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or relation. and to indicate under each heading something of the probable influence. as they are unfolded and revealed in the light of the New Testament. W. social.and moral conceptions Zoroas- trianism and Judaism. An attempt will be to made to give an outline picture of Zoroastrianism. and be somewhat a This will enable in make the further attempt to give the leading religious. freely. in order that authority It may facts stated. Old Testament those Scriptures in a period of time . G. Throughout the whole discussion. C. of one system on the other.PREFACE There ject is only a very meager literature on the sub- about to be discussed. or quoted. main sources of informatwo rebe given for all They will be referred to. must be understood that no attempt will be made to interpret the exalted teachings of the Old Testament. then of Judaism us to when it came fixed system in the post-exilic times. Scriptures. The author has firm convictions regarding the authority of the canonical This treatise deals with when they were incomplete and when those that were written were available only to a few. the tion will be the ancient literatures of the ligions.


Redeemer 77 81 Social and Ceremonial Regula92 tions Morals and Ethics IX The Future Conclusion Bibliography Life 96 104 107 115 X Index .CONTENTS CHAPTER Zarathustra and the Zeit-Geist Introduction I PAGE 7 17 Zarathustra 23 28 41 55 II Judaism III IV The Idea of Deity The Host of Heaven Naturalistic Traits V VI VII VIII 69 a The Expectation of Civil.




and the analysis of all human occupations have become objects of intensive study.INTRODUCTION ZARATHUSTRA AND THE ZEIT-GEIST /~\UR ^^the down war-consciousness. The whole planet has been shakFor this reaen. The intensity of the war has had the effect of obliterating those old lines of separation which have sought to make east east and west west. in accordance with the time-honored custom of warfare back and forth from the east and west. In the past. brings Persia to the present. is not without its analogies to German attempt to subjugate the states which have allied themselves against the modern Xerxes. and the dead have risen in arms. which has brought to surface of the soul many a contradiction which time had seemed to submerge. the study of Zarathustra become timely topics. the ancient descent of Persia upon the Greek states. Indeed. the study of humanity's history. . Orient and Occident blend in one supreme militarism. social. the contemplation of worldmaps. Because of the war. and spiritual direrhption of two hemispheres has been overcome. the Zend-Avesta has become a war-document. Iranian religion and the career of son. the geographical.

hence his study of the ultimate orient can amount to no more than an objective and scientific consideration of a useless and inIn the case of Brahmanism. approachable faith. Their sky we China's imcannot touch or their ideals analyze. . and the drab of khaki obscures the old-time color-contrasts of Asiatic and European modes. When one consults Confucianism. there is similar defeat for him who would make practical use of there remote ideals in religion. he is confronted by the stolidity of Chinese ideals and the retroactive character of Mongolian motives. and Tokio may come to the aid of Paris. Doubtless nourishment and intellectual enlightenment in Vedic beliefs. military dispatches come from both Venice and Jerusalem. The fitness of Iranian intuitions for shedding light upon the religious and political conditions of present-day Europe cannot be questioned by those who know old Persia and modern Prussia. Lines of fire link London and Bagdad. there is at least a pontoon-connection between east and west. but the Hindu habit of indulging in aloofness and the tenuous nature of is much spiritual India's convictions conspire to make the contempla- tion of Vedic idealism a remote one. The Turk is in league with the Teuton. 8 Zarathustra and the Zeit-Geist Asia and Europe merely touched at the Dardanelles in the present. Those who come to an understanding with the times must not remain unacquainted with the biographies of Kaiser Wilhelm and Spitama Zarathustra..

In the instance of Persia. which the Persian observed in the sky and felt in the heart. is the most essential thing in European religion.Zarathustra and the ZeiuGeist 9 penetrable earth and India's impalpable heaven are both beyond the religious reach of the western believer. Zarathustra had felt the dismay of a soul as a house divided against itself. The in violent wrenching of the Iranian it from the Indian has in somewhat of that separatist spirit which the west rejoices. the personality of Zarathustra becomes of special interest in the everintensifying days of conflict. there is less of this Oriental silence. whose is worth while inquiring to . becomes an ally of western belief. supposed to have sprung from the excessive egoism of the Teuton. while the inner contradiction of good and bad. which lacks the extensive majesty of Mongolian faith and the intensive dignity of Indian idealism. Zarathustra reveals the Zeit-Geist. If it is true that German giantism has developed by reason of the inSince the is war flammation of the moral gland it in the German brain. we ourselves are somewhat Persian in our methods of believing and doubting. Persia. especially when so many point to Nietzsche. even when Iranian religion is no less authentic. For this reason. what extent Persian ideals are responsible for the painful phenomenon. Long before Greek tragedy had seen man divided against himself and ere the inner contradictions of Christian ethics had entered the heart of man. however.

but leaders of religion are often themselves noble egoistic. zsche's certain and we have Niet- word for it. the far-reaching plans of politics. It is a question whether the egregiits ous egoism of Prussia has been displayed with con- rough its moral and military opponents. but the fact remains that the name of Zarathustra has been linked with that of the Kaiser. but these great ones must work for their immortal living. Religion is supposed to be altruistic and pacific. so that Persia's spiritual leader must submit to resurrection in war-time. tends to lend balance to an un- moral situation. such was the case with Moses and Zarathustra. Thus Spake Zarathustra. whose personalities present more than egoistic edge. its range of individualism in is form of superman marked by the outlines of religion rather than by politics of warfare. so that both Persia and Prussia are to be sistency. or that the phenomena peculiar to manifestation have been analyzed by studied. Those who indulge but moderately in analysis are wont to believe that the intrigues of diplomacy. Lifted from his original setting. Zara- thustra would feel as ill at ease in Germany as the 'Moses' of Alfred da Vigny would have felt in the France of the 30's. the whole the with Christ and Mahomet. and the violences of war are the meat on which the superman feeds but those who have followed the career of this new person cannot hide : . Zarathustra as superman.io chief Zarathustra and the Zeit-Geist work of super-ethics is entitled. Indeed.

Ahura Mazda. This at once arouses the question concerning the source and sanction of morals. rejoices in aesthetic ideals. the virtues grew up gradually and unconsciously in connection with manifest utilities and in response to democratic demands. Zarathustra as- sumes an aristocratic position when he with boldness delivers to his followers the ideals which he has se- cured from some superior source. Milton and Blake. is in the In the role of ethical educator. According to orthodox utilitarianism. who either Promethean in his fire-snatching or Zarathustrian noble impudence with which he buttonholes the Almighty and interrogates the skies. Such seers of the soul observe the superman as a sort of heaven-storming person. As already listed. Originally loose in the form of interests merely felt. Wagner and Ibsen found it necessary to pass by the Church when they went in search of the arch-ego. Galilee's seer and Arabia's prophet are typical of the character which become such a puzzle for contemporary ethics. and puts a sharper edge on contemporary ethical calculations. Thus Zarathustra questioned the supreme God. and has a strength which lies within him. Those who have reduced the ethics of the superman to a kind of cult have ever made use of a quasi-religious mode of reasoning. Stirner and Dostoievsky. Israel's law- giver and Irania's guide.Zarathustra and the Zeit-Geist 1 from their eyes the fact that it is usually religion which supplies the superman with his daily allowance of heavenly manna. they tightened . The superman is spiritual.

synthesis of holiness sanctions. Virmoral meteor which lands so mysteriously in our human field could have no place in a practical system which watched virtue grow by slow accretion and advance pari passu with so many felt wants of mankind. But the morals of Zarathustra never abandoned their essential aristocracy. whose moral reasoning was only abetted by the evolutionary idea of progress through limitless pa- and development in almost endless time. for the weight of authority which he laid upon the earth came from on high.' which special maxim seems to spring from the natural seeks to lay and husbandry. he himself was more the child of heaven than of earth. and the pursuit of husbandry. . was but a special form of holiOn the aristocratic side of the strife between ness. he speaks of 'holy wood' and 'holy meat. In some ways.' Such picturesque utilitarianism down certain general principles to the effect that 'he who sows corn sows holiness. The self- styled virtue which own reason could have no place in the practical system of the nineteenth century. Zarathustra tolerates such utilitarianism. far from being practical and self-contained.' while he urges that 'holiness goes on thriving' where 'the cattle go on thriving.12 into so Zarathustra and the Zeit-Geist many virtues of is its moral import. and seems to contribute to the contentience tue as a tion that virtues arise practically when there is de- mand for them. In this half-utilitarian manner. Zarathustra unconsciously offers himself as proof that ethical excellence is from above.

' thustra could not forego the desire to indulge in dic- even when he points out to his people that which they might have thought out for themselves. Zarathustra sees the Good in idea before he applies it in fact. them nothing. totality. Relief from slavery among African people arises as an idea in the heart of a white man. Zarathustra offers which the seers of the Old Passing over the extravagant claims put forth so sumptuously by Mahomet. and which came at such a late date as to suggest some imitation. and the slowly progressing ideals of com- munism among dream of some populace the masses individual. Having observed it Good in its Zarathustra finds expedient to indulge in certain practical applications of the ideal. and concludes his moral reasoning by asserting that 'holiness is the best of all good. and thus Zara- prepares for the Persians what in a less-plausible form Nietzsche has tation. . the conversations between Zarpractically the only rival Testament were to encounter. their mundane though they be. was once the isolated Zarathustra's Persian know nothing of their chief good. since contact with earth has taught ideals of welfare.' In the position of revealer. are of the heavenly origin. As Moses sought the moral law at the summit of the Mount to apply it to the affairs of the desert. called 'master-morality. but are framed above to be thrust down upon the stiff-necked and slow-of-heart.Zarathustra and the Zeit-Geist 13 Morals do not spring up of themselves of those in the hearts who have interest in the virtues.

it did not fail to pass by and swoop down over the head of Irania's chosen one. In contrast with Irania's sage. Israel never took the initiative. Dignity there is in the message of Zarathustra. lifted up. cation authentic. and his spirit. questions. it who re- ceives revelation only after he has sought tions. his Zarathustra was too confident in to be a genuine humanism. and stood too erect prophet. and pleaded ignorance and incapacity. But the 'revelation' which came to Zarathustra is strangely wanting in the kind of consciousness which tends to make an alleged communi- of Israel shared with Jahveh. voiced in the 'Who am I ?' and 'by what name art thou called?' The prophet could receive the word only as he beat his brow upon the earth and suffered his lips to be seared by the seraph's live coals. his words sought refuge in tortuous imagery. by quesbut on the contrary presented deaf ears and enforced revelation. tasted the bitterness and felt the burning of truth too strong for human conception and communication. for the . ent when the dumb lips to the Moses was reluctantly recipiword of the Lord came to his ears.14 Zarathustra and the Zeit-Geist athustra and Ahura Mazda cannot fail to suggest somewhat of seem thus to that spiritual burden which the seers Irania and Israel have provided pockets for the treasures of the Most High. but no divinity of distance. in his almost epileptic anguish he did speak. If the word of the Lord came to the high seers of Israel. and when. who like Cyrus seems to have been a step-son of the Almighty.

human register. while Moses will mean more after the strivings of a broth- er sage in another land have been evaluated. is made up of whose patient unweaving has been the work of Dr. even when Zarathustra may have had ears for just such music. be more highly prized and better under- stood after Irania has been duly apprised. be hoped that his book will find a place not far from our ever-growing war-library. Carter has It is to dealt authoritatively with verified reports. Carter's study. Dr. the Zend-Avesta many a bright strand. Carter's Like a Persian rug. method is a sure-footed one. In this. since Dr. Charles Gray Shaw. but not the Dr. Carter's monograph on Iranian religion with a vision whose excellence the midst of Israel will is is an exceedingly painstaking attempt to square accounts often neglected in more perfect spiritual enlightenment. New York University. . there is nothing that is semi-official.Zarathustra and the Zeit-Geist 15 Iranian seer spoke with confidence of such truth as he seemed to experience with Ahura Mazda. One may thus account for and accept the message of the it Persian prophet by heeding as the highest pitch in lower tones of revelation as such. it advances cautiously from stone to stone of textual reference.


INTRODUCTION "Follow you the star that yours are mine. Forward till you see the Highest }> Human Nature is divine. but neither 17 . treated. As for a comparison between Zoroastrianism and Judaism. Auguetil Duperron European translation of Little progress was made in the study few years. but they are neither ex- Zend haustive nor comprehensive. In the histories of Persia and of the Jews. and even now the names of those who have become eminent in the study hardly exceed half a dozen. The sources of our information must therefore be On the Zoroasthe ancient literatures themselves. attempt to restore the history of the old Persian ligion and its prophet. first In 1771. the made the first systematic re- In the year 1700. of Paris published the the Avesta. v —Tennyson Thomas Hyde of Oxford. great orientalist of his time. general religious compari- sons are made when the period of their contact is do these histories make any attempt or claim at exhaustive and complete treatment. the most that has been done may be found in magazine articles some of which are exof literature until within a comparatively cellent as far as they go. lights a desert pathway.

(B. Article Zoroaster. . the faith of the Persians was Zoroastrian. The Dinkard regards "the Avesta and Zend" as sacred 3. for Josephus. 26. one as ruler and the other as subject. Britanica. 3. if not all of this time. the Avesta is foremost in importance.8 1 Introduction trian side. and Jewish writings such as the Book of Enoch. 34. 2. writings of the Magian priests. for over two hundred years. the Gathas or Psalms of Zarathustra are of highest value. In the Avesta. Herodotus and Xenophon give some facts that are valuable. disputed 1. of Zoroastrianism and Judaism. that during the most. the Apocrypha. 20. It is generally recognized that the Persians and Jews were in contact with each other. and assistance. On the side of Judaism. see Tir Yast I. our information comes from the Bible. in Ency.* that there are striking similarities in some of the are ideas. Dinkard VII. difficult On the for it other hand. as personally announcing a The Gathas represent Zarathustra new faith. by F. IV. is questions raised. that the leading teachers and authorities for customs and beliefs the faith were Magians. 538-331) . 2 The it entire Pahlavi literature reflects is of much through tradition the ideas of the ancient times. 21. For exam. 5. C. 13. Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs. They are "the utterances of Zarathustra in the presence of the assembled church. Geldner. while in the Gathas he speaks of himself in the first person. Yasna XLIII 146. Dk." 1 In the later literature he is spoken of as having lived in the past and often is deified.

although a longer treatment would be interesting and profitable. rather than citations from the opinions of others. This may be given in a few pages. whether in accounting for the similiarities in religion and customs. In giving conclusions. the Bible. whether his date is early or late. I shall attempt to state and substantiate the results of personal investigation. . Quotations or references will be given from the Avesta. the Persians borrowed from the Jews. or if he is. This is absolutely essential. or the Jews from the Persians. It is questioned whether Cyrus was a Zoroastrian.Introduction 19 whether Zarathustra is a historical character. the Apocrypha and ancient Jewish writings direct. Pahlavi texts. Before any comparison can be made there must be an accurate knowledge of the two religions. whether his birthplace was the scene of his activity. whether he was born in East or West Iran.




5. XLIII:8. 3 That he was a prophet and a reformer the growth of his religion will show. Darmesteler.ZOROASTRIANISM AND JUDAISM CHAPTER I ZARATHUSTRA *-** was J ARATHUSTRA and Edward Meyer mesteler a real character. 5 especially in i. Ys. IX :i. with superhuman attributes and I. 1 Darmaintain he was a the Zara- mere myth. LVI. ff Edward Meyer. XIII :o3. XIX :6. 23 VII. the east. exhorting and evidently exercising a strong influence on all in his presence. . him in this later Lapse of time has encircled other men. 25 and Yt. 2 He is pictured as a man of the Gathas. XVII :i9. 26. The Zend-Avesta. whose only trust is in God. For the work of the prophet and reformer. Vd. human feelings. 4 The later portions of the Avesta represent Zarathustra in a more with strong somewhat of a veil of sanctificathrown around him. Ys. "Geschichte des 2. see pgs. teaching. with tion to be a matter of surprise that miraculous circum- stances should be connected with literature. It ought not distant light. Part pp. which serves rather to conceal than to reveal his personality. 3. A liter humus" v. I. 4. Dk. But they fail to distinguish thustra of the later literature from the Zarathustra Zarathustra is portrayed in the Gathas as a man of stirring individuality. XLVIn. XLIX:i-3.

appendix II. Zad- Sparam XXXIII :n-i2. which in turn is In the modelled after the Greek Zwsoa's Tsns. Zoroaster is from the Latin Zoroastres. there nimity in fixing Zarathustra's birthplace in 6. All of these are variations of the Avestan Zarathustra. Eusebius. Alciabiades I:\22. Pahlavi Texts.24 deeds. Ardai Viraf Dk. 6 This was perhaps due to the Greeks' misunderstanding statements of the Persians regarding Zarathustra's millenium in the great world period of Other anmythological Semiramis and Ninus. Zarathustra's date see. 7:6. with Nimrod and 12. Zoroaster. Part V. pp. C. which would be in the late seventh century or the earlier half of the sixth century. general una- In Zarathustrian literature. XXXIV :i-o. and before the Achaemenian dynasty.000 B. IV 135.000 years. . This view which is also in harmony with the most recent scholarship. Zoroastrianism and Judaism The date of Zarathustra was fixed by some clas- sical writers at 6. cient writings connected Zarathustra with the Abraham." 1 8. West. For discussion of 9. "Chronicon. I:i-5. prosaic name and perhaps means is old camel. 7. of which modern Persian has It is a a variety of expressions. seems the most reasonable to adopt. 143. 9 The familiar form of the prophet's name. Pahlavi texts the usual form is Zaratust. Bund. 27-47 and Jackson. 7 The direct Zoroastrian tradition 8 is clear and strong in placing Zarathustra's date between 250 and 300 years before the time of Alexander. VII. The family designation was Spitama. West Plato.

15-16.32. XX-. but all their efforts are fruitless. Dk. the Gabriel of the faith. Dk. Z. 12 defies. I:i6. ii. V :2-3. all of which Zarathustra ture. is At the age of thirty Daniel. XIX :66.-Spm. XXIV :i5. sorcery and the black art are constantly resorted to. 10 25 seems to have been "without honor in his own country. he withdraws and gives himself such influence. . X :4-i2. which he enjoys during the next ten years. Sorcerers and enchanters endeavor to destroy the young child. XIII-XXIV. XIX 14. Zad-Spm. Many details of Zarathustra's early life and later experiences are given in Pahlavi literaof his He He is the son of Powmshaspa and Dughedha. Necromancy. Ys. 12. but 10. Ys. 14 when he by the river Avetak the of revelation comes. Bund. leads Zarathustra to a conference with da.Zarathustra Iran. 11. XXII:i-i3. VII 13. 13 It is parallel to the vision The archangel Vohumanah thought). After the first vision. Omens and prodigies attend his birth. 13. VII :2-7. 15. He even rebukes his father for yielding to twenty. he preaches reform to the heretical priesthood and people of the land." and to have wandered in different places engaged in la11 bors. 15 (good appears and Ahura Maz- which is the first of seven visions with hallowed communings. XLIII XLVI:i. Vd. Spm. This is the period of preparation common to all great teachers. XIX :i8. His life is a series of marvels. Dk. either inAdarbaijan or in Media. XXI n-27. 14. At about to thought and meditation. Ys. Yt. 51. His lineage and ancestry are traced in detail. Dan.

Vishtaspa becomes a great helper in propagating the religion through Iran and beyond. Yt. 9. LI:i6. 16.64-70. 16 He was own cousin. Mohl IV. Dk. 18 The pictures given in the Gathas of the court scenes are striking. S-g Vig. V:i09. 20. Vishtaspa prays for divine aid in battle. and promises to the righteous the rewards of heaven. Ys.2. XLIVn. The voice of the reformer curses the daevas and the ungodly. XXXII :i-2. 77-87. XLIV:9. 70-85.: 26 Zoroastrianism and Judaism with no success. XXXII .2. XXVI Dk. L:i. 18. 19 Zarathustra speaks not only as a reformer. Dk. It was dur(perhaps in ing the second invasion that Zarathustra probably perished. Yz. 21. . who twice invaded Iran formed the great events of the last ten years of Zarathustra's life. Spm. 17. by a miracle finally being performed on the king's favorite horse. Bd. XIX 187. §§ 58-85. and his first convert was not his won till after ten years. Yt XIII rgg-uo. Zarathustra court of Vishtaspa. XXIII: 1-2. Ys. 20 The religion spread rapidly after the conversion of Vishtaspa. now goes after discouragements for two years. Ys. but as a prophet of Ahura Mazda he announces a new doctrine to man. 88-90. 330-340. '. VII 14. 21 The victory for the faith the religion became finally was complete and established. the king is won for the 17 faith. LI:i9. 19. V X Vsp. Ys. In disappointment he wanders for years. VII 14. Here At the bidto the ding of Ahura Mazda. XLV:5. IX:30-3i. Maidhyo-Mah. n. The holy wars against the Hyaoman leader Arejat-Aspa. VIII :n :4. at the age of seventy-seven. XVI . XIII :9s. :2-i2. XLIX: 9 XXVIII 7-8. . Ys. Yt. XLVI:i4. ShN.

The greatest tinued to spread. 23 teacher who rose was Saena. Sad. Alexander overthrew when he came in his world conquest.). D. 22. 563) er. VII:6:i2. Pahlavi texts always speak of a murder- After the death of Zarathustra the religion conHad it not been for Marathon. and in the third century A. For the names of other successors of Zarathustra see :nff. the sacred books burned. XXIII :o. 10. 7:6.Zarathustra B. D. Zoroastrianism lived on. VIII :i4. 13:97. and took refuge in India. IX 15. Zspm XXIII . It was his disciples. 23. Only about ten thousand true followers of Zarathustra are to be found still in the old Persian home. Z-spm. heresies like that of Mazdak came in. Others had preferred exile to conversion to Islam. He brought ruin by the sword and burned the books of the Avesta. it rose to supremacy again through the Sassanian empire. 2. Sects like the Manichaean arose. (226-651 A. Dk. It was a dark perBut with the national power iod for the religion.. C. They are a flourishing com- munity and faithful to the ancient creed. 24. 24 who lived in the first and second centuries after Zarathustra. where they found safety. Dk. their true descendants. 1. VII :s. it was almost blotted out by the armies of Mohammed. 22 27 . and Plataea the worship of Ahura Mazda might have extended into Europe. peace and freedom to worship Ormazd. Dar. broken. Yt. Zspm XXIII :n. The Parsees of Bombay. number about ninety thousand. Pahlavi Texts. V :3. but the religion held its old glory till in the seventh century. Salamis.

Its fundamental principles came to be an acknowledgment of the one God. 1:5-6. VII. Jer. Hos. and after the exile. Zeph. 2 1 The prophets 3 of the 5 eighth century. must be assumed as known and accepted in order that the leading features that pertain to the life and religion of the Jews before. and of the Torah in which Yahveh revealed Himself. 12. 34- 4. XII :2. Yahveh. and to do so in order to indicate relation to a foreign influence is its still more diffi- Many facts concerning persons and events cult. It began with the reform of Josiah. Hosea. That reform indeed practically had failed in Judah. To give within a few pages a right estimate of Judaism is not an easy task. but during the exile the teachings proclaimed by the pre-exilic prophets prevailed. Amos. may be brought prominently before the mind. 6. VI:4-n. Aos.CHAPTER JUDAISM II A DETAILED - treatment of Judaism would it. 28 . :8-i2. during. Isaiah. III :5-6. III:i-4. Before Josiah's time society was rotten to the core. 11:5. 4 Micah. 2. had rebuked the people for their sins and called for righteousness to i. 8-9. Judaism was a unique politico-religious organism. II :4-5.self furnish an instructive theme for a book. 22-27. 5. VII :6-9. 3. Isa. XXII Micah 1 :5.

-4. 11 the people to the finding of the first steps of re- again. 1:8. XI. the little Josiah came to the throne. 14 The means whereby this love is to apart the followers of Jeho- It set 8. pledged them- With the reformation of Josiah begins the rule of written law. XIII 3. II Jer. Zeph. VIII :2-6. prophetic is spirit. X :i2. whose heart and soul were in work of reform. XXIII :3. worship of Yahveh it had not This written law a part of our (v-xxvi. Nahum. but under Manasseh and Amon the masses returned to their old idols. the people publicly assembled by the king. It book of Love detailed laws are the find expression. By rebuke and appeal Zephaniah 7 and Jeremiah 8 and 9 Nahum moved form tion. This was decidedly The written requirements were superior to the earlier ceremonial forms. . 11-3. and also gave a present the stability to the possessed before. 1. :i-28. C. II Kings XXI 73. welcomed the covenant. 10. 1 115. 14. 12. 12 and selves to keep 13 it. XXXIV :33-35. 1: 12. 6. XI:2-6. Ki. Dent VI :5. Ki. The book of the law the within the temple 10 gave character to the reforma- Jeremiah. xxviii) is Book of Deuteronomy in the sat- urated throughout with a broad. 22. 7. XX . 11. Ki. Old Testament. 6 Nevertheless the spirit of reform was in the air when in 639 B. II. XXIII Jer. a great advance. XXII :i. 13. II:i-2. As a result there was a re- formation under Hezekiah. HI Chron. 9. V. II.Judaism the 29 Holy One of Israel. 13. VII: 1-7.

11. Lam. 21. XL:n-i2.. Deut. Jer. Jer. some of the 16.20. VIII 129. and their doom foretold came upon them. XIX. 19. Jer. Jer XXIX :5-7. Many lived in their bondage was not an oppresown homes and some Israelites could never obtained wealth. Jer. Isa XLI :6-7. and Prov. 13-17. XVIII 117. He declares the overthrow of the short rule of Egypt (609-605) by Nebuchadnezzar. their 24 For the most part sive one." 22 pitiable circumstances. 21. The few Jews who remained in Judah were in 23 Not so were those in exile. Earnest and pleading appeals for reform were of no avail. X:2i. 111:45-53. 7. Deut XII :2-5. XXXIV. XI:io. Jer. and Psa. Under the kings succeeding Josiah there was reaction and apostasy. XLIV: 10.. VII :8. 19 During the closing Jeremiah stood almost her last and greatest prophet. 18. Baruch VI. I Ki. . Judges. and the mountain of the house as the high places of the forest. XXVIII :g. 21 The people were unrighteous and rebellious. XLVI. alone. 9. LXXVIII :68. XXXVIII. 20 which was the beginning of the end for Judah. XI 118-23. 23. XXVI :i. VIII :8. part by Deut. Kings. Micah III: 12. XVII :s. XX. Sam. Zeph. 17. 22. "Jerusalem became heaps. Psa. 16 tivity It started literary acall later which 17 left its impress on Hebrew lit- erature. V:i-i8. 20. VII But the true 15. :6. 24.30 Zoroastrianism and Judaism vah as a holy people 15 High places were swept away and the temple at Jerusalem was exalted and made the only place of sacrifice. XIV :2. 18 years of Judah's existence. XXVI :2. The literary products of this period may be indicated in Jer.

before those the temple. 25 their religion separately. VI -. Years passed who returned succeeded in rebuilding It was not dedicated till 516 B. of the Covenant. VI: 17-19. IV -. the accession of Cyrus and the rule of Per- came the permission 26 to return to their cherished land. Psa. IX 13. X. Ezra VI n-15. it undid in is This chief reason they did not dissolve the years of banishment. and the books of Leviticus and Numbers. II 7-8. that the walls of Jerusalem were rebuilt. especially Ezra and Nehemiah. By a popular vote. The code though not then completed. 30.12-15. the main in 27. Ezra 1:1-4. With sia. The undertaking was difficult. 27 more than a hundred years after the reform of Josiah. The harm Babylonia had done in the years before the exile in exciting to idolatry. Ezra Ezra Neh. the people accepted the new law 25.Judaism be reconciled to Babylon. C. 28 Ezra. Ezra 29. II 13-9. sembly of the people. the priestly 30 The reformation under Josiah had been by a royal decree and its influence still continued in Judah. XXXIV :29 to end. Hag. 26. III :8. 28. and Nehemiah were prominent figures in shaping the life of the community. of greatest importance the adoption. was in Exo.15-16. VIII 19-15. The priestly reformation was democratic. X. 3 In exile they maintained undoubtedly the and perish in captivity. . IX. XLII :22. Isa. Zech. C. XXV-XXXI. VI:3-5. Following the rededication of the 29 and walls there was social and religious reform.. Haggai. and it was not till 445 B. Zechariah. by a great ascode. Ezek. Neh. Hos. CXXXVII:i-5. Neh.

For they all now had one law. Judaism no longer meant a nationality but a religious conviction. 32. :2 and 8. encircling them with a high wall of separation. 33. X 128-29.32 Zoroastrianism and Judaism in and bound themselves by an oath to walk law. both laying claim to the name and privilege of The Judeans were the ancient Israelitish nation. and one temple. XXIII : II Kings. and much of the intolerance people of Yahveh was 31. nor memorial in Jerusalem." When the Jewish community solemnly bound itself by the priestly code the Samaritans were forever excluded from the Jerusalem temple. LXVin. The code united all faithful Jews whether in Palestine or in other lands. . 34. 32 but Israel about the sanctuary. more Jerusalem was to be the holiest place many heathen ideas survived. 11:20. Neh. is-20. one worship. XI Neh. was the Samaritan schism. fired by the Samaritans to a passionate devotion to their law and temple. Josephus Antiquilies. 35. 31 God*s The new code centred the life of the true and hereafter more and upon earth. Another element in the growth of Judaism. 33 The challenge 34 they gave the returning Judeans to prove themselves the finally met by the declaration that Sanballat and his followers should "have no por35 tion. IV 14-5. The two communities continued to live in bitter rivalry and jealousy. Isa. which from this time exerted a strong influence. Josiah's reform had left a lasting impression upon the Samaritan people. nor right. Neh. LXVI:3.

the Wisdom literature. 39. Jer. Thus Judaism came to be a fixed system.. A strong inner force was the acter to literature of the period. They made its practical applications. They became the They dominant intellectual leaders of Judaism. Isa. Deutero. Ezek.. 39 There first brought out by Jeremiah developed in Judaism a self-centered. the Priest Code. Of greater influence still were the new religious teachers. Their power increased as that of the prophets waned. 36 There was the priestly aristocracy whose functions and power from the time of the adoption of the priestly code were ever widening. Ezek. XXXIII :i-20..Judaism 33 which disfigured later Judaism was the result of the conflicts with the worshippers on Gerizim. as the temple was exclusive. There resulted a devotion to the Law. the scribes. 37 Emphasis was placed upon the inThis was dividual instead of the family or tribe. some of the Psalms. and need be indicated only briefly.. which was a recognized institution shortIt became as democratic ly after the time of Ezra. (pg. Hag. to know and to keep which was a glad privilege. Their place of instruction was the synagogue.. 38. helping to give charits life and thought. LXXXIV:i-2. XXXI 130-34. CXIX. and the apocryphal writings. strong moral-religious life illustrated by lofty exIn addition to the pre-exilic literature mentioned above 36. Mai. 38 and Ezekiel. Zech. edited and expanded the Law. The inner forces and external influences that shaped the system may be more or less distinctly traced. . intellectual. Psalm XIX7-11. Job. 15 note 1) there was Lam. 37.

On the return from the the influences of their heathen neighbors led to the erection of that high wall of separation which not only excluded the Gentiles. but they free to devote all their time . But it brought into bolder relief the antagonistic days. and religion. The contact of such contrary forces proved rich in results for the world. social and religious life of the people. philosophy. This. too. It will exile. and conservatism. They could not have political ambitions as in earlier were and energies to religion. The religion and rule of Persia was one of the ternal influences. Idoland the religion beex- be treated later. they gained a conception of a broader world than they had known before. but kept the Jews faithful to their race and religion. Before the exile the Hebrews were tempted by foreign courts into idolatry. simplicity. and into political and social extravagances. amples of probity and Among the external influences several may be named. It proved that the Jewish people could maintain their racial separateness without king or political organization. were resisted by Jewish legalism.34 Zoroastrianism and Judaism piety. Greek worldiness. gave them a sense of the power of organization. In the Greek period. Yet by contact with foreign powers. The Babylonian exile represented a fundamental transformation in the political. came pure monotheism. for they were a subject people. The energies of the leaders were turned from politics to ritual atry was forever stamped out. radicalism.

priest. was and a period of rapid change. The Previously. LV:i-5. or scribe in their eagerness to with Jehovah. at the violability. . LXII:i-2. adopted creed. The presence of the Babylonians. their enemies. united the Jews by an indissoluPersecutions only intensified their loyalty ble bond. The horror of being absorbed into the great heathen world led them to become exclusive of everything foreign. The great prophet of the exile declared that because of their peculiar relation Jehovah they had a high mission to fulfill among 40 the nations. Persians. 35 could refuse to be The Jews which Judaism was long cast only intensified the loyalty and deThey evidenced for cenvotion of its followers. The furnace of affliction in turies a fearless passion for their religion. When they thought of their neighbors destruction. LXVI:i-2. same time boasting of their own inAfter the exile. they often had been following the ways of other nations. Isa.Judaism features of Judaism. and the heathen to their in Judah. it was to pray for their There was an opportunity for the ad- 40. LIII. Grecized. they were glad to accept obtain reconciliation the message of prophet. Their ruling desire was to regain their lost national and individual purity. But his ideal was too exalted for to those of his time to appreciate. The conditions among the Jews operating against the giving or receiving of foreign influences the most part be reduced to their exile may for exclusiveness.

Deut. there was also emphasis given to moral righteousor political. Lev. XXIII 7-8. and the years immediately following. foreign ideas and beliefs. There was the same race-pride. In the sixth century B. 44 There was a higher conThe ception of worship than at any earlier time.-Isa. Joel. XII 148. Deutero. C. Exo. that the people placing themselves in bondage to a rigid law be- came religious in their ambitions. .36 Zoroastrianism and Judaism little mission of proselytes.-Isa. rigid ceremonialism. 42. but there was elyting. 13. 42 to the expectation of a useful future for Israel Yahveh's servant.. ness. XVII :8-io. 43. that their leaders instead of being statesmen became priests and scribes. Deuero. that the Hebrews became known as Jews. synagogue with its Torah and prayer did much to as 41. instead of secular There was an over-emphasis of ceremonial righteousness. perhaps unconsciously. 41 or no pros- In the Greek period the broad tolerance of the book of Jonah found little illustration. there was constantly a spirit Yet in the writings of the time of exchisiveness. It was during this period. that they were changed from being a nation into a politico-religious theocracy. Yet there were striking inconsistencies which indicate that Judaism ^absorbed. Jonah. IX:i4. Later Psalm and Deutero. 43 to a world-wide conception of Yahveh's love and care. the Aryans came to the front in influence and power. and religious passion. Num.-Isa. 44. and the Hebrews came into contact with them as subjects.

the worship- per of Ormazd. XLIV:28. III 7. and it is actually stated in the Apocryphal New Testament that they came in accordance with a prophecy of Zarathustra. II:i-2. followers of the ancient creed of Persia. Infancy III Mt. XLV:i-3. 49. 12. I Es- dras II :i-7. Ezra 1 11-17. favored the rebuilding of the tem- and commanded that the decree of Cyrus be car47 Judea became a Persian province and remained so till the time of Alexander. Ezra VI:i-i5. 46 Darius. Chron. this recognition was an omen of good. 4jf 48. However hollow their religion may have been. the Shepherd of the Lord. . VIII Esdras 111:42-57. XXXVI 122-23. There are probably references to the ancient faith of Persia in Ezekiel and Deutero-Isaiah. Isa. I IV . were Magi. 13. :i6. the anoint- ed of God. Isa. :i cf.3. Cyrus." 45 gave orders that the temple at Jerusalem be rebuilt and that the Jews be returned from captivity to their own city. II. a truer recognition of the sovereignty of holiness The Jews came years into direct touch with Persia in the Babylonian exile and for more than two hundred Persian king. Ezek. 48 The Wise men who came from the East to worship Christ. "the afterward. XLV7. the righteous one. XLI:2. the philosophic tenet which recog- 46. The chief characteristics of the Zoroastrian re: ligion in brief are 45. 49 ple ried into effect.Judaism create a 37 more spiritual idea of worship. There was by which alone they could hope for national perfection.

a general resurrection of the dead will take place and the new life begin. Belief in . spirit. the beliefs wherein they agree may be summarized briefly. at the end of the world good will triumph. The duration of this conflict is limited. and emphasized ceremonial cleanness. the practice of agriculture. a pronounced doctrine of eschatology. the care of useful animals.38 Zoroastrianism and Judaism nizes the constant warfare that rages between the good principle Ahura evil Mazda. There is also in the religion an elaborate system of angels and demons. Each laid emphasis on a moral act. and evil be annihilated. j ('Opo/mo-STrs) and the or Ormazd. Each had something like a synagogue worship. Each was proclaimed by a prophet. To bring Judaism and Zoroastrianism more clear- ly into view. moon and stars. Each worshipped one God. a distinct cosmology and cosmogony. Each was intolerant toward other systems. anc their respective kingdoms. and a scrupu- awe in exercising care to preserve these elements from defilement. a rigid In addition there is dogmatism that inculcates the necessity of preserving the purity of the body. ('Apei/m^os). a religious veneration for fire. earth. and water. Angro Mainyu. Ahrmian. There are also elements of nature worship. These nature features seem lous to point back to earlier times. Each believed in an evil power. and the observ- ance of a strictly defined ritual. Each developed priestly cults. and a high code of ethics. a deification of sun. Each forbade images.

51 There ceived disposed evidence. 31-35. XXXVI 122-23. Ezra Macca. that is hood not likely they would "Mordecai the Jew was next unto king Ahasuerus.3-8. VIII 7-17. great among the Jews. "Many of the people of 52. too. that the tle in Hebrews were it so little known. . VI 11-3. LVI-. Ezra VI:i-i5. II . Isa. I:i-4. VIII 13. 52 The influ- ences which tended to keep the two religions apart were. 1 118-24. XLIV:28. But the Jews were attracted by the faith that had so many articles in accord with their own teachings. Isa. and their priestso exclusive. Since in other respects their habits were changed by the new environment." Esther VIII :i7 51. Dan. and accepted of the multitude of his brethren seeking the good of his people. Judaism was gradually assuming form the most intelligent and active members of the Jewish race were brought into continued contact with the dominant peoples of the 50 age. 14. 28. The policy of the Persians towards the Jews alfavorably is so would render the Jews toward their rulers. it would have been strange indeed if their religion had been unaffected. X .Judaism angels and 39 were ideas demons and in the future life common to both. and 50. The Babylonians were too gross in their all During these years in which idolatry to develop Jewish religious conceptions. so lit- contact with other peoples." Esther also 13 Esther VII :8. Zech VIII 122-23. Surely with so many points of agreement here at once were influences that would tend to unify them. the land became Jews. XLVn-4. that during the Persian period the Jewish community re- many foreigners into its midst. II Chron.

the Jewish horror of heathen nations together with their devotion to the covenant. during a large part of the Persian period. but without foreign influence some of the leading beliefs would not have been grasped and so fully developed. To trace the resemblances between the two religions.40 Zoroastrianism and Judaism exert any strong influence upon Persian ideas. CXXXVII:4. 53. the Palestinian Further. and to indicate something of the probable influence of the one upon the other will occupy the remainder of this volume. The Persians being rulers would have made this influ- ence less likely. as they appear to have been from this time." 53 No important belief of Judaism was adopted outright from the Iranian faith. erected that high wall of separation which isolated Judaism during more than four centuries. the attitude of the satraps toward Jews would not dispose the latter con- sciously to imitate. Psa. when "How shall we sing the Lord's song in a strange land. . Those in the Dispersion would not consciously have adopted Persian ideas their hearts said. On the other hand.

So characteristic is this supremacy that Mazdaism is the name sometimes used for the religion. XV:3-4. 6 else the Persian reasoned he would not permit the existence of evil. Yt. Bund 1:8. XXX: 4 -5. 1:3-20. Ys. who made us and has fashioned us. 41 . 6. 5 (Amesha Spentas) who govern the universe. I:i The 3." 2 There are passages in the Avesta that indicate the divine unity. XIX -. Ys. Ys. . most firm. IX 127. and the one of all whose body 1 is the most perfect. Ys. who attains His ends the most infallibly. Yt.46. the wisest. His power is limited. XXXI 7-8. . the supremacy of Everywhere in Iranian scriptures Ahura Mazda is recognized. and many Yts. the greatest and the best. V: 17-18. Ahura Mazfirst ^ da the is invoked as "the creator. too. Vend. i. ' At times Ahura Mazda seems to be but one of the seven Immortals. XXXI :i2. incomplete. 4. who is the most bounteous spirit. 2. the radiant and glor- ious. LVII:i7Sirozah II :i. 13-20. Dk. and who has nourished and protected us. Ahura was not conceived of as having a body proper. the most beautiful. who sends His joy-creating grace afar. Yt.CHAPTER T III THE IDEA OF DEITY T is natural that the idea of deity should claim attention. Ys. 5. 4 by the presence of Angro-Mainyu. stars are elsewhere described poetically as his body. XIII :i. 3 yet the unity is .

9. "My sixth name ninth Understanding. XXXI :7. XLVI :i-i2. Vig. 11:2.Wisdom which may be said to it. XLIV. 10. The spitituality of Ahura Mazda is a high conception often expressed. XLIV:3-5. XV:2-3. 10. Holiness and goodness are attributes of is it Ahura Mazda. XLVII:i-2. Ys. I:i. Ys. 12 His men represented in the Gathas as personal. XXVIII :i. Mazda. 13. '. Sk-G. 15. ritual. 111:5-6. 7.42 Zoroastrianism and Judaism This means that his omnipotence is in doubt. Yt.2. XIX 11. XXXI :i3. 8. XXIX 1:2. 7. My Endowed with knowledge. while his antagonist Angro-Mainyu relation to creates with ignorance." 9 He is omniscient 10 He is everywhere represented 11 as creating with intelligence. XXVIII :i2. XLIII . 8 He is the bountiful and holy spir- This ideal of spirit is implied in other attributes. though 7 it is sometimes implied and even asserted. Bund Ys. XLIV:2-7. is My eighth Knowledge. I am the Wise One. Yt.' 13-14. 12. 1 1:8. Vd. My twentieth name is Mazda (the All-knowing One). XXXI :i 4 -i8. my name is the Wisest of the Wise. In a which was recited Ahura Mazda is says of himself. -. Ys. He is declared to satisfy their "spir- 8. 12. Ys. I:i2. 1 7. and deeply interested in their welfare. 7. XLV:4. My name seventh is is the Intelli- gent One. Ys. 7-8.3-5. Yt Yt.20. XXVIII 7. 12. . XLIV '. He is Lord. 13 though may be the personal relation was confined to the prophet Zarathustra. be the chief characteristic of Ahura chapter of the Avestan daily. He is the friend and helper of men. ShlYt. I Sh.4.

through the grace of Ahura no foe. This saith Darius the king. This land of Persia which Ahura Mazda gave me. LVIII:8.The Idea of Deity it's 43 need. Ahura Mazda is said to sustain a fatherly relation to some of the Amesha Spentas. with the 14. p. 15. Ys. rich in men popuis lation. 14. may perhaps mean them. XLIII:i-3. 16 It is as though he were affirmed to be the father of all goodness Out of some such a conception perhaps came the idea of the fatherhood of Yahveh which later reached a high development." 14 Anthropomorphic ideas are more rare Gathas than in the Bible. incomprehensible being. are later than the Gathas. as Yahveh was Because to the poets and prophets of the Jews. XLVI:2. Through the grace of Ahura Mazda Darius king. three hundred feet from the base of the rock. and may Ahura Mazda protect Ys. 47. together 17 clan gods. H. He has delivered the kingdom to him. See L. and symbolical on their face. 16. XVII :i6. XLVII :2. The clan gods are parallel to the Amesha Spentas and 17. Mills in The New World for 1895. Ys. 15 To Zarathustra he was in the a spiritual. XXXI :2i. On the great Behistun rock near the old Median boundary. XLV . XXXI :8. XXVIII :n. XXXVI :6. rich in herds. Yt. Those that occur must be regarded as symbolical or a result of poetic Ahura Mazda was not to be thought of as license. and which is beautiful. Mazda fears May Ahura Mazda grant me aid. does not detract from the purity and ideality of his conception. having a human body. is the inscription of Darius which reads: "The great has Ahura Mazda which is the greatest of the gods made Darius king.

assumed by students of reAn advancing step would be natural rewith the personification of natural phenomInscriptions. who king. those of at Xerxes and Artaxerxes. is A of primitive animism with fetichism and ancestor-worship ligion. A. is this : think nothing evil. the alone ruler of many. X. who made man and provided the happiness of home for him. are praises of Ahura Mazda. The words vasna Auramazdaha. S. who made this earth and yon heaven. tions The kings mentioned in these inscrip- ruled during the Persian period of Jewish well to inquire at this in earlier history. and this favor I Mazda with the clan gods. J. from evil developlie. 18.44 this Zoroastrianism and Judaism country from hostile hosts. 18 The inscriptions as well as the lit- erature indicate the high idea of deity held by the Persians. ligion. ments and from the plotting beseech of Ahura sented as saying. Cuneiform . O man think no evil. point what it is was the idea of God held times? stage No fully satisfactory answer can be given. R." is In the inscription at Nakhs-i-Rustem Darius repre- "A great God is Ahura Mazda. Vol. The command of Ahura made Darius Mazda way. I am king through the gracious will of Ahura Mazda. leave not the right sin not." Other inscriptions. Before going further. all its spiritism. (by the gracious will of Ahura Mazda) occur again and again throughout the inscriptions. those as striking in their Alwand and Persepolis.

he appeals stages not only to The Iran. 22. 24. Geiger to come from a pre-Zoroastrian nature worship. earth. Ys. has been thought by W. 48.. XLIII : 3 ." the Yazatas of light and truth. X . 1 13. Herod19 otus says that from early times the Persian people worshipped the sun. and the step from polytheism clan Ahura Mazda but also to the was a recognized institution in clan-gods. XXXI . Herod I :i3i. etc. 22 The Iranian Mazdaism. V. it taken by Zarathustra certainly mediately by the people.The Idea of Deity ena. 21 Mithra. Civilization of Eastern Iranians. 45 and merging into polytheism. antecedent stage.2. sorcery and ckvjlworshi^. 7. moon. I. was probably the re19. Ys. 10. and under the protection of the religion. have sprung up suddenly. See also Yt. Introduction VI. 20. was the step was not taken imThe new faith could not There must have been an If this a decadent There may have been The Pa hi am_D in kard^ndjp or tlons of the Avesta imply that Zarathustra had_to contend with superstition. Zarathustra decIaresTTe longs to purify the religion. 12. Traces of these may be found surviving in the Avesta. water and stars. LI:i3. :i. to monotheism would be taken. These were all Indo-Iranian divinities. II 13. "the lord of wide pastures. faith. LIII:2. 21. fire. as it was before the reform of Zarathustra and the Gathas. Ys. In the inscription of Darius quoted above. 20 and he will be a guide to all who will turn from their evil ways. XLIV:o. Zarathustra would only have to exalt Ahura Mazda and ignore the lesser divinities. Geiger.

. XXX :o. He was a polytheist or whatever suited his immediate purpose. though that re- form was undoubtedly earlier than his reign. His throne was in 25 Around the heavens. the privity The digis of Ahura Mazda well worthy of comparison here. him stood the angels. 24. or Yahveh. He was truth. The God Zarathustra proclaimed represented a very high and pure conception. he was not eclipsed.46 Zoroastrianism and Judaism ligion of Cyrus. This would easily allow him to recognize Merodach. The loftiness of the conception was not paralleled anywhere of infinite save in the sacred writings of the Jews. nity. 25. in the abode of endless light. 26. the All-knowing One. The evil spirit alone disputed his author- If an angel seemed for a moment to be his peer. XXVIII :S. but its presence should be recognized at astrian times least." as he in the called Achaemenian inscriptions. Zarathustra was a prophet of a new faith. XXXIX Herod Ys. Ahura Mazda was "the is great God. These were the Amesha Spentas. 2 * Their religion was non-Aryan. The Magi were in Media and Babylonia perhaps in the seventh century. 26 ity. 3 13. Ys. truth and purity. I:ioi. the spirituality. 108. The idea of deity in pre-Zoro- must have been in accord with a nature worship and an existing polytheism. and holiness. Jer. They are mentioned in Jeremiah 23 and Herodotus. He was the being moral light. XXXI 14. : . the greatest of the gods. 23. so much as he had.

ancestral worship and the growth of religious ideas. Wellhausen. XXII 143. He was the Judges XI -. Idolatry continually menaced and marred the faith. 20. This conception continued for centuries. God. exalted the holiness Yahveh as a moral perfection. I Sam. existing to Ammon. 29. 29 Yahveh was served by ceremony and offering. II :8. If therefore. Amos V:i8. Hosea announced that Yahveh was just because his love was supreme. 27 He was the storm God. He would surely vindicate Himself. Jer. II Ki. and hinted He was the God of the universe. 10. 30 While Yahveh continued the tribal God. 47 to Israel what was the tribal was not the only Yahveh was Chemosh was God. the conception of Him became broader and nobler in the minds of many of the nation's leadAmos emphasized that Yahveh was righteous. of Isaiah. Amos IV:6-i3. . XXIII 7. 26-28. XXI :6. ers. and little emphasis was put upon social and private morality. tional misfortunes / vance of their time. too. II Sam. But these prophets were far in adbe for them a wrong. but the exclusive He He God of Israel. II:n. XXIV :6. XVIII :i8-2iff. 28. On the origin of the cult the period of 27.24. Isa. Micah 1 16-9. animism. 30. His glory was dependent on their national prosperity. could serve only Yahveh. Nawere regarded as tokens of Yah28 Success was a proof of divine veh's displeasure. XXVI 119. Renan. favor. to serve The Hebrews another God would This was henotheism. I Ki. the Hebrews were the one people of Yahveh.The Idea of Deity In the earlier days. Kuenen. See the histories of Gratz.


Zoroastrianism and Judaism

"Holy One of


prophets of the eighth

century do not expressly declare, though their teach-









It is

in the

age of Deuteronomy and of the later writers

that Yahveh's sole

conception as well

Godhead is emphasized. This as the movement toward univerdegree the popular halfpeople were

was aided by contact with the great empires.


exile purified to a large

heathen idea of Yahveh.
feel their
in the universe.




dependence on Yahveh who rules supreme From this time there developed the truth that Yahveh rules in human affairs, which is strongly expressed in Job, Deuteronomy, Isaiah,
Zechariah, and some of the Psalms. 31

Yahveh was

no longer a tribal God, but the universal God and Ruler, and His house was to be "called a house of prayer for all peoples." Yahveh was supreme above 32 The post-exilic writers emphasize all other gods. The wisdom, 33 omnipothe attributes of Yahveh.















32. 33.




XVI 76,


XXXII 139,

Esdras XIII

Baruch IV.

Job. XII :i3, XXVIII 124-27, Psa. CIV:2 4 CXXXIX:i-3, Dan. 11:20, Mai. 111:6, Prov. III:io, Isa. XLII :o, 113, 14, 28, Wisd. VII :24-30 et al. Isa. XLVI:io, Psa. CXV:3, Dan. IV :3s, II Esdras VIII: 34.



VI: 1 -6.

Psa. CXI:o, XCIX:q, Isa. XLIII:is, Lev. XI:44, XXI :8.


:i 4 ,

XCIV :2,


XXXIV :i2, XXXVII :2 3 Eccle. Ill .17, XXXIV 15-7, II Esdras VII 144.



IX :o,

XXIII :s, Isa. XLIII:i, XLIX:i5, LXIII7, Dan. Esdras V:36-40, VII 162-70, VIII '.47.

The Idea of Deity


The personal 38 and spiritual 39 relation between Yahveh and His people, between Yahveh
and the individual worshipper are definitely and There was a gradual giving up of old anthropomorphisms and a growth in the
strongly represented.
idea of


as pure spirit.


are not to suppose that Zarathustra


the conception of


directly or indirectly.
a national


stamp in spite of resemblances to the worship of Yahveh. Besides we have placed the reform of Zarathustra and the Gathas, earlier than the period of Persian rule over the Jews. And it is in the Gathas that we find the highest and most spiritual conceptions

Ahura Mazda has


Ahura Mazda.

In later times these conceptions


than were


by con-

with other people.


the other

hand the He-

brew idea of Yahveh immediately took on a richer and broader content.
explain it?

after the exile




In part by foreign influence.




Babylonian polytheism,

save as it operated negatively. The intimacy between the Jews and the Persians, when we remember the exclusiveness of Jewish religious feeling, can be explained only by recognizing the similarity between the two creeds. The Jews would have been attracted by the lofty conception of Ahura Mazda. In acIsa. LXII.-5, Psa. CIII:i3, Job. 38. -.26, II 26, Eccles. XXIII :i, Wisd. Isa. XLVIII:i6-i7, Job. 39.
14, Wisd. V:5, XVI: Esdras 1:28, 88, 11:2. XXXIII -.4, II Esdras XVI 62, LI:io, Wisd. 1:2, II Esdras 1:37, VII 162-68.





XXXIV :20,


Zoroastrianism and Judaism

counting for some of the attributes, the personal and

which Yahveh had from this time, it seems probably that for them the Jews were indebted to the worshippers of Ahura Mazda; that through Zoroastrian influence the Jews were led to grasp attributes and qualities of Yahveh which previously had been latent. To the new ideas of Yahveh the Jewish people gave a loftier and purer, and more human meaning than their foreign neighbors had done. Worshippers of Ahura Mazda did not cenceive such truly personal and spiritual relations, as devout Jewish writers of the time declared existed between Yahveh and His followers. 40 Yahveh was supreme, the one Lord in whom they trusted, the God of heaven. 41 They were never tempted to surrender Him. In one striking particular He always had been above the Iranian deity. He was omnipotent. Ahura Mazda was constantly assailed by the power of evil.^ In a future millenium he would gain the victory and be supreme, but he was not now. The Jewish faith had no such device to explain the presence of evil. Yahveh was supreme over all. It
spiritual qualities

not unlikely that the author of Deutero-Isaiah


have had the Zoroastrian faith

mind, when he repelse;


as saying, in an address to Cyrus,


the Lord, and there
41, notes 5





See page

and 6;

also Deut.

IV 129, VI :S,


Perhaps the term "God of heaven," may have been Persian, 41. any way it is most frequently used in this period. Ezra VI :g, VII :i2, Psa. CXXXVI:2, Neh. I: 4 II 4 Dan. II:i8.
, :

I. The dualism does there is not exclude other elements. 43 In 44 the ''Iranian sermon on the mount. XXXI :i2. XXVIII. good god dwells in endless light. LI: XIX:i-i4. Vend. The most strik- ing passages of the dualistic scheme of the world are found in the Gathas. XLV:5-7. Ys. I. that doeth all no God. Falsehood. III. XXX: 3 -5. is 5 I am the Lord and there is none form the light. XXII. of the The home of the blessed is in the damned in the north. I make I peace and create evil. XLIV:is-i6. XXX: 3 -5. ." the antithesis of the two primordial spirits is definitely given. south. and create darkness. XXXII 13-6. Angro-Mainyu or Ahrinan mars it. for a strongly marked monotheistic tendency as we have seen. 9-10. with Angro Mainyu as his "Evil spirit. Ahura Mazda or Ormazd makes what is good in the The world." 42 If every religion ing than the rest. 44.1 The Idea of Deity there else. and are easily found in other Pahlavi literature. Vendidad and the Bundahishu. have some note more dominatdualism is the prominent factor in the religion of ancient Persia." is the devil. the evil deity in infinite darkness. Isa. I am the Lord. "Lie." In the opening of the Vendidad the action and counteraction of Ahura Mazda and of Angro Mainyu are 42. these things. Bund." the Druj. and their contrasted natures pointed out. III7-11. The dualism was an attempt to solve the problem of evil. Ys. 9. In the Gathas Ahura Mazda is God with Spenta Mainyu as his "Holy Spirit. 43. VI.

be claimed to be earlier Iranian or even Indo-Iranian in origin. the entire view of the moral order of the world.52 described. The dualism is clear. in moral and ethical aspect we may believe it origis inated with Zarathustra. whether it was pre-Zoroastrian may not be answered so readily. The tions absence of dualistic elements in those inscripis not more marked than the non-mention of It is also to is the devil in a royal edict or presidential proclamation of our time. its but in its characteristic Persian form. but he ] brings death into the world. good cause and an optimistic dualism. Lie). the first pair to brings forth noxious animals and surrounds man by evil spirits. his counter-creations all the Angro Mainyu spoil by good creations of Ahura Mazda. Ahura Mazda will triumph. (Falsehood. Zarathustra's dualism a monotheistic since dualism. But the reasoning is based upon e silentia grounds. almost as much a satanic perinscriptions as is sonage in the Achaemenian Druj in the Gathas. Zoroastrianism and Judaism The dualism dominates Not only does the cosmogony. Dualism may and plants. The modern being which is Parsees claim that in Spenta is Mainyu of the Gathas there a phase of Ahura Mazda's the antithesis of Angro Mainyu. and . the cultus. be noted that Drauga. that therefore they were not Zoroastrians or did not believe in dualism. will be finally victorious and It has been argued that berecognized in no dualism is the inscrip- tions of the Achaemenian kings. seduces sin.

Spirit.The Idea of Deity they conceive of 53 himself the two is no question Ahura Mazda as comprising within the good and the evil. Only few sentences need be given to dualism in Judaism. however. In the earlier days Yahveh. . is often conceived in the Gatha as an emaIn such cases it nation from intermediary. it be- comes personified. quoted above. ology could not withstand the dualism of ophy. Spenta Mainyu is sometimes plays the role of in especially creative activity. as they had not known them before. anpowers of evil. Ahura Mazda. "I form the light and cre- An instance in the development Page 50. was to The monotheistic tendencies of its thedualism. There but that Spenta Mainyu. Yahveh was the authortf of every phenomenon. the subtle relation between the two is almost as hard to define as that between the Holy Spirit and the Father in the New Testament. ate darkness." etc. As of the same nature and substance with Ahura Mazda. It is not unlikely that the author of the tagonistic Deutero-Isaiah may be rebuking Persian dualism 45 in the words. 45. After the exile* Jews awoke to a realization of the spiritual. good or evil. The subject will be involved later in our discussion of angels and demons. tic its philos- But the theology made the dualism optimisa as has been indicated. though only the tribal God was sole and supreme in the tribe. or Holy spirits. The natural drift of the system.

causing ills and disasters. as it does not bear directly upon our theme. Baruch IV : 7 . He is always stronger than Satan and all the powers of evil. The Jewish dualism was not complete. 50. 47. in the turies before the In Samuel. Zech.54 Zoroastrianism and Judaism books of Sam uel and Chronicles. need not be discussed. which the adversary appeared. XXIV: 1. In Chronicles. Renan. 46. but neither here nor elsewhere Yahveh's power limited. CIX:6. too. . Gen. and even exer- cising a sort of different government." The conception of Satan in Zechariah. But the Jewish dualin this. 47 Satan ''provoked David to number Israel. Yahveh. Chron. He is represented as planning man's ism is is ruin. See also II Esdras III :2i. Psa. 49. the former compiled several cenof these ideas may be indicated latter. 12. as is told in the early allegorical parables of Genesis. II I Sam. XXI :i. The origin of the particular form under 51. that from the Persian Yahveh of Yah- never eclipsed or held in subjection even for a time. may be marred by the presence is of evil. existed before the evil came into being. III:i-2. etc. 48 49 Psalms and Job 50 we probably may attribute to foreign influence. See Keunen. it The work veh's creation.35. He 51 is always supreme. 48. III:i-i5. II*i-7. 46 Yahveh is angry with Israel and moves David to number them. 1:6-8. Job.

the absence of images among the Persians. goodness. 5S . III 129. VIII 1109. and bounteous. The supreme kingdom of good. of light and of truth was Ahura Mazda. The host of heaven and the celestial hierarchy are pictured in clear colors. the Lord God of Iran. too. righteous and imI. 1 They noted. but they are not too shadowy and dim to admit of being outlined. He is the all-wise god. The host of hell and the infernal bands are less distinct. darkness in warlike array. anthropomorphic ideas of the pantheon of heaven were impressed by the ideal and spiritual character of the Iranian divinities. Some images there were and Ahura Mazda is sculptured on the Behistun rock in Achaemenian times.CHAPTER T IV THE HOST OF HEAVEN and heaven are portrayed as waging incesand hell. The armies of the two kingdoms are almost marshalled light A N the scriptures of Zarathustra's faith. benign. Herod 1 1131. or representatives of deity ruler of the heavenly host. sant warfare against evil. but this meant little more than our their The Greeks with own carvings of angels. omniscient. of the in earlier Christian art. 37. The spirituality and loftiness of the conception of Ahura Mazda has been already indicated.

18. and Ameretat. II:i-3. undeceiving and undeceived. XIX 116-17. XIII 182. Vsp. Ys. 1:24-25. Ys. Yt. 1:25-26. . XLV:io. J Sovereignty. VII:3:i7. Bund. XIII 183-84. Vairya. AshaVahista. Ys. "Beneficent" "Immortals" (Spenta) (Amesha). . They are six in number. a guardian and protector. He. the father and creator of all good things. art augmented by other Yt. in the is realm of surrounded by a company of ministering angels who do his bidding. Vohn-Mano. In later litera- Amesha Spenta Siroz. on his throne in the heavens. and Spenta which are the titles of the first four respectively are the standing epithets.1-7. Health. The separate names. LVIII:s. but is often met with in other Avestan writings. IX:4. No adjective seems to be as- signed to Haurvatat or Ameretat. Yt. 2 Spenta-Annaiti. Fahista. of these abstractions list are frequently found in the Gathas. XXIV 19. 3 while a their of names in the order given is in many places elsetitle where. Righteousness. Life or Immortality. I. Their names are personifications of abstract concepts or virtues. Good Thought. or Immortal Holy Ones. Dk. 5. XXXIX :3. Yt. IV 14. inseparable from each. and together with Ahura Mazda they constitute a seven-fold group or celestial council. Ys. 4. ture the 2. 4 In the metrical Gathas the group does not seem to be found. Wisdom in Piety.2. XI: 12.56 Zoroastrianism and Judaism mutable. These are the archangels. 1:2. Haurvatat. XLVII:i. 5iXXVII :3-5. VII 3. 5 The adjectives Vohn. Zad-Spm XXI :i3. Khshathra-vairya Material eternal light. XLII:6.

By preference he acts through their ministering hands 8 The Amesha Spenta receive special worand are said to descend to the obupon paths of light. . lation tra to Ahura Mazda. Their creative and organizing ac7 tivity is part of their character as agents of Ormazd. XXXI: 10. Vohn Manah has Asha Vahista is especial charge of useful animals. Yt.The Host of Heaven names included astrian. In the material world. 57 is as archangels. XIX 117. 1:25. II:i-3. III:i. He is Ormazd's first creation and the chief promoter of the kingdom. Ys. 3 . are especially under the genius Yt. XIX:i8-i9. Vd. II 6. 9 In paradise they sit upon thrones of gold. the personification of right repre- senting divine law and moral order in the world. He welcomes the souls of the 12 blessed. :i-7. Ys. Ys. XXII : Sh-l-Sh. To live 16 according to Asha was the Zoroastrian All fires ideal. Ys. and is the archangel who leads Zarathusship in the ritual. 10 Each has a specific charac11 Vohn-Mano is the personification ter and sphere. 13 The name 14 is associated with 15 peace as opposed to discord. LVIII:5. but this not Zoro- Ahura Mazda is the father and creator of the Amesha Spenta. 6 He brought them forth to aid him in his work. XXVIII :i. XXXI :2. XIX 131-32. Yt. Vend. XXVIII :7XIII 184. of Ahura Mazda's good spirit and divine wisdom. XIX :i8. XIX =32. Yt.

XLV:5.5' Zoroastrianism and Judaism of Asha Vahista. 20 Their charge is the water and the plants. XXVII 124. 24 a characteristic feature. 7. He presides over the metals which stand as his sign and symbol. 14-15. 18-19. II:io-ii. Sh-l-Sh. is the personification of religious harmony and which is piety. Ys. Ys. 11:6-7. XXV :20. representing Mazda's might. XLIV:i7. Along with Ahura Mazda they are worEverywhere in the Zo- roastrian system. Bund. 21 tal Holy ones has a special Each of the Immormonth assigned to his honor. The first is a personification of complete health. the other of immortality. 17 Khshathra personifies Ahura sovereignty. "adorable 17. Siroz. Vd. XLVII:i. Yt. Vsp. Ys. 22 each has a special day as a holy day. They are the promised reward of the blessed after death in paradise. 23 shipped and propitiated. 19. and is men- a ' tioned as early as the Gathas. XV 14-31. XIX:i4-20. the existence of the is Amesha Spenta trine k and it is probable the docoriginated with the Prophet himself. XIX:i-2. and each has a particular flower as an appropriate emblem. Bund. XVI :io. Yt. a feminine being. 23. 10. beings" stand third in The Yazatas. 20. perfection. X:i25. 22. XXXIV :n. LI 7. She presides over the earth symbol of her bounteousness. Yt. majesty. 24. 1 Hauovatat and Ameretat are two feminine archangels always mentioned together. 21. 1:25. daughter of Spenta Ahura Maz- da and heaven. 18. . XVII :2a Yt. 18 Annaiti. the triumph of regal power.

XIV. 25. belief in which is quite characteristic of the faith of cially Fire. attention. VIII. Yt. or they are personifications of abstract ideas. however. earthly Yazatas recog- At the head of Ahura Mazda. of the earth. For other Yazatas see Yts. and they are spoken of as rising up by hundreds and thou25 In practice. For Fire Yazatas see Ys. air. Peace. 27 Some of these Yazatas receive Power and kindred much and have very important functions. XV. the Yazatas are the guardians of the sun. 26. in Ys. fire. Water Yt. XVII: 16. nized. Yazatas seem to be those to whom a day in the to carry out the will of the divine da. Most of our details are from the Yasts. or to is whom a spe- season or form of ritual worship for consecrated. VI :i. month cial is assigned. animal creation Yt. XI. Moon Yt. Sravsha Yt. X. Sun Yt. Victory Yt. Mithra Yt. 27. espeWater. as a holy day. Truth. XII. and material. Rashme Yt. Grouped together. moon. XVII:i-n. XVI. VII. and serve like the 59 still Amesha Spenta further Lord. Ahura Mazda and the six Amshaspands should be deducted. XVIII. the only prominent sands. . IX. The Fravashis are a mighty army of spirits. conceptions. VI. Star Yt. An enumeration of the principal Yazatas is to be found XVI 13-16. stars. XVII. and water. like Victory. Uprightness. and heaven. V.The Host of Heaven rank. The days heavenly." The Yazatas is Zarathustra. Sun. Ahura MazTheir number theoretically is legion. Mithra. Yt. There are spiritual. who is ly the heavenly division stands called "a 26 Yazatas and the chief of the earth- greatest of the Yazatas.

They help Ahura Mazda and also mankind by warning against evil. The first month of the year is sacred to their name. is associated with some Amesha Spenta. is the highest. Belief in them. the prince is He the counterpart of among the evil Ahura Mazda. A sufficient outline has been given of the host of heaven. one good and beneficent. a dualism of forces. On the one hand is Ahura Mazda supported in his work by the archangels and angels. keeping guard. the other evil and destructive. They Most are coadjutors. divine selves. Zoroastrianism and Judaism The recognition of these genii probably dates from very early times. . perhaps. auxiliaries of these spiritual creations are em- bodiments of virtues or personifications of noble traits. in order to our purpose. on the other hand is Angro Mainyu surrounded by a body of evil spirits and demons. The thirteenth yast is Just as each principal Yazatas devoted to their praise. Special worship is paid to these good genii. Angro Mainyu spirits. is tolerated because they are survivals from an older stage of the religion.60 Iran. Fabulous or mythological creatures are also recognized. only a little need be said of the opposing powers of darkness. so there are a number of lesser beings associated with the Yazatas themof the angels. but the fact need only be mentioned. and promoting all that is useful and advantageous. so that. Zoroastrianism attempted the solution of the problem of evil by maintaining from the beginning. and a festival of several days is held in their honor.

" 28 The same antagonism the world: is expressed in the following "I will announce the two spirits at the beginning of Of them spake the blissful also unto the destructive Neither our thoughts. Then the most evil one appeared on the side of the impious. 29. and works. in- the evil No wonder. When the two spirits came first together. Angro Mainyu was 28. is 61 evil. of those two the intelligent selected the right one. at the same time spirit. the twins proclaimed to The good and the bad me of themselves. but fools did not so. words. nor our speeches." 29 Whoever jures causes goodness. Nor our belief. XXX :3-4XLV:2. while the latter brings forth He existed along with Ahura Mazda as expressed clearly in the Gathas spirits "The two who first of all existed. and (to order) how the world should be at the end. but the best spirit appeared on that of the pious. in order to create Life and death. nor our intelligence. Nor our doctrines nor our souls correspond. And in thoughts. nor our deeds.The Host of Heaven bringing forth only only good. distressed at the birth of Zarathustra Ys. Ys. then. nor our commands. .

27. There are many other evil spirits "co-operating and confederate with 30. XIX :o6. he withstands the Daivas. evil hunger and The arch fiends aim to destroy the work evil thirst. III Yt. How can we contrive his destruction? blow against the Daivas. 1-4. (arrogance). 46. Bund. 1 . against Asha-Vahista is Andra or Indra. The special foe against Vohu-Mano is Spenta the group of enemies in the Akomano. To the Ameshr Spenta and Yazatas in the six arch-demons are opposed as same way as their chief and prince is opposed to Ahura Mazda. . and influence of the good spirits. to some extent the court of Angro Mainyu. :2. XIX: 31. sometimes distinguished from Taromat. so Angro Mainyu surrounded by the demons is in the kingdom of night and darkness. who is some- times identified with. Bund. (the tyrant) is . against Spenta Armaiti. Naoghatya named. XXVIII 7-14. 32 the evil mind. His painful: "Born. the worshippers of the fall demons the shall down headlong. Over against Haurvatat and Ameretat are Taru and Zarika. against Khshathra is Saru. XIX :o6. See also Dk. Bund. alas. perhaps an old nature god who in the new religion is banished to the company of demons. he is an opponent is He a of the Drujas. XIX : Zspm XIV :8. Yt. 32." 30 As Ahura Mazda surrounded by is Amesha kingdom of light. 31 They form the immediate associates. Vd. 36. Vd. is the holy Zara- thustra in the house of Porushaspa. VII 14. 57-62.62 Zoroastrianism and Judaism to the true faith who brought men distress is and to piety. XXX \2% XXX :2Q.

too. We have then to inquire how the host of heaven. It is 35 36 to Joshua. I :iq. II Ki. XIII:i5-2i. XVI :23. very numerous. sometimes ap33. 37. I Sam. such a being that appears to Hagar. They are demons of pain. 38. and the host of hell. for Yahveh could not be called His own messenger." 33 multitude. 36. who are many. Bund. XXVIII :37-38. the belief in a great body of evil spirits. 39 But there are many traces of magic. 34. In the earlier Hebrew days the angel is represented as a being charged with divine authority. and necromancy a well defined art. Josh.4. producers of vexation and vivers of grief. Much has been written concerning Jewish angels and demons. the progeny of gloom. and vileness. and re- growing old. 14-46. VIII XXIX . and only the ideas that bear upon our discussion will be touched. who are furies are in great ruin. Ill 115. Bund. XXVIII: 12. . 37 It is a distinct angel or messenger. some of which appear more prominent and powerful than others. XVI: 14-23. Sam. Gen. Manoah. I V:i3. Judg. 35. and very notorious." 34 Individual demons need not be Enough has been said to indicate further mentioned. perhaps may be due to the nature of their 38 work rather than is to the character of the spirits. 63 "Demons. XVI 7-13. Judg. vile. are related to parallel conceptions in Judaism. 39. Sam. XXVIII :3-20. The fact that evil spirits are said to be sent from and to Yahveh. IX 123. The angels stand as simple ministers or messengers of Yahveh.The Host of Heaven them. in Zoroastrianism. Isa. 15.

IV :i3. 40 After the ever. and names and numbers for spirits all of which is parallel to Zoroastrian conceptions. 17. 14 times in Samuel and Kings. 42 sometimes they are distinctly re- 140. 23. In the time in which the Jews were in touch with the Persian religion. They occur in the earlier books almost exclusviely in the so-called folk-lore stories while the prophets are nearly silent concerning them. 41. 10 times in the story of Manoah. and foreign elements." §§ 34. 11:42. 22 times in all of Judges. 35. Enoch Xn-15. and is described most hyperbolic language. 1. See Weber. 48. CXLVIII :2. CIII :20. V :2i. II Esdras VI 13. For then we discover the highly developed system and hierarchy of angels. and in still later times is everywhere recognized. I Tim. XIV XV: 18. . cf. II Macca. sometimes they are called Watchers and Holy Ones. The conceptions of these writers is far surpassed by later Judaism.2. 10 times in the story. LXVIII:i7. angels spring into exile. Thisprominence is seen in the writings of Ezekiel and Zechariah. how- prominence and are a distinctive feature of the religion. not only a complete system of angels was developed.: $4- Zoroastrianism and Judaism in bodily shape. 54. 42. in the is represented as surrounded by a great multitude of angels who do His bidding. 3. It became in time a vast and intricate system colored by prurient imagination. Psa. Yahveh superstition. Theologie. 46. in Genesis. X:2Q. CIV 14. pearing In pre-exilic times they be- long to popular rather than to prophetic religion. but we find the abstract idea of angels and spirits. Enoch XII . Dan. 41 Among these there are archangels. XVI :66. which is represented in Daniel and Enoch. "System Angels are mentioned 15 times Balaam der pal.

44 Persian influence that archangels. X:i3. IV:i6. 47 Raphael. cf. XII :i. Long lists of names of angels occur in Enoch. Enoch XX. Dan. IX 125. cf. Luke 45. one of the seven holy angels. IV :2. Rev.The Host of Heaven 65 ferred to as the seven holy angels. 56. 23. Asmodcus. 50 The Fravashis in the Zoroastrian faith are at once the souls of the deceased. 45 we find names given 46 to the Michael. which we would exof pect on the supposition that the Jews took general conceptions from the Persians and molded them in accordance with their own habits of mind. V V 47. Ezek." 43 As Ahura Mazda was recognized as one of the Amesha Spenta. 21. 1:19-26. XII :i5. XLIII 125-26. IX:2i. VIII :2. also Enoch XX. 10. however. cf. 4. Gabriel. Talmud. This is implied further in the number seven It is after often occurring in sacred symbolisms. Zek. and in other later literature. Uhiel. Job III 117. 25. Dan. Dan. VIII :2. and go in before the glory of the Holy One. :6. Rev. 49 The names of the Biblical angels are Hebrew. it seems probable that the developed Jewish conception which came into prominence at this time had a Persian source. Rev. V:5. Jude 9. we find. II Esdras IV :i. XLV:22. XL:22. Tobit 111:8. "I am Raphael. XII 7. 23. 26. and together they were called the seven Immortal or Holy Ones. 14. The Book Enoch names the whole seven arch48 angels. 49. 46. In the development of these ideas for which Judaism was so largely indebted to Persia. 4344. . 50. 111:9. which present the prayers of the saints. Bereshith R. 5-7. and 6. and the protecting spirits of Tobit XII :i5. Enoch XX: 1 -7. VIII :i6. XLIV:26. the name of one Persian daeva. 48. 48.

Acts XII -. Ecclus. created before their birth and surviving Judaism as guardian angels. II Macca. XV -. . also IV :i. through whom God deals with the world and with men. angels. representing the inward being of God is a Jewish conception at this 53 time. LI:i2. XXVI 113. XXXIV 7. interpreting God to men. 1 :4.. IX 19-11. IV :8. Philo of Alexandria blended ideas from the Old Testament and Greek philosophy which he thought equally inspired. 56. Psa. The Logos is wisdom. mediator. holding to a late origin of the Gathas.15. and being the God of imperfect men. et al.23. and that the other Amesha 51. that Vohn Mano was a reflection of Oeio<s Aoyos of Philo. The Jews in such speculations had more to learn than they could teach. 56 suggest the personifications of the Amesha Later. VIII:22-35.66 Zoroastrianism and Judaism the living. cf. 19-10. 55 and still more strongly in later literaafter their death. logic. Dan. Dan. powers. XCI:ii. Psa. 51 They appear in ture. 54. Matt. 55. Wisd. creator. Tobit Isa. LXIII 53. The personifications of wisdom in Job 54 and Proverbs. Job XXVIII: 12-23. 9-12. Spenta in the Gathas. XVIII :io. XI 52. X:i3. advanced the theory that the doctrine of the Amesha Spenta was due to Neo Platonic influences. XL. VIII :i6. V:2i. which were agents between God and the world. Enoch LXX:4. and perhaps are the good angels of the second Book of Maccabees. and of spirit as. 20-21. Zech. Job. Darmesteter. 52 The idea of angels as spirits. He framed his conception of the Swa/xcw. :6. The Logos is their sum collectively. Prov. VII 125-29.

The Host of Heaven
Spenta were parallel to Philo's

powers. 57

The manner
the Avesta


which Vohn


spoken of

often strikingly parallel to expressions

used of the Logos by Neo-Platonists.

But some of

names of


Amesha Spenta were


occurrence by the end of the Achaemeniari period,

and the doctrine of archangels existed and was acIt seems more likely that Philo gathering ideas and elements from every source may have borrowed also from the rich Zoroastrian creed. Much that has been said concerning angels applies The to the development of the idea of demons. early traces of magic and necromancy already have been spoken of. 58 The conception of a personal
cepted at that time.

who is hostile to Yahveh was a growth. In the days of Ahab a scene is presented from the councils of Yahveh in which a spirit is commissioned

of evil

to be a lying spirit.


In the vision of Zechariah,

there appears an angel to accuse Joshua,



for the


time the


"Satan," the "Adversary." 60

These are trusted
to the

officials; so is


in the


Book of


but his attitude has become



The development is seen in the which the chronicler makes Satan instead 62 Satan of the Lord move David to number Israel. develops into a distinct personality, an enemy of
57. 58.
59. 60.

Jewish Quar. Review, Vol. VII, pp. 173-195.

I Ki.


XXII 119-23.

61. 62.

Zech. Ill: 1-2. Job. 1:6-12, II: 1-7.




XXIV :i,

compared with



XXI :i.


Zoroastrianhm and Judaism

Yahveh and

good, and he


surrounded by a

hierarchy of evil spirits

who do
and the
of the

his will.

ber of demons



The numnames of many are
Twelve Patriarchs
if in

The Testament

mentions two groups of seven

evil spirits,

contrast to the seven archangels.

Belief in the

power of demons is an accepted faith. 65 Satan is the head and ruler of the evil spirits. 66 The beginning of

evil is

ascribed to these evil angels. 67


bring only ruin and death to men. 68



between Satan and Ahriman or Angro-Mainyu But the Jews conceived of Satan as a is obvious. fallen creature. His existence and the partial triumph of the powers of evil does not impugn the sovereignty of Yahvah. The archdemon is far from
being equal to Him.


sovereignty of




however, continually assailed by Angro
In the Persian faith the sense of evil

strong as to give rise to practically an evil deity.
the Jewish faith, the conception of




strong as to keep the evil powers in practical subordination to

But for the development of a system of demons, with names and evil functions such as the Jews came to hold, they were probably


borrowers from the Persian

Enoch VII

64. 65. 66. 67.





Testa. Reuben.

Josephus, Anc. Ant. VIII :2, Enoch LIII :3, VIII, IX, X.


Enoch LXIX, Wisd. 11:23-24, Ecclus Baruch IV 7, 35, Job. VI 7, 14, VIII

XXI 127.


A uct

N the Zoroastrian doctrine, the universe
of the goodness of


a prodit





It is marred only by the malicious attacks and deeds of Angro Mainyu, or Aharman, the Bundahis name. The earth is the scene of the conflict between these two beings, the rulers of good and evil. Man is the centre of the universe, and his soul is at stake as the prize for which they contend. Two primeval spirits are assumed to exist at the begin1 ning. The good spirit, Ahura Mazda, dwells above


in eternal light; the evil spirit lurks in eternal



They meet and struggle in the realm which Ahura Mazda has carved out as

of Time,


period for the history of the world.

This time forms an aeon of twelve thousand years,
divided into four periods of three thousand years
these is presided over by a sign of Perhaps in this Zodiacal system there may be Babylonian influences. The first three thousand years is the period of spiritual creation. Ahura Mazda at the outset, through his omniscience, knows of the existence of Aharman. He therefore produces the whole of his creation in a spiritual state, and

Each of

the Zodiac









fifth. the sky. spirits. . Fravashis. 4 4. who back to darkness and remains three thousand years in confusion. second. VIII 7:11-13. remain in a transcendental form for the first three thousand years of time. The Fravashis. uses is the sacred prayer This holy word resembles the part the in Logos plays Neo-Platonic ideas of creation. in to order to aid in the overwin joys eternal.70 Zoroastrianism and Judaism the creatures so produced. Bund. fourth. water. animals. This primordial spiritual creation by Ahura Mazda is | exemplified in the Fravashis and alluded to in the Aharman. The order of Ahura Mazda's material creation after the Amesha In the second three thousand years Spenta and the sixth. also aid in this creation as they management of the world. On terms being accepted. earth. DK. ignorant but malicious. first. II :io. throw of Aharman and 3. At the same time Aharman produces demons and fiends which aid him in his warfare against heaven. or celestial pro- totypes. mankind. arises from the darkness and is confounded at seeing the light. plants. elect to be born into the world. I. Ahura Mazda proposes to the evil spirit a Avesta. because he knows that at the end the evil spirit will be undone. 3 Ahura Mazda brings into tangible shape the creation which had hitherto existed only in spiritual form. It is do in the by deliberate choice that the guardian spirits of men. Bund. third. The weapon Ahura Ahura Mazda Vairya. period of conflict for nine thousand years. is. he at once routs flees Aharman.

$-9. corruption. 7. they become the progenitors of all animal life and mankind. With Gen:i-24. XXXII . 6 He assaults water. XXIV. Yt. X. IV :5. II. plants. XIII :86- 87. At the close of this period. The heavenly angels finally gain the victory and hurl the fiends to hell beneath the earth. XXX. Ahura Mazda will triumph over Aharman. and encouraged by the demoness Geh (like Milton's conception of sin). and slays the primeval bull. heeds his fiendish hosts and springs like a snake 5 through the sky down to the earth. and still more in the older literature. while they build a rampart around the sky to protect it against the adversary. earth. Zad-Spun. that the pious mind of 5. XIV. Ill :i-7. it is plain to see. III:i-i7. 6. pollutes them. (Gos). The vault of heaven is shattered. III:i8. But as the primordial bull and man pass away. and the primal man (Gayomard). disease. (Zarathustra). Bund. 8 In the late traditions. together with the coming of Saoshyant fill the Fourth period of three thousand years. XXVII. a Bund. and good will be supreme. . Bund. and noxious creatures are everywhere found.Naturalistic Traits 71 In the third three thousand years. The remainder of these three thousand years is the history of the race and of the kingdoms of earth till the coming of Zaratust. Ausheta and Aushetarmah. blight. 7 Zaratust and his sons. Aharman hav- ing recovered from his confusion. Bund. and the fire. earth is in distress.

as thus skillful. lights The idea of the universe is represented as one of is is intelligence and order. . O Great Creator! would I know. Comp. the gloomy 18. as a skillful artisan. earth. that they do not fall? Who made the waters and the plants? Who to the wind has yoked on the storm-clouds. beheld in ! ! : me aright : Who. fold. XLV:7-i2. 9. XLIV:3-5. The sky the supreme heaven. the noontides and midnight. O Ahura tell me aright: who by generation was the first father of the Righteous order within the world? Who gave the recurring sun and stars their undeviating way? Who established that whereby the moon waxes. monitors to discerning man.72 Zoroastrianism and Judaism all the phenomena and wonders of nature the ever-working power of the Deity. There a geocentric concep- tion of the universe. O Ahura tell me aright Who from beneath hath sustained the earth and the clouds above. hath made sleep and the zest of waking hours? Who spread the Auroras. regarded as threeabyss. This I ask thee. and whereby she wanes save Thee? These things. Isa. duty's true guides?" 9 In a similar manner the Achaemenian kings magnify Ahura Mazda as having created heaven. O Ahura! tell the old Iranian. and Ys. hath made the and the darkness? Who. the swift and fleetest two? Who O Great Creator! is the inspirer of the good thoughts within our souls? This I ask Thee. and man. "This I ask Thee. and others likewise still.

11 The laws of nature are Ahura Mazda or his agents. question is discussed in Casartelli. Sh-1.Naturalistic Traits that which is 73 between these two. T. and each of these is presided over by a particular star. Isa. VI '. Yt VIII 140. XIII :o4XXII 114. V:i-5. The moon and the sun are believed to occupy spheres beyond the stars. "Mazd. 12. seven zones or was divided into The Jews thought of the It world as a disc.27. Peck. Bund. and to the earthly disc. Sh. of right order. IV '. Religion. XXVIII -. the heavenly corresponded. XL :22." in. 13 circles. The Zoroastrian conception of creation seems to be rather that of a forming or shaping of pre-existent matter. 14. 14 is disputed. 15. 12 it is If this is so. XII :i." pp. The abode of Ahura Mazda is above all in the supreme heaven. 10 Above the atmosphere about the earth comes the celestial sphere. in which the stars and constellations. Whether circular the Iranians thought of the earth as flat and is or as spherical. 25-27 and p. He is the Lord of law. VIII . in contrast to the Jewish belief. Planets and shooting stars mar the order of nature and they are regarded as the creatures of subject to Aharman. .43-44. Prov. 11. Job. and of righteousness.3.3. than a real creation ex nihilo. 13. Book of Enoch and Bund. but the former generally believed. "Semitic Theory of Creation. 15 It is probable that the idea of the the Testa- seven heavens in the 10. Different constellations guard the four quarters of heaven and the zenith. 111:25. and signs of the Zodiac are set.. Zad-Spm. XXXII : 3. The Ys. notes. 7See H.

the fall. has no parallel in the Hebrew Generally. III :i-6. and the flood were due to 16. Gen. VIII . Ys. But no more so than parallel ideas among other peoples. 38-59. in the Avesta. may be a Persian There is is a fine description of the work of Yahveh in creation in the second Book of Esdras 16 Yahveh In the Iranian account of creation alone supreme. We may very reasonably suppose that the theories of creation. the supremacy of da. II 4b-7. II Esdras. his works. affirmed. inis however. I-II 4a. The Persian ideas of a fall and of a flood suggest Hebrew con20 ceptions. VI. and in the Achaemenian scriptions. is there in the earlier literature a recognition of an evil spirit as joint creator with Ahura Mazda. 17 This account. Gen. VII. 18. not are paralleled in the legends of Genesis. XXX. holding a late origin of the 20. Here there are marked Semitic theory of creation. 11:21-43 and 113. VI:i4. Ill. 17. The order the different periods. addition. XV and Gen. the ideal perfection of the Ahura MazIt is newly created world. Bund.74 Zoroastrianism and Judaism ments of the Twelve Patriarchs. the sole creatorship of Ahura Mazda and ideal perfection is attributed to all likenesses to the in creation. As Spiegel and Darmsteter. able that the cosmogonic conceptions of both Persians and Jews were more or less fixed before they came into contact with each other. 19. Bund. 18 likely that the similar ideas of creation in the Avesta 19 It seems more probJewish influence.

and does not perish like the latter at death. and many parts of the body are named. Their first offspring were twins. and from this there developed two beings who became the parents of mankind. 23. the progenitor of the race. 21 As that to ideas of anthropology. 18-25. bone. blood. Ys. The ual. The Hebrew narrative in com24 parison with this is simplicity itself. ulties Generally five spiritual fac: man 25 are recognized. male and female. as the facts are so familiar as to suggest themselves. which they devoured. people of the Avesta regarded man as con- sisting of body and is The body soul. 22. Gen. 25. From those seven pairs the whole 23 human family descended. the material and the spiritcomposed of numerous constitu- ents and members. XV :i.17. the Iranians believed Gayomard. The spiritual element of man exists previously to the material. -. II 7. 31. 22 emitted his semen. XIII: 149. account of creation. rather than copied from the other. 6. Yt. XXVI 14. Bund. Page 78. It has been thought unnecessary to review the Biblical 21. killed by they suffered their following seven pairs of children to live. their point of union lies behind any written theories that one argue their The very dissimilarities in the common origin. . when Aharman. XXIV :i. fat are designated.Naturalistic Traits in the Semitic 75 and Aryan races had a common origin v and that history. Flesh. Ill 19-23. skin. but dying. The of life of the individual in the hereafter will be discussed later. These are spirit. 24.

II 7. which watches over the corporeal functions of man. Test. will be pointed out under an26 In the Jewish conception of his being is man the duality of assumed throughout. also Exo. XVI :2. XII :22. the soul which gives freedom of the faith will. and the Fravashi or guardian spirit. conscience. 11:3. free-will and intellect As many as seven spirits are spoken of in Apocryphal soul. Zech. XXV . Eccle. VII :o. Conscience. The word spirit as a part of 28 human 27 nature identical with that of soul.*]6 Zoroastrianism and Judaism reason. however. are everywhere recognized. 10. faculties is A very nearly division of inward is implied. Reub. II Esdras III 15. Psa. XVI :i8. 32. Prov. XX . 11. literature as being in man. which do not indicate faculties of the 26. guarding the moral life of man. 29. 29 Many terms are used. Isa. or the power of choice. Patriarchs. Prov. His body is the physical mass in the same sense in which the Zoroastrians understood it. consciousness. and probably is the least of the faculties of the soul. Gen. V:i4. XII :i. 128. 28. 27. The Zoroastrian responsibility and philosophy recognized man's and accountability as other heading. XXVIII :3. III:2 4 Prov. II Mace. Ki. XI :2. Mace. or perception. LI:io. His soul is the inseparable accompaniment of life with all its functions. moral affections. XVI 132. LXVI:2. Job 13.

77 . His two fore-runners. 3. Yt. at the end of the earthly demons Lake the maid in Eredat-fedhri. Kasava. went near unto his wife Hvov three times. Nine thousand." The seed is preserved cycle. the angel Neryosang received the brilliance and strength of that seed. XLVIIIiq. Saint. nine hundred and are entrusted with its 2 and nine myriads of the guardian spirits of the righteous protection. Soashyant. 2. and each time the seed went to the ground. Visp. 1 is us- It designates will aid at the leader of the goodly company who is the general resurrection in renovating the world. Vd. Ys. Saoshyant. Yt. Yt. ratust The "Za- miraculous. ninety-nine. XIX 15. will be born in the same way of Srutat-fedhri and Vanghu-fedhri. never decaying and never rotting. so that the may not injure till it. Bund. birth of the Saviour. V:i. bathing in the lake will conceive by that seed and bring forth the Saviour. XIII:i4i-i42. delivered it with care to the angel it Anahid. and master of i. XI:i7. Ukhshyat-ereta and UkhshyatNemah. 3 "The victorious Saoshyant with his helpers shall restore the world. ever living and ever increasing.CHAPTER f VI THE EXPECTATION OF A REDEEMER A N the Zoroastrian creed the term Saoshyant ed to denote priest. deliverer. Ys. 9. which henceforth never will grow its old and never die. XXXII :8. XIII 162. XLVItf. and in time will blend with a mother.

she and her hundred- fold brood shall perish. XIX :20.78 wish. XII 7. 6 the East to honor the miliar with the conception.Ys. XLV:n. The worshipping Magi that centuries later came from Saviour. Dk. Together they perform a final sacrifice. cf. 5. when life and imcome. XXX:4-33Bund. XLVI*. . His coming will bring immortality to the righteous." 4 In bringing to pass the wonderful and happy future. the prosperous creation of the the Drug shall perish. when grow deathless. though she may rush on —and every side to kill the holy beings. de4. 6. Babe of Bethlehem were There are striking fare- semblances to the Judaeo-Christian ideas. Saoshyant will be assisted by fifteen men and fifteen damsels. 92-96. VII:8:55. XLVIIIip. as it is the will of the Lord. and the world will be restored at the creation will wish. Good Spirit. XIX 189-90. Yt. XIII :i29. XXX:i7-33. 5 Are we to suppose that any of these conceptions were borrowed from Judaism? In the earliest Iranian literature there is expressed the hope of a coming The idea is certainly Zoroastrian. XLV:n. There will be a long conflict with evil but Saoshyant will be victorious. he is born of a virgin mother. quering Saoshyant is The con- preceded by two personages who prepare the way. Zoroastrianism and Judaism when the mortality will its dead will rise. who conceives him in a miraculous manner. the virtue of which will bring about the resurrection and the blessings of immortality. Bund. LIII:2. UX:28. Yt. Ys.

siah The were political earlier Jewish ideas of a Mesand temporal. Simon Maccabaeus was made high- priest-king. In following the expression of this hope. a lofty and With the Jews. Saoshyant. Zerubbabel in his turn became the centre of Messianic hopes. to all the righteous. a spiritual interpretation of the Messianic hope was confined to the prophets and a few devout children of Yahveh. but they do not represent the beliefs of the Jewish people. Macca. King and the viceroy of Yahveh. For a time Cyrus seemed to fulfil the role of deliverer. rulers they had realized only a partial As the years passed the fascination of the Messianic hope grew more hallowed and became the deepest passion in the heart of the nation. the Zoroastrian conception of the Jewish people threw themselves on the future. When in later times. 1 Messiah. and will establish the sole sovereignty of Ahura Mazda." 7 Feeling themselves to be without any present. Parallel conceptions are found in individual prophets. . The expectations centre about the nation. "until there should arise a faithful prophet.The Expectation of a Redeemer struction to the 79 powers of evil. who will give immortality is and blessedness spiritual hope. In contrast with a this. XIV 141. to be an ideal their The deliverer From good. truth rather than theological 7. they do not even then displace the hopes of a is political and temporal Saviour. ideal and spiritual conceptions are more fre- quently found.

and the powerful from their thrones. to whom righteousness belongs. 9. answer to the question. XLVII:3-4. VII :o. The spiritual and universal elements were only slowly recognized. 10. A striking passage is in the book of Enoch. shall loosen the bridles of the powerful. L-IX A. . raise 9 teeth of sinners. XII 132-34. Enoch XLVI:i-3. 8 faith. 8. yet christian times. and break in pieces the Him. It is probable that the Zoroastrian influence in bringing this belief may have had into prominence. I." vol. 39-41. shall up kings and the mighty from their couches. :35-37. Dan. 27. and who will reveal all the treasures of that which is concealed.80 Zoroastrianism and Judaism is prepossession to be our guide. through the coming of the Messiah. Enoch 13. Enoch LX 14-10. 173 n^. 10 probably was written A ets. pg. Edersheim. The happy future of the righteous in contrast with the appalling misery of the wicked." The it date of this passage has in pre- been questioned. "Life of Jesus. who would deliver The nations were to be blessed through Israel and Israel's Redeemer. LXX 122-24. Redeemer who would rule in righteousness and bring peace to earth. It is in the son of man. LXVI:4. for the Lord of spirits has chosen This Son of man whom thou beholdest. who was "This is the Son of man. II Esdras 11:34. 18. 14-18. with whom righteousness has dwelt. LXVIII 22. was a late doctrine with the masses of the people. was promised by Jewish prophbut he was expected to be a national hero Israel first.

XLIX:7. X:2 9 Ys. Under this heading. Our treatment will be with only a few selected details. Ys. the clan-lord. We are aiming. SOCIAL [""* VII AND CEREMONIAL REGULATIONS A O make an extended comparison between Zocivil roastrianism and Judaism in their social cus- and ceremonial laws would be most material is abundant. XXX 141. the comparisons made should be interesting. 2 kings and evil monarchs" are sharply dis- "Good i. In treating of the legal usuages of it 'Civil laws. Vsp. the Avestan people is difficult if not impossible always to separate them from the rules of the priest- hood. while the tribe is clans. The clan is made up of a number of families. IX:27. Little 1 is said of a political formed of a number of body in the early literature. rather than to give an exhaustive treatment of any one idea or principle in the two religions. The people of the Avesta are settled agriculThe family forms the unit of the political organization. The master of the house. turalists. Yt. therefore. XXXI :i6. 111:2. and the field almost untouched. and chieftain of the land are recognized as having authority in their (respective spheres. brief. toms. 2. and The taken as suggestive only. XIX :i8. tribe-lord. 8l . to place the two religious systems in comparison. Yt. :3. X:i7-i8. 4.CHAPTER CIVIL. Vd VII . 87. however.

X 139-40.9-10. determinative element was religious. and repwill resent the views of the sacerdotal class. A vivid picture of such an organization is given in Esther. state cere- Caste. Esther 1:14. Main. 6. The Their was a theocracy. 8. with LIX:i7. 5 Herodotus says of the system. I:i8-i9. In the Persian government there was a council of state composed of the seven princes who Perhaps the seven princes were regarded as representing the seven Amesha Spenta.9. Eph. They The same is true of secular laws in Judaism. on the other hand. necessitating the employment of posts and means of conveyance. These are brought under ceremonial be treated later. therefore little attention paid to civil regulations. In the administration there were satraps and prefects. VI 114-17. Herod VIII 198. XIV -." 4 A Pahlavi pasthe sage spiritualizes the armour of a warrior in a manner worthy of comparison with Biblical passage. rigid caste system either in Ys. . "nothing mortal travels so fast. Vd. XIII 71-72/ and Herod VII Yt." 6 Twelve parts of the armour of soldiers are enumerated in one section of the Avesta. There was no 10. also Yt.82 tinguished. 4. XLVIII:s. 7 "see the king's face. XLIII7-13. Vd. Esther VIII -. Isa. 3 Zoroastrianism and Judaism The aim of the literature is is religious. their laws were religious and monial. Ezra VII: 14. 5. 8 familiar The Jews. 3. Kh. rules. 7. 128-132. XVII :io. though they had had many warriors and an organized kingdom were not in a real sense political. :6i.

is The stitution of these separate orders traced to Zara- thustra. Vd. Ys. 9 In the Bundehesh. 13. which may have been composed only of captives taken in war. But there were among the people. 12 Labor was held in respect. warriors. The division of the people into priests. XI :6. freedom. 11. first He is distinctly called the first Priest. XIX:i7-i8. and soil tillers of the in- frequently is met with in the Avesta.2. Herod 1:125. . 11 agricultural population. Social and Ceremonial Regulations in 83 Zoroastrianism or classes or orders Judaism. 12. and the first Plougher of the ground. 101. But it seems his likely too that a free man might pawn away against slavery. The three orders are blended by all being derived from Zarathustra. There probably was a servile class. By cultivating a field a man was performing a religious act to the glory of Ahura Mazda. Yt. XIII :88-8g. the Warrior. Bund.Civil. Ys. 9. the three sons of Zarathustra are connected with these three classes. An artisan class is also sometimes mentioned. IV . nor was intermarriage forbidden. in-chief in war. for they were not hereditary. XXXII :s. 13 faith The spirit is and character of the Zoroastrian however 10. It is implied that a son in any class might be born in the same home. The head of the priests. The second was the The third was the chief 10 was the commanderfirst of the These orders were not castes.

V:87. Yt. She is the mistress of the house. XXXVI :8. The good deeds of women are alluded to in the same manner as the good deeds of men. Yt. IV '. LXVIII:i2-i3. I:i6. and one who is young. Ys. XII 7. XIV :i5. Vd. They developed into an agricultural and commercial race. LXXIiio. XVII 154. 14 Slavery was a temporary expedient. 18 The prayers of bad women are of no avail 19 In order to marry. 57- Vd. XIII :i54. but their subjection was limited in time. strong. 21 She must be pure and her reputation the house.9. and learn24 But when Zarathustra is represented as asking ed. XIII 7. 23 She is not his slave but his companion. In the earlier days the Jews were a nomadic people. just husband is the master of the house. 139. 111:3. LVIII:S. XIII:i39-i40. XVI :o. XIV :i5. XXIII 115. as the Deut. . 148-149.84 Zoroastrianism and Judaism These ideas are similar to those in Judaism. VIII :3. A maiden longs for a husband. 22 XXV :i. XV:40. the girl should 20 A wife is an honor to be past her fifteenth year. XV: 12. Vd 111:24. Ys. The priesthood stands distinct as an institution. Ys. Lev. Yt. Gals. Deut. also Herod II Ys. unstained. but was not absolutely exclusive. male and female saints. The place of woman. Yt. Vd. Vd. 17 We find the names of women immortalized for the good they have done. 15 There are 16 just men and just women. There was no warrior class in Judaism. There were Hebrew slaves. The position of woman among the Iranian people was in no way a degrading one. VII :27.

the position of woman generally was lower than that of man. XXX '. VII :i8. :3 ff. 31 In the marriage relation 27. Exo. I who know them. XX: 12. Bund. XIII 127." Probably the marriage relation often was founded on love and piety. whom its as bride for him. but she had a large degree She was looked upon as her husband's There was always a high conception of 30 the purity of woman. XI :3. 28. VIII :i4. . Social and Ceremonial Regulations 85 his father sought appearance be de25 sirable. 27 Children were looked upon as a blessing. obtain ye the life of the to Good Mind on earth and in heaven.7. Lev. LV:5. Ezek. XVI :i5. let And you bride and bridegroom. and it was a calamity and dence against the practice of polygamy. 9. property. LVII 31. Evil women are denounced of freedom. a fact which also indicates their influence. Ezek. to you. XXIII . thus alone unto each shall the no eviYet monogamy seems sometimes implied.Civil. XX:i7. and most of above references. et al. XXI: 7. also 3-4. XVIII. 29. Jer. II Ki. I speak to you maidens." 26 There seems In Judaism. 131. 29 for introducing foreign worship. Zad-Spm. XV 140. and heed ye my sayings: By these laws to see the face of the maid.26. "whether of the faith which I utter. 28 home-life be happy. 30. V Isa. the bride turned away her face from him. Perhaps the following may have been an old marriage formula: "Monitions for the marrying. Yt. Deut. Darius in the Behistum Inscription prays that the enemies of Ahura Mazda may be childless. each one the other in to be Righteousness cherish. Jer. 26. 25. Ys. XLIV:i5. a sign of impiety to be childless.

111:34-35. More will be said of re- treated. Vd. when morals and ethics are Here some of the external elements more commonly called virtues will be pointed out. a religion of duty was sacred. XV:2o-5i. was a religion of energy and action. pro- vided they belong to the species created by Ahura Mazda. but not the impious or strangers. The is religion of Zarathustra spiritual a religion of culture. 36. too. :*3. If any of them were provoked. XII :4. IV :i. 35. Deut. and the childless wife was an a woman was object of reproach. CXXVII :5. 30-32. 36 receives special attention. of It and moral progress. XVII :6. Ys. XXXIV . their complaints would be heard in heaven. Prov. XV . ligious care The and soil. Every daily Poverty and asceticism have no place among its virtues. dog. Vd. II: 14. Vd. XIII." 32 and the ideal is that she was to be his companion. standpoint :6. XXXI: 10. Prov. CXXVIII 37. 35 Charity was extended to the brute creation. Mai. There was an obligation to help those within the faith. The of clearing and culflocks are 37 tivation of the and the tending of viewed from the 32. 34. The kine. 34 Religious virtues. 49. XVIII :i2. twenty-ninth Yasua contains the lament of the is and assurance given of better treatment through the work of re- Zarathustra.86 "a virtuous Zoroastrianism and Judaism crown to her husband. 33 Monogamy was the general practice. thrift. XXIX :6. 33. Children were a delight to a home. religious duty. Prov. Joel 1:8. XXXI:o-io. XIII Psa.-5. Ys. ligious virtues later. -111:23. LIII:8. 117.

Deut.Civil. :i8. :s. was an unclean animal. 20. and provision was made for the care of the stranger. LIX:i4-i5. 4-6. foddered the tle. 42. Deut. 40 dad is more sacred than creatures of others. XLV7. Zad-Spm. 23. XLIII:8. Ys. Social and Ceremonial Regulations 87 cat- "Zarathustra nourished the poor. The book of Tobit may be called a book on almsgiving. The mention of dogs in the later literature may probably be due to Persian influence. XI. All animals that do not have cloven hoofs and do not chew the cud were impure. XXVIII XXXI Psa. XX 115-16. 40. and Ecclus. The Jews did not carry their religion to such an extent as the Zoroastrians into their daily duties." 38 The propagation of the religion is a part of its 39 essence. Some animals were found in the Old Testament. Ys. XCIV:i-S. Lev. At the same time there is an intense hatred against the wicked which is parallel to ideas often Much of the Vendidevoted to fighting and defeating the daevas. Psa. Almsgiving was an obligation. brought firewood to the fire. See Tobit. but not in the sense in which the Zoroastrians understood the animal creation. All land was recognized as belonging to Yahveh. 42 In Judaism kindness was to be shown to the whole animal creation. 11. as Ahura Mazda and creatures of AngroMainyu. XXIII :i8. Ill 130. . XLIV:i4-i5. however. Job. and to be cultivated and held in trust for Him. XLVI: V:i6. et al. XII 13. or into their treatment of animals. et al. CXLV:20. XIII:i7-i8. Ecclus. 39. XIV. 41. 43 Persian influence may account 38. 43. 41 The dog among the Jews. The poor were to receive special attention.

47 the earth existed. is the holy word revealed to Zarathustra and the prayers taught him. XIX :2. Ys. It was always a means of defence against the demons. and prayers for different forms of purification. 49. kind existed. LV:2. Fire was the holiest and purest element. XVIII 143. 45. XIX:i-i5. XIX :22. Vd. with Angro Mainyu and his demons. Vd. . Ys.7. before the land. before the cattle and the plants. O Ahura strong through ! There were prayers for 46 44. almost magical power. thustra. when they are at work. XI. 44 Among the most often repeated and most highly valued forms of prayer is the Ahuna-vairya. "And we pray likewise for thy fire. its light would frighten them away. Among the means of succor that Ahura Mazda gives. 45 This prayer was recited by Zaraand was to be recited by men as long as daily duties." and before man- much Rules of this. 9. The words themselves were thought to contain some strange. before the waters. Often the prayers were to be repeated and sometimes repeated many times. the reflection of Ahura Mazda. 47. 46. the prayer Ahura Mazda is said to have pronounced before "the sky. and symbol of moral purity. VIII :ip. XII. IX: 14. and the faultless recitation of them was believed to be efficacious. The whole life of the faithful Zoroastrian was a conflict with the powers of darkness. and during the night. XVII .88 for Zoroastrianism and Judaism for purification and concerning defilement.

" 52 XXXIV . "had no images. The Vendidad. XVII 15-8. Herod 1:131-132. XVII :2 4 28. and fulfilled sacrificial function. bread. 112. 13 Yt. 52. V:2i. in ! most powerful to many ways our it O Mazda is a steadfast weapons hurled from the hands. Yt. . 8. of utensils and clothes. 51. 49 The priests had a high place in the Iranian faith. Impurity often came from contact with an impure body. The purification of the land. 50 Offerings consisted of flowers. The rites were long and frequent. The manner and degrees of pollution are harm as if with pointed out in detail in the Avesta. VIII 73 ff. and rec- 51 there were also animal sacrifices. Ys. 29. 49Yt. and at the same time he says the Persians 48. 107. IX :3. 25. :n. fruit. performed purification acts. perfumes.4. Social and Ceremonial Regulations is. 108. 89 righteousness as it most swift. and complex by many manual acts and incantations. Not only men. XVIII: 18-23. XVIII :i-6. See Vendidad. is the religious code of the Zoroas- more minute than the Jewish Leviticus. Herodotus ognizes these. 15. 27. of women after their menses and is childbirth. but to the hater. 50. LXII. but beasts and even utensils might be polluted.Civil. . They kept the sacred fire. 116. The formalities and ceremonies of purification were multiplied to an almost endless extent. 49. XVII See also Vd. of animals. XVIII 70. XXII 13-4." 48 Prayers and the fire were among the means of purification. XV 7. Vd. no temples and no altars. the house with joy receiving help. trians. it. IX:47. Bund. Vd. of men for every pollution prescribed by elaborate rules.

90 Zoroastrianism and Judaism This was mainly true. 56 It was a symbol of Yahveh. I Ki. Mai 111:2. Psa.4. In Judaism. Vlll 9- '. VI:i2-i3. the manner and times of prayer were sometimes exactly parallel to Zoroastrian habits. The were priests to inflict were to maintain their authority. LXXXVIII 113. With the Jews fire was sacred but not it. XIII Macca. and the ceremonial regulations. XIX :i8. 56. was applied VI 10. Cleanness 53. 111:36 Ys. . They punishment for transgressions against It is striking that is the ritual and ceremonial laws. The work of the priests. LV:i7. 57 and a means of purification. though the Persians had altars which were sometimes covered. L:4. V:i4. 54 But in the Gathas the concep- tions are more mental and spiritual. XXXIV :6. VIII 4 8. to land. what is the penalty that he shall pay. 8. 43. The stereotyped expression for a man's committing u transgression is. 55. are distinctly found in the Gathas. 167. VIl:g-io. or uncleanness seq. for almost every law given in the Vendidad. 57. Dan. there same time the punishment that shall be inflicted upon the guilty in case of transgression. II Exo. : 54. '.24. XVIII XLV:6. Dan. VI:io." 53 The germs and general ideas of the system at the added thus elaborated in the later Avesta. in the sense in which the Zoroastrians held It was to have been always kept burning in the temple. CXIX:i47. Lev. were elaborate and more strictly defined in the Persian period than they had been before. 1:18-35. 55 and they equally covered nearly every event of life. 111:2. Vd. :2i.

Num. that so charwe must attribute in part to the rigorous observance by the Persians of more stringent laws and rites. The effect of the presence of.Civil. and enforced. 59. VIII. Jer. . clothes. The feast of Pur- honor of the deliverance from the schemes of Haman. VII. ably responsible for Jewish ceremonialism attaining such far-reaching importance. XI :6.4. as well as other purification and ceremonial laws to many much greater lengths than the Jews. XXV '. the dead is a single illustration. minute laws of purification were Religious offerings might include a great number of objects. may be an adopted Persian festival. There were punishments prescribed for every violation of A comparison bethe ritual and ceremonial law. Vd. however. 13. XVI '. 58 The rapid development in post-exilic times of the and ceremonial regulations. strict animals. rin. Persian influence is probritualistic acterized later Judaism.36. or the contact with. XIX :i6. XV '.33. 91 dwellings. 59 in 58. as in the Zoroastrian faith. Josephus Ant. VI. men and women. tween the purification laws in the two religions shows many striking resemblances. Esther IX 117-32. Social and Ceremonial Regulations utensils. carried their laws concerning the dead. II Macca. The Zoroastrians.

but the subjective element is also strong. XXXIV :8. et 92 . 4 "Any one in the world here below can win purity for himself. and deeds.CHAPTER URITY P A summary a It includes all VIII MORALS AND ETHICS in thoughts. XXXIV :3. moral precepts." 5 Many chapters of the eighth Dinkard close with the words. 5. already. Ys. Yt. 7 124. There is much externality in the Iranian religion as has been shown. XLV:8. 11:5. when he cleanses himself with good thoughts. X: 18-20. IV :o. al. Ys. "Righteousness 1. Ys. happy Obedience. namely. "Thou ing the Righteousness. VIII :2 15. words. XXX :3." "Holiness is the best of all good. Gah. XIX :22. all know- Good Mind. 3 Those who are not pure in thought are far from the Good Mind of Ahura Mazda. Dk. which constitutes the beneficient the man who is holy with perfect holiness. Yt. 6. words and deeds of an individual. Ys. 3. The will of the Lord is the law of holiness." In the Gathas 2. 4. V:i8. Vd. XXII 114. when shall I see thee. is of the ethical of the Zoroastrian. Happy. This ideal is constantly found throughout the A vest a. and above the personified way to the most Ahura Mazda. in words and life in deeds. Vsp. is 6 perfect excellence." 2 An external offering or sacrifice is made valuable through the good thoughts. XXVIII :6.

8. in response to prayer." 9 Such lofty conceptions implied benevolence. In the ten admonitions given in a chapter of the Pahlavi literature "keep the way of the your house. Among^ was identified with the^ holy will of Ahura Mazda. XCVII:io-i2. Psa. XXXI :i3. Chron. . 11 The philosophy of the Wisdom Books reaches the same conclusion that it was "the whole of man" to "fear Yahveh and keep alted the the Zoroastrians. The high moral conceptions of deity exdispleasure." 7 the following. Zad-Spm. uprightness. IV Sik-G-Vig VIII :i28-i30. CXXXIX. XXXIII :$. and Psa. Nothing "The man of the sun. purity of body as well as soul. 183. Ys. 11. I XXXI :2. able to give "helpful grace" and "meet the spirit's need. also XXI-15-16. 1 1138. XLIV:2i. XLVI:2. XXV:8-io. The character of Yahveh was the final rule for men. restraint. :i-2." 8 is good open to Love of truth is a characteristic of those in the is Iranian faith. the truth shall be more shameful than a lie. 10. eschewing of deceit and theft. XXIV 110-19. XVIII 125-26. Herod Ys. Ys. charity. XXIX 19. Vd. moral standards of the people. temperance. and among the Jews with the holy will of Yahveh. morality 7. 9. more resplendent than goeth straightway to the man of a lie demon whence he cometh. all in the teach- As Ahura Mazda looks upon the smallest sin with so Yahveh knows the secrets of all 10 hearts.Morals and Ethics 93 < is Ahura Mazda. for the sake of making righteousness welcome in your abode. 18. and these are ings of the faith.

The emphasis placed upon inwardness and spirituality in religion. VI:25. The Deuteronomist. Every good deed a man does increases 12. and then came to be embodied in the legal codes. and he must fulfil the duties which are consequently imposed upon him. et al. . The is ethical standard of the Zoroastrian faith not inferior to that in Judaism. XV:2-3. LXX VIII 117-18. or on the side of Angro Mainyu. XIX 112-14. religion. 13 But much of post-exilic literature is still external in its conceptions of holiness and sin. Psa. Jeremiah and Ezekiel introduce the emphasis upon the inwardness of people were extremely low. 13. 20. A primal factor of the morals and ethics of the religion is 14 the freedom of the will. . 14. Indifferentism or failure to choose is impossible. The sins are mostly external and national. XXX:2-3. Prov. IV 123. even suggest whether Judaism may not have been helped to a grasping of spiritual conceptions by the followers of Zarathustra. XXXI :u. In pre-exilic times the ethical standards of the The few writers who have higher conceptions. Ys. XI:i3. Eccle." 12 The will of Yahveh had been announced by priests and prophets. LI:i2-i3. Deut. XLVIno-13. ranian individual must choose to be on the side of Every Ahura Mazda. In post-exilic times this receives its highest development in the Psalms. LI:6. The upright man is good in thought and word and deed.94 Zoroastrianism and Judaism His commandments. give little prominence to the inward life.

XI :g. and all deeds are recorded. 95 power of good. 16. Every man is responsible for his deeds. or assumed. every to the good. XXX:3-6. . Ys. Ezek. XXXI :2. life 16 Such moral earnestness colored the whole In Jewish writings there is everywhere recognized. Eccle. I Chron. 17. 17 The Iranian and Jewish faiths are precisely the same in this respect. He is under no coercion. 15 evil deed the power of to choose Zarathustra declared himself sent to assist men Freedom means re- This is a strong characteristic of the religion. XXVIII :g. Ys. the same freedom of man's will. A strict watch is kept by the divinities over every individual. choosing to place themselves in opposition to Ahura Mazda.Morals and Ethics the evil. Even the demons were not evil by nature. XXXIII :i-ig. of the Zoroastrian. Mai. Ill: 16. but became so by sponsibility. 15.

After the three days and three nights during which the happy pious soul has been lingering about the body. high- Yt. XXII. 30. 2 house. tall-formed. i. bright. on the dawn of the fourth day the soul The pious soul passes over the Chinvat Bridge. and that of the The body becomes its a prey of the demons who rejoice over death. in 'the shape of a maiden fair. But sufficient for a fair comparison to ^^ and be made. 2. white-armed. and to the dead. and three nights which indicates a kind of transitional stage. "It seems to him as if his own conscience were advancing to him in that wind. When death takes place the soul remains in the vicinity of the body for three days. 96 .CHAPTER /^\NLY IX THE FUTURE LIFE an outline treatment of the Zoroastrian Jewish conceptions of a future life will be attempted. IX 140. strong. VII :2. Vd. III: 14. Impurity was communicated to everything in the all who stood in any relationship to There was an elaborate series of ceremonies for purification to which reference already has been made. meets a balmy and sweet scented wind. during which the soul of the good taste of the delights of Paradise evil man has a fore- man 1 the torments of Hell.

11:145-157. the holy angels and the pious dead the Paradise of dwell. Din. chilly wind blowIn the from the north. :2i. and at the fourth step into the Paradise of Endless Light. Vd. and recites his wickedness upon earth. 4. is altogether the opposite of In misery the wicked soul wanders at the about the corpse for three days and three nights. 4 The fate of the impious soul this. XIX :36. 3 Through three steps the faithful soul passes into ~^Q- good thoughts." and then recounts the good works which the soul accomplished who she is. Main Kd. XLV:8. and deeds. Through three successive steps. and last 3. XXII 19-14. I am thine own conscience. thick-breasted.' " she answers. of the size of a maid in her fif- teenth year. of all into the region of eternal darkness. and good deeds. as fair as the fairest things in the In response to the soul's question as to world. of a glorious seed. words. the House of Song. LI:i3. of good words. XXXI . M-Kd. during its earthly career. Ys.The Future Life 97 standing. Dhi. Yt. of good religion. On ing its the morning of the fourth day it passage of the Chinvat Bridge. 111:4. noble. where Ahura Mazda. 15. thoughts. evil deeds. evil words. soul's question she declares she is answer to the embodiment of his evil thoughts. XXII :i5. the evil soul passes into the place of evil thoughts. 11:114-143. beautiful of body. and of good deeds. meets a foul. In that wind the soul perceives own conscience in the shape of an ugly hag. which Yt. "O thou youth of good good words.

Kd. M. Bund. Vf. Mithra. XXII :iq-36. and the abode of in Angro Mainyu and his followers. XVII:2-27. XLV:io-i2. this life. XIX:27-32. is the judge. Din. XXVIII Ys. he is assailed by the demons and the ugly hag and is hurried or falls down to hell. personified as a beautiful maiden or a horrid hag. 5. XLIXrn . Ard. and decision is rendered in accordance with the turn of the scales. II 1115-122. . Yt. If not.7. Kd. it faith perfect confidence in If the wicked prosper in so. ture condition of the soul is described as a personal. and so narrow to the wicked that the lost soul falls from it. . The good and evil deeds are weighed against each other. conscious experience of happiness or misery. 162-163. 5 There is conceived to be a private judgment which man's conscience. II :is8-i94. XLVI:io-ii. et al. Vd. Din. XXXIII :i-2. M. Bund. LI:i4. and Rashnu. will not always be The faithful will . justice is adminis- tered to the soul before the three angels Sarosha. The Bridge becomes broad to the righteous soul. If the good deeds outweigh the evil ones. XII 7. XXXI :20.47. 6 In the Gathas the idea of a judgment dividing the good and evil is 7 Throughout the Avesta the fuclearly conceived. Ys. 6. XXX:8-io. At the Chinvat Bridge. There is in the Iranian Ahura Mazda's justice.98 is Zoroastrianism and Judaism most foul and full of suffering. the soul is assisted by the angels and the beautiful maiden into Paradise. described above. and descends through successive stages into the wretched abode of Angro Mainyu.

Yt. LI :6. XLVI:n. as rewarding deeds and words. also 4. Ahura Mazda will be absolutely just in his awards to the wicked and and a new order I of things will be established. thou didst establish evil for the happy blessings for the good. 8. and now as part thereof do thou grant that we may attain to ! fellowship with thee. 19. O Great Giver. generation of life. O Ahura Mazda do thou wisely act for us. XL:i-2. 11. 6. XLIXni. and this follows from the belief in individual responsibility. 9 The happiness and misery of the next world is essentially mental and spiritual. . 9. XLVIni. A single illustration "And ! of the hope of the righteous will indicate this: now in these thy dispensations. XXXI:20-2i. by thy great be adjudged to each in the creation's final and virtue to change. also XLVI:io-i2. and with abundance with thy bounty and thy tenderness as touching us. when. and grant that reward which thou hast appointed to our souls. XLIII :5. O Ahura Mazda Of this do thou thyself bestow upon us for this world and the spiritual. XLIXni. in the Mazda when ! beheld thee as supreme evil. Ys.The Future Life be delivered 99 from all suffering and have abundant happiness in the to the righteous. "I conceived of thee as bountiful. XLV:8. life to come. XLV 7. XXX :8-io. XXXI :20. Ys. Ys. 10. XLV 7-8. XIX :8o. Ys. and thy righteousness for all duration. 11 and in all the remaining Ys. XXXII :i5." 8 Rewards and punishments are self-induced. Ys." 10 the There are hints of a belief in the resurrection of body in the Gathas.

100 Zoroastrianism and Judaism it is Iranian literature I clearly set forth. is parallel to the hopes of the primitive and some present day Christians in the expected return of Christ. unhindered by these foes." 13 The idea of the resurrection's being connected with the coming of Saoshyant and the regeneration of the world. darkness are arrayed against those fiend-smiting Saoshyant will be completely victorious. The powers of of light. Let the daevas likewise disappear. 4. when he shall restore the world. This beVd. which will thenceforth never grow old and never die. XIX:88-89. that will cleave unto the victorious Saoshyant and his helpers. when the dead will rise. . 12. make immortal. also n. Let the dead arise. The resur- brought into connection with the regeneration of the world. "We sacrifice unto the kingly glory. Frag. Dk. and master of its wish. The the living He will renovate the world. never decaying and never rotting. 13. and cause the dead to arise. Yt. •^"Let Angro Mainyu be hid beneath the earth. See also Bund. IV 13. flict A mighty con- precedes the end of the world. ever living and ever increasing. but belong to the oldest teachings of the system. 4. 1X146. and let bodily life be susrection is tained in these now lifeless bodies. 19. XXX :i. XVIII :si. 23." 12 At the coming and triumph of Saoshyant. when life and immortality will come. But the underlying features of the Zoroastrian eschatology are not late. a Fragment declares. and the world will be restored.

repre- 95-96. though often vague and materialistic in form. II:n. Yt. The con- ception of Yahveh and nearness That does not concern to Him. XIII 1129. Until a late period. It is the final abode of all good or bad." P. there some suggestion of a belief in immortality. of future rewards and punishments. XIX :5. V:2 4 II Ki. XIV :2i. In nearly every religion no matter is how rude. F. . :2i. us. They do not 189. tone of sadness." 15 Yet among the early Jews there is no definite teaching concerning immortality. are far in in advance of anything to be found Judaism. XIII Ki. I Gen. 45- 16. 17 Vd. I. silence Existence there is colorless. German Workshop. like a bridge ending in an abyss. Job. LIII:2. XVII :22. Psa. vol. Jewish ideas upon the future life were exceedingly shadowy. 17. but these gropings are only occasional. the Zoroastrian ideas of the future condition of the individual. may have implied immortality and future blessedness for the faithful. LXXXVIII:i2.The Future Life lief is 101 throughout the Avesta}* detail For and vividness of portrayal. IV:35. 16 Faith in Yahveh to individual surmises of a life after death. of a judgment. It is a place of led and forgetfulness. XIX 14. The Jews did not see the implication. Ys. CXV:i7. XLV:n. and for loftiness of conception. and of a resurrection. LIX 128. Without such a belief. Max Muller. "Chips from a 15. "religion surely is like an arch resting on one pillar. and no hopeful view of Sheol is always spoken of with a the future life. XIII 7. .

Enoch. 21. II Mace. 20 The coming of the Messiah will inaugurate a new order of things. LXVI:4 seq. XII:2-3. Judith XVI -. 120. VII 19-10. Ecclus. II :22. XI :9. ." "There is promised 18 us an everlasting hope." 22 But it is Yahveh not the Messiah who is will raise the dead. Enoch X:i-io. II Esdras XIV :35.102 Zoroastrianism and Judaism sent the faith of the people. Isa. Enoch LII:4. In the Persian period of Jewish writings a belief in immortality has for the first time taken definite form. XCVI:i3. LXVI:i8-24. 22. Psa. LXII:is-i6. 18. as well as the righteous nation. Dan. Which is of late origin. will receive blessings in the Messianic kingdom. VII 114. 20.17. Wisd. LXV:i7. 113-115. 19. IX:i2. and this becomes clearer in still later writings. V:i5-i6. XII :i4. 93-140. II Esdras VII 73. XC:24-26. growing hope in the future life. There will be "new heavens and a new earth. VIII:53-55. XXVI :i9. together my dead body shall they arise. XII:2-3." 21 The righteous individual. Enoch LI 14. with "Thy dead men : shall live. sing. 19 All men will be brought to judgment and is There a Yahveh will be their judge. Isa. and there will be a resurrection of the dead. Dan. The earthly life had a strong hold upon the Jewish people. Their hopes of the future related to the enjoyment of Yahveh upon earth and I to Israel's glory. "This present world is not the end. XXXVIII: 1-3. and the earth shall cast out the dead. In some of the Psalms there an intimation II Esdras VII:ii2." There will be happy rewards for the righteous and punishments for the wicked. ye that dwell in dust for thy dew is Awake and as the dew of herbs. Wisd. XIV :35Dan. Eccle.

Cheyne in Expository Times. H. C. as the later Sadducees. 11:8. When the Jews came into contact with the Persians holding with fervor the hope of immortality. it. Their misfortunes made them all the more ready to believe in the life to come. vol. Joy. with which they maintained XLIX:i5. 11.24-28. they could not but ask themselves whether that hope was to be future life probably date century B. H. Wars. had been latent in their faith. XVII Psa. K. as has discovered in their to own religion. C. As soon as the Jews felt that the hope of the future life. 372 seq. :i5. XVI:io-ii. Judaism and ChrisT. Eschatology.Tfie Future Life 103 will be spiritual. see R. 23 The direct and positive teachings concerning the are best future life that suddenly appear in the literature of post-exilic times accounted for through Zoroastrian influence. 23. II. . LXXI II '. fifth The Zoroastrian from not ideas of the later than the been shown. tianity. pp. Josephus. that the reward of the righteous that there will be mental communion with Yahveh. j they vied with the Zoroastrians in the earnestness 24 it. Some would refuse acknowledge that the great doctrine was a part of But most of the people were eager to accept the new and inspiring hope. For Jewish and Old Testament ideas of the future life. 24. Charles. and could be developed from the faith.

coming of strength. it is In the face of these noble conceptions. tions were cumbrous. are among the elements of spirit- The depth of its philosophy. responsibility to the nations confronted them. The purity and ideality of Ahura Mazda. the expectation of a coming Saviour. except the Jewish. are scarcely equalled by any creed of ancient times. is Ahura Mazda life. But there are some striking elements of weakness. uality of evil by good. the many of its views. He 104 . is not almighty. and with that their influence of The ridiculous extremes. the belief in the company of holy set angels that do his bidding. Judaism came to the conception of Yahveh as the supreme Ruler of the universe.CHAPTER X CONCLUSION ' s A I HE Zoroastrian faith is one of the world's great religions. and along with lofty and profound conceptions were often puerile supersitions. the high value lofty conception of the future upon man. the clearness and purity of its ethics. should almost have perished from the earth. The dualism a leading feature. dualism entering into every thing in demons was carried to and resembled witchcraft and The ceremonial and ritual regulaenchantments. the the final over- life. is remarkable that what probably the purest re- ligion of antiquity.

LV. Isa. Psa. and more often ceremonial laws and rites were absurd and harmful. 1. and fostered a high morality. He was supreme and righteous. kept the Sabbaths and rest days. guarded the sacred oracles. The spirituality and high ideals of some of the Psalms and Deutero-Isaiah. of Judaism lay in misconceptions and diverted energies. There was no god beside Him. LI. The Jews. would. XLVI 13. 1 But in their very forms there is a mark of strength. XL. their clannishness was a protection to their faith. 12.Conclusion 105 was no longer a tribal God. The hope of a temporal kingdom and earthly glory crowded out spiritual expectations. . Only a few prayed to Him as Father and Friend. The and people too cultivated love of family and of race. L. LI. LXI. They preserved the worship of Yahveh. Yahveh was thought of as Judge. i The weakness and King. CXX-CXXXIV. XLIX:i5. It has been pointed out already that the main elements of the Zoroastrian faith were for the most part fixed before the Persian period of Jewish his- I and that there was probably no marked influence made by the Jews upon the Persian faith. 4. The rise of the syna- gogue worship was a valuable force in the religion. however. in receiving tory. discovering that their rulers had many conceptions and teachings similar to. indicate that the ritual worship and ceremonial rites were not to all empty forms. and others in advance of their own. The ceremonial sometimes was substituted for genuine righteousness. Isa.

As to-day a person changing from one faith to another decidedly different carries into the new faith some of his old influences. The Jews were not only influenced by contact with the Persian faith. 257. 2. C. While the germs of the beliefs that came into prominence in post-exilic times in Judaism may be present in the earlier writings. we probably are indebted for some of the loftiest and most spiritual conceptions. but by those who became converts to Judaism. therefore. These fuller beliefs Judaism preserved and fostered for development under the benign influence of Christianity." 2 To this foreign contact. so the very fact that many Persians became Jews 3 would favor the development or adoption of beliefs already latent in Judaism. Esther VIII . The followers of the Zoroastrian faith probably furnished the stimulus for ideas and beliefs that otherwise might not have come into prominence. The explanation is found in the fact that the "germs which lay hidden in Judaism were fertilized by contact with the Persian religion. later generations would think of them as purely Jewish beliefs. 3. At any rate. easily deduce such teachings and conceptions from their own revelation. 117. the germs alone are not enough to explain the later developments.106 Zoroastrianism and Judaism and adopting them. with no thought that they were borrowing. p. which came into Judaism and passed from Judaism into Christianity. F. Kent. The Jewish People.

The. pp. T. 525-527. 182-198. pp. R. pp. Carus. Vol. L. 224-228. L. J. Psalter. The Unknown God. Cosmogony. Paul.BIBLIOGRAPHY American Presbyterian Review. T. Cheyne. Zoroaster. pp. the Origin of pp. Zoroaster and Persian Dualism. Purim. V. C. 41-51. 381-447. pp. The to Social Life of the Hebrews 11. Louing. Mazdaism. Vol. XII. Possible Zoroastrian Influences on the Religion of Israel. Mazday- Cassel. Persia. Zend-Avesta. 281290. 255-306. in The Arena. II. K. H. pp. Paulus. 141-149. 694-711. 202-209. 248-254. Persepolis. Vol. Ezra. The pp. XLIII. appendix. in Biblical World. Academy. W. in The Open Court. 107 . 52-77. from Josiah 397-409Bixby. Eschatology. Brace. Commentary on Esther. pp. Review of Darmesteter's Translation of the Avesta. Future Life. II. The Zoroastrian Religion. Charles. Vol. Britanica. in the Expository Times. C. The Philosophy of the asnian Religion under the Sassanids. Encyclopedia. Casartelli. The Races of the Old World. or The Doctrine of a Zoroaster. Batten. Vol.

The Zend-Avesta. Vol. 208. 45!-474- Ten Great Religions. The Manners and Customs of the Is- Darmesteter. 89-147. P. 206-256. . Geiger. Vols. XIV. in Semitic Studies. Zarathustra in the "Gathas. Edersheim. D. Civilization of the Eastern Iranians. 209. pp. 58. F. Clarke. Jewish Religious Life After the Exile. The Prophets of Israel. F. 171- pp. Cornill. Magazine. H. D. pp. P. 74.108 Zoroastrianism and Judaism The Book of Psalms. W. 127-132.. A. 348-351. Social Subjects. Daniel. II. Vol. pp. A. 17-30. A. Cox. translated by D. Zoro- and the Persian Fire Worshippers. The Zend-Avesta and Eastern The Angelology of the Book of J. I. Sanjanna. 476-489. 1-65. in Bible Commentary. The Zend-Avesta. 210. M. Vol. Appendix XIII. Vol. H. Fenton. XLIX. Maurice. Carl Studies New and Old of Ethical and pp. Religions. 130-134. 111-119. Early Hebrew Life. Geiger. John. Fluegel. Christian Remembrances. F. 2 Vols. pp. pp. Ewald. in Sacred Books of IV and XXIII. 251-261. raelites. Fuller. Vol. VI. P. Judaism and its History. J. Old and New Testament Theology. 91. Cobbe. pp. pp. pp. Sanjana. aster 72-78. Eclectic the East." translated by D. Life of Jesus. pp. pp.

Demons. ( I 35" I 73- Herodotus. History of the Jews. History of New Testament Times.Bibliography Goldziher. The Moral and Ethical Teachings of Ethics. Hausrath. Zoroastrianism. Vol. 55-62. Vol. VII. XLI. pp. Angels. I and II. V. Harpers Classical Dictionary. V. Harper. Ignez. Rawlinson. Zoroaster the Prophet of Iran. and Other Masters. Hastings Bible Dictionary. Christ I and II. Drisler. Translated by G. Cosmogony. Ethics. or the . 84-93. 326-329. The Ancient Persian Doctrine of a Future Life. H. W. T. After the Exile. Writing and Religion of the Parsees. Rhagae. in International Journal of Ormazd. pp. God. J. II. pp. the Zo- roastrian Religion. Charles. 36663668. pp. in Biblical World. Zoroaster and Zoroastrianism in Methodist Quarterly Review. I. Vol. Zoroaster. Gottheil. pp. 149-163. History for Ready Reference. H. Adolph. pp. 24-51. Hunter. Vols. pp. Classical Studies Honor Henry Graetz. Vol. Haug. in Biblical World. 94-125. Books I and III. Vol. A. 382-396. Vol. Vols. E. pp. 361-439. R. Vols. M. 109 Mythology Among in the Heof brew. P. Hardwick. 61-77. I and II. VIII. Historical Movements in Israel From the Reform of Josiah to the Second Temple. Essays on The Sacred Language. Jackson.

Johnson. Vol. S. Vol. S. and II.no Zoro as trianism and Judaism Ancient Persian Idea of God. O. 1. Oriental Religious-Persia. XVI. XIV. Avestan Superstitions. in A. A New Ormazd. . 102-103. Ahriman. in Jewish Quarterly Review. 161-178. Josephus. I History of the Parsis." Zoroastrian Legends and their Kent. 223-229.. A. Vol. Avesta the Bible of Zoroaster. Introduction. J. Doctrine of the Resurrection Among the Ancient Persians. 420-431. Biblical Sources. Books XI-XIII. Iranian. XIII. Vol. Ill. 59-61. in Ameri- can Oriental Society Journal. Ency. Rev. pp. pp. p. History of the Jewish People. II. O. 20-21. 156. in Biblical World. pp. pp. Parsic and Jewish Legends of The First Man. Vol. Vol. Kohut. Pahlavi. II. C. Knenen. An Vestan Grammar. J. Vol. 231-250. The Religion of Israel. "Judische Angelologie und Damonologie. Independent. F. in 1 A / 19. I. Vol. in The Monist. in Jewish Quarterly Review. pp. The Zend-Avesta and the First / and Vol. N. J. Reference in the A vesta to the "Life Book" Hereafter. Antiquities of the Jews. III. XIII.. Zoroaster. Vol. IX. pp. 89 Eleven Chapters of Genesis. Karaka. 38-39. Y. in A. Mch. Johnson 's Univ.. The Ancient Persian Abhorrence of Falsehood. Flavius. Dosabhai F. pp. pp. O. Vol. Alexander. Samuel. Avesta. S. in A.

Oriental Society Journal. J. Journel. ions. in The The God of . pp. B. in pp. Meyer. 1 XXXIX. pp. E. J. II. Bib. Francois. <l The Five Zarathustrian Gathas. G. Zoroaster. East. I. Montefiore. The Beginnings of History. The Passing of the Empires. 104-112. in S. 571-601. The Initiative of the S. pp. Moulton. 109-111." Vols. II. Vol. McClintock and Strong's Bib. The Religion of the Ancient Vol. Asha as the Law in a . The Zend-Avesta. Ency. E. LI. Edward. pp. A. Methodist Quarterly Review. 59-61. Josiah to <( Ezra in World. Mills. The Zend-Avesta and Solar Relig- Lenormant. pp. XXXI. pp. H. McCurdy. Avesta.} )} The New World. 21-40. Vol. H. 898-920. 369-381. Modi. Vol. the <( Gathas Thinker. 294. pp. J. II. Maspero. C. The Zend-Avesta. 271in Immortality II. F. XX. 429-431. IV. Geschichte des Alterthums. 272.} the Gathas in Amer. 629-639. L. ' Jinanji. in R. G. Theo. J. M. sees. Vol. in 47-56. Vol. 14-133. Vol.1 Bibliography 1 1 Lazarus. II. Ancient History of the Vol. and Parsees and Persia. The Religious System of the ParThe World's Parliament of Religions. in The . Vol.. Mitchell. Hebrews. pp. M. 31-53. pp. Zoroaster and Israel.

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The Position of Zoroastrian Remote Antiquity. See also W.


Origin and Growth of Religion, pp.


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The Development of New Testament Judaism, in Bibliothecra Sacra, Vol. L,
History of the Jewish People
in the

pp. 193-219.

Schurer, Emil.

Time of Jesus
Smith, G. A.

Christ, Division 2, Vol. II.

Isaiah, Vol. II, pp. 57-65, 162-173.




The Iranian

Scripture in

The Chau-

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Warner's Library of World's Best Lit. Avesta. West, E. W. Translation of Pahlavi Texts in Sacred Books of the East, Vols. V, XVIII, XXIV, XXXVII and XLVII. Zarathustra's Doctrine Regarding the Soul in R. A. S. J., Vol.




Oriental and Linguistic Studies,

pp. 149-198.


The Parsi Religion. The Anabasis.

Ahura Mazda, 41-44, 104
Alexander, 37 Almsgiving, 87
Immortality, 101-103




Spenta, 65-67




Jeremiah, 29
Josiah, 29, 32

Anthropology, 75




Judaism, beliefs



Babylonian Exile,




trianism, 38

38 fundamental principles, 28 spirit in, 63-68 Justice, 98
Labor, 83


Judaism, 38

Caste System, 82 Charity, 86
Children, 85, 86 Chinvat Bridge, 97-98 Civil Laws, 81 Cyrus, 31, 37, 79

Magi, 37

Man, Material and



Marriage Relation, 85 Material Creation, 69 Messiah, 79, 80, 102
Nebuchadnezzar, 30 Nehemiah, 31

Darius, 37 Death, 96 Diety in


times, 45,


Dogs, 87 Dualism, 51, 52
Family, 81
Fire, 88,

Ormazd, 37
Paradise, 96, 97, 98 Persia, 37 influence of, 39


Prayer, 70, 88-90




Priestly Reformation, 31 Punishment, 90
Purification, 88-91 Purity, 92

Holiness, 92-94


26. a real character. Index Virtues. 24 62 Synagogue. Slavery. 50. Soashyant. evil. 47-49. 32 Saviour. to. place of. 37. Love of. 104-105 Zarathustra.59 60.n6 Return of Christ. 33 Truth. 72. one of order. 104 followers of. characteristics. 100 Sheol. 78. IOO Resurrection. reformer and prophet. early life. 23 date of. 27 Samaritans. chief Universe. 25 94 good. 84 Yahveh. 56. 77. 83-84 Spirits. beliefs 38 74 common 38 . 99 Seana. 86 Woman. 27 93 Zoroastrian Religion. 101 Sin.





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