Unit IV Study Guide
Industrialization and Western Global Hegemony, 1750-1914
Chapter 23 – The Emergence of Industrial Society in the West, 1750-1914 1. Effects of increased population in industrial society It prompts a rapid expansion of domestic manufacturing. … 2. Beliefs and philosophy of Karl Marx Marx saw socialism as the final phase of an inexorable march of history. According to Marx, class struggle always pitted a group out of power with the group controlling the means of production; hence, in the era just passed, the middle class had battled the feudal aristocracy and its hold on land. Marxism created a new class enemy, the propertyless proletariat that would grow until revolution became inevitable. Then, after a transitional period in which proletarian dictatorship would clean up the remnants of the bourgeois social order, full freedom would be achieved. People would benefit justly and equally from their work, and the state would wither away; the historic class struggle would at last end because classes would be eliminated. 3. Main causes of the French and American Revolutions There were many factors contributing to the American Revolution. Britain imposed many new taxes and trade controls on the colonies, therefore making the colonies wanting independence from Britain. There were restrictions on movement into the frontier areas. The Stamp Act of 1765 imposed taxes on documents and pamphlets. The American Revolution was really a war for independence rather than a revolution. The French Revolution was different than the American one. The people in France wanted reform from the government, but the government soon proved incapable. The causes for the French Revolution were that middle-class people wanted a greater political role. Peasants wanted fuller freedom from the landlords’ demands. The ideological resistance on change also won attention. 4. Ideas of European liberals a 5. Darwinism Darwinism was created by Charles Darwin. Darwinism stated that all living species had evolved into their present form through the ability to adapt in a struggle for survival. Biological development could be scientifically understood as a process taking place over time, with some animal and plant species disappearing and others – the fittest in the survival struggle – evolving from earlier forms. Darwinism also created a more complex
picture of nature. In this view, nature worked through random struggle, and people were seen as animals with large brains, not as supremely rational. 6. Reason for settlement of the British colony of Australia There were only 2 main reasons for settlement in Australia. One is that Australia is a place to keep convicts and another was that there was a prosperous sheep-raising agriculture that provided wool for British industries. The exportation of convicts stopped, by which time most settlers were free immigrants. The discovery of gold also spurred further pioneering. Chapter 24 – Industrialization and Imperialism: The Making of a European Global Order 7. Aspects of imperialism following European industrialization d
8. Accumulation of 18th century land empires in Asia (how?)
d 9. Achievements and responsibilities of Robert Clive Robert Clive defeated the teenage nawab, or ruler, Siraj ud-daula of Bengal. Clive bought off many of the nawab’s allies and his chief general. Even the nawab’s leading spy was on Clive’s payroll. When it was time to fight, his major Indian allies defected to the British or remained stationary on his flanks. These defections wiped out the nawab’s advantage and because of Clive’s skillful leadership and the superiority of his artillery, he won. 10. Colonial acquisitions before the Industrial Revolution (where did they tend to be?) j
11. British colonial leadership in India during the 19th century
j 12. Trends of those colonials who received a European education u 13. Purpose of colonies j
14. Reasons for European colonial success in the 19th century
u 15. Tropical Dependencies, Settler Colonies, Contested Settler Colonies jd 16. European government social policies toward the colonial peoples j Chapter 25 – The Consolidation of Latin America 17. Profile of the independence movement leaders in Latin America d 18. Haiti’s independence movement compared to the rest of Latin America d 19. Brazil’s independence movement compared to the rest of Latin America Unlike Latin America, where the Napoleonic invasions provoked a crisis of authority and led Spanish Americans to consider ruling in their own name, in Brazil the transfer of the court brought royal government close and reinforced the colonial relationship. Brazil’s independence was almost bloodless compared to the warring of the rest of Latin America.
20. Profile of many of the government leaders in 19th century Latin American nations
d 21. The Monroe Doctrine The Monroe Doctrine was literally America’s attempt to stop European countries from colonizing in the Americas by saying that it would be considered an unfriendly act by the United States.
22. 19th century economies of Latin America
There was a general economic expansion of Latin America. The application of science to industry created new demands for Latin American products, such as copper and rubber, to accompany the increasing demand for its consumer products such as wheat, sugar, and coffee.
23. Events in Europe that helped cause movements for independence in Latin America The French Revolution provoked great interest in Latin America, and its slogan, “liberty, equality, and fraternity,” appealed to some sectors of the population. Because of the internal political conflict in France, Haiti broke out in a rebellion. And since Napoleon attacked Spain and Portugal, places such as Caracas, Bogota, and Mexico begin to doubt their allegiance with their mother countries. 24. Types of ideas supported by Latin American Liberals d 25. Manifest Destiny The Manifest Destiny was the belief that the government of the United states was destined to rule the continent from coast to coast. 26. Results of the Mexican-American War The results of the Mexican-American War were that the United States won and had to sign the disadvantageous Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo. The treaty states that the United States would have undisputed control over Texas and almost ½ of the Mexican land. In return the Mexicans get 15 million dollars for the land. 27. Role of the Roman Catholic Church in Latin America The role of the church became a crucial issue in politics. It divided conservatives from the more secular liberals. In Mexico, for example, the church had played a major role in education, the economy, and politics. Few questioned its dogma, but liberals tried to limit its role in civil life. The church fought back with the aid of its pro-clerical supporters and with the power of the papacy, which until the 1840s refused to fill vacant positions in the hierarchy or to cooperate with the new governments. Chapter 26 – Civilizations in Crisis: The Ottoman Empire, the Islamic Heartlands, and Qing China
28. Weaknesses of the Ottoman Empire in the 18th century
There were many weaknesses in the Ottoman Empire. There was a succession of weak rulers within a political and social order that was centered on the sultan at the top. There were also power struggles between rival ministers, religious experts, and the commanders of the Janissary corps. There was also competition between factions that further eroded leadership within the empire. 29. Control of Egypt in the early 1800s
ad 30. Results of the Egyptian army rebellion of 1882 Because of the army rebellion, the khedive went to seek British assistance. After crushing the revolt, the British intervention began decades of dominance both by British consuls, who ruled through the puppet khedives and by British advisors to all high 0ranking Egyptian administrators. British officials controlled Egypt’s finances and foreign affairs; British troops ensured that their directives were heeded by Egyptian administrators. 31. Reforms introduced by the Young Turks While in power, the Young Turks carried out administrative reforms, especially of provincial administration, that led to more centralization. They were also the first Ottoman reformers to promote industrialization. In addition, the programs of the Young Turk regime effectuated greater secularization of the legal system and provided for the education of women and better state-operated primary schools.
32. Strategic importance of Egypt
dd 33. Reasons for the Muslim Sudanese revolts under the Mahdi The reasons for the Muslim Sudanese revolts under the Mahdi were that they Egyptian regime was really corrupt, and its taxes placed a heavy burden on the peasants made to pay them. The Egyptians showed favoritism to some tribes but not to others which angered them. But the main thing the Muslim Sudanese were mad about was the fact that the Egyptians tried to eradicate the slave trade. 34. Reasons for failure of the Manchu attempts at reform A couple of the reasons for failure of the attempts at reform were that there was a growing population pressure on the cultivable acreage and that there was a near disappearance in most areas of open lands that could be settled. 35. Social conditions for the Manchu elite As always, it was a patriarchal society. Male control was enhanced by the practice of choosing brides from families slightly lower in social status than those of the grooms. The only thing that women could look forward to was to get married to a man. In elite families they exercised control over other women and even younger men. 36. Signs of decline in Qing China
The bureaucratic foundations of the Chinese Empire were rotting from within. The exam system had become riddled with cheating and favoritism. Scholars could be paid to take the exam for their not-so-bright relatives. Examiners could also be bribed to approve weak credentials. Money that was used for state projects now went to enrich individual families. There were also many bandits that ran wild in the many districts. They had secret societies that plotted to overthrow the Qing dynasty. More and more sons of the scholar-gentry families wanted to overthrow the Qing and build a new, strong nation-state in China patterned after those of the West. Many uprisings also occurred this time, signaling the downfall of Qing China. 37. Causes and results of the Opium Wars The causes of the Opium Wars were that too many people were getting drugged up from opium. More opium dens increased and that caused for a increase in unemployment, a decrease in public works and trade expansion, and a decrease in agricultural productivity. Many sons of the scholar-gentry families would abandon their work for the pleasure of the opium dens. Because of this the Qing Emperors tried to stop the Opium trade and since Britain kept on trading, the Chinese destroyed all the opium in Canton. Since Britain said this was against the principles of free trade, they started the war with China. The result of the two Opium wars was that Britain 0wned China. Hong Kong became a British port and Britain forced China to open trade and diplomatic exchanges. European trade was allowed at 5 more ports and more land was given to them for warehouses and living quarters. 38. Taiping Rebellion The Taiping Rebellion broke out in south China in the 1850s and early 1860s. This rebellion is led by Hong Qiuquan, a semi-Christianized prophet that is sought to overthrow the Qing Dynasty and the Confucian basis of scholar gentry. Chapter 27 – Russia and Japan: Industrialization Outside of the West 39. The Decembrist Uprising The Decembrist uprising was a political revolt in Russia in 1825. It was led by middlelevel army officers who advocated reforms. This uprising was put down by Tsar Nicholas I. 40. Profile of those who supported westernization and radical ideas in Russia d
41. Characteristics of Russian society in the 19th century
42. Conditions in Russia after the emancipation of the serfs The emancipation of the serfs created a larger urban labor force. Peasants still continued to use traditional methods on their small plots. Peasant uprisings became more common as hopes for a brighter future seemed dashed by the limits of change. Explosive rural unrest in Russia was furthered by substantial population growth as some of the factors that had earlier swelled the West’s population now spread to Russia, including increased use of the potato. Overall, Russia was a classic case of a society in the midst of rapid change where reform did not go far enough to satisfy key protest groups. 43. Reasons for the Russian loss of the Crimean War The Russians lost the Crimean War to the Western powers not because of great tactics or inspired principles, but because of the Western powers’ industrial advantage. The West had the ships to send masses of military supplies long distances, and their artillery and other weapons were vastly superior to Russia’s home-produced models. This severe blow to a regime that prided itself on military vigor was a frightening portent for the future. 44. Russian reforms in the 1860s and 1870s New law codes cut back the punishments now that serfs were legally free. The tsar, Alexander II, created local political councils, or the zemstvoes, which had a voice in regulating roads, schools, and other regional policies. The army was changed also as the Crimean War has shown. The officer corps was improved through promotion by merit and a new organization of essential services. Recruitment was extended, and many peasants learned new skills through their military service. Literacy increased rapidly because of the state-sponsored basic education, and a new market developed for popular reading matter. 45. Successes of Russian industrialization program by 1900 One of the successes of the Russian industrialization program was the trans-Siberian railroad, which connected European Russia with the specific. And because of the many railroads, supplies could be brought back and forth with ease. Factories sprung up in Moscow, St. Petersburg, and several Polish cities, and an urban working class was growing rapidly. Printing factories and metalworking shops expanded the skilled artisanry in the cities, and metallurgy and textile plants recruited a still newer semiskilled industrial labor force from the troubled countryside. 46. General goals of the Russian intelligentsia The Russian intelligentsia wanted political freedom and deep social reform while maintaining a Russian culture different from that of the West, which they saw as hopelessly materialistic. The attacked key Russian institutions while building a new society that would not reproduce the injustices and crippling limitations of the Western world.
47. Political methods used by anarchists to achieve reform Many early anarchists in the 1860s hoped that they could triumph by winning peasant support, and a host of upper-class radicals fanned out to teach the peasantry the beauties of political activism. Failure here led many anarchists to violent methods and thus to the formation of the first large terrorist movement in the modern world. 48. The Duma The Duma was the national parliament created in Russia in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1905. It was progressively stripped of power during the reign of Tsar Nicholas II and it failed to forestall a further revolution. 49. Conditions in Japan prior to Commodore Perry’s arrival Prior to Commodore Perry’s arrival, the conditions were similar to those of the early shogunate. Before the 19th century in Japan, intellectual and art life increased. Going into the 19th century, the economy developed and commerce expanded. But by the 1850s, economic growth slowed because of the technological limitations that constrained agricultural expansion and population increase. 50. Similarities between Japanese and Russian industrialization dd 51. Condition of Japanese industrialization pre-WWI dd 52. Aspects of Western culture adopted by the Japanese d 53. Japan’s fate compared to Qing China and the Ottoman Empire d 54. Social and cultural changes that resulted b/c of Japan’s Industrial Revolution There was an increase of people in Japanese society. 55. Reasons for Japanese imperialism d