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Lesson Plan Title: Using Mentor Texts to Scaffold Effective Leads in Students Writing Author: Kyla McCann Brief

Description/Abstract: Students will interact with mentor texts to identify types of effective leads authors use when writing to hook readers. Students then will work on incorporating different leads within their own writing. Overview: The teacher will begin this series of lessons by reading the leads of several books. Students will discuss what characteristics they notice about the leads (similarities, differences, the feelings it produces, etc.). The teacher will then introduce types of techniques used in leads such as: simile; question format; suspense; hyperbole; exclamation; onomatopoeia; or elliptical sentence. Students will work to categorize leads by technique. Book baskets of books with effective leads will also be placed out for students to use during writers workshop to utilize when later adopting specific lead techniques in their own writing. Grade Band: 3-5 Lesson Plan Type: Standard Lesson Estimated Lesson Time: Three 50-minute sessions Featured Resources 1. List of picture books with effective leads (see attached) 2. Internet access to http://instructional-inquiry.webs.com/ and the Flip Book/Stapleless Interactives 3. RWT Compare and Contrast Chart Graphic Organizer Printouts 1. List of picture books with effective leads (teachers guide) 2. Compare and Contrast Chart Graphic Organizer (student handout) 3. Describing Wheel (student handout) 4. Effective Leads that Hooked Me (student handout) Materials & Technology Mentor texts (Picture books with effective leads) White board & markers and/or chart paper & markers Sentence strips and/or photocopier to copy leads from books to display during lesson Student printouts of Compare and Contrast Chart Graphic Organizer Student printouts of Describing Wheel Writers Notebooks and/or lined paper Computer(s) with internet access Student printouts of Effective Leads that Hooked Me Optional: LCD projector for internet resources; document camera

From Theory to Practice: This lesson uses mentor texts to scaffold students in developing effective leads in their own writing. According to Lancia (1997), saturation with literature directly influences writing by providing important models for successful work (p. 470). In this study, Lancia (1997) concluded that students adopting the ideas of published authors appeared to be a significant stage in a childs writing development, and through a literature-rich environment in combination with an interactive writing workshop children made natural connections between their reading and writing through their daily interactions with books as well as their conversations with fellow authors (p. 475). These findings are supported by a study conducted by Corden (2007), which concluded that the use of specific literary terms helped students to clarify their thoughts, identify issues, and engage in lucid, informed discussions. [Students] were able to integrate the stylistic and organizational features of mentor texts into their personal repertoires and use them successfully in their own writing (p. 285). These conclusions state the importance of explicit teaching and discussions in regards to specific authors writing crafts. Further Reading: Corden, R. (2007). Developing reading-writing connections: The impact of explicit instruction of literary devices on the quality of childrens narrative writing. Journal of Research in Childhood Education; 21(3), 269-289 Lancia, P.J. (1997) Literacy borrowing: The effects of literature on childrens writing. The Reading Teacher, 50(6), 470-475. This lesson is adapted from: Ehmann, S. & Gayer, K. (2009). I can write like that! A guide to mentor texts and craft studies for writers workshop. International Reading Association: Newark, DE Standards: NCTE/IRA 3. Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of textual features (e.g., soundletter correspondence, sentence structure, context, graphics). 4. Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes. 5. Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes. 6. Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions (e.g., spelling and punctuation), media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and nonprint texts. 11. Students participate as knowledgeable, reflective, creative, and critical members of a variety of literacy communities. 12. Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

CCSS Grade 3 L.3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening a. Choose words and phrases for effect. SL.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others ideas and expressing their own clearly. a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion. b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion). c. Ask questions to check understanding of information presented, stay on topic, and link their comments to the remarks of others. d. Explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion. W.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences. W.4. With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose. W.5. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. W.8. Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories. W.10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. RL.1. Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. RL.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language. Grade 4 L.3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. a. Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely. b. Choose punctuation for effect. SL.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others ideas and expressing their own clearly. a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material;

explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion. b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles. c. Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others. d. Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion. W.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences. W.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. W.5. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. W.8. Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources. W.10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. RL. 1. Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. Grade 5 L.3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. a. Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style. b. Compare and contrast the varieties of English (e.g., dialects, registers) used in stories, dramas, or poems. SL.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher led) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others ideas and expressing their own clearly. a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion. b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles. c. Pose and respond to specific questions by making comments that contribute to the discussion and elaborate on the remarks of others. d. Review the key ideas expressed and draw conclusions in light of information and knowledge gained from the discussions. W.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

W.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. W.5. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. W.8. Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources. W.10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. RL. 1. Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. RL. 4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative language such as metaphors and similes. Websites Writing Effective Leads: A Picture Book Walk http://instructional-inquiry.webs.com/ This website has the first pages of picture books with effective leads. Students can use this website to access books to reference when writing their own leads for stories. A list of other recommended picture books with effective leads is included to prompt further exploration of new texts. Preparation 1. Gather picture books from the List of picture books with effective leads teachers printout to have ready in the classroom in book baskets for students to access. 2. Select books that cover only a few different types of leads at a time for the lesson (for example, pick books that show one of three types, such as: suspense; similes; and onomatopoeia). Note: You can add more books to the baskets as students become more proficient with using the first few types within their writings or as extension activities. 3. Select 6 books that you want to use specifically in the lesson (2 of each type of lead you picked to highlight) 4. Write out the leads from the books you are using for the lesson on sentence strips (several copies of each lead) so that students can group them and move them around on the whiteboard/chart paper 5. Make multiple photocopies of the Compare and Contrast Chart Graphic Organizer for each student; Describing Wheel printouts can be used for struggling students in describing characteristics of one lead at a time; and Effective Leads that hooked me for extension activities. 6. Draw out a Compare and Contrast Chart Graphic Organizer on your chart paper/board or project one using the LCD projector

Instructional Plan Student Objectives Students will: 1. Sort leads by their similarities and differences in their features of writing (punctuation, word use, etc.) and the feelings/emotions they create with a reader 2. Describe the effects a lead has on the reader 3. Identify what writing craft/(s) an author is using in a specific lead 4. Describe the effects different types of leads create with readers and on the story as a whole 5. Evaluate the authors choice of picking one specific craft over another in developing a lead 6. Generate leads using different writing styles in new writing pieces and revise leads in previous writing pieces Session Introduction and Activities Session One 1. The teacher gathers the students into a whole group with the 6 books picked out on display, visible to all students. Tell students that you are going to read them just the first pages of some books you love that contain effective leads, or first lines, to hook the reader. Tell students that as you read them the leads, you want them to think about how these leads make them feel as readers and if they have any predictions about the rest of the book based on these feelings. 2. The teacher reads out loud the lead from the first book, placing the sentence strip with the lead written on it on the chart paper/board for students to see. 3. Allow students to briefly give their initial reactions to the leads before going on to the next lead, writing down some of the descriptive words under or around the sentence strip. 4. Repeat steps 2 & 3 with the remaining 5 books. 5. After you have finished looking at the leads from the six books, ask students if there are any similarities they notice in the leads how they are written (things they include), feelings they evoke, etc. Move sentence strips around to be closer to ones students think are similar. 6. Use the Compare and Contrast Chart Graphic Organizer you prepared ahead of time on chart paper (or project one using an LCD projector/document camera) and have students pick two leads that were grouped together. Write down the similarities and differences they note about these two leads. 6. Tell students that they are going to have the opportunity to investigate more books for examples of effective leads that hook readers, comparing how leads can be similar or different from each other. 7. Place book baskets with the collected picture books from the list of books with effective leads on tables around the room. Give each student, or pair of students, a copy of the Compare and Contrast Chart Graphic Organizer. As students are working, circulate to make sure they are able to identify appropriate examples of how leads are similar and/or different. Check that students are able to identify examples of similar written patterns/structure and feelings the leads evoke from the reader, and that they are quoting these examples accurately on their papers.

8. For students who are struggling, ask them to list things they notice about one lead at a time (they can draw out a Describing Wheel to help organize descriptions with the lead as the topic, or you can provide a photocopy prepared ahead of time). Students can then use the describing wheels to look for similarities and differences they noted for each one individually. 9. Gather students back together and allow students to share books and leads that they read and examples of similarities and differences. Add samples to the anchor chart created for the six mentor texts. 10. At this point, you can continue to allow students to explore books, filling out a new Compare and Contrast Chart Graphic Organizer for new leads. Session Two 1. The teacher gathers the students into a whole group with the 6 leads posted from Session One visible to all students (as well as other lead examples shared by students at the end of Session One). Tell students that today they are going to learn the specific writing crafts that authors used in these leads. 2. Leaving the anchor charts from yesterday alone, take out the second copy of the leads written out on sentence strips and place them on the board in the three groupings you picked out when selecting the books. 3. Above each group write the name/type of writers craft used. Have students then look at the anchor chart from Session One and ask them what kinds of characteristics they noticed about each of these types of leads. Under each new group write the generalizations made about using these types of leads (for example, they give a feeling of surprise, they leave us feeling uncertain about what is happening, they create a vivid image in our minds, etc.) 4. Tell students that they are going to have the opportunity to revisit the book baskets from yesterday, now looking for examples of these specific leads. 5. Place book baskets with the collected picture books from the list of books with effective leads on tables around the room. Direct students to write on a sheet of paper of in their Writers Notebook the author, title and leads from books that they think show one of the three specific writers crafts posted on the board. As students are working, circulate to make sure they are able to identify appropriate examples of specific writers crafts used in leads. 6. Gather students back together and allow students to share books and leads that they read and examples of leads that highlight the specific writers crafts, as well as if they can add any generalizations to how these types of leads effect readers. Add samples to the new anchor chart. 7. At this point, you can continue to allow students to explore books. Using the Flip Book or Stapleless Book Student Interactives, students can create a page for each of the three writers crafts found in leads. On each page, they will quote leads that show this craft and include a description of what effect these leads have on the reader.

Session Three 1. The teacher gathers the students into a whole group with the two anchor charts from prior lessons visible. Tell students that today they are going to take the knowledge they have learned about these leads to begin writing effective leads modeled after these exemplars. 2. Review with the students how using different writing styles, or crafts, can create different feelings and emotions (and other effects) with readers and that authors have to make conscious choices about how they are going to start their story in order to hook the reader and set up the right atmosphere. 3. Have students brainstorm a topic that they have seen in a book before (for example, a boy taking his dog for a walk). Note: Reinforce that a topic can be anything you would want to write a story about. 4. Write this topic on the board and then model how you would use each different writers craft discussed previously to start this story. Have students discuss how these leads are different and how using them changes how the story might progress. 5. Repeat this process with a new topic, this time having students share different leads they might write to start a story on this topic. Write student examples of leads on the board and, again, discuss how these different leads for the same topic create a different atmosphere for the story. 6. Have students go back to their desks to begin writing independently. Prompt them to write a topic at the top of a sheet or paper or in their Writers Notebook. Then have them write three different leads that could start a story on this topic. As students are working, circulate to make sure they are able listing what writers craft they used for each lead and are including a description of how this lead might change the atmosphere, or flow, of the story. 7. For students that are struggling, have them verbally share with you the lead types and how they feel the lead changes the flow of the story versus writing these descriptions along with the leads. You can also provide students with a topic if they are having a hard time coming up with one. 8. Gather students back together and allow students to share the leads they wrote for their topic. Allow students to discuss what leads they liked the most for each others topic and why (was one more effective in hooking you than another? Why?). 9. At this point, students can transition into Writers Workshop to edit previous writings to make leads more effective or start writing new pieces. Conference with students as they work through this process and allow for a share at the end of the workshop so students can share how they incorporated their new knowledge of leads into their writing. Extensions As students continue to collect examples of effective leads, they can use the Effective Leads that Hooked me printout to share new leads with their classmates by filling it out and posting it near the lead anchor charts. Students can beginning finding new writers craft elements found in leads, using the Writing Effective Leads: A Picture Book Walk website to sort and categorize leads. They can make new Flip Books/Stapleless Books to highlight these new crafts and share with classmates.

As students create writing pieces during subsequent Writers Workshops, have peer review time where students look specifically at each others leads to discuss what craft was used and provide suggestions to improve the lead. Conference with students on how to make their leads more effective, referring to the anchor charts to figure out what kinds of leads can create different effects with the reader. As students become more competent with the writers crafts in leads that the teacher chose to highlight in this lesson, the teacher can instruct small-group mini-lessons on other writing traits found in mentor texts using resources like: http://library.stjosephsea.org/50booktraitspdf.pdf and/or I can write like that! A guide to mentor texts and craft studies for writers workshop, K6 by Susan Ehmann and Kellyann Gayer Student Assessment/Reflections Collect and assess the Compare and Contrast Graphic Organizer that students used to compare and contrast leads from published texts. This assessment addresses student objectives 1 &2. Make sure students are including a variety of examples of similarities and differences within the leads and are using the handout correctly. Collect and assess the printed copies of the Flip Books/Stapleless Book Student Interactives to assess students abilities to identify specific examples of leads that highlight specific writers crafts (student objective 3). Make sure students are not simply copying anchor chart examples into the book and are including descriptions with the quotes about the effect the lead creates with the reader. Informally assess student participation and input in the discussion of other students leads during Session Three. Make sure students can describe the effects the different types of leads created with readers and the effects different leads had on the story as a whole. Monitor students ability to give their opinions with reasons on selecting one specific lead over another in developing a story (student objectives 4 & 5). Collect and assess student work when writing three different leads for the same topic to assess students abilities to incorporate different styles of writing within their leads (student objective 6). Conference with students during Writers Workshop to discuss leads within their writing. Monitor their editing of pieces and incorporating the taught writers crafts in new pieces (student objective 6). Related Resources Lesson Plans: Focus on First Lines: Increasing Comprehension through Prediction Strategies http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/focus-first-lines-increasing834.html (This lesson is 9-12 but can be adapted to younger grades as a prediction strategy: http://www.adlit.org/strategies/23330/) As Slippery as an Eel: An Ocean Unit Exploring Simile and Metaphor http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/slippery-ocean-unit-exploring832.html?tab=1#tabs (This lesson can be a K-2 precursor to teach the background knowledge needed to identify similes and metaphors in leads)

Creative Writing in the Natural World: A Framing http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/creative-writing-natural-world30607.html?tab=1#tabs (This 4-8 lesson focuses on figurative versus literal language, including: similes; metaphors; hyperboles; and personification) Figurative Language Awards Ceremony http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/figurative-language-awardsceremony-115.html?tab=1#tabs (This 3-5 lesson can be a precursor to teach the background knowledge needed to identify similes and metaphors in leads) Creating a Feast for the Senses With Mentor Texts http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/creating-feast-senses-with30785.html?tab=1#tabs (This 3-6 lesson teaches students to investigate published texts to help them learn how to revise their writing to add words and phrases that will create sharp, sensory-rich experiences for their readers) Student Interactives: Flip Book (Students can label each page with a different type of lead (for example: question format; simile; suspense, etc.), then quote examples from different picture books they liked to use for reference in their future writings. http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/student-interactives/flip-book30054.html Stapleless Book (Students can label each page with a different type of lead (for example: question format; simile; suspense, etc.), then quote examples from different picture books they liked to use for reference in their future writings. http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/student-interactives/stapleless-book30010.html Professional Library: I can write like that! A guide to mentor texts and craft studies for writers workshop, K6 by Susan Ehmann and Kellyann Gayer http://www.reading.org/General/Publications/Books/bk708.aspx Using Literature to Enhance Writing Instruction: A Guide for K-5 Teachers by Rebecca L. Olness http://www.readwritethink.org/professional-development/professional-library/using-literatureenhance-writing-20964.html Wondrous Words: Writers and Writing in the Elementary Classroom by Katie Wood Ray http://www.readwritethink.org/professional-development/professional-library/wondrous-wordswriters-writing-30342.html

Activities and Projects: Confection Connection: Using Sensory Details in Writing (Grades 2-4) http://www.readwritethink.org/parent-afterschool-resources/activities-projects/confectionconnection-using-sensory-30745.html?main-tab=1#tabs
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Keywords/Tagging Leads; Mentor Text; Writing; Simile; Metaphors; Question; Suspense; Hyperbole; Exclamation; Onomatopoeia; Elliptical sentence