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native to Malaysia and north into Burma. There are actually two subspecies. Manouria emys emys and Manouria emys phayrei. The southern subspecies M. e. emys (Asian brown tortoise or emys for short) is the smaller of the two and should not be hibernated. The northern subspecies M. emys phayrei or Burmese mountain tortoise can grow to over 25 - inches and can be hibernated (between 40 and 50 degrees for about 3 months) but it doesn't seem necessary for reproduction. M. e. phayrei is very difficult to sex and probably isn't sexually mature until about 15 inches or more (none of my females produced eggs until they were over 16 inches). M. e. emys may be mature at 12 to 14 inches. Most of my experience is with M. e. phayrei. To determine what subspecies check the pectoral scutes. In M. e. emys the pectorals extend less than half way from the "arm pit" toward the center of the plastron. In M. e. phayrei the pectorals extend from the "arm pit" all the way to the center of the plastron and abut the pectoral from the other side. It seems that this species needs a large area with sunny and shady areas (they are very particular about where they want to nest so need a lot of area to choose from). I would give them as much area as you can. They may not use the entire area but at least they will have the option to choose a nesting site. A pen that is at least 2,500 square feet my be necessary. They can be kept in an area much smaller than this but you might not get nesting. I don't have any idea how small an area a female needs. If you see that a female isn't satisfied with the place she has (nests are not completed) then give them more space. There needs to be lots of debris and plant material for nest building, and their pen should not be disturbed once nesting begins. They also like to hide under debris such as mulch and leaves. They also enjoy a large shallow pond of water. They can be fed most vegetables and a little fruit. Mine will graze on the grass a little and have been seen stripping bark from trees in their yard. They will readily take animal protein but I don't know how much they take in the wild and whether or not this should be excluded from their diet. Once they have been treated for parasites they tend to do very well and are a very nice tortoise. By Richard Fife