GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS

GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS
Third Edition

®

NEW YORK

Copyright © 2006 Learning Express, LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Grammar essentials—3rd ed. p. cm. Rev. ed. of: Grammar essentials / Judith F. Olson, 2nd ed. c2000. ISBN 1-57685-541-4 1. English language—Grammar—Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. LearningExpress (Organization) II. Title. PE1112.O43 2006 428.2—dc22 2006000600 Printed in the United States of America 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Third Edition For information on LearningExpress, other LearningExpress products, or bulk sales, please call or write to us at: LearningExpress 55 Broadway 8th Floor New York, NY 10006

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CONTENTS Introduction: How to Use This Book 1 The Right Way to Write 2 What Is a Sentence. Anyway? 3 Filling Out Sentence Fragments 4 Putting a Stop to Going On and On 5 Good Beginnings. Good Endings 6 Comma Sense 7 More Jobs for Commas 8 Getting Fancy with Semicolons and Colons 9 Controlling Quotation Marks 10 The Mysteries of Apostrophes and Dashes 11 The Finer Points of Punctuation 12 Verbs That Follow the Rules 13 Rebellious Verbs 14 Don’t Be Tense about Verbs 15 Making Subjects and Verbs Agree 16 Beating the Pronoun Odds 17 Problem Verbs and Pronouns 18 Modifier Etiquette 19 Tricky Words 20 More Tricky Words Conclusion Grammar IQ Final Exam and Answers Appendix A: Two-Word Verbs Appendix B: Additional Resources vii 1 11 17 25 37 49 57 67 75 83 91 99 109 119 127 139 149 159 171 183 191 193 203 207 v .

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INTRODUCTION How to Use This Book people enjoy it more than others. usage. you can improve your grasp of grammar. This book covers the basics of writing: punctuation. No one is born playing the piano. and people who are good at it study and practice it. but anyone can do it if he or she wants. and plenty of opportunities for you to practice the skills. Each chapter contains a Grammar IQ Quiz. If you’re interested in learning about writing and in becoming a better writer. lots of examples that illustrate the grammatical rules. each of which you can complete in 20 minutes. Some vii . this book will help you demystify and acquire the coveted power of the pen. There’s no fluff here. The same goes for writing. In 20 chapters. this book is for busy people who want to learn as much as they can as efficiently as possible. and diction. W riting is a lot like playing the piano.

Although writing is not instant communication and it doesn’t allow for immediate response and exchange. 2. They look at a blank sheet of paper or an empty computer screen and say. Once words are spoken.” But writing has three distinct advantages over speaking. You could do a chapter each weekday and come out with a better knowledge of grammar in only a month. It lasts. and you’ll probably be a better thinker. these ideas can be reviewed and referred to in their exact. You can make it clear. Another advantage is permanence. I’m afraid it will come out looking wrong and sounding stupid. You can take it back. just sitting down and writing whatever is on your mind helps you discover and organize what you think.INTRODUCTION Many people are afraid of writing. you’ll forget what you’ve learned. If you leave too much time between lessons. writing can be revised until you’ve written the exact words in the exact tone you want. Sometimes. it won’t take long for other people to notice the new and improved you. Even when I know what I want to say. 3. Writing is nothing more than carefully considered thoughts on paper. Or you may want to do more or fewer chapters at a time. If you’re having trouble writing. you’ll have much more confidence in your writing. The second advantage is that writing forces you to clarify your thoughts. plan to complete at least two chapters a week. but you may want to take more or less time with each lesson—or more time with chapters you find difficult and less with those you know cold. thoughtful way of communicating. Additionally. “I just don’t know what to write. You should. They’re designed to be completed in 20 minutes a day. written communication can be retracted. however. 1. You may have some wonderful concepts inside your head with no way to get them out where others can see them. This book can help you express your ideas. However. viii . original form. Spoken ideas rely upon the sometimes inaccurate memories of other people. If you practice what you’ve learned. Develop your own plan for completing the 20 chapters in this book. Ideas presented in writing carry far more weight than spoken ideas. you can never unspeak them. it’s usually because you’re not yet finished with the thinking part. By the time you finish this book. It’s a more careful. Many great ideas and observations are never born because their creators don’t express them.

GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS .

This is the policy to which we have been referring. is the better choice because the language is less colloquial. 4a. 5a. 5b. 1a. It has been discussed at great length by the board members that vacation time be increased from two weeks to three for employees who have been with the company for three years. 3a. 2a. The CEO has been informed by your supervisor that you are not on board with the spending plans that have been made for the company's upcoming fiscal year. It was agreed upon by the editorial department that Maria would lead all meetings with the design team for the purpose of avoiding a “too many cooks spoil the broth” situation. 3a. and is less wordy and colloquial. is a better choice because it states the idea more clearly using fewer words. 2b. We have been referring to this policy. and uses the active voice.CHAPTER 1 GRAMMAR IQ QUIZ Which of the following sentences would be more appropriate in a business communication? The answers and explanations follow the quiz. and contains no colloquialisms. 3b. 4b. is a better choice because it is not wordy. Answers 1b. Your supervisor informed the CEO that you do not support the company's spending plans for the upcoming fiscal year. The board members have seriously discussed increasing vacation time from two weeks to three for employees who have been with the company for three years. is the better choice because it is written in the active voice. 1b. In order to avoid confusion. Josh is indecisive. 2b. 4b. 5a. is less wordy. Josh is wishy-washy. the editorial department delegated Maria to lead all meetings with the design team. is the better choice because it is written in the active voice. .

one that can’t be changed by rephrasing the words the way you can in a conversation. wordiness.CHAPTER 1 W THE RIGHT WAY TO WRITE Sometimes.) • passive voice—a sentence in which the subject (underlined) receives the action of the verb (The letter was read by John.) ritten language makes a permanent impres- sion. Grammar concepts to know: • colloquial [ka LOW kwee ‘l]. informal language. What kind of an impression will it make? 1 . This chapter discusses the difference between spoken and written English. and precise language. the words we use when we speak aren’t effective when we use them in writing. Take a look at the note on the following page. colloquialism [ka LOW kwee ‘l izm]—an informal word or phrase used in conversation. That’s why it’s important to think carefully before you write. but not appropriate for business communication or other formal writing • active voice—a sentence in which the subject (underlined) is performing the action of the verb (John read the letter.

Write everything you have to say about one subject before moving on to the next. Incomplete Sentences Quite often. Switching subjects requires time and mental energy. there’s no sense in the rest of us getting panicky about it. supervisor. Seems like Jack has been chosen by the top dogs to head up the entire moving process with all its various aspects.C. Keep you from getting in a tizzy about this whole moving thing. Avoid these things in written communication. We count on our tone of voice and our expression or the reaction of the listener to fill in the spaces. Link subjects together to make it easier for a reader to go from one idea to another. Due to the fact that he hasn’t started doing a thing yet. SPOKEN ENGLISH VERSUS WRITTEN ENGLISH Many of the speaking patterns we use are not suitable in business writing. Sudden Subject Changes In everyday conversation. we switch subjects easily. In writing.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Manny. it’ll get done. See Chapter 15 on making subjects agree with verbs. Got your note today. if you listen to a conversation. they are confusing and inappropriate when you are writing to a customer. 2 . See Chapter 3 to learn how to avoid sentence fragments. we use fragments when we speak. Thought I’d get right back to you. or employer. Two speakers can exchange far more information in two minutes than a reader can absorb in the same time period. this isn’t possible. For example. That’s why it’s important to use the reader’s time efficiently. sudden subject changes. or abbreviated versions of words and phrases. so it’s important to write complete sentences that express complete thoughts. Although these expressions are common in casual conversation. It’s still kinda early to pack stuff for the move cause the new building isn’t even done yet. Don’t freak out. J. you might hear incomplete sentences. Might as well wait til it is.

A friendly. Write out the complete word in any written communication if you want to be taken seriously. Compare the following paragraphs. Spoken Version Written Version cause. too. pulled it off. A few 3 . a more formal tone is better for business communication. These words and phrases are widely used in conversations between friends. Following is a list of words frequently used in speech. four (not 4) to. Seems like every time we turn around something else comes up.THE RIGHT WAY TO WRITE Abbreviated Words Many words we use in conversation are not used when we write. Today was one of those days. however. If you received these two memos from your employees. however. real good. the written versions are different. colloquial tone is fine in a personal letter. even if it seems simpler or more efficient. but in business writing. they portray an attitude of familiarity that may cause your message to be taken less seriously than you intended or even insult your reader. etc. two (not 2) and (not &) extra (not x-tra) COLLOQUIALISMS [ka • LOW • kwee • ‘I • izmz] Colloquialisms are informal words and phrases such as in a bind. cuz coulda gonna hafta kinda shoulda sorta til wanna woulda because could have going to have to kind of should have sort of until want to would have Symbols instead of Words Don’t use symbols in place of words. which would you take more seriously? We’re really in a bind on our end.

They’re going to live it up tonight. The colloquial sentences in the first column are rewritten in the second column using more standard language. Today was a difficult day because several employees who stayed out late last night were unable to make it to work on time. I don’t have that much of a chance. Since we were shorthanded. It looks like they’ll be late. The cake was real good. Rosa got there in time. Leah had one of those days. Ben tired of waiting. Rodney can’t make up his mind. We’re having trouble meeting our quota as new problems keep arising. They’re going to celebrate tonight. This is really ticking me off. I don’t have a very good chance. Rosa arrived in time. I just don’t understand. We’re in trouble.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS of the guys who decided to live it up last night couldn’t get over it this morning. I’m awful thirsty. The following sets of sentences illustrate the difference between colloquial and standard diction. This is extremely upsetting. I like to spend time with her. The Knicks succeeded. Robin will watch things. Leah had a difficult day. 4 . We’re in a bind. Kip conveyed the wrong idea. Robin will keep an eye on things. How come you’re leaving? What for? I see where you’re coming from. It looks as if (or as though) they’ll be late. Ben got sick of waiting. I just don’t get it. Jill got the order. The Knicks pulled it off. Rodney can’t decide. The cake was very (or quite) good. The car works well. Because we were shorthanded. Jill received the order. I’m very (or quite or extremely) thirsty. Drew postponed it until tomorrow. Colloquial Standard The car works real good. I like to pal around with her. we didn’t come close to our daily quota. Why are you leaving? Why? I understand your point. Kip got the wrong idea across. we missed our quota. Drew put it off till tomorrow.

5 . If you use five words where three would do. kind. making your sentences as concise as possible. current. [9 words] Wordy: It was decided that the club would organize a committee for the purpose of conducting a search for a new chairperson. and forms. type. Wordy: It was a twenty-minute period of time after the accident had occurred when the emergency vehicles arrived to lend assistance. Buzzwords and Fluff Buzzwords are words that sound important but don’t add much meaning to writing. also may add length to a sentence. but like buzzwords. significant.. but they may also distort the message or make it difficult to understand. They include words such as aspect. situation. factor. [21 words] Revised: The club organized a committee to search for a new chairperson. Wordy: The nature of the scheduling system is a very important matter that can definitely have a really significant impact on the morale aspect of an employee’s attitude. etc. delete the extra words or structure your sentences to avoid them. Read the following examples. scope. really. All they do is take up space. [21 words] Revised: The emergency vehicles arrived twenty minutes after the accident. Aspects of our current scheduling policy make it absolutely necessary that we undergo a significant change. Fluff words such as absolutely. very. definitely. [11 words] The additional words add no information. quite. important. major. Get in the habit of streamlining your writing. Revised: The scheduling system can affect employee morale. element.THE RIGHT WAY TO WRITE WORDINESS Not only do extra words waste space and time. Our policy needs to be changed. they seldom add meaning.

the subject receives the action. Passive: Jeff and Dara were rejected by the board because they did not meet all of the requirements outlined in the guidelines. Passive: The non-profit agency was not given funds by the foundation this year due to a lack of private donations. Wordy Concise puzzling in nature of a peculiar kind at this point in time at that point in time regardless of the fact that due to the fact that in order to by means of of an indefinite nature exhibits a tendency to concerning the matter of in connection with in the event that in relation to puzzling peculiar now. the foundation did not give the non-profit agency any funds this year. 6 . the subject of a sentence is the source of the action in the sentence.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Wordy Phrases The following table lists several phrases that can be reduced to one or two words. In the passive voice. In the active voice. today then although because to by indefinite tends to about with if with Some wordiness is created by using the passive voice. Active: The board rejected Jeff and Dara because they did not meet all of the requirements outlined in the guidelines. Active: Due to a lack of private donations.

The following table illustrates stretched sentences rewritten to be more concise. The distressed musicians left the hall. There are new problems arising daily. The musicians. These requests will be considered by us on an individual basis. We came early and found great seats. New problems arise daily. Alex seems impatient. who were distressed. Choose words to help you transmit an exact meaning. We must know what it is that we are doing.THE RIGHT WAY TO WRITE Writers sometimes stretch their sentences by using unnecessary words. 7 . My last evaluation was not fair. In other words. Due to the fact that we were early. We’ll consider these requests individually. PRECISE LANGUAGE Work to make your writing as precise as possible. left the hall. The consideration given in the latest evaluation is an example of how I was treated unfairly. We must know what we’re doing. you will make your writing more concise. In doing so. you will communicate your meaning more effectively while using fewer words. Stretched Sentence Concise Sentence Alex seems to be impatient. we found great seats.

chatting. Jack is in charge of organizing the entire process.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Imprecise Precise Homer managed the project. Dear Manny. I like to have fun at the company picnic. We need to put away the supplies and shower before we go. I can never get this truck started. These disorganized. I’ll let you know as soon as Jack begins work on the move. This is a good proposal. However. Then turn back to this page and read the memo below as an example of one way of rewriting it. Homer organized the staff and monitored their progress. and swimming at your house. I’m replying to your note about packing to move to the new building. Richard understands Patty’s position. Richard can relate to Patty. We need to clean up before we go. I’m sure that if we’re patient. eliminating wordiness. We enjoyed eating. everything will turn out fine. Try to rewrite it by revising colloquial and informal language. REVIEW Remember the memo at the beginning of this chapter? Go back and read it again. This proposal explains the problem and suggests a solution. vague instructions left me with no idea how to fix the stool. I always have trouble with this machine. Melody doesn’t handle people well. and using precise language. We had a nice time with you. You can do this in many ways. J. and play games at the company picnic. These bad instructions confused me. since the building is not yet finished. mingle. he hasn’t started the process yet. Melody yells at and insults coworkers. 8 . Don’t worry. I like to eat.C.

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). compound—the sentence contains two independent clauses (I ordered the cheesecake. 4. . Erika designed the house. and Toya ordered the ice cream sundae.).). and Paul furnished it. Marcus cut them into small pieces for the stew. compound—the sentence contains two independent clauses (Erika designed the house.CHAPTER 2 GRAMMAR IQ QUIZ Tell whether the following sentences are compound or complex. 5. complex—the sentence contains a dependent clause (Every time I hear that song) and an independent clause (I think of my birthday party). 5. but Alec preferred to play tennis. Every time I hear that song. 2. Alec preferred to play tennis. I wanted to go swimming. Answers and explanations follow the quiz. compound—the sentence contains two independent clauses (I wanted to go swimming. 3. I ordered the cheesecake. 1. complex—the sentence contains a dependent clause (After I peeled the potatoes) and an independent clause (Marcus cut them into small pieces for the stew). 3. Answers 1. Paul furnished it. I think of my birthday party. After I peeled the potatoes. Toya ordered the ice cream sundae. 4. 2.

This chapter will help you learn to write a complete. coherent sentence.CHAPTER 2 A WHAT IS A SENTENCE. 11 . thing. Mastering this chapter will give you the key to mastering everything else in this book—and in your writing! Grammar concepts to know: • subject—the part of a sentence that names the person. or idea • predicate—the part of a sentence that contains “the verb that tells” • clause—a groups of words with a subject and a predicate • independent clause—a clause that can stand alone and express a complete thought • dependent clause—a clause that needs an independent clause to complete its meaning • complex sentence—a sentence containing an independent clause and a dependent clause • compound sentence—a sentence containing two or more independent clauses sentence is the basic unit of thought in the English language. ANYWAY? This chapter teaches you about the basic unit of communication in the English language: the sentence.

It also expresses a complete thought. young pilot The newspaper article Practice Read the following sentences. which is a noun or pronoun. The snow is falling. or idea is called the subject. Every complete subject contains a simple subject. 1. thing. A loud argument The worried. underline the complete subject. 12 . My severe stomachache seemed better at the doctor’s office. with the simple subjects in bold. worried pilot read the storm warning. thing. Then circle the simple subject.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS THE PARTS OF A SENTENCE A sentence has both a subject and a predicate and expresses a complete thought. thing. or idea the sentence is about. Our new mail carrier slipped on the ice this morning. 3. The complete subjects are highlighted in each of the following sentences. or idea and all of its modifiers. The newspaper article mentioned our newest menu item. The Subject The part of the sentence that names the person. This is a sentence because it names a thing (snow) and tells us something about it (that it is falling). The subject can be one word or several words. In each one. or the person. The complete subject consists of the person. read the following. For example. or idea the sentence is about. 2. such as adjectives and adverbs. It is the word that names the person. thing. The simple subject. is the most important word in the complete subject. The young. Look at the complete subjects highlighted in the previous sentences. A loud argument broke out at the game. Which word is the most important in each complete subject? The simple subjects are highlighted below. you will find the complete subjects. The longest. dreariest road lies between the Nebraska borders. At the end of the chapter.

The young.WHAT IS A SENTENCE. The purple curtain ripped at the seams. Which word shows action or helps to make the statement about the subject? The simple predicates are highlighted below. Look at the complete predicates highlighted in the sentences above. Then circle the simple predicate. The complete predicate consists of the verb and all of its modifiers. My neighbor rarely complains about snow. This is called a compound subject. Dawson is our most difficult customer. The predicate can be one word or several words. Every complete predicate also contains a simple predicate. COMPOUND SUBJECTS AND PREDICATES A sentence can have more than one subject joined by and. In each one. with the simple predicates in bold. 13 . or nor that shares the same verb. or the word that shows action or helps to make a statement about the subject. The newspaper article mentioned our newest menu item. broke out at the game read the storm warning mentioned our newest menu item is our most difficult customer rarely complains about snow Practice Read the following sentences. The compound subjects are highlighted in the following examples. underline the complete predicate. or. 6. 4. At the end of the chapter. The complete predicates are highlighted in each of the following sentences. Dotted print backgrounds are difficult to read. Our president always buys some of our competitor’s products. ANYWAY? The Predicate The part of the sentence that contains the verb that explains something about the subject is called the predicate. you will find the complete predicates. worried pilot read the storm warning. 5. or verb. Mrs. A loud argument broke out at the game. The simple predicate is the word that shows action or helps to make a statement about the subject.

The predicates may be joined by and. or. also known as subordinate clauses. because they express a complete thought. When I saw the snow was falling 14 . but it didn't hurt as badly as I thought it would. When this happens. Dependent Clauses Dependent clauses. for. A sentence can also have a compound predicate: more than one simple predicate that shares the same subject. They are dependent on independent clauses. Horace called his supervisor and asked for a meeting. Independent Clauses Independent clauses are groups of words in a sentence that can stand alone. or nor. or. The simple sentence consists of one independent clause: The snow is falling. The independent clauses are underlined in the following sentences. I don't like brussels sprouts. Dimitri wrote a letter and sent it to the personnel department. Hannah and Terri are the shift supervisors in this department. My dentist pulled my wisdom teeth. yet). Sometimes. and she took it. and my sister doesn't either. are groups of words in a sentence that have a subject and predicate but can’t stand alone because they don’t express a complete thought. which is known as a compound sentence. nor. more than one independent clause is included in the same sentence. CLAUSES Like sentences. clauses are groups of words that have a subject and a predicate. so. but. I gave her good advice. or joining word (and.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Horace and Beth both asked for a promotion. the clauses are separated by a comma and a conjunction. Clauses are either independent or dependent.

These are known as complex sentences. ripped at the seams 5. Our new mail carrier 3. I found my hat. 12. Whenever the weather forecasters predict rain. 9. and the new programs finally arrived. the sun shines. 12. Whenever the weather forecasters predict rain. 11. and I mailed your letter. 7. 15 . ANYWAY? An independent clause can complete the thought: When I saw the snow falling. 11. and the new programs finally arrived.WHAT IS A SENTENCE. always buys some of our competitor’s products 6. Even though I couldn’t afford the house anymore. Check your work with the answers that follow. 10. dreariest road 4. I found my hat. and I mailed your letter. Answers 1. In the following sentence. I called Tom again. I put on my heavy coat when I saw the snow was falling. Believing that the pages were in the right order. I went for a walk today. The longest. I wanted to renew my lease on it. I mailed the manuscript. Practice Underline the independent clauses in the following sentences. In the box sitting underneath the desk. 9. the sun shines. In the box sitting underneath the desk. Sometimes. 8. I went for a walk today. 8. are difficult to read 7. Even though I couldn’t afford the house anymore. I mailed the manuscript. My severe stomachache 2. I called Tom again. I went to get my snow shovel. Believing that the pages were in the right order. 10. I wanted to renew my lease on it. sentences are made up of one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. the independent clause is in bold and the dependent clause is underlined.

3. 4. A small studio with a view of the park. Although it had already started to rain. fragment—although the group of words contains a subject (it) and a verb (had started). . sentence—the group of words contains a subject (Ori) and a verb (received). Ori received the highest grade on the math final. Answers and explanations follow the quiz. fragment—the group of words contains no verb. 4. the word Although makes it a dependent clause that does not express a complete thought. 5. Across the street. 2. 1. 3. Answers 1. Stringing her new tennis racquet. fragment—the group of words contains neither a subject nor a verb.CHAPTER 3 GRAMMAR IQ QUIZ Determine whether the following groups of words are sentences or fragments. fragment—the group of words contains no subject. 5. 2.

punctuated as a sentence. Grammar concepts to know: • fragment—a group of words. Sentence fragments—incomplete sentences—are popular tools for advertisers. Before the sentence is done. rather than complete sentences. The memo on the following page is nearly impossible to understand because the writer uses incomplete sentences.CHAPTER 3 I FILLING OUT SENTENCE FRAGMENTS Don’t stop. you’ll be able to recognize and correct incomplete sentences in your writing. By the time you finish this chapter. or sentence fragments. we write in complete sentences because they accurately communicate our ideas. 17 . that does not express a complete thought • subordinating conjunction—a joining word that creates a dependent clause n the English language. Bob has no idea what Bart needs. but they have no place in your writing for work or school. A wellwritten sentence leaves little room for confusion.

Sometimes. Before we went on to the next project Whenever this company changes its policies If the road is too icy for traffic Read the following examples carefully. When this happens. (Independent clause: sentence) If I left an hour later than normal (Dependent clause: fragment) When our group finished its report (Dependent clause: fragment) Our group finished its report. The subject in each dependent clause is in bold. or subordinate. and the verb is underlined. (Independent clause: sentence) Whenever Rita tried to explain herself (Dependent clause: fragment) Rita tried to explain herself. it needs an independent clause to support it. Been a problem already. while dependent clauses can’t stand alone because they do not express a complete thought. The subjects are highlighted and the verbs are underlined in each example. I left an hour later than normal. Bart REVIEW In the last chapter. Think it’s got something wrong with the alternator. Can you fix this? Need it before the convention next week. their meaning is incomplete. Any group of words that is punctuated as a sentence but does not express a complete thought is called a sentence fragment.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Bob. You remember. Read the following groups of words. Even though they contain a subject and a verb. DEPENDENT CLAUSES AS SENTENCE FRAGMENTS A dependent. you learned that independent clauses can stand alone. clause cannot stand by itself as a sentence. they are considered sentence fragments. They illustrate the difference between an independent clause and a dependent clause. Can’t get this to work. dependent clauses are mistakenly used in the place of complete sentences. (Independent clause: sentence) 18 .

The groups of words are the same. Here is a list of some of the words that can be used as subordinating conjunctions: after if though where although once unless wherever as since until while because than when before that whenever Sometimes. something more is needed to complete the thought. read the previous examples carefully. Notice that each dependent clause is longer than the independent clause. but the dependent clauses have an extra word at the beginning. we left for lunch. a subordinating conjunction is a phrase rather than a single word: as if she could read my mind as though he had been playing for years as long as he can figure this out as soon as they get here even though it is getting dark in order to learn another language so that you can spend a semester abroad Make complete sentences out of the following fragments by adding an independent clause to each subordinate clause: When the mayor runs for re-election. Notice that each sentence now has both an independent and a dependent clause. If I left an hour later than normal. 19 . clause in some way. each of those fragments has been rewritten to express a complete thought. I missed my favorite talk show. In the sentences that follow.FILLING OUT SENTENCE FRAGMENTS Subordinating Conjunctions Again. Whenever Rita tried to explain herself. These words are called subordinating conjunctions. and join it with a dependent clause. or subordinate. The dependent clauses are in bold and the independent clauses are underlined in each sentence. When our group finished its report. because they modify a dependent. If a group of words that would normally be a complete sentence is preceded by a subordinating conjunction. she confused her words.

Emily sat on the sofa. The class was ready for the next step. PHRASES AS SENTENCE FRAGMENTS Dependent clauses are only one type of sentence fragment. According to the teacher. a few extra words must be added to incorporate the phrase into the rest of the sentence. Check your work with the corrected sentences at the end of the chapter. Practice Combine the following word pairs into a complete sentence. Wondering what to do next. With some of the word pairs. wondering what to do next. With others.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Although it seems complicated. Watching the sky. Combining the two sets of words in each pair will make one complete sentence. I greeted my grandmother. The other group of words in each pair is a fragment. See if you notice any similarities among the groups of words that are fragments. the picnickers saw the air show. Read the following word groups. In each pair choose the group of words that expresses a complete thought. there is more than one way to combine the word groups. I greeted my grandmother. Often. Watching the sky. The picnickers saw the air show. Since she was visiting for the first time in years. the class was ready for the next step. 20 . The following examples demonstrate how this is done. While I was doing my homework. These fragments are made up of phrases: groups of words that do not contain a subject or a predicate and do not complete a thought. Emily sat on the sofa. Visiting for the first time in years. only a comma is needed. According to the teacher.

And looked for a parking spot. The next train will be arriving. And noticed an old classmate in the crowd scene. And noticed an old classmate in the crowd scene. They used a fog machine to create the effect of smoke. 4. 21 . And looked for a parking spot. Jane ate the casserole. See if you can decide which word group expresses a complete thought. In the pond outside our building.FILLING OUT SENTENCE FRAGMENTS 1. They refused to pay the bill in full. We saw the movie. In the pond outside our building. Faulty equipment and poor workmanship. Faulty equipment and poor workmanship. but it is written as a separate sentence. Separated Fragments Sometimes. The fans drove all over the downtown area. Canadian geese have built a nest. Read each of the following word groups. Five minutes from now. Send your news on letterhead stationery. The judge ran out of patience. They refused to pay the bill in full. Canadian geese have built a nest. 2. a fragment is part of a complete sentence. The fans drove all over the downtown area. the other is a fragment. Try combining the examples yourself. one is a complete sentence. To represent your company. Combining the two sets of words in each pair makes both sets part of a complete sentence. The following set of words in bold represent a complete sentence. In each pair. 3. 5. Not long before the last witness had testified. We saw the movie. Not liking it one bit. One from an Army surplus store.

7. Bart regularly uses a riding lawn mower. In the pond outside our building. The fans drove all over the downtown area and looked for a parking spot. Before the part stops working completely. When the mower is jump-started. • • • • • • • • • • Bart is part of the grounds crew for a convention center. it made no difference at all. They refused to pay the bill in full because of faulty equipment and poor workmanship. The alternator was replaced with a rebuilt one. If the word group is a sentence. but here’s one. think of a way to make it into a complete sentence. 22 . Go back to Bart’s memo at the beginning of the chapter. That camping outside would be fun. Here are the facts concerning Bart’s situation. The biggest event of the year is scheduled to begin in eight days. 9. The mower will not start. REVIEW Read each of the following word groups.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Combined Sentences There’s more than one way to combine sentences. 10. Wishing he were almost anywhere else.” Bart needs a working mower to do his job. Bob sent the mower to be fixed. In the end. Canadian geese have built a nest. The grounds need to look “perfect. 6. the battery does not charge. identify the subject(s) and the verb(s). If the word group is a fragment. The mower broke down three weeks ago. 8. The unidentified man looked like a reporter. We saw the movie and noticed an old classmate in the crowd scene. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter.

The Kern family thought that camping outside would be fun. not liking it one bit. the judge ran out of patience. Steve moaned and hung his head.FILLING OUT SENTENCE FRAGMENTS Try rewriting Bart’s memo. 6. When we jump-start it. the subjects have been bolded and the verbs underlined. Sentence. 4. They used a fog machine from an Army surplus store to create the effect of smoke. only one is printed. 3. The next train will be arriving five minutes from now. In some answers. we should order a replacement. Sentence. We need this fixed right away if we’re going to be ready for the convention next week. The unidentified man looked like a reporter. 9. Not long before the last witness had testified. Bob. Would you please see that the mower gets fixed? Thank you. 23 . Five minutes from now. In the end. Before the part stops working completely. 10. 1. Bart Answers Keep in mind that there are many ways to correct a fragment. Wishing he were almost anywhere else. The judge ran out of patience not long before the last witness had testified. I think the alternator is broken again. Send your news on letterhead stationery to represent your company. 8. Jane ate the casserole. Compare your version to this one. the battery doesn’t charge. 5. 7. In the answers to sentences 7 and 10. it made no difference at all. Jane ate the casserole. The riding lawn mower we put a rebuilt alternator into three weeks ago isn’t starting. Not liking it one bit. 2. the next train will be arriving.

CHAPTER 4 GRAMMAR IQ QUIZ Add punctuation marks wherever needed in the following sentences. Beverly needed some advice. 3. 5. Answers follow the quiz. we’ll never be able to find anything. Scott was running late the traffic was unusually heavy. Scott was running late. Answers 1. they overspent their budget. Beverly needed some advice she was at the end of her rope. otherwise. or Beverly needed some advice. however. The electricians finished on time. 5. she was at the end of her rope. it arrived a day ahead of schedule. the traffic was unusually heavy. 4. or Scott was running late. we’ll never be able to find anything. Otherwise. 2. You may also need to capitalize a word in some of the sentences. She was at the end of her rope. 1. You’ll need to reorganize these files otherwise we’ll never be able to find anything. 3. Mavis delivered the package it arrived a day ahead of schedule. Mavis delivered the package. The electricians finished on time however they overspent their budget. or The electricians finished on time. they overspent their budget. However. You’ll need to reorganize these files. 2. 4. . The traffic was unusually heavy. or Mavis delivered the package. It arrived a day ahead of schedule. or You’ll need to reorganize these files.

In fact. The same thing can happen in writing. that expresses a relationship between clauses ave you heard any of the radio or TV adver- tisements that use speed speakers. you may need to read the memo several times to figure out its meaning. Grammar concepts to know: • run-on sentence—independent clauses that run together without punctuation • comma splice—only a comma separates two independent clauses (a semicolon or a comma followed by a conjunction are required) • conjunctive adverb—an adverb. 25 . Read the memo on the following page. such as however or therefore.CHAPTER 4 H PUTTING A STOP TO GOING ON AND ON This chapter explains how to spot two problems that can keep people from understanding what you write: run-on sentences and comma splices. This chapter shows you how to correct and avoid both of these problems. those people who can utter four or five sentences in five seconds? What they say is difficult for a listener to understand because there is no pause in the sound. doing so will not be easy. Although you can probably understand what it says.

This memo is hard to understand because some of the sentences “run on” without a break. Oded loaded the car. This chapter shows you how to avoid and correct run-on sentences when you write. We call these run-on sentences. Your sentences will be very short. We need someone to look at the switch and we need to order the right size pads and it wouldn’t hurt to see if they can find anything else wrong with this machine I just don’t trust it. The best way to avoid run-on sentences is to practice writing simple sentences.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS To: Arlis Schaffer From: Gerald Lentz Re: New floor buffer Date: March 5. an independent clause is a group of words that could be a complete sentence on its own. When you finish explaining one thought. 2006 The buffer we got last week from Holton Supply has a few problems it doesn’t always start when you flip the switch and it seems a little hesitant like it loses power every once in a while when I’m running it also the pads that came with it don’t fit exactly right they are about an inch too small when the machine runs the outside part of it is not covered and often scratches the floor that’s not good because it takes me forever to work out the scratches that the machine is supposed to avoid making instead of saving me time this machine is costing me more time. Jake unloaded the luggage. but they will also be easy to understand. each explaining one thought. independent clauses are run together as one sentence without being separated by any punctuation (a period. RUN-ON SENTENCES As you know. end the sentence. In a run-on sentence. semicolon. Sandra drove through the storm. Sanjay packed the suitcase. or comma). 26 .

When written correctly. Lissie moved to the suburbs. My paycheck this week is more than I thought it would be. nor. but the clauses have been run together without words or punctuation. My paycheck this week is more than I thought it would be. this kind of sentence. 2. 27 . I've lost three and a half pounds already. I've lost three and a half pounds already. I started a new exercise regime a month ago. I started a new exercise regime a month ago. My paycheck this week is more than I thought it would be now I can buy the computer I've been wanting. The sentences that follow contain more than one independent clause. She still kept in touch with her friends in the city. for. now I can buy the computer I've been wanting. 3. making two simple sentences. is made up of two or more independent clauses. Lissie moved to the suburbs. As discussed in Chapter 2. Lissie moved to the suburbs. By adding a semicolon. but she still kept in touch with her friends in the city. This makes them run-on sentences. I started a new exercise regime a month ago I've lost three and a half pounds already. or. I started a new exercise regime a month ago. By adding a comma and a conjunction (and. Now I can buy the computer I've been wanting. Lissie moved to the suburbs she still kept in touch with her friends in the city.PUTTING A STOP TO GOING ON AND ON Quite often. so). and I've lost three and a half pounds already. which is called a compound sentence. so now I can buy the computer I've been wanting. By adding a period and a capital letter. more than one idea must be presented in a sentence. My paycheck this week is more than I thought it would be. All three of these examples can be corrected quite easily in one of four ways: 1. she still kept in touch with her friends in the city. but. yet. the clauses are separated by conjunctions and/or punctuation.

Correct them so they are no longer run-on. Lissie still kept in touch with her friends in the city although she moved to the suburbs. it is set off by a comma. To do this. The personnel director gave us bonus checks the president shook our hands. Practice Look at each of the following run-on sentences. I've lost three and a half pounds already because I started a new exercise regime a month ago. Sam listens to music when he works it relaxes him. 3. if necessary. Barry took the short cut he ended up lost.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS 4. Because I started a new exercise regime a month ago. I've lost three and a half pounds already. 4. 2. 1. now I can buy the computer I've been wanting. all three sentences have been rewritten in two ways: by putting the dependent clause at the beginning of the sentence and by putting it at the end. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. In these examples. By turning one of the two independent clauses into a dependent clause. 28 . Lissie still kept in touch with her friends in the city. Notice how if the dependent clause comes first. My sweatshirt was ruined I spilled grape juice on it. Since my paycheck this week is more than I thought it would be. Now I can buy the computer I've been wanting since my paycheck this week is more than I thought it would be. No comma is needed if the dependent clause follows the independent clause. Refer to the list of subordinating conjunctions from the last chapter to refresh your memory. you need to add a subordinating conjunction where it best fits in the sentence and reword the sentence. Although she moved to the suburbs. 5. Evelyn signed the work order she gave it to the secretary.

but his wife has long frizzy hair. Klein is bald. 2. called a comma splice. Nancy cooked dinner. for. Mr. so Nancy cooked dinner. Turn one of the clauses into a dependent clause by adding a subordinating conjunction. but. Matthew did the mowing. is unclear for the reader because only a comma is used to separate two independent clauses. Jacob did the raking. if it makes sense to do so. Weldon bought the groceries. 29 . 3. Because Jacob did the raking. After Weldon bought the groceries. Jacob did the raking. Matthew did the mowing. Klein is bald. His wife has long frizzy hair. Nancy cooked dinner. his wife has long frizzy hair. his wife has long frizzy hair. While Mr. nor. Nancy cooked dinner. 4. Klein is bald. so. Matthew did the mowing.PUTTING A STOP TO GOING ON AND ON COMMA SPLICES Another kind of problem sentence. Jacob did the raking. Separate the two clauses into two sentences by replacing the comma with a period and by adding a capital letter. 1. Separate independent clauses with a comma and a conjunction (and. his wife has long frizzy hair. Klein is bald. Nancy cooked dinner. yet). Matthew did the mowing. Klein is bald. Jacob did the raking. Weldon bought the groceries. Comma splices can be fixed in the same ways that run-on sentences can. and Matthew did the mowing. Mr. or. Weldon bought the groceries. Mr. Separate independent clauses with a semicolon. Weldon bought the groceries. Mr.

To correct this kind of comma splice or run-on. wouldn’t support one. and then as though they were conjunctions. John is the recorder. We stopped for lunch then we got back to work. my bank account wouldn’t support one. Unlike conjunctions. he returned in the fall. or put a semicolon between the two main clauses and set the adverb off from the rest of the clause with a comma. 7. I wanted a new sports car. Sid gave demonstrations all summer long. CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS Some run-on sentences and commas splices are created by using words such as however. make two sentences. Mary posted the work schedule. but you can’t move because around in its clause. my bank account wouldn’t support one. therefore. My sister Dorothy thought she was cheated. words such as however. 30 . I wanted a new sports car however my bank account wouldn’t support one. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. Mary heads the search committee.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Practice Read the sentences with comma splices that follow. 6. You can move however around in its clause. therefore. she wanted her money back. I wanted a new sports car. Henry lives across the street. my bank account. we fixed it immediately. 9. However. and then are a special kind of adverb that expresses a relationship between clauses. 8. This kind of adverb. Note that you can move the adverb around within its clause without changing the meaning—which is how you can tell the difference between a conjunctive adverb and a subordinate conjunction. Kent brought the problem to our attention. however. therefore. which simply join words together. however. 10. cannot join two independent clauses the way a conjunction does. he has been there for twenty-five years. I wanted a new sports car. called a conjunctive adverb. Correct them so that each is a correctly written sentence. Peter requested a change.

She therefore wanted her money back. and we need to order the right size pads. and it seems a little hesitant. 1997 The buffer we got last week from Holton Supply has a few problems. this machine is costing me more time. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. she wanted her money back. 31 . Also. so it often scratches the floor.PUTTING A STOP TO GOING ON AND ON My sister Dorothy thought she was cheated. 11. My sister Dorothy thought she was cheated. When the machine runs. We then got back to work. I just don’t trust it. We need someone to look at the switch. 13. the pads that came with it don’t fit exactly right. then we got back to work. They are about an inch too small. Then we got back to work. My sister Dorothy thought she was cheated. It doesn’t always start up when you flip the switch. the outside part of it is not covered. We stopped for lunch. Compare your version with the one printed here. To: Arlis Schaffer From: Gerald Lentz Re: New floor buffer Date: March 5. Instead of saving me time. she therefore wanted her money back We stopped for lunch. These microscope cases are falling apart the lenses of these microscopes however are very durable. Practice Use what you have learned about commas and semicolons to correct the following sentences. Maribeth’s coat was in the cloakroom however she had left an hour ago. Remember the memo from the beginning of the chapter? Go back to it and correct the run-on sentences. A drug test is not required for this job the central office will need your fingerprints however. It wouldn’t hurt to see if they can find anything else wrong with this machine. It loses power every once in a while when I’m running it. That’s not good because it takes me forever to work out the scratches that the machine is supposed to avoid making. We stopped for lunch. therefore. 12.

32 . The president shook our hands. I saw it. and she gave it to the secretary. Barry took the short cut. In each of the following numbered items. Barry took the short cut. She gave it to the secretary. Our surveillance system has cut down on shoplifting. they keep mildew from forming on wet surfaces. Check your version with the ones given at the end of the chapter. I spilled grape juice on my sweatshirt. 3. The personnel director gave us bonus checks while the president shook our hands. The key I had lost. 17. Sam listens to music when he works. 15. After I had read the entire manual. 19. Lying on the floor next to the coffee table. My sweatshirt was ruined because I spilled grape juice on it. Evelyn signed the work order. it arrived at the warehouse around noon. Mr. and it was ruined. Hoping to find my paycheck. Last night my supervisor called. A neighbor of his. 4. Ilya locked the doors we left the building. France introduced me to the speaker. To ask me if I could stay an extra three hours today. and it relaxes him. Because Barry took the short cut. 18. 2. Sam listens to music when he works. rewrite it to make it correct. he ended up lost. I like the new batch of chemicals. run-ons. 16. Evelyn signed the work order before she gave it to the secretary. The personnel director gave us bonus checks. If it is not. Answers 1. I looked in my mailbox. and comma splices. and the president shook our hands.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS REVIEW Here is an opportunity to practice what you have learned about complete sentences. decide whether the group of words is a correctly written sentence or sentences. 23. Jeremy filled the order. It relaxes him. Evelyn signed the work order. Sam listens to music when he works because it relaxes him. I spilled grape juice on it. He ended up lost. 21. 20. My sweatshirt was ruined. 5. 22. sentence fragments. 14. The personnel director gave us bonus checks. and he ended up lost.

It arrived at the warehouse around noon. 11. Henry lives across the street. Kent brought the problem to our attention. I understood how to operate the equipment. Last night my supervisor called to ask me if I could stay an extra three hours today. Sid gave demonstrations all summer long. He returned in the summer. Mr. we fixed it immediately. I like the new batch of chemicals because they keep mildew from forming on wet surfaces. 33 . Mary posted the work schedule. the key I had lost. 20. John is the recorder. she had left an hour ago. 19. John is the recorder. he has been there for twenty-five years. however. and he has been there for twenty-five years. Jeremy filled the order when it arrived at the warehouse around noon. and Peter requested a change. Kent brought the problem to our attention. We fixed it immediately. they keep mildew from forming on wet surfaces. When Kent brought the problem to our attention. I saw it. Peter requested a change. 16. however. a neighbor of his. While Mary heads the search committee. Henry lives across the street. 15. John is the recorder.) 7. 14. Maribeth’s coat was in the cloakroom. however. he returned in the fall. 17. After Sid gave demonstrations all summer long. he returned in the summer. hoping to find my paycheck. After Mary posted the work schedule. Peter requested a change. and he returned in the fall. Mary heads the search committee. Kent brought the problem to our attention. 10. Sid gave demonstrations all summer long. France introduced me to the speaker. Mary heads the search committee. 9. After I had read the entire manual. Mary posted the work schedule. These microscope cases are falling apart. 13. I like the new batch of chemicals. Mary heads the search committee. Henry lives across the street. He has been there for twenty-five years. 18. I looked in my mailbox. Jeremy filled the order.PUTTING A STOP TO GOING ON AND ON 6. and John is the recorder. Mary posted the work schedule. 12. 8. A drug test is not required for this job. and we fixed it immediately. Sid gave demonstrations all summer long. we fixed it immediately. the lenses of these microscopes. the central office will need your fingerprints. are very durable. (This is an example of a situation where adding a subordinating conjunction would not make sense. Peter requested a change.

and we left the building. 34 . We found the lost catalog lying on the floor next to the coffee table.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS 21. Ilya locked the doors after we left the building. Ilya locked the doors. Sentence 23. 22. Ilya locked the doors. We left the building.

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henry drives a jeep cherokee and works at nelson manufacturing 2.CHAPTER 5 GRAMMAR IQ QUIZ Place an end mark (period. D. Bosselman to accommodate our wishes to move to 345 Ingersoll Avenue! . Add capital letters wherever they are needed. question mark. 4. the math course I will be taking is called Industrial Math Applications. bosselman to accommodate our wishes to move to 345 ingersoll avenue Answers 1. did you know that my uncle harry sold his car to aunt edna 5. 1. next year the math course i will be taking is called industrial math applications 4. Answers follow the quiz. When did President Bush climb aboard Air Force One and fly to Washington. Next year.C. Henry drives a Jeep Cherokee and works at Nelson Manufacturing. dc 3. Did you know that my uncle Harry sold his car to Aunt Edna? 5.? 3. exclamation point) after each of the following sentences. 2. when did president bush climb aboard air force one and fly to washington. how nice of mr. How nice of Mr.

are necessary in some sentences. G0OD ENDINGS Now that you know what a sentence is. too. not only for most sentences. This chapter shows you how to use capital letters—and not only those at the beginnings of sentences—as well as periods. question marks. and can provide a little spice to your writing. but also for abbreviations and other uses. it’s a good idea to review how to begin and end one. place. and exclamation points. or thing • proper adjective—an adjective (a word that describes) derived from a proper noun apital letters are necessary beginnings—not only for sentences. Periods are sometimes necessary endings. Question marks and exclamation points. 37 . but also for all kinds of words.CHAPTER 5 C GOOD BEGINNINGS. Grammar concepts to know: • proper noun—the name of a particular person. This chapter helps you master capitalization and punctuation.

but not common nouns. I’d. Four people showed up to volunteer. A skil saw would be nice sometimes one isn’t enough since there are three of us who use it. places. I can pick them up at the store for you. I know I'll be ready for this exam. Sharp is a proper noun because it names a specific brand of microwave. For example.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Read this memo from Mike: I need a New router and a Band saw. She thought that I'd decide to move to California. microwave is a common noun. 38 . I’ve. A common noun refers to a general class of people. Wards has them on sale this week. Proper nouns are capitalized. It is the general name for a kitchen appliance. or a circular saw (sometimes called a skill saw) by Band? This confusion comes up because Mike hasn’t punctuated his memo properly or put capital letters where they belong. If the first word is a number. • Capitalize the pronoun I or any contraction made using I (I’m. place. The rest of the memo leads to nothing but questions: Does he want a band saw made by Skil. write it as a word. CAPITAL LETTERS General Capitalization Rules Here are some rules for capitalization. This is my favorite dish. I’ll). The professor told me that I needed to take a prerequisite before taking his class. A proper noun refers to a specific person. • Capitalize the first word of a sentence. Black and decker is also okay? If you want. or thing. • Capitalize proper nouns. or things. However. common nouns are not. Mike What exactly does Mike want? The first sentence makes it clear that he wants a router and a saw.

1.“You must be Sylvia. or thing—must be capitalized. Proper Nouns All proper nouns—words that name a specific person.” • Do not capitalize the first word of a partial quotation. “what do you think you’re doing?” my Uncle jack asked. The table that follows includes the most common categories of proper nouns.” Practice Check your knowledge of these rules with the following sentences.” as I approached the door. 3. the instructions were clear. 4.” Ari explained. but should not be. place.” i answered. “i’m putting together this gas grill.” “The new edition. Make a diagonal mark through the letters that are capitalized. somewhat surprised. 2.” 5. Remembering which nouns are proper can be difficult. The changes are bolded for you. Check your work with the correct versions of sentences at the end of the chapter. 39 . “will be available in two months. Circle the letters that should be capitalized in each sentence. “Good morning!” I answered. the newspaper said our new owner was “An industrial visionary. GOOD ENDINGS Proper Nouns Common Nouns Tom Georgia Charleston Memorial Labrador Retriever Dell uncle state hospital dog computer • Capitalize the first word of a quotation. after a careful reading. my new Car is a ford mustang. “When will you be finished?” My new neighbor said “Good morning.GOOD BEGINNINGS. i could understand them completely. He called her “the best problem solver alive.

Jeep Cherokee Senator Kennedy. 40 . buildings names of trains. highways. Alaska. Republic of China Locust Avenue. races. Check your work with the corrected versions of the sentences at the end of the chapter. Rotary Club. President Bush Tobacco Road (book) “Harlem” (poem) Italian American. and governmental units streets. Vanguard Airlines Dial soap. April Easter. Empire State Building Lincoln Memorial. Kennedy Center. Raccoon River Luther College. documents special events. Anchorage.S. ships. German. Constitution (document) Chili Cook-Off Mother’s Day Memorial Day Steven Jones. The changes are in bold for you in the answers. Travelers Building Queen Elizabeth. aircraft. calendar events names of people and places names of structures. Passover Revolutionary War (event) Middle Ages (period) U. Asian. and businesses Sunday. Tuesday March. but should not be. nationalities cities. other modes of transportation names of products names of officials works of art and literature ethnic groups. International Date Line Chippewa Forest. circle the letters that should be capitalized in each of the following sentences. Spanish Sioux City. and roads landmarks and geographical locations public areas and bodies of water institutions. Northern Pacific. states. Interstate 80.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Category of Proper Nouns Example days of the week months holidays historical events. Discovery. Bellwether Ford Practice Using these rules. periods. Make a diagonal mark through any letters that are capitalized. languages. organizations. Iowa. Havelin Boulevard Rocky Mountains.

However. 18. direction words that refer to a specific area of the country should be capitalized. 13. Ling applied for admission to the university of Iowa. When I win the lottery. Capitalize them only if they are used as names. or thing. such as English muffin. Proper Adjectives An adjective is a word that describes or tells us more about a person. and French customs. 17. 7. • Avoid unnecessarily capitalizing words that refer to family members. and others speak english. Although Aunt Matilda has arrived. We followed the colorado river to the border of arizona. Father grounded me. Amasu prefers italian dressing on her salad.GOOD BEGINNINGS. 16. 8. shakespeare was the most prolific author of the renaissance. When Not to Capitalize • Avoid unnecessarily capitalizing compass directions. Polish sausage. Additional Security guards will be hired for the white stripes concert. 12. andy began work on thursday. the nelsons spent thanksgiving Day with Relatives. The computer industry flourished in the West. Many proper adjectives refer to a nationality. Practice Circle the letters that should be capitalized in the following sentences. place. 15. 41 . 9. Ammar works for apex construction company. I intend to buy a polynesian island. Direction words are not capitalized unless they specifically refer to a part of the country. GOOD ENDINGS 6. 14. In canada. After my mother lectured me. Most proper adjectives should be capitalized. We were delayed at the canadian border. The convention group caught the amtrak in omaha. Check your work with the corrected versions of the sentences at the end of the chapter. A proper adjective is derived from a proper noun. We headed east to avoid the storm. my Friend jon has two Nephews who fought in iraq 10. my other aunts are late. 11. The changes are bolded for you. april 3. some citizens speak french.

or their comes before the word that refers to a family member. making it a proper name. • Avoid unnecessarily capitalizing school subjects. Make a diagonal mark through any letters that are capitalized but should not be. it is not capitalized. Check your work with the corrected versions of the sentences at the end of the chapter. In fact. not Italian Restaurant Practice Using these rules. We went to a sri lankan Restaurant in minneapolis. 19. Jacob is an outstanding History student.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Look closely at the second example. Father is used in place of the man’s name. I try to avoid science courses because I’m squeamish. Cynthia turned West at the stop sign. They should be capitalized only if they are part of the name of a specific course. circle the letters that should be capitalized in each of the following sentences. 23. • Avoid unnecessarily capitalizing words modified by proper adjectives. The word mother is not capitalized because the word my comes before it. If a word such as my. his. not Polish Sausage Italian restaurant. The great plains are located in the midwest. That is why it is capitalized. The university offers Basic Computing 405 in the spring semester. Marge plants her perennials in the early fall. her. The changes are bolded for you. our. If my Cousin Kathy comes to the picnic. 42 . Nyrupama is taking Biology II next semester. • Avoid unnecessarily capitalizing the seasons of the year or parts of the academic year. Polish sausage. 21. 22. 20. your. I know aunt Jan won’t. no such word comes before Father. However.

• Use a period—not a question mark—at the end of a sentence that asks an indirect question. My boss asked if I had seen her coat. GOOD ENDINGS END PUNCTUATION When to Use Question Marks Use a question mark after a word or a group of words that asks a question. gives an instruction. (indirect question) Have you seen my coat? (direct question) Hayden wanted to know how we knew what to do. Many jobs require a working knowledge of computers. and close the box. Why? Really? Where did you get your hair cut? What time does he get home? Sentences that begin with these words are usually questions: who what when where why how When to Use Periods • Use a period at the end of a sentence that makes a statement. remove item B. The tour bus leaves right after breakfast in the morning.GOOD BEGINNINGS. Open the cover. or states a command. • Use a period at the end of sentence that makes a request. Check the message board before you go home. (indirect question) How did you know what to do? (direct question) 43 . Thomas Jefferson is the most famous American slave owner. Take this to the mailbox before you leave.

Today is colder than yesterday 27. 1. Smith Bros. The patient in room 202 is Ron P. Foyt races cars. belongs to me. and 1st St. Check your work with the corrected versions of the sentences at the end of the chapter. Tolkien. 24. Do you have $4. Do you think we’ll be finished by the end of the day 26. complex at the corner of Woodland Ave.R. (indirect question) Will you help me? (direct question) Practice Place a period or a question mark at the end of each of these sentences. The apt. Martel. • Use a period between dollars and cents. Leave the packages on the counter by the window Other Uses for Periods • Use a period (also called a decimal point) before a decimal. The changes are bolded for you. The plane leaves at 3:17 on Jan. Only 5. When Not to Use Periods • If an abbreviation comes at the end of a sentence. Cyril asked me to find the new order that arrived today 25. • Use a period after an abbreviation.875 liters. 44 . The book was written by J. A.6% of our employees chose vision care. only one period is needed.50 that I can borrow? • Use a period after an initial in a personal name.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Rachel asked if I would help her. When do you plan to order the supplies we need 28.J. is hiring subcontractors for this job. The new paneling costs $45. A gallon equals 3.R.95 a sheet.

gym (gymnasium) exam (examination) auto (automobile) • If an abbreviation has become an acronym. You're kidding! Oh. FBI. Be careful not to overdo them. by 5 in. and arrived at Tampa Bay.GOOD BEGINNINGS. WHO. at 2:23 30. NATO. This trailer was machined at Dee Zee Inc. NASA). The Smiths mailed their tax forms to the IRS. • If an abbreviation has become a commonly used name for something. Velma is scheduled for an MRI at 3:00 this afternoon. The box is 3 in. Fl. My niece works for the CIA. Mr Drish and Dr P M Staplin left for the convention this morning 31. Practice Use what you know about periods to correct these sentences. 45 . or a name widely recognized by its initials (TV. Check your sentences with the corrected sentences at the end of the chapter. Go ahead Explain what you mean When to Use Exclamation Points • Use an exclamation point after an outcry or sentence that expresses strong feeling. 29. no period is needed. no period is needed. The patients’ rooms measured 14 ft by 17 ft 32. The plane left Omaha. The changes are bolded for you. no! That's unbelievable! Be careful! Warning! Exclamation points are a little bit like salt on food. GOOD ENDINGS We delivered the desk to Koch & Co. Neb. I sold my used CD for $3 99 33.

The instructions were clear. one saw isn’t enough since there are three of us who use it. 3. I need a new router and a band saw. when. “What do you think you’re doing?” my uncle Jack asked. Mike Answers 1. 4. A Skil saw would be nice. I can pick them up at the store for you.” 46 . 2. Now his supervisor knows exactly what he wants. “I’m putting together this gas grill. If you want. periods. I’m amazed at how quickly she moved? REVIEW Remember the memo from Mike at the beginning of the chapter? He rewrote it using proper capitalization and endmarks. Will you check this order for me. 34. Help! I can’t breathe? 35.” I answered. How forgetful I am! What a lot of trouble for such a small result! Practice Use what you know about questions marks. why. Those plumbers? Do you know what they did! 38. I got my income tax forms in the mail today! 36. what. and exclamation points to correct these sentences. where. The newspaper said our new owner was “an industrial visionary. Check your work with the corrected versions of the sentences at the end of the chapter. 37. Sometimes. how) but doesn’t ask a question. Black and Decker is also okay.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS • Use an exclamation point after an exclamation that begins with a question word (who. I could understand them completely. Wards has them on sale this week. After a careful reading. The changes are bolded for you.

Shakespeare was the most prolific author of the Renaissance. Cyril asked me to find the new order that arrived today. My friend Jon has two nephews who fought in Iraq.99. Jacob is an outstanding history student. We followed the Colorado River to the border of Arizona. My new car is a Ford Mustang. and arrived at Tampa Bay. When do you plan to order the supplies we need? 28.. The Great Plains are located in the Midwest. M. Ling applied for admission to the University of Iowa. 31. 24. Cynthia turned west at the stop sign. Explain what you mean. 13. 32. The Nelsons spent Thanksgiving Day with relatives. 6. at 2:23. P. Staplin left for the convention this morning. Leave the packages on the counter by the window. Ammar works for Apex Construction Company. 36. 19. I’m amazed at how quickly she moved! 47 . and others speak English. Help! I can’t breathe! 35. Today is colder than yesterday. 14. 16. 22. 11. Additional security guards will be hired for the White Stripes concert. When I win the lottery. I got my income tax forms in the mail today. 23. 15. 27. GOOD ENDINGS 5. The patients’ rooms measured 14 ft. I sold my used CD for $3. 29. some citizens speak French. In Canada. We were delayed at the Canadian border. The convention group caught the Amtrak in Omaha. Neb. 10. 33. Do you think we’ll be finished by the end of the day? 26. If my cousin Kathy comes to the picnic. Mr. 21. April 3. 20. Those plumbers! Do you know what they did? 38. 34. I know Aunt Jan won’t.. 17. Drish and Dr. 18. 25. Amasu prefers Italian dressing on her salad. 12. 9. Will you check this order for me? 37. Go ahead. 8. by 17 ft. 7. We went to a Sri Lankan restaurant in Minneapolis. 30. Andy began work on Thursday. The plane left Omaha. I intend to buy a Polynesian island. Fl.GOOD BEGINNINGS.

(sets off an introductory clause) 4. crème Brule. As long as she is president of the committee. 2. your job is safe. Julio decided to stay at the party. Enjoying himself. Ahmed. Sari decided to wait until next year to retake the exam. was not as good as when I make it at home. Discouraged. 4. Enjoying himself Julio decided to stay at the party. Answers and explanations follow the quiz.CHAPTER 6 GRAMMAR IQ QUIZ Add commas where they are needed in the following sentences. Ahmed who studied international relations in college wants to go into politics. The dog that is blind in one eye is the one I want to adopt. (No comma needed—the clause is essential to the meaning of the sentence. 3. My dessert. wants to go into politics. Answers 1. Discouraged Sari decided to wait until next year to retake the exam. who studied international relations in college. (sets off a nonessential explaining phrase) 5. The dog that is blind in one eye is the one I want to adopt. (sets off an introductory phrase) 3. 5.) 6. (sets off a nonessential clause) . As long as she is president of the committee your job is safe. My dessert crème Brule was not as good as when I make it at home. 6. 1. (sets off an introductory word) 2.

removing it would not cause the meaning of the sentence to change his chapter shows how to use commas to separate different parts of sentences. tell us where to pause. explaining phrases. and make information clear to us. They give us direction. run-ons. Grammar concepts to know: • essential clause—a dependent clause necessary to the basic meaning of a sentence. removing the clause would alter the meaning of the sentence • nonessential clause—a dependent clause that is not necessary to the basic meaning of a sentence. remember what you have already learned about sentences. This chapter explains some of the ways to use commas in sentences. fragments. and nonessential clauses.CHAPTER 6 T COMMA SENSE Commas are like road signs. (As you go through this chapter.) You will learn how to use commas to set off introductory sentence parts. 49 . and comma splices.

GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS SETTING OFF INTRODUCTORY SENTENCE PARTS Use a comma to set off introductory words. the batter missed the ball. phrases. • Clauses When he called me. 50 . However. Although it was hot outside. we checked our findings. Steve was hospitalized for three months. Surprised. if you reverse the sentence parts. you do not need a comma. commas following introductory elements will save the reader time and reduce the chances of misinterpreting what is written. Badly injured in the accident. I gathered my things and left for the day. and clauses are set off with commas. I was in the middle of cooking dinner. and clauses from the main part of a sentence. phrases. Amazed. Introductory clauses are dependent clauses because they cannot stand alone. In other words. I still cooked a barbecue. Read the examples that follow to see how introductory words. the dependent clause is followed by a comma because it is introducing the rest of the sentence. Since we arrived late. In the clause examples above. placing the dependent clause at the end. the sentence would still make sense. we decided to skip dinner. the doctor revised his patient’s medication. • Words Relieved. I backed into a table. I was in the middle of cooking dinner when he called me. We decided to skip dinner since we arrived late. I still cooked a barbecue although it was hot outside. If the two parts of each of these sentences were reversed. • Phrases Hoping for the best. Fooled by the pitch. A comma keeps the reader from accidentally attaching the introductory portion to the main part of the sentence. then having to go back and reread the sentence.

During the night time drags on and on. Sometimes. 9. The changes are bolded for you. The keynote speaker is Mary Swenson. 1. The phrase makes the noun or pronoun clearer or more definite by explaining or identifying it. Dick Cheney. as long as I have the directions. 10. 3. 11. visited the flood site. 8. as in the following examples. My brother. Soaking in the stainless-steel sink his shirt looked doomed. if the person can be identified without the proper noun. 7. The explaining phrases have been bolded. As far as I know the guests in that room checked out an hour ago. Look at these examples. I will remember how to assemble this vacuum. it is set off by commas. 2. 4. 5. an identifying proper noun will precede or follow a common noun. place. Outside the yard was covered with flowers. By repairing the equipment ourselves we saved several days. Melanie Hicklin. or thing. After running the horses returned to the barn. our company nurse. Concerned about his future Brad went back to school. 51 .COMMA SENSE Practice Use what you know about commas to correct these sentences. The shock rocker Marilyn Manson performed at the Civic Center. David. (An explaining phrase is also called an appositive. director of the Animal Rescue League. farms and ranches in South Dakota. I gathered all the supplies. 6. before I started work this morning. it is not set off by commas. a thick filet with steamed vegetables. Ecstatic the coach hugged the referee. If the proper noun is necessary to identify the person. However. then the proper noun is surrounded by commas. As he watched the clock slowly ticked away the seconds. will give flu shots tomorrow. Check your work with the corrected versions at the end of the chapter. Mindy Wilcox ordered dinner.) If the explaining phrase is not essential to the meaning of the sentence. SETTING OFF EXPLAINING PHRASES An explaining phrase is a word or group of words that immediately follows a noun or pronoun. The vice-president.

a dependent clause cannot be omitted without changing the basic meaning of the sentence. Mason the route manager always leaves the papers at the corner. you learned that an introductory dependent clause is followed by a comma. The lack of commas shows that the clause is essential. David is set off by commas because brother is enough information to identify the subject. 16. The presence of commas tells us that the writer has only one brother. 14. Omitting it alters the meaning of the sentence or makes it untrue. we know that more than one shock rocker exists since the name Marilyn Manson is not set off by commas. 13. In some sentences. Ms. but when the same clause is moved to the end of the sentence. Practice Use what you have learned to add commas to the following sentences. Sharon spends Friday evenings at the movies an event she looks forward to all week. The name David simply adds additional information. The changes are bolded for you. ESSENTIAL CLAUSES At the beginning of this chapter. 52 . The bolded clause is essential because the meaning of the sentence is changed if the clause is removed from the sentence. Walter the featured artist delivered a stunning presentation. no comma is needed. 15. 12. All drivers should have their licenses revoked. in the second example.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Whenever information not essential to the meaning of a sentence is added. Air quality a major urban problem has steadily improved over the last few years. Look closely at the first example. Such a clause is an essential clause (also known as a restrictive clause) and it is also not set off by commas. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. that information is set off by commas. You can see how this works in the following sentences. All drivers who have had a drunk driving conviction should have their licenses revoked. The two sisters Kim and Jessica looked nothing alike. However.

COMMA SENSE

NONESSENTIAL CLAUSES
A nonessential clause adds information that is not essential to the basic meaning of the sentence. If a nonessential clause is removed, the basic meaning of the sentence is not changed. Just like nonessential phrases, nonessential clauses (also known as nonrestrictive clauses) are set off by commas. See how this works in the following examples. Matt’s mother, who has trouble with directions, had to ask for help. Matt’s mother had to ask for help. The bolded clause is nonessential because if it is removed from the sentence, the basic meaning of the sentence does not change. To show that it is nonessential, it is set off by commas. Nonessential clauses usually begin with one of these words: who, whom, whose, which, or that.
Practice

Each of the following sentences contains a dependent clause, which is bolded for you. If the clause is essential, do not add commas. If it is nonessential, set it off with commas. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. 17. Mr. Lindgren is not a man who likes to be fooled. 18. Nicole lives on Briarwood Drive which is south of the freeway. 19. The cattle that were vaccinated are immune to mad cow disease. 20. Children who are born on February 29 start school before they are two. 21. The mall restaurant offers free beverages to anyone who orders a dinner. 22. Josh who is very outgoing has become one of my best friends.

REVIEW
It’s time for a real challenge. This next exercise contains no commas, endmarks, or capital letters. Use what you have learned so far to add capital letters, endmarks, and commas to make sense of the paragraph. Check your work with the corrected version at the end of the chapter. because mary and velma were morning people they met for breakfast every day before work they met at village inn on the corner of university ave and swanson blvd usually they had a light breakfast of bagels with cream cheese and coffee whenever one of them had something to celebrate they would order english muffins and omelettes something neither of them liked to make themselves how they enjoyed those mornings 53

GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS

they had a host of special rules regarding these special omelettes what were those rules if one of them was celebrating a birthday they ordered omelettes with something red such as tomatoes or red peppers mary’s birthday was feb 22 velma’s was oct 12 if one of them had received a raise they ordered omelettes with green peppers or green onions only once when velma won the lottery did they order omelettes with cheese and bacon
Answers

1. Concerned about his future, Brad went back to school. 2. Soaking in the stainless-steel sink, his shirt looked doomed. 3. I gathered all the supplies before I started work this morning. 4. By repairing the equipment ourselves, we saved several days. 5. Ecstatic, the coach hugged the referee. 6. I will remember how to assemble this vacuum as long as I have directions. 7. As far as I know, the guests in that room checked out an hour ago. 8. Outside, the yard was covered with flowers. 9. After running, the horses returned to the barn. 10. During the night, time drags on and on. 11. As he watched, the clock slowly ticked away the seconds. 12. Air quality, a major urban problem, has steadily improved over the last few years. 13. Walter, the featured artist, delivered a stunning presentation. 14. Sharon spends Friday evenings at the movies, an event she looks forward to all week. 15. Ms. Mason, the route manager, always leaves the papers at the corner. 16. The two sisters, Kim and Jessica, looked nothing alike. 17. Essential clause. No commas needed. 18. Nicole lives on Briarwood Drive, which is south of the freeway. 19. Essential clause. No commas needed. 20. Essential clause. No commas needed. 21. Essential clause. No commas needed. 22. Josh, who is very outgoing, has become one of my best friends.

54

COMMA SENSE

REVIEW
Because Mary and Velma were morning people, they met for breakfast every day before work. They met at Village Inn on the corner of University Ave. and Swanson Blvd. Usually, they had a light breakfast of bagels with cream cheese and coffee. Whenever one of them had something to celebrate, they would order English muffins and omelettes, something neither of them liked to make themselves. How they enjoyed those mornings! They had a host of special rules regarding these special omelettes. What were those rules? If one of them was celebrating a birthday, they ordered omelettes with something red, such as tomatoes or red peppers. Mary’s birthday was Feb. 22; Velma’s was Oct. 12. If one of them had received a raise, they ordered omelettes with green peppers or green onions. Only once, when Velma won the lottery, did they order omelettes with cheese and bacon.

55

CHAPTER 7 GRAMMAR IQ QUIZ
Add commas where they are needed in the following sentences. Answers and explanations follow the quiz. 1. Janeece wanted to spend the summer abroad but she had to get at least a 3.5 grade point average for her parents to allow it. 2. Nick invited his brother his best friend and his girlfriend to the game. 3. My new apartment is located at 66 Baltic Street Brooklyn New York and will be available on November 1 2005. 4. Jeremy has long lean runner's legs. 5. I practiced a lot for the tournament but didn't make it past the second round.
Answers

1. Janeece wanted to spend the summer abroad, but she had to get at least a 3.5 grade point average for her parents to allow it. (separates two independent clauses separated by a conjunction) 2. Nick invited his brother, his best friend, and his girlfriend to the game. (separates items in a series) 3. My new apartment is located at 66 Baltic Street, Brooklyn, New York, and will be available on November 1, 2005. (separates items in an address and a date) 4. Jeremy has long, lean runner's legs. (separates two equally important adjectives) 5. I practiced a lot for the tournament, but didn't make it past the second round. (separates two contrasting ideas)

In this chapter. This chapter explains other uses for commas and reviews what you learned about them in Chapter 6. You’ll also learn how to use commas in a friendly letter. adjectives. 57 .CHAPTER 7 A MORE JOBS FOR COMMAS Besides being road signs for sentences. items in a date or address. and words that interrupt the flow of thought in a sentence. items in a series. Grammar concepts to know: • items in a series—a list of three or more similar words. commas are used to separate sentence parts to make the meaning of the sentence clear. you’ll learn how to use commas to separate independent clauses. commas also have many other jobs. phrases. or clauses • contrasting sentence elements—two opposing ideas presented next to each other in a sentence s you know. contrasting elements.

1. The commas and conjunctions are bolded in the following examples. he said that he preferred I take it in October. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. Isaac started mowing the yard but his father finished it. Practice Use commas and semicolons to correctly punctuate the following sentences. 4. I asked my boss if I could take my vacation in September. so she decided to spend a year in Spain after she graduated. If independent clauses are joined without a conjunction. 3. 58 . The changes are boldfaced for you. they are separated by a semicolon instead of a comma. but I didn't want to appear too eager. Here is a complete list of conjunctions that can be used to join two independent clauses: and but or for nor so yet When two or more independent clauses are joined with a conjunction to make a compound sentence. 2. Josh is defending his thesis in the spring. I knew I would win. A conjunction is a joining word. Eta wanted to order Italian food. If you know of a good landscaper please give me the name of the company. Wayne likes Mike Oldfield he’s an old New Age musician who’s recorded a CD. and Jenna wanted Japanese. I plan on going to see him do it. Mihal is not sure what she wants to do after she graduates from college.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS SEPARATING INDEPENDENT CLAUSES You already know that an independent clause is a group of words that could stand alone as a complete sentence. The furniture was covered with sheets yet it still became dusty and dirty. a comma should follow the first clause. she is thinking of becoming a marine biologist. Aisha studied Spanish in college.

Great things happen when we put our heads together. Sue. phrases. 59 . Gail has lived in Peoria since last year. reared up.MORE JOBS FOR COMMAS 5. stock the shelves. However. The horse snorted. John. Cory. surround it with commas. Gail has lived in Peoria. SEPARATING ITEMS IN DATES AND ADDRESSES When a year is specified in a date including the month and year. no commas are needed. The pilot was overcome with grief after the accident and he refused to fly again. the last item in a series is preceded by a conjunction. and complete a quality-control check. 8. and ran off toward the hills. and Craig went to the conference. Edward knows what you want he just doesn’t know where to find it. right after she graduated from high school. If each item in the series is separated by a conjunction. since last year. or clauses makes the material easier for the reader to understand. set it off with commas. Jody came to Fargo on June 1. Usually. As you grow older your body absorbs fewer nutrients so many people take vitamin and mineral supplements. If only the month or the season is listed. 7. 1997. Sean taught me how to inventory the equipment. Kara and Farrah and Andrea left their books behind. When the name of a state is included to further identify a city. pawed the dirt. commas are not needed. Jody came to Fargo in June 1997 after graduating from high school. some writers prefer to use one. SEPARATING ITEMS IN A SERIES Separating a list of three or more similar words. 6. Illinois. A comma is not required before the conjunction.

(The bolded words describe flooring. Some adjectives must be right next to the word they modify. The changes are boldfaced for you. Kathy liked the friendly. or they will not make sense. Bernice was born November 3 1928 and Eugene was born January 17 1929 12. they are separated by a comma. talented high school athletes. a noun or pronoun. not all adjectives are equally important. Louis Missouri collects oak barrels pickling crocks and colored glass jars 13. After running into a police car with his truck Adam used his cellular phone to call the police his doctor his lawyer and his insurance agent SEPARATING EQUALLY IMPORTANT ADJECTIVES An adjective is a word that modifies. in the second example sentence above. (The bolded words describe boy. However. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. Remember what you learned in the last chapter about commas. For instance. 9. aged oak flooring.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Practice Add commas and endmarks where they are needed in the following sentences. They answer the questions How many? and What kind?) When adjectives are equally important in describing a word. The gentleman living at 547 35th Street St. Seeing no answer to the problem Jeff quit for the day and went home 11. 60 . (The bolded words describe athletes. They answer the question What kind?) The workmen repaired the floor with that dark. Sally bought a kitchen table Hal bought an iron a toaster a blender and gas grill 10. talkative. or describes. Adjectives answer the questions Which one? What kind? and How many? The bolded words in the following sentences are adjectives. the word oak must be placed next to the word flooring. They answer the questions Which one? and What kind?) The reporter spoke with several intense. pleasant boy sitting next to her at work.

The first example sentence on the previous page makes sense even if the position of the adjectives is changed. If the sentence reads just as clearly. but they are not separated by commas. Change the order of the adjectives. Only adjectives of equal importance are set off by a comma. equally effective test is to place the word and between the adjectives. talented. they are the only adjectives separated by a comma. The words several. In my wallet are five crisp new twenty dollar bills. Alex liked the friendly and talkative and pleasant boy sitting next to him at work. If the sentence sounds unclear or awkward. If the sentence becomes unclear or sounds awkward. Intense and talented are the only adjectives in the sentence that can be reversed. If the sentence still reads well. an and makes sense only between intense and talented. 61 . intense high school athletes. several. The carpenter repaired the floor with that dark and aged oak flooring. The reporter spoke with several intense and talented high school athletes. Marshall cut his short wavy light blond hair. separate the adjectives with a comma. In the last example sentence. high. Practice Try these two tests with the following sentences. talkative boy sitting next to him at work. Alex liked the pleasant. friendly. Again. dark oak flooring. school.MORE JOBS FOR COMMAS Pay close attention to the last example sentence above. this works with the first two example sentences. The reporter spoke with several talented. A second. do not use commas. do not use a comma. use commas between the adjectives. high. the sentence would make no sense if the adjectives came in this order: intense. 15. and they should not be separated by a comma from the word they modify. therefore. How can you tell if adjectives should be separated with a comma? Apply one or both of these tests: 1. Where do the commas belong? 14. but in the last sentence. and school are all adjectives modifying athletes. 2. These adjectives need to stay where they are in the sentence for the words to make sense. The carpenter repaired the floor with that aged.

it seemed to us. Jessi. Morning. The dog remembered. No. Gosh. I never expected you’d make such a fuss. depending on where it is placed in the sentence. to tackle our challenges. Heck. we could have done that hours ago. Jessi is the person being addressed in each of the following examples. not a press agent. • Use commas to separate words or phrases that interrupt the flow of thought in a sentence. 62 . The tour group expected to meet the actors. Jessi. The task.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS SEPARATING SENTENCE ELEMENTS • Use commas to separate contrasting elements in a sentence. but did poorly on the written test. was the best time to water the lawn. This company needs problem solvers. I interviewed well. however. The liquid poured slowly at first. Pat needs you to sign for a package in the office before you leave. before you leave. not complainers. Pat needs you to sign for a package in the office. quickly toward the end. The comma tells the reader that what follows is an opposite idea. In the following examples. we discovered. • Whenever the name of the person being addressed is included in a sentence. words and phrases that interrupt the flow of thought have been bolded. • Mild exclamations included in a sentence are also set off with commas. the harsh words and cruel actions of his owner. It makes the idea easier for the reader to grasp. we won’t be needing you any longer. The following examples illustrate contrasting elements in a sentence. it should be set off by commas. Notice how commas are used to set off her name. Pat needs you to sign for a package in the office before you leave. The exclamations have been bolded for you in each of the following examples. The contrasting ideas are bolded. was overwhelming. Jessi.

Yours truly. 20. When I travel I pack my toothbrush a hairbrush a shoe brush and a clothes brush. Practice Using what you have learned so far about commas and semicolons. Dear Val.000 in receipts they’re celebrating right now! Answers 1. yet it still became dusty and dirty. The Founders Day sale runs December 26 2005 through January 8 2006. Yes the sales department met their monthly goal over $200. The new address if I’m remembering correctly is 1140 Westown Cole Illinois. • Use a comma after the closing of a friendly letter. but his father finished it. Dear Aunt Hilda. correct these sentences.MORE JOBS FOR COMMAS USING COMMAS IN A FRIENDLY LETTER • Use a comma after the greeting of a friendly letter. he just doesn’t know where to find it. We’re sorry Tom that you were inconvenienced and we’d like to make it up to you. 3. 22. 2. 21. Suddenly the rope tore and the tire swing plummeted to the ground. If you know of a good landscaper. Isaac started mowing the yard. Dear Juanita. 17. 19. Exhausted from sitting rather than from physical exertion Ling sank into the soft green easy chair. Check your work with the corrected versions of the sentences at the end of the chapter. Edward knows what you want. he’s an old New Age musician who’s recorded a CD. 4. 16. Sincerely yours. Wayne likes Mike Oldfield. The furniture was covered with sheets. please give me the name of the company. 5. 18. 63 .

10. your body absorbs fewer nutrients. the rope tore. 2005. his lawyer. 22. Ling sank into th soft. and his insurance agent. Sally bought a kitchen table. The Founders Day sale runs December 26. 12. collects oak barrels. and the tire swing plummeted to the ground. Bernice was born November 3. if I’m remembering correctly. Illinois. 2006. Hal bought an iron. 8. 15.000 in receipts. After running into a police car with his truck. Exhausted from sitting. 11. they’re celebrating right now! 64 . St. that you were inconvenienced. No change. Suddenly. 17. 1928. pickling crocks. 20. through January 8. I pack my toothbrush. Louis. 21. We’re sorry. a shoe brush. Seeing no answer to the problem. and colored glass jars. In my wallet are five crisp. 7. new twenty dollar bills. When I travel. Yes. Missouri. Adam used his cellular phone to call the police. 18. As you grow older. a toaster. wavy light blond hair. is 1140 Westown. Marshall cut his short.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS 6. 13. so many people take vitamin and mineral supplements. The pilot was overcome with grief after the accident. over $200. The new address. gren easy chair. and Eugene was born January 17. and gas grill. a hairbrush. and we’d like to make it up to you. and a clothes brush. Jeff quit for the day and went home. 16. and he refused to fly again. his doctor. Cole. rather than the phsyical exertion. 14. 9. 19. a blender. The gentleman living at 547 35th Street. the sales department met their monthly goal. Tom. 1929.

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) 3. These items are essential for fishing a tackle box a life jacket and a good fishing pole. the book Standing on the Edge A Closer Look at Mountain Climbing goes on sale. you need to stop spending money. Salt Lake City. a comma follows it. 5. Answers 1.. The charter trip includes stops in Denver Colorado Salt Lake City Utah Reno Nevada and Portland Oregon. Answers and explanations follow the quiz. a life jacket.m. therefore. Utah. 4. the group decided to gather more information. Your budget is gone you need to stop spending money.) 2. 3.CHAPTER 8 GRAMMAR IQ QUIZ Add commas. and colons wherever they are needed in the following sentences. 1. The results of the tests were inconclusive. 2. The results of the tests were inconclusive therefore the group decided to gather more information. (Semicolon precedes a conjunctive adverb. Colorado. and Portland. and a good fishing pole. Reno. At 12:23 p. 5. semicolons. Your budget is gone. . The charter trip includes stops in Denver. At 12 23 p. 4. Nevada. (Semicolon separates two independent clauses joined without a conjunction.m. the book Standing on the Edge: A Closer Look at Mountain Climbing goes on sale. These items are essential for fishing: a tackle box. Oregon.

67 . if. you’ll know exactly how to use both. when. you will learn some of the uses of colons. By the time you finish. This chapter sorts it all out for you. that separates two related independent clauses n this chapter. and when to separate items in a series with semicolons. you will review what you have learned about punctuation so far. Grammar concepts to know: • subordinating conjunction —a word such as because.) and colons (:) confuse many writers. however. that introduces a dependent clause • conjunctive adverb—a word such as consequently. therefore. Finally. etc.. especially the use of semicolons to separate independent clauses. etc..You will also learn how to use semicolons with certain joining words.CHAPTER 8 I GETTING FANCY WITH SEMICOLONS AND COLONS Semicolons (. although.

This rule may seem familiar because it was also included in Chapters 4 and 7. Danny likes doing bench presses. • Use a semicolon to separate independent clauses that contain commas. arm curls. even if the clauses are joined by a conjunction. furthermore. and the conjunctive adverb is followed by a comma. your reward is well deserved. instead. I lost my job. she signed up for an Asian history course. and thus) connect two independent clauses. I decided against going to Greece. When these words (such as however. I bought the groceries. then. In this sentence. • Use a semicolon to separate independent clauses connected with a conjunctive adverb that expresses a relationship between clauses (see Chapter 4). the semicolon helps the reader see where the break in thought occurs. however. I had to cancel my trip to Europe. the first independent clause is followed by a semicolon. we are an undefeatable team. therefore. I chose to visit Costa Rica. The semicolon makes the sentence easier to understand. Kara cooked dinner. leg extensions. Carla began studying Japanese to prepare for her trip. but Jen prefers cardiovascular training. Noah wanted to spend four months living abroad. Look at the following examples to see how this is done. You worked hard for this. I chose Ben as my partner. he couldn't get a visa that let him stay more than three months. Refresh your memory with these example sentences. and other weight-training exercises. Here is a list of these conjuctive adverbs: accordingly besides consequently furthermore hence 68 however instead moreover nevertheless otherwise then therefore thus .GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS SEMICOLONS Separating Independent Clauses • Use a semicolon to separate independent clauses joined without a conjunction. therefore.

GETTING FANCY WITH SEMICOLONS AND COLONS It’s easy to confuse these conjunctive adverbs with subordinating conjunctions such as because. “My paycheck because was late. I couldn’t pay my rent on time because my paycheck was late. June 7. If not. You could say. therefore. therefore is a conjunctive adverb. since. I couldn’t pay my rent on time. or Monday. The conjunctive adverbs. until. This helps the reader see which sets of items go together. and while. Rob. Separating Items in a Series Use a semicolon to separate items in a series that contain commas. the word because makes no sense anywhere else in the clause. the slackers. or a conjunctive adverb that needs a semicolon: If you can move the word around in the clause. The possible dates for the potluck are Thursday. or Sioux Falls. therefore. Henrietta. I couldn’t pay my rent on time. June 5. Here’s an easy test to see if the word beginning a clause is a subordinating conjunction. Iowa.” So. the joining word that takes a semicolon. Here are two different ways of combining these two independent clauses. In the first sentence.” Therefore. with or without the adverb. and Kerald. June 9. Unlike items in a series separated by commas. Sunday. “I couldn’t. and the easy-going people. On our team you’ll find the hustlers. a semicolon is used even when there is a conjunction. Judy. however. 69 . South Dakota. Let’s try the test with these two independent clauses: My paycheck was late. it’s probably a subordinating conjunction. introduce independent clauses that can stand alone. pay my rent on time. Omaha. Chuck. You wouldn’t say. Subordinating conjunctions introduce dependent clauses that cannot stand alone as a sentence. Nebraska. The packing plant will relocate to either Fort Madison. because is a subordinate conjunction. and Kirsten. My paycheck was late. In the second sentence. Jake and Marilynn. for which you need only a comma. it’s a conjunctive adverb. you could move therefore to a different place in the clause if you wanted to. Saturday. although. June 8.

Do not use a colon if the list of items completes the meaning begun by the verb. and tape. The menu included broiled salmon steamed broccoli grilled potatoes spinach and bread but for some reason they served no dessert. in other words. Jerry needed one peice of essential information: the price. Bradley. We ordered the following supplies: paper. markers. The bus traveled through Chicago Illinois Dayton Ohio and Pittsburgh Pennsylvania. • Use a colon to introduce a formal quotation. 4. scissors. Brett. Bradley. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter.” • Use a colon to introduce a word. or clause that adds particular emphasis to the main body of a sentence. Brett. 70 . The people transferred were Audrey. and Lindsay. scissors. These people were transferred: Audrey. We ordered paper. 3. I’ve been at this for two days I need to get away for a while. 1. Here are the previous example sentences. The changes are boldfaced for you. Tim hurried through his work however he still wasn’t finished by 8:30. and Lindsay. Helen left her desk unlocked at work consequently she worried about it all night. 2. if it fits right into the flow of the sentence. Your busy work schedule is the result of one thing: poor planning. staplers. phrase. COLONS Colons That Introduce • Use a colon to introduce a list of items. and tape. rewritten in such a way that a colon is not necessary. markers. staplers. Nietzsche offered this sound advice: “Smash not the happy delusions of men. 5.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Practice Use what you have learned to add commas and semicolons to the following sentences.

This is particularly true if you include the position. However. Measurement: Translating into Metric Next Step: A Futuristic View of Technology Fear: Tales from the Dark Side • Between volumes and page numbers. Brian framed the paycheck: It was the first check he had ever earned. Judy shouted and turned cartwheels: She had just finished the last page of the report. Contemporary Authors V:128 Education Digest 10:23 Marvel Comics 21:24 • Between chapters and verses. USING COLONS IN BUSINESS LETTERS You learned in Chapter 7 that a comma follows the greeting (or salutation) in a personal. something to be taken seriously. Sylvia ignored the doorbell: She knew it was a salesman she had no time for. but not the name of the person to whom the letter is addressed. a colon signals the reader that what follows is a business matter. 12:53 a. even in a business letter. 2:10 p. or friendly. In business communications.GETTING FANCY WITH SEMICOLONS AND COLONS Colons That Show Relationship Use a colon to show a relationship in the following cases: • Between two independent clauses when the second explains the first. • Between the title and the subtitle of a book. James 3:10 Exodus 1:1 Proverbs 2:2 • Between hours and minutes. letter. 71 .m . the closing is followed by a comma.m .

Pennsylvania. Hammond located the procedure in the policy manual Volume 6:89. 2. Each day a new shift begins at 8 30 a. 9. 4. Ohio. Tim hurried through his work. spinach. Illinois.m . Essian: Sincerely yours. Dear Customer Your order should arrive on or before January 5 2006. 4 30 p. The hail destroyed all of the wheat however the corn was untouched by the violent storm. Practice Practice what you have learned about commas.m . I need to get away for a while. 11. The changes that follow are boldfacd for you.m . Dayton. 3. The police learned the following information from the interrogation the suspect’s name his home address his phone number and his current employer. she worried about it all night. 6. 5. 6. The bus traveled through Chicago. Helen left her desk unlocked at work. they served no dessert. 7. and Pittsburgh. 72 . Megan likes to play soccer a physically challenging sport bridge a game of logic and strategy Street Fighter a mindless PS2 game and the harmonica an invigorating instrument. 7. The hail destroyed all of the wheat.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Dear Ms. grilled potatoes. Dear Editor: Cordially yours. Hammond located the procedure in the policy manual Volume 6 89. consequently. however. Answers 1. 8. steamed broccoli. The menu included broiled salmon. but for some reason. and colons by adding them to the following sentences. Before I bought a new car I did some research in the library checked out the local car dealerships asked a few friends for advice and consulted my mechanic. and bread. he still wasn’t finished by 8:00. 12. the corn was untouched by the violent storm. Sincerely yours 10. Check your work with the answers. however. I’ve been at this for two days. and 12 30 a. semicolons.

and consulted my mechanic.m . and the harmonica.. his phone number. an invigorating instrument.GETTING FANCY WITH SEMICOLONS AND COLONS 8. and his current employer. 11. 73 . and 12:30 a . Each day.. a mindless PS2 game. Sincerely yours. Dear Customer: Your order should arrive on or before January 5. Street Fighter. 4:30 p . 12. 10.m . a physically challenging sport. I did some research in the library. The police learned the following information from the interrogation: the suspect’s name. his home address. a new shift begins at 8:30 a . asked a few friends for advice. Megan likes to play soccer.m . bridge. Before I bought a new car. 9. checked out the local car dealerships. a game of logic and strategy. 2006.

(surrounds the title of a TV show) . The short story was entitled The Tell-Tale Heart. Answers 1. 1.” said Josh.” (encloses exact words in a conversation) 3. said Josh. “I’ll make hot chocolate. 3.” (surrounds directly quoted words) 2. I’ll make hot chocolate.CHAPTER 9 GRAMMAR IQ QUIZ Add quotation marks wherever they are needed in the following sentences. Let’s remove them. 2.” (surrounds the title of a short story) 4. The hinges are defective. “The hinges are defective. Mom said. The teacher called him a “poor excuse for a student. Answers and explanations follow the quiz. The short story was entitled “The Tell-Tale Heart.” Mom said. 4. “Let’s remove them. We saw “Fear Factor” last night. “If you shovel the drive. If you shovel the drive.” (encloses exact words in a conversation) 5. 5. We saw Fear Factor last night. The teacher called him a poor excuse for a student.

USING QUOTATION MARKS IN DIRECT QUOTATIONS • Use double quotation marks to set off a direct quotation or thought within a sentence or paragraph. Grammar concepts to know: • direct quotation—someone’s exact written. but a few simple rules can make them easy to use. other writing situations require them as well.” 75 . inscribed.CHAPTER 9 Q CONTROLLING QUOTATION MARKS This chapter explains the knotty problems of quotation marks. and so on. both double and single. spoken. Although these marks are most often found in dialogue. carved. By the time you finish. etched. you’ll be in control of quotation marks in your writing. or inscribed words • paraphrase—a restatement of a direct quotation • slang—highly informal language used only in informal conversation uotation marks pose a problem for many writers. This includes quotations that are signed. The managers called our new pricing policy “the innovation of the decade.

(paraphrase of a thought) The sign clearly read. and the words explaining who said the quotations are called tags. (paraphrase) “Why can't I shake this flu?” I wondered.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS We thought he said. Take a close look at the sentences in the following dialogue sample: They include the basic dialogue structures. “You’re the one with the manager’s job.” Nina said. Do you have some?” “What is this?” Harry asked.” the headstone read. “Turn right at the corner.'” said Grace. “but credit cards are all I ever carry.” (direct quotation) The teacher said to turn our papers in at the end of class. • Do not use quotation marks for a paraphrase. “No parking. Nina answered. or the restatement of a direct quotation or thought in other words.” The sign read. “No Smoking.“The attitude of my most successful salesman is: 'No job is too big or small.” “Yes. so she told me. The sales manager said. it has to be fattening!’” USING QUOTATION MARKS IN DIALOGUE Correctly punctuating dialogue means understanding how to use quotation marks. (paraphrase) • Use single quotation marks to set off a quotation within a quotation. and endmarks. “I’m hungry. The words quoted are called quotations. commas.” “Eccentric and Erratic. The following examples illustrate the difference. “I’m really hungry. “Turn your papers in at the end of class. “Beth couldn't make it. The teacher said. the tags are in bold. In these examples.'” My doctor always says.” 76 . I want something to eat.” (signed words) The sign said not to park. 'I'll catch up with you later. (direct thought) I wondered why I couldn't shake this flu. “Take my wife’s advice: ‘If it tastes good.” said Harry. but I don’t have any cash.

if the quotation is a sentence normally ending with a question mark or an exclamation point. • If the tag follows a quotation. but do not use a comma. “I'm really tired of driving. Do you want to find a hotel?” asked Aaron.” said Aaron. Put quotation marks around the quoted words.” Aaron said. “I'm really tired of driving. “Do you want to find a hotel?” “I'm really tired of driving. Place a period after the tag. “I'm really tired of driving. Let's find a hotel.” said Aaron. In other words. Place quotation marks before a group of quoted words and again at the end.CONTROLLING QUOTATION MARKS Quoted words are always surrounded by quotation marks. Let's find a hotel. “Wait—a Holiday Inn!” • When the tag interrupts a sentence.” “I'm really tired of driving. the tag interrupts the quotation. (See the first example sentence.) However. The period comes at the end of the tag. Do you want to find a hotel?” Aaron said. See how this is shown in these sentences.Wait—there's a Holiday Inn!”exclaimed Aaron.” said Aaron. Wait—there's a Holiday Inn!” • Sometimes. place a comma after the tag. the words preceding the tag begin the thought. • When the tag comes before the quotation. insert the question mark or exclamation point. Aaron said. the first part of the quotation is punctuated in the same way as a quotation with the tag at the end. and the quotation is a sentence normally ending with a period. and punctuate the sentence as you would normally. Place a comma after the tag—not a period since 77 . “I'm really tired of driving. “I'm really tired of driving. the period follows the tag. on the previous page. and the words following the tag complete the thought. See the following example sentences. Tags are punctuated differently depending on where they are in the sentence. use a comma instead. said Aaron. “I'm really tired of driving. “Let's find a hotel. The rest of the quotation is punctuated in the same way as a quotation preceded by a tag. If both the first and second parts of the quotation are complete sentences. The examples that follow illustrate these rules. “I'm really tired of driving. capitalize the first word of the quotation. Place quotation marks around the quoted words and follow the first part of the quotation with a comma.

” observed Solomon.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS the sentence is not completed. “___________________ ?” asked Rose. Punctuate the rest of the sentence as you would normally.” “This lawn care service. “___________________ !” exclaimed Rose.” said Rose. “_____________?” “_____________.” “What I can’t see. “_____________!” 78 .“why they upset you so.” exclaimed Daisy.” “_____________?” asked Lily. “_____________. “The Carters just don’t understand.” Iris asked. but do not capitalize the first letter of the quotation as it is not the beginning of a new sentence. seed. “___________________ !” • Tags between two sentences of a quotation: “_____________. “_____________. and weed control. See the example sentences below. “___________________ . Dialogue at a Glance • Tags following a quotation: “___________________ .” asked Daisy. “_____________?” “_____________!” exclaimed Lily.” said Lily. • Tags preceding a quotation: Iris said. “___________________ ?” Iris exclaimed. Place quotation marks around the last part of the quotation. “provides fertilizer. “is what you see in him.” “_____________. “_____________!” • Tags interrupting a one-sentence quotation: “_____________.” said Daisy.” Note: All of the punctuation is inside the quotation marks except for the punctuation marks following the tags.” mused Mel.” explained Alvin.

Other titles should be italicized. The following table shows these differences. etc. plane.” • Use quotation marks to indicate irony or raised eyebrows. They are also used when referring to words as words. 79 .CONTROLLING QUOTATION MARKS OTHER USES FOR QUOTATION MARKS • Use quotation marks to set off nicknames and words used as slang. Avoid overusing quotation marks in this way. train. and for emphasis: Words as words: The word food always brought a smile to his face. My yearly “evaluation” involved a three-minute conversation with the boss. Enclose in Quotation Marks Italicize name of a short story or chapter of a book name of a TV program title of a poem headline of an article or title of a report title of a song title of a novel name of a movie title of a collection of poetry or an epic poem name of a magazine or newspaper title of a musical or long musical composition name of a ship. It doesn’t work if you do it all the time. All the kids said the new CD was really “bad. Their idea of a “good time” is doing laundry. Italics instead of Quotation Marks Italics are used instead of quotation marks for titles of the items in the second column of the table above. Emphasis: I have never seen anyone so fond of music. Kristy was dubbed “speed demon” by her teammates. • Use quotation marks to set off titles of certain items. That “consultant” offered no advice or counsel.

Here’s how I felt about last week’s “Friends”: I loved it. The dentist asked. Check your work with the answers that follow. If they are not. Which one of you called me a cowardly excuse for a soldier? barked the sergeant. I rented the movie. exclamation points. place them outside the quotation marks.” • Colons and semicolons go outside closing quotation marks. Do you ever watch CSI on CBS? asked Steven. The interviewer dismissed the remark as a “slip of the tongue”. 7. 3. I wish that old fussbudget—Melanie stopped abruptly as Mr. 6. “Can you feel sensitivity in this area?” (part of the quotation) Did you watch last week’s “Lost”? (not part of the quotation) “I wish I’d never heard of—” Calvin stopped suddenly as Kelly entered the room. 1. 2. The Tower. All the teenagers at the party were duded out. and dashes go inside quotation marks if they are part of a quotation. “before you go swimming. “Wait for half an hour. After reading To Kill a Mockingbird. (part of the quotation) My favorite song will always be “The Rose”! (not part of the quotation) • Periods and commas go inside closing quotation marks. the guest was insulted. If you want to know why I’m so bitter.” suggested Dalia.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Quotation Marks with Other Punctuation Marks Here are the rules for combining quotation marks with other punctuation marks: • Question marks. Practice Use what you have learned about quotation marks to correct the following sentences. An extra five minutes at lunch was our prize. 4. Harris walked into the room. 80 . 5. read my article Rosy Glasses in the latest copy of our newsletter.

Harris walked into the room.“I told you the representative said. “Do you call everyone by the name ‘Bubba’?” asked Katie. Get out of the way yelled the captain. The Tower. 14. “Don’t make outrageous excuses. 10. 11. We were shocked by our Christmas “bonus”: a bag with a cookie and an orange. Looking at her tardy record. 10. We were shocked by our Christmas bonus a bag with a cookie and an orange. Answers 1. “Everyone else went home an hour ago.” 13. “Why are you still here?” my supervisor asked.” 11. Why are you still here my supervisor asked everyone else went home an hour ago.” 5. 4. 3. “Which one of you called me a ‘cowardly excuse for a soldier’?” barked the sergeant. Looking at her tardy record. 15. I see why you’ve named her “Punctual Paula. Ebenezer said. 8. I see why you’ve named her Punctual Paula. read my article “Rosy Glasses” in the latest copy of our newsletter. Do you call everyone by the name Bubba asked Katie. Don’t make outrageous excuses my attorney advised that will only make matters worse. “That will only make matters worse. 9. 13.” 6. I rented the movie. “Get out of the way!” yelled the captain. 2. The investigator asked us where we had spent the evening.” 15. After reading To Kill a Mockingbird.CONTROLLING QUOTATION MARKS 8. Ebenezer said I told you the representative said No way before I ever had a chance to explain. 12.” my attorney advised.‘No way!’ before I ever had a chance to explain. “Do you ever watch ‘CSI’ on CBS?” asked Steven. No change. 7. 81 . All the teenagers at the party were “duded out. If you want to know why I’m so bitter. 14. 9. “I wish that old fussbudget—” Melanie stopped abruptly as Mr.” 12. An extra five minutes at lunch was our “prize.

Preparation and hard work these are the keys to successfully implementing a plan. The manager evaluated the sales associate’s performance. The fine equaled two weeks pay. The manager evaluated the sales associates performance. Marianna is disappointed—we are too—that the performance was canceled. Marianna is disappointed we are too that the performance was canceled. 4.CHAPTER 10 GRAMMAR IQ QUIZ Add apostrophes and dashes wherever they are needed in the following sentences. The fine equaled two weeks’ pay. Owen isnt scheduled to work today. Answers 1. 1. 2. (connects a beginning phrase to the rest of the sentence) . (apostrophe shows possession) 2. (marks a sudden break in thought) 5. Preparation and hard work—these are the keys to successfully implementing a plan. (apostrophe denotes a contraction) 4. (shows possession) 3. Owen isn’t scheduled to work today. 5. Answers and explanations follow the quiz. 3.

These books belong to the girl. These are the girl's books. Grammar concept to know: • contraction—two words condensed into one word with an apostrophe (will not = won’t. The first part of this chapter covers the rules regarding apostrophes. 83 .CHAPTER 10 A APOSTROPHES THE MYSTERIES OF APOSTROPHES AND DASHES This chapter puts you in command of apostrophes and dashes. The last part covers dashes. the most commonly misused punctuation marks. Dashes. Apostrophes are often used because they shorten sentences. did not = didn’t) postrophes communicate important informa- tion in written language. add emphasis. Using Apostrophes to Show Possession Apostrophes are used to show that one or more things belong to one or more people or things. meaning fewer words for the reader. The following sets of examples illustrate this. when used sparingly.

I need to switch my dog’s veterinarian. That is.) We must update the hospitals’ computer system. Changing the location of an apostrophe can change the meaning of a sentence.) The position of the apostrophe tells the reader whether one person or thing possesses something.) We must update the hospital’s computer system. (This is referring to the computer system of one hospital.) I need to switch my dog’s veterinarian. I need to switch the veterinarian of my dog. (This is referring to the veterinarian of more than one dog. (The books belong to one girl. (This is referring to the computer system of more than one hospital. cat’s toy queen’s throne physician’s assistant book’s cover • Add ’s to singular words ending in s.) I need to switch my dogs’ veterinarian. • Add ’s to singular words not ending in s. Garth Brooks’s latest recording American Express’s advertising campaign Lois’s birth certificate 84 . These are the girl’s books. (This is referring to the veterinarian of one dog. Look at each of the following sentences. The words in parentheses explain what the apostrophe means. We must update the hospital’s computer system. or if it’s more than one person or thing doing the possessing.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS We must update the computer system of the hospital. it tells whether the word that possesses is singular (referring to one) or plural (referring to more than one). (The books belong to more than one girl.) These are the girls’ books.

Mitchell’s car 85 . mother-in-law’s visit president-elect’s decision manager-in-training’s duties • Add ’s to the last word of the name of a business or institution. Proctor and Gamble’s products First State Bank’s new hours Banton and Barton Co. women’s plans children’s bedrooms men’s shoes people’s election When a common or proper noun is more than one word.’s president • Add ’s to the last name mentioned if a single item belongs to more than one person.THE MYSTERIES OF APOSTROPHES AND DASHES • Add s’ to plural words ending in s. you add the ’s to the last word in the noun • Add ’s to the last word of a compound noun. special rules apply. Usually. Wayne and Judy’s log home the receptionist and secretary’s printer Mr. and Mrs. girls’ bicycles kids’ books ladies’ garments employees’ agreement • Add ’s to plural words not ending in s.

but only to show possession for either singular or plural words. his. Correct: Trim the tomatoes’ lower limbs. their. (no apostrophe) We brought our grill. Correct: Read the bag of chips’ nutrition label. Who’s (who is) on first? I can’t (cannot) get together tomorrow afternoon. hers. When Not to Use Apostrophes • Do not use an apostrophe to form a plural. This is their boat. theirs).GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS • Add an apostrophe to words showing periods of time if they show possession. Uncle Louis tells lies about life in the ’50s (1950s). My first car was a ’67 (1967) Chevy. Becky doesn’t (does not) work today. • Do not use an apostrophe with words that already show possession (my. (no apostrophe) This experiment must be yours. one day’s schedule one year’s salary three days’ wait • Add an apostrophe to words showing amounts of money if they show possession. yours. Wrong: Read the nutrition label on this bag of chip’s. two cents’ worth a dollar’s serial number a penny’s value Using Apostrophes to Show Omission Use an apostrophe to show that letters or numbers have been omitted. The grill is ours. her. The boat is theirs. The doctor couldn’t (could not) give me a prescription. our. your. Wrong: Get the tomatoe’s from the garden. (no apostrophe) 86 . ours. Note that these words do not have apostrophes in the following examples. mine.

Because of this. Abby is delighted—as we are—about your new job. but they lose their impact if they are overused. They are very effective if used correctly. Employees motivations differ from an owners. Dashes call attention to themselves. Realizing your limitations—time. Bonnie works as a dentists assistant. Jones grocery store has better produce than Mrs. 1. Janices and Jays horse was named the Grand Champion Stud. Our firms territory has doubled in the last six months and the new responsibility is your’s. DASHES A dash is a specialized punctuation mark reserved for only a few types of situations. Comp USAs top-selling product is Microns latest MMX computer. 87 . and energy—makes planning more realistic. many writers use it incorrectly. 7. Every Saturday afternoon the Womens Issues Group meets for lunch. However. You don’t have to use a dash. A managers reward is different from an employees. 9. a careful writer uses them sparingly. money. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. 8. 5. He lit a cigarette inside the building—an unconscious habit. Smiths. 4. • Use a dash to mark a sudden break in thought or to insert a comment. • Use a dash to emphasize explanatory material.THE MYSTERIES OF APOSTROPHES AND DASHES Practice Practice what you have learned about apostrophes and other punctuation marks to correct the following sentences. 2. After six weeks steady work we earn a permanent position and a days paid vacation. The picnic basket is their’s. 10. 6. but you may. Mr. 3. Take these files and this—Look out for that truck! I remember the day—what teenager doesn’t—that the space shuttle exploded.

now I’ve got it. semicolons. Intelligence. Mr. N—. O’Dea is the most unreasonable I should keep my opinions to myself. karl malone and john stockton these two made an exciting combination a mixture of malones aggressiveness and stocktons finesse 88 . I lost the code for the copier!” He had received a letter from Mrs. and dashes to the following sentences. colons. 13. apostrophes. endmarks.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS • Use a dash to indicate omitted letters. “Oh. New York. as the detective interrogated each of the boys and their fathers they determined that the mens stories did not match up with the boys versions 19. 16. Diversity and challenge—these are the advantages of our new programming. 15. To run or to hide those were her only choices. Albany. Practice Use what you know about dashes to correctly punctuate the following sentences. and luck that’s what you’ll need for this job. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. and Trenton. I can never find his d pocket organizer when he Oh. 14. 11. Our idea just in case you’re interested is to remove the plastic coating. Check your work on these complicated sentences with the corrected versions on the next page. perseverance. REVIEW Practice what you have learned about punctuation so far by adding capitalization. New Jersey—that’s where our current staff will be relocating. though it is hard to understand my partners purpose in interviewing dr e s sanders jr was to eliminate him as a suspect in the crime 17. please bring these items when you drive up here tomorrow barbaras sleeping bag another can of avon insect repellent the girls queen-sized air mattress they want to use it to sunbathe on the water and my swimming trunks 20. commas. before the ambulance reached the corner of woodland and vine ms anderson saw a dark hooded figure crawl through the window reach back grab a small parcel and run north on vine 18. • Use a dash to connect a beginning phrase to the rest of the sentence. d—. 12.

6. Bonnie works as a dentist’s assistant. Though it is hard to understand. the Women’s Issues Group meets for lunch. 4. Mr. perseverance. 17. grab a small parcel. O’Dea is the most unreasonable—I should keep my opinions to myself. Employees’ motivations differ from an owner’s. 89 . Intelligence. Sanders. my partner’s purpose in interviewing Dr. Comp USA’s top-selling product is Micron’s latest MMX computer. Anderson saw a dark. 13. 5. 20. hooded figure crawl through the window. After six weeks’ steady work. they determined that the men’s stories did not match up with the boys’ versions. 14. Our idea—just in case you’re interested—is to remove the plastic coating. Please bring these items when you drive up here tomorrow: Barbara’s sleeping bag. 15. 9. 16. Mr. 10.S. we earn a permanent position and a day’s paid vacation. 2. Karl Malone and John Stockton—these two made an exciting combination.. Our firm’s territory has doubled in the last six months. 7. 8. Every Saturday afternoon. 11. The picnic basket is theirs. Ms. and the new responsibility is yours. To run or to hide—those were her only choices. was to eliminate him as a suspect in the crime. As the detectives interrogated each of the boys and their fathers. Before the ambulance reached the corner of Woodland and Vine. reach back. and luck—that’s what you’ll need for this job. I can never find his d— pocket organizer when he—Oh. 12. Smith’s.THE MYSTERIES OF APOSTROPHES AND DASHES Answers 1. E. A manager’s reward is different from an employee’s. Jones’s grocery store has better produce than Mrs. the girls’ queen-sized air mattress—they want to use it to sunbathe on the water—and my swimming trunks. and run north on Vine. 18. 19. a mixture of Malone’s aggressiveness and Stockton’s finesse. another can of Avon insect repellent. Janice and Jay’s horse was named the Grand Champion Stud. now I’ve got it. Jr. 3.

The secretary-treasurer read the minutes from last month’s meeting. hyphens. (encloses information when accuracy is important) 4. The parents of the sick child Otto and Rachel requested a second opinion. 1. (encloses an explanation that interrupts the flow of a sentence) 3. (Write out a number that can be written as one or two words. 3. Answers and explanations follow the quiz. Vegetables and or fruits are essential to healthy eating. (joins two words working as one) 2.) .CHAPTER 11 GRAMMAR IQ QUIZ Use parentheses. 4. We ordered (12. twelve) jelly doughnuts. Madison Avenue (the street one block east of our house) is being resurfaced. 5. The parents of the sick child (Otto and Rachel) requested a second opinion. slashes. 2. We ordered twelve jelly doughnuts. and numbers correctly in the following sentences. (shows that the sentence refers to one or both words) 5. Madison Avenue the street one block east of our house is being resurfaced. Answers 1. Vegetables and/or fruits are essential to healthy eating. The secretary treasurer read the minutes from last month’s meeting.

The last part of the chapter discusses using numbers in writing. parentheses. Parentheses and diagonal slashes also cause problems.CHAPTER 11 T THE FINER POINTS OF PUNCTUATION Most people misuse hyphens once in a while. and diagonal marks—serve very specific purposes. Knowing and understanding their functions gives a writer an advantage in communicating ideas. Grammar concepts to know: • hyphenated word—two or more words joined by a hyphen to create a single word (well-known) • compound word—two words joined together to form one (cowboy. This chapter explains when to use the less-often-used (and more often misused) punctuation marks and explains how to write numbers. This chapter explains how to use these marks. littering your written work like blemishes on an otherwise smooth surface. 91 . storeroom) he punctuation marks covered in this lesson— hyphens.

consult a recent dictionary. For example.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS HYPHENS The main purpose of a hyphen is to join words to create a compound word. Two-Word Compound Nouns couch potato hat rack window box guitar pick Hyphenated Compound Nouns father-in-law mayor-elect cook-off co-payment light-year ball-and-socket joint Single-Word Compound Nouns driveway raindrop candlelight speedboat sunscreen watermelon • Use a hyphen to join two words working together as one. In the late fifties. 92 . Mark is a singer-dancer. Pete Rose was a player-coach for the Cincinnati Reds. which is a combination of words used as one word. dictionaries began listing it as a hyphenated word (semi-colon). then eventually becomes a single word. George Clooney has joined the ranks of well-known actor-directors. or as a hyphenated word. Compound words may be written in three ways: as a single word. as two words. Since language changes constantly. the word semicolon began as two separate words (semi colon). A recent dictionary will list it as a single word (semicolon). a word written as two words often evolves into a hyphenated word. Whenever you are in doubt.

Lee Iacocca is a self-made man. Management and the union finally agreed after months of hard-nosed negotiations. Note: Some hyphenated adjectives. My mother decided to re-cover [not recover] her old rocking chair. You need to keep your half-baked plans a secret. all. and the words in the following section. • Use a hyphen to avoid confusing or awkward spellings.THE FINER POINTS OF PUNCTUATION • Use a hyphen to join more than two words into a single word. If the modifying words follow the word they modify. such as old-fashioned and ladder-back. ex. Check a recent dictionary when in doubt. great. Pay special attention to how these hyphenated adjectives are used when they follow the nouns they modify. pro. The treasurer-elect picked up all the records from the presiding treasurer. know-it-all good-for-nothing five-year-old • Use a hyphen to join two or more words that function as a single modifying word. keep their hyphens no matter where they are in a sentence. The doorway had a bell-like [not belllike] shape. The committee’s job was to re-pair [not repair]the tournament participants. The negotiations were hard nosed. the modifying words are not hyphenated. The evaluator was ill trained. former. and vice or the suffix elect to words. An ill-trained evaluator causes more problems than no evaluator at all. Max’s great-grandfather passed away on Wednesday. The accountant re-examined [not reexamined] the final totals. post. • Use a hyphen to join prefixes such as self. The President unveiled the all-powerful orbiting space station. Senior citizens remember the post-war years with great fondness. half. Bobby saw his ex-wife leaving the drug store. 93 .

or the duration of an event. four-year loan six-foot window seven-year lease two-year-old girl Note: When a series of similar number-word adjectives is written in a sen- tence. 94 . Plywood comes in two-. • Use an en dash to join numbers indicating a life span. • Use a hyphen to write two-word numbers between 21 and 99 as words. sixteen-. The carpenter used a T-square. one-half three-fourths • Use a hyphen to join numbers to words used as a single adjective. seventy-two thirty-four ninety-nine • Use a hyphen to join fractions written as words. The Cyclones won the game 78–67. Joe scored three touchdowns on twelve-. After that you’ll see a T-intersection. and six-foot sheets. Turn right at the first road after the S-curve. use a hyphen/comma combination with all but the last item in the series. four-. a score. The speech should last 5–7 minutes. William Shakespeare (1564–1616) is the most widely read English writer.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS • Use a hyphen to join a capital letter to a word. and five-yard carries.

After a day long business venture involving a water stand. 5. Never divide a one-syllable word. When in doubt. Avoid dividing a number. I see little justification for you to act like a know it all. We party-goers (how were we to know?) were completely surprised by the officers. (Fortunately. Note: Parentheses are often interchangeable with dashes in this kind of sentence (see Chapter 10). The neighbors had a picnic on Fourth of July. 2.) Unfortunately. Avoid dividing words that have fewer than six letters. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. Eileen’s well researched presentation impressed the audience of twenty five. the seven year old twins had made a ten cent profit. another set of neighbors (they were not invited) called the police to complain about the noise (probably that of the illegal fireworks). we were invited. 3. Avoid dividing the last word of a paragraph. Allison’s time in the one hundred meter dash beat mine by three tenths of a second. Practice Add hyphens where they are needed in the following sentences. now an ex corporate lawyer.THE FINER POINTS OF PUNCTUATION • Use a hyphen to separate a word between syllables at the end of a line. 95 . 1. Here are a few guidelines for dividing words: Never leave a single-letter syllable on a line. PARENTHESES • Use parentheses to enclose explanations that interrupt the normal flow of the sentence and are only marginally related to the text. After examining your brain X rays. 4. Linda May. Center Street (a party neighborhood if there ever was one) is a great place to live. reevaluated her career goals and became a self help author. Divide hyphenated words at the hyphen. always check a dictionary.

If the parenthetical construction comes at the end of a sentence. • Use a diagonal mark to separate numbers in a fraction. which shows that the sentence refers to one or both of the words being joined. or numerals. include that punctuation. He’ll want a 1⅝-inch wrench for this nut. no capital letters or periods are necessary. The twin children of the deceased couple (Alma and Otto Priggi) requested an autopsy. On the other hand. The cast will consent to interviews on radio and/or TV. NUMBERS In newspaper writing. a diagonal mark (also called a solidus or a slant mark) is used to join words or numbers. • Use parentheses to enclose information when accuracy is essential. However. if the parenthetical construction in the middle of another sentence is a sentence that would normally require a question mark or exclamation point. if it comes within another sentence. DIAGONAL MARK Much like the hyphen. are used instead of words because they are easier to identify and read. write the numeral. We saw fifteen safety movies last year. figures. The client agrees to pay the sum of two hundred twenty-five dollars ($225) per hour. it is punctuated as its own sentence within the parentheses. a number at the beginning of a sentence is always written as a word. follow these rules. 96 . In more formal writing. Each set of parentheses contains a complete sentence. write it as a word. Otherwise. It takes us 4½ hours to do the inventory at the end of the week. Applesauce and/or blended fruits can replace oil in most cake recipes. • If a number can be written as one or two words. However. The most frequent use of the diagonal is with the words and/or.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Notice the last three sentences.

• Use Arabic numerals (1. 3. Four of the workers who received pink slips will be re-evaluated. 8. Our new four-wheel-drive vehicle (I have never liked Jeeps) is in the shop again. Linda May. Practice Use what you have learned about punctuation and capitalization to correct the following sentences. Allison’s time in the one-hundred-meter dash beat mine by three-tenths of a second. the seven-yearold twins had made a ten-cent profit. II. One hundred twenty-five employees received year-end bonuses. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter.THE FINER POINTS OF PUNCTUATION We saw 115 safety movies last year.67 9. The student wrote “I will not talk in class” three hundred times. Eileen’s well-researched presentation impressed the audience of twenty-five. 4. 97 .67). The student wrote “I will not talk in class” 350 times. our new four wheel drive vehicle I have never liked Jeeps is in the shop again 7. Sugar Ray Leonard (what kind of name is “Sugar”?) fought his way out of retirement several times. After a day-long business venture involving a water stand. on delivery the recipient will pay the agreed on fee $435. 10. XXV). 25) rather than Roman numerals (I. On delivery. now an ex-corporate lawyer. 7. 6. After examining your brain X-rays. 4 of the workers who received pink slips will be re evaluated Answers 1. employees bonuses will be time and or money for two fifths of our staff 10. 5. 9. • Always write a number at the beginning of sentence as a word even if it is more than two words. 6. I see little justification for you to act like a know-it-all. Employees’ bonuses will be time and/or money for two-fifths of our staff. the recipient will pay the agreed-on fee ($435. sugar ray leonard what kind of name is sugar fought his way out of retirement several times 8. re-evaluated her career goals and became a self-help author. 2. 2.

watched (past) 3. Answers and explanations follow the quiz. show She ________ a different side to her personality during the meeting. 7. 5. opened (past) 4. open She _________ her own business in 2004. baked (past) 5. cooking (present participle) 2. watch I ________ my niece while my sister went shopping. and it is thriving. 6. 4. 3. cook When we arrived. Karen should (of.CHAPTER 12 GRAMMAR IQ QUIZ Complete each sentence with the correct past-tense form of the verb listed. used (past) 7. Answers 1. have) told me sooner. use My parents ________ to drink a lot of coffee. 2. 1. Karen should have told me sooner . showed (past) 6. he was _________dinner for us. bake My mother ________ my favorite dish for my birthday last year.

Because verbs are so important. This letter contains several errors in verb tense. mistakes involving verbs can be glaring. or had riters use words to communicate. This chapter explains how to use verbs correctly in sentences. Incorrect verb forms call special attention to themselves. have. such as has.CHAPTER 12 W VERBS THAT FOLLOW THE RULES Verbs—words that show action or a state of being— drive written language and give it life. Read the paragraph on the following page. This lesson explains how to use regular verbs correctly and highlights a few of the most common mistakes writers make. you’ll probably be able to correct them all. Few things are more confusing to the reader than misusing words—especially verbs. Grammar concepts to know: • principal parts of verbs—four basic forms of a verb • present—principal part of a verb that describes action happening now—or routine action • present participle—principal part of a verb that describes ongoing action and ends in -ing • past—principal part of a verb that describes action that happened in the past • past participle—principal part of a verb that describes action that happened in the past and is used with a helping verb. 99 . Can you spot them? By the end of this chapter.

The present participle form of a verb expresses an ongoing action. He learned Japanese during his semester abroad in Tokyo. 100 . As we drove. past. Thomas is here already. • Present participle: This is formed by adding -ing to the end of regular verbs. • Past participle: This is formed by adding -d or -ed to the end of regular verbs. They were trying to decide where to go on vacation when I arrived. THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF VERBS Verbs have four principal parts. I ask if he was hurt and would of taken him to the clinic. I have learned a thing or two in my life. is. As soon as my mom wakes up. which is covered in Chapter 14. or fundamental forms that are used to create a tense: present. was. (The helping verbs are used with the present participle determine tense. They already had elected a new chairwoman when she arrived. It is used with the helping verb have (has. I hired my assistant because his resume was impeccable. It is used with forms of the verb to be. are. He seem okay. and past participle. the end gate snap open and a box was fall out. I looked at it and rubed it. • Past: This form of a verb is used to indicate that something has already been completed. she goes straight into the kitchen to make a pot of coffee. I was eating dinner when she called. present participle. or were. They placed their trust in the new counselor. Ben yell and I stoped. He and I were haul a load of furniture from the warehouse. I walk my dog every day. or had). She has noticed his weight gain. He putted it back in and slam the end gate shut. • Present: This refers to something that is existing or happening now. such as am. have. but later we learn his thumb was broken. He snag his thumb in the latch.) I am looking for the notebook I lost in yesterday's class.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Ben had an accident today. or to an action that happens routinely.

The present participle is formed by adding -ing. just add d. If the verb ends with the letter e. The past is formed by adding -ed. drop the e before adding -ing. link: present form linking: forms the present participle by adding -ing linked: forms the past and past participle by adding -ed prepare: present form preparing: forms the present participle by dropping the e and adding -ing. Here is a list of twenty regular verbs and all of their principal parts. prepared: forms the past and past participle by adding d. Present Participle Past Participle Present Past connect elect exercise follow guarantee hire imagine knock learn match notice progress rate salt solve target time view wash yell connecting electing exercising following guaranteeing hiring imagining knocked learning matching noticing progressing rating salting solving targeting timing viewing washing yelling connected elected exercised followed guaranteed hired imagined knocking learned matched noticed progressed rated salted solved targeted timed viewed washed yelled connected elected exercised followed guaranteed hired imagined knocked learned matched noticed progressed rated salted solved targeted timed viewed washed yelled 101 .VERBS THAT FOLLOW THE RULES REGULAR VERBS Regular verbs follow a standard set of rules for forming their present participle and past forms. If the verb ends with the letter e.

flip. u.Look carefully at how the present participle and past forms are made. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Practice Fill in the correct form of the verb in each of the following sentences. organize 5. place Paul __________ the word impetus for us. however. Kay and Sandy are __________ the retirement dinner this year. The present form of the verb comes at the beginning of each sentence. net: present form netting: forms the present participle by doubling the t before adding -ing netted: forms the past and past participle by doubling the t and adding -ed trip: present form tripping: forms the present participle by doubling the p before adding -ing tripped: forms the past and past participle by doubling the p and adding -ed Present Participle Present Past Past Participle cap dab grab emit occur pin scar ship step trap 102 capping dabbing grabbing emitting occurring pinning scarring shipping stepping trapping capped dabbed grabbed emitted occurred pinned scarred shipped stepped trapped capped dabbed grabbed emitted occurred pinned scarred shipped stepped trapped . e. define 2. o. The vowels are a. i. When a verb ends with a vowel followed by a consonant (blot. Water is __________ through the roof. REGULAR VERBS ENDING WITH A VOWEL AND CONSONANT The English language has two kinds of letters: vowels and consonants. The next table shows ten words that end this way. The letter y. The snow __________ early this year. sometimes works as a vowel and sometimes as a consonant. melt 4. All other letters are consonants. the last consonant is doubled before adding -ing or -ed. leak 3. 1. occur). The custodian __________ an air freshener in the lounge.

map 8. Lyle _________ down as he approached the stop sign.VERBS THAT FOLLOW THE RULES This rule has one exception. drop the y. replace it with i. If the final consonant is a w. fry: present form frying: present participle fried: forms the past and past participle by changing the y to i and adding -ed study: present form studying: present participle studied: forms the past and past participle by changing the y to i and adding -ed 103 . slow 9. I think he is __________ to the article in this morning’s paper. the present participle is formed by adding -ing. fit 7. Look carefully at how the past and past participles are formed. show: present form showing: present participle showed: past and past participle sew: present form sewing: present participle sewed: past and past participle Practice Fill in the correct form of the verb in each of the following sentences. REGULAR VERBS ENDING WITH A CONSONANT FOLLOWED BY Y When a verb ends with a consonant followed by y (cry. The survey crew is __________ the plot this afternoon. hurry). Marcia and Peg have __________ to the new location. transfer My new shoes __________ my feet just fine. To create the past form. 6. The present form of the verb comes at the beginning of each sentence. The table that follows contains ten words that end in this way. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. it is not doubled before adding -ing or -ed. The examples show how this is done. and add -ed. Look at the following examples. refer 10. empty.

The only time these verbs change is when -ing is added to form the present participle. 14. 15. ONE-PART REGULAR VERBS Some verbs in the English language have the same present. Marge’s time in the race __________ her for the national meet. The children __________ the caged puppy. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. The present form of the verb comes at the beginning of each sentence. The election committee is __________ the votes right now. 12. The new contract __________ the old one. Here is a partial list of those verbs.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Present Present Participle Past Past Participle falsify magnify marry multiply occupy pity pry qualify unify verify falsifying magnifyin marrying multiplying occupying pitying prying qualifying unifying verifying falsified magnified married multiplied occupied pitied pried qualified unified verified falsified magnified married multiplied occupied pitied pried qualified unified verified Practice Fill in the correct form of the verb in each of the following sentences. and past participle form. past. followed by several examples. bet bid burst cost cut hit hurt put quit read set shut spread upset 104 . 11. 13. try nullify tally pity qualify The wolf __________ desperately to escape from the trap.

Correct: I wish the contractor would have taken care of this for us. (past) The first baseman has hit twenty home runs so far this year. (present participle— the only one that changes) Don’t Forget the -ed Some words are written incorrectly because we don’t always use or hear the -ed in spoken English. Wrong: Hansel could of seen the danger if he had looked more carefully. The rescuers risked [not risk] their lives to save the stranded mountain climbers. The ones most commonly misused are shown in the next table. (present) In yesterday’s game. Wrong: I wish the contractor would of taken care of this for us. Present Participle Present Past Past Participle ask risk suppose use asking risking supposing using asked risked supposed used asked risked supposed used We asked [not ask] to see the record book. 105 . Could’ve sounds just like could of—but could have is correct and could of is wrong. (past participle) The first baseman is hitting yet another home run. We are supposed [not suppose] to finish this for tomorrow. Remember to add -ed to the past and past participle forms of these words. the first baseman hit a home run.VERBS THAT FOLLOW THE RULES The first baseman hit a home run. This group is used [not use] to working together. Don’t Use of in Place of have Another problem resulting from pronunciation is using of instead of have in participial phrases. Correct: The farmer should have warned us about the dog. Correct: Hansel could have seen the danger if he had looked more carefully. Wrong: The farmer should of warned us about the dog.

11. 19. He snagged his thumb in the latch. Check your work with the corrected sentences that follow. the end gate snapped open and a box fell out. Ryan ask the question that the rest of us were afraid to ask. 18. Compare your version to the corrected version below. 6. 5.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Practice Use what you have learned about verbs to correct the following sentences. Ben had an accident today. 9. but later. He put it back in and slammed the end gate shut. 10. As we drove. REVIEW Remember the paragraph at the beginning of the chapter? Take another look at it and correct all of the errors you find. 20. 4. 3. Answers 1. 14. I looked at it and rubbed it. 13. 16. we learned his thumb was broken. He and I were hauling a load of furniture from the warehouse. That’s not the way we use to do it. 17. 7. Sally wish her husband would of remembered to pack her lunch. 8. I asked if he was hurt and would have taken him to the clinic. Juwon risk serious injury by wipe the acid spill. He seemed okay. defined leaking melted organizing placed fit mapping slowed referring transferred tried nullified (or nullifies) tallying pitied 106 . Ben yelled and I stopped. The changes have been bolded for you. You could of improved your chances by preparing ahead of time. 2. 12.

18. Ryan asked the question that the rest of us were afraid to ask. 17. That’s not the way we used to do it. 16. qualified Sally wished her husband would have remembered to pack her lunch. You could have improved your chances by preparing ahead of time. 107 .VERBS THAT FOLLOW THE RULES 15. 20. 19. Juwon risked serious injury by wiping the acid spill.

frozen) over by morning. froze. Answers follow the quiz. 1. begun) to work. dealt) me a good hand. The teacher (ask. dealt 3. began. did.CHAPTER 13 GRAMMAR IQ QUIZ Choose the correct form of the verb in each of the following sentences. 3. My new diet has not yet (begin. Answers 1. 4. did 4. freeze 5. asked 2. The lake will (freeze. 2. Life (dealed. 5. done) a good job of stopping the leak. begun . The plumbers (do. asked) the student a question.

I seen a few things that seemed like what we was looking for. I digged through the recycling bin to look for your records. Grammar concept to know: • irregular verb—a verb that forms its past and past participle forms in a unique way ost verbs in the English language are regular. This chapter explains how to use irregular verbs—the ones that don’t follow the rules. written by an employee to a supervisor. Read the following note. and I ain’t digging in there. This chapter covers many of these verbs and provides practice in using them. but approximately 150 verbs are not.CHAPTER 13 M REBELLIOUS VERBS The last chapter explained how and when to use regular verbs. but I think last night’s trash must have went to the dumpster. Most of the irregularities involve the ways in which the past and past participle are formed. 109 . How many errors in using irregular verbs can you spot? I done what you ask this morning.

110 . to the past form. 2. had) Present Past bite dig bleed hear hold light meet pay say sell tell shine shoot sit spin spit win swear tear wear bit dug bled heard held lit met paid said sold told shone shot sat spun spat won swore tore wore bit dug bled heard held lit met paid said sold told shone shot sat spun spat won sworn torn worn Practice Choose the correct form of the verb in each of the sentences that follow. except for the last three. The last three words form their principal parts in the same way and have a past participle form that is similar. has. and past tense for things that have already happened. bled) freely in hot water.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS IRREGULAR VERBS WITH SIMILAR PAST AND PAST PARTICIPLE FORMS This table includes some of the most commonly used irregular verbs. asked) me to (bite. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. bit) down hard on the X-ray tabs. Past Participle (used with have. Following the table are some exercises in using these verbs. Remember to use present tense for things happening now. Dark-colored garments (bleed. though not identical. 1. The dentist (ask. All of them have the same past and past participle.

5. spun) on the glare ice. Collin (tear. If we (win. tore) his jeans climbing over the barbed wire fence. 6. shone) through the trees. won) this game. 8. heard) yesterday that you plan to move before summer. we advance to the playoffs. It’s cold enough to (light. The moon (shine. 4. 9. told) us what you meant. Study them. 10. Will (pay. MORE IRREGULAR VERBS WITH TWO IDENTICAL PARTS Here’s another table of irregular verbs whose past and past participle are the same. 3. has. lit) the furnace. making eerie shadows on the ground. paid) his bills with a credit card. and then complete the exercises that follow.REBELLIOUS VERBS I (hear. had) creep deal keep kneel leave mean send sleep spend sweep bring buy catch fight teach think feed flee find grind crept dealt kept knelt left meant sent slept spent swept brought bought caught fought taught thought fed fled found ground crept dealt kept knelt left meant sent slept spent swept brought bought caught fought taught thought fed fled found ground 111 . Breanna never (tell. The tires did nothing but (spin. Present Past Past Participle (used with have. 7.

See if you can detect any patterns or groups in these irregular verbs. 16. knelt) before the king. 13. Do you (mean. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. 19. The would-be knight (kneel. We always (bring. The detectives (keep. The centerfielder (catch. 18. The deer (flee. had) Present Past begin ring sing spring do go am is drink shrink sink stink blow draw grow 112 began rang sang sprang did went was was drank shrank sank stank blew drew grew begun rung sung sprung done gone been been drunk shrunk sunk stunk blown drawn grown . meant) that we’ll be without electricity all evening? The twins (spend. Remember to use present tense for things happening now. We (find. 20. 17. and past tense for things that have already happened. 11. 12. spent) last evening with their grandparents. The gambler folded the hand he was (deal. kept) the suspect under surveillance all last night. brought) deviled eggs to every family picnic. dealt). has. 14. Hal (think. thought) the fruit would have been delivered by now. fled) after they saw our headlights. IRREGULAR VERBS WITH THREE DISTINCT FORMS The irregular verbs in this table are grouped with other verbs that form their principal parts in similar ways. found) water in our basement every spring. caught) the ball and threw it to home plate. 15.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Practice Choose the correct form of the verb in each of the following sentences. Past Participle (used with have.

had) Present Past choose rise break speak fall shake take forget chose rose broke spoke fell shook took forgot chosen risen broken spoken fallen shaken taken forgotten 113 . drove. did. 30. known) his supplies were running short. The neighbors have (go. gone) on vacation. sank. All of their children have (grow. shrunk) when I washed it. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. 21. 25. Remember to use present tense for things happening now. has. grown) up and moved away. had) know throw fly drive strive Practice knew threw flew drove strove known thrown flown driven striven Choose the correct form of the verb in each of the following sentences. knew. The congregation (sing. was. has. The sweatshirt (shrink. went. The builder (do. has. begun) to rain. 24. MORE THREE-PART IRREGULAR VERBS The next table also includes verbs grouped with others that form their principal parts in similar ways. has been) putting in overtime for that last three weeks. The teenage boy (drive. Jack (is. driven) his way to high insurance rates. 29. done) all the planning for us. began. or had. sunk) about 125 years ago. Past Participle (used with have. 23.REBELLIOUS VERBS Present Past Past Participle (used with have. and past participle with have. 28. shrank. The ship must have (sink. grew. See if you can detect the patterns. The proprietor (know. past tense for things that have already happened. sang. It has (begin. 27. 22. sung) the first two verses of the hymn. 26.

114 . Water will (freeze. The band on this watch (break. 37. had) get give forgive forsake hide ride write come overcome run freeze steal Practice got gave forgave forsook hid rode wrote came overcame ran froze stole gotten given forgiven forsaken hidden ridden written come overcome run frozen stolen Choose the correct form of the verb in each of the sentences that follow. gave. froze. forgot. has. 35. broke. Hoards of walnuts (fall. 36. Becky’s parents (give. 32. The dog must have (hide. past tense for things that have already happened. stole. 39. given) her clothes for Christmas. hidden) your slippers. has. The gambler must have (choose. Remember to use present tense for things happening now. or had. chosen) the lucky dice. 34. stolen) by procrastination than any other thief. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. hid. fell. broken). The audience grew deathly quiet when they realized the star had (forget. and past participle with have.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Present Past Past Participle (used with have. 38. More time has been (steal. fallen) from the tree that fall. 31. wrote. frozen) at 32 degrees Fahrenheit. came) home to a completely empty house. written) to your mother lately? The newlyweds (come. forgotten) his lines. chose. 40. 33. Have you (write.

Correct: We aren’t supposed to know about the party. 42. The minister (come. I saw a few things that seemed like what we were looking for. The president (speak. Practice Choose the correct form of the verb in each of the following sentences. Incorrect: I ain’t interested in your product. Correct: He isn’t the problem here. It belongs in the same category as wanna and gonna. REVIEW Remember the paragraph at the beginning of the chapter? Take another look at it and correct all of the verb errors you find. I did what you asked this morning. 45. Your department certainly (do. The manager just (throw. The changes have been bolded for you. and I’m not digging in there. Incorrect: He ain’t the problem here. came) to the point very early in the sermon. rang. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. use is not or isn’t. done) a good job on this project. spoke. am not. I dug through the recycling bin to look for your records. 43. 41. 115 . threw. and are not or aren’t. thrown) away a chance to increase the store’s sales. Correct: I am not interested in your product. but I think last night’s trash must have gone to the dumpster. did. You may hear these words when people speak. Instead of ain’t. but they are not used in formal writing. spoken) at the cabinet meeting. rung) continuously all day long. Compare your version of the paragraph to the corrected one that follows. 44.REBELLIOUS VERBS Ain’t Ain’t is a substandard English word that should never be used in business language. Incorrect: We ain’t supposed to know about the party. The phone has (ring.

34. 13. 20. 41. 19. 4. 2. 25.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS 46. Has the admitting staff (go. 22. 37. 46. gave hidden written came freeze stolen did threw spoke rung came saw begun gone bit stolen 116 . 47. thought find fled begun sang did gone has been shrank sunk grown knew drove chosen broke fell forgotten 35. 3. 42. 39. went. 7. asked. begun) to produce fruit. 32. 8. bite bleed heard paid light told shone spin win tore dealt kept knelt mean spent bring caught 18. 28. 49. 9. began. The new tree has not yet (begin. saw. 50. stolen) a car from the ramp. 30. 11. 49. 40. 17. 45. 6. 15. 38. 27. 16. 48. 43. 48. 10. gone) nuts? Heather lost a filling when she (bite. 23. 5. 47. Answers 1. stole. bitten) into the piece of hard candy. 50. bit. Harriet (see. seen) the advertisement for the new product in a catalog. 36. 29. The attendant couldn’t believe that someone had actually (steal. 12. 14. 31. 21. 24. 44. 33. 26.

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] Answers 1. left. rang or knocks. [Assume that the superintendent is living. 4. had been shipped) the day before. knocked. had realized) that she (leave. rings or had arrived. had left) her purse inside the house. 3. had rung) the doorbell. 4. 2. been) very friendly. had left thought. Miguel (knocks. Since the supplies (arrive. was. had been shipped knocked. arrived. we (begin. realized. rang.CHAPTER 14 GRAMMAR IQ QUIZ Choose the correct verb form in each of the following sentences. had thought) the merchandise (ship. had arrived). 3. began is had knocked. 5. began. 1. Hilary (realize. had begun) to work. 2. realized. had knocked) and (rings. thought. The new superintendent (is. shipped. 5. Answers follow the quiz. The representative (think. had rung .

or will occur. today. it should stay in past tense. and future. 119 . the verb forms that express the time an action occurs. Grammar concepts to know: • verb tense—form of a verb that indicates when the action occurs • subjunctive mood—form of a verb used to indicate a condition contrary to fact erb tense tells readers the time an action takes place. KEEPING VERB TENSE CONSISTENT The tense of a verb tells when an action occurs. so writers need to know how to use it accurately. Do not mix tenses as you write. present-. and future-tense verbs. A passage that begins in present tense should continue in present tense. If it begins in past tense. Verbs have three basic tenses: present. occurred.CHAPTER 14 V DON’T BE TENSE ABOUT VERBS Yesterday. past. and tomorrow: This chapter covers the fine points of verb tenses. This chapter explains how to keep verb tense consistent and when to switch tense. By the end of this chapter you’ll have a better understanding of how to use past-.

(Patty had gone to work. Correct: When we increased advertising expenses. Linda had already completed two actions before his arrival—she had bought groceries and cooked dinner. Correct: The officer unlocked the trunk and searched for contraband.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Wrong: The officer unlocked the trunk and searches for contraband. Present tense shows action that happens now or action that happens routinely. regardless of the tense in which the passage begins. and progressive perfect. a writer must show that an action occurred at another time. Correct: When we increase advertising expenses. we reduced profits. is. To allow this.) Linda already had bought groceries and cooked dinner when Hal arrived. helping verbs (have been or has been) precede the verb written in its -ing form (progressive form). verb (am. USING TENSE TO CONVEY MEANING Using verb tense carefully helps writers avoid confusing the reader. each of the three basic tenses has three subdivisions: progressive. Richard discovered that Patty had left home and gone to work. Linda had completed one action—she had bought groceries—and was in the middle of another actioncooking dinner.) Linda already had bought groceries and was cooking dinner when Hal arrived. perfect. (When Hal arrived. we reduce profits.) THE FINE POINTS OF VERB TENSE Sometimes. The present perfect tense shows an action that was completed in the indefinite past. Wrong: When we increase advertising expenses. (When Hal arrived. 120 . or are) always precedes the -ing form (progressive form) of the verb to create the present progressive tense. The present progressive tense shows an action that is happening now. Correct: The officer unlocks the trunk and searches for contraband.) Richard discovered that Patty had left home and went to work. A helping. (Richard went to work. The present perfect progressive tense shows action that began in the past and is continuing in the present to create this tense. A helping verb (have or has) precedes the past form of the verb to create this tense. The following examples illustrate how tense can completely change the meaning of a sentence. or auxiliary. we reduced profits.

DON’T BE TENSE ABOUT VERBS Present (shows action Present Progressive Present Perfect Present Perfect Progressive happening now or routinely) (-ing form preceded by am. Smoking has caused cancer in millions of people. which the Redbirds use (present). is. Optimists hope for the best. Read the paragraph below to see how this is done. uses has. The past progressive tense shows an ongoing action in the past. The helping verbs had been precede the progressive form of the verb to form this tense. The verbs are italicized. Past tense shows action that was completed in the past. The past perfect tense shows an action completed in the past before some other past action. are) (shows action that began in the past. Optimists have hoped for the best. Smoking has been causing cancer in millions of people. Season ticket holders have been boycotting (present perfect progressive) games for the last month. uses has or have been) Optimists have been hoping for the best. Optimists are hoping for the best. The past perfect progressive tense shows continuing action that began in the past before another action in the past. 121 . Smoking is causing cancer in millions of people. All present-tense forms can be used without shifting verb tense. For years fans have complained (present perfect) about parking. but their absence has gone (present perfect) unnoticed. To form this tense. It uses the past form of the verb. The helping verb had precedes the past participle form of the verb to form the past perfect. and officials pay (present) little attention. a helping verb (was or were) precedes the progressive form of the verb. The city planners are hoping (present progressive) to revamp the old stadium. have) (shows action that began in the past and continues now. and the words in parentheses identify the tense. They demand (present) adequate parking. Smoking causes cancer in millions of people.

some ignored (past) the rules and continued (past) to carry the cells they had been bringing (past perfect progressive) to school. Future tense shows action that has yet to happen. Around mid-year. To form this tense. challenged (past) the legality of the school’s rule. would. The principal had been holding the meetings before the math teacher took over. A suit has been filed (past perfect) on behalf of the suspended students. as they do not constitute a shift in tense. The principal held the meetings. several students were suspended (past). would have. or will have been precede the past participle form of 122 .GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Past Past Progressive Past Perfect Past Perfect Progressive (action completed in the past) (-ing form. The principal was holding the meetings. They had carried (past perfect) them the previous year and planned (past) to continue. Parents had already spoken to the teachers. who had been following (past perfect progressive) the story. the helping-verb phrases will be. The helping verbs will. continuing action in the past. The future progressive tense shows ongoing actions in the future. shall be. school officials warned (past) students about bringing cell phones to school. uses had) (continuing action in the past before another action in the past. A Times reporter. Parents were speaking to the teachers. or shall precede the present form of the verb to form the future tense. and the words in parentheses identify the tense. Last fall. The paragraph that follows illustrates how this is done. The helping-verb phrases will have. or would be precede the progressive form of the verb. were) (action completed prior to another action. uses had been) Parents had been speaking to the teachers for half an hour by the time I arrived. but it has not come (past perfect) before the court. Most students complied (past) with the request. however. uses was. All past-tense forms can be used in one writing passage. The principal had already held the meetings. The future perfect tense shows actions that will be completed. The verbs are italicized. Parents spoke to the teachers.

By summer. would have been. Because so many people are moving to the area. Newspapers will be covering this case. K & M will be building (future progressive) modern condominiums. and people will have been living (future perfect progressive) in the condos since February. every newspaper will have written about this case. Zelda met the new director. uses will. which will add a nice aesthetic to the neighborhood. The future perfect progressive tense shows continuing actions that will be completed before another future action or time. The verb phrases will have been. newspapers will have been covering the case for three months.DON’T BE TENSE ABOUT VERBS the verb to form the future perfect. He is very tall. we will have written reams of letters. legislaters will have been receiving letters throughout the year. He was very tall. This will assure (future) that the property value of the surrounding neighborhood will increase (future). Newspapers will cover this case. or shall have been precede the progressive form of the verb to form this tense. We will begin a letter-writing campaign. [Isn’t he still tall?] Zelda met the new director. The next paragraph illustrates how this is done. By next spring. By summer. would. the park next to the condos will have been completed (future perfect). IMPROPER USE OF PAST TENSE Don’t use past tense to make a statement about a present condition. shall) (continuing action that will happen) (action that will be completed before another future action or time) By summer. K & M Real Estate will develop (future) the land just east of the river. Everyone will be writing letters. 123 . as they do not constitute a shift in tense. All future-tense forms can be used in one writing passage. The verbs are italicized and the words in parentheses identify the tense. (continuing action that will be completed before another future action or time) By then. Future Future Progressive Future Perfect Future Perfect Progressive (action that will happen.

The engineer explained (past) to the city council that the streets run (present) parallel to the freeway. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD FOR CONDITIONS CONTRARY TO FACT When Tevya in Fiddler on the Roof sings. . The subjunctive mood of verbs is used to express something that is wished for or that is contrary to fact.] If Anthony were more responsible. 2. After Ethel knocked on the door.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS I visited a bed and breakfast inn near the edge of town. I would finish the job if I (was. have read) my love letter. few people believed (past) that the earth revolves (present) around the sun. During Galileo’s time. 5. If you were a cat. [Anthony is not responsible. a general statement of truth or fact is written in present tense. . [You are not a cat. he could be trusted with this job. begun) to suffer. rang. By the time I get on the plane. PRESENT TENSE FOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL TRUTH OR FACT Even if a passage is written in past tense. you would be entirely dependent on human beings. The building was Victorian. were) you. My teacher explained why Mars (is.” he uses the verb were to signal that he is only imagining what he would do as a rich man. The subjunctive of was is were. she will (read. 124 . The office morale has already (begin. she (ring. 4. 1. began. “If I were a rich man . The building is Victorian. [Isn’t it still Victorian?] I visited a bed and breakfast inn near the edge of town. 3. had rung) the doorbell. Check your work with the answers on the following page.] Practice Use what you have learned about verb tense to choose the correct option in each of the following sentences. was) red.

measured) my blood pressure. take 125 . After I rented the movie. begun 6. reduced) repair costs. 19. looked) inside. 14. took/measured 7. reduce 15. were) president of the United States. have seen) it. were 11. took. I ate at a new restaurant last night. I realized that I already (saw. I met the new technician. Dr.DON’T BE TENSE ABOUT VERBS 6. looked 14. 7. Alvin opened the door and (look. had planned) to continue doing so until new laws were passed. took 18. 16. If I (was. 8. Most of us wish we would (of. had seen. 12. took) it very seriously. we (reduce. were 5. He (is. had seen 12. were 13. he (takes. planned 16. is 19. 13. was) wonderful. is 4. is 9. the nurse (takes. Carnes announced that the department chair (is. planned. 17. were) closer to a livestock confinement. and the decor (is. Because Peter loved his job. looks. have) taken stock options rather than yearend bonuses. was) done well. was) very personable. I’d abolish income taxes. 18. rang 2. Hesari has been desperate to (take. 10. When we increase maintenance service. have read 3. have 8. was) too small. 9. is 20. Charles wishes he had ordered a large burger because his (is. I like knowing that my work (is. have taken) time off work. 11. 20. The company had dumped waste into the river for years and it (plans. is 10. took) my pulse and (measures. 15. is 17. The packing plant could cut transportation costs if it (was. Answers 1. Yesterday. was) responsible for work schedules.

know) the score. The child (doesn’t.. Neither the coach nor the players (knows. are) missing. 7. 5. 3.. as well as the associates. doesn’t (child doesn’t…) 2. weren’t) where we had left it. 8. know (players know. are) fine for the bathroom sink. wasn’t (package wasn’t…) . Answers 1. 1. The manager. One of the assignments (is. is (manager is..) 10. 10. aren’t) many files left to read. (is. Answers follow the quiz. Either of these faucets (is. 6. Either Eugene or Bernice (want. know) the score.) 4. Bernice wants) 6.) 8.. wants (Eugene wants. don’t) want to go to bed just yet. 4. Neither the players nor the coach (knows. knows (coach knows. wants) to go on a week-long cruise. aren’t (files aren’t…) 7. 9. Aerobics (is. are) scheduled to work the late shift. The package (wasn’t. There (isn’t. is (one assignment is…) 3.CHAPTER 15 GRAMMAR IQ QUIZ Choose the verb that matches the subject in each of the following sentences. is (Aerobics is one type of activity.) 9. are) good for general health and weight management. 2.. is (either faucet is…) 5..

Grammar concepts to know: • subject-verb agreement—when a subject in a sentence matches the verb in number • compound subject—two or more subjects that share the same verb and that are joined by a conjunction hen the subject of a clause—the person or thing doing the action—matches the verb in number (both singular or both plural). you should be able to recognize them all. but a few grammatical constructions do pose some problems. This chapter highlights some of the situations that cause agreement problems even for native speakers and explains how to handle them correctly in writing. See how many you can spot. Most English speakers have little trouble matching subjects with the correct verbs.CHAPTER 15 W MAKING SUBJECTS AND VERBS AGREE He don’t or he doesn’t? Most native English speakers automatically choose the second version. we say the subject and verb are in agreement. By the end of this chapter. This chapter explains the concept of subject-verb agreement and provides practice in problem areas. The memo on the following page contains several subject-verb agreement errors. Subjectverb agreement is so important in speaking and writing that errors in this area really stand out. 127 .

[singular] They were. apply this simple test. The verb form that best completes the first sentence is singular. They look. Melinda and Connie is thinking about filing a complaint. 1997 The nurse’s aides was having trouble with the floor nurse yesterday.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS To: Jessica Amerson From: Tyson Hall Re: Aides/floor nurse dispute Date: July 21. They do. are. MAKING SUBJECTS AGREE WITH THEIR VERBS IN NUMBER A subject should agree with its verb in number. In other words. The verb form that best completes the second sentence is plural. was. Unlike nouns. am. I look. even though it is a single person. He looks. The aides think he should do his part too. He was. and was. if the subject is plural. The following list shows how to use the verb form to be. Maybe you can see if either the floor nurse or the aides is willing to find a better solution. usually takes the plural form. I do. Problem Verb Forms and Constructions The verb form to be—be. is. the verb must be singular. Every one of the aides are just as busy as he is. Neither the aides nor the floor nurse need this fuss. do. however. I am. 128 . Try it yourself with any verb that confuses you. if a subject is singular. most verbs ending in s are singular. He _____. Fill in the blanks in the two sentences that follow with the matching form of the verb. He don’t think he should help with unloading supplies. If you are unsure whether a verb is singular or plural. were—can pose special problems because the principal parts are formed in such unusual ways. They wasn’t very happy with him when he refused. the verb must be plural. [plural] Look at these examples using the verbs look. He does. [singular] They _____. that the subject I. [plural] Note.

do not) and wasn’t/weren’t (meaning was not.MAKING SUBJECTS AND VERBS AGREE Subject Present Past Past Participle I you he. 129 . Incorrect: I be going. don’t and weren’t are plural. Correct: I am going. Do not allow a phrase following it to mislead you into using a verb that does not agree with the subject. They don’t want to move until next year. Correct: They are on their way. Two other constructions often cause problems for people: doesn’t/don’t (meaning does not. Doesn’t and wasn’t are singular. she. One of the chairs is damaged. The window designs by Rick Baker are complex and colorful. We weren’t sure. Phrases Following Subjects Don’t Affect Verbs Pay careful attention to the subject in a sentence. A manual with thorough instructions comes with this printer. You weren’t sure.) I don’t want to move until next year. it we they I am you are he is we are they are I was you were she was we were they were I have been you have been it has been we have been they have been Never use the be form after a subject. The subjects and verbs are in bold in the following examples. The principal. I wasn’t sure. She doesn’t want to move until next year. Incorrect: They be on their way. along with her three associates. (But remember that I takes the plural form. returns from the workshop today. were not).

speak) Spanish. The news is over at 9:30. Most of the nouns in the following list are singular. [The fraction refers to the singular noun time. Despite that they sound plural. Words that express an amount may be singular or plural. . Some can be either singular or plural. [separate times] A fraction is singular when it refers to a singular word and plural when it refers to a plural word. mumps.] One-fourth of the people are here for the cooking class. depending on their use in the sentence. [The fraction refers to the plural noun people. 130 When the boss (jokes. These are just a few examples: measles. One-fourth of my time is spent at the gym. sports. politics. joke). grow) where the forest used to (grows. [one unit of time] Three hours of each day were dedicated to studying. [The dollars are thought of separately. we (laughs. 2. Six dollars is the price of a hamburger at the Corner Bistro. laugh). and plural when the amount is thought of as many parts. economics. 3. Low-impact aerobics is best for older adults. The clerk (rings. but her parents (speaks. physics. sing). news. Darts is my favorite game.] Practice Circle the correct verb in each of the following sentences. hum) while the soloist (sings. grow). Amounts are singular when the amount is thought of as a unit.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Special Singular Subjects Some nouns are singular even though they end in s. Answers are found at the end of the chapter. [Six dollars is thought of as one unit. they require a singular verb because we think of them as a single unit. 1. ring) up the sales while the customers (waits. Constella (speaks. speak) English. civics. mathematics. Sports is a healthy stress reliever. 4.] Three hours was a long time to wait for the bus. wait) in line. athletics.] Six dollars are lying on the table. The carolers (hums. checkers or marbles (games). 5. statistics. A single tree now (grows.

Half of the sandwich (was. are) in storage. don’t) think the files (is. Singular Pronouns These pronouns are always singular. These statistics (is. 15. weren’t) here when we arrived this morning. One of the secretaries (is. For example. were) eaten. are) the result of careful research. Paula (doesn’t. 7. Some of these are also called indefinite pronouns because they refer to no specific person of thing. weren’t) starting. Some pronouns are always plural. each either neither anybody anyone everybody everyone no one nobody one somebody someone See how these pronouns take singular verbs in the following examples: Someone always forgets to sign in. They require singular verbs.MAKING SUBJECTS AND VERBS AGREE 6. 10. 12. Pronouns used as subjects present a problem for even the most sophisticated speakers of English. in this sentence. along with the receipts. The bright walls (doesn’t. Each of the members feels that an increase in dues is justified. Mabel couldn’t drive to work because her car (wasn’t. were) scheduled to go out last week. MAKING PRONOUN SUBJECTS MATCH THEIR VERBS IN NUMBER A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun. 11. don’t) open until 9:30 on Saturday mornings. 9. “All of the cookies were decorated. 8. The petty cash box. were) my most difficult math course in high school. were) tuna salad. and acts as the subject. 13. 16. Statistics (was. 14. (is. The bank (doesn’t. Neither child wants to miss the fireworks. are) finishing the newsletter that (was. Everybody here thinks the car should be fixed instead of traded in for a new model. The shipment (wasn’t. are) turned in at the end of the day.” the word all stands for or refers to cookies. Half of the sandwiches (was. don’t) seem very relaxing. A handful of pronouns can be either singular or plural. Other pronouns are always singular. 131 .

remember that has is singular while have is plural. Plural Pronouns These pronouns are always plural and require a plural verb: both few many several Singular/Plural Pronouns The following pronouns can be either singular or plural: all any most 132 none some . So many speakers misuse these pronouns that you may have become accustomed to hearing them used incorrectly. either. and neither are the pronouns most commonly misused. (Has. For questions beginning with has or have. These sentences may sound awkward. (Is. Look at the following examples to see how this is done. Either of the associates knows where the records are kept. the substitution trick (one for the words following the pronoun) will help you avoid this mistake. Are) some of the advertisers noticing the difference? Some of the advertisers are noticing the difference.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Each. Either one knows where the records are kept. Pay special attention to the verb-subject combination in a question. the correct verb is easier to identify if you turn the question into a statement. Have) either of the inspectors filed a report? Either one has filed a report. (Does. Each of the boys wants his own car. Despite that. You can avoid making mistakes when using these pronouns by mentally replacing the other words between the pronoun and the verb with the word one. In fact. Each one wants his own car. Do) each of the trucks have a hoist? Each one does have a hoist.

The key words are in bold. Singular Plural All of the work is planned. seem) motivated. were) moved for the winter. 26. 20. None of our problems (goes. None of these keys (unlocks. Does) each of the keyboards have a built-in wrist support? (Has. None of the time was spent very well. 24. 25. Answers are found at the end of the chapter. If the pronoun refers to a plural noun or pronoun. See how this is done in the following sentences. 28. None of the hours were spent very well. are) perfect for my house. Each of these decongestants (causes. Practice All of the jobs are planned. If the pronoun refers to a singular noun or pronoun. take) several hours to complete. (Was. help) your frame of mind. Practice matching pronoun subjects with verbs by circling the correct verb in each of the following sentences. 30. Were) any of the cables long enough? (Do. 17. 22. the verb must be singular. All of the box lunches (has. Is any of the pie remaining? Most of the milk was sour. An exercise program (helps. have) been given away. work) for the city. 18. Are any of the pieces of pie remaining? Most of the glasses of milk were empty. 23. or. COMPOUND SUBJECTS A compound subject is made up of two or more subjects that are joined by a conjunction (usually and.MAKING SUBJECTS AND VERBS AGREE The words that these pronouns refer to determine whether the verbs are singular or plural. need) to be serviced. Either of these paintings (is. 27. 29. the verb must be plural. cause) drowsiness. or nor) and that share the same verb. 21. Each of the project components (takes. go) unnoticed by the regular customers. unlock) the back door. Some of the fruit was shipped. 19. Some of the animals (was. Some of the apples were shipped. A friend at one of my jobs also (works. 133 . Both of the trainees (seems. Have) either of the tenants paid the rent? Neither of our fleet vehicles (needs.

they require a singular verb. Elaine wants to get a new car. Singular Subjects Joined by or or nor If two singular nouns or pronouns are joined by or or nor. they require a plural verb. Singular and Plural Subjects Joined by or or nor Singular and plural subjects joined by or or nor require a verb that agrees with the subject closest to the verb. NOT THE WORD FOLLOWING THE VERB Take care not to let the words following the verb confuse you about the real subject of the sentence. the subject follows the verb. In the following example sentences. A serious problem for corn growers is weeds. 134 . Locate the subject of the sentence and make certain the verb matches it. VERBS AGREE WITH SUBJECTS. WHEN THE SUBJECT FOLLOWS THE VERB When a sentence asks a question or begins with the word there or here. He and she [both] want to take a vacation. Neither the coach nor the players like the lineup. Taxes were the biggest issue in the campaign. The biggest issue in the campaign was taxes. Art wants to get a new car. Art or Elaine wants to get a new car. Jack and Jill [both] insist on finding a flat prairie on which to walk. Think of them as two separate sentences and you’ll never make a mistake in agreement.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Singular Subjects Joined by and If two singular nouns or pronouns are joined by and. Neither the players nor the coach likes the lineup. the subjects and verbs are bolded in the correct sentences. Weeds are a serious problem for corn growers.

Were) there any two-piece suits left on the rack? 38. Up in the stands go the fan who spilled my drink. 33. My daughter’s passion (is. 32. 35. Are) the children’s department on this floor? 36. 34. Wrong Correct Inside your drawer is the documents I finished. Out of nowhere come three new accounts. There are six students asking for help. There (isn’t. (Was. order) the inventory reduction. match) the other stanzas in the poem. are) the data we needed. order) the inventory reduction. 40. What are the terms of the agreement? Why are his words garbled? Here are the statistics they compiled. rather than precedes. are) crafts. 135 . aren’t) many weeks left before summer. take) the car to town.MAKING SUBJECTS AND VERBS AGREE Wrong Correct What is the terms of the agreement? Why is his words garbled? Here’s the statistics they compiled. 39. Neither the sound nor the rhythm (matches. Check your work with the answers on the following page. Either the manager or the employees (orders. Practice Practice what you have learned about matching verbs and subjects by choosing the correct verb in each of the following sentences. a verb. 37. Inside your drawer are the documents I finished. Up in the stands goes the fan who spilled my drink. (Is. Off into the sunset (runs. In the example sentences that follow. Here (is. Out of nowhere comes three new accounts. the subjects and verbs in the corrected sentences are bolded. Either the employees or the manager (orders. Locate the subject in an inverted sentence and make certain the verb agrees with it. either Oscar or Lorraine (takes. Every other day. Inverted sentences also contain a subject that follows. 31. There is six students asking for help. run) the herd of mustangs.

aren’t 39. were 17. is 40. He doesn’t think he should help with unloading supplies. are 14. grows. is 13. grow 3. speaks. needs 26. go 29. orders 34. was 16. wasn’t 8. order 35. Has 25. The aides think he should do his part too. The changes are highlighted. jokes. were 21. is 22. Does 24.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS REVIEW Remember the memo at the beginning of the chapter? Go back and try to correct it. helps 30. Is 36. then compare your version to the corrected one below. are 11. was 15. is 37. matches 33. Melinda and Connie are thinking about filing a complaint. wait 5. takes 32. hum. They weren’t very happy with him when he refused. wasn’t 10. seem 27. runs 136 . doesn’t. don’t 7. To: Jessica Amerson From: Tyson Hall Re: Aides/floor nurse dispute Date: July 21. was 12. Were 38. 2005 The nurse’s aides were having trouble with the floor nurse yesterday. have 20. unlock 18. Every one of the aides is just as busy as he is. laugh 2. doesn’t 9. is. Were 23. Maybe you can see if either the floor nurse or the aides are willing to find a better solution. Neither the aides nor the floor nurse needs this fuss. rings. causes 31. Answers 1. takes 19. speak 4. sings 6. works 28.

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2. I (am) . Answers 1.CHAPTER 16 GRAMMAR IQ QUIZ Choose the correct pronoun(s) in each of the following sentences. me). 5. their) purse knows what kind of treasures hide at the bottom. their) food. Chad and Roberta graded the papers from (his or her. 1. him) went to the meeting with Janet and (I. The cat or the dog has finished (its. 4. he. their) classes. Any woman who has cleaned out (her. The supervisor is more organized than (I. Rodriquez and (he. Answers and explanations follow the quiz. her (singular subject) 4.) 5. 3. me). me (He went to the meeting with me. their (plural subject) 2. its (singular subject) 3.

CHAPTER 16 L BEATING THE PRONOUN ODDS Using the right pronouns in sentences can be tricky. This chapter explains the basic principles of pronoun use and highlights the most common pronoun problems: agreement. and ambiguous pronoun references. incomplete constructions. pronouns that are misused in writing can confuse the reader. or thing • ambiguous reference—words that can easily be interpreted to mean more than one thing • reflexive pronoun—a pronoun that contains self or selves ike verbs. 139 . Pronouns are misused so often in speech that few people really know how to avoid pronoun errors in writing. This chapter shows you a few tricks for getting the pronouns right every time. place. reflexive pronouns. Grammar concepts to know: • antecedent—the noun that a pronoun replaces • indefinite pronouns—pronouns that do not refer to any specific person.

In the last chapter. each either neither anybody anyone everybody everyone no one nobody one somebody someone A pronoun with one of the words from this list as its antecedent must be singular. you learned about singular indefinite pronouns. The state employees received their benefits. 140 . use the phrase his or her. they are known as indefinite pronouns because they don’t refer to one specific person or thing. In the following example sentences. However.” Usually. In the following example sentences. Here is the list for your review. if the antecedent is plural. Anyone [singular] who takes up steer wrestling should pay up his or her [singular] life insurance. Each [singular] of the women wore her [singular] favorite outfit to the ball. People usually have little trouble matching a pronoun with a noun antecedent. Remember. the antecedent is underlined and the pronouns are italicized. Neither of the tenants could find his or her copy of the lease. The antecedents of singular indefinite pronouns require singular pronouns.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS PRONOUNS AND ANTECEDENTS A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun or another pronoun. Indefinite Pronoun Antecedents A pronoun must agree in number with its antecedent. The noun represented by a pronoun is called its antecedent. the antecedent comes before the pronoun in a sentence. Someone left her makeup in the rest room.” So the literal meaning of antecedent is “comes before. sometimes a pronoun represents another pronoun. if the antecedent is singular. When the antecedent can be referring to a male or female. In other words. The word ante means “before. the pronouns are italicized and the antecedents (the nouns they represent) are underlined. the pronoun must be plural. the pronoun must be singular. The floor manager hates these overstocks because he knows they reduce profits. Erica thought she saw the stolen van and reported it to the authorities.” and cede means “come.

Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. use a plural pronoun. their) old dorm refrigerator. they) is hard to repair. 7. Ask someone in maintenance to fix this desk. (it. them) wait. their) name on this contract. 2. 3. Neither the soldiers nor the sergeant was sure of (his. • If two or more singular nouns or pronouns are joined by or. Neither Gary nor Willie wants (his. and (he. she. the pronoun agrees with the closest noun or pronoun it represents. Ray knows someone who might give you (her. Trent or Jared will loan you his car for this errand. 10. If you’re interested in pleasing customers. Practice Choose the correct pronoun in each of the following sentences. Remember to give Jane or Rita her appointment card. 6. 141 . Neither the teacher nor the students [plural] brought their [plural] books to class. their) writing by using Grammar Essentials. Bill Gates and Sam Walton [plural] built their [plural] empires from scratch. The lion or the tiger will complete its act. 5. their) recorder to tape the interview. they [plural] should ask me. 9. Neither the students nor the teacher [singular] brought his [singular] book to class. Arnold or Jacques will bring (his. their) location. No one in (her. their) hair cut.BEATING THE PRONOUN ODDS • If two or more singular nouns or pronouns are joined by and. 4. 1. Almost anybody can improve (his or her. don’t make (her. • If a singular and a plural noun or pronoun are joined by or. If he and she [plural] need this information. 8. Anyone who is interested in the pilot project should sign (his or her. When Grandma and Grandpa [plural] come to visit. they [plural] always bring food. use a singular pronoun. If you shear a pin on this motor. they) probably will take care of it right away. their) right mind would follow your advice.

he and I should be him and me. You must change the plural verb are to is and am when you think of the sentences separately. The new machinist worked with Kirsten. most English speakers would readily identify the mistakes in the following sentences. Me worked on the project with he. Most people know that Me in the first sentence should be I and that he should be him. the error becomes very obvious. • In the third sentence. Diane gave she a lift home. me should be I. The new machinist worked with Kirsten and I. the word I should be me. The new boss assigned him (not he) a different campaign. The teacher reprimanded me (not I). See if you can spot the error in this sentence. The problem occurs when a pronoun is used with a noun or another pronoun. • In the first sentence. Try to spot the errors in these three sentences. If you turn the sentence into two separate sentences. Jess is going camping this weekend. The teacher reprimanded my friend and I. In the previous sentence. The new machinist worked with me (not I). Such errors are easy to spot when the pronouns are used alone in a sentence. I (not me) am going camping this weekend.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS PRONOUNS AS SUBJECTS AND OBJECTS A single pronoun in a sentence is easy to use correctly. Jess and me are going camping this weekend. The new boss assigned me (not I) a different campaign. Separate the sentences to spot the error. The teacher reprimanded my friend. I should be me. The new boss assigned he and I a different campaign. In fact. • In the second sentence. They would also know that she in the second sentence should be her. 142 .

us) temporary workers. They hired us. Neither my children nor my husband knows what (he.BEATING THE PRONOUN ODDS Splitting a sentence in two does not work as well with the preposition between. me). INCOMPLETE CONSTRUCTIONS Sometimes. They hired (we. delete the noun from the pair. me). Melissa and (I. him) and (I. 14. me). Christine and (I. To make sure that you use the correct pronoun. 13. (We. 15. Us) managers threw the retirees a small party. The conductor let (he. (not she) The disagreement is with me. We threw the retirees a small party. NOUN-PRONOUN PAIRS Sometimes. him) saw the show with Bernard and (I. 12. me) both witnessed the accident. a pronoun comes at the end of a sentence following a comparative word such as than or as. Maria spent more money than (they. Did you hear the latest news about (she. If you substitute with for between. The disagreement is with her. then the error is easier to spot. Bradley can wax floors better than (I. (not I) Practice Choose the correct pronoun in the following sentences. they) will get me for Christmas. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. me) into the club car. them). The long walk tired us more than (they. a noun in a sentence is immediately preceded by a pronoun. her) and (they. Look at the following examples to see how this is done. 11. me). them)? 16. The disagreement is between (she. her) and (I. His young son is now taller than (I. me) always clean up the lounge. Bonnie and (he. them). 143 .

so I is the correct pronoun. the ambiguous pronouns are italicized. As Claude spoke to the his girlfriend’s father. choose the pronoun that makes more sense. Theresa told Julia she should get ready to go. that is. Take the door from the frame and paint it. When this is true. it can be understood in more than one way. 144 . her). The long walk tired us more than they did. so them is the correct choice. The second sentence makes more sense. a sentence is written in such a way that a pronoun can refer to more than one antecedent. Maria spent more money than they did. we say the meaning is ambiguous. Bradley can play guitar better than me. The following sentence can be completed using both pronouns. either of which makes sense. The pronoun choice controls the meaning. The first sentence makes more sense.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS These sentences are called incomplete constructions because the complete meaning is only implied. I work with Assad more than she does. In the following examples. Choose the pronoun that conveys the intended meaning. I work with Assad more than (she. When this happens. not written out in its entirety. To figure out which pronoun is correct. Pronoun choice is especially important if the sentence makes sense either way. I work with Assad more than I work with her. AMBIGUOUS PRONOUN REFERENCES Sometimes. complete the sentence in your mind and use the pronoun that makes more sense. and the possible antecedents are underlined. The long walk tired us more than it did them. he was very nervous. Some sentences can be completed both ways. Bradley can play guitar better than I can. His young son is now taller than I am.

Paint the door after taking it off the frame. Correct: Mitchell asked to do the work himself. ourselves. Wrong: Mitchell asked to do the work hisself. They are called reflexive because they reflect like a mirror. Wrong: A group of volunteers and myself repaired the roof. Wrong: The responsibility is split between Jamison and yourself. Correct: A group of volunteers and I repaired the roof. yourself. Claude was very nervous when he spoke to his girlfriend’s father. herself.BEATING THE PRONOUN ODDS See how these sentences are rewritten to clarify the ambiguous references. Theresa told Julia to get ready to go. himself. Using Reflexive Pronouns Correctly • The possessive pronouns his and their cannot be made reflexive. Correct: The Garrets decided to supervise the building themselves. The following sentences show how these pronouns are used in writing. Monica envisioned herself playing the lead role. Wrong: The Garrets decided to supervise the building theirselves. themselves. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS Reflexive pronouns refer to another word that is the same individual(s) or the same thing(s). My next-door neighbors built their house themselves. I drove myself to the train station. 145 . Correct: The responsibility is split between Jamison and you. Correct: The results of the election were known only to me. Wrong: The results of the election were known only to myself. Take care of yourself. • Avoid using a reflexive pronoun when a personal pronoun works in the sentence. itself. Reflexive pronouns include the word self or selves: myself.

4. 18. me). Us) patients are pleased with our care. 5. 20. 6. 17. 10. (We. 9. 13. 8. 17. them I We (it scared) us I I (do) 146 . Check your work with the answers that follow. 2. 15. 7. us). 16. 18. The risk of this operation scared the doctor more than (we. he. me. her his his or her he or she his it her his or her them his 11. 19. Answers 1. 20. me her. Penny and (I. 19. 3. myself) are planning a summer trip. 12. My brother drives much faster than (I.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Practice Choose the correct pronoun in each of the following sentences. 14. me he I him.

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6. Whose (belonging to whom) 9. Call the technician (that. A deer is (laying. They’re) about to begin the session. there (place) 10. who (use who for people) 7. The new van is (setting. rises (goes up) 4. there. that (use that for things) 8.CHAPTER 17 GRAMMAR IQ QUIZ Choose the correct word from the choices in parentheses. who. (Who’s. Tell me when (you’re. Answers 1. you’re (you are) 6. 10. 5. lying) in the tall grass. (Their. They’re (They are) . which) I loaned you? 8. there. The snake will eventually shed (its. 3. sitting) in the driveway. 4. 2. Put (their. it’s) skin. they’re) merchandise over (their. Where is the instruction manual (that. sitting (resting) 3. they’re) on the table. its (belonging to it) 5. who. their (belonging to them). which) fixed the problem last time. Answers and explanations follow the quiz. 1. lying (resting) 2. There. rises) steadily throughout the concert. The decibel level (raises. 7. your) ready to go. Whose) coat is this? 9.

rise/raise. and there/they’re/their. mine) his chapter covers problem verbs such as lie/lay. Grammar concept to know: • possessive pronoun—a pronoun that shows ownership (my. sit/set. their. 149 . who/that/which. his. or sit and set? Knowing how to use problem words such as these correctly makes you a better writer.” The verb lay means “to put or place.CHAPTER 17 T PROBLEM VERBS Lie/Lay PROBLEM VERBS AND PRONOUNS Do you’re and your confuse you? How about lie and lay.” Lie is something you do yourself (or some person does himself or herself. lay is something you do to an object. You can distinguish yourself as a competent writer if you know how to use these properly. hers. or some object does itself). our. Few people use lie and lay correctly. The verb lie means “to rest or recline. your. your/you’re. perhaps because few people know the difference in meaning between the two. It also covers problem pronouns such as its/it’s. and their various forms. whose/who’s.

(requires progressive) Resting makes better sense than placing. In that case. are) Past Past Participle (used with have. Their meanings. Present is. has. 150 . places) lying (resting) laying (placing) lay (rested) laid (placed) lain (rested) laid (placed) To choose the correct form of lie or lay. Choose lying. rests) lay. (requires past) Rested makes better sense than placed. (requires present) Place makes better sense than rest. lies (rest. Choose lay. mentally delete the word from the sentence to make the appropriate verb more obvious. (requires past participle) Placed makes better sense than rested.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS The table that follows shows the principal parts of each of these verbs. Progressive (used with am. Sonja remembered that she had _____ the books on her desk. Choose the word in parentheses that makes the most sense and use the corresponding form of lie or lay. appear in parentheses. (requires past) Remove the word down. none of the words seem right. Della asked Lisa to _____ the newspaper on the kitchen table. simply look at the meanings in parentheses. Choose lay. choose the option that makes more sense than any of the others. I _____ down for a nap. Yesterday. Rested makes better sense than placed. Choose laid. If a sentence contains the word down. These sample sentences show how this is done. or had ) lie. Yesterday afternoon. lays (place. the snake _____ all day in the sun next to our house. written in the correct form. The frisbee is _____ in the middle of the lawn. Sometimes. Choose lay.

PROBLEM VERBS AND PRONOUNS

Practice

Write the correct form of lie or lay in each of the blanks. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Huey __________ in bed for another hour after the alarm went off. __________ the papers next to the copy machine. The mail __________ on the dining room table. The student _________ his assignment on the teacher’s desk. Who knew how long the confidential documents had __________ in the open or who had __________ them there in the first place?

Sit/Set
These two verbs are very similar to lie and lay. Sit means “to rest.” Set means “to put or place.” The table below shows the principal parts of each of these verbs. Their meanings, written in the correct form, appear in parentheses.

Progressive (used with am, Present is, are) Past

Past Participle (used with have, has, or had )

sit, sits (rest, rests) set, sets (put, place; puts, places)

sitting (resting) setting (putting, placing)

sat (rested) set (put, placed)

sat (rested) set (placed)

Choose the correct form of sit or set by using the meanings (the words in parentheses) in the sentence first. Decide which meaning makes the most sense, then choose the corresponding form of sit or set. See how this is done in the following example sentences. The actor __________ the props off in the wings. Put or placed makes more sense than rested. Choose set. The judge __________ in the chair next to the bailiff. Rested makes more sense than put or placed. Choose sat.

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GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS

Practice

Write the correct form of sit or set in each of the blanks. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. 6. Our family __________ aside money for vacation. 7. Carol’s car is the one __________ closest to the entrance. 8. Adam remembered where he __________ the packages down. 9. Scott __________ down behind to me and __________ his briefcase on the floor. 10. The parents had __________ in the waiting room for most of the morning.

Rise/Raise
The verb rise means “to go up.”The verb raise means “to move something up.” Raise requires an object. In other words, something must receive the action of the verb raise (raise your hand, raise the flag, raise the objection, raise children). The table that follows shows the principal parts of both verbs.

Progressive (used with am, Present is, are) Past

Past Participle (used with have, has, or had)

rises, rise (goes up, go up) (comes up, come up) raises, raise

(moves up, move up)

rising (going up) (coming up) raising (moving up)

rose (went up) (came up) raised (moved up)

Choose the correct form of rise or raise by using the meanings (the words in parentheses) in the sentence first. Decide which meaning makes the most sense, then choose the corresponding form of rise or raise. See how this is done in the example sentences that follow. Sometimes, none of the words seem especially appropriate. In that case, choose the option that makes more sense than any of the others. The moon __________ a little bit later each evening. Comes up makes the most sense. Choose rises.

152

PROBLEM VERBS AND PRONOUNS

The crowd began to __________ their voices. Move up makes the most sense. Choose raise. The water level __________ over a foot in the last day. Went up makes the most sense. Choose rose.
Practice

Write the correct form of rise or raise in each of the blanks below. Check your answers at the end of the chapter. 11. The custodian __________ the flag every morning before the sun __________. 12. The farmer __________ corn and soybeans. 13. The fog had __________ enough for us to see beyond the next hill. 14. The church members __________ from the pews to recite a prayer.

PROBLEM PRONOUNS
Its/It’s
Its is a possessive pronoun that means “belonging to it.” It’s is a contraction for it is or it has. Use it’s only when you can also substitute the words it is or it has. Take time to make this substitution, and you will never confuse these two words. The thermometer in the roast will measure its (belonging to the roast) temperature. It’s (it is) time for us to say goodbye and head home. It’s (it has) been three years now since I’ve seen Tom.
Practice

Choose the correct word in each set of parentheses that follow. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. 15. 16. 17. 18. I wonder if (its, it’s) a good idea for us to be here. The wind will eventually stop (its, it’s) howling. Tell me when (its, it’s) time for a break. (Its, It’s) been fun to watch the dog chase (its, it’s) tail.

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GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS

Your/You’re
Your is a possessive pronoun that means “belonging to you.” You’re is a contraction for the words you are. Use you’re only when you can also substitute the words you are. Take time to make this substitution, and you will never confuse these two words. Is this your (belonging to you) new assignment? When you’re (you are) done, I want to talk to you. Your (belonging to you) mother called this morning. You’re (you are) the recipient of this year’s award.
Practice

Choose the correct word in each set of parentheses that follow. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. 19. 20. 21. 22. (Its, It’s) (your, you’re) turn to do the dishes. Bring (your, you’re) fishing pole along if (your, you’re) coming. (Your, You’re) scheduled to work late this evening. (Your, You’re) plan seems to have worked.

Who/That/Which
Who refers to people. That refers to things. Which is generally used to introduce nonessential clauses that describe things. (See Chapter 6 to review nonessential clauses.) Read the following sentences to see how each of these words is used. • Who refers to people. There is the woman who designed this building. The man who fixes my car has retired. • That refers to things. This is the neighborhood that I told you about. The print that I wanted has been sold. • Which introduces nonessential clauses—unless they refer to people, in which case you use who. Vickie picked up a copy of People, which is her favorite magazine. The Mississippi River, which originates in Minnesota, empties into the Gulf of Mexico. Douglas, who plays in a local band, lives upstairs. My son, who loves to play video games, turns sixteen tomorrow. 154

which. that) is my favorite singer. The supplies are in there (here). There’s the young man (who. and the sentence should still make sense.PROBLEM VERBS AND PRONOUNS Practice Choose the correct word in each set of parentheses below. Rod Stewart. is being repaired this summer.” If you can insert this phrase after their in a sentence and the meaning remains the same. that) I bought last year. 26. Here is an easy way to distinguish among these words. 155 . 23. 27. which. has never won a Grammy award. They’re is a contraction for the words they are. Who’s (Who is) handling the funeral arrangements? Whose (belonging to whom) bright idea was that? This is the officer who’s (who is) on duty tonight. This is the coat (who. you should be able to substitute the word here. There (here) goes my future. Their is a possessive pronoun that shows ownership. This is their (belonging to them) problem. which. 25. That is the girl whose (belonging to whom) picture was in the paper. which. Their (belonging to them) time is limited. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. that) arranged this meeting. Wherever you use the word there. Whose/Who’s Whose is a possessive pronoun that means “belonging to whom. not mine. There/Their/They’re There is an adverb telling where an action or item is located. that) runs through town. • Their means “belonging to them. and you will never confuse these two words. their is correct. • Take a close look at this version of the word tHERE. 24. Interstate 235. Of all the confused word groups. (who. this one is misused most often. that) wishes to speak with you. (who. You can see that it contains the word here. which. Take time to make this substitution.” Who’s is a contraction for the words who is or who has. Uncle Tim is the one (who.

lay 2. They’re 30. (Its. set 7. (Who’s. it’s 18. lain. raised or raises 13. laid 6. imagine that the apostrophe in they’re is actually a very small letter a. 30. their. which 27. 29. It’s. You’re 22. rose. who. that) did the work lives over (there. The landscaper (who. they’re) last anniversary. Lay 3. is lying 4. it’s 16. Whose 156 . Their. their. who 24. sat 11. they’re). that 25. 31. Whose) idea was it take this shortcut? 34. (Who’s. Look over the following example sentences. Do you know how they’re (they are) going to arrange the schedule? Practice Choose the correct word in each set of parentheses below. Whose) been calling you all evening? 33. Martha asked for the one (who’s. It’s) been a year since (there. you’ll never misuse the word. They’re (they are) hoping to leave in the morning.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS • Finally. raised. who 28. (There. It’s. sitting 8. or raises. you’re 21. laid 5. your. they’re). It’s. Check your work with the answers that follow. who’s 35. They’re) rearranging the shelves in the closet. rose 15. Whose 34. who 26. 35. their. sat. (Your. your 20. If you change they’re to they are in a sentence. rises 12. its 19. its 17. whose) in charge of accounting. Who’s 33. set 9. there 29. which. Whose) retirement are we celebrating? Answers 1. Your 23. there 32. risen 14. their 31. 32. You’re) likely to lose your mind in (there. (Who’s. 28. You’re. set 10.

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strangely). Caroline felt (bad. Betty is the (liveliest. 7. 6. 4. 5. Elbert tells (fewer. most liveliest) teacher I’ve seen. The staff (doesn’t. 8. Which of these two roads is the (best. 10. 1. no) more stress. between) all of the five children. 8. number) of supporters present at this meeting. 10. 4. 9. less) bad jokes than he used to. 3. among liveliest doesn’t. cleanly) from the opposing guard. Answers 1. Hugh stole the ball (clean.CHAPTER 18 GRAMMAR IQ QUIZ Choose the correct word from the parentheses in each of the following sentences. don’t) need (any. 2. Answers follow the quiz. 9. 7. strange number fewer cleanly well bad better between. between) the twins. but share the food (among. 3. Anjalee danced as (good. badly) after the announcement. 2. better) one to take? Split the time (among. any . well) as she had ever danced. 6. There is a smaller (amount. The music sounded (strange. 5.

CHAPTER 18 W MODIFIER ETIQUETTE Adjectives and adverbs can brighten writing and make it more specific and interesting—so that it communicates your ideas more fully. or describe. adjective. Grammar concepts to know: • modifier—a word that describes another word • adjective—a modifier that describes a noun or pronoun • adverb—a modifier that describes a verb. adjectives. This chapter explains how to use modifiers correctly. verbs. Sometimes. 159 . nouns and pronouns. Using them correctly is an important skill. Adjectives modify. and other adverbs. a group of words functions as a modifier. Modifiers play a vital part in communication. or another adverb • comparative—the form of a modifier used when comparing two things • superlative—the form of a modifier used when comparing more than two things ords that describe other words are called modifiers. Adverbs modify. or describe.

or things that can be counted. (strange change) The pickles are salty. The same principle applies to the nouns number and amount. The amount of time (singular noun) for our work was underestimated. Here is an easy way to tell if a word is an adjective. The number of hours (plural noun) we estimated for this job was incorrect. The italicized adjectives describe the underlined nouns. Use the noun number when referring to plural nouns. The following sentences illustrate this. Our new neighborhood has fewer children (plural noun) than our old one had. 160 . Which One? What Kind? How Many? the blue cabinet duct tape his first steps willow tree orange vest greedy partner many hints five entrances several reasons Adjectives That Follow Verbs Pay special attention to adjectives that follow verbs. but it describes a noun or pronoun that comes before the verb. Number/Amount Use the adjective fewer to modify plural nouns. Adjectives answer one of three questions about another word in the sentence: Which one? What kind? and How many? The following table illustrates this. The adjectives are italicized to make them easy to identify. Most nouns to which an s can be added require the adjective fewer. the adjective follows a verb. Use less for singular nouns that represent a quantity or a degree—things that can’t be counted. (sour strawberries) Rhonda’s change of heart seemed strange. or things that can be counted. These strawberries taste sour. Sometimes. Use the noun amount when referring to nouns that are singular and can’t be counted individually. (salty pickles) Fewer/Less.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS ADJECTIVES Adjectives describe a noun or pronoun in a sentence. Denise has less time (singular non-count noun) to spare than you do.

Here is an easy way to tell if a word is an adverb. The next table shows examples of adverbs modifying verbs. less) stories than Phoebe. Dean narrowly missed an accident. 4. The loon called mournfully. number) of people assigned to the job. less) about the old days than Grandpa does. adjectives. Look here. Turtles move slowly. We’ll go tomorrow. Where? When? How? To What Extent? The car drove forward. an extremely annoying sound a strangely quiet room an unusually clean uniform most clearly explained quite reasonably stated improve rather slowly 161 . Put your baggage below. Adverbs Modifying Adjectives Adverbs Modifying Other Adverbs Adverbs Modifying Verbs Packages are mailed regularly. Children play happily. Marsha still doesn’t understand. This cutlery set costs (fewer. 1. Marvin left earlier. Adverbs answer one of these questions about another word in the sentence: Where? When? How? and To what extent? The adverbs are italicized in the table that follows. and other adverbs. Rescuers came immediately. and other adverbs. 2. She yelled loudly. 3. but Grandpa tells (fewer. The (amount. number) of miles significantly. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. adjectives. number) of work involved does not justify the (amount. ADVERBS Use adverbs to describe verbs. Royce could hardly wait. less) weeds than it had last summer. less) money than that one. The adverbs are italicized. The lawn has (fewer. 5. Hank called later. Phoebe remembers (fewer. This side trip increased the (amount.MODIFIER ETIQUETTE Practice Choose the correct word in parentheses in each of the following sentences.

(Skeptical is an adjective describing judge. correctly). use an adjective. The italicized words are adjectives incorrectly used in place of adverbs. comfortably) than my old ones. tiredly) after the long day. (thoroughly) Pack these dishes very careful. (Sick is an adjective describing group. Patricia looked (tired. The trainer felt gently around the player’s ankle. (Skeptically is an adverb describing looked. easily) as it used to. (Sour is an adjective describing milk. This is illustrated in the following sentences. 9. writers mistakenly use adjectives in place of adverbs.) The milk smelled sour to us.) The doe smelled the feed hesitantly. If the word following the verb describes the verb. (carefully) Vern sang as loud as he was able. look. 7. 8.) The judge looked skeptical after the witness testified.) The judge looked skeptically at the attorney. These new boots feel more (comfortable. The parentheses explain how the word is used. In one sentence. 162 Anita sang the melody line (correct. 6. In each of the sets of examples that follow. Read the examples and take note of the differences.) Practice Choose the correct word in parentheses in each of the following sentences. use an adverb. however. the same verb is used. Louise reads very thorough. If the word following the verb describes a noun or pronoun that comes before the verb. (loudly) Take special care to choose the correct word when using verbs that deal with the senses: touch. . Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. the word following is an adverb.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS ADJECTIVE OR ADVERB? Sometimes. In the other sentence. smell. (Hesitantly is used as an adverb describing smelled. taste. the word following the verb is an adjective.) The entire group felt sick after lunch. (Gently is an adverb describing felt. This door doesn’t shut as (easy. The correct adverb form is in parenthesis at the end of the sentence. sound.

15. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. Well and badly are adverbs. Ask (polite. Paulina felt (bad.) The coffee smelled good (or bad) when I walked into the house.MODIFIER ETIQUETTE 10. Elizabeth performed well (or badly) at her recital. angrily) as she left the hair salon. you can either: • add er to the modifier. use the comparative form of the modifier. badly) after the workout. politely) if you need help with your work. The steam treatment cleaned our carpets (thorough. 12. slowly) out of the operating room. The touring choir sang quite (bad. a verb. or • place the word more or less before the modifier 163 . unhappily) about the test results. Sometimes.) The condominiums were well (or badly) built. The burglar felt (careful. When you compare two things. Bad and Badly Good and bad are adjectives. The woman looked (angry. Good and Well. Use well and badly to describe an action. carefully) for the alarm switch. COMPARISONS Adjectives and adverbs change form when they are used in comparisons. Pasta does not taste as (good. 19. 16. a verb. (Well or badly describes performed. If you are comparing more than two things. Janelle did (good. 18. 20. badly). 13. a noun. (Good or bad describes coffee. 11. well) if it is overcooked. a noun. (Well or badly describes built. Creating the Comparative Form To compare two things. This new arrangement works very (good. 17.) Carolyn felt good (or bad) after her treatment. well) on her annual performance review. well). Jay seems (unhappy.) Practice Choose the correct word in parentheses in each of the following sentences. thoroughly). 14. good and bad are mistakenly used to describe a verb. use the superlative form of the modifier. (Good or bad describes Carolyn. The doctor walked (slow.

among for three or more. I like pumpkin pie better than key lime pie. or • place the word most or least before the modifier Add -est to most short modifiers (one or two syllables). Use more or most with modifiers that are more than two syllables. Use more and less with modifiers that have more than two syllables. Between/Among When comparing items in a prepositional phrase. Look at the samples in the following table. Creating the Superlative Form To compare more than two things. Comparative (for two items) Superlative (more than two items) Modifier good well many much bad little neat lovely funny extreme intelligent precisely better better more more worse less or lesser neater lovelier funnier more [or less]extreme more [or less] intelligent more [or less] precisely between best best most most worst least neatest loveliest funniest most [or least] extreme most [or least] intelligent most [or least] precisely among See how the comparative and superlative forms are used in the following sentences. (compares two pies) If you think Jane is a bad tennis player.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Add -er to most short modifiers (one or two syllables). Some modifiers change form completely. just wait until you see her sister Jess play—she is even worse. you can either: • add -est to the modifier. (compares two tennis players—Jane and Jess) 164 . The first six lines of the table illustrate these special modifiers. use between for two items.

MODIFIER ETIQUETTE Many people love Venice. is braver than himself. These instructions are clearer. These instructions are more clearer. most) unusual color scheme I’ve ever seen. Wrong Correct Horace is the most rudest man I know. Sid can track better than anyone else in the group.(compares more than two siblings) Practice Choose the correct word in parentheses in each of the following sentences. 24. but I found Rome to be a more beautiful city. The Ford Taurus is the (large. Divide my land (among. 23. between) all of my children. most) promising habitat for pheasants. 22. Horace is the rudest man I know. larger. between) my two sons. Avoiding Illogical or Unclear Comparisons “Cassidy is braver than any Western hero.” is an illogical statement. Always include the words other or else to keep your comparisons from being illogical. Ethel is more pickier about her kitchen than I am. Ethel is pickier about her kitchen than I am. shortest) one in the entire family. 165 . The decorator chose the (more. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. 25. Charlotte is the (younger. Cassidy is braver than any other Western hero. It implies that Cassidy. Heavy cover is the (more. youngest) of the twins and the (shorter. (compares two cities with a modifier that has more than two syllables) Matthew is the neatest of the three siblings. but split the money (among. Avoiding Double Comparisons A double comparison occurs when a writer uses both -er or -est and more/less or most/least. who is a Western hero. 21. largest) selling mid-size car.

Placement of Words That Modify The words only. and just should be placed as close as possible to the word described. or clauses that describe nouns and pronouns as closely as possible to the words they describe. The words hardly and barely are also negative words. 166 . Wrong Correct The store doesn’t have no nails that size. I can’t hardly hear you. Avoid double negatives in your writing. The first sentence implies that the woman “only looked”at the chairs. The woman looked at only two chairs. The store has no nails that size. the negative words are highlighted. I don’t have money for a soda. The second sentence explains that she looked at “only two” samples. Failure to do this often results in a misplaced modifier and a sentence that means something other than what was intended. In the following example sentences. The best place is right before the words they describe. a double negative results. We want no dessert. phrases. We don’t want no dessert. We don’t want any dessert. I can’t hear you. not three or four. MISPLACED MODIFIERS Place words. I barely have money for a soda. Pay close attention to how the incorrect sentences are rewritten to avoid the double negative. she didn’t sit in them or touch them. I can hardly hear you. I don’t barely have money for a soda. The woman only looked at two chairs. phrase.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS AVOIDING DOUBLE NEGATIVES When a negative word such as not or no is added to a statement that is already negative. almost. The placement of the word. or clause affects the meaning of the sentence. but nothing else. The placement of the word only changes the meaning of the sentence. The store doesn’t have any nails that size.

In the first sentence. The second sentence suggests that the company rents “just its vans. a huge python followed the man. Josh “nearly scored. How many points are awarded for that? Here’s an example using just: The delivery company just rents its vans. (Why was the man slithering through the grass?) In the kitchen. Placement of Phrases and Clauses That Modify Phrases and clauses that describe nouns or pronouns must also be placed as closely as possible to the words they describe. Sentences with Misplaced Modifiers Corrected Versions My uncle told me about feeding cattle in the kitchen. the company “just rents” its vans. The sentences in the next table contain misplaced modifiers. Pay close attention to how they are rewritten to clarify the meaning. Josh scored “nearly four” touchdowns—maybe three and a half. perhaps cars or trucks. rather than buying them. In the first sentence of the previous example.” or came very close to the goal line four times without actually crossing.” not any of its other vehicles. my uncle told me about feeding cattle. My uncle told me about feeding cattle while we were in the kitchen. Josh scored nearly four touchdowns. In the second sentence. A huge python that was slithering slowly through the grass followed the man. (What are cattle doing in the kitchen?) A huge python followed the man that was slithering slowly through the grass. Slithering slowly through the grass. 167 .MODIFIER ETIQUETTE Look at another pair of sentences: Josh nearly scored four touchdowns. The delivery company rents just its vans.

Nailed to the utility pole.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS DANGLING MODIFIERS Words. The sentences in the following table contain dangling modifiers. 29. Fried in butter. a. or clauses that begin a sentence and are set off by commas sometimes don’t clearly modify any word or group of words in a sentence. phrases. a. b. (Why was Grandma broken?) While I was talking on the telephone. Grandma threw away the broken serving dish that was beyond repair. 26. (Why was Jason nailed to a utility pole?) Broken and beyond repair. Dennis is quicker than anybody else on the team. Check your answers on the next page.) b. Grandpa took me fishing. Janette likes fresh fish better than any other meat. At the age of three. Dennis is quicker than anybody on the team. Jason saw the sign. Jason saw the sign nailed to a utility pole. Janette likes fresh fish better than any meat. Grandpa took me fishing. Practice Choose the correctly written sentence from each of the following sets. the serving dish was thrown away by Grandma. b. the potatoes boiled over. (Dennis is a team member. a. Sylvan likes eggs fried in butter. (Why were the potatoes talking on the telephone?) Nailed to a utility pole. Grandma threw the serving dish away. Sentences with Dangling Modifiers Corrected Versions While talking on the telephone. 168 . Sylvan likes eggs. a. 28. 27. b. Broken and beyond repair. These are called dangling modifiers. the potatoes boiled over. Pay close attention to how they are rewritten to avoid the problem. When I was three. The potatoes boiled over while I talked on the phone. the sign was visible to Jason.

Swinging from branch to branch. The speaker would only answer two questions. b. b. b. I can’t hardly understand why we’re still waiting. among 25. a big dog approached the boy. badly 21. This floor doesn’t need no more wax. a hungry salesman walked into the backyard. carefully 15. I can’t understand why we’re still waiting. fewer 6. a. well 19. 32. largest 22. tired 8. good 17. number 5. well 20. Answers 1. 30. bad 18. b. 34. angry 14. slowly 12. A hungry salesman walked into the backyard while we were barbecuing our steaks. 34. I saw the spider monkey. amount. a. number 3. a. 28. 29. 35. 31. most 26. correctly 7. This floor doesn’t need any more wax. While barbecuing our steaks. b. b. b. most 23. less. thoroughly 16. b. less 4. 33. I saw the spider monkey swinging from branch to branch. b. b. 169 . a. shortest 24.MODIFIER ETIQUETTE 30. politely 11. 32. fewer 2. unhappy 13. easily 9. a. b. b. 35. a. between. a. b. comfortable 10. 27. Growling softly. A big dog approached the boy that was growling softly. The speaker would answer only two questions. younger. 31. 33. b. a.

week 4. He (choose. lose 9. It's right in front of your eyes. 2. 4. 10. plain) sight. How do you think the news will (affect. brake 2. effect) her? 7. This package is (supposed. 1. Make sure to use your right foot to step on the (break. 5. It took me a (weak. loose) this match. plain 3. 9. than) he (use. 3. 8. brake). suppose) to contain the receipt. used 10. knew 5. Answers 1. week) to strip the desk of all five layers of paint. hear 6. supposed . Can you (here. Brian is arriving at work later (then. Answers follow the quiz. Craig (knew. affect 7. in (plane. chose 8. we will surely (loss. lose. hear) what the speaker is saying? 6.CHAPTER 19 GRAMMAR IQ QUIZ Choose the correct word in parentheses in each of the following sentences. chose) another line of questioning. than. If you don't start moving better. used) to. new) about the surprise party.

you can avoid misusing these words in your writing. Grammar concepts to know: • verb —a word that shows action or otherwise helps to complete the meaning of a sentence • noun—the name of a person. If you learn to distinguish between these words. or idea • preposition—a word that shows a relationship between a noun or pronoun and another word in the sentence his chapter explains some of the most com- monly confused word pairs. you can avoid errors in your writing. If you keep track of the meanings. 171 . place.CHAPTER 19 T TRICKY WORDS Brake or break? Than or then? Accept or except? This chapter explains the meanings of easily confused words. with practice exercises at the end of each section. This chapter makes it easy to do just that. thing. The words are divided into five separate sections.

Ken Griffey passed (transferred) his baseball talent to his son. or opportunity. or creation. During our break (pause) we asked the sergeant if we could break (separate) rank. As a noun it means “a device that slows or stops action.” • Break as a verb means to separate. As an adjective it means former. • Piece as a noun means division. or finished. Passed/Past • Passed is a verb. the past tense of pass. shatter. pause. 172 . or repair. As a verb. went ahead. It’s best not to dig up the past (history) in this family. We could have some peace (tranquility) around here if you would just piece (patch) together the few remaining pieces (bits) of your mind. • Past as a noun means history. bit. The race cars passed (went by) the stands at over 200 miles per hour. An hour passed (elapsed) before the X-rays returned from the lab. it means a(n) separation. I know I lived near water in a past (former) life.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS PART ONE Brake/Break • Brake as a verb means to slow or stop. meaning transferred. elapsed. crack. As a noun. Dustin Hoffman’s big break (opportunity) came when he took a role in Midnight Cowboy. or by. Peace/Piece • Peace is a noun meaning tranquility. Mae passed (finished) the test she took yesterday. Brake (slow) gently if you’re on packed snow by applying slight pressure to the brake (device). it means to patch. adjourn.

Scene/Seen • Scene is a noun meaning view. The (plain. flat surface. seen) the most violent (scene. or simple. piece) of information will give you (peace. past) the record set in the (passed. meaning observed or noticed. Nomadic tribes roamed the plain (flat country). 5. • Plane is a noun meaning airship. break) as he noticed the truck ahead (brake. piece) of mind. Helen prefers plain (ordinary) vegetables. • Seen is a verb. Practice Choose the correct word in each of the following sentences. the most confused sight the rookie officer had ever seen (observed). seen) in the show. plane) gasoline won’t work to fuel this (plain. The answer is plain (clear) to me. break) in the road. Scottie’s parents hadn’t (scene. 173 . 2. it means flat country. We hope this (peace. or commotion. 4. The pilot flew the plane (airship) on a plane (level). Cedric hit the (brake.TRICKY WORDS Plain/Plane • Plain as an adjective means ordinary. The rookie second baseman (passed. The commune adopted a very plain (simple) lifestyle. 1. the past participle of see. plane). 3. past) year. site. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. or level. clear. The crowd caused a scene (commotion) at the scene (site) of the fight. break) to avoid a (brake. As a noun.

As a noun. it means coloring or pigment. is the one I’m thinking about buying.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS PART TWO By/Buy • By is a preposition used to introduce a phrase: by the book. Weak/Week • Weak is an adjective meaning flimsy. use which to introduce a nonessential clause. • Witch is a noun meaning sorceress or enchantress. or powerless. The signal from the lost plane was so weak (frail) that rescuers took a week (seven days) to locate the survivors. • Buy as a verb means to purchase. or by the way. it means a bargain or deal. As a noun. Use which in a sentence dealing with a choice: Which one do you want? Also. Carter stopped by (preposition) the store to buy (purchase) some albums he thought were a great buy (deal). Die/Dye • Die is a verb meaning pass away or fade. • Week is a noun meaning seven days. This car. We plan to dye (color) the shirts orange. Which/Witch • Which is a pronoun. Can you tell me which (choice word) witch (enchantress) to believe? 174 . The dear (loved) car was totaled when it struck a deer (animal). The speaker waited for the noise to die (fade). frail. by the time. • Deer is a noun referring to a four-legged animal that lives in the woods and looks like Bambi. • Dye as a verb means to color or tint. Dear/Deer • Dear is an adjective meaning valued or loved. which I have never driven.

As an adjective. 8. My (dear. • No means not so. This animal is too (weak. or current.TRICKY WORDS Practice Choose the correct word in each of the following sentences. As a noun. dye) the sheets. or not at all. not any. 9. 7. dye) down. The attendant repaired the hole (opening) in the tire. PART THREE Hear/Here • Hear is a verb meaning listen to. it means none or not one. Know/No • Know is a verb meaning to understand or recognize. it means entire part or amount. buy) morning. 175 . • New is an adjective meaning fresh. I know (understand) that we have no (not any) more money in this account. buy) another one. we’ll have to (by. week) to survive for more than a (weak. • Here means in this place or to this place. • Whole as an adjective means entire or intact. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. The (which. meaning understood or recognized. Knew/New • Knew (the past tense of know. or dent. gap. deer) if you watch the sky. The whole (entire) pie was eaten. We waited to (die. 6. week). Come here (to this place) so you can hear (listen to) this recording. hoping the wind would (die. different. Hole/Whole • Hole is a noun meaning opening. 10. witch) cat to take on Halloween.) is a verb. you’ll never see a (dear. deer) child. If the fax machine isn’t repaired (by. witch) couldn’t decide (which. I knew (understood) he was looking for a new (different) approach.

14. greet. We advise (warn) you to heed the advice (suggestions) of your attorney. move emotionally. here) better if you stand (hear. it means assembly. 15. This (hole. whole) means this (hole. How will this affect (alter) the outcome? Merle’s affected (pretended) accent annoyed his friends. 12. it means imitated or pretended. inspire. new) press. PART FOUR Advice/Advise • Advice. The chefs will meet (assemble) to select the meat (flesh) for the dinner. • Effect as a noun means consequence or result. or imitate. meet) from the deer. The hunters will (meat. As a noun. You’ll (hear. no) we expect (know. What effect (consequence) does cold weather have on tropical plants? Will it effect (cause) a change? 176 . 13. King’s moving “I Have a Dream” speech will affect (inspire) listeners for many generations. new) how to operate the (knew. no) further trouble from you. • Advise is a verb meaning suggest to or warn. I (know. As a verb. 11. Hans was the only one who (knew. Affect/Effect • Affect as a verb means alter.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Meat/Meet • Meat is a noun meaning food. flesh. or main part. meet) at the locker plant to split up the (meat. Practice Choose the correct word in each of the following sentences. As an adjective. or fulfill. here). a noun meaning suggestion or suggestions. • Meet as a verb means assemble. whole) balloon is worthless. it means cause. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter.

advise) you to seek (advice. advise) often. Do you know (weather. effect) of this change on production until we know how it will (affect. achieved. We won’t know the (affect. I would be the only (one. We won’t know whether (if) we’ll come until we know what the weather (condition outside) is going to do. Lynette is the one (referring to Lynette) who won (acquired) over one (single) million dollars in the lottery. won) more than (one. won) championship ring. effect) worker morale. won) to have (one. Does this (seam. If I (one. • Whether means if and is used when referring to a possibility or choice. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter.TRICKY WORDS One/Won • One is an adjective meaning single. The psychic will (advice. or thing. 19. It can also be used as pronoun to replace a person. 16. Weather/Whether • Weather is a noun referring to the condition outside. 17. seem) (seam. whether) this awful (weather. • Won is verb meaning prevailed. place. Seam/Seem • Seam is a noun meaning joint or joining point. whether) will continue into tomorrow? 177 . It seems (appears) to me that this seam (joining point) is coming apart. • Seem is a verb meaning appear. 18. or acquired. seem) loose to you? 20. won) the match. Practice Choose the correct word in each of the following sentences.

It rhymes with toss. The knot in this shoelaces is loose (not tight). It rhymes with bruise.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS PART FIVE Choose/Chose • Choose is a verb meaning to select. it means a serious loss (opposite of gain) of time. or not tight. Suppose/Supposed • Suppose is a verb meaning assume or imagine. meaning selected.) is a verb. First. • Lose is a verb meaning to misplace. The neighbors chose (selected) not to participate in the neighborhood party. meaning assumed or imagined. If you lose (misplace) your place in line. unrestrained. Next time. The bricklayers supposed (assumed) the foundation would be ready. • Chose is also a verb. the past tense of choose. Loose/Lose/Loss • Loose is an adjective meaning free. or downturn. Than/Then • Than is a conjunctive word used to make a comparison. It rhymes with goose. they should choose (select) more wisely. defeat. I suppose (assume) we can finish this load. The cattle ran loose (free) in the pasture. • Then means next or tells when. • Loss is a noun meaning the opposite of victory or gain. to be defeated. As an adjective. we’ll eat. 178 . it means expected or obligated. It rhymes with shoes. • Supposed (the past tense of suppose. The concrete was supposed (expected) to have cured by morning. or fail to keep. then (next) we’ll discuss ways to make this season more successful than (comparison) our last one.

• Used to means accustomed to or formerly. 24. 29. than) go change your clothes. What is the use (purpose) of buying used (secondhand) equipment if it doesn’t work? We used to (formerly) talk regularly before we became used to (accustomed to) long periods of silence. lose. used) to look at (use. (Choose. loss) our first place spot. 30. 25.) is a verb meaning utilized or depleted. it means purpose. loss) so you won’t (loose. Chose) your words carefully. used) cars. it means secondhand. loss) today means we’ll (loose. used) to driving new vehicles. chose) not to participate in the games. then) yesterday. but now we’ve become (use. (then. Nigel (choose. Spending a quiet evening at home is more appealing (than. Luann was (suppose. As an adjective. 26. We (use. lose. Don’t (loose. used) to be.TRICKY WORDS Use/Used • Use as a verb means utilize or deplete. As a noun. 27. You can use (utilize) the same process you used (utilized) yesterday. lose. A (loose. 28. loss) your gloves. The joint should remain (loose. lose. 22. lose. The turkeys ran (loose. (Choose. 179 . then) it (use. Practice Choose the correct word in each of the following sentences. lose. 23. Chose) your racket. supposed) to come earlier today (than. 21. • Used (the past tense of use. loss) flexibility. Check your work with the answers on the next page. loss) in the yard.

plane seen. one. 14. 29. 26. scene by. buy dye. 19. 8. seem whether. week dear. 6. deer witch. 9. 27. advice effect. used. 4. no meet. past piece. used 180 . 15. brake. one seam. 21. here hole. loose. peace plain. which hear. 11. 2. weather Choose chose loss. 22. 3. 16. than used. meat advise. 24. new know. break passed. 20. lose lose supposed. 7. 18. 30. used Choose. die weak. brake. 17. affect won. knew. 28. lose loose 25. then than. 12.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Answers 1. 10. whole 13. won. 23. 5.

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Ben acts as (though. 5. 3. quiet. 5. quiet. quite) playing and be totally (quit. 7. to. everyday maybe . too. accept. quite) an accomplishment to get the group of four-year-olds to (quit. Were) did you buy your sofa? 4. 1. 9. 2. threw. Jonelle was (to. 8. there) luggage. they're. It was (quit. already) with an answer to my rebuttal. quite) for story time. 6. altogether) for Thanksgiving. all together Every day. threw. They're. You spent (all together. they're. two) short (to. through) Jen (though. which is too soon. threw. Where. through all ready altogether. 7. their. My parents (expect. there Where quite. everyday) clothes to walk my Chihuahua. too. too. quiet. there). (maybe. Everyday) when I get home. quiet expect. There) going to sit over (their. 6. 2. two) ride (to. except though. too. (Their. Answers 1. (Wear. Answers follow the quiz. two They’re. quit. two) of the rides at the park. through) the window on purpose. accept. 8. I change into my (every day. If we book our tickets now. except) the terms of my project (expect. except) me to (expect. accept. 10. accept. may be) we can get a better rate. 10. threw. 3. to. 4. by (their. (Every day. 9. altogether) too much money trying to get the family (all together. except) for the due date. through) the ball (though. Claire was (all ready.CHAPTER 20 GRAMMAR IQ QUIZ Choose the correct word in parentheses in each of the following sentences.

By the end of this chapter. If you learn to distinguish these words. ere are some more of the most commonly confused words that you are likely to use in your writing. The words are divided into three separate sections. etc. 183 . to the top. THREE-WAY CONFUSION • To is a preposition or part of an infinitive (used with a verb). to his laboratory. to our advantage. to an open door. to my home.CHAPTER 20 H To/Too/Two MORE TRICKY WORDS This chapter covers more confusing words: those that have three easily confused meanings and those that are sometimes written as one word and sometimes as two. you can avoid errors. to his castle. to our garden. to a song. you’ll know which ones to use and why. with practice exercises at the end of each section. to the science room. Preposition: Use to for introducing a prepositional phrase that tells where: to the store.

GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS

Part of an infinitive: Use to as part of an infinitive (to followed by a verb, sometimes separated by an adverb): to run, to jump, to want badly, to seek, to propose, to write, to explode, to sorely need, to badly botch, to carefully examine, and so on. • Too is an adverb meaning also or very. Wherever you use the word too, you should be able to substitute the word also or very. • Two is an adjective, the name of a number, as in one, two. The couple went to (introduces a prepositional phrase) the deli to (introduces an infinitive phrase) pick up two (one, two) plate dinners because both of them were too (very) tired to (introduces an infinitive phrase) cook dinner.

There/Their/They’re
• There is an adverb that refers to a the location of something or someone. Whenever you use the word there, you should also be able to substitute the word here. • Their means “belonging to them.” Use it as an adjective to show possession. • They’re is a short form, or contraction, of the words they are. Use they’re only when you could also use the words they are. They’re (they are) going there (a location) to see their (belonging to them) doctor. If their (belonging to them) children are in there (a location), they’re (they are) in trouble.

Lead/Led/Lead
• Lead as a verb means to guide or direct. As a noun, it means front position. It rhymes with seed. • Led is a verb, the past tense of lead, meaning guided or directed. It rhymes with red. • Lead is also a noun, the name of a metal. It, too, rhymes with red. The Pied Piper took the lead (front position) and led (guided) the children out of Hamlin. The presence of lead (a metal) in the paint led (directed) us to think the house was old.

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MORE TRICKY WORDS

Quite/Quit/Quiet
• Quite is an adverb meaning completely, very, or entirely. It rhymes with bite. • Quit is a verb meaning stop, cease or stopped, ceased. It rhymes with sit. • Quiet as an adjective means calm, silent, noiseless. As a verb, it means to soothe or calm. As a noun, it means tranquillity or peacefulness. It rhymes with riot. Mother was quite (very) shocked when the children quit (stopped) playing and spent some quiet (calm) time in their rooms.

Where/Wear/Were
• Where is an adverb referring to a place or location. • Wear as a verb means to put on, tire, or deteriorate. As a noun, it means deterioration. • Were is a verb, the plural past tense of be. Where (a place) are the parts that showed excessive wear (deteriortion)? You will wear (deteriorate) out this coat if you wear (put on) it all the time. Where (location) are the clothes you were (helping verb) planning to wear (put on) tomorrow?
Practice

Choose the correct form of the word in parentheses. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. 1. Along with the lettuce, please get (to, too, two) avocados (to, too, two) when you go (to, too, two) the store. 2. They should put (there, their, they’re) luggage in (there, their, they’re). 3. If (there, their, they’re) interested in improving (there, their, they’re) health, I’ll help them get (there, their, they’re). 4. Two hours is (quiet, quit, quite) a long time for children to be (quiet, quit, quite). 5. The furnace (quiet, quit, quite) during the night, and it’s (quiet, quit, quite) cold in the house. 6. Do you know (wear, were, where) I could (wear, were, where) something like this? 7. The horses (wear, were, where) restless today.

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8. Ronald couldn’t remember (wear, were, where) the cards (wear, were, where). 9. The foreman (led, lead) the workers out of the (led, lead) mine. 10. Kevin mounted the (led, lead) horse and (led, lead) the wagons into the mountains.

MORE THREE-WAY CONFUSION
Accept/Except/Expect
• Accept is a verb meaning to receive or bear. • Except is a preposition meaning but, or excluding. • Expect is a verb meaning anticipate, demand, or assume. Customers expect (demand) nothing except (but) a fair deal, I expect (assume). We expect (anticipate) they will accept (receive) our apology. Lorraine will accept (bear) the responsibility for making housing arrangements.

Right/Write/Rite
• Right is an adjective meaning correct, proper, or the opposite of left. • Write is a verb meaning record or inscribe. • Rite is a noun meaning ceremony or ritual. The court reporter will write (record) the exact words of the testimony. The shaman will be able to perform the rite (ceremony) in the right (proper) way. It seems right (proper) that we record the right (correct) answer on the right (opposite of left) side.

Though/Through/Threw
• Though as a conjunction means even if. As an adverb, it means however. • Through means from one side to the other. • Threw is the past tense of the verb throw. It means tossed. Though (even if) you may think it’s a waste, you should throw (toss) away outdated medication. Bibek threw (tossed) the ball through (from one side to the other) the window. 186

MORE TRICKY WORDS

Sent/Cent/Scent
• Sent (the past tense of send,) is a verb meaning dispatched or transmitted. • Cent is a noun meaning one penny, a coin worth one-hundredth of a dollar. • Scent is a noun meaning odor or smell. You can buy this scent (odor) capsule for just a cent (one penny). The guide sent (dispatched) a message as soon as the dogs picked up the scent (odor).

Sight/Site/Cite
• Sight as a noun means the ability to see. As a verb, it means see or spot. • Site is a noun meaning location or position. • Cite is a verb meaning quote or make reference to. At ninety, the old man’s sight (ability to see) was sharp enough to sight (spot) even the smallest flaw. This is the proposed site (location) for our school. Cite (make reference to) the source of the information in your paper.
Practice

Choose the correct form of the word in parentheses. Check your work with the answers at the end of the chapter. 11. Our letter can be (sent, cent, scent) if we add another (sent, cent, scent) of postage. 12. Bernice smelled the (sent, cent, scent) of cabbage when she walked into the kitchen. 13. The customers were (right, write, rite) in assuming the company would (right, write, rite) them a letter explaining the policy change. 14. The senior prom is a (right, write, rite) of passage. 15. The manufacturers (accept, except, expect) that we will (accept, except, expect) a partial delivery or our order. 16. The doctor walked (though, through, threw) the waiting room even (though, through, threw) the receptionist (though, through, threw) a fit every time she did so. 17. The quarterback (though, through, threw) the ball right (though, through, threw) the hands of the receiver. 18. Beyond the next hill you should be able to (sight, site, cite) the (sight, site, cite) for the new city park. 187

expect) our proposal. cited) accurately. I wore my everyday (ordinary) clothes. Researchers hope that their statistics will be (sighted. depending on whether they are one word or two words. Everyday/Every Day • Everyday means ordinary or usual. • May be means might be.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS 19. we may be (might be) later than we thought. • All together means simultaneously. except. Inspectors examine the machinery every day (each day). except. Is this print order all ready (completely ready) to go? Altogether/All Together • Altogether means entirely or completely. previously. expect) John Henry will (accept. Maybe/May Be • Maybe means perhaps. ONE WORD OR TWO? The words in this next section are very much alike but have different meanings. The dockhands had unloaded the warehouse already (as early as this). or by this time. Everyone (accept. 188 . sited. The harvesters have already (previously. The fans moaned all together (simultaneously). Already/All Ready • Already means as early as this. • Every day means each day. His testimony was altogether (entirely) true. 20. by this time) finished that field. • All ready means completely ready or totally ready. Maybe (perhaps) we will finish a day earlier than we had planned. On the other hand.

every day) shoes almost (everyday. Check your work with the answers on the next page. 21. allot) of spare change. all right) if they read the directions. 24. may be) if we change our approach. Practice Choose the correct form of the word in parentheses. Margaret leaves at 3:30 (every day. All Right Alright is substandard usage. Avoid using this form in formal writing. alright) to (a lot. all ready) started. If the whole section had been (already. They should be (alright. may be) the thing that will help us get back on track. allot) a few tickets for family members. everyday). Keith has (all ready. already) picked up our mail. it (maybe. 22. 26. • A lot means much. Guy (may be. wear. • Allot is a verb meaning to portion out. 25. If we get the whole family (altogether. all together). 29. 189 . every day). but (may be. we should have (altogether. You (where. 28. 23. (Maybe. were) your (everyday. maybe) we can catch him before he leaves. 30. Avoid using this form in formal writing. maybe) able to deliver this speech if he can get his notes (all together. • All right means completely fine or entirely good. Chester thought it was (all right. The committee should allot (portion out) a lot of (much) time for questions. 27. all together) enough people power to finish moving. A Lot/Allot Alot is substandard usage. all ready) we could have (already. Your work seems all right (completely fine) to me. Patrick has (a lot. altogether).MORE TRICKY WORDS ALWAYS TWO WORDS The words in this section are often incorrectly written as one word.

cited 20. accept 16. through. through 18. quit. all together. led. were 8. every day 22. except. already 24. all right. may be 23. maybe 29. a lot 28. rite 15. accept 21. where. may be. wear 7. wear. led 11. sight. to 2. all right 25. threw. lead 10. there 4. cent 12. too. scent 13. everyday. allot 27. right. all together 30. altogether 26. all ready. their. site 19. were 9. quite. they’re. expect. though. every day 190 . sent. their.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Answers 1. already. quiet 5. write 14. quite 6. Maybe. lead. there 3. where. threw 17. two.

if you have trouble with verbs in English. look at Appendix B. The best thing that can happen. with confidence! Check your answers at the end of the exam. Here’s how: Write a memo asking for a raise. Now you can take the Grammar IQ Final Exam that follows. Even if this happens. Your next raise will probably come sooner as a result. write it. The worst thing that can happen is that your request will be denied.” which tells you how to use certain idiomatic verb forms. your writing will have made an impression. If you had fun or want to learn even more about writing. do it. your supervisor will remember them. It will build your confi191 Y ou’ve done it! You’ve made it through these . “Additional Resources.” Now it’s time to reap a return on the money you invested in this book. If you can do that. In addition. of course. How can you lose? Even if you don’t send the memo. you should refer to Appendix A. Go ahead.CONCLUSION lessons.“Two-Word Verbs. you know the time you’ve spent with this book has been worth your while. If you presented a few good arguments. is that you will get a raise.

and maybe you’ll send it at a more opportune time. but in many other areas of your life. revise it. In the meantime. write a memo. you can think about what you want to say in the memo.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS dence. It won’t be long before people begin to notice that you can communicate well with written words. 192 . Whenever you have an idea that you want to be taken seriously. The ability to write well is a skill that will help you not only in business. and add to it.

Which of the following fragments is a dependent clause? a. They passed the bend in the road. The missionaries went from door to door. Check the answers at the end of the exam. 4. should have c. b. b. until d. I thought she looked familiar. choose the best answer. Benson postponed the meeting. And looked around for a familiar face. Bonnie needs additional time. He had lost weight. b. d. Bilias was welcomed by the staff. d. we met for coffee. Harry got sick of his job. c. b. because b. Julie will arrive ahead of schedule. I began to run. 193 . Andreas frosted the cake. The officials were criticized bitterly. Which of the sentences below is an example of colloquial language? a. d. Which of the following words is a spoken. c. The agenda was prepared by the assistant. rather than a written. d. c. c. When it started to rain. sorta 2. 5. Which of the following word groups is a sentence fragment? a. 3. 1. After work.GRAMMAR IQ FINAL EXAM GRAMMAR IQ FINAL EXAM Based on your work in Grammar Essentials. Which sentence contains an active voice verb? a. version of a word? a.

GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS

6. Which of the following fragments is a phrase without a subject or predicate? a. Even though the agreement had been signed. b. If she left before the half was over. c. While the spaghetti was cooking. d. Willing to consider another option. 7. Which of the following is a run-on sentence? a. The electricians arrived before they were scheduled. b. Muriel needed some space she had just suffered a terrible tragedy. c. After we sign the papers, the house will be ours. d. He’ll have to insulate the house; otherwise, the heating bills will be enormous. 8. Choose the correctly punctuated sentence below. a. The mail was late, consequently, the package did not arrive on time. b. The mail was late consequently, the package did not arrive on time. c. The mail was late; consequently, the package did not arrive on time. d. The mail was late consequently the package did not arrive on time. 9. Choose the correctly capitalized sentence below. a. As we Traveled down Interstate 90, we could see the Black Hills rising in the distance. b. As we traveled down interstate 90, we could see the Black hills rising in the distance. c. As we traveled down Interstate 90, we could see the black Hills rising in the distance. d. As we traveled down Interstate 90, we could see the Black Hills rising in the distance.

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GRAMMAR IQ FINAL EXAM

10. Choose the correctly capitalized sentence below. a. Mrs. Baptiste moved her store, The Silver Fox, to 345 Grand Avenue in West Palm Center, Florida. b. Mrs. Baptiste moved her store, The silver Fox, to 345 Grand Avenue in West palm Center, Florida. c. Mrs. Baptiste moved her store, The Silver Fox, to 345 Grand Avenue in west Palm Center, Florida. d. Mrs. Baptiste moved her Store, The Silver Fox, to 345 Grand Avenue in West Palm Center, Florida. 11. Which of the following sentences has the correct end mark? a. How nice of you to see us; b. How nice of you to see us? c. How nice of you to see us! d. How nice of you to see us. 12. Choose the correctly punctuated sentence below. a. Intrigued, Cortez turned to ESPN, his favorite TV channel. b. Intrigued Cortez turned to ESPN, his favorite TV channel. c. Intrigued, Cortez turned to ESPN his favorite TV channel. d. Intrigued Cortez turned to ESPN his favorite TV channel. 13. Choose the correctly punctuated sentence below. a. After the meeting was over Alan who was late in the first place wanted to reconvene. b. After the meeting was over, Alan, who was late in the first place, wanted to reconvene. c. After the meeting was over, Alan who was late in the first place wanted to reconvene. d. After the meeting was over Alan, who was late in the first place, wanted to reconvene.

195

GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS

14. Choose the correctly punctuated sentence below. a. Imelda visited her tailor, her cobbler her hairdresser and her accountant. b. Imelda visited her tailor her cobbler, her hairdresser, and her accountant. c. Imelda visited her tailor, her cobbler, her hairdresser, and her accountant. d. Imelda visited her tailor her cobbler her hairdresser and her accountant. 15. Choose the correctly punctuated sentence below. a. The players prepared well, for the tournament on December 20 2005 but performed poorly. b. The players prepared well, for the tournament on December 20, 2005 but performed poorly. c. The players prepared well, for the tournament on December 20, 2005, but performed poorly. d. The players prepared well for the tournament on December 20, 2005, but performed poorly. 16. Choose the correctly punctuated sentence below. a. The bus has left; you need to find another ride to the hotel. b. The bus has left, you need to find another ride to the hotel. c. The bus has left, you need to find another ride, to the hotel. d. The bus has left; you need to find another ride, to the hotel. 17. Choose the correctly punctuated sentence below. a. At 12:30 p.m . the plane, which stops at Kansas City, Kansas, St. Louis, Missouri, Dallas, Texas, and Corpus Christi, Texas, will be leaving Fort Dodge, Iowa. b. At 12:30 p.m . the plane which stops at Kansas City Kansas St. Louis Missouri Dallas Texas and Corpus Christi Texas will be leaving Fort Dodge Iowa. c. At 12:30 p.m ., the plane, which stops at Kansas City, Kansas; St. Louis, Missouri; Dallas, Texas; and Corpus Christi, Texas, will be leaving Fort Dodge, Iowa. d. At 12 30 p.m ., the plane which stops at Kansas City, Kansas; St. Louis, Missouri; Dallas, Texas; and Corpus Christi, Texas; will be leaving Fort Dodge, Iowa.

196

GRAMMAR IQ FINAL EXAM

18. Choose the correctly punctuated sentence below. a. You need a new fuel pump; otherwise, your engine is in danger of overheating. b. You need a new fuel pump, otherwise, your engine is in danger of overheating. c. You need a new fuel pump, otherwise; your engine is in danger of overheating. d. You need a new fuel pump, otherwise your engine is in danger of overheating. 19. Choose the correctly punctuated sentence below. a. Estaban called the new book a “gift to busy students. b. Estaban called the new book a “gift to busy students.” c. Estaban called the new book, a gift to busy students. d. Estaban called the new book, a “gift to busy students.” 20. Choose the correctly punctuated sentence below. a. “Where did you put the mayonnaise, my mother asked. I can’t find it anywhere.” b. “Where did you put the mayonnaise,” my mother asked. “I can’t find it anywhere.” c. “Where did you put the mayonnaise? my mother asked. “I can’t find it anywhere.” d. “Where did you put the mayonnaise?” my mother asked. “I can’t find it anywhere.” 21. Choose the correctly punctuated sentence below. a. I read my literature assignment, the story Incident at Owl Creek while I watched ER, my favorite TV show. b. I read my literature assignment, the story “Incident at Owl Creek,” while I watched “ER,” my favorite TV show. c. I read my literature assignment, the story “Incident at Owl Creek” while I watched “ER” my favorite TV show. d. I read my literature assignment, the story “Incident at Owl Creek,” while I watched ER, my favorite TV show.

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d. a. management decided to give her two week’s severance pay and dismiss her. management decided to give her two weeks severance pay and dismiss her. Choose the sentence below that uses dashes and other punctuation correctly. After the security guard’s performance was evaluated. After the security guards performance was evaluated. a. please read—and complete this questionnaire. After the security guard’s performance was evaluated. 198 . After the security guard’s performance was evaluated. and I know everyone is. Al sells women’s shoes at his mother-in-law’s expensive ladys’ store. c. b. Al sells womens’ shoes at his mother-in-law’s expensive ladys’ store. c. If you’re not too busy. Choose the correctly punctuated sentence below. b. If youre not too busy—and I know everyone is—please read and complete this questionnaire. a. Choose the correctly punctuated sentence below.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS 22. Al sells women’s shoes at his mother-in-law’s expensive ladies’ store. b. please read—and complete this questionnaire. Al sells womens’ shoes at his mother-in-law’s expensive lady’s store. If you’re not too busy—and I know everyone is—please read and complete this questionnaire. d. management decided to give her two weeks’ severance pay and dismiss her. c. If youre not too busy. management decided to give her two weeks’ severance pay and dismiss her. d. and I know everyone is. 23. 24.

wasn’t working. c. The two-page letter of complaint took Linda 2 hours to write. c. a. a.GRAMMAR IQ FINAL EXAM 25. Missy reported that her mojo. The 2 page letter of complaint took Linda 2 hours to write. Missy reported that her mojo (what kind of word is that anyway?) wasn’t working. b. The two-page letter of complaint took Linda two hours to write. The secretary treasurer recorded all fifty five minutes of the hard nosed negotiations. b. 27. d. a. The secretary-treasurer recorded all fifty five minutes of the hardnosed negotiations. Missy reported that her mojo (What kind of word is that anyway?) wasn’t working. c. Missy reported that her mojo (what kind of word is that anyway) wasn’t working. Choose the correctly punctuated sentence below. The secretary-treasurer recorded all fifty-five minutes of the hardnosed negotiations. b. d. 199 . The secretary treasurer recorded all fifty five minutes of the hard nosed negotiations. Choose the correct sentence below. The two page letter of complaint took Linda two hours to write. what kind of word is that anyway. 26. d. Choose the correctly punctuated sentence below.

29. nullifying. solving. 200 . wants) only (their. have) moved from their old neighborhood. I believe he is (refer. their) name on the trophy. 37. Mid was sure the problem (is. solved). Us) teachers wasted (fewer. 41. shrank. was) married for three years. I had already (am. was. wants) to practice this weekend. 30. I would (took. threw. done) a complete estimate for us so that we would (know. revolved) around the sun when I was in kindergarten. 28. been. (We. even though I (use. were) on time. 31. 36. kept) the receipt. would) never (of. he never (through. referring. use. nullified). paid) the bill and (keep. I learned that the earth (revolves. Neither the coach nor the players (want. his) initials. did. met) her fiancé. which has been (nullify. 32. throw) anything away if he thought he could (used. less) hours than (they. known) exactly how much the job (costed. If I (was. wishing. costs. am) (solve. Everybody wants (his or her. but each of the hostesses (was. refers. had used) cold water. shrunk). knew. 34. take) him up on his offer. them). wishes) that they (will.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Choose the correct form of the word in parentheses in the following sentences. uses) it again. My grandfather was very thrifty. The sweater (shrink. 38. but both Jon and Tom (want. Eric (pay. were) you. Half of the guests (was. would cost). 33. used. were) late. By the time Jenna (meets. 40. The plumber (do. takes. 39. 35. referred) to the old contract. Marilyn (wish.

advise) have on (weather. 201 . I (hear. there. loss) more profits this year (than. sitting) in the drive. there. break) slowly and stop. As it (passed. then) we did last year? 50. The paper is (lying. (Its. 49. It’s) time for a break when the day reaches (its. 46. even though there was a greater (amount. past). The mayor (use. we watched the (plain. (Fewer. whole) department is required to (meat. 48. Less) people attended the conference this year.GRAMMAR IQ FINAL EXAM 42. which) responds to my requests. What (affect. (Their. They’re) hoping to close (their. number) of key speakers than last year. whether) or not we (loose. lose. supposed) to attend all fires in the city. and the car is (setting. effect) will the consultant’s (advice. plane) (brake. used) to think that the chief of police was (suppose. here) that the (hole. they’re) in the office by morning. (Your. it’s) end. laying) on the dining room table. they’re) mortgage if the paperwork is (their. You’re) the one (that. 47. who. 45. There. meet) in the conference room tomorrow morning. 44. 43.

16. 38. advice. a. a. c. 42. have paid. 44. know. 24. 19. plane. sitting It’s. 31. a. 27. lose. 45. had used threw. a. 5. they lying. a. 40. brake hear. 14. a. use met. supposed 202 . there Fewer. than used. d. want. its You’re. 7. solved referring.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS ANSWERS 1. 37. 50. 48. 49. b. b. 28. 2. would. 25. b. meet effect. 20. 39. d. their We. 30. kept did. 13. whether. 17. b. 21. 32. 8. 6. d. b. been revolves were. 35. 46. c. c. 43. 23. was want his or her. 10. 26. 47. would cost shrank. 9. who They’re. 22. 33. 12. c. 15. c. d. 4. b. number passed. whole. 18. b. 36. nullified wishes. 3. 29. their. b. was. take were. d. c. fewer. 11. a. a. 34. 41.

APPENDIX A T TWO-WORD VERBS he English language is full of two-word verbs: verb-preposition combinations that are used in place of a single verb. The couple broke up (separated). and use the single-word equivalent instead. 203 . The combinations are bolded and then defined in the parentheses that follow each one. They unexpectedly broke off (stopped) this relationship. These can be especially confusing for non-native speakers. Competition brings out (reveals) his best work. The elevator broke down (stopped working) this morning. Many writers avoid these combinations. Each sentence that follows uses a verb-preposition combination. simply because they are confusing. I hate to bring up (raise) such a touchy subject.

The governor called up (summoned) the National Guard. The troops will head out (leave) in the morning. Please call if anything comes up (arises). It won’t be long before they catch up to (overtake) us. The strike held up (delayed) production. Gordon will look into (examine) this problem. protect) younger ones. Tell us how the game came out (ended). Tamara catches on (learns) quickly. Loren gets away (goes undiscovered) with everything. 204 . I help out (assist) whenever I can.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Lawrence and Stacy called off (canceled) their engagement. Don’t leave out (omit) any of the details. Since the rain. Paige filled up (filled) the car with gas. Sandy will head up (lead) the committee. Becky gets out of (avoids) work whenever she can. Janet will fill in (cover) for me this afternoon. The losing army finally gave up (surrendered). Elizabeth doesn’t care for (like) green beans. Billy should get along (manage) fine without our help. Doug tried to look up (locate) the information. See if you can find out (discover) her birth date. Beverly hates to get up (arise) in the morning. Doris filled out (completed) the application. The doctors don’t hold out (promise) much hope. Morris couldn’t hold in (contain) his disappointment. Get rid of (Discard) this extra lumber. We don’t give out (dispense) that kind of information. things are looking up (improving). Older siblings often look after (tend.

These chips will run out (be consumed) before we ever start eating. I think I’ll sit out (rest) during the next match. We expect you to put forward (expend) your best effort. The boys tried to put out (extinguish) the fire. The singer passed out (fainted) from fright. Don’t pass up (overlook) this opportunity. Henderson is open to (considering) your suggestion.TWO-WORD VERBS The pilot could barely make out (see) the runway lights. The old vicar passed away (died). Take apart (disassemble) this clock and see why it won’t work. My time and money is all used up (consumed). The witness made up (invented) the story. Eventually. This product should stand up (last) under extreme heat. Felix ran across (discovered) some interesting information. Mrs. The thieves made off with (took) over two thousand dollars. Will they turn down (reject) our request? A computer virus can turn up (arise) at any time. We don’t like it when you talk down (condescend) to us. bypass) the real issue. the suspect began to open up (reveal). I think I’ll turn in (retire) for the night. Make out (complete) a grocery list for me. Don’t walk out (leave) on us now! 205 . Why don’t you stand up for (defend) yourself? His daughter takes after (resembles) him. Alex sometimes puts off (postpones) his homework. I’m tired of running after (chasing) this ghost of an idea. Sam likes to talk around (avoid. It’s hard to put up with (tolerate) incompetence. The wolf walked into (entered) the trap.

Let’s work out (resolve) our differences. I’ll work up (develop) a proposal for you. Can you write in (include) a clause about late payment? 206 .GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS We’ll try to work around (avoid) the obstacles. Write down (record) everything you remember from that conversation. See if the dentist can work me in (schedule me) this afternoon.

many high schools and colleges offer inexpensive writing courses for adults in their communities. you can. If you have Internet access.APPENDIX B U ADDITIONAL RESOURCES sing this book is just the first step toward becoming a better writer. you can use one of the many online writing labs. If you want to strike out on your own. If you want to learn more. this appendix includes a list of books and websites you’ll find helpful. 207 . as well as a little information about each one. You may even be able to find a teacher willing to tutor you for a modest fee. If you learn better from direct instruction.

sentence structure. writing introdutions and conlusions—for workplace writing such as memos and reports. Blusser (Contemporary Publishing Company) • Specially designed for non-native speakers of English. Smart English: The Easy-to-Use. English Made Simple by Arthur Waldhorn and Arthur Ziegler (Made Simple Books) • Designed for non-native speakers of English. very useful for nonnative speakers of English. Johnson (Washington Square Press) • A well-organized. Living in English: Basic Skills for the Adult Learner by Betsy J. Grammar: A Student’s Guide by James R. 208 . comprehensive handbook for both grammar and writing. usage. Instant Access Guide to Proper Written and Spoken English by Anne Francis (Signet) • A thorough general-purpose handbook for both writing and grammar. Feare (Oxford University Press) • For non-native speakers of English. punctuation. Improve Your Writing for Work by Elizabeth Chesla (LearningExpress) • Focuses on the larger aspects of writing—stating and supporting your main idea. useful for nonnative speakers of English. The Handbook of Good English by Edward D. also good for native speakers with little grammar background. especially good for native speakers of English. organizing your thoughts.GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Books 1001 Pitfalls in English Grammar (Barron’s) • A problem-solving approach to writing and grammar. Hurford (Cambridge University Press) • Thorough coverage of parts of speech. and mechanics. Practice with Idioms by Ronald E. good for non-native speakers of English. Errors in English and How to Correct Them by Harry Shaw (HarperCollins) • Addresses specific problems in both writing and grammar.

writing.aitech.ADDITIONAL RESOURCES Thirty Days to Better English by Norman Lewis (Signet) • Useful for general information. grammar. holidays.jp/~iteslj/quizzes/ • Self-study quizzes for ESL speakers/writers.LearningExpressFreeOffer. Writing Smart by Marcia Lerner (Princeton Review) • Good for general writing skills. idioms. vocabulary. for both native and non-native speakers of English. well organized so information is easy to find. reading. Websites www.ac. covering slang. culture.com • FREE access to exercises designed to strengthen your grammar skills. Helpful links to other websites. www. 209 . Receive immediate scoring and detailed answer explanations.

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Now that you’ve purchased LearningExpress’s Grammar Essentials skill-builder book. an interactive online resource exclusively for LearningExpress customers.Special Offer from LearningExpress! Let LearningExpress help you acquire practical.com. from capitalization and punctuation. you have FREE access to: ■ ■ ■ ■ Forty exercises covering ALL VITAL GRAMMAR SKILLS. Use your individualized access code found on the scratch card and go to www.LearningExpressFreeOffer. essential grammar skills FAST Go to the LearningExpress Practice Center at www. to subject-verb agreement and word usage Immediate scoring and detailed answer explanations Benchmark your skills and focus your study with our customized diagnostic report Improve your knowledge of important grammar rules Follow the simple instructions on the scratch card in your copy of Grammar Essentials. Start practicing your grammar skills online right away! Once you’ve logged on.com to sign in.LearningExpressFreeOffer. use the spaces below to write in your access code and newly created password for easy reference: Access Code: _______________________ Password: __________________________ .

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