturbated to, with the associated habituating both males and females to the idea
ly explicit sexual acts, all shown in greatest detail. risks of negative or antisocial conditioning and of rape and also accepting sexual aberrance as
The girls are depicted as eagerly enjoying this behavior, previously noted. "normal" behavior. 15
sexual orgy. Drs. Neil Malamuth and Edward Donnerstein She also found that once the seeds of deviant
This film is what is usually termed hardcore noted in their research-based book, Pornography behavior were planted in the male fantasy, the
pornography. This is the kind of pornographic and Sexual Aggression,12 that "Certain forms of men were inclined to act out their fantasies.
stimulus (here, a film) that the male viewer can pornography (aggressive) can affect aggressive She found that both the fantasies that were act-
play again and again either in the privacy of his attitudes toward women and can desensitize an ed out, as well as the mere conceptualization of
home or in his mind for his sexual pleasure. individual's perception of rape. These attitudes these deviant fantasies as viable behaviors, led
If the research of Rachman, McGuire, and perceptions are, furthermore, directly related to considerable conflict and suffering on the
McGaugh and scores of other investigators in the to actual aggressive behavior against women. part of both males and females, particularly in
area of human learning has any meaning at all, it ...These results suggest, again, that aggressive their sexual relationships with intimate part-
would suggest that such a film could be haz- pornography does increase aggression against ners.

The Effects of tion); normal sex no longer seemed to "do the acts of sexual violence...," and, "There is a
job;" causal relationship between exposure to sexual-
Non-Violent Pornography ■ Devalue the importance of monogamy and ly violent materials and an increase in aggres-
lack confidence in marriage as either a viable or sive behavior directed toward women."

he issue which has caught the attention lasting institution, and The members of the Commission also com-
of some behavioral scientists doing ■ View non-monogamous relationships as mented, "The evidence from formal or informal
work in this area is whether it is the vio- normal and natural behavior. studies of self-reports of offenders themselves
lence or the sex that is doing most of the supports the conclusions that the causal connec-
"harm" when it is fused together in so-called tion we identify relates to actual sexual offens-
aggressive pornography or porno-violence. Pornography's Effect on es..."18
Some will say, "Just eliminate the violence--the Sexual Satisfaction and The Attorney General's Commission on
sex is OK." Family Values Pornography, in further reviewing the research
If we look at non-violent pornography which on pornographic materials which were not vio-
is totally devoid of violence, we may ask, what lent but did involve degradation, domination,

about its effects? First, we might indicate sev- n further research by Drs. Zillmann and
subordination and humiliation (of women),
eral examples of non-violent pornography Bryant on prolonged consumption of non-
concluded, "Substantial exposure to materials
which most therapists, as well as most ordinary violent pornography, their subjects, after
of this type bears some causal relationship to
citizens, would not regard as healthy models of many weeks exposure, reported less satisfaction
the level of sexual violence, sexual coercion, or
sexual behavior: with their partner's sexual performance, affec-
unwanted sexual aggression in the population
tion, and physical appearance.
so well as the incidence of various
The researchers further found an incompatibil-
■ Child pornography non-violent forms of discrimination against or
ity of the sexual values in pornography and the
■ Incest type porn (e.g., mother seducing son, subordination of women in our society."19
sexual values implicit in enduring intimate rela-
daughter seducing father, older brother seduc- tionships, and, in particular, in marriage. The
ing younger sister, etc.) chief proclamation of pornography is great sex-
■ Sex with animals ual joy without any attachment, commitment or 1970 Presidential Commission
■ Group sex responsibility.
■ Sex which humiliates and denigrates women Drs. Zillmann and Bryant found that their
On Obscenity & Pornography
and their sex role in man/woman relationships subjects (both male and female), after intensive

(viewed without overt violence) exposure to pornography, had a greater accep- f we look at field studies of pornogra-
■ Pornography such as that involving the tance of pre-and extramarital sex and an phy's effects, we might cite evidence
eager Girl Scout teenagers having two-on-one enhancement of the belief that male and female going back to the 1970 Presidential
promiscuity is natural. Commission on Obscenity and Pornogra-
sex with the adult male, etc.
Extensive exposure also lowered their evalua- phy, the Technical Reports of which I
■ Obscene films which present a massive
tion of marriage, making this institution appear carefully reviewed and later wrote and
amount of misinformation or gross distortions edited a book entitled, Where Do You
less significant and less viable in the future. It
about human sexuality. also reduced their desire to have children and Draw the Line?20
promoted the acceptance of male dominance In a sophisticated study, financed by the
All of the above, while lacking violence, still and female servitude. Presidential Commission and published in
have the potential of having negative effects on The authors saw the diminished desire for Volume VII of its Technical Reports, Drs.
some viewers because they model unhealthy progeny as reflecting the pornographic projec- K.E. Davis and G.N. Braucht assessed the
sex role behavior or give false information tion of carefree and consequence-free, promis- relationship between exposure to pornog-
about human sexuality. Additionally, non-vio- cuous sexuality. Children have no place in the raphy and moral character, deviance in the
lent porn can contribute to acquiring a great short-lived relationship in which this maxim is home and neighborhood, and sexual
variety of sexual addictions. practiced. This would suggest that the con- behavior. In their study, impressive in its
Additionally, there exists empirical research sumption of pornography erodes marital values rigorous methodology and statistical treat-
on the effects of "adult" non-violent pornogra- and the institution of marriage itself.17 ment, Drs. Davis and Braucht, while find-
phy by researchers Dolf Zillmann and Jennings ing a "positive relationship between sexu-
Bryant. 16 This research suggests that when al deviance and exposure to pornography
experimental subjects are exposed to repeated
1986 Attorney General's
at all ages of exposure," also found that
presentations of hardcore non-violent adult Commission On Pornography "exposure to pornography is the strongest
pornography over a six-week period, they: predictor of sexual deviance among the

he 10-member panel of the 1986 Attor- early ages of exposure subjects."
■ Develop an increased callousness toward
ney General's Commission on Pornog- In this early age of exposure (to pornog-
women; Trivialize rape as a criminal offense; to raphy, after reviewing a great vol- raphy) subgroup, "the amount of exposure
some it was no longer a crime at all; ume of clinical and experimental research, con- was significantly correlated with a will-
■ Develop distorted perceptions about sexuality; cluded unanimously that "Substantial exposure ingness to engage in group sexual rela-
■ Develop an appetite for more deviant, to sexually violent materials (violent pornogra- tions... (and other) 'serious' sexual
bizarre or violent types of pornography (escala- phy)...bears a causal relationship to antisocial deviance; and there were trends for the
number of both high school heterosexual Other investigators have reported that Ted Bundy, Serial Killer
partners and total homosexual partners to be rapists and child molesters use pornography
positively related to (pornographic) expo- incitefully, both immediately prior to their

24 n the case of Ted Bundy, serial killer of
sure." crimes and during the actual assaults.
possibly 31 young women, he stated in
This suggests that pornography may act as Still another type of evidence comes from a
the videotaped interview hours before
a facilitator or accelerator of youthful study conducted by Darrell Pope, a former
his execution, "You are going to kill me, and
promiscuity, which could raise health con- Michigan State Police officer, who found
that will protect society from me. But out
cerns relative to the acquisition and spread that of 38,000 cases of sexual assault on file
there are many, many more people who are
of AIDS and other sexually transmitted dis- in Michigan, 41% involved pornography-
addicted to pornography, and you are doing
eases, as well as sexual addictions. exposure just prior to the act or during the
nothing about that."
Correlation alone, of course, never demon- act. 25
And, while some commentators discount-
strates a causal relationship. However, it
ed his linking aggressive pornography to his
does sometimes permit a reasonable hypoth- Gary Bishop, Serial Killer sex-murders (when he said it fueled his vio-
esis. Because the researchers had partialed
lent thoughts toward women), there seems
out the contribution of other key variables in
little doubt that Bundy consumed a great

this study, the possibility of causation (of nother example of the effects of
pornography comes from Gary Bish- deal of pornography, much of it violent,
harm via pornography exposure) was highly
op, convicted homosexual pedophile from an early age. This was suggested, not
who murdered five young boys in Salt Lake only in the interview with Dr. James Dob-
In another study of 476 reformatory
City, Utah in order to conceal his sexual son, but also documented by psychiatrist
inmates, published in Volume IX of the
abuse of them. He wrote in a letter after his Dorothy Otnow Lewis in her prior extensive
Commission's Technical Reports, Dr. Martin
conviction: "Pornography was a determining study of Bundy and his history. 26
Propper notes again and again a relationship
factor in my downfall. Somehow I became A recent study by FBI researchers of 36
between high exposure to pornography and
sexually attracted to young boys and I would serial killers revealed that 29 were attracted
sexually promiscuous and deviant behavior,
fantasize about them naked. Certain book- to pornography and incorporated it into their
as well as affiliation with groups high in
stores offered sex education, photographic or sexual activity, which included serial rape-
criminal activity and sex deviancy.
art books which occasionally contained pic- murder. 27
In yet another study, published in Volume
VII of the Technical Reports, C. Eugene tures of nude boys. I purchased such books
Walker found that 39% of the sex offenders and used them to enhance my masturbatory Denmark Update
interviewed indicated that "pornography had fantasies.
something to do with their committing the "But it wasn't enough. I desired more sex- Didn't sex crimes decrease in Denmark
sex offense that they were convicted of." ually arousing pictures so I enticed boys into with pornography legalized?
While one must be cautious in interpreting letting me take pictures of them naked. Apparently not. Some of the more seri-
these results, they again raise the possibility From adult magazines, I also located ous types of sex crimes such as rape
of serious negative outcomes from exposure addresses of foreign companies specializing actually increased in number and rate
to pornography. in 'kiddie porn' and spent hundreds of dollars following the legalization of pornogra-
on these magazines and films. phy in Denmark. 41
"Such material would temporarily satisfy The notion that sex crimes dropped is
Sex Offenders' Use Of my cravings, but soon I would need pictures illusory and was due to the fact that a
Pornography that were more explicit and revealing. Some number of sex crimes, including homo-
sexual prostitution, extra-marital incest
of the material I received was shocking and
between close relatives, voyeurism (peep-
disgusting at first, but it shortly became com-

n research conducted by Dr. W. Mar- ing), and "indecency toward women" or
shall, almost half of the rapists that he monplace and acceptable. As I continued to frottage, were decriminalized at the time
studied used pornography depicting digress further into my perverted behavior, pornography was legalized, giving the
consenting sex to arouse themselves, more stimulation was necessary to maintain appearance of a decrease in the overall
preparatory to seeking out a victim to rape. the same level of excitement. rate of sex crimes. Because they were no
Another investigator, Dr. M.J. Goldstein, "Finding and procuring sexually arousing longer counting any of those sex offenses
that far more of the sex offenders than materials became an obsession. For me, see- (which, of course, were still continuing to
ing pornography was like lighting a fuse on a occur) in their new summaries of sex
the non-offenders he studied wished to, and
stick of dynamite; I became stimulated and crime statistics, it appeared that the inci-
often did, emulate the acts they saw depicted dence of sex crimes was dropping.
in pornography. had to gratify my urges or explode. All boys
Also, one investigator, B. Kutchinsky,
In still another study, most of Dr. G.G. became mere sexual objects. My conscience
found that there were unofficial changes
Abel's sex offenders said that pornography was desensitized and my sexual appetite in the handling by police of those sex
increased their appetites for deviant activi- entirely controlled my actions." crimes that remained, which also
ties (and these were the men who reported Gary Bishop then continued to tell how he reduced their "reported" incidence, fur-
the least control over their deviant urges).23 sexually abused and killed his boy victims. ther distorting the problem or illusion of
decreased sex offenses.42

Effects On Children
Spillover Effect on Children children naked, forced dirt, sticks, and small Hooked on Phone Sex: With every one of the
rocks into their rectums, forced them to engage children we studied, we found an "addiction-
in oral sex and anal sex, and threatened to effect." In every case, without exception, the

find in my clinical practice a spill-over shoot them with a BB gun if they told. children (girls as well as boys) became hooked
effect where pornography used by adults This abuse continued for nearly a year before on this sex by phone and kept going back for
very frequently gets into the hands of chil- finally being discovered when one of the more and still more. None of them ceased
dren living in the home or neighborhood. This younger abused children could no longer toler- until found out. In some cases, more than 300
can cause extremely negative outcomes. ate it and gained the courage to report it. long distance calls were made by particular
Disclosure usually occurred when the parents
Effects of Dial-A-Porn later received an enormous phone bill. This
on Children alerted them that something was amiss. Only
after investigation (often having to call the
number which was printed on the phone bill)

ith the sponsorship of the U.S. Dept
of Justice, I was commissioned to did the parents become aware of what their
conduct a pilot field study on the children were calling and listening to. There
effects of Dial-A-Porn on children in 1985. I was always a major confrontation, and the
interviewed a number of children (mostly pre- children were usually made to pay the long dis-
teens or early teens), who had become tance phone costs as well as given a variety of
involved with this type of pornography, and chastisements, lectures, and/or punishments.
their parents. When both parents worked or when there was
When one makes a Dial-A-Porn call, it is a single parent working, left behind were "latch
usually answered by a very sexy, seductive key children" who were not monitored or
sounding female (this may be a recording or a supervised for a number of hours during the
Example: A mother brought her pregnant 13- live female) who talks directly to the caller day. This created a very difficult problem in
year-old daughter to my office. The girl and about how badly she wants to have sex with controlling phone use. I found that nearly all
her 14-year-old boyfriend had discovered her him. With panting voice, she then tells him in of the children had clear memories of a great
father's secret cache of pornography and had specific detail all of the things she now wants deal of the content of the calls they heard, even
imitated the sexual acts portrayed in those to do to him sexually. when there was a time lag of one or two years.
materials over many months. The ensuing There may be a second young woman on the I also found that, almost without exception, the
consequences, including pregnancy, abortion line and they may talk about all three having children felt guilty, embarrassed, and ashamed
and depression, were very traumatic for the sex together. They may mention having a sex about their involvement with Dial-A-Porn. In
whole family as well as for both youngsters. marathon (dozens of partners) with all of the nearly all cases, there were some problems and
The mother divorced her husband because of explicit details. tensions generated in the parent-child and fam-
the complications surrounding what happened. In some cases, bondage is part of the scenario ily relationships because of the Dial-A-Porn
(having sex while gagged, handcuffed and calls.
Example: Parents of a 14-year-old boy leashed at the neck), suggesting that sex is bet-
brought their son to me when they discovered ter if it "hurts so good--don't stop." Acting Out Phone Sex: I have also inter-
that he was sexually molesting his sister. We Sex with animals is also included as well as viewed some children, where as a result of
found on investigation that cable TV was in the group sex; rape; inviting a married male to hearing Dial-A-Porn messages, they engaged
home, and late at night on one of the channels, have sex with the "baby-sitter;" a school- in sexual assaults on other children. One 12-
there were some very graphic, rough, very vio- teacher having sex with her students; inviting year-old boy in Hayward, California listened to
lent depictions of sexuality. He got up at two the caller to urinate in the woman's face; Dial-A-Porn for nearly two hours on the phone
in the morning, went downstairs, and watched degrading the woman as a slut and trash while in the empty pastor's study between church
these films night after night. They became the having sex with her, as well as inviting beat- meetings one Sunday afternoon. A few days
training manual or "sex education" that trig- ings, torture, and general physical abuse as part later he sexually assaulted a four-year-old girl
gered him to assault his sister sexually. of the sexual activity. in his mother's day care center.
At the time of the study, any youngster of any He had never been exposed to pornography
Example: From my private practice--two age could call these porno lines and get these before. He had never acted out sexually before
brothers, ages 9 and 10, stumbled across their messages from nearly any place in the country. and was not a behavior problem in the home.
parents' X-rated video tapes and secretly All they needed was a phone number to call, He had never heard or knew of oral sex before
played them for many months while their dad and the numbers were very easy to come by. If listening to Dial-A-Porn. And this was how he
and mom were at work. They later forced two parents put a "block" on their phone to prevent assaulted the girl, forcing oral sex on her in
younger siblings and a neighborhood boy to these calls, the children merely found another direct imitation of what he had heard on the
view the video tapes, stripped all three phone to use. phone.

¥ 10 ¥
I later interviewed a number of children in And, among high school students, 31% of the and sound patterns can be attention-getting,
Michigan where similar sexual assaults males and 18% of the females admitted actual- pleasing and even unappealing. When lyrics
occurred: males in their early teens, forcing sex ly doing some of the things sexually they had are added, however, that is another story. It is
on younger females as a result of listening to seen in the pornography within a few days after the lyrics of songs that impact the brain most
Dial-A-Porn. All of these children might be exposure. This clearly suggests the modeling- dramatically.
considered victims--the abusers as well as the effect or imitative-learning effect, as well as Consider the Alphabet Song that nearly every
abused. "triggering effect," that even non-violent pre-schooler learns, or the radio and TV jin-
The National Center on Child Abuse and
Neglect reported in 1988 that the incidence of
child sexual abuse-reports tripled in the previ- As Dr. Jennings Bryant comments, "If the values which permeate the
ous six years in the United States. In my clini-
content of most hardcore pornography are examined, what is found is
cal judgment, at least part of this was due to
the influence of Dial-A-Porn and other porn an almost total suspension of the sorts of moral judgment that have
materials as a "how to manual," especially been espoused in the value systems of most civilized cultures. "
where older children were sexually abusing
younger ones.
pornography has on human sexual behavior in gles or ditties which nearly every child--and
some individuals. adult--find hard to erase from consciousness.
Additionally, it was found that massive (e.g., The catchy music helps anchor this informa-
six weeks) exposure to non-aggressive pornog- tion in the conscious mind and memory.
raphy was able to change the attitudes and feel- When one rock group "2 Live Crew" exults
ings of adult subjects in a laboratory setting in in their lyrics about the degradation of wom-
the direction of making sexual improprieties en, the joys of forcing sex on them, busting
and transgressions seem less bad. The victims vaginal walls, and repeatedly referring to
of such transgressions were also perceived to females as bitches, plus many unprintable
suffer less and be less severely wronged. In and dehumanizing indignities, the question
other words, they had become to some degree is, can these persuasive communications be
desensitized to the breaking of sexual taboos as without consequences?
a result of the pornography exposure. Social commentator John Leo calls these
As Dr. Jennings Bryant comments, "If the "venomous messages...disguised as harmless
values which permeate the content of most fun...packaged and beamed to kids as enter-
hardcore pornography are examined, what is tainment." 29
found is an almost total suspension of the sorts Stanley Crouch, a prominent critic and
of moral judgment that have been espoused in essayist, refers to this music as "sadistic,
Since I conducted this study, Congress enacted the value systems of most civilized cultures. misogynist, hateful..." 30
legislation prohibiting obscene Dial-A-Porn Forget trust. Forget family. Forget commit- Columnist George Will raises the ques-
messages and restricting access to indecent ment. Forget love. Forget marriage. Here, in tion of, "Which words are lyrics, and
messages. Many Dial-A-Porn services, howev- this world of ultimate physical hedonism, any- which are testimony?" 31 As he compares
er, continue to operate in violation of this law, thing goes. the explicit obscene and brutal rock music
and neither the Justice Department nor the FCC "If we take seriously the social science lyrics performed by a popular rock group
is doing much about it. research literature in areas such as social learn- with the court testimony of the teenagers
ing or cultivation effects, we should expect that who violently assaulted and raped the Cen-
the heavy consumer of hardcore pornography tral Park (New York) jogger several years
Acquiring the Values Which should acquire some of these values which are ago, he notes that the messages, the words,
Permeate Hardcore Porn so markedly different from those of our main- the communications are essentially identi-
stream society, especially if the consumer does cal.
not have a well developed value system of his George Will suggests that, as a certainty,

n a study reported to the 1986 Attorney
General's Commission on Pornography by or her own." the coarsening of a community, the desen-
Dr. Jennings Bryant, 600 American males And, of course, this is just what Dr. Bryant sitizing of a society by these words or per-
and females of junior high school age and found in his research reported above. suasive communications, so artfully pre-
above were interviewed about their "out in real sented, will have behavior consequences.
life involvement with pornography." 28 He He further notes that America today is
found that 91% of the males and 82% of the Influences of Rock Music Porn capable of terrific intolerance about smok-
females admitted having been exposed to X- ing, or toxic waste that threatens trout. He

rated, hardcore pornography. Two-thirds of ost people would probably agree suggests that only a deeply confused soci-
the males and 40% of the females reported that music itself--that is, minus the ety is more concerned about protecting
wanting to try out some of the sexual behav- lyrics--is basically neutral. Music lungs than minds, or trout than women.
iors they had witnessed.

¥ 11 ¥
When one of the Central Park rapists was Vice Division cite an in-house study of every dress them as "teeny boppers" to suggest that
arrested, he said, "It was something to do. It child molestation case referred to them during the viewer is seeing a 12-to 15-year-old
was fun." George Will asks, "Where can you a 10-year-period which found, in 60% of the engaging in sex. Viewing and masturbating to
get the idea that sexual violence against wom- instances, adult or child pornography was used this kind of simulated child pornography can
en is fun?" His unsettling response: "From a to lower the inhibitions of the children molest- still have major negative consequences for the
music store, through Walkman earphones, ed or to excite or sexually arouse the perpetra- voyeur in terms of creating a sexual appetite
from boom boxes blaring forth rap lyrics." tor of the abuse. for minors.
John Leo asks the question, "Why should our In another study of 43 pedophiles, they It is mainly pedophiles who create true child
daughters have to grow up in a culture in found adult or child pornography (magazines, pornography using children. And they do this
which musical advice on the domination and photos or videos) involved in 100% of the cas- for their own use as well as to exchange or sell
abuse of women is accepted as entertain- es investigated. In every interview they con- the materials they produce. When this occurs,
ment?" ducted, the officers reported the abusers the children are doubly abused: at the time the
repeatedly saying the same thing: "I used this films or videos or pictures are made, and then
stuff to stimulate the child, to break down his when others observe their victimization in the
Pornography as a inhibitions." 33 years to come and get turned on sexually by
Training Manual observing the children being sexually used.
Child Pornography Child pornography invariably produces great
shame and guilt in the children involved, espe-

e also have a great deal of informa-
tion gained from studies treating cially as they get older and more fully compre-

he majority of producers of pornogra-
sex offenders, suggesting that phy avoid getting mixed up with child hend the enormity of their abuse and know
pornography is often used by them as a facili- pornography. They draw a line here, that there is a permanent record of their degra-
tator or "training manual" in not only acquir- and for a very simple reason. The making of dation out there, circulating around for people
ing their own deviation but also as a device to child pornography (using still pictures, video to see--maybe future friends or their own chil-
break down the resistance and inhibitions of or movies) requires child sexual abuse. In fact, dren when grown up. Only pedophile organi-
their victims or targets of molestation--espe- it is a crime in progress, permanently record- zations and the American Civil Liberties
cially when these are children or juveniles. 32 ed. Union defend the distribution of child pornog-
Bob Peters and Bob Navarro of the Los The most they will do is use females over raphy, which is, of course, illegal everywhere
Angeles Police Department's Administrative the age of 17 who look much younger and at both national and local levels.

Other Considerations of Pornography's Effects

People Are Affected by is now undoubtedly saving thousands of lives However, these are as carefully selected
yearly on the highway and which put General and prescribed as a physician would in writ-
What They See Motor's Corvair out of business. ing a prescription for a particular drug to
Additionally, astute businessmen would not treat a specific illness or infection. No

here is a belief strongly held by some spend billions of dollars a year on television responsible doctor would ever send a patient
Americans that pornography (or advertising if their visual/verbal messages to a pharmacy and say, "Take anything
obscenity), while it may be vulgar and and imagery did not motivate people to buy available on the shelf." And no responsible
tasteless, is still essentially harmless and has deodorant, Chevies, or Pampers. Therefore, sex therapist would ever say to a patient
no real effect on the viewer. the key question is, not whether, but what who had a specifically focused sexual prob-
However, for someone to suggest that kind of an effect does pornography have? lem, "Go down to the adult bookstore and
pornography cannot have an effect on you help yourself to anything you find there."
(including a harmful one) is to deny the You cannot logically argue that the kind of
whole notion of education, generally, or to Use of Sexually Explicit Films change which takes place in a sex counsel-
suggest that people are not affected by what ing clinic can function only one way (just to
they read and see. If you believe that a
To Change Sexual Behavior & make people healthy). The possibility cer-
pornographic book or film cannot affect you, Attitudes tainly exists that some pornography can
then you must also say that Karl Marx's Das harm people through accidental conditioning

Kapital, the Bible, the Koran or advertising any hundreds of sex counseling clin- processes or modeling and imitative learn-
have no effect on their readers or viewers. ics in the United States daily make ing of destructive, unhealthy, or illegal
But, of course, books and other media do use of explicit sexual pictures, films, kinds of sexual activity, which some view-
have an effect on their consumers. books, and videos to change couples' sexual ers may later act out. This could be espe-
Consider a single book by Ralph Nader, behavior, beliefs, and attitudes. Other centers cially true for more impressionable, imma-
Unsafe at any Speed. It set in motion a whole use graphic sex films in an attempt to recondi- ture, and vulnerable children and adoles-
series of events leading to legislation which tion the sexual behavior of sex offenders. cents.
¥ 12 ¥
Pornography As A Form of Amendment rights. Some fear the tyranny of a
Sex Education
moralist minority who might take away their How U.S. Citizens Feel
rights to view and use pornography, then later
maybe free speech and expression. And, some
About Pornography
are themselves sex addicts with a hidden agenda Morality in Media commissioned the

onsider also the spread of sex education
behind their public posturing. Thus, for some of Wirthlin Worldwide survey research com-
courses through schools in the United pany to conduct a national public opinion
States. The assumption is that you can them, the issue is political. It also has to do
survey of attitudes about obscenity law
change attitudes and behavior about sex through with their personal values and much less with enforcement. The poll, conducted in
some form of teaching and instruction. If you what any contrary evidence might suggest. September 1997, found that 80 percent of
assume that this is so (still a controversial issue This is somewhat akin to the repeated and Americans - four out of five - think the
pious denial of "effects" of exposure to extreme Federal laws against hardcore pornography
among researchers), then you have to admit to should be vigorously enforced, and 68 per-
the possibility that films, magazines, and books media violence by movie and TV executives
cent of Americans are of the opinion that
which model rape and the dehumanization of despite massive evidence to the contrary--espe- the Federal government is not vigorously
females in sexual scenes are also powerful cially concerning exposure to children. These enforcing these laws.
forms of sex education. This latter type of denials, as well as the contradicting harm-evi- Support for vigorous law enforcement
dence, have been extensively documented by against obscenity was strong among all
material educates, but not necessarily in healthy demographic groups: women (87% sup-
ways. Michael Medved, author of Hollywood vs.
port); men (72%); high school graduates
Anyone who has seen much pornography America. 34 (85%); college graduates (82%); whites
knows that most of it is made by men for male Some of the tobacco institute scientists are (81%); blacks (78%); singles (72%); mar-
consumption; is extremely sexist; gives a great still claiming there is no proof of harm from ried persons (83%); married with children
smoking despite 30 years of carefully (83%); Catholics (82%); Baptists (80%);
deal of misinformation about human sexuality; "born again" Christians (85%); Republicans
is devoid of love, relationship, responsibility; researched evidence to the contrary and the
(79%); Democrats (77%); and independents
mentions nothing about the risks of sexually deaths of hundreds of thousands of victims. (85%).
transmitted diseases, and for the most part, One striking example of experts "speaking out And "while public opinion clearly indi-
dehumanizes both male and female participants. of both sides of their mouths" to different audi- cates that the vigorous enforcement of
ences can be found documented in "Misrepre- pornography legislation is preferred by a
Pornography falsely represents sex, and some of majority of Americans ... the majority of
it is very hostile to females who are often deni- sentation of Pornography Research, Psycholo-
men (66%) and women (69%), regardless
grated and humiliated. gy's Role," by Stewart Page.35 Dr. Zillmann and of age, feel that the government is not vig-
If you were to regard pornography as a form of Dr. Bryant also touched on this subject in a orously enforcing the current legislation,"
sex education, you would have to label most of 1989 book, Pornography: Research Advances Wirthlin Worldwide reported.
it as miseducation because it presents and mod- and Policy Considerations. 36 The Wirthlin Worldwide findings are
In summary, some of the experts who consistent with earlier public opinion sur-
els scientifically inaccurate, false and mislead- veys:
ing information about human sexuality, espe- deny harm are simply unaware of the new ¥ A CBS News/New York Times national
cially female sexual nature and response. studies and research suggesting health poll (November 18, 1992) found that 63
In addition, pornography portrays "unhealthy" hazards. With others, it is a matter of percent though that laws against pornogra-
their personal politics and values. phy are not strict enough and that 54 per-
or even antisocial kinds of sexual activity such cent thought that reading or watching
as sadomasochism, abuse and humiliation of the pornographic materials makes people more
female, involvement of minors, incest, group likely to commit violent sexual crimes.
sex, voyeurism, exhibitionism, bestiality, etc.
The Feminist Position On ¥ A Gallup poll (October 6, 1991) found
Thus, if we examine just its educative impact, it Pornography that 81 percent favored "no public display
or a total ban on X-rated movies, and 76
presents us with some grounds for concern. percent favored banning dial-a-porn for

n reviewing the evidence on the effects of adults.
pornography, brief mention should be ¥ A poll reported in Time in (July 21, 1986)
Why Some Claim 'No Effects' found that "nearly two-thirds of the respon-
made of the feminist position. Their gen- dents were 'very' or 'fairly concerned' about
eral view is that a great deal of scientific stud- the pervasiveness of pornography in the

ome of the educated commentators or ies proving or disproving harm are irrelevant U.S." Seventy-two percent wanted the gov-
even "experts" that I know who publicly and unnecessary. Pornography, on its face, is ernment to crack down harder on pornogra-
abusive and denigrating, especially of women, phy; 77 percent indicated that X-rated
suggest that pornography has no effects
movies should be illegal; 84 percent said
are just simply unaware of the new and you do not have to do research to prove magazines portraying heterosexual inter-
research/studies suggesting harm. There are that. course should be illegal.
others who really do not believe what they are Sociologist Diana Russell states in her pri- ¥ A poll reported in Newsweek (March 18,
asserting. And, there are still others who will vately published paper, "Pornography, A Fem- 1985) found that 73 percent of respondents
inist Perspective" (Berkeley 1977), "Pornogra- believed that explicit sexual materials lead
only reluctantly admit to the possibility of harm
some people to commit rape or other sexual
from just "violent pornography." phy is vicious, anti-woman propaganda. It violence; 93 percent called for stricter con-
In some cases, they are pretending "not to tells lies about us. It degrades women. trol of magazines displaying sexual vio-
know" because of their concern over what they Pornography is not made to educate but to sell, lence.
falsely believe is censorship or loss of First and for the most part, what sells is a

¥ 13 ¥
bunch of lies about sex and women. Women experience of violation." sense legislation using democratic procedures
are portrayed as enjoying being raped, MacKinnon believes that women are get- and processes.
spanked or beaten, tied up, mutilated, ting obliterated by pornography and feels that It should also be noted here that in a leading
enslaved, or they accept it as their lot as since harm occurs, one should be able to get obscenity case, Paris Adult Theatre v. Slaton
women to be victims of such experiences. In an injunction against it. 37 (1973), the United States Supreme Court
the less sadistic films, women are portrayed Susan Brownmiller sees much "woman expressly rejected the argument that no regu-
as turned on and sexually satisfied by doing hatred" in pornography, suggesting in her lation of obscenity is permitted without "sci-
anything and everything men order them to book, Against Our Will, 38 "Pornography, like entific data" conclusively demonstrating that
do. What this involves is, for the most part, rape, is a male invention, designed to dehu- exposure to obscene materials adversely
totally contrary to what we know about manize women, to reduce the female to an affects individuals or society.
female sexuality: i.e. it is almost totally object of sexual access. The gut distaste that The Court stated, in part: "If we accept the
penis-oriented, often devoid of foreplay, ten- a majority of women feel when we look at unprovable assumption that a complete edu-
derness, or caring, to say nothing of love and pornography comes from the gut knowledge cation requires the reading of certain
romance." that we and our bodies are being stripped, books...and the well nigh universal belief that
Legal scholar Catherine MacKinnon argues exposed and contorted for the purpose of good books, plays and art lift the spirit,
that pornography is central to the subordina- ridicule, to bolster that 'masculine esteem' improve the mind, enrich the human person-
tion of women because it eroticizes domi- which gets its kicks and sense of power from ality and develop character, can we then say
nance. As she puts it, "Part of the reason that viewing females as anonymous, panting play- that a state legislature may not act on the
women--to the extent that women do--get things, adult toys, dehumanized objects to be corollary assumption that commerce in
pleasure out of subordination has to do with used, abused, broken and discarded." obscene books, or public exhibitions focused
their experiences of abuse very early on. The feminists may be right when they insist on obscene conduct, have a tendency to exert
Look at the rape rate. Look at the rate of that proof of harm may be really an irrelevant a corrupting and debasing impact leading to
child sexual abuse. Women learn to sexual- issue. We do not set up Presidential commis- antisocial behavior? Many of these effects
ize powerlessness through experiencing their sions to decide whether prostitution or "crack may be intangible and indistinct, but they are
sexuality under conditions of powerlessness. houses" are harmful to the public interest or nonetheless real..."
"About 38% of all young girls are sexually whether cigarettes can be advertised on TV. The decision concluded: "Nothing in the
molested before they reach the age of maturi- These are all issues which, in one way or Constitution prohibits a State from reaching
ty. That means their experience of their another, involve public morality, and prohibi- such a conclusion and acting on it legislative-
body's being accessed, aroused, as well as the tions against them have evolved out of ly simply because there is no conclusive evi-
experience of being loved and approved is an English common law as well as common dence or empirical data."

Research Methodology

o the average reader uninitiated in the promiscuity. effect relationship here. And many laws have
complexities of behavioral science and Or, affiliation with delinquent companions been passed as well as public policy decisions
research methodology, mention should could be a factor contributing to an interest in made, based on this assumption.
be made of an important issue which has to do pornography as well as to participation in lat- In addition, I have not heard of any behav-
with whether two things you are studying are er promiscuous sexual activities. ioral scientists who are critical of this inter-
related (correlated with each other) or whether Or, promiscuity and pornography could be pretation of the data and evidence, even
one causes or makes the other to happen (a reciprocally and causally related. We are though it is only "correlational."
cause-effect relationship). You can have the really not sure what all the causal connec- Frequently, good judgment, correct infer-
first without the second and many people, tions, if any, are in this instance. However, ence, and sound logic have to be used--along
even scientists, come to grief over this issue. we can make some good guesses (hypotheses) with proper scientific data analysis to arrive at
Correlation alone never demonstrates or which might be tested through further reasonable judgments about risk of harm. In
proves a causal relationship, though it can be research. 39 the meantime, all people (including parents)
suggestive or raise that possibility. Sometimes the methodology of behavior sci- are faced with making daily decisions, with-
Therefore, the sun rising each morning and a ence cannot disentangle all of these influences out final knowledge (as they have for eons of
person being consistently hungry at that time and precisely measure their individual unique time) as to whether or not to continue smok-
are correlated events. But one does not cause contributions. But, the fact that we cannot ing or eating foods that may be carcinogenic
the other to happen. However, the sun rising adequately measure them does not mean that (even though the data suggesting their lethali-
in the morning and the outdoor temperature they do not occur or that they have no effects. ty is only correlational or suggestive--not con-
increasing are correlated in a causal way. For example, all of the evidence linking clusive) and, similarly, whether or not to
Thus, a number of studies suggest a relation- drunk driving with high vehicular accident expose themselves or their offspring to porno-
ship (correlation) between early exposure to and fatality rates is correlational and anecdo- graphic materials.
pornography and later sexual promiscuity and tal. However, despite this, nearly all of us Nobody will ever do the definitive
deviancy. Pornography could be one cause of would agree that there is probably a cause- cause/effect study on pornography's effects
¥ 14 ¥
by taking young children or even pre-college including that out of the laboratory of our
adolescents, for example, in experimental everyday experience, in handling pornogra-
and matched control groups, exposing them phy, carcinogens in our environment, job Obscenity and the
to various amounts of pornography or porno- and sex discrimination, and a number of oth- First Amendment
violence, and then following them through er matters.
for 25 years to see what harm might occur. We need not claim that we are paralyzed
Obscenity is not protected speech
Ethical considerations would simply rule or immobilized or unable to make these
under the First Amendment. For
out such experiments, and few or no parents decisions just because there is not final con-
example, in Miller v. California, 413
would permit it. University Human Subjects clusive proof. There never is.
U.S. 15 (1973), the Court stated: "This
Review Committees would not approve it. While cigarette manufactures are still
much has been categorically settled by
The risks to the participants would be per- claiming that there is no conclusive evidence
the United States Supreme Court, that
ceived as too great. of a causal connection between smoking and
obscene material is unprotected by the
So we will continue, as in the past, to lung cancer (and many other illnesses), mil-
First Amendment." And, in Roth v.
make social policy decisions and law on the lions of Americans have still chosen to stop
United States, 354 U.S. 476 (1957), the
basis of the best evidence available, good smoking in recent years on the basis of what
Supreme Court said: "We hold that
common sense, and the data available to us, evidence that does exist.
obscenity is not within the area of con-
stitutionally protected speech or
In Conclusion The First Amendment is not absolute
and never has been. In fact, in addi-
tion to obscenity, there are many other
kinds of speech and expression also not

t should be emphasized in this brief hand. Most members of these groups,
essay that it is not possible to review when they share their pathology and histo- protected by the U.S. Constitution's
any more than a few representative ries, will implicate pornography as a con- First Amendment--such as slander,
studies and summarize some of the trends tributing facilitator of their compulsive, libel, perjury, false advertising, con-
of current as well as past research on out-of-control sexual behavior. spiracy, yelling "fire" in the crowded
pornography's effects, focusing especially These groups are located in almost every theater, contempt of court, copyright
on the harm issue. But the studies and oth- major city in America and usually meet up violations and child pornography. The
er evidence set forth here should still be to seven nights a week. Their times of relevant statutes, designed to protect
sufficient to give the reader a sense of the meeting and location can usually be found the public interest, were enacted using
field and, thus, answer for himself or her- by calling AA (Alcoholics Anonymous--a democratic processes and can always
self the question of pornography's potential related organization) which is listed in most be revoked or modified if the elected
to change or influence sexual attitudes and city phone directories. legislatures choose to do so.
behavior in adults as well as children. However, in fairness, it should be empha- There are a few people who would
There are many people who still argue that sized that, as with using alcohol or even like to make the First Amendment
immersing oneself in a milieu of pornogra- some of the highly addictive drugs, not absolute, and they have every right to
phy is devoid of any negative conse- everyone exposed will become an alcoholic have that opinion and lobby Congress
quences. But, that perhaps reflects their or addicted--at least in the early stages of and their state legislatures toward that
unfamiliarity with the new literature and use. end. However, the Supreme Court, as
research on this issue or maybe a very pro- But there are risks and there seems little well as Congress and every state legis-
tected life experience. For there do indeed doubt that there are at least some people-- lature, has rejected this absolutist
exist a number of experimental, field and even those who are initially healthy--who point of view.
clinical studies, and related data that give can be eventually harmed through repeated Some individuals confuse anti-
contrary evidence. exposure to pornography. In my clinical obscenity laws with censorship. Tech-
In my clinical practice, I have daily treated work, I find pre-teen or adolescent males, nically, censorship is "prior restraint"
both children and adults who have been who are mostly innocent and uninformed, on speech by the government, and as
unequivocally and repeatedly injured by being particularly vulnerable to these nega- the United States Supreme Court stat-
exposure to pornography, where the cumu- tive and addictive effects. ed in its 1993 Alexander v. United
lated evidence over many years demon- In treating patients with out-of-control States decision, the term "prior
strates a cause/effect relationship between sexual and pornography addictions, I have restraint" is used to describe govern-
such exposure and a variety of harms. found that a combination of personal thera- ment orders forbidding speech "when
If anyone who reviews this report still has py, which always includes the partner's issued in advance of the time that such
doubts about pornography's effects, I would spouse (when available), and using an communications are to occur."
suggest that he or she get invited to some addiction model therapeutically, plus Obscenity laws, however, operate sub-
meetings of "Sexaholics Anonymous" or involvement with a 12-step Sexaholics sequent to publication as punishments
"Sex Addicts Anonymous" and personally Anonymous type group, yields the most for past criminal conduct.
witness the pain, trauma, and evidence first successful healing results.

¥ 15 ¥
In a society where some types of pornographic choose to drink or smoke excessively or use and pornographic addictions begin in middle
material are protected by the Constitution and illegal drugs. These individuals should be childhood or early adolescence and most of the
obscenity laws often go unenforced, some indi- made cognizant of the health hazards involved. time without the parents' awareness or the chil-
viduals may choose to immerse themselves in a This kind of knowledge is also especially dren themselves having a sufficient under-
pornographic milieu, just as some people may important for parents to have since most sexual standing of the risks involved.

liced in the United States. At the international level, there are no treaties
Internet Porn prohibiting hardcore ÒadultÓ porn.

n the past five years porn on the Internet has virtually exploded in vol- Filters can be very helpful in discouraging or slowing down young fami-
ume and is now the leading source of pornographic materials worldwide. ly members from accessing Internet porn, but it should be clearly stated and
Some of my porn addict patients inform me that the Internet has three understood that no filter is absolutely foolproof. A computer-wise user, if
major advantages in feeding their addictive sexual illnesses. They call them persistent, can nearly always breach filter defenses. So caring parents
the three ÒAÕsÓ: ItÕs easily Accessible, Affordable, and Anonymous. should use filters as partial protection but also have the family Internet com-
I have had boys in their early teens getting into this wasteland with reallyputer in a central location where the parents can monitor and supervise its
disastrous consequences. They told me they actively search for porn on the use.
Internet, keying in on such words as sex, nudity, pornography, obscenity, It should also be noted that few parents are capable of monitoring their
etc. Then, once they have found how to access it they go back again and children (especially older children) 24 hours a day. Laws restricting minorsÕ
again, just like drug addicts. access to Internet porn are needed to help parents protect their children from
Dr. Albert Cooper, a West Coast university researcher, writing in the being exposed to this addictive and often toxic material.
Journal of Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity, refers to this as a Òcybersex Most U.S. libraries allow use of their computers for Internet access but
addiction.Ó He indicates that cybersex compulsives are just like drug refuse to use filters to protect underage children from harmful exposure to
addicts using the Internet as an important part of their sexual acting out. pornography. This means that a seven year-old could potentially access
This is their Òdrug of choice,Ó often with serious harm in their home lives explicit sexual matter representing extremes in anti-social pathology whose
and livelihood. source could be from any place in the world. Already we are seeing chil-
Dr. Mark Schwartz of the Masters & Johnson Institute in St. Louis says, dren sexually abusing other children using the Internet or other media as
ÒSex on the Net is like heroin, it grabs them and takes over their lives. And their instruction manuals. Some might consider permitting exposure of
itÕs very difficult to treat because the people affected donÕt want to give it young children to these kinds of materials a form of child abuse or, at the
up.Ó Cybersex compulsives can become so involved with their online activ- very least, contributing to the delinquency of a minor.
ities that they ignore their partners and children and risk their jobs. Another
researcher (Putnam) has noted that some cybersex addicts develop a condi- Additional Resources from Morality In Media
tioned response to the computer and become sexually aroused even before
turning it on. ÒSimply sitting down to work at the computer can start a sex-
ual response that may facilitate online sexual activities. As with other
COMMISSION ON PORNOGRAPHY 1986. Price: $10.00 each
addictions, tolerance to cybersex stimulation can develop, prompting the
addict to take more and more risks to recapture the initial high.Ó (see New
CLICHES: Debunking Misinformation about
York Times, 16 May 2000, F7)
Pornography and Obscenity Law. Price: $3.00 each
Dr. Jennifer Schneider, a Tucson, Arizona, physician, conducted a survey
of 94 family members affected by cybersex addictions and found that prob-
lems could arise even among those in loving marriages with ample sexual
Reports on important recent obscenity cases and legislative developments.
opportunities. ÒSex on the Net is just so seductive and itÕs so easy to stum-
Annual subscription: $15.00.
ble upon it, people who are vulnerable can get hooked before they know it.Ó
She further commented that the damage can be as devastating as that caused
by compulsive gambling or addiction to alcohol or drugs. In her survey of
Digests obscenity and related court decisions, dating from 1800. Three vol-
these 94 people in committed relationships she found they experienced seri-
umes, ring bound loose leaf. $300.00
ous adverse consequences, including broken relationships from those part-
ners with cybersex addictions. Partners commonly reported feeling
betrayed, devalued, deceived, ignored, and abandoned and unable to com-
$10.00 each
pete with a fantasy. Among those studied was a 34 year-old woman married
14 years to a minister who she discovered was compulsively seeking sexual
satisfaction by visiting pornographic sites on the Internet. She commented:
How you can fight porn in the mail, video shops, cable TV, 'adult book-
ÒHow can I compete with hundreds of anonymous others who are now in
stores' and nude bars. Price: $3.00 each
our bed, in his head. Our bed is crowded with countless faceless strangers,
where once we were intimate.Ó (New York Times, 16 May 2000, F7).
State obscenity laws canÕt solve the problem since it is largely a national
Includes the bi-monthly Morality in Media Newsletter. $25.00
and international problem. However, enforcement of federal obscenity laws
(18 USC 1462, 1465) would certainly reduce the amount of Internet porn,
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¥ 16 ¥
Endnotes 21. Marshall, W.L., "A Report on the Use of Pornography by Sex-
ual Offenders." Ottawa, Canada: Federal Department of Justice,
1. "The Pornography Industry Today." The World & 1, Dec. 1992: 22. Goldstein, M.J. et al, Pornography and Sexual Deviance.
pp. 511, 516. Berkeley, CA: Univer. of Calif Press, 1973.
2. Presentation before conference on "Pornography: Solutions 23. Abel, G.G., "Use of Pornography and Erotica by Sex Offend-
Through Law." Dallas, Texas: National Forum Foundation, May ers." Presented to the U.S. Attorney General's Commission on
1985. Pornography. Houston, Texas, 1985.
3. Rachman, S., " Experimentally Induced Sexual Fetishism." Psy- 24. Silber, M.H. & Pines, A.M., "Pornography & Sexual Abuse of
chological Record, 1968: vol. 18, p. 25. Women." Sex Roles, 1984: vol. 10, pp. 857-868: and: Carter, D.L. et
4. McGuire, R.J., et al. "Sexual Deviations as Conditioned Behav- al (in press), "Use of Pornography in the Criminal & Developmental
ior: A Hypothesis." Behavior Research Therapy. 1965: vol. 2, p. Histories of Sexual Offenders." Journal of Interpersonal Violence.
185. 25. "New Weapon Against Obscenity," June 3, 1983, Paducah
5. Marquis, J.N., "Orgasmic Reconditioning: Changing Sexual (Mich. ) Sun-Democrat.
Object Choice Through Controlling Masturbation Fantasies." J. 26. AP dispatch, Jan 27, 1989, Seattle Times (Wash).
Behav. Ther. & Exp. Psychiat., 1970: vol. 1 pp. 263-71. 27. Burgess, A., "The Effects of Pornography on Women and Chil-
6. Carnes, Patrick, Don't Call It Love: Recovery From Sexual dren Including an Analysis of Sexual Homicide Crime Data." Testi-
Addictions. New York: Bantam Books, 1991. mony before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice, Committee on
7. Blanchard, G.T., "The Role of Sexual Addictions in the Sexual the Judiciary, U.S. Senate. Wash. D.C., 1984.
Exploitation of Patients by Male Psychiatrists." Am Journal of Pre- 28. Bryant Jennings, "Frequency of Exposure, Age of Initial Expo-
ventive Psychiatry & Neurology, Spring 1991. sure and Reactions to Initial Exposure to Pornography." Presented to
8. McGuire, R.J. et al, Sexual Deviation as Conditioned Behavior, the Attorney General's Commission Pornography, Houston, Texas,
Behavior Research & Therapy, 1965 vol. 2, p. 185. March 1985; and: Bryant, J. & Brown D., Uses of Pornography. In
9. Evans, D. R., "Masturbatory Fantasy & Sexual Deviation." Zillmann, D. & Bryant, J. (eds), Pornography: Research Advances
Behavioral Research & Therapy, 1968: vol. 6, p. 17; and: Jackson, & Policy Considerations. New Jersey: L. Erlbaum & Assoc. 1989.
B.T., "A Case of Voyeurism Treated by Counter Conditioning." 29. U.S. News, July 2, 1990.
Behavior Research & Therapy, 1969: vol. 7, p. 133. 30. U.S. News, July 2, 1990
10. "Preserving the Presence of the Past." American Psychologist 31. Newsweek, July 30, 1990.
(Feb. 1983): p. 161. 32. Burgess, A., "Pornography--Victims & Perpetrators." Sympo-
11. Newsweek, July 23, 1990, pp. 51-52. sium on Media Violence & Pornography: Proceedings Resource
12. Malamuth, Neil Dr. & Donnerstein, Edward Dr. (eds.), Pornog- Book & Research Guide (D. Scott, ed.) Toronto: Media Action
raphy and Sexual Aggression. New York: Academic Press, 1984. Group, 1984: pp. 173-183.
13. Rubinstein, E. "Television & Behavior." American Psycholo- 33. The World & I, December, 1992: p. 508.
gist, 1983: vol 38, p. 820; and: Eron L., American Psychologist 34. Medved, Michael. Hollywood vs. America. New York: Harper-
Association Monitor (May 1992): vol. 23, no.4, pp. 11. Collins, 1992: pp. 239-252.
14. "Sex and Aggression: Proving the Link." Psychology Today 35. Page, Steward, "Misrepresentation of Pornography Research."
(Nov. 1978): pp. 111-112; and: "Rape Fantasies as a Function of American Psychologist (March 1989): p. 578.
Exposure to Violent-Sexual Stimuli." Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36. Zillmann, Dr. & Bryant, Dr., Pornography: Research Advances
1986: vol. 10, pp. 34-37. and Policy Considerations. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum & Assoc.: pp.
15. Russell, Diana, Rape & Marriage, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage 387-482 (1989).
1982. 37. Michigan Today. Ann Arbor, Mich: Univ of Mich., June 1989:
16. "Symposium on Media Violence and Pornography." Toronto, pp. 6-8.
Canada: Media Action Group, 1984; and: Testimony given to U.S. 38. Brownmiller, S., Against Our Will: Men, Women, and Rape.
Attorney General's Commission on Pornography, Houston, Texas, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1975.
Sept. 1985. 39. Brigham, T.A., On the importance of recognizing the difference
17. Zillmann, D. & Bryant, J., "Pornography's Impact on Sexual between experiments and correlational studies. American Psycholo-
Satisfaction." Journal of Appl. Social Psychology, 1988: vol. 18, no. gist (July 1989): vol. 44, pp. 1077-1078; and: Dominowski, R.L.,
5, pp. 438-453; and: Zillmann, D. & Bryant, J., "Effects of Pro- "Method Theory and Drawing Inferences." American Psychologist
longed Consumption of Pornography on Family Values." Journal of (July 1989): vol. 44, p. 1078.
Family Issues. (Dec. 1988): vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 518-544. 40. University of Chicago Division of Biological Sciences Pritzer
18. Attorney General's Commission on Pornography: Final Report. School of Medicine Reports, Winter 1970.
Washington D.C., U.S. Printing Office (1986), pp. 324-326. 41. Court, J.H., "Pornography & Sex Crimes." Intern. Journal of
19. Attorney General's Commission on Pornography: Final Report, Criminology & Penology, 1977: vol. 5, pp. 129-157.
Washington D.C., U.S. Printing Office (1986), pp. 333-334. 42. Kutchinksy, B., "Toward an Explanation of the Decrease in
20. Where Do You Draw the Line?: Explorations in Media Vio- Registered Sex Crimes in Copenhagen." Tech. Report of Commis-
lence, Pornography & Censorship. ed. Victor B. Cline. Provo, UT; sion of Obscenity and Pornography, Vol. VII., Wash. D.C.: U.S.
Brigham Young University Press, 1974. Govt. Printing Office, 1971.

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