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**Design of Pile Cap
**

14.1 Determination of Pile Cap Dimension

Minimum number of piles

n=

where

PD + PL

Qe

P D , PL

= dead and live loads on pile cap

Qe

= effective bearing capacity of pile

Qe = Qa − 20

kN

3

2

⋅ ( 3⋅ D) ⋅ H

m

D

= pile dimension

H

= depth of foundation

20

kN

3

= average unit weight of soil and concrete

m

Qa

= allowable bearing capacity of pile with FS = 2.5 .. 4

**Distance between piles = 2D .. 4D
**

Distance from pile to concrete face =

D

≤ 150mm .. 200mm

2

Reactions of piles

Page-237-

Ri =

P

+

n

Mx⋅ yi

n

∑

( yk) 2

k=1

My⋅ xi

+

n

∑

≤ Qu

( xk) 2

k=1

P = 1.2⋅ PD + 1.6⋅ PL

Mx , My

= bending moments about x- and y-axis

xi , yi

= location of pile

Qu = Qa⋅

1.2⋅ PD + 1.6⋅ PL

PD + PL

Page-238-

Suggested minimum cener-to-center pile spacing by several building codes are as follows:

**1.2 Determination of Depth of Pile Cap
**

A. Case of Two-way Shear

Vu ≤ ϕVc

where

= punching shear

Vu

**ϕVc = punching shear strength
**

ϕ = 0.75 is strength reduction factor for shear

Vu =

∑ Routside = Qu⋅ noutside

⎡⎡

⎤⎤

4⋅ f'c⋅ b0⋅ d

⎢⎢

⎥⎥

⎢⎢ ⎛

⎥⎥

4⎞

⎜ 2 + ⎟ ⋅ f'c⋅ b0⋅ d ⎥⎥

⎢

⎢

ϕVc = ϕ⋅ min

⎝ β⎠

⎢⎢

⎥⎥

⎢⎢ ⎛ αs⋅ d ⎞

⎥⎥

+

2

⋅

f'

⋅

b

⋅

d

⎜

⎟

⎢⎢ b

c 0 ⎥⎥

⎣⎣ ⎝ 0

⎠

⎦⎦

(in psi)

⎡⎡

⎤⎤

0.33⋅ f'c⋅ b0⋅ d

⎢⎢

⎥⎥

⎢⎢

⎛ 1 + 2 ⎞ ⋅ f' ⋅ b ⋅ d ⎥⎥

0.17

⋅

⎜

⎟ c 0

⎥⎥

ϕVc = ϕ⋅ min ⎢⎢

⎝ β⎠

⎢⎢

⎥⎥

α

⋅

d

⎛ s

⎞

⎢⎢

⎥⎥

⎢⎢ 0.083⋅ ⎜ b + 2⎟ ⋅ f'c⋅ b0⋅ d ⎥⎥

⎣⎣

⎝ 0

⎠

⎦⎦

(in MPa)

αs =

40

for interior columns

30

**for edge columns
**

for conner columns

20

β

**= ratio of long side to short side of column
**

Page-239-

= effective depth of footing

d

(

) (

)

**critical section parameter
**

b0 = ⎡ bc + d + hc + d ⎤is

⎣

⎦⋅2

critical section

for two−way shear

S

S

D

S

D

D

D

S

B

critical section

for one−way shear

L

**B. Case of Pucnhing at coner pile
**

Ru ≤ ϕVcorner

where

Ru

= reaction of pile

**ϕVcorner = punching shear strength at the coner pile
**

D

d/2

b0

⎡⎡

⎤⎤

0.33⋅ f'c⋅ b0⋅ d

⎢⎢

⎥⎥

⎢⎢

⎛ 1 + 2 ⎞ ⋅ f' ⋅ b ⋅ d ⎥⎥

0.17

⋅

⎜

⎟ c 0

⎥⎥

ϕVconer = ϕ⋅ min ⎢⎢

⎝ β⎠

⎢⎢

⎥⎥

α

⋅

d

⎛ s

⎞

⎢⎢

⎥⎥

⎢⎢ 0.083⋅ ⎜ b + 2⎟ ⋅ f'c⋅ b0⋅ d ⎥⎥

⎣⎣

⎝ 0

⎠

⎦⎦

Page-240-

(in MPa)

b0 = π⋅ ( D + d)

for circular pile

b0 = ( D + d) ⋅ 4

for square pile

**C. Case of Beam Shear or One-way Shear
**

Vu1 ≤ ϕVc1

where

Vu1 , Vu2

Vu2 ≤ ϕVc2

= beam shears

**ϕVc1 , ϕVc2 = beam shear strength
**

Vu1 =

∑ Rleft = Qu⋅nleft

Vu2 =

∑ Rtop = Qu⋅ ntop

ϕVc1 = ϕ⋅ 2⋅ f'c⋅ B⋅ d

(in psi)

ϕVc1 = ϕ⋅ 0.17⋅ f'c⋅ B⋅ d

(in MPa)

ϕVc2 = ϕ⋅ 2⋅ f'c⋅ L⋅ d

(in psi)

ϕVc2 = ϕ⋅ 0.17⋅ f'c⋅ L⋅ d

(in MPa)

**14.3 Determination of Steel Area
**

Section: Rectangular singly reinforced.

Required strength:

⎛

hc ⎞

⎝

2⎠

⎛

bc ⎞

⎝

2⎠

Mu1 =

∑

Ri⋅ ⎜ xi −

Mu2 =

∑

Ri⋅ ⎜ yi −

⎟

⎟

Example 14.1

Required strength

PD := 361.5kN

Foundation depth

H := 1.5m

Column dimensions

bc := 250mm

hc := 250mm

Material

f'c := 25MPa

fy := 400MPa

Page-241-

PL := 91.27kN

Allowable bearing capacity of pile

Qa := 65kN

Dimension of pile

D := 200mm

Solution

Effective bearing capacity of soil

Qe := Qa − 20

kN

3

2

⋅ ( 3⋅ D) ⋅ H = 54.2⋅ kN

m

Number of piles

n :=

PD + PL

Pile spacing

Qe

= 8.354

n := 9

Use

S := 3⋅ D = 600⋅ mm

**Dimension of pile cap
**

B := 2⋅ S + 2⋅ D = 1.6 m

600

600

200

200

600

1600

600

200

200

L := B = 1.6 m

1600

**Determination of depth of pile cap
**

Depth of pile cap

h := 350mm

d := h − ⎛⎜ 50mm + 14mm +

⎝

Page-242-

14mm ⎞

⎟ = 279⋅ mm

2 ⎠

**Design bearing capacity of pile
**

Qu := Qa⋅

1.2⋅ PD + 1.6⋅ PL

PD + PL

= 83.241⋅ kN

Two-way shear from the face of column distane

d

= 139.5⋅ mm

2

**Vu := Qu⋅ 8 = 665.929⋅ kN
**

Two-way shear strength

(

)

b0 := bc + d + hc + d ⋅ 2 = 2.116 m

ϕ := 0.75

β :=

hc

bc

=1

αs := 40

for interoir column

⎡⎡

⎤⎤

f'c

⎢⎢

⎥⎥

0.33MPa⋅

⋅ b0⋅ d

MPa

⎢⎢

⎥⎥

⎢⎢

⎥⎥

f'c

2⎞

⎢

⎢

⎛

ϕVc := ϕ⋅ min

0.17⋅ ⎜ 1 + ⎟ MPa⋅

⋅ b0⋅ d ⎥⎥

⎢⎢

⎥⎥

MPa

⎝ β⎠

⎢⎢

⎥⎥

f'

α

⋅

d

⎛

⎞

⎢⎢

⎥⎥

c

s

⎢⎢ 0.083⋅ ⎜ b + 2⎟ MPa⋅ MPa ⋅ b0⋅ d ⎥⎥

⎣⎣

⎝ 0

⎠

⎦⎦

ϕVc = 730.575⋅ kN

Two_way_shear :=

**"is not critical" if ϕVc ≥ Vu
**

"is critical" otherwise

**Two_way_shear = "is not critical"
**

Beam shears or one way shear

Vu1 := Qu⋅ 3 = 249.723⋅ kN

Vu2 := Qu⋅ 3 = 249.723⋅ kN

Beam shear strengths

ϕVc1 := ϕ⋅ 0.17MPa⋅

f'c

⋅ B⋅ d = 284.58⋅ kN

MPa

Page-243-

f'c

ϕVc2 := ϕ⋅ 0.17MPa⋅

⋅ L⋅ d = 284.58⋅ kN

MPa

Beam_shear :=

**"is not critical" if ϕVc1 ≥ Vu1 ∧ ϕVc2 ≥ Vu2
**

"is critical" otherwise

**Beam_shear = "is not critical"
**

Steel reinforcements in direction L = 1.6 m

b := B = 1.6 m

d = 279⋅ mm

hc ⎞

⎛

Mu := Qu⋅ ⎜ S − ⎟ ⋅ 3 = 118.619⋅ kN⋅ m

2⎠

⎝

Mu

R :=

2

= 1.058⋅ MPa

0.9⋅ b⋅ d

f'c ⎛

ρ := 0.85⋅ ⋅ ⎜ 1 −

fy

1 − 2⋅

⎝

R ⎞

= 0.00271

0.85⋅ f'c ⎟

⎠

⎞

⎛

f'c

⎜ 0.25MPa⋅

⎟

MPa 1.4MPa ⎟

⎜

ρmin := max

,

= 0.0035

⎜

fy

fy ⎟

⎝

⎠

(

)

2

**As := max ρ , ρmin ⋅ b⋅ d = 15.624⋅ cm
**

As0 :=

π⋅ ( 14mm)

4

2

2

= 1.539⋅ cm

⎞

⎛ As0

sL := Floor ⎜

, 10mm⎟ = 150⋅ mm

A

⎜ s

⎟

⎝ b

⎠

nL :=

B − 50mm⋅ 2

+ 1 = 11

sL

2

**As_L := nL⋅ As0 = 16.933⋅ cm
**

Shrinkage steel reinforcement

2

2

< As_L = 16.933⋅ cm

As.t := 0.0018⋅ b⋅ h = 10.08⋅ cm

Page-244-

**Steel reinforcements in direction B = 1.6 m
**

b := L = 1.6 m

d = 279⋅ mm

bc ⎞

⎛

Mu := Qu⋅ ⎜ S − ⎟ ⋅ 3 = 118.619⋅ kN⋅ m

2⎠

⎝

R :=

Mu

= 1.058⋅ MPa

2

0.9⋅ b⋅ d

ρ := 0.85⋅

f'c ⎛

⋅ 1−

fy ⎜

1 − 2⋅

⎝

R ⎞

= 0.00271

0.85⋅ f'c ⎟

⎠

⎞

⎛

f'c

⎜ 0.25MPa⋅

⎟

MPa 1.4MPa ⎟

⎜

ρmin := max

,

= 0.0035

⎜

fy

fy ⎟

⎝

⎠

(

)

2

As := max ρ , ρmin ⋅ b⋅ d = 15.624⋅ cm

⎞

⎛ As0

sB := Floor ⎜

, 10mm⎟ = 150⋅ mm

As

⎜

⎝

⎟

⎠

b

nB :=

B − 50mm⋅ 2

+ 1 = 11

sB

2

**As_B := nB⋅ As0 = 16.933⋅ cm
**

Shrinkage steel reinforcement

2

As.t := 0.0018⋅ b⋅ h = 10.08⋅ cm

<

1600

11DB14@150

1600

Page-245-

2

As_B = 16.933⋅ cm

Example 14.2

Required strength

PD := 1794.572kN

PL := 427.5kN

MD := 25.55kN⋅ m

ML := 12.65kN⋅ m

Pile cap depth

H := 1.5m

Column stud

bc := 400mm

hc := 400mm

Material

f'c := 25MPa

fy := 400MPa

Dimension of pile

D := 300mm

Allowable bearing capacity of pile

Qa := 367.8kN

Solution

Effective bearing capacity of soil

Qe := Qa − 20

kN

3

2

⋅ ( 3⋅ D) ⋅ H = 343.5⋅ kN

m

Number of piles

n :=

PD + PL

Qe

= 6.469

Use

n := 7

Location of pile

⎛ −1000 ⎞

⎜ −500 ⎟

⎜

⎟

⎜ −500 ⎟

X := ⎜ 0 ⎟ mm

⎜

⎟

500

⎜

⎟

⎜ 500 ⎟

⎜

⎟

⎝ 1000 ⎠

⎛ 0 ⎞

⎜ 750 ⎟

⎜

⎟

⎜ −750 ⎟

Y := ⎜ 0 ⎟ mm

⎜

⎟

750

⎜

⎟

⎜ −750 ⎟

⎜

⎟

⎝ 0 ⎠

**Dimension of pile cap
**

B := ( max( Y) + D) ⋅ 2

L := ( max( X) + D) ⋅ 2

Page-246-

⎛ B ⎞ ⎛ 2100 ⎞

⎜ ⎟=⎜

⎟ ⋅ mm

⎝ L ⎠ ⎝ 2600 ⎠

⎛ −L ⎞

⎜L ⎟

1 ⎜ ⎟

X0 := ⋅ ⎜ L ⎟

2 ⎜ ⎟

−L

⎜ ⎟

⎝ −L ⎠

⎛ −B ⎞

⎜ −B ⎟

⎟

1 ⎜

Y0 := ⋅ ⎜ B ⎟

2 ⎜

B ⎟

⎜ ⎟

⎝ −B ⎠

Pile Locations

2

1

−2

−1

0

1

−1

−2

Reaction of pile

Pu := 1.2PD + 1.6PLMu := 1.2MD + 1.6ML

ORIGIN := 1

n := rows ( X)

i := 1 .. n

Ri :=

Pu

n

+

n=7

Mu⋅ Xi

n

∑

( Xk) 2

k=1

Page-247-

2

⎛ 388.389 ⎞

⎜ 396.872 ⎟

⎜

⎟

396.872

⎜

⎟

⎜

R = 405.355 ⎟ ⋅ kN

⎜

⎟

413.839

⎜

⎟

⎜ 413.839 ⎟

⎜

⎟

⎝ 422.322 ⎠

Ultimate bearing capacity of pile

Qu := Qa⋅

Pile :=

1.2⋅ PD + 1.6PL

PD + PL

= 469.664⋅ kN

"is OK." if max( R) ≤ Qu

Pile = "is OK."

**"is not good." otherwise
**

Depth of pile cap

h := 750mm

d := h − ⎛⎜ 50mm + 20mm +

⎝

Punching shear from the face of column distane

20mm ⎞

⎟ = 670⋅ mm

2 ⎠

d

= 335⋅ mm

2

Graphs

2

1

−2

−1

0

1

−1

−2

**critical section of two-way shear
**

Vu := Qu⋅ 6 = 2817.985⋅ kN

Page-248-

2

Punching shear strength

(

)

b0 := bc + d + hc + d ⋅ 2 = 4.28 m

d = 670⋅ mm ϕ := 0.75

β :=

hc

bc

=1

αs := 40

for interior

⎡⎡

⎤⎤

f'c

⎢⎢

⎥⎥

0.33MPa⋅

⋅ b0⋅ d

MPa

⎢⎢

⎥⎥

⎢⎢

⎥⎥

f'c

2

ϕVc := ϕ⋅ min ⎢⎢ 0.17⋅ ⎛⎜ 1 + ⎞⎟ MPa⋅

⋅ b0⋅ d ⎥⎥

⎢⎢

⎥⎥

MPa

⎝ β⎠

⎢⎢

⎥⎥

α

⋅

d

f'

⎛

⎞

⎢⎢

⎥⎥

s

c

⎢⎢ 0.083⋅ ⎜ b + 2⎟ MPa⋅ MPa ⋅ b0⋅ d ⎥⎥

⎣⎣

⎝ 0

⎠

⎦⎦

ϕVc = 3548.655⋅ kN

The_Cap :=

**"is not punching" if ϕVc ≥ Vu
**

"is punching" otherwise

**The_Cap = "is not punching"
**

Beam shears or one way shear from the face of column distance d = 670⋅ mm

2

1

−2

−1

0

1

−1

−2

**critical section of beam shear
**

Page-249-

2

Vu1 := Qu⋅ 1 = 469.664⋅ kN

Vu2 := Qu⋅ 2 = 939.328⋅ kN

**Beam shear strengths
**

ϕVc1 := 0.75⋅ 0.17MPa⋅

f'c

⋅ B⋅ d = 896.962⋅ kN

MPa

ϕVc2 := 0.75⋅ 0.17MPa⋅

f'c

⋅ L⋅ d = 1110.525⋅ kN

MPa

The_Cap :=

**"is not beam shear" if ϕVc1 ≥ Vu1 ∧ ϕVc2 ≥ Vu2
**

"is beam shear" otherwise

**The_Cap = "is not beam shear"
**

- Steel reinforcements in direction L = 2.6 m

b := B = 2.1 m

d = 670⋅ mm

Ru := max( R)

Mx :=

for i ∈ 1 ..

rows ( X)

2

continue if Xi = 0

hc ⎞

⎛

Mi ← Ru⋅ ⎜ Xi − ⎟

2⎠

⎝

**⎛⎜ 337.857 ⎟⎞
**

Mx = ⎜ 126.697 ⎟ ⋅ kN⋅ m

⎜ 126.697 ⎟

⎝

⎠

M

Mu1 :=

R1 :=

**∑ Mx = 591.251⋅ kN⋅m
**

Mu1

2

= 0.697⋅ MPa

0.9⋅ b⋅ d

ρ := 0.85⋅

f'c ⎛

⋅ ⎜1 −

fy ⎜

⎝

1 − 2⋅

⎞⎟

= 0.00177

0.85⋅ f'c ⎟

⎠

R1

Page-250-

⎛

f'c

⎞

⎜ 0.25MPa⋅

⎟

MPa 1.4MPa ⎟

⎜

ρmin := max

,

= 0.0035

⎜

fy

fy ⎟

⎝

⎠

(

)

2

**As := max ρ , ρmin ⋅ b⋅ d = 49.245⋅ cm
**

2

π⋅ ( 22mm)

2

As0 :=

= 3.801⋅ cm

4

⎞

⎛ As0

s1 := Floor ⎜

, 10mm⎟ = 160⋅ mm

As

⎜

⎝

n1 := ceil ⎛⎜

⎝

⎟

⎠

b

B − 50mm⋅ 2

+ 1⎞⎟ = 14

s1

⎠

2

Asx := n1⋅ As0 = 53.219⋅ cm

**Top bars (shrinkage reinforcement)
**

2

**As.t := 0.0018⋅ b⋅ h = 28.35⋅ cm
**

As1 :=

π⋅ ( 18mm)

4

2

2

= 2.545⋅ cm

⎞

⎛ As1

st := Floor ⎜

, 10mm⎟ = 180⋅ mm

As.t

⎜

⎝

nt := floor ⎛⎜

⎝

b

⎟

⎠

B − 50mm⋅ 2

+ 1⎞⎟ = 12

st

⎠

**- Steel reinforcements in direction B = 2.1 m
**

b := L = 2.6 m

d = 670⋅ mm

Page-251-

My :=

for i ∈ 1 ..

rows ( Y)

2

⎛⎜ 0 ⎟⎞

My = ⎜ 232.277 ⎟ ⋅ kN⋅ m

⎜ 232.277 ⎟

⎝

⎠

continue if Yi = 0

hc ⎞

⎛

Mi ← Ru⋅ ⎜ Yi − ⎟

2⎠

⎝

M

Mu2 :=

R2 :=

**∑ My = 464.554⋅ kN⋅m
**

Mu2

2

= 0.442⋅ MPa

0.9⋅ b⋅ d

f'c ⎛

ρ := 0.85⋅ ⋅ ⎜ 1 −

fy ⎜

⎞⎟

1 − 2⋅

= 0.00112

0.85⋅ f'c ⎟

⎠

R2

⎝

⎞

⎛

f'c

⎜ 0.25MPa⋅

⎟

1.4MPa

MPa

⎜

⎟

ρmin := max

,

= 0.0035

⎜

fy

fy ⎟

⎝

⎠

(

)

2

As := max ρ , ρmin ⋅ b⋅ d = 60.97⋅ cm

⎞

⎛ As0

s2 := Floor ⎜

, 10mm⎟ = 160⋅ mm

As

⎜

⎝

n2 := ceil ⎛⎜

⎝

b

⎟

⎠

L − 50mm⋅ 2

+ 1⎟⎞ = 17

s2

⎠

2

Asy := n2⋅ As0 = 64.623⋅ cm

**Top bars (shrinkage reinforcement)
**

2

As.t := 0.0018⋅ b⋅ h = 35.1⋅ cm

⎞

⎛ As1

st := Floor ⎜

, 10mm⎟ = 180⋅ mm

As.t

⎜

⎝

b

⎟

⎠

Page-252-

nt := floor ⎛⎜

⎝

B − 50mm⋅ 2

+ 1⎞⎟ = 12

st

⎠

2

1

−2

−1

0

−1

−2

Bottom Steel Bar

Page-253-

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- Pile Foundation Design
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