THE ZEITGEIST MOVEMENT DEFINED

REALIZING A NEW TRAIN OF THOUGHT

”The tremendous and st !! a""e!erat n# de$e!o%ment o& s" en"e and te"hno!o#' has not (een a""om%an ed (' an e)ua! de$e!o%ment n so" a!* e"onom "* and %o! t "a! %atterns+++We are no,+++on!' (e# nn n# to e-%!ore the %otent a! t es ,h "h t o&&ers &or de$e!o%ments n our "u!ture outs de te"hno!o#'* %art "u!ar!' n the so" a!* %o! t "a! and e"onom " & e!ds+ It s sa&e to %red "t that+++su"h so" a! n$ent ons as modern.t'%e /a% ta! sm* Fas" sm* and /ommun sm , !! (e re#arded as %r m t $e e-%er ments d re"ted to,ard the ad0ustment o& modern so" et' to modern te"hno!o#'” . Dr+ Ra!%h L nton

,,,+the1e t#e stmo$ement+"om

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned Rea! 1 n# a Ne, Tra n o& Thou#ht 2st Ed t on* 3anuar'* 4526 /reat $e /ommons Attr (ut on.Non/ommer" a!.ShareA! 7e 6+5 Internat ona! 8// 9:.N/.SA 6+5; The "ontent n th s te-t ma' (e re%rodu"ed on!' &or non."ommer" a! %ur%oses and ma' not (e reso!d n an' &orm+ An' other nterests re)u re d re"t a%%ro$a! (' TZM G!o(a!+ /onta"t< med a=the1e t#e stmo$ement+"om Th s s a 255> non.%ro& t te-t+ An' %r "e %a d s on!' &or the %h's "a! %u(! sh n#+ An' e-%!o tat on o& th s ,or7 &or %ro& t , !! not (e to!erated+ A"7no,!ed#ments< The mater a! authored here s a %rodu"t o& man' &orms o& "ontr (ut on* s%e" & "a!!' the resear"h o& The Ze t#e st Mo$ement?s e-%and n# !e"ture team+ Wh !e not a!! & #ures re!e$ant "ou!d (e "red ted (e!o, 8a!%ha(et "a! order;* an enormous than7s e-tends to a!! others not ! sted ,ho ha$e "ontr (uted ne,s* sour"es* t %s and other resear"h+ /om% !ed @ Ed ted (' 9en M"Le sh Matt 9er7o, t1 Aeter 3ose%h AndrBs De!#ado 9a7ar Aa"e 9randon Cr st' 9rand' Hume Dou#!as Ma!!ette E$a Omor Feder "o A stono Than7s to< G !(ert Isma ! 3ames Ah !! %s 3ason Lord 3en W !d n# M #ue! O! $e ra Shar!een 9a1e#h Tom W !! ams

I& 'ou ,ou!d ! 7e to he!% n trans!at n# th s te-t* %!ease "onta"t TZM?s ! n#u st "s team< L n#u st "Team=#ma !+"om IS9N.2D< EFG.26EHD5D2EF IS9N.25< 26EHD5D2EH

Contents
Are&a"e+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 2 Aart I< Introdu"t on Essa' 2< O$er$ e,++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++H Essa' 4< The S" ent & " Wor!d$ e,+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 26 Essa' D< Sour" n# So!ut ons+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 42 Essa' 6< Lo# " $s+ As'"ho!o#'++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 4I Essa' H< The /ase &or Human Un t'++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ DD Essa' I< The F na! Ar#ument J Human Nature++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++DE Aart II< So" a! Aatho!o#' Essa' F< De& n n# Au(! " Hea!th++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 6I Essa' G< H stor' o& E"onom'++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ I2 Essa' E< Mar7et E&& " en"' $s+ Te"hn "a! E&& " en"'+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++E4 Essa' 25< Va!ue S'stem D sorder++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 22D Essa' 22< Stru"tura! /!ass sm* The State and War+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++2DH Aart III< A Ne, Tra n o& Thou#ht Essa' 24< Introdu"t on to Susta na(!e Thou#ht+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 2HE Essa' 2D< Aost.S"ar" t' Trends* /a%a" t' and E&& " en"'+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++2IH Essa' 26< True E"onom " Fa"tors++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 44E Essa' 2H< The Industr a! Go$ernment++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 46G Essa' 2I< L &est'!e* Freedom and the Human t' Fa"tor+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++4FF

Aart IV< The Ze t#e st Mo$ement Essa' 2F< So" a! Desta( ! 1at on and Trans t on+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++4GG Essa' 2G< 9e"om n# The Ze t#e st Mo$ement++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++D26

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

-PREFACEThe out"ome o& an' ser ous resear"h "an on!' (e to ma7e t,o )uest ons #ro, ,here on!' one #re, (e&ore+2 .Thorste n Ve(!en

Origin of the name KThe Ze t#e st Mo$ement” 8TZM; s the dent & er &or the so" a! mo$ement des"r (ed n the &o!!o, n# essa's+ The name has no re!e$ant h stor "a! re&eren"e to an'th n# "u!tura!!' s%e" & " and s not to (e "on&used or asso" ated , th an'th n# e!se 7no,n (e&ore , th a s m !ar t t!e+ Rather* the t t!e s (ased u%on the semant " mean n# o& the $er' terms* e-%! " t!'+ The term K1e t#e st” s de& ned as the K#enera! nte!!e"tua!* mora! and "u!tura! "! mate o& an era+” The term Kmo$ement” s m%!' m%! es Kmot on” or "han#e+ There&ore* The Zeitgeist Movement s an or#an 1at on that ur#es "han#e n the dom nant nte!!e"tua!* mora! and "u!tura! "! mate o& the t me+ Document Structure The &o!!o, n# te-t has (een %re%ared to (e as "on" se and 'et "om%rehens $e as %oss (!e+ In &orm* t s a ser es o& essa's* ordered (' su(0e"t n a manner that ,or7s to su%%ort a (roader context+ Wh !e ea"h essa' s des #ned to (e ta7en on ts o,n mer t n e$a!uat on* the true "onte-t res des n ho, ea"h ssue ,or7s to su%%ort a !ar#er train of thought , th res%e"t to the most e&& " ent or#an 1at on o& human so" et'+ It , !! (e not "ed (' those ,ho read throu#h these essa's n a ! near &ash on that a &a r amount o& o$er!a% e- sts , th "erta n deas or su(0e"ts+ Th s s de! (erate as su"h re%et t on and em%has s s "ons dered he!%&u! # $en ho, &ore #n some o& the "on"e%ts m #ht seem to those , th no %r or e-%osure to su"h mater a!+ A!so* s n"e on!' so mu"h deta ! "an (e a&&orded to ma nta n "om%rehens on # $en the #ra$ t' o& ea"h su(0e"t and ho, the' nterre!ate* #reat e&&ort has (een made to sour"e re!e$ant th rd %art' resear"h throu#hout ea"h essa' $ a &ootnotes* a!!o, n# the reader to &o!!o, throu#h , th &urther stud' as the nterest ar ses+ The Organism of Knowledge As , th an' &orm o& %resented resear"h ,e are dea! n# , th serially generated data composites+ O(ser$at on* ts assessment* do"umentat on and nte#rat on , th other 7no,!ed#e* e- st n# or %end n#* s the manner (' ,h "h a!! d st n#u sha(!e deas "ome to e$o!$e+ Th s "ont nuum s m%ortant to understand , th res%e"t to the ,a' ,e th n7 a(out ,hat ,e (e! e$e and ,h'* &or n&ormat on s a!,a's se%arate n ts mer t &rom the %erson or nst tut on "ommun "at n# or
2

The Evolution of the Scientific Point of View, Thorste n Ve(!en* Un $ers t' o& /a! &orn a /hron "!e* 2E5G 2

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

re%resent n#+ In&ormat on "an on!' (e e$a!uated "orre"t!' throu#h a s'stemat " %ro"ess o& "om%ar son to other physically verifiable e$ den"e as to ts %roo& or !a"7 thereo&+ L 7e, se* th s "ont nuum a!so m%! es that there "an (e no em% r "a! Kor # n” o& deas+ From an e% stemo!o# "a! %ers%e"t $e* 7no,!ed#e s most!' "u!m nated* %ro"essed and e-%anded throu#h "ommun "at on amon#st our s%e" es+ The nd $ dua!* , th h s or her nherent!' d &&erent ! &e e-%er en"e and %ro%ens t es* ser$es as a "ustom.%ro"ess n# filter (' ,h "h a # $en dea "an (e mor%hed+ /o!!e"t $e!'* ,e nd $ dua!s "om%r se ,hat "ou!d (e "a!!ed a group mind* ,h "h s the !ar#er order so" a! %ro"essor (' ,h "h the e&&orts o& nd $ dua!s dea!!' "oa!es"e+ The trad t ona! method o& data trans&er throu#h ! terature* shar n# (oo7s &rom #enerat on to #enerat on* has (een a nota(!e %ath o& th s #rou% m nd ntera"t on* &or e-am%!e+4 Issa" Ne,ton %erha%s %ut th s rea! t' (est , th the statement< KI& I ha$e seen &urther than others* t s (' stand n# u%on the shou!ders o& # ants+”D Th s s (rou#ht u% here n order to &o"us the reader on the "r t "a! "ons derat on o& data* not a su%%osed Ksour"e”* as there a"tua!!' s no su"h th n# n an em% r "a! sense+ It s on!' n the tem%ora!* trad t ona! %atterns o& "u!ture* su"h as , th ! terar' "red ts n a te-t(oo7 &or &uture resear"h re&eren"e* s su"h a re"o#n t on te"hn "a!!' re!e$ant+ There s no statement more erroneous than the de"!arat on that Kth s s m' dea”+ Su"h not ons are ('%rodu"ts o& a mater a! "u!ture that has (een re n&or"ed n see7 n# %h's "a! re,ards* usua!!' $ a mone'* n e-"han#e &or the !!us on o& the r K%ro%r etar'” "reat ons+ Ver' o&ten an e#o asso" at on s "u!m nated as ,e!! ,here an nd $ dua! "!a ms %rest #e a(out the r K"red t” &or an dea or n$ent on+ :et* that s not to e-"!ude #rat tude and res%e"t &or those & #ures or nst tut ons that ha$e sho,n ded "at on and %erse$eran"e to,ards the e-%ans on o& 7no,!ed#e tse!&* nor to d m n sh the ne"ess t' o& m%ortan"e o& those ,ho ha$e a"h e$ed a s7 !!ed* s%e" a! 1ed Ke-%ert” status n a %art "u!ar & e!d+ The "ontr (ut ons o& (r !! ant th n7ers and en# neers su"h as R+ 9u"7m nster Fu!!er* 3a")ue Fres"o* 3erem' R &7 n* Ra' Cur1,e !* Ro(ert Sa%o!s7'* Thorste n Ve(!en* R "hard W !7 nson* 3ames G !! #an* /ar! Sa#an* N "o!a Tes!a* Ste%hen Ha,7 n# and man'* man' more resear"hers* %ast and %resent* are )uoted and sour"ed n th s te-t and ser$e as %art o& the !ar#er data composite 'ou are a(out to read+ Great #rat tude s a!so e-%ressed here to,ards a!! ded "ated m nds that are ,or7 n# to "ontr (ute to an m%ro$ n# ,or!d+
4

D

In /ar! Sa#an?s ,or7 K/osmos”* he stated , th res%e"t to the destru"t on o& the L (rar' o& A!e-andr a* noted as the !ar#est and most s #n & "ant ! (rar' o& the an" ent ,or!d< KIt ,as as & the ent re " $ ! 1at on had under#one some se!&. n&! "ted (ra n sur#er'* and most o& ts memor es* d s"o$er es* deas and %ass ons ,ere e-t n#u shed rre$o"a(!'+K osmos, /ar! Sa#an* 9a!!ant ne 9oo7s* Ne, :or7* 2EG5* /ha%ter LIII, %4FE The orrespondence of !saac "ewton* Vo!ume 2* ed ted (' HW Turn(u!!* 2EHE* %62I 4

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

That understood* KThe Ze t#e st Mo$ement” "!a ms no or # nat on o& an' dea t %romotes and s (est "ate#or 1ed as an a"t $ stMedu"at ona! nst tut on that ,or7s to am%! &' a context u%on ,h "h e- st n#Memer# n# s" ent & " & nd n#s ma' & nd a "on"erted so" a! m%erat $e+ We sites and Resources The &o!!o, n# 25 ,e(s tes are o&& " a!!' re!ated to The Ze t#e st Mo$ement?s #!o(a! o%erat ons< .Ma n G!o(a! Hu(< htt%<MM,,,+the1e t#e stmo$ement+"om Th s s the ma n ,e(s te and hu( &or TZM re!ated a"t onsMe$entsMu%dates+ .G!o(a! /ha%ters Hu(< htt%<MM,,,+t1m"ha%ters+netM Th s s the ma n #!o(a! hu( &or "ha%ter n&ormat on and mater a!s+ It n"!udes ma%s* a "ha%terNs too! 7 t and more+ .G!o(a! 9!o#< htt%<MM(!o#+the1e t#e stmo$ement+"omM Th s s the o&& " a! (!o# ,h "h a!!o,s su(m ss ons o& ed tor a! st'!e essa's+ .G!o(a! Forum< htt%<MM,,,+the1e t#e stmo$ement&orum+or#M Th s s the o&& " a! &orum &or mem(ers to d s"uss %ro0e"ts and share deas &rom a"ross the ,or!d+ .Ze t#e st Med a Aro0e"t< htt%<MM1e t#e stmed a%ro0e"t+"omM The Med a Aro0e"t ,e(s te hosts and ! n7s to $ar ous aud oM$ sua!M! terar' e-%ress ons "reate (' TZM mem(ers+ Users donate the r ,or7 &or %ost n# and t s o&ten used as a resour"e tool#it &or &!'er #ra%h "s* $ deo %resentat ons* !o#o an mat ons and the ! 7e+ .Ze tNe,s< htt%<MM,,,+1e tne,s+or#M Ze tNe,s s a ne,s st'!e ser$ "e that "onta ns art "!es re!at n# to so" a!!' re!e$ant ad$an"ements n s" en"e and Te"hno!o#'+ .Ze t#e st Da' 8KZDa'”; G!o(a!<
D

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

htt%<MM1da'#!o(a!+or#M Th s s te (e"omes a"t $e annua!!' to &a" ! tate our KZda'” #!o(a! e$ent* ,h "h o""urs n Mar"h o& ea"h 'ear+ .Ze t#e st Med a Fest $a!< htt%<MM1e t#e stmed a&est $a!+or#M Th s s te (e"omes a"t $e annua!!' to &a" ! tate our KZe t#e st Med a Fest $a!”* ,h "h o""urs n autumn o& ea"h 'ear+ .G!o(a! Redes #n Inst tute< htt%<MM,,,+#!o(a!redes #n nst tute+or#M The G!o(a! Redes #n Inst tute s a $ rtua! #ra%h " nter&a"e Kth n7 tan7” %ro0e"t ,h "h uses ma%Mdata mode!s to e-%ress d re"t te"hn "a! "han#es n ! ne , th TZM?s tra n o& thou#ht n $ar ous re# ons+ !eneral Social "etwor#s TZM G!o(a! on T, tter< htt%<MMt, tter+"omMOPMt1m#!o(a! TZM G!o(a! on Fa"e(oo7< htt%<MM,,,+&a"e(oo7+"omMt1m#!o(a! TZM G!o(a! :outu(e< htt%<MM,,,+'outu(e+"omMuserMTZMO&& " a!/hanne!

6

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

PART $% $"TROD&CT$O" -O'ER'$EWNe ther the #reat %o! t "a! and & nan" a! %o,er stru"tures o& the ,or!d* nor the s%e" a! 1at on.(! nded %ro&ess ona!s* nor the %o%u!at on n #enera! rea! 1e that+++ t s no, h #h!' &eas (!e to ta7e "are o& e$er'(od' on earth at a Kh #her standard o& ! $ n# than an' ha$e e$er 7no,n”+ It no !on#er has to (e 'ou or me+ Se!& shness s unne"essar' and hen"e&orth unrat ona! 1a(!e as mandated (' sur$ $a!+ War s o(so!ete+6 .R+ 9u"7m nster Fu!!er

A out Founded n 455G* The Ze t#e st Mo$ement 8TZM; s a susta na( ! t' ad$o"a"' #rou% that o%erates throu#h a net,or7 o& re# ona! "ha%ters* %ro0e"t teams* %u(! " e$ents* med a e-%ress ons and "har t' o%erat ons+ TZM?s a"t $ sm s e-%! " t!' (ased on non$violent methods o& "ommun "at on , th the "ore &o"us on educating the %u(! " a(out the true root sources o& man' "ommon %ersona!* so" a! and e"o!o# "a! %ro(!ems toda'* "ou%!ed , th the $ast problem solving and humanity improving potential s" en"e and te"hno!o#' has no, ena(!ed* (ut 'et #oes una%%! ed due to (arr ers nherent n the "urrent* esta(! shed so" a! s'stem+ Wh !e the term Ka"t $ sm” s "orre"t (' ts e-a"t mean n#* TZM?s a,areness ,or7 shou!d not (e m s"onstrued as re!at n# to "u!tura!!' "ommon* trad t ona! Ka"t $ st %rotest” a"t ons su"h as ,e ha$e seen h stor "a!!'+ Rather* TZM e-%resses tse!& throu#h tar#eted* rat ona! edu"at ona! %ro0e"ts that ,or7 not to m%ose* d "tate or (! nd!' %ersuade* (ut to set n mot on a train of thought that s logically self$ reali%ing ,hen the "ausa! "ons derat ons o& Ksusta na( ! t'”H and K%u(! " hea!th”I are re&eren"ed &rom a s" ent & " %ers%e"t $e+ Ho,e$er* TZM?s %ursu t s st !! $er' s m !ar to trad t ona! " $ ! r #hts mo$ements o& the %ast n that the o(ser$at ons re$ea! the tru!'
6 H

I

Sour"e< ritical Path, R+ 9u"7m nster Fu!!er* St+ Mart n?s Aress* 2EG2* Introdu"t on* --$ The term Ksusta na( ! t'”* #enera!!' de& ned Kas the a( ! t' to (e susta ned* su%%orted* u%he!d* or "on& rmed” 8htt%<MMd "t onar'+re&eren"e+"omM(ro,seMsusta na( ! t'; s o&ten toda' "ommon!' re&eren"edMunderstood , th n an en$ ronmenta! s" en"e "onte-t+ TZM?s "onte-t e-tends &arther* ho,e$er* n"!ud n# the not on o& "u!tura! or (eha$ ora! susta na( ! t'* ,h "h "ons ders the mer t o& (e! e& s'stems n #enera!* and the r !ess o($ ous "ausa! "onse)uen"es+ The term K%u(! " hea!th”* #enera!!' de& ned as Kthe s" en"e and %ra"t "e o& %rote"t n# and m%ro$ n# the hea!th o& a "ommun t'* as (' %re$ent $e med " ne* hea!th edu"at on* "ontro! o& "ommun "a(!e d seases* a%%! "at on o& san tar' measures* and mon tor n# o& en$ ronmenta! ha1ards” 8htt%<MMd "t onar'+re&eren"e+"omM(ro,seM%u(! "Qhea!thRsSt; s used n th s te-t as a (as s o& measure &or the %h's "a!* %s'"ho!o# "a! and hen"e so" o!o# "a! ,e!!.(e n# o& a so" et es? %eo%!e o$er t me+ Th s s to (e "ons dered the u!t mate (arometer o& the su""ess or &a !ure o& an a%%! ed so" a! s'stem+ H

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

unne"essar' oppression nherent n our "urrent so" a! order* ,h "h stru"tura!!' and so" o!o# "a!!' restr "ts human ,e!!.(e n# and %otent a! &or the $ast ma0or t' o& the ,or!d?s %o%u!at on* not to ment on st &!es (road m%ro$ement n #enera! due to ts esta(! shed methods+ For nstan"e* the "urrent so" a! mode!* ,h !e %er%etuat n# enormous !e$e!s o& "orros $e e"onom " ne&& " en"' n #enera!* as , !! (e des"r (ed n &urther essa's* a!so ntr ns "a!!' su%%orts one e"onom " #rou% or K"!ass” o& %eo%!e o$er another* %er%etuat n# te"hn "a!!' unne"essar' m(a!an"e and h #h re!at $e de%r $at on+ Th s "ou!d (e "a!!ed Ke"onom " ( #otr'” n ts e&&e"t and t s no !ess ns d ous than d s"r m nat on rooted n #ender* ethn " t'* re! # on* "reed or the ! 7e+ Ho,e$er* th s nherent ( #otr' s rea!!' on!' a %art o& a !ar#er "ond t on that "ou!d (e termed Kstru"tura! $ o!en"e”*F !!um nat n# a (road s%e"trum o& built in su&&er n#* nhuman t' and de%r $at on that s s m%!' a""e%ted as norma! t' toda' (' an un n&ormed ma0or t'+ Th s "onte-t o& $ o!en"e stret"hes mu"h &arther and dee%er than man' tend to "ons der+ The s"o%e o& ho, our so" oe"onom " s'stem unne"essar !' d m n shes our %u(! " hea!th and nh ( ts our %ro#ress toda' "an on!' (e re"o#n 1ed "!ear!' ,hen ,e ta7e a more deta"hed te"hn "a! or scientific %ers%e"t $e o& so" a! a&&a rs* ('%ass n# our trad t ona!* o&ten (! nd n# &am ! ar t es+ The re!at $e nature o& our a,areness o&ten &a!!s $ "t m to assum%t ons o& perceived normality ,here* sa'* the on#o n# de%r $at on and %o$ert' o& o$er D ( !! on %eo%!eG m #ht (e seen as a Knatura!”* na!tera(!e so" a! state to those ,ho are not a,are o&* &or e-am%!e* the amount o& &ood a"tua!!' %rodu"ed n the ,or!d* ,here t #oes* ho, t s ,asted or the te"hn "a! nature o& e&& " ent and a(undant &ood %rodu"t on %oss ( ! t es n the modern da'+ Th s unseen violence "an (e e-tended to "u!tura! memesE as ,e!! ,here so" a! trad t ons and the r %s'"ho!o#' "an* , thout d re"t ma! " ous ntent* "reate resu!t n# "onse)uen"es that are dama# n# to a human (e n#+ For nstan"e* there are re! # ous "u!tures n the ,or!d

F

G

E

The term Kstru"tura! $ o!en"e” s "ommon!' as"r (ed to 3ohan Ga!tun#* ,h "h he ntrodu"ed n the art "!e TV o!en"e* Aea"e* and Aea"e Resear"hT 8&ournal of Peace 'esearch* Vo!+ I* No+ D* 2EIE* %%+ 2IF.2E2; It re&ers to a &orm o& $ o!en"e ,here some so" a! stru"ture or so" a! nst tut on harms %eo%!e (' %re$ent n# them &rom meet n# the r (as " needs+ It ,as e-%anded u%on (' other resear"hers* su"h as "r m na! %s'"h atr st Dr+ 3ames G !! #an* ,ho ma7es the &o!!o, n# d st n"t on (et,een K(eha$ ora!” and Kstru"tura!” $ o!en"e< KThe !etha! e&&e"ts o& stru"tura! $ o!en"e o%erate "ont nuous!'* rather than s%orad "a!!'* ,hereas murders* su " des+++,ars and other &orms o& (eha$ ora! $ o!en"e o""ur one at a t me+” 8Violence, 3ames G !! #an* G+A+ Autnam* 2EEI* %2E4; Sour"e< Poverty (acts and Stats, G!o(a! Issues M 455G Wor!d 9an7 De$e!o%ment Ind "ators 8htt%<MM,,,+#!o(a! ssues+or#Mart "!eM4IM%o$ert'. &a"ts.and.stats; A Kmeme” s an dea* (eha$ or* st'!e* or usa#e that s%reads &rom %erson to %erson , th n a "u!ture 8htt%<MM,,,+merr am. ,e(ster+"omMd "t onar'Mmeme; I

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

that o%t out o& an' &orm o& "ommon med "a! treatment+25 Wh !e man' m #ht ar#ue the mora! or eth "a! %arameters o& ,hat t means &or a "h !d n su"h a "u!ture to d e o& a "ommon !!ness that "ou!d ha$e (een reso!$ed & modern s" ent & " a%%! "at ons ,ere a!!o,ed* ,e "an at !east a#ree that the death o& su"h a "h !d s rea!!' (e n# "aused not (' the d sease at that %o nt* (ut (' the so" o!o# "a! "ond t on that d sa!!o,ed the a%%! "at on o& the so!ut on+ As a (roader e-am%!e* a #reat dea! o& so" a! stud' has no, (een done on the su(0e"t o& Kso" a! ne)ua! t'” and ts e&&e"ts on %u(! " hea!th+ As , !! (e d s"ussed more so n &urther essa's* there s a $ast arra' o& %h's "a! and menta! hea!th %ro(!ems that a%%ear to (e (orn out o& th s "ond t on* n"!ud n# %ro%ens t es to,ards %h's "a! $ o!en"e* heart d sease* de%ress on* edu"at ona! de& " en"' and man'* man' other detr ments that ha$e a tru!' social conse)uence ,h "h "an a&&e"t us a!!+22 The (ottom ! ne here s that ,hen ,e ste% (a"7 and "ons der ne,!' rea! 1ed understand n#s o& "ausa! t' that are "!ear!' ha$ n# ne#at $e e&&e"ts on the human "ond t on* (ut #o una(ated unne"essar !' due the %re.e- st n# trad t ons esta(! shed (' "u!ture* ,e ne$ ta(!' end u% n the "onte-t o& civil rights and hen"e social sustainability+ Th s ne, " $ ! r #hts mo$ement s a(out the shar n# o& human 7no,!ed#e and our te"hn "a! a( ! t' to not on!' so!$e %ro(!ems* (ut to &a" ! tate a s" ent & "a!!' der $ed so" a! s'stem that a"tua!!' o%t m 1es our %otent a! and ,e!!.(e n#+ An'th n# !ess , !! "reate unne"essar' m(a!an"e and so" a! desta( ! 1at on and "onst tute ,hat "ou!d (e "ons dered a hidden form of oppression* So* return n# to the (road %o nt* TZM ,or7s not on!' to "reate a,areness o& su"h %ro(!ems and the r true root "auses 8and hen"e !o# " &or reso!ut on;* t a!so ,or7s to e-%ress the n"red (!e %otent a! ,e ha$e* (e'ond su"h d re"t %ro(!em so!$ n#* to #reat!' m%ro$e the human "ond t on n #enera!* so!$ n# %ro(!ems ,h "h* n &a"t* ha$e not 'et e$en (een rea! 1ed+24 Th s s n t ated (' em(ra" n# the $er' nature o& scientific reasoning ,here the esta(! shment o& a near em% r "a! train of thought ta7es %re"eden"e o$er e$er'th n# e!se n m%ortan"e+ A tra n o& thou#ht (' ,h "h so" eta! or#an 1at on as a ,ho!e "an & nd a more a""urate "onte-t &or sustainability and efficiency on a s"a!e ne$er (e&ore seen* throu#h an a"t $e re"o#n t on 8and a%%! "at on; o& the s" ent & " method+

25 Re&eren"e< Very religious parents causing suffering to sic# #ids, says report

8htt%<MMu7+! &est'!e+'ahoo+"omMre! # ous.%arents."aus n#.su&&er n#.s "7.7 ds. sa's.re%ort.22H542I24+htm!; 22 Re&eren"e< The Spirit +evel, R "hard W !7 nson and Cate A "7ett* Aen#u n* Mar"h 455E 24 More on th s ssue , !! (e %resented n a &o!!o, n# essa' t t!ed Sourcing Solutions F

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Focus TZM?s (road a"t ons "ou!d (e summar 1ed as to diagnose, educate and create+ D a#nose< D a#nos s s Kthe dent & "at on o& the nature and "ause o& an'th n#+” To %ro%er!' d a#nose the "ausa! "ond t on o& the $ast so" a! and e"o!o# "a! %ro(!ems "ommon to modern "u!ture s not mere!' to "om%!a n a(out them or "r t " 1e the a"t ons o& %eo%!e or %art "u!ar nst tut ons* as s &re)uent toda'+ A true d a#nos s must see# out the lowest causal denominator possible and wor# at that level for resolution* The "entra! %ro(!em s that there s o&ten ,hat "ou!d (e "a!!ed a truncated frame of reference, ,here shorts #hted* m sd a#nos s o& # $en "onse)uen"es %ers st+ For nstan"e* the trad t ona!* esta(! shed so!ut on to the re&ormat on o& human (eha$ or &or man' so."a!!ed K"r m na! a"ts” s o&ten %un t $e n"ar"erat on+ :et* th s sa's noth n# a(out the dee%er mot $at on o& the K"r m na!” and ,h' the r %s'"ho!o#' !ed to su"h a"ts to (e# n , th+ At that !e$e!* su"h a reso!ut on (e"omes more "om%!e- and re! ant u%on the synergetic re!at onsh % o& the r %h's "a! and "u!tura! "u!m nat on o$er t me+2D Th s s no d &&erent than ,hen a %erson d es o& "an"er* as t sn?t rea!!' the "an"er that 7 !!s them n the ! tera! sense* as the "an"er tse!& s the %rodu"t o& other forces+ Edu"ate< As an edu"at ona! mo$ement that o%erates under the assum%t on that 7no,!ed#e s the most %o,er&u! too! ,e ha$e to "reate !ast n#* re!e$ant so" a! "han#e n the #!o(a! "ommun t'* there s hen"e noth n# more "r t "a! than the )ua! t' o& one?s %ersona! edu"at on and the r a( ! t' to communicate su"h deas e&&e"t $e!' and "onstru"t $e!' to others+ TZM s not a(out &o!!o, n# a r # d te-t o& stat " deas+ Su"h "on& ned* narro, asso" at ons are t'% "a! o& re! # ous and %o! t "a! "u!ts* not the re"o#n t on o& emergence that unders"ores the Kant . esta(! shment”,- nature o& TZM+ TZM does not m%ose n th s sense+ Rather* t ,or7s to ma7e an o%en.ended train of thought (e"ome rea! 1ed (' the nd $ dua!* ho%e&u!!' em%o,er n# the r nde%endent a( ! t' to understand ts re!e$an"e on the r o,n terms* at the r o,n %a"e+
2D The "orre!at on (et,een human (eha$ or 8 n th s "onte-t (eha$ or o& a

so" a!!' o&&ens $e nature as determ ned (' the !a,s o& so" et'; and the en$ ronmenta! n&!uen"e o& a %erson?s u%(r n# n#M! &e e-%er en"e s no, , thout de(ate+ A re!ated term to note s the K( o.%s'"ho.so" a!” nature o& the human or#an sm+ 26 The term Kant .esta(! shment” s usua!!' used n a "onte-t m%!' n# o%%os t on to an e- st n#* esta(! shed #rou%+ Used here* the "onte-t s more ! tera! n that TZM tse!& ,or7s to not K nst tut ona! 1e” tse!& as a r # d ent t' (ut rather (e understood as more o& a #estureU a s'm(o! o& a ne, manner o& thou#ht or ,or!d$ e, that s m%!' has no (oundar es+ G

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Furthermore* edu"at on s not on!' an m%erat $e &or those un&am ! ar , th th s train of thought and the application set2H re!ated* (ut a!so &or those ,ho a!read' su(s"r (e to t+ 3ust as there s no Kuto% a”* there s no & na! state o& understand n#+ /reate< Wh !e "erta n!' re!ated to the need to ad0ust human values throu#h edu"at on so the ,or!d?s %eo%!e understand the need &or su"h so" a! "han#es* TZM a!so ,or7s to "ons der ho, a ne, so" a! s'stem* (ased on optimum economic efficiency,2I ,ou!d a%%ear and o%erate n deta !* # $en our "urrent state o& te"hn "a! a( ! t'+ Aro#rams su"h as the G!o(a! Redes #n Inst tute*2F ,h "h s a d # ta! th n7 tan7 that ,or7s to e-%ress ho, the "ore so" eta! n&rastru"ture "ou!d un&o!d (ased on our "urrent state o& te"hno!o#'* ,or7 n# to "om( ne that technical capacity , th the scientific train of thought so as to "a!"u!ate the most e&& " ent te"hn "a! n&rastru"ture %oss (!e &or an' # $en re# on o& the ,or!d* s one e-am%!e+ It s ,orth (r e&!' not n# that TZM?s ad$o"ated K#o$ernan"e” a%%roa"h* ,h "h has ! tt!e sem(!an"e to the "urrent manner o& #o$ernan"e 7no,n toda' or h stor "a!!'* or # nates out o& a mu!t . d s" %! nar' (r d# n# o& $ar ous %ro$en methods &or ma- m 1ed o%t m 1at on* un & ed throu#h a "ounter.(a!an" n# systems a%%roa"h that s des #ned to (e as ada%t $e as %oss (!e to ne,* emer# n# m%ro$ements o$er t me+2G As , !! (e d s"ussed at !en#th* the on!' %oss (!e re&eren"e that "ou!d (e "ons dered Kmost "om%!ete” at an' # $en t me s one that ta7es nto a""ount the !ar#est ntera"t n# o(ser$at ons 8s'stem; tan# (!' re!e$ant+ Th s s the nature o& the "ause and e&&e"t s'ner#' that unders"ores the te"hn "a! (as s &or a tru!' susta na(!e e"onom'+ "atural (aw)Resource-*ased Econom+ Toda'* $ar ous terms e- sts to e-%ress the #enera! !o# "a! (as s &or a more s" ent & "a!!' or ented so" a! s'stem n d &&erent " r"!es* n"!ud n# the t t!es KResour"e.9ased E"onom'” or KNatura! La, E"onom'+” Wh !e these t t!es are h stor "a!!' re&erent a! and some,hat ar( trar' o$era!!* the t t!e KNatura! La,MResour"e.9ased E"onom'” 8NLR9E; , !! (e ut ! 1ed here s n"e t has the most "on"rete semant " (as s+2E
2H The %hrases Ktra n o& thou#ht” and Ka%%! "at on set” are %a red+ The &ormer

2I 2F 2G 2E

re&ers to the s" ent & " reason n# 8susta na( ! t' and e&& " en"' %r n" %!es; ,h "h arr $e at a # $en "on"!us on* ,h !e the !atter re&ers to tem%ora! methods o& a"t on* su"h as te"hno!o# "a! too!s* ,h "h n$ar a(!' "han#e o$er t me+ Th s , !! (e e-%anded u%on more so n %art III+ Re&eren"e< O&& " a! ,e(s te< htt%<MM,,,+#!o(a!redes #n nst tute+or# See %art III &or more on the su(0e"t o& K#o$ernment” The term KResour"e.9ased E"onom'” "an (e ! tera!!' nter%reted as ?an e"onom' (ased on resour"es?+ Th s has h stor "a!!' dra,n "on&us on n that one "ou!d ar#ue that a!! Ke"onom es”* (' de& n t on* are K(ased” on Kresour"es”+ The term tse!& a!so has a stron# asso" at on to an or#an 1at on "a!!ed The Venus Aro0e"t ,h "h "!a ms to ha$e or # nated the term @ dea* E

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

A "atural +aw.'esource$/ased Economy s de& ned as Kan ada%t $e so" oe"onom " s'stem a"t $e!' der $ed &rom d re"t %h's "a! re&eren"e to the #o$ern n# s" ent & " !a,s o& nature+” O$era!!* the o(ser$at on s that throu#h the use o& so" a!!' tar#eted resear"h and tested understand n#s n s" en"e and te"hno!o#'* ,e are no, a(!e to logically arrive at so" eta! a%%roa"hes ,h "h "ou!d (e %ro&ound!' more e&&e"t $e n meet n# the needs o& the human %o%u!at on+ We are no, a(!e to dramat "a!!' n"rease %u(! " hea!th* (etter %reser$e the ha( tat* "reate a #enera! mater a! a(undan"e* ,h !e a!so strate# "a!!' redu"e or e! m nate man' "ommon so" a! %ro(!ems %resent toda' ,h "h are sad!' "ons dered na!tera(!e (' man' due to the r "u!tura! %ers sten"e+ Train of Thought Man' & #ures or #rou%s ha$e ,or7ed to "reate tem%ora!!' ad$an"ed te"hno!o# "a! a%%! "at ons* ,or7 n# to a%%!' "urrent %oss ( ! t es to th s train of thought n order to ena(!e ne, e&& " en" es and %ro(!em so!$ n#* su"h as 3a")ue Fres"o?s K/ t' S'stems”45 or R+ 9u"7m nster Fu!!er?s D'ma- on House+42 :et* as o($ ous!' m%ortant as th s a%%! ed en# neer n# s* t s st !! "r t "a! to remem(er that a!! s%e" & " te"hno!o# "a! a%%! "at ons "an only be transient ,hen the e$o!ut on o& s" ent & " 7no,!ed#e and ts emer# n# te"hno!o# "a! a%%! "at ons are ta7en nto a""ount+ In other ,ords* a!! "urrent a%%! "at ons o& te"hno!o#' tend to (e"ome o(so!ete o$er t me+ There&ore* ,hat s !e&t "an on!' (e a train of thought , th res%e"t to the under!' n# "ausa! s" ent & " %r n" %!es+ TZM s hen"e !o'a! to th s train of thought* not & #ures* nst tut ons or tem%ora! te"hno!o# "a! ad$an"ements+ Rather than &o!!o, a %erson or des #n* TZM &o!!o,s th s self$generating premise of understanding and t hen"e o%erates n a non."entra! 1ed* ho!o#ra%h " manner* , th th s train of thought as the or # n o& n&!uen"e &or a"t on+ Su,erstition to Science A nota(!e %attern ,orth ment on n# s ho, the e$o!ut on o& man7 nd?s understand n# o& tse!& and ts ha( tat a!so "ont nues to e-%and a,a' &rom o!der deas and %ers%e"t $es ,h "h are no !on#er su%%orted due to the "onstant ntrodu"t on o& ne,* s"hema a!ter n# n&ormat on+ A
see7 n# at one t me to trademar7 the name 8htt%<MMtdr+us%to+#o$Msear"h+a"t onRsnSFFG4E2ED;+ The term KNatura! La,MResour"e.9ased E"onom'” s "ons dered more "om%!ete here not on!' to a$o d su"h %oss (!e asso" at $e "on&us on (ut a!so (e"ause o& the more semant " a""ura"' o& the term tse!&* s n"e t more "!ear!' re&eren"es nature?s %h's "a! !a, s'stem and %ro"esses rather than 0ust %!anetar' resour"es+ 45 Re&eren"e< The /est That Money an0t /uy, 3a")ue Fres"o* G!o(a! /'(er$ s ons* 4554* /ha%ter 2H 42 Re&eren"e< D'ma- on House n&ormat on< htt%<MMen+, 7 %ed a+or#M, 7 MD'ma- onVhouse 25

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

,orth' not on to note here s superstition* ,h "h* n man' " r"umstan"es* "an (e $ e,ed as a "ate#or' o& (e! e& that on"e a%%eared to (e ade)uate!' su%%orted (' e-%er en"eM%er"e%t on (ut "an no !on#er (e he!d as $ a(!e due to ne,* "on&! "t n# data+ For e-am%!e* ,h !e trad t ona! re! # ous thou#ht m #ht seem n"reas n#!' m%!aus (!e to more %eo%!e toda' than e$er n the West* due to the ra% d #ro,th n n&ormat on and #enera! ! tera"'*44 the roots o& re! # ous thou#ht "an (e tra"ed to %er ods ,here humans "ou!d 0ust &' the $a! d t' and a""ura"' o& su"h (e! e&s # $en the ! m ted understand n# the' had o& the r en$ ronment n those ear!' t mes+ Th s %attern s a%%arent n a!! areas o& understand n#* n"!ud n# modern Ka"adem a”+ E$en so."a!!ed Ks" ent & "” "on"!us ons that* a#a n* , th the ad$ent o& ne, n&ormat on and u%dated tests* o&ten "annot (e he!d as $a! d an'more*4D are st !! "ommon!' de&ended due to the r mere n"!us on n the "urrent "u!tura! trad t on* Su"h Kesta(! shed nst tut ons”* as the' "ou!d (e "a!!ed* o&ten , sh to ma nta n %ermanen"e due to reasons o& e#o* %o,er* mar7et n"ome or #enera! %s'"ho!o# "a! "om&ort+ Th s %ro(!em s* n man' ,a's* at the "ore o& our so" a! %ara!'s s+46 So* t s m%ortant to re"o#n 1e th s %attern o& trans t on and rea! 1e ho, "r t "a! (e n# $u!nera(!e rea!!' s ,hen t "omes to (e! e& s'stems* not to ment on "om n# to terms , th the rather dan#erous %henomenon o& Kesta(! shed nst tut ons” ,h "h are "u!tura!!' %ro#rammed and re n&or"ed to see7 self$preservation rather than e$o!$e and "han#e+

44 The n$erse re!at onsh % o& ! tera"'M7no,!ed#e a""umu!at on to su%erst t ous

(e! e& s "!ear+ A""ord n# to the Un ted Nat onsN Ara( Human De$e!o%ment Re%orts* !ess than 4> o& Ara(s ha$e a""ess to the Internet+ Ara(s re%resent H> o& the ,or!dNs %o%u!at on and 'et %rodu"e on!' 2> o& the ,or!dNs (oo7s* most o& them re! # ous+ A""ord n# to resear"her Sam Harr s< KS%a n trans!ates more (oo7s nto S%an sh ea"h 'ear than the ent re Ara( ,or!d has trans!ated nto Ara( " s n"e the n nth "entur'+” It s a- omat " to assume that the #ro,th o& the Is!am " Re! # on n Ara( Nat ons s se"ured (' a re!at $e !a"7 o& outs de n&ormat on n those so" et es+ 4D A No(e! Ar 1e &or ,hat s 7no,n as K!o(otom'” ,as a,arded to Aortu#uese neuro!o# st E#as Mon 1 n 2E6E+ Toda'* t s "ons dered a (ar(ar " and ne&&e"t $e %ro"edure+ 8htt%<MM,,,+n%r+or#Mtem%!atesMstor'Mstor'+%h%R stor'IdS6FE655F; 46 The & nan" a! su%%ort nherent!' needed n the %er%etuat on o& a # $en (us ness* K&or %ro& t” or e$en so."a!!ed Knot &or %ro& t”* sets u% a d ssonan"e (et,een the (us ness?s so!d %rodu"t or ser$ "e and the a"tua! ne"ess t' or $ a( ! t' o& that %rodu"t or ser$ "e o$er t me+ In &a"t* the o(so!es"en"e o& an' # $en %rodu"tMser$ "e* ,h "h m%! es o&ten the o(so!es"en"e o& the %rodu" n# (us ness or "or%orat on* a%%ears ne$ ta(!e as ne, te"hn "a! ad$an"ements emer#e+ The "onse)uen"e s a %er%etua! tenden"' to st &!e ne, deas and n$ent ons that ,ou!d d stur( or o$err de %re.e- st n# $entures o& esta(! shed nst tut ons* resu!t n# n a !oss o& n"ome+ A "ursor' #!an"e at the state o& te"hno!o# "a! %oss ( ! t' toda'* ,h !st a!so "ons der n# the )uest on as to ,h' those m%ro$ements ha$e not mmed ate!' made* !!um nates the %ara!'1 n# nature o& n"ome re)u r n# nst tut ons+ 22

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Tradition to Emergence The %er"e%tua! "!ash (et,een our cultural traditions and our e$er #ro, n# data(ase o& emergent #nowledge s at the "ore o& ,hat de& nes the K1e t#e st” as ,e 7no, t and a !on#.term re$ e, o& h stor' sho,s a s!o, #r nd out o& su%erst t ous "u!tura! trad t ons and assum%t ons o& rea! t' as the' heed to our ne,!' rea! 1ed (en"hmar7 o& emer#ent* scientific causality* Th s s ,hat TZM re%resents n ts (roadest %h !oso%h "a! "onte-t< A mo$ement o& the "u!tura! 1e t#e st tse!& nto ne,* $er & a(!e and more o%t m 1ed understand n#s and a%%! "at ons+ Hen"e* ,h !e so" et' "erta n!' has , tnessed $ast and a""e!erat n# "han#es n d &&erent areas o& a,areness and %ra"t "e* su"h as , th our $ast mater a! te"hno!o#' toda'* t a%%ears our social system s st !! !on# (eh nd+ Ao! t "a! %ersuas on* mar7et e"onom "s* !a(or.&or. n"ome* %er%etua! ne)ua! t'* nat on states* !e#a! assum%t ons and man' other sta%!es o& our "urrent so" a! order "ont nue to (e !ar#e!' a""e%ted as norma! t' (' the "urrent "u!ture* , th ! tt!e more than the r %ers sten"e throu#h t me as e$ den"e o& the r $a!ue and em% r "a! %ermanen"e+ It s n th s "onte-t that TZM & nds ts most (road m%erat $e< "han# n# the so" a! s'stem+ A#a n* there are man' %ro(!em so!$ n# te"hn "a! %oss ( ! t es &or %ersona! and so" a! %ro#ress toda' that "ont nue to #o unnot "ed or m sunderstood+4H The end n# o& ,ar* the reso!ut on o& %o$ert'* the "reat on o& a mater a! a(undan"e unseen n h stor' to meet human needs* the remo$a! o& most "r me as ,e 7no, t* the em%o,erment o& true personal freedom throu#h the remo$a! o& %o nt!ess andMor monotonous !a(or* and the reso!ut on o& man' en$ ronmenta! threats* are (ut a &e, o& the "a!"u!ated %oss ( ! t es ,e ha$e ,hen ,e ta7e our technical reality nto a""ount+ Ho,e$er* a#a n* these %oss ( ! t es are not on!' !ar#e!' unre"o#n 1ed* the' are a!so ! tera!!' restricted (' the "urrent so" a! order &or the m%!ementat on o& su"h %ro(!em so!$ n# e&& " en"' and %ros%er t' stands n d re"t o%%os t on to the $er' me"han "s o& ho, our "urrent so" a! s'stem s o%erat n# at the "ore !e$e!+4I There&ore* unt ! the so" oe"onom " trad t on and ts resu!t n# social values are "ha!!en#ed and u%dated to %resent da' understand n#sU unt ! the ma0or t' o& the human %o%u!at on understands the (as "* under!' n# train of thought te"hn "a!!' needed to su%%ort human susta na( ! t' and %u(! " hea!th* as der $ed &rom the r #or o& o(0e"t $e s" ent & " n$est #at on and $a! dat onU unt ! mu"h o& the (a##a#e o& %r or &a!se assum%t ons* su%erst t on* d $ s $e !o'a!t es and other so" a!!' unsusta na(!e* "on&! "t #enerat n#* "u!tura! h ndran"es are o$er"ome . a!! the ! &e m%ro$ n# and %ro(!em reso!$ n# %oss ( ! t es ,e no, ha$e at hand , !! rema n !ar#e!' dormant+ The rea! re$o!ut on s the revolution of values+ Human so" et' a%%ears "entur es (eh nd n the ,a' t o%erates and hen"e ,hat t
4H Re&eren"e< KZe tne,s”* a s" en"e and te"hno!o#' ,e(s te re!ated to TZM* s 4I See %art II &or su%%ort n# deta !s re#ard n# th s statement+

re"ommended 8htt%<MM,,,+1e tne,s+or#M; 24

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

$a!ues+ I& ,e , sh to %ro#ress and so!$e the mount n# %ro(!ems at hand and* n e&&e"t* re$erse ,hat s an a""e!erat n# de"! ne o& our " $ ! 1at on n man' ,a's* ,e need to "han#e the ,a' ,e th n7 a(out ourse!$es and hen"e the ,or!d ,e nha( t+ The Ze t#e st Mo$ementNs "entra! tas7 s to ,or7 to (r n# th s $a!ue sh &t to ! #ht* un &' n# the human &am !' , th the (as " %ers%e"t $e that ,e a!! share th s sma!! %!anet and ,e are a!! (ound (' the same natura! order !a,s* as rea! 1ed (' the method o& s" en"e+ Th s common ground understand n# e-tends mu"h &arther than man' ha$e understood n the %ast+ The s'm( os s o& the human s%e" es and the s'ner# st " re!at onsh % o& our %!a"e n the %h's "a! ,or!d "on& rm that ,e are not se%arate ent t es n an' res%e"t+ The ne, so" eta! a,a7en n# must sho, a ,or7 n# so" a! mode! that s arrived at &rom th s nherent !o# " & ,e e-%e"t to sur$ $e and %ros%er n the !on# term+ We "an a! #n or ,e "an su&&er+ It s u% to us+

2D

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

-T-E SC$E"T$F$C WOR(D'$EWA!most e$er' ma0or s'stemat " error ,h "h has de!uded men &or thousands o& 'ears re! ed on %ra"t "a! e-%er en"e+ Horos"o%es* n"antat ons* ora"!es* ma# "* , t"h"ra&t* the "ures o& , t"h do"tors and o& med "a! %ra"t t oners (e&ore the ad$ent o& modern med " ne* ,ere a!! & rm!' esta(! shed throu#h the "entur es n the e'es o& the %u(! " (' the r su%%osed %ra"t "a! su""esses+ The s" ent & " method ,as de$ sed %re" se!' &or the %ur%ose o& e!u" dat n# the nature o& th n#s under more "are&u!!' "ontro!!ed "ond t ons and (' more r #orous "r ter a than are %resent n the s tuat ons "reated (' %ra"t "a! %ro(!ems+4F .M "hae! Ao!an'

Genera!!' s%ea7 n#* the e$o!ut on o& human understand n# "an (e seen as a mo$e &rom surface observations, %ro"essed (' our ! m ted & $e %h's "a! senses* K ntu t $e!'” & !tered throu#h the edu"at ona! &rame,or7 @ $a!ue "hara"ter st "s o& that %er od o& t me* to the te"hn )ue o& o(0e"t $e measur n# and se!&.ad$an" n# methods o& ana!'s s ,h "h ,or7 to arrive at 8or "a!"u!ate; "on"!us ons throu#h test n# and retest n# %roo&s* see7 n# $a! dat on throu#h the benchmar# o& scientific causality 1 a "ausa! t' that a%%ears to "om%r se the %h's "a! "hara"ter st "s o& ,hat ,e "a!! Knature” tse!&+ The Knatura! !a,s” o& our ,or!d e- st ,hether ,e "hoose to re"o#n 1e them or not+ These nherent ru!es o& our un $erse ,ere around !on# (e&ore human (e n#s e$o!$ed a "om%rehens on to re"o#n 1e them and ,h !e ,e "an de(ate as to e-a"t!' ho, a""urate our nter%retat on o& these !a,s rea!!' s at th s sta#e o& our nte!!e"tua! e$o!ut on* there s enou#h re n&or" n# e$ den"e to sho, that ,e are* ndeed* (ound (' stat " &or"es that ha$e an nherent* measura(!e* determ n n# !o# "+ The $ast de$e!o%ments and %red "t $e nte#r t' &ound n mathemat "s* %h's "s* ( o!o#' and other s" ent & " d s" %! nes %ro$es that ,e as a s%e" es are s!o,!' understand n# the %ro"esses o& nature and our #ro, n#* n$ent $e "a%a" t' to emu!ate* a""entuate or re%ress su"h natura! %ro"esses "on& rms our %ro#ress n understand n# t+ The ,or!d around us toda'* o$er&!o, n# , th mater a! te"hno!o#' and ! &e. a!ter n# n$ent ons* s a testament as to the nte#r t' o& the s" ent & " %ro"ess and ,hat t s "a%a(!e o&+ Un! 7e h stor "a! trad t ons* ,here a "erta n stas s e- sts , th ,hat %eo%!e (e! e$e* as s st !! "ommon n re! # ous t'%e do#ma toda'* th s re"o#n t on o& Knatura! !a,” n"!udes "hara"ter st "s ,h "h dee%!' "ha!!en#e the assumed sta( ! t' o& (e! e&s ,h "h man' ho!d sa"red+ As , !! (e e-%anded u%on !ater n th s essa' n the "onte-t o& Kemer#en"e”* the &a"t s* there s m%!' "annot e- st a s n#u!ar or stat " nte!!e"tua! "on"!us on , th res%e"t to our %er"e%t on and 7no,!ed#e e-"e%t* %arado- "a!!'* , th re#ard to that $er' under!' n# pattern of uncertainty re#ard n# su"h "han#e and ada%tat on tse!&+ Th s s %art o& ,hat "ou!d (e "a!!ed a scientific worldview+ It s
4F Sour"e< Personal 2nowledge3 Towards a Post$ ritical Philosophy, M "hae!

Ao!an' * Un $ers t' o& /h "a#o Aress* %+2GD 26

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

one th n# to so!ate the te"hn )ues o& s" ent & " e$a!uat on &or se!e"t nterests* su"h as the !o# " ,e m #ht use n assess n# and test n# the stru"tura! nte#r t' o& a house des #n ,e m #ht (u !d* and another ,hen the un $ersa! nte#r t' o& su"h %h's "a!!' rooted* "ausa! reason n# and $a! dat on methods are a%%! ed to a!! as%e"ts o& our ! $es+ A!(ert E nste n on"e sa d Kthe &urther the s% r tua! e$o!ut on o& man7 nd ad$an"es* the more "erta n t seems to me that the %ath to #enu ne re! # os t' does not ! e throu#h the &ear o& ! &e* and the &ear o& death* and (! nd &a th* (ut throu#h str $ n# a&ter rat ona! 7no,!ed#e”+4G Wh !e "'n "s o& S" en"e o&ten ,or7 to redu"e ts nte#r t' to 'et another &orm o& Kre! # ous &a th”* demean ts a""ura"' as K"o!d” or K, thout s% r tua! t'” or e$en h #h! #ht "onse)uen"es o& a%%! ed te"hno!o#' &or the ,orst* su"h as , th the "reat on o& the atom " (om( 8,h "h* n a"tua! t'* s an nd "at on o& a d stort on o& human values rather than en# neer n#;* there s no #nor n# the n"red (!e %o,er th s a%%roa"h to understand n# and harness n# rea! t' has a&&orded the human ra"e+ No other K deo!o#'” "an "ome "!ose n mat"h n# the %red "t $e and ut ! tar an (ene& ts th s method o& reason n# has %ro$ ded+ Ho,e$er* that s not to sa' a"t $e "u!tura! den a! o& th s re!e$an"e s not st !! , des%read n the ,or!d toda'+ For e-am%!e* ,hen t "omes to the st " (e! e&* there s o&ten a d $ s $e tenden"' that , shes to e!e$ate the human (e n# a(o$e su"h Kmere me"han "s” o& the %h's "a! rea! t'+ The m%! ed assum%t on here s usua!!' that ,e humans are Ks%e" a!” &or some reason and %erha%s there are &or"es* su"h as an nter$en n# KGod”* that "an o$err de natura! !a,s at , !!* ma7 n# them !ess m%ortant than* sa'* on#o n# o(ed en"e to God?s , shes* et"+ Sad!'* there st !! e- sts a #reat human "on"e t n the "u!ture ,h "h assumes* , th no $er & a(!e e$ den"e* that humans are se%arate &rom a!! other %henomena and to "ons der ourse!$es "onne"ted or e$en a %rodu"t o& natura!* s" ent & " &or"es s to demean human ! &e+ /on"urrent!'* there s a!so a tenden"' &or ,hat some "a!! Kmetama# "a!”4E th n7 n# ,h "h "ou!d (e "ons dered a schi%otypal 7 nd o& %ersona! t' d sorder ,here &antas' and m !d de!us on he!%s re n&or"e &a!se assum%t ons o& "ausa! t' on the ,or!d* ne$er harness n# the &u!! r #or o& the s" ent & " method+ S" en"e re)u res test n# and re%! "at on o& a resu!t &or t to (e $a! dated and man' (e! e&s o& seem n#!' Knorma!” %eo%!e toda' e- st &ar outs de th s re)u rement+ A%art &rom trad t ona! re! # ons* the "u!tura! "on"e%t o& Kne, a#e”D5 s a!so "ommon!' asso" ated , th th s t'%e o& su%erst t ous
4G Sour"e< As )uoted n 4ll the 5uestions 6ou Ever 7anted to 4s# 4merican

4theists* (' Mada!'n Murra' O?Ha r* Amer Athe st Aress* 2EGI

4E Stan&ord Un $ers t' 9eha$ ora! 9 o!o#' Aro&essor* Dr+ Ro(ert Sa%o!s7' s

! 7e!' most nota(!e , th h s use o& the term KMetaMa# "a!”+ H s ,or7 s re"ommended< htt%<MM(enat!as+"omM455EM24Mro(ert.sa%o!s7'.on. metama# "a!.s"h 1ot'%a!.th n7 n#M D5 The term "ew 4ge s #enera!!' de& ned as KA (road mo$ement "hara"ter 1ed (' a!ternat $e a%%roa"hes to trad t ona! Western "u!ture* , th an nterest n 2H

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

thou#ht+ Wh !e t s e-treme!' m%ortant that ,e as a so" et' are a,are o& the un"erta nt' o& our "on"!us ons n #enera! and hen"e must 7ee% a "reat $e* $u!nera(!e state o& m nd to a!! %ostu!at ons* the $a! dat on o& those %ostu!at ons "an on!' "ome throu#h measura(!e "ons sten"'* not , sh&u! th n7 n# or esoter " &as" nat on+ Su"h un.$a! dated deas and assum%t ons %ose a &rame o& re&eren"e that s o&ten se"ured (' K&a th”D2 not reason* and t s d && "u!t to ar#ue the mer t o& &a th , th an'one s n"e the ru!es o& &a th nherent!' re&use ar#ument tse!&+ Th s s %art o& the )uandar' , th n ,h "h human so" et' e- sts toda'< do ,e s m%!' (e! e$e ,hat ,e ha$e (een trad t ona!!' tau#ht (' our "u!ture or do ,e )uest on and test those (e! e&s a#a nst the %h's "a! rea! t' around us to see & the' ho!d trueR S" en"e s "!ear!' "on"erned , th the !atter and ho!ds noth n# sa"red* a!,a's read' to "orre"t %r or &a!se "on"!us ons ,hen ne, n&ormat on ar ses+ To ta7e su"h an nherent!' un"erta n* 'et st !! e-treme!' $ a(!e and %rodu"t $e a%%roa"h to one?s da' to da' $ e, o& the ,or!d* re)u res a $er' d &&erent sens t $ t' J one that em(od es vulnerability* not "erta nt'+ In the ,ords o& Aro&+ Fran7 L+ H+ Wo!&s 8De%artment o& Ah's "s and Astronom'* Un $ers t' o& Ro"hester* N:;< KIt s o&ten sa d n s" en"e that theor es "an ne$er (e %ro$ed* on!' d s%ro$ed+ There s a!,a's the %oss ( ! t' that a ne, o(ser$at on or a ne, e-%er ment , !! "on&! "t , th a !on#.stand n# theor'+”D4 Emergence So* at the heart o& the s" ent & " method s s7e%t " sm and $u!nera( ! t'+ S" en"e s nterested n the closest approximation to the truth t "an & nd and & there s an'th n# s" en"e re"o#n 1es e-%! " t!'* t s that $ rtua!!' e$er'th n# ,e 7no, , !! (e re$ sed o$er t me as ne, n&ormat on ar ses+ L 7e, se* ,hat m #ht seem &ar.&et"hed* m%oss (!e or e$en Ksu%erst t ous” u%on ts & rst "u!m nat on m #ht $er' ,e!! %ro$e to (e a use&u!* $ a(!e understand n# n the &uture on"e $a! dated &or nte#r t'+ The m%! "at on o& th s "onst tutes an emergence of thought, or e$en an emer#en"e o& Ktruth”* & 'ou , !!+ A "ursor' e-am nat on o& h stor' sho,s an e$er."han# n# ran#e o& (eha$ ors and %ra"t "es (ased u%on e$er u%dat n# 7no,!ed#e and th s hum(! n# re"o#n t on s "r t "a! &or human %ro#ress+

D2 /ar! Sa#an ,as nota(!e &or "on& rm n# the de& n t on o& &a th as K(e! e& D4 Sour"e< !ntroduction to the Scientific Method, Fran7 L+ H+ Wo!&s

s% r tua! t'* m'st " sm+++” , thout e$ den"e” +

8htt%<MMtea"her+nsr!+ro"hester+edu<G5G5M%h'V!a(sMA%%end -EMA%%end -E+htm !; 2I

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

S+m iosis A se"ond %o nt dee%!' "hara"ter st " o& the scientific worldview ,orth (r n# n# u% n th s re#ard has to do , th the symbiotic nature o& th n#s* as ,e 7no, them+ Lar#e!' d sm ssed as "ommon sense toda' (' man'* th s understand n# ho!ds %ro&ound re$e!at ons &or the ,a' ,e th n7 a(out our ,or!d* our (e! e&s* our "ondu"t and ourse!$es+ The term Ks'm( ot "” s t'% "a!!' used n the "onte-t o& nterde%endent re!at onsh %s (et,een ( o!o# "a! s%e" es+DD Ho,e$er our "onte-t o& the ,ord s (roader* re!at n# to the interdependent relationship of everything+ Wh !e ear!'* ntu t $e $ e,s o& natura! %henomena m #ht ha$e !oo7ed u%on* sa'* the man &estat on o& a Ktree” as an nde%endent ent t'* seem n#!' se!&."onta ned n ts !!us on o& se%arat on* the truth o& the matter s that a tree?s ! &e s ent re!' de%endent on seem n#!' Ke-terna!” n%ut &or"es &or ts $er' "u!m nat on and e- sten"e+D6 The ,ater* sun! #ht* nutr ents and other needed ntera"t $e Ke-terna!” attr (utes to &a" ! tate the de$e!o%ment o& a tree s an e-am%!e o& a symbiotic or synergetic re!at onsh %+ Ho,e$er* the s"o%e o& th s s'm( os s has (e"ome mu"h more re$ea! n# than ,e ha$e e$er 7no,n n the %ast and t a%%ears the more ,e !earn a(out the d'nam "s o& our un $erse* the more mmuta(!e ts nterde%enden"e+ The (est "on"e%t to em(od' th s not on s that o& a Ks'stem”+DH The term Ktree” s rea!!' a re&eren"e to a perceived system+ The Kroot”* Ktrun7”* K(ran"hes”* K!ea$es” and other su"h attr (utes o& that tree "ou!d (e "a!!ed Ksu(.s'stems”+ :et* the Ktree” tse!& s also a su(. s'stem* t "ou!d (e sa d* o&* %erha%s* a K&orest”* ,h "h tse!& s a su(. s'stem o& other !ar#er* en"om%ass n# %henomena su"h as an Ke"os'stem”+ Su"h d st n"t ons m #ht seem tr $ a! to man' (ut the &a"t s* a #reat &a !ure n human a,areness has (een not to &u!!' res%e"t the s"o%e o& the KEarth s'stem” and ho, ea"h su(.s'stem %!a's a re!e$ant ro!e+ The term K"ate#or "a! s'stems8DI "ou!d e$en (e used here to des"r (e all systems* seem n#!' sma!! or !ar#e* (e"ause su"h !an#ua#e d st n"t ons are u!t mate!' ar( trar'+ These %er"e $ed s'stems and the ,ords used to re&eren"e them are s m%!' human "on$en en"es &or "ommun "at on+ The &a"t s* there a%%ears to (e on!' one %oss (!e s'stem* as or#an 1ed (' natura! !a,* ,h "h "an (e !e# t mate!' re&eren"ed s n"e all the s'stems ,e %er"e $e and "ate#or 1e toda' "an
DD Sour"e< D "t onar'+"om 8htt%<MMd "t onar'+re&eren"e+"omM(ro,seMs'm( ot "; D6 The term Ke-terna!” n th s "onte-t s &ramed as re!at $e to a %er"e $ed

o(0e"t+ The (roader %o nt here s that there s no su"h th n# as Ke-terna!” or K nterna!” n the "onte-t o& !ar#er order s'stems+ DH A Ks'stem” s de& ned as< Ka set o& th n#s ,or7 n# to#ether as %arts o& a me"han sm or an nter"onne"t n# net,or7+” It s ,orth not n# u% &ront the m%ortan"e o& th s "on"e%t as the re!e$an"e o& the Ks'stem” or Ks'stems theor'” , !! (e a return n# theme , th res%e"t to ,hat &rame o& re&eren"e a"tua!!' su%%orts true human susta na( ! t' n our ha( tat+ DI Th s term s a $ar at on on the more "ommon not on o& K"ate#or "a! th n7 n#” ,h "h s th n7 n# (' ass #n n# %eo%!e or th n#s to "ate#or es and then us n# the "ate#or es as thou#h the' re%resented someth n# n the rea! ,or!d+ 2F

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

on!' (e sub$systems+ We s m%!' "annot & nd a tru!' "!osed s'stem an',here+ E$en the KEarth s'stem”* ,h "h ntu t $e!' a%%ears autonomous* , th the Earth &!oat n# a(out the $o d o& s%a"e* s ent re!' re! ant on the sun* the moon and ! 7e!' man'* man' other s'm( ot "Ms'ner# st " &a"tors ,e ha$e 'et to e$en understand &or ts de& n n# "hara"ter st "s+ In other ,ords* ,hen ,e "ons der the ntera"t ons that ! n7 these %er"e $ed K"ate#or "a! s'stems8 to#ether* ,e & nd a connection of everything and* on a so" eta! !e$e!* th s s'stem ntera"t on understand n# s at the &oundat on o& ! 7e!' the most $ a(!e %ers%e"t $e &or true human susta na( ! t'+DF The human (e n#* ! 7e a tree or the Earth* a#a n ntu t $e!' appears se!&."onta ned+ :et* , thout* &or e-am%!e* o-'#en to (reathe* one , !! not sur$ $e+ Th s means the human system re)u res ntera"t on , th an atmospheric system and hen"e a s'stem o& o-'#en %rodu"t on and s n"e the %ro"ess o& %hotos'nthes s a""ounts &or the ma0or t' o& the atmos%her " o-'#en ,e (reathe* t s to our ad$anta#e to (e a,are o& ,hat a&&e"ts th s %art "u!ar s'stem* and ,or7 to harmon 1e our so" a! %ra"t "es , th t+ When ,e , tness* sa'* %o!!ut on o& the o"eans or the ra% d de&orestat on o& Earth* ,e o&ten &or#et ho, m%ortant su"h %henomena rea!!' are to the nte#r t' o& the human system+ In &a"t* there are so man' e-am%!es o& en$ ronmenta! d stur(an"es %er%etuated (' our s%e" es toda' due to a trun"ated a,areness o& th s s'm( ot " "ause and e&&e"t that ! n7s a!! 7no,n "ate#or "a! s'stems* $o!umes "ou!d (e ded "ated to the "r s s+ At an' rate* the &a !ure to re"o#n 1e th s connectedness s a &undamenta! %ro(!em and on"e th s %rinciple of interacting systems s &u!!' understood* man' o& our most "ommon %ra"t "es toda' , !! ! 7e!' a%%ear #ross!' #norant and dan#erous n &uture h nds #ht+ Sustaina le *eliefs Th s (r n#s us to the !e$e! o& thought and understanding tse!&+ As noted %r or* the $er' !an#ua#e s'stem ,e use so!ates and or#an 1es e!ements o& our ,or!d &or #enera! "om%rehens on+ Lan#ua#e tse!& s a s'stem (ased u%on "ate#or "a! d st n"t ons* ,h "h ,e asso" ate to our %er"e $ed rea! t'+ Ho,e$er* as needed as su"h a mode o& dent & "at on and or#an 1at on s to the human m nd* t a!so nherent!' m%! es &a!se d $ s on+ G $en that &oundat on* t s eas' to s%e"u!ate as to ho, ,e ha$e #ro,n so a""ustomed to th n7 n# and a"t n# n nherent!' d $ s $e ,a's and ,h' the h stor' o& human so" et' has (een a h stor' o& m(a!an"e and "on&! "t+DG It s on th s !e$e! that su"h %h's "a! s'stems
DF Th s , !! (e e-%anded u%on n #reater deta ! n %art III o& th s te-t+ DG The Neo! th " Re$o!ut on s a nota(!e mar7er &or a dramat " "han#e n so" a!

o%erat on and human re!at onsh %s as " $ ! 1at on ,ent &rom &ora# n# and hunt n# J ! $ n# n su(ser$ en"e to natura! %ro"esses J to a %ro&ound a( ! t' to "ontro! a#r "u!ture &or &ood and "reate too!sMma"h nes to ease human !a(or+ It "ou!d (e ar#ued that human so" et' has not (een mature enou#h to hand!e th s a( ! t' and the %er%etuat on o& &ear and s"ar" t' !ed to hoard n#* 2G

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

,e ha$e d s"ussed "ome nto re!e$an"e , th belief and thought s'stems+DE Wh !e the not on o& Ksusta na( ! t'” m #ht (e t'% "a!!' asso" ated , th te"hn "a! %ro"esses* e"o.theor' and en# neer n# toda'* ,e o&ten &or#et that our values and beliefs %re"ede a!! su"h te"hn "a! a%%! "at ons+ There&ore* ,e need our "u!tura! or entat on to (e susta na(!e to (e# n , th and that a,areness "an on!' "ome &rom a $a! d re"o#n t on o& the !a,s o& nature to ,h "h ,e are (ound+ /an ,e measure the nte#r t' o& a (e! e& s'stemR :es+ We "an measure t (' ho, ,e!! ts %r n" %!es a! #n , th s" ent & " "ausa! t'* (ased u%on the feedbac# resu!t n#+ I& ,e ,ere to "om%are out"omes o& d &&er n# (e! e& s'stems see7 n# a "ommon end*65 ho, ,e!! those %ers%e"t $es a""om%! sh th s end "an (e measured and hen"e these s'stems "an then (e )ua! & ed and ran7ed a#a nst ea"h other as to the r mer t or !a"7 thereo&+ As , !! (e e-%!ored n deta ! !ater n th s ,or7* the "entra! (e! e& s'stem "om%ar son here s (et,een the Kmar7et e"onom'” and the a&orement oned KNatura! La,MResour"e.9ased E"onom'+” At the "ore o& these s'stems s essent a!!' a "on&! "t n# (e! e& a(out "ausa! t' and %oss ( ! t' and the reader s "ha!!en#ed to ma7e o(0e"t $e 0ud#ments a(out ho, ,e!! ea"h %ers%e"t $e ma' a""om%! sh "erta n "ommon end human #oa!s+ That noted and n the "onte-t o& th s essa'* s%e" & "a!!' the %o nts a(out emer#en"e @ s'm( os s* t "ou!d (e #enera! 1ed that an' (e! e& s'stem that 8a; does not ha$e (u !t nto t the a!!o,an"e &or that ent re (e! e& s'stem tse!& to (e a!tered or e$en made "om%!ete!' o(so!ete due to ne, n&ormat on* s an unsusta na(!e (e! e& s'stemU and 8(; an' (e! e& s'stem that su%%orts so!at on and d $ s on* su%%ort n# the nte#r t' o& one se#ment or #rou% o$er another s a!so an unsusta na(!e (e! e& s'stem+ So" o!o# "a!!'* ha$ n# a scientific worldview means (e n#
%r $at 1at on* nat on K#an#s” and other d $ s $e tenden" es &or #rou% se!&. %reser$at on on $ar ous !e$e!s+ DE For %h !oso%h "a! "!ar t'* t "ou!d (e ar#ued that a!! out"omes o& human %er"e%t ons are %ro0e"ted J e$en the !a,s o& nature themse!$es+ Ho,e$er* th s doesnNt "han#e the e&& "a"' that has (een seen , th res%e"t to the mmense "ontro! and understand n# ,e ha$e throu#h the method o& s" en"e+ 65 The not on o& the K"ommon end” or K"ommon #round” , !! (e re%eated n th s te-t and t s a "r t "a! a,areness to a$era#e the needs* ntents and "onse)uen"es o& the human (e n#+ A "entra! %rem se o& ,hat TZM s ad$o"at n# s that human (e n#s are more a! 7e than the' are d &&erent as ,e share the same (as " )uant & a(!e needs and rea"t ons+ In man' ,a's th s s the un &' n# attr (ute that "ou!d "om%r se ,hat s "a!!ed Khuman nature” and* as , !! (e des"r (ed more so n !ater essa's* human (e n#s ndeed ha$e shared* %red "ta(!e* "ommon rea"t ons to %os t $e and ne#at $e n&!uen"es (oth %s'"ho!o# "a! and %h's o!o# "a!+ There&ore* the nte!! #ent* humane or#an 1at on o& a so" et' s re)u red to ta7e th s nto a""ount d re"t!' &or the sa7e o& %u(! " hea!th J someth n# the "urrent monetar'. mar7et s'stem does not do+ 2E

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

, !! n# and a(!e to ada%t (oth as an nd $ dua! and as a " $ ! 1at on ,hen ne, understand n#s and a%%roa"hes emer#e that "an (etter so!$e %ro(!ems and &urther %ros%er t'+ Th s ,or!d$ e, ! 7e!' mar7s the #reatest sh &t n human "om%rehens on n h stor'+ E$er' modern "on$en en"e ,e ta7e &or #ranted s a resu!t o& th s method ,hether re"o#n 1ed or not* as the nherent* se!&.#enerat n#* me"han st " !o# " a%%ears to (e un $ersa!!' a%%! "a(!e to a!! 7no,n %henomena+ Wh !e man' n the ,or!d st !! attr (ute "ausa! t' to #ods* demons* s% r ts and other non.measura(!e K&a th” (ased $ e,s* a ne, %er od o& reason a%%ears to (e on the hor 1on ,here the emer# n# s" ent & " understand n# o& ourse!$es and our ha( tat s "ha!!en# n# the trad t ona!* esta(! shed &rame,or7s ,e ha$e nher ted &rom our !ess n&ormed an"estors+ No !on#er s the Kte"hn "a!”62 or entat on o& s" en"e demeaned to mere #ad#ets and too!s+ The true messa#e o& th s ,or!d$ e, s a(out the $er' %h !oso%h' (' ,h "h ,e need or ent our ! $es* $a!ues and so" a! nst tut ons+ So* as , !! (e ar#ued n &urther essa's* the so" a! s'stem* ts e"onom " %rem se* a!on# , th ts !e#a! and %o! t "a! stru"ture* has (e"ome ar#ua(!' ! n7ed to a "ond t on o& faith n the manner t s no, %er%etuated+ The mar7et and monetar'.dr $en s'stem o& e"onom'* &or e-am%!e* s ar#ued to (e (ased on ! tt!e more than a set o& no, outdated* n"reas n#!' ne&& " ent assum%t ons* no d &&erent than ho, ear!' humans &a!se!' assumed the ,or!d ,as &!at* demons "aused s "7ness* or that the "onste!!at ons n the s7' ,ere & -ed* stat "* t,o. d mens ona!* ta%estr'.! 7e "onstru"ts+ There are enormous %ara!!e!s to (e &ound , th trad t ona! re! # ous &a th and the esta(! shed* "u!tura! nst tut ons ,e assume to (e $a! d and Knorma!” toda'+ 3ust as the "hur"h n the M dd!e A#es he!d a(so!ute %o,er n Euro%e* %romot n# !o'a!t es and r tua!s ,h "h most ,ou!d & nd a(surd or e$en nsane toda'* those a num(er o& #enerat ons &rom no, , !! ! 7e!' !oo7 (a"7 at the esta(! shed %ra"t "es o& our "urrent t me and th n7 the e-a"t same th n#+

62 As , !! (e %ro! & " n th s te-t* the term Kte"hn "a!”* ,h !e $ rtua!!'

s'non'mous , th Ks" ent & "”* s em%!o'ed to (etter e-%ress the causal nature o& a!! e- st n# %henomena J e$en n"!ud n# human (eha$ or and %s'"ho!o#'Mso" o!o#' tse!&+ Another "entra! %rem se o& ,hat TZM s ad$o"at n# s that %ro(!em reso!ut on and the man &estat on o& %otent a! s a Kte"hn "a!” e$a!uat on and th s a%%roa"h* (e n# a%%! ed to a!! so" eta! attr (utes* s at the "ore o& the ne, so" a! mode! ad$o"ated+ 45

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

-SO&RC$"! SO(&T$O"SA ne, t'%e o& th n7 n# s essent a! & man7 nd s to sur$ $e and mo$e to,ard h #her !e$e!s+64 J A!(ert E nste n

A "entra! "ons derat on nherent to TZM?s %ers%e"t $e on so" eta! "han#e &or the (etter re#ards understand n# K%ro#ress” tse!&+ There a%%ear to (e t,o (as " an#!es to "ons der ,hen t "omes to %ersona! or so" a! %ro#ress< manifesting potential and problem resolution* Potential . Resolution Manifesting potential s s m%!' the m%ro$ement o& a "ond t on that ,as not "ons dered %r or to (e n a %ro(!emat " state+ An e-am%!e ,ou!d (e the a( ! t' to m%ro$e human ath!et " %er&orman"e n a %art "u!ar & e!d throu#h tar#eted stren#then n#* d et* re& n n# te"hn )ues and other means that ,ere s m%!' not 7no,n (e&ore+ Problem resolution, on the other hand* s the o$er"om n# o& an ssue that has "urrent!' re"o#n 1ed detr menta! "onse)uen"es andMor ! m tat ons to a # $en a&&a r+ A #enera! e-am%!e ,ou!d (e the d s"o$er' o& a med "a! "ure &or an e- st n#* de( ! tat n# d sease so that sa d d sease no !on#er %oses harm+ Ho,e$er* ta7en n the (road $ e,* there s a d st n"t o$er!a% , th these t,o not ons ,hen the nature o& 7no,!ed#e de$e!o%ment s ta7en nto a""ount+ For e-am%!e* an K m%ro$ement” to a # $en "ond t on* a %ra"t "e that then (e"omes norma! 1ed and "ommon n the "u!ture* "an a!so %otent a!!' (e %art o& a K%ro(!em” n a &am ! ar or d &&erent "onte-t* ,h "h re)u res reso!ut on n the e$ent ne, n&ormat on as to ts ne&& " en"' s &ound or ne, ad$an"ements ma7e t o(so!ete (' "om%ar son+ For e-am%!e* human a r trans%ortat on* ,h "h s &a r!' ne, n so" et'* e-%anded trans%ort e&& " en"' #reat!' u%on ts a%%! "at on+ Ho,e$er* at ,hat %o nt , !! modern a r trans%ort (e seen more as a K%ro(!em” due to ts ne&& " en"' (' "om%ar son to another methodR6D So* e&& " en"' s relative n th s sense as on!' ,hen there s an e-%ans on o& 7no,!ed#e that ,hat ,as on"e "ons dered the K(est” a%%roa"h (e"omes K n&er or”+ Th s seem n#!' a(stra"t %o nt s (rou#ht u% to "ommun "ate the s m%!e &a"t that e$er' s n#!e %ra"t "e ,e "ons der norma! toda' has built into it an ne$ ta(!e ne&& " en"' ,h "h* u%on ne, de$e!o%ments n s" en"e and te"hno!o#'* , !! ! 7e!' %rodu"e a K%ro(!em” at some %o nt n the &uture ,hen "om%ared to ne,er* emer# n# %otent a!s+ Th s s the nature o& "han#e and & the s" ent & " %atterns o& h stor' re&!e"t an'th n#* t s that 7no,!ed#e and ts a%%! "at ons "ont nue to e$o!$e
64 Sour"e< 4tomic Education 9rged by Einstein* Ne, :or7 T mes, Ma' 4Hth 6D A nota(!e modern e-am%!e s ne, trans%ort te"hno!o#' su"h as KMa#!e$”

2E6I

trans%ort that uses !ess ener#' and mo$es su(stant a!!' &aster than "ommer" a! a r! nes htt%<MM,,,+etD+"omM 42

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

and m%ro$e* #enera!!' s%ea7 n#+ So* (a"7 to the seem n#!' se%arate ssues o& manifesting potential and problem resolution, t "an hen"e (e dedu"ed that a!! %ro(!em reso!ut ons are also a"ts o& man &est n# %otent a! and $ "e $ersa+ Th s a!so means that the a"tua! tools used (' so" et' &or a # $en %ur%ose are a!,a's trans ent+ Whether t s a med um o& trans%ortat on* med "a! %ra"t "es* ener#' %rodu"t on* the so" a! s'stem tse!&* et"+66 These %ra"t "es are a!! man &estMreso!ut ons , th res%e"t to human ne"ess t' and e&& " en"'* (ased u%on the e$er."han# n# state o& understand n# ,e ha$eMhad at the t me o& the r "reat onMe$o!ut on+ Root Pur,ose . Root Cause There&ore* ,hen t "omes to th n7 n# a(out an' a"t o& n$ent on or %ro(!em so!$ n#* ,e must #et as "!ose to the root purpose :manifest; or the root cause :problem; as %oss (!e* res%e"t $e!'* to ma7e the most a""urate assessment &or a"t on+ 3ust as too!s and te"hn )ues &or %otent a! are on!' as $ a(!e as the understand n# o& the r &oundat ona! %ur%ose* a"t ons to,ard %ro(!em reso!ut on are on!' as #ood as the understand n# o& the root "ause+ Th s m #ht seem o($ ous* (ut th s a,areness s o&ten m ss n# n man' areas o& thou#ht n the ,or!d toda'* especially when it comes to society* Rather than %ursu n# su"h a &o"us* most so" a! de" s ons are (ased around traditional customs that ha$e nherent ! m ts+ A s m%!e e-am%!e o& th s s the "urrent method o& human n"ar"erat on &or so "a!!ed K"r m na! (eha$ or”+ For man'* the so!ut on to o&&ens $e &orms o& human (eha$ or s to s m%!' remo$e the nd $ dua! &rom so" et' and punish them+ Th s s (ased on a ser es o& assum%t ons that stret"h (a"7 m !!enn a+6H :et* the s" en"e (eh nd human (eha$ or has "han#ed tremendous!' , th res%e"t to understand n# "ausa! t'+ It s no, "ommon 7no,!ed#e n the so" a! s" en"es that most a"ts o& K"r me” ,ou!d ! 7e!' not o""ur & "erta n (as "* su%%ort $e en$ ronmenta! "ond t ons ,here set &or the human (e n#+6I Autt n# %eo%!e n %r sons s not a"tua!!' reso!$ n# an'th n# , th res%e"t to the "ausa! %ro(!em+ It s more o& a mere K%at"h”* & 'ou , !!* ,h "h on!' tem%orar !' st &!es some e&&e"ts o& the !ar#er %ro(!em+6F
66 A#a n* th s rea! t' s em(od ed (' the term Ka%%! "at on set”+ 6H Re&eren"e< Violence3 <ur =eadly Epidemic and !ts auses* Dr+ 3ames 6I The WMer$a.Fo,!esN stud'* done at the Un $ers t' o& Utah n the 2EE5s* &ound

G !! #an* 2EEI

%o,er&u! "onne"t ons (et,een unem%!o'ment and "r me+ The' (ased the r resear"h on D5 ma0or metro%o! tan areas , th a tota! %o%u!at on o& o$er G5 m !! on+ The r & nd n#s &ound that a 2> r se n unem%!o'ment resu!ted n< a I+F> n"rease n Hom " desU a D+6> n"rease n $ o!ent "r mesU a 4+6> n"rease n %ro%ert' "r me+ Dur n# the %er od &rom 2EE5 to 2EE4* th s trans!ated nto< 2*6HE add t ona! Hom " desU I4*I5F add t ona! $ o!ent "r mesU 44D*H55 add t ona! %ro%ert' "r mes+ 8Mer$a @ Fo,!es* Effects of =iminished Economic <pportunities on Social Stress* E"onom " Ao! "' Inst tute* 2EE4; 6F Re&eren"e< 9en M"Le sh !e"ture< KOut o& the 9o-< Ar sons” 44

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Another e-am%!e* ,h !e seem n#!' d &&erent than the %r or (ut e)ua!!' as Kte"hn "a!”* s the manner (' ,h "h most th n7 a(out so!ut ons to "ommon domest " %ro(!ems* su"h as tra&& " a"" dents+ What s the so!ut on to a s tuat on ,here a dr $er ma7es a m sta7e and ha%ha1ard!' "han#es !anes* on!' to m%a"t the $eh "!e ne-t to t* "aus n# an a"" dentR Shou!d there (e a hu#e ,a!! (et,een themR Shou!d there (e (etter tra n n#R Shou!d the %erson s m%!' ha$e h s or her dr $erNs ! "ense re$o7ed so the' "annot dr $e a#a nR It s here* a#a n* ,here the not on o& root cause s o&ten !ost n the narro, &rames o& re&eren"e "ommon!' understood (' "u!ture+ The root "ause o& the a"" dent "an on!' %art a!!' (e the )uest on o& nte#r t' o& the dr $er , th the more m%ortant ssue (e n# the !a"7 o& nte#r t' o& the te"hno!o#' and n&rastru"ture (e n# used+ Wh'R . 9e"ause* n %art* human &a!! ( ! t' s h stor "a!!' a"7no,!ed#ed and mmuta(!e+6G So* 0ust as ear!' $eh "!es d d not ha$e dr $er andMor %assen#er s de Ka r(a#s” "ommon toda'* ,h "h no, redu"e a !ar#e num(er o& n0ur es that e- sted n the %ast*6E the same !o# " shou!d (e a%%! ed to the s'stem o& $eh "!e ntera"t on tse!&* ta7 n# nto a""ount ne, te"hn "a! %oss ( ! t es &or n"reased sa&et'* to "om%ensate &or ne$ ta(!e human error+ 3ust as the a r(a# ,as de$e!o%ed 'ears a#o as the e$o!ut on o& 7no,!ed#e un&o!ded* toda' there s te"hno!o#' that ena(!es automated* driverless $eh "!es ,h "h "an not on!' dete"t e$er' ne"essar' e!ement o& the street needed to o%erate , th a""ura"'* the $eh "!es themse!$es "an dete"t ea"h other* ma7 n# "o!! s on a!most m%oss (!e+H5 Th s s the "urrent state o& su"h a so!ut on ,hen ,e "ons der the root "ause and root %ur%ose* o$era!!+ :et* as ad$an"ed as that so!ut on ma' seem* es%e" a!!' # $en the rou#h!' 2+4 m !! on %eo%!e ,ho unne"essar !' d e n automo( !e a"" dents ea"h 'ear*H2 th s thou#ht e-er" se ma' st !! (e n"om%!ete & ,e "ont nue to e-tend the "onte-t , th res%e"t to the "ore #oa!s+ Aerha%s there are other ne&& " en" es that re!ate to the trans%ort n&rastru"ture and (e'ond that need to (e ta7en nto a""ount and o$er"ome+ Aerha%s* &or e-am%!e* the use o& nd $ dua! automo( !es* re#ard!ess o& the r sa&et'* has other nherent %ro(!ems that "an on!' (e !o# "a!!' reso!$ed (' the remo$a! o& the automo( !e a%%! "at on tse!&+ Aerha%s n a " t'* , th an e-%and n# mo( !e %o%u!at on* su"h nde%endent $eh "!e trans%ort (e"omes unne"essar !' "um(ersome*
6G Re&eren"e< >uman error3 models and management* 3ames Reason* 4555 6E A 2EEI NHTSA stud' &ound the &ata! t' redu"t on (ene& t o& a r (a#s &or a!!

8,,,+the1e t#e stmo$ement+"om;

8htt%<MM,,,+n"( +n!m+n h+#o$M%m"Mart "!esM%m"222FFF5M;

dr $ers at an est mated 22 %er"ent+ 8htt%<MM,,,+nhtsa+#o$M"arsMru!esMre#re$Me$a!uateMG5G6F5+htm!; H5 Sour"e< ?oogle Engineer laims !ts =riverless ars ould Save 4 Million +ives Every 6ear* 9!a7e Z+ Ron# 8htt%<MM,,,+auto#u de+"omMauto. ne,sM4522M56M#oo#!e.en# neer."!a ms. ts.dr $er!ess."ars."ou!d.sa$e.a. m !! on.! $es.e$er'.'ear+htm!; H2 Sour"e< ar 4ccident Statistics 8htt%<MM,,,+"ar. a"" dents+"omM%a#esMstats+htm!; 4D

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

s!o, and #enera!!' ne&& " ent+H4 The more $ a(!e so!ut on n th s " r"umstan"e m #ht (e"ome the need &or a un & ed* nte#rated mass trans t s'stem that "an n"rease s%eed* redu"e ener#' use* redu"e resour"e use* and redu"e %o!!ut on a!on# , th man' other re!ated ssues to the e&&e"t that us n# automo( !es n su"h a "ond t on then (e"omes %art o& an emer# n# problem+ I& the #oa! o& a so" et' s to do the K"orre"t” and hen"e susta na(!e th n#* redu" n# threats to humans and the ha( tat* e$er n"reas n# e&& " en"'* a d'nam "* se!&.#enerat n# !o# " un&o!ds , th res%e"t to our te"hn "a! %oss ( ! t' and des #n a%%roa"hes+ Our Technical Realit+ O& "ourse* the a%%! "at on o& th s t'%e o& %ro(!em so!$ n# s &ar &rom ! m ted to su"h %h's "a! e-am%!es+ Is %o! t "s as ,e 7no, t the (est means to address our so" a! ,oesR Does t address root "auses (' ts $er' des #nR Is mone' and the mar7et s'stem the most o%t m 1ed method &or susta na(!e %ro#ress* %ro(!em reso!ut on and the man &est n# o& e"onom " %otent a!R What does our modern state o& s" en"e and te"hno!o#' ha$e to "ontr (ute n the rea!m o& understand n# "ause and %ur%ose on the so" eta! !e$e!R As &urther essa's , !! denote n #reat deta !* these understand n#s "reate a natura!* "!ear tra n o& thou#ht , th res%e"t to ho, mu"h (etter our ,or!d "ou!d (e & ,e s m%!' &o!!o, the !o# " "reated $ a the scientific method o& thou#ht to &u!& !! our common goal o& human susta na( ! t'+ The one ( !! on %eo%!e star$ n# on th s %!anet are not do n# so (e"ause o& some mmuta(!e natura! "onse)uen"e o& our %h's "a! rea! t'+ There s %!ent' o& &ood to #o around+HD It s the so" a! s'stem* ,h "h has ts o,n outdated* "ontr $ed !o# "* that %er%etuates th s so" a! atro" t'* a!on# , th "ount!ess others+ It s m%ortant to %o nt out that TZM s not "on"erned , th %romot n# K%at"hes” as ts u!t mate #oa!* ,h "h* sad to sa'* s ,hat the $ast ma0or t' o& a"t $ st nst tut ons on the %!anet are "urrent!' do n#+H6
H4 A s!o,* #enera! sh &t* e$en n modern "ommer" a! so" et'* &rom Ko,nersh %”

to Ka""ess” s (e# nn n# to & nd &a$or toda'+ 8htt%<MM# #aom+"omM4522M22M25Ma r(n(.roadma%.4522M; HD Ma0or nternat ona! or#an 1at ons ha$e stated stat st "a!!' that there s enou#h &ood &or e$er'one and that star$at on s not "aused (' a !a"7 o& resour"es+ 8htt%<MM,,,+,&%+or#Mhun#erM"auses; In "om( nat on , th e&& " en"' m%ro$ements ,h "h , !! (e noted more so n Aart III* the %oss (!' &or a(so!ute #!o(a! &ood a(undan"e o& the h #hest nutr ent )ua! t' s a!so %oss (!' toda'+ H6 Th s "omment s not meant to demean an' ,e!!.mean n# so" a! nst tut on ,or7 n# to he!% , th n the (ounds o& the "urrent so" oe"onom " method+ Ho,e$er* as , !! (e des"r (ed more so n Aart II* the "urrent so" a! mode! nherent!' restr "ts a $ast amount o& %oss (!e %ros%er t'M%ro(!em so!$ n# due to ts $er' des #n and hen"e a"t $ st and so" a! nst tut ons ,h "h a$o d th s rea! t' and "an on!' (e ,or7 n# to he!% K%at"h” %ro(!ems* not & - them* s n"e the' or # nate &rom the so" a! s'stem tse!&+ A "ommon e-am%!e s "har t' or#an 1at ons that , sh to %ro$ de &ood to the %oor+ These or#an 1at ons are not usua!!' address n# why those %eo%!e are %oor to (e# n 46

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

We ,ant to %romote the !ar#est order* h #hest e&& " en"' set o& so!ut ons a$a !a(!e at a # $en t me* a! #ned , th natura! %ro"esses* to m%ro$e the ! $es o& a!!* ,h !e se"ur n# the nte#r t' o& our ha( tat+ We ,ant e$er'one to understand th s Ktra n o& thou#ht” "!ear!' and de$e!o% a value dent & "at on , th t+ In the end* there s no s n#!e so!ut on J on!' the near em% r "a! natura! !a, reason n# that arr $es at so!ut ons and %ur%ose+

, th and hen"e are not tru!' ,or7 n# to reso!$e the root %ro(!em8s;+ 4H

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

-(O!$C /s0 PS1C-O(O!1We do not a"t r #ht!' (e"ause ,e ha$e $ rtue or e-"e!!en"e* (ut ,e rather ha$e those (e"ause ,e ha$e a"ted r #ht!'+HH .Ar stot!e

A %o,er&u! 'et o&ten o$er!oo7ed "onse)uen"e o& our en$ ronmenta! $u!nera( ! t' to ada%t to the e- st n# "u!ture s that our $er' dent t' and %ersona! t' s o&ten ! n7ed to the nst tut ons* %ra"t "es* trends and hen"e $a!ues ,e are (orn nto and e- st n+ Th s %s'"ho!o# "a! ada%tat on and ne$ ta(!e &am ! ar t' "reates a comfort %one ,h "h* o$er t me* "an (e %a n&u! to d sru%t* re#ard!ess o& ho, ,e!! reasoned the data stand n# to the "ontrar' o& ,hat ,e (e! e$e ma' (e+ In &a"t* the $ast ma0or t' o& o(0e"t ons "urrent!' &ound a#a nst The Ze t#e st Mo$ement* s%e" & "a!!' %o nts made , th res%e"t to so!ut ons and hen"e "han#e* a%%ear to (e dr $en (' narro, &rames o& re&eren"e and emot ona! ( as more than nte!!e"tua! assessment+ /ommon rea"t ons o& th s 7 nd are o&ten s n#u!ar %ro%os t ons that* rather than "r t "a!!' address n# the a"tua! %rem ses art "u!ated (' an ar#ument* ser$e to d sm ss them outr #ht $ a ha%ha1ard asso" at ons+ The most "ommon "!ass & "at on o& su"h ar#uments are K%ro0e"t ons”HI and t (e"omes "!ear $er' o&ten that su"h o%%onents are a"tua!!' more "on"erned , th defending their psychological identity rather than o(0e"t $e!' "ons der n# a ne, %ers%e"t $e+HF 2ind (oc# In a "!ass " ,or7 (' authors /ohen and Na#e! t t!ed KAn Introdu"t on to Lo# " and The S" ent & " Method”* th s %o nt s ,e!! made , th res%e"t to the %ro"ess o& !o# "a! e$a!uat on and ts nde%enden"e &rom human %s'"ho!o#'+ KThe ,e #ht o& e$ den"e s not tse!& a tem%ora! e$ent* (ut a re!at on o& m%! "at on (et,een "erta n "!asses or t'%es o& %ro%os t ons+++O& "ourse* thou#ht s ne"essar' to a%%rehend su"h
HH Sour"e< The Story of Philosophy3 The +ives and <pinions of the 7orld0s HI S #mund Freud ,as & rst to ma7e &amous the dea o& As'"ho!o# "a!

?reatest Philosophers* W !! Durant* 2E4I

Aro0e"t on* de& ned as ?a %s'"ho!o# "a! de&ense me"han sm ,here a %erson su("ons" ous!' den es h s or her o,n attr (utes* thou#hts* and emot ons* ,h "h are then as"r (ed to the outs de ,or!d* usua!!' to other %eo%!e+? Ho,e$er* the use o& the term s more #enera! n th s "onte-t* re&!e"t n# the s m%!e not on o& assum n# to understand an dea (ased on a &a!se or su%er& " a! re!at onsh % to %r or understand n#s . usua!!' n a de&ens $e %osture &or d sm ssa! o& $a! d t'+ HF The term K"o#n t $e %atho!o#'” s a su##ested des"r %tor o& th s %henomenon+ A "ommon "hara"ter st " s ?" r"u!ar reason n#? ,here a (e! e& s 0ust & ed (' mere!' re.re&eren" n# the (e! e& tse!&+ For e-am%!e* to as7 a The st ,h' the' (e! e$e n God* a "ommon ans,er m #ht (e KFa th”+ To as7 ,h' the' ha$e KFa th” o&ten resu!ts n a res%onse ! 7e K(e"ause God re,ards those ,ho ha$e Fa th”+ The "ausa! t' or entat on s trun"ated and se!&. re&err n#+ 4I

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

m%! "at ons+++ho,e$er XthatY does not ma7e %h's "s a (ran"h o& %s'"ho!o#'+ The rea! 1at on that !o# " "annot (e restr "ted to %s'"ho!o# "a! %henomenon , !! he!% us to d s"r m nate (et,een our s" en"e and rhetor " . "on"e $ n# the !atter as the art o& %ersuas on or o& ar#u n# so as to %rodu"e the &ee! n# o& "erta nt'+ Our emot ona! d s%os t ons ma7e t $er' d && "u!t &or us to a""e%t "erta n %ro%os t ons* no matter ho, stron# the e$ den"e n the r &a$or+ And s n"e a!! %roo& de%ends u%on the a""e%tan"e o& "erta n %ro%os t ons as true* no %ro%os t on "an (e %ro$ed to (e true to one ,ho s su&& " ent!' determ ned not to (e! e$e t+”HG The term Km nd !o"7” has (een "o ned (' some %h !oso%hersHE , th res%e"t to th s %henomenon* de& ned as ?the "ond t on ,here one?s %ers%e"t $e (e"omes se!&.re&err n#* n a "!osed !oo% o& reason n#?+ Seem n#!' em% r "a! %resu%%os t ons &rame and se"ure one?s ,or!d$ e, and an'th n# "ontrad "tor' "om n# &rom the outs de "an (e (!o"7ed or re0e"ted* o&ten e$en su("ons" ous!'+ Th s rea"t on "ou!d (e ! 7ened to the "ommon %h's "a! re&!e- to %rote"t onese!& &rom a &ore #n o(0e"t mo$ n# to,ards 'our %erson J on!' n th s " r"umstan"e the Kre&!e-” s to de&end one?s beliefs* not (od'+ Wh !e su"h %hrases as Kth n7 n# outs de the (o-” m #ht (e "ommon rhetor " toda' n the a"t $ st "ommun t'* se!dom are the &oundat ons o& our way of thin#ing and the nte#r t' o& our most established institutions "ha!!en#ed+ The' are* more o&ten than not* "ons dered to (e K# $ens” and assumed na!tera(!e+ For e-am%!e* n the so."a!!ed demo"ra" es o& the ,or!d* a K%res dent”* or the e)u $a!ent* s a "ommon %o nt o& &o"us , th res%e"t to the )ua! t' o& a "ountr'?s #o$ernan"e+ A !ar#e amount o& attent on s s%ent to,ard su"h a & #ure* h s %ers%e"t $es and a"t ons+ :et* se!dom does one ste% (a"7 and as7< KWh' do ,e ha$e a %res dent to (e# n , thR” KHo, s h sMher %o,er as an nst tut ona! & #ure 0ust & ed as an o%t m 1ed manner o& so" a! #o$ernan"eR” KIs t not a "ontrad "t on o& terms to "!a m a demo"rat " so" et' ,hen the %u(! " has $ rtua!!' no real sa' , th res%e"t to the a"t ons o& the %res dent on"e he or she s e!e"tedR” Su"h )uest ons are se!dom "ons dered as %eo%!e tend* a#a n* to ada%t to the r "u!ture , thout o(0e"t on* assum n# t s K0ust the ,a' t s”+ Su"h stat " or entat ons are a!most un $ersa!!' a resu!t o& cultural tradition and* as /ohen and Na#e! %o nt out* t s $er' d && "u!t to "ommun "ate a ne,* "ha!!en# n# dea to those ,ho are @sufficiently determined not to believe it8* Su"h trad t ona! %resu%%os t ons* he!d as em% r "a!* are ! 7e!' a root sour"e o& %ersona! and so" a! retardat on n the ,or!d toda'+ Th s %henomenon* "ou%!ed , th an edu"at ona! s'stem that "onstant!' re n&or"es su"h esta(! shed not ons throu#h ts nst tut ons o& Ka"adem a”* &urther sea!s th s "u!tura! nh ( t on and "om%ounds the
HG +ogic and The Scientific Method* /ohen and Na#e!* Har"ourt* 2ED6* %+2E HE Re&eren"e< The ancer Stage of apitalism* 3ohn M"Murtr'* A!uto Aress*

2EEE* /ha%ter 2

4F

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

h ndran"e to re!e$ant "han#e+I5 Wh !e the s"o%e o& th s tenden"' s , de , th res%e"t to de(ate* there are t,o "ommon argumentative fallacies ,orth not n# here as the' "onstant!' "ome u% , th res%e"t to the application$set and train of thought %romoted (' TZM+ Aut n "o!or&u! terms* these ta"t "s "om%r se ,hat "ou!d (e "a!!ed a K$a!ue ,ar”I2 ,h "h s ,a#ed* "ons" ous!' or not* (' those ,ho ha$e $ested emot ona!Mmater a! nterest n 7ee% n# th n#s the same* o%%os n# "han#e+ The 3Prima Facie4 Fallac+ The & rst s the K%r ma &a" e” asso" at on+ Th s s m%!' means Ku%on & rst a%%earan"e”U K(e&ore n$est #at on”+I4 Th s s (' &ar the most "ommon t'%e o& o(0e"t on+ A "!ass "a! "ase stud' s the "ommon "!a m that the o(ser$at ons and so!ut ons %resented (' TZM are s m%!' rehashed KMar- st "ommun sm”* Let?s (r e&!' e-%!ore th s as an e-am%!e+ Re&eren" n# KThe /ommun st Man &esto”ID Mar- and En#e!s %resent $ar ous o(ser$at ons , th res%e"t to the e$o!ut on o& so" et'* s%e" & "a!!' K"!ass ,ar”* nherent stru"tura! re!at onsh %s re#ard n# K"a% ta!”* a!on# , th a #enera! !o# " as to ho, the so" a! order , !! trans t on throu#h Kre$o!ut on” to a state!ess* "!ass!ess s'stem* n %art* ,h !e a!so not n# a ser es o& d re"t so" a! "han#es* su"h as the K"entra! 1at on o& the means o& "ommun "at on and trans%ort n the hands o& the state”* Ke)ua! ! a( ! t' o& a!! to !a(or+” and other s%e" & "s+ Mar- "reates %!a'ers n the s"hema he su##ests ! 7e the on#o n# (att!e (et,een the K(our#eo s e and %ro!etar ans”* e-%ress n# "ontem%t &or the nherent e-%!o tat on* ,h "h he sa's s essent a!!' rooted n the dea o& K%r $ate %ro%ert'”+ In the end* the a""umu!ated #oa! n #enera! s n see7 n# a Kstate!ess and "!ass!ess so" et'”+ On the sur&a"e* re&ormat ons %ro%osed n TZM?s %romoted so!ut ons m #ht appear to m rror attr (utes o& KMar- sm” & one ,as to "om%!ete!' #nore the under!' n# reason n#+ The dea o& a so" et' K, thout "!asses”* K, thout un $ersa! %ro%ert'”* and the "om%!ete
I5 /r t " sm here o& Ka"adem a” s not to (e "on&used , th ts standard

de& n t on* mean n# a ?"ommun t' o& students and s"ho!ars en#a#ed n h #her edu"at on and resear"h+? The "onte-t here s the nh ( t n# nature o& Ks"hoo!s” o& thou#ht ,h "h a!! too o&ten e$o!$e to "reate an e#o unto tse!& ,here "on&! "t n# data s #nored or ha%ha1ard!' d sm ssed+ A!so* there s a r s7 "ommon to th s mode o& thou#ht ,here Ktheor'” and Ktrad t on” ta7e %rom nen"e o$er Ke-%er en"e” and Ke-%er ment” $er' o&ten* %er%etuat n# &a!se "on"!us ons+ I2 Re&eren"e< Value 7ars3 The ?lobal Mar#et Versus the +ife Economy3 Moral Philosophy and >umanity, 3ohn M"Murtr'* A!uto Aress* 4554 I4 Sour"e< D "t onar'+"om 8htt%<MMd "t onar'+re&eren"e+"omM(ro,seM%r maQ&a" e; ID Wr tten (' Car! Mar- and Fr edr "h En#e!s n 2G6G th s te-t s , de!' "ons dered the de& n t $e deo!o# "a! e-%ress on o& Mar- st "ommun sm+ K/ommun sm” s sa d to (e the %ra"t "a! m%!ementat on o& KMar- sm”+ V e, On! ne< 8htt%<MM,,,+mar- sts+or#Mar"h $eMmar-M,or7sM2G6GM"ommun st. man &estoM nde-+htm; 4G

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

rede& n t on o& ,hat "om%r ses the Kstate” m #ht* on the sur&a"e* sho, "on&!uen"e (' the mere #estures themse!$es* es%e" a!!' s n"e ,estern a"adem a "ommon!' %romotes a Kdua! t'” (et,een K"ommun sm” and K"a% ta! sm” , th the a&orement oned "hara"ter %o nts noted as the "ore d &&eren"es+ Ho,e$er* the a"tua! train of thought to su%%ort these seemingly s m !ar "on"!us ons s )u te d &&erent+ TZM?s ad$o"ated (en"hmar7 &or de" s on.ma7 n# s not a Moral Philosophy,I6 ,h "h* ,hen e-am ned at ts root* s essent a!!' ,hat Mar- st %h !oso%h' ,as a man &estat on o&+ TZM s not nterested n the %oet "* su(0e"t $e and ar( trar' not ons o& Ka &a r so" et'”* ”#uaranteed &reedom”* K,or!d %ea"e”* or Kma7 n# a (etter ,or!d” s m%!' (e"ause t sounds Kr #ht”* Khumane” or K#ood”+ W thout a technical framewor# that has a d re"t %h's "a! re&erent to su"h terms* su"h mora! re!at $ sm ser$es ! tt!e to no !on#.term %ur%ose+ Rather* TZM s nterested n scientific application* as a%%! ed to societal sustainability* (oth physical and cultural+IH As , !! (e e-%ressed n #reater deta ! n &urther essa's* the method o& s" en"e s not restr "ted n ts a%%! "at on , th n the K%h's "a! ,or!d”II and hen"e the so" a! s'stem* n&rastru"ture* edu"at ona! re!e$an"e and e$en understand n# human (eha$ or tse!&* a!! e- st , th n the "on& nes o& s" ent & " "ausa! t'+ In turn* there s a natura! &eed(a"7 s'stem (u !t nto %h's "a! rea! t' ,h "h , !! e-%ress tse!& $er' "!ear!' n the "onte-t o& ,hat K,or7s” and ,hat doesn?t o$er t me*IF #u d n# our "ons" ous ada%tat on+
I6 De& ned as ?the (ran"h o& %h !oso%h' dea! n# , th (oth ar#ument a(out the

"ontent o& mora! t' and meta.eth "a! d s"uss on o& the nature o& mora! 0ud#ment* !an#ua#e* ar#ument* and $a!ue+? 8htt%<MM,,,+the&reed "t onar'+"omMmora!Q%h !oso%h'; IH The ar#ument that s" en"e s not a %h !oso%h' s "erta n!' o%en to semant "s and nter%retat on (ut the %o nt (e n# made here s that not ons o& Kr #ht and ,ron#” and other Keth "a!” d st n"t ons "ommon to %h !oso%h' ta7e on a $er' d &&erent ! #ht n the s" ent & " "onte-t as t has more to do , th ut ! t' and (a!an"e than mere "on"e%ts o& Kmora! t'” as t s "!ass "a!!' de& ned+ In the $ e, o& S" en"e* human (eha$ or s (est a! #ned , th the nherent "ausa! t' d s"o$ered n the natura! ,or!d* $a! dated (' test n#* (u !d n# n&eren"e and !o# "a! asso" at ons to 0ust &' human a"t ons as Ka%%ro%r ate” to a # $en %ur%ose+ A#a n* th s s a!,a's am( #uous on some !e$e! and ! 7e!' the most a""urate "onte-t o& %h !oso%h' as re!ated to s" en"e s as a %re"ursor to $a! dat on dur n# n$est #at on and e-%er mentat on+ II The term K%h's "a! ,or!d” s o&ten used to d &&erent ate (et,een the Kmenta!” %ro"esses o& the human m nd or so" o!o# "a! t'%e %henomena* and the %h's "a! en$ ronment that e- sts outs de o& the "o#n t $e %ro"esses o& human %er"e%t on+ In rea! t' there s noth n# outs de the K%h's "a! ,or!d” as ,e 7no, t* as there s to (e &ound no "on"rete e-am%!e ,here "ausa! re!at onsh %s are s m%!' $o ded+ IF Feed(a"7 &rom the En$ ronment "ou!d (e sa d to (e the K"orre"t on me"han sm” o& nature as t re!ates to human de" s ons+ A s m%!e e-am%!e ,ou!d (e the ndustr a! %rodu"t on o& "hem "a!s that %rodu"e ne#at $e retroa"t ons ,hen re!eased nto the en$ ronment* sho, n# n"om%at ( ! t' , th en$ ronmenta! needs &or ! &e.su%%ort . su"h as ,as the "ase , th /F/s and the r e&&e"t on O1one De%!et on+ 4E

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Mar- sm s not (ased on th s K"a!"u!ated” ,or!d$ e, at a!!* e$en thou#h there m #ht (e some s" ent & "a!!' (ased "hara"ter st "s nherent+ For e-am%!e* the Mar- st not on o& a K"!ass!ess so" et'” ,as to o$er"ome the "a% ta! st or # nat n# K nhuman t'” m%osed on the ,or7 n# "!ass or K%ro!etar at”+ TZM?s ad$o"ated tra n o& thou#ht* on the other hand* sour"es ad$an"ements n human stud es+ It & nds* &or e-am%!e* that social stratification* ,h "h s nherent to the "a% ta! stMmar7et mode!* to a"tua!!' (e a &orm o& indirect violence a#a nst the $ast ma0or t' as a resu!t o& the e$o!ut onar' %s'"ho!o#' ,e humans natura!!' %osses+IG It #enerates an unne"essar' &orm o& human su&&er n# on man' !e$e!s* ,h "h s destabili%ing and* (' m%! "at on* technically unsustainable+ Another e-am%!e s TZM?s nterest n remo$ n# universal propertyIE and sett n# u% a s'stem o& Kshared a""ess”+ Th s s o&ten )u "7!' "ondemned to the Mar- st dea o& Ka(o! sh n# %r $ate %ro%ert'”+ Ho,e$er* #enera!!' s%ea7 n#* the Mar- st !o# " re!ates the e- sten"e o& %r $ate %ro%ert' to the %er%etuat on o& the K(our#eo s” and the r on#o n# e-%!o tat on o& the K%ro!etar at”+ He states n the Man &esto< KThe d st n#u sh n# &eature o& /ommun sm s not the a(o! t on o& %ro%ert' #enera!!'* (ut the a(o! t on o& (our#eo s %ro%ert'+” TZM?s ad$o"ated !o# "* on the other hand* re!ates the &a"t that the %ra"t "e o& un $ersa!* nd $ dua! o,nersh % o& #oods s environmentally inefficient, wasteful and ultimately unsustainable as a %ra"t "e+ Th s su%%orts a restr "t $e s'stem (eha$ or and a #reat dea! o& unne"essar' de%r $at on* and hen"e "r me s "ommon n so" et es , th an une)ua! d str (ut on o& resour"es+ At an' rate* su"h K%r ma &a" e” a!!e#at ons are $er' "ommon and man' more "ou!d (e e-%ressed+ Ho,e$er* t s not the s"o%e o& th s se"t on to d s"uss a!! a!!e#ed "onne"t ons (et,een Mar- sm and TZM?s ad$o"ated train of thought* In the end* the de(ate s essent a!!' pointless as to ar#ue su"h a "orre!at on s to s m%!' #nore the true purpose and merit o& the so" eta! "on"e%t on tse!&+ The 3Straw-2an4 Fallac+ The se"ond ar#umentat $e &a!!a"' has to do , th the misrepresentation of a position* de! (erate or %ro0e"ted* "ommon!' re&erred to as a Kstra,.man”+F5 When t "omes to TZM* th s usua!!' has to do , th
IG Re&eren"e< The Spirit +evel* Cate A "7ett @ R "hard W !7 nson* 9!ooms(ur' IE Th s "on"e%t , !! (e e-%!ored more n %art III (ut t s ,orth not n# that the

Aress* 4522

t'%e o& Ka""ess” ena(!ed (' the su##ested so" a! s'stem 8NLR9E; does not ru!e out !e#a! re!at onsh %s to se"ure the use o& #oods+ The dea o& redu" n# the "urrent %ro%ert' s'stem to one o& ?%rote"ted a""ess? ,here* &or e-am%!e* a "amera o(ta ned &rom a d str (ut on "enter s # $en !e#a! status u%on t renta! to that %erson* s not to (e "on&used , th the "a% ta! st not on o& %ro%ert'* ,h "h s a un $ersa! d st n"t on and a #reat sour"e o& ndustr a! ne&& " en"' and m(a!an"e+ F5 L 7e!' the (est des"r %t on o& th s s to ma# ne a & #ht n ,h "h one o& the o%%onents sets u% a man made o& stra,* atta"7s t* then %ro"!a ms $ "tor'+ A!! the ,h !e* the rea! o%%onent stands (' untou"hed+ D5

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

m%osed nter%retat ons that are , thout !e# t mate e$ den"e to (e "ons dered re!e$ant to a %o nt n )uest on+ For e-am%!e* ,hen d s"uss n# the or#an 1at on o& a ne, so" a! s'stem* %eo%!e o&ten %ro0e"t the r "urrent $a!ues and "on"erns nto the ne, mode! , thout "ons der n# the $ast "han#e o& "onte-t nherent ,h "h ,ou!d ! 7e!' nu!! &' su"h "on"erns mmed ate!'+ A "ommon stra,.man %ro0e"t on n th s "onte-t ,ou!d (e that n a so" et' ,here mater a! %rodu"t on ,ere (ased u%on te"hno!o# "a! a%%! "at on d re"t!' and not an e-"han#e s'stem re)u r n# %a d human !a(or* %eo%!e ,ou!d ha$e no incentive to do an'th n# and there&ore the mode! ,ou!d &a ! as noth n# ,ou!d #et done+ Th s 7 nd o& ar#ument s , thout testa(!e $a! d t' , th res%e"t to the human s" en"es and s rea!!' an intuitive assumption or # nat n# &rom the "urrent "u!tura! "! mate ,here the e"onom " s'stem "oer"es a!! humans nto !a(or ro!es &or sur$ $a! 8 n"omeM%ro& t;+ Th s o&ten o""urs re#ard!ess o& one?s %ersona! nterest or so" a! ut ! t'* o&ten #enerat n# a %s'"ho!o# "a! d stort on , th res%e"t to mot $at on+ In the ,ords o& Mar#aret Mead< ”I& 'ou !oo7 "!ose!' 'ou , !! see that a!most an'th n# that rea!!' matters to us* an'th n# that em(od es our dee%est "omm tment to the ,a' human ! &e shou!d (e ! $ed and "ared &or* de%ends on some &orm o& $o!unteer sm+”F2 In a 2EE4 Ga!!u% Ao!!* more than H5> o& Amer "an adu!ts 8E6 m !! on Amer "ans; $o!unteered t me &or so" a! "auses* at an a$era#e o& 6+4 hours a ,ee7* &or a tota! o& 45+H ( !! on hours a 'ear+F4 It has a!so (een &ound n stud es that re%et t $e* mundane 0o(s !end themse!$es more to trad t ona! re,ards su"h as mone'* ,hereas mone' doesn?t seem to mot $ate nno$at on and "reat $ t'+FD In !ater essa's* the dea o& mechani%ation.automation a%%! ed to mundane !a(or to &ree the human (e n# , !! (e d s"ussed* e-%ress n# ho, the !a(or.&or. n"ome s'stem s outdated and restr "t $e o& not on!' ndustr a! %otent a! and e&& " en"'* (ut a!so human %otent a! and "reat $ t' o$era!!+ Another "ommon* "onte-tua! e-am%!e o& a Kstra,.man” s the "!a m that & the trans t on to a ne, so" a! s'stem ,as a"ted u%on* the %ro%ert' o& others must (e forcefully confiscated (' a Kru! n# %o,er” and $ o!en"e ,ou!d (e the resu!t+ Th s* on"e a#a n* s a $a!ue %ro0e"t onM&ear* m%osed u%on TZM?s ad$o"ated !o# " , thout $a! dat on+ TZM sees the mater a! 1at on o& a ne, so" oe"onom " mode! ha%%en n# , th the needed consensus o& the %o%u!at on+ Its $er' understand n#* a!on# , th the K( o.so" a! %ressures” o""urr n# as the "urrent s'stem ,orsens* s the (as s o& n&!uen"e+ The !o# " does not su%%ort a Kd "tator a!” d s%os t on (e"ause that a%%roa"h* a%art &rom
F2 Sour"e< @>ave you noticed***8, Vital Speeches of the =ay* Ro(ert Cr 7or an*

2EGH* %+D52

F4 Sour"e< ?iving and Volunteering in the 9nited States3 (indings from a

"ational Survey* Hod#7 nson @ We t1man* 2EE4* %+4 A n7* R $erhead* 4522

FD Re&eren"e< =rive3 The Surprising Truth 4bout 7hat Motivates 9s* Dan e!

D2

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

(e n# nhumane* ,ou!dn?t ,or7+ In order &or su"h a s'stem to ,or7* t needs to (e a""e%ted , thout a"t $e state "oer" on+ There&ore* t s an ssue o& n$est #at on* edu"at on* and (road %ersona! a""e%tan"e n the "ommun t'+ In &a"t* the $er' s%e" & "s o& so" a! ntera"t on and ! &est'!e a"tua!!' demand a $ast ma0or t' a""e%tan"e o& the s'stem?s me"han "s and $a!ues+ S m !ar!'* and & na! e-am%!e here o& the Kstra,.man”* s the "on&us on a(out ho, a transition to a ne, s'stem "ou!d ha%%en at a!!+ In &a"t* man' tend to d sm ss TZM?s %ro%osa!s on that (as s a!one* s m%!' (e"ause the' don?t understand ho, t "an ha%%en+ Th s ar#ument* n %r n" %!e* s the same reason n# as the e-am%!e o& a s "7 man ,ho s see7 n# treatment &or h s !!ness (ut does not 7no, ,here he "an #et su"h treatment* ,hen t ,ou!d (e a$a !a(!e* or ,hat the treatment s+ Does h s !a"7 o& 7no, n# ho, and ,hen sto% h s need to see7R No . not & he ,ants to (e hea!th'+ G $en the d re state o& a&&a rs on th s %!anet* human t' must a!so 7ee% see7 n# and a %ath , !! ne$ ta(!' "ome "!ear+F6 In the end* t s ,orth re terat n# that the (att!e (et,een logic and psychology s rea!!' a "entra! "on&! "t n the arena o& so" eta! "han#e+ There s no "onte-t more %ersona! and sens t $e than the ,a' ,e or#an 1e our ! $es n so" et' and an m%ortant o(0e"t $e o& TZM* n man' ,a's* s to & nd te"hn )ues that "an edu"ate the %u(! " as to the mer t o& th s !o# "a! train of thought* o$er"om n# the (a##a#e o& outdated %s'"ho!o# "a! "om&orts ,h "h ser$e no %ro#ress $e* $ a(!e $a!ue ro!e n the modern ,or!d+

F6 More on the su(0e"t o& transition n %art IV+

D4

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

-T-E CASE FOR -&2A" &"$T1M' "ountr' s the ,or!d* and m' re! # on s to do #ood+FH .Thomas Aa ne

A "r t "a! "on"!us on %resent n the !o# " that de& nes TZM?s ntent on s that human so" et' needs to un &' ts e"onom " o%erat ons and ,or7 to align with the natural dynamics of the physical world as a single species sharing one habitat & ,e ntend to reso!$e e- st n# %ro(!ems* n"rease sa&et'* n"rease e&& " en"' and &urther %ros%er t'+ The ,or!d e"onom " d $ s ons ,e see toda' are not on!' a "!ear sour"e o& "on&! "t* desta( ! 1at on and e-%!o tat on* the $er' manner o& "ondu"t and ntera"t on tse!& s a!so #ross!' ne&& " ent n a %ure e"onom " sense* se$ere!' ! m t n# our so" eta! %otent a!+FI Wh !e the nat on.state* "om%et t on.(ased stru"ture s eas' to 0ust &' as a natura! out#ro,th o& our "u!tura! e$o!ut on # $en the resour"e s"ar" t' nherent h stor "a!!' and the !on# h stor' o& ,ar&are n #enera!* t s a!so natura! to "ons der that human so" et' "ou!d $er' ,e!! & nd %ur%ose n mo$ n# a,a' &rom these modes o& o%erat on & ,e ,ere to rea! 1e that t s tru!' to our ad$anta#e as a ,ho!e #rou%+ As , !! (e ar#ued here* the detr ments and ne&& " en" es o& the "urrent mode!* ,hen "om%ared to the (ene& ts and so!ut ons %oss (!e* are s m%!' unacceptable* The e&& " en"' and a(undan"e %oss ( ! t es* e-tra%o!ated , th n TZM?s ntent on to nsta!! a ne, so" oe"onom " s'stem* rest* n %art* on a "on"erted e&&ort (' the human %o%u!at on to wor# together and share resources intelligently* not restr "t and & #ht as ,e do toda'+ Moreo$er* the so" a! %ressures and r s7s no, emer# n# toda' around te"hno!o# "a! ,ar&are* %o!!ut on* en$ ronmenta! desta( ! 1at on and other %ro(!ems not on!' e-%ress a dee%!' needed #ra$ tat on &or true #!o(a! or#an 1at on* the' sho, a rat ona! ne"ess t'+ The -eno%ho( " and ma& a.! 7e menta! t' nd #enous to the nat on.state toda'* o&ten n the &orm o& K%atr ot sm”* s a sour"e o& se$ere desta( ! 1at on and nhuman t' n #enera!* not to ment on* a#a n* a su(stant a! !oss o& te"hn "a! e&& " en"'+ False Di/isions As noted n %r or essa's* the "ore (as s o& our sur$ $a! and )ua! t' o& ! &e as nd $ dua!s and as a s%e" es on the Earth re$o!$es around our
FH Sour"e< 'ights of Man* Thomas Aa ne* 2FE2* %+2I4 FI One e-am%!e o& th s ,ou!d (e the %atr ot " e"onom " ( as that o&ten

n&!uen"es the a"t ons o& re# ona! ndustr'+ In %h's "a! rea! t'* there s te"hn "a!!' on!' one e"onom' ,hen ,or7 n# , th the %!anet earth?s resour"es and natura! !a,s+ The dea o& KMade n Amer "a”* &or nstan"e* #enerates an mmed ate te"hn "a! ne&& " en"'* &or %ro%er #oods %rodu"t on s a #!o(a! a&&a r on a!! !e$e!s* n"!ud n# the usu&ru"t o& ,or!d 7no,!ed#e+ To ntent ona!!' restr "t !a(or and mater a!s useMa")u s t on to on!' , th n the (orders o& a # $en "ountr' s e"onom "a!!' "ounter%rodu"t $e n the truest sense o& the ,ord Ke"onom'”+ DD

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

understand n# o& natural law and ho, t re!ates to our method o& e"onom'* Th s %rem se s a s m%!e re&erent a! understand n# ,here the %h's "a! !a,s o& nature are "ons dered n the "onte-t o& e"onom " e&& " en"'* (oth on the human and ha( tat !e$e!s+ It s on!' !o# "a! that an' s%e" es %resent n and re! ant on the ha( tat n ,h "h t e- sts shou!d "on&orm a!! "ondu"t to align , th the natura! orders nherent to that ha( tat* as (est the' "an (e understood at the t me+ An' other or entat on s s m%!' rrat ona! and "an on!' !ead to %ro(!ems+ Understand n# that Earth s a s'm( ot "Ms'ner# st " Ks'stem” , th resour"es e- st n# n a!! areas* "ou%!ed , th the %ro$a(!' nherent* under!' n# "ausa! s" ent & " order that e- sts* n man' ,a's* as a !o# "a! K#u de” &or the human s%e" es to a! #n , th &or the #reatest so" eta! e&& "a"'* ,e & nd that our !ar#er "onte-t as a global society trans"ends a!! not ons o& trad t ona!M"u!tura! d $ s on* n"!ud n# ha$ n# no loyalty to a "ountr'* "or%orat on or e$en K%o! t "a!” trad t on+ I& an Ke"onom'” s a(out increasing efficiency in meeting the needs of the human population while wor#ing to further sustainability and prosperity* then our e"onom " o%erat ons must ta7e th s nto a""ount and a! #n , th the !ar#est re!e$ant Ks'stem” that ,e "an understand+ So a#a n* &rom th s %ers%e"t $e* the nat on.state ent t es are "!ear!' &a!se* ar( trar' d $ s ons %er%etuated (' "u!tura! trad t on* not !o# "a!* te"hn "a! e&& " en"'+ 'alues The (road or#an 1at on o& so" et' toda' s (ased on mu!t .!e$e! human "om%et t on+ Nat on.states "om%ete a#a nst ea"h other &or e"onom "M%h's "a! resour"esU "or%orate mar7et ent t es "om%ete &or %ro& tMmar7et.shareU and a$era#e ,or7ers "om%ete &or ,a#e %ro$ d n# o""u%at onsM n"ome and hen"e %ersona! sur$ $a! tse!&+ W th n th s "om%et t $e eth " s a (as " %s'"ho!o# "a! %ro%ens t' to d sre#ard the ,e!!(e n# o& others and the ha( tat+ The $er' nature o& "om%et t on s a(out ha$ n# advantage o$er others &or %ersona! #a n and hen"e* need!ess to sa'* d $ s on and e-%!o tat on are "ommon attr (utes o& the "urrent so" a! order+ Interest n#!'* $ rtua!!' a!! so. "a!!ed K"orru%t on” ,h "h ,e ma' de& ne as K"r me” n the ,or!d toda' s (ased u%on the $er' same menta! t' assumed to #u de K%ro#ress” n the ,or!d throu#h the "om%et t $e nterest+ It s no ,onder* n &a"t* # $en th s &rame,or7* that $ar ous other detr menta!* su%er& " a! so" a! d $ s ons are st !! %er$as $e su"h as ra"e* re! # on* "reed* "!ass or -eno%ho( " ( as+ Th s d $ s $e (a##a#e &rom ear!'* &ear.or ented sta#es o& our "u!tura! e$o!ut on s m%!' has no ,or7 n# (as s n the %h's "a! rea! t' and ser$es no, on!' to h nder %ro#ress* sa&et' and susta na( ! t'+ Toda'* as , !! (e des"r (ed n !ater essa's* the %oss (!e e&& " en"' and a(undan"e.%rodu" n# methods that "ou!d remo$e most a!! human de%r $at on* n"rease the a$era#e standard o& ! $ n# enormous!' and %er&e"t %u(! " hea!th and e"o!o# "a! susta na( ! t' #reat!' J #o unembraced due to the o!der so" a! trad t ons n %!a"e* n"!ud n# the nat on.state dea+ The &a"t s* there s te"hn "a!!' on!'
D6

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

one ra"e . the human ra"eUFF there s on!' one (as " ha( tat . EarthU and there s on!' one ,or7 n# manner o& o%erat ona! thou#ht J s" ent & "+ Origins and $nfluence Let?s )u "7!' "ons der the root or # ns o& the "om%et t $eMd $ s $e mode!+ W thout #o n# nto too mu"h deta !* t s "!ear that the e$o!ut on o& so" et' has n"!uded a $ast h stor' o& "on&! "t* s"ar" t' and m(a!an"e+ Wh !e there s de(ate as to the nature o& so" et' dur n# the %er od o& t me %re"ed n# the Neo! th " Re$o!ut on*FG the Earth s n"e that t me has (een a (att!e& e!d ,here "ount!ess ! $es ha$e (een ta7en &or the sa7e o& "om%et t on* ,hether mater a! or deo!o# "a!+FE Th s re"o#n 1ed %attern s so %er$as $e n &a"t that man' toda' attr (ute the %ro%ens t' &or "on&! "t and dom nat on to an rre"on" !a(!e* m%u!s $e "hara"ter st " o& our human nature , th the "on"!us on that the human (e n# s s m%!' una(!e to o%erate n a so" a! s'stem that s not (ased u%on th s "om%et t $e &rame,or7 and an' su"h attem%t , !! "reate $u!nera( ! t' that , !! (e e-%!o ted (' %o,er a(use* e-%ress n# th s a%%arent "om%et t $eMdom nan"e tra t+G5 Wh !e the su(0e"t o& human nature tse!& s not the d re"t &o"us o& th s essa'*G2 !et t (e stated that the Kem% r "a! %o,er a(use” assum%t on has (een a !ar#e %art o& the de&ense o& the "om%et t $eMd $ s $e mode!* us n# a #enera! (road $ e, o& h stor' as ts (as s &or $a! d t'+ Ho,e$er* the s%e" & "s o& the conditions n those %er ods* "ou%!ed , th the 7no,n &!e- ( ! t' o& the human (e n# are o&ten d sre#arded or #nored n these assessments+G4
FF In the & e!d o& human #enet "s* KM to"hondr a! E$e” re&ers to the

FG

FE

G5

G2 G4

matr ! nea!!' most re"ent "ommon an"estor 8MR/A; o& modern humans+ In other ,ords* she ,as the most re"ent ,oman &rom ,hom a!! ! $ n# humans toda' des"end* on the r mother?s s de+ We are one &am !'+ A!so* a!! "hara"ter st "s o& ra"e d &&eren"e 8&a" a! &eaturesMs7 n "o!or; ha$e (een &ound to (e ! n7ed to the en$ ronmenta! "ond t ons ,here su"h su(.#rou%s o& humans ! $edMe$o!$ed+ Hen"e t s a &a!se d st n"t on as a means &or su%er& " a! d s"r m nat on+ Somet mes a!so "a!!ed the A#r "u!tura! Re$o!ut on* t ,as the ,or!d?s & rst h stor "a!!' $er & a(!e re$o!ut on n a#r "u!ture+ It ,as the , de.s"a!e trans t on o& man' human "u!tures &rom a ! &est'!e o& hunt n# and #ather n# to one o& a#r "u!ture and sett!ement that su%%orted an n"reas n#!' !ar#e %o%u!at on and the (as s &or modern so" a! %atterns toda'+ In the 45th "entur' a!one* stat st " ans %ut the human death to!! &rom ,ar (et,een 2G5 to 445 m !! on* , th some "ha!!en# n# those num(ers (' "!a m n# e$ den"e %uts the to!! D t mes h #her n man' re# ona! "ases< 8htt%<MM,,,+s" en"eda !'+"omMre!easesM455GM5IM5G5I2E2E6264+htm; A "!ass " te-t that em%!o'ed th s (as " &ear ,as Ha'e7?s The 'oad to Serfdom+ KHuman Nature” had a $er' "!ear m%! "at on* 0ust & ed &undamenta!!' (' h stor "a! trends o& tota! tar an sm su##ested to (e ! n7ed to "o!!a(orat $eM%!anned e"onom es+ Th s s e-%anded u%on n the essa' The (inal 4rgument3 >uman "ature* The NatureMNurture De(ate has (een ,e!! esta(! shed as a &a!se dua! t' n (eha$ ora! ( o!o#'Me$o!ut onar' %s'"ho!o#' & e!ds o& stud'+ The rea! t' s that o& a %er%etua! ntera"t on , th the #ra$ t' o& re!e$an"e sh &t n# on a %er "ase DH

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

The h stor "a! %attern o& "on&! "t "annot (e "ons dered n mere so!at on+ Deta !ed re&eren"e to the "ond t ons and circumstances are needed+ In &a"t* t?s ! 7e!' a""urate to sa' that the dom nan"eM"on&! "t %ro%ens t' ,h "h s "!ear!' a %oss (!e reaction &or near!' a!! humans n our need &or se!&.%reser$at on and sur$ $a! n #enera!GD s (e n# provo#ed (' %ressures rather than (e n# the sour"e o& an' ne#at $e rea"t on+ When ,e ,onder ho, the mass $e Na1 arm' ,here a(!e to mora!!' 0ust &' the r a"t ons n Wor!d War II* ,e o&ten &or#et the enormous %ro%a#anda "am%a #n %ut out (' that re# me ,h "h ,or7ed to e-%!o t th s essent a!!' ( o!o# "a! $u!nera( ! t'+G6 True 4Self-$nterest4 The not on o& Kse!&. nterest” s "!ear!' nherent to the human (e n#?s "ommon ur#e to sur$ $e+ Th s s o($ ous enou#h and t s eas' to see h stor "a!!' ho, the ra, ne"ess t' o& %ersona! sur$ $a!* o&ten e-tend n# to &am !' and then the Ktr (e” 8"ommun t';* set the sta#e &or the d $ s $e* %rote"t on st %arad #m ,e e- st n toda'+ It shou!d ha$e (een e-%e"ted &rom the stand%o nt o& h stor' that $ast e"onom " theor es ,ou!d a!so (e (ased u%on the not on o& "om%et t on and ne)ua! t'* su"h as n the ,or7 o& Adam Sm th+ /ons dered the &ather o& the K&ree mar7et”* he made %o%u!ar the assum%t on that & e$er'one had the eth " to !oo7 out &or themse!$es on!'* the ,or!d ,ou!d %ro#ress as a "ommun t'+GH Th s K n$ s (!e hand” not on o& human %ro#ress ar s n# &rom narro, %ersona! se!&. nterest a!one m #ht ha$e (een a sem .,or7a(!e
(as s+ Ho,e$er* ,hat s re!e$ant here s the stud' o& the human (e n#?s Kran#e o& (eha$ or” and e-a"t!' ho, ada%ta(!e and &!e- (!e ,e are+ Re&eren"e< 7hy Zebras =on0t ?et 9lcers* Ro(ert Sa%o!s7'* W+ H+ Freeman* 2EEG GD /ommon!' termed< KThe & #ht.or.&! #ht res%onse” 8or the a"ute stress res%onse; and ,as & rst des"r (ed (' Amer "an %h's o!o# st Wa!ter 9rad&ord /annon+ G6 TWh' o& "ourse the %eo%!e don?t ,ant ,ar+ Wh' shou!d some %oor s!o( on a &arm ,ant to r s7 h s ! &e n a ,ar ,hen the (est he "an #et out o& t s to "ome (a"7 to h s &arm n one % e"eR Natura!!' the "ommon %eo%!e don?t ,ant ,ar ne ther n Russ a* nor n En#!and* nor &or that matter n German'+ That s understood+ 9ut* a&ter a!!* t s the !eaders o& the "ountr' ,ho determ ne the %o! "' and t s a!,a's a s m%!e matter to dra# the %eo%!e a!on#* ,hether t s a demo"ra"'* or a &as" st d "tatorsh %* or a %ar! ament* or a "ommun st d "tatorsh %+ Vo "e or no $o "e* the %eo%!e "an a!,a's (e (rou#ht to the ( dd n# o& the !eaders+ That s eas'+ A!! 'ou ha$e to do s te!! them the' are (e n# atta"7ed* and denoun"e the %ea"ema7ers &or !a"7 o& %atr ot sm and e-%os n# the "ountr' to dan#er+ It ,or7s the same n an' "ountr'+T .Hermann GZr n# 8A !ead n# mem(er o& the Na1 Aart'U From an nter$ e, , th G !(ert n GZr n#?s 0a ! "e!! dur n# the Nurem(er# War /r mes Tr a!s* 2G A%r ! 2E6I; GH KIt s not &rom the (ene$o!en"e o& the (ut"her* the (re,er* or the (a7er that ,e e-%e"t our d nner* (ut &rom the r re#ard to the r o,n se!&. nterest+ We address ourse!$es not to the r human t' (ut to the r se!&.!o$e* and ne$er ta!7 to them o& our o,n ne"ess t es* (ut o& the r ad$anta#es”+ 84n !n)uiry into the "ature A auses of the 7ealth of "ations* Adam Sm th* Vo!+ 2; DI

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

%h !oso%h' man' 'ears a#o ,hen the s m%! " t' o& the so" et' tse!& ,as (ased on e$er'one (e n# someth n# o& a %rodu"er+GI Ho,e$er* the nature o& so" et' has "han#ed #reat!' o$er t me* , th %o%u!at on n"reases* ent re!' d &&erent ro!e stru"tures and e-%onent a!!' ad$an" n# te"hno!o#'+ The r s7s asso" ated , th th s manner o& thou#ht are no, %ro$ n# to (e more dan#erous than (ene& " a!* and the true de& n t on o& Kse!&. nterest” s ta7 n# a larger context than e$er (e&ore+ Is t not n 'our se!&. nterest to %rote"t and nour sh the ha( tat that su%%orts 'ouR Is t not n 'our se!&. nterest to ta7e "are o& so" et' as a whole* %ro$ d n# &or ts mem(ers* so that the "onse)uen"es o& de%r $at on* su"h as K"r me” are redu"ed as mu"h as %oss (!e to ensure 'our sa&et'R Is t not se!&. nterest to "ons der the "onse)uen"es o& m%er a! st ,ars that "an (reed & er"e 0 n#o st " hatred on one s de o& the %!anet* on!' to ha$e* sa'* a su t"ase (om( e-%!ode (eh nd 'ou at a restaurant as a des%erate K(!o,.(a"7” a"t o& retr (ut onR Is t not se!&. nterest to assure a!! o& so" et es? "h !dren ha$e the (est u%(r n# n# and edu"at on so that 'our &uture and the &uture o& 'our "h !dren "an e- st n a res%ons (!e* edu"ated* and n"reas n#!' %rodu"t $e ,or!dR Is t not n 'our se!&. nterest to ma7e sure ndustr' s as or#an 1ed* o%t m 1ed and s" ent & "a!!' a""urate as %oss (!e* so that ,e do not %rodu"e shodd'* "hea% te"hno!o#' that m #ht %erha%s "ause a %ro(!em n the &uture & t &a !sR The (ottom ! ne s that th n#s ha$e "han#ed n the ,or!d toda' and your self$interest is now only as good as your societal interest* 9e n# "om%et t $e and #o n# out &or 'ourse!&* K(eat n#” others on!' has a ne#at $e "onse)uen"e n the !on#.term* &or t s den' n# a,areness o& the s'ner# st " s'stem ,e are (ound , th n+ A "hea%!' made nu"!ear %o,er %!ant n 3a%an m #ht not mean mu"h to %eo%!e n Amer "a+ Ho,e$er* & that %!ant ,as to ha$e a !ar#e s"a!e te"hn "a! &a !ure* the &a!!out and %o!!ut on m #ht ma7e ts ,a' o$er to Amer "an homes* %ro$ n# that you are never safe in the long run unless you have a global consciousness+ In the end* on!' an Earth.human7 nd "ons" ous $ e, "an assure a %erson?s true se!&. nterest and hen"e* n man' ,a's* a!so
GI So" o!o# st Thorste n Ve(!en* ,r t n# n 2E2F* made th s a"ute o(ser$at on

, th res%e"t to the "han#es n so" et' and ho, the' re&!e"t the or # na! %rem se o& the mar7et e"onom'+ KThe standard theor es o& e"onom " s" en"e ha$e assumed the r #hts o& %ro%ert' and "ontra"t as a- omat " %rem ses and u!t mate terms o& ana!'s sU and the r theor es are "ommon!' dra,n n su"h a &orm as ,ou!d & t the " r"umstan"es o& the hand "ra&t ndustr' and the %ett' trade+++ these theor es +++a%%ear tena(!e* on the ,ho!e* ,hen ta7en to a%%!' to the e"onom " s tuat on o& that ear! er t me+++ It s ,hen these standard theor es are sou#ht to (e a%%! ed to the !ater s tuat on* ,h "h has out#ro,n the "ond t ons o& hand "ra&t* that the' a%%ears nu#ator' or meretr " ous+” 84n !n)uiry !nto The "ature <f Peace 4nd The Terms <f !ts Perpetuation; He a!so &oreshado,ed the r se o& the K n$estment "!ass” as toda' non.%rodu" n# & nan" a! nst tut on ! 7e (an7s @ the sto"7s mar7et ha$e (e"ome more re,ard n# %ro& t., se than the a"tua! manu&a"tur n# o& true #oods+ DF

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

assure our so" et'?s Ke$o!ut onar' & tness”+GF The $er' dea o& , sh n# to su%%ort K'our "ountr'” and #nor n# or e$en en0o' n# the &a !ure o& others* s a desta( ! 1 n# $a!ue s'stem+ Warfare The da's o& %ra"t "a! ,ar&are are !on# o$er+ Ne, te"hno!o#' on the hor 1on has the a( ! t' to "reate ,ea%ons that , !! ma7e the atom (om( !oo7 ! 7e a roman "ata%u!t n destru"t $e %o,er+GG /entur es a#o* ,ar&are "ou!d at !east (e m n m 1ed to the ,arr n# %art es o$era!!+ Toda'* the ent re ,or!d s threatened+ There are o$er 4D*555 Nu"!ear Wea%ons toda'* ,h "h "ou!d , %e out the human %o%u!at on man' t mes o$er+GE In man' ,a's* our $er' social maturity s (e n# )uest oned at th s t me+ 9att!es , th on!' st "7s and stones as ,ea%ons "ou!d to!erate a #reat dea! o& human d stort on and ma! " ous ntent+ Ho,e$er* n a ,or!d o& nano.te"h ,ea%ons that "ou!d (e "onstru"ted n a sma!! !a( , th enormous destru"t $e %o,er* our expanded self$interest needs to ta7e ho!d and the nst tut on o& ,ar needs to (e s'stemat "a!!' shutdo,n+ In order to do th s* nat ons must te"hn "a!!' un &' and share the r resour"es and deas* not hoard them &or "om%et t $e se!&. (etterment* ,h "h s the norm toda'+ Inst tut ons ! 7e the Un ted Nat ons ha$e (e"ome "om%!ete &a !ures n th s re#ard (e"ause the' natura!!' (e"ome too!s o& em% re (u !d n# due to the under!' n# nature o& "ountr' d $ s ons and the so" oe"onom " dom nan"e o& the %ro%ert'Mmonetar'M"om%et t on. (ased s'stem or entat on+ It s not enou#h to s m%!' #ather #!o(a! K!eaders” at a ta(!e to d s"uss the r %ro(!ems+ The stru"ture tse!& needs to "han#e to su%%ort a different type of interaction (et,een these re# ona! K#rou%s” ,here the %er%etua! Kthreat” nherent (et,een nat on.states s remo$ed+ In the end* there s no em% r "a! o,nersh % o& resour"es or deas+ 3ust as a!! deas are ser a!!' de$e!o%ed a"ross "u!ture throu#h the group mind, the resour"es o& the %!anet are e)ua!!' as trans ent n the r &un"t on and s" ent & "a!!' de& ned as to the r %oss (!e %ur%oses+ The Earth s a s n#!e s'stem* a!on# , th the !a,s o& nature that #o$ern t+ E ther human so" et' re"o#n 1es and (e# ns to a"t and or#an 1e on th s nherent !o# "* or ,e su&&er n the !on# run+

GF E$o!ut onar' F tness s a ( o!o# "a! term #enera!!' de& ned as TThe

%ro(a( ! t' that the ! ne o& des"ent &rom an nd $ dua! , th a s%e" & " tra t , !! not d e out+T In th s "onte-t ,e are ! n7 n# human a"t ons* so" a!!'* to the dea o& s%e" es sur$ $a!+ GG Re&eren"e< 4pplications for 7arfare 8htt%<MM"rnano+t'%e%ad+"omM"rn(!o#M455HM5HMa%%! "at onsV&o+htm!; GE Sour"e< "uclear 7eapons3 BC (acts They =on0t 7ant 6ou to Thin# 4bout* 3 m M"/!us7e'* 4522 8htt%<MM,,,+,a# n#%ea"e+or#Mart "!esMd(Vart "!e+%h%R art "!eV dS4HD DG

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

-T-E F$"A( AR!&2E"T% -&2A" "AT&REMan a")u res at ( rth* throu#h hered t'* a ( o!o# "a! "onst tut on ,h "h ,e must "ons der & -ed and una!tera(!e* n"!ud n# the natura! ur#es ,h "h are "hara"ter st " o& the human s%e" es+ In add t on* dur n# h s ! &et me* he a")u res a "u!tura! "onst tut on ,h "h he ado%ts &rom so" et' throu#h "ommun "at on and throu#h man' other t'%es o& n&!uen"es+ It s th s "u!tura! "onst tut on ,h "h* , th the %assa#e o& t me* s su(0e"t to "han#e and ,h "h determ nes to a $er' !ar#e e-tent the re!at onsh % (et,een the nd $ dua! and so" et'+E5 .A+ E nste n

The Onl+ Argument Remaining The Ktra n o& thou#ht” and Ka%%! "at on.set”E2 %resented n TZM?s mater a!s are technical (' nature* e-%ress n# the nterest o& a%%!' n# the method and mer t o& scientific causality to the so" a! s'stem as a ,ho!e+ The (ene& ts o& th s a%%roa"h are not on!' to (e ta7en on the r o,n mer t (ut shou!d a!so (e "ons dered n "ontrast to toda'?s esta(! shed* trad t ona! methods and the r "onse)uen"es+ It , !! ! 7e!' then (e not "ed that our "urrent so" eta! methods are not on!' #ross!' outdated and ne&& " ent (' "om%ar son . the' are n"reas n#!' dan#erous and nhumane . , th the ne"ess t' &or !ar#e s"a!e so" a! "han#e (e"om n# e$er more m%ortant+ Th s sn?t a(out Kuto% a”+ It s a(out tru!' %ra"t "a! m%ro$ements+ The o$era!! (as s o& the mar7et "on"e%t has to do &undamenta!!' , th assum%t ons re!ated to human behavior, traditional values and an intuitive $ e, o& h stor' $ not emer#ent reason n#* a"tua! %u(! " hea!th measures* te"hn "a! "a%a" t' or e"o!o# "a! res%ons ( ! t'+ It s a non.te"hn "a!* %h !oso%h "a! a%%roa"h* ,h "h mere!' assumes that human de" s ons made throu#h ts nterna! !o# " 8and n"ent $e s'stem;* , !! %rodu"e a res%ons (!e* susta na(!e and humane out"ome* dr $en (' the !!us $e not on o& K&reedom o& "ho "e” ,h "h* on the s"a!e o& so" eta! &un"t ona! t'* a%%ears tantamount to or#an 1at ona! anar"h'+E4
E5 7hy SocialismD, A!(ert E nste n* 2E6E E2 The Ktra n o& thou#ht” has to do , th the under!' n# reason n# that arr $es

8htt%<MMmonth!'re$ e,+or#M455EM5HM52M,h'.so" a! sm;

at the "on"!us ons o& TZM?s ad$o"at on . ,h !e the Ka%%! "at on.set” s s m%!' the "urrent state o& a%%! ed te"hno!o#' toda'+ The d &&eren"e (et,een the t,o s that the &ormer s near em% r "a! ,h !e the !atter s trans ent s n"e te"hno!o# "a! too!s are a!,a's under#o n# "han#e+ E4 Mu"h "an (e sa d on the su(0e"t o& e"onom " or#an 1at on and me"han sms &or ndustr a! %rodu"t on and more , !! (e des"r (ed n %art III+ Ho,e$er* !et t (e stated here that the K%r "e me"han sm”* ,h "h s the "entra! "ata!'st &or e"onom " un&o!d n# toda'* s nherent!' anar"h st " due to the !a"7 o& e&& " ent s'stem re!at onsh %s , th n ma"ro. ndustr a! %ra"t "es+ Arodu"t on* d str (ut on and resour"e a!!o"at on s not Kstrate# "” n a te"hn "a!* %h's "a! sense (' an' stret"h o& the ma# nat on J the on!' strate#' em%!o'ed* ,h "h s the de& n n# "onte-t o& Ke&& " en"'” n the mar7et e"onom'* has to do , th the %ro& t and !ossM!a(or "ostMe-%ense t'%e monetar' %arameters ,h "h ha$e no re!at onsh % to %h's "a! e&& " en"' at a!!+ DE

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Th s s ,h' the monetar'.mar7et mode! o& e"onom "s s o&ten "ons dered religious (' nature n TZM mater a!s as the "ausa! me"han sm s rea!!' (ased on $ rtua!!' su%erst t ous assum%t ons o& the human "ond t on , th ! tt!e ! n7a#e to emer# n# s" ent & " understand n#s a(out ourse!$es and the r # d s'm( ot "Ms'ner# st " re!at onsh % o& our ha( tat and ts #o$ern n# natura! !a,s+ When %resent n# TZM?s so!ut on.or ented train of thought to those un&am ! ar* t s usua!!' 0ust a matter o& t me (e&ore* at a m n mum* the (as " s" ent & " %rem se s understood and a""e%ted n a(stra"t on+ For e-am%!e* the so!ated te"hn "a! rea! t' that ,e ha$e the resour"es and ndustr a! methods to eas !' &eed e$er'one on the %!anet earth* so no one has to star$e*ED rare!' & nds ar#ument n and o& tse!&+ I& 'ou ,ere to as7 an a$era#e %erson toda' & the' ,ou!d ! 7e to see an end to the o$er one ( !! on %eo%!e n "urrent!' n "hron " star$at on on the %!anet*E6 the' ,ou!d most ! 7e!' a#ree+ Ho,e$er* t s ,hen the !o# " runs ts "ourse and starts to de% "t the t'%e o& !ar#e.s"a!e so" a! and e"onom " reformations needed to &a" ! tate true s'stem su%%ort &or those 2Q ( !! on %eo%!e that man' & nd "ontem%t and o(0e"t on+ A%art &rom stu((orn* tem%ora! K$a!ue” asso" at ons* ,here %eo%!e essent a!!' re&use to "han#e an'th n# the' ha$e (e"ome used to n the r ! $es* e$en & that "han#e "!ear!' su%%orts a (etter out"ome n the !on# term* there s one ar#ument so "ommon that t ,arrants a %re! m nar' d s"uss on n and o& tse!&+ That s the ar#ument o& Khuman nature”+ Th s ar#ument m #ht a!so (e sa d to (e the only real obEection left, & 'ou th n7 a(out t* outs de a#a n o& the near ar( trar' "u!tura! ! &est'!e %ra"t "es %eo%!e are a&ra d to "han#e due to the r dent t' asso" at ons and "ond t oned "om&orts+ Are humans "om%at (!e , th a tru!' susta na(!e* s" ent & " so" oe"onom " s'stem or are ,e doomed to the ,or!d ,e ha$e no, due to our #enet "sR E/er+thing is Technical The "ase &or a ne, so" a! s'stem (ased d re"t!' on a scientific $ e, &or understand n# and ma- m 1 n# susta na( ! t' and %ros%er t'* te"hn "a!!'* rea!!' "annot (e "ontrad "ted (' another a%%roa"h* as (o!d as su"h a statement ma' seem+ Wh'R 9e"ause there s m%!' sn?t one ,hen the un &' n#* natura! !a, !o# " o& the s" ent & " method s a""e%ted as the root me"han sm o& %h's "a! "ausa! t' and nterre!at onsh %+ For e-am%!e* #reat sur&a"e $ar at on 8ornament; m #ht e- st , th the des #n o& an a r%!ane* (ut the me"han "s ,h "h ena(!e &! #ht are (ound (' %h's "a! !a,s and hen"e so must the o$era!! physical
ED The Un ted Nat ons Food and A#r "u!ture Or#an 1at on and the Wor!d Food

Aro#ramme ha$e "on& rmed th s+ Th s s te s re"ommend &or re&eren"e< 8htt%<MMo$er%o%u!at on sam'th+"omM&ood.theres.!ots. tOheader.2; E6 Sour"e< ,*CB billion starving people worldwide, 9*"* Says 8htt%<MM,,,+ne,s.med "a!+netMne,sM455E5I4DM254.( !! on.star$ n#.%eo%!e. ,or!d, de.UN.sa's+as%-; 65

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

design o& the a r%!ane n order to &un"t on %ro%er!'+ /onstru"t n# su"h a ma"h ne to %er&orm a 0o( , th the #oa! o& o%t m 1ed %er&orman"e* sa&et' and e&& " en"' s not a matter o& o% n on* 0ust as no matter ho, man' ornaments ,e ma' %!a"e around our homes* the %h's "a! stru"ture o& the (u !d n# must adhere to the r # d !a,s o& %h's "s and natura! d'nam "s o& the ha( tat &or sa&et' and enduran"e and hen"e "an ha$e ! tt!e res%e"t $e $ar at on n a te"hn "a! sense+ The organi%ation of human society "an (e no d &&erent & the ntent on s nte#r t' and o%t m 1at on+ To th n7 o& the &un"t ona! nature o& a ,or7 n# so" et' s to th n7 a(out a mechanistic schematic* & 'ou , !!+ 3ust as ,e ,ou!d des #n an a r%!ane to ,or7 n the (est ,a' %oss (!e* te"hn "a!!'* so shou!d our a%%roa"h (e to the so" a! s'stem* ,h "h s e)ua!!' as te"hn "a! n ts needed &un"t ona! t'+ Un&ortunate!'* th s #enera! %ers%e"t $e has ne$er (een # $en a rea! "han"e n h stor' and toda' our ,or!d s st !! run n an n"on#ruous manner ,here the %r n" %a! n"ent $e s more a(out deta"hed* mmed ate* shorts #hted %ersona! #a n and d &&erent a! ad$anta#e than t s a(out %ro%er* strate# " ndustr a! methods* e"o!o# "a! a! #nment* so" a! sta( ! t'* %u(! " hea!th "ons derat ons and #enerat ona! susta na( ! t'+ Th s s a!! %o nted out* a#a n* (e"ause the Khuman nature” ar#ument a#a nst su"h an a%%roa"h s rea!!' the on!' seemingly te"hn "a! ar#ument that "an %oss (!' de&end the o!d s'stem ,e ha$e toda'U t s rea!!' the on!' ar#ument !e&t ,hen %eo%!e ,ho , sh to u%ho!d th s s'stem rea! 1e that noth n# e!se the' !o# "a!!' ar#ue "an %oss (!' (e $ a(!e # $en the rrat ona! t' nherent to e$er' other "!a m a#a nst a natural law based social model+ $rrationall+ *ound5 9o ! n# t do,n* th s "ha!!en#e "an (e "ons dered n one )uest on< KIs the human s%e" es a(!e to ada%t and thr $e n a te"hn "a!!' or#an 1ed s'stem* ,here our $a!ues and %ra"t "es a! #n , th the 7no,n !a,s o& nature n %ra"t "e* or are ,e "on& ned (' our #enes* ( o!o#' and e$o!ut onar' %s'"ho!o#' to o%erate n on!' the ,a' ,e 7no, toda'R” Wh !e man' toda' ar#ue the s%e" & "s o& the nature vs* nurture de(ate . &rom K(!an7 s!ate” (eha$ or smEH to #enet " determ n smEI . t has (e"ome "!ear* at a m n mum* that our ( o!o#'* our %s'"ho!o#' and
EH The not on o& the K9!an7 S!ate” ,as made %o%u!ar (' Thomas Ho((es (ut

"an (e ! n7ed (a"7 to the ,r t n#s o& Ar stot!e+ Th s s the dea that* n short* nd $ dua!s are (orn , thout (u !t. n menta! or entat on and e$er'th n# s !earned+ No, !ar#e!' de(un7ed as a (road $ e, due to %ro$en K%ro#rammed !earn n#” and humans? nherent Ke$o!ut onar' %s'"ho!o#'”* the dea st !! %ers sts n #enera!+ EI The $ e, that human (e n#s are su(stant a!!' more a&&e"ted (' Genes and 9 o!o#' than en$ ronmenta! "ond t on n# , th res%e"t to human (eha$ or s st !! a heated de(ate* not to ment on a &re)uent ntu t $e rea"t on (' man' to "erta n human %atterns+ The %hrase K t?s 0ust human nature” s a!! too o&ten tossed out (' the !a'man+ Authors su"h as Ste$en A n7er are nota(!e &or %romot n# the dom nan"e o& e$o!ut onar' %s'"ho!o#' o$er en$ ronmenta! "ond t on n#+ 62

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

our so" o!o# "a! "ond t on are ne-ora(!' ! n7ed to the en$ ronment ,e nha( t* (oth &rom the stand%o nt o& #enerat ona! e$o!ut onar' ada%tat on 8( o!o# "a! e$o!ut on;* to short.term ( ases and $a!ues ,e a(sor( &rom our en$ ronment 8"u!tura! e$o!ut on;+ So* (e&ore ,e #o nto deta ! on th s ssue* t s ,e!! ,orth not n# that our very definition as human (e n#s n the !on# and short. term $ e, s (ased u%on a %ro"ess o& adaptation to e- st n# "ond t ons* n"!ud n# the #enes themse!$es+EF Th s s not to d s"ount the %er."ase #enet " re!e$an"e tse!& (ut to h #h! #ht the process to ,h "h ,e are a %art* &or the #ene.en$ ronment re!at onsh % "an on!' (e "ons dered as an on#o n# ntera"t on* , th the out"omes !ar#e!' a resu!t o& the en$ ronmenta! "ond t ons n the !on# and short term+ I& th s ,asn?t the "ase* there s ! tt!e dou(t the human s%e" es ,ou!d ha$e ! 7e!' %er shed !on# a#o due to a &a !ure to ada%t+ Moreo$er* ,h !e t s "!ear ,e humans st !! a%%ear to ma nta n Khard, red”* %red "ta(!e rea"t ons &or ra,* %ersona! sur$ $a!*EG ,e ha$e a!so %ro$en the a( ! t' to e$o!$e our (eha$ ors throu#h thou#ht* a,areness and edu"at on*EE a!!o, n# us to* n &a"t* "ontro!Mo$er"ome those m%u!s $e* %r m t $e rea"t ons* & the "ond t ons &or su"h are su%%orted and re n&or"ed+ Th s s an e-treme!' m%ortant d st n"t on
EF An Kada%tat on” n ( o!o#' s a tra t , th a "urrent &un"t ona! ro!e n the ! &e

h stor' o& an or#an sm that s ma nta ned and e$o!$ed (' means o& ?natura! se!e"t on?+ In short* th s o""urs due to %ressures e- st n# on the or#an sm n the en$ ronment+ L 7e, se* Ke% #enet "s” s a &a r!' ne, a,areness and stud' o& her ta(!e "han#es n #ene e-%ress on or "e!!u!ar %henot'%e "aused (' me"han sms other than "han#es n the under!' n# DNA se)uen"e+ In short* t s a shorter.term Ke-%ress on” ada%tat on n&!uen"ed (' the en$ ronment as ,e!!+ As &ar as "u!ture* th s s s m%!er to understand+ For nstan"e* the !an#ua#e 'ou s%ea7 s an ada%tat on to the e- st n# "u!tura! #rou%* 0ust ! 7e the re! # on 'ou m #ht (e tau#ht and hen"e man' o& the $a!ues 'ou ho!d are d re"t!' a resu!t o& the "u!tura! "ond t ons 'ou are , th n+ EG The not on o& an K nst n"tua! rea"t on” "ou!d (e a%%! ed here+ Ho,e$er* the d &&erent at on o& ,hat s or sn?t nst n"tua! has (e"ome n"reas n#!' am( #uous n the stud' o& human (eha$ or+ :et* t s "!ear n a &undamenta! sense that there are $er' s%e" & " %atterns n "ommon re#ard n# the human s%e" es* es%e" a!!' n the "onte-t o& sur$ $a! and stress n&!uen"e+ Fa"ed , th %ress n# dan#er* $er' "ommon ( o!o# "a!Mendo"r no!o# "a! rea"t ons o""ur a!most un $ersa!!' and these o&ten #enerate (eha$ ora! %ro%ens t es ,h "h are a!so %red "ta(!e "ons stent!' a"ross the s%e" es as a ,ho!e+ EE The term K(eha$ ora! %!ast " t'” "an (e a%%! ed here as an e-tens on o& Kneuro%!ast " t'” ,h "h re&ers to a"t $e "han#es n neura! %ath,a's and s'na%ses+ 3ust as the (ra n used to (e "ons dered a stat " or#an* human (eha$ or J the e-%ress on o& (ra n a"t $ t' J "!ear!' a!so under#oes "han#e+ As "om%!e- a su(0e"t as K&ree., !!” and de" s on %ro"esses are to the %s'"ho!o# "a! s" en"es* the nature o& the human m nd sho,s "!ear ada%ta( ! t' and $u!nera( ! t' to n%ut "ond t ons+ Un! 7e our %r mate an"estors* our ad$an"ed Neo"orte- a%%ears to (e a "enter &or "ons" ous thou#ht and n the ,ords o& Dr+ Ro(ert Sa%o!s7'* Neuros" ent st &rom Stan&ord Un $ers t'< KOn a "erta n !e$e!* the nature o& our nature s not to (e %art "u!ar!' "onstra ned (' our nature+” 8&rom 4522 & !m Zeitgeist3 Moving (orward, Aeter 3ose%h; 64

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

and s ,hat se%arates the $ar an"e o& human (e n#s &rom the r !esser. e$o!$ed %r mate &am !' n man' ,a's+255 A )u "7 #!an"e at the d $ers t' n h stor "a! human "ondu"t ,e see throu#hout t me* "ontrasted , th the re!at $e!' s!o, %a"e o& !ar#er stru"tura! "han#es o& our (ra ns and DNA252 o$er the %ast "ou%!e o& thousand 'ears* sho,s that our ada%t $e "a%a" t' 8$ a thou#htMedu"at on; s enormous on the "u!tura! !e$e!+ It a%%ears that ,e are "a%a(!e o& man' %oss (!e (eha$ ors and that a & -ed Khuman nature”* as an una!tera(!e* un $ersa! set o& (eha$ ora! tra tsMrea"t ons shared (' a!! humans , thout e-"e%t on "annot (e he!d as $a! d+ Rather* there a%%ears to (e a s%e"trum o& %oss (!e (eha$ ors and %red "ta(!e rea"t ons* a!! more or !ess "ont n#ent u%on the t'%e o& de$e!o%ment* edu"at on* st mu! @ "ond t ons ,e e-%er en"e+ The social imperative n th s res%e"t "annot (e em%has 1ed enou#h &or en$ ronmenta! n&!uen"e s a mass $e &a"tor that #rooms not on!' our de" s on.ma7 n# %re&eren"es n (oth the !on# and short term* (ut the o$era!! en$ ronmenta! ntera"t on , th our ( o!o#' n #enera! a!so has %o,er&u! e&&e"ts on %ersona! ,e!!.(e n# and hen"e (road %u(! " hea!th n man' s%e" & " ,a's+ It has (een &ound that en$ ronmenta! "ond t ons* n"!ud n# &a"tors su"h as nutr t ona! n%ut*254 emot ona! se"ur t'*25D so" a! asso" at on*256 and a!! &orms o& stress n #enera! "an n&!uen"e the
255 Re&eren"e< Evolution of the neocortex3 a perspective from developmental

biology* Nature Re$ e,* 455E 8htt%<MM,,,+nature+"omMnrnM0ourna!M$25Mn25Ma(sMnrn4F2E+htm!; 252 DNA mutat on rates $ar' &rom s%e" es to s%e" es and ha$e h stor "a!!' (een $er' d && "u!t to est mate+ Toda'* , th =irect Se)uencing t s no, %oss (!e to so!ate e-a"t "han#es+ In a stud' %er&ormed n 455E* t,o d stant ma!e. ! ne re!at $es . se%arated (' th rteen #enerat ons . ,hose "ommon an"estor ! $ed t,o hundred 'ears a#o* ,ere se)uen"ed* & nd n# on!' 24 d &&eren"es amon# a!! the DNA !etters e-am ned+ KThe t,o : "hromosomes ,ere st !! dent "a! at 25*26E*5FD o& the 25*26E*5GH !etters e-am ned+ O& the 24 d &&eren"es+++on!' &our ,ere true mutat ons that had o""urred natura!!' throu#h the #enerat ons+” 8htt%<MM,,,+s" en"eda !'+"omMre!easesM455EM5GM5E5G4F24D425+htm; As &ar as the human #enome* t s est mated that the #enome m #ht under#o on!' a &e, 255 "han#es o$er tens o& thousands o& 'ears+ 254 A "!ass "a! e-am%!e s the KDut"h Hun#er W nter”+ A stud' tra"7 n# %eo%!e ,ho su&&ered se$ere ma!nutr t on as &etuses dur n# Wor!d War II &ound that n the r adu!t ! &e the' su&&ered &rom $ar ous meta(o! " s'ndromes and meta(o! sm %ro(!ems due to the K%ro#ramm n#” ,h "h o""urred dur n# that In Utero %er od+ Re&eren"e< (amine and >uman development3 The =utch hunger winter of ,F--$,F-G+ Ne, :or7* N:* US< O-&ord Un $ers t' Aress+ 25D Dr+ Ga(or MatB n h s ,or7 K!n the 'ealm of >ungry ?hosts” 8North At!ant " 9oo7s* 4524; %resents an enormous amount o& resear"h re#ard n# ho, ?emot ona! !oss? o""urr n# at 'oun# a#es a&&e"ts (eha$ or n !ater ! &e* s%e" & "a!!' the %ro%ens t' &or add "t ons+ 256 The re!e$an"e o& the nature o& so" a! ntera"t on s more %ro&ound than on"e thou#ht+ The "orre!at on (et,een d &&erent ma"ro.so" eta! &a"tors and %u(! " hea!th ssues su"h as ! &e e-%e"tan"'* menta! d sorder* o(es t'* heart d sease* $ o!en"e and man' other so" o!o# "a! ssues ,ere ,e!! summar 1ed n the (oo7 The Spirit +evel (' R "hard W !7 nson and Cate A "7ett* Aen#u n* 6D

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

human (e n# n man' more ,a's than %re$ ous!' thou#ht+ Th s %ro"ess (e# ns in utero* throu#h the sens t $e %ost.nata! and "h !dhood K%!anned !earn n#” ada%t on %er ods*25H and "arr es on throu#hout ! &e on a!! %h's o!o# "a! and %s'"ho!o# "a! !e$e!s+ For e-am%!e* ,h !e there s e$ den"e that de%ress on as a %s'"ho!o# "a! d sorder "an ha$e a #enet " %red s%os t on* t s the environment that rea!!' tr ##ers t or not+25I A#a n* th s s not to do,n%!a' the n&!uen"e o& ( o!o#' on our %ersona! t es (ut to sho, the "r t "a! m%ortan"e o& understand n# these rea! t es and adapting our social system and macro influences to support the most positive outcome we can* Changing The Condition The dea o& "han# n# so" et'?s n&!uen"esM%ressures to (r n# out the (est o& the human "ond t on rather than the ,orst s at the "ore o& the so" a! m%erat $e o& TZM and th s dea s sad!' !ost n the "u!ture?s so" a! "ons derat ons toda'+ Enormous e$ den"e e- sts to su%%ort ho, the n&!uen"e o& our en$ ronment s ,hat essent a!!' "reates our values and biases and ,h !e #enet " and %h's o!o# "a! n&!uen"es "an set %ro%ens t es and a""entuat ons &or "erta n (eha$ ors* the most a"t $e n&!uen"e re#ard n# our variability s the ! &e e-%er en"e and "ond t on o& the human (e n#* hen"e the manner o& ntera"t on (et,een the K nterna!” 8%h's o!o# "a!; and Ke-terna!” 8en$ ronmenta!;+ In the end* the most re!e$ant ssue s stress* Our #enes* ( o!o#' and e$o!ut onar' %s'"ho!o#' m #ht ha$e some han#.u%s* (ut the' are noth n# "om%ared to the en$ ronmenta! d sorder ,e ha$e "reated n our "u!ture+ The enorm t' o& no, unne"essar' stress n the ,or!d toda' J de(t* 0o( nse"ur t'* n"reas n# hea!th r s7s (oth menta! and %h's o!o# "a! . and man' other ssues ha$e "reated a "! mate o& unease that has (een n"reas n#!' ma7 n# %eo%!e s "7 and u%set+ I& ,e ,ere &a"ed , th an o%t on to ada%t our so" et' n a ,a' that "ou!d %ro$a(!' (etter %u(! " hea!th* n"rease so" a! sta( ! t'* #enerate a(undan"e and he!% susta na( ! t'* ,ou!d ,e not 0ust do tR To th n7 human (e n#s are s m%!' incompatible , th methods that "an n"rease the r standard o& ! $ n# and hea!th s e-treme!' un! 7e!'+ So* n "on"!us on to th s se"t on* !et t (e stated that the su(0e"t o& Khuman nature” s one o& the most "om%!e- ssues there s ,hen t "omes to s%e" & "s+ Ho,e$er* the (road and $ a(!e a,areness , th res%e"t to (as " %u(! " hea!th m%ro$ement $ a redu" n# stress* n"reas n# )ua! t' nutr t on and sta( ! 1 n# so" et' (' ,or7 n# to,ard
Mar"h 455E+
25H A un )ue stud' o& %remature n&ants n n"u(ators &ound that (' s m%!'

st mu!at n# them dur n# that t me 8or sho, n# Ka&&e"t on” (' s m%!e tou"h; the r !on#er term %h's o!o# "a! hea!th ,as #reat!' m%ro$ed "om%ared to those untou"hed+ Re&eren"e< Tactile.#inesthetic stimulation effects on preterm neonates, Aed atr "s* 2EGI 25I Re&eren"e< The Structure of ?enetic and Environmental 'is# (actors for ommon Psychiatric and Substance 9se =isorders in Men and 7omen, Ar"h Gen As'"h atr'+ 455DUI5 66

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

a(undan"e and ease rather than str &e and "om%!e- t' J s not sus"e%t (!e to mu"h de(ate+ We no, ha$e some re& ned truths a(out the human "ond t on that # $e enou#h e$ den"e to see that ,e are not on!' #enerat n# %oor rea"t ons and ha( ts due to the n&!uen"e o& the "urrent so" oe"onom " order* ,e are a!so #reat!' d sres%e"t n# the ha( tat as ,e!!* "reat n# not on!' a !a"7 o& susta na( ! t' n an e"o!o# "a! sense* (ut* a#a n* n a "u!tura! sense as ,e!!+ On"e a#a n* to th n7 humans are s m%!' n"om%at (!e , th these reso!ut ons* e$en & t means "han# n# our ,or!d #reat!'* de& es the !on# h stor' o& ada%tat on ,e ha$e %ro$en to (e "a%a(!e o&+

6H

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

PART $$% SOC$A( PAT-O(O!1 -DEF$"$"! P&*($C -EA(T-We are a!! res%ons (!e &or a!!+25F .Dosto'e$s7'

O/er/iew What s the true measure o& success &or a so" et'R What s t that ma7es us ha%%'* hea!th'* sta(!e and n (a!an"e , th the ,or!d around usR Is not our su""ess really our a( ! t' to understand and ada%t to the rea! t es o& our ,or!d &or the (est out"ome %oss (!e &or an' # $en " r"umstan"eR What & ,e ,ere to & nd that the $er' nature o& our so" a! s'stem ,as a"tua!!' reducing our )uality of life in the long termD As , !! (e ar#ued n th s essa'* modern so" a! stru"tures* $a!ues and %ra"t "es ha$e de$ ated a,a' &rom* or are !ar#e!' #norant o&* ,hat true so" eta! hea!th means+ What our so" a! nst tut ons toda' # $e %r or t' to or d s"ount (' des #n* "ou%!ed , th the #oa!s and mot $at ons asso" ated , th %ersona! Ksu""ess”* ,h "h are a!! too o&ten "!ear!' Kde"ou%!ed” &rom ,hat true life support and advancement means*25G s a su(0e"t # $en ! tt!e thou#ht&u! "ons derat on n the ,or!d toda'+ In &a"t* most K%ros%er t'” and K nte#r t'” measures &or the human "ond t on are no, ha%ha1ard!' e)uated to mere e"onom " (ase! nes su"h as GDA* AAI or em%!o'ment & #ures+ Sad!'* these measures te!! us $ rtua!!' noth n# a(out true human ,e!!(e n# and %ros%er t'+25E The term public health s a med "a! "!ass & "at on* essent a!!' de& ned as< Kthe a%%roa"h to med " ne that s "on"erned , th the hea!th o& the "ommun t' as a ,ho!e+”225 Wh !e o&ten narro,!' used n re!at onsh % to transm tta(!e d sease and (road so" a! "ond t ons* the "onte-t here , !! e-tend nto a!! as%e"ts o& our ! $es* n"!ud n# not on!' %h's o!o# "a! hea!th (ut menta! hea!th as ,e!!+ I& the $a!ue o& a so" a! s'stem s measured (' the hea!th o& ts " t 1enr' o$er t me* assess n# and "om%ar n# "ond t ons and "onse)uen"es throu#h s m%!e trend ana!'s s and &a"tor a""ount n# shou!d # $e ns #ht nto ,hat "an (e
25F Sour"e< Aara%hrased* &rom 2arama%ov /rothers* F'odor Dosto'e$s7', 25G The %o nt here re!ates to ho, modern so" et' re,ards and re n&or"es

2GG5* %D2I

"erta n (eha$ ors o$er others+ For nstan"e* n the Western Wor!d more & nan" a! re,ard "omes to non.%rodu" n# & nan" a! nst tut ons than &rom true #ood and ser$ "e %rodu"t on+ Th s has #enerated an n"ent $e %ro(!em* ,h "h a!so n"!udes en$ ronmenta! d sre#ard and the #nor n# o& %u(! " hea!th n #enera!+ As , !! (e a!!uded to !ater n th s te-t* the %s'"ho!o#' o& the mar7et e"onom' a"tua!!' opposes ! &e su%%ort+ 25E In re"ent 'ears other attem%ts ha$e (een made to )uant &' Kha%% ness” and ,e!!.(e n#* su"h as the ?ross "ational >appiness !ndicator 8GNH; ,h "h "ondu"ts measures $ a %er od " sur$e's 8htt%<MM,,,+#rossnat ona!ha%% ness+"omM; 225 Au(! " Hea!th de& ned< 8htt%<MM,,,+medterms+"omMs"r %tMma nMart+as%R art "!e7e'SH245; 6I

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

"han#ed or m%ro$ed on the so" a! !e$e!+ The "entra! "onte-t here s ho, the so" a! "ond t on tse!& . the so" oe"onom " s'stem . s a&&e"t n# human hea!th on the ,ho!e+ In the ,ords o& %h's " an Rudo!%h V r"ho,< KMed " ne s a so" a! s" en"e and %o! t "s noth n# (ut med " ne on a !ar#e s"a!e+”222 V r"ho, re"o#n 1ed that an' %u(! " hea!th ssue s n$ar a(!' re!ated to society as a ,ho!e+ Its stru"ture* "hara"ter st "s and $a!ue re n&or"ements ha$e a %ro&ound n&!uen"e on the hea!th and (eha$ or o& a so" et' and ar#uments re#ard n# the mer t o& ne, so" a! deas ne$ ta(!' "ome do,n to a rat ona! assessment o& )ua! t' throu#h "om%ar son+ S n"e ea"h res%e"t $e "om%onent o& %u(! " hea!th has ts o,n "hara"ter st "s and "ausa! t'* ,e "an a!so ,or7 to "ons der a!ternat $e a%%roa"hes to a # $en %ro(!em reso!ut on or m%ro$ement that m #ht not (e "urrent!' n %ra"t "e* (ut "!ear!' shou!d (e+ An ana!'s s o& "urrent %u(! " hea!th "om%onents to understand ,hat s ha%%en n# o$er t me and n d &&erent " r"umstan"es* "ou%!ed , th a %er "ase e$a!uat on o& ea"h ssue , th an n&erent a! "ons derat on o& ,hat "ou!d K& -” or K m%ro$e” these resu!ts on the !ar#est %oss (!e s"a!e* s the (as s o& the train of thought e-%ressed here+ It s the "on$ "t on o& TZM that the e- st n# so" a! mode! s a "ause o& Kso" a! %atho!o#'”* , th a %er%etuat on o& m(a!an"e that s unne"essar !' #enerat n# (oth %h's o!o# "a! and %s'"ho!o# "a! d sorders a"ross the %o%u!at on* not to ment on s'stem "a!!' ! m t n# human %otent a! and %ro(!em reso!ut on n man' ,a's+ O& "ourse* th s "onte-t a!so natura!!' e-tends nto environmental health* mean n# the state o& the %!anet* as su"h e"o!o# "a! %ro(!emsM%ressuresMa!!e$ at ons a!,a's ha$e an e&&e"t on our %u(! " hea!th n the !on#.term+ Ho,e$er* that , !! not (e a &o"us n th s essa'+ Th s ana!'s s , !! se%arate the su(0e"t o& %u(! " hea!th nto t,o #enera! "ate#or es . %h's o!o# "a! and %s'"ho!o# "a!224 . , th ea"h "ate#or' (ro7en nto "ate#or 1es that re%resent dom nant %ro(!ems seen n a re!e$ant %er"enta#e o& the o$era!! %o%u!at on+ Ho,e$er* !et t (e ,e!! understood that %h's o!o# "a! and %s'"ho!o# "a! out"omes rare!'* & e$er* ha$e s n#u!ar "auses+ There s a bio$psycho$social22D re!at onsh % to $ rtua!!' a!! human %henomena* !!um nat n#* on"e a#a n* the mu!t .!e$e! s'm( os s "hara"ter st " o& the human (e n#+ In
222 Sour"e< The Evolution of Social Medicine* Rudo!%h V r"ho,< Rosen G+* &rom

the >andboo# of Medical Sociology* Arent "e.Ha!!* 2EF4

224 So" o!o# "a! %henomena , !! (e #rou%ed n the As'"ho!o# "a! "ate#or' here

&or the sa7e o& s m%! " t'* as the resu!t o& a so" o!o# "a! "ond t on s the a##re#ate %s'"ho!o# "a! states o& nd $ dua!s+ 22D /io$Psycho$Social means the ntera"t on o& ( o!o# "a!* %s'"ho!o# "a! and so" o!o# "a! n&!uen"e on a # $en "onse)uen"e+ For e-am%!e* O(es t'* on the sur&a"e* s m%!' re!ates to eat n#+ I& a %erson eats too mu"h* the' #a n ,e #ht+ Ho,e$er* there s a !ar#e de#ree o& e$ den"e no, 8as , !! (e %resented !ater n th s essa'; that sho,s ho, a %erson?s %s'"ho!o#' "an (e e&&e"ted to "ra$e the comfort o& "onsum n# due to external &a"tors J su"h as a de%r $ed emot ona! h stor' or %oor (od !' ada%t on ,here (ad ha( ts are &ormed and e-%e"ted+ These !atter not ons* ,h "h n&!uen"e oneNs %s'"ho!o#'* are a resu!t o& the sociological "ond t on+ 6F

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

other ,ords* ,h !e the %ro(!em (e n# &o"used on m #ht (e "ons dered K%h's o!o# "a!” on the sur&a"e* the underlying cause o& that out"ome m #ht $er' ,e!! (e K%s'"ho!o# "a!” or Kso" o!o# "a!”* &or e-am%!e+ The Economic Factor As noted* the ma n thes s o& th s essa' s to sho, the dee% e&&e"t our #!o(a! so" oe"onom " s'stem has on %u(! " hea!th* , th a s%e" & " &o"us on the %o,er o& poverty, stress and ine)uality+ I& one ,as to ta7e a )u "7 #!an"e at the ma0or "auses o& death #!o(a!!'* as %ut &or,ard (' the Wor!d Hea!th Or#an 1at on*226 "!ear d &&eren"es (ased on the e"onom " state o& a re# on* su"h as the &a"t that "an"ers are more "ommon n h #h n"ome so" et es ,h !e d arrhoea! d seases are more "ommon n !o, n"ome so" et es* # $es ns #ht as to ho, the (road "onte-t o& so" oe"onom " %os t on "an a&&e"t %u(! " hea!th+ Mahatma Gandh on"e sa d KAo$ert' s the ,orst &orm o& $ o!en"e+”22H H s "onte-t re!ates to the unne"essar' deaths "aused (' %o$ert' n the sense o& the (road ! m tat ons su"h se$ere & nan" a! restr "t ons ha$e on hea!th+ Th s dea ,as !ater en"om%assed n the term structural violence,22I de& ned (' Dr+ 3ames G !! #an as K+++the n"reased rates o& death and d sa( ! t' su&&ered (' those ,ho o""u%' the (ottom run#s o& so" et'+” He d &&erent ates stru"tura! $ o!en"e &rom behavioral violence* ,here the &ormer Ko%erates "ont nuous!' rather than s%orad "a!!'”+22F A!ease note that the term K$ o!en"e” n th s "onte-t s not ! m ted to the usua! "!ass & "at on o& %h's "a! harm* su"h as %erson.to. %erson "om(at or a(use+ The "onte-t e-tends to n"!ude the o&ten unseen social oppression that* throu#h the "ha n o& "ausa! t' "hara"ter st "s nherent to our so" a! s'stem* !eads to the unne"essar' harm o& %eo%!e* (oth %h's "a!* %s'"ho!o# "a! or (oth+ E-am%!es o& th s "an ran#e &rom o($ ous to "om%!e- n the "ha n o& "ause and e&&e"t+ A s m%!e Kma"ro” e-am%!e ,ou!d (e the %re$a!en"e o& diarrhoeal d seases n %o$ert'.str "7en so" et es+ These d seases 7 !! a(out 2+H m !! on "h !dren ea"h 'ear+22G It s "om%!ete!' %re$enta(!e and treata(!e and ,h !e the n&e"t on tse!& s s%read throu#h "ontam nated &ood and dr n7 n#.,ater* or &rom %erson.to.%erson as a resu!t o& %oor h'# ene* ts $er' %re$enta( ! t' and rar t' n & rst ,or!d nat ons (' "om%ar son sho,s that the real cause s no, not the d sease tse!&* (ut the poverty condition that ena(!es t to &!our sh+
226 Sour"e< The top ,C causes of death* WHO* 452D

8htt%<MM,,,+,ho+ ntMmed a"entreM&a"tsheetsM&sD25MenM nde-+htm!; ultural, Economic, and Political (oundations for hange, Internat ona! Aea"e Asso" at on* 2EGG 22I Re&eren"e< 4n Empirical Table of Structural Violence* Gernot Coh!er and Norman A!"o"7* 2EFI htt%<MM0%r+sa#e%u(+"omM"ontentM2DM6MD6D+e-tra"t 22F Sour"e< Violence* 3ames G !! #an* GrossetMAutnam* Ne, :or7* 2EE4* %+2E4 22G Sour"e< =iarrhoeal disease* WHO* 452D 8htt%<MM,,,+,ho+ ntMmed a"entreM&a"tsheetsM&sDD5MenM nde-+htm!;
22H Sour"e< [uoted n 4 &ust Peace through Transformation3

6G

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Ho,e$er* the "ausa! t' doesnNt sto% there+ We then need to as7 the )uest on< K,hat s "aus n# the %o$ert'R” A more a(stra"t Km "ro” e-am%!e ,ou!d (e human de$e!o%ment %ro(!ems ,hen ad$erse %ressures n &am !' or "ommun t' stru"tures o""ur+ Ima# ne a s n#!e mother ,ho* due to the & nan" a! need to ra se her "h !d* must ,or7 &or n"ome a #reat dea! n order to ma7e ends meet* ! m t n# her a$a !a( ! t' &or the "h !d %ersona!!'+ The %ressures not on!' redu"e needed su%%ort and #u dan"e &or the "h !d?s de$e!o%ment* she a!so de$e!o%s tenden" es &or de%ress on and an- et' due to the on#o n# stress o& de(t* ( !!s and the ! 7e* and &rustrat on.dr $en a(use (e# ns to mater a! 1e n the &am !'+ Th s then "auses se$ere emotional loss22E n the "h !d and the de$e!o%ment o& neurot " and unhea!th' menta! states emer#e* su"h as a %ro%ens t' &or dru# add "t on+245 :ears !ater* st !! su&&er n# &rom the %a n &e!t n those ear!' %er ods* the no, adu!t "h !d d es n a hero n o$erdose+ [uest on< ,hat "aused the o$erdoseR The hero nR The mother?s n&!uen"eR Or the e"onom " " r"umstan"e the mother &ound herse!& ,h "h d sa!!o,ed (a!an"e and thou#ht&u! "are o& her "h !dR242 /!ear!'* there s no uto% a &or the human "ond t on and to th n7 ,e "an ad0ust the so" oe"onom " s'stem to th,art a!! su"h Kstru"tura!!'” re!ated ssues* ma"ro and m "ro* 255> o& the t me* s a(surd+ Ho,e$er* ,hat is possible s a dramat " m%ro$ement o& su"h %u(! " hea!th %ro(!ems (' sh &t n# the nature o& the so" oe"onom " "ond t on n the most strate# " manner ,e "an+ As ,e %ro"eed , th the %er "ase ana!'s s o& ma0or menta! and %h's "a! d sorders n the ,or!d* t , !! (e &ound that the true m%erat $e &or %u(! " hea!th m%ro$ement rests a!most ent re!' on th s so" oe"onom " %rem se o& "ausa! t'+244 A""ord n# to Gernot Coh!er and Norman A!"o"7 n the r 2EFI ,or7 4n Empirical Table of Structural Violence* a dramat " 2G m !! on
22E The term emotional loss re!ates to se$ere emot ona! trauma e-%er en"ed*

most!' as a "h !d* that %ers st n e&&e"t+ In the ,ords o& Dr+ Ga(or MatB KThe #reatest dama#e done (' ne#!e"t* trauma or emotional loss s not the mmed ate %a n the' n&! "t (ut the !on#.term d stort ons the' ndu"e n the ,a' a de$e!o% n# "h !d , !! "ont nue to nter%ret the ,or!d and her s tuat on n t+” !n the 'ealm of >ungry ?hosts”* North At!ant " 9oo7s* 4524* %+H24 245 As noted %r or* the ,or7 o& Ga(or MatB s h #h!' re"ommended on the su(0e"t o& add "t on resu!t n# &rom emot ona! !oss n "h !dhood and &ee! n#s o& nse"ur t'+ K!n the 'ealm of >ungry ?hosts”* North At!ant " 9oo7s* 4524 242 The ,or7 Mental !llness and the Economy, (' M+H+ 9renner s re"ommended+ A(stra"t< K9' "orre!at n# e-tens $e e"onom " and nst tut ona! data &rom Ne, :or7 State &or the %er od &rom 2G62 to 2EIF* Har$e' 9renner "on"!udes that nsta( ! t es n the nat ona! e"onom' are the s n#!e most m%ortant sour"e o& &!u"tuat ons n menta!.hos% ta! adm ss ons or adm ss on rates+” 244 A stud' &or re&eren"e n the same (as " "onte-t s The Effect of 2nown 'is# (actors on the Excess Mortality of /lac# 4dults in the 9nited States, 3ourna! o& the Amer "an Med "a! Asso" at on* 4ID8I;<G6H.GH5* 2EE5+ Th s e% dem o!o# "a! stud' &ound that t,o.th rds o& A&r "an.Amer "an deaths noted n "onte-t "ou!d on!' (e a""ounted &or due to low socioeconomic status itself and ts d re"tM nd re"t "onse)uen"es+ 6E

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

deaths ,ere &ound to o""ur each year due to stru"tura! $ o!en"e24D and that stud' ,as o$er D5 'ears a#o+ S n"e that t me the #!o(a! #a% (et,een r "h and %oor has more than dou(!ed* su##est n# no, that the death to!! s e$en mu"h h #her toda'+ In e&&e"t* stru"tura! $ o!en"e s the most dead!' 7 !!er on the %!anet+ The &o!!o, n# "hart sho,s rates o& death o& a s%e" & " demo#ra%h "* re$ea! n# the more (road "orre!at on o& !o,. n"ome and n"reased morta! t'+

8A(o$e; G+ D+ Sm th* 3+ D+ Neaton* D+ Went,orth* R+ Stam!er and 3+ Stam!er* WSo" oe"onom " d &&erent a!s n morta! t' r s7 amon# men s"reened &or the Mu!t %!e R s7 Fa"tor Inter$ent on Tr a!< I+ Wh te menN* 4merican &ournal of Public >ealth 82EEI; GI 86;< 6GI.EI+

Ph+siological -ealth The "ore %h's o!o# "a! %ro(!ems o& the human %o%u!at on toda' n"!ude maEor morta! t' %rodu" n# e% dem "s su"h as "an"er* heart d sease* stro7e* et"+ Re!at $e!' minor %ro(!ems that not on!' redu"e )ua! t' o& ! &e* (ut a!so o&ten %re"ede those ma0or !!nesses n"!ude h #h (!ood %ressure* o(es t' and other ssues that* ,h !e !ess "r t "a! (' "om%ar son* are st !! usua!!' a %art o& the %ro"ess that "an !ead to ma0or !!nesses and death o$er t me+246 A#a n* t s m%ortant to remem(er that the "ausa! t' o& these K%h's "a!” d seases s not str "t!' K%h's "a!” n the narro, sense o& the ,ord as modern stud' has &ound dee% psychosocial24H stress
24D Sour"e< 4n Empirical Table of Structural Violence* Gernot Coh!er and 246 Re&eren"e< 4s obesity rates rise, chief heart surgeon sees more high$ris#

Norman A!"o"7* 2EFI

patients in operating room, /a t! n Heane'* 4524 8htt%<MMthet mes. tr (une+"omM! &est'!es.%eo%!eMas.o(es t'.rates.r se."h e&.heart.sur#eon. sees.more.h #h.r s7.%at ents. n.o%erat n#.room.2+2DFE44D; 24H Psychosocial de& ned< In$o!$ n# as%e"ts o& (oth so" a! and %s'"ho!o# "a! (eha$ orU Interre!at onsh % 8htt%<MMmed "a!. d "t onar'+the&reed "t onar'+"omM%s'"hoso" a!; H5

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

re!at onsh %s to seem n#!' deta"hed %h's o!o# "a! ssues+ A""ord n# to the Wor!d Hea!th Or#an 1at on* the most "ommon shared ma0or "auses o& death n !o,* m dd!e and h #h. n"ome "ountr es are heart d sease* !o,er res% rator' n&e"t ons* stro7e and "an"er+24I Wh !e ea"h o& these !!nesses 8and man' more; "an (e &ound re!ated to the "ausa! %o nts that &o!!o,* &or s m%! " t es sa7e heart d sease , !! (e a &o"us here+ Case Stud+% -eart Disease Wh !e the treatment o& heart d sease has !ed to a re"ent m !d #!o(a! de"! ne n heart atta"7s and deaths o$era!!*24F the d a#nos s o& heart d sease has not su(s ded and (' some re# ona! stud es s on the r se*24G or on %a"e to n"reas n# su(stant a!!'+24E /oronar' heart d sease s st !! "ons dered (' the WHO as the K!ead n# "ause o& death” #!o(a!!'2D5 and t has (een &ound that ,h !e there are #enet " &a"tors n %!a'* E5> o& those d' n# Kha$e r s7 &a"tors n&!uen"ed (' ! &est'!e”2D2 and o$era!! the d sease s , de!' "ons dered preventable & ! &est'!e ad0ustments are made+ In short* ,e!! esta(! shed re!at onsh %s to h #h &at d ets* smo7 n#* a!"oho!* o(es t'* h #h "ho!estero!* d a(etes and other r s7 &a"tors a!!o, us to e-tend the "ausa! t' o& heart d sease and ,hen ,e &o!!o, the n&!uen"es* the most %ro&ound (road n&!uen"e &ound has to do not on!' , th absolute income, (ut relative socioeconomic status+ The WHO ma7es t #enera!!' "!ear that on the #!o(a! s"a!e* !o,er so" oe"onom " status (reeds more heart d sease and natura!!' more o& the r s7 &a"tors that !ead to t+2D4 Th s* on one s de* de% "ts a direct economic relationship to the o""urren"e o& d sease+ There s no e$ den"e to sho, that #enet " d &&eren"es (et,een re# ona! #rou%s "ou!d (e res%ons (!e &or these $ar at ons and t s o($ ous to see ho, a !a"7 o& %ur"has n# %o,er !eads %eo%!e nto ! &est'!es that n"!ude man' su"h r s7 &a"tors+ A 455E stud' n the Amer "an 3ourna! o& E% dem o!o#' "a!!ed KL &e./ourse So" oe"onom " Aos t on and In" den"e o& /oronar' Heart D sease” &ound that the !on#er a %erson rema ns n %o$ert'* the more

24I The top ten causes of death, WHO* 452D 24F 9*S* Trends in >eart =isease,

8htt%<MM,,,+,ho+ ntMmed a"entreM&a"tsheetsM&sD25MenM nde-+htm!; ancer, and Stro#e* Ao%u!at on Re&eren"e 9ureau* 8htt%<MM,,,+%r(+or#MArt "!esM4554MUSTrends nHeartD sease/an"erandStro7 e+as%-; 24G >eart disease to rise BGH by BCBC, 9e!&ast Te!e#ra%h* 4524 8htt%<MM,,,+(e!&astte!e#ra%h+"o+u7Mne,sM!o"a!.nat ona!Mnorthern. re!andMheart.d sease.to.r se.4H.('.4545.2I2FF625+htm!; 24E "ew European Statistics 'eleased <n >eart =isease and Stro#e, S" en"e Da !'* 4524 8htt%<MM,,,+s" en"eda !'+"omMre!easesM4524M5EM245E4E2654DI+htm; 2D5 The 4tlas of >eart =isease and Stro#e* WHO @ /D/* Aart D* ?lobal /urden of oronary >eart =isease 2D2 I( d+ 2D4 I( d+* /ha%ter 22* Socioeconomic Status H2

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

! 7e!' he or she s to de$e!o% heart d sease+2DD Aeo%!e ,ho ,ere e"onom "a!!' d sad$anta#ed throu#hout ! &e ,ere more ! 7e!' to smo7e* (e o(ese* and ha$e %oor d ets and the ! 7e+ In an ear! er stud' (' e% dem o!o# st Dr+ Ra!%h R+ Frer "hs* &o"us n# s%e" & "a!!' on the so" oe"onom " d $ de n the " t' o& Los An#e!es* /A* &ound that the death rate &rom heart d sease ,as -C percent higher &or %oor men o$er a!! than &or ,ea!th er ones+2D6 G $en our or # na! thes s to "ons der a ! n7 &rom the so" a! s'stem tse!& to the %re$a!en"e o& d sease and the r asso" ated r s7 &a"tors* ,e need to "ons der the d re"t re!at onsh % o& stress @ purchasing power* 9e# nn n# , th the !atter* ,h "h s more s m%!e* "!ear!' %oor hea!th ha( ts o""ur n !o,er n"ome en$ ronments due to the !a"7 o& &unds &or (etter nutr t on*2DH med "a! attent on2DI and edu"at on+2DF For e-am%!e* man' o& the h #h &at* h #h sod um r s7 &a"tor &oods !ead n# to heart d sease tend to (e the most ne-%ens $e &ood &ound n stores+ It s ,orth not n# that our so" oe"onom " mode! %rodu"es #oods (ased u%on the %ur"has n# %o,er o& tar#eted demo#ra%h "s+ The de" s on to %rodu"e %oor )ua! t' &ood #oods s made &or the nterest o& profit and s n"e the $ast ma0or t' o& the %!anet s re!at $e!' %oor* t s no sur%r se that n order to meet that mar7et* )ua! t' must (e redu"ed to a!!o, &or "om%et t $e (u' n#+ In other ,ords* there s a mar7et &or ea"h so" a! "!ass and natura!!' the !o,er the "!ass* the !o,er the )ua! t'+ Th s rea! t' s an e-am%!e o& a direct social system lin# to causality for heart disease+ Wh !e edu"at on a(out the d &&eren"e (et,een )ua! t' &ood %rodu"ts "ou!d he!% the de" s on %ro"ess o& a %oor %erson to eat (etter* the & nan" a! restr "t ons nherent to the r "ond t on "ou!d eas !' ma7e that de" s on d && "u!t & not m%oss (!e as* a#a n* su"h #oods are more e-%ens $e on a$era#e+ In an a#e ,here &ood %rodu"t on and human nutr t on s a ,e!!
2DD +ife$ ourse Socioeconomic Position and !ncidence of

oronary >eart =isease* Amer "an 3ourna! o& E% dem o!o#'* A%r ! 2* 455E+ 8htt%<MMa0e+o-&ord0ourna!s+or#M"ontentMear!'M455EM52M4EMa0e+7,n65D; 2D6 >eart =isease Tied to Poverty, "ew 6or# Times, ,FIG 8htt%<MM,,,+n't mes+"omM2EGHM54M46MusMheart.d sease.t ed.to. %o$ert'+htm!; 2DH [uote &rom the stud' an +ow$!ncome 4mericans 4fford a >ealthy =ietD3 KMan' nutr t ona! %ro&ess ona!s (e! e$e that a!! Amer "ans* re#ard!ess o& n"ome* ha$e a""ess to a nutr t ous d et o& ,ho!e #ra ns* !ean meats* and &resh $e#eta(!es and &ru t+ In rea! t'* &ood %r "es %ose a s #n & "ant (arr er &or man' "onsumers ,ho are tr' n# to (a!an"e #ood nutr t on , th a&&orda( ! t'+” 8htt%<MM,,,+n"( +n!m+n h+#o$M%m"Mart "!esMAM/4G6FFDDM; 2DI Re&eren"e< Medical costs push millions of people into poverty across the globe* WHO 8htt%<MM,,,+,ho+ ntMmed a"entreMne,sMre!easesM455HM%rIHMenM nde-+htm!; 2DF Re&eren"e< Education ?ap ?rows /etween 'ich and Poor, Studies Say, Ne, :or7 T mes* 4524 8htt%<MM,,,+n't mes+"omM4524M54M25Medu"at onMedu"at on.#a%.#ro,s. (et,een.r "h.and.%oor.stud es.sho,+htm!R%a#e,antedSa!!; H4

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

understood s" ent & " %henomenon as &ar as ,hat ,or7s and ,hat doesnNt . ,hat s hea!th' and ,hat sn?t on the ,ho!e . ,e ha$e to ,onder ,h' the a(undan"e o& de! (erate!' unhea!th' &oods and detr menta! ndustr a! methods e- st at a!!+ The reason n# s that human hea!th s not the %ursu t o& ndustr a! &ood %rodu"t on and ne$er has (een due to the so!ated nterest to #enerate n"ome+ More on th s incentive disorder nherent to the mar7et e"onom' n !ater essa's+ The Stress Factor Let?s no, "ons der the ro!e o& stress* Stress has more o& an e&&e"t on heart d sease than %re$ ous!' thou#ht and th s sn?t 0ust re&err n# to the stat st "a! &a"t that !o,er n"ome %eo%!es tend to ha$e a %ro%ens t' to "o%e (' smo7 n# andMor dr n7 n#* man &est n# h #h (!ood %ressure and hen"e d sre#ard the r (od es and ,e!!.(e n# due to the on#o n# stru##!e &or n"ome and sur$ $a!+ Wh !e those &a"tors are "!ear!' e$ dent and* a#a n* &ound t ed to the ne$ ta(!e strat & "at on &ound n the mar7et e"onom'*2DG the most detr menta! &orm o& stress "omes n the &orm o& psychosocial stress* mean n# stress re!ated to one?s %s'"ho!o# "a! "onne"t on , th the so" a! en$ ronment+ Aro&essor M "hae! Marmot o& the De%artment o& E% dem o!o#' and Au(! " Hea!th at the Un $ers t' /o!!e#e o& London d re"ted t,o m%ortant stud es re!at n# so" a! status to hea!th+2DE Us n# the 9r t sh " $ ! ser$ "e s'stem as the su(0e"t #rou%* the' &ound that the #rad ent o& hea!th )ua! t' n ndustr a! 1ed so" et es s not s m%!' 0ust a matter o& %oor hea!th &or the & nan" a!!' d sad$anta#ed and #ood hea!th &or e$er'one e!se+ The' &ound that there ,as a!so a social distribution of disease as 'ou ,ent &rom the to% o& the so" oe"onom " !adder* to the (ottom and the t'%es o& d seases %eo%!e ,ou!d #et ,ou!d "han#e on a$era#e+ For e-am%!e the !o,est run#s o& the h erar"h' had a fourfold increase o& heart d sease (ased morta! t'* "om%ared to the h #hest run#s+ E$en n a "ountr' , th un $ersa! hea!th "are* the ,orse a %erson?s & nan" a! status and %os t on n the h erar"h'* the ,orse the r hea!th s #o n# to (e on a$era#e+ The reason s essent a!!' %s'"ho!o# "a! as t has (een &ound that the more strat & ed a # $en so" et'* the ,orse %u(! " hea!th s n #enera!* specifically &or the !o,er
2DG /!ass strat & "at on s an mmuta(!e %art o& the "urrent so" oe"onom " mode!

due to (oth the n"ent $e s'stem #enerated that d s%ro%ort onate!' d str (utes n"ome* strate# "a!!' &a$or n# the u%%er t ers o& the h erar"h' J su"h as n 455F* /h e& e-e"ut $es o& the !ar#est DIH US "om%an es re"e $ed ,e!! o$er GCC times the %a' o& the a$era#e em%!o'ee+ Th s "an (e "ou%!ed , th %ra"t "es o& ma"roe"onom " monetar' %o! "' that stru"tura!!' re,ard the ,ea!th' and %un sh the %oor throu#h the interest system+ 8The ,ea!th' #a n nterest n"ome o&& n$estment ,h !e the %oor* !a"7 n# n$estment "a% ta!* ta7e !oans &or the ma0or t' o& !ar#e %ur"hases* %a' n# nterest+ Aut n a(stra"t on* the %oor are &or"ed to # $e the r "h the r mone' throu#h th s me"han sm+; 2DE Wh teha!! Stud' I @ II* 8htt%<MM,,,+u"!+a"+u7M,h teha!!IIM; A!so see< Epidemiology of socioeconomic status and health, M+ Marmot 8htt%<MM,,,+n"( +n!m+n h+#o$M%u(medM25IG2GGH; HD

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

"!asses+265 Th s %attern has (een "orro(orated (' man' other stud es o$er the 'ears* n"!ud n# a dee% "o!!e"t on o& resear"h or#an 1ed (' R "hard W !7 nson and Cate A "7ett+ In the r ,or7* The Spirit +evel 1 7hy E)uality is /etter for Everyone* the' sour"e hundreds o& e% dem o!o# "a! stud es on the ssue* out! n n# ho, more une)ua! so" et es %er%etuate a $ast arra' o& %u(! " hea!th %ro(!ems* (oth %h's o!o# "a! and %s'"ho!o# "a!+ Heart d sease as de* some "an"ers* "hron " !un# d sease* #astro ntest na! d sease* (a"7 %a n* o(es t'* h #h (!ood %ressure* !o, ! &e e-%e"tan"' and man' other %ro(!ems are a!so no, &ound to (e ! n7ed to so" oe"onom " status n the (road $ e,* not 0ust s n#u!ar r s7 &a"tors+262 There s a social gradient n hea!th )ua! t' a"ross so" et' and ,here ,e are %!a"ed n re!at on to other %eo%!e has a %o,er&u! psychosocial e&&e"t+ Those a(o$e us ha$e (etter hea!th on a$era#e ,h !e those (e!o, us ha$e ,orse hea!th on a$era#e+264 In &a"t* a stat st "a! "om%ar son o& %u(! " hea!th (et,een "ountr es , th h #h !e$e!s o& n"ome ne)ua! t' 8su"h as the Un ted States; and those , th !o,er !e$e!s o& n"ome ne)ua! t' 8su"h as 3a%an; re$ea!s these truths )u te o($ ous!'+26D Ho,e$er* su"h #enera!!' deemed K%h's "a!” !!nesses are on!' %art o& the public health crisis #enerated (' ne)ua! t' that* a#a n* s 'et a "onse)uen"e unto tse!& or # nat n# out o& the d re"t* immutable strat & "at on nherent to our #!o(a! so" a! s'stem+ Ps+chological -ealth Aerha%s more %ro&ound n ts %u(! " hea!th m%! "at on s the resu!t o& so" a! ne)ua! t' on our menta! or %s'"ho!o# "a! hea!th+ Th s e-tends nto (eha$ ora! rea"t ons and tenden" es su"h as a"ts o& $ o!en"e or a(use* a!on# , th emot ona! ssues ! 7e de%ress on* an- et' and %ersona! t' d sorders+ A #enera! trend assessment o& de%ress on and an- et' n de$e!o%ed "ountr es* "ountr es that man' ntu t $e!' ,ou!d th n7 ,ou!d ha$e more 0o' and ease due to the mater a! ,ea!th a$a !a(!e* re$ea!s a mu"h d &&erent rea! t'+266 26H A 9r t sh stud' e-am n n# de%ress on
265 I( d+ 262 A )ua! & er here to note s that th s %henomenon re!ates more so to

re!at $e!' ,ea!th' so" et es n #enera! than t does to nherent!' %o$ert' str "7en so" et es+ 264 Re&eren"e< Social =eterminants of >ealth3 The Solid (acts* R+G+ W !7 nson @ M+ Marmot* Wor!d Hea!th Or#an 1at on* 455I 26D A summar' ADF o& re#ress on ! ne "harts e-tra"ted &rom the ,or7 o& R+ W !7 nson and C+ A "7ett "an (e &ound here &or re&eren"e< htt%<MM,,,+tantor+"omME-trasM95H5HVS% r tLe$e!M95H5HVS% r tLe$e!VADFV2+ %d& 266 Re&eren"e< The =ramatic 'ise of 4nxiety and =epression in hildren and 4dolescents* Aeter Gra'* 4524 8htt%<MM,,,+%s'"ho!o#'toda'+"omM(!o#M&reedom.!earnM452552Mthe. dramat ".r se.an- et'.and.de%ress on. n."h !dren.and.ado!es"ents. s. t; 26H 4nxiety =isorders 4re Sharply on the 'ise, T m Gusta&son R+D H6

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

amon# %eo%!e n the r 45s &ound that t ,as t, "e as "ommon n 2EF5 than t ,as n 2EHG+26I An Amer "an stud' o& a(out ID*F55 "o!!e#e students &ound that & $e t mes as man' 'oun# adu!ts are dea! n# , th h #her !e$e!s o& an- et' than n the !ate 2ED5s+26F A 4522 stud' %resented at the Amer "an As'"ho!o# "a! Asso" at on sho,ed that menta! !!ness ,as more "ommon amon# "o!!e#e students than t ,as a de"ade a#o+26G As'"ho!o# st 3ean T,en#e o& San D e#o Un $ers t' !o"ated 4IE re!ated stud es measur n# an- et' n the Un ted States sour"ed (et,een 2EH4 and 2EED and the a##re#ate assessment sho,s a dramat "a!!' "!ear trend n the r se o& an- et' o$er th s %er od* , th* &or e-am%!e* the "on"!us on that (' the !ate 2EG5s the average Amer "an "h !d ,as more an- ous than "h !d psychiatric patients n the 2EH5s+26E A 4522 N/HS re%ort re$ea!ed that the rate o& ant de%ressant use n Amer "a amon# teens and adu!ts 8%eo%!e a#es 24 and o!der; n"reased (' a!most 655> (et,een 2EGGJ2EE6 and 455HJ455G+ Ant de%ressants ,ere the th rd most "ommon %res"r %t on med "at on ta7en (' Amer "ans n 455HJ455G+2H5 Wh !e a #enet " "om%onent &or de%ress on ma' ha$e re!e$an"e* the trend rate "!ear!' sho,s an en$ ronmenta! "ausa! t' as the dr $ n# &or"e+ In the ,ords o& R "hard W !7 nson< KXAY!thou#h %eo%!e , th menta! !!ness somet mes ha$e "han#es n the !e$e!s o& "erta n "hem "a!s n the (ra n* no(od' has sho,n that these are causes o& de%ress on* rather than changes "aused (' de%ress on+++a!thou#h some #enet " $u!nera( ! t' ma' under! e some menta! !!ness* th s "an?t (' tse!& e-%!a n the hu#e r ses n !!ness n re"ent de"ades . our #enes "an not "han#e that &ast+K2H2 It a%%ears our re!at $e so" a! status has a %ro&ound e&&e"t on our menta! ,e!!(e n# and th s tenden"' "an a!so (e &ound n ,hat "ou!d (e de"!ared as the evolutionary psychology o& s m !ar %r mates as ,e!!+ A 4554 stud' %er&ormed , th ma"a)ue mon7e's &ound that those ,ho ,ere su(ord nateM!o,er n a # $en so" a! h erar"h' had !ess do%am ne a"t $ t' than the dom nant ones and th s re!at onsh % ,ou!d
8htt%<MMt m #usta&son+"omM4522Man- et'.d sorders.are.shar%!'.on.the.r seM;
26I Time Trends in child and adolescent mental health* Mau#han* /o!! sha,*

Goodman @ A "7!es* 3ourna! o& /h !d As'"ho!o#' and As'"h atr'* 4556

26F Sour" n# the 4nxiety =isorders 4ssociation of 4merica* th s art "!e s a

re"ommend summat on< htt%<MM,,,+msn("+msn+"omM dMDEDDHI4GMnsMhea!th.menta!Vhea!thMtM,h'. are.an- et'.d sorders.amon#.,omen.r seMO+UIEARoU%1Z# 26G =epression <n The 'ise !n ollege Students* NAR* 4522 8htt%<MM,,,+n%r+or#M4522M52M2FM2D4ED6H6DMde%ress on.on.the.r se. n. "o!!e#e.students; 26E The age of anxietyD /irth cohort change in anxiety and neuroticism* 3+M+ T,en#e* 3ourna! o& Aersona! t' and So" a! As'"ho!o#'* 455F 2H5 4ntidepressant 9se in Persons 4ged ,B and <ver3 9nited States, BCCG1 BCCI* Laura A+ Aratt* N/HS* O"t 4522 8htt%<MM,,,+"d"+#o$Mn"hsMdataMdata(r e&sMd(FI+htm; 2H2 The Spirit +evel (' R "hard W !7 nson and Cate A "7ett* Aen#u n* Mar"h 455E* %+IH HH

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

"han#e as d &&erent sets ,ere re#rou%ed+ In other ,ords* t had noth n# to do , th the r s%e" & " ( o!o#' J on!' the so" a! arran#ement that redu"ed or e!e$ated the r do%am ne !e$e!s+ It a!so &ound that !o,er h erar"h' mon7e's ,ou!d use more "o"a ne to "om%ensate+ Th s s re$ea! n# as !o, do%am ne !e$e!s n %r mates 8 n"!ud n# humans; are &ound to ha$e a direct correlation to depression+2H4 The %attern has (e"ome $er' "!ear and ,h !e d re"t stressors su"h as 0o( se"ur t'* de(t and other !ar#e!' e"onom " &a"tors nherent to the so" a! s'stem ma' %!a' a ma0or ro!e*2HD the re!e$an"e o& so" oe"onom " status tse!& s st !! dom nant+ The &o!!o, n# "hart s a "om%ar son o& o$era!! menta! hea!th and dru# use (' "ountr'+2H6 It n"!udes n ne "ountr es* sour" n# data &rom WHO sur$e's* n"!ud n# an- et' d sorders* mood d sorders* m%u!s $e d sorders* add "t ons and others+ One "an "!ear!' see that the Un ted States* ,h "h a!so has the h #hest !e$e! o& ne)ua! t'* has an enormous !e$e! o& menta! hea!th and dru# d sorders as ,e!! n "om%ar son to the !ess strat & ed "ountr es* , th Ita!' (e n# the !o,est n menta! hea!th d sorders o& the #rou%+

E$en perceived so" a! status* su"h as the caste re!at onsh %s &ound n "ountr es ! 7e Ind a* "an ha$e a %ro&ound e&&e"t on "on& den"e and (eha$ or+ A stud' %er&ormed n 4556 "om%ared the %ro(!em. so!$ n# a( ! t es o& D42 h #h "aste Ind an (o's a#a nst those o& D42 !o, "aste Ind an (o's+ The resu!ts demonstrated that ,hen "aste ,as not %u(! "!' announ"ed (e&ore the %ro(!em so!$ n# (e#an* (oth sets o&
2H4 Social dominance in mon#eys3 dopamine =B receptors and cocaine self$

administration* Mor#an @ Grant* Nature Neuros" en"e* 4554 H84;< %+2IE.F6 The Inde%endent* Au# 2H 4524 Mar"h 455E* %+IF

2HD Suicide rates roc#et in wa#e of economic downturn recession* N na La7han * 2H6 /hart &rom The Spirit +evel (' R "hard W !7 nson and Cate A "7ett* Aen#u n*

HI

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

(o's a"h e$ed s m !ar resu!ts+ The se"ond round* (e&ore ,h "h the "aste o& ea"h #rou% ,as %u(! "!' announ"ed* the !o,er "aste #rou% &ared mu"h ,orse* and the h #her "aste mu"h (etter* %rodu" n# $er' d $er#ent data "om%ared , th the & rst round+2HH Aeo%!e are #reat!' n&!uen"ed (' the r %er"e $ed status n the r so" et' and o&ten when we expect to be viewed as inferior, very often we perform as such*

In "on"!us on to th s su(se"t on re#ard n# the %s'"hoso" a!* ne)ua! t'.(ased %henomenon that sho,s a "!ear re!at onsh % to %s'"ho!o# "a! ,e!!(e n#* t s m%ortant to )u "7!' ma7e "!ear the $ast range of issues &ound re!ated+ When t "omes to edu"at on* so" a! "a% ta! 8trust;* o(es t'* ! &e e-%e"tan"'* teen ( rth* m%r sonment and %un shment* so" a! mo( ! t'* o%%ortun t'* and e$en nno$at on J "ountr es , th !ess n"ome ne)ua! t' do (etter than those , th more n"ome ne)ua! t'+ Aut another ,a'* the' are more healthy so" et es+2HI Case Stud+% *eha/ioral 'iolence /ou%!ed , th the a(o$e ssues re!at n# to ne)ua! t' n so" et'* there s one that deser$es a dee%er !oo7< behavioral violence+ /r m na! %s'"ho!o# "a! Dr+ 3ames G !! #an* &ormer head o& the /enter &or the Stud' o& V o!en"e at Har$ard Med "a! S"hoo!* ,rote a de& n t $e treatment on the su(0e"t n h s ,or7 Violence3 <ur =eadly Epidemic and its auses+ Dr+ G !! #an ma7es t $er' "!ear that e-treme &orms o& $ o!en"e are not random or #enet "a!!' ndu"ed* (ut rather "om%!e2HH /elief Systems and =urable !ne)ualities* Ao! "' Resear"h Wor7 n# Aa%er*

Was7 n#ton D/< Wor!d 9an7* 4556 \ /hart &rom The Spirit +evel (' R "hard W !7 nson and Cate A "7ett* Aen#u n* Mar"h 455E* %+22D.226 2HI Sour"e< The Spirit +evel (' R "hard W !7 nson and Cate A "7ett* Aen#u n* Mar"h 455E HF

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

rea"t ons that or # nate &rom stress&u! e-%er en"es* (oth n the !on# and short term+ For e-am%!e* "h !d a(use* (oth %h's "a! and emot ona!* a!on# , th n"reas n#!' d && "u!t !e$e!s o& %ersona! stress* ha$e a d re"t "orre!at on to (oth %remed tated and m%u!s $e a"ts o& $ o!en"e and ,h !e men ha$e a stat st "a!!' h #her %ro%ens t' to,ards $ o!en"e due to !ar#e!' endo"r no!o# "a! "hara"ter st "s that* ,h !e not causing $ o!ent rea"t ons* "an exaggerate them u%on the stress n&!uen"e*2HF the "ommon theme s the n&!uen"e o& the en$ ronment and "u!ture+ Th s s not to d s"ount the re!at onsh % o& hormones or e$en %oss (!' #enet " %ro%ens t es*2HG (ut to sho, that at the or # n o& th s (eha$ or s "!ear!' not our ( o!o#'* (ut the "ond t on u%on ,h "h a human e- sts and the e-%er en"es endured+ Other "ommon assum%t ons o& "ausa! t'* su"h as K nst n"t” are a!so &ar too a(stra"t and $a#ue to ho!d an' o%erat ona! $a! d t'+2HE Dr+ G !! #an states< KI am su##est n# that the on!' ,a' to e-%!a n the "auses o& $ o!en"e* so that ,e "an !earn ho, to %re$ent t* s to a%%roa"h $ o!en"e as a %ro(!em n %u(! " hea!th and %re$ent $e med " ne* and to th n7 o& $ o!en"e as a s'm%tom o& ! &e.threaten n# %atho!o#'* ,h "h* ! 7e a!! &orm o& !!ness* has an et o!o#' or "ause* a %atho#en+”2I5 In Dr+ G !! #an?s d a#nos s he ma7es t $er' "!ear that the #reatest "ause o& $ o!ent (eha$ or s social ine)uality* h #h! #ht n# the n&!uen"e o& shame and humiliation as an emot ona! "hara"ter st " o& those ,ho en#a#e n $ o!en"e+2I2 Thomas S"he&&* a emer tus %ro&essor o& so" o!o#' n /a! &orn a stated that Kshame ,as the so" a! emot on”*2I4 Shame and hum ! at on "an (e e)uated , th the &ee! n#s o& stu% d t'* nade)ua"'* em(arrassment* &oo! shness* &ee! n# e-%osed* nse"ur t' and the ! 7e J a!! !ar#e!' so" a! or "om%arat $e n the r or # n+ Need!ess to sa'* n a #!o(a! so" et' , th not on!' #ro, n# n"ome d s%ar t' (ut ne$ ta(!' Kse!&.,orth” d s%ar t' . s n"e status s
2HF The hormone testosterone has (een "ommon!' K(!amed” &or ma!e

a##ress on+ Ho,e$er t has (een &ound that nter. nd $ dua! d &&eren"es n !e$e!s o& testosterone do not resu!t n %ro%ort ona! d &&eren"es n !e$e!s o& a##ress $e (eha$ or ,hen tests on the #enera! %o%u!at on ,ere "ondu"ted+ It has (een &ound that rather than testosterone "aus n# a##ress on !e$e!s to r se* t s essent a!!' the other ,a' around+ See The Trouble with Testosterone, Ro(ert M+ Sa%o!s7'* S mon @ S"huster* 2EEF* %+26F.2HE 2HG Re&eren"e< ViolenceJ4 noxious coc#tail of genes and the environment, Mariya MoosaEee, & ' Soc Med* BCCK MayL FM:G;3 B,,1B,- N Notes a stud' n Ne, Zea!and ,here an a%%arent #enet " ! n7 &ound to $ o!ent (eha$ or ,ou!d only man &est & a #reat dea! o& a(use n "h !dhood too7 %!a"e to tr ##er an e-%ress on o& that a%%arent #enet " %ro%ens t'+ 8htt%<MM,,,+n"( +n!m+n h+#o$M%m"Mart "!esMAM/HDE6F2M; 2HE Re&eren"e< Violence* 3ames G !! #an* GrossetMAutnam* Ne, :or7* 2EE4* %+425.42D 2I5 I( d* %+E4 2I2 I( d* /ha%ter H 2I4 Sour"e< Shame and conformity3 the defense$emotion system* T+3+ S"he&&* Amer "an So" o!o# "a! Re$ e,* 2EGG* HD<DEH.65I HG

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

touted as d re"t!' re!ated to our Ksu""ess” n our 0o(s* (an7 a""ount !e$e!s and the ! 7e . t s no m'ster' that &ee! n#s o& n&er or t'* shame and hum ! at on are sta%!es o& the "u!ture toda'+ The "onse)uen"e o& those &ee! n#s ha$e $er' ser ous m%! "at ons &or %u(! " hea!th* as noted (e&ore* n"!ud n# the e% dem " o& the (eha$ ora! $ o!en"e ,e no, see toda' n ts $ar ous "om%!e- &orms+ Terror sm* !o"a! s"hoo! and "hur"h shoot n#s* a!on# , th other e-treme a"ts that s m%!' d d not e- st (e&ore n the a(stra"t ons the' & nd "onte-t toda'* re$ea!s a un )ue e$o!ut on o& $ o!en"e tse!&+ Dr+ G !! #an "on"!udes< KI& ,e , sh to %re$ent $ o!en"e* then* our a#enda s %o! t "a! and e"onom " re&orm+”2ID The &o!!o, n# "hart sho,s rates o& hom " de a"ross ,ea!th' nat ons , th $ar' n# states o& so" a! ne)ua! t'+ The Un ted States* ,h "h s ! 7e!' the !ar#est Kant .so" a! st” ad$o"ate , th ! tt!e stru"tura! sa&e#uards n %!a"e 8su"h as a !a"7 o& un $ersa! hea!th "are;* ,h !e a!so %ush n# the %s'"ho!o# "a! eth " that K nde%enden"e” and K"om%et t on” are the most m%ortant ethos . sho,s a mass $e !e$e! o& $ o!en"e+ Wh !e de(ates o$er #un "ontro! and the ! 7e st !! %ers st n the Amer "an %o! t "a! !ands"a%e , th res%e"t to the e% dem "* "!ear!' that has noth n# rea!!' to do , th "ausa! t'+

$n Conclusion Th s essa' has attem%ted to # $e a "on" se o$er$ e, o& "ore "ausa! re!at onsh %s to human hea!th on (oth the %s'"ho!o# "a! !e$e! and the %h's o!o# "a! !e$e!+ The theme s ho, the so" oe"onom " "ond t on n #enera! m%ro$es or ,orsens %u(! " hea!th o$era!!* a!!ud n# to dea! "ond t ons ,h "h ,ou!d m%ro$e ha%% ness* redu"e #enera! d sease and a!!e$ ate e% dem " (eha$ ora! %ro(!ems* su"h as $ o!en"e+ Wh !e d re"t e"onom " re!at onsh %s are $er' "!ear n ho, the' redu"e human hea!th and ,e!!(e n# n the &orm o& absolute deprivation* su"h as an na( ! t' to o(ta n )ua! t' &ood* !a(or.re!ated
2ID Sour"e< Violence* 3ames G !! #an* GrossetMAutnam* Ne, :or7* 2EE4* %+4DI

HE

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

t me restra nts that redu"e emot ona! and de$e!o%menta! su%%ort &or "h !dren* !oss o& edu"at on )ua! t' due to re# ona! &und n# %ro(!ems* a!on# , th "ase (' "ase turmo ! su"h as the &a"t that most marr a#es end due to monetar' %ro(!ems*2I6 the relative deprivation ssue has (een more o& a &o"us here due to the &a"t that t s !ess understood and more re!e$ant than most understand+ Aut nto the stru"tura!* so" oe"onom " "onte-t* these rea! t es & rm!' "ha!!en#es the ethos that "om%et t on* "!ass and other K"a% ta! st” not ons o& n"ent $e and %ro#ress are dr $ers o& so" a! %ro#ress and hea!th+ The more ,e !earn a(out th s %henomenon* the stron#er the ar#ument (e"omes that the nature o& our so" oe"onom " s'stem s some,hat (a"7,ards n ts &o"us and ntent+ Human %ro#ress* hea!th and su""ess are "!ear!' not de& ned (' the "onstant n&!u- o& mar7et #oods* #ad#ets and mater a! "reat ons &or %ur"hase+ Au(! " hea!th and ,e!!(e n# are based on how we relate to each other and the environment as a whole and mar7et ndu"ed strat & "at on s e-treme!' "aust " to so" et'+ The resu!t s a hidden form of violence a#a nst the %o%u!at on and hen"e the %u(! " hea!th ssues ,e see are rea!!' civil A human rights issues, s n"e the' s m%!' do not need to e- st+ When ,e see "!ear #eno" de n the ,or!d ,e o(0e"t stron#!' on %ure!' mora! #rounds+ 9ut ,hat & there e- sted a "onstant #eno" de that s unseen (ut $er' rea!* %er%etuated not (' a s%e" & " %erson or #rou% (ut (' d sorder (orn out o& stressMe&&e"ts #enerated (' the trad t ona! method o& human ntera"t on and e"onom " order n# that has (een "reated and "od & edR As , !! (e ar#ued n the &o!!o, n# essa's* mere ad0ustments to the "urrent so" oe"onom " s'stem are not enou#h n the !on#.term to su(stant a!!' reso!$e these %ro(!ems+ The $er' &oundat ona! %r n" %!es o& our "urrent mode! are (ound (' h erar"h "a! e"onom " and "om%et t $e or entat ons and to tru!' ,or7 to remo$e those attr (utes and "onse)uen"es s to "om%!ete!' trans&orm the ent re so" a! s'stem+

2I6 Re&eren"e< Money (ights Predict =ivorce 'ates, /ather ne Ram%e!!

8htt%<MMe"onom -+(!o#s+n't mes+"omM455EM24M5FMmone'.& #hts.%red "t. d $or"e.ratesM; I5

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

--$STOR1 OF ECO"O21It s a te!! n# s'm%tom o& our "ond t on that no esta(! shed s"hoo!* d s" %! ne or #enera! theor' o& so" a! ana!'s s has #rounded tse!& n ! &e re)u rements+++ Instead* some so" a! "onstru"t s n$ar a(!' ado%ted as the u!t mate re&eren"e (od'. set o& deas* the state* the mar7et* a "!ass* te"hno!o# "a! de$e!o%ment* or some other &a"tor than the ! &e.#round tse!&+2IH .3ohn M"Murtr'

O/er/iew E"onom "s s ! 7e!' the most "r t "a!* re!e$ant and n&!uent a! so" eta! "hara"ter st " there s+ V rtua!!' e$er' as%e"t o& our ! $es* o&ten , thout "ons" ous re"o#n t on* has a re!at onsh % to the h stor "a! de$e!o%ment and %resent %ra"t "e o& e"onom " thou#ht on one !e$e! or another* mo!d n# our most (as " so" a! nst tut ons* "ore (e! e&s and $a!ues+ In &a"t* the $er' essen"e o& ho, ,e as a so" et' th n7 a(out our relationship to ea"h other and the ha( tat that su%%orts us s* n !ar#e %art* a d re"t resu!t o& the e"onom " theor es and %ra"t "es ,e %er%etuate+ Thou#ht&u! re$ e, o& h stor "a! re! # ous @ mora! %h !oso%h es* #o$ernmenta! de$e!o%ment* %o! t "a! %art es* !e#a! statutes and other so" a! "ontra"ts and (e! e&s that "om%r se a # $en so" a! s'stem and ts "u!ture* re$ea! the dee% m%a"t e"onom " assum%t ons ha$e and "ont nue to ha$e n sha% n# o& the K1e t#e st” o& a t me+ S!a$er'* "!ass sm* -eno%ho( a* ra" sm* se- sm* su(0u#at on and man' other d $ s $e @ e-%!o tat $e not ons st !! "ommon to human "u!tura! h stor' , !! (e &ound to ha$e 7erne!s o& or # n or %er%etuat on n man' #enera!!' a""e%ted e"onom " %h !oso%h es to one de#ree or another+ H stor' s &a r!' "!ear , th res%e"t to ho, the so" a! "ond t on s #roomed (' the %re$a ! n# e"onom " assum%t ons o& a # $en %er od and th s (road so" o!o# "a! "ons derat on s sad!' not # $en mu"h #ra$ t' n the ,or!d toda' ,hen th n7 n# a(out ,h' the ,or!d s the ,a' t s and ,h' ,e th n7 the ,a' ,e do+ As a %re! m nar' %o nt* a %o nt ,h "h , !! reemer#e !ater n th s essa'* there has "ommon!' (een a dua! t' noted n most modern e"onom " thou#ht ,here the K"a% ta! st &ree mar7et”* mean n# the K&ree” a"t ons o& nde%endent %rodu"ers* !a(orer and traders* ,or7 n# n a##re#ate to (u'* se!! and em%!o'*2II s to (e "ontrasted to that o& the Kstate”* mean n# a un & ed s'stem o& de!e#ated %o,er that has the "a%a" t' to set !e#a! %o! "' and e"onom " mandates that "an nh ( t the a"t ons o& the K&ree mar7et” throu#h nter&eren"e+ Most e"onom " de(ates toda' re$o!$ed around th s dua! t' on one !e$e! or another , th the K!a sse1.&a re” nterests* or those ,ho , sh to ha$e a
2IH Sour"e< The

ancer Stage of apitalism* 3ohn M"Murtr'* A!uto Aress* 2EEE* %+$ 2II A !ess #enera! 1ed de& n t on o& the K&ree.mar7et” s as &o!!o,s< KAn e"onom " s'stem n ,h "h %r "es and ,a#es are determ ned (' unrestr "ted "om%et t on (et,een (us nesses* , thout #o$ernment re#u!at on or &ear o& mono%o! es+” 8htt%<MMd "t onar'+re&eren"e+"omM(ro,seM&reeQmar7et; I2

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

"om%!ete!' non.re#u!ated mar7et e"onom'* "onstant!' at ,ar , th the Kstat sts”* or those ,ho th n7 some 7 nd o& "entra! 1ed #o$ernment "ontro! and de" s on ma7 n# o$er e"onom " %!ann n# and %o! "' s (est+ The Ze t#e st Mo$ement ta7es ne ther s de* e$en thou#h man' ,ho hear TZM?s %ro%osa!s ha$e a 7nee.0er7 rea"t on to assume the !atter asso" at on 8Kstat sm”;+2IF As , th man' trad t ona! 1ed (e! e& s'stems* %o!ar 1ed %ers%e"t $es and de&enses are "ommon and the dea that there s no other %oss (!e frame of reference , th res%e"t to ho, an e"onom " s'stem "an (e de$e!o%ed and adm n stered* s to "!ose onese!& o&& do#mat "a!!' to man' re!e$ant and emer# n# "ons derat ons+ The &o!!o, n#* (r e& treatment s a(out the historical de$e!o%ment o& e"onom "s+ We , !! tra"e the #enera! h stor' o& e"onom " thou#ht &rom rou#h!' the 2Fth "entur' on,ard* h #h! #ht n# the "ore n&!uen"es that #a$e ( rth to the modern* K&ree mar7et "a% ta! st” s'stem+ Ho,e$er* as , !! (e e-%anded u%on more so n %art III* a d &&erent %ers%e"t $e , !! a!so (e a!!uded to+ We , !! "a!! th s the Kme"han st "” $ e,+ The me"han st " %ers%e"t $e o& e"onom " &a"tor n# ta7es a d &&erent !oo7 at the "ausa!* scientific rea! t es o& human e- sten"e and our ha( tat and (u !ds a mode! o& e"onom " theor' &rom the stand%o nt o& strategic reason, not historical tradition+ The (ottom ! ne s that modern e"onom " thou#ht s rea!!' not modern at a!! and the $ast ma0or t' o& assum%t ons st !! he!d as ?# $en?* su"h as K%ro%ert'”* Kmone'”* K"!ass sm”* theor es o& K$a!ue”* K"a% ta!” and other "on"e%ts that run throu#h $ rtua!!' a!! "onte-tua!!' re!e$ant h stor "a! ar#uments* are rea!!' outdated n the r under!' n# %rem ses+ Ra% d de$e!o%ment n the ndustr a!* n&ormat ona! and human s" en"es* ,h "h ha$e #one !ar#e!' #nored (' the esta(! shed e"onom " trad t on* are %os n# "r t "a! re"ons derat ons and ne, re!at onsh %s ,h "h s m%!' do not exist n the trad t ona! mode!s+2IG W th res%e"t to the e$er mutat n# Ks"hoo!s” o& thou#ht that ha$e (rou#ht the e"onom " de(ate to ,here t rests toda'* the a"adem "* o&ten &ormu!a " trad t ona! 1ed e$o!ut on o& esta(! shed e"onom " theor' 8and %ra"t "e; a%%ears to ha$e de$e!o%ed a self$ referring frame of reference*2IE
2IF As , !! (e des"r (ed n !ater essa's* TZM?s o&ten &a!se "ate#or 1at on o&

(e n# Kstat st” s rooted n ts #enera! o%%os t on to mar7et %r n" %!es* ,h "h t & nds to (e unsusta na(!e and o&ten "ounter%rodu"t $e+ KStat sm”* ,h "h "an ta7e man' &orms* su"h as "ommun st* &as" st or so" a! st* ad$o"ates a K"entra! author t'” to de" de ho, the e"onom "M%o! t "a! %ro"ess s to un&o!d* , th ! tt!e to no re!e$ant n&!uen"e o""urr n# $ a the #enera! %o%u!at on+ TZM su%%orts an o%en de" s on ma7 n# %ro"ess n #enera!* under the m%os t on o& (as "* %ro$en !a,s o& s" ent & " susta na( ! t' and e&& " en"'+ 2IG The not on o& an Ke-terna! t'”* ,h "h , !! (e noted !ater n th s essa'* s a "ase n %o nt+ Most en$ ronmenta! and so" a! "osts s'stem " to the mar7et a%%roa"h* a!on# , th ar#ua(!' the loss of efficiency and hen"e %ros%er t'* are d sm ssed n the theoret "a! e)uat on o& the mar7et* amon# man' other re!e$ant ssues+ 2IE E"onom " %h !oso%her 3ohn M"Murtr' stated #enera!!' on th s ssue< KTh s tenden"' %re$a !s &rom the /ont nenta! Rat ona! sts on+ Le (n 1* S% no1a* I4

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

In other ,ords* the most "ommon Kma nstream” e"onom " "ons derat ons d s"ussedMa""e%ted toda'U those most %ro%a#ated n the %rest # ous a"adem " s"hoo!s and #o$ernmenta! "on&eren"es* , !! (e &ound to der $e the r m%ortan"e &rom the mere &a"t that the' ha$e (een considered m%ortant &or so !on#+ As a meta%hor* t s s m !ar to $ e, n# the en# ne o& an automo( !e and assum n# the o$era!! stru"ture o& that en# ne s mmuta(!e and on!' $ar at on amon# e- st n# "om%onent %arts s %oss (!e* as o%%osed to the rad "a! dea o& redesigning the ent re en# ne stru"ture &rom the #round u%* %erha%s (ased u%on ne, te"hno!o#' and n&ormat on that ser$es the ut ! t' more e&& " ent!' and su""ess&u!!'+ KModern” e"onom " thou#ht and %ra"t "e s an o!d en# ne , th #enerat ons o& mm nent Ke-%erts” ,or7 n# to adm n ster o!d "om%onents %arts* re&us n# to a""e%t the %oss ( ! t' that the ent re en# ne s outdated and %erha%s n"reas n#!' detr menta!+ The' "ont nue to %u(! sh ar#uments* theor es and e)uat ons that re n&or"e the &a!se m%ortan"e o& that o!d en# ne 8o!d K&rame o& re&eren"e”;* #nor n# ne, ad$ents n s" en"e* te"hno!o#' and %u(! " hea!th that "ontrad "t the r trad t ona! sm+ It s no d &&erent than the !on# h stor' o& other Kesta(! shed” deas* su"h as a(0e"t human s!a$er'* ,here the so" et' at !ar#e rea!!' d dn?t )uest on the %ra"t "e* and "ons dered su"h established structures, m%osed and "od & ed* as Knatura!” to the human "ond t on+2F5 &nderl+ing Themes Ta7 n# an h stor "a! %ers%e"t $e* Euro%e o& the M dd!e A#es2F2 s #enera!!' a de"ent deo!o# "a! start n# %o nt as the most "entra! deas "hara"ter st " o& modern "a% ta! sm* ,h "h !ater s%read a"ross the ,or!d* a%%ear to ha$e ta7en ho!d dur n# th s %er od+2F4 It s &rom the 2Fth "entur' on,ard that ,e & nd most o& the n&!uent a! %h !oso%hers
Des"artes* 9er7e!e'* Cant and He#e!* &or e-am%!e* more or !ess ent re!' %resu%%osed the so" a! re# me o& the r da' and ts "onst tuent &orms as n some ,a' the e-%ress on o& the d $ ne M nd* ,h "h the' see t as the r rat ona! dut' on!' to a""e%t or to 0ust &'+” The ancer Stage of apitalism, A!uto Aress* 2EEE* %+F 2F5 Ar stot!e 8DG6 9/J D44 9/;* ,h !e "red ted , th e-tens $e s" ent & "* !o# "a! and %h !oso%h "a! "ontr (ut on* ,as a!so n &a$or o& s!a$er'* 0ust &' n# the rea! t' , th ,hat "ou!d (e ar#ued as bias* not reason+ He stated< K9ut s there an' one thus ntended (' nature to (e a s!a$e* and &or ,hom su"h a "ond t on s e-%ed ent and r #ht* or rather s not a!! s!a$er' a $ o!at on o& natureR There s no d && "u!t' n ans,er n# th s )uest on* on #rounds (oth o& reason and o& &a"t+ For that some shou!d ru!e and others (e ru!ed s a th n# not on!' ne"essar'* (ut e-%ed entU &rom the hour o& the r ( rth* some are mar7ed out &or su(0e"t on* others &or ru!e+” Politics, 9oo7 I* /ha%ters III throu#h VII 2F2 The term KM dd!e A#es” #enera!!' re&ers to the %er od o& Euro%ean h stor' that !asted &rom the Hth unt ! the 2Hth "entur es+ 2F4 For a deta !ed stud' o& the med e$a! e"onom " s'stem and so" et'* the &o!!o, n# ,or7 s su##ested< The 4grarian +ife of the Middle 4ges, 3+H+ /ha%man and E !een E+ Ao,ers* eds+* 4d ed+* The ambridge Economic >istory of Europe* $o!+ 2 London* /am(r d#e Un $ers t' Aress* 2EII ID

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

h #h!' re#arded toda' n trad t ona! h stor' (oo7s o& e"onom "s+ Wh !e h stor ans ha$e &ound that the (as " #estures o& K%ro%ert'” and the a"t o& Ktrad n# &or %ro& t” #o (a"7 to the se"ond m !!enn um 9/*2FD ts "ore de$e!o%menta! &oundat on and nst tut ona! 1at on a%%ears to rests around the !ate &euda!Mear!' mer"ant ! st %er ods+ Rather than d s"uss the $ar ous d &&eren"es (et,een the so" oe"onom " s'stems that %re"eded modern "a% ta! sm* t s more ,orth,h !e to note the #enera! s m !ar t es+ In th s (road "onte-t* the "a% ta! st s'stem a%%ears to (e a man &est e$o!ut on o& ,hat are most!' dee%!' n#ra ned historical assumptions o& human nature and human so" a! re!at ons*2F6 F rst!'* t , !! (e not "ed throu#hout th s e$o!ut on that a class divide has (een re"o#n 1ed and em%!o'ed to one de#ree or another+ Aeo%!e ha$e #enera!!' (een d $ ded nto t,o #rou%s2FH . those that produce &or m n ma! re,ard and those ,ho gain &rom that %rodu"t on+ From an" ent E#'%t an s!a$er'*2FI to the %easant &armer to ! n# n su(s sten"e &or h s !ord n med e$a! &euda! sm*2FF to the "od & ed o%%ress on o& the mar7et mer"hants (' the state mono%o! es o& mer"ant ! sm*2FG the theme o& ine)uality has (een $er' "!ear and "ons stent+ A se"ond &eature he!d n "ommon to these dom nant Western so" oe"onom " %h !oso%h es s that o& a (as " d sre#ard 8or %erha%s #noran"e; o& "r t "a! re!at onsh %s (et,een the human s%e" es and ts #o$ern n#* su%%ort $e ha( tat+ Wh !e "erta n e-"e%t ons "an (e &ound , th nd #enous tr (es su"h as , th %re."o!on a!* Nat $e Amer "an so" et es*2FE Western e"onom " thou#ht has (een a!most de$o d o& su"h "ons derat ons* a(sent the more re"ent and mount n# e"o!o# "a! %ro(!ems ,h "h ha$e &or"ed some %u(! "M#o$ernment res%onse and a $er' #enera! nterest n Kre&orm”+2G5
2FD Re&eren"e< Macroeconomics from the beginning3 The ?eneral Theory,

4ncient Mar#ets, and the 'ate of !nterest* Da$ d War(urton Aar s* Re"her"hes et Au(! "at ons* 455D %+6E 2F6 The KEmer#ent” "ons derat on o& e"onom " de$e!o%ment a%%ears to (e a re!at $e!' ne, "on"e%t* ntrodu"ed most %o%u!ar!' (' Thorste n Ve(!en n the ear!' 45th "entur'+ Su##ested read n# on the su(0e"t o& e"onom " e$o!ut on< The Evolution of !nstitutional Economics3 4gency, Structure and =arwinism in 4merican !nstitutionalism, Geo&&re' M+ Hod#son* London* Rout!ed#e* 4556 2FH The d st n"t on o& K"!asses” n s%e" & " "ate#or es s , thout e-a"t mean n#* h stor "a!!'+ The %o nt here s the on#o n# %resen"e o& a "!ear!' dom nant "!ass* ,hether that o& an" ent no( ! t'* &or e-am%!e* or the modern & nan" a! o! #ar"h'+ 2FI Re&eren"e< The >istorical Encyclopedia of 7orld Slavery* 3un us A+ Rodr #ue1* Vo! I* Se"t on E 2FF Re&eren"e< Mediaeval (eudalism* /ar! Ste%henson* /orne!! Un $ers t' Aress* 2EHI 2FG Re&eren"e< 4 >istory of Economic Theory and Method* Ro(ert 9+ E7e!undU Ro(ert F+ HB(ert* Ne, :or7< M"Gra,JH !!* 2EFH 2FE Re&eren"e< =efending Mother Earth3 "ative 4merican Perspectives on Environmental &ustice* 3a"e Wea$er* Or( s 9oo7s* 2EEI 2G5 To ! st the e"o!o# "a! %ro(!ems no, &a" n# human t'* &rom "! mate I6

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

A th rd and & na! (road &eature to note s the #enera! d sm ssa! o& the so" a! re"o#n t on o& a %erson?s ,e!!(e n# on the !e$e! o& human need and hen"e public health+ Ad$an"ements n the human s" en"es* ,h "h o""urred !ar#e!' a&ter the "ore do"tr nes o& e"onom " thou#ht ,ere trad t ona!!' "od & ed* ha$e &ound that human wants and human needs2G2 are not the same and the de%r $at on o& the !atter "an "reate man' ne#at $e "onse)uen"es not on!' &or the nd $ dua! (ut &or the so" et' tse!&+ Ant .so" a!* K"r m na!” and $ o!ent (eha$ or* &or e-am%!e* ha$e (een &ound sour"ed to man' &orms o& so" a! de%r $at on rooted n the so" oe"onom " trad t on+2G4 Aut more #enera!!'* the s'stem #nores su"h so" a! "onse)uen"es (' des #n* re!e#at n# these out"omes as mere Ke-terna! t es” n most "ases+ Th s rea! t' ,as &urther "om%ounded n the 2Gth "entur' ,here the Kso" a!!' Dar, n st "”2GD undertone o& the K!a(or.&or.re,ard” %rem se n"reas n#!' redu"ed the human (e n# to an o(0e"t that ,as to (e de& ned and )ua! & ed (' h s or her "ontr (ut on to the s'stem o& !a(or+ I& the a$era#e %erson s una(!e to o(ta n !a(or or en#a#e su""ess&u!!' n the mar7et e"onom'* there e- sts no rea! sa&e#uard , th res%e"t to one?s sur$ $a! or ,e!!(e n#* e-"e%t &or K nter&eren"e” "om n# &rom the Kstate” n the &orm o& K,e!&are”+ In the modern da'* th s rea! t' s o& #reat "ontro$ers' ,here the "!a m o& Kso" a! sm” has (e"ome a 7nee.0er7 "ondemnat on rea"t on ,hene$er #o$ernmenta! %o! "' attem%ts to %ro$ de d re"t su%%ort &or a " t 1enr' , thout &u!! use o& the mar7et me"han sm+ Dawn of 2ar#et Ca,italism Med e$a! Feuda! sm 8rou#h!' &rom the Eth to 2Ith "entur es; ,as the dom nant so" oe"onom " s'stem that essent a!!' %re"eded K&ree mar7et "a% ta! sm” n Western Euro%e* , th ,hat ,as !ater to (e "a!!ed Kmer"ant ! sm” ser$ n# as ,hat "ou!d (e "ons dered a trans t on sta#e+ Feuda! sm ,as (ased on a s'stem o& mutua! o(! #at ons and ser$ "es #o n# u% and do,n a set so" a! h erar"h'* , th the ent re so" a! s'stem rest n# essent a!!' on an a#r "u!tura! &oundat on+ Med e$a! so" et' ,as most!' an a#rar an so" et' and the so" a! h erar"h' ,as (ased essent a!!' on %eo%!esN t es to !and+ The (as "
desta( ! 1at on* to %o!!ut on* to resour"e de%!et on* to !oss o& ( od $ers t' and other n$ar a(!' public health threats* ,ou!d (e too e-tens $e to deta ! here+ In the $ e, o& TZM* these ssues are !ar#e!' a resu!t o& the /a% ta! st %rem se and ts a""e%ted a%%roa"hes and $a!ues + 2G2 /onsum%t on %atterns n modern so" et' ha$e sho,n an ar( trar' nature , th res%e"t to KHuman Wants”* su"h as the %o,er&u! sh &t n $a!ues ,h "h o""urred n the ear!' 45th "entur' , th the a%%! "at on o& modern Western ad$ert s n#+ KHuman Needs”* ho,e$er* are (as " ne"ess t es* !ar#e!' shared (' a!! humans* ,h "h ma nta n %h's "a! and %s'"ho!o# "a! hea!th+ 2G4 See the essa' =efining Public >ealth+ 2GD KSo" a! Dar, n sm” s a $er' #enera! deo!o#' that see7s to a%%!' ( o!o# "a! "on"e%ts o& Dar, n sm or o& Ksur$ $a! o& the & ttest” t'%e theor' to so" o!o#' and %o! t "s+ H stor an R "hard Ho&stadter %o%u!ar 1ed the term n the Un ted States n 2E66+ The ntu t on o& th s "on"e%t* ho,e$er* a%%ears !on# (e&ore Dar, n?s t me n %h !oso%h "a! thou#ht+ IH

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

e"onom " nst tut ons ,ere the K#u !ds” and & someone ,anted to %rodu"e or se!! a #ood or ser$ "e* the' ,ou!d #enera!!' 0o n a #u !d+ A #reat dea! "ou!d (e stated n deta ! a(out th s e-tens $e %er od o& h stor' and as , th most h stor' t s su(0e"t to $ar ous nter%retat ons and de(ate+ Ho,e$er* &or the sa7e o& th s essa'* ,e , !! on!' %resent a $er' #enera! o$er$ e, , th res%e"t to the e"onom " trans t on to mar7et "a% ta! sm+2G6 As a#r "u!tura! and trans%ort te"hno!o#' m%ro$ed* the e-%ans on o& trade o""urred and (' the 2Dth "entur'* , th the ad$ent o& the &our.,hee!ed ,a#on* &or e-am%!e* the ran#e o& mar7et ntera"t on ra% d!' n"reased+ L 7e, se* n"reased !a(or s%e" a! 1at on* ur(an "on"entrat ons and %o%u!at on #ro,th a!so o""urred+2GH These "han#es* "ou%!ed , th the resu!t n#* n"reas n# %o,er o& the Kmer"hant "a% ta! sts”* as the' "ou!d (e "a!!ed* s!o,!' ,ea7ened the trad t ona!* "ustomar' t es that he!d the &euda! so" a! stru"ture to#ether+ O$er t me* more "om%!e- " t es (e#an to emer#e ,h "h ,ere su""ess&u! n o(ta n n# nde%enden"e &rom the &euda! !ords and n"reas n#!' "om%!e- s'stems o& e-"han#e* "red t and !a, (e#an to emer#e* man' o& ,h "h are &ound to m rror man' (as " as%e"ts o& modern "a% ta! sm+ In the "ustomar' &euda! s'stem* #enera!!' the Khand "ra&t” %rodu"er ,as a!so the se!!er to the (u'er o& use+ Ho,e$er* as the e$o!ut on o& the mar7et "ont nued around these ne, ur(an "enters* the "ra&tsman (e#an to se!! at a d s"ount n mass to non. %rodu" n# mer"hants ,ho ,ou!d rese!! n d stant mar7ets &or a K%ro& t”. another &eature !ater to (e he!d "ommon to mar7et "a% ta! sm+ 9' the 2Ith "entur'* the Khand "ra&t” ndustr' "ommon to &euda! sm had (een trans&ormed nto a "rude m rror o& ,hat ,e 7no, toda'* , th the outsour" n# o& !a(or* s n#u!ar o,nersh % o& %rodu"t on* a!on# , th man' & nd n# themse!$es more and more n the %os t on o& (e n# Kem%!o'ed” rather than %rodu" n# themse!$es+ E$entua!!'* the !o# " surround n# monetar' profit (e#an to (e the "ore* de" d n# &a"tor o& o$era!! a"t on n a s'stem " ,a' and the true seeds o& "a% ta! sm too7 root+2GI Mer"ant ! sm* ,h "h essent a!!' dom nated Western Euro%ean e"onom " %o! "' &rom the 2Ith to the !ate 2Gth "entur es*2GF ,as "hara"ter 1ed (' state.dr $en trade mono%o! es to ensure a %os t $e K(a!an"e o& trade”*2GG "ou%!ed , th man' other e-tens $e re#u!at ons &or %rodu"t on* ,a#es and "ommer"e emer# n# o$er t me* &urther
2G6 Re&eren"e< Mediaeval (eudalism* /ar! Ste%henson* /orne!! Un $ers t' Aress* 2GH Re&eren"e< The Economy of Early 'enaissance Europe* 2D55J26I5* Harr'

2EHI

A+ M s7 m n* En#!e,ood /! &&s* N3< Arent "e.Ha!!* 2EIE* %+45 apitalism* Maur "e H+ Do((* London* Rout!ed#e and Ce#an Aau!* 2E6I* /ha%ter 6 2GF Re&eren"e< The oncise Encyclopedia of Economics, Da$ d R+ Henderson* L (ert' Fund* In"* 4554* KMer"ant ! sm” 2GG A %os t $e (a!an"e o& trade s a!so 7no,n as a Ktrade sur%!us” and t "ons sts o& e-%ort n# more than s m%orted n monetar' $a!ue+ Th s a"t (' the State s o&ten "a!!ed KArote"t on sm” toda'+
2GI Re&eren"e< Studies in the =evelopment of

II

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

n"reas n# the %o,er o& the state+ /o!!us on (et,een the state and these emer# n# ndustr es ,ere "ommon and man' ,ars o""urred due to these %ra"t "es s n"e t ,as (ased on trade restr "t ons (et,een nat ons that o&ten too7 the e&&e"t o& e"onom " ,ar&are+2GE Adam Sm th* ,ho , !! (e d s"ussed !ater n th s essa'* ,rote an e-tens $e "r t " sm o& mer"ant ! sm n h s "!ass " 2FFI te-t* 4n !n)uiry into the "ature and auses of the 7ealth of "ations*2E5 It s here ,here t "ou!d (e de"!ared that the deo!o# "a! ( rth o& K&ree mar7et” "a% ta! sm rea!!' too7 root n theor'* , th the re0e"t on o& ,hat s o&ten "a!!ed Kstate” "a% ta! sm n modern terms* ,here the state K nter&eres” , th the K&reedom” o& the mar7et . a de& n n# &eature o& mer"ant ! sm+2E2 Toda'* K"a% ta! sm”* as a s n#u!ar term* s #enera!!' de& ned "u!tura!!' n the theoret "a! "onte-t o& K&ree mar7et” not Kstate” "a% ta! sm* a!thou#h man' , !! ar#ue n #reat deta ! as to ,h "h t'%e o& s'stem ,e rea!!' ha$e toda'* amon# other $ar at ons o& the term+ In rea! t'* there s no %ure K&ree mar7et” or Kstate” (ased s'stem n e- sten"e (ut a "om%!e- &us on (et,een the t,o* #enera!!' s%ea7 n#+ A#a n* as noted at the (e# nn n# o& th s essa'* the $ast ma0or t' o& e"onom " de(ates and (!ame re#ard n# e"onom " un&o!d n# o&ten re$o!$e around these %o!ar 1ed deas+2E4 Ca,italism Defined /a% ta! sm2ED as ,e 7no, t n s%e" & "s toda'* n"!ud n# not on!' ts e"onom " theor' (ut %o,er&u! %o! t "a! and so" a! e&&e"ts* emer#ed n &orm* as noted* rather s!o,!' o$er a %er od o& se$era! "entur es+ It shou!d (e stated u%&ront that there s no "om%!ete a#reement amon#st e"onom " h stor ansMtheor sts as to ,hat the essent a! &eatures o& "a% ta! sm rea!!' are+ We , !!* ho,e$er* redu"e ts h stor "a! "hara"ter 1at on 8,h "h some , !! ! 7e!' & nd de(ata(!e; to &our (as " &eatures+

2GE Re&eren"e< The ?rowth of Economic Thought, Henr' W !! am S% e#e!, Du7e

Un $ers t' Aress* Drd Ed* 2EE2, %%+ED.22G+

2E5 Re&eren"e< An !n)uiry into the "ature and

auses of the 7ealth of "ations* Adam Sm th* 2FFI* 9oo7 IV< O& S'stems o& Ao! t "a! E"onom' 2E2 Murra' Roth(ard* a &eatured e"onom st o& the modern TAustr an S"hoo!T* summar 1ed the TStat stT %ers%e"t $e and "r t " sm< TMer"ant ! sm* ,h "h rea"hed ts he #ht n the Euro%e o& the se$enteenth and e #hteenth "entur es* ,as a s'stem o& stat sm ,h "h em%!o'ed e"onom " &a!!a"' to (u !d u% a stru"ture o& m%er a! state %o,er* as ,e!! as s%e" a! su(s d' and mono%o! st " %r $ !e#e to nd $ dua!s or #rou%s &a$ored (' the state+ Thus* mer"ant ! sm he!d e-%orts shou!d (e en"oura#ed (' the #o$ernment and m%orts d s"oura#ed+” 8Mercantilism3 4 +esson for <ur TimesD* Murra' Roth(ard* Freeman* 2EID; 2E4 As ar#ued n the essa' Value System =isorder* th s s a &a!se dua! t' and moot , th res%e"t to the under!' n# %ro(!ems "ommon!' attr (uted to the %o!ar 1ed de(ate+ 2ED From here on n th s essa'* ,e , !! use the term K"a% ta! sm” n ts most "ommon "u!tura! &orm* m%!' n# the K&ree mar7et” theoret "a! "onte-t+ IF

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

2; Mar7et.(ased %rodu"t onMd str (ut on< /ommod t' %rodu"t on s (ased around rather "om%!e- nterre!at onsh %s and de%enden" es that do not n$o!$e direct %ersona! ntera"t ons (et,een %rodu"ers and "onsumers+ Su%%!' and demand s med ated (' the Tmar7etT s'stem+ 4; Ar $ate o,nersh % o& %rodu"t on means< Th s means that so" et' #rants to %r $ate %ersons the r #ht to d "tate ho, the ra, mater a!s* too!s* ma"h ner'* and (u !d n#s ne"essar' &or %rodu"t on "an (e used+ D; De"ou%! n# o& o,nersh % and !a(or< In short* a "onstant "!ass d $ de s nherent ,here on the to% !e$e!* K"a% ta! sts”*2E6 (' h stor "a! de& n t on* o,n the means o& %rodu"t on* (ut 'et ha$e no o(! #at on to "ontr (ute to %rodu"t on tse!&+ The "a% ta! st o,ns e$er'th n# %rodu"ed (' the !a(orers* ,ho on!' o,n the r o,n !a(or* (' !e#a! author t'+ 6; Se!&.ma- m 1 n# n"ent $e assumed< Ind $ dua! st "* "om%et t $e and a")u s t $e nterests are ne"essar' &or the su""ess&u! &un"t on n# o& "a% ta! sm s n"e a "onstant %ressure to "onsume and e-%and s needed to a$o d re"ess ons* de%ress ons and other ne#at $es+ In man' ,a's* th s s the Krat ona!” (eha$ ora! $ e, he!d ,here & a!! humans a"ted n a "erta n assumed ,a'* the s'stem ,ou!d &un"t on , thout nh ( t on+2EH (oc#e% E/olution of 3Pro,ert+4 A dee% %h !oso%h "a! under"urrent to the "a% ta! st s'stem s the not on o& K%ro%ert'”+ En#! sh %h !oso%her 3ohn Lo"7e 82ID4.2F56; s a % $ota! & #ure+ A!so sour"ed n Adam Sm th?s more n&!uent a! 7ealth of "ations* Lo"7e not on!' de& nes the dea n #enera!* he %resents a su(t!e 'et %o,er&u! "ontrad "t on+ In /ha%ter V* ent t!ed K%ro%ert'”* o& Lo"7e?s Second Treatise of ?overnment %u(! shed n 2IGE* he %oses an ar#ument , th res%e"t to the nature o& %ro%ert' and ts a%%ro%r at on+ He states< KThe !a(our o& h s (od' and the ,or7 o& h s hands* ,e ma' sa'* are str "t!' h s+ So ,hen he ta7es someth n# &rom the state that nature has %ro$ ded and !e&t t n* he mixes his labour with it* thus 0o n n# to t someth n# that s h s o,nU and n that ,a' he ma7es t h s %ro%ert'+”2EI Th s statement 8su%%ort n# n #esture ,hat ,as !ater to asso" ate , th the K!a(or theor' o& $a!ue”;* %ro%oses the !o# " that s n"e !a(or s Ko,ned” (' the
2E6 Wh !e a K"a% ta! st” "an (e "ons dered a %erson n &a$or o& th s a%%roa"h to

e"onom'* a more a""urate de& n t on denotes Ka %erson ,ho has "a% ta!* es%e" a!!' e-tens $e "a% ta!* n$ested n (us ness enter%r ses+” Xhtt%<MMd "t onar'+re&eren"e+"omM(ro,seM"a% ta! stY In other ,ords* th s s a %erson ,ho o,ns or n$ests "a% ta! &or a return or %ro& t* (ut 'et has no o(! #at on to "ontr (ute to a"tua! %rodu"t on or !a(or n an',a'+ 2EH A "oro!!ar' to th s are the $ar ous Krat ona! "ho "e” and Kut ! t' theor es” "ommon to &ree mar7et m "roe"onom " theor' ,h "h attem%ts to )uant &' human a"t ons around $ar ous (eha$ ora! mode!s+ 8more on th s !ater n the essa'; 2EI Sour"e< Second Treatise of ?overnment, 3ohn Lo"7e* 2IGE* /ha%ter V* Se"t on 4F IG

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

!a(orer 8s n"e he o,ns h mse!&;* an' ener#' e-%e!!ed throu#h h s !a(or transfers that o,nersh % to the %rodu"t made+ H s %h !oso%h "a! d s%os t on s essent a!!' der $ed &rom a /hr st an %ers%e"t $e* stat n#< KGod #a$e the ,or!d to men n "ommonU (ut s n"e he #a$e t to them &or the r (ene& t and &or the #reatest "on$en en"es o& ! &e the' "ou!d #et &rom t* he "anNt ha$e meant t a!,a's to rema n "ommon and un"u!t $ated+”2EF G $en th s de"!arat on o& the K"ommon” nature o& the earth and ts &ru ts to a!! o& human t' (e&ore ts K"u!t $at on” $ a a%%ro%r at on n the &orm %ro%ert'* he a!so der $es that o,ners are re)u red to not a!!o, an'th n# to spoil 8KNoth n# ,as made (' God &or man to s%o ! or destro'+”;2EG and the' must !ea$e enou#h &or others 8KTh s a%%ro%r at on o& a %!ot o& !and (' m%ro$ n# t ,asnNt done at the e-%ense o& an' other man* (e"ause there ,as st !! enou#h Xand as #oodY !e&t &or others+++”;+2EE These $a!ues* n s m%! st " &orm* seem so" a!!' 0ust & a(!e n #enera!+ He ma7es t "!ear u% unt ! th s %o nt that the o,nersh % "onte-t s re!e$ant on!' n so &ar as the o,ner?s needs and a( ! t' to cultivate* or %rodu"e+455 Ho,e$er* n Se"t on DI* he re$ea!s a un )ue rea! t'* the m%! "at ons o& ,h "h Lo"7e ! 7e!' d d not ant " %ate and* n man' ,a's* nu!! & es a!! %r or ar#uments n h s de&ense o& %r $ate %ro%ert'+ He states< KThe Wone th n#N that (!o"7s th s s the n$ent on o& mone'* and menNs ta" t a#reement to %ut a $a!ue on tU th s made t %oss (!e* , th menNs "onsent* to ha$e !ar#er %ossess ons and to ha$e a r #ht to them+”452 No,* n e&&e"t* h s or # na! %rem se* summar 1ed n %art here* that< KAn'one "an throu#h h s !a(our "ome to o,n as mu"h as he "an use in a beneficial way (e&ore t s%o !sU an'th n# (e'ond th s s more than his share and (e!on#s to others” 454 (e"omes $er' d && "u!t to de&end as mone' no, not on!' a!!o,s KXmenY to ha$e !ar#er %ossess ons”* m%! " t!' $o d n# n "onte-t the dea that Kan'th n# (e'ond th s s more than his share and (e!on#s to others”* t a!so &urther m%! es that mone' "an buy labor* ,h "h $o ds the dea that Khe X n th s "ase the (u'erY mixes his labour with it* thus 0o n n# to t someth n# that s h s o,nU and n that ,a' he ma7es t h s %ro%ert'+”45D F na!!'* the %ro$ so KNoth n# ,as made (' God &or man to s%o !
I( d* /ha%ter V* Se"t on D6 I( d* /ha%ter V* Se"t on D2* 2IGE I( d* /ha%ter V* Se"t on DD* 2IGE Lo"7e States< KNature d d ,e!! n sett n# ! m ts to %r $ate %ro%ert' throu#h ! m ts to ho, mu"h men "an ,or7 and ! m ts to ho, mu"h the' need+ No manNs !a(our "ou!d tame or a%%ro%r ate a!! the !andU no manNs en0o'ment "ou!d "onsume more than a sma!! %artU so that t ,as m%oss (!e &or an' man n th s ,a' to n&r n#e on the r #ht o& another* or a")u re a %ro%ert' to the d sad$anta#e o& h s ne #h(or+++” 8Second Treatise of ?overnment* 3ohn Lo"7e* /ha%ter V* Se"t on DI* 2IGE; 452 I( d* /ha%ter V* Se"t on DI* 2IGE 454 I( d* /ha%ter V* Se"t on D2* 2IGE 45D I( d* /ha%ter V* Se"t on 4F* 2IGE
2EF 2EG 2EE 455

IE

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

or destro'”456 s nu!! & ed , th a ne, asso" at on that mone'* (e n# #o!d or s !$er at that t me* s m%!' cannot s%o !+ KThat s ho, mone' "ame nto use . as a dura(!e th n# that men "ou!d 7ee% , thout ts s%o ! n#* and that (' mutua! "onsent men ,ou!d ta7e n e-"han#e &or the tru!' use&u! (ut %er sha(!e su%%orts o& ! &e+”45H It s here ,here ,e & nd* at !east n the med um o& ! terar' d s"ourse* the true seed o& "a% ta! st ownership Eustification ,here the use o& mone'* treated as an a(stra"t "ommod t' n and o& tse!& 8 n e&&e"t* an assumed em(od ment o& K!a(or”;* a!!o,ed an e$o!ut on o& thou#ht and %ra"t "e to emer#e ,h "h n"reas n#!' sh &ted the &o"us &rom re!e$ant %rodu"t on 8Lo"7e?s K"u!t $at on”; to mere o,nersh % me"han "s and the %ursu t o& %ro& t+45I Adam Smith Adam Sm th 82F4D.2FE5; s o&ten "red ted as one o& the most n&!uent a! e"onom " %h !oso%hers n modern h stor'+ H s ,or7* ,h !e natura!!' (ased on the %h !oso%h "a! ,r t n#s o& man' (e&ore h m* s o&ten "ons dered a start n# %o nt &or e"onom " thou#ht n the "onte-t o& modern "a% ta! sm+ Rea"h n# matur t' at the da,n o& the Industr a! Re$o!ut on*45F Sm th ! $ed at a t me ,here t "ou!d (e ar#ued that the nherent &eatures o& the "a% ta! st Kmode o& %rodu"t on” ,ere (e"om n# e$er more str 7 n#* # $en the ntrodu"t on o& "on"entrated* "entra! 1ed %rodu"t on &a"tor es and mar7ets+ As noted* n 2FFI Sm th %u(! shed h s no, ,or!d &amous 4n !n)uiry into the "ature and auses of the 7ealth of "ations* Amon# man' re!e$ant o(ser$at ons* he a%%ears to (e the & rst to re"o#n 1e the three %r n" %a! "ate#or es o& n"ome at the t me . 8a; %ro& ts* 8(; rents and 8"; ,a#es . and ho, the' re!ated to the ma n so" a! "!asses o& the %er od . 8a; "a% ta! sts* 8(; !and!ords* and 8"; !a(orers+ It s ,orth not n# that the ro!e o& landlords.rent* ,h "h s se!dom d s"ussed toda' n modern e"onom " treatments* ,as a "ommon %o nt o& &o"us then s n"e the %re. ndustr a! s'stems ,here st !! !ar#e!' a#rar an* h #h! #ht n# the landlords 8,h "h !ater d sso!$ed nto the "!ass & "at on o& s m%!' owners n &uture mar7et theor es;+ Sm th?s most noted "ontr (ut on to the %h !oso%h' o& "a% ta! sm ,as h s #enera! ad$o"at on that e$en thou#h nd $ dua!s m #ht a"t n a narro,* se!& sh manner on the r %ersona! (eha!& or on the (eha!& o& the "!ass or #rou% to ,h "h the' are a %art* and e$en thou#h "on&! "t* (oth
456 I( d* /ha%ter V* Se"t on D2* 2IGE 45H I( d* /ha%ter V* Se"t on 6F* 2IGE 45I The Sto"7 Mar7et and n"reas n# %o,er o& the n$estmentM& nan" a! %o,ers

around the ,or!d n the 42st "entur' re&!e"ts th s "u!m nat on ,e!!+ It a%%ears that the mere a"t o& o,nersh % and trade $ a mone' a!one* , thout an' need &or %rodu"t on "u!t $at on and human ser$ "e* has (e"ome the most %ro& ta(!e ndustr' n the ,or!d toda'+ 45F The Industr a! Re$o!ut on o""urred &rom a(out 2FI5 to some t me (et,een 2G45 and 2G65 start n# n Euro%e* a""ord n# to $ar ous h stor ans* and ,as essent a!!' the trans t onMa%%! "at on to ne,* te"hno!o#' (ased manu&a"tur n# %ro"esses+ F5

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

nd $ dua! or "!ass (ased* seemed to (e the resu!t o& these a"t ons* there ,as ,hat he "a!!ed an K n$ s (!e hand” that se"ured a %os t $e so" a! out"ome &rom s n#u!ar* se!& sh* non.so" a! ntents+ Th s "on"e%t ,as %resented (oth n h s ,or7s The Theory of Moral Sentiments45G and The 7ealth of "ations* He stated n the !atter< KAs e$er' nd $ dua!* there&ore* endea$ors as mu"h as he "an (oth to em%!o' h s "a% ta! n the su%%ort o& domest " ndustr'* and so to d re"t that ndustr' that ts %rodu"e ma' (e o& the #reatest $a!ueU e$er' nd $ dua! ne"essar !' !a(ors to render the annua! re$enue o& the so" et' as #reat as he "an+ He #enera!!'* ndeed* ne ther ntends to %romote the %u(! " nterest* nor 7no,s ho, mu"h he s %romot n# t+++he ntends on!' h s o,n #a n* and he s n th s* as n man' other "ases* !ed (' an n$ s (!e hand to %romote an end ,h "h ,as no %art o& h s ntent on+ Nor s t a!,a's the ,orse &or the so" et' that t ,as no %art o& t+ 9' %ursu n# h s o,n nterest he &re)uent!' %romotes that o& the so" et' more e&&e"tua!!' than ,hen he rea!!' ntends to %romote t+”45E Th s near!' re! # ous dea! had a %o,er&u! e&&e"t on the %ost. Sm th era* # $ n# a $er' social $ nd "at on &or the nherent!' se!&. ma- m 1 n#* anti$social (eha$ or "ommon to "a% ta! st %s'"ho!o#'+ Th s (as " %h !oso%h' ,as to de$e!o%* n %art* as the &oundat on o& Kneo"!ass "a!”425 e"onom "s (e# nn n# n the !ate n neteenth "entur'+ Sm th* 7no, n# )u te ,e!! the "!ass "on&! "ts nherent to "a% ta! sm* #oes on to d s"uss the nature o& ho, some men #a n K+++su%er or t' o$er the #reater %art o& the r (rethren”*422 re n&or" n# ,hat ,as to n"reas n#!' (e "ons dered a K!a, o& nature” re#ard n# human %o,er and su(0u#at on (' &urther theor sts+ H s $ e, o& %ro%ert' ,as n harmon' , th 3ohn Lo"7e* e!a(orat n# on ho, so" et' tse!& s man &est around t+ He stated K/ $ ! #o$ernment* so &ar as t s nst tuted &or the se"ur t' o& %ro%ert'* s n rea! t' nst tuted &or the
45G KThe r "h on!' se!e"t &rom the hea% ,hat s most %re" ous and a#reea(!e+

The' "onsume ! tt!e more than the %oor* and n s% te o& the r natura! se!& shness and ra%a" t'* thou#h the' mean on!' the r o,n "on$en en"'* thou#h the so!e end ,h "h the' %ro%ose &rom the !a(ours o& a!! the thousands ,hom the' em%!o'* (e the #rat & "at on o& the r o,n $a n and nsat a(!e des res* the' d $ de , th the %oor the %rodu"e o& a!! the r m%ro$ements+ The' are !ed (' an n$ s (!e hand to ma7e near!' the same d str (ut on o& the ne"essar es o& ! &e* ,h "h ,ou!d ha$e (een made* had the earth (een d $ ded nto e)ua! %ort ons amon# a!! ts nha( tants* and thus , thout ntend n# t* , thout 7no, n# t* ad$an"e the nterest o& the so" et'* and a&&ord means to the mu!t %! "at on o& the s%e" es+” XThe Theory of Moral Sentiments %ar+ IV+I+25* 2FE5Y 45E Sour"e< 4n !n)uiry into the "ature and auses of the 7ealth of "ations, Adam Sm th* 2FFI* %ar+ IV+4+E 425 There s no stat " de& n t on o& Kneo"!ass "a! e"onom "s”+ Ho,e$er* a #enera!* "u!tura!!' "ommon summar' n"!udes the (road nterest n K&ree”* unre#u!ated mar7ets* &o"us n# on the determ nat on o& %r "es* out%uts* and n"ome d str (ut ons n mar7ets throu#h su%%!' and demand* o&ten med ated throu#h a h'%othes 1ed ma- m 1at on o& ut ! t' (' n"ome."onstra ned nd $ dua!s and o& %ro& ts (' "ost."onstra ned & rms+ 422 I( d* %ar+ V+2+4 F2

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

de&ense o& the r "h a#a nst the %oor* or o& those ,ho ha$e some %ro%ert' a#a nst those ,ho ha$e none at a!!+”424 Aro%ert'* as an nst tut on* a!so re)u res a means to 0ust &' res%e"t $e value+ To th s end* $ar ous Ktheor es o& $a!ue” ha$e (een and "ont nue to (e %ostu!ated+ O&ten sour"ed n or # n (a"7 to Ar stot!e?s Politics, Sm th?s "ontr (ut on s st !! , de!' re&eren"ed as a % $ota! n&!uen"e+ In e&&e"t* Sm th (u !ds u%on Lo"7e?s Km - n# !a(or” %rem se o& %rodu"t onMo,nersh % and e-tends &rom there* "reat n# a K!a(or theor' o& $a!ue”+ He states KLa(our ,as the & rst %r "e* the or # na! %ur"hase mone' that ,as %a d &or a!! th n#s+ It ,as not (' #o!d or (' s !$er* (ut (' !a(our* that a!! the ,ea!th o& the ,or!d ,as or # na!!' %ur"hasedU and ts $a!ue* to those ,ho %ossess t* and ,ho ,ant to e-"han#e t &or some ne, %rodu"t ons* s %re" se!' e)ua! to the )uant t' o& !a(our ,h "h t "an ena(!e them to %ur"hase or "ommand+”42D Man' "ha%ters o& 9oo7 I o& 7ealth of "ations ,or7 to e-%!a n the nature o& %r "esM$a!ues res%e"t $e to h s denoted n"omeM"!ass "ate#or es o& K,a#es”* Krents”* and K%ro& ts”+ Ho,e$er* t , !! (e &ound that h s !o# " s rather " r"u!ar n s%e" & "s as the %r "e assessments are &ound to or # nate mere!' &rom other %r "e assessments n a "ha n , th no rea! start n# %o nt* other than the !oose d st n"t on o& a%%! ed !a(or* ,h "h has* o& "ourse* no ntr ns "* stat " monetar' )ua! & "at on+ Th s %ro(!em o& am( #u t' n (oth the dom nant K!a(or” and Kut ! t'” theor es o& $a!ue "ommon to "a% ta! st mar7et theor' , !! (e addressed n deta ! !ater n th s essa'+ O$era!!* Sm thNs e"onom " theor' su%%orted K!a sse1.&a re” "a% ta! sm as the h #hest mode o& so" oe"onom " o%erat on* stat n# that< t ,as a Ks'stem o& natura! ! (ert'” and KE$er' man* as !on# as he does not $ o!ate the !a,s o& 0ust "e* s !e&t %er&e"t!' &ree to %ursue h s o,n nterest h s o,n ,a'* and to (r n# (oth h s ndustr' and "a% ta! nto "om%et t on , th those o& an' other man* or order o& men+”426 Th s !ater "on"e%t* as , !! (e ar#ued n the essa'* Value System =isorder, s a rather na $e assum%t on o& human (eha$ or and* n e&&e"t* a "ontrad "t on n terms+ 2althus and Ricardo Thomas Ma!thus 82FII.2GD6; and Da$ d R "ardo 82FF4.2G4D; ,ere t,o ,e!! a"7no,!ed#ed* !ead n# theor sts o& %o! t "a! e"onom' o& the ear!' 2Eth "entur'+ The' ,ere K&r end!' r $a!s” (' some "om%ar son (ut &rom the (road $ e, o& h stor' the' shared $ rtua!!' the same %ers%e"t $e* "!ose!' t ed to Adam Sm th?s+ The !ate Industr a! Re$o!ut on n Euro%e and Amer "a ,as a %er od o& e-tens $e "on&! "t (et,een !a(orers and "a% ta! st o,ners+ Numerous re$o!ts and str 7es n res%onse to a(horrent and a(us $e ,or7 n# "ond t ons &or not on!' men* (ut a!so ,omen and "h !dren* ,ere "ommon+ Th s #a$e ra% d r se to the no, "ommon !a(or un ons
424 I( d+ 42D I( d+ 426 I( d+* %ar+ IV+E+H2

F4

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

and a #enera! (att!e (et,een K,or7ers and o,ners” has "ont nued e$er s n"e+ To em%has 1e the e-tent o& th s "!ass ,ar&are* n En#!and* the ombination 4ct of ,OFF ,as m%osed ,h "h (as "a!!' out!a,ed an' "om( nat on o& ,or7ers to #rou% to#ether &or %o,er n order to* n e&&e"t* e-ert n&!uen"e or nh ( t the nterests o& the r em%!o'ers+42H H stor an Aau! Mantou-* ,r t n# o& th s %er od* "ommented on Tthe a(so!ute and un"ontro!!ed %o,er o& the "a% ta! st+ In th s* the hero " a#e o& #reat underta7 n#s* t ,as a"7no,!ed#ed* adm tted and e$en %ro"!a med , th (ruta! "andor+ It ,as the em%!o'erNs o,n (us ness* he d d as he "hose and d d not "ons der that an' other 0ust & "at on o& h s "ondu"t ,as ne"essar'+ He o,ed h s em%!o'ees ,a#es and on"e those ,ere %a d the men had no &urther "!a m on h m+”42I It ,as n the m dst o& a!! th s that Ma!thus and R "ardo n$ar a(!' "onte-tua! 1ed the r e"onom " and so" a! $ e,s+ 9e# nn n# , th Ma!thus* h s "!ass " ,or7 4n Essay on the Principle of Population or ents around essent a!!' t,o assum%t ons+ The & rst s that the "!ass stru"ture o& ,ea!th' %ro%r etors and %oor !a(orers ,ou!d ne$ ta(!' reemer#e no matter ,hat re&orms ,here attem%ted+42F He "ons dered t a law of nature+ The se"ond dea* someth n# o& a "oro!!ar' to & rst* ,as s m%!' that %o$ert' and su&&er n# and hen"e e"onom " d $ des ,ere ne$ ta(!e "onse)uen"es o& natura! !a,+42G H s thes s on %o%u!at on rests u%on the $er' s m%!e assum%t on that KAo%u!at on* ,hen un"he"7ed* n"reases n a #eometr "a! rat o+ Su(s sten"e n"reases on!' n an ar thmet "a! rat o+”42E There&ore* & the standard o& ! $ n# o& e$er'one n so" et' ,ere n"reased* the $ast ma0or t' ,ou!d res%ond (' n"reas n# the amount o& "h !dren the' ha$e+ In turn* %o%u!at on out%a" n# su(s sten"e ,ou!d $er' soon %ush the %o%u!at on (a"7 to %o$ert'+ It ,as on!' throu#h Kmora! restra nt”*445 a so" a! )ua! t' that he m%! es to (e!on# to the more u%stand n# u%%er "!ass* that th s %ro(!em s "he"7ed (' (eha$ or+ E$ dent!'* the d &&eren"e (et,een the ,ea!th' and the %oor ,as the
42H Th s %o,er o& "a% ta! st nterests to en#a#e and* n man' ,a's* become the

#o$ernment to ser$e the r o,n "om%et t $e ad$anta#e , !! a!so (e d s"ussed n the essa'< KVa!ue S'stem D sorder” 42I Sour"e< The !ndustrial 'evolution in the Eighteenth entury* Aau! Mantou-* Har"ourt 9ra"e 3o$ano$ "h* Ne, :or7* 2E4F* %+62F 42F He states< KNo %oss (!e sa"r & "es o& the r "h* %art "u!ar!' n mone'* "ou!d &or an' t me %re$ent the re"urren"e o& d stress amon# the !o,er mem(ers o& so" et'* ,hoe$er the' ,ere” 84n Essay on the Principle of Population, Thomas Ma!thus* 2FEG* /ha%ter H; 42G He states< TIt has a%%eared* that &rom the ne$ ta(!e !a,s o& our nature some human (e n#s must su&&er &rom ,ant+ These are the unha%%' %ersons ,ho* n the #reat !otter' o& ! &e* ha$e dra,n a (!an7+” 84n Essay on the Principle of Population, Thomas Ma!thus* 2FEG* /ha%ter 25; 42E Sour"e< 4n Essay on the Principle of Population, Thomas Ma!thus* 2FEG* /ha%ter 2 445 From h s 4nd ed t on o& 4n Essay on the Principle of Population* 2GDI* Principles of Political Economy* $o!+ 2* %+26+ Ne, :or7* Au#ustus M+ Ce!!e'* 2EI6+ FD

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

h #h mora! "hara"ter o& the &ormer and the (ase mora! t' o& the !atter+442 A#a n* as noted %r or n th s essa'* the intuitive cultural condition has had a #reat dea! to do , th the %re$a ! n# %rem ses o& thou#ht that ha$e #u ded e"onom " o%erat ons nto the modern da'+ Wh !e man' toda' m #ht d sm ss Ma!thus and these "!ear!' outdated deas* the seeds ,ere dee%!' %!anted n the e"onom " do"tr nes* $a!ues and "!ass re!at onsh %s that o""urred dur n# and a&ter h s t me+ In &a"t* those o& a more K"onser$at $e” m ndset st !! "ommon!' " te $ar at ons o& h s %o%u!at on theor' ,hen dea! n# , th e"onom "a!!' !ess. de$e!o%ed "ountr es+ Ma!thus* a!on# , th Lo"7e and Sm th* a!so he!d dee%!' /hr st an "on$ "t ons n the r &rames o& re&eren"e* ,hether d re"t!' e-tra"ted &rom s"r %ture or (ased on %ersona! nter%retat on+ Ma!thus &rames h s Kmora! restra nt” , th the m%! "at on that a true /hr st an ,ou!d r #hteous!' denoun"e su"h (ase $ "es and a!so a""e%t the inevitable m ser' ne"essar' to 7ee% %o%u!at on &rom outstr %% n# resour"e su(s sten"e+ L 7e, se* 0ust as there s enormous de(ate toda' , th res%e"t to !a,s %erta n n# to the not on and use o& K,e!&are” or K%u(! " a d” %ro#rams” to he!% the %oor*444 Ma!thus* natura!!'* ,as a ( # %ro%onent o& the a(o! t on o& ,hat ,ere then "a!!ed the K%oor !a,s”* as ,as Da$ d R "ardo+ Mo$ n# on to R "ardo* he essent a!!' a""e%ted Ma!thusN %o%u!at on theor' and "on"!us ons re#ard n# the nature and "auses o& %o$ert'* (ut d sa#reed , th "erta n e"onom " theor es* su"h as e!ements o& Ma!thus? theory of value* theory of gluts and "erta n "!ass assum%t ons+ S n"e most o& these d sa#reements n deta ! are su%er&!uous to th s (road d s"uss on at hand 8and ar#ua(!' outdated n #enera!;* R "ardo?s most nota(!e "ontr (ut ons to e"onom " thou#ht , !! (e the %o nt o& &o"us+ In 2G42* R "ardo & n shed the th rd ed t on o& h s n&!uent a! Principles of Political Economy and Taxation+ In the %re&a"e* he states h s nterest< TThe %rodu"e o& the earth+++a!! that s der $ed &rom ts sur&a"e (' the un ted a%%! "at on o& !a(our* ma"h ner'* and "a% ta!* s d $ ded amon# three "!asses o& the "ommun t'* name!'* the %ro%r etor o& the !and* the o,ner o& the sto"7 o& "a% ta! ne"essar' &or ts "u!t $at on* and the !a(orers (' ,hose ndustr' t s "u!t $ated+ To determ ne the !a,s ,h "h re#u!ate th s d str (ut on s the %r n" %a!
442 It s ,orth noth n# that the Ma!thus an Ao%u!at on Theor' s a"tua!!' $er'

na""urate , th res%e"t to &a"tors %erta n n# to %o%u!at on #ro,th* (ased on stat st "a! understand n#s toda'+ A%art &rom the e&&e"t te"hno!o#' has %!a'ed n e-%and n# %rodu"t on "a%a" t' and e&& " en"' e-%onent a!!'* %art "u!ar!' , th res%e"t to &ood %rodu"t on* the #enera! 1at on that h #her standards o& ! $ n# n"rease %o%u!at on %ro%ort ona!!' s not su%%orted (' re# ona! "om%ar son+ Aoor "ountr es stat st "a!!' re%rodu"e &aster toda' than ,ea!th' "ountr es+ The ssue a%%ears to (e a "u!tura!* re! # ous and edu"at ona! %henomenon* not a r # d K!a, o& nature” as Ma!thus "on"!uded+ 444 Re&eren"e< 4bolishment of 7elfare3 4n !dea /ecomes a ause :htt%<MM,,,+n't mes+"omM2EE6M56M44MusMa(o! shment.o&.,e!&are.an. dea. (e"omes.a."ause+htm!; F6

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

%ro(!em n %o! t "a! e"onom'+T44D Wh !e "r t "a! o& "erta n as%e"ts o& Adam Sm th?s labor theory of value* he st !! su%%orted the (as " d st n"t on* stat n#< KAossess n# ut ! t'* "ommod t es der $e the r e-"han#ea(!e $a!ue &rom t,o sour"es< &rom the r s"ar" t'* and &rom the )uant t' o& !a(our re)u red to o(ta n them+”446 In "ommon , th Sm th* he e!a(orates< KI& the )uant t' o& !a(our rea! 1ed n "ommod t es re#u!ates the r e-"han#ea(!e $a!ue e$er' n"rease o& the )uant t' o& !a(our must au#ment the $a!ue o& that "ommod t' on ,h "h t s e-er" sed* as e$er' d m nut on must !o,er t+”44H /onse)uent!'* R "ardo $ e,ed so" et' and the "!ass d $ s ons o& h s t me &rom the !a(or %ers%e"t $e and t !o# "a!!' ,ent that the nterests o& ,or7ers and "a% ta! sts ,ere o%%osed+ KI& ,a#es shou!d r se*” he o&ten stated* Kthen+++ %ro& ts ,ou!d ne"essar !' &a!!+”44I :et* e$en thou#h th s d sharmon' a!!udes to an under!' n# nterest o& ea"h "!ass to ,or7 to #a n ad$anta#e o$er the other &or the r (ene& t* o&ten resu!t n# n #enera! m(a!an"e n !ar#e %art due to the %o,er o& the "a% ta! st o,ners to "ontro! !a(or 8and set %o! "';* "ou%!ed , th the ad$ent o& me"han 1at on 8ma"h ne a%%! "at on; ,h "h s'stemat "a!!' redu"ed the need &or human !a(or n a%%! ed se"tors* he a!!udes to the "on$ "t on that the theor' o& "a% ta! sm* & "orre"t!' a%%! ed* shou!d always "reate &u!! em%!o'ment n the !on# run+ On the s%e" & " ssue o& ma"h ne a%%! "at on d s%!a" n# human !a(or &or the ad$anta#e o& the manu&a"turer* he states< KThe manu&a"turer+++,ho+++"an ha$e re"ourse to a ma"h ne ,h "h sha!!+++ X!o,er the "ostsY o& %rodu"t on on h s "ommod t'* ,ou!d en0o' %e"u! ar ad$anta#es & he "ou!d "ont nue to "har#e the same %r "e &or h s #oodsU (ut he+++,ou!d (e o(! #ed to !o,er the %r "e o& h s "ommod t es* or "a% ta! ,ou!d &!o, to h s trade t !! h s %ro& ts had sun7 to the #enera! !e$e!+ Thus then s the %u(! " (ene& ted (' ma"h ner'+”44F Ho,e$er* as , th other as%e"ts o& h s ,r t n#* "ontrad "t on s "ommon+ Wh !e ma nta n n# the (as " dea that the #enera! %u(! " ,ou!d (ene& t &rom the ntrodu"t on o& !a(or d s%!a" n# ma"h ner' under the assum%t on that mar7et %r "es ,ou!d "!ean!' de"! ne and those d s%!a"ed ,ou!d a!,a's smooth!' re!o"ate* n the th rd ed t on o& h s Principles, R "ardo starts "ha%ter D2 (' stat n#< TE$er s n"e I & rst turned m' attent on to )uest ons o& %o! t "a! e"onom'* I ha$e (een o& the o% n on that+++an a%%! "at on o& ma"h ner' to an' (ran"h o& %rodu"t on as shou!d ha$e the e&&e"t o& sa$ n# !a(our ,as a #enera! #ood+++X(utY that the su(st tut on o& ma"h ner' &or human !a(or s o&ten $er' n0ur ous to the nterests o& the "!ass o& !a(orers+”44G He !ater re.)ua! & es the ar#ument (' stat n# KThe statements
44D Sour"e< The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation* Da$ d R "ardo* 446 44H 44I 44F 44G

2G42* I( d+* I( d+* I( d+* I( d+* I( d+*

Dent Ed t on* 2EI4* %+4F4+ %+H %+F %+I6 %+HD %%+4ID.4I6 FH

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

,h "h I ha$e made , !! not* I ho%e* !ead to the n&eren"e that ma"h ner' shou!d not (e en"oura#ed+ To e!u" date the %r n" %!e* I ha$e (een su%%os n#* that m%ro$ed ma"h ner' s sudden!' d s"o$ered* and e-tens $e!' usedU (ut the truth s* that these d s"o$er es are #radua!* and rather o%erate n determ n n# the em%!o'ment o& the "a% ta! ,h "h s sa$ed and a""umu!ated* than n d $ert n# "a% ta! &rom ts a"tua! em%!o'ment+”44E H s #enera! d sm ssa! o& the ssue o& humans (e n#s d s%!a"ed (' ma"h nes* !ater to (e "a!!ed Kte"hno!o# "a! unem%!o'ment” , !! a!so (e &ound n "ommon , th man' other e"onom sts that &o!!o,ed h m* n"!ud n# 3ohn Ma'nard Ce'nes 82GGD.2E6I;* ,ho stated* n ! ne , th R "ardo?s #enera! assum%t on o& Kad0ustment”< KWe are (e n# a&&! "ted , th a ne, d sease o& ,h "h some readers ma' not 'et ha$e heard the name* (ut o& ,h "h the' , !! hear a #reat dea! n the 'ears to "ome . name!'* technological unemployment* Th s means unem%!o'ment due to our d s"o$er' o& means o& e"onom 1 n# the use o& !a(our outrunn n# the %a"e at ,h "h ,e "an & nd ne, uses &or !a(our+ 9ut th s s on!' a tem%orar' %hase o& ma!ad0ustment+ A!! th s means n the !on# run that man#ind is solving its economic problem*84D5 The su(0e"t s (rou#ht u% here as an a""ent o& &o"us (e"ause t , !! (e re$ s ted n %art III o& th s te-t* %resent n# a "onte-t o& te"hno!o# "a! a%%! "at on a%%arent!' unrea! 1ed or d sre#arded (' the ma0or e"onom " theor sts o& modern h stor' ,ho* a#a n* are o&ten !o"7ed nto a narrow frame of reference* As a & na! %o nt re#ard n# R "ardo* he s a!so "red ted &or h s "ontr (ut on to nternat ona! K&ree.trade”* s%e" & "a!!' h s Theory of omparative 4dvantage, a!on# , th %er%etuat on o& the (as " K n$ s (!e hand” ethos o& Adam Sm th+ R "ardo States< TUnder a s'stem o& %er&e"t!' &ree "ommer"e* ea"h "ountr' natura!!' de$otes ts "a% ta! and !a(our to su"h em%!o'ments as are most (ene& " a! to ea"h+ Th s %ursu t o& nd $ dua! ad$anta#e s adm ra(!' "onne"ted , th the un $ersa! #ood o& the ,ho!e+ 9' st mu!at n# ndustr'* (' re,ard n# n#enu t'* and (' us n# most e&& "a" ous!' the %e"u! ar %o,ers (esto,ed (' nature* t d str (utes !a(our most e&&e"t $e!' and most e"onom "a!!'< ,h !e* (' n"reas n# the #enera! mass o& %rodu"t ons* t d &&uses #enera! (ene& t* and ( nds to#ether* (' one "ommon t e o& nterest and nter"ourse* the un $ersa! so" et' o& nat ons throu#hout the " $ ! 1ed ,or!d+T4D2 Theories of 'alue and *eha/ior U% unt ! th s %o nt* the (road "ontr (ut ons o& &our ma0or h stor "a! & #ures and ne$ ta(!' the "entra! "hara"ter st "s nherent to the "a% ta! st %h !oso%h' ha$e (een (r e&!' d s"ussed+ It , !! (e not "ed that under!' n# these $ e,s rest assum%t ons o& human (eha$ or* so" a!
44E I( d+* %+4IF 4D5 Sour"e< Economic Possibilities for <ur ?randchildren* 3ohn Ma'nard

Ce'nes* 2ED2

4D2 Sour"e< The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation* Da$ d R "ardo*

2G42* Dent Ed t on* 2EI4* %+G2

FI

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

8"!ass; re!at onsh %s* "ou%!ed , th a Kmeta%h's "a!” mar7et !o# " ,here e$er'th n# , !! ,or7 out 0ust & ne & "erta n $a!ues and a #enera!!' Kse!& sh” %ers%e"t $e s ta7en (' the %!a'ers o& the mar7et #ame* a!on# , th ! tt!e Krestr "t on” o& the mar7et tse!&+ As a (r e& as de* no,here n the ,r t n#s o& these th n7ers* nor n the $ast ma0or t' o& ,or7s %rodu"ed (' !ater theor sts n &a$or o& &ree mar7et "a% ta! sm* s the a"tua! structure and process o& %rodu"t on and d str (ut on d s"ussed+ There s an e-%! " t d s"onne"t (et,een K ndustr'” and K(us ness”* , th the &ormer re!ated to the te"hn "a!Ms" ent & " %ro"ess o& true e"onom " un&o!d n#U , th the !atter on!' %erta n n# to the "od & ed mar7et d'nam "s and %ursu t o& %ro& t+ As , !! (e d s"ussed more so n a moment* a "entra! %ro(!em nherent to the "a% ta! st mode o& %rodu"t on s ho, ad$an"ements n the K ndustr a! a%%roa"h”* ,h "h "an a!!o, &or n"reased %ro(!em reso!ut on and the &urther n# o& %ros%er t'* ha$e (een bloc#ed (' the trad t ona!* seem n#!' mmuta(!e tenets o& the K(us ness a%%roa"h”+ The !atter has #o$erned the a"t ons o& the &ormer* to the d sad$anta#e o& the &ormer?s %otent a!+ Th s 7 nd o& d s"onne"t or truncated frame of reference s a!so to (e &ound n other areas o& &o"us* su"h as the dom nant theor es o& labor, value and human behavior ,h "h ne$ ta(!' ser$e to 0ust &' the nst tut on o& "a% ta! sm+ As noted %r or* the K!a(or theor' o& $a!ue”* made %o%u!ar n #enera! (' ts m%! "at ons $ a Lo"7e* Sm th and R "ardo* s a #enera! 1ed %ro%osa! stat n# that the $a!ue o& a "ommod t' s re!ated to the !a(or needed to %rodu"e or o(ta n that "ommod t'+ As a""e%ta(!e as th s dea s n #enera! &rom an ntu t $e %ers%e"t $e* there are man' !e$e!s o& am( #u t' ,hen t "omes to )uant & "at on+ Man' h stor "a! o(0e"t ons ha$e %ers sted* su"h as ho, d &&erent t'%es o& !a(or ha$ n# d &&er n# s7 !!s and ,a#e rates "ou!d not (e %ro%er!' "om( ned* a!on# , th ho, to &a"tor n natura! resour"es and K,or7 n#” n$estment "a% ta! tse!&+ The #ro,th o& K"a% ta! #oods”4D4 n the 45th "entur'* su"h as ma"h ne automat on o& !a(or* a!so %resent "ha!!en#es &or the rather s m%! & ed !a(or theor es? "on"e%t o& labor derived value s n"e* a&ter a "erta n %o nt* the !a(or $a!ue nherent to %rodu"t on ma"h nes* ,h "h toda' o&ten &un"t on to %rodu"e more machines , th d m n sh n# human e&&ort o$er t me* %resents an e$er d !uted transfer of value n th s "onte-t+ It has (een su##ested (' some e"onom sts toda'* &o"us n# on the ra% d!' ad$an" n# & e!ds o& n&ormat on and te"hno!o# "a! s" en"es* that the use o& ma"h ne automat on* "ou%!ed , th artificial intelligence, "ou!d $er' ,e!! mo$e humans out o& the trad t ona! !a(or &or"e a!most ent re!'+ Sudden!'* capital has (e"ome labor, so to s%ea7*4DD
4D4 K/a% ta! #oods” are #enera!!' de& ned as< An' tan# (!e assets that an

or#an 1at on uses to %rodu"e #oods or ser$ "es su"h as o&& "e (u !d n#s* e)u %ment and ma"h ner'+ /onsumer #oods are the end resu!t o& th s %rodu"t on %ro"ess+ 8htt%<MM,,,+ n$esto%ed a+"omMtermsM"M"a% ta!#oods+as%Oa-114G-#2RmRI; 4DD Re&eren"e< The End of 7or#3 The =ecline of the ?lobal +abor (orce and the FF

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Th s am( #u t' e-tends a!so to "om%et n# theor es o& $a!ue %ostu!ated (' e"onom sts* n"!ud n# most nota(!' ,hat s "a!!ed the utility theory of value* Wh !e the !a(or theor' (as "a!!' ta7es the %ers%e"t $e o& !a(or or %rodu"t on* the ut ! t' theor' ta7es ,hat ,e "ou!d "a!! the Kmar7et %ers%e"t $e”* mean n# that $a!ue s der $ed not &rom !a(or (ut (' the %ur%ose 8or ut ! t'; der $ed (' ts use 8use $a!ue; (' the "onsumer* as perceived (' the "onsumer+ Fren"h E"onom st 3ean.9a%t ste Sa' 82FDF.2GD4; s nota(!e , th res%e"t to ut ! t' theor'+ A se!&.%ro"!a med d s" %!e o& Adam Sm th* he d &&ered , th Sm th on th s ssue o& $a!ue* stat n#< KA&ter ha$ n# sho,n+++the m%ro$ement ,h "h the s" en"e o& %o! t "a! e"onom' o,es to Dr+ Sm th* t , !! not* %erha%s* (e use!ess to nd "ate+++some o& the %o nts on ,h "h he erred+++To the !a(our o& man a!one he as"r (es the %o,er o& %rodu" n# $a!ues+ Th s s an error+”4D6 He #oes on to e-%!a n ho, the Ke-"han#e $a!ue” 8%r "e;* o& an' #ood or ser$ "e de%ends ent re!' on ts Kuse $a!ue” 8ut ! t';+ He states< ”The $a!ue that man7 nd atta"hes to o(0e"ts or # nates n the use t "an ma7e o& them+++XTo theY nherent & tness or "a%a( ! t' o& "erta n th n#s to sat s&' the $ar ous ,ants o& man7 nd* I sha!! ta7e !ea$e to a&& - the name ut ! t'+++The ut ! t' o& th n#s s the #round.,or7 o& the r $a!ue* and the r $a!ue "onst tutes ,ea!th+++A!thou#h %r "e s the measure o& the $a!ue o& th n#s* and the r $a!ue the measure o& the r ut ! t'* t ,ou!d (e a(surd to dra, the n&eren"e* that* (' &or" (!' ra s n# the r %r "e* the r ut ! t' "an (e au#mented+ E-"han#ea(!e $a!ue* or %r "e* s an nde- o& the re"o#n 1ed ut ! t' o& a th n#+4DH The utility theory of value s d &&erent &rom the labor theory not on!' n ts der $at on o& $a!ue* (ut a!so n ts m%! "at on re#ard n# a 7 nd o& subEective rationali%ation , th res%e"t to human de" s ons n the mar7et+ Ut ! tar an sm*4DI ,h "h has (e"ome dee%!' "hara"ter st " o& the m "roe"onom " assum%t ons %ut &or,ard (' neo"!ass "a! e"onom sts toda'* s o&ten mode!ed n "om%!e- mathemat "a! &ormu!as n an e&&ort to e-%!a n ho, humans n the mar7et Kma- m 1e the r ut ! t'”* s%e" & "a!!' around the dea o& n"reas n# ha%% ness and redu" n# su&&er n#+
4D6 Sour"e< 4 Treatise on Political Economy, 3ean.9a%t ste Sa'* Ah !ade!%h a<

=awn of the Post$Mar#et Era, 3erem' R &7 n* Autnam Au(! sh n# Grou%* 2EEH

L %% n"ott* 2GID* %+- 8Trans!at on s &rom the &ourth Fren"h ed t on* %u(! shed n 2G42; 4DH I( d* %+I4 4DI 3erem' 9entham* a nota(!e %ro%onent o& T/!ass " Ut ! tar an smT* stated< KNature has %!a"ed man7 nd under the #o$ernan"e o& t,o so$ere #n masters* %a n and %!easure+ It s &or them a!one to %o nt out ,hat ,e ou#ht to do] 9' the %r n" %!e o& ut ! t' s meant that %r n" %!e ,h "h a%%ro$es or d sa%%ro$es o& e$er' a"t on ,hatsoe$er a""ord n# to the tenden"' t a%%ears to ha$e to au#ment or d m n sh the ha%% ness o& the %art' ,hose nterest s n )uest on< or* ,hat s the same th n# n other ,ords to %romote or to o%%ose that ha%% ness+ I sa' o& e$er' a"t on ,hatsoe$er* and there&ore not on!' o& e$er' a"t on o& a %r $ate nd $ dua!* (ut o& e$er' measure o& #o$ernment+” 84n !ntroduction to the Principles of Morals and +egislation* 3erem' 9entham* 2FGE* Do$er Ah !oso%h "a! /!ass "s* 455E+ %+2; FG

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Under!' n# these deas o& human (eha$ or* as , th most o& e"onom " theor' tse!&* are* a#a n* trad t ona! 1ed assum%t ons+ E"onom st Nassau Sen or 82FE5J2GI6; su%%orted a "ommon theme reo""urr n# toda' that human ,ants ,ere infinite< KWhat ,e mean to state s* that no %erson &ee!s h s ,ho!e ,ants to (e ade)uate!' su%%! edU that e$er' %erson has some unsat s& ed des res ,h "h he (e! e$es that add t ona! ,ea!th ,ou!d #rat &'+”4DF Su"h de"!arat ons o& human nature are "onstant n su"h treatments* , th not ons o& #reed* &ear and other hedon st " re&!e- me"han sms ,h "h assume* amon# other th n#s* that material ac)uisition, wealth and gain are nherent to ha%% ness+ Toda'* the dom nant and !ar#e!' a""e%ted m "roe"onom " %ers%e"t $e s that a!! human (eha$ or s redu" (!e to rat ona!* strate# " attem%ts to ma- m 1e e ther %ro& ts or #a n and to a$o d %a n or !oss+ E$er e-%ans $e ut ! tar an ar#uments o& th s nature "ont nue to (e used to mora!!' 0ust &' "om%et t $e* mar7et "a% ta! sm+ One e-am%!e o& th s s the not on o& K$o!untar sm” and the su##est on that a!! a"ts n the mar7et are ne$er "oer"ed and there&ore e$er'one s &ree to ma7e the r o,n de" s ons &or the r o,n #a n or !oss+ Th s dea s e-treme!' "ommon toda'* as thou#h su"h K&ree e-"han#es” e- sted n a $o d , th no other s'ner# st " %ressuresU as thou#h the %ressures o& sur$ $a! n a s'stem , th "!ear tenden" es to,ard (as " "!ass ,ar&are and strate# " s"ar" t' ,ou!d not #enerate an inherent coercion to &or"e !a(orers to su(m t to "a% ta! st e-%!o tat on+4DG O$era!!* the utilitarian 8hedon st "* and "om%et t $e and K&ore$er d ssat s& ed”; mode! o& human nature s ! 7e!' the most "ommon de&ense o& the "a% ta! st s'stem toda'+ It s* n man' ,a's* (oth a %s'"ho!o# "a! theor' o& ho, %eo%!e (eha$e and an eth "a! theor' o& ho, the' ought to (eha$e* ar#ua(!' su%%ort n# a retroa"t $e !o# " that o&ten %uts mar7et theor' (e&ore human (eha$ ora! reality* "on&orm n# the !atter to the &ormer+ In rea! t'* ,hen the ut ! tar an %ers%e"t $e s &u!!' "ons dered* t,o ser ous %ro(!ems emer#e+ F rst* t s $ rtua!!' m%oss (!e to & nd %red "ta( ! t' n su"h K%!easure and %a n” (oundar es a&ter a "erta n de#ree on the so" a! !e$e!+ There s no em% r "a! means o& "om%ar n# the ntens t' o& one nd $ dua!Ns sense o& %!easure , th those o& another nd $ dua!* (e'ond the $er' most (as " assum%t on o& ,ant n# K#a n” o$er K!oss”+ Wh !e the ut ! t' theor' o& $a!ue m #ht (e !o# "a! n a %ure!' a(stra"t* #enera! 1ed $ e,* , thout )uant & "at on* the me"han "s o& su"h emot ona! d'nam "s are* n rea! t'* sus"e%t (!e to se$ere $ar at on+ The ent re ! &e e-%er en"e o& a %erson* "om%ared to another %erson* m #ht & nd some $er' (as " "ommon #round , th res%e"t to the r %ersona! "ond t on n# to %!easure and %a n res%onses* (ut se!dom , !! a %ara!!e! "on"ordan"e (e &ound n an' deta !+ S n"e nd $ dua! %!easures are deemed the u!t mate Kmora!” "r ter a n ut ! tar an sm*
4DF 4n <utline of the Science of Political Economy* Nassau Sen or* 2GDI* 4DG More on th s ssue , !! (e d s"ussed n the essa' Structural

London* A!!en and U+* 2EDG* %+4F

lassicism*

FE

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

there s rea!!' no ,a' one "an ma7e su"h 0ud#ments (et,een the %!easures o& t,o nd $ dua!s+ E"onom st 3erem' 9entham* o&ten "ons dered the &ather o& ut ! tar an sm* a"tua!!' re"o#n 1ed th s n %ass n#* ,r t n#< KAre0ud "e a%art* the #ame o& %ush.% n s o& e)ua! $a!ue , th the arts and s" en"es o& mus " and %oetr'+ I& the #ame o& %ush.% n &urn sh more %!easure* t s more $a!ua(!e than e ther+”4DE The se"ond %ro(!em s the shortsighted nature o& the assumed emot ona! rea"t on+ Human (e n#s ha$e h stor "a!!' e-%ressed the rat ona! nterest to su&&er n the %resent n order to #a n 8or ho%e to #a n; n the &uture+ A!tru sm* ,h "h has under#one e-tens $e %h !oso%h "a! de(ate* m #ht $er' ,e!! (e rooted n &orms o& K%!easure” o(ta ned (' the se!&!ess 8%a n&u!; a"ts &or the (ene& t o& others+ As , !! (e d s"ussed !ater* the %a nM%!easure %rem se %ut &or,ard (' su"h ar#uments* re n&or"ed (' an m%u!s $e rea"t on &or #a n* has (e"ome a so" a!!' re,arded %attern+ Th s has #enerated a menta! t' ,here short$ term gain s sou#ht a&ter o&ten at the true e-%ense o& long$term suffering* :et* n a(stra"t on* ut ! tar an sm a!so o&&ers a ( 1arre 7 nd o& e)uali%er* s n"e t "an (e dent & ed , th the %ers%e"t $e o& Kmutua! e-"han#e” and hen"e a ,a' to a!,a's see "a% ta! sm as a s'stem o& so" a! harmon'* rather than o& ,ar&are+ /om n# (a"7 to the !a(or theor' $s+ the ut ! t' theor' o& $a!ue* the &ormer "!ear!' sho,s "on&! "t as the !a(or theor' ta7es nto a""ount the "ost.e&& " en"' sou#ht (' the "a% ta! st* at the e-%ense o& ,a#es &or the !a(orers+ The ut ! t' theor'* on the other hand* remo$es these deas o$era!! and states that e$er'one s see7 n# the same th n# and there&ore* stru"ture as de* everyone is e)ual+ In other ,ords* a!! e-"han#es (e"ome mutua!!' (ene& " a! to e$er'one n a narro,* a(surd!' a(stra"t #enera! 1ed !o# "+ A!! human a"t ons are redu"ed to th s s'stem o& Ke-"han#e” and hen"e a!! %o! t "a! or so" a! d st n"t ons d sa%%ear n theor'+ The 3Socialist4 &,rising So" a! sm* ! 7e "a% ta! sm* has no un $ersa!!' a""e%ted de& n t on n #enera! %u(! " "on$ersat on (ut s o&ten te"hn "a!!' de& ned as Kan e"onom " s'stem "hara"ter 1ed (' so" a! o,nersh % o& the means o& %rodu"t on and "o.o%erat $e mana#ement o& the e"onom'+”465 The root o& so" a! st thou#ht a%%ears to #o (a"7 to 2Gth "entur' Euro%e* , th a "om%!e- h stor' o& Kre&ormers” ,or7 n# to "ha!!en#e the emer# n# "a% ta! st s'stem+ Gra""hus 9a(eu& 82FI5.2FEF; s a nota(!e theor st n th s area* , th h s T onspiracy of E)ualsT ,h "h attem%ted to to%%!e the Fren"h Go$ernment+ He stated KSo" et' must (e made to o%erate n su"h a ,a' that t erad "ates on"e and &or a!! the des re o& a man to (e"ome r "her* or , ser* or more %o,er&u! than others+”462 Fren"h So" a! st.Anar"h st A erre 3ose%h Aroudhon 82G5E.2GIH; s &amous &or
4DE 'ationale of 'eward, 3erem' 9entham 9oo7 D* /ha%ter 2 465 Sour"e< 9r tann "a+"om

462 Sour"e< The =efense of ?racchus /abeuf before the >igh

8htt%<MM,,,+(r tann "a+"omME9"he"7edMto% "MHH2HIEMso" a! sm; ourt of VendPme* Un $ers t' o& Massa"husetts Aress* 2EIF* %+HF G5

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

de"!ar n# that KAro%ert' s The&t” n h s %am%h!et 4n !n)uiry into the Principle of 'ight and of ?overnment* 9' the ear!' 2Eth "entur'* so" a! st deas ,ere e-%and n# ra% d!'* "ommon!' n res%onse to %er"e $ed mora! and eth " %ro(!ems nherent to "a% ta! sm* su"h as "!ass m(a!an"e and e-%!o tat on+ The ! st o& n&!uent a! th n7ers s $ast and "om%!e-* so on!' three nd $ dua!s* not n# the r most re!e$ant "ontr (ut ons* , !! (e d s"ussed here< W !! am Thom%son* Car! Mar- and Thorste n Ve(!en+ William Thom,son 67889-7:;;< ,as a %o,er&u! n&!uen"e on so" a! st thou#ht+ He ,as n su%%ort o& the dea o& K"oo%erat $es”* made &amous (' Ro(ert O,en as someth n# o& an a!ternat $e to the "a% ta! st (us ness mode! and %h !oso%h "a!!' too7 a ut ! tar an %ers%e"t $e ,hen t "ame to human (eha$ or+ He ,as $er' n&!uen"ed (' 9entham (ut h s useM nter%retat on o& ut ! tar an sm ,as rather d &&erent+ For nstan"e* he (e! e$e that & a!! mem(ers o& so" et' ,ere treated e)ually* rather than en#a#e "!ass ,ar&are and e-%!o tat on* the' ,ou!d ha$e e)ua! "a%a" t es to e-%er en"e ha%% ness+464 He ar#ued e-tens $e!' &or a 7 nd o& mar#et socialism* ,here e#a! tar an sm and e)ua! t' %re$a !ed n h s &amous 4n !n)uiry into the Principles of the =istribution of 7ealth Most onducive to >uman >appiness* He made t "!ear that /a% ta! sm ,as a s'stem o& e-%!o tat on and nse"ur t'* stat n#< KThe tenden"' o& the e- st n# arran#ement o& th n#s as to ,ea!th s to enr "h a &e, at the e-%ense o& the mass o& %rodu"ers* to ma7e the %o$ert' o& the %oor more ho%e!ess+”46D Ho,e$er* he ,ent on to re"o#n 1e that e$en & su"h a h'(r d o& "a% ta! sm and so" a! sm d d emer#e* the under!' n# %rem se o& competition ,as st !! a ser ous %ro(!em+ He ,rote at !en#th a(out the %ro(!ems nherent to the nature o& mar7et "om%et t on* out! n n# & $e ssues that ha$e (een "ommon rhetor " o& so" a! st thou#ht e$er s n"e+ The & rst %ro(!em ,as that e$er' K!a(orer* art san and trader X$ e,edY a "om%et tor* a r $a! n e$er' other+++Xand ea"h $ e,edYU a se"ond "om%et t on* a se"ond r $a!sh % (et,een+++Xh s or her %ro&ess onY and the %u(! "+”466 He ,ent on to state t ,ou!d (e K n the nterest o& a!! med "a! men that d seases shou!d e- st and %re$a !* or the r trade ,ou!d (e de"reased ten* or one hundred* &o!d+”46H The se"ond %ro(!em ,as the nherent o%%ress on o& ,omen and d stort on o& the &am !'* not n# that the d $ s on o& !a(or and o$erar"h n# eth " o& "om%et t $e se!& shness &urther se"ured the drud#er' o& ,omen n the househo!d and #ender ne)ua! t'+46I The th rd %ro(!em asso" ated , th "om%et t on ,as the
464 Re&eren"e< 4n !n)uiry into the Principles of the =istribution of 7ealth Most

onducive to >uman >appiness* W !! am Thom%son* London* W !! am S+ Orr* 2GH5* %+2F 46D I( d* %+-- 466 I( d* %+4HE 46H I( d+ 46I I( d* %%+4I5.4I2 G2

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

nherent nsta( ! t' #enerated n the e"onom' tse!&* stat n#< TThe th rd e$ ! here m%uted to the $er' %r n" %!e o& nd $ dua! "om%et t on s* that t must o""as ona!!' !ead to un%ro& ta(!e or n0ud " ous modes o& nd $ dua! e-ert on+++e$er' man must 0ud#e &or h mse!& as to the %ro(a( ! t' o& su""ess n the o""u%at on ,h "h he ado%ts+ And ,hat are h s means o& 0ud# n#R E$er' one* do n# ,e!! n h s "a!! n#* s nterested n "on"ea! n# h s su""ess* !est "om%et t on shou!d redu"e h s #a ns+ What nd $ dua! "an 0ud#e ,hether the mar7et* &re)uent!' at a #reat d stan"e* somet mes n another hem s%here o& the #!o(e s o$ersto"7ed* or ! 7e!' to (e so* , th the art "!e ,h "h n"! nat on ma' !ead h m to &a(r "ateR+++and shou!d an' error o& 0ud#ment+++!ead h m nto an un"a!!ed &or* and* there&ore* un%ro& ta(!e ! ne o& e-ert on* ,hat s the "onse)uen"eR A mere error o& 0ud#ment+++ma' end n se$ere d stress* & not n ru n+ /ases o& th s sort seem to (e una$o da(!e under the s"heme o& nd $ dua! "om%et t on n ts (est &orm+”46F The &ourth %ro(!em noted s ho, the se!& sh nature o& the "om%et t $e mar7et %resented nse"ur t' around "ore ! &e su%%ort "onse)uen"es* su"h as se"ur t' n o!d a#e* s "7ness and &rom a"" dents+46G The & &th %ro(!em denoted (' Thom%son re#ard n# mar7et "om%et t on ,as that t s!o,ed the ad$an"ement o& 7no,!ed#e+ K/on"ea!ment* there&ore* o& ,hat s ne, or e-"e!!ent &rom "om%et tors* must a""om%an' nd $ dua! "om%et t on+++(e"ause the stron#est %ersona! nterest s (' t o%%osed to the %r n" %!e o& (ene$o!en"e+”46E Karl 2ar= 67:7:-7::;<* a!on# , th man' others* ,as n&!uen"ed (' Thom%son?s ,or7 and s ! 7e!' one o& the most ,e!! 7no,n e"onom " %h !oso%hers toda'+ W th h s name o&ten used n a dero#ator' manner to #esture the %er !s o& Soviet communism or Ktota! tar an sm”* Mar- s a!so ! 7e!' the most m sunderstood o& a!! %o%u!ar 1ed e"onom sts+ Wh !e most &amous n the #enera! %u(! " m nd &or %resent n# treat ses on So" a! st./ommun st deas* Mar- a"tua!!' s%ent most o& h s t me on the su(0e"t o& /a% ta! sm and ts o%erat ons+ H s "ontr (ut on to understand n# /a% ta! sm s more $ast than man' rea! 1e* , th man' "ommon e"onom " terms and %hrases used toda' n "on$ersat ons a(out "a% ta! sm a"tua!!' & nd n# the r root n Mar-?s ! terar' treatments+ H s %ers%e"t $e ,as !ar#e!' h stor "a!* and &eatured %art "u!ar!' deta !ed s"ho!arsh % a(out the e$o!ut on o& e"onom " thou#ht+ Due to the mmense s 1e o& h s ,or7* on!' a &e, n&!uent a! ssues , !! (e addressed here+ One ssue to denote ,as h s a,areness o& ho, the "a% ta! st "hara"ter st " o& Ke-"han#e” ,as %r n" %!ed as the u!t mate (as s &or so" a! re!at onsh %s+ He stated n h s ?rundrisse< KIndeed* nso&ar as the "ommod t' or !a(our s "on"e $ed o& on!' as e-"han#e $a!ue* and the re!at on n ,h "h the $ar ous "ommod t es are (rou#ht nto "onne"t on , th one another s "on"e $ed o& as the e-"han#e o& these
46F I( d* %%+4I2.4ID 46G I( d* %+4ID 46E I( d* %+4IF

G4

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

e-"han#e $a!ues+++then the nd $ dua!s+++are s m%!' and on!' "on"e $ed o& as e-"han#ers+ As &ar as the &orma! "hara"ter s "on"erned* there s a(so!ute!' no d st n"t on (et,een them+++As su(0e"ts o& e-"han#e* the r re!at on s there&ore that o& e)ua! t'+”4H5 KA!thou#h nd $ dua! A &ee!s a need &or the "ommod t' o& nd $ dua! 9* he does not a%%ro%r ate t (' &or"e* nor $ "e $ersa* (ut rather the' re"o#n 1e one another re" %ro"a!!' as %ro%r etors+++No one se 1es ho!d o& anotherNs (' &or"e+ Ea"h d $ests h mse!& o& h s %ro%ert' $o!untar !'+”4H2 A#a n* as noted %r or , th res%e"t to the reo""urr n# theme o& human re!at ons and "!ass assum%t ons 8or den a!s;* Mar- em%has 1ed ,hat "ou!d (e ar#ued as three "ore delusions3 the de!us on o& freedom, e)uality and social harmony, as redu"ed to an e-treme!' narro, asso" at on around the dea o& Kmutua!!' (ene& " a! e-"han#e”* ,h "h ,as to (e the on!' rea! e"onom " re!at onsh % (' ,h "h the ,ho!e o& so" et' s to (e assessed+ KIt s n the "hara"ter o& the mone' re!at on . as &ar as t s de$e!o%ed n ts %ur t' to th s %o nt* and , thout re#ard to more h #h!' de$e!o%ed re!at ons o& %rodu"t on . that a!! nherent "ontrad "t ons o& (our#eo s so" et' a%%ear e-t n#u shed n mone' re!at ons as "on"e $ed n a s m%!e &ormU and (our#eo s demo"ra"' e$en more than (our#eo s e"onom sts ta7es re&u#e n th s as%e"t+++ n order to "onstru"t a%o!o#et "s &or the e- st n# e"onom " re!at ons+4H4 H s ,or7 apital3 4 riti)ue of Political Economy, Mare-tens $e!' ana!'1es man' &a"tors o& the "a% ta! st s'stem* name!' the nature o& "ommod t es themse!$es* the d'nam "s (et,een $a!ue* use $a!ue* e-"han#e $a!ue* !a(or theor' and ut ! t'* a!on# , th a dee% n$est #at on o& ,hat K"a% ta!” means* ho, the s'stem e$o!$ed and u!t mate!' the nature o& ro!es , th n the mode!+ An m%ortant theme to denote s h s $ e, re#ard n# Ksur%!us $a!ue”* ,h "h* n #esture o& R "ardo?s K!a(or theor' o& $a!ue”* s the assumed $a!ue a%%ro%r ated (' the "a% ta! st n the &orm o& profit* ,h "h s n e-"ess o& the $a!ue 8"ost; nherent to !a(orM%rodu"t on tse!&+ He stated , th res%e"t to d sm ss n# th s KSur%!us” or # n n e-"han#e< KTurn and t, st then as ,e ma'* the &a"t rema ns una!tered+ I& e)u $a!ents are e-"han#ed* no sur%!us.$a!ue resu!ts* and & non. e)u $a!ents are e-"han#ed* st !! no sur%!us.$a!ue resu!ts+ / r"u!at on* or the e-"han#e o& "ommod t es* (e#ets no $a!ue+”4HD He then ar#ues* n short* d &&erent at n# (et,een K!a(or” and K!a(or %o,er”* , th the !atter "ons st n# o& (oth a Kuse $a!ue” and an Ke-"han#e $a!ue”* that a ,or7er s on!' "om%ensated &or meet n# h s needs &or subsistence* ,h "h s re%resented n h s ,a#es* ,h !e e$er'th n# %ast that $a!ue s a Ksur%!us”* ,h "h theoret "a!!' trans!ates nto the K%ro& t” made (' the
4H5 Sour"e< ?rundrisse* Car! Mar-* tr+ Mart n N "o!aus* Re%r nt V nta#e 9oo7s*

Ne, :or7* 2EFD %+462

4H2 I( d* %+46D 4H4 I( d* %%+465.462 4HD Sour"e< apital* Car! Mar-* Fore #n Lan#ua#es re%r nt * Mos"o,* 2EI2* $o!+

D* %+2ID

GD

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

"a% ta! st* & na! 1ed (' the %r "e Kmar7 u%” n mar7et e-"han#e+4H6 Th s %o nt* ,h "h he &urther e-tends n "onte-t @ d'nam "s nherent to the " r"u!at onMa%%! "at on o& d &&erent &orms o& "a% ta! 8"a% ta! de& ned st !! as a means o& %rodu"t on (ut n th s "ase most!' n ts monetar' &orm;* %oses the "on"!us on that an e-%!o tat on o& the ,or7ers ,as inherent to the "reat on o& Ksur%!us $a!ue” or K%ro& t”+ In other ,ords* (' m%! "at on* th s ,as a &orm o& (as " ne)ua! t' (u !t nto the "a% ta! st s'stem and as !on# as one sma!! #rou% o& Ko,ners” "ontro!!ed the sur%!us $a!ue "reated (' the ,or7 n# "!ass* there , !! a!,a's (e r "h and %oor* ,ea!th and %o$ert'+ Mar- &urther e-tends th s dea to a reassessment o& K%ro%ert'”* ,h "h ,as essent a!!' no, the !e#a! &oundat on o& K"a% ta!” tse!&* e-%! " t!' a!!o, n# &or the "oer" $e e-%ro%r at on o& Ksur%!us !a(or” 8that %art o& !a(or ,h "h #enerates the sur%!us $a!ue; stat n#< KAt & rst the r #hts o& %ro%ert' seemed to us to (e (ased on a manNs o,n !a(our+ At !east* some su"h assum%t on ,as ne"essar' s n"e on!' "ommod t'.o,ners , th e)ua! r #hts "on&ronted ea"h other* and the so!e means (' ,h "h a man "ou!d (e"ome %ossessed o& the "ommod t es o& others* ,as (' a! enat n# 8# $ n# u%; h s o,n "ommod t esU and these "ou!d (e re%!a"ed (' !a(our a!one+ No,* ho,e$er* %ro%ert' turns out to (e the r #ht* on the %art o& the "a% ta! st* to a%%ro%r ate the un%a d !a(our 8sur%!us !a(or; o& others or ts %rodu"t* and to (e the m%oss ( ! t' on the %art o& the !a(ourer* o& a%%ro%r at n# h s o,n %rodu"t+ The se%arat on o& %ro%ert' &rom !a(our has (e"ome the ne"essar' "onse)uen"e o& a !a, that a%%arent!' or # nated n the r dent t'+”4HH Mar- de$e!o%s these 7 nds o& ar#uments e-tens $e!' n h s ,r t n#* n"!ud n# the dea that ,or7 n# "!ass !a(or "annot (e K$o!untar'” n th s s'stem . on!' "oer" $e . s n"e the u!t mate de" s on to a%%!' !a(or &or a ,a#e ,as n the hands o& the "a% ta! st+ He stated* KThe ,or7er there&ore on!' &ee!s h mse!& outs de h s ,or7* and n h s ,or7 &ee!s outs de h mse!&+ He s at home ,hen he s not ,or7 n#* and ,hen he s ,or7 n# he s not at home+ H s !a(our s there&ore not $o!untar' (ut "oer"edU t s &or"ed !a(our+ It s there&ore not the sat s&a"t on o& a needU t s mere!' a means to sat s&' needs e-terna! to t+”4HI In the end* t ,as th s "om%!e-* mu!t &a"eted de#radat on* e-%!o tat on and dehuman 1at on o& the a$era#e ,or7er that (othered h m so and %ushed h m to,ard re&orm+ He e$en n$ented a %hrase . KThe La, o& the In"reas n# M ser'” . to des"r (e ho, the #enera! ,or7 n# %o%u!at on?s ha%% ness ,as n$erse to the a""umu!at on o& ,ea!th &or the "a% ta! st "!ass+ In the end* Mar- ,as "on$ n"ed that %ressures nherent to the s'stem ,ou!d %ush the ,or7 n# "!ass to re$o!t a#a nst the "a% ta! st "!ass* a!!o, n# &or a ne, Kso" a! st” mode o& %rodu"t on ,here* n %art* the ,or7 n# "!ass o%erated &or the r o,n
4H6 I( d* %+2FI 4HH I( d* $o!+ 2* %%+HGDJHG6 4HI Sour"e< Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of ,I--, Car! Mar-* Mos"o,*

Aro#ress* 2EHE* %+IE

G6

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

(ene& t+ Thorstein 'e len 67:98-7>?>< , !! (e the & na! so."a!!ed Kso" a! st” ,hose n&!uent a! deas re#ard n# the de$e!o%ment and &!a,s o& "a% ta! sm , !! (e e-%!ored here+ L 7e Mar-* he had the ad$anta#e o& t me , th res%e"t to the d #est on o& e"onom " h stor'+ Ve(!en tau#ht e"onom "s at a num(er o& un $ers t es dur n# h s t me* %ro! & "a!!' %rodu" n# ! terature on $ar ous so" a! ssues+ Ve(!en ,as $er' "r t "a! o& the neo"!ass "a! e"onom " assum%t ons* s%e" & "a!!' re#ard n# the a%%! ed ut ! tar an deas o& Khuman nature”* see n# the dea that a!! human e"onom " (eha$ or ,as to (e redu"ed to a hedon st " nter%!a' o& se!&.ma- m 1at on and %reser$at on as a(surd!' s m%! st "+4HF He too7 ,hat ,e "ou!d "a!! an Ke$o!ut onar'” $ e, o& human h stor'* , th "han#e de& ned (' the so" a! nst tut ons that too7 ho!d or ,ere sur%assed+ He stated , th res%e"t to the "urrent 8,hat he deemed Kmater a! st "”; state o& the t me< KL 7e a!! human "u!ture th s mater a! " $ ! 1at on s a s"heme o& nst tut ons . nst tut ona! &a(r " and nst tut ona! #ro,th+++The #ro,th o& "u!ture s a "umu!at $e se)uen"e o& ha( tuat on* and the ,a's and means o& t are the ha( tua! res%onse o& human nature to e- #en" es that $ar' n"ont nent!'* "umu!at $e!'* (ut , th someth n# o& a "ons stent se)uen"e n the "umu!at $e $ar at ons that so #o &or,ard . n"ont nent!'* (e"ause ea"h ne, mo$e "reates a ne, s tuat on ,h "h ndu"es a &urther ne, $ar at on n the ha( tua! manner o& res%onseU "umu!at $e!'* (e"ause ea"h ne, s tuat on s a $ar at on o& ,hat has #one (e&ore t and em(od es as "ausa! &a"tors a!! that has (een e&&e"ted (' ,hat ,ent (e&oreU "ons stent!'* (e"ause the under!' n# tra ts o& human nature 8%ro%ens t es* a%t tudes* and ,hat not; (' &or"e o& ,h "h the res%onse ta7es %!a"e* and on the #round o& ,h "h the ha( tuat on ta7es e&&e"t* rema n su(stant a!!' un"han#ed+”4HG Ve(!en "ha!!en#ed the (as " &oundat on o& the "a% ta! st mode o& %rodu"t on (' )uest on n# man' o& the &a"tors that had (een essent a!!' K# $en” or deemed em% r "a! (' the "entur es o& e"onom " de(ate+ The no, n#ra ned nst tut ons o& K,a#es”* Krents”* K%ro%ert'”* K nterest”* K!a(or” ,ere d stur(ed n the r su%%osed s m%! " t' (' a $ e, that none o& them "ou!d (e he!d as nte!!e"tua!!' $ a(!e* outs de o& the %ure!' "ate#or "a! asso" at on , th e-treme ! m ts o& a%%! "at on+ He 0o7ed a(out ho, Ka #an# o& A!eut an Is!anders s!ush n# a(out n the ,ra"7 and sur& , th ra7es and ma# "a! n"antat ons &or the "a%ture o& she!!.& sh are he!d* n %o nt o& ta-onom " rea! t'* to (e en#a#ed n a &eat o& hedon st " e)u ! (rat on n rent* ,a#es* and nterest+ And that s a!! there s to t+”4HE
4HF Re&eren"e< KWh' E"onom "s Is Not an E$o!ut onar' S" en"e*” Place of

Science in Modern

ivili%ation and <ther Essays* Thorste n Ve(!en* %%+FD.F6

4HG Sour"e< KThe L m tat ons o& Mar# na! Ut ! t'*” The Place of Science in Modern

ivili%ation and <ther Essays* Thorste n Ve(!en* Ne, :or7* Russe!! and Russe!!* 2EI2* %+462.464 4HE Sour"e< KAro&essor /!ar7Ns E"onom "s”* Place of Science in Modern GH

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

He sa, %rodu"t on and ndustr' tse!& as a social process ,here ! nes ,ere dee%!' (!urred* as t n$ar a(!' n$o!$ed the sharing of #nowledge 8usu&ru"t; and s7 !!s+ In man' ,a's* he $ e,ed su"h "ate#or "a! "hara"ter st "s o& "a% ta! sm to (e inherent to "a% ta! sm a!one and not re%resentat $e o& %h's "a! rea! t'* hen"e a $ast "ontr $an"e+ He &ound that the dom nant neo"!ass "a! theor' e- sted* n %art* to o(s"ure the &undamenta! "!ass.,ar&are and host ! t' nherent* to &urther se"ure the nterests o& ,hat he "a!!ed the K$ested nterests” or Ka(sentee o,ners” 8a7a "a% ta! sts;+4I5 He re0e"ted the dea that %r $ate %ro%ert' ,as a Knatura! r #ht”* as assumed (' Lo"7e* Sm th and the others* o&ten 0o7 n# a(out the a(surd t' o& thou#ht that !eads the Ka(sentee o,ners” to "!a m Ko,nersh %” o& "ommod t es %rodu"ed* n rea! t'* (' the !a(or o& the K"ommon ,or7er”* h #h! #ht n# the a(surd t' o& the !on# he!d %r n" %!e that &rom !a(or* "omes %ro%ert'+4I2 He ,ent &urther to e-%ress the nherent social nature o& %rodu"t on and ho, the true nature o& s7 !! and 7no,!ed#e a""umu!at on "om%!ete!' $o ded the assum%t on o& %ro%ert' r #hts n and o& tse!&* stat n#< KTh s natura!.r #hts theor' o& %ro%ert' ma7es the "reat $e e&&ort o& an so!ated* se!&.su&& " n# nd $ dua! the (as s o& o,nersh % $ested n h m+ In so do n# t o$er!oo7s the &a"t that there s no so!ated* se!&.su&& " n# nd $ dua!+++Arodu"t on ta7es %!a"e on!' n so" et' . on!' throu#h the "o.o%erat on o& an ndustr a! "ommun t'+ Th s ndustr a! "ommun t' ma' (e !ar#e or sma!!+++(ut t a!,a's "om%r ses a #rou% !ar#e enou#h to "onta n and transm t the trad t ons* too!s* te"hn "a! 7no,!ed#e* and usa#es , thout ,h "h there "an (e no ndustr a! or#an 1at on and no e"onom " re!at on o& nd $ dua!s to one another or to the r en$ ronment+++There "an (e no %rodu"t on , thout te"hn "a! 7no,!ed#eU hen"e no a""umu!at on and no ,ea!th to (e o,ned* n se$era!t' or other, se+ And there s no te"hn "a! 7no,!ed#e a%art &rom an ndustr a! "ommun t'+ S n"e there s no nd $ dua! %rodu"t on and no nd $ dua! %rodu"t $ t'* the natura!.r #hts %re"on"e%t on+++redu"es tse!& to a(surd t'* e$en under the !o# " o& ts o,n assum%t ons+4I4 As , th Mar-* he sa, no other ,a' to d st n#u sh the t,o ma0or "!asses o& so" et' than (et,een those ,ho wor# and those ,ho exploit that ,or74ID , th the %ro& t ma7 n# %ort on o& "a% ta! sm 8the K(us ness”; "om%!ete!' se%arate &rom %rodu"t on tse!& 8K ndustr'”;+ He ma7es a "!ear d st n"t on (et,een (us ness and ndustr' and re&ers to the &ormer as &un"t on n# as a $eh "!e o& Ksa(ota#e” &or ndustr'+ He sa, a "om%!ete "ontrad "t on (et,een the eth "a! ntent o& the #enera!
ivili%ation* Thorste n Ve(!en* %+2ED

4I5 Re&eren"e< 4bsentee <wnership and /usiness Enterprise in 'ecent Times*

Thorste n Ve(!en* Au#ustus M+ Ce!!e'* Ne, :or7* 2EI6* %+65F hanging <rder, Thorste n Ve(!en* %+D4 4I4 I( d* %%+DD.D6 4ID Re&eren"e< KThe Inst n"t o& Wor7mansh % and the Ir7someness o& La(or”* Essays in <ur hanging <rder* Thorste n Ve(!en* %%+2GG.2E5
4I2 Re&eren"e< KThe 9e# nn n#s o& O,nersh %”* Essays in <ur

GI

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

"ommun t' to %rodu"e e&& " ent!' and , th h #h ser$ "e* and the !a,s o& %r $ate %ro%ert' that had the %o,er to d re"t ndustr' &or the sa7e o& %ro& t a!one* redu" n# that e&& " en"' and ntent+ The term Ksa(ota#e” n th s "onte-t ,as de& ned (' Ve(!en as the K"ons" ent ous , thdra,a! o& e&& " en"'+”4I6 He states< KThe ndustr a! %!ant s n"reas n#!' runn n# d!e or ha!& d!e* runn n# n"reas n#!' short o& ts %rodu"t $e "a%a" t'+ Wor7men are (e n# !a d o&&+++And a!! the ,h !e these %eo%!e are n #reat need o& a!! sorts o& #oods and ser$ "es ,h "h these d!e %!ants and d!e ,or7men are & t to %rodu"e+ 9ut &or reasons o& (us ness e-%ed en"' t s m%oss (!e to !et these d!e %!ants and d!e ,or7men #o to ,or7^that s to sa' &or reasons o& nsu&& " ent %ro& t to the (us ness men nterested* or n other ,ords* &or the reasons o& nsu&& " ent n"ome to the $ested nterests+”4IH Furthermore* Ve(!en* as o%%osed to the $ast ma0or t' o& %eo%!e n the modern da' ,ho "ondemn a"ts o& K"orru%t on” on eth "a! #rounds* d d not see an' o& the %ro(!ems o& a(use and e-%!o tat on as an ssue o& Kmora! t'” or Keth "s”+ He sa, the %ro(!ems as nherent* (u !t nto the nature o& "a% ta! sm tse!&+ He states< KIt s not that these "a%ta ns o& 9 # 9us ness ,hose dut' t s to adm n ster th s sa!utar' mod "um o& sa(ota#e on %rodu"t on are nau#ht'+ It s not that the' a m to shorten human ! &e or au#ment human d s"om&ort (' "ontr $ n# an n"rease o& %r $at on amon# the r &e!!o, men+++The )uest on s not ,hether th s tra&& " n %r $at on s humane* (ut ,hether t s sound business management+”4II W th res%e"t to the nature o& Go$ernment* Ve(!en?s $ e, ,as $er' "!ear< Go$ernment (' ts $er' %o! t "a! "onstru"t e- sted to %rote"t the e- st n# so" a! order and "!ass stru"ture* re n&or" n# %r $ate %ro%ert' !a,s and (' d re"t e-tens on re n&or" n# the d s%ro%ort onate o,nersh % 8ru! n#; "!ass+ KLe# s!at on* %o! "e sur$e !!an"e* the adm n strat on o& 0ust "e* the m ! tar' and d %!omat " ser$ "e* a!! are "h e&!' "on"erned , th (us ness re!at ons* %e"un ar' nterests* and the' ha$e ! tt!e more than an n" denta! (ear n# on other human nterests”*4IF he stated+ The dea o& demo"ra"' ,as a!so dee%!' $ o!ated (' "a% ta! st %o,er n h s $ e,* stat n# K"onst tut ona! #o$ernment s a (us ness #o$ernment+”4IG Ve(!en* ,h !e a,are o& the %henomenon o& K!o((' n#” and the K(u' n#” o& %o! t " ans "ommon!' seen toda' as a &orm o& K"orru%t on”* d d not see th s as the rea! nature o& the %ro(!em+ Rather* #o$ernment "ontro! (' (us ness ,as not an anoma!'+ It ,as s m%!'

4I6 Sour"e< The Engineers and the Price System* Thorste n Ve(!en* Ne, :or7*

Au#ustus M+ Ce!!e'* 2EIH* %+2

4IH I( d* %+24 4II Sour"e< 4bsentee <wnership and /usiness Enterprise in 'ecent Times, 4IF Sour"e< The Theory of /usiness Enterprise* Thorste n Ve(!en* Ne, :or7* 4IG I( d* %+4GH

Thorste n Ve(!en* Ne, :or7* Au#ustus M+ Ce!!e'* 2EI6* %%+445.442 Au#ustus M+ Ce!!e'* 2EIH* %+4IE GF

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

,hat #o$ernment had man &ested to (e (' des #n+4IE 9' ts $er' nature* as an nst tut ona! 1ed means &or so" a! "ontro!* #o$ernment ,ou!d a!,a's %rote"t the Kr "h” a#a nst the K%oor”+ S n"e the K%oor” a!,a's #reat!' outnum(ered the Kr "h”* a r # d !e#a! stru"ture &a$or n# the ,ea!th' 8K%ro%ert ed nterests”; had to e- st to 7ee% the "!ass se%arat on and (ene& t to the "a% ta! st nterests nta"t+4F5 L 7e, se* he a!so re"o#n 1ed ho, the "a% ta! st.state #o$ernment $er' mu"h needed to 7ee% social values n ! ne , th the r nterests . ,hat Ve(!en "a!!ed a K%e"un ar' "u!ture”+ There&ore* the %redator'* se!& sh and "om%et t $e ha( ts t'% "a! o& Ksu""ess” n the under!' n# so" a! ,ar&are nherent to the "a% ta! st s'stem naturally reinforced those $a!ues (' de&au!t+ To (e # $ n# and $u!nera(!e ,as o& ! tt!e use to Ksu""ess” n th s "onte-t* as the ruth!ess and strate# "a!!' "om%et t $e ,ere "ons o& so" a! re,ard+4F2 In a (road assessment* Ve(!en ,or7ed to "r t "a!!' ana!'1e the "ore stru"ture and $a!ues o& the "a% ta! st mode!* %os n# ,hat "ou!d (e ar#ued as some %ro&ound!' so" o!o# "a!!' ad$an"ed "on"!us ons , th res%e"t to ts nherent "ontrad "t ons* te"hn "a! ne&& " en"' and $a!ue d sorders+ H s ,or7 s $er' mu"h en"oura#ed &or re$ e, (' a!! nterested n the h stor' o& e"onom " thou#ht* s%e" & "a!!' &or those s7e%t "a! o& the %rem se o& the &ree mar7et+ $n Conclusion% Ca,italism as 3Social Patholog+4 The h stor' o& e"onom " thou#ht s* n man' ,a's* the h stor' o& human social relationships* , th the %attern o& "erta n mere assum%t ons #a n n# %rom nen"e to the e&&e"t o& (e n# "ons dered sa"rosan"t and mmuta(!e o$er t me+ Th s e!ement o& traditionalism* "u!m nat n# &rom $a!ues and (e! e& s'stems o& ear! er %er ods* has (een a "ore theme n th s short re$ e, o& e"onom " h stor'+ The "entra! %o nt (e n# that the attr (utes ta7en as K# $en” to the dom nant theor es o& e"onom' toda' are a"tua!!' not (ased on d re"t physical support* su"h as ,ou!d (e needed to & nd $a! dat on $ a the method of science* (ut rather (ased on the mere %er%etuat on o& an esta(! shed ideological &rame,or7 ,h "h has e$o!$ed to ntr "ate!' self$refer to ts nterna! !o# "* 0ust &' n# ts o,n e- sten"e (' ts o,n standards+ Toda'* t s not ,hat em(od es the "a% ta! st deo!o#' n s%e" & "s that s most %ro(!emat "* (ut rather ,hat t omits (' e-tens on+ 3ust as ear!' re! # ons sa, the ,or!d as &!at and had to ad0ust the r rhetor " on"e t ,as %ro$en round (' s" en"e* the trad t on o& mar7et e"onom "s s &a"ed , th s m !ar tr a!s+ /ons der n# the s m%! " t' o& the a#rar an and e$entua!!' %r m t $e a%%roa"hes to ndustr a! %rodu"t on* there ,as ! tt!e a,areness or needed "on"ern a(out ts %oss (!e ne#at $e "onse)uen"es o$er t me on not on!' the ha( tat 8e"o!o# "a!; !e$e!* (ut a!so on the human !e$e! 8%u(! " hea!th;+ L 7e, se* the mar7et s'stem* , th ts $er' o!d assum%t ons
4IE I( d* %%+4GI.4GF 4F5 I( d* %%+656.65H 4F2 Re&eren"e< The Theory of the +eisure

Au#ustus M+ Ce!!e'* 2EIH* %%+44E.4D5 GG

lass* Thorste n Ve(!en* Ne, :or7*

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

re#ard n# %oss ( ! t'* a!so #nores 8or e$en & #hts; the %o,er&u! (rea7throu#hs n s" en"e and te"hno!o#' that e-%ress "a%a" t es to so!$e %ro(!ems and "reate e!e$ated %ros%er t'+ In &a"t* as , !! (e e-%!ored n the essa' Mar#et Efficiency vs* Technical Efficiency* su"h %ro#ress $e a"t ons and harmon ous re"o#n t ons re#ard n# the habitat and human well$being re$ea!s that mar7et "a% ta! sm ! tera!!' cannot facilitate these solutions, s n"e ts $er' me"han "s d sa!!o, or ,or7 a#a nst su"h %oss ( ! t es (' de&au!t+ Genera!!' s%ea7 n#* the reso!ut on o& %ro(!ems and hen"e increasing of efficiency s* n man' ,a's* anathema to the mar7et?s o%erat on+ So!$ n# %ro(!ems n #enera! means no more a( ! t' to #a n n"ome &rom the Kser$ " n#” o& those %ro(!ems+ Ne, e&& " en" es a!most a!,a's mean a redu"t on o& !a(or and ener#' needs and ,h !e that ma' seem %os t $e , th res%e"t to true earthly efficiency* t a!so o&ten means a !oss o& 0o(s and redu"t on o& monetar' " r"u!at on u%on ts a%%! "at on+4F4 It s here ,here the "a% ta! st mode! (e# ns to ta7e the ro!e o& a social pathogen, not on!' , th res%e"t to ,hat t #nores* d sa!!o,s or & #hts a#a nst (' des #n* (ut a!so , th res%e"t to ,hat t reinforces and perpetuates* I& ,e #o (a"7 to Lo"7e?s statement a(out ho, the nature o& mone'* # $en ts ta" t "onsent (' the "ommun t'* ,as to essent a!!' ser$e as a community n and o& tse!&* t s eas' to see ho, th s on"e mere Kmed um o& e-"han#e” has e$o!$ed nto ts %resent so" o!o# "a! &orm* ,here the ent re (as s o& the mar7et ser$es* n &a"t* not , th the ntent to "reate and ass st , th human sur$ $a!* hea!th and %ros%er t'* (ut to no, mere!' &a" ! tate the a"t o& profit and profit alone* Adam Sm th ne$er ,ou!d ha$e &athomed that n the %resent da'* the most !u"rat $e* re,arded & e!ds ,ou!d (e not the %rodu"t on o& ! &e su%%ort n#M m%ro$ n# #oods* (ut rather the a"t o& mo$ n# mone' around J hen"e the K,or7” o& & nan" a! nst tut ons su"h as (an7s* KWa!! St+” and n$estment & rms J & rms that literally create nothing, (ut ho!d mmense ,ea!th and n&!uen"e+ Toda'* the on!' rea! value theory n %!a"e s ,hat "ou!d (e "a!!ed the Kmone' se)uen"e o& $a!ue”+4FD Mone' has ta7en on a ! &e o& ts o,n , th res%e"t to the re n&or"ed %s'"ho!o#' mo$ n# t+ It has no d re"t %ur%ose n ntent (ut to ,or7 to man &est more mone' out o& !ess mone' 8 n$estment;+ Th s Kmone' see7 n# mone'” %henomenon has not on!' "reated a value system disorder ,here th s nterest n monetar' #a n trum%s e$er'th n#* !ea$ n# tru!' re!e$ant en$ ronmenta! and %u(! "
4F4 A s m%!e e-am%!e o& th s s the amount o& &und n# and em%!o'ment that

has (een #enerated &rom the ser$ n# o& "an"er+ I& "ures &or "an"er ,here to a"tua!!' emer#e* the do,ns 1 n# o& these mass $e med "a! nst tut ons ,ou!d natura!!' resu!t+ Th s means that the so!$ n# o& %ro(!ems "an resu!t n the !oss o& ! $e! hood &or man' ,ho ,or7ed to ser$ "e those %ro(!ems+ Th s s "reate a %er$erse re n&or"ement to 7ee% th n#s the same J a$o d n# "han#e n #enera!+ 4FD Th s %hrase ,as %ut &or,ard (' 3ohn M"Murtr' n h s ,or7 The ancer Stage of apitalism* A!uto Aress* 2EEE GE

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

hea!th ssues se"ondar' and Ke-terna!” to the &o"us o& e"onom'* ts "onstant %ro%ens t' to Kmu!t %!'” and Ke-%and” tru!' has a cancerous )ua! t' ,here th s dea o& needed K#ro,th”* rather than stead'.state (a!an"e* "ont nues ts %atho!o# "a! e&&e"t on man' !e$e!s+ Mu"h "ou!d (e sa d a(out the de(t s'stem4F6 and ho, $ rtua!!' a!! the "ountr es on the %!anet earth are no, nde(ted to themselves to the e-tent ,here ,e* the human s%e" es* a"tua!!' do not ha$e the mone' n " r"u!at on to %a' ourse!$es (a"7 &rom ,hat ,e ha$e (orro,ed out o& th n a r+ The need &or more and more K"red t” to &ue! the Kmar7et” s "onstant toda' due to th s m(a!an"e* ,h "h means* ! 7e "an"er* ,e are dea! n# , th an ntent o& infinite expansion and consumption* Th s s m%!' "annot ,or7 on a & n te %!anet+ Furthermore* the s"ar" t'.dr $en* "om%et t $e ethos nherent to the mode! "ont nues to %er%etuate d $ s $e "!ass ,ar&are that 7ee%s not on!' the world at ,ar , th tse!& $ a em% re m%er a! sm and %rote"t on sm* (ut a!so , th n the #enera! %o%u!at on+ Toda'* most ,a!7 around afraid of each other s n"e e-%!o tat on and a(use s the dom nant* re,arded ethos+ A!! humans ha$e ada%ted n th s "u!ture* unne"essar !'* to see ea"h other as threats to one?s o,n sur$ $a! n n"reas n#!' a(stra"t Ke"onom "” "onte-ts+ For e-am%!e* ,hen t,o %eo%!e ,a!7 nto a 0o( nter$ e,* see7 n# ! &e su%%ort* the' are not nterested n the ,e!!(e n# o& the other* s n"e on!' one , !! #a n the 0o(+ In &a"t* empathic sens t $ t es are ne#at $e %ressures n th s s'stem o& ad$anta#e and #o "om%!ete!' unre,arded (' the & nan" a! me"han sm+ L 7e, se* the assum%t on that K&a rness” "ou!d e$er e- st n su"h a "om%et t $e en$ ronment* %art "u!ar!' ,hen the nature o& K, nn n#” and K!os n#” means a !oss o& ! &e su%%ort or sur$ $a!* s a dee%!' na_$e dea!+ The !e#a! statutes n e- sten"e that ,or7 to sto% mono%o!' !a,s and & nan" a! K"orru%t on” e- st (e"ause there s ! tera!!' no (u !t n sa&e#uard &or su"h so."a!!ed K"orru%t on” n th s mode!+ As m%! ed (' Sm th and Ve(!en n th s essa'* the Kstate” s rea!!' a man &estat on o& the e"onom " %rem se and not the other ,a' around+ The use o& state %o,er &or !e# s!at on to ensure the se"ur t' and %ros%er t' o& one "!ass o$er another* s not a d stort on o& the "a% ta! st s'stem* t s a core feature o& the &ree mar7et "om%et t $e eth "+ Man' n the ! (ertar an* !a sse1.&a re* Austr an s"hoo!* /h "a#o s"hoo! and other neo"!ass "a! o&&shoots "onstant!' tend to ta!7 a(out ho, Kstate nter&eren"e” s the %ro(!em toda'* su"h as , th ha$ n# %rote"t on st m%ortMe-%ort %o! "es or the &a$or n# o& "erta n ndustr es (' the state+ It s assumed that someho, the mar7et "an (e K&ree” to o%erate , thout the man &estat on o& mono%o!' or the K"orru%t ons” nherent to ,hat has (een deemed toda' K"ron' "a% ta! sm”* e$en thou#h the ent re (as s o& strate#' s "om%et t $e or* n more d re"t terms* K,arr n#”+ A#a n* to assume the State ,ou!d not (e used as a
4F6 The "reat on o& mone' out o& de(t* "ou%!ed , th ts mu!t %! "at on $ a the

Fra"t ona! Reser$e !end n# s'stem* a near un $ersa! %ra"t "e o& the "entra! (an7s o& the ,or!d* "ont nues to see7 n& n te #ro,th (' ts $er' me"han "s+ E5

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

too! &or d &&erent a! ad$anta#e J a too! &or (us ness J s a(surd+4FH In the end* these o$ert!' and unne"essar !' selfish $a!ues ha$e (een at the root o& human "on&! "t s n"e ts n"e%t on and* as noted* the h stor "a! not on o& human ,ar&are on the "!ass !e$e! s seen (' most as K# $en”* Knatura!” or K mmuta(!e”+ In the e- st n# so" a! mode!* e-tra"ted &rom an nherent!' s"ar" t'.dr $en* -eno%ho( " and ra" st &rame o& re&eren"e* there s no su"h th n# as %ea"e or (a!an"e+ It s m%!' sn?t %oss (!e n the "a% ta! st mode!+ L 7e, se* the illusion of e)uality (et,een %eo%!e n the so."a!!ed Kdemo"rat "” so" et es a!so %ers sts* assum n# that someho, %o! t "a! e)ua! t' "an man &est out o& the e-%! " t* economic ine)uality nherent to th s mode o& %rodu"t on and human re!at ons+ Ear!' n th s essa' the d st n"t on (et,een the Kh stor "a!” and Kme"han st "” $ e, o& e"onom " !o# " ,as ment oned n %ass n#+ The m%ortan"e o& the Kme"han st "” 8s" ent & "; %ers%e"t $e* ,h "h , !! (e e-%!ored n !ater essa's* s "r t "a! , th res%e"t to understand n# ho, dee%!' out o& date and &!a,ed the mar7et e"onom' rea!!' s+ When ,e ta7e the 7no,n !a,s o& nature* (oth on the human and ha( tat !e$e!s* and start to "a!"u!ate ,hat our o%t ons and %oss ( ! t es are* te"hn "a!!'* , thout the (a##a#e o& su"h h stor "a! assum%t ons* a $er' d &&erent train of thought emer#es+ In the $ e, o& TZM* th s s the ne, ,or!d$ e, (' ,h "h human t' needs to a! #n n order to so!$e ts "urrent* mount n# so" o!o# "a! and e"o!o# "a! %ro(!ems* a!on# , th o%en n# the door to enormous %oss ( ! t es &or &uture %ros%er t'+

4FH It s ,orth %o nt n# out that Kmar7et d s" %! ne”* or the "orre"t $e nature o&

the mar7et (' ,h "h a!! (us ness are su%%osed to (e sus"e%t (!e* on!' rea!!' a%%! es to the !o,er "!asses toda'+ As noted h stor "a!!' (' the Ktoo ( # to &a !” rhetor " and re"ent 8`455G; (an7 (a !outs amount n# to ,e!! o$er 45 tr !! on do!!ars* the ,ea!th' se"tors are %rote"ted (' the #esture o& so."a!!ed # $en KSo" a! sm”* not /a% ta! sm+ E2

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

.2ARKET EFF$C$E"C1 'S TEC-"$CA( EFF$C$E"C1The s'ner#et " as%e"t o& ndustr'Ns do n# e$er more ,or7 , th e$er !ess n$estment o& t me and ener#' %er ea"h un t o& %er&orman"e+++has ne$er (een &orma!!' a""ounted as a "a% ta! #a n o& !and.s tuated so" et'+ The s'ner# st " e&&e"t $eness o& a ,or!d.around nte#rated ndustr a! %ro"ess s nherent!' $ast!' #reater than the "on& ned s'ner# st " e&&e"t o& so$ere #n!' o%erat n# se%arate s'stems+ Er#o* on!' "om%!ete ,or!d deso$ere #n 1at on "an %erm t the rea! 1at on o& an a!! human t' h #h standard su%%ort+4FI R+ 9u"7m nster Fu!!er

O/er/iew S" ent & " de$e!o%ment* ,h !e e$o!$ n# n %ara!!e! , th trad t ona! e"onom " de$e!o%ment o$er the %ast 655 'ears or so* has st !! (een !ar#e!' #nored and seen as an Ke-terna! t'” to e"onom " theor'+ The resu!t has (een a Kde"ou%! n#” o& the so" oe"onom " stru"ture &rom the life support stru"ture to ,h "h ,e are a!! t ed* and u%on ,h "h ,e a!! de%end+ In most "ases toda'* a%art &rom "erta n te"hn "a! assum%t ons , th res%e"t to ho, a s'stem not (ased on mar7et d'nam "s and the K%r "e me"han sm”4FF "ou!d &un"t on* the most "ommon ar#ument n su%%ort o& mar7et "a% ta! sm s that t s a s'stem o& K&reedom” or K! (ert'”+ The e-tent to ,h "h th s s true $er' mu"h de%ends on one?s nter%retat on* e$en thou#h su"h #enera! 1ed terms are o&ten u( )u tous n the rhetor " o& %ro%onents o& the mode!+4FG It a%%ears su"h not ons are rea!!' rea"t ons to %r or attem%ts at a!ternat $e so" a! s'stems n the %ast that #enerated %o,er %ro(!ems ! 7e Ktota! tar an sm”+4FE Hen"e* e$er s n"e* (ased on th s &ear* an' mode! "on"e $ed outs de o& the "a% ta! st &rame,or7 s o&ten m%u!s $e!' re!e#ated to the su%%osed h stor "a! tenden"' to,ards Kt'rann'” . and then d sm ssed+ 9e that as t ma'* th s under!' n# #esture o& K&reedom”* ,hate$er ts m%! "at on n su(0e"t $e use* has #enerated a neurosis or "on&us on , th res%e"t to ,hat t means &or a s%e" es su"h as ours to sur$ $e and %ros%er n the ha( tat J a ha( tat "!ear!' #o$erned (' natural laws+ What ,e & nd s that on the !e$e! o& our ha( tat re!at onsh % ,e are s m%!' not free and to ha$e an o$erar"h n# $a!ue
4FI Sour"e< <perating Manual for Spaceship Earth* R+ 9u"7m nster Fu!!er* 2EIG*

/ha%ter I

4FF Lud, # $on M ses n h s &amous ,or7 Economic

alculation !n The Socialist ommonwealth ar#ues that the K%r "e me"han sm” s the on!' %oss (!e means to understand ho, to Ke&& " ent!'” "reate and mo$e #oods around an e"onom'+ Th s "r t " sm o& an' 7 nd o& K%!anned” s'stem has (een touted as sa"rosan"t (' man' toda' and a $ nd "at on o& the /a% ta! st s'stem+ Th s ssue , !! (e addressed n %art III+ 4FG Re&eren"e< 4n !n)uiry into the "ature and auses of the 7ealth of "ations, Adam Sm th* 2FFI* %ar+ IV+E+H2 4FE A "!ass " te-t that em%!o'ed th s (as " &ear ,as F+A+ Ha'e7?s The 'oad to Serfdom+ KHuman nature” had a $er' "!ear m%! "at on* 0ust & ed &undamenta!!' (' h stor "a! trends o& tota! tar an sm su##ested as ! n7ed to "o!!a(orat $eM%!anned e"onom es+ E4

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

or entat on o& su%%osed &reedom* ,h "h s then a%%! ed to,ard ho, ,e shou!d o%erate our #!o(a! e"onom'* has (e"ome n"reas n#!' dan#erous to human susta na( ! t' on the %!anet earth+4G5 The d && "u!t!' o& so" a! re!at onsh %s as de* humans* re#ard!ess o& the r trad t ona! so" a! "ustoms* are str "t!' (ound (' the natura!* #o$ern n# !a,s o& the earth and to stra' &rom a! #nment , th these s to n$ar a(!' inhibit our susta na( ! t'* %ros%er t' and %u(! " hea!th+ It shou!d (e remem(ered that the "ore assum%t ons o& our "urrent so" oe"onom " s'stem de$e!o%ed dur n# %er ods , th su(stant a!!' less s" ent & " a,areness o& (oth our ha( tat and ourse!$es+4G2 Man' o& the ne#at $e "onse)uen"es no, "ommon to modern so" et es s m%!' d dn?t e- st n the %ast and t s no, th s clash of systems that s &urther desta( ! 1 n# our ,or!d n man' ,a's+ It , !! (e ar#ued here that the nte#r t' o& an' e"onom " mode! s a"tua!!' (est measured (' ho, ,e!! aligned t s , th the 7no,n* #o$ern n# laws of nature+ Th s natural law "on"e%t s not %resented here as an'th n# esoter " or meta%h's "a!* (ut as &undamenta!!' o(ser$a(!e+ Wh !e t s true that the !a,s o& nature are "onstant!' re& ned and a!tered n our understand n#s o$er t me* "erta n "ausa! rea! t es ha$e stood* and "ont nue to stand* as de& n t $e!' true+ There s no de(ate that the human or#an sm has s%e" & " needs &or sur$ $a!* su"h as the need &or nutr t on* ,ater and a r+ There s no de(ate , th res%e"t to the &undamenta! e"o!o# "a! %ro"esses that se"ure the en$ ronmenta! sta( ! t' o& our ha( tat that must #o und stur(ed n the r s'm( ot ".s'ner# st " re!at onsh %s+4G4 There s a!so no de(ate* as "om%!e- as t s* that the human %s'"he has* on a$era#e* (as " %red "ta(!e rea"t ons ,hen t "omes to en$ ronmenta! stressors and hen"e ho, rea"t ons o& $ o!en"e* de%ress on* a(use and other detr menta! (eha$ ora! ssues "an man &est as a resu!t+4GD Th s s" ent & "* "ausa! or te"hn "a! %ers%e"t $e o& e"onom " re!at onsh %s redu"es a!! re!e$ant &a"tors to a frame of reference and train of thought re!at n# to our "urrent understand n# o& the %h's "a! ,or!d and ts natura!* tan# (!e d'nam "s+ Th s !o# " ta7es the s" en"e o&
4G5 Re&eren"e< KA Sa&e O%erat n# S%a"e &or Human t'”* "ature, 6I2* 6F4.6FH* 4G2 Wh !e some h stor ans o&ten %!a"e the da,n o& the s" ent & " method n

46 Se%tem(er 455E* do <25+25DGM6I26F4aU

an" ent Gree"e* The 'enaissance, start n# around the 2Ith "entur'* a%%ears to (e a ma0or %er od o& s #n & "ant d s"o$er' and a""e!erat on+ Ga! !eo 82HI6 . 2I64; s "ons dered toda' (' some as the K&ather” o& modern s" en"e+ Ho,e$er* these emer# n# understand n#s shared $er' ! tt!e nterest n the e"onom " rea!m+ 4G4 The d sru%t on o& e"os'stem %ro"esses (' human a"t on has sho,n "!ear ne#at $e "onse)uen"es+ Ao!!ut on* de&orestat on* !oss o& ( od $ers t' and man' other "ommon "hara"ter st "s o& the "urrent state o& the ,or!d toda' re$ea!s a dee% m sa! #nment , th the mmuta(!e s'm( ot "Ms'ner# st " rea! t es o& our ha( tat to ,h "h ,e are (ound+ Re&eren"e< htt%<MM,,,+#!o(a!"han#e+um "h+eduM#!o(a!"han#e2M"urrentM!e"turesM7! n#Me "os'stemMe"os'stem+htm! 4GD See the essa' =efining Public >ealth* ED

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

human stud'* hen"e* a#a n* the shared nature o& human needs and public health* and "om( nes t , th the %ro$en rules of our habitat, to ,h "h ,e are s'ner# st "a!!' and s'm( ot "a!!' "onne"ted+ Aut to#ether* a K#round u%”* rat ona! mode! o& e"onom " o%erat on "an (e #enera! 1ed , th $er' ! tt!e need* n &a"t* &or the "entur es o& trad t ona! 1ed e"onom " theor'+4G6 Th s sn?t to sa' those h stor "a! ar#uments do not %ossess $a!ue , th res%e"t to understand n# "u!tura! e$o!ut on* (ut rather to sa' that & a tru!' s" ent & " ,or!d$ e, s ta7en , th res%e"t to ,hat K,or7s” or KdoesnNt ,or7” n the strate#' o& e&& " en"' demanded (' the "hess. #ame o& human sur$ $a!* there s $er' ! tt!e need &or su"h h stor "a! re&eren"e n a(stra"t on+ Th s $ e, s ts at the "ore o& TZM?s re&orm st !o# " and , !! (e re$ e,ed a#a n n %art III o& th s te-t+ The (ottom ! ne s that these %o nts o& near. mmuta(!e s" ent & " a,areness are a!most "om%!ete!' , thout re"o#n t on n the e"onom " mode! dom nant toda'+ In &a"t* t , !! (e ar#ued that the t,o s'stems are not on!' de"ou%!ed* the' are diametrically opposed n man' ,a's* a!!ud n# to the rea! t' that the "om%et t $e mar7et e"onom' s a"tua!!' not K& -a(!e” as a ,ho!e* and hen"e a ne, s'stem (ased directly on these Knatura! !a,” rea!t es needs to (e "onstru"ted &rom the #round u%+ Th s essa' , !! e-am ne and "ontrast a ser es o& Ke"onom "” "ons derat ons &rom (oth the %ers%e"t $e o& the mar7et s'stem 8mar7et !o# "; and th s noted mechanistic or Kte"hn "a!” !o# "+ It , !! e-%ress ho, Ke&& " en"'” ta7es on t,o $er' d &&erent mean n#s n ea"h %ers%e"t $e* ar#u n# that Kmar7et e&& " en"'”4GH ,or7s on!' to (e e&& " ent , th res%e"t to itself* us n# man.made ru!e.sets re!ated most!' to "!ass "a! e"onom " d'nam "s that &a" ! tate %ro& t and #ro,th* ,h !e KTe"hn "a! E&& " en"'”* re&eren" n# the 7no,n !a,s o& nature* see7s the most o%t m 1ed manner o& ndustr a! un&o!d n# %oss (!e to %reser$e the ha( t, redu"e ,aste and u!t mate!' ensure public health, (ased on emer# n# s" ent & " understand n#s+4GI C+clical Consum,tion . Economic !rowth Mar7et "a% ta! sm n (as " o%erat on "an (e #enera! 1ed as an ntera"t on (et,een owners* laborers and consumers+ /onsumer demand #enerates the need to %rodu"e $ a the o,ners 8"a% ta! sts;* ,ho then em%!o' !a(orers to %er&orm the a"t o& %rodu"t on+ Th s "'"!e essent a!!' or # nates , th Kdemand” and hen"e the rea! en# ne o& the mar7et s the interest, ability and act o& e$er'one (u' n# n the mar7et %!a"e+ A!! re"ess onsMde%ress ons4GF are a resu!t* on one !e$e! or
4G6 See the essa' >istory of Economy 4GH The use o& the term Kmar7et e&& " en"'” here s not to (e "on&used , th

other h stor "a! mean n#s+ The "on"e%t s no$e! to th s essa'+ Trad t ona! mean n#< htt%<MM,,,+ n$esto%ed a+"omMart "!esM54M252H54+as%Oa-114HE!W![,R 4GI The term ?e"onom'? n Gree7 XO 7onom aY means Tmana#ement o& a househo!d . thr &t”U Hen"e to ea"onaoam 1e* or K n"rease e&& " en"'”+ 4GF Re"ess ons are t'% "a!!' de& ned as Ta s #n & "ant de"! ne n e"onom " E6

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

another* o& a !oss o& sa!es+ There&ore the most "r t "a! ne"ess t' &or 7ee% n# %eo%!e em%!o'ed and hen"e 7ee% n# the e"onom' n a state o& Ksta( ! t'K or K#ro,th” s "onstant* cyclical consumption+ Economic growth* ,h "h s #enera!!' de& ned as Kan n"rease n the "a%a" t' o& an e"onom' to %rodu"e #oods and ser$ "es* "om%ared &rom one %er od o& t me to another”4GG s a "onstant nterest o& an' nat ona! e"onom' toda' and* "onse)uent!'* the #!o(a! e"onom' n #enera!+ Man' ma"roe"onom " ta"t "s are o&ten used dur n# t mes o& re"ess on to &a" ! tate more !oans* %rodu"t on and "onsum%t on n order to 7ee% an e"onom' &un"t on n# at or dea!!' (e'ond ts "urrent !e$e!+4GE The business cycle* a %er od o& os" !!at n# e-%ans on and "ontra"t on* has !on# (een re"o#n 1ed as a "hara"ter st " o& the mar7et e"onom' due to the nature o& Kmar7et d s" %! ne”* or "orre"t on* ,h "h* a""ord n# to theor sts* s %art!' a natura! e(( and &!o, o& (us ness su""esses and &a !ures+4E5 In short* the rate 8 n"rease or de"rease; o& "onsum%t on s ,hat #enerates the (us ness "'"!e?s %er ods o& #ro,th or "ontra"t on* , th ma"roe"onom " monetar' re#u!at on #enera!!' n"reas n# and de"reas n# ease o& li)uidity 8o&ten $ a nterest rates; n order to Kmana#e” the e-%ans ons and "ontra"t ons+ Wh !e modern* monetar' ma"roe"onom " %o! "' s not the su(0e"t o& th s essa'* t s ,orth %o nt n# out here* as an as de* that mutua! res%e"t to,ard (oth the e-%ans on and "ontra"t on %er ods o& the (us ness "'"!e has not e- sted h stor "a!!'+ Aer ods o& monetar' e-%ans on 8o&ten $ a "hea%er "red t; that usua!!' "orre!ate to %er ods o& e"onom " e-%ans on 8as more mone' s (e n# %ut to use; are ha !ed (' the " t 1enr' as nat ona! su""esses &or so" et'* ,h !e a!! "ontra"t ons are seen as %o! "' &a !ures+ There&ore* there has a!,a's (een an nterest (' the %o! t "a! esta(! shments 8,ho ,ant to !oo7 #ood; and ma0or* n&!uent a! mar7et nst tut ons 8%rote"t n# "or%orate %ro& ts; to preserve %er ods o& e-%ans on &or as !on# as %oss (!e and & #ht a!! &orms o& "ontra"t on+ Th s %ers%e"t $e s natura! to the $a!ue s'stem nherent to "a% ta! sm &or K%a n” s to (e th,arted at a!! t mes* o&ten n a shorts #hted manner+ No "om%an' , !! n#!' ,ants to do,ns 1e nor does an' %o! t "a! %art' , !! n#!' ,ant to K!oo7 (ad”* e$en thou#h trad t ona! e"onom " theor' te!!s us that these %er ods o& "ontra"t on are Knatura!” and
a"t $ t' s%read a"ross the e"onom'+” 8htt%<MM,,,+ n$esto%ed a+"omMas7Mans,ersM5GM"ause.o&. re"ess on+as%Oa-114H1Em[s$); 4GG ?E"onom " #ro,th? de& ned< htt%<MM,,,+ n$esto%ed a+"omMtermsMeMe"onom "#ro,th+as%Oa-114HE!W![, R 4GE A "ommon rea"t on o& "entra! (an7s dur n# t mes o& re"ess on s to n"rease K! )u d t'” n the e"onom'+ L )u d t' s s m%!' the amount o& "a% ta! that s a$a !a(!e &or n$estment and s%end n#+ The Federa! Reser$e* the "entra! (an7 o& the Un ted States* t'% "a!!' mana#es ! )u d t'* (' ad0ust n# nterest rates+ 4E5 The ?(us ness "'"!e? s o&ten thou#ht a(out n & $e sta#es< #ro,th 8e-%ans on;* %ea7* re"ess on 8"ontra"t on;* trou#h and re"o$er'+ 8htt%<MM,,,+ n$esto%ed a+"omMtermsM(M(us ness"'"!e+as%Oa-114IGAN02hr; EH

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

shou!d (e a!!o,ed+ The resu!t has (een* n short* a "onstant increase n the mone' su%%!' 8 +e+ %ur"has n# %o,er and "a% ta!; dur n# t mes o& re"ess on* , th the end resu!t (e n# mass $e global debt* (oth %u(! " and %r $ate+4E2 The rea! t' s that a!! mone' "omes nto e- sten"e throu#h !oans and ea"h o& those !oans s made , th interest attached* ,here the !oan must (e %a d (a"7 , th the nterest &ee a""rued 8(an7?s %ro& t;U mean n# that the $er' nature o& mone' "reat on automat "a!!' enta !s a negative balance (' de&au!t+ There s a!,a's more de(t n e- sten"e than there s mone' n " r"u!at on+4E4 So* return n# to the ma n %o nt , th res%e"t to the need &or demandM"onsum%t on to 7ee% the e"onom' ,or7 n#* th s %ro"ess o& e-"han#e and #enera! &o"us on #ro,th s at the heart o& the mar7et?s "onte-t o& Ke&& " en"'”+ It doesnNt matter what s (e n# %rodu"ed or the e&&e"t on the state o& human or earth!' a&&a rs+ Those are a!!* a#a n* Ke-terna! t es”+ As a "on"entrated e-am%!e o& th s !o# "* the sto"7 mar7et* ,h "h s tse!& noth n# more than the trad n# o& mone' and ts no, numerous Tder $at $esT* #enerates enormous GDA and T#ro,thT throu#h resu!tant sa!esM%ro& t+4ED :et* these a"ts ar#ua(!' %rodu"e nothing o& tan# (!e* ! &e su%%ort n# $a!ue+ The sto"7 mar7et s'stem and the no, mass $e!' %o,er&u! & nan" a! nst tut ons are "om%!ete!' auxiliary to the rea!* %rodu" n# e"onom'+ Wh !e man' ar#ue that these n$estment nst tut ons facilitate (us nesses and 0o(s , th the r a%%! "at on o& "a% ta!* th s a"t s* on"e a#a n* on!' s'stem "a!!' re!e$ant n the "urrent s'stem 8mar7et e&& " en"'; and utter!' rre!e$ant n terms o& rea! %rodu"t on 8te"hn "a! e&& " en"';+ In short* ,hen t "omes to mar#et logic* the more turno$er or sa!es* the (etter . and that s that . re#ard!ess & the tem so!d s "red t* ro"7s* Kho%e” or &!a%0a"7s+ An' %o!!ut on* nstan"es o& ,aste or
4E2 A""ord n# to a 4525 re%ort (' the Wor!d E"onom "s Forum* #!o(a! "red t 8or

n e&&e"t* de(t; dou(!ed &rom bHF tr !! on to b25E tr !! on &rom 4555 to 4525+ It a!so &ore"asts b425 tr !! on n #!o(a! "red t 8de(t; (' 4545+ 8htt%<MM,,,+,e&orum+or#Mre%ortsMsusta na(!e."red t.re%ort.4522; 4E4 A""ord n# to the Federa! Reser$e* as o& 455E tota! US 8Au(! " and Ar $ate; de(t ,as a(out bH2 tr !! on+ 8htt%s<MM,,,+&edera!reser$e+#o$Mdatado,n!oadMDo,n!oad+as%-R re!SZ2@ser esSIH646HaFa(a"5H2""6aE5I5"E22e2&a6@& !et'%eS"s$@!a(e!S n"!ude@!a'outSser es"o!umn@&romS52M52M2E6H@toS24MD2M4525; I& ,e "om%are th s to the e- st n# mone' su%%!'* as measured (' MD* ,h "h s the (roadest measure* ,e & nd that as o& De"+ 4524 t ,as a(out b2H tr !! on+c 8htt%<MM,,,+shado,stats+"omM"hartsMmonetar'.(ase.mone'.su%%!'; cNote< MD has (een d s"ont nued n re%ort n# (' the US+ Ho,e$er* ts num(ers "an (e e-tra%o!ated (ased on "om%onent measures+ 4ED For e-am%!e* n the US* the K$enture "a% ta!” ndustr'* ,h "h essent a! n$ests mone' n ne, (us nesses* ,as 42> o& GDA n 4525+ 8htt%<MM,,,+n$"a+or#M nde-+%h%R o%t onS"omV"ontent@$ e,Sart "!e@ dS4HH@Item dS25D; A""ord n# to a 4524 art "!e n The "ew 'epublic< Kthe !ar#est s - (an7s n our 8us; e"onom' no, ha$e tota! assets n e-"ess o& ID> o& GDA” 8htt%<MM,,,+tnr+"omMart "!eM%o! t "sMshoot n#.(an7sO; EI

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

other su"h detr ments are* a#a n* Ke-terna!”+ There s no "ons derat on &or the te"hn "a! ro!e o& a"tua! %rodu"t on %ro"esses* strate# es &or e&& " ent d str (ut on* des #n a%%! "at ons or the ! 7e+ Su"h &a"tors are assumed to "u!m nate metaphysically n the (est nterest o& the %eo%!e and the ha( tat s m%!' (e"ause that s ,hat the K n$ s (!e hand”4E6 o& the mar7et m%! es+ :et* the #ro, n# Kmore , th !ess”4EH re$o!ut on n the ndustr a! s" en"es has "reated a ne, rea! t' ,here the ad$an"ement o& ndustr a! te"hno!o#' has re$ersed the %attern o& K"umu!at $e mater a! e&&ort” , th res%e"t to e&& " en"'+ The !o# " that Kmore !a(or* more ener#' and more resour"es” , !! %rodu"e %ro%ort ona!!' more e&&e"t $e resu!ts has (een "ha!!en#ed+ In n"reas n#!' more " r"umstan"es* the reduction o& ener#'* !a(or and mater a!s to a""om%! sh "erta n tas7s has (een the out"ome* # $en our modern s" ent & "* te"hn "a! a%%! "at ons+4EI For nstan"e* sate!! te.(ased "ommun "at on toda'* ,h !e nte!!e"tua!!' so%h st "ated* em(od' n# a #reat dea! o& e$o!$ed 7no,!ed#e* s* n %h's "a! rea! t'* rather s m%!e and resour"e e&& " ent n "om%ar son to the %r or a!ternat $es &or "ommun "at on* ,h "h n #!o(a! a%%! "at on* n$o!$ed enormous amounts o& "um(ersome mater a!s* su"h as hea$' "o%%er , res* a!on# , th the d && "u!t* o&ten r s7' tas7 o& !a' n# out su"h mater a!s (' human !a(or %o,er+ What s a""om%! shed toda' , th a set o& #enera!!' sma!!* #!o(a! sate!! tes n or( t s tru!' ama1 n# (' "om%ar son+ Th s design revolution, ,h "h #ets to the heart o& ,hat true e"onom " 8te"hn "a!; e&& " en"' means* stands n d re"t o%%os t on to the "'"! "a! "onsum%t on* #ro,th.(ased e"onom " mode!+ A#a n* the ntent on o& the mar7et s'stem s to maintain or elevate rates of turnover* as th s s ,hat 7ee%s %eo%!e em%!o'ed and n"reases em%!o'ment and so."a!!ed #ro,th+ Hen"e* at ts "ore* the mar7et?s ent re %rem se o& e&& " en"' s (ased around ta"t "s to a""om%! sh th s and hen"e an' &or"e that ,or7s to reduce the need &or !a(or or turno$er s "ons dered K ne&& " ent” &rom the $ e, o& the mar7et* e$en thou#h t m #ht (e $er' e&& " ent n terms o& the true definition o& e"onom' tse!&* ,h "h means to "onser$e* redu"e ,aste and do more with less+ I& ,e h'%othet "a!!' redu"ed our #!o(a! so" et' to a s n#!e* sma!! s!and , th a res%e"t $e!' sma!! %o%u!at on* , th $er' ! m ted
4E6 See the essa' >istory of Economy ,here Adam Sm th?s not on o& the

K n$ s (!e hand” s d s"ussed+

4EH As an h stor "a! note* en# neer R+ 9u"7m nster Fu!!er used th s %hrase

8Kmore , th !ess”; n h s d s"uss on o& the %henomenon n h s ,or7 K<perating Manual for Spaceship Earth8, 2EIG 4EI The &amous ENIA/ "om%uter o& the 2E65s "onta ned 2F*6IG $a"uum tu(es* a!on# , th F5*555 res stors* 25*555 "a%a" tors* 2*H55 re!a's* I*555 manua! s, t"hes and H m !! on so!dered 0o nts+ It "o$ered 2G55 s)uare &eet o& &!oor s%a"e* ,e #hed D5 tons* and "onsumed 2I5 7 !o,atts o& e!e"tr "a! %o,er+ It "ost a(out bI M !! on n modern $a!ue+ Toda'* a "hea%* %o"7et s 1e "e!! %hone "om%utes su(stant a!!' &aster than ENIA/+ 8htt%<MM n$entors+a(out+"omModMestart n$ent onsMaMEn a"+htm; EF

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

te"hno!o#' as "om%ared to toda'* & nd n# that on!' - num(er o& &oodMsur$ $a! tems ,ere %oss (!e n the natura! re#enerat on o& the !and* ,ou!d t (e a #ood dea to em%!o' an e"onom " s'stem that sou#ht to n"rease the use and turno$er o& the s!and?s resour"es as &ast as %oss (!e &or the sa7e o& K#ro,th”R Natura!!'* the eth " o& strategic use and preservation ,ou!d de$e!o% as an ethos n su"h a "ond t on+ The dea ,ou!d (e to redu"e ,aste* not a""e!erate t* ,h "h* a#a n* s ,hat the true de& n t on o& Ke"onom'” means J to economi%e+ &nnecessar+ O solescence% Com,etiti/e and Planned When ,e th n7 o& o(so!es"en"e* ,e o&ten m #ht "ons der the ra% d te"hno!o# "a! "han#es o""urr n# n the ,or!d toda'+ E$er' &e, 'ears t seems our "ommun "at on and %ro"ess n# de$ "es* name!' "om%uter te"hno!o#'* under#o ra% d de$e!o%ment+ KMoore?s La,”* &or e-am%!e* ,h "h essent a!!' denotes ho, %ro"ess n# %o,er dou(!es e$er' 2G.46 months* has (een e-tended to a%%!' to other* s m !ar te"hno!o# "a! a%%! "at ons* !!um nat n# the %o,er&u! trend o& s" ent & " ad$an"ement n #enera!+4EF Ho,e$er* ,hen t "omes to #oods %rodu"t on* t,o &orms o& 8e$entua!; o(so!es"en"e o""ur toda' ,h "h are not (ased on the natura! e$o!ut on o& te"hno!o# "a! "a%a" t'* (ut rather resu!t &rom 8a; the "ontr $ed* competitive rule structure o& the mar7et s'stem* a!on# , th 8(; the dr $ n# ur#e &or mar7et Ke&& " en"'” n see7 n# turno$er and reo""urr n# %ro& t+ The & rst 8a; "ou!d (e "a!!ed K"om%et t $e 8or ntr ns "; o(so!es"en"e”+ Th s s o(so!es"en"e resu!t n# &rom the "onse)uent a! nature o& a "om%et t $e e"onom'* as ea"h %rodu" n# ent t' ,or7s to ma nta n d &&erent a! ad$anta#e o$er another (' redu" n# e-%enses n %rodu"t on n order to 7ee% the %r "e K"om%et t $e!'” !o, &or "onsumer %ur"hase+ Th s me"han sm s trad t ona!!' termed K"ost e&& " en"'” and the resu!t s %rodu"ts that are relatively inferior the moment the' are made+ Th s "om%et t $e need %ermeates e$er' ste% o& %rodu"t on* , th* n e&&e"t* a redu"t on o& te"hn "a! e&& " en"' a!on# the ,a' $ a us n# "hea%er mater a!s* means and des #ns+ Ima# ne* h'%othet "a!!'* & ,e too7 nto a""ount a!! o& the mater a! re)u rements &or* sa'* the "reat on o& a "ar* see7 n# to ma- m 1e ts e&& " en"'* dura( ! t' and )ua! t' n the most strategically o%t m 1ed ,a'* (ased on the mater a!s themse!$es . not the "ost o& those mater a!s+4EG The ! &e "'"!e o& the "ar ,ou!d then (e determ ned only (' ts natura! ,ear and tear , th a $er' de! (erate des #n &o"us on u%#rad n# attr (utes o& the "ar ,hen the' ha$e (e"ome o(so!ete or
4EF Re&eren"e< The +aw of 4ccelerating 'eturns* Ra' Cur1,e !

8htt%<MM,,,+7ur1,e !a +netMthe.!a,.o&.a""e!erat n#.returns; ,orth not n# here that the e)uat on ,h "h de" des ,hat s to (e used n the "onstru"t on o& an'th n#* te"hn "a!!'* not on!' n$o!$es the %ro%ert es o& the K dea!” mater a!s* (ut the relative utility o& re!ated mater a!s 8, th s m !ar %ro%ert es; ,h "h ma' a!ter the ne"essar' mater a! "om%onent &or use due to other Ke&& " en"'” re!ated &a"tors* su"h as resour"e su%%!'+ EG

4EG The not on o& Kstrate# "a!!' o%t m 1ed” , !! (e addressed n %art III (ut t s

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

dama#ed (' natural$use " r"umstan"es+ The resu!t ,ou!d (e a %rodu"t on designed to last* hen"e redu" n# ,aste and n$ar a(!' n"reas n# e&& "a"' o& ut ! t'+ It s sa&e to assume that man' n the ,or!d toda' (e! e$e th s s ,hat a"tua!!' ha%%ens n the des #n and %rodu"t on o& #oods (ut that s m%!' sn?t the rea! t'+ It s mathemat "a!!' m%oss (!e &or an' "om%et n# "om%an' to %rodu"e the strategically best #ood* te"hn "a!!'* n a mar7et e"onom'* as the K"ost e&& " en"'” me"han sm guarantees a !ess.than. o%t ma! %rodu"t on+ The se"ond &orm 8(; o& o(so!es"en"e s 7no,n as K%!anned” and th s %rodu"t on te"hn )ue to ensure "'"! "a! "onsum%t on #a ned nterest n the ear!' 45th "entur' ,hen ndustr a! de$e!o%ment ,as ad$an" n# e&& " en"' at an a""e!erat n# rate* %rodu" n# (etter #oods* &aster+ In &a"t* there ,as not on!' a need to en"oura#e more purchases (' the #enera! %u(! "*4EE the %ro(!em o& resu!t n# n"reased ! &es%an and #enera! e&& " en"' o& #oods ,as a!so s!o, n# "onsum%t on+ A#a n* the Kmore , th !ess” %henomenon ,as sur&a" n# n a ra% d ,a'+ Rather than a!!o, &or a #ood?s ! &es%an to (e determ ned (' ts natura! "a%a" t'* , th the !o# "a! natural law ntent on &or t to e- st as !on# as %oss (!e, # $en ! m ted resour"es on a & n te %!anet and a natura! nterest to sa$e ener#'* (oth mater a! and human* "or%orat ons de" ded t ,as nstead (est to "reate the r own K! &es%an” &or #oods* de! (erate!' nh ( t n# e&& " en"' &or the sa7e o& re%eat %ur"hases+D55 In the 2ED5s* some e$en ,anted to ma7e t mandator' &or a!! ndustr es* !e#a!!'* ,here ! &e "'"!es ,ere de" ded not (' the natura! state o& te"hno!o# "a! a( ! t' (ut (' the mere on#o n# need &or !a(or and n"reased "onsum%t on+ In &a"t* the most nota(!e h stor "a! e-am%!e o& th s %er od ,as the Ahoe(us ! #ht (u!( "arte! o& the 2ED5s ,here* n a t me ,here ! #ht (u!(s ,ere a(!e to !ast u% to a(out 4H*555 hours* the "arte! &or"ed ea"h "om%an' to restr "t ! #ht (u!( ! &e to !ess than 2555 hours to assure re%eat %ur"hases+D52 Toda'* e$er' ma0or manu&a"turer strate# 1es to ! m t #ood ! &e "'"!es (ased on mar7et n# mode!s &or "'"! "a! "onsum%t on and the resu!t s not on!' the re%rehens (!e ,aste o& & n te resour"es* (ut a "onstant ,aste o& human !a(or and ener#' as ,e!!+ Outs de the d'nam "s o& the mar7et e"onom'* t s e-treme!' d && "u!t to ar#ue a#a nst the need &or o%t mum des #n o& #oods+ Sad!'*
4EE /har!es Cetter n#* D re"tor o& Genera! Motors n 2E4E* ,rote o& the need to

?7ee% the "onsumer d ssat s& ed? 82E4E; 8htt%<MM,,,+,,norton+"omM"o!!e#eMh stor'Mar"h $eMresour"esMdo"umentsM" h4FV54+htm;+ Wa!! Street (an7er Aau! Ma1ur ,rote< TWe must sh &t Amer "a &rom a needs to a des res "u!ture+ Aeo%!e must (e tra ned to des re]to ,ant ne, th n#s e$en (e&ore the o!d ha$e (een ent re!' "onsumed+ We must sha%e a ne, menta! t' n Amer "a+T 8Har$ard 9us ness Re$ e,* 2E4F; D55 In 2ED4* ndustr a! st 9ernard London %ro%a#ated a ,e!!.7no,n %am%h!et ent t!ed Ending the =epression through Planned <bsolescence, ,h "h out! ned the need &or the mode!+ D52 Re&eren"e< Planned <bsolescence3 The +ight /ulb onspiracy* ESSA* 4524 8htt%<MMe"onom "students+"omM4524M5EM%!anned.o(so!es"en"e.the.! #ht. (u!(."ons% ra"'M; EE

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

the nature o& mar#et efficiency d sa!!o,s su"h technical efficiency (' de&au!t+ Pro,ert+ /s0 Access The trad t on o& personal property has (e"ome a sta%!e o& modern "u!ture , th ! tt!e & nan" a! n"ent $e n the !on# run to ut ! 1e a s'stem o& shar n# or access+ Wh !e a &e, e-am%!es o& "ommun t' shar n# o& "ommod t es do e- st n the modern da'*D54 the #enera! eth " o& Ko,nersh %” and the nherent $a!ueM n$estment "hara"ter st "s o& %ro%ert' tse!& ma7e su"h a%%roa"hes more "ost!' n the !on# run (' the user than to en#a#e n d re"t %ur"hase+ From the stand%o nt o& mar#et efficiency* th s s a #ood th n#* as the more d re"t %ur"hases o& #oods* the (etter+ Genera!!' s%ea7 n#* & 255 %eo%!e , sh to dr $e a "ar* ha$ n# 255 %eo%!e %ur"hase those "ars s more Ke&& " ent” &or the mar7et than & 255 %eo%!e shared 45 "ars n a s'stem o& strate# "a!!' des #ned a""ess* ena(! n# ut ! 1at on (ased on a"tua! use time+ I& ,e ana!'1e %atterns o& a"tua! use o& an' # $en #ood on a$era#e* man' t'%es o& %rodu"ts are &ound to (e used nterm ttent!'+ Trans%ort $eh "!es* re"reat ona! e)u %ment* %ro0e"t e)u %ment and $ar ous other #enres o& #oods are "ommon!' a""essed at re!at $e!' d stant nter$a!s* ma7 n# the tas7 o& o,nersh % not on!' some,hat o& an n"on$en en"e # $en the need to store these tems* (ut a!so "!ear!' inefficient n the "onte-t o& true e"onom " nte#r t'* ,h "h see7s a redu"t on o& ,aste at a!! t mes+ E$er' 'ear* "ount!ess (oo7s are (orro,ed $ rtua!!' &or &ree &rom ! (rar es around the ,or!d and returned* not on!' sa$ n# an enormous amount o& mater a! resour"es o$er t me* (ut a!so &a" ! tat n# 7no,!ed#e access to those ,ho m #ht other, se ha$e no means to o(ta n t+ :et* th s %ra"t "e s a rare e-"e%t on n the mar#et efficiency dr $en ,or!d toda' as "!ear!' t s to the d sad$anta#e o& the mar7et to ha$e an'th n# a$a !a(!e , thout d re"t %ur"hase on a %er.%erson (as s+D5D Ho,e$er* !et?s h'%othet "a!!' e-tend th s dea o& the sharing of #nowledge to the shar n# 8ena(!ed a""ess; o& mater a! #oods+ From the stand%o nt o& mar#et efficiency, t ,ou!d (e e-treme!' nh ( t n#+ Wh !e %ro& t ,ou!d st !! (e #enerated n the "a% ta! st mode! (' the !oan n# o& tems to %eo%!e on the (as s o& the r need* t ,ou!d (e enormous!' d s%ro%ort onate ,hen "om%ared to the %ro& tM"onsum%t on rates o& a so" et' (ased on se%arate* %ersona! o,nersh % o& ea"h #ood+ :et* on the other hand* the technical efficiency ,ou!d (e %ro&ound+ Not on!' ,ou!d &e,er resour"es need to (e ut ! 1ed 8a!on# , th !ess !a(or %o,er; s n"e !ess o& ea"h #ood ,ou!d need to (e
D54 As a s m%!e e-am%!e* the shar n# o& ( 7es n Euro%e has (e"ome "ommon+

8htt%<MM,,,+treehu##er+"omM"arsM( 7e.shar n#.no,. n.255.euro%ean. " t es+htm!; D5D As an as de* the on!' reason th s ! (rar' e-"e%t on has %ers sted s (e"ause o& a trad t on %ut n %!a"e !on# a#o that sa, the need &or th s sharing of #nowledge as "r t "a! to human de$e!o%ment+ The trad t on o& shared ! (rar es #oes (a"7 2555s o& 'ears+ 255

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

"reated to meet the use time o& " t 1ens* the a$a !a( ! t' o& su"h #oods "ou!d $er' ,e!! e-tend to man' ,ho other, se ,ou!d not ha$e the a( ! t' to a&&ord the %ur"hase to (e# n , th* on!' the Krenta!” &ee 8st !! assum n# a mar7et s'stem;+ In th s re#ard* the technical efficiency has t,o !e$e!s J environmental and social+ From the en$ ronmenta! stand%o nt* a dramat " redu"t on o& resour"e useU &rom the so" a! stand%o nt 8a!! th n#s (e n# e)ua!;* an n"rease n the a""ess a$a !a( ! t' o& su"h #oods "ou!d a!so o""ur+ So* &rom the stand%o nt o& technical efficiency* at the dee% e-%ense o& mar#et efficiency* a shared access rather than universal property or ented so" et' ,ou!d (e e-"e%t ona!!' more susta na(!e and (ene& " a!+ O& "ourse* su"h a %ra"t "e ,ou!d natura!!' "ha!!en#e some dee% $a!ue dent & "at ons "ommon to the K%ro%ert ed” "u!ture toda'+D56 Com,etition /s0 Colla oration The )uest on o& so" et' %ursu n# a "om%et t $e or "o!!a(orat $e "u!ture has (een a runn n# de(ate &or "entur es* , th assum%t ons o& human nature "ommon to the de&ense o& "om%et t on+D5H Toda'* e"onom sts most!' d s"uss "om%et t on as an n"ent $e ne"essar' to "ont nue innovation*D5I a!on# , th the #enera!!' m%! ed assum%t on that there s m%!' snNt enou#h to #o around on th s %!anet and hen"e e$er'one has no "ho "e (ut to & #ht on some !e$e!* , th ne$ ta(!e !osers+D5F Su"h assum%t ons noted* the themed "onte-t here o& mar#et vs* technical efficiency sha!! (e e-%!ored , th res%e"t to the "om%et t $e (ene& ts andMor "onse)uen"es+ There are t,o "ore an#!es to "ons der< the & rst s 8a; ho, "om%et t on a&&e"ts ndustr a! %rodu"t on tse!&U the se"ond s 8(; ho, t a"tua!!' e&&e"ts nno$at on or "reat $e de$e!o%ment+ 8a; I& ,e e-am ne the !a'out o& ndustr a! %rodu"t on toda'* ,e see a "om%!e- #!o(a! s'stem o& ntera"t on* mo$ n# resour"es* "om%onents and #oods "onstant!' &rom one !o"at on to another &or $ar ous
D56 In h s ,or7* The 4ge of 4ccess* 3erem' R &7 n %oses s m !ar )uest ons*

stat n#* KIn a so" et' ,here $ rtua!!' e$er'th n# s a""essed* ho,e$er* ,hat ha%%ens to the %ersona! %r de* o(! #at on* and "omm tment that #o , th o,nersh %R And ,hat o& se!&.su&& " en"'R 9e n# %ro%ert ed #oes hand n hand , th (e n# nde%endent+ Aro%ert' s the means (' ,h "h ,e #a n a sense o& %ersona! autonom' n the ,or!d+ When ,e a""ess the means o& our e- sten"e* ,e (e"ome &ar more re! ant on others+ Wh !e ,e (e"ome more "onne"ted and nterde%endent* do ,e r s7 at the same t me (e"om n# !ess se!&.su&& " ent and more $u!nera(!eR” 8A+ Tar"herMAutnam* 4555* %+2D5; D5H Re&eren"e< The !nfluence of Social >ierarchy on Primate >ealth* Ro(ert M+ Sa%o!s7'* S" en"e 4E A%r ! 455H< Vo!+ D5G no+ HF44 %%+ I6G.IH4 DOI< 25+224IMs" en"e+225I6FF 8htt%<MM,,,+s" en"ema#+or#M"ontentMD5GMHF44MI6G+a(stra"t; D5I Re&eren"e< on trad t ona! de&enses o& "om%et t on as a sour"e o& nno$at on< ompetition and !nnovation3 4n !nverted 9 'elationship 8htt%<MM,,,+n(er+or#M%a%ersM,E4IE; D5F See the %r or essa'* >istory of Economy* and ts treatment n Thomas Ma!thus* ,ho $ e,ed the ,or!d as una(!e to su%%ort the %o%u!at on and ,as n&!uent a! n h s $ e,+ 252

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

%rodu"t on or d str (ut on %ur%oses+ 9us ness* n ts %ursu t o& profit and cost efficiency* n$ar a(!' see7s out ne-%ens $e !a(or* e)u %ment and &a" ! t es at a!! t mes to rema n "om%et t $e n the mar7et+ Th s "an ta7e the &orm o& !o"a! mm #rant !a(or at m n mum ,a#e* a Ks,eatsho%” %rodu"t on &a" ! t' o$erseas* a re!at $e!' "hea% %ro"ess n# &a"tor' a"ross the "ountr'* et"+ The (ottom ! ne s that &rom the stand%o nt o& mar#et efficiency* the "ost.to.%ro& t rat o s a!! that matters* e$en & the a"tua! a"t o& th s #!o(a! %ro"ess n# s us n# d s%ro%ort onate!' ,aste&u! amounts o& &ue!* trans%ort resour"es* !a(or %o,er and the ! 7e+D5G The not on o& K%ro- ma! e&& " en"'”* mean n# n th s "ase the e&& " en"' der $ed &rom the d stan"e (et,een ndustr a! %rodu"t onMd str (ut on %o nts* s not "ons dered and the %ra"t "e o& #!o(a! 1at on toda' en#a#es n a $ast amount o& ,aste&u! resour"e mo$ement around the ,or!d (ased a!most ent re!' on the nterest o& sa$ n# mone'* not o%t ma!* technical efficiency+ Th s #nor n# o& the m%ortan"e o& K%ro- ma! e&& " en"'” n ndustr a! a"t on* ,hether domest " or nternat ona!* s the sour"e o& some $er' ,aste&u! rea! t es+ Toda'* ndustr a! %rodu"t on s a!most ent re!' nternat ona!* es%e" a!!' n the te"hno!o# "a! a#e+ The de#ree to ,h "h th s s needed* &rom a te"hn "a! %ers%e"t $e* s s! #ht* at (est+ Wh !e a#r "u!tura! %rodu"t on has h stor "a!!' (een re# ona! # $en the %ro%ens t' o& "erta n re# ons to %rodu"e "erta n t'%es o& #oods* or %erha%s &a" ! tate a more "ondu" $e en$ ronment &or other su"h "u!t $at ons* these ssues are $er' &e, n %ro%ort on to the $ast ma0or t' o& ndustr a! #ood %rodu"t ons* d s"ount n# as ,e!! $ar ous te"hno!o# "a! %oss ( ! t es toda' to o$er"ome su"h re# ona! re)u rements+D5E KLo"a! 1at on”* mean n# the de! (erate redu"t on o& d stan"e (et,een and around a!! &a"ets o& %rodu"t on and d str (ut on* s the most te"hn "a!!' e&& " ent manner &or a "ommun t' to o%erate* ta7 n# nto a""ount the o($ ous e-"e%t ons* su"h as ho,* &or e-am%!e* m nera! e-tra"t on "!ear!' must (e# n at ts %o nt o& or # n n the earth* et"+ It s s m%!e to see* es%e" a!!' , th res%e"t to modern te"hn "a! a%%! "at ons ,h "h "urrent!' #o unused* ho, the $ast ma0or t' o& ! &e. susta n n# #oods "an (e #enerated n "!ose %ro- m t' o$era!! to ,here the' are to (e ut ! 1ed+ As , !! (e des"r (ed n &urther deta ! n %art III o& th s te-t* there
D5G /anad an e"onom st 3e&& Ru( n made th s o(ser$at on ,e!! , th res%e"t to

o ! "ost trends< TWhat ,e?re #o n# to & nd s t?s not #o n# to ma7e sense to %rodu"e th n#s on the other s de o& the ,or!d* no matter ho, "hea% !a(or "osts are there* ,hen t?s so e-%ens $e to trans%ort th n#s+T 8htt%<MM,,,+n%r+or#Mtem%!atesMstor'Mstor'+%h%Rstor'IdS2566IIE22; D5E Th s s ment oned n %ass n# to %o nt out the e-tens $e modern (rea7throu#hs n a#r "u!tura! methods that are not (ased on trad t ona! ara(!e !andmasses+ KVert "a! &arm n#”* &or e-am%!e* has (een sho,n to ha$e mmense %oss ( ! t es on a #!o(a! s"a!e* remo$ n# the "ommon re# ona! restr "t ons to a#r "u!tura! %rodu"t on+ Su##ested Read n#< The Vertical (arm3 (eeding the 7orld in the B,st entury* D "7son Des%omm er* Thomas Dunne 9oo7s* 4525 254

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

s a te"hn "a!!' e&& " ent tra n o& thou#ht , th res%e"t to the ut ! 1at on o& proximity ,hen t "omes to e-tra"t on* %rodu"t on* d str (ut on and re"'"! n#M,aste d s%osa!+ The end resu!t ,ou!d (e enormous !e$e!s o& resour"e and human ener#' %reser$at on J %reser$at on o& a capacity that* n &a"t* "ou!d (e rea!!o"ated & need (e to &urther ad$an" n# %ro0e"ts* rather than s)uandered as mere ,aste $ a the mar7et mode! toda'+D25 As a & na! note on th s su(0e"t o& ho, "om%et t on ! m ts the te"hn "a! e&& " en"' o& ndustr a! %rodu"t on* n"reas n# ,aste . the rea! t' o& #ood Kmu!t %! " t'” s another ssue+ Wh !e a!! %rodu"t on (' "om%et n# "om%an es s t'% "a!!' or ented around h stor "a! stat st "s re#ard n# ,hat the r Kmar7et share” s and ho, man' #oods the' "an se!! on a$era#e* %er re# on* the $er' &a"t o& mu!t %!e "or%orat ons* ,or7 n# n the same #enre o& #ood %rodu"t on* %rodu" n# near!' identical %rodu"ts , th on!' m !d $ar at on* on!' adds to the sour"es o& unne"essar' ,aste+ As , !! a!so (e des"r (ed n the ne-t su(.se"t on* the dea o&* &or e-am%!e* mu!t %!e "e!! %hone "om%an es "om%et n# &or mar7et share (' mere des #n $ar at on* #enerat n# "onse)uent a!!' re!at $e ne&& " en" es n des #n due to d &&erent strate# es to #a n "ost e&& " en"'* "ou%!ed , th the #enera! !a"7 o& compatibility o& "om%onents # $en the & nan" a! (ene& t o& %ush n# proprietary standards and s'stem "om%at ( ! t es* "reates another "om%!e- ,e( o& ne&& " en"'+D22 /!ear!'* &rom the stand%o nt o& technical efficiency* one "o!!e"t $e "e!! %hone "om%an'* ,or7 n# to %rodu"e the strate# "a!!' (est* most ada%ta(!e* un $ersa!!' "om%at (!e des #n* ,ou!d not on!' (e more res%e"t&u! o& the en$ ronment* t ,ou!d a!so "reate a tremendous ease and use efficiency as ,e!! s n"e the %ro(!em o& see7 n# %ro%r etar' re%a r %arts and o$er"om n# "om%at ( ! t' %ro(!ems* ,ou!d (e dramat "a!!' redu"ed+ It s o&ten ar#ued* ho,e$er* that the %ursu t o& "om%et t on and the %rodu"t $ar at ons that ar se n the )uest &or mar7et share (' "om%et n# (us nesses s a ,a' to ntrodu"e ne, deas to the %u(! "+ Ho,e$er* su"h a method "ou!d a!so (e a"h e$ed (' s'stems o& d re"t* mass &eed(a"7 &rom the %u(! " , th res%e"t to ,hat s needed* "ou%!ed , th an emer#ent a,areness "am%a #n a(out ,hat s no, %oss (!e # $en the em% r "a! e$o!ut on o& te"hno!o# "a! ad$an"ement+
D25 It s "r t "a! to note* as , !! (e d s"ussed n %art III* that th s not on o&

turn n# the ne&& " en"' or ,asted resour"es and ener#' nherent to the mar7et e"onom' nto a"tua! %rodu"t $ t' s ts at the "ore o& human so" et'?s a( ! t' not on!' to trans"end the s"ar" t'.r dden en$ ronment ,e ha$e toda'* (ut &ar e-"eed t , th an a(undan"e+ D22 The "!osest th n# toda' that attem%ts to o$er"ome the %ro(!ems and ,aste #enerated (' %ro%r etar' "om%onents* mean n# "om%onents that "an on!' "ome &rom the manu&a"turer* s the ISO Standard S'stem+ Ho,e$er* th s s'stem* n rea! t'* does $er' ! tt!e to o$er"ome the true %ro(!em and s most!' a(out "om%! an"e , th (as " )ua! t' standards* not un $ersa! ada%ta( ! t' o& "om%onents a"ross #!o(a! ndustr'+ 8Re&< htt%<MM,,,+ so+or#M soMhome+htm!; 25D

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

8(; The se"ond ssue here* as noted* has to do , th ho, "om%et t on a&&e"ts nno$at on or "reat $e de$e!o%ment tse!&+ Wh !e the assum%t on st !! %ers sts toda' that d &&erent a! re,ard &or one?s "ontr (ut on mot $ates other %eo%!e to see7 that re,ard* ,h "h s a!so a "ommon 0ust & "at on o& the e- sten"e o& K"!asses”* modern so" o!o# "a! stud' & nds a num(er o& "on&! "t n# $ e,s+D24 The dea that humans are mot $ated nherent!' (' a need to K(eat” others ('* &or e-am%!e* #a n n# mater a!.& nan" a! re,ards n e-"ess o& others* s , thout "red (!e $ nd "at on* outs de o& the ntu t $e $ e, dra,n &rom the e- st n#* h #h!' "om%et t $e* s"ar" t' dr $en mar7et "ond t on n ,h "h human t' & nds tse!& toda'* (' des #n+ Ho,e$er* on"e a#a n* the so" o!o# "a! de(ate "an (e set as de as the "onte-t here s ho, "om%et t on re!ates to mar#et A technical efficiency d re"t!'+ In short* the "om%et t $e s'stem see7s secrecy ,hen t "omes to (us ness deas* o&ten un $ersa!!' a#a nst the o%en &!o, o& 7no,!ed#e+ The use o& patents and proprietary rights or Ktrade se"rets” %er%etuates not an ad$an"e o& nno$at on as man' %ro%onents o& the "om%et t $e mar7et assume J (ut retardat on+ It s $er' nterest n# to th n7 a(out ,hat 7no,!ed#e means* ho, t #enerates and ho, odd t s &or an'one to rat ona!!' "!a m Ko,nersh %” o& an dea or n$ent on+ At no t me n human h stor' has an' s n#u!ar nd $ dua! "u!m nated an dea that ,as not serially #enerated (' man' (e&ore them+ The h stor "a! "u!m nat on o& 7no,!ed#e s a so" a! %ro"ess and there&ore* an' "!a m o& o,nersh % o& an dea (' a %erson or "or%orat on s ntr ns "a!!' &au!t'+ The "ommon sem .e"onom " term used toda' s Kusu&ru"t”* ,h "h means Kthe !e#a! r #ht o& us n# and en0o' n# the &ru ts or %ro& ts o& someth n# (e!on# n# to another+KD2D In rea! t'* ho,e$er* a!! attr (utes o& e$er' dea n e- sten"e toda'* n the %ast and &ore$er n the &uture* has , thout e-"e%t on a d st n"t!' social* not %ersona! %o nt o& or # n+ It (e"omes o($ ous that the not on o& intellectual property* mean n# o,nersh % o& mere thou#hts and deas* has man &est out o& the $ast %er od o& human h stor' ,here one?s "reat $ t' has (e"ome t ed to one?s %ersona! sur$ $a!+ In an e"onom " s'stem ,here %eo%!e?s deas ha$e the "a%a" t' to #enerate n"ome &or them %ersona!!'* the dea o& su"h o,nersh % (e"omes re!e$ant+ A&ter a!!* & 'ou K n$ent” someth n# n the modern s'stem ,h "h "ou!d #enerate sa!es and hen"e he!% 'our %ersona! e"onom " sur$ $a!* t ,ou!d (e e-treme!' inefficient* n the mar7et sense o& the ,ord* to a!!o, that dea to (e Ko%en.sour"e”* s n"e others* see7 n# sur$ $a! themse!$es* ,ou!d ! 7e!' )u "7!' se 1e that n$ent on &or the r o,n & nan" a! e-%!o tat on+ It s a!so eas' to see ho, the %henomenon o& Ke#o” has man &est around the dea o& nte!!e"tua! o,nersh % as ,e!!* s n"e the (as s o& re,ard n su"h a s'stem n$ar a(!' has a %s'"ho!o# "a! t e to one?s %ersona! sense o& se!&.,orth+ I& a %erson K n$ents” someth n#* & !es &or
D24 Re&eren"e< "o

ontest3 The ase 4gainst ompetition* A!& e Cohn* 9oston* 9oston< Hou#hton M &&! n* 2EGI D2D Sour"e< Merr am.We(ster+"om 8htt%<MM,,,+merr am. ,e(ster+"omMd "t onar'Musu&ru"t; 256

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

nte!!e"tua! o,nersh %* e-%!o ts t &or %ro& t and then man &ests a !ar#e house and e-tens $e %ro%ert'* the r Kstatus” as a human (e n# s trad t ona!!' e!e$ated as &ar as the standards set (' "u!ture J heMshe s "ons dered a Ksu""ess”+ :et* & ,e ,ere to th n7 a(out t n #enera!* the shar n# o& 7no,!ed#e has no ne#at $e re"ourse outs de o& the e"onom " %rem se o& o,nersh % &or %ro& t e-%!o tat on+ There s noth n# to !ose and* ndeed* an enormous amount to (e #a ned socially (' the shar n# o& n&ormat on+ /om n# (a"7 to the %r or e-am%!e n th s essa' o& "om%et n# "e!! %hone "om%an es* ,e , !! not "e that , th n the "on& nes o& (oardroom meet n#s ,here o&ten mar7eters* des #ners and en# neers "ons der ho, to m%ro$e the r %rodu"t n #enera!* the sharing of their ideas s %aramount+ Ho,e$er* ma# ne & that meet n# ,as e-tended to a!! "om%et n# "e!! %hone "om%an es at on"e* ,here not on!' "ou!d the' remo$e the r "ontr $ed* ut ! t'.!ess Kmar7et n#” an#!es de$ sed to #a n the mar7et share o& other "om%et tors 8su"h as aesthet " # mm "7r';* the' "ou!d ,or7 to %rodu"e the "umu!at $e K(est” n "on"ert+ E-tend n# e$en more so* ,hat & a!! des #ns ,ere K%u(! " doma n” n the sense that an'one n the ,or!d ,ho had an nterest to he!% m%ro$e an dea ,as a(!e toR The s"hemat "s o& a "e!! %hone des #n "ou!d (e %osted %u(! "!' , th a s'stem o& te"hn "a! ntera"t on ,here %eo%!e &rom a!! around the ,or!d "ou!d he!%* & the' had the a( ! t'* , th the te"hn "a! e&& " en"' and ut ! t' o& the des #n+ Wh !e th s s an a(stra"t h'%othet "a! e-am%!e* t s "!ear that the resu!t o& su"h an o%en a%%roa"h to the shar n# o& n&ormat on "ou!d &a" ! tate an explosion o& "reat $ t' and %rodu"t $ t' ne$er (e&ore , tnessed+ As , !! (e d s"ussed n Aart III* the remo$a! o& the monetar'.mar7et s'stem s "r t "a! to the &a" ! tat on o& th s "a%a" t'+ (a or for $ncome At the "ore o& the mar7et s'stem s the se!! n# o& an nd $ dua!?s !a(or as a "ommod t'+ In man' ,a's* the a( ! t' o& the mar7et to em%!o' the %o%u!at on has (e"ome a measure o& ts nte#r t'+ Ho,e$er* the ad$ent o& Kme"han 1at on”* or the automat on o& human !a(or* has (e"ome an e$er. n"reas n# %o nt o& interference o$er t me+D26 H stor "a!!'* the
D26 A #!an"e at US h stor "a! !a(or stat st "s (' se"tor sho,s the %attern o&

ma"h ne automat on re%!a" n# human !a(or de& n t $e!'+ In the a#r "u!tura! se"tor* a!most a!! trad t ona! ,or7&!o, s no, done (' ma"h ne+ In 2E6E* ma"h nes d d I> o& the "otton % "7 n# n the South+ 9' 2EF4* 255> o& the "otton % "7 n# ,as done (' ma"h nes+ XSour"e< The otton >arvester in 'etrospect3 +abor =isplacement or 'eplacementD* W !! s Aeterson* St Aau!* 2EE2* %% 2.4Y In 2GI5* I5> o& Amer "a ,or7ed n a#r "u!ture* ,h !e toda' t s !ess than D>+ 8Sour"e< 7hy Eob growth is Stalled* Fortune* DMGMED %+H4; In 2EH5* DD> o& US ,or7ers ,or7ed n Manu&a"tur n#* ,h !e (' 4554 there ,as on!' 25>+ 8Sour"e<htt%<MM,,,+usatoda'+"omMmone'Me"onom'M4554. 24.24.manu&a"tureV-+htm; The US stee! ndustr'* &rom 2EG4 to 4554 n"reased %rodu"t on &rom FHm tons to 245m tons* ,h !e stee! ,or7ers ,ent &rom 4GE*555 to F6*555+8Sour"e< 7ill QMade in the 9S4R fade awayD, Ne!son 25H

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

a%%! "at on o& ma"h ne te"hno!o#' to !a(or has (een seen as an ssue o& not on!' so" a! %ro#ress (ut a!so Ke"onom "” %ro#ress* n the mar7et sense* ma n!' due to the n"rease n %rodu"t $ t'+ The (as " assum%t on s that me"han 1at on 8or more (road!' technological innovation; &a" ! tates ndustr a! e-%ans on and hen"e an ne$ ta(!e rea!!o"at on o& !a(or d s%!a"ed (' ma"h ne nto ne,* emer# n# se"tors+ Th s s a "ommon de&ense+D2H H stor "a!!' s%ea7 n#* there a%%ears to (e some truth to th s* ,here the redu"t on o& the human ,or7 &or"e n one se"tor* su"h as ,as the "ase , th the automat on o& a#r "u!ture n the West* has (een o$er"ome to a de#ree (' the ad$an"ement o& other em%!o'ment se"tors* su"h as the modern ser$ "e se"tor+ Ho,e$er* th s assum%t on that te"hno!o# "a! nno$at on , !! #enerate ne, &orms o& em%!o'ment in tandem , th those d s%!a"ed (' t* "reat n# an e)uilibrium* s a"tua!!' $er' d && "u!t to de&end ,hen the rate of change o& nno$at on* "ou%!ed , th the cost saving interests o& (us ness s ta7en nto a""ount+D2I As &or the !atter* the Kro!e” o& me"han 1at on &rom the stand%o nt o& mar#et efficiency e- sts a!most so!e!' to ass st K"ost.e&& " en"'”+ Ro(ot "s n the modern da' ha$e &ar e-"eeded the %h's "a! "a%a" t' o& the a$era#e human (e n#* a!on# , th ra% d!' ad$an" n# "a!"u!at on %ro"esses ,h "h "ont nue to $ast!' e-"eed human thou#ht+ The resu!t s the a( ! t' o& ndustr' to em%!o' ma"h nes* ,h "h n$ar a(!' ha$e more %rodu"t $e "a%a" t' than human !a(or* "ou%!ed , th the e-treme!' nota(!e & nan" a! n"ent $e o& redu"ed ! a( ! t' &or the
D+ S"h,art1* Fortune No$ 46th 455D* %+ 254; In 455D* A!! an"e /a% ta! d d a stud' o& the ,or!dNs !ar#est 45 e"onom es at that t me* ran# n# &rom the %er od o& 2EEH to 4554* & nd n# that D2 m !! on manu&a"tur n# 0o(s ,ere !ost* ,h !e %rodu"t on a"tua!!' rose (' D5>+ 8Sour"e< 9S 7ee#ly Economic 9pdate3 Manufacturing Payrolls =eclining ?lobally3 The 9ntold Story* A!! an"e 9ernste n O"t 455D; Th s %attern o& increasing %rodu"t $ t' and %ro& t* "ou%!ed , th de"reas n# em%!o'ment* s a ne, and %o,er&u! %henomenon+ D2H See the su(se"t on on e"onom st Da$ d R "ardo n the essa'< >istory of Economy D2I E"onom st Ste%hen Roa"h ,arned n 2EE6* ”The ser$ "e se"tor has !ost ts ro!e as Amer "aNs un(r d!ed en# ne o& 0o( "reat on+” 8Sour"e< Inter$ e,* DM2HME6* noted n (oo7 The End of 7or# (' 3erem' R &7 n* Aen#u n %+26D; E-am%!es o& th s n"!ude< From 2EGD.2EED* (an7s "ut DF> o& the r human te!!ers* and (' the 'ear 4555* E5> o& a!! (an7 "ustomers used te!!er ma"h nes 8ATMs; 8Sour"e< KRetoo! n# L $es”* V s on* 4555 %+ 6D; 9us ness %hone o%erators ha$e a!most a!! (een re%!a"ed (' "om%uter 1ed $o "e ans,er n# s'stems* %ost o&& "e te!!ers are (e n# re%!a"ed (' se!&.ser$ "e ma"h nes* ,h !e "ash ers are (e n# re%!a"ed (' "om%uter 1ed 7 os7s+ M"Dona!ds* &or e-am%!e* has (een ta!7 n# a(out &u!! automat on o& ts restaurants &or man' 'ears no,* ntrodu" n# 7 os7s to re%!a"e the &ront o& house sta&&* ,h !e us n# automated "oo7 n# too!s* su"h as (ur#er &! %%ers* &or the (a"7 o& house sta&&+ 8Sour"e< htt%<MM,,,+te"hd rt+"omMart "!esM455D5G52M2D6H4DIVF+shtm!s; The &a"t that the' ha$enNt done so s ! 7e!' a %u(! " re!at ons ssue* &or the' 7no, ho, man' 0o(s ,ou!d (e "ut n the e$ent that su"h automat on shou!d (e ado%ted n the most un nh ( ted ,a'++ 25I

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

(us ness o,ners n man' ,a's+ Wh !e ma"h nes m #ht re)u re ma ntenan"e* the' do not need hea!th nsuran"e* unem%!o'ment nsuran"e* $a"at ons* un on %rote"t on and man' other attr (utes "ommon to human em%!o'ment toda'+ There&ore* n the narro, !o# " nherent to the %ursu t o& %ro& t* t s on!' natura! &or (us nesses to see7 out me"han 1at on at a!! t mes* # $en ts !on# term "ost (ene& ts and hen"e mar#et efficiency+ As &ar as the su##est on that e)u ! (r um , !! a!,a's (e &ound e$entua!!' (et,een ne, !a(or ro!es and d s%!a"ed !a(or due to te"hno!o# "a! nno$at on* the %ro(!em s that the rate of change o& te"hno!o# "a! de$e!o%ment &ar e-"eeds the rate o& ne, 0o( "reat on+D2F Th s %ro(!em s un )ue as t a!so assumes that human so" et' ,ou!d a!,a's want ne, em%!o'ment ro!es+ It s here ,here su(0e"t $e cultural values shou!d (e "ons dered+ G $en that our "urrent so" o!o# "a! "ond t on demands human em%!o'ment as the (a"7(one o& mar#et sustainability* hen"e mar7et e&& " en"'* the eth " o& K,or7” and ts dent t' asso" at ons* "u!tura!!'* ha$e %er%etuated a &or"e ,here the a"tua! &un"t on o& the !a(or ro!e . ts true utility . (e"omes !ess m%ortant than the mere a"t o& !a(or tse!&+D2G 3ust as mar#et efficiency has no "ons derat on &or ,hat s a"tua!!' (e n# (ou#ht and so!d n #enera!* so !on# as t 7ee%s "'"! "a! "onsum%t on at an a""e%ta(!e rate* the !a(or ro!es ta7en on toda' n %rodu"t on are e)ua!!' as ar( trar' n the $ e, o& the mar7et+ In theor'* ,e "ou!d en$ s on a ,or!d ,here %eo%!e are (e n# %a d to do ,hat "ou!d (e "ons dered K%o nt!ess” o""u%at ons* ,hen t "omes to ut ! t'* #enerat n# h #h !e$e!s o& GDA , th $ rtua!!' no true so" a! "ontr (ut on+ In &a"t* e$en toda' ,e "ou!d ste% (a"7 and as7 ourse!$es ,hat the so" a! ro!e o& man' nst tut ons rea!!' s and %erha%s "ome to the "on"!us on that the' ser$e on!' to #eep moving money around* not to "reate or a"tua!!' "ontr (ute an'th n# tan# (!e &or the (ene& t o& so" et'+ These are "om%!e- %h !oso%h "a! )uest ons as the' "ha!!en#e dom nant trad t ona! eth "s and the $er' nature o& ,hat K%ro#ress” rea!!' means n man' ,a's+ For nstan"e* the &o!!o, n# thou#ht e-er" se s ,orth "ons der n#+ Ima# ne & ,e ,ere to re$ert our so" a! s'stem (a"7 to the 2Ith "entur'* ,here man' modern 842st "entur'; te"hno!o# "a! rea! t es ,ere s m%!' unheard o&+ The %o%u!at on o& that era ,ou!d natura!!' ha$e e-%e"tat ons o& ,hat ,ou!d (e te"hn "a!!'
D2F Re&eren"e< The +aw of 4ccelerating 'eturns* Ra' Cur1,e !

8htt%<MM,,,+7ur1,e !a +netMthe.!a,.o&.a""e!erat n#.returns; Wh !e the "onte-t o& th s art "!e re#ard n# e-%onent a!!' ad$an" n# te"hno!o# "a! "a%a" t' does not re&eren"e me"han 1at on* t s "!ear!' a- omat " to assume ts re!e$an"e n th s ,a'* %art "u!ar!' , th res%e"t to ,hat "ou!d (e "a!!ed K"'(ernat on”* ,h "h s the "om( nat on o& ma"h nes and "om%uters d st n"t!'* "reat n# K nte!! #en"e” n ma"h nes+ D2G The ! n7 (et,een ha$ n# a K0o(” and one?s se!&.,orth has (e"ome n"reas n#!' %o,er&u!+ Re&eren"e< &oblessness 4nd >opelessness3 The +in# /etween 9nemployment 4nd Suicide 8htt%<MM,,,+hu&& n#ton%ost+"omM4522M56M2HMunem%!o'ment.and. su " deVnVG6E64G+htm!; 25F

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

%oss (!e that ,ou!d (e &ar (e!o, ,hat s #enera!!' a""e%ted as %oss (!e toda'+ I& th s so" et' ,as a(!e to su%er m%ose* o$ern #ht* the mass $e te"hno!o# "a! "a%a" t' o& the modern era* there s ! tt!e dou(t that $ rtua!!' everything re!ated to the "ore sur$ $a! o& the %o%u!at on "ou!d (e automated+ The )uest on then (e"omes* ,hat do the' no, do , th the r ne,&ound &reedomR What (e"omes the "u!tura! &o"us o& the r ! $es & the (as " drud#er' o& &undamenta! sur$ $a! ,as remo$edR Do the' n$ent ne, 0o(s s m%!' (e"ause the' "anR Do the' e!e$ate themse!$es* %reser$ n# and em(od' n# th s ne, &reedom (' a!ter n# the r so" a! s'stem tse!&* remo$ n# th s %re$ ous!' demanded K!a(or &or n"ome” re)u rementR These )uest ons #et to the root o& ,hat progress and personalMsocial goals and success rea!!' are+ Ne$erthe!ess* a dom nant "u!tura! $a!ue toda' s that o& Kearn n# a ! $ n#”* and the a%%! "at on o& me"han 1at on* n the sense o& mar#et efficiency s a"tua!!' a dou(!e.ed#ed s,ord+ Wh !e "ost.e&& " en"' s nherent to me"han 1at on and hen"e the #enera! m%ro$ement o& %ro& t (' redu" n# "osts &or the (us ness o,ners* the d s%!a"ement o& human ,or7ers* 7no,n toda' as Kte"hno!o# "a! unem%!o'ment”* a"tua!!' ,or7s against mar#et efficiency to the e-tent that those unem%!o'ed ,or7ers are no, unable to contribute to the needed "'"! "a! "onsum%t on that %o,ers the e"onom'* s n"e the' ha$e !ost the r purchasing power as K"onsumers”* Th s "ontrad "t on , th n the "a% ta! st mode! s un )ue+ From the stand %o nt o& mar#et efficiency* me"han 1at on hen"e %oses (oth a %os t $e and ne#at $e out"ome n th s sense and ,hen ,e rea! 1e that the rate o& te"hno!o# "a! "han#e , !!* n a!! %ro(a( ! t'* d s%!a"e %eo%!e increasingly faster than ne, se"tors o& em%!o'ment "an (e "reated* me"han 1at on as an nh ( t n# &a"tor to "a% ta! sm (e"omes e$er more a%%arent+ It s* n tota!* de"reas n# mar#et efficiency n th s " r"umstan"e+ Ho,e$er* on the other hand* &rom the stand%o nt o& technical efficiency* on"e a#a n* ,e see $ast m%ro$ement and mmense %oss ( ! t es on man' !e$e!s+ The %rodu"t on "a%a" t' ena(!ed (' th s a%%! "at on "!ear!' sho,s a %o,er&u! n"rease n e&& " en"' re#ard n# not on!' the e&&e"t o& ndustr a! %rodu"t on* (ut a!so a #enera! n"reased e&& " en"' o& the #oods themse!$es (' e-tens on o& the a""ura"' and nte#r t' nherent n %rodu"t on+ A!so* an m%! "at on o& th s ne, !e$e! o& %rodu"t on e&& " en"' s that meeting the needs of the global population was never more possible+ It s eas' to see that , thout the nter&eren"e o& mar7et !o# " on th s ne, te"hn "a! "a%a" t'* ,h "h n$ar a(!' nh ( ts ts &u!! %otent a!* ,hat "ou!d (e re!at $e!' deemed an Ka(undan"e” o& most ! &e susta n n# #oods "ou!d (e &a" ! tated &or the #!o(a! %o%u!at on+D2E
D2E Th s s not a uto% an "on"e%t as $er' (as " stat st "a! e-tra%o!at ons %ro$e

th s $ast m%ro$ement o& e&& " en"' and %rodu"t on "a%a" t' on man' !e$e!s+ A s m%!e e-am%!e* ,h !e not e-haust $e n ts $ar a(!es* s the o(so!es"en"e o& K,or7 hours” n ndustr a! &a"tor' %rodu"t on+ The G.hour da' "ommon to human !a(or "ou!d man &est to near!' 46.hour !a(or $ a ma"h ne 25G

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Scarcit+ /s0 A undance KSu%%!' and demand” s a "ommon mar7et re!at onsh % ,h "h e-%resses* n %art* ho, the $a!ue o& a resour"e or #ood s %ro%ort ona! to ho, mu"h o& t s n e- sten"e or a""ess (!e+ For e-am%!e* d amonds are "ons dered )uant tat $e!' more rare and hen"e o& h #her $a!ue than ,ater* ,h "h "an (e &ound n a #enera! a(undan"e on the %!anet+ L 7e, se* "erta n human "reat ons* & "reated n short su%%!'* are a!so su(0e"t to th s d'nam "* e$en & the %er"e%t on o& rar t' s "u!tura!!' su(0e"t $e* su"h as , th a s n#!e "an$as %a nt n# (' a reno,ned art st ,h "h m #ht &et"h man'* man' t mes ts a"tua! resour"e $a!ue n a sa!e+D45 From the stand%o nt o& mar#et efficiency* #enera! s"ar" t' s a #ood th n# o$era!!+ Wh !e e-treme s"ar" t' s* ndeed* desta( ! 1 n# (oth &or an ndustr' or an e"onom' as a ,ho!e 8Kshorta#es”;* the most o%t m 1ed state , th n ,h "h the mar7et s'stem "an e- st s n a sort o& balanced s"ar" t' %ressure* hen"e the assuran"e o& sa!es.%rodu" n# demand+ A#a n* the ! &e re)u rements o& humans are not re"o#n 1ed n th s e)uat on+ Meet n# human needs n the &orm o& &ood* hous n#* !o,.stress " r"umstan"es &or menta! hea!th* et"+* s utter!' Ke-terna!” here and has no d re"t re!at onsh % to mar#et efficiency+ Meet n# human needs n a d re"t sense ,ou!d* a#a n* (e ne&& " ent to the mar7et?s !o# " as t ,ou!d remo$e the s"ar" t' %ressure that &ue!s "'"! "a! "onsum%t on+ Aut another ,a'* there s a need &or imbalance n order to &ue! th s demand %ressure and th s m(a!an"e "an "ome n man' &orms+ De(t* &or e-am%!e* s a &orm o& m%osed s"ar" t' ,h "h %uts a %erson n a %os t on to ,h "h the' must o&ten su(m t to !a(or ,h "h ma' (e o& a more Ke-%!o tat $e” nature J mean n# the re,ard 8usua!!' the ,a#e; s #ross!' d s%ro%ort onate to ,hat s needed to 7ee% a hea!th' standard o& ! $ n# n one?s " r"umstan"e+ In th s res%e"t* the de(t s'stem &a" ! tates a d st n"t &orm o& mar#et efficiency as t (ene& ts the em%!o'er s n"e the ease o& !o,er n# ,a#e rates 8"ost e&& " en"'; natura!!' n"reases as %r $ate de(t !e$e!s n"rease+ The more n de(t %eo%!e are* the more ! 7e!' the' , !! su(m t to !o, ,a#e !a(or and hen"e #enerate more %ro& t &or the (us ness o,ners+ In &a"t* the same !o# " "an (e a%%! ed to the use o& !e#a!!' unre#u!ated Ks,eatsho%” !a(or n the th rd ,or!d* ,h "h s &re)uent!' Ke-%!o ted” (' Western "om%an es+ E-"ess $e ,or7 hours "ou%!ed , th notor ous!' !o, ,a#es are "ommon . 'et these %eo%!e ha$e ! tera!!' no choice (ut to su(m t as there are no other o%t ons &or sur$ $a! n the r re# on* o&ten due to de(t resu!t n# &rom auster t' measures+D42
automat on+ Th s "rude e-am%!e sho,s ho, ”a(undan"e” "an (e "reated o& "ore ! &e su%%ort n# #oods+ D45 Ed$ard Mun"h?s %a nt n# KThe S"ream” so!d &or b22E m !! on n 4524+ I& ,e ,ere to "om%are the a"tua! mater a! $a!ue o& the ,or7 n %h's "a! &orm* t ,as so!d &or a(out 25.2H*555 t mes ts mater a! $a!ue n %a nt and "an$as+ 8htt%<MM,,,+hu&& n#ton%ost+"o+u7M4524M5HM5DMed$ard.mun"hs.the.s"ream. VnV26FD24E+htm!Rre&Su7."u!ture; D42 Re&eren"e< Economic haos, +oans, ?reece and orporatocracy* 3ohn 25E

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

In &a"t* the re#u!at on o& the mone' su%%!' n tota! s (ased on a #enera! s"ar" t' s n"e* as noted (e&ore* a!! mone' toda' s made out of debt and th s de(t.mone' s so!d nto the mar7et as a "ommod t' throu#h K!oans”* , th the mar7.u% o& nterest atta"hed to #enerate a %ro& t &or the (an7s+ :et* th s K nterest” %ro& t* ,h "h s mone' tse!&* s not created n the mone' su%%!' tse!&+ For nstan"e* & an nd $ dua! ta7es out a !oan &or 255 do!!ars and %a's H> nterest on the !oan* that nd $ dua! s re)u red to %a' (a"7 25H do!!ars+ 9ut* n an e"onom' ,here a!! mone' "omes nto e- sten"e throu#h !oans* ,h "h s the rea! t'* on!' the K%r n" %a!” 8b255; e- sts n the mone' su%%!' , th the K nterest n"ome” 8bH; un"reated+ There&ore* there s a!,a's more de(t n e- sten"e than there s mone' to %a' &or t+ Furthermore* s n"e the %oor are res%ons (!e &or ta7 n# more !oans n #enera! &or the r homeM"arsMet"+ than the ,ea!th'* ,ho ma nta n a & nan" a! sur%!us* th s o$era!! de(t %ressure tends to &a!! on the !o,er "!asses* "om%ound n# the nherent!' nsurmounta(!e %ro(!em o& (e n# n de(t and hen"e , th ! m ted o%t ons+ In th s mode!* (an7ru%t"'* &or e-am%!e* s not a resu!t o& some %oor (us ness 0ud#ments . t s an ne$ ta(!e "onse)uen"e . ! 7e a #ame o& Kmus "a! "ha rs”+D44 So* "om n# (a"7 to the "entra! %o nt* the rea! t' o& s"ar" t' n the "urrent e"onom " s'stem s a sour"e o& #reat efficiency n the mar7et sense &or & %eo%!e had the r (as " need met* or & the' ,ere a(!e to meet those needs , thout the e-terna! %ressure o& rreso!$a(!e de(t ,h "h 7ee%s the m(a!an"es . "'"! "a! "onsum%t on* %ro& t and #ro,th ,ou!d su&&er+ As ns d ous as t ma' seem to our ntu t on and human t'* that 7ee% n# %eo%!e de%r $ed s a"tua!!' a %os t $e %re"ond t on &or the ,or7 n#s o& the mar7et* th s s the rea! t'+ Need!ess to sa'* &rom the stand%o nt o& technical efficiency* see n# the human (e n# as a ( o."hem "a! ma"h ne n un $ersa! need o& (as " nutr t on* sta( ! t' and other %s'"hoso" a! re)u rements ,h "h* & unatta ned* "an resu!t n s "7ness (oth %h's "a! and %s'"ho!o# "a!* ,e "an re"o#n 1e the de"ou%!ed state o& humanMso" a! ,e!!.(e n# , th th s Kmar7et !o# "”+D4D As a & na! %o nt on th s ssue* the mar7et see7s the servicing o& %ro(!ems at a!! t mes+ In &a"t* t "ou!d (e stated #enera!!' that technical inefficiency is the driver of mar#et efficiency+ Aro(!em reso!ut on s not sou#ht (' the mar7et as t then "reates an n"ome $o d and hen"e a !oss o& monetar' #a n and mo$ement+ The resu!t o& th s* n %art* s a %er$erse re n&or"ement o& n"ent $e to see7 or e$en ad$an"e %ro(!ems n #enera!+ A "entur' a#o the dea o& se!! n# (ott!ed ,ater ,ou!d ha$e (een stran#e # $en ts #enera!* un%o!!uted a(undan"e+ In the modern da'* t s a mu!t m !! on.do!!ar ndustr' annua!!'* der $ed most!' &rom the ,ater %o!!ut on that has o""urred
Aer7 ns* 4522 8htt%<MM,,,+hu&& n#ton%ost+"omM0ohn.%er7 nsMe"onom ". "haos.!oans.#reeV(VE52E6E+htm!; D44 Re&eren"e< 7eb of =ebt* E!!en Hod#son 9ro,n* Th rd M !!enn um Aress* 455G D4D A!ease see the %r or essa' =efining Public >ealth 225

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

due to rres%ons (!e ndustr a! %ra"t "es+D46 The %ro& t and 0o(s no, asso" ated , th th s te"hn "a!!' ne&& " ent rea! t' o& resour"e %o!!ut on and destru"t on* has m%ro$ed* on"e a#a n* the e"onom " mar#et efficiency needed to 7ee% "'"! "a! "onsum%t on #o n#+ Conclusion Mar#et efficiency* #enera!!' s%ea7 n#* ta7es on a Kma"ro” and Km "ro” rea! t'+ On the ma"ro s"a!e* an'th n# that "an n"rease sa!es* #ro,th or "onsum%t on* re#ard!ess o& the or # nat n# %ressure &or demand or ,hat s a"tua!!' (e n# (ou#ht and so!d* s deemed e&& " ent n th s "onte-t+ On the m "ro s"a!e* th s e&& " en"' ta7es the &orm o& ena(! n# "ond t ons that "an n"rease %ro& t and redu"e n%ut "osts 8K"ost e&& " en"'”; on the %art o& (us ness+ Th s Ke&& " en"'” nherent to "a% ta! sm o%erates , thout an' res%e"t &or the so" a! or en$ ronmenta! "osts o& ts %ro"ess to 7ee% "'"! "a! "onsum%t on and %ro& t #o n# and the ,or!d 'ou see around 'ou . &u!! o& e"o!o# "a! d sorder* human de%r $at on and #enera! so" a! and en$ ronmenta! nsta( ! t' . has (een the resu!t+ On the other hand* technical efficiency* ,h "h one "ou!d "hara"ter 1e as* n &a"t* a h ndran"e to mar#et efficiency* see7s to ma nta n the en$ ronment* ma nta n human hea!th and essent a!!' 7ee% (a!an"e n the natura! ,or!d+ The redu"t on o& ,aste* reso!ut on o& %ro(!ems and the maintaining of alignment , th natura! !a, s the common sense !o# " em(od ed+ It s un&ortunate to rea! 1e that toda' ,e ha$e t,o opposed s'stems o& e"onom' ,or7 n# at on"e J ,or7 n# a#a nst ea"h other* n &a"t+ The mar7et s'stem* em(od' n# ts ar"ha "* trad t ona! 1ed !o# "* s utter!' out o& s'n" , th the natura! 8te"hn "a!; e"onom' as t e- sts+ The resu!t s $ast d s"ord and m(a!an"e , th e$er.mutat n# %ro(!ems and "onse)uen"es &or the human s%e" es+ It s "!ear ,h "h s'stem , !! K, n” n th s (att!e+ Nature , !! %ers st , th ts natura! ru!es re#ard!ess o& ho, mu"h ,e theor 1e th s or that $a! dat on o& the ,a' ,e ha$e trad t ona!!' or#an 1ed ourse!$es on th s %!anet+ Nature doesnNt "are a(out our $ast monetar' e"onom " deas* ts theor es o& K$a!ue”* so%h st "ated & nan" a! mode!s or deta !ed e)uat ons re#ard n# ho, ,e thin# human (eha$ or man &ests and ,h'+ The technical reality s s m%!e< !earn* ada%t and a! #n to the #o$ern n# !a,s o& nature* or su&&er the "onse)uen"es+ It s a(surd to th n7 that the human s%e" es* # $en ts e$o!ut on , th n the same natura! !a,s to ,h "h our e"onom " %ra"t "e 8and $a!ues; must a! #n* ,ou!d (e incompatible , th su"h !a,s+ It s mere!' an ssue o& matur t' and a,areness toda'+ As a & na! %o nt* as ,e!! as a #enera! as de* there has emer#ed a trend n the 42st "entur'* n the ,a7e o& a!! the #ro, n# and %ers st n# e"o!o# "a! %ro(!ems that "!a ms to see7 ,hat s "a!!ed a K#reen e"onom'”+ Some ha$e e$en d $ ded th s e"onom " $ e, nto se"tors*
D46 Re&eren"e< 7ater and 4ir Pollution, H stor'+"om

8htt%<MM,,,+h stor'+"omMto% "sM,ater.and.a r.%o!!ut on; 222

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

n"!ud n# a%%! "at ons &or rene,a(!e ener#'* e"o.(u !d n#s* "!ean trans%ortat on and other "ate#or es o& &o"us+D4H It , !! (e not "ed that a!! o& those a,arenesses and sou#ht a%%! "at ons are #enera!!' n ! ne , th the technical or s" ent & " a,areness %ers%e"t $e d s"ussed n th s essa'+ Sad!'* as %os t $e as the ntent o& these ne, or#an 1at ons and (us ness %!anners ma' (e* the ne&& " en"' inherent to the "a% ta! st mode! o& e"onom "s . , th a!! ts need &or "erta n &orms o& "ontr $ed Ke&& " en"'” to ma nta n tse!& . mmed ate!' %o!!utes and dee%!' ! m ts a!! su"h attem%ts* ,h "h e-%!a ns ,h' su"h technical efficiency a%%roa"hes ha$e st !! 'et to rea!!' (e a%%! ed+ The sad rea! t' s that ,h !e some m%ro$ement "an (e made* su"h %ro#ress , !! (e nherent!' ! m ted to an e$er. n"reas n# de#ree s n"e* as des"r (ed* the $er' stru"tura! (as s o& the ,a' mar7et "a% ta! sm ,or7s s a"t $e!' o%%osed to the e&& " en" es nherent n the natura! !a, $ e,+ The on!' !o# "a! so!ut on s to reth n7 the ent re stru"ture & an' rea! e&& " en"'* e!e$ated %ros%er t' and %ro(!em reso!ut on s to (e a"h e$ed n the !on# run+

D4H Re&eren"e< 8re#ard n# the K#reen e"onom'”; Ho, do 'ou de& ne the ?#reen?

e"onom'R* MNN* 455E 8htt%<MM,,,+mnn+"omM#reen.te"hMresear"h. nno$at onsM(!o#sMho,.do.'ou.de& ne.the.#reen.e"onom'; 224

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

-'A(&E S1STE2 D$SORDERI (e! e$e that #reed and "om%et t on are not a resu!t o& mmuta(!e human tem%eramentU I ha$e "ome to the "on"!us on that #reed and &ear o& s"ar" t' are n &a"t (e n# "ont nuous!' "reated and am%! & ed as a d re"t resu!t o& the 7 nd o& mone' ,e are us n#+++The d re"t "onse)uen"e s that ,e ha$e to & #ht , th ea"h other n order to sur$ $e+D4I .9ernard L etaer

Thought !enes G $en the re!at $e!' s!o, rate o& "han#e o& the human (e n# , th res%e"t to ( o!o# "a! e$o!ut on* the $ast so" eta! "han#es that ha$e o""urred o$er the %ast 6555 'ears o& re"orded h stor' ha$e o""urred due to the e$o!ut on o& 7no,!ed#e J hen"e K"u!tura! e$o!ut on”+ I& ,e ,ere to sear"h &or a me"han sm &or "u!tura! e$o!ut on* the not on o& the Kmeme”D4F s use&u! to "ons der+ De& ned as Kan dea* (eha$ or* st'!e* or usa#e that s%reads &rom %erson to %erson , th n a "u!ture”* memes are "ons dered to (e so" o!o# "a! or "u!tura! ana!o#ues to #enes*D4G ,h "h are K&un"t ona! 8( o!o# "a!; un ts "ontro!! n# the transm ss on and e-%ress on o& one or more tra ts”+ Wh !e #enes (as "a!!' transm t ( o!o# "a! data &rom %erson to %erson throu#h hered t'* memes transm t "u!tura! data . deas . &rom %erson to %erson $ a human "ommun "at on n a!! &orms+D4E When ,e re"o#n 1e* &or e-am%!e* the %o,er o& te"hno!o# "a! ad$an"ement o$er t me and ho, t has dramat "a!!' "han#ed our ! &est'!es and $a!ues and , !! "ont nue to do so* ,e "an $ e, th s o$era!!* emer#ent %henomenon as an evolution of ideas, , th n&ormat on replicating and mutating* a!ter n# the "u!ture as t me mo$es &or,ard+ G $en th s* ,e "ou!d #estura!!' $ e, the human menta! state and ts %ro%ens t es &or a"t on as a &orm o& program* 3ust as #enes en"ode a set o& nstru"t ons ,h "h* n "on"ert , th other #enes and the en$ ronment %rodu"e se)uent a! resu!ts* the %ro"ess n# o& memes (' the nte!!e"tua! "a%a" t' o& human (e n#s* n "on"ert* "reate %atterns o& (eha$ or n a s m !ar ,a'+ Wh !e K&ree , !!” s "erta n!' a "om%!ede(ate to (e had , th res%e"t to ,hat a"tua!!' tr ##ers and man &ests human de" s ons* t s &undamenta!!' "!ear that %eo%!e?s deas are ! m ted (' the r n%ut 8edu"at on;+ I& a %erson s # $en ! tt!e 7no,!ed#e a(out the ,or!d* the r de" s on %ro"ess , !! (e e)ua!!' as ! m ted+DD5
D4I 9ernard L etaer s an e"onom st* author and %ro&essor most nota(!e &or h s

,or7 to he!% des #n the EU "urren"' s'stem+ [uote &rom 6ESS Maga%ine, Inter$ e, , th 9ernard L etaer* /eyond ?reed and Scarcity* Sarah $an Ge!der 8htt%<MM,,,+transa"t on+netM%ressM nter$ e,sM! etaer56EF+htm!; D4F Sour"e< 8?meme? de& ned; Merr am.We(ster+"om 8htt%<MM,,,+merr am. ,e(ster+"omMd "t onar'Mmeme; D4G Sour"e< 8?#ene? de& ned; Merr am.We(ster+"om 8htt%<MM,,,+merr am. ,e(ster+"omMd "t onar'M#ene; D4E R "hard Da,7 ns? (oo7 The Selfish ?ene ntrodu"ed the term TmemeT+ Da,7 ns " tes as ns% rat on the ,or7 o& #enet " st L+ L+ /a$a!! .S&or1a* anthro%o!o# st F+ T+ /!oa7 and etho!o# st 3+ M+ /u!!en+ DD5 The n$erse re!at onsh % o& ! tera"'M7no,!ed#e a""umu!at on to su%erst t ous 22D

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

L 7e, se* 0ust as #enes "an mutate n ,a's that are detr menta! to the r host* su"h as the %henomenon o& "an"er*DD2 so "an memes , th res%e"t to deo!o# "a!Mso" o!o# "a! transm ss ons* #enerat n# menta! &rame,or7s that ser$e as detr ments to the host 8or so" et';+ It s here ,here the term Kd sorder” s ntrodu"ed+ A d sorder s de& ned as Ka deran#ement or a(norma! t' o& &un"t on”DD4+ There&ore* ,hen t "omes to so" a! o%erat on* a d sorder ,ou!d m%!' nst tut ona! 1ed deo!o# "a! &rame,or7s that are out of alignment , th the !ar#er #o$ern n# s'stem+ In other ,ords* the' are inaccurate , th res%e"t to the "onte-t n ,h "h the' attem%t to e- st* o&ten "reat n# m(a!an"e and detr menta! desta( ! 1at on+ O& "ourse* h stor' s &u!! o& n t a!!' desta( ! 1 n#* trans t on n# deas and th s on#o n# nte!!e"tua! e$o!ut on s "!ear!' natura! and ne"essar' to the human "ond t on as there s no su"h th n# as an Ka(so!ute” understand n#+ Ho,e$er* the d &&erent at on to (e made here s the &a"t that ,hen deas %ers st &or a !on# enou#h %er od* the' o&ten "reate emotional connections on the %ersona! 8K dent t'”; !e$e! and institutional establishments on the "u!tura! !e$e!* ,h "h tend to %er%etuate a 7 nd o& circular reinforcement, #enera!!' res st n# "han#e and ada%tat on+ Re"o#n 1 n# our nte!!e"tua! e$o!ut on* as a %ro"ess , th no end and (e n# o%en to ne, n&ormat on to he!% (etter a! #n ourse!$es &or susta na(!e %ra"t "es* s "!ear!' a "ore eth " needed (oth on the %ersona! and so" a! !e$e! & ,e e-%e"t to 7ee% adapting &or the (etter n the "onte-t o& "u!tura! e$o!ut on+ Sad!'* there are %o,er&u! "u!tura! &or"es that ,or7 a#a nst th s nterest n the ,or!d toda'+ Stru"tures* (oth deo!o# "a! and encoded n the "urrent so" a! n&rastru"tureDDD a"t $e!' ,or7 a#a nst th s "r t "a! ne"ess t' o& "u!tura! ada%t on+ An ana!o#' ,ou!d (e the star$at on o& our ( o!o# "a! "e!!s (' remo$ n# o-'#en &rom the en$ ronment J on!' n th s "ase ,e are restr "t n# our $u!nera( ! t' to learn and adapt, , th #nowledge (e n# the Ko-'#en” (' ,h "h ,e as a s%e" es are a(!e to so!$e %ro(!ems and "ont nue %ro#ress+ Th s d sorder s* as , !! (e des"r (ed, nherent to the mar7et
(e! e& s "!ear+ A""ord n# to the Un ted Nat onsN Ara( Human De$e!o%ment Re%orts* !ess than 4> o& Ara(s ha$e a""ess to the Internet+ Ara(s re%resent H> o& the ,or!dNs %o%u!at on and 'et %rodu"e on!' 2> o& the ,or!dNs (oo7s* most o& them re! # ous+ A""ord n# to resear"her Sam Harr s< KS%a n trans!ates more (oo7s nto S%an sh ea"h 'ear than the ent re Ara( ,or!d has trans!ated nto Ara( " s n"e the n nth "entur'+” It s a- omat " to assume that the #ro,th o& the Is!am " Re! # on n Ara( Nat ons s se"ured (' a re!at $e !a"7 o& outs de n&ormat on n those so" et es+ DD2 /an"er s a term used &or d seases n ,h "h a(norma! "e!!s d $ de , thout "ontro! and are a(!e to n$ade other t ssues+ 8htt%<MM,,,+"an"er+#o$M"an"erto% "sM"an"er! (rar'M,hat. s."an"er; DD4 Sour"e< 8?d sorder de& ned?; TheFreeD "t onar'+"om 8htt%<MMmed "a!. d "t onar'+the&reed "t onar'+"omMd sorder; DDD To "!ar &' the not on o& Ken"oded”* th s re&ers to stru"tura! attr (utes su"h as need n#* &or e-am%!e* Kto "om%ete” n order to su""eed n the mar7et e"onom'+ It s (u !t nto the s'stem?s &rame,or7* or encoded+ 226

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

"a% ta! st trad t on+ It s not on!' the a"tua! de" s ons (e n# made a#a nst the nterests o& ada%tat on* 7no, n#!' or not* that %er%etuate detr menta! e&&e"ts on man' !e$e!s J t s a!so the value system J the em%!o'ment o& K dent t'” and a norma! 1ed sense o& "ustom* ,h "h (ears a %o,er&u!!' %ro(!emat " &or"e+ Th s s "om%ounded e$en more so ,hen the %ur%ose ser$ed 8or a%%ears to (e ser$ed; (' su"h ntents d re"t!' t es to our survival and existence+ There s noth n# more %ersona! to us than ho, ,e identify ourse!$es and the e"onom " s'stem ,e en"om%ass s n$ar a(!' a de& n n# &eature o& our menta! t es and ,or!d$ e,+ I& there s someth n# ,ron# , th th s s'stem* then t m%! es there s someth n# ,ron# , th ourse!$es* # $en that ,e are the ones ,ho %er%etuate t+ 'alue S+stem Disorder 3ust ! 7e "an"er s* n %art* an mmune s'stem d sorder* so" o!o# "a! trad t ons ,h "h %ers st , th e$er. n"reas n# %ro(!em #enerat on &or so" et' "ou!d (e "a!!ed a value system disorder+DD6 Th s d sorder has to do , th a 7 nd o& structured psychology ,here "erta n assum%t ons ha$e (een # $en "reden"e o$er t me (ased mere!' on the r "u!tura! %ers sten"e* "ou%!ed , th an nherent reinforcement of itself n o%erat on* The !ar#er the so" a! "onte-t o& the d sorder* o&ten the more d && "u!t ts reso!ut on* not to ment on the d && "u!t' o& ts mere re"o#n t on tse!&+ On the s"a!e o& a so" a! s'stem* t (e"omes $er' d && "u!t as the so" et' as a ,ho!e s "onstant!' (e n# "ond t oned nto the d'nam "s o& ts o,n &rame,or7* o&ten "reat n# %o,er&u! self$preservation rea"t ons ,hene$er ts nte#r t' s "ha!!en#ed+ These* ,hat "ou!d (e "a!!ed K"!osed nte!!e"tua! &eed(a"7 me"han sms”* are ,hat "om%r se the $ast ma0or t' o& ar#uments n de&ense o& our "urrent so" oe"onom " s'stem* 0ust as the' ha$e n #enerat ons %r or+ In &a"t* t a%%ears to (e a #enera! so" o!o# "a! trend s n"e* a#a n* %eo%!e?s $er' identity s n$ar a(!' asso" ated , th the dom nant (e! e& s'stems and nst tut ons the' are (orn nto+ In the ,ords o& 3ohn M"Murtr'* Aro&essor Emer tus o& Ah !oso%h' at the Un $ers t' o& Gue!%h* /anada< KIn the !ast dar7 a#e* one "an sear"h the n)u r es o& th s eraNs %reser$ed th n7ers &rom Au#ust ne to+++O"7ham* and &a ! to d s"o$er a s n#!e %a#e o& "r t " sm o& the esta(! shed so" a! &rame,or7* ho,e$er rat ona!!' nsu%%orta(!e &euda! (onda#e* a(so!ute %aterna! sm* d $ ne r #ht o& 7 n#s and the rest ma' (e+ In the "urrent & na! order* s t so d &&erentR /an ,e see n an' med a or e$en un $ers t' %ress a %ara#ra%h o& "!ear unmas7 n# o& a #!o(a! re# me that "ondemns a th rd o& a!! "h !dren to ma!nutr t on , th more &ood than enou#h a$a !a(!e]R In su"h a so" a! order* thou#ht (e"omes nd st n#u sha(!e &rom %ro%a#anda+ On!' one do"tr ne s
DD6 To "!ar &' the %hrase* the term K$a!ue” re&ers to an eth "a! %re&eren"e n a

%ersona! or "u!tura! sense* #enera!!' "ons dered su(0e"t $e+ It (e"omes a (as s &or a"t on+ For e-am%!e* a %erson ,ho (e! e$es n a "erta n re! # ous %h !oso%h' m #ht esta(! sh values n &a$or o& "erta n (eha$ ors+ A value system s a set o& "ons stent $a!ues and measures+ 22H

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

s%ea7a(!e* and a %r est "aste o& ts e-%erts %res"r (es the ne"ess t es and o(! #at ons to a!!+++So" a! "ons" ousness s n"ar"erated , th n the ro!e o& a 7 nd o& "eremon a! !o# "* o%erat n# ent re!' , th n the re"e $ed &rame,or7 o& an e-haust $e!' %res"r (ed re#u!ator' a%%aratus %rote"t n# the %r $ !e#es o& the %r $ !e#ed+ Method "a! "ensorsh % tr um%hs n the #u se o& s"ho!ar!' r #or* and the on!' room !e&t &or sear"h n# thou#ht (e"omes the #ame o& "om%et n# rat ona! 1at ons+”DDH Su"h rea"t ons are a!so "ommon , th res%e"t to esta(! shed %ra"t "es n s%e" & " & e!ds+ For nstan"e* I#na1 A+ Semme!,e s 82G2G .2GIH;* a Hun#ar an %h's " an ,ho d s"o$ered that %uer%era! &e$er "ou!d (e drast "a!!' "ut (' the use o& s m%!e hand ,ash n# standards n o(stetr "a! "! n "s* essent a!!' &oreshado, n# the no, &u!!' a""e%ted #erm theor' o& d sease* ,as shunned* re0e"ted and r d "u!ed (' h s & nd n#+ It ,asn?t unt ! !on# a&ter h s death h s no, $er' (as " rea! 1at on ,as res%e"ted+ Toda'* some use the %hrase* KThe Semme!,e s Re&!e-” as a meta%hor &or the re&!e-.! 7e tenden"' to re0e"t ne, e$ den"e or ne, 7no,!ed#e (e"ause t "ontrad "ts esta(! shed norms* (e! e&s or %arad #ms+DDI O$era!!* on"e a # $en set o& deas s entrusted (' a !ar#e enou#h num(er o& %eo%!e* t (e"omes an K nst tut on”. and on"e that nst tut on s made dom nant n some ,a'* su"h as e- st n# &or a "erta n %er od o& t me* that nst tut on "ou!d then (e "ons dered an Kesta(! shment”+ KInst tut ona! esta(! shments” are s m%!' so" a! trad t ons # $en the !!us on o& %ermanen"e and the !on#er the' %ers st* o&ten the stron#er the de&ense o& the r r #ht to e- st (' the ma0or t' o& "u!ture+ I& ,e e-am ne the nst tut ona! esta(! shments ,e ta7e &or #ranted toda' J &rom ma"ro s'stem attr (utes su"h as the & nan" a! s'stem* the !e#a! s'stem* the %o! t "a! s'stem and ma0or re! # ous s'stems J to m "ro s'stem attr (utes su"h as mater a! sm* marr a#e* "e!e(r t'* et"+ J ,e must rem nd ourse!$es that none o& these deas are a"tua!!' real n the %h's "a! sense+ These are tem%ora! meme structures ,e ha$e "reated to ser$e our %ur%oses # $en "ond t ons at "erta n %o nts n t me and no matter ho, mu"h ,e emot ona!!' attach to su"h ssuesU no matter ho, !ar#e an nst tut on ma' (e"omeU no matter ho, man' %eo%!e ma' (e! e$e n su"h nst tut ons . the' are st !! impositions of thought and transient (' nature+ So* "om n# (a"7 to the "onte-t here o& the value system disorder, mar7et "a% ta! sm* ,h !e ar#ua(!' (e n# dee%!' de"ou%!ed &rom %h's "a! rea! t' and a root sour"e o& the $ast ma0or t' o& the so" a! ,oes n the ,or!d toda'* 7ee%s tse!& n %!a"e throu#h a set o& culturally reinforced values and power establishments u%on ,h "h the so" et' s u!t mate!' "ond t oned and #enera!!' n"! ned to de&end+ Th s s made n"reas n#!' %o,er&u! n ts %ersuas on s n"e the dom nant $a!ue s'stem d sorder at hand toda' s (orn out o& assum%t ons re!at n# to "r t "a! human survival tse!&+
DDH The ancer Stage of apitalism* 3ohn M"Murtr'* A!uto Aress* 2EEE* %+I DDI Genera! ( o#ra%h' o& I#na1 A+ Semme!,e s<

htt%<MMsemme!,e s+or#Ma(outMdr.semme!,e s.( o#ra%h'M 22I

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Characteristics of Patholog+ In order to "r t "a!!' e$a!uate an e- st n# &rame,or7 o& thou#ht* a (as "* mutua!!' a""e%ted (en"hmar7 needs to (e #enerated+ K/u!tura! re!at $ sm”DDF s an anthro%o!o# "a! not on that re&ers to the &a"t that d &&erent "u!tura! #rou%s #enerate d &&erent %er"e%t ons o& Ktruth” or Krea! t'”+ KMora! re!at $ sm”*DDG ,h "h s a s m !ar not on* has to do , th the $ar an"e o& ,hat s "ons dered K"orre"t” or Keth "a!”+ O$er the "ourse o& human h stor'* these d st n"t ons ha$e (e"ome n"reas n#!' narro, s n"e the scientific revolution o& "ausa! thou#ht* &rom the Rena ssan"e on,ard* has n"reas n#!' redu"ed the Kre!at $e nte#r t'” o& $ar ous (e! e&s+ The &a"t s* (e! e&s are not e)ual n the r $a! d t'+ Some are truer than others and hen"e some are more d's&un"t ona! than others n the "onte-t o& rea! ! &e+ The s" ent & " method o& arr $ n# at "on"!us ons s the u!t mate (en"hmar7 u%on ,h "h the nte#r t' o& human $a!ues "an (e measured and th s modern rea! t' dem'st & es the "ommon Kre!at $ sm” de&ense o& su(0e"t $e human (e! e&+ It s not a(out Kr #ht” and K,ron#” (ut ,hat wor#s or doesn0t wor#+ The nte#r t' o& our $a!ues and (e! e&s s on!' as #ood as ho, a! #ned the' are , th the natura! ,or!d+ Th s s the common ground that ,e a!! share+ Th s "on"e%t t es n d re"t!' , th susta na( ! t' n the (road "onte-t o& human sur$ $a! tse!&* as a susta na(!e so" a! s'stem natura!!' must ha$e sustainable values to &a" ! tate and %er%etuate the stru"ture+ Un&ortunate!'* the e$o!ut onar' (a##a#e o& our "u!tura! h stor' has ma nta ned $a!ue stru"tures that are so %o,er&u!* 'et so "!ear!' de"ou%!ed &rom rea! t'* ,h "h our %ersona! and so" eta! assum%t ons o& ha%% ness* su""ess and %ro#ress tse!& "ont nue to (e dee%!' %er$erted and e- st n d s"ordan"e , th the #o$ern n# !a,s o& our ha( tat and human nature+ The human (e n# ndeed has a common nature and ,h !e noth n# a%%ears 255> un $ersa! a"ross the s%e" es* "erta n %ressures and stressors "an #enerate* on a$era#e* ser ous %u(! " hea!th %ro(!ems+DDE L 7e, se* & our $a!ues su%%ort (eha$ ors that are not n a""ordan"e , th our physical sustainability on the %!anet Earth* then natura!!' ,e "an e-%e"t e$er. n"reas n# %ro(!ems on that en$ ronmenta! !e$e! as ,e!!+D65
DDF K/u!tura! re!at $ sm” s a %r n" %!e that ,as esta(! shed as a- omat " n

anthro%o!o# "a! resear"h (' Fran1 9oas n the & rst &e, de"ades o& the 45th "entur'+ DDG S m !ar to K"u!tura! re!at $ sm”* Kmora! re!at $ sm” s #enera!!' de& ned as< Kan' o& se$era! %h !oso%h "a! %os t ons "on"erned , th the d &&eren"es n mora! 0ud#ments a"ross d &&erent %eo%!e and "u!tures+” 8htt%s<MM,,,+(ound!ess+"omMmana#ementMde& n t onMmora!.re!at $ smM; DDE A!ease see the %r or essa' =efining Public >ealth D65 A #enera! e-am%!e ,ou!d (e the consumer values %re$a!ent n the ,or!d toda'+ The a"t o& n"reas n# o,nersh % s "ommon as more %ro%ert' s e)uated to n"reased su""ess and more "onsum%t on s re!ated to e"onom " #ro,th+ :et* su"h an un."onser$at $e eth " "an (e "ons dered un.susta na(!e # $en ,e ! $e on a finite planet , th finite resources+ In &a"t* t has (een ar#ued (' man' that the Kstandard o& ! $ n#” o& the Un ted States ,ou!d (e* 22F

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

The dom nant $a!ue s'stem* ,h "h the "a% ta! st so" oe"onom " mode! %er%etuates* s ar#ua(!' dee%!' pathological to the human "ond t on as the me"han sms re!ated to sur$ $a! and #enera! re,ard "om%ound emot ona! atta"hments and &orms o& se!&.%reser$at on ,h "h are essent a!!' rooted n a 7 nd o& primitive desperation and fear+ The &undamenta! ethos s that o& an ant .so" a!* s"ar" t' dr $en %ressure* ,h "h &or"es a!! %!a'ers o& the #ame to (e #enera!!' e-%!o tat $e and anta#on st " (oth o& others and the ha( tat+ It a!so has (u !t. n %ressures to a$o d so" a!!' eas n# nterests due to a resu!t n# !oss o& %ro& t*D62 &urther n# th s stress. ndu"ed emot ona! d s%ar t'+ The resu!t s a $ " ous "'"!e o& #enera! a(use* narro,.m nded se!& shness* and so" a! and en$ ronmenta! d sre#ard+ O& "ourse* h stor "a!!'* these "aust " "hara"ter st "s are usua!!' de&ended as s m%!' Kthe ,a' t s” . as thou#h our e$o!ut onar' %s'"ho!o#' must (e stu"7 n th s state+ In &a"t* & the touted %s'"ho!o# "a! do"tr nes o& trad t ona! mar7et theor' ho!d true 8Kneo"!ass "a! ut ! tar an sm”; re#ard n# our a%%arent ! m ts , th res%e"t to a K,or7a(!e” so" a! stru"ture* then m(a!an"e* en$ ronmenta! destru"t on* o%%ress on* $ o!en"e* t'rann'* %ersona! t' d sorders* ,ar&are* e-%!o tat on* se!& sh #reed* $a n mater a! sm* "om%et t on and other su"h d $ s $e* nhumane and desta( ! 1 n# rea! t es are s m%!' inalterable and there&ore the ,ho!e o& so" et' shou!d do noth n# (ut wor# around su"h ne$ ta( ! t es , th ,hate$er K"ontro!s” ,e "an %ut n %!a"e to Kmana#e” these rea! t es o& the human "ond t on+ It s as thou#h the human (e n# s deemed to ha$e a se$ere* n"ura(!e menta! d sorder J a & rm retardat on . that s m%!' "annot (e o$er"ome* so e$er'th n# n so" et' must (e a!tered around t n an attem%t to dea! , th t+ :et* the more ,e ! $e as human (e n#sU the more h stor' ,e are a(!e to see o& ourse!$es o$er #enerat ona! t meU the more ,e are a(!e to "om%are the (eha$ ors o& d &&erent "u!tures a"ross the ,or!d and a"ross h stor' J the more "!ear t (e"omes that our human "a%a" t' s (e n# inhibited d re"t!' (' an ar"ha " re,ard and sur$ $a! stru"ture ,h "h "ont nues to re n&or"e %r m t $e* des%erate $a!ues and ,h !e su"h $a!ues m #ht ha$e ser$ed a %os t $e e$o!ut onar' ro!e n the %ast* the %resent and &oreshado,ed &uture ar#ua(!' !a's these (eha$ ora! %atterns (are as detr menta! and unsusta na(!e* as th s o$era!! te-t has e-%ressed at !en#th+
n the "urrent s"heme o& th n#s* te"hn "a!!' m%oss (!e to e-tend to the rest o& the ,or!d+ A""ord n# to some sur$e's< KHuman t' s no, us n# resour"es and %rodu" n# "ar(on d o- de at a rate H5 %er"ent &aster than the Earth "an susta n+++” Sour"es< +iving Planet 'eport3 >umanity "ow "eeds ,*G Earths, 4525 8htt%<MM,,,+(us ness.( od $ers t'+euMde&au!t+as%R MenueS6E@Ne,sS4DD;U The Earth !s (ull* 4522 8htt%<MM,,,+n't mes+"omM4522M5IM5GMo% n onM5G&r edman+htm!; D62 It shou!d (e understood that the more %ro(!ems n the ,or!d* the more there s to ser$ "e and "a% ta! 1e u%on+ The more true %ro(!em reso!ut on* the !ess "a%a" t' there s to "a% ta! 1e and hen"e !ess to ma nta n or n"rease e"onom " #ro,th+ 22G

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Self-Preser/ation Paral+sis Wh !e ea"h o& us #enera!!' , shes to sur$ $e and do so n a hea!th' state* natura!!' %re%ared to de&end that sur$ $a! ,hen need (e* self$ preservation n the "urrent so" oe"onom " "ond t on unne"essar !' e-tends th s tenden"' n ,a's that se$ere!' nh ( t so" a! %ro#ress and %ro(!em reso!ut on+ In &a"t* t "ou!d (e sa d that th s short.term %reser$at on o""urs o&ten at the "ost o& long$term integrity* The most o($ ous e-am%!e o& th s has to do , th the &undamenta! nature o& see7 n# and ma nta n n# income, the ! &e(!ood o& the mar7et s'stem and* (' e-tens on* human sur$ $a!+ On"e a (us ness su""eeds n #a n n# mar7et share* t'% "a!!' su%%ort n# em%!o'ees a!on# , th the o,ners* the (us ness natura!!' #ra$ tates to an nterest to preserve that n"ome #enerat n# mar7et share at a!! "osts+ Dee% $a!ue asso" at ons are #enerated s n"e the (us ness s not 0ust an ar( trar' ent t' that %rodu"es a #ood or ser$ "e . t s no, a means o& life support &or e$er'one n$o!$ed+ The resu!t s a "onstant* so" a!!' de( ! tat n# (att!e* not on!' , th the "om%et tors ,ho a!so see7 the same "onsumer mar7et* (ut , th innovation and change tse!&+ Wh !e te"hno!o# "a! %ro#ress s a "onstant* &!u d %ro#ress on on the s" ent & " !e$e!* the mar7et e"onom' sees th s emer#en"e as a threat n the "onte-t o& e- st n#* "urrent!' %ro& ta(!e deas+ Vast !e$e!s o& h stor "a! K"orru%t on”* "arte! and mono%o!' #enerat on and other de&ens $e mo$es o& e- st n# (us nesses "an (e &ound throu#hout h stor'* ea"h a"t ,or7 n# to se"ure n"ome %rodu"t on re#ard!ess o& the so" a! "osts+D64 Another e-am%!e has to do , th the %s'"ho!o# "a! neuros s (u !t out o& the "red t.(ased re,ard n"ent $e nherent to the mar7et s'stem+ Wh !e t s nte!!e"tua!!' "!ear that no s n#!e %erson n$ents an'th n# # $en the rea! t' that a!! 7no,!ed#e s serially #enerated and n$ar a(!' cumulative o$er t me* the mar7et e"onom'?s "hara"ter st " o& Ko,nersh %” "reates a tenden"' not on!' to redu"e n&ormat on &!o, $ a %atents and Ktrade se"rets”* t a!so re n&or"es the dea o& K nte!!e"tua! %ro%ert'”* des% te the true &a!!a"' o& the not on tse!&+ On the $a!ue s'stem !e$e!* th s has mutated nto the not on o& K"red t” ent t!ement and hen"e o&ten Ke#o” asso" at ons to %resented deas or K n$ent ons”+ In the ,or!d toda'* th s %henomenon has ta7en a ! &e o& ts o,n , th a tenden"' &or man' ,ho "ontr (ute o&ten see7 n# status e!e$at n# K"red t” &or the dea* e$en thou#h the' are* a#a n* "!ear!' %art o& a "ont nuum !ar#er than themse!$es+ Wh !e a%%re" at on &or the t me and !a(or o& a # $en %erson ,or7 n# to,ards the %ro#ress o& an dea s a %rodu"t $e so" a! n"ent $e and &undamenta! to our sense o& %ur%ose n a"t on* the %er$ers on o& nte!!e"tua! o,nersh % and a!! ts "ontr $ed attr (utes e-tend th s o%erant sat s&a"t on nto d stort on+
D64 A ,e!!.esta(! shed e-am%!e o& nh ( ted %ro#ress &or the ma nta n n# o&

e- st n# %ro& t esta(! shments ,as the su""ess&u! e&&ort made (' the o ! ndustr' and* (' e-tens on* the US #o$ernment to s!o, %ro#ress to,ard &u!!' e!e"tr " $eh "!es n the 2EE5s+ Re&eren"e< 7ho 2illed the Electric arD 8htt%<MM,,,+ md(+"omMt t!eMtt56GE5DFMs'no%s s; 22E

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

In &a"t* on the !ar#est s"a!e o& 7no,!ed#e "u!m nat on* su"h a"ts o& Ka%%re" at on” ne$ ta(!' (e"ome rre!e$ant n the memor' o& h stor'+ Toda'* &or nstan"e* ,hen ,e use a modern "om%uter to ass st our ! $es* ,e se!dom th n7 a(out the thousands o& 'ears o& nte!!e"tua! stud' that d s"o$ered the "ore s" ent & " d'nam "s re!ated* nor the enormous amount o& "umu!at $e t me s%ent (' $ rtua!!' "ount!ess %eo%!e to &a" ! tate the K n$ent on” o& su"h a too!* n ts "urrent &orm+ It s on!' n the "onte-t o& manifest ego and monetary reward security that th s (e"omes a Knatura!” $a!ue ssue , th res%e"t to the mar7et s'stem+ I& %eo%!e do not "!a m K"red t”* the' , !! not (e re,arded and hen"e the' , !! not #a n sur$ $a! &rom that "ontr (ut on n the mar7et+ So* the "ond t on has "om%ounded th s neuros s that s n$ar a(!' st &! n# to,ards %ro#ress $ a the shar n# o& 7no,!ed#e+ Furthermore* d sorders asso" ated , th mar7et Kse!&. %reser$at on” "an ta7e man' other &orms* n"!ud n# the use o& #o$ernment as a too!*D6D the %o!!ut on o& a"adem a and n&ormat on tse!&D66 8s n"e edu"at ona! nst tut ons are su%%orted (' n"ome as ,e!!;* and e$en "ommon nter%ersona! re!at onsh %s+D6H The &ear nherent to the !oss o& ! $e! hood natura!!' o$err des a!most e$er'th n# and e$en the most Keth "a!” or Kmora!” %erson* ,hen &a"ed , th the r s7 o& non.sur$ $a!* "an usua!!' 0ust &' a"t ons that ,ou!d (e trad t ona!!' "a!!ed K"orru%t”+ Th s %ressure s "onstant and s the sour"e* n %art* o& the $ast "o."a!!ed K"r m na! t'” and so" a! %ara!'s s ,e see toda'+ Com,etition@ E=,loitation and Class Warfare 9u !d n# on the %r or %o nt* e-%!o tat on* ,h "h s nherent to the "om%et t $e &rame o& m nd* has %ermeated the $er' "ore o& ,hat t means to Ksu""eed” n #enera!+ We see th s Kta7 n# ad$anta#e” rhetor " n man' &a"ets o& our ! $es+ The a"t o& man %u!at on and e-%!o tat on &or "om%et t $e #a n has (e"ome an under!' n# &or"e n modern "u!ture* e-tend n# &ar (e'ond the "onte-t o& the mar7et s'stem+ The att tude o& see n# others and the ,or!d as mere!' a means &or onese!& or a %art "u!ar #rou% to K"on)uer” and 7ee% ahead o& s no,
D6D /or%orate !o((' n#* (' ts $er' nature* s a means to use mone' to

n&!uen"e %o! t "a! de" s ons+ Re&eren"e< orporate +obbyists Threaten =emocracy* 3u! o Godo'* IAS< 8htt%<MM,,,+ %sne,s+netM4524M5GM"or%orate. !o((' sts.threaten.demo"ra"'M; D66 A un )ue e-am%!e o& th s ,as the 455F "ase n ,h "h M "roso&t /or%orat on* d ssat s& ed , th the n&ormat on on the %u(! " en"'"!o%ed a KW 7 %ed a” ,or7ed to h re an ed tor to "han#e the %u(! " n&ormat on n the r &a$or+ Re&eren"e< Microsoft <ffers ash for 7i#ipedia Edit 8htt%<MM,,,+,ash n#ton%ost+"omM,%. d'nM"ontentMart "!eM455FM52M4DMAR455F524D5254H+htm!; D6H A stud' (' a /onne"t "ut ,ea!th mana#ement & rm sho,ed that man' ,ou!d #et marr ed s m%!' &or mone'* , th the a$era#e W%r "eN that %eo%!e ,ou!d marr' &or (e n# around b2+H m !! on+ Re&eren"e< Survey3 Most People 7ould Marry (or Money, Tom M !!er 8htt%<MM,,,+'ourtan#o+"omM455F4FFGMsur$e'.most.%eo%!e.,ou!d.marr'. &or.mone'; 245

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

a dr $ n# %s'"ho!o# "a! d stort on to (e &ound n romant " re!at onsh %s* &r endsh %s* &am !' stru"tures* nat ona! sm and e$en ho, ,e re!ate to the ha( tat ,e e- st , th n . ,here ,e see7 to e-%!o t and d sre#ard the %h's "a! en$ ronment?s resour"es &or short term %ersona! #a n and ad$anta#e+ A!! e!ements o& our ! $es are ne"essar !' $ e,ed &rom the %ers%e"t $e o& K,hat "an I #et out o& t %ersona!!'R” A stud' %er&ormed at the De%artment o& As'"ho!o#' at the Un $ers t' o& /a! &orn a* 9er7e!e'* n 4522 &ound that< K+++u%%er."!ass nd $ dua!s (eha$e more uneth "a!!' than !o,er."!ass nd $ dua!s+++u%%er."!ass nd $ dua!s ,ere more ! 7e!' to (rea7 the !a, ,h !e dr $ n#* re!at $e to !o,er."!ass nd $ dua!s+ In &o!!o,.u% !a(orator' stud es* u%%er."!ass nd $ dua!s ,ere more ! 7e!' to e-h ( t uneth "a! de" s on.ma7 n# tenden" es* ta7e $a!ued #oods &rom others* ! e n a ne#ot at on* "heat to n"rease the r "han"es o& , nn n# a %r 1e* and endorse uneth "a! (eha$ or at ,or7 than ,ere !o,er."!ass nd $ dua!s+ Med ator and moderator data demonstrated that u%%er. "!ass nd $ dua!sN uneth "a! tenden" es are a""ounted &or* n %art* (' the r more &a$ora(!e att tudes to,ard #reed+”D6I Stud es o& th s nature are $er' nterest n# as the' re$ea! that the "ommon human nature ar#ument n ts e-treme "onte-t* that o& %eo%!e ne$ ta(!' K(e n# "om%et t $e and e-%!o tat $e”* ,hen de&end n# the "urrent so" a! s'stem* s ('%assed+ /!ass re!at onsh %s are not #enet " re!at onsh %s* e$en thou#h the nuan"es o& nd $ dua! %ro%ens t es "ou!d (e ar#ued+ Th s stud' e-%resses a "u!tura! %henomenon o$era!! s n"e t s a- omat " to assume that the #enera! att tude o& d sre#ard &or e-terna! ne#at $e "onse)uen"es* or so."a!!ed Tuneth "a! (eha$ orT e-%ressed (' the u%%er "!ass* s a resu!t o& the t'%e o& values needed to a"h e$e the %os t on o& a"tua!!' ma7 n# t to the Ku%%er "!ass”+D6F In "ommon %oet " rhetor "* th s ntu t on has he!d true &or "entur es* , th the o(ser$at on that those ,ho a"h e$e Ksu""ess” n the (us ness sense* are o&ten Kdesens t 1ed” and Kruth!ess”+ There a%%ears to (e a #enera! loss of empathy (' those ,ho a"h e$e su"h Ksu""ess” and t s ntu t $e!' o($ ous ,h' th s s the "ase* # $en the $a!ue s'stem d sorder o& competitive disregard nherent to the mar7et s'stem %s'"ho!o#'+ O$era!!* the more "ar n# and em%ath " 'ou are* the !ess ! 7e!' 'ou are to su""eed & nan" a!!' . no d &&erent &rom a #enera! s%ort ,here 'ou are not #o n# to he!% an o%%os n# %!a'er a"h e$e the r #oa!s &or t means 'ou are more ! 7e!' to !ose+ O$era!!* the !o,er "!asses are &ound to (e more so" a!!' humane n man' ,a's+ For e-am%!e* t has a!so (een &ound that the %oor # $e a h #her %er"enta#e o& the r n"ome 86+D>; to "har t' than r "h %eo%!e
D6I Re&eren"e< >igher social class predicts increased unethical behavior, A &&a*

Stan"atoa* /dtB(* Mendo1a.Dentona* Da"her Ce!tnera* Un $ers t' o& M "h #an* 4524 8htt%<MM,,,+%nas+or#M"ontentMear!'M4524M54M42M222GDFD25E; D6F Re&eren"e< KHo, Wea!th Redu"es /om%ass on”* Da s' Gre,a!* Scientific 4merican, 4524 8htt%<MM,,,+s" ent & "amer "an+"omMart "!e+"&mR dSho,. ,ea!th.redu"es."om%ass on; 242

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

84+2>;+ A 4525 stud' &ound that< K+++!o,er "!ass nd $ dua!s %ro$ed to (e more #enerous+++"har ta(!e+++trust n#+++and he!%&u!+++"om%ared , th the r u%%er "!ass "ounter%arts+ Med ator and moderator data sho,ed that !o,er "!ass nd $ dua!s a"ted n a more %roso" a! &ash on (e"ause o& a #reater "omm tment to e#a! tar an $a!ues and &ee! n#s o& "om%ass on+ Im%! "at ons &or so" a! "!ass* %roso" a! (eha$ or* and e"onom " ne)ua! t' are d s"ussed+”D6G D6E A stud' "ondu"ted (' the hronicle of Philanthropy us n# ta-. dedu"t on data &rom the Interna! Re$enue Ser$ "e* sho,ed that househo!ds earn n# (et,een bH5*555 and bFH*555 'ear # $e an a$era#e o& F+I> o& the r d s"ret onar' n"ome to "har t'+ That "om%ares to 6+4> &or %eo%!e ,ho ma7e b255*555 or more+ In some o& the ,ea!th est ne #h(orhoods* , th a !ar#e share o& %eo%!e ma7 n# b455*555 or more a 'ear* the a$era#e # $ n# rate ,as 4+G>+DH5 DH2 Success . Status Under!' n# the "a% ta! st mode! s an m%! ed assum%t on that those ,ho "ontr (ute the most must #a n the most+ In other ,ords* t s assumed that to (e"ome sa'* a ( !! ona re* 'ou must ha$e done someth n# m%ortant and he!%&u! &or so" et'+ O& "ourse* th s s "!ear!' untrue+ The $ast ma0or t' o& e-treme!' ,ea!th' %eo%!e or # nate the r ,ea!th out o& me"han sms that are not so" a!!' "ontr (ut $e on an' d re"t* "reat $e !e$e! ,hen (ro7en do,n and ana!'1ed+DH4 The a"t o& en# neer n#* %ro(!em so!$ n# and "reat $e nno$at on a!most a!,a's o""urs on the !e$e! o& the !a(orer n the !o,er e"he!ons o& the "or%orate "om%!e-* on!' to (e "a% ta! 1ed u%on (' those at the to% 8o,ners; ,ho are s7 !!ed at the "ontr $ed #ame o& #enerat n# a Kmar7et”+ Th s s not to d s"ount the nte!! #en"e or hard ,or7 o& those ,ho ho!d $ast ,ea!th* (ut to sho, that the re,ards o& the s'stem are d s%!a"ed* a!!o"ated to those ,ho exploit the me"han sms o& the mar7et* not those ,ho actually en# neer and "reate+ In &a"t* one o& the most re,arded se"tors o& the #!o(a! e"onom' toda' s that o& n$estment and & nan"e+DHD Th s s a "!ass " e-am%!e as to (e a Khed#e &und” mana#er* mo$ n# mone' around &or the mere sa7e or #a n n#
D6G Sour"e< KHa$ n# Less* G $ n# More< The In&!uen"e o& So" a! /!ass on

Aroso" a! 9eha$ or”* &ournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4525* Vo!+ EE* No+ H* FF2JFG6* 4524 8htt%<MM,,,+rotman+utoronto+"aM%hdM& !eMA &&eta!+%d&; D6E Sour"e< Study3 Poor 4re More haritable Than The 7ealthy, NAR* 4524 8htt%<MM,,,+n%r+or#Mtem%!atesMstor'Mstor'+%h%Rstor'IdS24E5IG462; DH5 Re&eren"e< The 'ich 4re +ess haritable Than the Middle lass3 Study* /N9/* 4524 8htt%<MM,,,+"n("+"omM dM6GF4H26F; DH2 Re&eren"e< KAmer "a?s %oor are ts most #enerous # $ers”* Fran7 Gre$eMM"/Lat"h' ana!'s s* 455E 8htt%<MM,,,+m""!at"h'd"+"omM455EM5HM2EMIG6HIMamer "as.%oor.are. ts. most.#enerous+htm!; DH4 Re&eren"e< The Engineers and the Price System* Thorste n Ve(!en* 2E42 DHD Re&eren"e< KThe 65 H #hest.Earn n# Hed#e Fund Mana#ers”* Nathan Vard * (orbes 8htt%<MM,,,+&or(es+"omMs tesMnathan$ard M4524M5DM52Mthe.65. h #hest.earn n#.hed#e.&und.mana#ers.DM; 244

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

more mone'* , th 1ero "ontr (ut on to "reat $e de$e!o%ment*DH6 s one o& the h #hest %a d o""u%at ons n the ,or!d toda'+ L 7e, se* the $er' not on o& Ksu""ess” n the "u!ture toda' s measured (' mater a! ,ea!th* n and o& tse!&+ Fame* %o,er and other #estures o& attent on #o hand n hand , th mater a! ,ea!th+ To (e %oor s to (e a(horred* ,h !e to (e r "h s to (e adm red+ A"ross a!most the ent re so" a! s%e"trum* those o& h #h !e$e!s o& ,ea!th are treated , th mmense res%e"t+ Aart o& th s has to do , th a s'stem.or ented sur$ $a! me"han sm* su"h as the %ersona! nterest n #a n n# ns #ht nto ho, to also (e"ome su"h a Ksu""ess” . (ut o$era!! t has mor%hed nto a stran#e &et sh ,here the dea o& (e n# r "h* %o,er&u! and &amous* (' ,hate$er means ne"essar'* s a #u d n# &or"e+ The $a!ue s'stem d sorder o& re,ard n#* n e&&e"t* #enera!!' the most ruth!ess and se!& sh n our so" et'* (oth (' & nan" a! means and then (' %u(! " adorat on and res%e"t* s one o& the most %er$as $e and ns d ous "onse)uen"es o& the n"ent $e s'stem nherent to the /a% ta! st mode!+ It not on!' ,or7s to ('%ass true nterests n t'%es o& nno$at on and %ro(!em.so!$ n# ,h "h nherent!' do not ha$e monetar' return* t a!so re n&or"es the mar7et s'stem?s own existence* 0ust &' n# tse!& (' ,a' o& h #h status atta nment &or those ,ho K, n” n the s'stem* re#ard!ess o& true "ontr (ut on or the so" a! and en$ ronmenta! "osts+ So" o!o# st Thorste n Ve(!en ,rote e-tens $e!' on th s ssue* re&err n# to th s $a!ue K$ rtue” as predatory< KAs the %redator' "u!ture rea"hes a &u!!er de$e!o%ment* there "omes a d st n"t on (et,een em%!o'ments+++The Khonora(!e” man must not on!' sho, "a%a" t' &or %redator' e-%!o t* (ut he must a!so a$o d entan#!ement , th o""u%at ons that do not n$o!$e e-%!o t+ The tame em%!o'ments* those that n$o!$e no o($ ous destru"t on o& ! &e and no s%e"ta"u!ar "oer" on o& re&ra"tor' anta#on sts* &a!! nto d sre%ute and are re!e#ated to those mem(ers o& the "ommun t' ,ho are de&e"t $e n the %redator' "a%a" t'U that s to sa'* those ,ho are !a"7 n# mass $eness* a# ! t'* or &ero" t'+++There&ore the a(!e.(od ed (ar(ar an o& the %redator' "u!ture* ,ho s m nd&u! o& h s #ood name+++%uts n h s t me n the man!' arts o& ,ar and de$otes h s ta!ents to de$ s n# ,a's and means o& d stur( n# the %ea"e+ That ,a' ! es honor+”DHH W !! am Thom%son* n h s 4n !n)uiry into the Principles of the =istribution of 7ealth Most onducive to >uman >appiness restates the rea! t' o& th s asso" at $e n&!uen"e<
DH6 There s a "ommon ar#ument that the & nan" a! se"tor s re!e$ant to

ndustr a! %rodu"t on (e"ause t &a" ! tates the "a% ta! (' ,h "h %rodu"t on s or # nated (' n$estment+ Ho,e$er* that &a" ! tat on s a "ontr $an"e s n"e the a"t o& %rodu"t on n %h's "a! rea! t'* a(sent the /a% ta! st mode!* has noth n# to do , th mone' or n$estment at a!! J t has to do , th edu"at on* resour"es and en# neer n#+ In$estment and & nan"e s not real as t does not %rodu"e . t s not needed , th res%e"t to the rea! "om%onents o& %rodu"t on+ DHH KThe Inst n"t o& Wor7mansh % and the Ir7someness o& La(or*” n Essays in <ur hanging <rder* Thorste n Ve(!en* %%+ED.E6 24D

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

KOur ne-t %os t on s* that e-"ess $e ,ea!th excites the admiration and the imitation, and in this way diffuses the practice of the vices of the rich, amongst the rest of the communityL or produces in them other vices arising out of their relative situation to the excessively rich* On th s %o nt* noth n# s more o($ ous than the un $ersa! o%erat on o& the most "ommon %r n" %!e o& our nature J that o& asso" at on+ The ,ea!th* as a means o& ha%% ness+++ s adm red or en$ ed (' a!!U the manner and "hara"ter "onne"ted , th the a(undan"e o& these #ood th n#s* a!,a's str 7e the m nd n "on0un"t on , th them+++”DHI /!asses and "!ass ,ar&are are a natura! out#ro,th o& th s as the $a!ue asso" at ons to ,ea!th and %o,er* man &est (' the "urrent s'stem* (e"ome an ssue o& emotional identity o$er t me+ The status. nterest (e# ns to ta7e on a ! &e o& ts o,n and t #enerates a"t ons o& se!&.%reser$at on on the %art o& the u%%er "!ass that see7 to ma nta n 8or e!e$ate; the r status n ,a's that m #ht not e$en re!ate to mone' or mater a! ,ea!th an'more+ Se!&.%reser$at on* n th s "ase* e-tends to a 7 nd o& drug addiction+ 3ust as a "hron " #am(!er needs the endor%h n rush o& , nn n# to &ee! #ood* those n the u%%er "!ass o&ten de$e!o% s m !ar "om%u!s ons n re!at onsh % to the state o& the r %er"e $ed status and ,ea!th+ The term K#reed” s o&ten used to d &&erent ate (et,een those ,ho e-%!o t modest!' and those ,ho e-%!o t e-"ess $e!'+ Greed s hen"e a re!at $e not on* 0ust as (e n# Kr "h” s a re!at $e not on+ The term Kre!at $e de%r $at on”DHF re&ers to the d s"ontent %eo%!e &ee! ,hen the' "om%are the r %os t ons to others and rea! 1e that the' ha$e !ess o& ,hat the' believe themse!$es to (e ent t!ed to+ Th s %s'"ho!o# "a! %henomenon 7no,s no end and , th n the "onte-t o& the mater a! su""ess n"ent $e s'stem o& "a% ta! sm* ts %resen"e as a se$ere $a!ue s'stem d sorder s a%%arent on the !e$e! o& menta! hea!th+ Wh !e ma nta n n# a needs meet n#* )ua! t' standard o& ! $ n# s m%ortant &or %h's "a! and menta! hea!th* an'th n# (e'ond that (a!an"e n the "onte-t o& so" a! "om%ar son has the "a%a" t' to "reate se$ere neuros s and so" a! d stort on+ Not on!' s there no K, nn n#” n the end ,hen t "omes to the su(0e"t $e %er"e%t on o& status and ,ea!th* t o&ten ser$es to decouple those & #ures &rom the ma0or t' o& the human e-%er en"e* #enerat n# a! enat on and dehuman 1at on n man' ,a's+ Th s em%ath " !oss has no %os t $e out"ome on the so" a! !e$e!+ The %redator' re,ard $a!ues nherent to the mar7et s'stem $ rtua!!' #uarantee end!ess "on&! "t and a(use+DHG O& "ourse* the m'th s that th s neuros s o& see7 n# Kmore and more” status and ,ea!th s the "ore dr $er o& so" a! %ro#ress and
DHI Sour"e< 4n !n)uiry into the Principles of the =istribution of 7ealth Most

onducive to >uman >appiness* W !! am Thom%son* London* W !! am S+ Orr* 2GH5* %+26F DHF Sour"e< 'elative =eprivation3 Specification, =evelopment, and !ntegration* Ia n Wa!7er* Heather 3+ Sm th* /am(r d#e Un $ers t' Aress* 4552* IS9N 5. H42.G52D4.L* Goo#!e Ar nt DHG More n the essa'< Structural lassism, the State and 7ar 246

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

nno$at on+ Wh !e there m #ht (e some (as " truth to th s ntu t $e assum%t on* the ntent* a#a n* s not so" a! "ontr (ut on (ut advantage and financial gain+ It s ! 7e sa' n# (e n# "hased (' a %a"7 o& hun#r' ,o!$es read' to eat 'ou s #ood &or 'our hea!th s n"e t s 7ee% n# 'ou runn n#+ Wh !e "erta n a""om%! shments are "!ear!' o""urr n#* the #u d n# &or"e 8 ntent; a#a n has ! tt!e to do , th those a""om%! shments and the detr menta! ('%rodu"ts and !ar#er.order %ara!'s s nherent nu!! & es n "om%ar son the dea that the $a!ues o& "om%et t on* mater a! #reed and $a n status s a !e# t mate sour"e o& so" eta! %ro#ress+ In &a"t* e% dem o!o# st R "hard W !7 nson has e-tra%o!ated a "om%ar son o& ,ea!th' nat ons or ented (' the n"ome d s%ar t' %resent n ea"h %o%u!at on+ It ,as &ound that those nat ons , th the !east n"ome d s%ar t' a"tua!!' ,ere more nno$at $eDHE and ,hen ,e "ons der that the "om%et t $e $a!ue dr $e has a !ar#e ro!e , th res%e"t to ho, se$ere the #a% (et,een the r "h and %oor s* t s a- omat " to "ons der that the $a!ues o& e#a! tar an sm and "o!!a(orat on ha$e more "reat $e %o,er than the trad t ona! e"onom " n"ent $e rhetor " ,ou!d "!a m+ As a & na! %o nt n th s su(se"t on* the su(0e"t o& mater a! sm and status "an (e e-tended to the s m !ar ssue o& vanity as ,e!!+ Wh !e a m !d de$ at on &rom our %o nt* the $an t'.(ased "u!ture ,e ha$e toda' & nds a d re"t re!at onsh % to these dr $es &or status and measures o& Ksu""ess” rooted n the %s'"ho!o# "a! $a!ue n"ent $es nherent to the "a% ta! st s'stem+ G $en that the $a!ue s'stem o& Ka")u s t on” s* n &a"t* necessary &or the "onsum%t on mode! to ,or7* t s on!' natura! that mar7et n# and ad$ert s n# #enerate dissatisfaction "ont nua!!'* n"!ud n# n the ,a' ,e &ee! a(out our %h's "a! a%%earan"e+ In &a"t* a stud' ,as "ondu"ted some 'ears a#o on the s!and o& F 0 * n ,h "h Western te!e$ s on ,as ntrodu"ed to a "u!ture that had ne$er e-%er en"ed the med um (e&ore+ 9' the end o& the o(ser$at on %er od* the e&&e"t o& mater a! st " $a!ues and $an t' too7 a %o,er&u! to!!+ A re!e$ant %er"enta#e o& 'oun# ,omen* &or e-am%!e* ,ho %r or had em(ra"ed the st'!e o& hea!th' ,e #ht and &u!! &eatures* (e"ame o(sessed , th (e n# th n+ Eat n# d sorders* ,h "h ,ere $ rtua!!' unheard o& n th s "u!ture* (e#an to s%read and ,omen s%e" & "a!!' ,ere trans&ormed+DI5 $deological PolariAation . *lame When the su(0e"t o& ,hat has K#one ,ron#” , th the ,or!d toda' s (roa"hed . # $en the %o$ert'* e"o!o# "a! m(a!an"e* nhuman t'* #enera! e"onom " desta( ! 1at on and the ! 7e . a %o!ar 1ed de(ate o&ten ensues+ Dua! t es su"h as Kthe r #ht or the !e&t” or K! (era! or
DHE Re&eren"e< KThe Im%ortan"e o& E"onom " E)ua! t'”* E(en Harre!!* Time,

BCCFL A!so See< The Spirit +evel (' R "hard W !7 nson and Cate A "7ett* Aen#u n* Mar"h 455E DI5 KStud' F nds TV A!ters F 0 G r!s? V e, o& 9od'”* Er "a Goode* The "ew 6or# Times* 2EEE 8htt%<MM,,,+n't mes+"omM2EEEM5HM45M,or!dMstud'.& nds.t$.a!ters.& 0 .# r!s. $ e,.o&.(od'+htm!; 24H

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

"onser$at $e” are "ommon* m%!' n# that n the ran#e o& human "om%rehens on and %re&eren"e* there s a r # d #u d n# ! ne that em(od es a!! 7no,n %oss ( ! t es+ Aa red , th th s s a!so the o!der* 'et st !! "ommon dua! t' o& K"o!!e"t $ sm $s+ &ree mar7et”+ In short* th s dua! t' assumes that a!! o%t ons o& e"onom " %re&eren"e must adhere to the dea that so" et' shou!d e ther (e (ased on the su%%osed demo"rat " , !! o& a!! the %eo%!e n the &orm o& K&ree.trade” J or that a sma!! #rou% o& %eo%!e shou!d (e n "ontro! and te!! e$er'one e!se ,hat to do+ Due to the dar7 h stor' o& tota! tar an sm that %!a#ued the 45th "entur'* a &ear (ased $a!ue or entat on* ,h "h re0e"ts an'th n# that e$en remote!' h nts at the a%%earan"e o& K"o!!e"t $ sm”* s e-treme!' "ommon toda'* , th the re!ated ,ord Kso" a! sm” o&ten used n a dero#ator' ,a'+DI2 As noted %r or n th s essa'* %eo%!e?s sense o& %oss ( ! t' s d re"t!' re!ated to the r 7no,!ed#e . ,hat the' ha$e !earned+ I& trad t ona! edu"at ona! and so" a! nst tut ons %resent a!! so" oe"onom " $ar at on , th n the "on& nes o& su"h (o-ed frames of reference* %eo%!e , !! ! 7e!' m rror th s assum%t on 8meme; and %er%etuate t n thou#ht and %ra"t "e+ I& 'ou are not Ka("”* then 'ou must (e K-'1” . th s s the "ommon thought meme* E$en the %o! t "a! esta(! shment o& the Un ted States e- sts n th s %arad #m* &or & 'ou are not a Kre%u(! "an”* 'ou must (e a ”demo"rat”* et"+ In other ,ords* there s a d re"t nh ( t on o& %oss ( ! t' and* n th s "onte-t* t o&ten man &ests a $a!ue stru"ture that (u !ds emot ona! atta"hments to &a!se dua! t es+ These $a!ues are e-treme (arr ers to %ro#ress toda' on man' !e$e!s+ In &a"t* as an as de* & the ntent on o& a ru! n# "!ass ,ere to ! m t an' nter&eren"e &rom the !o,er "!asses* the' ,ou!d %rote"t $e!' ,or7 to ! m t %eo%!e?s sense o& %oss ( ! t'+DI4 For e-am%!e* the su%%osed %ro(!em o& Kstate nter$ent on” o& the &ree.mar7et* a "onstant theme o& "a% ta! st a%o!o# sts* essent a!!' sa's that s n"e $ar ous %o! " es and %ra"t "es o& the #o$ernment ! m t &ree trade n some ,a'*DID th s s the sour"e o& the %ro(!em #enerat n# mar7et ne&& " en"'+ Th s (!ame #ame a"tua!!' #oes (a"7 and &orth (et,een those ,ho "!a m t s the mar7et that s the %ro(!em and those ,ho "!a m t s the state?s nter&eren"e , th the mar7et+DI6
DI2 Re&eren"e< KAat Ro(ertson< O(ama A ?So" a! st*? Wants To ?Destro'? The

Un ted States”* Aa #e La$ender* The >uffington Post* 4524* 8htt%<MM,,,+hu&& n#ton%ost+"omM4524M24M26M%at.ro(ertson. o(amaVnV4D5244G+htm!; DI4 Mu"h "ontro$ers' has e- sted , th res%e"t to "ont nua! de"! ne o& Western edu"at on* s%e" & "a!!' n Amer "a+ /har!otte Thomson Iser('t* &ormer Sen or Ao! "' Ad$ sor n the U+S+ De%artment o& Edu"at on* has ,r tten a(out ,hat she "a!!s The =eliberate =umbing =own of 4merica, /ons" en"e Aress* 2EEE DID Re&eren"e< 'onald 'eagan3 Protectionist* She!don L+ R "hman* 2EGG 8htt%s<MMm ses+or#M&reemar7etVdeta !+as%-R"ontro!S6GE; DI6 A nota(!e statement (' the &amous e"onom st M !ton Fr edman on th s ssue< KGo$ernment has three %r mar' &un"t ons+ It shou!d %ro$ de &or m ! tar' de&ense o& the nat on+ It shou!d en&or"e "ontra"ts (et,een nd $ dua!s+ It shou!d %rote"t " t 1ens &rom "r mes a#a nst themse!$es or the r %ro%ert'+ When #o$ernment . n %ursu t o& #ood ntent ons tr es to 24I

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

What sn?t ta!7ed a(out s the dua! t'.shatter n# rea! t' that the state* n ts h stor "a! &orm* is an extension of the "a% ta! st s'stem tse!&+ The #o$ernment d d not "reate th s s'stem+ The s'stem "reated the #o$ernment or more a""urate!' . the' e$o!$ed as one a%%aratus+ A!! so" oe"onom " s'stems root themse!$es n the (as s o& ndustr a! un&o!d n# and (as " sur$ $a!+ 3ust as &euda! sm* (e n# (ased on an a#rar an so" et'* or ented ts "!ass stru"ture n re!at onsh %s to the ! $e! hood.%rodu" n# !and* so do the so."a!!ed Kdemo"ra" es” n the ,or!d toda'+ There&ore* the $er' dea the state #o$ernment s deta"hed or , thout the n&!uen"e o& "a% ta! sm s a %ure!' a(stra"t theor' , th no truth n rea! t'+ /a% ta! sm essent a!!' molded the #o$ernmenta! a%%aratus?s nature and un&o!d n# J not the other ,a' around+ So* ,hen %eo%!e ar#ue that #o$ernment re#u!at on o& the mar7et s the root o& the %ro(!em and that the mar7et shou!d (e K&ree” , thout stru"tura! or !e#a! nh ( t on* the' are "on&used n the r asso" at $e understand n#+ The ent re !e#a! s'stem* ,h "h s the "entra! too! o& #o$ernment* , !! always (e K n& !trated” and used to ass st n "om%et t $e ta"t "s (' (us ness to ma nta n and n"rease ad$anta#e s n"e that s the $er' nature o& the #ame+ To e-%e"t an'th n# e!se s to assume that there are a"tua!!' Kmora!” ! m ts to the a"t o& "om%et t on+ :et* th s s "om%!ete!' su(0e"t $e+ Su"h mora! and eth "a! assum%t ons ha$e no em% r "a! (as s* es%e" a!!' ,hen the $er' nature o& the so" oe"onom " s'stem s or ented around %o,er* e-%!o tat on and "om%et t on . a!! "ons dered to (e* n &a"t* ideal virtues o& the K#ood (us nessman”* as noted (e&ore+ I& a %ro& t see7 n# nst tut on "an #a n %o,er n the #o$ernment 8,h "h s the e-a"t ntent o& K"or%orate !o((' n#”; and man %u!ate the #o$ernmenta! a%%aratus to &a$or the r (us ness or ndustr' to #a n ad$anta#e* then that s s m%!' good business* It s on!' ,hen the "om%et t $e atta"7s rea"h %ea7 !e$e!s o& un&a rness that a"t on s ta7en to %reser$e the !!us on o& K(a!an"e”+ We see th s , th ant .trust !a,s and the ! 7e+DIH These !a,s are* n rea! t'* not to %rote"t K&ree.trade” or the ! 7e J (ut to sett!e e-treme a"ts o& "om%et t $e ntent nherent n the mar7et %!a"e* , th a!! s des 0o"7e' n# &or ad$anta#e (' ,hate$er means %oss (!e+DII
rearran#e the e"onom'* !e# s!ate mora! t'* or he!% s%e" a! nterests* the "osts "ome n ne&& " en"'* !a"7 o& mot $at on* and !oss o& &reedom+ Go$ernment shou!d (e a re&eree* not an a"t $e %!a'er+” DIH E$en Adam Sm th n h s ,r t n#s m%! es that (us nessmen use e$er' means at the r d s%osa! to a$o d "om%et t on and to se"ure mono%o! es< TAeo%!e o& the same trade se!dom meet to#ether* e$en &or merr ment and d $ers on* (ut the "on$ersat on ends n a "ons% ra"' a#a nst the %u(! "* or n some "ontr $an"e to ra se %r "es+” Re&eren"e< 4n !n)uiry into the "ature and auses of the 7ealth of "ations* Adam Sm th* Ne, :or7* Modern L (rar'* 2EDF %+ 24G DII E"onom st Thomas Hod#s7 n ,rote n the ear!' 2Eth "entur'< KIt s not enou#h* n the e'es o& !e# s!ators* that ,ea!th has o& tse!& a thousand "harms* (ut the' ha$eX+++Y# $en t a mu!t tude o& %r $ !e#es+ In &a"t* t has no, usur%ed a!! the %o,er o& !e# s!at on* and most %ena! !a,s are no, made 24F

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

E$en the $er' "onst tuents o& a!! #o$ernments n the ,or!d toda' are n$ar a(!' o& the "or%orate.(us ness "!ass+ Hen"e* dee% (us ness $a!ues are "!ear!' nherent n the m ndsets o& those n %o,er+ Thorste n Ve(!en ,rote o& th s rea! t' n the ear!' 45th "entur'< KThe res%ons (!e o&& " a!s and the r "h e& adm n strat $e o&& "ers . so mu"h as ma' at a!! reasona(!' (e "a!!ed the K#o$ernment” or the Kadm n strat on” . are n$ar a(!' and "hara"ter st "a!!' dra,n &rom these (ene& " ar' "!assesU no(!es* #ent!eman or (us ness men* ,h "h a!! "ome to the same th n# &or the %ur%ose n handU the %o nt o& t a!! (e n# that the "ommon man does not "ome , th n these %re" n"ts and does not share n these "ounse!s that are assumed to #u de the dest n' o& the nat ons+” DIF So* to ar#ue that the K&ree mar7et” s not K&ree” due to nter$ent on s to m sunderstand ,hat the nature o& K&ree” rea!!' means , th res%e"t to the s'stem+ The K&reedom” s not the &reedom o& e$er'one to (e a(!e to K&a r!'” %art " %ate n the o%en.mar7et and a!! the uto% an rhetor " ,e hear a(out toda' (' a%o!o# sts o& the "a% ta! st s'stem J the real freedom s a"tua!!' the &reedom to dom nate* su%%ress and (eat other (us nesses (' ,hate$er "om%et t $e means %oss (!e+ In th s* no K!e$e! %!a' n# & e!d” s %oss (!e+ In &a"t* & the #o$ernment d d not K nter&ere” (' ,a' o& mono%o!'Mant .trust !a,s or the K(a ! n# out” o& (an7s and the ! 7e . the ent re mar7et "om%!e,ou!d ha$e se!&.destru"ted a !on# t me a#o+ In %art* th s nherent nsta( ! t' o& the mar7et s ,hat e"onom sts ! 7e 3ohn Ma'nard Ce'nes (as "a!!' understood* (ut ar#ua(!' to a ! m ted e-tent+DIG $ndi/idualit+ . Freedom A!! too o&ten %eo%!e s%ea7 o& K&reedom” n a ,a' that s more o& an ndes"r (a(!e #esture than a tan# (!e " r"umstan"e+ We hear th s rhetor " n the %o! t "a! and e"onom " esta(! shments "onstant!' toda' ,here asso" at ons o& Kdemo"ra"'” are made to th s K&reedom”* (oth on the !e$e! o& the trad t ona! %ra"t "e o& $ot n# and the mo$ement o& mone' tse!& $ a nde%endent &ree trade+ These so" o%o! t "a! memes are a!so re n&or"ed n a %o!ar 1ed ,a'* re!at $e!'* ,h "h o&ten uses
&or the mere %rote"t on o& ,ea!th+” Sour"e< Travels in the "orth of ?ermany, =escribing the Present State of Social and Political !nstitutions, the 4griculture, Manufactures, ommerce, Education, 4rts and Manners in That ountry, Particularly in the 2ingdom of >anover* Thomas Hod#s7 n* T+ Ed n(ur#h* Ar"h (a!d /onsta(!e* 2G45* $o!+ 4* %+ 44G DIF Sour"e< 4n !n)uiry into the "ature of Peace and the terms of its Perpetuation, Thorste n Ve(!en* Har$ard La,* %%+D4I.D4F DIG Ce'nes an e"onom "s* un! 7e the more ! (ertar an* &ree.mar7et ! (erat on s"hoo!s o& e"onom " thou#ht* su"h as the Austr an S"hoo!* sees* n %art* #o$ernment nter$ent on as %er od "a!!' needed to a$o d "erta n %ro(!ems+ In the ,ords o& the on! ne 9us ness D "t onar'< KTh s theor' &urther asserts that &ree mar7ets ha$e no se!&.(a!an" n# me"han sms that !ead to &u!! em%!o'ment+ Ce'nes an e"onom sts ur#e and 0ust &' a #o$ernment?s nter$ent on n the e"onom' throu#h %u(! " %o! " es that a m to a"h e$e &u!! em%!o'ment and %r "e sta( ! t'+” Sour"e< 9us nessD "t onar'+"om 8htt%<MM,,,+(us nessd "t onar'+"omMde& n t onMCe'nes an.e"onom "s+htm!; 24G

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

e-am%!es o& o%%ress on and the !oss o& &reedom and ! (ert' n %r or so" a! s'stems to de&end the "urrent state o& a&&a rs+ The "reat $e ,or7s o& %h !oso%hers* art sts and ,r ters ,ho ha$e (een n&!uent a! n &urther n# $ar ous deo!o# "a! not ons o& th s K&reedom”* o&ten at the e-%ense o& so" eta! $u!nera( ! t'* n"reas n# th s do#mat " %o!ar 1at on* has &urther "om%ounded these $a!ues+DIE In short* a #reat dea! o& &ear and emot ona! %o,er e- sts around the not on o& so" a! "han#e and ho, t m #ht a&&e"t our ! $es n the ,a' o& ! (ert' and nd $ dua! t'+ :et* & ,e ste% (a"7 and th n7 a(out ,hat &reedom means a,a' &rom these "u!tura! memes* ,e & nd that not ons o& &reedom "an (e ar#ued as relative # $en human h stor'* a!on# , th standards of living and e$en personal expression tse!&+ There&ore* n order to de" de ,hat &reedom s and ho, to )ua! &' t* ,e need to measure t &rom an 8a; h stor "a! %ers%e"t $e on one s de and , th res%e"t to 8(; &uture %oss ( ! t' on the other+ 8a; H stor "a!!'* the &undamenta! "on"ern s (ased on the &ear o& %o,er and the a(use o& %o,er+ Human h stor'* n %art* s "erta n!' one o& %er%etua! %o,er stru##!es+ Fue!ed (' dee%!' d $ s $e re! # ous and %h !oso%h "a! (e! e&s and $a!ues ,h "h man &ested a(0e"t s!a$er'* the su(0u#at on o& ,omen* %er od " #eno" de* %rose"ut on &or heres' 8&ree s%ee"h* or ,hat ,as and st !! s 7no,n as T&ree thou#htT;* the d $ ne r #ht o& 7 n#s and the ! 7e* t "ou!d (e ar#ued that human h stor' n th s "onte-t s a h stor' o& dan#erous* un&ounded su%erst t ons made sa"rosan"t (' %r m t $e $a!uesMunderstand n# n those %er ods o& t me* at the e-%ense o& human ,e!!.(e n# and so" a! (a!an"e+ The &ear and s"ar" t' o& these ear! er %er ods a%%ears to ha$e am%! & ed the ,orst o& ,hat ,e m #ht "ons der Khuman nature”* o&ten see7 n# %o,er as a ,a' to a$o d the a(use o& %o,er n a $ " ous "'"!e+ :et* t s "r t "a!!' m%ortant to not "e that ,e ha$e (een n a %ro"ess o& transition a,a' &rom these ar"ha " $a!ues and (e! e&s o$era!!* , th the #!o(a! "u!ture and ts nst tut ons s!o,!' em(ra" n# s" ent & " "ausa! t' and ts mer t , th res%e"t ,hat s rea! and ,hat sn?t+ W th th s* "erta n %os t $e trends ha$e (e"ome "!ear+ We ha$e mo$ed &rom the Kd $ ne”* u!t mate %o,er o& #enet "a!!' determ ned 7 n#s and %haraohs nto a s'stem o& $er' ! m ted* 'et #enera! %u(! " %art " %at on $ a a so."a!!ed Kdemo"rat " %ro"ess” n most o& the ,or!d+ Human e-%!o tat on* su(0u#at on and a(0e"t s!a$er' has !ost ts "ommon de&enses o& re! # ous* ra" a! or #ender su%er or t' and m%ro$ed to the e-tent that the s!a$er' toda' o$era!! ta7es the !ess se$ere &orm o& K,a#e !a(or” . n the !ar#er "onte-t o& K"!ass” asso" at ons . as determ ned (' one?s %!a"e n the economic h erar"h'+
DIE A'n Rand?s &amous no$e! 4nthem s a nota(!e* n&!uent a! e-am%!e o& th s

art st " "u!m nat on o& $a!ues+ It ta7es %!a"e n a d'sto% an &uture ,here man7 nd has entered another dar7 a#e "hara"ter 1ed (' rrat ona! t'* "o!!e"t $ sm* and so" a! st " th n7 n# and e"onom "s+ The "on"e%t o& nd $ dua! t' has (een e! m nated+ For e-am%!e* the use o& the ,ord TIT s %un sha(!e (' death+ 24E

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

The mar7et e"onom'* n a!! ts h stor "a! &orms* has a!so (een a(!e to o$er"ome the ra"e.! 7e K"aste” %redeterm nat ons as ,e!! s n"e t does a!!o, a !e$e! o& 8! m ted; so" a! mo( ! t' n the "ommun t' ,here n"ome #a ned &a" ! tates more #enera! K&reedom”+DF5 Su"h %ro#ress $e rea! t es need to (e ta7en nto a""ount as "a% ta! sm* , th a!! ts &!a,s* has ser$ed to he!% m%ro$e "erta n th n#s n the so" a! "ond t on+ :et* ,hat hasn?t "han#ed s the under!' n# %rem se that s st !! e! t st and ( #oted n ho, t &a$ors one #rou% o$er another* (oth stru"tura!!' and so" o!o# "a!!'+ On!' n th s "ase the K#rou%” &a$ored has noth n# mu"h to do , th #ender* ra"e or re! # on an'more J (ut to do , th a 7 nd o& &or"e&u! e-%ed en"e and "om%et t $e menta! t' that %ushes tse!& to the to% o& the "!ass h erar"h'* at the ne$ ta(!e e-%ense o& others+ /a% ta! sm* t "ou!d ,e!! (e ar#ued* s rea!!' s a post$modern slavery system* , th a ne, $a!ue or entat on o& K"om%et t $e &reedom” ho!d n# t n %!a"e+ Th s re n$ented not on o& K&reedom” (as "a!!' sa's that ,e are a!! K&ree” to "om%ete , th ea"h other and ta7e ,hat ,e "an+ :et* as noted (e&ore* su"h a state o& Ko%en &reedom”* e- st n# , thout a(use* o%%ress on and stru"tura! ad$anta#e . s "!ear!' m%oss (!e+ So* ,h !e %ro%onents o& "a% ta! sm ma' addu"e the so" a! m%ro$ements ,h "h ha$e o""urred s n"e ts ad$ent as e$ den"e o& ts so" a! e&& "a"'* ,e must a"7no,!ed#e that ts root &orm s not n the nterest o& human &reedom* (ut an e"ho o& so" a! ( #otr' ,h "h has (een %o!!ut n# "u!ture &or thousands o& 'ears* rooted n a #enera! %s'"ho!o#' o& elitism and scarcity+ Toda'* true &reedom s d re"t!' re!ated to the amount of money 'ou ha$e+ Those (e!o, the %o$ert' ! ne ha$e se$ere ! m tat ons on %ersona! &reedom as "om%ared to the ,ea!th'+ L 7e, se* ,h !e %ro%onents o& the &ree mar7et o&ten ta!7 a(out K"oer" on” n the "onte-t o& state %o,er* the rea! t' o& economic coercion s #nored+ Trad t ona! e"onom " theor sts "onstant!' use rhetor " that su##ests that e$er'th n# s an ssue o& choice n the mar7et and & a %erson , shes to ta7e a 0o( or not* t s the r "ho "e+ :et* those n %o$ert'* ,h "h s the ma0or t'*DF2 &a"e a se$ere redu"t on o& "ho "e+ The %ressures o& the r ! m ted e"onom " "a%a" t' "reates a %o,er&u! state o& "oer" on (' ,h "h the' not on!' must ta7e !a(or ro!es the' m #ht not a%%re" ate to sur$ $e* the' are o&ten su(0e"t
DF5 ?So" a! mo( ! t'? s stru"tura!!' nh ( ted n the "a% ta! st s'stem* , th a $er'

sma!! %er"enta#e a"tua!!' atta n n# u%,ard mo( ! t'* stat st "a!!'+ Mo( ! t' n the Un ted States* home o& the KAmer "an Dream”* has a!so (een n"reas n#!' de"! n n#+ Re&eren"e< KE-"e%t ona! U%,ard Mo( ! t' n the US Is a M'th* Internat ona! Stud es Sho,”* Science =aily 8htt%<MM,,,+s" en"eda !'+"omMre!easesM4524M5EM245E5H262E45+htm; A!so See< KHarder &or Amer "ans to R se From Lo,er Run#s”* "ew 6or# Times* 4524 8htt%<MM,,,+n't mes+"omM4524M52M5HMusMharder.&or.amer "ans.to. r se.&rom.!o,er.run#s+htm!R%a#e,antedSa!!; DF2 Wh !e the %o$ert' ! ne standard s re!at $e (ased on the re# on o& a%%! "at on* o$er H5> o& the ,or!d as o& a 455H Wor!d 9an7 Stud' ! $e on !ess than 4+H5 a da'* or a(out bE24+55 a 'ear+ Sour"e< G!o(a!Issues+or# 8htt%<MM,,,+#!o(a! ssues+or#Mart "!eM4IM%o$ert'.&a"ts.and.stats; 2D5

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

to $ast e-%!o tat on n the &orm o& !o, ,a#e rates due to that same des%erat on+ In &a"t* #enera! %o$ert'* n th s "onte-t* s a $er' positive "ond t on &or the "a% ta! st "!ass &or t ensures "ost.e&& " en"' n the &orm o& "hea%er !a(or+ So a#a n* ,h !e ,e ma' ha$e seen some so" eta! m%ro$ement o$er t me* th s m%ro$ement s rea!!' 0ust a $ar at on o& a "ommon theme o& #enera! e! t sm* e-%!o tat on and ( #otr'+ The !on# h stor' o& assumed resour"e s"ar" t' and ! m ts on %rodu"t on ha$e a!so "om%ounded th s dea* n the Ma!thus an sense*DF4 ,here the dea o& e$er'one & nd n# some !e$e! o& e"onom " e)ua! t' ,as deemed s m%!' m%oss (!e+ 8(; :et* modern s" en"e and the e-%onent a! de$e!o%ment o& te"hn "a! a%%! "at on* a!on# , th a dee%er a,areness o& our human "ond t on*DFD has o%ened the door to &uture %oss ( ! t es &or so" a! m%ro$ement and* n &a"t* a &urther e!e$at on o& &reedom n ,a's ne$er (e&ore seen+ Th s a,areness %resents a %ro(!em s n"e the %oss ( ! t' o& a"h e$ n# th s ne, !e$e! s dee%!' nh ( ted (' the $a!ues and esta(! shments set &orth (' the trad t ona! "a% ta! st so" a! order+ In other ,ords* the mar7et s'stem s m%!' "annot &a" ! tate these m%ro$ements (e"ause the nature o& the r "u!m nat on s a#a nst the $er' me"han sms o& the s'stem+ For e-am%!e* the e&& " en"' made %oss (!e on the te"hn "a!* s" ent & " !e$e! toda'* & "orre"t!' a%%! ed* "ou!d %ro$ de a h #h standard o& ! $ n# &or e$er' human on earth* "ou%!ed , th the remo$ n# o& dan#erous and monotonous !a(or throu#h the a%%! "at on o& cybernated me"han 1at on+DF6 In the ,or!d toda'* the $ast ma0or t' o& %eo%!e s%end most o& the r ! &e ,or7 n# an o""u%at on and s!ee% n#+ Man' o& these o""u%at ons are not en0o'edDFH and are ar#ua(!' irrelevant , th res%e"t to true %ersona! or so" a! "ontr (ut on and de$e!o%ment+ So* & ,e , sh to th n7 a(out ,hat &reedom means on a (as " !e$e!* t means (e n# a(!e to d re"t 'our ! &e n the ,a' 'ou , sh* , th n reason+DFI 9e n# a(!e to ! $e 'our ! &e , thout ,orr' n# a(out
DF4 See the se"t on on Ma!thus and R "ardo n the essa' >istory of Economy* DFD /!ar & "at on< So" a!!' "ausa! or psychosocial e&&e"ts o& the human.so" et'

re!at onsh % ha$e %ro$en some %o,er&u! rea! t es a(out the or # ns o& a(errant or destru"t $e (eha$ or+ See the essa' KDe& n n# Au(! " Hea!th” &or more e-%!anat on+ DF6 A deta !ed e-tra%o!at on , !! (e %resented n %art III o& th s te-t+ DFH Re&eren"e< KNe, Sur$e'< Ma0or t' o& Em%!o'ees D ssat s& ed”* (orbes, Susan Adams 4524 8htt%<MM,,,+&or(es+"omMs tesMsusanadamsM4524M5HM2GMne,.sur$e'. ma0or t'.o&.em%!o'ees.d ssat s& edM; DFI Natura!!'* there "an (e no K%ure” &reedom n the natura! ,or!d that s #o$erned (' the !a,s o& nature* nor "an un! m ted &reedom e- st n a so" a! "ond t on that dea!s , th ! &e standard re)u rements &or so" a! sta( ! t'+ For e-am%!e* one s not K&ree” to murder another n a d re"t sense+ Su"h so" a! "ontra"ts and $a!ues e- st around not a(us n# others (e"ause the' ease m(a!an"e and desta( ! 1at on+ 2D2

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

'our (as " sur$ $a! and hea!th* or that o& 'our &am !'* s the & rst ste%+ L 7e, se* the !a(or &or n"ome s'stem s one o& the most Kun&ree” nst tut ons that "ou!d e- st toda' not on!' , th res%e"t to the nherent e"onom " "oer" on* (ut a!so , th res%e"t to the "or%orate stru"ture tse!&* ,h "h s )u te ! tera!!' a to%.do,n* h erar"h "a! d "tatorsh %+ Sad!'* e$en , th these %oss ( ! t es %resent and rea!* the value system disorder (u !t &rom the "a% ta! st mode! and ts rather %arano d &ear o& an'th n# outs de o& t* has and , !! "ont nue to & #ht these %oss ( ! t es &or more e!e$ated states o& &reedom+ In &a"t* the $er' dea o& %ro$ d n# (as " so" a! su%%ort n the &orm o& K,e!&are” or the ! 7e s atta"7ed* n %art* on the (as s o& ts a$o dan"e o& &a" ! tat n# the o%en mar7et J the $er' mar7et that* n rea! t'* ! 7e!' "reated the m%o$er shed state o& those ,ho need su"h ass stan"e+ As a & na! note on the su(0e"t o& K&reedom”* "a% ta! st theor'* (oth h stor "a! and modern* s de$o d o& an' re!at onsh % to the Earth?s resour"es and ts #o$ern n# e"o!o# "a! !a,s+ A%art &rom the most %r m t $e a,areness o& s"ar" t'* ,h "h s a mar7er o& the "ommon Ksu%%!' and demand” $a!ue theor'* the s" ent & " nature o& the ,or!d s a(sent n th s mode! . t s Ke-terna!”+ Th s om ss on* %a red , th the e-%!o tat on and "ost redu" n# rea! t' nherent to the n"ent $e s'stem o& the mar7et* s ,hat has #enerated the $ast en$ ronmenta! %ro(!ems* &rom so ! de%!et on* to %o!!ut on* to de&orestat on* to $ rtua!!' e$er'th n# e!se ,e "an th n7 o& on the e"o!o# "a! !e$e!+ In ana!'1 n# the ear!' de$e!o%ment o& th s %h !oso%h'* ,e "an !o# "a!!' s%e"u!ate a(out ho, th s "ame to (e+ G $en the !ar#e!' a#rar an (ase o& %rodu"t on and the m n ma! sm o& ear!' Khand "ra&t” t'%e #ood %rodu"t on* our "a%a" t' at that t me to ne#at $e!' a&&e"t the en$ ronment ,as nherent!' ! m ted+ We s m%!' d d not %ose as mu"h o& a threat s n"e the $ast ed & "e o& ndustr' as ,e 7no, t toda' had not e$o!$ed+ Th s de$e!o%ment re$ea!s that under the sur&a"e o& "a% ta! sm s an o!d %ers%e"t $e* ,h "h s #ro, n# n"reas n#!' out o& date* , th e$er.o""urr n# re%er"uss ons resu!t n# as our te"hno!o# "a! "a%a" t' n"reases our a( ! t' to a&&e"t the ,or!d+ A %ara!!e! ,ou!d (e the nst tut on o& ,ar+ /om%et t $e $a!ues and ,ar&are ,ere a to!era(!e rea! t' ,hen the dama#e done ,as ! m ted to %r m t $e mus7ets "entur es a#o+ Toda'* ,e ha$e nu"!ear ,ea%ons that "an destro' e$er'th n#+DFF So* ta7 n# an e$o!ut onar' $ e,* "a% ta! sm has (een a %ra"t "e and $a!ue or entat on that d d he!% %ro#ress n "erta n ,a's* (ut a!! trend e$ den"e no, sho,s that the nherent mmatur t' o& the s'stem , !! !ead to e$er n"reas n# %ro(!ems & t %ers sts+ The 32ar#etiAation4 of (ife0 As a & na! %o nt o& th s essa'* the trend o& the e$er. n"reas n# mar#eti%ation of life has "reated a dee% d stort on o& $a!ues n the
DFF A!(ert E nste n ,as )uoted as sa' n#* TI 7no, not , th ,hat ,ea%ons Wor!d

War III , !! (e &ou#ht* (ut Wor!d War IV , !! (e &ou#ht , th st "7s and stones+T 8The "ew 5uotable Einstein, A! "e /a!a%r "e* Ar n"eton Un $ers t' Aress+ 455H %+2FD; 2D4

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

,or!d+ S n"e K&reedom” has (een "u!tura!!' asso" ated , th Kdemo"ra"'” and demo"ra"' n the e"onom " sense has (een asso" ated , th the a( ! t' to (u' and se!!* the commodification o& 0ust a(out e$er'th n# one "an th n7 o& has (een o""urr n#+ Trad t ona! $a!ues and rhetor " o& %r or #enerat ons ha$e o&ten $ e,ed the use o& mone' n some ,a's as someth n# o& a K"o!d” ne"ess t'* , th some e!ements o& our ! $es "ons dered Ksa"red” and not &or sa!e+ The a"t o& %rost tut on* &or e-am%!e* n ,h "h %eo%!e se!! nt ma"' &or mone' s a s tuat on ,here "u!tura! $a!ues usua!!' & nd a! enat on+ In most "ountr es the a"t s !!e#a!* e$en thou#h there s ! tt!e !e#a! 0ust & "at on s n"e se-ua! en#a#ement tse!& s !e#a!+ It s on!' ,hen the e!ement o& %ur"hase "omes nto %!a'* s t deemed re%rehens (!e+ Ho,e$er* su"h san"t t es that ha$e (een "u!tura!!' %er%etuated are (e"om n# n"reas n#!' o$erturned (' the mar7et m ndset+ Toda'* ,hether !e#a! or not* near!' an'th n# "an (e (ou#ht or so!d+DFG :ou "an (u' the r #ht to ('%ass "ar(on em ss ons re#u!at ons*DFE 'ou "an u%#rade 'our %r son "e!! &or a &ee*DG5 (u' the r #ht to hunt endan#ered an ma!s*DG2 and e$en (u' 'our ,a' nto a %rest # ous un $ers t' , thout meet n# test n# re)u rements+DG4 It (e"omes a stran#e state ,hen some o& the most norma!* natura! a"ts o& human ! &e (e"ome n"ent $ 1ed (' mone' as ,e!!* su"h as ho, t s (e n# used to en"oura#e "h !dren to read*DGD or en"oura#e ,e #ht !oss+DG6 As'"ho!o# "a!!'* ,hat does t mean &or a "h !d ,hen the' are re n&or"ed , th mone' &or the r most (as " a"t onsR Ho, , !! th s a&&e"t the r &uture sense o& re,ardR These are m%ortant )uest ons n a world for sale, , th the #u d n# $a!ue %r n" %!e that t s on!' ,hen one ma#es money &rom an a"t on* s that a"t on ,orth do n#+ Su"h mar#et values a%%ear as a "!ear so" a! d stort on as the $er' essen"e o& human n t at $e and e- sten"e s (e n# trans&ormed+ Wh !e ,e m #ht not ta7e mu"h e-treme "on"ern o$er seem n#!' tr $ a! ssues su"h as the &a"t one "an %ur"hase a""ess to the "ar%oo! !ane ,h !e dr $ n# so!o*DGH the !ar#er man &estat on o& a "u!ture (u !t on the
DFG Re&eren"e< 7hat Money

an0t /uy3 The Moral +imits of Mar#ets* M "hae! 3+ Sande!* Farrar* Straus and G rou-* 4524 DFE Re&eren"e< Data "an (e $ e,ed on! ne , th res%e"t to the EU at ,,,+%o nt"ar(on+"om DG5 Sour"e< KFor bG4 a Da'* 9oo7 n# a /e!! n a H.Star 3a !”* "ew 6or# Times, A%r ! 4E* 455F DG2 Sour"e< KSa$ n# the Rh no Throu#h Sa"r & "e”* 9rendan 9orre!!* /loomberg /usinesswee#* De"em(er E* 4525 DG4 Sour"e< KAt Man' /o!!e#es* the R "h C ds Get A&& rmat $e A"t on< See7 n# Donors”* Dan e! Go!den* 7all Street* &ournal* Fe(ruar' 45* 455D DGD Sour"e< KIs /ash the Ans,er”* Amanda R %!e'* Time, A%r ! 2E* 4525* %%+66. 6H DG6 Sour"e< KAa' n# %eo%!e to !ose ,e #ht and sto% smo7 n#”* Ce$ n G+ Vo!%%* !ssue /rief* L+D+ Inst tute o& Hea!th E"onom "s* Un $ers t' o& Aenns'!$an a* $o!+ 26* 455E DGH Sour"e< KAa' n# &or VIA Treatment n a Tra&& " 3am”* 7all Street &ournal* 3une 42 455F 2DD

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

ed & "e o& e$er'th n# (e n# &or sa!e* s the dehumani%ation o& so" et' as e$er'one and e$er'th n# s redu"e to a mere "ommod t' &or e-%!o t+ Toda'* as sho"7 n# as t s* there are a"tua!!' more slaves n the ,or!d than anytime in human history+ Human tra&& "7 n# has and "ont nues to (e a mass $e ndustr' &or %ro& t* se!! n# men* ,omen and "h !dren nto $ar ous ro!es+ The US De%artment o& State has %u(! shed KIt s est mated that as man' as 4F m !! on men* ,omen* and "h !dren around the ,or!d are $ "t ms o& ,hat s no, o&ten des"r (ed , th the um(re!!a term Khuman tra&& "7 n#+” The ,or7 that rema ns n "om(at n# th s "r me s the ,or7 o& &u!& !! n# the %rom se o& &reedom^&reedom &rom s!a$er' &or those e-%!o ted and the &reedom &or sur$ $ors to "arr' on , th the r ! $es+”DGI In the end* ,h !e most %eo%!e ,ho (e! e$e n the &ree mar7et "a% ta! st s'stem ,ou!d eth "a!!' stand n outra#e at these $ast human a(uses o""urr n# n the ,or!d* usua!!' ma7 n# d st n"t ons (et,een Kmora! and Kamora!” &orms o& trade* the &a"t o& the matter s that the "ommod & "at on "on"e%t tse!& "an dra, no o(0e"t $e ! nes and su"h Ke-treme” rea! t es are* n truth* s m%!' a matter of degree , th res%e"t to a%%! "at on+ From a %ure!' %h !oso%h "a! stand%o nt* there s no te"hn "a! d &&eren"e (et,een an' &orm o& mar7et e-%!o tat on+ The %s'"ho!o#' nherent J the value system disorder J has and , !! "ont nue to %er%etuate a %redator' d sre#ard , th n the "u!ture and t s on!' ,hen that structural mechanism s remo$ed &rom our $er' a%%roa"h to so" eta! or#an 1at on* , !! the a&orement oned ssues & nd reso!ut on+

DGI Sour"e< Traffic#ing in Persons 'eport BC,B* US De%artment o& State

8htt%<MM,,,+state+#o$M0Mt %Mr!sMt %r%tM4524M2E4DH2+htm; 2D6

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

-STR&CT&RA( C(ASS$S2@ T-E STATE A"D WARMan s the on!' Aatr ot+ He sets h mse!& a%art n h s o,n "ountr'* under h s o,n &!a#* and sneers at the other nat ons* and 7ee%s mu!t tud nous un &ormed assass ns on hand at hea$' e-%ense to #ra( s! "es o& other %eo%!e?s "ountr es* and 7ee% them &rom #ra(( n# s! "es o& h s+ And n the nter$a!s (et,een "am%a #ns he ,ashes the (!ood o& h s hands and ,or7s &or Tthe un $ersa! (rotherhood o& manT. , th h s mouth+DGF . Mar7 T,a n

O/er/iew Human "on&! "t has (een a "ons stent "hara"ter st " o& so" et' s n"e the (e# nn n# o& re"orded h stor'+ Wh !e 0ust & "at ons o& th s ha$e ran#ed &rom assum%t ons o& mmuta(!e human %ro%ens t es to,ards a##ress on and terr tor a! t'* to the re! # ous not on o& %o!ar 1ed meta%h's "a! %o,ers at ,or7* su"h as &or"es o& K#ood” and Ke$ !”* h stor' has re$ea!ed that "ases o& "on&! "t #enera!!' ha$e a rat ona! "orre!at on to environmental circumstances andMor cultural conditions+ From the mmed ate* &ear&u! stress rea"t on o& our K& #ht or &! #ht” %ro%ens t'*DGG to the "a!m* "a!"u!ated %!ann n# o& strate# " nat ona! ,ar&are* there s a!,a's a reason &or su"h "on&! "t and the #enera! %u(! "?s nterest to redu"e "on&! "t natura!!' re)u res ,e &u!!' assess "ausa! t' as dee%!' as ,e "an to "ons der tan# (!e so!ut ons+ Th s essa' , !! e-am ne t,o #enera! "ate#or es o& K,ar&are”< K m%er a! ,ar&are” and K"!ass ,ar&are”+ Wh !e %erha%s seem n#!' d &&erent* t , !! (e ar#ued that the root %s'"ho!o# "a! me"han sms o& these t,o "ate#or 1at ons are (as "a!!' the same* a!on# , th ho, some o& the a"tua! me"han sms o& K(att!e” are a"tua!!' mu"h more e!us $e or "o$ert than man' re"o#n 1e+ O$era!!* the "entra! thes s s that the sour"e o& these seem n#!' mmuta(!e rea! t es res des , th n the socioeconomic premise tse!& . n the "onte-t o& a "erta n re n&or"ed %s'"ho!o#' and hen"e so" o!o# "a! s"hemata . not r # d determ nat ons n our #enes or !a"7 o& some mora! a%t tude+ Aut another ,a'* these %resent rea! t es are not &ue!ed (' deo!o# "a!!' so!ated #rou%s su"h as* &or e-am%!e* a ro#ue "ountr'Ns #o$ernment or some e-"e%t ona!!' K#reed'” (us ness menta! t' J (ut rather (' the most &undamenta!* under!' n# $a!ues nherent to $ rtua!!' e$er'one?s ! $es n the "urrent so" oe"onom " "ond t on ,e %er%etuate as "u!tura!!' Knorma!”+ The on!' d &&eren"e s the degree to ,h "h these $a!ues are harnessed and &or ,hat %ur%ose+

DGF Sour"e< KMan?s %!a"e n the an ma! ,or!d”* 7hat is ManD 4nd other

!rreverent Essays* Mar7 T,a n* 2GEI* %+2HF

DGG KThe & #ht.or.&! #ht res%onse” 8or the a"ute stress res%onse; ,as & rst

des"r (ed (' Amer "an %h's o!o# st Wa!ter 9rad&ord /annon+ H s theor' states that an ma!s rea"t to threats , th a #enera! d s"har#e o& the s'm%athet " ner$ous s'stem* %r m n# the an ma! &or & #ht n# or &!ee n#+ 2DH

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

$m,erial War% Rise of the State The Neo! th " Re$o!ut on some 24*555 'ears a#oDGE mar7ed a % $ota! turn n# %o nt &or human so" et' as t trans t oned us &rom a!most e-"!us $e!' K! $ n# o&& the !and” . ! m ted to the ha( tat?s natura! re#enerat on J to an a""e!erat n# trend o& en$ ronmenta! "ontro! and resour"e man %u!at on+ The de$e!o%ment o& a#r "u!ture and the "reat on o& !a(or.eas n# too!s ,as the (e# nn n# o& ,hat "an (e o(ser$ed toda'* ,here the s%e"trum o& the human "a%a" t' to ut ! 1e science &or the a!terat on o& the ,or!d &or our ad$anta#e a%%ears $ rtua!!' un! m ted+DE5 Ho,e$er* th s n t a!!' s!o, te"hno!o# "a! ada%tat on has set n mot on "erta n %atterns and "han#es ,h "h ha$e ar#ua(!' #enerated man' o& the %ro(!ems ,e re"o#n 1e as a!! too "ommon toda'+ An e-am%!e ,ou!d (e ho, m(a!an"e throu#h re!at $e %o$ert' and e"onom " strat & "at on has ta7en ho!d as an a%%arent "onse)uen"e o& th s ne, "a%a" t'+ In the ,ords o& neuros" ent st and anthro%o!o# st Dr+ Ro(ert Sa%o!s7'< KHunter.#atherers XhadY thousands o& , !d sour"es o& &ood to su(s st on+ A#r "u!ture "han#ed a!! that* #enerat n# an o$er,he!m n# re! an"e on a &e, do1en &ood sour"es+++A#r "u!ture a!!o,ed &or the sto"7% ! n# o& sur%!us resour"es and thus* ne$ ta(!'* the une)ua! sto"7% ! n# o& them* strat & "at on o& so" et' and the n$ent on o& "!asses+ Thus t has a!!o,ed &or the n$ent on o& %o$ert'+”DE2 L 7e, se* the rather nomad " ! &est'!e o& the hunter.#atherer s!o,!' (e"ame re%!a"ed , th sett!ed* %rote"t on st tr (es and then e$entua!!' !o"a! 1ed " t'.t'%e so" et es+ In the ,ords o& R "hard A+ Ga(r e! n the ,or7 4 Short >istory of 7ar< KThe n$ent on and s%read o& a#r "u!ture "ou%!ed , th the domest "at on o& an ma!s n the & &th m !!enn um 9+/+ are a"7no,!ed#ed as the de$e!o%ments that set the sta#e &or the emer#en"e o& the & rst !ar#e.s"a!e* "om%!e- ur(an so" et es+ These so" et es* ,h "h a%%eared a!most s mu!taneous!' around 6555 9+/+ n (oth E#'%t and Meso%otam a* used stone too!s* (ut , th n H55 'ears stone too!s and ,ea%ons #a$e ,a' to (ron1e+ W th (ron1e manu&a"ture "ame a re$o!ut on n ,ar&are+”DE4 Th s s a!so the %er od that the "on"e%t o& the Kstate” as ,e 7no, t and the %ermanen"e o& the Karmed &or"e” emer#ed+ Ga(r e!
DGE Somet mes a!so "a!!ed the A#r "u!tura! Re$o!ut on* t ,as the ,or!d?s & rst

h stor "a!!' $er & a(!e re$o!ut on n a#r "u!ture+ It ,as the , de.s"a!e trans t on o& man' human "u!tures &rom a ! &est'!e o& hunt n# and #ather n# to one o& a#r "u!ture and sett!ement that su%%orted an n"reas n#!' !ar#e %o%u!at on and the (as s &or modern so" a! %atterns toda'+ DE5 Re&eren"e< Exponentially 4ccelerating !nformation Technologies ould Put an End to orporations 8htt%<MMs" en"e%ro#ress+or#M4522M5IMe-%onent a!!'.#ro, n#. n&ormat on. te"hno!o#'., !!.%ut.an.end.to."or%orat onsM; DE2 Sour"e< 7hy Zebras =on0t ?et 9lcers* Ro(ert Sa%o!s7'* W+ H+ Freeman* 2EEG* %+DGD DE4 Sour"e< 4 Short >istory of 7ar3 The Evolution of 7arfare and 7eapons* R "hard A Ga(r e!* Strate# " Stud es Inst tute* U+S+ Arm' War /o!!e#e* /ha%ter 2* 2EE4 2DI

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

"ont nues< KThese ear!' so" et es %rodu"ed the & rst e-am%!es o& state. #o$ern n# nst tut ons* n t a!!' as "entra! 1ed "h e&doms and !ater as monar"h es+++At the same t me* "entra! 1at on demanded the "reat on o& an adm n strat $e stru"ture "a%a(!e o& d re"t n# so" a! a"t $ t' and resour"es to,ard "ommuna! #oa!s+++The de$e!o%ment o& "entra! state nst tut ons and a su%%ort n# adm n strat $e a%%aratus ne$ ta(!' #a$e &orm and sta( ! t' to m ! tar' stru"tures+ The resu!t ,as the e-%ans on and sta( ! 1at on o& the &ormer!' !oose and unsta(!e ,arr or "astes+++9' 4F55 9+/+ n Sumer there ,as a &u!!' art "u!ated m ! tar' stru"ture and stand n# arm' or#an 1ed a!on# modern ! nes+ The stand n# arm' emer#ed as a %ermanent %art o& the so" a! stru"ture and ,as endo,ed , th stron# "!a ms to so" a! !e# t ma"'+ And t has (een , th us e$er s n"e+”DED $m,erial War% $llusions KIm%er a! sm” s de& ned as< Kthe %o! "'* %ra"t "e* or ad$o"a"' o& e-tend n# the %o,er and dom n on o& a nat on es%e" a!!' (' d re"t terr tor a! a")u s t ons or (' #a n n# nd re"t "ontro! o$er the %o! t "a! or e"onom " ! &e o& other areas+”DE6 Wh !e trad t ona! "u!ture m #ht #enera!!' th n7 o& m%er a! ,ar as a $ar at on o& ,ar n #enera!* assum n# other &orms o& armed* nat ona! "on&! "t* t s ar#ued here that the root (as s o& all nat ona! ,ars are a"tua!!' m%er a! n nature+ The ! tera!!' thousands o& ,ars n re"orded human h stor' ha$e had to do most!' , th the a")u s t on o& resour"es or terr tor'* ,here one #rou% s e ther ,or7 n# to e-%and ts %o,er and mater a! ,ea!th* or ,or7 n# to %rote"t tse!& &rom others tr' n# to "on)uer and a(sor( the r %o,er and ,ea!th+ E$en man' h stor "a! "on&! "ts* ,h "h on the sur&a"e a%%ear to (e &or the %ur%oses o& %ure deo!o#'* are o&ten a"tua!!' h dden m%er a! e"onom " mo$es+ The /hr st an /rusades o& the 22th "entur'* &or e-am%!e* are o&ten de& ned as str "t!' re! # ous "on&! "ts or e-%ress ons o& deo!o# "a! &er$or+ :et* a dee%er n$est #at on re$ea!s a %o,er&u! undertone o& trade e-%ans on and resour"e a")u s t on* under the #u se o& the Kre! # ous” ,ar+DEH Th s s not to sa' that re! # ons ha$e not (een a sour"e o& tremendous "on&! "t h stor "a!!'* (ut to sho, that there s o&ten an o$ers m%! & "at on &ound n man' h stor "a! te-ts* , th the e"onom " re!e$an"e o&ten m ssed or #nored+ Re#ard!ess* the not on o& the Kmora!” "rusade as a &orm o& cover &or nat ona!* e"onom " m%er a! sm "ont nues to th s da'+DEI
DED I( d+ DE6 Sour"e< Merr am.We(ster+"om 8htt%<MM,,,+merr am. DEH Re&eren"e< Economic =evelopment of the "orth 4tlantic

ommunity, Dud!e' D !!ard* Arent "e.Ha!!* Ne, 3erse'* 2EIF* %%+D.2FG+ DEI The use o& re! # on to #enerate %o! t "a! su%%ort &or m%er a! a"ts o& ,ar s )u te "ommon h stor "a!!'+ E$en n the Un ted States toda'* %o! t " ans* , th res%e"t to re"ent m ! tar' a"t ons* ha$e "ons stent!' made a #enera! undertone o& re! # ous ,ar or o& a"t n# on the (eha!& o& KGod”+ Is!am " and 3e, sh states a%%ear to do the same th n#* a!on# , th states+ The Israe! . 2DF

,e(ster+"omMd "t onar'M m%er a! sm;

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

In &a"t* there s a dee%!' coercive tenden"' , tnessed throu#hout h stor' ,hen t "omes to #a n n# %u(! " su%%ort &or the a"t o& nat ona! ,ar&are+ For nstan"e* a "ursor' re$ e, o& h stor' , !! & nd that a!! Ko&&ens $e” a"ts o& ,ar* mean n# ,ar initiated (' a # $en %o,er &or ,hate$er reason 8not a res%onse to d re"t n$as on;* or # nate &rom the "onst tuents and asso" ates o& the governmental body . not the " t 1enr'+ Wars tend to (e# n , th some 7 nd o& announ"ed su##est on emanat n# &rom state %o,erU then &ue!ed (' the corporate$state su%%orted med aUDEF , th the " t 1enr' s!o,!' #roomed to a%%re" ate the su##est on+ It a!so he!%s the state a #reat dea! & there s some &orm o& emot ona!!' str 7 n# %ro$o"at on as ,e!!* ,h "h "an (e man %u!ated to &urther 0ust &' the ntended ,ar+DEG Su"h ta"t "s &or the man %u!at on o& a " t 1enr' "an ta7e man'
Aa!est n an "on&! "t* &or e-am%!e* ,h "h s #enera!!' a"7no,!ed#ed as a dee%!' re! # ous "on&! "t &or Kho!'” terr tor'* re$ea!s* u%on "!oser ns%e"t on* that re! # on* ,h !e %erha%s a rea! &a"tor n the %u(! " m nd o$era!!* s a"tua!!' not the root o& the "on&! "t+ The rea! root a%%ears to (e e! te m%er a! sm and resour"e a")u s t on n #enera!* , th re! # on used as means to &oster and ma nta n %u(! " su%%ort+ Re&eren"e< htt%<MM,,,+the0a7arta#!o(e+"omM#!o(e(e'ondM srae!.%a!est ne.not.a. re! # ous."on&! "tMHHGDHD DEF State supported media s "ommon!' de& ned as med a %rodu"ed (' d re"t &und n# &rom a "ountr'?s #o$ernment+ Wh !e th s s st !! "ommon n the ,or!d and o&ten su(0e"t to state %ro%a#anda* n the Un ted States* a s m !ar 'et more o(s"ure &orm has emer#ed . someth n# ,e "ou!d "a!! corporate$state supported media+ /or%orate stat sm s a &orm o& T"or%orat smT ,hose adherents ho!d that the "or%orate #rou% s the (as s o& so" et' and the state+ The %oet " trad t on o& the T&ree %ressT n the US* (e n# , thout Tre#u!at onT or T nter&eren"eT* s a !on#.stand n# $a!ue and assum%t on+ :et* ,hen ,e &a"tor n the rea! t' o& the n"reas n# "on"entrat on o& ma0or med a out!ets* su"h as the &a"t that as o& 4524 s - "or%orat ons "ontro! E5> o& themc . "ou%!ed , th the (as " understand n# that there s ! tt!e to no se%arat on (et,een the #o$ernment and ts "or%orat ons (' de&au!t n the /a% ta! st rooted so" oe"onom " mode! (et,een the #o$ernment and ts "or%orat ons . t s d && "u!t to de&end the dea that the most dom nant ne,s out!ets e- st , thout deo!o# "a! n&!uen"e to,ards %reser$ n# the status )uo s n"e the' are so (ound u% , th t+ W th res%e"t to the n t at on o& ,ar* a stat st "a! re$ e, o& h stor "a! med a &or the %ast 255 'ears , !! sho, a dee% su%%ort (' a!! ma0or ne,s out!ets to,ards the #o$ernment?s nterests+ cSour"e< 8htt%<MM,,,+(us ness ns der+"omMthese.I."or%orat ons."ontro!.E5. o&.the.med a. n.amer "a.4524.I; DEG Former US Nat ona! Se"ur t' Ad$ sor Z( #n e, 9r1e1 ns7 understood th s ,e!!* and stated n h s &amous ,or7 The ?rand hessboard3 4merican Primacy 4nd !ts ?eostrategic !mperatives< TThe att tude o& the Amer "an %u(! " to,ard the e-terna! %ro0e"t on o& Amer "an %o,er has (een mu"h more am( $a!ent+ The %u(! " su%%orted Amer "a?s en#a#ement n Wor!d War II !ar#e!' (e"ause o& the sho"7 e&&e"t o& the 3a%anese atta"7 on Aear! Har(or+ 89as " 9oo7s Au(! sh n#* 2EEG* %%+46.4H; K+++as Amer "a (e"omes an n"reas n#!' mu!t ."u!tura! so" et'* t ma' & nd t more d && "u!t to &ash on a "onsensus on &ore #n %o! "' ssues* e-"e%t n the " r"umstan"e o& a tru!' mass $e and , de!' %er"e $ed d re"t e-terna! threat+T89as " 9oo7s Au(! sh n#* 2EEG* %+422; 2DG

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

&orms+ The use o& &ear* honor 8re$en#e;* %atr ot " %aterna! sm*DEE mora! t'* and the K"ommon de&ense” are ! 7e!' the most "ommon %!o's+ In &a"t* n$ar a(!' a!! a"ts o& ,ar are 0ust & ed as Kde&ens $e” n the %u(! " s%here* e$en & there s no rat ona!* tan# (!e %u(! " threat to (e &ound+ :et* there s* ndeed* a "ore truth to th s not on o& Kde&ens $e” ,ar*655 s n"e a"ts o& m%er a! mo( ! 1at on are (ased on a $er' rea!* 'et o(s"ure &orm o& e"onom " andMor %o! t "a! &ear J the &ear o& losing control or power+ In other ,ords* ,h !e there ma' not (e a d re"t* mmed ate threat to a # $en* aggressor nat on J the !on# term "om%et t $e need to "ont nua!!' re$secure ts e- st n# %o,er &rom %oss (!e future !oss s a $er' rea! and &ounded &ear+ So* n e&&e"t* th s Kde&ense” s that o& e! t st* u%%er."!ass se!&.%reser$at on and hen"e usua!!' morally unEustifiable to the %u(! " n ts true termsU hen"e these %!o's are used nstead to #a n %u(! " a%%ro$a!+652 E"onom st and so" o!o# st Thorste n Ve(!en* n h s &amous 2E2F ,or7 4n !n)uiry !nto The "ature <f Peace 4nd The Terms <f !ts Perpetuation ,rote the &o!!o, n# on the su(0e"t o& %u(! " %ersuas on< KAn' ,ar! 7e enter%r se that s ho%e&u! to (e entered on must ha$e the mora! san"t on o& the "ommun t' or o& an e&&e"t $e ma0or t' n the "ommun t'+ It "onse)uent!' (e"omes the & rst "on"ern o& the ,ar! 7e statesman to %ut th s mora! &or"e n tra n &or the ad$enture on ,h "h he s (ent+ And there are t,o ma n ! nes o& mot $at on+++the %reser$at on or &urtheran"e o& the "ommun t'?s mater a! nterest* rea! or &an" ed . and $ nd "at on o& the nat ona! honor+ To these shou!d %erha%s (e added a th rd* the ad$an"ement and %er%etuat on o& the nat ons culture+”654
DEE The term %aterna! sm s de& ned as< Ka s'stem under ,h "h an author t'

underta7es to su%%!' needs or re#u!ate "ondu"t o& those under ts "ontro!+” 8htt%<MM,,,+merr am.,e(ster+"omMd "t onar'M%aterna! sm; The term K%atr ot " %aterna! sm” denotes the assum%t on that a so$ere #n nat on 7no,s (etter than another and hen"e t ,or7s to n&!uen"e and ta7e "ontro! o& the nat on &or the su%%osed (ene& t o& ts %eo%!e+ 655 In the modern da'* the term K%reem%t $e ,ar” s "ommon!' used to 0ust &' an a"t o& a##ress on (' the "!a m t s a de&ens $e mo$e to th,art a !oom n# atta"7 o& some 7 nd (' the tar#et+ 652 Former US Nat ona! Se"ur t' Ad$ sor Z( #n e, 9r1e1 ns7 e-%resses th s K%aterna! st " de&ense” "!ear!' n h s ,or7 The ?rand hessboard3 4merican Primacy 4nd !ts ?eostrategic !mperatives* He states , th res%e"t to the need &or Amer "a to essent a!!' rema n n "ontro! o& the ,or!d< TAmer "a s no, the on!' #!o(a! su%er%o,er* and Euras a s the #!o(e?s "entra! arena+ Hen"e* ,hat ha%%ens to the d str (ut on o& %o,er on the Euras an "ont nent , !! (e o& de" s $e m%ortan"e to Amer "a?s #!o(a! %r ma"' and to Amer "a?s h stor "a! !e#a"'+T 89as " 9oo7s Au(! sh n#* 2EEG* %+2E6; TTo %ut t n a term no!o#' that har7ens (a"7 to the more (ruta! a#e o& an" ent em% res* the three #rand m%erat $es o& m%er a! #eostrate#' are to %re$ent "o!!us on and ma nta n se"ur t' de%enden"e amon# the $assa!s* to 7ee% tr (utar es %! ant and %rote"ted* and to 7ee% the (ar(ar ans &rom "om n# to#ether+T 8I( d+* %+65; THen"e&orth* the Un ted States ma' ha$e to determ ne ho, to "o%e , th re# ona! "oa! t ons that see7 to %ush Amer "a out o& Euras a* there(' threaten n# Amer "a?s status as a #!o(a! %o,er+T 8I( d* %+HH; 654 Sour"e< 4n !n)uiry !nto the "ature of Peace and the Terms of !ts 2DE

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Th s !ast %o nt on the %er%etuat on o& the nat on?s culture s (est e-em%! & ed , th the "ommon* modern Western m%er a! "!a ms o& see7 n# to s%read KFreedom and Demo"ra"'”+ Th s "!a m ta7es a paternal %os t on* %os t n# the dea that the "urrent %o! t "a! "! mate o& a tar#eted nat on s s m%!' too nhumane and nter$ent on to Khe!%” ts " t 1ens (e"omes a Kmora! o(! #at on” o& the n$ad n# %o,er+ Ve(!en /ont nues< KAn' Aatr ot sm , !! ser$e as ,a's and means to ,ar! 7e enter%r se under "om%etent mana#ement* e$en & Xthe %eo%!e areY not ha( tua!!' %rone to a (e!! "ose tem%er+ R #ht!' mana#ed* ord nar' %atr ot " sent ment ma' read !' (e mo( ! 1ed &or ,ar! 7e ad$enture (' an' reasona(!' adro t and s n#!e.m nded (od' o& statesmen . o& ,h "h there s a(undant !!ustrat on+”65D K+++ t s Xa!soY )u te a sa&e #enera! 1at on that ,hen host ! t es ha$e on"e (een #ot &a r!' under,a' (' the nterested statesman* the %atr ot " sent ment o& the nat on ma' "on& dent!' (e "ounted on to (a"7 the enter%r se* rres%e"t $e o& the mer ts o& the )uarre!”+656 In Amer "a* the %hrase KI?m a#a nst the ,ar (ut su%%ort the troo%s”65H s "ommon amon# those ,ho o%%ose a # $en "on&! "t (ut , sh to (e $ e,ed as st !! res%e"t&u! o& the r "ountr' n #enera!+ Th s %hrase s un )ue as t s a"tua!!' rrat ona!+ To !o# "a!!' Ksu%%ort the troo%s” ,ou!d mean to su%%ort the role of being a Ktroo%”* hen"e the a"ts that are re)u red (' that ro!e+ The m%! " t #esture* o& "ourse* s that one su%%orts the need &or ,ar and hen"e su%%orts the men and ,omen o& the armed &or"es ,ho ass st that need+ :et* the statement tse!& s &u!!' "ontrad "tor' and e- sts as a &orm o& Kdou(!eth n7”*65I as to d sa#ree , th the e- sten"e o& a "erta n ,ar s to ,ho!!' d sa#ree , th a"t ons o& those ,ho en#a#e t+ It s s m !ar to sa' n#* KI?m a#a nst "an"er 7 !! n# %eo%!e (ut I su%%ort "an"er?s r #ht to ! &e”+ The armed &or"es ha$e h stor "a!!' (een he!d n h #h %u(! " esteem (' a " t 1enr' and the #o$ernment "ont nua!!' #!or & es th s to the e-tent that the assum%t on o& Khonor” ta7es on an rrat ona! ! &e o& ts o,n+ In &a"t* t s "om%ounded %s'"ho!o# "a!!' (' a (u !t. n ceremonialism+ Honor s &orma! 1ed throu#h a,ards* meta!s* %arades* %ostures o& res%e"t and other adornments ,h "h m%ress the %u(! " as to the su%%osed $a!ue o& the a"t ons o& the so!d ers and hen"e the nst tut on o& ,ar+ Th s &urther re n&or"es the "u!tura! taboo ,here to nsu!t an' e!ement o& the ,ar a%%aratus s seen as sho, n# d sres%e"t &or the sa"r & "e o& the armed &or"es+ From the stand%o nt o& true %rote"t on and %ro(!em reso!ut on* as ,ou!d (e the Khonora(!e” "ase o& a & re& #hter ,ho sa$es a "h !d &rom a (urn n# (u !d n#* th s adm rat on s ,arranted+ The se!&!ess*
Perpetuation* Thorste n Ve(!en* E"ho L (rar'* 2E2F %+2I

65D I( d+* %+F 656 I( d+* %+2I 65H Re&eren"e<

an 6ou Support the Troops but "ot the 7arD Troops 'espond 8htt%<MM,,,+hu&& n#ton%ost+"omM%au!.r e"7ho&&M"an.'ou.su%%ort.the. troo%V(V4I2E4+htm!; 65I KDou(!eth n7” a term "o ned (' Geor#e Or,e!! ,h "h des"r (es the a"t o& s mu!taneous!' a""e%t n# t,o mutua!!' "ontrad "tor' (e! e&s as "orre"t+ 265

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

a!tru st " %os t on o& %utt n# one?s ! &e at r s7 &or the (ene& t o& another s natura!!' a no(!e a"t+ Ho,e$er* n the "onte-t o& h stor "a! ,ar&are* the %ersona! a!tru sm o& a so!d er does not 0ust &' (road a"ts o& nat ona!* m%er a! a##ress on* no matter ho, ,e!! ntent oned the so!d ers ma' (e+ Furthermore* th s &ear.or ented power preservation (' the esta(! shed #o$ernmenta! a%%aratus a!so natura!!' #enerates a Ksu(. ,ar” a#a nst the domest " " t 1enr' tse!&* a!most a!,a's am%! & ed n t mes o& ,ar+ Those ,ho "ha!!en#e or o%%ose a # $en nat ona! "on&! "t ha$e h stor "a!!' (een met , th d re"t o%%ress on and* (' "u!tura! e-tens on* %u(! " resentment+ The "ommon 'et am( #uous !e#a! $ o!at ons o& Ktreason”65F and Ksed t on”65G are h stor "a! e-am%!es o& th s* a!on# , th the %attern o& sus%end n# the r #hts o& " t 1ens dur n# t mes o& ,ar* somet mes e$en n"!ud n# &ree s%ee"h+65E So" a!!'* the use o& K%atr ot sm”* as noted (e&ore* s a!so $er' "ommon to the e&&e"t that those ,ho do not su%%ort a ,ar are o&ten d sm ssed as not su%%ort n# the nat ona! " t 1enr' (' e-tens on* "reat n# a! enat on+ More re"ent!'* those n o%%os t on and %erha%s en#a# n# n %rotest a"t ons ha$e (een "ons dered Kterror sts” (' the state*625 a %o,er&u! n"r m nat on , th se$ere !e#a! "onse)uen"es & deemed true (' the author t es+ Ho,e$er* th s Ksu(.,ar” "an (e de"onstru"ted nto an e$en dee%er me"han sm . ,hat "ou!d (e "a!!ed a 7 nd o& social control n su%%ort o& m%er a! ntent+ In man' "ountr es toda'* e ther (' o(! #at on &rom ( rth622 or (' %ersuas on to !e#a!!' ( nd n# "ontra"ts624 the %ressure or mot $at on to 0o n the m ! tar' tse!& s manipulative on man' !e$e!s+ Ad$ert s n# ta"t "s su"h as Kmone' &or "o!!e#e” or K%ersona! a""om%! shment” are "ommon* ar#ua(!' tar#et n# the !o,er
65F KTreason” s de& ned as< Kthe o&&ense o& attem%t n# (' o$ert a"ts to

o$erthro, the #o$ernment o& the state to ,h "h the o&&ender o,es a!!e# an"e” Sour"e< htt%<MM,,,+merr am.,e(ster+"omMd "t onar'Mtreason 65G KSed t on” s de& ned as< K n" tement o& res stan"e to or nsurre"t on a#a nst !a,&u! author t'” Sour"e< htt%<MM,,,+merr am. ,e(ster+"omMd "t onar'Msed t on 65E From Wor!d War II?s 3a%anese.Amer "an Internment "am%s that m%r soned o$er 24F*555 US " t 1ens* 8Sour"e< htt%<MM,,,+ush stor'+or#MusMH2e+as%; to the sus%ens on o& " $ ! ! (ert es as su"h as Kha(eas "or%us”* 8Sour"e< htt%<MM,,,+sa!on+"omM455EM56M22M(a#ramVDM; to the %rose"ut on &or mere s%ee"h* 8Sour"e< htt%<MM,,,+h stor'+"omMth s.da'. n.h stor'Mus."on#ress. %asses.sed t on.a"t; r #hts $ o!at ons dur n# ,art me s an h stor "a! "onstant+ 625 A re"ent e-am%!e o& th s ,as the KO""u%' Mo$ement” u%r s n# that ,as !ater re$ea!ed to (e "ons dered a %oss (!e Kterror st threat” (' the F9I+ 8Sour"e< htt%<MM,,,+0ust "eon! ne+or#M"ommentar'M&( .& !es.o,s+htm!; 622 Israe!* &or e-am%!e* en&or"es near &u!! "ons"r %t on o& ts " t 1ens+ 8Sour"e< htt%<MM,,,+a!0a1eera+"omMne,sMm dd!eeastM4524M5FM4524FGHD22GHE26EH+ htm!; 624 Re&eren"e< KWh' Is Gett n# Out o& the U+S+ Arm' So Tou#hR”* T me* 4524 8htt%<MMnat on+t me+"omM4524M5HM56M,h'. s.#ett n#.out.o&.the.u.s.arm'. so.tou#hM; 262

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

run#s o& the e"onom " h erar"h'+62D The Un ted States s on re"ord &or ha$ n# at t mes s%ent ( !! ons a 'ear 8b6+F ( !! on n 455E; on #!o(a! %u(! " re!at ons n ass st %u(! " ma#e and re"ru tment+626

$m,erial War% Source When the trad t ona!* %ro%a#and 1ed !!us ons n de&ense o& the a"t o& or#an 1ed human murder and resour"e the&t ha$e (een o$err dden* d sm ss n# su"h sha!!o, 0ust & "at ons as %aterna! %atr ot sm* honor and %rote"t on sm* ,e & nd that ,ar toda' s a"tua!!' an nherent "hara"ter st " o& the %ro%ert ed* s"ar" t'.dr $en business s'stem+ It ,ou!d (e &a!se to sa' that ,ar s a %rodu"t o& "a% ta! sm n and o& tse!& s n"e the %ra"t "e o& ,ar %redates "a% ta! sm e-tens $e!'+ Ho,e$er* ,hen ,e de"onstru"t the %rem se tse!& ,e see that ,ar s* ndeed* a "entra!* mmuta(!e &eature o& "a% ta! sm as t s s m%!' a more so%h st "ated man &estat on o& these same* d $ s $e* "om%et t $e* ar"ha " $a!ues and %ra"t "es+ 3ust as a "or%orat on "om%etes , th other "or%orat ons o& the same #enre &or n"ome sur$ $a!* n$ar a(!' see7 n# mono%o!' and "arte! ,hen t "an* a!! #o$ernments on the %!anet are &undamenta!!' %rem sed on the same &orm o& sur$ $a! (' e-tens on+ Us n# Amer "a as a "ase stud'* n 4522 the "ountr' #a ned a(out b4+D tr !! on n &edera! n"ome ta- re$enues a!one+62H These re$enues are m%ortant to the o%erat on o& ,hat s* n e&&e"t* the business institution 7no,n as KAmer "a”* n the same ,a' the annua! earn n#s o& M "roso&t a&&e"t ts a( ! t' to &un"t on+ Amer "a s* n truth* a corporation n &un"t on and &ormU , th a!! the re# stered (us nesses e- st n# n ts domest " !e#a! ,e( to (e "ons dered subsidiaries o& th s parent nst tut on ,e trad t ona!!' "a!! the KUS #o$ernment”+ There&ore* a!! a"t ons o& the US #o$ernment* a!on# , th a!! "om%et n# #o$ernments n the ,or!d* must natura!!' 7ee% an a"ute business acumen n o%erat on+ Ho,e$er* ,hat se%arates th s K%arent "or%orat on” 8Amer "a; &rom ts su(s d ar' se"tors 8"or%orat ons; s the s"a!e o& ts "a%a" t' to %reser$e tse!& and 7ee% a "om%et t $e ed#e+ Its ne"ess t' to %reser$e the "ore dr $ers o& ts e"onom' s "ru" a! and a "ursor' #!an"e at h stor' re#ard n# ho, the US ,as a(!e to #a n and ma nta n ts status o& a #!o(a! Kem% re”* sho,s th s (us ness a"umen "!ear!'+ The man &estat on s rea!!' ! tt!e d &&erent n %r n" %!e than ho, a s%e" & " "or%orat on see7s to #a n a "ommer" a! mono%o!'+ On!' n th s "ase the dea! o& global monopoly 8em% re; s not restr "ted ('
62D Re&eren"e< KM ! tar' re"ru ters tar#et so!ated* de%ressed areas”* Seattle

Times* 455H :htt%<MMseatt!et mes+"omMhtm!Mnat on,or!dM4554I24H64Vre"ru ts5E+htm!; 626 Sour"e< KAenta#on S%end n# 9 !! ons on AR to S,a' Wor!d O% n on”* (ox "ews, 4525 8htt%<MM,,,+&o-ne,s+"omM%o! t "sM455EM54M5HM%enta#on. s%end n#.( !! ons.%r.s,a'.,or!d.o% n onM; 62H Sour"e< KFedera! Re$enues (' Sour"e”* >eritage*com, 4524 8htt%<MM,,,+her ta#e+or#M&edera!(ud#etM&edera!.re$enue.sour"esY 264

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

!e#a! mandate as s "ommon!' "!a med (' the domest " !e#a! restra nt . t s &or"e&u!!' e-e"uted n the theater o& m%er a! ,ar+ In &a"t* nterest n#!' enou#h (ut not une-%e"ted!'* the $er' a"t o& th s se!&.%reser$at on throu#h m ! tar' m #ht ha$e itself (e"ome a %o,er&u!!' !u"rat $e (us ness $enture ,h "h o&ten m%ro$es the e"onom " state o& the nat on and hen"e %ro& ts to ts "or%orate "onst tuents+ Toda'* ,e "an e-tend these e"onom " (ene& ts to the mass $e m ! tar' e-%end tures62I 62F a!on# , th the re"onstru"t on o& ,ar.torn areas (' the "on)uer n# states? "ommer" a! su(s d ar es*62G the s!o, %rodd n# o& a "ountr'?s nte#r t' throu#h trade tar &&s* san"t ons and de(t m%os t ons &or the sa7e o& %o%u!at on su(0u#at on &or the (ene& t o& trans"ont nenta! ndustr es62E 645 and man' other modern Ke"onom " ,ar” "on$ent ons+ Th s %o nt ,as ! 7e!' (est e-%ressed (' one o& Amer "a?s most de"orated arm' o&& "ers o& the 45th "entur'< Ma0or Genera! Smed!e' D+ 9ut!er+642 9ut!er ,as the author o& a &amous (oo7 re!eased a&ter Wor!d War I t t!ed 7ar is a 'ac#et* and stated the &o!!o, n# , th res%e"t to the (us ness o& ,ar< KWar s a ra"7et+ It a!,a's has (een+ It s %oss (!' the o!dest* eas !' the most %ro& ta(!e* sure!' the most $ " ous+ It s the on!' one nternat ona! n s"o%e+ It s the on!' one n ,h "h the %ro& ts are re"7oned n do!!ars and the !osses n ! $es+”644 He a!so ,rote n 2EDH< KI s%ent DD 'ears and &our months n a"t $e m ! tar' ser$ "e and dur n# that %er od I s%ent most o& m' t me as a h #h "!ass mus"!e man &or 9 # 9us ness* &or Wa!! Street and the (an7ers+ In short* I ,as a ra"7eteer* a #an#ster &or "a% ta! sm+ I he!%ed ma7e Me- "o and es%e" a!!' Tam% "o sa&e &or Amer "an o ! nterests n 2E26+ I he!%ed ma7e Ha t and /u(a a de"ent %!a"e &or the Nat ona! / t' 9an7 (o's to "o!!e"t re$enues n+ I he!%ed n the ra% n# o& ha!& a do1en /entra! Amer "an re%u(! "s &or the (ene& t o& Wa!! Street+ I
62I Re&eren"e< The BG Most Vicious !ra) 7ar Profiteers, 9us nessAund t+"om*

455G 8htt%<MM,,,+(us ness%und t+"omMthe.4H.most.$ " ous. ra).,ar. %ro& teers; 62F Re&eren"e< Ten ompanies Profiting Most from 7ar, 46FWa!!St+"om* 4524 8htt%<MM46F,a!!st+"omM4524M54M4GMten."om%an es.%ro& t n#.most.&rom. ,arM; 62G Re&eren"e< 4dvocates of 7ar "ow Profit (rom !ra)0s 'econstruction, LAT mes+"om* 4556 8htt%<MMart "!es+!at mes+"omM4556M0u!M26Mnat onMna. ad$o"ates26; 62E Re&eren"e< =eadly Sanctions 'egime3 Economic 7arfare against !ran, G!o(a!Resear"h+"a* 4524 8htt%<MM,,,+#!o(a!resear"h+"aMdead!'.san"t ons. re# me.e"onom ".,ar&are.a#a nst. ranMHD5HE42; 645 Re&eren"e< onfessions of an Economic >it Man3 >ow the 9*S* 9ses ?lobali%ation to heat Poor ountries <ut of Trillions, Demo"ra"'No,+or#* 4556 8htt%<MM,,,+demo"ra"'no,+or#M4556M22MEM"on&ess onsVo&VanVe"onom "Vh tVman; 642 Re&eren"e< /anana 7ars3 MaEor ?eneral Smedley /utler, A(out+"om 8htt%<MMm ! tar'h stor'+a(out+"omModM2E55sM%M9anana.Wars.Ma0or.Genera!. Smed!e'.9ut!er+htm; 644 Sour"e< 7ar is a 'ac#et* Smed!e' D+ 9ut!er* W !! am H Hu&& Au(! sh n#* 2EDH* /ha%ter 2* %+2 26D

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

he!%ed %ur &' N "ara#ua &or the Internat ona! 9an7 n# House o& 9ro,n 9rothers n 2E54.2E24+ I (rou#ht ! #ht to the Dom n "an Re%u(! " &or the Amer "an su#ar nterests n 2E2I+ I he!%ed ma7e Honduras r #ht &or the Amer "an &ru t "om%an es n 2E5D+ In /h na n 2E4F I he!%ed see to t that Standard O ! ,ent on ts ,a' unmo!ested+ Loo7 n# (a"7 on t* I m #ht ha$e # $en A! /a%one a &e, h nts+ The (est he "ou!d do ,as to o%erate h s ra"7et n three d str "ts+ I o%erated on three "ont nents+”64D 3ohn A+ Ho(son?s 82GHG.2E65; monumenta! ,or7 !mperialism3 4 Study des"r (ed the tenden"' as a Kso" a! %aras t " %ro"ess (' ,h "h a mone'ed nterest , th n the state* usur% n# the re ns o& #o$ernment* ma7es &or m%er a! e-%ans on n order to &asten e"onom " su"7ers nto &ore #n (od es so as to dra n them o& the r ,ea!th n order to su%%ort domest " !u-ur'+”646 No,* man' ,ou!d th n7 a(out these a"ts o& a(use as a &orm o& K"orru%t on” (ut th s reason n# s d && "u!t to 0ust &' n the (road $ e,+ The eth "a! and mora! ar#ument o& K&a r” and Kun&a r” has no "o#ent nte#r t' within the s'stem &rame,or7 nherent to "a% ta! sm+ Th s s one o& the un&ortunate &a !ures o& rea! 1at on (' those ,ho are a"t $e n the messa#e o& K,or!d %ea"e” or Kant .,ar” a"t $ sm (ut 'et st !! de&end the "om%et t $e mar7et mode!+ In other ,ords* K,or!d %ea"e” a%%ears s m%!' not a %oss ( ! t' , th n the "urrent!' a""e%ted mode! o& e"onom " %ra"t "e+ E$er' ste% o& the a%%! "at on o& #!o(a! "a% ta! sm* start n# &rom ts Euro%ean n"e%t on* has (een asso" ated , th $ast $ o!en"e* e-%!o tat on and su(0u#at on+ Euro%ean "o!on a! sm*64H the "a%ture o& A&r "an Ks!a$es” &or use and sa!e* the &or"ed su(0u#at on o& "ount!ess "o!on a! %eo%!es* and the "reat on o& %r $ !e#ed san"tuar es o& %ro& teer n# and %o,er &or the man' #o$ernment."reated or #o$ernment.%rote"ted (us nesses* on!' tou"hes the sur&a"e o& ts nherent "hara"ter as a K,ar s'stem” o& thou#ht+ Thorste n Ve(!en* a#a n ,r t n# &rom 2E2F* ma7es the d re"t "onne"t on to ,hat he "a!!ed the K%e"un ar'” or monetar' &oundat on o& ,ar< KIt has a%%eared n the "ourse o& the ar#ument that the %reser$at on o& the %resent %e"un ar' !a, and order* , th a!! ts n" dent o& o,nersh % and n$estment* s n"om%at (!e , th an un,ar! 7e state o& %ea"e and se"ur t'+ Th s "urrent s"heme o& n$estment* (us ness* and XIndustr a!Y sa(ota#e* shou!d ha$e an a%%re" a(!' (etter "han"e o& sur$ $a! n the !on# run & the %resent "ond t ons o& ,ar! 7e %re%arat on and nat ona! K nse"ur t'” ,ere ma nta ned* or & the %ro0e"ted %ea"e ,ere !e&t n a some,hat %ro(!emat " state* su&& " ent!' %re"ar ous to 7ee% nat ona! an mos t es
64D Or # na!!' n

ommon Sense* 2EDH+ Re%rodu"ed n Hans S"hm dt?s Maveric# Marine3 ?eneral Smedley =* /utler and the ontradictions of 4merican Military >istory+ Un $ers t' Aress o& Centu"7'* 2EEG %+4D2 646 Sour"e< !mperialism3 4 Study, 3+A+ Ho(son* Un $ers t' o& M "h #an Aress* Ann Ar(or* 2EIH* %+DIF 64H Re&eren"e< Western /o!on a! sm de& ned< htt%<MM,,,+(r tann "a+"omME9"he"7edMto% "M24I4DFM"o!on a! sm.WesternY 266

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

a!ert+++”64I KSo* & the %ro0e"tors o& th s %ea"e at !ar#e are n an' de#ree n"! ned to see7 "on"ess $e terms on ,hat the %ea"e m #ht ho%e&u!!' (e made endur n#* t shou!d e$ dent!' (e %art o& the r endea$ors &rom the outset to %ut e$ents n tra n &or the %resent a(atement and e$entua! a(ro#at on o& the r #hts o& o,nersh % and o& the %r "e.s'stem n ,h "h these r #hts ta7e e&&e"t+”64F Further e$ den"e o& th s "onte-t "an (e &ound n the more modern &orms o& indirect violence* These n"!ude Ke"onom " ,ar&are” a%%roa"hes* as ment oned (e&ore* ,h "h "an ser$e as "om%!ete a"ts o& a##ress on n and o& themse!$es* or as a %art o& a %ro"edura! %re!ude to trad t ona! m ! tar' a"t on+ E-am%!es "ome n the &orm o& trade tar &&s* san"t ons* de(t (' "oer" on* and man' other !esser.7no,n* "o$ert methods to ,ea7en a "ountr'+64G G!o(a! & nan" a! nst tut ons su"h as the Wor!d 9an7 and IMF ha$e hea$' $ested state and hen"e (us ness nterests (eh nd them and the' ha$e the %o,er to a!!o"ate de(t to K(a !out” su&&er n# "ountr es at the e-%ense o& the )ua! t' o& ! &e o& ts " t 1enr'* o&ten ta7 n# "har#e o& natura! resour"es or ndustr es throu#h se!e"t %r $at 1at on or other manners ,h "h "an ,ea7en a "ountr'?s a( ! t' to the e&&e"t that t (e"omes re! ant on others* to the ad$anta#e o& "ommer" a! outs ders+64E Th s s s m%!' a more "o$ert manner o& su(0u#at on than ,as seen* sa'* , th the 9r t sh Em% re?s m%er a! e-%ans on throu#h ts KEast Ind a /om%an'” . the "ommer" a! &or"e that too7 ad$anta#e o& the ne,!' "on)uered re# ona! resour"es and !a(or n As a n the 2Fth "entur'+6D5 Ho,e$er* un! 7e 9r t sh Em% re e-%ans on* Amer "an em% re e-%ans on d d not #a n ts status throu#h m ! tar' a"t on a!one* e$en thou#h su"h a %resen"e s st !! enormous #!o(a!!'+6D2 Rather* the use o&
64I Sour"e< 4n !n)uiry !nto the "ature of Peace and the Terms of !ts 64F I( d+ %+DIF 64G Re&eren"e< <ur Economic 7arfare, (oreign4ffairs*com

Perpetuation* Thorste n Ve(!en* 9+W+ Hu(s"h* 2E2F %%+DII.DIF

8htt%<MM,,,+&ore #na&&a rs+"omMart "!esMF52I4M%er"'.,.( d,e!!Mour. e"onom ".,ar&are; 64E As noted (' resear"h (' the STWR re#ard n# the Wor!d 9an7< KIn most o& ts "! ent "ountr es* t s $ rtua!!' the on!' door,a' to a""ess nternat ona! trade* de$e!o%ment & nan"e and %r $ate n$estment "a% ta!+ It der $es ts %o,er and %o! "' a#endas &rom ts ,ea!th est shareho!ders J #o$ernments that "om%r se the G.F+++,ho rout ne!' use the 9an7 to se"ure !u"rat $e trade and n$estment dea!s n de$e!o% n# "ountr es &or the r res%e"t $e transnat ona! "or%orat ons 8TN/s;+” Sour"e< !M(, 7orld /an# A Trade, STWR 8htt%<MM,,,+st,r+or#M m&.,or!d.(an7.tradeM"or%orate.%o,er.and. n&!uen"e. n.the.,or!d.(an7+htm!; 6D5 Re&eren"e< East !ndia ompany, 9r tann "a+"om 8htt%<MM,,,+(r tann "a+"omME9"he"7edMto% "M2FII6DMEast.Ind a./om%an'; 6D2 As o& 4522* t has (een re%orted that the US m ! tar' e- sts n o$er 2D5 "ountr es* , th an est mated E55 (ases+ Sour"e< 'on Paul says 9*S* has military personnel in ,KC nations and FCC overseas bases, %o! t &a"t+"om* 4522 8htt%<MM,,,+%o! t &a"t+"omMtruth.o. meterMstatementsM4522Mse%M26Mron.%au!Mron.%au!.sa's.us.has.m ! tar'. %ersonne!.2D5.nat onM; 26H

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

"om%!e- e"onom " strate# es that re%os t oned other "ountr es nto su(0u#at on to US e"onom " and #eo.e"onom " nterests ,as made "ommon+6D4 Class War% $nherent Ps+cholog+ Mo$ n# on to the K"!ass ,ar” th s not on has (een noted n h stor "a! ! terature &or "entur es (ased %art!' on assum%t ons o& human nature* %art!' on assum%t ons o& a !a"7 o& "a%a" t' o& the Earth and %rodu"t on means to meet e$er'one?s needs and %art!' on the more re!e$ant a,areness that the s'stem o& mar7et "a% ta! sm ne$ ta(!' guarantees "!ass d $ s on and m(a!an"e due to ts nherent me"han sms* (oth stru"tura!!' and %s'"ho!o# "a!!'+ Found n# &ree mar7et e"onom st Da$ d R "ardo?s statement that KI& ,a#es shou!d r se+++then+++ %ro& ts ,ou!d ne"essar !' &a!!”6DD s a s m%!e a"7no,!ed#ment o& the stru"tura! assuran"e o& "!ass "on&! "t as the wage re!ates to the !o,er K,or7 n# "!ass” and the profits the u%%er K"a% ta! st "!ass” and as one #a ns* the other !oses+ L 7e, se* e$en Adam Sm th n h s "anon "a! The 7ealth of "ations "!ear!' e-%resses the nature o& %o,er %reser$at on on the (eha$ ora! 8%s'"ho!o# "a!; !e$e!* stat n#< K/ $ ! #o$ernment* so &ar as t s nst tuted &or the se"ur t' o& %ro%ert'* s n rea! t' nst tuted &or the de&ense o& the r "h a#a nst the %oor* or o& those ,ho ha$e some %ro%ert' a#a nst those ,ho ha$e none at a!!+”6D6 Ho,e$er* the true use o& #o$ernment &or the %ur%oses o& the u%%er or (us ness "!ass seems to (e stu((orn!' #nored (' Sm th* R "ardo and e$en man' o& toda'?s e"onom sts* ,ho seem una(!e or un, !! n# to ta7e nto a""ount %resent.da' e$ents+ E$en the most "omm tted* !a sse1.&a re mar7et e"onom st st !! e-%resses the need &or #o$ernment and ts !e#a! a%%aratus to e- st as someth n# o& a Kre&eree” to 7ee% the #ame K&a r”+ Terms su"h a K"ron'."a% ta! sm” are o&ten used under the assum%t on that K"o!!us on” (et,een a #o$ernmenta! "onst tuen"' and the seemingly deta"hed "or%orate nst tut ons s o& an uneth "a! or K"r m na!” nature+ :et a#a n* as noted (e&ore* t s !!o# "a! to assume that the nature o& #o$ernment s an'th n# e!se at ts "ore than a $eh "!e to su%%ort the (us nesses that "om%r se the ,ea!th o& that "ountr'+ The (us ness a%%aratus rea!!' is the "ountr' n te"hn "a! &orm* re#ard!ess o& the sur&a"e "!a m that a Kdemo"rat "” "ountr' s or#an 1ed around the nterests o& the " t 1enr' tse!&+ In &a"t* t "an (e ,e!! ar#ued that no #o$ernment n re"orded h stor' has e$er o&&ered ts " t 1ens a !e# t mate %!a"e n #o$ernan"e or !e# s!at on and , th n the "onte-t o& modern "a% ta! sm* ,h "h s st !! a man &estat on o& "entur es o!d $a!ues and assum%t ons , th a "!ear e! t sm n ntent* t s nterest n# ho, th s
6D4 Re&eren"e< 7hy the =eveloping 7orld >ates the 7orld /an#,

TheTe"hOn! ne* 4554 8htt%<MMte"h+m t+eduMV244MN22M"o!22%are7+22"+htm!; 2G42* Dent Ed t on* 2EI4*%+I6 Adam Sm th* 2FFI* %ar+ V+2+4 auses of the 7ealth of "ations,

6DD Sour"e< The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation* Da$ d R "ardo* 6D6 Sour"e< 4n !n)uiry into the "ature and

26I

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

m'th o& Kdemo"ra"'” %er%etuates tse!& toda' n the ,a' that t does+ To &urther th s %o nt* one o& the ar"h te"ts o& the US /onst tut on o& the Un ted States* 3ames Mad son* e-%ressed h s "on"ern $er' "!ear!' re#ard n# the need to o%%ress the %o! t "a! %o,er o& those n the !o,er "!asses+ He stated< KIn En#!and* at th s da'* & e!e"t ons ,ere o%en to a!! "!asses o& %eo%!e* the %ro%ert' o& !anded %ro%r etors ,ou!d (e nse"ure+ An a#rar an !a, ,ou!d soon ta7e %!a"e+ I& these o(ser$at ons (e 0ust* our #o$ernment ou#ht to se"ure the %ermanent nterests o& the "ountr' a#a nst nno$at on+ Landho!ders ou#ht to ha$e a share n the #o$ernment* to su%%ort these n$a!ua(!e nterests* and to (a!an"e and "he"7 the other+ The' ou#ht to (e so "onst tuted as to protect the minority of the opulent against the maEority+ The senate* there&ore* ou#ht to (e th s (od'U and to ans,er these %ur%oses* the' ou#ht to ha$e %ermanen"' and sta( ! t'+”6DH So* start n# , th th s a,areness that the $er' %rem se o& #!o(a! Kdemo"ra"'” s dee%!' nh ( ted (' the "a% ta! st n"ent $e s'stem to "om%et t $e!' ma nta n %o,er on the !e$e! o& the state to ass st the u%%er "!ass n %reser$ n# %o! t "a! and* (' e-tens on* & nan" a! %o,er* a "!earer % "ture o& ho, dee% th s "!ass ,ar runs s o(ta ned+ L 7e!' the most str 7 n# as%e"t o& th s s ho, su"h me"han sms o& "!ass d $ s on e- st n our e$er' da' ! $es (ut 'et #o unseen s n"e the' are stru"tura!!' built in to the & nan" a!* %o! t "a! and !e#a! a%%aratus tse!&+ Class War% Structural 2echanisms In the modern da'* , th 65 %er"ent o& the %!anet?s ,ea!th (e n# o,ned (' 2 %er"ent o& the ,or!d?s %o%u!at on*6DI ,e & nd that (oth n terms o& system structure and incentive psychology* %o,er&u! me"han sms e- st to ma nta n and e$en a""e!erate th s #ross!' d s%ro%ort onate #!o(a! ,ea!th m(a!an"e+ Need!ess to sa'* # $en the & nan" a! (as s o& e$er'th n# n the ,or!d toda'* , th #reat ,ea!th "omes #reat power* Hen"e* as des"r (ed %r or* th s %o,er ena(!es a more ro(ust strate#' &or "om%et t $e #a n and se!&.%reser$at on and "onse)uent!' t has hen"e e-tended nto the $er' structure o& the so" a! s'stem tse!&* assur n# that the u%%er "!ass has #reat ease n ma nta n n# the r $ast ,ea!th se"ur t'* ,h !e the !o,er "!asses &a"e enormous stru"tura! (arr ers to atta n n# an' (as " !e$e! o& & nan" a! se"ur t'+ Some me"han sms o& th s "!ass ,ar oppression are &a r!' o($ ous+ For nstan"e* the de(ate o$er ta-at on* and ho, there has (een an h stor "a! &a$or n# o& the "or%orate r "h o$er the ,or7 n# %oor* s one e-am%!e+6DF The ar#ument o& the esta(! shment usua!!' re$o!$es
6DH Sour"e< "otes of the Secret =ebates of the (ederal

onvention of ,OIO, Ro(ert :ates* A!ston M'#att* %+2GD 6DI Re&eren"e< <ne percent holds KF percent of global wealth, Ra,Stor'+"om* 4522 8htt%<MM,,,+ra,stor'+"omMrsM4522M5HMD2Mone.%er"ent.ho!ds.DE. %er"ent.o&.#!o(a!.,ea!thM; 6DF Re&eren"e< Poor 4mericans Pay =ouble The State, +ocal Tax 'ates <f Top <ne Percent, Hu&& n#tonAost+"om* 4524 8htt%<MM,,,+hu&& n#ton%ost+"omM4524M5EM42M%oor.amer "ans.state.!o"a!. 26F

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

around the dea that s n"e the r "h are a!so the Ko,nersh % "!ass” and are %art!' res%ons (!e &or the #enerat on o& #enera! em%!o'ment* the' shou!d (e # $en more & nan" a! &reedom+6DG As an as de* t s eas' to see that there s $er' ! tt!e true mer t n th s one.s ded ar#ument s n"e the & nan" a! o%%ress on throu#h %u(! " ta-at on s a"tua!!' limiting the %ur"has n# %o,er o& the #enera! %u(! "* "reat n# an ar#ua(!' more %o,er&u! m%ed ment to e"onom " #ro,th than the mere ! m t n# o& the "o&&ers o& the "or%orate Kem%!o'ers”+6DE The on!' e-"e%t on to th s* ,h "h trans"ends the ar#ument o& the r "h as K0o( "reators”* s the ad$ent o& plutonomy* ,h "h , !! (e addressed to,ards the end o& th s essa'+ /!ass &a$or n# ta-at on as de* &our other more "r t "a! stru"tura! &a"tors , !! (e d s"ussed< 8a; de(t* 8(; nterest* 8"; n&!at on and 8d; n"ome d s%ar t'+ 8a; De(t s a m sunderstood so" a! %ra"t "e n that most assume de(t s an option n so" et' toda'+ In rea! t'* the ent re & nan" a! s'stem s (u !t out o& de(t* )u te ! tera!!'+ A!! mone' s (rou#ht nto e- sten"e throu#h !oans n the modern e"onom'* "om n# &rom "entra! and "ommer" a! (an7s ,ho essent a!!' "reate the mone' out o& demand tse!&+665 Th s (as " me"han sm o& monetar' "reat on s a %o,er&u! &or"e o& e"onom " o%%ress on+ Househo!d de(t toda' tends to "ons st o& "red t "ard !oans* hous n# !oans* "ar !oans and student 8edu"at ona!; !oans+ Those n the !o,er "!asses natura!!' ho!d h #her !e$e!s o& th s consumer de(t than the u%%er "!ass s n"e the $er' nature o& (e n# una(!e to %a' outr #ht &or (as " so" a! sta%!es* su"h a "ar or home* &or"es the need &or (an7s !oans+ The resu!t s that the %ressure o& de(t s "onstant n the ! $es o& the $ast ma0or t'+662 664 66D The #enera! ,a#e and n"ome rates (e n# ,hat the' are on a$era#e* natura!!' as !o, as %oss (!e to ass st , th the dom nant "a% ta! st ethos o& "ost.e&& " en"' u%on ,h "h the ent re so" et' s en# neered* the ,a#e n"ome made (' the a$era#e
ta-esVnV2E5DEED+htm!;

6DG Re&eren"e< =on0t Tax the &ob

reators, /n("+"om* 4524 8htt%<MM,,,+"n("+"omM dM6G4E5D6FMDon5DEtVTa-VtheV3o(V/reatorsVRomn e'; 6DE Re&eren"e< Private =ebt 2ills the Economy, G!o(a!Resear"h+"a* 4524 8htt%<MM,,,+#!o(a!resear"h+"aM%r $ate.de(t.7 !!s.the.e"onom'MHD5DG64; 665 For a &u!! treatment on the "reat on o& mone'* see< Modern Money Mechanics* Federa! Reser$e 9an7 o& /h "a#o* 2EI2 662 Re&eren"e< 9*S* redit ard =ebt ?rows, (ewer 4mericans Ma#e Payments <n Time, Hu&& n#tonAost+"om* 4524 8htt%<MM,,,+hu&& n#ton%ost+"omM4524M22M2EMus."red t."ard.de(t. #ro,sVnV42HG525+htm!; 664 Re&eren"e< =rowning !n Medical =ebtD (iling (or /an#ruptcy ould /e 6our +ife 'aft, 9us nessIns der+"om* 4524 8htt%<MMart "!es+(us ness ns der+"omM4524.52. 4FMne,sMD5IIEF26V2V(an7ru%t"'.& !ers.med "a!.de(t."red t.s"ore; 66D Re&eren"e< The =ebt That 7on0t ?o 4way, "n("+"om* 4525 8htt%<MM,,,+"n("+"omM dM65IG5E5H; 26G

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

em%!o'ee tends to on!' (are!' meet the (as " !oan ser$ " n# re)u rements ,h !e n "on"ert , th meet n# (as "* e$er'da' sur$ $a! needs+ Hen"e a &orm o& Krunn n# n %!a"e” s "onstant and the %oss ( ! t' o& so" a! mo( ! t' u% the "!ass h erar"h' s dee%!' m%eded* !et a!one the d && "u!t' o& s m%!' #ett n# out o& de(t tse!&+666 8(; Interest< /ou%!ed , th de(t s the %ro& t attr (ute asso" ated the sa!e o& mone' tse!&+ S n"e the /a% ta! st mar7et e"onom' su%%orts the #enera! "ommod & "at on o& $ rtua!!' e$er'th n#* t s no sur%r se that mone' tse!& s so!d nto e- sten"e &or %ro& t and th s "omes n the &orm o& interest+ Whether t s a "entra! (an7 "reat n# mone' n e-"han#e &or #o$ernment se"ur t es or a "ommer" a! (an7 ma7 n# a mort#a#e !oan to an a$era#e %erson* nterest &ees are a!most a!,a's atta"hed+ As ment oned n %re$ ous essa's* th s "reates the "ond t on ,here more de(t s #enerated than a"tua! mone' n " r"u!at on to "o$er t+ When a !oan s made* on!' ,hat s termed the K%r n" %a!” s %rodu"ed+ The mone' su%%!' o& an' "ountr' "ons sts o& th s %r n" %a! n &orm* ,h "h s the a##re#ate $a!ue o& a!! !oans made 8mone' "reat on;+ The nterest &ee* on the other hand* s not n e- sten"e+ Th s means that* on the so" a! !e$e!* a!! those ta7 n# nterest (ear n# !oans must & nd mone' &rom the preexisting mone' su%%!' n order to "o$er t ,hen %a' n# the !oan (a"7+ In th s %ro"ess* s n"e a!! nterest %a d s (e n# %u!!ed &rom the %r n" %a!* t s a mathemat "a! e$entua! t' that "erta n !oans s m%!' "annot (e re%a d+ There s m%!' sn?t enou#h mone' n the s'stem at an' one t me+66H The resu!t s an e$en more %o,er&u! do,n,ard "!ass %ressure on those ho!d n# su"h (as "* "ommon !oans s n"e there s a!,a's th s (as " scarcity n the mone' su%%!' tse!& and e$er'one ,or7 n# to ser$ "e the r !oans ha$e to "ontend , th the ne$ ta(!e rea! t' that someone s #o n# to &a ! to meet the r !oan re%a'ment n the !on# run+ 9an7ru%t"' s a "ommon resu!t n those se#ments o& so" et' that #et th s Kshort end o& the st "7”+ E$en more trou(! n# s ho, the (an7 n# me"han sm rea"ts to those ,ho are una(!e to &u!& !! the r !oan o(! #at on+ The !oan "ontra"t and !e#a! s'stem su%%ort the %o,er o& (an7s* n most "ase* to Kre%ossess” the %h's "a! %ro%ert' o& those ,ho "annot %a'+66I
666 Re&eren"e< The 4merican >ousehold !s =igging <ut of =ebt in the 7orst

Possible 7ay, TheAt!ant "+"om* 452D 8htt%<MM,,,+theat!ant "+"omM(us nessMar"h $eM452DM52Mthe.amer "an. househo!d. s.d ## n#.out.o&.de(t. n.the.,orst.%oss (!e.,a'M4F4IHFM; 66H A "ommon o(0e"t on to th s ana!'s s s the assum%t on that nterest income s a!so out%ut nto the mone' su%%!' throu#h sa$ n#s a""ounts* /+D+s and other su"h n$estments+ Ho,e$er* th s assumes that that mone' s (e n# created dur n# the t me o& %a'ment+ Th s s not true+ Interest n"ome %a'ments are #enerated (' the e- st n# %ro& ts o& the & nan" a! nst tut on so the assum%t on does not "han#e the e)uat on+ The nterest &ee re)u red &or %a'ment s m%!' doesn?t e- st n the mone' su%%!'+ 66I It s nterest n# to %o nt out as an as de that (an7 n# nst tut ons (' ,h "h !oans are o(ta ned &or a %ur"hase . su"h as a home J are a(!e to ta7e the full %ro%ert' re#ard!ess o& the $a!ue %a d n %r or+ E$en & EE> o& the !oan s 26E

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

I& ,e th n7 dee%!' a(out th s a( ! t' to Kre%ossess”* t s ar#ua(!' an nd re"t &orm o& theft+ I& t s ne$ ta(!e that some , !! su""um( to not meet n# the r !oan re%a'ment due to the nherent s"ar" t' n the mone' su%%!'* , th the %oss (!e resu!t o& the %h's "a! %ro%ert' o(ta ned &rom that !oaned mone' (e n# re%ossessed (' the (an7 $ a "ontra"tua! a#reements* then the (an7?s a")u s t on o& su"h true* %h's "a! %ro%ert' s ne$ ta(!e o$er t me+ Th s means the (an7s* ,h "h are a!,a's o,ned (' mem(ers o& the u%%er "!ass to (e sure* are ta7 n# houses* "ars and %ro%ert' o& the !o,er "!asses* s m%!' (e"ause the mone' the' "reated out o& th n a r n the &orm o& a !oan s not (e n# returned to them+ Th s s* n essen"e* a "o$ert &orm o& %h's "a! ,ea!th trans&er &rom the !o,er to the u%%er "!ass+ Ho,e$er* return n# to the su(0e"t o& nterest tse!&* su"h rea! t es are o& ! tt!e d re"t "on"ern to the u%%er "!ass+ G $en the ,ea!th sur%!us nherent to the r & nan" a! status* "ou%!ed , th the !a"7 o& ne"ess t' to e$en ta7e !oans most o& the t me due to th s sur%!us* the s"ar" t' %ressure nherent to the mone' su%%!' due to nterest &ees a!,a's &a!!s on the shou!ders o& the !o,er "!asses+ A!so* the ,ea!th' are a"tua!!' &urther "!ass.%rote"ted as the %henomenon o& investment income $ a nterest earned &rom !ar#e sa$ n#s a""ounts* "ert & "ates o& de%os t and other means* turns th s $eh "!e o& so" a! o%%ress on &or the %oor nto a $eh "!e o& & nan" a! ad$anta#e &or the r "h+66F 8"; In&!at on s #enera!!' de& ned as KThe rate at ,h "h the #enera! !e$e! o& %r "es &or #oods and ser$ "es s r s n#* and* su(se)uent!'* %ur"has n# %o,er s &a!! n#+”66G Un&ortunate!' th s "ommon de& n t on # $es no ns #ht nto ts true "ausa! t'+ Wh !e there has (een de(ate as to the true "auses o& n&!at on n d &&erent e"onom " s"hoo!s*66E the K[uant t' Theor' o& Mone'”6H5 has (een %ro$en as the most re!e$ant+ In short* th s theor' s m%!' re"o#n 1es that the more mone' n " r"u!at on* the more n&!at on or r s n# %r "es+ In other ,ords* a!! th n#s (e n# e)ua!* & ,e dou(!e the mone' su%%!'* %r "e !e$e!s , !! a!so dou(!e* et"+ The ne, mone' d !utes the $a!ue o& the e- st n# mone' n a $ar at on o& the su%%!'.demand theor' o& $a!ue+ The "onse)uen"e o& th s s ,hat ,e "ou!d "a!! a Kh dden ta-” on %eo%!e?s sa$ n#s and & -ed n"ome rates+ For e-am%!e* !et us assume the n&!at on rate s D+H> a 'ear+ I& 'ou ha$e bD5*555* n ten
%a d o&&* the' "an st !! ta7e 255> o& the %ro%ert' & the & na! %a'ments are not made+ 66F For e-am%!e* a %erson ,ho de%os ts b2 m !! on nto a /+D+ at D> nterest annua!!' , !! #enerate bD5*555 a 'ear mere!' &or that de%os t a!one+ In terms o& %er"enta#e* D> ma' not seem as that dramat "+ In terms o& a(so!ute $a!ue* "om%ared to the n"ome o& the $ast ma0or t'* t s )u te dramat "+ 66G Sour"e< In$esto%ed a+"om 8htt%<MM,,,+ n$esto%ed a+"omMtermsM M n&!at on+as%Oa-1143'%0mR3s; 66E Re&eren"e< Macroeconomics3 Theory and Policy* Ro(ert 3+ Gordon* ”Modern theor es o& n&!at on” M"Gra,.H !!* 2EGG 6H5 K[uant t' Theor' o& Mone'” de& ned sour"e< htt%<MM,,,+ n$esto%ed a+"omMart "!esM5HM525F5H+as%Oa-1143'%0mR3s 2H5

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

'ears t , !! on!' (u' a(out b42*555 ,orth o& #oods+6H2 Wh !e th s m #ht a%%ear to ha$e an e)ua! e&&e"t &or the ,ho!e o& so" et'* the rea! t' s that t dee%!' a&&e"ts the %oor mu"h more than the r "h ,hen t "omes to sur$ $a!+ A %erson , th D m !! on do!!ars n sa$ n#s s not mu"h h ndered (' the D+H> !oss o& %ur"has n# %o,er+ Ho,e$er* a %erson , th on!' bD5*555 n sa$ n#s* ,or7 n# to %erha%s %ut a do,n %a'ment on a home n the &uture* s dee%!' a&&e"ted (' th s h dden ta-+ In the "onte-t o& structural classism, ,here & -ed attr (utes o& the s'stem tse!& ass st n the o%%ress on o& the %oor and he!% n# o& the r "h* the me"han sm o& th s h dden ta- n a!so mmuta(!' (u !t n+ The nherent s"ar" t' n the mone' su%%!' &or"es ne, !oans "onstant!' n the e"onom'+ /ou%!ed , th that s the no, #!o(a!!' ut ! 1ed monetar' e-%ans on %ro"ess 7no,n as the fractional reserve lending s'stem+6H4 /ontrar' to %o%u!ar (e! e&* most !oans are not # $en &rom a (an7?s e- st n# de%os ts+ The' are n$ented n rea! t me* ! m ted on!' (' a set %er"enta#e o& the r e- st n# de%os ts+6HD In short* due to th s %ro"ess o$er t me* t s "urrent!' %oss (!e that &or e$er' b25*555 de%os ted* a(out bE5*555 "an (e "reated &rom t throu#h the %ro"ess o& on#o n# !oans and de%os ts a"ross the ent re (an7 n# s'stem+6H6 Th s pyramiding o& mone'* "ou%!ed , th the nterest %ressure that "reates s"ar" t' n the mone' su%%!'* re$ea!s that the s'stem s inherently n&!at onar'+ 8d; In"ome d &&eren"es a"ross so" et' a!so ha$e (oth a %s'"ho!o# "a! and stru"tura! "ausa! t'+ As'"ho!o# "a!!'* the' are dr $en* n %art* (' the (as " %ro& t and "ost %reser$at on n"ent $e ne"essar' to rema n "om%et t $e and &un"t ona! n the mar7et+ In man' ,a's th s n"ent $e "ou!d (e "ons dered cognitively structural* as there s a (eha$ ora! thresho!d that a!! %!a'ers n the mar7et e"onom' must adhere ,hen t
6H2 D+H> annua! de%re" at on a&ter 25 'ears+ Or # na! $a!ue bD5*555 . :ear 2<

b4G*EH5U :ear 4< b4F*EDFU :ear D< b4I*EI5U :ear 6< b4I*52FU :ear H< b4H*25FU :ear I< b46*44EU :ear F< b4D*DG2U :ear G< 44*HIDU :ear E< b42*FF6U :ear 25 b42*524 6H4 For a &u!! treatment on the Fra"t ona! Reser$e Lend n#* see< Modern Money Mechanics* Federa! Reser$e 9an7 o& /h "a#o* 2EI2 6HD To )uote Modern Money Mechanics, a te-t %rodu"ed (' the Federa! Reser$e 9an7 o& /h "a#o< KO& "ourse* the' Xthe (an7sY do not rea!!' %a' out !oans &rom the mone' the' re"e $e as de%os ts+ I& the' d d th s* no add t ona! mone' ,ou!d (e "reated+ What the' do ,hen the' ma7e !oans s to a""e%t %rom ssor' notes n e-"han#e &or "red ts to the (orro,ers? transa"t on a""ounts+++Reser$es are un"han#ed (' the !oan transa"t ons+ 9ut the de%os t "red ts "onst tute ne, add t ons to the tota! de%os ts o& the (an7 n# s'stem” 8Modern Money Mechanics* Federa! Reser$e 9an7 o& /h "a#o* 2EI2; 6H6 To )uote Modern Money Mechanics< KThe tota! amount o& e-%ans on that "an ta7e %!a"e+++/arr ed throu#h to theoret "a! ! m ts* the n t a! b25*555 o& reser$es d str (uted , th n the (an7 n# s'stem # $es r se to an e-%ans on o& bE5*555 n (an7 "red t 8!oans and n$estments; and su%%orts a tota! o& b255*555 n ne, de%os ts under a 25 %er"ent reser$e re)u rement+” 8Modern Money Mechanics* Federa! Reser$e 9an7 o& /h "a#o* 2EI2; 2H2

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

"omes to sur$ $a!+ In turn* th s nterest o& se!&.%reser$at on thou#h "ost.e&& " en"' and ma- m 1 n# %ro& ts* ,h !e (as " to the "a% ta! st #ame at ts "ore* sho,s a "!ear tenden"' to e-tend as an o$era!! sur$ $a! %h !oso%h' or human $a!ue s'stem n #enera!+ In other ,ords* so" a! $a!ues (e"ome a!tered (' th s e"onom " need &or "onstant se!&.%reser$at on and $er' o&ten t man &ests tse!& nto (eha$ or ,h "h* n a(stra"t on* m #ht (e "ondemned as Ke-"ess $e”* Kse!& sh” or K#reed'” . ,hen* n &a"t* su"h deemed "hara"ter st "s are mere e-tens ons or matters of degree , th res%e"t to th s (as " "ond t on n# to Ksta' ahead”+ There&ore* the o$era!! trend o& n"reas n# n"ome ne)ua! t' n #enera! shou!d not (e a sur%r se+6HH Wh !e the Un ted States* , th ts dee%!' "om%et t $e nature* s a h #h! #ht o& e-treme "!ass ne)ua! t' toda'*6HI the trend s st !! $er' mu"h a #!o(a! %henomenon+6HF Wh !e the de(ate a(out h stor "a! trends $s+ "urrent trends "an (e made re#ard n# ,h' th s %er od o& t me* the ear!' 42st "entur'* s sho, n# su"h e-tens $e n"reases n the ,ea!th #a% J ,e m #ht "on"!ude that "erta n structural factors ha$e made the r ,a' nto the s'stem and these &a"tors are ass st n# the d s%ar t'+ We ma' a!so "on"!ude that these me"han sms are not anomalies o& the s'stem . (ut rather re%resent a natura! evolution o& "a% ta! sm throu#h t me+ For e-am%!e* the $ast n"ome no, "om n# &rom K"a% ta! #a ns” s a "ase n %o nt+ Wh !e seem n#!' a m nor nuan"e o& #enera! n"ome* some e"onom " ana!'sts ha$e deemed "a% ta! #a ns to (e the K7e' n#red ent o& n"ome d s%ar t' n the US”+6HG /a% ta! #a ns are de& ned as KXtYhe amount (' ,h "h an asset?s se!! n# %r "e e-"eeds ts n t a! %ur"hase %r "e+ A rea! 1ed "a% ta! #a n s an n$estment that has (een so!d at a %ro& t+”6HE Its most "ommon "onte-t s , th res%e"t to the se!! n# o& sto"7s* (onds* der $at $es* &utures and other a(stra"t Ktrad n#” $eh "!es+ It has (een &ound that n the Un ted States a!one* the to% 5+2 %er"ent o& the %o%u!at on earns a(out ha!& o& a!! "a% ta! #a ns*6I5 and
6HH Re&eren"e< 9*S* !ncome !ne)uality3 !t0s 7orse Today Than !t 7as in ,OO-,

TheAt!ant "+"om* 4524 8htt%<MM,,,+theat!ant "+"omM(us nessMar"h $eM4524M5EMus. n"ome. ne)ua! t'. ts.,orse.toda'.than. t.,as. n.2FF6M4I4HDFM; 6HI Re&eren"e< The 9ne)ual State of 4merica3 a 'euters series, Reuters+"om* 4524 8htt%<MM,,,+reuters+"omMsu(0e"tsM n"ome. ne)ua! t'M,ash n#ton; 6HF Re&eren"e< !ncome !ne)uality 4round the 7orld !s a (ailure of apitalism, TheAt!ant "+"om* 4522 8htt%<MM,,,+theat!ant "+"omM(us nessMar"h $eM4522M5HM n"ome. ne)ua! t'. around.the.,or!d. s.a.&a !ure.o&."a% ta! smM4DGGDFM; 6HG Re&eren"e< The Top C*,H <f The "ation Earn >alf <f 4ll apital ?ains, For(es+"om* 4522 8htt%<MM,,,+&or(es+"omMs tesMro(ert!en1nerM4522M22M45Mthe.to%.5.2.o&. the.nat on.earn.ha!&.o&.a!!."a% ta!.#a nsM; 6HE Sour"e< In$estor,ords+"om 8htt%<MM,,,+ n$estor,ords+"omMF5IM"a% ta!V#a n+htm!; 6I5 Re&eren"e< apital gains tax rates benefiting wealthy feed growing gap between rich and poor, Wash n#tonAost+"om* 4522 2H4

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

su"h #a ns a""ount &or a(out I5 %er"ent o& the n"ome o& the to% 655 r "hest " t 1ens+6I2 The "!ass me"han sm o& "a% ta! #a ns s nterest n# (e"ause t s a %r $ !e#ed &orm o& n"ome+ Wh !e the sto"7 mar7et m #ht (e used &or "onser$at $e mutua! &und and ret rement n$estment (' the #enera! %u(! "* t s rea!!' an u%%er "!ass %erson?s #ame ,hen t "omes to su(stant a! returns due to the h #h !e$e! o& "a% ta! n t a!!' needed to &a" ! tate su"h h #h $a!ue returns+ L 7e the e! t sm o& h #h !e$e! nterest n"ome* "a% ta! #a ns are a "!ass se"ur n# me"han sm &ue!ed (' %ree- st n# su(stant a! ,ea!th+ Then ,e ha$e the d &&eren"es n n"ome , th res%e"t to one?s %os t on n the "or%orate h erar"h'+ In a stud' %er&ormed (' the /anad an /entre &or Ao! "' A!ternat $es* t ,as &ound that /anada?s to% /EOs ma7e an a$era#e ,or7er?s 'ear!' sa!ar' in K hours+6I4 In the Un ted States* a""ord n# to resear"h (' the Economic Policy !nstitute Kthe a$era#e annua! earn n#s o& the to% 2 %er"ent o& ,a#e earners #re, 2HI %er"ent &rom 2EFE to 455FU &or the to% 5+2 %er"ent the' #re, DI4 %er"ent+ In "ontrast* earners n the E5th to EHth %er"ent !es had ,a#e #ro,th o& D6 %er"ent* !ess than a tenth as mu"h as those n the to% 5+2 %er"ent t er+ Wor7ers n the (ottom E5 %er"ent had the ,ea7est ,a#e #ro,th* at 2F %er"ent &rom 2EFE to 455F+”6ID The' "ont nue< KThe !ar#e n"rease n ,a#e ne)ua! t' s one o& the ma n dr $ers o& the !ar#e u%,ard d str (ut on o& househo!d n"ome to the to% 2 %er"ent* the others (e n# the r s n# ne)ua! t' o& "a% ta! n"ome and the #ro, n# share o& n"ome #o n# to "a% ta! rather than ,a#es and "om%ensat on+ The resu!t o& these three trends ,as a more than dou(! n# o& the share o& tota! n"ome n the Un ted States re"e $ed (' the to% 2 %er"ent (et,een 2EFE and 455F and a !ar#e n"rease n the n"ome #a% (et,een those at the to% and the $ast ma0or t'+ In 455F* a$era#e annua! n"omes o& the to% 2 %er"ent o& househo!ds ,ere 64 t mes #reater than n"omes o& the (ottom E5 %er"ent 8u% &rom 26 t mes #reater n 2EFE;* and n"omes o& the to% 5+2 %er"ent ,ere 445 t mes #reater 8u% &rom 6F t mes #reater n 2EFE;+”6I6 S m !ar %atterns "an (e &ound n other ndustr a! 1ed nat ons+ In &a"t* n 452D e$en /h na has (een d s"uss n# the r #ro, n# n"ome #a% %ro(!em , th %ro%osa!s to ease the d s%ar t'+6IH The Or#an 1at on for
8htt%<MM,,,+,ash n#ton%ost+"omM(us nessMe"onom'M"a% ta!.#a ns.ta-. rates.(ene& t n#.,ea!th'.are.%rote"ted.('.(oth. %art esM4522M5EM5IM#I[Ad3mSLCVstor'+htm!; 6I2 Re&eren"e< 5uestioning the =ogma of Tax 'ates, N:T mes+"om* 4522 8htt%<MM,,,+n't mes+"omM4522M5GM45M(us nessM)uest on n#.the.do#ma.o&. !o,er.ta-es.on."a% ta!.#a ns+htm!R%a#e,antedSa!!@VrS5; 6I4 Re&eren"e< Top anadian E<s ma#e average wor#erRs salary in three hours of first wor#ing day of year, F nan" a!Aost+"om* 4524 8htt%<MM(us ness+& nan" a!%ost+"omM4524M52M5DMto%."anad an."eos.ma7e. a$era#e.,or7ers.sa!ar'. n.three.hoursM; 6ID Re&eren"e< E< pay and the top ,H, E% +or#* 4524 8htt%<MM,,,+e% +or#M%u(! "at onM (DD2."eo.%a'.to%.2.%er"entM; 6I6 I( d+ 6IH Re&eren"e< hina !ssues Proposal to "arrow !ncome ?ap, N:T mes+"om* 2HD

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Economic o$operation and =evelopment n a 4522 re%ort &ound that "ountr es , th h stor "a!!' !o, !e$e!s o& n"ome ne)ua! t' ha$e e-%er en"ed s #n & "ant n"reases o$er the %ast de"ade+6II 6IF /ausa! t' n the &orm o& "!ear!' de& ned stru"tura! me"han sms are more d && "u!t to % n do,n , th res%e"t to th s #enera! trend o& em%!o'ment re!ated n"ome m(a!an"e+ The "om( nat on o& the %s'"ho!o# "a! n"ent $e o& se!&.%reser$at on and se!&.ma- m 1at on nherent to the $a!ue s'stem o& "a% ta! sm* "ou%!ed , th the e$er. "han# n# !e#a!* ta- and & nan" a! %o! "' re!ated $ar a(!es n %!a'* a!on# , th the (as " strate# " ed#e ma nta ned (' the u%%er "!asses due to the r e- st n# ,ea!th se"ur t'* "reates a "om%!e-* s'ner# st " me"han sm o& "!ass %reser$at on and e-terna! o%%ress on+ A su(t!e 'et re$ea! n# stat st "a! %o nt to a!so note s ho, dur n# re"ent re"ess ons n the Un ted States* the ,ea!th #a% has a"tua!!' widened*6IG It s a- omat " to "on"!ude that & the s'stem o& e"onom' ,as , thout stru"tura! nter&eren"e n &a$or o& the ,ea!th'* a nat ona! re"ess on on the s"a!e o& the ,hat o""urred &rom 455F on,ard shou!d ha$e a&&e"ted most e$er'one ne#at $e!'* re#ard!ess o& so" a! "!ass+ :et* t ,as re%orted n 4525 that Kthe ,ea!th est H %er"ent o& Amer "ans* ,ho earn more than b2G5*555* added s! #ht!' to the r annua! n"omes !ast 'ear+++Fam ! es at the bH5*555 med an !e$e! s! %%ed !o,er+”6IE As a & na! %o nt on the ssue o& n"ome ne)ua! t'* t s m%ortant to note ho, nat ona! e"onom " #ro,th o&ten re!ates to those o& the u%%er "!ass tse!&* redu" n# the #enera! e"onom " re!e$an"e o& the !o,er "!asses+ The term K%!utonom'” s a%%ro%r ate n th s "ase+ A K%!utonom'” s de& ned as KE"onom " #ro,th that s %o,ered and
452D 8htt%<MM,,,+n't mes+"omM452DM54M5IM,or!dMas aM"h na. ssues.%!an. to.narro,. n"ome.#a%+htm!; 6II Re&eren"e< Society at a ?lance BC,, $ <E = Social !ndicators, Oe"d+or#* 4522 8htt%<MM,,,+oe"d+or#Mso" a!Mso" a!%o! " esanddataMso" et'ata#!an"e4522. oe"dso" a! nd "ators+htm; 6IF Re&eren"e< ,C ountries 7ith The 7orst !ncome !ne)uality3 <E =, Hu&& n#tonAost+"om* 4522 8htt%<MM,,,+hu&& n#ton%ost+"omM4522M5HM4DM25. "ountr es., th.,orst. n"ome. ne)ua! t'VnVGIHGIE+htm!Os4FG466@t t!eS2V/h !e; 6IG U+S+ /ensus data re$ea!ed<”The to%.earn n# 45 %er"ent o& Amer "ans J those ma7 n# more than b255*555 ea"h 'ear J re"e $ed 6E+6 %er"ent o& a!! n"ome #enerated n the U+S+* "om%ared , th the D+6 %er"ent made (' the (ottom 45 %er"ent o& earners* those ,ho &e!! (e!o, the %o$ert' ! ne* a""ord n# to the ne, & #ures+ That rat o o& 26+H.to.2 ,as an n"rease &rom 2D+I n 455G and near!' dou(!e a !o, o& F+IE n 2EIG+ At the to%* the ,ea!th est H %er"ent o& Amer "ans* ,ho earn more than b2G5*555* added s! #ht!' to the r annua! n"omes !ast 'ear* the data sho,+ Fam ! es at the bH5*555 med an !e$e! s! %%ed !o,er+” Sour"e< htt%<MM,,,+hu&& n#ton%ost+"omM4525M5EM4GM n"ome.#a%., dens."ensus. VnVF62DGI+htm! 6IE Re&eren"e< !ncome ?ap 7idens3 ensus (inds 'ecord ?ap /etween 'ich 4nd Poor 8htt%<MM,,,+hu&& n#ton%ost+"omM4525M5EM4GM n"ome.#a%. , dens."ensus.VnVF62DGI+htm!; 2H6

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

"onsumed (' the ,ea!th est u%%er "!ass o& so" et'+ A!utonom' re&ers to a so" et' ,here the ma0or t' o& the ,ea!th s "ontro!!ed (' an e$er. shr n7 n# m nor t'U as su"h* the e"onom " #ro,th o& that so" et' (e"omes de%endent on the &ortunes o& that same ,ea!th' m nor t'+”6F5 Aerha%s the (est ,a' to des"r (e the nature o& %!utonom' and ts re!e$an"e to the modern da'* s to "ons der the ,ords o& those ,ho em(ra"e t+ In 455H* / t #rou%* a %o,er&u! #!o(a! (an7 n# nst tut on* %rodu"ed a ser es o& nterna! memos on the su(0e"t and the' ,ere )u te "and d n the r ana!'s s and "on"!us ons+ The' stated< ”The ,or!d s d $ d n# nto t,o (!o"s . the A!utonom' and the rest+ The U+S+* UC* and /anada are the 7e' %!utonom es . e"onom es %o,ered (' the ,ea!th'+”6F2 KIn a %!utonom' there s no su"h an ma! as Kthe U+S+ "onsumer” or Kthe UC "onsumer”* or ndeed the KRuss an "onsumer”+ There are r "h "onsumers* &e, n num(er* (ut d s%ro%ort onate n the # #ant " s! "e o& n"ome and "onsum%t on the' ta7e+ There are the rest* the Knon.r "h”* the mu!t tud nous man'* (ut on!' a""ount n# &or sur%r s n#!' sma!! ( tes o& the nat ona! % e+”6F4 KWe shou!d ,orr' !ess a(out ,hat the a$era#e "onsumer . sa' the H5th %er"ent !e . s #o n# to do* ,hen that "onsumer s 8,e th n7; !ess re!e$ant to the a##re#ate data than ho, the ,ea!th' &ee! and ,hat the' are do n#+ Th s s s m%!' a "ase o& mathemat "s* not mora! t'+”6FD W th 45> o& the Amer "an %o%u!at on "ontro!! n# GH> o& the "ountr'?s ,ea!th*6F6 t s "!ear that those ut ! 1 n# that GH> are more m%ortant to the GDA or #ro,th o& the e"onom'+ What th s means s that the & nan" a! s'stem has ! tt!e n"ent $e to care a(out the a"t ons or & nan" a! ,e!!(e n# o& most o& the %u(! "+ It "ont nues< Kthe heart o& our %!utonom' thes s X sY that the r "h are the dom nant sour"e o& n"ome* ,ea!th and demand n %!utonom' "ountr es su"h as the UC* US* /anada and Austra! a+++ Se"ond!'* ,e (e! e$e that the r "h are #o n# to 7ee% #ett n# r "her n "om n# 'ears* as "a% ta! sts 8the r "h; #et an e$en ( ##er share o& GDA as a resu!t* %r n" %a!!'* o& #!o(a! 1at on+ We e-%e"t the #!o(a! %oo! o& !a(or n de$e!o% n# e"onom es to 7ee% ,a#e n&!at on n "he"7* and %ro& t mar# ns r s n# J #ood &or the ,ea!th o& "a% ta! sts* re!at $e!' (ad &or de$e!o%ed mar7et uns7 !!edMoutsour"e.a(!e !a(or+ Th s (odes ,e!! &or "om%an es se!! n# to or ser$ " n# the r "h+”6FH W th res%e"t to the re!e$an"e o& the rest o& the %o%u!at on* the
6F5 Sour"e< In$esto%ed a+"om 6F2 Sour"e< Plutonomy3 /uying +uxury, Explaining ?lobal !mbalance* / t #rou% 6F4 I( d* %+4 6FD Sour"e< The Plutonomy Symposium J 'ising Tides +ifting 6achts* / t #rou%

8htt%<MM,,,+ n$esto%ed a+"omMtermsM%M%!utonom'+as%Oa-114C6,DO/%2; Interna! Memo* O"to(er 2Ith 455H* %+2

Interna! Memo* Se%tem(er 4E* 455I* %+22

6F6 Re&eren"e< Wea!th* In"ome* and Ao,er* U/S/+edu* 452D

8htt%<MMso" o!o#'+u"s"+eduM,horu!esamer "aM%o,erM,ea!th+htm!; Memo* Mar"h Hth* 455I* %+22

6FH Sour"e< 'evisiting Plutonomy3 The 'ich ?etting 'icher, / t #rou% Interna!

2HH

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

memo states< KWe see the ( ##est threat to %!utonom' as "om n# &rom a r se n %o! t "a! demands to redu"e n"ome ne)ua! t'* s%read the ,ea!th more e$en!'* and "ha!!en#e &or"es su"h as #!o(a! 1at on ,h "h ha$e (ene& ted %ro& t and ,ea!th #ro,th+”6FI KOur "on"!us onR The three !e$ers #o$ernments and so" et es "ou!d %u!! on to end %!utonom' are (en #n+ Aro%ert' r #hts are #enera!!' st !! nta"t* ta-at on %o! " es neutra! to &a$ora(!e* and #!o(a! 1at on s 7ee% n# the su%%!' o& !a(or n sur%!us* a"t n# as a (ra7e on ,a#e n&!at on+”6FF 6FG Wh !e %!utonom' tse!& m #ht not e-a"t!' (e a sour"e o& "!ass "on&! "t t s "erta n!' a resu!t+ /hr'st a Free!and* author o& A!uto"rats< The 'ise of the "ew ?lobal Super$'ich and the (all of Everyone Else ma7es a %o nt a(out the nature o& th s &ramed %s'"ho!o#' nherent to those o& the o%u!ent m nor t'< K:ou don?t do th s n a 7 nd o& "hort! n#* smo7 n# 'our " #ar* "ons% rator a! th n7 n# ,a'+ :ou do t (' %ersuad n# 'ourse!& that ,hat s n 'our o,n %ersona! se!&. nterest s n the nterests o& e$er'(od' e!se+ So 'ou %ersuade 'ourse!& that* a"tua!!'* #o$ernment ser$ "es* th n#s ! 7e s%end n# on edu"at on* ,h "h s ,hat "reated that so" a! mo( ! t' n the & rst %!a"e* need to (e "ut so that the de& " t , !! shr n7* so that 'our ta- ( !! doesn?t #o u%+ And ,hat I rea!!' ,orr' a(out s* there s so mu"h mone' and so mu"h %o,er at the $er' to%* and the #a% (et,een those %eo%!e at the $er' to% and e$er'(od' e!se s so #reat* that ,e are #o n# to see so" a! mo( ! t' "ho7ed o&& and so" et' trans&ormed+”6FE $n Conclusion A #reat dea! more "ou!d (e sa d , th res%e"t to the mu!t .!e$e! (att! n# o""urr n# on the %!anet Earth* most!' "entr " to & nan" a! and mar7et %o,er and ts nst tut ona! %reser$at on+ From %h's "a! $ o!en"e to su(t!e !e#a! man %u!at on* the theme s "ons stent and dom nant+ It "ou!d e$en (e ar#ued that progress itself has ,ar ,a#ed a#a nst t s n"e esta(! shed "or%orate nst tut ons ,ho ma nta n %o,er&u! mar7et share n a # $en ndustr'* , !! o&ten ,or7 to ruth!ess!' shut do,n an'th n# that "an "om%ete , th them* e$en & the %rodu"t s %ro#ress $e!' (etter or more susta na(!e n ut ! t'+6G5 /han#e and
6FI Sour"e< The Plutonomy Symposium $ 'ising Tides +ifting 6achts* / t #rou% 6FF Sour"e< Plutonomy3 /uying +uxury, Explaining ?lobal !mbalance* / t #rou% 6FG For a more deta !ed ana!'s s o& these do"uments (' / t #rou%* see<

Interna! Memo* Se%tem(er 4E* 455I* %+22 Interna! Memo* O"to(er 2Ith 455H* %+46

htt%<MM,,,+ ns der o,a+"omMenMo% n onM nde-+"&mR a"t onSd s%!a'@ne,sIDS2FFI2 6FE Sour"e< "ational Public 'adio 8O"to(er 2H* 4524; TA Start! n# Ga% 9et,een Us And Them In ?A!uto"rats?T 8htt%<MM,,,+n%r+or#M4524M25M2HM2I4FEEH24Ma.start! n#.#a%.(et,een.us. and.them. n.%!uto"rats; 6G5 A ,e!! esta(! shed e-am%!e o& nh ( ted %ro#ress &or the ma nta n n# o& e- st n# %ro& t esta(! shments ,as the su""ess&u! e&&ort made (' the o ! ndustr' and* (' e-tens on* the U+S+ #o$ernment to s!o, %ro#ress to,ard &u!!' e!e"tr " $eh "!es n the 2EE5s+ 8Su##ested $ e, n#< KWho C !!ed the 2HI

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

%ro#ress tse!&* n rea! terms* are not read !' ,e!"omed n the "a% ta! st s'stem as t o&ten d stur(s the su""ess o& esta(! shed nst tut ons+ The n"red (!' s!o, rate o& a%%! "at on o& ne,* susta na( ! t' m%ro$ n# te"hno!o# "a! methods s a "ase n %o nt+6G2 In &a"t* on the "or%orate !e$e!* there s not on!' a %er%etua! ,ar to redu"e su"h "om%et t on (ut there s a!so the on#o n# e-%!o tat on o& the %u(! " n #enera!+ Adam Sm th a"tua!!' made th s %o nt n h s The 7ealth of "ations* stat n#< KThe nterest o& the dea!ers* ho,e$er* n an' %art "u!ar (ran"h o& trade or manu&a"tures* s a!,a's n some res%e"ts d &&erent &rom* and e$en o%%os te to* that o& the %u(! "+++To narro, the "om%et t on s a!,a's the nterest o& dea!ers+++9ut to narro, the "om%et t on+++"an ser$e on!' to ena(!e the dea!ers* (' ra s n# the r %ro& ts a(o$e ,hat the' natura!!' ,ou!d (e* to !e$'* &or the r o,n (ene& t* an a(surd ta- u%on the rest o& the r &e!!o,. " t 1ens+”6G4 On the nat ona! !e$e!* K%ea"e” toda' seems to (e mere!' a %ause (et,een "on&! "ts on the sta#e o& #!o(a! " $ ! 1at on+ There s a ,ar #o n# on some,here $ rtua!!' a!! the t me and ,hen there sn?t* the ma0or %o,ers are (us' (u !d n# more ad$an"ed ,ea%ons andMor se!! n# o&& the o!d ones to other "ountr es ,ho are %ostur n# n the same ,a'* a!! under the name o& not on!' %rote"t on (ut n the name o& K#ood (us ness” as ,e!!+6GD E$en nat ons themse!$es ha$e ta7en on a &orm o& "!ass h erar"h' , th dom nant 2st ,or!d nat ons su(0u#at n# %oor Drd ,or!d nat ons+ /ommon #rad ent terms su"h as su%er%o,ers* %o,ers* su(.%o,ers and $assa! states "an (e &ound n h stor "a! ! terature , th res%e"t to the nat ona! "!ass h erar"h' and the stru"tura! me"han sms ,h "h 7ee% th s #rad ent n &orm are not $er' d &&erent n ntent than ,hat 7ee%s the so" a! "!asses n order+ For e-am%!e* ,h !e the de(t and nterest s'stems* as des"r (ed* do $er' ,e!! to 7ee% do,n,ard %ressure on the !o,er "!asses* stru"tura!!' ! m t n# %ros%er t' and so" a! mo( ! t'* the same e&&e"t o""urs to re%ress a nat on $ a the Wor!d 9an7 and Internat ona! Monetar' Fund+6G6 E$en 3ohn Adams* the se"ond %res dent o& the Un ted States %o nted th s out , th h s statement< KThere are t,o ,a's to "on)uer and ens!a$e a "ountr'+ One s (' the s,ord+ The other s (' de(t+”6GH On the (roadest s"a!e* the rea! ,ar (e n# ,a#ed s on %ro(!em
E!e"tr " /arR”< htt%<MM,,,+ md(+"omMt t!eMtt56GE5DFMs'no%s s;
6G2 Re&eren"e< <il ?iants +oath to (ollow <bamaRs ?reen +ead

8htt%<MM,,,+n't mes+"omM455EM56M5GM(us nessMener#'. en$ ronmentM5G#reeno !+htm!R%a#e,antedSa!!@VrS5; 6G4 Sour"e< 4n !n)uiry into the "ature and auses of the 7ealth of "ations* Adam Sm th* Modern L (rar' Re%r nt* 2EDF* Ne, :or7* %+4H5 6GD Re&eren"e< The 9*S*3 4rms Merchant to the =eveloping 7orld, T me+"om 4524 8htt%<MMnat on+t me+"omM4524M5GM4GMtheres.no.(us ness.! 7e.the. arms.(us ness.4M; 6G6 Re&eren"e< Structural 4dEustment $ a MaEor ause of Poverty, G!o(a!Issues+or#* 452D 8htt%<MM,,,+#!o(a! ssues+or#Mart "!eMDMstru"tura!. ad0ustment.a.ma0or."ause.o&.%o$ert'; 6GH Sour"e< Her ta#e+"om 8htt%<MM,,,+0ohn.adams.her ta#e+"omM)uotesM; 2HF

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

reso!ut on and human harmon'+ The rea! ,ar s on a (a!an"e o& %o,er and so" a! 0ust "e+ The rea! ,ar* n e&&e"t* s on the nst tut on o& e"onom " e)ua! t'+6GI 6GF In the ,ords o& &ormer Su%reme /ourt 0ust "e* Lou s D+ 9rande s< TWe "an ha$e demo"ra"' n th s "ountr'* or ,e "an ha$e #reat ,ea!th "on"entrated n the hands o& a &e,* (ut ,e "an?t ha$e (oth+T6GG A!! a"ross the ,or!d toda' %eo%!e ta!7 a(out the need &or e)ua! t'+ Most ! terate %eo%!e n the ,or!d ha$e no res%e"t &or #ender or ra" a! ( as+ The dea o& (e n# se- st or ra" st has (e"ome a dee%!' a(horred $ e,* e$en thou#h t ,as not that !on# a#o n the Western ,or!d su"h "u!tura! $ e,s ,ere "ons dered Knorma!”+ There a%%ears to (e a "ourse o& e$o!ut on that , shes to e)ua! 1e so" et' that s* (' de& n t on* ,hat the under!' n# #esture o& Kdemo"ra"'” s su%%osed to denote+ :et* n the m dst o& a!! th s* the most o%%ress $e &orm o& se#re#ated human su&&er n# "ont nues !ar#e!' unnot "ed n ts true "onte-t+ Toda'* t s not ra"e* #ender or "reed that 7ee%s one most o%%ressed J t s the nst tut on o& "!ass+ It s no, an ssue o& Kr "h” and K%oor” and* ! 7e ra" sm* these deo!o# "a! and u!t mate!' stru"tura! &orms o& o%%ress on d s"r m nate and d $ de the human s%e" es n dee%!' %o,er&u! and destru"t $e ,a's+ In the (road $ e,* th s theatre o& mu!t d mens ona! ,ar&are . tru!' a world at ,ar , th tse!& J s ,ho!!' unsusta na(!e+ It s (e"om n# more and more "!ear* # $en the a""e!erat n# so" a! %ro(!ems at hand* that the ethos o& a!!.out "om%et t on and narro, se!&.%reser$at on at the e-%ense o& others . ,hether on the %ersona!* "or%orate* "!ass* deo!o# "a! or nat ona! !e$e! . , !! not (e the sour"e o& an' reso!ut on or !on#.term human %ros%er t'+ It s #o n# to ta7e a ne, t'%e o& th n7 n# to o$er"ome these so" o!o# "a! trends and at the heart o& su"h dramat " "u!tura! "han#e rests the "han#e o& the so" oe"onom " %rem se tse!&+

6GI Re&eren"e< 0Extreme0 Poverty in 9S >as More Than =oubled, Study Says,

Mone'Ne,s+"om* 4524 8htt%<MM,,,+mone'ne,s+"omME"onom'ME-treme. Ao$ert'.USM4524M5DM5IM dM6D2I4F; 6GF Re&eren"e< <f the ,H, by the ,H, for the ,H, Van t'Fa r+"om* 4522 8htt%<MM,,,+$an t'&a r+"omMso" et'M&eaturesM4522M5HMto%.one.%er"ent. 45225H; 6GG Sour"e< [uoted (' Ra'mond Loner#an n Mr* &ustice /randeis, ?reat 4merican, 2E62* %+64 2HG

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

PART $$$% A "EW TRA$" OF T-O&!-T -$"TROD&CT$O" TO S&STA$"A*(E T-O&!-TA"t on s the %rodu"t o& the )ua! t es nherent n Nature+ It s on!' the #norant man ,ho* m s!ed (' %ersona! e#ot sm* sa's< ?I am the doer+?6GE .The 9ha#a$ad G ta

Socioeconomic S,ectrum As a!!uded to n %r or essa's* susta na(!e %ra"t "es "an on!' "ome a(out (' a $a!ue re.or entat on to,ards sustainable thought+ Wh !e the not on o& susta na( ! t' s o&ten redu"ed to an e"o!o# "a! "onte-t* the rea! ssue under the sur&a"e s cultural+ Th s hen"e (e"omes a %ro"ess o& edu"at on+ It s the %ers%e"t $e o& The Ze t#e st Mo$ement that the e"onom " s'stem ut ! 1ed n a so" et' s the #reatest n&!uen"e on the $a!ues and (e! e&s o& ts %eo%!e+ For nstan"e* dee%!' rooted n e$en the seem n#!' se%arate %o! t "o.re! # ous do"tr nes o& our t me* res des an under"urrent o& $a!ues set &orth (' e"onom " assum%t ons+6E5 The term Kso" oe"onom "”* ,h "h s the so" a! s" en"e that ! n7s the e&&e"ts o& e"onom " a"t $ t' to other so" a! %ro"esses*6E2 "ou!d ha$e ts mean n# more s%e" & "a!!' e-tended to a!so n"!ude re! # ous $ e,s* %o! t "a! ( ases* m ! tar' n t at $es* tr (a! !o'a!t es* "u!tura! "ustoms* !e#a! statutes and other "ommon so" eta! %henomena+ It a%%ears that the $er' &a(r " o& our ! $es and hen"e our $a!ue s'stem s (orn* most dom nant!'* &rom the "u!tura! %er"e%t on o& our sur$ $a!* so" a! re!at onsh %s and deas o& %ersona!Mso" a! su""ess+ Moreo$er* t s "r t "a! to restate that %o! t "a! s'stems* ,h "h most n the ,or!d st !! seem to a,ard %r or t' o& m%ortan"e ,hen t "omes to the state o& a&&a rs n so" et'* are* at (est* secondary n re!e$an"e 8 & not* n &a"t* ent re!' o(so!ete; ,hen the true ram & "at ons o& the e"onom " stru"ture are &a"tored n+ In &a"t* as , !! (e ar#ued n &uture essa's* K%o! t "a!” #o$ernan"e as ,e 7no, t s rea!!' noth n# more than an out#ro,th o& economic inefficiency+ Ver' &e, ,ou!d "are mu"h a(out K,ho ,as n %o,er” or other su"h trad t ona! not ons & the' "!ear!' understood the %ro"ess o& e"onom " un&o!d n# and ,ere a(!e to "ontr (ute and #a n , thout "on&! "t+ There&ore* there s no #reater ssue o& m%ortan"e than the s'stem o& e"onom " un&o!d n# ,hen t "omes to the "ondu"t and sta( ! t' o& human (e n#s on (oth the %ersona! and so" a! !e$e!+
6GE Sour"e< The /hagavad ?ita, /ha%ter D* Verse 4F* Trans!at on< Shr Auroh t

S,am

6E5 An e-am%!e ,ou!d (e th s O!d Testament s"r %ture ,h "h seems to m%!'

that the K%oor” , !! a!,a's e- st no matter ,hat so" et' does< KThere , !! a!,a's (e %oor %eo%!e n the !and+ There&ore I "ommand 'ou to (e o%enhanded to,ard 'our (rothers and to,ard the %oor and need' n 'our !and+” .Deuteronom' 2H<22 6E2 KSo" oe"onom "” s de& ned as< Ko&* re!at n# to* or n$o!$ n# a "om( nat on o& so" a! and e"onom " &a"tors” 8Sour"e< htt%<MM,,,+merr am. ,e(ster+"omMd "t onar'Mso" oe"onom "; 2HE

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

E,hemeraliAation Genera!!' s%ea7 n#* an e"onom " s'stem e- sts to meet the Kneeds and ,ants”6E4 o& the %o%u!at on+ The de#ree (' ,h "h t s a(!e to do so de%ends on the state o& usable resources and the technical strategy ut ! 1ed to harness those resour"es &or a # $en %ur%ose+ In th s "onte-t* nota(!e en# neer and th n7er R+ 9u"7m nster Fu!!er ar#ued that true e"onom " K,ea!th” s not mone' or e$en the mater a! out"ome o& a # $en %rodu"t on+6ED Rather* true ,ea!th s the !e$e! o& ener#'M%rodu"t on efficiency enabled* "ou%!ed , th 7no,!ed#e de$e!o%ment that &urthers the intelligent management o& the Earth?s resour"es+ In th s $ e,* he de& ned and e-%ressed a trend termed Ke%hemera! 1at on”6E6 ,h "h tra"7s human t'Ns te"hn "a! a( ! t' to n"reas n#!' do Kmore , th !ess”+ H stor "a!!' s%ea7 n#* e%hemera! 1at on s* n #esture* a "ontrad "t on o& the st !! dee%!' he!d KMa!thus an”6EH "ons derat on ,h "h* n %art* "!a ms that human t' s &ore$er out o& (a!an"e , th nature and there , !! a!,a's (e a se"t on o& the %o%u!at on that must su&&er* as the a$a !a(!e resour"es s m%!' do not add u% to meet e$er'one?s needs+ As noted n %r or essa's* th s ,or!d$ e, s e$er a%%arent n the e"onom " s'stem ,e st !! em(ra"e toda' #!o(a!!'* &or# n# dee%
6E4 /onsum%t on %atterns n modern so" et' ha$e sho,n an n"reas n#!'

ar( trar' nature , th res%e"t to human K,ants”* su"h as the %o,er&u! sh &t n $a!ues that o""urred n the ear!' 45th "entur' , th the a%%! "at on o& modern Western ad$ert s n#+ Human Kneeds”* ho,e$er* are (as " ne"ess t es* !ar#e!' shared (' a!! humans* ,h "h ma nta n %h's "a! and %s'"ho!o# "a! hea!th+ Wh !e man' st !! ar#ue su(0e"t $e nter%retat ons o& su"h terms* Kneeds” are essent a!!' stat " and K,ants” are essent a!!' $ar a(!e+ Genera!!' s%ea7 n#* K,ants” are a "onse)uen"e o& one?s $a!ue s'stem and are "u!tura!!' der $ed+ There&ore* Kneeds” are hen"e o& #reater %r or t' n meet n# than K,ants”+ 6ED Fu!!er States< KWea!th+++ s nherent!' re#enerat $e+ E-%er menta!!' demonstrated ,ea!th s< ener#' "om%ounded , th nte!!e"t?s 7no,ho,+” From 9topia or <blivion* R+ 9u"7m nster Fu!!er* 9antam Aress* N:* 2EIE* %+4GG 6E6 E%hemera! 1at on* a term "o ned (' R+ 9u"7m nster Fu!!er* s the a( ! t' o& te"hno!o# "a! ad$an"ement to do Tmore and more , th !ess and !ess+++T o$er t me+ Th s trend "an (e not "ed n man' areas o& ndustr a! de$e!o%ment* &rom "om%uter %ro"ess n# 8Moore?s !a,; to the ra% d a""e!erat on o& human 7no,!ed#e 8 n&ormat on te"hno!o#';+ A "ommon e-am%!e ,ou!d (e the "om%utat on %o,er and s 1e re!at onsh %s o& "om%uters o$er t me+ The ENIA/ "om%uter o& the 2E65s "o$ered 2G55 s)uare &eet o& &!oor s%a"e* ,e #hed D5 tons* "onsumed 2I5 7 !o,atts o& e!e"tr "a! %o,er and "ost a(out bI M !! on n modern $a!ue+ Toda'* an ne-%ens $e* %o"7et s 1e "e!! %hone "om%utes su(stant a!!' &aster than ENIA/+ Hen"e . !ess mater a! and 'et more %o,er+ Xhtt%<MM n$entors+a(out+"omModMestart n$ent onsMaMEn a"+htmY 6EH Ma!thus an sm s a %ers%e"t $e ! n7ed to e"onom st and "!er " Thomas R+ Ma!thus that* n short* has to do , th the need to "ontro!M! m t %o%u!at on #ro,th due to an em% r "a! assum%t on o& re!at $e resour"e s"ar" t'+ Ideas su"h as Tnot he!% n# the %oorT as T t on!' # $es &a!se ho%eT and the ! 7e are "ommon to th s $ e,+ XSu##ested Read n#< 4n Essay on the Principle of Population, Thomas Ma!thus* 2FEGY 2I5

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

stru"tura! ( ases6EI that ha$e ne$ ta(!' &a$ored one K"!ass” o& %eo%!e o$er another n sur$ $a! ad$anta#e+ In other ,ords* a K,ar #ame” has "u!m nated* (u !t out o& the assum%t on o& un $ersa!* %er%etua!!' re n&or"ed s"ar" t'* ,h "h mo$es &or,ard toda' on ts o,n momentum* !ar#e!' a(sent o& ts or # na! "ausa! reason n#+ The $ast ma0or t' o& ,hat ,e de& ne as K"orru%t on” toda'* more o&ten than not* & nds ts %s'"ho!o# "a! root n th s "om%et t $e a,areness (oth on the %ersona! !e$e!* the "or%orate 8(us ness; !e$e! @ on the !e$e! o& #o$ernment n the &orm o& ,ar* t'rann' and se!&. %reser$ n# "o!!us on+ In &a"t* t "an (e ,e!! ar#ued that the $er' not on o& Keth "a!” n a ,or!d de" ded!' ,or7 n# to #a n at the e-%ense o& others (e"omes a h #h!' re!at $e and a!most ar( trar' d st n"t on+ :et* th s trend o& e%hemera! 1at on* ha$ n# n"reased ra% d!' &rom the 45th "entur'?s a!most sudden ndustr a!Ms" ent & " ad$an"ements* dee%!' "ha!!en#es th s %rote"t on st* e! t st* s"ar" t'. dr $en ,or!d$ e,* su##est n# ne,* %arad #m.sh &t n# %oss ( ! t es &or human or#an 1at on+ These %oss ( ! t es* n %art* stat st "a!!' re$ea! that ,e are no, a(!e to ta7e "are o& the ent re ,or!d?s %o%u!at on at a standard o& ! $ n# un7no,n to the $ast ma0or t' o& human t' toda'+6EF Ho,e$er* n order &or th s ne, rea! t' o& efficiency to (e harnessed* the ar"ha " (arr ers n#ra ned n our e$er'da' ,a' o& ! &e* s%e" & "a!!' our %er"e%t on o& e"onom "s* need to (e ree$a!uated and ! 7e!' o$er"ome ent re!'+ As noted n %r or essa's* the term Kuto% a” "ommon!' ar ses as a %e0orat $e term amon#st those ,ho tend to d sm ss !ar#e s"a!e so" a! m%ro$ement due to e ther a "'n " sm o& so."a!!ed Khuman nature” or an outr #ht d s(e! e& n human t'?s te"hn "a! "a%a" t' to no, ad0ust #reat!' , th ne, te"hn "a! means+ For e-am%!e* an o(0e"t on "ommon to the "urrent "u!ture* s%e" & "a!!' the K,ea!th'” F rst Wor!d nat ons* rests n the $a!ue o& ,hat "ou!d (e termed the K$ o!en"e o& mass a")u s t on”+ At ts root* th s $ e, ta7es the Ma!thus an "on"e%t o& need.or ented resour"e nsu&& " en"' and trans%oses t to assume a %ressure o& ac)uisitive irrationality+ In other ,ords* t assumes human (e n#s em% r "a!!' ha$e infinite mater a! K,ants” and e$en &* sa'* e$er' human (e n# "ou!d
6EI See %r or essa'< Structural lassism, The State and 7ar 6EF Wh !e th s rea! t' , !! (e d s"ussed n the &o!!o, n# essa' KAost.S"ar" t'

Trends* /a%a" t' and E&& " en"'”* h #h! #ht n# the a""e!erat n# e&& " en"' o& trans%ortat on* ener#'* ndustr a! des #n* &ood "u!t $at on te"hno!o#' and the ! 7e* the &o!!o, n# "on"!us on (' R+ 9u"7m nster Fu!!er n 2EIE s ,orth stat n# &or h stor "a! re&eren"e< KXManY de$e!o%ed su"h ntense me"han 1at on n Wor!d War I that the %er"enta#e o& tota! ,or!d %o%u!at on that ,ere ndustr a! Kha$es” rose (' 2E2E to the & #ure o& I>+ That ,as a $er' a(ru%t "han#e n h stor'+++9' the t me o& Wor!d War II 45> o& a!! human t' had (e"ome ndustr a! Kha$es”+++At the %resent moment the %ro%ort on o& Kha$es” s at 65> o& human t'+++ & ,e u% the %er&orman"es+++o& resour"es &rom the %resent !e$e! to a h #h!' &eas (!e o$era!! e&& " en"' o& 24> XmoreY+++Xa!! human t' "an (e %ro$ ded &orY”+ From 9topia or <blivion* R+ 9u"7m nster Fu!!er* 9antam Aress* N:* 2EIE* %%+2HD.2HH 2I2

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

e- st , th ,hat the West toda' ,ou!d deem an u%%er "!ass ! &est'!e* , th no one &a!! n# short* an e!ement o& our %s'"ho!o#' ,ou!d ne$er (e sat s& ed n the mater a! sense and the nterest n Kmore and more” mater a! #a n ,ou!d thus a!,a's "reate a desta( ! 1 n# m(a!an"e n so" et'+ There&ore* the e- sten"e o& Kha$es” and Kha$e.nots” s %er"e $ed to (e a "onse)uen"e o& our nherent* status.dr $en %s'"ho!o#' and #reed* not a$a !a( ! t' o& resour"es and means+ To the e-tent that th s s a"tua!!' true s du( ous at (est # $en the e-treme "u!tura! "ond t on ,e & nd ourse!$es n toda'* "om%ared , th the h stor "a! &a"t that outs de o& Western 8a7a /a% ta! st "; n&!uen"e* the "on"e%t o& K$a n mater a! su""ess” s &ar &rom un $ersa! &or the human (e n#+6EG In truth* the re!at onsh % o& Ksu""ess” and K%ro%ert'” has (een "u!tura!!' manu&a"tured (ased u%on s'stem ne"ess t' and s no, a sta%!e $a!ue o& our "onsumer.(ased so" et'+6EE In a ,or!d no, dr $en (' Ke"onom " #ro,th” to 7ee% em%!o'ment at a reasona(!e !e$e!U n a ,or!d ,h "h o$ert!' %ra ses those , th #reat & nan" a! ,ea!th as a measure o& su""essU n a ,or!d that a"tua!!' re,ards (eha$ ors o& human nd &&eren"e and ruth!ess "om%et t on &or mar7et share 8rather than honest so" a! "ontr (ut on &or o$era!! human (etterment;U t s no m'ster' as to ,h' the dea o& a s n#!e human o,n n#* sa'* a 655 room mans on on H55*555 a"res o& %r $ate !and , th H5 "ars and & $e %!anes %ar7ed n the &ront 'ard has (e"ome %art o& an dea!* "o$eted $ s on o& %ersona! 8and so" a!; su""ess+ :et* &rom the %ers%e"t $e o& true human susta na( ! t'* th s $ e, s pure violence and e- sts n near!' the same "ate#or' o& one ,ho hoards &ood and resour"es he or she doesn?t need and re&uses to a!!o, others a""ess &or the sa7e o& a(stra"t %r n" %!e+H55 I& ,e ma# ne a sma!! s!and o& ten %eo%!e ,ere t,o %eo%!e de" de to e-tra"t and hoard 2*555> more than the' need to (e hea!th'* !ea$ n# e #ht %eo%!e to ! $e n a(0e"t %o$ert' andMor d' n# . ,ou!d 'ou & nd th s
6EG G $en that the K n& n te ,ant” assum%t on o& human "ra$ n# s st !! a "ore

"om%onent o& the monetar'.mar7et (ased e"onom " $ e, o& s"ar" t' and resour"e ne)u t'* t s nterest n# ho, the $er' (as s o& ts assum%t on m%! es an em% r "a! rrat ona! t' o& human (eha$ or+ It ,ou!d ha$e to (e rrat ona! # $en the (as " 7no,!ed#e o& human t' de%enden"e on the Earth?s & n te resour"es+ /ontrad "t on o& th s assum%t on s re%!ete n human h stor'* s%e" & "a!!' , th "u!tures that de$e!o%ed n !ess ndustr a! 1ed so" et es* n more d re"t asso" at on , th the !and* outs de o& the n&!uen"e o& our no, "ommon "onsumer "u!ture+ Ear!' Nat $e Amer "an "u!tures* &or e-am%!e* he!d the $a!ue o& (a!an"e as a $ rtue rather than a")u s t on+ Su##ested Read n#< The >igh Price of Materialism* T m Casser* A 9rad&ord 9oo7* 455D 6EE Re&eren"e< Propaganda, Ed,ard 9erna's* I# Au(! sh n#* 2E4G H55 The so" a!!' desta( ! 1 n# ram & "at ons o& a so" et' , th #reat ,ea!th m(a!an"e ,ere (est re"ent!' e-em%! & ed (' the r se o& ,hat ,as #!o(a!!' re"o#n 1ed as the KO""u%' Wa!! Street” %rotests+ 8htt%<MMo""u%',a!!st+or#M; Wea!th m(a!an"e has (e"ome re"o#n 1ed n"reas n#!' as !ess o& an ssue o& su(0e"t $e Kmora! &a rness” (ut rather an ssue o& d re %u(! " hea!th and so" a! sta( ! t'+ 2I4

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

arran#ement an a"t o& K%ersona! &reedom” (' those t,o . or an a"t o& so" a! $ o!en"e a#a nst the e #htR Th s s (rou#ht u% here to d sm ss the Kuto% an a(undan"e &a!!a"'” rea"t on "ommon to man' re#ard n#* n %art* the m%! "at ons o& e%hemera! 1at on+ 3ust as ,e as a #!o(a! so" et' are rea! 1 n# the nherent %h's "a! ! m tat ons o& our ndustr a! (eha$ ors* s!o,!' ad0ust n# a,a' &rom e"o!o# "a!!' desta( ! 1 n# "onse)uen"es* the understand n# that an K n& n te ,ants”.(ased $a!ue or entat on s e)ually as detr menta! to so" a! (a!an"e s "r t "a! to rea! 1e+ S+stem (imitation When t "omes to "u!tura! %h !oso%h es* the human %o%u!at on must #a n* n %art* a "!ear understand n# o& ts ! m tat ons and der $e ts e-%e"tat ons and $a!ues &rom th s %h's "a! rea! t'+ The ! m tat ons m%osed (' our en$ ronment e- st rres%e"t $e o& human $a!ues* nterests* ,ants or e$en needs n a(stra"t on+ I& ,e ,ere to remo$e human t' &rom %!anet Earth and o(ser$e the Earth?s natura! e"o!o# "a! o%erat ons , th the "ausa!* s" ent & " understand n#s ,e ha$e toda'* ,e ,ou!d , tness a s'ner# st "Ms'm( ot " s'stem #o$erned (' the un $ersa! d'nam "s o& nature+ Hen"e* no matter ,hat ,e th n7 a(out ourse!$es* our ntent ons or our K&reedoms”*H52 on"e ,e are %!a"ed nto th s system of physical law ,e are (ound to t re#ard!ess o& our (e! e&s or the "u!tura! norms ,e ha$e ta7en &or #ranted* or ,h "h ha$e (een m%osed as T ne$ ta(!eT or T mmuta(!eT (' our $ar ous "u!tures+ I& ,e "hoose to !earn and a! #n , th the !o# " nherent* ,e & nd susta na( ! t' and hen"e sta( ! t'+ I& ,e "hoose to #nore or & #ht these %re.e- st n# ru!es* ,e , !! ne$ ta(!' de"rease sta( ! t' and %ro(!ems , !! ar se* as s the near. "onstant state o& a&&a rs toda' n the ear!' 42st "entur'+ Th s a,areness o& natura! ! m tat ons* as ,e ha$e "ome to understand them toda' $ a the s" ent & " method* e-%resses %erha%s the most %ro&ound sh &t n human K!o'a!t es” n h stor'+ In short* ,e no, understand that ,e e ther a! #n , th the natura! ,or!d* or ,e su&&er+ Sad!'* th s & rm re&erent a! asso" at on st !! stands at odds , th man' "ommon %h !oso%h es toda'* su"h as esta(! shed re! # ous and %o! t "a! %ers%e"t $es+ Remar7a(!' a!so* t s a "ommon re0o nder to !a(e! th s $er' & rm!' (ased rea! 1at on as Ttota! tar anT or T(!a"7.and. ,h teT* a seem n#!' r # d and ar( trar' m%os t on u%on human ! &e*
H52 The ,ord K&reedoms” s n %arenthes s due to the %ro! & " "u!tura! use+

Aatr ot " s!o#ans a(out K&reedom” and K! (ert'”* (orn out o&* n %art* the h stor "a! %ro(!em o& t'rann' and #o$ernment a(use* e- st toda' o&ten "reat n# an a!most neurot " and m s!ead n# $ e, o& human (eha$ or+ In rea! t'* there s no su"h th n# as un $ersa! &reedom n the ,or!d as r # d %h's "a! !a,s ( nd us+ The "u!tura! not on o& K&reedom”* as most %ro%a#ated (' the /a% ta! st deo!o#'* "an (e ar#ued as ntr ns "a!!' dan#erous to s%e" es susta na( ! t' n man' ,a's . s%e" & "a!!' , th res%e"t to ts a(so!ute #nor n# o& !ar#er order s'ner# st " s'stem &a"tors* assum n# the &a!!a"' that a deta"hed* se!&. nterest (ased %ursu t se"ures so" a! and e"o!o# "a! (a!an"e+ 2ID

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

rather than s m%!' the unden a(!e* s" ent & "a!!' demonstra(!e state o& a&&a rs+ Intr #u n#!'* the near!' %arado- "a! %un"h ! ne o& the ,ho!e "ons derat on o& natura! !a, s that , th n th s rat ona! K(o-” o& s'stem ! m tat on ,e de& ne as the K#o$ern n# !a,s o& nature” our range of possibility within these boundaries via the scientific method also reveals an ever$increasing technical efficiency and incredible potential to create an abundance to meet human needs, globally* Furthermore* s n"e human t' s the on!' s%e" es on Earth , th the menta! "a%a" t' to a!terMa&&e"t ts e"os'stem n tru!' %ro&ound ,a's* th s ne"ess t' &or a! #nment (e"omes "r t "a! &or s%e" es susta na( ! t'* %u(! " hea!th and true %ro(!em so!$ n# ad$an"ement+ Noth n# "ou!d (e more dan#erous than a ,or!d "u!ture that* # $en the e-%onent a! n"rease n our "a%a" t' to a&&e"t e"o!o# "a! and so" a! (a!an"e , th te"hno!o#'* m sunderstands ts %o,er and e&&e"ts+ In man' ,a's* human t' s &a"ed , th an educational race against time , th res%e"t to ts "urrent immaturity n hand! n# the n"red (!e* ne,&ound %o,ers t has rea! 1ed $ a s" en"e and te"hno!o#'+H54 As an as de* t s m%ortant to remem(er that ,hen t "omes to the h stor' o& e"onom " thou#ht tse!&* the &rame o& re&eren"e has had more to do , th assumptions of human behavior than nte!! #ent resour"e mana#ement and #enera! %h's "a! s" en"eMnatura! !a, understand n#s+H5D Wh !e our most nnate (eha$ ora! re&!e-es and #enet " %ro%ens t es are "erta n!' re!e$ant to the "onse)uen"es o& a so" oe"onom " s'stem and are $er' mu"h a %art o& the e)uat on* assum%t ons o& human (eha$ or "annot rat ona!!' (e he!d as a stru"tura! start n# %o nt o& an e"onom " s'stem+ Humans are a conse)uence o& the same e"o!o# "a! s'stem "ond t ons and not the other ,a' around+ So* n "on"!us on to th s ntrodu"t on* & the %ur%ose o& a so" a! s'stem s to "reate an e$er n"reas n# standard o& ! $ n#* ,h !e a!so ma nta n n# en$ ronmenta! and so" a! (a!an"e to assure ,e do not redu"e th s )ua! t' n the &uture due to %oss (!e resu!t n# "onse)uen"es o& rres%ons (!e "ho "es . su"h as resour"e de%!et on* %o!!ut on* d sease* ne#at $e stress* K,ea!th” m(a!an"e and other ssues J t then (e"omes "r t "a! to (ase our methodo!o#' on the most re!e$ant set o& te"hn "a! %arameters ,e "an* or ented around the "urrent state o& scientific awareness on (oth an e"o!o# "a! and human !e$e!+

H54 Later n h s ! &e* astronomer /ar! Sa#an made a $ deo "ommentar' ,h "h

"an (e &ound n !ater re!eases o& h s A9S ser es T/osmosT* stat n# 8%ara%hrased here;<TIt s a!most as thou#h there s a God and he has # $en human t' the "ho "e to use the %o,er o& s" en"e to m%ro$e ! &e] or destro' t+ It s u% to us+T H5D See %r or essa' >istory of Economy* 2I6

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

-POST SCARC$T1 TRE"DS@ CAPAC$T1 A"D EFF$C$E"C1The ,or!dNs %resent ndustr a! " $ ! 1at on s hand "a%%ed (' the "oe- sten"e o& t,o un $ersa!* o$er!a%% n#* and n"om%at (!e nte!!e"tua! s'stems< the a""umu!ated 7no,!ed#e o& the !ast &our "entur es o& the %ro%ert es and nterre!at onsh %s o& matter and ener#'U and the asso" ated monetar' "u!ture ,h "h has e$o!$ed &rom &o!7,a's o& %reh stor " or # n+H56 .M+ C n# Hu((ert

E/aluating Design E-am n n# the sur&a"e o& Earth toda'* a net,or7 !a'er o& "ommun t es* ndustr a! "enters* trans%ort routes* re"reat ona! areas* a#r "u!tura! s'stems and the ! 7e dom nate mu"h o& the !ands"a%e+ Whether ntended as a tota! s'stem "onstru"t or not* th s resu!t* at an' # $en %o nt n t me* "onst tutes the a%%earan"e o& a to%o#ra%h "a! design* :et* on the other hand* # $en that th s resu!t n# Kdes #n” toda' s* a"tua!!'* a conse)uential amalgamation o& most!' (us ness d'nam "s . mo$ n# mone' around &or %ersona! or #rou% se!&. nterest* (ased around de" s on.ma7 n# me"han sms su"h as %ro& t* "ost. e&& " en"' and the %re$a ! n# !o# " surround n# %ro%ert' re!at onsh %s J t "ou!d a!so (e ar#ued that ,hat has man &est s a"tua!!' not a Kdes #n” at a!!+ Rather* t s rooted n a me"han sm that has "reated the appearance o& des #n ex post factoH5H s n"e the stru"tura! out"ome re"o#n 1ed ,as not &u!!' ant " %ated as a ,ho!e %r or to ts "onstru"t on+ In other ,ords* the te"hn "a! order ,e see n the ,or!d toda' s most!' the resu!t o& & nan" a! %ro"esses that ha$e ! tt!e to no %er"e%t on o& !ar#er s"a!e stru"tura! out"omes+ It s more o& a proxy systemH5I and ,h !e there are some re!at $e e-"e%t ons* su"h as the %!a"ement o& h #h,a's* % %e! nes and the ! 7e (' &unded " t' %!anners ,ho s m%!' must ta7e a (road %h's "a! $ e, to (e &un"t ona!* e$en those " r"umstan"es are o&ten ,or7 n# around %re.e- st n# %ro%ert' "!a ms and other &orms o& nter&eren"e ,h "h tend to redu"e design efficiency on the ,ho!e+ Th s s an nterest n# o(ser$at on* as on"e t s re"o#n 1ed that our so" et' o%erates without a large scale preconception of its own physical design* one m #ht (e# n to rea! 1e the enormous !e$e! o& unne"essar' ,aste and te"hn "a! ne&& " en"' nherent to su"h a short.
H56 Sour"e< Two !ntellectual Systems3 Matter$energy and the Monetary

ulture* M+ C n# Hu((ert* 2EG2

H5H KE- Aost Fa"to” s a Lat n term that means Kdone* made* or &ormu!ated a&ter

the &a"t”+

H5I KAro-'”* de& ned as Kthe a#en"'* &un"t on* or o&& "e o& a de%ut' ,ho a"ts as

a su(st tute &or another” 8htt%<MM,,,+merr am. ,e(ster+"omMd "t onar'M%ro-';* s used n th s "onte-t to des"r (e the mar7et e"onom' as a s'stem that ser$es to ass st ndustr a! and* n man' ,a's* so" eta! o%erat ons indirectly* In other ,ords* the s'stem o& trade* %ro& t* "om%et t on and a!! other su"h monetar'.mar7et attr (utes are mere!' me"han sms that or ent (eha$ or n a "erta n* ar#ua(!' short.s #hted ,a'* a(sent an' 7 nd o& !ar#er s'stem %ers%e"t $e+ 2IH

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

s #hted %ro"ess+ To "ons der th s more so* t,o %o nts are ,orth "ons der n#< a; E- st n# 'et Una%%! ed So!ut ons (; 9road /on"e%t on $s+ S%ontaneous /on"e%t on a; E- st n# 'et Una%%! ed So!ut ons< Th s & rst %o nt "on"erns the tenden"' o& man' ne, nno$at ons &or %ro(!em reso!ut on to #o una%%! ed , th n the "urrent e"onom " trad t on*H5F I& &urther ! &e m%ro$ n# methods or te"hno!o# es ha$e not &ound the r ,a' nto a s'stem , th n a respectable amount of time 8or at a!!; a&ter #enera! $a! dat on* ,e "an r #ht!' assume there are ne&& " en" es* & not de& " en" es* , th the $er' %ro"ess o& e"onom " n"or%orat on and de$e!o%ment+ In other ,ords* th s de!a' (et,een %ro$en so!ut ons* and the r a%%! "at on n the rea! ,or!d* #au#es the a( ! t' o& the so" oe"onom " s'stem to adapt %ro%er!' to m%ro$ed methods and a%%! "at ons+ I&* &or some reason* the so" a! order n )uest on s not a(!e to n"or%orate su"h ne, means to &urther e"o!o# "a! (a!an"e* m%ro$e %u(! " hea!th* so!$e %ro(!ems and n"rease %ros%er t'* then there s ! 7e!' a structural %ro(!em nherent+H5G (; 9road /on"e%t on $s+ S%ontaneous /on"e%t on< Se"ond!'* &rom a str "t!' &ormu!a " $ e,%o nt* d re"t* tota! s'stem "ons derat ons , !! a!,a's (e more e&& " ent and e&&e"t $e than Ks%ontaneous” #enerat on (' %ro"esses (! nd to the & na! out"ome or
H5F A "!ass " e-am%!e s the e!e"tr " "ar that has (een around s n"e the 2Eth

"entur'* sho, n# !ar#e.s"a!e e&& "a"' n the 42st "entur' $ a te"hno!o# "a! m%ro$ements+ Ho,e$er* the #!o(a! sh &t &rom the %o!!ut n# #as en# ne to the "!ean e!e"tr " en# ne has "!ear!' (een st &!ed (' esta(! shed* %ro& t %reser$ n# ndustr es re!ated to the automo( !e manu&a"turers and ener#' %ro$ ders+ It s a!so ,orth not n# that the $er' &oundat on o& mar7et e&& " en"' s the mechanism of profit+ W th th s K%ro-'” me"han sm* a"t ons are on!' ta7en & the' are K%ro& ta(!e”+ In rea! ! &e* ,e "an see a $ast arra' o& needed a"t ons to ass st so" a! and en$ ronmenta! nte#r t' that ha$e no re!e$an"e to the %ursu t o& %ro& t+ In other ,ords* & mone' "annot (e made on a # $en a"t* that a"t sn?t deemed o& $a!ue n the $ e, o& the %ro-'+ H5G A "!ass "* !ar#e.s"a!e e-am%!e s the e- sten"e o& poverty+ In order to 0ust &' %o$ert'* %h's "a!!'* there must (e a "!ear de& " en"' n the natura! ,or!d?s "a%a" t' to meet the needs o& those ,ho ha$e resu!ted to e- st n %o$ert'+ I& t s &ound that there s a "a%a" t' to e! m nate %o$ert' as ,e 7no, t* hen"e mean n# enou#h &ood* she!ter* ,ater and other resour"es and ser$ "es that "an* ndeed* (e made a$a !a(!e , thout remo$ n# those (as "* ! &e su%%ort n# means &rom others* then the 0ust & "at on o& %o$ert' must & nd another sour"e+ In the "urrent s'stem* th s 0ust & "at on s essent a!!' theoret "a! and determ ned on!' (' the me"han sm o& the mar7et tse!&* m%!' n# that & a %erson s n"a%a(!e o& "om%et n# su&& " ent!' to o(ta n h s or her o,n $ a(!e standard o& ! $ n#* then the' are hen"e not deser$ n# o& that standard o& ! $ n#+ There&ore* the reason %o$ert' e- sts* as %er th s e-am%!e* s the resu!t o& the mar7et s'stem and ts stru"ture* not rea! ! &e* %h's "a! rea! t es+ 2II

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

%ur%ose+H5E In other ,ords* as #estured (e&ore* a (as " #ood* su"h as a "ar* has a des #n that s "on"e $ed o& n ad$an"e* (e&ore %h's "a! %rodu"t on+ On"e th s des #n s de" ded u%on* t s then &o!!o,ed (' a%%!' n# rea! ! &e mater a!s and %ro"esses to "reate the a"tua! %h's "a! %rodu"t+ Th s ma' seem o($ ous to most as a !o# "a! %ro"ess (ut the re!e$an"e o& su"h %re"on"e%t on s o&ten !ost ,hen t "omes to !ar#er order "onte-ts+ We ha$e to ,onder ,hat the out"ome ,ou!d (e & ,e a%%! ed the %seudo.demo"rat " mar7et %ro"ess o& ( dd n#* (u' n# and se!! n# &or short.term %ro& t* & e$en %oss (!e on su"h a s"a!e* to the "reat on o& h #h nte#r t' goods systems* su"h as an a r%!ane* "om%uter* "ar* home or the ! 7e+ Wh !e toda' the resour"es* !a(or and su(."om%onent s'stems o& these tems are "erta n!' n %!a' n the o%en mar7et* the design itself s not+ The des #n s re!e#ated* ne"essar !'* to the d s" %! ne o& science o$era!!+ It "ou!d (e sa d that a ! ne s ntu t $e!' dra,n n th s ,a' (et,een ,hat s sus"e%t (!e to monetar' o% n on and ,hat s tan# (!' needed to 7ee% some (as " !e$e! o& te"hn "a!* s'stem nte#r t'+ 8A!ease note that th s not on o& des #n s not to (e "on&used , th su(0e"t $e Kst'!e” nterests+ Des #n* as used here* s not an aesthet " "ons derat on (ut a te"hn "a! one+; Ima# ne* h'%othet "a!!'* & %eo%!e K( d and o&&ered” &or the %h's "a! des #n "onstru"t on o& a house n ea"h t n' %h's "a! deta !* #nor n# s" ent & " %r n" %!es+ In other ,ords* nstead o& re&eren" n# the (as " !a,s o& %h's "s and the natura! s" en"e that de& nes the "ore stru"tura! nte#r t' o& an' (u !d n#* ,e !et the mar#et de" de* , th e$er'one K(u' n#” and Kse!! n#” su"h %rem ses &or the r %ersona! #a n* re#ard!ess o& the r te"hn "a! understand n#+ O& "ourse* su"h an dea s tru!' a(surd n su"h a(stra"t on and most read n# th s %ro(a(!' "an?t e$en ma# ne su"h an rrat ona! nter%!a'+ Ho,e$er* th s s e-a"t!' ,hat s o""urr n# as a resu!t o& our e"onom " s'stem n man' other !ess o($ ous ,a's+ For e-am%!e* on the Kma"roe"onom "” s"a!e* the #!o(a! "ommer" a! net,or7 "reated (' ,hat s termed globali%ationH25 $ , th ts (as s n "ost e&& " en"' ,h "h* amon# other th n#s* ut ! 1es "hea%er !a(or n o&ten d stant re# ons*H22 ,h !e ,ast n# !ar#e amounts o& ener#' send n# resour"es a!! o$er the ,or!d and (a"7 . re$ea!s th s !oss o& e&& " en"' ,e!!+H24
H5E The ma n e-"e%t on to th s ,ou!d (e a s tuat on ,here the assumed s'stem

des #n s s m%!' not understood %ro%er!' at that t me+ In other ,ords* & the #oa! or &un"t on o& a # $en s'stem s not &u!!' rea! 1ed* then natura!!' that s'stem "an on!' (e des #ned to that !e$e! o& understand n#+ H25 G!o(a! 1at on s de& ned as< Kthe de$e!o%ment o& an n"reas n#!' nte#rated #!o(a! e"onom' mar7ed es%e" a!!' (' &ree trade* &ree &!o, o& "a% ta!* and the ta%% n# o& "hea%er &ore #n !a(or mar7ets”+ 8htt%<MM,,,+merr am. ,e(ster+"omMd "t onar'M#!o(a! 1at on; H22 Re&eren"e< ?lobali%ation3 /etween (airness and Exploitation 8htt%<MM,,,+%(s+or#M,netM, dean#!eMe% sodesM!and.o&.,ander n#. sou!sM#!o(a! 1at on.(et,een.&a rness.and.e-%!o tat onMD5FDM; H24 Re&eren"e< 7hy globali%ation is energy intensive and wrea#s havoc on oil 2IF

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

From the %ers%e"t $e o& preconceived design, # $en the more !o# "a! %oss ( ! t' o& !o"a! 1at on o& !a(or* %rodu"t on and d str (ut on n most a!! "ases* #!o(a! 1at on* n ts "urrent &orm* s h #h!' ne&& " ent "om%ared to other %oss ( ! t es+ Th s s not to den' that #!o(a! 1at on and th s nte#rat on o& nternat ona! e"onom es has #enera!!' (een a %rodu"t $e o""urren"e , th n the e$o!ut on o& e"onom "s+ In that "onte-t* t has ser$ed #!o(a! ndustr a! de$e!o%ment &a r!' ,e!!+ Ho,e$er* & ,e ste% out o& the (o- o& mar7et !o# " and e-am ne ho, ,e "ou!d directly des #n a more te"hn "a!!' e&& " ent and !o"a! 1ed set o& s'stems* , th n the #!o(a! sett n#* ,e & nd that the "urrent method s not on!' n&er or* t s rather o&&ens $e+ On the Km "roe"onom "” s"a!e* th s "an (e e-em%! & ed , th res%e"t to the ne&& " en"' nherent to the )uality o& (as " #ood "om%onents* a!so due to the %ra"t "e o& "ost e&& " en"' and the nherent nterest to %rodu"e the so."a!!ed K(est” at the K!o,est "ost” ,h "h* )u te s m%!'* does not %rodu"e the (est at a!!+ For e-am%!e* a %ro%osed s"hemat " des #n o&* sa'* a !a%to% "om%uter m #ht (e reasona(!' e&& " ent* te"hn "a!!'+ Ho,e$er* & the a"tua! mater a!s used to #enerate that & na! #ood are re!at $e!' %oor n )ua! t'* no matter ho, nte!! #ent the o$era!!* (as " des #n* t , !! n"ur re!at $e ,ea7ness and , !! ! 7e!' (rea7 do,n more ra% d!' than & the same des #n ,as a!so o%t m 1ed to use the most Ka%%ro%r ate” mater a!s &rom a te"hn "a! %o nt o& $ e,* rather than those mater a!s de" ded u%on as %er the %ro-' o& Kmar7et e&& " en"'”+H2D Another e-am%!e s the mar7et %henomenon o& proprietary technology+ Wh !e ,e see* ostens (!'* an enormous amount o& $ar et' n the ,or!d toda' , th res%e"t to #ood %rodu"t on* a "!oser !oo7 sho,s a $ast and ,aste&u! mu!t %! " t'*H26 a!on# , th %ro(!emat " stru"tura! n"om%at ( ! t' (et,een %rodu"ers? "om%onents o& the same #ood
prices 8htt%<MM,,,+"smon tor+"omMEn$ ronmentMEner#'. Vo "esM452DM544GMWh'.#!o(a! 1at on. s.ener#'. ntens $e.and.,rea7s. ha$o".on.o !.%r "es; H2D Th s s a rather su(0e"t $e e-am%!e as* dea!!'* a %!anned des #n shou!d (e thorou#h enou#h to ta7e nto a""ount the a"tua!* %h's "a! mater a!s and the r "hara"ter st "s* de" ded u%on do,n to the sma!!est re!e$ant %art+ In truth* th s on!' ha%%ens to a "erta n de#ree* , th man' "om%onents o& a # $en #ood n"!uded as a means to 7ee% a %rodu"t K"hea%” and "om%et t $e n the o%en mar7et+ An e-am%!e ,ou!d (e t res on a "ar+ Wh !e #enera! s%e" & "at on o& t re #rade ma' (e su##ested* the use o& K"hea%” t res "ou!d %re$a ! due to an nterest to ! m ts "osts (' the "onsumer or e$en the %rodu"er+ H26 An e-am%!e o& mu!t %! " t' s ho, #ood %rodu"t on toda' #rades )ua! t' (ased on a tar#eted demo#ra%h "+ There are de! (erate!' %oor #oods "ont nuous!' des #ned &or those , th ! m ted %ur"has n# %o,er and there are more o%t m 1ed #oods* ,h "h are !on#er !ast n# and e&&e"t $e* des #ned &or those ,ho "an a&&ord su"h )ua! t'+ Wh !e nat $e to the !o# " o& the mar7et s'stem?s nherent and resu!t n# "!ass strat & "at on* th s t'%e o& ,aste s a"tua!!' unneeded & so" et' had the ntent on to share des #n deas n tota! t'* see7 n# o%t m 1at on as strate# "a!!' as %oss (!e+ In a NLR9E* th s ,ou!d (e the "ase* remo$ n# the mar7et and hen"e the enormous ,aste %rodu"ed (' th s 7 nd o& demo#ra%h " (ased mu!t %! " t'+ 2IG

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

#enre+

In other ,ords* "om%et n# "or%orat ons toda' tend to "reate custom systems 8su"h as a "om%uter s'stem and ts re)u red "om%onents; that are n"om%at (!e , th the de$e!o%ments o& other %rodu"ers n that same good genre+ KUn $ersa! "om%at ( ! t'”*H2H or !a"7 thereo&* s 'et another e-am%!e that the ('%rodu"t o& th s mar7et K%ro-'” #ame and the !ar#er order s'stem ne&& " en"' and ,aste s enormous+ Th s %attern s a!so "ommon to #enerat ona! de$e!o%ment o& e- st n# "ommer" a! %rodu"t s'stems 8a7a Kmode!s”;* su"h as ,hen m%ro$ements are made to a # $en ma"h ne* unne"essar !' ma7 n# o(so!ete o!der "om%onents o& that ma"h ne* n the nterest o& assur n# &urther %ur"hases &rom the "onsumer+H2I It s "r t "a! to note that there s no su"h th n# as a single product n the "!osed s'stem o& Earth , th res%e"t to %!anetar' resour"es and the r use* nor are an' %rodu"t des #ns or %rodu"t on methods e- st n# n a $a"uum+ Ea"h #ood and ts %ro"ess o& %rodu"t on s mere!' an e-tens on o& the ,ho!e o& ndustr'+ Hen"e* the mater a!s ut ! 1ed* a!on# , th des #ns* & nd the r true "onte-t on!' , th res%e"t to the whole of industry and resource management on a!! !e$e!s+ Th s understand n# &or"es the "onstant need to $ e, ndustr' 8and hen"e e"onom "s tse!&; as a s n#!e s'stem %ro"ess to ensure ma- mum te"hn "a! e&& " en"'+ So , th th s n m nd* "ou%!ed a#a n , th the & rst %o nt re#ard n# the )uest on o& ,h' "erta n rea! t es are not %ut nto %ra"t "e e$en thou#h the' are "!ear!' doa(!e at a # $en %o nt n t me* th s essa' , !! e-am ne so" a!!' re!e$ant te"hno!o# "a! trends and des #n "a%a" t es ,h "h* & a%%! ed properly* "ou!d rad "a!!' trans&orm the ,or!d nto a K%ost.s"ar" t'”* h #h!' a(undant "ond t on that ,ou!d a!!e$ ate the $ast ma0or t' o& the ,or!d?s %ro(!ems ,e see as "ommon%!a"e toda'+ Moreo$er* t s a "on"!us on o& TZM that the "urrent mode! not on!' d sa!!o,s 8or too s!o,!' n"or%orates; ne, ad$ents n e&& " en"' due to the $er' nature o& (us ness and ts tenden"' to %reser$e ne&& " en"' &or the sa7e o& an esta(! shment?s %ro& t*H2F the $er' deta"hed and se#re#ated nature o& mar7et a"t $ t' nherent!' #nores !ar#er order "ons derat ons to sour"e and so!$e %ro(!ems or a""e!erate
H2H See essa' True Economic (actors &or more on th s su(0e"t+ H2I Here s an e-am%!e< (ury at 4pple0s 0rip$off0 plan to ma#e 4++ iPhone

accessories obsolete by changing design of soc#et 8htt%<MM,,,+da !'ma !+"o+u7Ms" en"ete"hMart "!e.42I4GIFMA%%!e.s!ammed. Ahone.H."har#er.R %.%!an.ma7e.ALL.a""essor es.o(so!ete+htm!; H2F A "!ass " h stor "a! e-am%!e o& th s %ro%ens t' ,as ,hat ,as !ater termed the KWar o& /urrents”+ In short* 7no, n# that h s d re"t "urrent 8D/; d str (ut on o& e!e"tr " t' ,as n&er or to the emer# n# a!ternat n# "urrent 8A/; s'stem %ut &or,ard (' N 7o!a Tes!a* n$entor Thomas Ed son en#a#ed n an e-tens $e d s n&ormat on "am%a #n to su%%ress A/?s %o%u!ar t'* to %reser$e h s & nan" a! sta7e n the e- st n# A/ n&rastru"ture+ Ed son e$en ,ent so &ar as #o n# to the Un ted States /on#ress see7 n# to outlaw a!ternat n# "urrent* a!on# , th %u(! "!' 7 !! n# an ma!s (' A/ e!e"tro"ut on+ 2IE

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

m%ro$ement+H2G Design Efficienc+ I& ,e (rea7 do,n the e$er'da' "om%!e- t' o& our ! $es toda'* d sse"t n# ,hat nter%!a' s most "r t "a! to human sur$ $a!* susta na( ! t' and %ros%er t'* ,e m #ht & nd three (as " th n#s< s" en"e* natura! !a, @ resour"es+ ?S" en"e? s the mechanism &or d s"o$er' and $a! dat onU ?natura! !a,? s the %re.e- st n# rule set ,h "h ,e are "ont nua!!' !earn n# a(out $ a s" en"e and ne"essar !' ada%t n#U ,h !e ?resour"es? e- st n the "onte-t o& (oth ra, Earthly materials and the %o,er o& the human mind to "om%rehend+ W th res%e"t to the de$e!o%ment o& design* these three attr (utes are natura!!' nd s%ensa(!e to ea"h other+ Furthermore* the term industrial design,H2E &or the %ur%oses o& th s essa'* , !! (e used to denote the %ro"ess o& e"onom " or ented ndustr' n a!! ts &a"ets* &rom s n#u!ar #ood "reat on to the tota! order o& the #!o(a! e"onom' n &orm+ The h stor' o& ndustr a! des #n s* n man' res%e"ts* the true history o& e"onom " de$e!o%ment+ As our e$er.emer# n# s" ent & " understand n#s #enerate !o# "a! n&eren"e , th res%e"t to ho, (est ut ! 1e our resour"es and t me* the #!o(a! !ands"a%e* (oth %h's "a! and "u!tura!* has under#one %er%etua! "han#e+ In th s "onte-t* the "ore nterest o& ndustr a! des #n s essent a!!' efficiency and t "ou!d (e ar#ued that there are three "entra! e&& " en"' "onte-ts re!ated< 8a; !a(or e&& " en"' 8(; mater a! e&& " en"' and 8"; s'stem e&& " en"'+ 8a; +abor efficiency has a un )ue h stor'+ S n"e the ear!' 45th "entur' there has (een a re!at $e!' ra% d trans t on &rom the dom nant use o& human and an ma! mus"!e as the sour"e o& !a(or %o,er* to the use o& %o,ered ma"h nes+ Th s %henomenon* ,h "h s termed mechani%ation* ,as a(!e to e!e$ate the ,or7&or"e &rom mu"h strenuous to !* to o%erate n more o& a %os t on o& too! ut ! 1at on+ Ho,e$er* (' the end o& the 45th "entur'* th s %attern "ont nued to ad$an"e* ,here su"h ma"h nes ,ere not on!' "a%a(!e o& mo$ n# hea$' !oads and %er&orm n# "om%!e- %h's "a! a"ts* the' ,ere a!so mer# n# , th computeri%ation and de#rees o& artificial intelligence 8AI; and hen"e ,ere a(!e to ma7e decisions as ,e!!+ In short* the a""e!erat n# trend toda' has %ro$en that these modern ma"h nes are
H2G Wh !e the e- sten"e o& #o$ernment has ser$ed as (oth a re#u!ator o&

(us ness matters as ,e!! as an a"t $e "o!!uder o& su"h matters # $en ts e- sten"e as a (us ness n and o& tse!&* there ha$e (een $er' &e, #!o(a! a"t ons that ha$e un ted the ndustr a! s'stem+ One e-am%!e ,as the Montreal Protocol, ,h "h* %erha%s &or the & rst t me n h stor'* un ted the ,or!d n a (as " nterest n en$ ronmenta! %rote"t on 8O1one La'er De%!et on;+ H2E Industr a! des #n s trad t ona!!' de& ned* as K s the use o& (oth a%%! ed art and a%%! ed s" en"e to m%ro$e the aesthet "s* er#onom "s* &un"t ona! t'* andMor usa( ! t' o& a %rodu"t+” 2F5

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

no, #reat!' sur%ass n#* n %rodu"t $ t'* the $ast ma0or t' o& the a"t ons h stor "a!!' he!d (' human (e n#s and there a%%ears to (e no s!o, n# do,n o& th s trend+H45 O$era!!* TZM $ e,s th s trend as su##est n# a %o,er&u! means (' ,h "h the human s%e" es "an &urther ma- m 1e ts %rodu"t $e a( ! t' to meet the needs o& a!! human (e n#s* ,h !e #enerat n# a !e$e! o& human &reedom ne$er (e&ore seen* & ada%ted %ro%er!'+H42 8(; Material efficiency s ho, ,e!! ,e ut ! 1e the ra, mater a!s o& the Earth+ Materials scienceH44 also has a un )ue h stor' unto tse!&* , th ea"h %er od o& t me d s"o$er n# ne, %atterns and %oss ( ! t es+ Meta!!ur#'* a doma n o& mater a!s en# neer n# that stud es the %h's "a! and "hem "a! (eha$ or o& meta!! " e!ements and the r m -tures*H4D ,as a $er' m%ortant de$e!o%ment h stor "a!!'* ena(! n# a $ast s%e"trum o& %oss ( ! t' throu#h the "reat on o& "om%ounds and a!!o's+ For e-am%!e* the term K9ron1e A#e”*H46 ,h "h ,as the %er od n Euro%e o& around D455.I55 9/* s "hara"ter 1ed (' the "ommon use o& "o%%er and ts a!!o' (ron1e &or man' %ur%oses+ Ho,e$er* %erha%s the most m%ortant d s"o$er' n mater a!s s" en"e understand n# 8and %erha%s one o& the most m%ortant d s"o$er es n human h stor'; ,as the set o& "hem "a! e!ements that "om%r se a!! matter* as ,e 7no, t+ Re"o#n 1ed (' most as or#an 1ed $ a the K%er od " ta(!e”* 22G e!ements ha$e (een dent & ed as o& 452D* , th a(out E4 7no,n to o""ur natura!!' on Earth+H4H In short* these "hem "a! e!ements are the (u !d n# (!o"7s o& e$er'th n# ,e e-%er en"e as tan# (!e n the ,or!d around us and ea"h res%e"t $e atom has "erta n %ro%ert es and hen"e d os'n"rat " a%%! "at ons+
H45 Th s ssue , !! (e addressed at the end o& th s essa'+ Su##ested read n#<

'eport Suggests "early >alf of 9*S* &obs 4re Vulnerable to omputeri%ation 8htt%<MM,,,+te"hno!o#'re$ e,+"omM$ e,MH2E462Mre%ort.su##ests.near!'. ha!&.o&.us.0o(s.are.$u!nera(!e.to."om%uter 1at onM; H42 V e, n# the ,or!d , th a Ksu""ess” and Kstatus” asso" at on to mater a! %ossess ons* as s "ommon toda'* o&ten %o!!utes "ons derat ons o& the %os t $e stress redu" n#* &ree t me ena(! n#* "on&! "t re! e$ n# %oss ( ! t es o& !a(or automat on+ Does one ,ant to ha$e a ! &e o& &reedom &rom monoton'* stress and to ! or does ,ant to ha$e $ast* e-"ess mater a! %ossess onsR Th s )uest on %resents a $a!ue s'stem "on&! "t and the term Kada%tat on” here s to su##est that %eo%!e ma' (e , !! n# to redu"e the "om%!e- t' o& ndustr' a ( t (' ha$ n# !ess mater a! K,ants”* n &a$or o& a more Ks m%! & ed” ! &est'!e+ Th s sn?t to su##est e$er'th n# ,e ha$e toda' "ou!d not (e a$a !a(!e n a NLR9E+ It s to sa' that a ,or!d$ e, ,h "h s !ess mater a! st " "ou!d %re$a ! to ma7e su"h a trans t on to a 7 nd automated e"onom' more s m%!e* not to ment on (e more e"o!o# "a!!' susta na(!e* # $en the nherent ,aste+ H44 Mater a!s s" en"e s an nterd s" %! nar' & e!d n$o!$ n# the %ro%ert es o& matter and ts a%%! "at on to $ar ous areas o& s" en"e and en# neer n#+ 8htt%<MM,,,+s" en"eda !'+"omMart "!esMmMmater a!sVs" en"e+htm; H4D Meta!!ur#' de& ned< htt%<MM,,,+s" en"eda !'+"omMart "!esMmMmeta!!ur#'+htm H46 Re&eren"e< 9ron1e A#e< htt%<MM,,,+the&reed "t onar'+"omM9ron1eQA#e H4H Sour"e< KNe, E!ement 22H Ta7es a Seat at the Aer od " Ta(!e”* Time, 452D 8htt%<MMs" en"e+t me+"omM452DM5GM4GMne,.e!ement.22H.ta7es.a.seat.at. the.%er od ".ta(!eM; 2F2

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Th s 7no,!ed#e* ,h "h s e-treme!' ne, re!at $e to the tota! t' o& human understand n#*H4I has not on!' a!!o,ed &or a dee%er understand n# o& ho, "hem str' "an ,or7 to "reate an n"red (!' $ast ran#e o& mater a!s &or n"reas n#!' e&& " ent ndustr a! use* t has a!so &a" ! tated a %o,er&u! understand n# o& the $er' nature o& matter tse!& and %ros%e"ts &or man %u!at on at the atom " s"a!e+ Nanote"hno!o#'*H4F ,h "h s $er' mu"h n ts n&an"'* a%%ears )u te "on"rete n ts theoret "a! (as s o& assem(! n# and d sassem(! n# d &&erent mater a!s* and e$en s'stems o& mater a!s 8 +e+ #oods themse!$es;* &rom the atom " !e$e! u% and do,n+H4G O& "ourse* as %ro&ound as that s* the "urrent* re!at $e!' "rude state o& nanote"hno!o#' a%%! es most!' n the "onte-t o& ,hat are "a!!ed Ksmart mater a!s”H4E or Kmeta.mater a!s”+HD5 As , !! (e tou"hed u%on !ater n th s essa'* the "urrent state and trends o& mater a!s s" en"e ho!d %ro&ound %oss ( ! t es &or the %resent and &uture+ 8"; System efficiency s ! 7e!' the most "ru" a! and m%ortant o& a!! "on"e%ts &or* as a(stra"t as t ma' seem* e$er'th n# ,e 7no, o& s a s'stem itself or an ntera"t on o& t,o or more s'stems+ Aerha%s the (est ,a' to e-%ress s'stem e&& " en"' s to "ons der an' "ommon%!a"e a"t and th n7 a(out ho, that a"t "ou!d e ther redu"e ,aste or n"rease %rodu"t $ t' on an' and a!! !e$e!s* not 0ust , th n the "onte-t o& the %er"e $ed s n#u!ar a"t tse!&+ S'stem %ers%e"t $es are rather o(s"ure to most s n"e ,e tend to $ e, most &un"t ons and %ro"esses , th n the
H4I In 2FGE* Anto ne La$o s er %u(! shed a ! st o& DD "hem "a! e!ements*

#rou% n# them nto #ases* meta!s* nonmeta!s* and earths+ In 2GF5* Russ an "hem str' %ro&essor Dm tr Mende!ee$ %rodu"ed the & rst T%er od " ta(!eT , th a(out t, "e as man'* , th a ne, e!ement (e n# d s"o$ered a(out e$er 'ear on a$era#e therea&ter+ H4F Nanote"hno!o#' de& ned< the s" en"e o& man %u!at n# mater a!s on an atom " or mo!e"u!ar s"a!e+ H4G Re&eren"e< Michio 2a#u3 an "anotechnology reate 9topiaD 8htt%<MM(etane,s+"omM4524M22M5GMstar.tre7.re%! "ator. s."!oser.to.rea! t'. than.'ou.th n7M; H4E KSmart Mater a!s”* as a term* s rather ne, and am( #uous+ A "ommon de& n t on ,ou!d (e< KMater a!s that "an s #n & "ant!' "han#e the r me"han "a! %ro%ert es 8su"h as sha%e* st &&ness* and $ s"os t';* or the r therma!* o%t "a!* or e!e"troma#net " %ro%ert es* n a %red "ta(!e or "ontro!!a(!e manner n res%onse to the r en$ ronment+ Mater a!s that %er&orm sens n# and a"tuat n# &un"t ons* n"!ud n# % e1oe!e"tr "s* e!e"trostr "tors* ma#netostr "tors* and sha%e.memor' a!!o's+” Ho,e$er* a Ksmart” mater a! sn?t ne"essar !' a %rodu"t o& nanote"hno!o#'* e$en thou#h nanote"hno!o#' "an (e "ommon as a means o& %rodu"t on+ HD5 KMetamater a!s” are de& ned #enera!!' as Ke-ot " "om%os te mater a!s that d s%!a' %ro%ert es (e'ond those a$a !a(!e n natura!!' o""urr n# mater a!s+ Instead o& "onstru"t n# mater a!s at the "hem "a! !e$e!* as s ord nar !' done* these are "onstru"ted , th t,o or more mater a!s at the ma"ros"o% " !e$e!+” One o& the r de& n n# "hara"ter st "s s that the e!e"troma#net " res%onse resu!ts &rom "om( n n# t,o or more d st n"t mater a!s n a s%e" & ed ,a' that e-tends the ran#e o& e!e"troma#net " %atterns (e"ause o& the &a"t that the' are not &ound n nature+ 2F4

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

(ounds o& the r ntended %ur%ose on!'* n a "ate#or "a! manner+ For e-am%!e* ,hen ,e "ons der a modern & tness "enter 8a7a K#'m”;* , th %eo%!e e-er" s n# on $ar ous ma"h nes n one !o"at on* ,e tend to th n7 on!' o& the %ur%ose o& that nst tut on and hen"e ho, to (etter &a" ! tate the hea!th nterests o& those %eo%!e us n# those ma"h nes* et"+ We rare!' th n7 more (road!' and %ro%ose< KWhat & a!! those %eo%!e %eda! n# and %ush n# and %u!! n# had that e-erted ener#' run nto a "on$ers on s'stem ,here the (u !d n# tse!& "ou!d (e %o,ered* n ,ho!e or n %art* (' that ener#' n the &orm o& e!e"tr " t'R”HD2 Th s manner o& thou#ht stands at the heart o& a systems theory t'%e ,or!d$ e,+ Aerha%s a use&u! ,a' to th n7 o& th s networ# %ers%e"t $e s throu#h the s'ner#' o& nature tse!&+ In the Earth?s ( os%here* m nus "urrent human nter&eren"e* there s $ rtua!!' no su"h th n# as ,aste+ V rtua!!' e$er'th n# ,e & nd n nature s dee%!' nte#rated and n (a!an"e due to the re& n n# nature o& e$o!ut on tse!&+ Th s s a %o,er&u! o(ser$at on and the term ( om m "r'HD4 s ,orth ment on n# n th s "onte-t as* n man' ,a's* our de$e!o%ment as a s%e" es has (een to !earn &rom the natura! %ro"esses n e- sten"e a!read'* e$en thou#h ,e a%%ear to ha$e de"ou%!ed #reat!' n man' ,a's+ Hen"e* ,or7 n# to &a" ! tate the most optimi%ed integration ,e "an* dea!!' reusing everything on a!! !e$e!s* 0ust as nature does* shou!d (e a so" eta! #oa! to ensure susta na( ! t' and e&& " en"'+ Esta lished and Potential Trends There are t,o (road* (as " trendsMrea! t es to "ons der n the ,or!d toda'+ For the %ur%oses o& th s essa'* ,e , !! re&er to them as Kesta(! shed” and K%otent a!”+ Established trends are the so" oe"onom " trends n %!a' at the t me o& th s ,r t n# and these* n the "onte-t o& %u(! " hea!th and e"o!o# "a! (a!an"e* are sho,n to (e a!most ent re!' ne#at $e+HDD The potential trends, on the other hand* re$ea! ! &e. m%ro$ n# and (a!an"e."reat n# %oss ( ! t es that could o""ur* & !ar#er
HD2 A"tua!!'* th s dea ,as ndeed rea! 1ed (ut has (een a%%! ed $er' rare!' as

o& no,+ KIn the G'm< /!ean Ener#' &rom Mus"!e Ao,er”* Time* 4525 8htt%<MM"ontent+t me+"omMt meM(us nessMart "!eM5*GHEE*45D44G2*55+htm!; HD4 9 om m "r' 8&rom bios* mean n# ! &e* and mimesis* mean n# to m tate; s a des #n d s" %! ne that see7s susta na(!e so!ut ons (' emu!at n# natureNs t me.tested %atterns and strate# es* e+#+* a so!ar "e!! ns% red (' a !ea&+ 8htt%<MM,,,+as7nature+or#Mart "!eM$ e,M,hatV sV( om m "r'; HDD T,o (road trends ,orth not n# ,ou!d (e e"o!o# "a! @ so" a!+ Re#ard n# the e"o!o# "a!* t has (een noted that most* & not a!! ma0or ! &e su%%ort n# s'stems are "urrent!' n de"! ne+ Re&< =ata Shows 4ll of EarthRs Systems in 'apid =ecline 8htt%<MM,,,+ %sne,s+netM4522M5FMdata.sho,s.a!!.o&.earths.s'stems. n.ra% d.de"! neM; Re#ard n# so" a! trends . a ,orth' stat st "a! o(ser$at on s the a%%arent #enera! n"rease n so" a! desta( ! 1at on or Ku%r s n#s” that ha$e (een o""urr n# n the %ast D5 'ears+ A %ro#ram tra"7 n# ne, re%orts "a!!ed 8GDELT;* sho,s a start! n# n"rease n su"h e$ents+ Re&< =ata Map Shows Protests 4round the 7orld !ncrease, 7ith aveat 8htt%<MMthe#!o(a!o(ser$ator'+or#Mana!'s sMHFI.ma%% n#.some.o&.the. ,or!ds.unrest.+htm!; 2FD

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

order so" a! "han#es ,ere made+ As noted (e&ore* these t,o trends ar#ua(!' a%%ear to o%erate n s'stem "ontrad "t on o& ea"h other+ In the essa' t t!ed Social =estabili%ation A Transition, an n. de%th !oo7 at the "urrent state o& so" eta! a&&a rs , !! (e addressed n deta !+ Ho,e$er* !et t (e stated that the e&& " en" es de& ned* de&ended and su##ested here are not done so s m%!' to sho, ho, mu"h (etter the ,or!d K"ou!d (e”* as thou#h ,hat ,e are do n# toda' s st !! o7a'+ On the "ontrar'* these (as " o(ser$at ons a"tua!!' demand a! #nment & ,e ntend to maintain stability n our ,or!d # $en ts "urrent* de#rad n# %atterns+ W th a %o%u!at on e-%e"ted to rea"h o$er E ( !! on (' 45H5*HD6 , th re%orted trends o& !oom n# &ood*HDH ,aterHDI and ener#' shorta#es*HDF these su##est ons not on!' see7 to m%ro$e (ut to a"tua!!' change course+ O$era!!* t s the $ e, o& TZM that & these "urrent* so."a!!ed established trends %ers st , th the shorts #hted mar7et.(ased %ra"t "e and a!! the "hara"ter st "s that #o a!on# , th t* human "u!ture , !! not on!' not a"h e$e the %os t $e a%%! "at on o& the potential trends e-%ressed* n"reased desta( ! 1at on , !! "ont nue to o""ur+ Post-Scarcit+ World/iew In th s se"t on* (as " stat st "s and trends , !! (e %resented to sho, ho, ,e "an* as a #!o(a! so" et'* a"h e$e a K%ost.s"ar" t'”HDG so" a!
HD6 Sour"e< 9*"* 'aises @+ow8 Population ProEection for BCGC

8htt%<MM,,,+,or!d,at"h+or#MnodeMI5DG;

HDH Re&eren"e< 6ield Trends 4re !nsufficient to =ouble ?lobal

rop Production by BCGC 8htt%<MM,,,+,ash n#ton%ost+"omM(!o#sM,on7(!o#M,%M452DM5FM52Mth s. unsett! n#."hart.sho,s.,ere.not.#ro, n#.enou#h.&ood.to.&eed.the.,or!dM; HDI Re&eren"e< The oming ?lobal 7ater risis 8htt%<MM,,,+theat!ant "+"omM nternat ona!Mar"h $eM4524M5HMthe."om n#. #!o(a!.,ater."r s sM4HIGEIM; HDF The h'dro"ar(on e"onom' and ts de#ree o& s"ar" t' has (een a "ontro$ers a! su(0e"t &or man' de"ades+ The de(ate o$er the "urrent state o& su%%!'* #!o(a!!'* has $ast d sa#reement+ KAea7 O !”* ,h "h has (een the "ate#or "a! "onte-t o& th s de(ate* s%ans man' de"ades* , th the ma n "on"!us on (e n# that th s &orm o& ener#' s & n te+ Re# ona! de%!et on* su"h as the Un ted States %ea7 n the 2EF5s , th res%e"t to "on$ent ona! o ! & e!ds* %ro$ des a- omat " e$ den"e that other re# ons and hen"e the ,or!d tse!& , !! e$entua!!' %ea7* , th man' ana!'sts see n# th s o""ur n the $er' near &uture+ Th s* "ou%!ed , th %o%u!at on #ro,th and n"reased demand* "om%ounds the %ro(!em* & a""urate+ Re&< 8htt%<MM,,,+ nde%endent+"o+u7Mne,sMs" en"eM,or!d.o !.su%%! es.are.set.to. run.out.&aster.than.e-%e"ted.,arn.s" ent sts.I4I4I42+htm!; HDG The term K%ost.s"ar" t'” denotes a state that e! m nates a""ess s"ar" t' o& a # $en resour"e or %ro"ess* usua!!' (' means o& o%t m 1ed e&& " en"' re#ard n# %rodu"t on des #n and strate# " use+ Need!ess to sa'* the dea o& a"h e$ n# tota! %ost.s"ar" t' . mean n# an n& n te* a(undant amount o& e$er'th n# &or e$er'one . s r #ht&u!!' "ons dered an m%oss ( ! t'* e$en n the most o%t m st " $ e,s+ There&ore* th s term* as used here* rea!!' h #h! #hts a %o nt o& &o"us+ 2F6

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

s'stem+ Wh !e s"ar" t' n a(so!ute terms , !! a!,a's (e , th human t' to one de#ree or another n th s "!osed s'stem o& Earth!' resour"es* s"ar" t' on the !e$e! o& human needs and basic material success s no !on#er a $ a(!e de&ense o& the mar7et s'stem?s a!!o"at on methods+HDE As a (r e& as de* a "ommon de&ense o& the %r "e s'stem and the mar7et s that & any s"ar" t' e- sts* t ma7es $o d an' other a%%roa"h+ The ar#ument #oes that s n"e not e$er'one "an ha$e -'1* -'1 s s"are and hen"e %eo%!e need mone' 8or ha$e a !a"7 thereo&; to & !ter out ,ho #a ns -'1 and ,ho doesn?t+ The %ro(!em , th th s assum%t on s that t #nores ho, "erta n resour"es and hen"e #oods ha$e more relevance than others ,hen t "omes to public health+ /om%ar n# the s"ar" t' o& a $er' e-%ens $e* !u-ur' "ar ,h "h dra,s status sat s&a"t on &rom ts o,ner more than ts (as " %ur%ose as a mode o& trans%ort . , th the s"ar" t' o& &ood* ,h "h s a "ore ! &e re)u rement &or hea!th* s not !e# t mate n rea! ! &e terms+ The &ormer nterest* ,h !e %erha%s m%ortant to the e#o sat s&a"t on o& the o,ner ,ho ! 7e!' a!read' has h s or her (as " needs met to a&&ord su"h a %rodu"t* s not e)u $a!ent to the !atter nterest o& those ,ho ha$e ! tt!e or noth n# to eat and hen"e "annot sur$ $e+ One "annot ar( trar !' "on&!ate su"h Kneeds” and K,ants”* as thou#h the' are s m%!' the same* n theor'+ Sad!'* th s s ho, the mar7et s'stem (eha$es+ L 7e, se* , th #reat ,ea!th and mater a! m(a!an"e*H65 "omes ne$ ta(!e so" a! desta( ! 1at on+ V rtua!!' e$er' !ar#e.s"a!e %u(! " d ssent and re$o!ut on ,e ha$e seen n the %ast "ou%!e hundred 'ears ha$e had some e"onom " (as s* usua!!' re$o!$ n# around so" eta! m(a!an"e* e-%!o tat on and "!ass se%arat on+H62 The same #oes &or the roots o& "r me* terror sm* add "t ons and other so" a! %ro(!ems+ V rtua!!' a!! o& these %ro%ens t es are (orn out o& de%r $at on* ,hether
HDE Monetar' e"onom "s s rooted n $ e, n# the ,or!d &rom the stand%o nt o&

shorta#es or ne&& " en" es+ It s (ased around mana# n# s"ar" t' throu#h a s'stem o& %r "e and $a!ue re!at onsh %s+ The more an tem s s"are* the more t s $a!ued+ H65 The &o!!o, n# )uotat on (' h stor an 3err' Z+ Mu!!er em(ra"es th s rea! t' ,e!!< KIne)ua! t' s ndeed n"reas n# a!most e$er',here n the %ost ndustr a! "a% ta! st ,or!d+ 9ut des% te ,hat man' on the !e&t th n7* th s s not the resu!t o& %o! t "s* nor s %o! t "s ! 7e!' to re$erse t* &or the %ro(!em s more dee%!' rooted and ntra"ta(!e than #enera!!' re"o#n 1ed+ Ine)ua! t' s an ne$ ta(!e %rodu"t o& "a% ta! st a"t $ t'* and e-%and n# e)ua! t' o& o%%ortun t' on!' n"reases t .. (e"ause some nd $ dua!s and "ommun t es are s m%!' (etter a(!e than others to e-%!o t the o%%ortun t es &or de$e!o%ment and ad$an"ement that "a% ta! sm a&&ords+” 8htt%<MM,,,+&ore #na&&a rs+"omMart "!esM2DGG66M0err'.1.mu!!erM"a% ta! sm. and. ne)ua! t'; H62 9oth re!at $e and a(so!ute de%r $at on* mean n# a(0e"t %o$ert' and re!at $e so" oe"onom " status* sho, a %o,er&u! h stor "a! "orre!at on to so" a! desta( ! 1at on and %rotest+ TO""u%' Wa!! StT ,h "h s%ar7ed a #!o(a! %rotest mo$ement n 4522* ,as (ased* most s%e" & "a!!'* around n"ome ne)ua! t'+ Its most nota(!e s!o#an* TWe are the EE>T* denoted the $ast ,ea!th d &&eren"es (et,een EE> o& the %o%u!at on and the 2>* "ou%!ed , th the %o,er a(use nherent (e"ause o& th s m(a!an"e+ 2FH

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

a(so!ute or re!at $e and th s de%r $at on s nherent to the nature o& a so" et' (ased on "om%et t on and s"ar" t'+ So* to s m%!' redu"e our e"onom " rea! t' do,n to mere trade* "ou%!ed , th the "!a m that an' de#ree o& s"ar" t' 0ust & es the use o& the mar7et* %r "e and mone' &or a!!o"at on* s to #nore the true nature o& ,hat ensures so" a! harmon'* sta( ! t'* and %u(! " hea!th+ Wou!d t seem reasona(!e to &or#o the te"hn "a! a( ! t' to* sa'* e!e$ate G5> o& human t' to the mater a! "a%a" t' "urrent!' he!d (' on!' 25> toda'* s m%!' (e"ause Knot e$er'one "an o,n a H55 room mans on”R A#a n* the a(surd t' o& th s o(0e"t on s )u te "!ear ,hen a system perspective s ta7en , th res%e"t to ,hat unders"ores true %u(! " hea!th and so" a! sta( ! t'+ That as de* (e!o, s a ! st o& "urrent ! &e su%%ort rea! t es a$a !a(!e to the #!o(a! %o%u!at on that ha$e #one unharnessed due to nh ( t n# &a"tors nherent to the mar7et e"onom'+ Ea"h %o nt , !! (e addressed n ts o,n su(.se"t on+ 2; Food Arodu"t on< /urrent %rodu"t on methods a!read' %rodu"e more than enou#h &ood to &eed a!! human (e n#s on earth+ Furthermore* "urrent trends to,ard more o%t m 1ed te"hno!o#' and a#r "u!tura! methods a!so sho, a "a%a" t' to &urther n"rease %rodu"t on e&& " en"' and nutr t on )ua! t' to a state o& active abundance* , th m n ma! human !a(or and n"reas n#!' !ess ener#'* ,ater and !and re)u rements+ 4; /!ean Water< Desa! nat on and de"ontam nat on %ro"esses "urrent!' e- st to su"h a $ast de#ree o& a%%! "at on that no human (e n#* e$en n the %resent state o& %o!!ut on !e$e!s* ,ou!d e$er need to (e , thout "!ean ,ater* re#ard!ess o& ,here the' are on earth+ D; Ener#'< 9et,een #eotherma!* , nd* so!ar* and h'dro* "ou%!ed , th s'stem.(ased %ro"esses that "an re"a%ture e-%e!!ed ener#' and reuse t d re"t!'* there s an a(so!ute ener#' a(undan"e ,h "h "an %ro$ de &or man' t mes the "urrent ,or!d?s %o%u!at on+ 6; Mater a! Arodu"t onMA""ess< The s%e"trum o& mater a! %rodu"t on* &rom (u !d n#s to trans%ort to "ommon #oods* has e-%er en"ed a %o,er&u! merging o& "a% ta! #oods* "onsumer #oods and human !a(or+ W th %ro%er system incorporation o& ea"h #enre o& %rodu"t on* "ou%!ed , th optimi%ed regeneration %ro"esses and a tota! trans&ormat on &rom the use o& %ro%ert' r #hts to a s'stem o& access rights* t s "!ear that a!! 7no,n #ood &un"t ons 8 n the &orm o& %rodu"t; "an (e ut ! 1ed (' 255> o& human t'* on a %er need (as s* n a""ess a(undan"e+

Carr+ing Ca,acit+ Ho,e$er* (e&ore these &our ssues are addressed n deta !* an ana!'s s
2FI

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

o& the Earth?s K"arr' n# "a%a" t'” s n order+ /arr' n# "a%a" t' s de& ned as Kthe ma- mum* e)u ! (r um num(er o& or#an sms o& a %art "u!ar s%e" es that "an (e su%%orted nde& n te!' n a # $en en$ ronment+”H64 S%e"u!at on on the Earth?s "arr' n# "a%a" t' , th res%e"t to human (e n#s* mean n# ho, man' %eo%!e the Earth and ts ( os%here "an su%%ort* has (een a "ontro$ers a! su(0e"t &or man' "entur es+ For e-am%!e* a 4552 Un ted Nat ons re%ort sa d that t,o.th rds o& the est mates the' noted at that t me &e!! n the ran#e o& 6 ( !! on to 2I ( !! on , th a med an o& a(out 25 ( !! on+H6D Ho,e$er* te"hno!o# "a! "han#e* and ts "a%a" t' to n"rease e&& " en"' , th res%e"t to ho, our resour"es are used*H66 %resents an on#o n# nter&eren"e n su"h attem%ts to arr $e at a tan# (!e* em% r "a! & #ure+ The rea! t' s that the num(er o& %eo%!e the Earth "an su%%ort s h #h!' $ar a(!e and (ased* n %art* on the "urrent state o& te"hno!o#' at a # $en t me and the more ,e %ro#ress our s" ent & " and te"hn "a! understand n#* the more %eo%!e ,e tend to (e a(!e to su%%ort* , th !ess ener#' and resour"es a%%! ed %er %erson+ O& "ourse* th s sn?t to m%!' that , th n the "!osed s'stem o& the Earth ,e ha$e some n& n te "a%a" t' to re%rodu"e+ Rather* t h #h! #hts the re!e$an"e o& ,hat t means to (e strate# "* nte!! #ent and e&& " ent , th our resour"e use and* (' e-tens on* the ndustr a!Me"onom " %ro"ess tse!&+ Toda'* there s no e$ den"e that ,e are at or are "!ose!' a%%roa"h n# the Earth?s "arr' n# "a%a" t'* & ,e ta7e nto a""ount the trends that re$ea! our $ast %otent a! to Kdo more , th !ess”* "ou%!ed , th a value system that "!ear!' re"o#n 1es that ,e* as a s%e" es* o""u%' a "!osed Earth s'stem , th natura! ! m tat ons o$era!! and that t s our %ersona! res%ons ( ! t' to ourse!$es* ea"h other and &uture #enerat ons to 7ee% an nterest n (a!an"e* e&& " en"' and susta na( ! t'+ Th s educational m%erat $e su##ests that a "ons" ous* n&ormed #!o(a! "u!ture "an sta( ! 1e ts re%rodu"t on rate & need (e* without e-terna! &or"e* & th s (as " re!at onsh % s %ro%er!' understood+ O& "ourse* mu"h "ou!d (e sa d a(out the n&!uen"e o& o!d* trad t ona! (e! e&s* su"h as re! # ous do"tr nes that a%%ear to su##est that on#o n# and "onstant %ro"reat on s a $ rtue+ These $ e,s* ,h "h or # nated n the a(sen"e o& the 7no,!ed#e ,e ha$e toda' re#ard n# our shared e- sten"e on a & n te %!anet* , !! ! 7e!' (e o$er"ome natura!!'* , th edu"at on+H6H
H64 /arr' n# "a%a" t' de& ned< H6D Sour"e< 7orld population monitoring BCC,* Un ted Nat ons H66 See essa' !ntroduction to Sustainable Thought* se"t on KE%hemera! 1at on” H6H Aresent!' a #reat &ear %ers sts that "urta ! n# or attem%t n# to "ontro! the

htt%<MMd "t onar'+re&eren"e+"omM(ro,seM"arr' n#Q"a%a" t'

8htt%<MM,,,+un+or#MesaM%o%u!at onM%u(! "at onsM,%mM,%m4552+%d&;

%o%u!at on nto more sta(!e re%rodu"t $e %atterns s %er se a ne"essar !' $ o!ent m%os t on+ Future #enerat ons , !! understand* as a resu!t o& a""ess to more n&ormat on a(out the %!anet?s "arr' n# "a%a" t'* that un"he"7ed 2FF

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

L 7e, se* & "urrent re# ons o& a""e!erat n# %o%u!at on #ro,th are ana!'1ed* t s &ound that those e- st n# n de%r $at on and %o$ert' are re%rodu" n# &aster than those ,ho are not n %o$ert'+ Wh !e there s some "ontro$ers' as to ,h' th s %attern %re$a !s* the "orre!at on a%%ears to st !! (e a""urate+ Th s e$ den"e su##ests that n"reas n# %eo%!e?s standard o& ! $ n# "an "urta ! the r rates o& re%rodu"t on and th s &urthers the so" a! m%erat $e to "reate a more e)u ta(!e s'stem o& resour"e a!!o"at on+ 67< Food Production A""ord n# to The Un ted Nat ons Food and A#r "u!ture Or#an 1at on* one out o& e$er' e #ht %eo%!e on Earth* 8near!' 2 ( !! on %eo%!e; su&&er &rom "hron " undernour shment+ A!most a!! o& these %eo%!e ! $e n de$e!o% n# "ountr es* re%resent n# 2H %er"ent o& the %o%u!at on o& these "ount es+H6I Ao$ert' s* need!ess to sa'* "!ear!' ! n7ed to th s %henomenon+ :et* %o! t "s and (us ness as de* ,or!d a#r "u!ture toda' a"tua!!' %rodu"es 2F %er"ent more "a!or es %er %erson than t d d D5 'ears a#o* des% te a F5 %er"ent %o%u!at on n"rease+ There s enou#h &ood to %ro$ de e$er'one n the ,or!d , th at !east 4*F45 7 !o"a!or es 87"a!; %er da'* ,h "h s more than enou#h to ma nta n #ood hea!th &or most+H6F H6G There&ore* the e- sten"e o& su"h a !ar#e num(er o& "hron "a!!' hun#r' %eo%!e n the de$e!o% n# ,or!d toda' re$ea!s* at a m n mum* that there s someth n# &undamenta!!' ,ron# , th the #!o(a! ndustr a! and e"onom " %ro"ess tse!& and not the Earth?s "arr' n# "a%a" t'* or human t'?s a( ! t' to %ro"ess enou#h resour"es+ A""ord n# to the Inst tut on o& Me"han "a! En# neers* KXWYe %rodu"e X#!o(a!!'Y a(out &our ( !! on metr " tonnes o& &ood %er annum+ :et due to %oor %ra"t "es n har$est n#* stora#e and trans%ortat on* as ,e!! as mar7et and "onsumer ,asta#e* t s est mated that D5JH5> 8or 2+4J4 ( !! on tonnes; o& a!! &ood %rodu"ed never reaches a human stomach+ Furthermore* th s & #ure does not re&!e"t the &a"t that !ar#e amounts o& !and* ener#'* &ert ! 1ers and ,ater ha$e a!so (een !ost n the %rodu"t on o& &oodstu&&s ,h "h s m%!' end u% as ,aste+”H6E In the ,ords o& &ood ,aste resear"her Va!ent n Thurn* Kthe num(er o& "a!or es that end u% n the #ar(a#e n North Amer "a and Euro%e ,ou!d (e su&& " ent to &eed the hun#r' o& th s ,or!d three t mes
T&reedomT o& re%rodu"t on s* n man' ,a's* tse!& a $ o!ent a"t a#a nst the un(orn "h !dren* and the human ra"e tse!&* ,hen resour"e %ro$ s on and en$ ronmenta! nte#r t' are not &a"tored nto the %ro"ess+ H6I Sour"e< ?lobally almost IOC million chronically undernourished $ new hunger report* FAO 8htt%<MM,,,+&ao+or#Mne,sMstor'MenM temM2I2G2EM; H6F Sour"e< 'educing poverty and hunger**** FAO 8htt%<MM,,,+&ao+or#Mdo"re%M55DM'I4IHeM'I4IHe5D+htm; H6G Sour"e< >ow Many alories Should ! EatD* MNT 8htt%<MM,,,+med "a!ne,stoda'+"omMart "!esM46HHGG+%h% H6E Sour"e< (eeding the F /illion3 The tragedy of waste* IME* 8htt%<MM,,,+ me"he+or#M7no,!ed#eMthemesMen$ ronmentM#!o(a!.&ood; 2FG

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

o$er+”HH5

E"onom "a!!'* F rst Wor!d ,aste %atterns "an "reate %r "e n"reases &or the #!o(a! &ood su%%!' due to n"reased demand resu!t n# &rom those $er' ,aste %atterns+ In other ,ords* the F rst Wor!d adds to the ,or!d hun#er e% dem " (' ts ,aste %atterns on the "onsumer end (e"ause the resu!t n# demand &rom n"reased ,aste n"reases %r "e $a!ues %ast ,hat s a&&orda(!e &or man'+ Wh !e there s "erta n!' an edu"at ona! m%erat $e &or the "onsum n# ,or!d to "ons der the re!e$an"e o& the r ,aste %atterns n the "urrent "! mate* (oth n terms o& rea! &ood ,aste and ts e&&e"t on #!o(a! %r "es due to n"reased demand (e"ause o& th s ,aste* t a%%ears that the most e&&e"t $e and %ra"t "a! means to o$er"ome th s #!o(a! de& " en"' s to Ku%date” the s'stem o& &ood %rodu"t on tse!& , th modern methods+ Th s* "ou%!ed , th de! (erate locali%ation o& the %ro"ess tse!& n order to redu"e the $ast s%e"trum o& ,aste "aused (' ne&& " en" es n the "urrent global food supply chain,HH2 ,ou!d not on!' redu"e su"h %ro(!ems n #enera!* t ,ou!d dramat "a!!' n"rease %rodu"t $ t'* %rodu"t )ua! t' and out%ut o$era!!+ Wh !e the a"t $e use o& ara(!e !and and !and.(ased a#r "u!ture shou!d rema n 8 dea!!'* o& "ourse* , th more susta na(!e %ra"t "es than ,e are us n# toda';*HH4 a #reat dea! o& %ressure "an (e a!!e$ ated at th s t me , th ad$an"ed soilless methods* ,h "h re)u re !ess ,ater* !ess &ert ! 1er* &e,er 8or no; %est " des* !ess !and* and !ess !a(or+ These &a" ! t es "an no, (e (u !t n ur(an " t' en$ ronments or e$en o&& "oast! nes* at sea+HHD Aerha%s the most %rom s n# o& a!! su"h arran#ements s ,hat s 7no,n toda' as vertical farming*HH6 Vert "a! &arm n# has (een %ut to test n a num(er o& re# ons* , th e-treme!' %rom s n# resu!ts re#ard n# e&& " en"'+ E-tra%o!at n# these stat st "s* "ou%!ed , th %ara!!e! trend ad$an"ement 8 n"reases n e&& " en"'; o& the asso" ated me"han sms o& th s %ro"ess* re$ea!s that the &uture o& a(undant &ood
HH5 Sour"e< 4uthor3 European food waste adds to world hunger* d,+de

8htt%<MM,,,+d,+deMauthor.euro%ean.&ood.,aste.adds.to.,or!d.hun#erMa. 2HGDF42H; HH2 Re&eren"e< (ood waste within food supply chains3 )uantification and potential for change to BCGC 8htt%<MM,,,+n"( +n!m+n h+#o$M%m"Mart "!esMAM/4EDH224M; HH4 To%so ! s the to% !a'er o& so ! that %ossesses the #reatest "on"entrat on o& or#an " matter and m "roor#an sms and t s &rom ,h "h %!ants o(ta n the o$er,he!m n# ma0or t' o& the r nutr ents+ Toda'* t s d sa%%ear n# at an a!arm n# rate %r mar !' due to "on$ent ona! a#r "u!tura! %ra"t "es su"h as mono"u!ture 8the %ra"t "e o& %!ant n# one s n#!e "ro% o$er and o$er a#a n;+ L 7e, se* so ! eros on s n"reas n# ra% d!' , th a !ar#e num(er o& %ro(!emat " e&&e"ts due to ne&& " ent &arm n# %ra"t "es+ Re&eren"e< :htt%<MM,,,+e,#+or#M!os n##roundM; HHD Re&< htt%<MMne,earthda !'+"omM&!oat n#.$ert "a!.&arms."ou!d.&eed.the.,or!d. , th."hea%.%!ent &u!.%rodu"eM HH6 D "7son Des%omm er* a %ro&essor o& en$ ronmenta! hea!th s" en"es and m "ro( o!o#' at /o!um( a Un $ers t'* made nota(!e the dea o& $ert "a! &arm n# around 2EEE+ 2FE

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

%rodu"t on , !! not on!' 8"om%ared to the "urrent !and.(ased trad t on; use &e,er resour"es %er un t out%ut* "ause !ess ,aste* ha$e a redu"ed e"o!o# "a! &oot%r nt* n"rease &ood )ua! t' and the ! 7eU t , !! a!so use !ess o& the sur&a"e o& the %!anet and ena(!e t'%es o& &ood that ,here on"e restr "ted to "erta n "! mates or re# ons to (e #ro,n $ rtua!!' an',here n en"!osed* $ert "a! s'stems+ Wh !e a%%roa"hes $ar'* "ommon methods n"!ude rotat n# "ro% s'stems n trans%arent en"!osures to use natura! ! #ht* "ou%!ed , th h'dro%on "*HHH aero%on "HHI andMor a)ua%on "HHF ,ater and nutr ent ser$ " n# s'stems+ Art & " a! ! #ht s'stems are a!so (e n# used* a!on# , th other means to d str (ute natura! ! #ht* su"h as the use o& %ara(o! " m rror s'stems that "an mo$e ! #ht , thout e!e"tr " t'+HHG Man' K,aste to ener#'”HHE s'stems a%%roa"hes to these stru"tures are n"reas n#!' "ommon* as , th ad$an"ed %o,er s'stems (ased on re#enerat $e %ro"esses or !o"a! 1ed sour"es+ 9et,een $ar ous a%%roa"hes* the "a%a" t' s dramat "a!!' n"reased s n"e &ood "an (e #ro,n a!most 46 hours a da'* se$en da's a ,ee7+ /ommon o(0e"t ons to th s t'%e o& &arm n# ha$e most!' (een "on"erns o$er ts ener#' &oot%r nt* "r t " 1 n# the use o& art & " a! ! #ht n some arran#ements as too %o,er ntens $e+ Ho,e$er* the use o& rene,a(!e ener#' s'stems* su"h as %hoto$o!ta "s* "ou%!ed , th re# ona! %!a"ement most "ondu" $e to rene,a(!e methods* su"h as near ,a$e* t da! or #eotherma! sour"es* %resents %!aus (!e so!ut ons &or susta na(!e* non.h'dro"ar(on (ased %o,er n#+ Ho,e$er* t s (est to th n7 a(out th s n a "om%arat $e "onte-t+ In the U+S+* u% to 45 %er"ent o& the "ountr'?s &oss ! &ue! "onsum%t on #oes nto the &ood "ha n* a""ord n# to the UN?s Food and A#r "u!tura! Or#an 1at on 8FAO;* ,h "h %o nts out that &oss ! &ue! use (' the &ood s'stems n the de$e!o%ed ,or!d To&ten r $a!s that o& automo( !esT+HI5 In S n#a%ore* a $ert "a! &arm s'stem* "ustom (u !t n a trans%arent en"!osure* uses a "!osed !oo%* automated h'drau! " s'stem to rotate the "ro% n " r"!es (et,een sun! #ht and an or#an " nutr ent treatment* "ost n# on!' a(out bD a month n e!e"tr " t' &or ea"h
HHH De& ned< K/u!t $at on o& %!ants n nutr ent so!ut on rather than n so !+” HHI De& ned< A te"hn )ue &or #ro, n# %!ants , thout so ! or h'dro%on " med a+

8htt%<MM,,,+the&reed "t onar'+"omMh'dro%on "s;

The %!ants are he!d a(o$e a s'stem that "onstant!' m sts the roots , th nutr ent.!aden ,ater+ A!so "a!!ed aeroculture+ 8htt%<MM,,,+the&reed "t onar'+"omMaero%on "; HHF De& ned< A)ua"u!ture s the s'm( ot " "u!t $at on o& %!ants and a)uat " an ma!s n a re." r"u!at n# s'stem+ 8htt%<MM,,,+#ro, n#%o,er+or#Ma)ua%on "s+htm; HHG Sour"e< 7hat is Vertical (armingD* 3a7e /o-* 455E* 8htt%<MM,,,+onearth+or#M(!o#M,hat. s.$ert "a!.&arm n#; HHE Re&eren"e< 7aste to Energy* a!ternat $e.ener#'.ne,s+ n&o 8htt%<MM,,,+a!ternat $e.ener#'.ne,s+ n&oMte"hno!o#'M#ar(a#e.ener#'M; HI5 Sour"e< A!! A(out< Food and &oss ! &ue!s* "nn+"om 8htt%<MMed t on+"nn+"omM455GMWORLDMas a%"&M5DM2IMe"o+&ood+m !esM; 2G5

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

en"!osure+HI2 Th s s'stem s a!so re%orted as ten times more %rodu"t $e %er s)uare &oot than "on$ent ona! &arm n#* , th mu"h !ess ,ater* !a(or and &ert ! 1er used* as noted a(o$e+ There s a!so no rea! trans%ort "ost # $en a!! %rodu"e s d str (uted !o"a!!'* sa$ n# more resour"es and ener#'+ O$era!!* there s a s%e"trum o& a%%! "at ons as o& no, and* n man' "ases* these %ree- st n# stru"tures* not ntended &or su"h ,or7* are (e n# ut ! 1ed+HI4 In /h "a#o* IL* USA* the ,or!ds !ar#est "ert & ed or#an " $ert "a! &arm s n o%erat on+ Wh !e %rodu" n# most!' #reens &or the !o"a! /h "a#o mar7et* th s E5*555 s)uare &oot &a" ! t' uses an a)uaponic s'stem*HID , th ,aste &rom t !a% a & sh %ro$ d n# nutr ents &or the %!ants+ The &arm re%orted!' sa$es E5> o& ts ,ater* "om%ared to "on$ent ona! &arm n# te"hn )ues* and %rodu"es no a#r "u!tura! runo&&+ Add t ona!!'* a!! o& ts ,aste* su"h as %!ant roots* stems and e$en ( ode#rada(!e %a"7a# n#* s re"'"!ed n "o!!a(orat on* ma7 n# t a 1ero.,aste &a" ! t'+HI6 /urrent stat st "s $ar' , th res%e"t to the e&& " en"'* o&ten due to monetar'.(ased ! m tat ons and nherent %ro& ta( ! t' "on"erns+ As , th mu"h n the mar7et s'stem* %rom s n# te"hno!o#' & nds de$e!o%ment on!' & t %ro$es "om%et t $e+ G $en ho, ne, these deas are* ,e "annot e-%e"t to see man' e-am%!es nor "an ,e e-%e"t to see an o%t m 1at on o& su"h methods to a h #h de#ree &or measurement , thout Kmar7et a""e%tan"e”+ Ho,e$er* ,e "an e-tra%o!ate the rea! 1ed %otent a! o& e- st n# s'stems* s"a! n# the a%%! "at on out as & t ,ere n"or%orated n e$er' ma0or " t'* n ts most re!at $e!' e&& " ent &orm+ The &o!!o, n# ! st "on& rms the su%er or t' o& th s a%%roa"h to the "urrent* trad t ona! !and (ased mode!* not on!' sho, n# a more susta na(!e %ra"t "e* (ut a more %rodu"t $e %ra"t "e ,h "h "an* n "on"ert , th e- st n# methods* %ro$ de the ent re ,or!d?s %o%u!at on , th $e#eta(!e (ased nutr t on man' t mes o$er+HIH
HI2 Sour"e< (eeding F /illion3 Vertical (arming 1 Singapore

8htt%<MM,,,+o&&#r d,or!d+"omM&eed n#.E.( !! on.$ert "a!.&arm n#.s n#a%ore. $ deoM; HI4 Sour"e< 0Mega0 !ndoor Vertical (arm3 hicago Suburb "ew >ome To "ation0s +argest Such (acility 8htt%<MM,,,+hu&& n#ton%ost+"omM452DM5DM4GMme#a. ndoor.$ert "a!. &armVnV4EF2D4G+htm!; HID A)ua%on "s s a &ood %rodu"t on s'stem that "om( nes "on$ent ona! a)ua"u!ture 8ra s n# a)uat " an ma!s su"h as sna !s* & sh* "ra'& sh or %ra,ns n tan7s;* , th h'dro%on "s 8"u!t $at n# %!ants n ,ater; n a s'm( ot " en$ ronment+ HI6 Sour"e< 7orldRs largest vertical farm is certified organic 8htt%<MM,,,+&orum&orthe&uture+or#M#reen&uturesMart "!esM,or!d >E4>G5>EEs.!ar#est.$ert "a!.&arm."ert & ed.or#an "; HIH It s ,orth not n# that a!! ma0or nutr t ona! re)u rements are te"hn "a!!' a$a !a(!e n the #enre o& %!ant %rodu"t on+ /ontrar' to %o%u!ar (e! e&* an ma! %rodu"ts are not re)u red to ma nta n a h #h )ua! t' human d et+ The s ma0or "!asses o& nutr ents 8"ar(oh'drates* &ats* d etar' & (er* m nera!s* %rote ns* $ tam ns;* om tt n# ,ater* "an a!! (e &ound n the %!ant "ommun t'+ 2G2

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Versat !e< Un! 7e trad t ona! &arm n#* $ert "a! &arms "an (e "onstru"ted an',here* e$en on ,ater* us n# u%,ard !a'ers to mu!t %!' out%ut "a%a" t'+ 8 +e+ a ten.store' &arm , !! %rodu"e 2M25 o& a 255.store' &arm+; Th s s%a"e ut ! 1at on s ! m ted most!' to ar"h te"tura! %oss ( ! t'+ L 7e, se* the %!ants #ro,n "an (e Kon demand” n man' ,a's* s n"e re# on (ased restr "t ons ha$e (een ! &ted s n"e these &arms "an #ro, $ rtua!!' an'th n#+ Redu"ed resour"e use< Vert "a! Farm n# uses su(stant a!!' !ess ,ater and %est " de* and s more "ondu" $e to non.h'dro"ar(on (ased nutr entM&ert ! 1er methods+ Its ener#' use "an $ar' (ased on a%%! "at on* (ut n ts most e&& " ent sett n# t uses dramat "a!!' !ess ener#' (oth to %o,er the &arm tse!&* and , th res%e"t to the no, remo$ed need &or e-"ess h'dro"ar(on &ert ! 1er and o !.&ue!ed trans%ort* ,h "h s a hea$' (urden n the "urrent* &arm.(ased %ro"ess+ More susta na(!eM!ess e"o!o# "a! dama#e< The "urrent trad t on o& &arm n# has (een re"o#n 1ed as one o& the most e"o!o# "a!!' destru"t $e %ro"esses o& modern so" et'+ In the ,ords o& en$ ronmenta! ,r ter Renee /ho< KAs o& 455G* DF+F %er"ent o& #!o(a! !and and 6H %er"ent o& U+S+ !and ,as used &or a#r "u!ture+ The en"roa"hment o& humans nto , !d !and has resu!ted n the s%read o& n&e"t ous d sease* the !oss o& ( od $ers t' and the d sru%t on o& e"os'stems+ O$er."u!t $at on and %oor so ! mana#ement has !ed to the de#radat on o& #!o(a! a#r "u!tura! !ands+ The m !! ons o& tons o& to- " %est " des used ea"h 'ear "ontam nate sur&a"e ,aters and #round,ater* and endan#er , !d! &e+ A#r "u!ture s res%ons (!e &or 2H %er"ent o& #!o(a! #reenhouse #as em ss ons* and a""ounts &or one.& &th o& U+S+ &oss ! &ue! use* ma n!' to run &arm e)u %ment* trans%ort &ood and %rodu"e &ert ! 1er+ As e-"ess &ert ! 1er ,ashes nto r $ers* streams and o"eans* t "an "ause eutro%h "at on< a!#ae (!ooms %ro! &erateU ,hen the' d e* the' are "onsumed (' m "ro(es* ,h "h use u% a!! the o-'#en n the ,aterU the resu!t s a dead 1one that 7 !!s a!! a)uat " ! &e+ As o& 455G* there ,ere 65H dead 1ones around the ,or!d+++more than t,o.th rds o& the ,or!dNs &resh ,ater s used &or a#r "u!ture+”HII Aost.s"ar" t' "a%a" t'< Students at /o!um( a Un $ers t' ,or7 n# on $ert "a! &arm s'stems determ ned that n order to &eed H5*555 %eo%!e* a D5.store' (u !d n# the s 1e o& a KNe, :or7 / t'” (!o"7 ,ou!d (e needed+HIF A Ne, :or7
HII Sour"e< Vertical (arms3 (rom Vision to 'eality

8Th s s not an ar#ument &or K$e#etar an sm”* t s 0ust a &a"t+;

8htt%<MM(!o#s+e +"o!um( a+eduM4522M25M2DM$ert "a!.&arms.&rom.$ s on.to. rea! t'M; HIF Sour"e< ountry, the ity Version3 (arms in the S#y ?ain "ew !nterest 8htt%<MM,,,+n't mes+"omM455GM5FM2HMs" en"eM2H&arm+htm!RVrS5 2G4

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

/ t' (!o"7* !oose!' s%ea7 n#* s a(out I+6 a"res+HIG I& ,e e-tra%o!ate th s nto the "onte-t o& the " t' o& Los An#e!es* /A* USA* , th a %o%u!at on o& a(out D+E m !! on*HIE , th a tota! a"rea#e o& a(out D2G*E24*HF5 t ,ou!d ta7e rou#h!' FG th rt'.store'* I+6 "o$er n# !and a"re stru"tures to &eed the !o"a! res dents+ Th s amounts to a(out 5+2> o& the tota! !and area o& Los An#e!es to &eed the %o%u!at on+HF2 The Earth* (e n# a(out 4E> !and* has rou#h!' DI*FE6*465*555 a"res and a human %o%u!at on o& F+4 ( !! on as o& !ate 452D+HF4 I& ,e e-tra%o!ate the same (as s o& a D5.store' $ert "a! &arm "o$er n# I+6 a"res to &eed H5*555 %eo%!e* ,e end u% need n# 266*555 $ert "a! &arms* n theor'* to &eed the ,or!d+HFD Th s amounts to E42*I55 a"res o& !and to %!a"e these &arms+HF6 G $en rou#h!' DG> o& a!! the Earth?s !and s "urrent!' (e n# used &or trad t ona! a#r "u!ture 82D*EG2*G22*455 a"res;*HFH ,e & nd that ,e need on!' 5+55I> o& the Earth?s existing farmland to meet %rodu"t on re)u rements+HFI No,* these e-tra%o!at ons are "!ear!' theoret "a! and o($ ous!' man' other &a"tors need to (e ta7en nto a""ount , th res%e"t to %!a"ement o& su"h &arm s'stems and "r t "a! s%e" & "s+ A!so* , th n the DG> !and use stat st "* mu"h o& that !and s &or ! $esto"7 "u!t $at on* not 0ust "ro% %rodu"t on+ Ho,e$er* the ra, stat st "s are )u te n"red (!e , th res%e"t to %oss (!e e&& " en"' and "a%a" t'+ In &a"t* & ,e ,ere to theoret "a!!' ta7e on!' the crop production land alone "urrent!' (e n# used* ,h "h s a(out 6*65G*D45*555 a"res*HFF re%!a" n# the !and (ased "u!t $at on %ro"ess (' %!a" n# these D5.store' $ert "a! &arm s'stems on!' 8s de (' s de;* the &ood out%ut ,ou!d (e enou#h to &eed D6*665*555*555*555 %eo%!e+HFG 8D6+6 Tr !! on;
HIG Genera!!'* n N:/ the a$era#e !en#th o& a north.south (!o"7 s 2M45th o& a

m !e* or 4I6 &eet+ An east.,est (!o"7 s a(out 2MHth o& a m !e* or 2*5HI &eet+ So* a s)uare (!o"7 ,ou!d (e 4I6 - 25HI S 4FG*FG6 s)uare &eet* ,h "h s e)ua! to I+6 a"res+ HIE Sour"e< 9nited States ensus /ureau* 452D 8htt%<MM,,,+"ensus+#o$M; HF5 The " t' o& Los An#e!es s 6EG+D s) m !es that "on$erts to D2G*E24 a"res+ HF2 FG 9u !d n#s o""u%' n# I+6 a"res ea"h e)ua!s 6EE+4 a"res used tota!+ 6EE+4 a"res s 5+2H> o& the tota! a"rea#e o& Los An#e!es 8D2G*E24; HF4 Sour"e< ,or!dometers+ n&o 8htt%<MM,,,+,or!dometers+ n&oM,or!d. %o%u!at onM; HFD F+4 ( !! on 8tota! %o%u!at on; d $ ded (' H5*555 8%rodu"t on "a%a" t' o& one D5 stor' $ert "a! &arm; e)ua!s 266*555 needed stru"tures+ HF6 I+6 8a"res used %er &arm; t mes 266*555 8$ert "a! &arms; S E42*I55 a"res HFH Sour"e< (arming laims 4lmost >alf Earth0s +and, "ew Maps Show 8htt%<MMne,s+nat ona!#eo#ra%h "+"omMne,sM455HM24M245EV5H245EV"ro%sV ma%+htm!; HFI E42*I55 8a"res o& !and needed to %!a"e $ert "a! &arms; s 5+55IHG2> o& 2D*EG2*G22*455+ 8Tota! a"res o& !and on earth used &or trad t ona! a#r "u!ture* (oth "ro% and ! $esto"7; HFF Sour"e< (arming laims 4lmost >alf Earth0s +and, "ew Maps Show 8htt%<MMne,s+nat ona!#eo#ra%h "+"omMne,sM455HM24M245EV5H245EV"ro%sV ma%+htm!; HFG I+6 a"res 8,h "h s ,hat has (een determ ned as enou#h s%a"e to &eed H5*555 %eo%!e; #oes nto 6*65G*D45*555 8tota! !and used "urrent!' &or on!' "ro% "u!t $at on on earth; IGG*G55*555 t mes+ IGG*G55*555* ,h "h re%resent 2GD

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

G $en that ,e , !! only need to &eed E ( !! on (' 45H5* ,e on!' need to harness a(out 5+54> o& th s theoret "a! "a%a" t'* ,h "h* t "ou!d (e ar#ued* ! 7e!' ma7es rather moot an' seem n#!' %ra"t "a! o(0e"t ons "ommon to the a&orement oned e-tra%o!at on+ As a & na! note* %rote ns* ,h "h are read !' a$a !a(!e n the $e#etat $e rea!m* are st !! (rou#ht nto )uest on n the modern da' , th res%e"t to nterest n meat %rodu"t on+ From a susta na( ! t' stand%o nt* #nor n# the "ommon mora! ssues and ar#ua(!' nhumane %ra"t "es st !! "ommon to ndustr a! 1ed ! $esto"7 "u!t $at on* the %rodu"t on o& meat s an en$ ronmenta!!' un&r end!' a"t toda'+ A""ord n# to the ILRI* ! $esto"7 s'stems o""u%' a(out 6H> o& the Earth?s sur&a"e+HFE A""ord n# to the FAO* ! $esto"7 se"tor %rodu"es more #reenhouse #as em ss ons than modern #as "onsum n# trans%ort+HG5 G $en that E5> o& a!! the !ar#e & sh on"e thr $ n# n the o"ean are #one due to o$er& sh n# as ,e!!*HG2 ne, so!ut ons are needed+ One su"h so!ut on s a)ua"u!ture* ,h "h s the d re"t &arm n# o& & sh* "rusta"eans and the ! 7e+ Th s d re"t a%%roa"h* & susta na(!' dr $en* "an %ro$ de &arm ra sed* %rote n r "h & sh &or human "onsum%t on* re%!a" n# the demand &or !and.(ased meat+ Another a%%roa"h s the %rodu"t on o& K n $ tro meat”+ In $ tro meat ma' (e %rodu"ed as str %s o& mus"!e & (re* ,h "h #ro, throu#h the &us on o& %re"ursor "e!!s* e ther em(r'on " stem "e!!s or s%e" a! 1ed sate!! te "e!!s &ound n mus"!e t ssue+ Th s t'%e o& meat s usua!!' "u!tured n a ( orea"tor+ Wh !e st !! e-%er menta!* n 452D the ,or!d?s & rst !a(.#ro,n (ur#er ,as "oo7ed and eaten n London+HG4 Other (ene& ts n"!ude the redu"t on o& ! $esto"7 sour"ed d sease ,h "h s $er' "ommon* a!on# , th (e n# a(!e to a$o d "erta n ne#at $e hea!th "hara"ter st "s o& trad t ona! meat* su"h as the remo$a! o& &att' a" ds n %rodu"t on+ 8?< Clean Water G $en that the human (od' "an on!' sur$ $e a &e, da's , thout &resh ,ater*HGD ma7 n# th s most (as " resour"e a(undant!' a$a !a(!e to a!! s "r t "a!+ L 7e, se* t s the (a"7(one o& man' ndustr a! %rodu"t on
the num(er o& %oss (!e &a" ! t es ,here ea"h "an %rodu"e enou#h &ood to &eed H5*555 %eo%!e* trans!ate nto an out%ut "a%a" t' o& D6*665*555*555*555 %eo%!e that "an (e &ed+ 8IGG*G55*555 - H5*555 S D6*665*555*555*555; HFE Sour"e< +ivestoc# and climate change 8htt%<MM"#s%a"e+"# ar+or#M( tstreamMhand!eM25HIGM25I52MIssue9r e&D+%d&; HG5 Sour"e< +ivestoc# a maEor threat to environment 8htt%<MM,,,+&ao+or#Mne,sroomMenMNe,sM455IM255566GM nde-+htm!; HG2 Sour"e< /ig$(ish Stoc#s (all FC Percent Since ,FGC, Study Says 8htt%<MMne,s+nat ona!#eo#ra%h "+"omMne,sM455DM5HM5H2HV5D5H2HV& shde"! ne+htm!; HG4 Sour"e< 7orld0s first lab$grown burger is eaten in +ondon 8htt%<MM,,,+(("+"o+u7Mne,sMs" en"e.en$ ronment.4DHFI26D; HGD Fresh,ater s de& ned as ,ater that does not "onta n sa!t and "an (e used &or human "onsum%t on and other %ro"esses* su"h as a#r "u!ture+ 8htt%<MM,,,+merr am.,e(ster+"omMd "t onar'M&resh,ater; 2G6

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

methods* n"!ud n# a#r "u!ture tse!&+ Fresh ,ater s natura!!' o""urr n# ,ater on the Earth?s sur&a"e n "e sheets* "e "a%s* #!a" ers* "e(er#s* (o#s* %onds* !a7es* r $ers and streams* and under#round as #round,ater n a)u &ers and under#round streams+ O& a!! the ,ater on Earth* EF> o& t s sa! ne and not d re"t!' "onsuma(!e+ A""ord n# to the Wor!d Hea!th Or#an 1at on< KA(out 4+I ( !! on %eo%!e J ha!& the de$e!o% n# ,or!d J !a"7 e$en a s m%!e W m%ro$edN !atr ne and 2+2 ( !! on %eo%!e ha$e no a""ess to an' t'%e o& m%ro$ed dr n7 n# sour"e o& ,ater+ As a d re"t "onse)uen"e< e 2+I m !! on %eo%!e d e e$er' 'ear &rom d arrhoea! d seases 8 n"!ud n# "ho!era; attr (uta(!e to !a"7 o& a""ess to sa&e dr n7 n# ,ater and (as " san tat on and E5> o& these are "h !dren under H* most!' n de$e!o% n# "ountr esU e 2I5 m !! on %eo%!e are n&e"ted , th s"h stosom as s "aus n# tens o& thousands o& deaths 'ear!'U H55 m !! on %eo%!e are at r s7 o& tra"homa &rom ,h "h 26I m !! on are threatened (' (! ndness and I m !! on are $ sua!!' m%a redU e Intest na! he!m nths 8as"ar as s* tr "hur as s and hoo7,orm n&e"t on; are %!a#u n# the de$e!o% n# ,or!d due to nade)uate dr n7 n# ,ater* san tat on and h'# ene , th 2DD m !! on su&&er n# &rom h #h ntens t' ntest na! he!m nths n&e"t onsU there are around 2+H m !! on "ases o& "! n "a! he%at t s A e$er' 'ear+”HG6 A""ord n# to the Un ted Nat ons* (' 454H* an est mated 2+G ( !! on %eo%!e , !! ! $e n areas %!a#ued (' ,ater s"ar" t'* , th t,o. th rds o& the ,or!d?s %o%u!at on ! $ n# n ,ater.stressed re# ons+HGH As , th most a!! o& the ,or!d?s "urrent resour"e %ro(!ems* t s an ssue o& (oth poor management and a !a"7 o& industrial application+ From the stand%o nt o& mana#ement* the amount o& ,ater ,asted n the ,or!d due to %o!!ut on* o$eruse and ne&& " ent n&rastru"ture s enormous+ A(out EH> o& a!! ,ater that enters most %eo%!e?s homes #oes (a"7 do,n the dra n n one shot+HGI A s'stems.(ased so!ut on to o%t m 1e th s use s to des #n 7 t"hens and (athrooms so the' re"a%ture ,ater &or d &&erent %ur%oses+ For e-am%!e* the ,ater runn n# throu#h a s n7 or sho,er "an (e made a$a !a(!e &or a to !et+ Var ous "om%an es ha$e s!o,!' %ut su"h deas to %ra"t "e re"ent!' (ut o$era!! most n&rastru"tures do noth n# o& the sort as &ar as reuse s"hemes+ The same s true o& !ar#e "ommer" a! (u !d n#s* ,h "h "an "reate reuse net,or7s throu#hout the ,ho!e stru"ture* "ou%!ed , th "a%ture o& ra n,ater &or other %ur%oses*
HG6 Sour"e< >ealth through safe drin#ing water and basic sanitation HGH Sour"e< (reshwater

8htt%<MM,,,+,ho+ ntM,aterVsan tat onVhea!thMmd#2MenM; risis 8htt%<MMen$ ronment+nat ona!#eo#ra%h "+"omMen$ ronmentM&resh,aterM&resh ,ater."r s sM; HGI Sour"e< 7ater3 9se +ess$Save More@ 3on /! &t @ Amanda /uth(ert* 455F 2GH

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

et"+

Water %o!!ut on s another %ro(!em* ,h "h a&&e"ts (oth de$e!o%ed and de$e!o% n# nat ons on man' !e$e!s+ The Amer "an En$ ronmenta! Arote"t on A#en"' 8EAA; est mates that GH5 ( !! on #a!!ons o& untreated d s"har#es 8,aste; &!o, nto ,ater (od es annua!!'* "ontr (ut n# to o$er F m !! on !!nesses ea"h 'ear+HGF The Th rd Wor!d /entre &or Water Mana#ement est mates that on!' a(out 25 to 24 %er"ent o& ,aste,ater n Lat n Amer "a s treated %ro%er!'+ Me- "o / t'* &or e-am%!e* Ke-%orts” ts untreated ,aste,ater to !o"a! &armers+ Wh !e the &armers $a!ue th s (e"ause the ,ater n"reases "ro% ' e!ds* the ,aste,ater s hea$ !' "ontam nated , th %atho#ens and to- " "hem "a!s* re%resent n# a ser ous hea!th r s7 &or (oth &armers and "onsumers o& the a#r "u!tura! %rodu"ts #ro,n n th s area+ In Ind a* ma0or " t es d s"har#e untreated ,aste,ater nto the (od es o& ,ater that ser$e as the r dr n7 n# ,ater+ De!h * &or e-am%!e* d s"har#es ,aste,ater d re"t!' nto the :amuna R $er^the sour"e o& dr n7 n# ,ater &or some HF m !! on %eo%!e+HGG So!ut ons to th s %ro(!em* n %art* must address the ssue o& the $ast ne&& " en"'* ! 7e!' dr $en (' the monetar' ! m tat ons o& most #o$ernments* to nst tute %ro%er ,aste s'stems* "ou%!ed , th an ndustr a! des #n m%erat $e to n"!ude reuse s'stem te"hn )ues to (etter %reser$e and ut ! 1e our e- st n# resour"es+ That as de* the most nota(!e* (road so!ut on to "om%ensate &or these emer# n# %ro(!ems* to &a" ! tate not on!' an a!!e$ at on o& the "urrent ,ater %ro(!ems a&&e"t n# o$er 4 ( !! on %eo%!e (ut a!so to trans"end nto a "ond t on o& re!at $e a(undan"e o& &resh ,ater &or a!! humans* s to ut ! 1e modern 8a; purification and 8(; desalination s'stems (oth on the ma"ro. ndustr a! and m "ro. ndustr a! s"a!e+ 6a< Purification% Ad$an"ements n ,ater %ur & "at on ha$e (een a""e!erat n# ra% d!' , th man' te"hno!o# "a! $ar at ons o& a%%roa"h+ Aerha%s one o& the most e&& " ent toda' s ,hat s "a!!ed Ku!tra$ o!et 8UV; d s n&e"t on”+ Th s %ro"ess s h #h!' s"a!a(!e* !o, ener#' and ,or7s )u "7!'+ A""ord n# to en# neer Asho7 Gad# !* n$entor o& %orta(!e UV s'stems* KIn terms o& ener#' use* I5 ,atts o& e!e"tr "a! %o,er J ,h "h s "om%ara(!e to the %o,er used n one ord nar' ta(!e !am% J s enou#h to d s n&e"t ,ater at the rate o& one ton %er hour* or & &teen ! ters %er m nute+++Th s mu"h ,ater s enou#h to meet the dr n7 n# ,ater needs o& a "ommun t' o& 4*555 %eo%!e+”HGE Th s de$ "e Gad# !
HGF Sour"e<

ompliance and Enforcement "ational Priority3 lean 7ater 4ct, 7et 7eather, ombined Sewer <verflows 8htt%<MM,,,+e%a+#o$M"om%! an"eMresour"esM%u(! "at onsMdataM%!ann n#M%r or t esM&'455G%r or t'",a"so+%d&; HGG Sour"e< 7ater 5uality3 4n !gnored ?lobal risis 8htt%<MM,,,+(us ness,ee7+"omMart "!esM452D.5D.42M,ater.)ua! t'.an. #nored.#!o(a!."r s s; HGE Sour"e< 4sho# ?adgil on safe drin#ing water 8htt%<MM,,,+rene#ademed a+ n&oM(oo7sMasho7.#ad# !+htm!; 2GI

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

de$e!o%ed &or rura!* %oor areas "an run o&& o& so!ar %ane!s and ,e #hs on!' 2H %ounds and has no to- " d s"har#e+ O& "ourse* there s no s !$er (u!!et+ Wh !e UV d s n&e"t on ,or7s $er' ,e!! &or (a"ter a and $ ruses* t s !ess e&&e"t $e , th other t'%es o& %o!!ut on su"h as sus%ended so! ds* tur( d t'* "o!or* or so!u(!e or#an " matter+HE5 In !ar#e.s"a!e a%%! "at ons* UV s o&ten "om( ned , th more standard treatments* su"h as "h!or ne* as s the "ase , th the ,or!d?s !ar#est UV dr n7 n# ,ater d s n&e"t on %!ant n Ne, :or7* ,h "h "an treat 4+4 ( !! on US #a!!ons 8G*D55*555 "u( " meters; %er da'+HE2 That s D*54E*H55*555 "u( " meters a 'ear+ The a$era#e %erson n the Un ted States uses 4G64 "u( " meters a 'ear+HE4 Th s n"!udes &resh ,ater used &or ndustr a! %ur%oses* not 0ust &or d re"t 8dr n7 n#; "onsum%t on+ The #!o(a! a$era#e s 2DGH "u( " meters %er 'ear+HED /h na* Ind a and the Un ted States are "urrent!' the !ar#est &resh,ater users n the ,or!d and the ma0or t' o& that ,ater s used n %rodu"t on* ma n!' a#r "u!ture+HE6 In &a"t* a(out F5> o& a!! &resh,ater s used &or a#r "u!ture #!o(a!!'+HEH For the sa7e o& %ure stat st "a! ar#ument* #nor n# the h #h!' needed re$ s ons to,ards strate# " ,ater use* reuse s'stems and "onser$at on %oss ( ! t es throu#h more ad$an"ed and e&& " ent ndustr a! a%%! "at ons* !et us assess the s m%!e )uest on o& ,hat t ,ou!d re)u re to d s n&e"t 8assum n# t ,as needed; all the fresh water "urrent!' (e n# used n the ,or!d on a$era#e (' the %o%u!at on* n a!! "onte-ts+ G $en the #!o(a! a$era#e o& 2DGH "u( " meters and a %o%u!at on o& F+4 ( !! on* ,e arr $e at a tota! annua! use o& E+EF4 tr !! on "u( " meters+ Us n# the Ne, :or7 UV %!ant?s out%ut "a%a" t' o& rou#h!' D ( !! on "u( " meters a 'ear as a (ase %er nsta!!at on o& su"h a %!ant* ,e & nd that D*D4F %!ants ,ou!d (e needed #!o(a!!'+HEI The Ne, :or7 %!ant s a(out D+F a"res 82I57 s)+ &t+;+HEF Th s means a(out 24*D5E a"res o& !and s needed* n theor'* to &a" ! tate a %ur & "at on %ro"ess o& a!! the &resh ,ater "urrent!' used #!o(a!!' (' the %o%u!at on+ O& "ourse* need!ess to sa'* there man' other K&oot%r nt” &a"tors that "ome nto %!a'* su"h as %o,er needs* "ou%!ed , th the "r t "a! m%ortan"e o& !o"at on+
HE5 Sour"e< 9ltraviolet =isinfection

8htt%<MM,,,+nes"+,$u+eduM%d&Md,M%u(! "at onsMonta%M455EVt(Mu!tra$ o!etVd ,&somHD+%d&; HE2 Sour"e< Multi$barrier =isinfection Strategy $ "ew 6or# ity : ase Study; 8htt%<MM,,,+tro0anu$+"omMu$resour"esRresour"eS65D; HE4 Sour"e< ,ater&oot%r nt+or# 8htt%<MM,,,+,ater&oot%r nt+or#MR %a#eS"a!M,ater&oot%r nt"a!"u!atorVnat ona!; HED Sour"e< I( d+ HE6 Sour"e< 7hich "ations onsume the Most 7aterD 8htt%<MM,,,+s" ent & "amer "an+"omMart "!e+"&mR dS,ater. n.,ater.out; HEH Sour"e< ,or!dometers+ n&o 8htt%<MM,,,+,or!dometers+ n&oM,aterM; HEI E tr !! on EF4 ( !! on d $ ded (' D ( !! on HEF Sour"e< ats#ill$=elaware 7ater 9ltraviolet =isinfection (acility 8htt%<MMen+, 7 %ed a+or#M, 7 M/ats7 !!. De!a,areVWaterVU!tra$ o!etVD s n&e"t onVFa" ! t'O" teVnote.n'"V%r.2; 2GF

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Ho,e$er* !et?s %ut th s nto a !ar#er* more thou#ht&u! "om%ar son+ The Un ted States m ! tar' a!one* , th ts rou#h!' G6H*662 m ! tar' (u !d n#s and (ases* o""u% es a(out KC million acres o& !and #!o(a!!'+HEG On!' 5+56> o& that !and ,ou!d (e needed to d s n&e"t the tota! &resh ,ater use o& the ent re ,or!d* & t ,ere e$en needed at s"a!e* ,h "h t s not+ 6 < Desalination The rea! st " %oss ( ! t' o& mass* #!o(a! %ur & "at on o& %o!!uted &resh ,ater as de* ! 7e!' the most %o,er&u! means to assure usa(!e* %ota(!e ,ater s to "on$ert d re"t!' &rom a sa! ne sour"e* name!' the o"ean+ W th a %!anet "om%r sed o& most!' sa!t ,ater* th s te"hn )ue* & done %ro%er!'* assures #!o(a! a(undan"e a!one+ The most "ommon method o& desa! nat on used toda' s reverse osmosis* a %ro"ess that remo$es ,ater mo!e"u!es &rom sa!t ,ater* !ea$ n# sa!t ons n a !e&to$er (r ne ,aste ('.%rodu"t+ A""ord n# to the Internat ona! Desa! nat on Asso" at on< K/urrent!'* re$erse osmos s 8RO;+++a""ounts &or near!' I5 %er"ent o& nsta!!ed "a%a" t'* &o!!o,ed (' the therma! %ro"esses mu!t .sta#e &!ash 8MSF; at 4I %er"ent and mu!t .e&&e"t d st !!at on 8MED; at G+4 %er"ent+”HEE As o& 4522* there ,ere rou#h!' 2I*555 desa! nat on %!ants ,or!d, de* and the tota! #!o(a! "a%a" t' o& a!! %!ants on! ne 8e+#+* n o%erat on; ,as II+H m !! on "u( " meters %er da'* or a%%ro- mate!' 2F+I ( !! on US #a!!ons %er da'+I55 As , th e$er'th n# te"hno!o# "a!* man' ad$an" n# methods "urrent!' "ons dered Ke-%er menta!” su##est a %o,er&u! n"rease n e&& " en"' as the trends un&o!d+ One su"h method "a!!ed capacitive desalination 8/D;* a!so 7no,n as "a%a" t $e de on 1at on 8/DI;* has (een sho,n to o%erate , th #reater ener#' e&& " en"'* !o,er %ressures* no mem(rane "om%onents and t does not %rodu"e a ,aste d s"har#e ! 7e "on$ent ona! %ra"t "es+ It "an a!so (e eas !' s"a!ed.u% s m%!' (' n"reas n# the num(er o& &!o, e!e"trodes n the s'stem+I52 O$era!!* & ,e e-am ne the e- st n# methods n #enera!* "ou%!ed , th emer# n# methods* ,e see a #enera! trend o& n"reas n# e&& " en"' n (oth %o,er "onser$at on and %er&orman"e+I54 That (r e&!' noted* the &o"us o& th s e-tra%o!at on to,ards a K%ost.s"ar" t'” ut ! 1at on o& desa! nat on , !! "ons der on!' "urrent* %ro$en* n.use methods* name!' the re$erse osmos s s'stem+
HEG Sour"e< The 7orldwide "etwor# of 9S Military /ases

8htt%<MM,,,+#!o(a!resear"h+"aMthe.,or!d, de.net,or7.o&.us.m ! tar'. (asesMHHI6; HEE Sour"e< =esalination <verview 8htt%<MM,,,+ dadesa!+or#Mdesa! nat on. 252Mdesa! nat on.o$er$ e,M; I55 Sour"e< I( d+ I52 Sour"e< (low electrodes may enable large$scale sea water desalination 8htt%<MM,,,+rs"+or#M"hem str',or!dM452DM5DMsea.,ater.desa! nat on. "a%a" t $e.de on sat on; I54 Sour"e< 4dvancements in =esalination 8htt%<MM,,,+,eat+or#Msananton oM& !esM5I>45.>45Summer>45Sem nar >45452D>45.>453 m>45Lo1 er>45.>45Ad$>45 n>45Desa!+%d&; 2GG

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

The Wontha## Desa! nat on A!ant s an ad$an"ed re$ersed osmos s sea,ater desa! nat on %!ant on the 9ass /oast near Wontha## * n southern V "tor a* Austra! a+ It ,as "om%!eted n De"em(er 4524+ It "an %rodu"e* "onser$at $e!'* a(out 625*555 "u( " meters o& desa! nated ,ater a da' 82H5 m !! on "u( " meters a 'ear;*I5D ,h !e o""u%' n# a(out 45 he"tares 8a(out H5 a"res o& !and;+I56 S n"e* as noted (e&ore* the tota!* annua! ,ater use o& the ,or!d toda' s a(out E tr !! on* EF4 ( !! on "u( " meters* th s means that t ,ou!d ta7e I5*555 %!antsI5H to %ro"ess a!! %ota(!e ,ater usa#e+ On"e a#a n* th s e-treme e-tra%o!at on s to ma7e a re!at $e %o nt* s n"e ,e do not need to desa! nate that mu"h ,ater n rea! t'+ Ho,e$er* assum n# that ,e d d need to desa! nate sea,ater "onstant!' to mat"h "urrent #!o(a! use* D m !! on a"res o& !and ,ou!d (e needed tota!+ Earth has a(out 42F*6E5I5I m !es o& "oast! ne ,h "h means* !oose!' us n# the Wontha## mode! o& rou#h!' 45 he"tares 8rou#h!' H5 a"res; , th 255 meters %er he"tare 8or D4G &eet;* assum n# the "onstru"t on ,as &our he"tares dee% and & $e he"tares !on#* %ara!!e! to the "oast! ne* the %!ant ,ou!d ta7e u% 2I65 &eet a!on# the "oast+ Th s means* assum n# I5*555 %!ants o& the same d mens on* t ,ou!d ta7e u% EG*655*555 &eet or 2G*IDI m !es o& "oast! ne 8G+H> o& the ,or!d?s "oast! ne;+ O& "ourse* that s a #reat dea! o& "oast! ne and natura!!' man' other &a"tors "ome nto %!a' ,hen "hoos n# an a%%ro%r ate !o"at on &or su"h a %!ant+ A#a n* t s not the %ur%ose o& th s e-tra%o!at on to su##est these stat st "s are o& an' other use than to #au#e a (road sense o& ,hat su"h "a%a" t' means* n ! #ht o& the ,ater s"ar" t'Mstress ssues o""urr n# toda'+ :et* the &a"t s* t s "!ear!' within the range o& su"h a%%! "at on to meet the needs o& %eo%!e su&&er n# &rom ,ater s"ar" t' $ a desa! nat on a!one* "ou%!ed , th an n&rastru"ture and d str (ut on s'stem to mo$e ,ater n!and+ As a & na! e-am%!e* !et?s redu"e th s a(stra"t e-tra%o!at on more so and a%%!' t to a rea! ! &e " r"umstan"e+ On the "ont nent o& A&r "a* &or e-am%!e* ,h "h has a(out 2 ( !! on %eo%!e as o& 452D*I5F rou#h!' D6H m !! on %eo%!e !a"7 su&& " ent a""ess to %ota(!e ,ater+I5G I& ,e a%%!' the noted #!o(a! a$era#e "onsum%t on rate o& 2DGH "u( " meters a 'ear* see7 n# to %ro$ de ea"h o& those D6H m !! on %eo%!e that amount* ,e ,ou!d need 6FF*G4H*555*555 "u( " meters %rodu"ed annua!!'+ Us n# the Wontha## annua! "a%a" t' o& 2H5 m !! on "u( "
I5D Sour"e< Victorian =esalination Plant

8htt%<MMen+, 7 %ed a+or#M, 7 MWontha## Vdesa! nat onV%!ant;

I56 Sour"e< 7onthaggi =esalination Plant

8htt%<MM,,,+on!'me!(ourne+"om+auMme!(ourneVdeta !s+%h%R dSD2EEIO+U!0S/WRD%E6; I5H E tr !! on* EF4 m !! on d $ ded (' 2H5 m !! on I5I Sour"e< The oastline Paradox 8htt%<MM#ro7earth+(!o#s%ot+"omM4524M56M"oast! ne.%arado-+htm!; I5F Sour"e< 7orld population 8htt%<MMen+, 7 %ed a+or#M, 7 MWor!dV%o%u!at on; I5G Sour"e< ,ater+or# 8htt%<MM,ater+or#M,ater."r s sM,ater.&a"tsM,aterM; 2GE

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

meters %rodu"ed as the (ase & #ure* A&r "a ,ou!d need D2GH H5.a"re %!ants a!on# ts "oast ! ne to meet su"h demand* ta7 n# u% a(out 84H*2HG m !es o& "oast! ne n A&r "a; H*44D*655 &eet or EGE m !es+ Th s ta7es u% on!' D+E> o& A&r "a?s "oast! ne+I5E Ho,e$er* & ,e d $ ded th s num(er n ha!&* and used UV %ur & "at on s'stems &or one se"t on and desa! n 1at on &or the other* the desa! n 1at on %ro"ess ,ou!d need a(out 2+E>* or 6E6 m !es o& "oast! ne &or desa! nat on &a" ! t es and on!' a(out 4EI a"res o& !and &or %ur & "at on &a" ! t es* ,h "h s a m nus"u!e &a"t on o& A&r "a tota! !andmass 8o& a(out F ( !! on a"res;+ Th s s h #h!' doa(!e and o($ ous!'* n th s "ase and n a!! "ases* ,e ,ou!d strate# "a!!' ma- m 1e %ur & "at on %ro"esses s n"e t s more e&& " ent* ,h !e us n# desa! nat on &or the rema n n# demand+ Su"h "rude stat st "s re$ea! that (et,een UV and trad t ona! de"ontam nat on* "ou%!ed , th trad t ona! desa! nat on %ro"esses* as the' "urrent!' e- st* e$en #nor n# the ra% d ad$an"ements o""urr n# n (oth & e!dsI25 ,h "h , !! ! 7e!' ha$e an e-%onent a!!' ad$an"ed !e$e! o& e&& " en"' n the "om n# de"ades* the dea o& endur n# ,ater s"ar" t' on %!anet Earth s a(surd+ 9oth o& these so!ated e-tra%o!at ons ha$e assumed on!' one or the other ,as a%%! ed* n on!' !ar#e s"a!e &orm* assum n# there are no other e- st n# sour"es o& %ota(!e ,ater+ In rea! t'* # $en the e- st n# !e$e! o& &resh,ater st !! a$a !a(!e* "ou%!ed , th a s m%!e* nte!! #ent re.order n# o& use.reuse ,ater net,or7 s"hemes to &urther %reser$e the e- st n# "a%a" t'* "ou%!ed , th (oth !ar#e and sma!! s"a!e desa! nat on and de"ontam nat on %ro"esses as re# ons re)u re 8man' o& ,h "h "an (e %o,ered (' ra% d!' ad$an" n# rene,a(!e ener#' %ro"esses as ,e!!;* ,e ha$e the te"hn "a! "a%a" t' to (r n# %ota(!e ,ater a$a !a( ! t' to a(so!ute #!o(a! a(undan"e+ 6;< Energ+ Rene,a(!e ener#' sour"es are sour"es that are "ont nua!!' re%!en shed+ Su"h sour"es n"!ude ener#' &rom ,ater* , nd* so!ar and #eotherma!+ In "ontrast* &ue!s su"h as "oa!* o !* and natura! #as are non.rene,a(!e as the' are (ased on Earth stores ,h "h sho, no near. term re#enerat on+ As o& the ear!' 42st "entur'* the re"o#n t on o& "!ean* rene,a(!e ener#' %oss ( ! t es has (een su(stant a!+I22 The s%e"trum o& a%%! "at on* s"a!a( ! t' and de#ree o& e&& " en"'* "ou%!ed , th ad$an" n# methods &or ener#' stora#e and trans&er* ha$e ar#ua(!' made our
I5E It s a!so ,orth not n# that &!oat n#* o&& shore %!ants are a!so te"hn "a!!'

%oss (!e+ 8htt%<MM,,,+(mtdes #nte"hno!o#'+"om+auMdes #n. so!ut onsM&!oat n#.desa! nat on.%!antM; I25 An ad$an"ed te"hno!o#' "a!!ed the KS! n#shot”* n$ented (' Dean Camen* s a sma!!.s"a!e ,ater %ur & "at on s'stem that "an %rodu"e "!ean ,ater &rom a!most an' sour"e* n"!ud n# sea,ater* (' means o& $a%or "om%ress on d st !!at on+ It re)u res no & !ters* and "an e$en o%erate us n# "o, dun# as &ue!+ I22 Sour"e< T'%es o& Rene,a(!e Ener#' 8htt%<MM,,,+rene,a(!eener#',or!d+"omMreaMte"hMhome; 2E5

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

"urrent* most!' h'dro"ar(on.(ased ener#' methods a%%ear outdated* es%e" a!!' # $en the on#o n# ne#at $e "onse)uen"es o& the r use+ Nu"!ear ener#'* ,h !e e&&e"t $e and "ons dered a Krene,a(!e” &orm (' some* ,or7s at $er' h #h r s7 # $en the unsta(!e mater a!s n$o!$ed and the !ar#e s"a!e a"" dents on re"ord ha$e (rou#ht the sa&et' o& th s &orm o& %rodu"t on nto )uest on as ,e!!+I24 In the ,or!d toda'* the & $e most "ommon!' used rene,a(!e sour"es are h'dro%o,er 8$ a dams;* so!ar* , nd* #eotherma! and ( o&ue!s+ Rene,a(!e ener#' sour"es "urrent!' re%resent a(out 2H> o& #!o(a! ener#' use* , th h'dro.%o,er a""ount n# &or EF> o& th s & #ure+I2D G $en that o$er 2+4 ( !! on %eo%!e are , thout a""ess to e!e"tr " t' ,or!d, de*I26 "ou%!ed , th the on#o n# %o!!ut on and %er od " "r ses asso" ated , th trad t ona!* non.rene,a(!e methods* the %ur%ose o& th s su(se"t on s to sho, ho, the dan#erous rea! t es asso" ated , th &oss ! &ue!s and nu"!ear ener#' are no !on#er needed+ We "an no, %o,er the ,or!d man' t mes o$er , th "!ean* rene,a(!e* re!at $e!' !o, m%a"t methods* !ar#e!' !o"a! 1ed as %er the needs o& a s n#!e stru"ture* " t' or ndustr a! a%%! "at on+ Ho,e$er* t s m%ortant to %o nt out u%&ront that there s no single so!ut on at th s t me+ G $en that d &&erent areas o& the Earth ha$e d &&erent %ro%ens t es &or rene,a(!e ener#' harness n# and use* a%%! "at on must (e seen as a system or net,or7 de$e!o%ment o& a "om( nat on o& med ums+ That noted* narro, n# do,n the most re!e$ant o& these a(undan"e %rodu" n# %oss ( ! t es* t s %erha%s (est to th n7 o& rene,a(!e ener#' e-tra"t onMharness n# and use n t,o "ate#or es< 8a; Lar#e s"a!eM9ase.!oad @ 8(; Sma!! S"a!e @ Tota! M -ed. Use s'stems+ 6a< (arge Scale)*ase-load% Lar#e.s"a!e #enerat on* su"h as &or K(ase.!oad” needs re)u red to %o,er a " t' or h #h ener#' ndustr a! "enter* n"!udes &our ma n med ums< 8a2; #eotherma! %!ants* 8a4; , nd &arms* 8aD; so!ar & e!ds* and 8a6; ,ater 8o"eanMh'dro%o,er;+ 6a7< !eothermal% Geotherma! %o,erI2H s ener#' harnessed essent a!!' &rom the natura! heat o& the Earth?s mo!ten "ore* , th %!ants usua!!' %!a"ed around
I24 Sour"e< (u#ushima nu#e pollution in sea 0was world0s worst0 I2D Sour"e< 'enewable Energy

8htt%<MM%h's+or#Mne,sM4522.25.&u7ush ma.nu7e.%o!!ut on.sea.,or!d+htm!; 8htt%<MM,,,+ener#'1one+netMa(outener#'Mrene,a(!eVener#'+as%;

I26 Sour"e< Energy 1 The (acts

8htt%<MM,e(+,or!d(an7+or#MW9SITEMELTERNALMTOAI/SMELTENERG:4M5**"on tentMDC<44GHHH54`%a#eAC<4255HG`% AC<4255I4`theS teAC<6226455*55+ htm!; I2H Geotherma! %o,er n th s "onte-t sn?t to (e "on&used , th sma!! s"a!e* #eotherma! heat n#M"oo! n# %ro"esses that ut ! 1es heat &rom a &e, &eet (e!o, the sur&a"e+ 8 +e+ #eotherma! heat %um%s; 2E2

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

areas ,here the d stan"e to !ar#e heat "enters s &a r!' sha!!o,+I2I I2F A 455I MIT re%ort on #eotherma! ener#'* %romot n# an ad$an"ed e-tra"t on s'stem "a!!ed EGS* &ound that 2D*555 1etta0ou!es o& %o,er are "urrent!' a$a !a(!e n the Earth* , th the %oss ( ! t' o& 4555 1etta0ou!es (e n# har$esta(!e , th m%ro$ed te"hno!o#'+I2G The tota! ener#' "onsum%t on o& a!! the "ountr es on the %!anet s a(out ha!& a 1etta0ou!e 85+HH; a 'earI2E and th s means thousands o& 'ears o& %!anetar' %o,er "ou!d (e harnessed n th s med um a!one+ The MIT re%ort a!so est mated that there ,as enou#h ener#' n hard ro"7s 257m (e!o, the US a!one to su%%!' all the world0s "urrent needs &or D5*555 'ears+ E$en , th an e-%e"ted HI> n"rease o& "onsum%t on (' 4565* #eotherma!?s "a%a" t' s enormous & %ro%ert' ta%%ed+I45 I42 L 7e, se* the e-tra"t on o& heat ta7 n# %!a"e &rom , th n the Earth a%%ears )u te m nor n "om%ar son to ts store* ma7 n# the sour"e virtually limitless n %ro%ort on to a"tua! human "onsum%t on+I44 A!so* s n"e the ener#' s %rodu"ed "onstant!'* there are no nterm tten"' %ro(!ems and th s t'%e o& ener#' "an (e %rodu"ed "onstant!' , thout the need &or stora#e+ The en$ ronmenta! m%a"t o& #eotherma! s re!at $e!' $er' !o,+ I"e!and has (een us n# t a!most e-"!us $e!' &or some t me and the r %!ants %rodu"e e-treme!' !o, em ss ons 8no "ar(on; ,hen "om%ared to h'dro"ar(on.(ased methods+I4D A%art &rom some su!%hur %rodu"ed* sma!! earth)ua7es "an o""ur as a resu!t o& dr !! n# te"hn )ues+ Th s %ro(!em has (een a"7no,!ed#ed as human ndu"edI46 and m%ro$ement n the en# neer n# %ro"ess s the so!ut on* "ou%!ed , th "!ear understand n# o& the nature o& the !o"at on &or dr !! n#+ As &ar as !o"at on* t s theoret "a!!' %oss (!e to %!a"e #eotherma! ener#' e-tra"t on %!ants an',here* & the "a%a" t' to dr !! dee% enou#h ,as there* "ou%!ed , th other ad$an"ements n
I2I Sour"e< ?eothermal Energy (acts I2F Sour"e< /ac# to /asics Video3 7hat !s ?eothermal Energy 4nywayD

8htt%<MM#eotherma!+mar n+or#M%,rheat+htm!O[2;

8htt%<MM,,,+rene,a(!eener#',or!d+"omMreaM$ deoM$ e,M(a"7.to.(as "s. $ deo.,hat. s.#eotherma!.ener#'.an',a'; I2G Sour"e< (uture of ?eothermal Ener#' 8htt%<MM#eotherma!+ ne!+#o$M%u(! "at onsM&utureVo&V#eotherma!Vener#'+%d&; I2E Source3 E!4 proEects world energy consumption will increase GMH by BC-C 8htt%<MM,,,+e a+#o$Mtoda' nener#'Mdeta !+"&mR dS244H2; I45 Sour"e< I( d+ I42 Sour"e< ?eothermal Energy ould Provide 4ll the Energy the 7orld 7ill Ever "eed 8htt%<MM,,,+rene,a(!eener#',or!d+"omMreaMne,sMart "!eM4525M5EM#eother ma!.ener#'. s.the.so!ut on.&or.the.&uture; I44 Sour"e< ?eothermal (45s 8htt%<MM,,,2+eere+ener#'+#o$M#eotherma!M&a)s+htm!; I4D Sour"e< ?eothermal energy emissions of little concern 8htt%<MMth n7#eoener#'+"omMar"h $esM2FDD; I46 Sour"e< >ow =oes ?eothermal =rilling Trigger Earth)ua#esD 8htt%<MM,,,+s" ent & "amer "an+"omMart "!e+"&mR dS#eotherma!.dr !! n#. earth)ua7es@%a#eS4; 2E4

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

te"hno!o#'+I4H Ho,e$er* toda' most %!ants need to e- st near ,here te"ton " %!atesI4I meet on Earth+ A #eotherma! ma% o& the sur&a"e o& the Earth ta7en (' sate!! te "an sho, su"h dea! s%ots $er' "!ear!' (ased on heat em tted+I4F These ma%s sho, %oss ( ! t es near most "oast! nes around the ,or!dI4G and ,h !e most stud es are am( #uous , th res%e"t to e-a"t!' ho, man' !o"at ons "ou!d (e made a$a !a(!e* the %otent a! re"o#n 1ed* n #enera!* s enormous+ The U+S+ De%artment o& Ener#' has noted that #eotherma! ener#' a!so uses mu"h !ess !and than other ener#' sour"es* n"!ud n# &oss ! &ue! and "urrent!' dom nant rene,a(!es+ O$er D5 'ears* the %er od o& t me "ommon!' used to "om%are the ! &e "'"!e m%a"ts &rom d &&erent %o,er sour"es* a #eotherma! &a" ! t' uses 656 meters s)uared o& !and %er # #a,att hour* ,h !e a "oa! &a" ! t' uses D*ID4 meters s)uared %er # #a,att hour+I4E I& ,e ,ere to do a (as " "om%ar son o& #eotherma! to "oa! # $en th s rat o o& meters s)uared to # #a,att hour* ,e & nd that ,e "ou!d & t a(out n ne #eotherma! %!ants n the s%a"e o& one "oa! %!ant+ID5 ID2 L 7e, se* t s m%ortant to note that ne,* more e&& " ent methods to ta% #eotherma! a%%ear to (e 0ust start n# , th res%e"t to %oss (!e out%ut %otent a!+ In 452D t ,as announ"ed that a 2555 MW %o,er stat on ,as to (e# n "onstru"t on n Eth o% a+ID4 A me#a,att s a un t o& power, and %o,er "a%a" t' s e-%ressed d &&erent!' &rom energy "a%a" t'* ,h "h s e-%ressed* n th s "onte-t o& me#a,atts* as megawatt hours 8MWh;+ Aut another ,a'* energy s the amount o& ,or7 done* ,hereas power s the rate o& do n# ,or7+ So* &or e-am%!e* a #enerator , th one MW "a%a" t' that o%erates at that "a%a" t'
I4H Sour"e< (irst ?oogle*<rg$funded geothermal mapping reportconfirms vast

coast$to$coast clean energy source 8htt%<MM,,,+smu+eduMNe,sM4522M#eotherma!.46o"t4522; I4I Sour"e< Plate Te"ton "s 8htt%<MMs" en"e+nat ona!#eo#ra%h "+"omMs" en"eMearthMthe.d'nam ". earthM%!ate.te"ton "s.art "!eM; I4F Sour"e< (irst ?oogle*<rg$funded geothermal mapping reportconfirms vast coast$to$coast clean energy source 8htt%<MM,,,+smu+eduMNe,sM4522M#eotherma!.46o"t4522; I4G Sour"e< #en +or# 8htt%<MM,,,+#en +or#M#!o(a!ener#'M! (rar'Mrene,a(!e. ener#'.resour"esM#eotherma!+shtm!; I4E Sour"e< #eo.ener#'+or# 8htt%<MM#eo. ener#'+or#M#eoV(as "sVen$ ronment+as%-; ID5 DI4I m4 M 656 m4 S G+EFH s)uare meters ID2 It s ,orth not n# that #eotherma!* and* n &a"t* a!! other rene,a(!es addressed n th s te-t* nherent!' "om( ne the e-tra"t on or harness n# !o"at on with the %ro"ess n# and %o,er d str (ut on !o"at on+ A!! h'dro"ar(on sour"es* on the other hand* re)u re (oth e-tra"t on 8 +e+ "oa!; and %ro"ess n#M%o,er %rodu"t on &a" ! t es 8 +e+ re& ner esM%o,er %!ants;* a!most a!,a's n se%arate !o"at ons+ As %er the "urrent e-am%!e* the m n n# !and re)u red &or "oa! e-tra"t on s om tted &rom the e)uat on+ In short* rene,a(!es ta7e u% su(stant a!!' !ess !and and ha$e a e-"e%t ona!!' !o,er en$ ronmenta! m%a"t n th s re#ard+ ID4 Sour"e< The arbon apture 'eport 8htt%<MM,,,+da !'eth o% a+"omM nde-+%h%Ra dS26EG; 2ED

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

"ons stent!' &or one hour , !! %rodu"e 2 MW.hour 8MWh; o& e!e"tr " t'+ Th s means & a 2555 MW #eotherma! %o,er.stat on o%erated at &u!! "a%a" t' 46 hours a da'* se$en da's a 'ear 8DIH da's;* t ,ou!d %rodu"e G*FI5*555 MWhM'ear+IDD The ,or!d?s "urrent annua! usa#e n MWh s a(out 2HD 9 !! on*ID6 ,h "h means t ,ou!d ta7e* n a(stra"t on* 2F*6IH #eotherma! %!ants to mat"h #!o(a! use+IDH A""ord n# to the Wor!d /oa! Asso" at on* there are o$er 4*D55 "oa! %o,er %!ants n o%erat on ,or!d, de+IDI Us n# the a&orement oned %!ant s 1eM"a%a" t' "om%ar son o& a(out n ne #eotherma! %!ants & tt n# nto one "oa! %!ant* the s%a"e o& 2*E65IDF 8or G6> o& the tota! n e- sten"e; "oa! %!ants ,ou!d (e needed* n theor'* to "onta n the 2F*6IH #eotherma! %!ants+ A!so* # $en "oa! toda' a""ounts &or on!' 62> o& the ,or!d?s "urrent ener#' %rodu"t on*IDG th s theoret "a! e-tra%o!at on a!so sho,s ho, n G6> o& the "urrent s%a"e usa#e (' "oa! %!ants a!one 8,h "h on!' %rodu"e 62>;* #eotherma! could su%%!' 255> %o,er "a%a" t' as %er #!o(a! use nstead+ A!! th s , thout the %o!!ut on &rom "oa!* ,h "h has (een "ons dered one o& the most %o!!ut n# %ra"t "es n the ,or!d a!on# , th (e n# ! 7e!' the !ar#est "ontr (utor to the human.made n"rease o& /O4 n the atmos%here+ 6a?< Wind Farms U+S+ De%artment o& Ener#' stud es ha$e "on"!uded that , nd har$est n# n the Great A!a ns states o& Te-as* Cansas* and North Da7ota "ou!d %ro$ de enou#h e!e"tr " t' to %o,er the ent re USA+IDE More m%ress $e!'* a 455H Stan&ord Un $ers t' stud' %u(! shed n the 3ourna! o& Geo%h's "a! Resear"h &ound that & on!' 45> o& the , nd %otent a! on the %!anet ,as harnessed* t ,ou!d "o$er the ent re ,or!dNs ener#' needs+I65 In "orro(orat on* t,o more re"ent stud es (' unre!ated or#an 1at ons %u(! shed n 4524 "a!"u!ated that , th e- st n# , nd tur( ne te"hno!o#' the earth "ou!d %rodu"e hundreds o& tr !! ons o& ,atts o& %o,er+ Th s* n e&&e"t* s man' more t mes ,hat the ,or!d "urrent!' "onsumes+I62 W nd %o,er s %erha%s one o& the most s m%!e and !o, m%a"t &orms o& rene,a(!e ener#' and ts s"a!a( ! t' s ! m ted
IDD GFI5 8hrs n a 'ear; - 2555 8MWh; S G*FI5*555 M,hM'ear+ ID6 5+HH 1etta0ou!es "o$erts to a(out 2HD ( !! on MWh IDH 2HD ( !! on MWh 8tota! #!o(a! use; M G*FI5*555 MWh 8#eotherma! %!ant IDI Sour"e< ,or!d"oa!+or# 8htt%<MM,,,+,or!d"oa!+or#Mresour"esM&re)uent!'. IDF 2F*6IH M E S 2E65+H IDG Sour"e< ,or!d"oa!+or# 8htt%<MM,,,+,or!d"oa!+or#M"oa!Muses.o&."oa!M"oa!.

"a%a" t'; S 2F*6IH #eotherma! %!ants+ as7ed.)uest onsM; e!e"tr " t'M;

IDE Sour"e< TU+S+ Nat ona! Rene,a(!e Ener#' La(orator'”+ Fe(ruar' Ith 455F I65 Sour"e< Evaluation of global wind power I62 Sour"e< The Earth >as Enough 7ind Energy Potential To Power 4ll <f

8htt%<MM,,,+stan&ord+eduM#rou%Me&mhM, ndsM#!o(a!V, nds+htm!;

ivili%ation 8htt%<MM,,,+(us ness ns der+"omMthe.earth.has.enou#h., nd. ener#'.%otent a!.to.%o,er.a!!.o&." $ ! 1at on.4524.E; 2E6

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

on!' to !o"at on+ Us n# the E*555.a"re A!ta W nd Ener#' /enter /a! &orn a as a (as s* ,h "h has an a"t $e "a%a" t' o& 2*D45 MW o& %o,er* a theoret "a! annua! out%ut o& 22*HID*455 MWh s %oss (!e+I64 Th s means 2D*4D2 E555.a"re , nd &arms ,ou!d (e needed to meet the "urrent out%ut & #ure o& 2HD ( !! on MWh+ Th s means 22E*5FE*555 a"res o& 8, nd su&& " ent; !and ,ou!d (e re)u red+I6D Th s amounts to 5+D> o& the Earth?s sur&a"e that ,ou!d (e needed to %o,er the ,or!d* n a(stra"t on+I66 On"e a#a n* th s s not to su##est su"h a th n# s dea! # $en ,hat !and s &eas (!e &or , nd &arms* a!on# , th other m%ortant &a"tors+ Th s s s m%!' to # $e a #enera! %ers%e"t $e o& %oss ( ! t'+ Ho,e$er* one un )ue rea! t' o& , nd %o,er #enerat on s the %otent a! o& offshore harness n#+ /om%ared to !and.(ased , nd %o,er* o&&shore , nd %o,er has* on a$era#e* a mu"h !ar#er ' e!d* as , nd s%eeds tend to (e h #her+ Th s rea! t' a!so a!!e$ ates !and.(ased %ressures # $en !and s"ar" t' and re# ona! restr "t ons+ A""ord n# to the 4ssessment of <ffshore 7ind Energy 'esources for the 9nited States* 6*2H5 # #a,atts 86*2H5*555 MW; o& %otent a! , nd tur( ne "a%a" t' &rom o&&shore , nd resour"es are a$a !a(!e n the Un ted States+I6H Assum n# th s %o,er "a%a" t' ,as "ons stent &or a 'ear* ,e end u% , th an ener#' "on$ers on o& DI*DH6*555*555 MWhM'r+ G $en the Un ted States* n 4525* used 4H*FFI TWh o& ener#' 84H+FG ( !! on MWh;*I6I ,e & nd that o&&shore , nd har$est n# alone e-"eeds nat ona! use (' a(out 25+I ( !! on MWhs* or 62>+ Intu t $e!'* e-tra%o!at n# th s nat ona! !e$e! o& "a%a" t' to the rest o& the ,or!d?s "oast! nes* a!so ta7 n# nto a""ount the a&orement oned !and.(ased on!' stat st " resear"h that &ound ,e "an %o,er the ,or!d man' t mes o$er onshore as ,e!!*I6F the %oss ( ! t es o& , nd.(ased ener#' a(undan"e s e-"e%t ona!!' m%ress $e+ 6a;< Solar Fields The u%%er atmos%here o& Earth re"e $es a(out 2+H f 2542 ,att.hours o& so!ar rad at on annua!!'+ Th s $ast amount o& ener#' s more than 4D*555 t mes that used (' the human %o%u!at on o& the %!anet+I6G I& human t' "ou!d "a%ture one tenth o& one %er"ent o& the so!ar ener#' str 7 n# the Earth ,e ,ou!d ha$e a""ess to s - t mes as mu"h ener#'
GFI5 8hrs n a 'ear; - 2D45 8MW; S 22*HID*455 MWhM'ear+ 2D*4D2 - E555 a"res S 22E*5FE*555 22E*5FE*555 a"res s 5+D4> o& DI*FE6*465*555 a"res 8tota! !and on Earth; Sour"e< 4ssessment of <ffshore 7ind Energy 'esources for the 9nited States 8htt%<MM,,,+nre!+#o$Mdo"sM&'25ost M6HGGE+%d&; I6I Sour"e< Energy in the 9nited States 8htt%<MMen+, 7 %ed a+or#M, 7 MEner#'V nVtheVUn tedVStatesO" teVnote. IEA4524.2D; I6F Sour"e< The Earth >as Enough 7ind Energy Potential To Power 4ll <f ivili%ation 8htt%<MM,,,+(us ness ns der+"omMthe.earth.has.enou#h., nd. ener#'.%otent a!.to.%o,er.a!!.o&." $ ! 1at on.4524.E; I6G Sour"e< the&reed "t onar'+"om 8htt%<MMen"'"!o%ed a4+the&reed "t onar'+"omMso!arQener#';
I64 I6D I66 I6H

2EH

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

as ,e "onsume n a!! &orms toda'* , th a!most no #reenhouse #as em ss ons+ The a( ! t' to harness th s %o,er de%ends on the te"hno!o#' and ho, h #h the %er"enta#e o& rad at on a(sor%t on s+ onventional photovoltaics, "urrent!' the most "ommon &orm used most!' &or sma!!er a%%! "at ons* use s ! "on as the sem "ondu"tor and e- st n someth n# o& a &!at "e!! or sheet+ oncentrated photovoltaics : PV; are #enera!!' more e&& " ent than non."on"entrated on a$era#eU ho,e$er the' tend to re)u re more d re"t e-%osure to &o"us the ! #ht %ro%er!'+ oncentrated solar power : PS; s a !ar#e.s"a!e a%%roa"h that uses m rrors or !enses to "on"entrate a !ar#e area o& sun! #ht* or so!ar therma! ener#'* onto a sma!! area+ E!e"tr "a! %o,er s %rodu"ed ,hen the "on"entrated ! #ht s "on$erted to heat* ,h "h dr $es a heat en# ne 8su"h as a steam tur( ne; "onne"ted to an e!e"tr "a! %o,er #enerator or the ! 7e+ Un! 7e %hoto$o!ta "s* ,h "h "on$ert d re"t!' to e!e"tr " t'* th s te"hno!o#' "on$erts to heat+ Re"ent!'* !ar#e.s"a!e stora#e methods ha$e a!so (een used to %ro!on# a""ess at n #ht+ A $ar at on o& /AS s STE* or Solar Thermal Energy* The I$an%ah So!ar E!e"tr " Generat n# S'stem n /a! &orn a* USA s a DH55 a"re & e!dI6E , th a stated annua! #enerat on o& 2*5FE*4D4 MWh+IH5 Wh !e I$an%ah does not use an' &orm o& stora#e* t ser$es a(out 265*555 homes n the re# on+ I& ,e ,ere to e-tra%o!ate us n# I$an%ah as a (as s* t ,ou!d ta7e 262*FIF & e!ds or 6EI*2G6*H55 a"res to theoret "a!!' meet "urrent #!o(a! ener#' use (ased on out%ut+ Th s s 2+6D> o& tota! !and on Earth+IH2 On"e a#a n* th s s not to su##est su"h a th n# s %ra"t "a! nor s t to #nore the rad at on ' e!d d &&eren"es &ound on d &&erent areas o& the Earth+ Ho,e$er* deserts* ,h "h tend to (e h #h!' "ondu" $e &or so!ar & e!ds ,h !e o&ten !ess "ondu" $e to ! &e su%%ort &or %eo%!e* are rou#h!' 2MD o& a!! the !and mass n the ,or!d or a(out 24 ( !! on a"res+ /om%ared to the rou#h!' H55 m !! on a"res theoret "a!!' needed to K%o,er the ,or!d” as %er our e-tra%o!at on* on!' 6+2> o& the ,or!d?s desert !and ,ou!d (e needed+IH4 L 7e, se* other %ro0e"ts s m !ar to the I$an%ah & e!d ha$e (een n"or%orat n# storage systems* The So!ana 4G5MW so!ar %o,er %!ant n Ar 1ona "om( nes %ara(o! " trou#h m rror te"hno!o#' , th mo!ten sa!t therma! stora#e and s a(!e to "ont nue out%utt n# u% to s - hours a&ter the s7' #oes dar7+IHD
I6E Sour"e< 7orldRs biggest solar thermal power plant fires up for first time

8htt%<MMrene,e"onom'+"om+auM452DM,or!ds.( ##est.so!ar.therma!.%o,er. %!ant.& res.& rst.t me.GE2DH; IH5 Sour"e< !vanpah Solar Electric ?enerating System 8htt%<MM,,,+nre!+#o$M"s%Mso!ar%a"esM%ro0e"tVdeta !+"&mM%ro0e"tIDSI4; IH2 2HD ( !! on MWh M 2*5FE*4D4MWh S 262*FIF %!ants = D*H55 a"res S 6EI*2G6*H55 a"res+ 6EI*2G6*H55 a"res s 2+6D > o& DI*FE6*465*555 8tota! !and; IH4 Re&eren"e< !s 4nything Stopping a Truly Massive /uild$<ut of =esert Solar PowerD 8htt%<MM,,,+s" ent & "amer "an+"omMart "!e+"&mR dS"ha!!en#es.&or. desert.so!ar.%o,er; IHD Sour"e< Solar Plant ?enerates Power (or Six >ours 4fter Sunset 2EI

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

In #enera!* the rate o& ad$an"ement o& %hoto$o!ta "* so!ar therma!* stora#e methods and other e- st n# and emer# n# te"hno!o# es "ont nue to ra% d!' ad$an"e* re$ea! n# that man' nsta!!at ons seen as h #h!' e&& " ent toda' , !! (e #ross!' ne&& " ent n a de"ade or t,o+ As , !! (e addressed more so , th res%e"t to smaller scale rene,a(!e ener#' so!ut ons* the use o& so!ar %o,er !o"a! 1ed n the $er' "onstru"t on o& (u !d n#s and dom " !es s ! 7e!' to (e ,here true &uture e&& " en"' , !! ta7e %!a"e+ The ssue s ma7 n# the te"hno!o#' "om%a"t and e&& " ent enou#h &or !o"a! 1ed* %er "ase use+ Ho,e$er* so!ar & e!d %o,er stat ons* 0ust ! 7e #eotherma! and , nd* ha$e an enormous #!o(a! %otent a! n and o& themse!$es and there s ! tt!e dou(t that # $en %ro%er resour"es and attent on* these & e!ds a!one "ou!d theoret "a!!' esta(! sh an n&rastru"ture and e&& " en"' !e$e! to %o,er the ,or!d a!one+ 6aB< Water)-+dro Energ+ Water.(ased rene,a(!e ener#' e-tra"t on "ou!d #enera!!' (e sa d to ha$e t,o (road sour"es< the ocean tse!& and r $er.t'%e ,ater &!o,s ,h "h use the #ra$ tat ona! &or"e o& &a!! n# or &!o, n# ,ater* usua!!' n an n!and ,ater"ourse+ The !atter s #enera!!' re&erred to n %ra"t "e as hydroelectric and* as noted (e&ore* t s "urrent!' a &a r!' !ar#e %art o& the e- st n# rene,a(!e ener#' n&rastru"ture+IH6 On the other hand* the $ast %otent a! o& the ocean has 'et to (e harnessed , th n a &ra"t on o& ts "a%a" t'+ It s not &ar.&et"hed to su##est that the nte!! #ent har$est n# o& (oth the $ar ous me"han "a! mo$ements o& o"ean ,ater "ou%!ed , th e-%!o t n# the d &&eren"es n heat* 7no,n as ocean thermal energy conversion 8OTE/;* that o"ean ,ater %o,er "ou!dn?t a!so %o,er the ,or!d a!one+IHH IHI IHF G $en the e- st n#* &a r!' !ar#e.s"a!e use o& h'droe!e"tr " %o,er 8dams; a!read'* th s se"t on , !! nstead &o"us on the o"ean %otent a!s+ The most %ronoun"ed sea.(ased %otent a!s at th s t me a%%ear to (e wave* tidal, ocean current, ocean thermal and osmotic* Wa$es are %r mar !' "aused (' , ndsU t des are %r mar !' "aused (' the #ra$ tat ona! %u!! o& the moonU o"ean "urrents are %r mar !' "aused (' the rotat on o& the EarthU o"ean therma! resu!ts &rom so!ar heat
8htt%<MM,,,+7"et+or#Mne,sMre, reMso!arM"on"entrat n#.so!arMso!ar.%!ant. #enerates.%o,er.&or.s -.hours.a&ter.sunset+htm!; IH6 Sour"e< 9se and apacity of ?lobal >ydropower !ncreases 8htt%<MM,,,+,or!d,at"h+or#MnodeMEH4F; IHH Sour"e< <cean currents can power the world, say scientists 8htt%<MM,,,+te!e#ra%h+"o+u7MearthMener#'Mrene,a(!eener#'MDHDH524MO"ea n."urrents."an.%o,er.the.,or!d.sa'.s" ent sts+htm!; IHI A""ord n# to M "hae! 9ern tsas* a %ro&essor at the Un $ers t' o& M "h #an De%artment o& Na$a! Ar"h te"ture and Mar ne En# neer n#< T+++ & ,e "ou!d harness 5+2 %er"ent o& the ener#' n the o"ean* ,e "ou!d su%%ort the ener#' needs o& 2H ( !! on %eo%!e+T X htt%<MMm "h #antoda'+um "h+eduM455EM52Mstor'+%h%R dSFDD6O+Um9294RD%E6 Y IHF Sour"e< <ur urrent Technologies 8htt%<MM$o th+"omMenMVo thVO"eanV/urrentVTe"hno!o# es82;+%d&; 2EF

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

a(sor(ed (' the sur&a"e o& the o"eanU and osmot " %o,er s ,hen &resh ,ater and sa!t ,ater meet* e-%!o t n# the d &&eren"e n sa!t "on"entrat on+ Wa$e< It has (een &ound that ,a$e %o,er?s usable #!o(a! %otent a! s a(out D TWIHG or a(out 4I*4G5 TWhM'r assum n# "onstant harness n#+ Th s s a!most 45> o& "urrent #!o(a! use+ Th s amount o& %o,er has (een as"erta ned essent a!!' (' ana!'1 n# dee%.,ater re# ons o&& "ont nent "oast! nes+ The theoret "a! %o,er est mate has (een est mated at D+F TW* , th the & na! net est mate redu"ed (' a(out 45> to "om%ensate &or $ar ous ne&& " en" es re!ated to a # $en re# on* su"h as "e "o$era#e+ Ener#' out%ut s (as "a!!' determ ned (' ,a$e he #ht* ,a$e s%eed* ,a$e!en#th* and ,ater dens t'+ Wa$e &arms* or the "onstru"t on o& ,a$e harness n# %!ants o&& a "oast! ne* ha$e seen ! m ted !ar#e.s"a!e a%%! "at on at th s t me* , th on!' a(out s - "ountr es s%arse!' a%%!' n# the te"hno!o#'+IHE Lo"at ons , th the most %otent a! n"!ude the ,estern sea(oard o& Euro%e* the northern "oast o& the UC* and the Aa" & " "oast! nes o& North and South Amer "a* Southern A&r "a* Austra! a* and Ne, Zea!and+ T da!< T da! has t,o su(.&orms< ran#e and stream+ T da! ran#e s essent a!!' the Kr se and &a!!” o& areas o& the o"ean+ T da! streams are "urrents "reated (' %er od " hor 1onta! mo$ement o& the t des* o&ten ma#n & ed (' the sha%e o& the sea(ed+ D &&erent !o"at ons o& Earth ha$e !ar#e d &&eren"es n ran#e+II5 In the Un ted C n#dom* an area , th h #h !e$e!s o& t da! a"t $ t'* do1ens o& s tes are "urrent!' noted as a$a !a(!e* &ore"ast n# that D6> o& a!! the UCNs ener#' "ou!d "ome &rom t da! %o,er a!one+II2 G!o(a!!'* o!der stud es ha$e %ut t da! "a%a" t' at 2G55TWhM'r+II4 More re"ent stud es ha$e %ut the theoret "a! "a%a" t' 8(oth ran#e and stream; at DTW* assum n# on!' a %ort on ,ou!d (e e-tra"ta(!e+IID T da!* ,h !e $er' %red "ta(!e* s a!so su(0e"t to da !' %er ods o& nterm tten"' (ased around t da! sh &ts+ Assum n# on!' 2+H TW "ou!d (e harnessed n a 'ear (ased on ad$an"ed te"hno!o#'* th s means a(out F> o& the ,or!d?s %o,er "ou!d "ome &rom t da!+
IHG Sour"e< 4ssessing the ?lobal 7ave Energy Potential

8htt%<MM,,,+o"eanor+noMre!atedMHE26EM%a%erVOMAWV4525V456FDV& na!+%d& ; IHE Sour"e< 7ave farm 8htt%<MMen+, 7 %ed a+or#M, 7 MWa$eV&arm; II5 Sour"e< Tidal Energy 8htt%<MMe +!eh #h+eduM!earnersMener#'Mt da!4+htm!; II2 Sour"e< !unarener#'+"o+u7 8htt%<MM,,,+!unarener#'+"o+u7M&a"tsF #ures+htm; II4 Sour"e< O"ean Ener#'< Aros%e"ts @ Aotent a!* Isaa"s @ S"hm tt* , th 2H> ut ! 1at on &a"tor @ H5> "a%a" t' &a"tor+ X htt%<MM,,,+"r%m+or#M%u(Ma#endaM2DG6Vnatha! eVrousseau+%d& Y IID 'enewable Energy Sources and limate hange Mitigation* Ottmar Edenho&er* 4524* %%H5H.H5I 2EG

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

O"ean /urrent< S m !ar to t da! streams* o"ean "urrents ha$e sho,n #reat %otent a!+ These "urrents &!o, "ons stent!' n the o%en o"ean and $ar ous emer# n# te"hno!o# es ha$e (een de$e!o% n# to harness th s !ar#e!' unta%%ed med um+ As , th a!! rene,a(!es* the "a%a" t' to harness su"h %otent a! s d re"t!' re!ated to the e&& " en"' o& the te"hno!o#' em%!o'ed+ The EOEA est mates the "urrent %otent a! at 655 THWM'r+II6 Ho,e$er* there s #ood reason to assume th s & #ure s outdated+ Ar or a%%! "at ons o& tur( neMm !! te"hno!o# es to "a%ture su"h ,ater &!o,s ha$e needed an a$era#e "urrent o& & $e or s - 7nots to o%erate e&& " ent!'* ,h !e most o& the Earth?s "urrents are s!o,er than three 7nots+IIH Ho,e$er* re"ent de$e!o%ments ha$e re$ea!ed the %oss ( ! t' to harness ener#' &rom ,ater &!o,s o& !ess than t,o 7nots+III G $en th s %otent a!* t has (een su##ested that ocean current alone "ou!d %o,er the ent re ,or!d+IIF The Gu!& StreamIIG %otent a! has (een est mated at 2DGW o& a"tua! out%ut* assum n# a D5> "on$ers on e&& " en"' us n# more trad t ona! tur( ne te"hno!o#'+IIE Th s means 2D*555 MW or* assum n# "onstant harness n# o& the stream a!! 'ear* a(out 22D*GG5*555 M,hM'r+IF5 The Un ted States* n 4522* s est mated to ha$e used 6+2 ( !! on MWh n e!e"tr " t'+IF2 Th s means D5>IF4 o& the US?s e!e"tr "a! "onsum%t on "ou!d (e #enerated (' the Gu!& Stream a!one+ On"e a#a n* th s s assum n# the use o& on!' esta(! shed te"hno!o#'+ Osmot "< Osmot " %o,er or sa! n t' #rad ent %o,er s the ener#' a$a !a(!e &rom the d &&eren"e n the sa!t "on"entrat on (et,een sea,ater and r $er ,ater+ The Nor,e# an /enter &or Rene,a(!e Ener#' 8SFFE; est mates the #!o(a! %otent a! to (e a(out 2*DF5 TWhM'r+IFD , th others %utt n# t
II6 Sour"e< <cean Energy3 Position Paper for !P

8htt%<MMe"+euro%a+euMresear"hMener#'M%d&M#%M#%Ve$entsM,re"M,re"V455GVo "ean.h'droVa!!aV,e nste nVen+%d&; IIH Sour"e< <cean currents can power the world, say scientists 8htt%<MM,,,+te!e#ra%h+"o+u7MearthMener#'Mrene,a(!eener#'MDHDH524MO"ea n."urrents."an.%o,er.the.,or!d.sa'.s" ent sts+htm!; III Sour"e< 0(ish Technology0 =raws 'enewable Energy (rom Slow 7ater urrents 8htt%<MMm "h #antoda'+um "h+eduM455EM52Mstor'+%h%R dSFDD6O+Um9294RD%E6; IIF Sour"e< <cean currents can power the world, say scientists 8htt%<MM,,,+te!e#ra%h+"o+u7MearthMener#'Mrene,a(!eener#'MDHDH524MO"ea n."urrents."an.%o,er.the.,or!d.sa'.s" ent sts+htm!; IIG Sour"e< ?ulf Stream 8htt%<MMen+, 7 %ed a+or#M, 7 MGu!&VStream; IIE Sour"e< Theoretical 4ssessment of <cean urrent Energy Potential for the ?ulf Stream System 8htt%<MM,,,+resear"h#ate+netM%u(! "at onM4HI6EHF64VTheoret "a!VAssessm entVo&VO"eanV/urrentVEner#'VAotent a!V&orVtheVGu!&VStreamVS'stem; IF5 GFI5 8hrs a 'ear; - 2D555 MW S 22D m !! on GG5 thousands MWhsM'r IF2 Sour"e< Energy in the 9nited States 8htt%<MMen+, 7 %ed a+or#M, 7 MEner#'V nVtheVUn tedVStatesO/onsum%t on; IF4 6+2 ( !! on M 2DD+GG5 m !! on IFD Sour"e< <smotic Power 8htt%<MM,,,+s&&e+noMR%S466I; 2EE

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

at around 2*F55 TWhM'rIF6 or the e)u $a!ent o& ha!& o& Euro%e?s ent re ener#' demand+IFH Wh !e st !! !ar#e!' n ts n&an"'* osmot " %o,er harness n# throu#h ad$an" n# te"hno!o#' s %rom s n#+ Ao,er %!ants "an* n %r n" %!e* (e (u !t an',here &resh,ater meets sea,ater+ The' "an #enerate %o,er 46MF* re#ard!ess o& ,eather "ond t ons+ O"ean Therma!< The & na! o"ean.(ased means &or ener#' harness n# ,orth not n# s o"ean therma! ener#' "on$ers on 8OTE/;+ E-%!o t n# the d &&eren"es n heat e- st n# around the sur&a"e o& the o"ean and (e!o,* ,armer sur&a"e ,ater s used to heat a &!u d* su"h as ! )u d ammon a* "on$ert n# t nto $a%or* ,h "h e-%ands to dr $e a tur( ne ,h "h* n turn* %rodu"es e!e"tr " t'+ The &!u d s then "oo!ed us n# "o!d ,ater &rom the o"ean de%ths* return n# t nto a ! )u d state so the %ro"ess "an start a!! o$er a#a n+ O& a!! the o"ean.(ased ener#' sour"es* OTE/ a%%ears to ha$e the most %otent a!+ It has (een est mated that GG*555 TWhM'r "ou!d (e #enerated , thout a&&e"t n# the o"ean?s therma! stru"ture+IFI Wh !e th s & #ure ma' not e-%ress tota!* usa(!e "a%a" t'* t m%! es that ,e!! o$er ha!& o& a!! "urrent #!o(a! ener#' "onsum%t on "ou!d (e met , th OTE/ a!one+ As o& 452D* most o& the e- st n# OTE/ %!ants are e-%er menta! or $er' sma!! s"a!e+ Ho,e$er* a &e, ma0or ndustr a! "a%a" t' %ro0e"ts ha$e (een set n mot on* n"!ud n# a 25 MW %!ant o&& the "oast o& /h naIFF and a 255MW near Ha,a +IFG One 255MW o&&shore %!ant "an theoret "a!!' %o,er Ha,a Ns ent re 9 # Is!and a!one*IFE mean n# 2GI*555 %eo%!e as o& a 4522 "ensus+ No,* n "on"!us on to th s su(se"t on o& o"ean ener#' harness n#* 7ee% n# "ons stent , th the %r or "ate#or "a! est mat ons set &or,ard &or so!ar* , nd and #eotherma!* t s ,orth,h !e to "ons der the tota!* "om( ned 8!ar#e!' "onser$at $e; %otent a! o& ea"h noted
IF6 Sour"e< (irst osmosis power plant goes on stream in "orway

8htt%<MM,,,+ne,s" ent st+"omMart "!eMdn2G456.& rst.osmos s.%o,er.%!ant. #oes.on.stream. n.nor,a'+htm!O+Um/3.WRD%E6; IFH Sour"e< <smotic Power Play3 Energy 'ecovery Teams with ?S Engineering A onstruction orp to =evelop >ighly 4vailable 'enewable Energy Source 8htt%<MM,,,+mar7et,at"h+"omMstor'Mosmot ".%o,er.%!a'.ener#'.re"o$er'. teams., th.#s.en# neer n#."onstru"t on."or%.to.de$e!o%.h #h!'.a$a !a(!e. rene,a(!e.ener#'.sour"e.452D.25.2HRre&! n7SMWVne,sVstm%; IFI 'enewable Energy Sources and limate hange Mitigation* Ottmar Edenho&er* 4524* %H5F IFF Sour"e< <cean Thermal Power 7ill =ebut off hina0s oast 8htt%<MM,,,+s" ent & "amer "an+"omMart "!e+"&mR dSo"ean.therma!.%o,er. , !!.de(ut.o&&."h nas."oast; IFG Sour"e< ,CC$mw <TE proEect planned for 7est <ahu 8htt%<MM,,,+( 10ourna!s+"omM%a" & "M%r nt.ed t onM4524M25M5HM255.m,. ote".%ro0e"t.%!anned.&or.,est+htm!R%a#eSa!!; IFE Sour"e< <cean Thermal Energy onversion ould Power 4ll <f >awaii0s /ig !sland 8htt%<MM,,,+hu&& n#ton%ost+"omM452DM5EM2IMo"ean.therma!.ener#'. "on$ers on.ha,a VnVDEDFDIF+htm!; 455

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

med um+ Wh !e th s , !!* o& "ourse* (e a "rude e-tra%o!at on s n"e there are man' "om%!e- $ar a(!es* n"!ud n# the &a"t that some a%%! "at ons are st !! sem .e-%er menta! and d && "u!t to %ro%er!' assess* th s #enera! & #ure st !! he!%s to d #est the (roadest %ers%e"t $e o& the %otent a! o& o"ean rene,a(!es+ Here s a ! st o& the noted #!o(a! %otent a!s< Wa$e< 4F*4G5 TWhM'r T da!< 2D*265 T,hM'r 82+H TW - GFI5hr ; O"ean /urrent< 655 T,hM'r 8o!d est mate , th o!d te"h; Osmot "< `2*H55 T,HM'r 8a$era#e o& noted stat st "s; O"ean Therma!< GG*555 T,hM'r Added to#ether ,e arr $e at 2D5*D45 TWhM'r or 5+6I Z3 a 'ear+ Th s s rou#h!' GD> o& "urrent #!o(a! use 85+HH Z3;+ It s m%ortant to note that su"h num(ers are der $ed* n %art* &rom trad t ona! te"hno!o# es* , th no ad0ustment made &or more re"ent m%ro$ements+ I& ,e (r n# trad t ona! H'droe!e"tr " 8,ater"ourse (ased; (a"7 nto the e)uat on* ,h "h* a""ord n# to the IEA has a %otent a! o& 2I*655 TWhM'r*IG5 th s (r n#s the & #ure u% to 26I*F45 TWhM'r or EI> o& "urrent #!o(a! use+ 6 < Small Scale . Total 2i=ed-&se S+stems The %r or se"t on des"r (ed the $ast %otent a! o& !ar#e.s"a!e* (ase.!oad rene,a(!e ener#' harness n#+ W nd* so!ar* ,aterMh'dro and #eotherma! ha$e a!! sho,n that the' are "a%a(!e* individually* o& meet n# or $ast!' e-"eed n# the "urrent 5+HH Z3 annua! #!o(a! ener#' "onsum%t on at th s t me+ The true )uest on s ho, are su"h methods to (e nte!! #ent!' %ut nto %ra"t "e+ G $en the re# ona! ! m tat ons "ou%!ed , th other nat $e ssues su"h as nterm tten"'* the rea! design initiative to "reate a ,or7a(!e "om( nat on o& su"h means s needed+ Su"h a systems a%%roa"h s the rea! so!ut on* harmon 1 n# an o%t m 1ed &ra"t on o& ea"h o& those rene,a(!es to a"h e$e #!o(a!* tota! use a(undan"e+ For e-am%!e* t s not n"on"e $a(!e to ma# ne a ser es o& man.made &!oat n# s!ands o&& se!e"t "oast! nes ,h "h are des #ned to %oss (!' harness* at on"e* , nd* so!ar* therma! d &&eren"e* ,a$e* t da! and o"ean "urrents J a!! at the same t me and n the same #enera! area+ Su"h energy islands ,ou!d then % %e the r har$est (a"7 to !and &or human use+ Var ous "om( nat ons "ou!d a!so (e a%%! ed to !and. (ased s'stems as ,e!!* su"h as "onstru"t n# , ndMso!ar "om( nat ons to "om%! ment the &a"t that o&ten , nd s more %resent at n #ht* ,h !e so!ar s more %resent dur n# the da'+ L 7e, se* "reat $e n#enu t' , th res%e"t to ho, ,e "an nte!! #ent!' "om( ne $ar ous methods a!so e-tends to ,hat ,e "ou!d "ons der locali%ed ener#' harness n#+ Sma!!er s"a!e rene,a(!e methods that are "ondu" $e to s n#!e stru"tures or sma!! areas & nd the
IG5 Sour"e< 'enewable Energy Essentials3 >ydropower

8htt%<MM,,,+ ea+or#M%u(! "at onsM&ree%u(! "at onsM%u(! "at onMH'dro%o,erVE ssent a!s+%d&; 452

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

same s'stems !o# " re#ard n# "om( nat on+ These !o"a! 1ed s'stems "ou!d a!so* & need (e* "onne"t (a"7 nto the !ar#er* (ase.!oad s'stems as ,e!!* re$ea! n# a tota!* m -ed med um nte#rated net,or7+ A "ommon e-am%!e toda' s the use o& s n#!e stru"ture so!ar %ane!s* su"h as &or home use+ Wh !e the e&& " en"' o& these %ane!s s st !! m%ro$ n#* "ou%!ed , th m%osed "ost ! m tat ons as %er the n$estmentM%ro& t me"han sm o& the mar7et* most %eo%!e ut ! 1 n# these so!ar %o,er s'stems are on!' a(!e to "om%! ment the r home?s e!e"tr " t' use rather than #a n 255> ut ! 1at on+ 8For e-am%!e* most s'stems are a%%! ed to %o,er the home dur n# the da'* ,h !e %u!! n# %o,er &rom the re# ona! (ase.!oad #r d at n #ht+; Th s 7 nd o& a%%roa"h that see7s to maximi%e locali%ed possibilities first* (e&ore resort n# to !ar#er s"a!e ener#' use* n a s'stem a%%roa"h* s the 7e' to %ra"t "a! ener#' a(undan"e* e&& " en"' and susta na( ! t'+ To understand the re!e$an"e o& th s more thorou#h!'* !et?s e-%and the e-am%!e o& househo!d so!ar arra' a%%! "at on to t %oss (!e theoret "a! %otent a!+ In 4522* the a$era#e annua! e!e"tr " t' "onsum%t on &or a U+S+ res dent a! ut ! t' 8househo!d; "ustomer ,as 22*4G5 7Wh+IG2 G $en 226*G55*555 househo!ds n 4525*IG4 th s means 24EH TWhM'r ,as used+ Tota! e!e"tr "a! ener#' "onsum%t on n 4524 &or the USA ,as D*GGI*655*555 MWhM'r+IGD Th s e)uates to D*GGI TWhM'r+ Th s means DD> o& a!! e!e"tr " "onsum%t on o""urred n %eo%!e?s homes* , th the $ast ma0or t' o& that ener#' "om n# &rom &oss ! &ue! %o,er stat ons+ I& a!! househo!ds n the Un ted States ,ere a(!e to %o,er themse!$es &or e!e"tr " t' us n# so!ar %ane!s a!one* !o"a! 1ed ener#' ut ! 1at on that s s m%!' ,asted at th s t me* the (ase.!oad stress redu"t on ,ou!d (e dramat "+ /ontrar' to %o%u!ar (e! e&* as o& 452D th s s a rea! %oss ( ! t' # $en the state o& so!ar "e!! e&& " en"' and stora#e te"hno!o#'+IG6 The %ro(!em s that the "urrent ener#' ndustr' s not %re%ared &or su"h e&& " en"' and "onsumer so!ar s'stems a$a !a(!e su&&er &rom h #h & nan" a! e-%ense as a resu!t o& ! m ted mass %rodu"t on* "om%et t on and a !a"7 so" a! n t at $e to &or,ard
IG2 Sour"e< e a+#o$ 8htt%<MM,,,+e a+#o$Mtoo!sM&a)sM&a)+"&mR dSEF@tSD; IG4 Sour"e< Total "umber of 9*S* >ouseholds

8htt%<MM,,,+stat st "(ra n+"omMu.s.househo!d.stat st "sM;

IGD Sour"e< +ist of countries by electricity consumption

8htt%<MMen+, 7 %ed a+or#M, 7 ML stVo&V"ountr esV('Ve!e"tr " t'V"onsum%t on; X htt%<MM,,,+so te"+"omMenMne,sM%ress.re!easesM,or!d.re"ord.so!ar."e!!. 2DFDM Y* , th "onsumer a$a !a(!e %rodu"ts a$era# n# on!' a(out 2G> X htt%<MMsroe"o+"omMso!arMmost.e&& " ent.so!ar.%ane!s Y* more ad$an"e methods are su##est n# u%,ards o& G5>+ X htt%<MM,,,+e-tremete"h+"omMe-tremeM2IGG22.ne,.nano.mater a!."ou!d. (oost.so!ar.%ane!.e&& " en"'.as.h #h.as.G5 Y L 7e, se* (atter' stora#e &or househo!d use has (een ad$an" n# $ a emer# n# graphene super capacitors X htt%<MM,,,+# 1ma#+"omM#ra%hene.(ased.su%er"a%a" torM4GHFEM Y ,h "h "an "har#e &aster* !ast man' t mes !on#er than "on$ent ona! (atter es and are !ess %o!!ut n# and ta7e u% !ess s%a"e+ Another ad$an" n# (atter' te"hno!o#' s termed the LM9* as de$e!o%ed (' Dona!d Sado,a' and MIT+ 454

IG6 Wh !e the "urrent state o& /AV so!ar e&& " en"'* as o& 452D s 66+F>

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

ad$an"ement+ It ,orth stat n# here that the & nan" a! s'stem and ts %r "e or ented me"han sms e- st as barriers to u( )u tous and o%t m 1ed househo!d so!ar de$e!o%ment n the (road $ e, 8a!on# e$er' other de$e!o% n# te"hno!o#' a&ter a "erta n %o nt o& %ro$en e&& "a"';+ Wh !e de&enders o& "a% ta! sm ar#ue that the %ro"ess o& n$estment.to. mar7et o& an n.demand #ood #enera!!' redu"es the "ost o& that #ood o$er t me* ma7 n# t more a$a !a(!e to those ,ho "ou!d not a&&ord t (e&ore* t s &or#otten that the ent re %ro"ess s a contrivance+ I& %r "e and %ro& t ,ere remo$ed &rom the s'stem* &o"us n# on!' on the te"hno!o#' and ts stat st "a! mer t* (oth at the "urrent t me and ts !on#er term e&& " en"' trends 8&uture m%ro$ements;* %ro%er resour"e a!!o"at on strate# es and resear"h "ou!d (e em%!o'ed to (r n# %rom s n# te"hno!o#' to the %o%u!at on mu"h more ra% d!'+ In the "ase o& so!ar arra's &or home %o,er #enerat on* # $en the n"red (!e "a%a" t' t has to a!!e$ ate (ase.!oad ener#' stress ,h "h ,ou!d* toda'* &urther redu"e em ss ons and &oss ! &ue! %o!!ut on* t s a $er' un&ortunate " r"umstan"e th s te"hno!o#' and ts a%%! "at on s su(0e"t to the ,h ms o& the mar7et+IGH I& ,e sur$e' the "ommer" a! e-%ense o& an a$era#e so!ar arra' as o& 452D* an a$era#e home us n# 22*4G5 7Wh a month ,ou!d re)u re a(out D5 %ane!s* , th a so!ar "e!! e&& " en"' o& a(out E. 2H> and a n #ht t me (atter' s'stem+ Th s ,ou!d "ost ,e!! o$er b45*555+IGI Su"h an e-%ense s una&&orda(!e &or the $ast ma0or t' o& the ,or!d* e$en thou#h the (as " mater a!s used n trad t ona! AV s'stems are s m%!e and a(undant* a!on# , th e$er. n"reas n# manu&a"tur n# ease+ L 7e, se* t s e)ua!!' as d sa%%o nt n# to not "e ho, modern home "onstru"t on has made ! tt!e to no use o& other (as "* !o"a! 1ed rene,a(!e methods that "an &urther &a" ! tate the rea! ,or!d "a%a" t' to (r n# a!! househo!ds 8not on!' n the USA (ut the n the ,or!d; to a %!a"e o& ener#' nde%enden"e+ Not n# the %o,er o& so!ar* other near!' un $ersa! a%%! "at ons

IGH It s ,orth ment on n# on"e a#a n that a!! (us ness esta(! shments

%er%etuate themse!$es most!' (' the mar7ets the' ha$e "reated prior* A ne, n$ent on that "an nter&ere , th the e- st n# n"ome n&rastru"ture o& a # $en (us ness s o&ten su(0e"t to n&!uen"es that s!o, or e$en su%%ress that n"ome nter&er n# te"hno!o#'+ Wh !e man' see th s 7 nd o& (eha$ or as a &orm o& K"orru%t on”* the truth o& the matter s that the $er' me"han sm o& (r n# n# a # $en #ood to the mar7et s su(0e"t to m%osed & nan" a! ! m tat ons ,h "h a"h e$e the same #oa!+ For e-am%!e* & the ne, #ood "annot (e "ons dered %ro& ta(!e dur n# the "ourse o& ts de$e!o%ment* re#ard!ess o& ts true mer t* t , !! (e h ndered+ The e-treme!' s!o, %a"e o& rene,a(!e ener# es on the ,ho!e* e$en thou#h the %r n" %!e o& most means has (een understood &or hundreds o& 'ears* s a d re"t resu!t o& monetar' n$estment or !a"7 thereo& and the more e&& " ent a te"hno!o#'* the !ess %ro& t , th (e rea! 1ed n the !on#.term+ IGI Sour"e< <ff$?rid System ost ?uide 8htt%<MM,,,+,ho!esa!eso!ar+"omMStartHereMOFFGRID9a!!%ar7/ost+htm!; 45D

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

a!so a%%!'+ Sma!! , nd har$est n# s'stemsIGF and #eotherma! heat n# and "oo! n# te"hno!o#'*IGG "om( ned , th ar"h te"tura! des #n ma7 n# (etter use o& natura! ! #ht and heatM"oo! %reser$at on e&& " en"'*IGE there s a s%e"trum o& des #n ad0ustments ,h "h "ou!d ma7e a%artments and houses not on!' se!&.su&& " ent* (ut more e"o!o# "a!!' susta na(!e+ /ou%! n# th s , th use.reuse des #ns &or ,ater %reser$at on* a!on# , th other a%%roa"hes to o%t m 1e ener#'Mresour"e e&& " en"'* t s "!ear that our "urrent methods are enormous!' ,aste&u! ,hen "om%ared to the %oss ( ! t es+ E-tend n# out,ards to " t' n&rastru"ture* ,e see the same &a !ures a!most e$er',here , th res%e"t to su"h a%%! ed s'stems+ For e-am%!e* an enormous amount o& ener#' s used n the %ro"ess o& trans%ortat on+ Wh !e the e!e"tr " $eh "!e has %ro$en $ a(!e &or &u!! #!o(a! use* e$en thou#h !o((' n# e&&orts and other mar7et ! m tat ons ha$e "ont nued to 7ee% ts a%%! "at on ,e!! (eh nd the #aso! ne %o,ered norm* man' s'stem.(ased methods a!so #o unharnessed+ A%art &rom a #enera! ne"ess t' to reor#an 1e ur(an en$ ronments to (e more "ondu" $e to "on$en ent mass trans t net,or7s* remo$ n# the need &or numerous autonomous $eh "!es* s m%!' re$harnessing the %o,ered mo$ements o& a!! trans%ort med ums "ou!d dramat "a!!' a!!e$ ate ener#' %ressures+ A te"hno!o#' "a!!ed pie%oelectric,IE5 ,h "h s a(!e to "on$ert %ressure and me"han "a! ener#' nto e!e"tr " t'* s an e-"e!!ent e-am%!e o& an ener#' reuse method , th #reat %otent a!+ E- st n# a%%! "at ons ha$e n"!uded %o,er #enerat on (' %eo%!e ,a!7 n# on % e1o en# neered &!oorsIE2 and s de,a!7s*IE4 streets ,h "h "an #enerate %o,er as automo( !es "ross o$er themIED and tra n ra ! s'stems ,h "h "an a!so "a%ture ener#' &rom %ass n# tra n "ars throu#h %ressure+IE6 Aeros%a"e en# neer Ha m A(ramo$ "h has stated that a stret"h o& road !ess than a m !e !on#* &our !anes , de* and tra&& "7ed (' a(out 2*555 $eh "!es %er hour "an "reate a(out 5+6 me#a,atts o& %o,er* enou#h to
IGF E-am%!e< Saving Energy in 7est Michigan >oneywell 7ind Turbine IGG Re&eren"e< ?eothermal >eat Pumps

8htt%<MM,,,+&ree%o,er, ndtur( nes+"omMhone',e!!V, ndVtur( ne+htm!; 8htt%<MMener#'+#o$Mener#'sa$erMart "!esM#eotherma!.heat.%um%s; X htt%<MMen+, 7 %ed a+or#M, 7 MAass $eVso!arV(u !d n#Vdes #n Y 8htt%<MM,,,+the&reed "t onar'+"omM% e1oe!e"tr ";

IGE A des #n a%%roa"h "a!!ed K%ass $e so!ar” s a #ood des #n e-am%!e+ IE5 Re&eren"e< the&reed "t onar'+"om

IE2 Re&eren"e< Energy$?enerating (loors to Power To#yo Subways IE4 Re&eren"e< Six Sidewal#s That 7or# 7hile 6ou 7al#

8htt%<MM nha( tat+"omMto7'o.su(,a'.stat ons.#et.% e1oe!e"tr ".&!oorsM;

8htt%<MM,,,+treehu##er+"omM"!ean.te"hno!o#'Ms -.s de,a!7s.that.,or7. ,h !e.'ou.,a!7+htm!; IED Re&eren"e< !srael >ighway E)uipped 7ith Pilot Pie%oelectric ?enerator System 8htt%<MM,,,+#reeno%t m st "+"omM455EM25M5IM srae!.% e1oe!e"tr ". h #h,a'MO+UmHNTmRD%E6; IE6 Re&eren"e< "ew Pie%oelectric 'ailways >arvest Energy (rom Passing Trains 8htt%<MM nha( tat+"omMne,.% e1oe!e"tr ".ra !,a's.har$est.ener#'.&rom. %ass n#.tra nsM; 456

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

%o,er I55 homes+IEH Other theoret "a! a%%! "at ons e-tend to %rett' mu"h an'th n# that en#a#es %ressure or a"t on* n"!ud n# m nor $ (rat ons+ For e-am%!e* there are %ro0e"ts ,or7 n# to harness the seem n#!' sma!!. s"a!e ener#' %rodu"t onU su"h as te-t n# on a "e!!%hone n a e&&ort to "har#e the %hone ,h !e the %hone s s m%!' (e n# tou"hed or mo$edUIEI IEF a%%! "at ons to har$est ener#' &rom a r&!o, &rom a r%!anesUIEG and e$en an e!e"tr " "ar that uses % e1o te"h* n %art* to "har#e tse!& as t tra$e!s+IEE I& ,e th n7 a(out the enormous me"han "a! ener#' ,asted (' $eh "!e trans%ort modes and h #h tra&& " ,a!7 n# "enters su"h as do,nto,n streets* the %otent a! o& that %oss (!e re#enerated ener#' s )u te su(stant a!+ It s th s t'%e o& systems thin#ing that s needed n order ma nta n susta na( ! t'* ,h !e a"t $e!' %ursu n# a #!o(a! ener#' a(undan"e+ 6B< 2aterial Production)Access Un! 7e the %r or three su(.se"t ons* ,h "h ha$e ta7en on!' e- st n#* esta(! shed methods nto "ons derat on , th res%e"t to human t'?s %otent a! to a"h e$e an a(undan"eF55 o& ea"h # $en &o"us* th s se"t on , !! ne"essar !' (e a%%roa"hed d &&erent!'+ The %ro(!em , th "reat n# a (as s &or an o$era!! material abundance e-tra%o!at on n a s m !ar manner* ta7 n# nto a""ount #enera! ra, mater a!s* s that the !e$e! o& ndustr a! re$ s on needed to em(ra"e the h #h de#ree o& e&& " en"' sou#ht* s rad "a!!' d &&erent &rom "urrent trad t ona! %ra"t "es+ In other ,ords* ,e "annot de& n t $e!' e-tra%o!ate n the same ,a'* us n# an e- st n#* s n#u!ar %ro"ess or #enre te"hno!o#' n order to dra, su"h a "on"!us on a(out the !e$e! o& %rodu"t $ t' %oss (!e on the ,ho!e+
IEH Re&eren"e< 9nder >ighway Pie%oelectric @?enerators8

ould Provide Power to Propel Electric ars 8htt%<MM,,,+#reen%ro%het+"omM4525M5EM% e1oe!e"tr ".#enerators.e!e"tr ". "arsM; IEI Re&eren"e< Pie%oelectric #inetic energy harvester for mobile phones 8htt%<MM,,,+ener#'har$est n#0ourna!+"omMart "!esM% e1oe!e"tr ".7 net ". ener#'.har$ester.&or.mo( !e.%hones.55554264+as%Rsess on dS2; IEF Re&eren"e< isco0s +aura !psen3 Smart grid success re)uires infotech, energy tech savvy 8htt%<MM,,,+smart%!anet+"omM(!o#Ms" en"e. s"o%eM"har#e.'our.%hone.('.t'% n#.on. tMGFEF; IEG Re&eren"e< >arvesting energy from vehicle air flow using pie%oelectrics 8htt%<MM,,,+# 1ma#+"omMharness n#.$eh "!e.a r.&!o,.ener#'M2D626M; IEE Re&eren"e< P$Eco Electric oncept Vehicle Powered by Pie%oelectricity 8htt%<MM%s %un7+"omM%.e"o.e!e"tr "."on"e%t.$eh "!e.%o,ered.('. % e1oe!e"tr " t'M; F55 As , !! (e e-%!a ned more so n th s se"t on* the a(undan"e state sou#ht has to do , th use.t me and a""ess* not outr #ht %ro%ert'+ An a""ess so" et' s $er' d &&erent &rom a %ro%ert ed one n man' %ro&ound ,a's* es%e" a!!' ,hen t "omes to susta na( ! t'* $a!ues and human (eha$ or tse!&+ Food* ener#' and ,ater a!read' assume an a""ess state s n"e su"h K tems” are %er sha(!e or %art o& an "ont nuum that se%arates t &rom %h's "a! K#ood” o,nersh % as ,e trad t ona!!' th n7 o& t+ 45H

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Th s s (e"ause the true a(undan"e.#enerat n# e&& " en"' me"han sm s to (e &ound n the !ar#e. s"a!e system orientation* ta7 n# nto a""ount the synergy %resent (et,een the susta na( ! t' !a,s nherent to the natura! ,or!d and the !e$e! o& e&& " en"' n"or%orated , th n the ent re so" eta! o%erat on+ For e-am%!e* toda' there are o$er one ( !! on automo( !es n the ,or!d+F52 From a narro, $ e,* the dea o& an Ka(undan"e” o& automo( !es ,ou!d %erha%s m%!'* (ased on the "urrent %ro%ert' or ented &rame,or7* that e$er' human (e n# on the %!anet shou!d then o,n a %r $ate automo( !e+ Aut (!unt!'* th s s the ,ron# %ers%e"t $e and an out#ro,th o& a non.s'ner#et " "ond t on n# ,h "h s "ommon to the mar7et s'stem?s re n&or"ement o& %ro%ert' as $a!ue0 From the stand%o nt o& e&& " en"' and susta na( ! t' t s e-treme!' ,aste&u! to em%!o' ?one automo( !e %er %erson? due to the &a"t that a %erson a"tua!!' on!' dr $es* on a$era#e* on!' a(out H> o& the t me+ Other, se* the automo( !e s ts n %ar7 n# !ots* dr $e,a's and the ! 7e+ In the " t' o& Los An#e!es* /a! &orn a a(out 2*EFF*G5D automo( !es are re%orted as n use as o& 455E+F54 In a(stra"t on* (ased on th s use.t me a$era#e o& H>* on!' EG*GE5 automo( !es ,ou!d a"tua!!' (e needed to meet the trans%ort t me needs o& the "urrent use demand* assum n# a shar n# s'stem+ In other ,ords* n %r n" %!e* on!' EG*GE5 automo( !es ,ou!d (e needed to meet the trans%ort needs o& 2*EFF*G5D %eo%!e+ Furthermore* &or the sa7e o& ar#ument* , th a!! other modes o& %u(! " trans%ort #nored and , th the ent re %o%u!at on o& Los An#e!es 8D+E m !! on %eo%!e;F5D need n# to (e mo( !e &or H> a month* on!' 2EH*555 automo( !es ,ou!d (e needed* n a(stra"t on* to meet the a$era#e use t me o& D+E m !! on %eo%!e+ L 7e, se* n the Un ted States n 455G* t ,as re"orded that 4DI+6 m !! on "onsumer $eh "!es ,ere (e n# used+ W th a U+S+ %o%u!at on o& D2D m !! on* us n# the H> use stat st " on"e a#a n* t ,ou!d ta7e 2H+I m !! on automo( !es to meet use demand+ That s an GD> de"rease n automo( !e out%ut to meet the needs o& all Amer "ans 8a D4+6> n"rease n use or a""ess (ased on tota! %o%u!at on;* n theor'+ O& "ourse* %!ease note that t s ,e!! a"7no,!ed#ed here that su"h an e-tra%o!at on s mere!' &or s%e"u!at on as o($ ous!' man' other "om%! "at n# &a"tors "ome nto %!a' n rea! ! &e that ,ou!d ad0ust th s e)uat on #reat!'+ The %o nt here s to # $e the reader a sense o& synergy* What shou!d (e %o nted out s the noted increase in efficiency* ,here su(stant a!!' &e,er automo( !es are needed to meet the trans%ort needs o& su(stant a!!' more %eo%!e* due to a s'stem.
F52 Sour"e< "umber <f

ars 7orldwide Surpasses , /illionL an The 7orld >andle This Many 7heelsD 8htt%<MM,,,+hu&& n#ton%ost+"aM4522M5GM4DM"ar. %o%u!at onVnVED64E2+htm!; F54 Sour"e< The / t' o& Los An#e!es Trans%ortat on Aro& !e 8htt%<MM,,,+#u+seMd # ta!AssetsM2D66M2D665F2V" t'.o&.!a.trans%ortat on. %ro& !e+%d&; F5D Sour"e< Un ted States /ensus 9ureau* 452D 8htt%<MM,,,+"ensus+#o$M; 45I

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

(ased* s'ner#et " reor entat on 8 n th s "ase* a "ar Kshar n#” s'stem;+ A#a n* th s s not to d sm ss the need &or m%ro$ed ur(an or %u(! " trans%ort* nor does t address the m%ortan"e o& an automo( !e?s des #n+F56 At the root o& th s ssue s rea!!' the su(0e"t o& Ktrans%ortat on” tse!&* the reasons ,h' %eo%!e need su"h mo( ! t'* and ho, the en$ ronment s des #ned to "ater &or 8or ('%ass; su"h needs+ Th s s an enormous* d'nam " su(0e"t to "ons der+ A!so* !et t (e stated u%&ront that no matter ,hat rea! or assumed e&& " en" es ma' e- st n rea! ! &e* the #oa! o& see7 n# %ost. s"ar" t'* as (oth a means to re! e$e human su&&er n# and as a method to ada%t to tru!' e&& " ent and hen"e susta na(!e %ra"t "es* is without debate as a critical point of focus for an expanding society* It "ou!d (e ,e!! ar#ued that on!' a %er$erse so" et' ,ou!d , !&u!!' "hoose to %erse$ere , th a s'stem that 7no, n#!' %reser$es s"ar" t' &or %ro& t and esta(! shment %reser$at on ,hen t s nte!!e"tua!!' "!ear that su"h a "ond t on s no !on#er needed and hen"e an' su"h re!ated human su&&er n# resu!t n# s a!so no !on#er needed+ As ar#ued %r or* the mar7et e"onom' s not 0ust a res%onse to a s"ar" t'.(ased ,or!d$ e,* t s a!so a preserver o& t+ The mar7et stru"tura!!' re)u res a h #h de#ree o& s"ar" t'* as an a(undan"e &o"used so" et' ,ou!d e$entua!!' mean !ess !a(or.&or. n"ome* !ess turno$er and !ess %ro& t on the ,ho!e+ I& so" et' ,o7e u% tomorro, to a ,or!d ,here H5> o& the human 0o( mar7et ,as automated and ,here a!! &ood* ener#' and (as " #oods "ou!d (e made a$a !a(!e , thout a %r "e ta# due to n"reased e&& " en"'* need!ess to sa' the 0o( mar7et and monetar' e"onom' as ,e 7no, t ,ou!d "o!!a%se+ 'alue Shift In order to th n7 %ro%er!' a(out the state o& our %rodu"t $e "a%a" t' to %rodu"e ! &e.su%%ort n# and standard o& ! $ n# m%ro$ n# #oods toda'* ,e need to & rst rat ona!!' se%arate human needs &rom human wants, , th the %r or t' o& meet n# needs & rst+ Wh !e th s d st n"t on ma' a%%ear ! 7e a "ontro$ers a! o% n on to man'* n a ,or!d ,here no, 6I> o& the tota! ,ea!th s o,ned (' 2> o& the %o%u!at onUF5H n a ,or!d ,here rou#h!' 2 ( !! on do not #et (as " nutr t onUF5I n a ,or!d ,here 2+2 ( !! on %eo%!e ! $e , thout "!ean
F56 Man' other n&!uen"es and out"omes "an ar se to the e&&e"t o& n"reas n#

e&& " en"' n su"h a "onte-t+ For e-am%!e* , th a(out 2+4 m !! on deaths o""urr n# annua!!' &rom automo( !e a"" dents* man' des #n n t at $es to ass st &uture sa&et' "ou!d dramat "a!!' a!ter that rea! t'+ The use o& sensor r ##ed* dr $er!ess "ars* ,h "h are no, a rea! t'* "ou!d end su"h deaths mmed ate!'+ G $en a(out H5 m !! on auto a"" dents ,or!d, de ea"h 'ear* the resu!t s not on!' sa$ed ! $es* (ut sa$ed med "a! e-%enses* nsuran"e "!a ms* !a,su ts* data entr'* resour"es* t me* the to ! o& stress and #r e& that resu!t &rom n0ur' or death* and a mass $e arra' o& other a!!e$ at ons+ F5H Sour"e< -M per cent global wealth owned by richest , per cent3 redit Suisse 8htt%<MM%ro& t+ndt$+"omMne,sMe"onom'Mart "!e.6I.%er."ent.#!o(a!. ,ea!th.o,ned.('.r "hest.2.%er."ent."red t.su sse.DIE25E; F5I Sour"e< 9*"*3 <ne billion worldwide face starvation 8htt%<MM,,,+"nn+"omM455EMWORLDMeuro%eM22M2HMun+hun#erM; 45F

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

dr n7 n# ,ater and 4+I ( !! on %eo%!e !a"7 ade)uate san tat onUF5F n a ,or!d ,here 255 m !! on %eo%!e do not ha$e she!terUF5G n a ,or!d ,here D ( !! on ! $e on !ess than b4+H5 a da'F5E and n a ,or!d ,here 2+4 ( !! on do not e$en ha$e e!e"tr " t'F25 . %erha%s our %r or t es as a #!o(a! " $ ! 1at on need to (e addressed , th res%e"t to the true ma ntenan"e o& ,hat ,e m #ht )uest ona(!' term K" $ ! 1at on”+ The truth s* th s %r or t' s not a mere %oet " #estureU t s a %u(! " hea!th re)u rement+F22 The %ro"ess o& our %h's "a! and %s'"ho!o# "a! e$o!ut on has "reated human needs+ Not meet n# these $ rtua!!' em% r "a! needs resu!ts n a desta( ! 1 n# s%e"trum o& %h's "a!* menta! and so" a! d sorders+ Human ,ants* on the other hand* are "u!tura! man &estat ons that ha$e under#one enormous* su(0e"t $e "han#e o$er t me* re$ea! n# someth n# o& an ar( trar' nature* n truth+ No,* th s sn?t to sa' neurot " atta"hments "an?t man &est nto ,ants* so mu"h so that the' start to ta7e the ro!e o& needs* emot ona!!'+ Ho,e$er* that s st !! most!' a "u!tura! "ond t on+ Sad!'* a#a n* the mar7et does not se%arate needs &rom ,ants n ts (as " %s'"ho!o#'* ,h "h s ,h' s"ar" t' ar#uments "an (e e-tended n& n te!' n de&ense o& ts e- sten"e and hen"e the %ro%osed need to ha$e a "om%et t $e* trade.(ased so" et'* no matter the de#ree o& a(undan"e that "an (e a"h e$ed+ Th s has ar#ua(!' "reated a t'%e o& neuros s* n &a"t* ,here %eo%!e assume ha$ n# K n& n te ,ants” and Kmore and more” s a $ rtue or e$en a dr $er o& human %ro#ress tse!&+ O& "ourse* K n& n te %oss ( ! t es” are "erta n!' a rea! t' n man' ,a's* as so" et' "annot %red "t ,hat te"hno!o#' , !! mater a! 1e man' 'ears do,n the ! ne as n&!uen"es "han#e and %re&eren"es "han#e+ Ho,e$er* n& n te %oss ( ! t' s a(out $u!nera( ! t' and "reat $ t'* ,h !e st !! (e n# strate# " and nte!! #ent a(out resour"e mana#ement and use+ Th s s not the same as n& n te ,ants* ,h "h sees the human (e n# as nsat a(!e and nd s"r m nate+ There&ore* %art o& th s value shift , !! (e Kundo n#” the so" o!o# "a! dama#e done (' the %s'"ho!o#' nherent to mar7et.(ased ! $ n#+ A re!at $e!' h #h standard o& ! $ n# "an (e made a$a !a(!e &or a!!
F5F Sour"e< 7ater

risis3 Towards a way to impove the situation 8htt%<MM,,,+,or!d,ater"oun" !+or#M! (rar'Mar"h $esM,ater."r s sM; F5G Sour"e< 4n estimated ,CC million people worldwide are homeless* Source3 9nited "ations ommission on >uman 'ights, BCCG* 8htt%<MM,,,+home!ess,or!d"u%+or#M"ontentMhome!essness.stat st "s; F5E Sour"e< auses of Poverty 8htt%<MM,,,+#!o(a! ssues+or#M ssueM4M"auses.o&. %o$ert'; F25 Sour"e< >ereRs why ,*B billion people still donRt have access to electricity 8htt%<MM,,,+,ash n#ton%ost+"omM(!o#sM,on7(!o#M,%M452DM5HM4EMheres. ,h'.2.4.( !! on.%eo%!e.st !!.dont.ha$e.a""ess.to.e!e"tr " t'M; F22 So" a! sta( ! t' s d re"t!' "orre!ated to %u(! " hea!th+ For e-am%!e* so" a! ne)ua! t' "an* as t o&ten does* man &est as $ o!ent (eha$ or* " $ ! %rotest and e$en ,ar* 0ust as %oor san tat on and %o$ert' str "7en areas "an (r n# d sease that "ou!d s%read to areas ,h "h do ha$e #ood san tat on* 'et "ause n&e"t on 8%erha%s e$en an e% dem ";+ Eas n# e"onom " stress and m%ro$ n# %u(! " hea!th s a #!o(a! m%erat $e &or true sa&et'+ 45G

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

human (e n#s assum n#* n %art* a (as "* res%ons (!e $a!ue sh &t a,a' &rom our trou(! n# %atterns o& ,aste&u!* &r $o!ous a")u s t on+ It s m%ortant to restate that the mater a! sm ,e endure as a so" et' toda' s a d re"t res%onse to the e"onom " need to 7ee% mone' circulating as mu"h as %oss (!e+ The ro!e o& (us ness as ,e 7no, t s e ther to ser$ "e %eo%!e?s e- st n# ,antsMneeds or to n$ent them n the ho%e %eo%!e , !! "on&orm (' sho, n# ne, demand+ A ne, K, d#et” %ut &or,ard (' the mar7et s on!' as $ a(!e as the nterest o& others to %ur"hase t and the use o& ad$ert s n# and mar7et n# has (een $er' n&!uent a! n creating a "u!ture ,h "h sees o,nersh % and a")u s t on as a s #n o& so" a! status+F24 Th s d re"t!' ass sts the need to 7ee% h #h !e$e!s o& "onsumer sm n %!a' as GDA and em%!o'ment are d re"t!' re!ated to th s %ressure+ A#a n* the !ess nterest there s to "onsume* the !ess e"onom " #ro,th and hen"e !ess demand &or 0o(s+ Th s s!o,s the e- st n# state o& a mar7et e"onom' and "reates a s'stem " !oss o& ,e!!(e n# &or man'+ It "an (e ,e!!.ar#ued that a "u!ture ,h "h has de" ded that a")u s t on and e-%ans on s the %ath o& %ro#ressMsu""ess* %romot n# "onstant "onsum%t on and seem n#!' n& n te Ke"onom " #ro,th”* s #o n# to e$entua!!' h t the ! m ts o& susta na( ! t' on a & n te %!anet+F2D In "!ear terms* th s trend s one o& disorder* So" a! su""ess and %ro#ress "an on!' mean* n %art* & nd n# balance , th the ha( tat and the other human (e n#s ,ho share the ha( tat+ Sad!'* the mar7et s'stem?s ent re %rem se "ontrad "ts th s susta na(!e $a!ue* as the me"han sm o& e"onom " un&o!d n# does not re,ard "onser$at on and the redu"t on o& "onsum%t on n a d re"t sense+ Aut another ,a'* the mar#et is a scarcity$based structural approach that paradoxically see#s increased levels of consumption to operate @efficiently8* So* an ana!'s s o& our mater a! "a%a" t' to (r n# "ommon #oods nto a K%ost.s"ar" t'” a(undan"e to e-"eed the needs o& a!! humans on Earth "annot (e d s"ussed , thout a!so understand n# ne"essar'* susta na( ! t' or ented re$ s ons ,h "h , !! su(stant a!!' redu"e our resour"e.use &oot%r nt at the same t me+ In short* the ne, ndustr a! des #n a%%roa"h s to deliberately increase the performance, per unit, of how we use our resources* see7 n# to a!,a's mo$e a!on# the route o& do n# Kmore , th !ess”+ W th n th s !o# "* as noted* a ser es o& K%ressure” a!!e$ at ons to,ard n"reased susta na( ! t' and %rodu"t on s m%! & "at onMe&& " en"' ,ou!d o""ur+

F24 See the essa' Value System =isorder* F2D Sour"e< <ngoing global biodiversity loss and the need to move beyond

protected areas3 a review of the technical and practical shortcomings of protected areas on land and sea 8htt%<MM,,,+ nt. res+"omMart "!esMthemeMm6D6%4H2+%d&; 45E

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Efficienc+ Am,lifiers We , !! "a!! these Ke&& " en"' am%! & ers” and the &o!!o, n# ! st %resents e-am%!es o& needed stru"tura! e"onom " and so" a! "han#es ,h "h ass st th s o%t m 1ed e&& " en"'+ 2; The %ressure &or em%!o'ment &or n"ome or Kearn n# a ! $ n#” s remo$ed+ In the mar7et mode!* e$er'one s stru"tura!!' "oer"ed to en#a#e some &orm o& trade &or sur$ $a!* ,hether t s trad n# !a(or &or a ,a#e or "reat n# a %rodu"t to d str (ute &or %ro& t+F26 Th s o$era!! %ressure* ,h !e o&ten touted as an n"ent $e me"han sm &or so" a! K%ro#ress”* a"tua!!' redu"es o$era!! efficiency #reat!'* as t does "reat $ t' and nno$at on as ,e!!+ Th s "reates a s%e"trum o& resour"e and t me ,aste s n"e the nterest n n"ome #enerat on and the %ressure to %rodu"e s o&ten a(sent e- st n# demand+ The ntent and need to do Ksometh n#” to #a n n"ome &or sur$ $a! %ers sts re#ard!ess o& our modern rea! t' that so" et' may not need e$er'one to %art " %ate n the e"onom " %ro"ess+ In a NLR9E* the dea o& e$er'one (e n# re)u red to %rodu"e or se!! someth n# s $ e,ed as "ounter%rodu"t $e # $en the trends o& e%hemera! 1at on and the ne"ess t' o& no, or ent n# so" et' to,ard susta na( ! t'+ 4; Arodu"t on tar#et n# so" a! "!asses s remo$ed+ So" a! strat & "at on* ,h "h s a natura! "onse)uen"e o& mar7et "a% ta! sm* "reates the need to %rodu"e a s%e"trum o& )ua! t es &or a # $en #ood #enre+F2H Th s s%e"trum s not (ased on ut ! t' or ha$ n# $ar at on o& a #ood as %er the %ersona! needsM nterests o& nd $ dua!s+ Rather* ea"h )ua! t' standard s ntended to (e %ur"hased (' 8or made Ka&&orda(!e” to; a # $en n"ome "!ass+ Th s "reates %oor )ua! t' #oods to meet a&&orda( ! t' re)u rements o& !o,er n"ome "onsumers and hen"e #enerates unne"essar' ,aste+ In th s ne, strate# "a!!' susta na(!e mode!* no #ood s "reated to (e K"hea%” (' re!at $e standards s m%!' (e"ause t & ts !o,er "!ass demo#ra%h " (u' n# %atterns+ In a NLR9E* there s no !o,er "!ass demo#ra%h "+
F26 The on!' t,o e-"e%t ons to th s are e ther to #o ! $e outs de o& the

" $ ! 1at on tse!& ,h "h* due to %ro%ert' !a,s* s essent a!!' m%oss (!e* or to o(ta n enou#h ,ea!th to (e# n , th $ a the mar7et or nher tan"e ,here there s no need &or &urther trade &or sur$ $a!+ The !atter* o& "ourse* s not o%en to a!! n a mar7et e"onom' o& an' 7 nd+ F2H A!! #oods "reated assume a "!ass re!at onsh %+ The s%e"trum "ou!d ran#e &rom the t'%e o& e-treme %oor %rodu"t on &ound at a KEE /ent” store ,here one "ou!d %ur"hase a %!ast " ,at"h ,h "h has ! tt!e nte#r t'* $s an e-treme !u-ur' tem ,h "h "an on!' (e a&&orded (' the most ,ea!th' n the ,or!d+ Thorste n Ve(!en ns% red the term KVe(!en Good” due to h s o(ser$at on o& %rest #e #enerated &rom e-treme!' h #h %r "ed #oods* ,h "h trans"end ut ! t'+ htt%<MM,,,+ n$esto%ed a+"omMtermsM$M$e(!en.#ood+as% 425

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

D; Ine&& " en"' nherent to the "om%et t $e %ra"t "e s remo$ed+ /om%et t on (et,een (us nesses %rodu"es &our (as " &orms o& unne"essar' ne&& " en"' and hen"e resu!t n# ,aste< 8a; Aro%r etar' n"om%at ( ! t' o& re!ated #oods "om%onents 8!a"7 o& standard 1at on; 8(; Waste&u! mu!t %! " t' o& #oods (' "om%et n# (us nesses o& the same #enre 8"; In"ent $ 1ed #ood ,ea7ness to en"oura#e turno$er 8%!anned o(so!es"en"e; 8d; Inherent #ood ,ea7ness due to see7 n# "ost e&& " en"' 8 ntr ns " o(so!es"en"e; W th res%e"t to 8a;* n a susta na(!e e"onom' there ,ou!d e- st a un $ersa! standard 1at on o& a!! re!ated #enre "om%onents ,here$er %oss (!e+ In 2G52* a man named E! Wh tne' ,as %erha%s the & rst to a%%!' standard 1at on n an m%a"t n# ,a'+ He %rodu"ed mus7ets* and dur n# h s t me there ,as no ,a' to nter"han#e the %arts o& d &&erent mus7ets* e$en thou#h the' ,ere the same o$era!! des #n+ I& a mus7et %art (ro7e* the ,ho!e #un ,as use!ess+ Wh tne' de$e!o%ed too!s to do th s and a&ter 2G52* a!! %arts ,ere &u!! nter"han#ea(!e+ Wh !e most ,ou!d assume th s "ommon sense dea to (e %ro! & " a"ross the #!o(a! ndustr a! "ommun t' toda'* the %er%etuat on o& %ro%r etar' "om%onents (' "om%an es that ,ant the "onsumer to re.%ur"hase an' su"h needed "om%onent &rom them d re"t!'* #nor n# the %oss ( ! t' o& "om%at ( ! t' , th other %rodu"ers* "reates not on!' #reat ,aste (ut a!so #reat n"on$en en"e+ S m !ar!'* , th res%e"t to 8(;* a ,aste&u! mu!t %! " t' o& #enre #oods (' "om%et n# (us nesses s #enerated at a!! t mes n the "urrent mode!+ Wh !e !ess o($ ous to man'* the #enera! "om%et t $e nature o& the mar7et 7ee%s ne, deas n$ s (!e &rom "om%et tors dur n# de$e!o%ment+ Then* a #ood s %rodu"ed &or %ur"hase that ! 7e!' has some o$era!! m%ro$ement o& a # $en &eature+ On"e that &eature s on the mar7et* t s then a"7no,!ed#ed and assessed (' "om%et n# (us nesses and the ra"e to "ont nue m%ro$ement mo$es &or,ard* (a"7 and &orth+ Wh !e man' ar#ue th s K"reat $e ,ar&are” s a dr $ n# &or"e o& de$e!o%mentM nno$at on o& a # $en %rodu"t or %ur%ose* the ne#at $e and unne"essar' "onse)uen"e s the ra% d* ,aste&u! %h's "a! o(so!es"en"e nherent to ea"h K"'"!e” o& out%ut+ In other ,ords* & a nota(!e "e!! %hone &eature m%ro$ement s o(ta ned (' one "om%an'* on the hee!s o& a ma0or re!ease (' another "om%an' that has a!read' started mass %rodu"t on o& the r %hone $ers on , thout th s u%#rade* an mmed ate state o& o(so!es"en"e s %rodu"ed* resu!t n# n !ess o%t m 1ed %rodu"ts* ,h "h "ou!d ha$e (een a$o ded & the %rodu"ers had (een ,or7 n# to#ether* as an ndustr a! ,ho!e* rather than h d n# %ro#ress and "om%et n#+
422

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Wh !e t ma' (e ar#ued a!so that t s on!' throu#h %r "e and the %atterns o& "onsumer nterest that the 7no, n# o& ,hat s n Kdemand” or not "an (e o(ta ned* the truth o& the matter s that "ommun "at on "ou!d (e made more read !' (et,een the des #n me"han sm and the "onsum n# %u(! " as ,e!!+F2I Th s ('%asses the K%r "e.demand” a""e%tan"eMre0e"t on te"hn )ue that s a!so ,aste&u! as ,e!! s n"e t re)u res %rodu"t on to o""ur* n man' "ases* before the a"tua! demand s &u!!' understood+ As a & na! %o nt* a #!o(a!!' nter! n7ed* shared data* non. "om%et t $e or ented des #nM%rodu"t on s'stem ,ou!d a!so &urther &a" ! tate the a( ! t' to &oreshado, "om%onent &eature m%ro$ement o$er t me+ Th s means ndustr' ,ou!d (e a(!e to understand ,hat "han#es are "om n# (ased on %ro#ress $e trends and des #n more e&& " ent!'* n ant " %at on o& those !oom n# "han#es+ Re#ard n# 8";* or ,hat has (een termed K%!anned o(so!es"en"e”* the nterest to see %rodu"ts &a ! or (e !ess o%t m 1ed to mot $ate re%eat %ur"hases o& the same (as " #ood ,ou!d no !on#er (e n"ent $ 1ed+ The %ra"t "e o& de! (erate!' des #ned o(so!es"en"e has (een a h dden %art o& the ndustr a! a%%roa"h s n"e the m d.45th /entur' ,hen nterest n "reat n# e"onom " #ro,th ,as h #h+F2F In a NLR9E* th s nterest s remo$ed as there s no mar7et n"ent $e to %ursue re%eat %ur"hases and there&ore more o%t m 1ed e&& " en"'* dura( ! t' and susta na( ! t' strate# es "an (e a%%! ed+ Re#ard n# 8d; or K ntr ns " o(so!es"en"e” as t s termed here* a!! "om%et t on &or mar7et share see7s to redu"e n%ut "osts to ,hate$er de#ree %oss (!e n order to rema n a&&orda(!e n the mar7et%!a"e and hen"e %ersuade the "onsum n# %u(! " to %ur"hase one $ers on or K(rand” o& one #ood o$er another+ Th s has (een #estured n Amer "an mar7et n# "u!ture as K%rodu" n# the (est %oss (!e #oods at the !o,est %oss (!e %r "es+” Th s nherent ne&& " en"' o& see7 n# to redu"e "osts "reates* as a s'stem " resu!t* !ess e&& " ent #oods mmed ate!' u%on %rodu"t on* n the te"hn "a! sense+ /utt n# "orners n des #n and %rodu"t on &or the sa7e o& %reser$ n# mone' m #ht (e "ons dered Ke"onom "a!!' e&& " ent” n a mar#et context (ut t s "!ear!' e"onom "a!!' ne&& " ent n the rea! ,or!d 8physical context; as t "reates unne"essar' ,aste o$er t me+ Th s s not to sa' that there are no ! m ts to %rodu"t on o%t m 1at on # $en the &a"t that true des #n "an on!' (e ta7en on the ,ho!e* , th res%e"t to the state o& resour"es at an' # $en t me and asso" ated ! m tat ons+ Th s s to sa' that the use o& mere %ro& t.or ented K"ost e&& " en"'” to ! m t %rodu"t )ua! t' s a ,ho!!' uns" ent & " means &or su"h de" s on.ma7 n#+

F2I Th s , !! (e d s"ussed n the essa' The !ndustrial ?overnment F2F Re&eren"e< Ending the =epression Through Planned <bsolescence, 9ernard

London* 2ED4

424

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

6; Aro%ert' re!at onsh %s that "reate use. so!at on are remo$ed n &a$or o& shared a""ess+ As e-%ressed n the %r or e-am%!e re#ard n# automo( !es and the r use.t me* n a NLR9E the %ro%ert' s'stem s re%!a"ed (' an a""ess s'stem ,h "h "reates a more &!u d means o& shared use #oods ,h "h are not needed at a!! t mes (' a s n#!e %erson+ /ommon e-am%!es ,ou!d (e $a"at on dom " !e use* trans%ort* seasona! e)u %ment* too!s* %rodu"t on e)u %ment and the ! 7e+ As an as de* a%art &rom a #enera! o$era!! redu"t on o& %rodu"t on %er use t me %er %erson* th s "an ass st !ar#er &orms o& e&& " en"' as &ar as "on$en en"e as ,e!!+ We "an ma# ne a r%ort or tra n tra$e!* &or e-am%!e* (e n# redes #ned to ass st a""ess to $ar ous #oods !o"a!!'* so mu"h so that the dea o& K%a"7 n#” a su t"ase ,as no !on#er needed+ Th s seem n#!' m nor "han#e a!one ,ou!d %os t $e!' m%a"t )ueu n#* as ,e!! as stora#e n trans t* !u##a#e %ro"ess n# ma"h ner'* et"+ The chain of alleviation s a"tua!!' )u te e-tens $e ,hen # $en deta !ed thou#ht+ /!othes* "ommun "at on too!s* re"reat ona! tems and the ! 7e "ou!d a!! (e made a$a !a(!e at the dest nat on a r%ort or s m !ar &a" ! t' u%on arr $a!+ Wh !e th s s &ore #n to man' as an dea* es%e" a!!' # $en the K%ersona! 1ed” or ented nature o& our "u!ture* the str &e redu"ed n no !on#er ha$ n# to "arr' !ar#e (a#s and the ! 7e "ou!d %ersuade those modern $a!ues* # $en the n"reased ease+ E ther ,a'* t "omes do,n to %ersona! "ho "e+ In a(stra"t on* a %erson "ou!d ! tera!!' ! $e , thout need n# to mo$e %ro%ert' around at a!!* mo$ n# around the ,or!d at , !!* , thout %ro%ert'.or ented n"on$en en"e+ A#a n* &a" ! tat n# a means o& a""ess* ,here th n#s "an (e shared* , !! a!!o, man' more to #a n use o& #oods the' other, se ,ou!d not n the "urrent mode!* a!on# , th !ess (e n# %rodu"ed n %ro%ort on+ A NLR9E see7s to "reate a""ess a(undan"e* not a %ro%ert' a(undan"e+ It s a!so m%ortant to note that %ro%ert' s not an em% r "a! "on"e%t* on!' a""ess s+ Aro%ert' s a %rote"t on st "ontr $an"e+ A""ess s the rea! t' o& the humanMso" a! "ond t on+ In order &or one to tru!' Ko,n”* sa'* a "om%uter* one ,ou!d ha$e had to %ersona!!' "ome u% , th te"hno!o# "a! deas that made t ,or7* a!on# , th the deas that "om%r se the too!s o& ts %rodu"t on+ Th s s ! tera!!' m%oss (!e+ There s no su"h th n# as em% r "a! %ro%ert' n rea! t'+ There s on!' a""ess and shar n#* no matter ,hat so" a! s'stem s em%!o'ed+ H; Des #n.(ased re"'"! n# s mandated and n"ent $ 1ed* ma- m 1 n# resour"e reuse+ /ontrar' to our ntu t on* there s no su"h th n# as ,aste n the natura! ,or!d+ Human t' has # $en $er' ! tt!e "ons derat on to the ro!e o& mater a! re#enerat on and ho, a!! o& our des #n %ra"t "es must a""ount &or th s+

42D

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

As an as de* the h #hest state o& th s re"'"! n# , !! e$entua!!' "ome n the &orm o& nanote"hno!o#'+ Nanote"hno!o#' , !! e$entua!!' &a" ! tate the a( ! t' to "reate #oods &rom the atom " !e$e! u% and d sassem(!e #oods (a"7 nto ra, atoms+ O& "ourse* ,h !e th s a%%roa"h a%%ears to (e on %a"e &or the &uture* t s not su##ested that su"h nanote"hno!o#' s e$en needed at th s t me &or us to (e su""ess&u!!' re#enerat $e or a(undant+ Toda'* ndustr a! re"'"! n# s more o& an a&terthou#ht than a &o"us+ /om%an es "ont nue to do th n#s su"h as (! nd!' "oat mater a!s , th "erta n "hem "a!s that a"tua!!' d stort the %ro%ert es o& that mater a!* ma7 n# the mater a! !ess sa!$a#ea(!e (' "urrent re"'"! n# methods+ O$era!!* strate# " re"'"! n# s a "ore seed o& ma nta n n# a(undan"e+ E$er' !and& !! on Earth s 0ust a ,aste o& %otent a!+ The !a, o& "onser$at on o& mass states that &or an' s'stem "!osed to a!! trans&ers o& matter and ener#'* the mass o& the s'stem must rema n "onstant o$er t me* as s'stem mass "annot "han#e )uant t' & t s not added or remo$ed+ The )uant t' o& mass s T"onser$edT o$er t me+ Th s natura! !a, m%! es that mass "an ne ther (e "reated nor destro'ed+ Human so" et'?s use o& resour"es s %erha%s (est thou#ht o& as a %ro"ess o& nte!! #ent rearran#ement* rather than o& Kus n#” and Td s"ard n#T+ I; Mater a! use %er a # $en %rodu"t on out%ut s strate# "a!!' "a!"u!ated to assure us n# the most conducive @ abundant mater a!s 7no,n+ As , !! (e e-%ressed more so n the essa' KThe Industr a! Go$ernment”* a ne, mode! o& e$a!uat on s "reated ,h "h or ents mater a!s (ased on "erta n e&& " en"' %arameters+ T,o "r t "a! ones are mater a! K"ondu" $eness” and a mater a!?s o$era!! state o& Ka(undan"e”+ /ondu" $eness re!ates to ho, a%%ro%r ate the %ro%osed use s* (ased on the mater a!?s %ro%ert es+ A(undan"e re&ers to ho, mu"h o& t s a$a !a(!e and hen"e ts state o& s"ar" t'+ Aut to#ether* 'ou ,e #h the $a!ue o& "ondu" $eness a#a nst the $a!ue o& ho, a""ess (!e and !o, m%a"t the mater a! s* as "om%ared to other mater a!s that ma' (e more or !ess "ondu" $e and more or !ess a(undant+ In other ,ords* t s a s'ner# st " e&& " en"' "om%ar son that ma7es sure the mater a!s used are o%t m 1ed &or the %ur%ose+ Aro(a(!' the (est e-am%!e o& th s s home or dom " !e "onstru"t on+ The "ommon use o& ,ood* (r "7* s"re,s* and the $ast arra' o& %arts t'% "a! o& a "ommon house* s "om%arat $e!' ne&& " ent to more modern* s m%! & ed* a(undant %re&a(r "at on or mo!ded.a(!e mater a!s+ A trad t ona! 4555 s)uare &oot home s re%orted to re)u re a(out 65 to H5 trees+ /om%are that , th houses that "an no, (e "reated n %re&a(r "at on %ro"esses* ! 7e mo!d e-trus on* , th s m%!e* Earth.&r end!' %o!'mers* "on"rete and other eas !' &orma(!e and mo$a(!e methods+ Su"h ne, a%%roa"hes ha$e a $er' sma!! &oot%r nt* as "om%ared to our destru"t on o& #!o(a! &orests &or ,ood+ Home "onstru"t on toda' s one o& the most resour"e ntens $e and ,aste&u!
426

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

ndustr a! med ums n the ,or!d toda' and t doesn?t need to (e that ,a'+ F; Des #n "ondu" $eness &or !a(or automat on+ The more ,e "on&orm to the "urrent state o& ra% d* e&& " ent %rodu"t on %ro"esses* the more a(undan"e ,e "an "reate+ Most manu&a"tur n# a%%roa"hes t'% "a!!' d $ de !a(or nto three "ate#or es< human assem(!'* me"han 1at on and automat on+ Human assem(!' means hand. made+ Me"han 1at on means us n# ma"h nes to ass st the human ,or7er+ Automat on means no human ntera"t on n the %ro"ess+ Ima# ne & 'ou needed a "ha r and there ,ere three des #ns+ The & rst s e!a(orate and "om%!e- and "ou!d on!' (e done (' hand at that t me+ The se"ond s more stream! ned ,here ts %arts "ou!d (e made most!' (' ma"h nes* (ut ,ou!d need to (e assem(!ed (' hand n the end+ The th rd s a "ha r that s %rodu"ed (' one ma"h ne %ro"ess* &u!!' automated+ Th s !atter "ha r des #n t'%e ,ou!d (e the des #n #oa! n th s ne, a%%roa"h+ What th s ,ou!d do s redu"e the $ar et' o& automat on ma"h ne "on& #urat ons needed+ Ima# ne* & 'ou , !!* a ro(ot ".(ased %ro"ess n# %!ant that "an not on!' %rodu"e "ars* t "an %rodu"e $ rtua!!' an' 7 nd o& ndustr a! ma"h neM#ood "om%r sed o& the same (as " set o& ra, mater a!s+ Th s ,ou!d n"rease out%ut su(stant a!!'+ An eas' ,a' to understand th s trend o& s m%! & "at on s to "ons der the %o,er o& d # ta! so&t,are and ho, one % e"e o& hard,are 8 +e+ "om%uter; "an no, ser$e an enormous num(er o& %ro#ramma(!e ro!es+ Th s Kdemater a! 1at on”* as t "ou!d (e termed* s (est e-em%! & ed (' the modern "e!! %hone+ Due to the $ast %ro#ram a%%! "at ons no, a$a !a(!e &or su"h Ksmart %hones”* &rom med "a! measurements to &u!! mus "a! s'nthes 1ers* the &un"t ona! t' o& these sma!!* handhe!d "om%uters "an no, ta7e on a!most "ount!ess ro!es+ Su"h ro!es !on# a#o* (e&ore the d # ta! a#e* ,ou!d ha$e usua!!' re)u red one hard,are "on& #urat on &or ea"h tas7+ Toda'* an' (as " o%erat n# s'stem "an run a dramat "a!!' !ar#e num(er o& %ro#rammed &un"t ons* a!! "onta ned n a sma!! de$ "e+ Th s !o# " a%%! es to the nature o& %h's "a! ma"h ne %rodu"t on as ,e!! as t s s m%!' a matter o& t me (e&ore the a"t o& %rodu" n# a $ast arra' o& #oods "an (e a""om%! shed (' sma!!* modu!ar me"han "a! s'stems* 0ust ! 7e a d # ta! o%erat n# s'stem "an "ondu"t a!most "ount!ess %ro#rammed &un"t ons+ G; Ser$ "ea(!e %ro(!ems resu!t n# &rom the %r or* ne&& " ent e"onom " %ro"ess are redu"ed & not e! m nated+ Th s dea s o&ten d && "u!t to &u!!' "om%rehend* as the "ha n o& "ausa! t' resu!t n# &rom one #enera! ne&& " en"' "an (e $ast and "om%!e-+ For e-am%!e* the reso!ut on o& ,ater s"ar" t' a!one has enormous %re$entat $e %otent a! &or d sease+ The amount o& !a(or and resour"es on"e used &or treat n# those then reso!$ed d seases "an & nd other ro!es+ Ener#' a(undan"e has the same rea! t' s n"e ener#' s the
42H

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

dr $er o& a!! human a"t $ t'+ A "!ean* re! a(!e* rene,a(!e state o& a(so!ute ener#' a(undan"e ,ou!d ha$e enormous e&&e"ts on the %rodu"t on and a(undan"e "a%a" t' o& th s &uture so" et'+ L 7e, se* the %ursu t o& meet n# human needs and the remo$a! o& K!a(or.&or. n"ome” o""u%at ons* ,h "h o&ten ha$e no rea! te"hn "a! &un"t on* ,ou!d set n mot on a ne, edu"at ona! %oss ( ! t'* re n&or"ed (' an n"ent $e to %ursue %ersona! nterests and hen"e the &reedom not to &ee! %ressured a,a' &rom & e!ds o& nterest s n"e sur$ $a! and ,e!!.(e n# are a!read' ta7en "are o& (' the so" a! mode! tse!&+ It s hard to ma# ne the e-%!os on o& "reat $ t' %oss (!e ,hen th s %ressure s remo$ed and so" et' s set &ree to th n7 "!ear!'+ E; In$ #orat n# the K#rou% m nd”* mean n# human "onne"t on and the shar n# o& deas* , !! (r n# e$er.a""e!erat n# %ro#ress+ S m !ar to the %r or %o nt* the Internet has (e"ome a %o,er&u! too! &or resear"h and dea e-%ans on+ Wh !e Ko%en.sour"e” resear"h and de$e!o%ment #ets a &a r amount o& attent on toda'* the a( ! t' to harness the "ommun "at $e %o,er o& the nternet to "reate a #!o(a! d a!o#ue a(out an' # $en te"hno!o#' or dea , !! &a" ! tate a t'%e o& ntera"t $e de$e!o%ment ne$er (e&ore seen* on"e &o"used+ The !ame Changers The d s"uss on o& ad$an"ed te"hno!o# es ,h "h "an dramat "a!!' trans&orm the un&o!d n# o& the &uture and ass st the %ursu t o& %ost. s"ar" t' ha$e not (een a &o"us o& th s essa' as t (e"omes too eas' to s m%!' assume the rea! t' o& the s%e"u!at ons+ A #reat num(er o& K&utur sts” ha$e done 0ust th s , th m -ed resu!ts and o&ten t mes t !ea$es the aud en"e , th !oom n#* %remature e-%e"tat ons* ,a t n# around &or th s or that ne, te"hno!o#' to & na!!' %ro#ress+ Ho,e$er* to d sm ss these %otent a!s s e)ua!!' as hast'+ The truth o& the matter s that our "a%a" t' to a""e!erate su"h "han#e "omes do,n to our &o"us+ 3ust as the Manhattan Aro0e"t ,as a(!e to (r n# "ount!ess s" ent sts to#ether &or a s n#!e out%ut #oa! 8as $ o!ent as t ma' ha$e (een to (u !d the atom (om(;* the dea o& #!o(a! net,or7 %ro0e"ts to ra% d!' a""e!erate ne, te"hn "a! %oss ( ! t es s mere!' a matter o& "ho "e+ We "an on!' ma# ne the %ro#ress o& an' # $en %ro0e"t & enou#h m nds "ame to#ether to %ursue t at on"e* n an or#an 1ed ,a'+ Th s Ko%en.sour"e” ,or!d a%%roa"h a!one , !! ! 7e!' ha$e ! m t!ess %oss ( ! t es+ L 7e, se* there s no shorta#e o& trans&ormat ona! or Kd sru%t $e” te"hno!o# es on the hor 1on that "ou!d rad "a!!' a!ter the ndustr a! !ands"a%e+ Art & " a! nte!! #en"e* ro(ot "s* ( ote"hno!o#'* DD %r nt n#* n& n te "om%ut n# and nanote"hno!o#' are 0ust a &e,+ Ea"h o& these de$e!o% n# med ums has $ast m%! "at ons &or e&& " en"' n"reases+ It s $er' d && "u!t to 7no, e-a"t!' ho, the' , !! un&o!d or* more m%ortant!'* ho, the' , !! & nd s'ner#'* (ut ,e do 7no, the trends o& de$e!o%ment are n"reas n# e-%onent a!!' n most "ases+
42I

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

For e-am%!e* a &us on o& DD %r nt n#* nanote"hno!o#'* AI and ro(ot "s , !! &ore$er a!ter the state o& manu&a"tur n#* so mu"h so that a %erson "ou!d %erha%s ha$e a #ara#e s 1e manu&a"tur n# s'stem n the r home to %rodu"e $ rtua!!' an'th n# the' ma' need+ A#a n* ,h !e su"h &utur st " and seem n#!' Ks" en"e.& "t on” s%e"u!at ons are unneeded to 0ust &' our modern* tan# (!e "a%a" t' to "reate a(undan"e* these ne, and emer# n# med ums shou!d not (e o$er!oo7ed as the' are set to ha$e a #reat m%a"t* & em(ra"ed %ro%er!'+F2G In the 2Eth "entur'* a!um num ,as more $a!ua(!e than #o!d* e$en thou#h t s te"hn "a!!' one o& the most a(undant e!ements n the ,or!d+ Ho,e$er* (e&ore the d s"o$er' o& e!e"tro!'s s* t ,as e-treme!' d && "u!t to e-tra"t+ On"e th s te"hn "a! %ro"ess ,as d s"o$ered* a!most o$ern #ht the s"ar" t' o& the mater a! %!ummeted+ Toda'* ,e tend to use a!um num , th a thro,a,a' m ndset+ Su"h dramat " h stor "a! "han#es are m%ortant to 7ee% n m nd as the same 7 nd o& ad$an"ement s o""urr n# a"ross man' d s" %! nes* o&ten h dden &rom most %eo%!e?s "om%rehens on and &ar (e'ond the r e-%e"tat ons+ L 7e, se* the a&orement oned te"hno!o# es are on %a"e to dramat "a!!' "han#e the ,or!d+ Raw Resource Assessment As noted* assess n# the state o& natura! resour"es to #au#e the de#ree o& tota!Mma- mum use "a%a" t' as %er the human %o%u!at on "annot (e done (' s m%!' e-tra%o!at n# around "urrent methods+ We need to #et (oth a #enera! sense o& "urrent n$entor' !e$e!s o& a!! re!e$ant Earth!'* resour"es and then d #est them , th res%e"t to the a&orement oned e&& " en"' am%! & ers ,h "h* n e&&e"t* rad "a!!' "han#e the ,a' ndustr a! %ra"t "e and "onsum%t on un&o!ds+ It s a!so ,orth not n# that modern s" en"e has (rou#ht a #reat dea! o& synthesis nto %!a' and the use o& %o!'mers* meta.mater a!s and other ra% d ad$an"ements n "hem str'* %h's "s and en# neer n# are a""e!erat n#+ The end resu!t s that man' resour"es "ons dered %ro(!emat "* su"h as rare Earth metals, are & nd n# re%!a"ements $ a h #h!' a(undant means+ It s m%ortant to %o nt out that most %ers%e"t $es on "urrent resour"e use trends are )u te ne#at $e (' those th n7 n# , th n the "onte-t o& the "urrent mode!+F2E There s no shorta#e o& ne#at $e
F2G W th res%e"t to su"h mater a!s* emer# n# nanote"hno!o#'* su"h as "ar(on

nanotu(es 8/NT;* ,h "h "an (e arran#ed to "reate ,hat has (een termed K9u"7'%a%er”* s an e-am%!e o& tremendous %otent a!+ K9u"7'%a%er” s a ma"ros"o% " a##re#ate o& "ar(on nanotu(es that o,es ts name to R+ 9u"7m nster Fu!!er+ Aa%er.th n and ! #ht,e #ht* t s one. tenth the ,e #ht 'et %otent a!!' H55 t mes stron#er than stee! ,hen ts sheets are sta"7ed to &orm a "om%os te+ It "an a!so "ondu"t e!e"tr " t' ! 7e "o%%er or s ! "on+ Th s s'nthet " mater a!* made out o& a(undant "ar(on* "ou!d (e at the &oundat on o& a ne,* s"ar" t' trans"end n# s'nthet " mater a!s re$o!ut on+ F2E Re&eren"e< Two$thirds of world0s resources 0used up0 8htt%<MM,,,+the#uard an+"omMs" en"eM455HMmarMD5Men$ ronment+resear"h; 42F

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

re%orts and r #ht!' so+ We ha$e (een a(us n# and m sus n# our resour"es to a $ast de#ree* !o"7ed nto a ! &e.(! nd %arad #m ,h "h has ! tt!e stru"tura! "om%rehens on o& ts "onse)uen"es+F45 Ho,e$er* a#a n* th s s a"tua!!' a mismanagement %ro(!em* not a )uant tat $e or em% r "a! one+ It s a!so m%ortant to note that t s not ho, mu"h or ho, ! tt!e there s o& an' one th n# n a(so!ute terms+ Rather* the )ua! & er has to do , th ho, ,e are to a"h e$e the purpose sought+ For nstan"e* the a$a !a(!e amount o& o ! n the Earth* as ,ou!d (e needed &or ts non. ener#' uses toda' 8s n"e n th s mode! t sn?t needed &or ener#'* as noted;* s on!' as re!e$ant as our n"a%a" t'M"a%a" t' to & nd other ,a's to a"h e$e the same #oa!s o ! has a"h e$ed* (ut , thout t+ Another e-am%!e s !um(er+ I& home "onstru"t on "om%!ete!' trans"ended the use o& ,ood &rame houses* #!o(a!!'* us n# Earth. &r end!' "on"rete and %o!'mer %ro"esses nstead* "om n# &rom u( )u tous and a(undant ra, mater a!s* sudden!' a on"e %otent a!!' s"ar"e resour"e (e"omes e-"e%t ona!!' a(undant* re!at $e!' s%ea7 n#+ Mo$ n# on* natura! resour"es are (est or#an 1ed n t a!!' (' d $ d n# them nto 8a; ( ot " and 8(; a( ot "+ 9 ot " resour"es are der $ed &rom the ( os%here and are o&ten "a!!ed K! $ n# resour"es”+F42 E-am%!es o& ( ot " resour"es are &orests* %!ants* an ma!s* et"+ 9' some de& n t ons* t a!so n"!udes resour"es or # nat n# &rom ! &e n the d stant %ast* su"h as &oss ! &ue!s+ A( ot " resour"es are o&ten "ons dered Knon. ! $ n#” resour"es and n"!ude ,ater* so !* m nera!s and the ! 7e+ 8a; O$era!!* the ( ot " resour"es o& the %!anet ha$e (een su&&er n# #reat!' due to e$er. n"reas n# ndustr a! 1at on+ Forest de%!et on* the !oss o& ( od $ers t'* !oss o& & sh %o%u!at ons and other ssues ha$e (rou#ht the susta na( ! t' o& man' su"h resour"es nto )uest on+ In a!! "ases* the %ro(!em s not a ! m ted su%%!' o& these resour"esU t s a (!atant d sre#ard &or an' e)u ! (r um , th natura! re#enerat on and (as " en$ ronmenta! res%e"t+ The so!ut on to these de"! nes s to o($ ous!' de$ ate &rom the r rates o& use+ Th s "an (e done (' s m%!' su(st tut n# other comparable materials &or those (e n# har$ested at unsusta na(!e rates+ In the essa's True Economic (actors and The !ndustrial ?overnment* th s %ro"ess s des"r (ed n deta !+ In short* there s no ( ot " resour"e (e n# used toda' ,h "h "annot ha$e ts rate o& "onsum%t on su(s ded (' "ons" ous* strate# " ad0ustment+ Wood does not need to (e used toda' &or a!! the "urrent %ur%oses+ Not e$er'one needs to eat & sh &rom the , !d o"ean as ad$an"ed and humane a)ua.
F45 In a 4522 stud' ent t!ed K<ngoing global biodiversity loss and the need to

move beyond protected areas3 a review of the technical and practical shortcomings of protected areas on land and sea8 the &o!!o, n# "on"!us on ,as made< KIn a (us ness.as.usua! s"enar o* our demands on %!anet Earth "ou!d mount to the %rodu"t $ t' o& 4F %!anets (' 45H5+” There s no shorta#e o& other ne#at $e resour"e Ko$ershoot” stat st "s n %eer re$ e, as ,e!!+ F42 Sour"e< ( o!o#'.on! ne+or# 8htt%<MM,,,+( o!o#'. on! ne+or#Md "t onar'M9 ot "Vresour"e; 42G

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

&arm n# %ro"esses no, e- st+ We ha$e a!read' d s"ussed the a( ! t' to %rodu"e a $e#etar an a(undan"e , th $ert "a! &arm n# and the mo$e to n.$ tro meat "an (e more hea!th' and susta na(!e than ! $esto"7 methods that are dama# n# the en$ ronment+ W th su"h a!!e$ at ons* ,e ,ou!d see a $ast m%ro$ement n o$era!! resour"es* ( od $ers t'* the %reser$at on o& ! &e.sa$ n# med " ne der $ed &rom the ra n&orests and so &orth+ The other* !ar#e!' unta%%ed rene,a(!es ment oned %r or* "an a!so ra% d!' d s%!a"e &oss ! &ue!s &or ener#' use toda'+ So* the ssue s rea!!' a matter o& intelligent choice+ 8(; A( ot " resour"es ha$e a d &&erent* 'et s m !ar mana#ement rea! t'+ We ha$e a!read' addressed our te"hn "a! a( ! t' to " r"um$ent or so!$e the %ro(!em o& ,ater s"ar" t' , th %ur & "at on methods and our ra% d!' de%!et n# to%so !F44 , th so !!ess &arm n#+ O$era!!* the ma n resour"es ,e are !e&t , th are the $a!ua(!e m nera!s ,e ut ! 1ed to (u !d man' o& the #oods ,e use+ These m nera!s are most!' "om%ounds o& Earth!' e!ements and are e-tra"ted &rom ro"7s &rom the Earth?s "rust+ Mu"h %ro#ress n use.$ersat ! t' has a!so (een a"h e$ed (' ndustr' (' e-tra"t n# e!ements and &orm n# meta! alloys+ An a!!o' s a meta! mixture made (' "om( n n# t,o or more meta!! " e!ements* su"h as the &ormat on o& steel* There are "!ose to H*555 7no,n m nera!sF4D and the num(er o& a!!o's %oss (!e s enormous* , th man' thousands n use toda'+ As &ar as ana!'s s* the 9r t sh Geo!o# "a! Sur$e' 89GS; out%uts a stat st "a! assessment o& ,or!d m nera!sMe!ementsM"hem "a! "om%ounds ea"h 'ear re#ard n# #!o(a! e-tra"t onM%rodu"t on use+F46 FD are do"umented n the r 455F.4522 re%ort and hen"e these "an (e "ons dered the most ut ! 1ed &or #!o(a! ndustr a! %rodu"t on+F4H O& those* the 9GS n turn u%dates a Kr s7 ! st” o& su"h mater a!s (ased on stressed or ant " %ated stressed su%%!'+ The &o!!o, n# "hart e-%resses the med um r s7 to $er' h #h.r s7 e!ements* as %er the r ana!'s s+

F44 Sour"e< The lowdown on topsoil3 !t0s disappearing

8htt%<MM,,,+seatt!e% +"omMnat ona!Mart "!eMThe.!o,do,n.on.to%so !.It.s. d sa%%ear n#.24I4426+%h%; F4D Sour"e< Mineral 8htt%<MMen+, 7 %ed a+or#M, 7 MM nera!; F46 Sour"e< 7orld mineral statistics 8htt%<MM,,,+(#s+a"+u7Mm nera!su7Mstat st "sM,or!dStat st "s+htm!; F4H Sour"e< 7orld Mineral Production BCCO$BC,, 8htt%<MM,,,+(#s+a"+u7Mdo,n!oadsMstart+"&mR dS4F52; 42E

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Re%rodu"ed &rom the 9r t sh Geo!o# "a! Sur$e'?s 'is# +ist 4522F4I

The 9GS states KThe+++! st %ro$ des a )u "7 and s m%!e nd "at on o& the re!at $e r s7 n 4524 to the su%%!' o&+++e!ements or e!ement #rou%s that ,e need to ma nta n our e"onom' and ! &est'!e+ The %os t on o& an e!ement on th s ! st s determ ned (' a num(er o& &a"tors that m #ht a&&e"t a$a !a( ! t'+ These n"!ude the natura! a(undan"e o& e!ements n the EarthNs "rust* the !o"at on o& "urrent %rodu"t on and reser$es* and the %o! t "a! sta( ! t' o& those !o"at ons+++re"'"! n# rates and su(st tuta( ! t' o& the e!ements has (een

F4I Sour"e< 'is# list BC,B3 4n updated supply ris# index for chemical elements

or element groups which are of economic value 8htt%<MM,,,+(#s+a"+u7Mm nera!su7Mstat st "sMr s7! st+htm!; 445

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

"ons dered n the ana!'s s+”F4F The )ua! & er o& political stability.governance s a"tua!!' not re!e$ant* em% r "a!!'+ Th s s a "u!tura! %ro(!em+ It shou!d (e stated u%&ront that a NLR9E s a"h e$ed (' #!o(a! "oo%erat on and the "ommon ,ar %atterns* the Kresour"e "urse” and d sru%t ons n the su%%!' "ha n (' su"h "ontr $ed* se!&.%reser$ n# %ressures "ommon o& ,or!d %o,ers ,ou!d no !on#er (e a %ro(!em+ O$era!!* the 9GS r #ht&u!!' "on"!udes that substitutability and recycling are the so!ut ons and the s"ar"est resour"es essent a!!' su&&er &rom a !a"7 o& re"'"! n# and a !a"7 o& ade)uate su(st tut ons (e n# made+ Rather than address ea"h mater a! noted* the & rst one ! sted* rare Earth meta!s* , !! (e used as the e-am%!e (' ,h "h %ro(!em reso!ut on "an (e "ons dered , th a!! the others+ There are se$enteen rare earth meta!s that are "ons dered the most s"are o& a!! e!ements+ Re"'"! n#< The & rst #reat &a !ure s that on!' one percent o& a!! rare Earth m nera!s are re"'"!ed toda'* a""ord n# to some est mates+F4G G $en the r "ommon use n e!e"tron "s* e!e"tron " ,aste re"'"! n# has a!so (een d sma!+ 9ased on EAA stat st "s n the US* n 455E on!' 4H> o& "onsumer e!e"tron "s ,ere "o!!e"ted &or re"'"! n#+F4E L 7e, se* the #oods "reated that ho!d most o& these $a!ua(!e mater a!s are a!so not even intended to (e re"'"!ed &or the most %art+FD5 A""ord n# to an or#an 1at on "a!!ed Se"ondWa$e Re"'"! n#* K&or e$er' one m !! on "e!! %hones re"'"!ed* ,e "an re"o$er FH %ounds o& #o!d* FF4 %ounds o& s !$er* and DD*4F6 %ounds o& "o%%er+++I& the Un ted States re"'"!ed the 2D m !! on "e!! %hones that are thro,n a,a' annua!!'* ,e "ou!d sa$e enou#h ener#' to %o,er more than 46*555 homes &or a 'ear+”FD2 Su(st tut ons< Aerha%s more m%ortant!'* t s no, %oss (!e to manu&a"ture s'nthet " $ers ons o& these meta!s n the "onte-t o& the r %ro%ert es out o& $er' "ommon* a(undant mater a!s* n a !a(+FD4 FDD Nanote"hno!o#' s %ro$ n#
F4F I( d+ F4G Sour"e< 'are Earth 'ecycling 8htt%<MM,,,+mo!'"or%+"omMte"hno!o#'Mrare.

earth.re"'"! n#M;

F4E Sour"e< Statistics on the Management of 9sed and End$of$+ife Electronics

8htt%<MM,,,+e%a+#o$Mos,M"onser$eMmater a!sMe"'"! n#Mmana#e+htm;

FD5 Sour"e< =irty, dangerous and destructive 1 the elements of a technology

boom 8htt%<MM,,,+the#uard an+"omM"omment s&reeM4522Mse%M4IMrare. earth.meta!s.te"hno!o#'.(oom; FD2 Sour"e< 7hy 'ecycle ell PhonesD 7hy not Eust throw it awayD 8htt%<MMse"ond,a$ere"'"! n#+"omM,h'.re"'"!e."e!!.%hones.,h'.not.0ust. thro,. t.a,a'M; FD4 Sour"e< "anosys3 7e an 'eplace Some 'are Earth Metals 8htt%<MM,,,+&ast"om%an'+"omM2F5H5D5Mnanos's.,e."an.re%!a"e.some. rare.earth.meta!s; FDD Sour"e< Thin (ilm Solar ells 9sing Earth$4bundant Materials 442

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

to (e $er' stron# n th s a%%roa"h+FD6 Man' d &&erent ndustr es ha$e (een a"t $e!' ,or7 n# to address the ssue n ea"h a%%! "at on* su"h as no, (e n# a(!e to ma7e LED ! #ht (u!(s , thout these meta!s+FDH O$era!! ,e see the %ush to so!$e th s %ro(!em ram% n# u% and the &a"t s* reso!ut on s s m%!' a matter o& n#enu t'* &o"us and t me+FDI !ndustrial reorientation s a!so m%ortant to add to th s %ro(!em so!$ n# e)uat on as a !ar#er t er &orm o& su(st tuta( ! t'+ Wh !e th s ma' not "urrent!' a%%!' to rare Earth meta!s as mu"h at th s t me* !ar#er s"a!e "om%onents n $ar ous te"hno!o# es are "han# n# ra% d!'+ It s a des #n n t at $e n en# neer n# to a"t $e!' &o"us on "om%onent nno$at on that "an ('%ass su"h needs+ Ho,e$er* # $en the rate o& "han#e &or rare Earth meta! su(st tut on throu#h s'nthes s* t a%%ears to (e s m%!' a matter o& t me (e&ore th s ssue s reso!$ed throu#h a "om( nat on o& strate# " use* re"'"! n# and s'nthes s+ 9e'ond that* t "annot (e re terated enou#h that the #reat &a !ure o& #!o(a! ndustr' has (een not to ma7e %ro%er purpose comparisons ,hen t "hooses to use a "erta n mater a!+ In other ,ords* t s not nte!! #ent to use a $er' rare meta! n a #enera!!' ar( trar' and &!eet n# %rodu"t+ S n"e there s no re&erent a! data(ase that sho,s a"t $e rates o& use* de"! ne and the ! 7e* "om%an es ma7e the r de" s ons (ased mere!' on "ost re!at onsh %s ,h "h ha$e $er' ! tt!e $a!ue n the sense o& strategic use by comparison+ Wh !e t s true that %r "e "an re&!e"t s"ar" t' and d && "u!t' o& a")u r n# a "erta n m nera! or e!ement* su"h a d re rea! t' ar ses on!' as the %ro(!em a"ute!' mater a! 1es+ In other ,ords* no rea! &ores #ht e- sts n %r "e and (' the t me %r "e re&!e"ts ,hat ,as a"tua!!' an o(ser$a(!e te"hn "a! rea! t' at an' t me* t s o&ten too !ate and the s"ar" t' (e"omes a rea! %ro(!em+ In an a"t $e!' a,are resour"e mana#ement s'stem* th s ,ou!d not o""ur+ Not on!' ,ou!d su"h mater a!s (e "onstant!' "om%ared to dra, assessment as to ,hat s the most a%%ro%r ate mater a! &or a # $en use* an' &oreshado,ed %ro(!em "an (e seen &rom a !on# %er od a,a' and hen"e e&& " en"' "an (e (etter ma- m 1ed+FDF (and Un! 7e %r or assessments* the ssue o& !and a""ess ta7es a d &&erent "ons derat on+ Earth has a & n te amount o& nha( ta(!e !and and hen"e the method (' ,h "h humans #a n a""ess to and share !and o$er t me s the rea! ssue+ Need!ess to sa'* not e$er' human (e n# "an ha$e h s
8htt%<MM,,,+ nte"ho%en+"omMdo,n!oadM#etMt'%eM%d&sM dMDE2HH; ould 'eplace 'are Earth Minerals !n Solar ells and <+E=s 8htt%<MM nha( tat+"omMne,.nano.mater a!."ou!d.re%!a"e. rare.earth.m nera!s. n.so!ar."e!!s.and.o!edsM; FDH Sour"e< "ew material could lead to cheaper, more eco$friendly +E=s 8htt%<MM,,,+# 1ma#+"omMs ! "on.!ed.rare.earth.e!ement.a!ternat $eM4FEDDM; FDI Sour"e< 'are$earth mineral substitutes could defeat hinese stranglehold 8htt%<MM,,,+, red+"o+u7Mne,sMar"h $eM452D.5FMD2Mra"e.&or.rare.earth. m nera!s; FDF Th s s e-%anded u%on n the essa' The !ndustrial ?overnment*
FD6 Sour"e< "ew "ano Material

444

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

or her o,n %r $ate Earth+ L 7e, se* the s "7ness (red (' mater a! sm* ,ea!th and status* ,h "h man &ests $ast and enormous estates (' the su%er r "h* &a!! n the same rrat ona! "ate#or' J utter!' o(! $ ous to susta na( ! t' and so" a! (a!an"e+ Toda'* the %ro%ert' s'stem "reates a stat " or entat on to !and a""ess* , th %eo%!e t'% "a!!' a")u r n# !and and sta' n# on t nde& n te!'+ Th s tenden"' to Ksett!e” seems "om%ounded (' the !a(or ro!es and !o"at on re)u rements o& most n the ,or!d as ,e!!+ The trad t on o& "ommut n# to one?s 0o( n a " t' "enter s st !! $er' "ommon and hen"e one?s home needs to (e near('+ In a NLR9E* su"h %ressures are #reat!' a!!e$ ated and the dea o& tra$e! n# the ,or!d "onstant!' s a tan# (!e o%t on+ Ana!'sts ha$e &ound that & ,e needed to & t the ,or!d?s F ( !! on %eo%!e nto a s n#!e " t'* mode!ed a&ter Ne, :or7 / t'* a!! Earth!' nha( tants ,ou!d & t n the US state o& Te-as+FDG Wh !e "!ear!' m%ra"t "a!* th s s m%!e stat st " re$ea!s the $ast de#ree o& $ar an"e %oss (!e re#ard n# ho, human (e n#s "an or#an 1e themse!$es to%o#ra%h "a!!' n a #!o(a! so" et'+ The %ro(!em sn?t the amount o& %h's "a! s%a"e needed &or F ( !! on or man' t mes more+ The %ro(!em s nte!! #ent or#an 1at on* des #n and edu"at on+ That noted* the method of access &or a NLR9E s to "reate an ntera"t $e shar n# s'stem+ The &oundat on o& th s dea , !! (e e-%anded u%on #reat!' n the essa' KThe Industr a! Go$ernment”+ In short* %eo%!e are a(!e to tra$e! &rom dest nat on to dest nat on* en0o' n# a # $en !o"at on &or a %er od* (e&ore ! 7e!' mo$ n# on+ Su"h s'stems a!read' e- st n the "urrent s'stem* ,here a net,or7 o& %eo%!e and dom " !es s a$a !a(!e &or shar n#+FDE O& "ourse* man' used to a Khome” or ented &rame o& m nd* ,h "h has a trad t ona! romant " sm* shou!d not (e &ear&u! o& !os n# su"h emot ona! se"ur t'+ There s no reason ,h' a K%ermanent” !o"at on &or a %erson or &am !' "annot e- st* as ,e & nd n the ,or!d toda'+ In &a"t* n a so" et' %red "ated on a""ess a(undan"e* & nd n# and ! $ n# n a %ermanent a(ode ,ou!d ! 7e!' (e &ar eas er than n a %ro%ert' o,nersh % so" et'+ :et* stat st "s %ro$e that toda' %eo%!e $er' mu"h en0o' mo$ n# around* e-%!or n# and en0o' n# ne, %!a"es+ I& t ,eren?t &or the r !a(or. &or. n"ome 0o( and monetar' ! m tat ons* t s "!ear a #reat dea! more tra$e! n# ,ou!d o""ur (' the $ast ma0or t'+ On"e su"h an a""ess s'stem s set n mot on* the net,or7 o& a$a !a(!e %!a"es to sta' and $ s t ,ou!d o%en u% and "!ose do,n n a natura! &!o,* 0ust as hote!s ,or7+ When a hote! s (oo7ed and &u!! &or a # $en da'* natura!!' others see7 n# to $ s t that re# on !oo7 e!se,here+ As demand e((s and &!o,s* &eed(a"7 s used to %rodu"e ne, stru"tures and the ! 7e* no d &&erent* a#a n* than ho, t s done toda' n the $a"at on mar7et+ The edu"at ona! and $a!ue m%erat $e s the dea o& sharing the
FDG Sour"e< !f the worldRs population lived in one cityT

8htt%<MM%ers)uarem !e+"omM4522M52M2GM &.the.,or!ds.%o%u!at on.! $ed. n. one." t'M; FDE Re&eren"e< a r(n(+"om 8htt%s<MM,,,+a r(n(+"omM; 44D

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

world+ Man' toda' ,ou!d "ons der th s to (e #ross!' dea! 1ed+ The dea o& &ree!' mo$ n# a(out the %!anet* sta' n# $ rtua!!' an',here* , th no o(! #at on to &ee! the need to return to an' "entra! %!a"e* seems ! 7e a &antas'+ :et* t s $er' %oss (!e+ A!so* s n"e remote "ommun "at on s e-%onent a!!' n"reas n#* en#a# n# n an' so" a!M"ommun t' tas7 or "reat $e nterest "an o""ur $ rtua!!' an',here as ,e!!+ A#a n* th s s a $a!ue "ho "e+ I& a %erson , shes to 7ee% h s &am !' n one %!a"e &or the rest o& the r ! $es* there s more than enou#h s%a"e on the %!anet 8# $en the Te-as stat st "s noted; to %ro$ de &or (oth %oss ( ! t es* assum n# an nte!! #ent re$ s on o& " t' !a'outs* res%ons (!e "onser$at on and an earnest nterest to (e e&& " ent+ E ther ,a'* the same a""ess s'stem "an (e em%!o'ed to & nd and sett!e a "erta n !o"at on* ,hether t s temporary or permanent+ Oil In "on"!us on to th s essa'* ssues surround n# modern so" et'?s add "t on to the use o& o ! are m%ortant to address+ O ! s ! 7e!' the most ndustr a! resour"e ut ! 1ed on the %!anet toda'* used most nota(!' &or trans%ort+ As des"r (ed %r or* (et,een (atter' te"hno!o#'* m%ro$ed des #n and the $ast rene,a(!e med ums ,e ha$e toda'* there s no !e# t mate te"hn "a! reason ,e need #aso! ne to %o,er automo( !es an'more+ The hand&u! o& "urrent!' a$a !a(!e e!e"tr " "ars toda' s a!so a "!ear testament to th s &a"t+ A r%!anes and other e-treme!' !ar#e %o,ered ma"h nes m #ht st !! need su"h o ! &or"e "urrent!' (ut the trends sho, t s s m%!' a matter o& t me and &o"us (e&ore %!anes are a(!e to use so!ar ener#'F65 "ou%!ed , th ad$an"ed stora#e means &or !ar#e s"a!e* hea$' ,e #ht "ommer" a! needs+ :et* ,e shou!d a!,a's tr' to th n7 outside of the box ,hen t "omes to e&& " en"' and susta na( ! t'+ In the "onte-t o& th s !ar#e. s"a!e* h #h.ener#' trans%ort* the )uest on ar ses< K s there a re%!a"ement &or %!ane tra$e! ,h "h ('%asses su"h h #h "on"entrat on ener#' needsR” The ans,er s 'es+ Ma#!e$ te"hno!o#' s man' t mes &aster and uses a &ra"t on o& the ener#'+F62 So* e$en & some o ! ,as used &or %o,er %ur%oses here and there* su"h ne, a%%roa"hes "ou!d redu"e ts use &oot%r nt e-%onent a!!'* & %ursued "orre"t!'+ In Amer "a a!one* F5> o& the o ! used n tota! #oes to,ards trans%ort n the &orm o& #aso! ne* d ese! and 0et &ue!+F64 L 7e, se* & a ne, "ond t on o& %ea"e "an (e ne#ot ated on %!anet Earth* , th a "on"entrated %ressure to redu"e armaments and %re%arat ons &or ,ar* an e-tens $e o ! sa$ n#s ,ou!d a!so o""ur+ The Un ted States De%artment o& De&ense s one o& the !ar#est s n#!e "onsumers o& ener#' n the ,or!d* res%ons (!e &or ED> o& a!! US
F65 Re&eren"e< Solar$Powered 4irplane

ompletes (irst +eg <f 9*S* (light 8htt%<MM,,,+n%r+or#M(!o#sMthet,o.,a'M452DM5HM5HM2G265FEH4Mso!ar. %o,ered.a r%!ane."om%!etes.& rst.!e#.o&.u.s.&! #ht; F62 Re&eren"e< "ew 6or# to /eiEing in two hours without leaving the groundD 8htt%<MM,,,+# 1ma#+"omMetD.$a"uum.ma#!e$.tra nM42GDDM; F64 Re&eren"e< Petroleum 8htt%<MM,,,+ nst tute&orener#'resear"h+or#Mener#'. o$er$ e,M%etro!eum.o !M; 446

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

#o$ernment &ue! "onsum%t on n 455F+F6D The US m ! tar' uses more ener#' than most "ountr es+ The m ! tar' s a!so one o& the #reatest %o!!uters n the ,or!d+F66 So* ,or7 n# to shut do,n a!! m ! tar' esta(! shments ,ou!d &a" ! tate a $ast n"rease n th s resour"e?s a(undan"e+ :et* as noted* o ! s st !! %o!!ut n# n mu!t %!e ,a's so us n# t as ,e ha$e &or "om(ust on s not en$ ronmenta!!' nte!! #ent+ The rea! so!ut on s so" a! re$ s on+ Wh !e the ed & "e o& human so" et' toda' has a $ast de%enden"e on o ! and #as n #enera!* #enerat n# a!! sorts o& %rodu"ts &rom %!ast "s and &ert ! 1ers* "reat $e en# neers ha$e (een s!o,!' "ha!!en# n# th s "ore "hem "a! &oundat on need &or man' 'ears+ A!ast "s* ,h "h are u( )u tous n the ,or!d toda'* ha$e (een a!most e-"!us $e!' n the terr tor' o& %etro!eum &or some t me+ Ho,e$er* re"ent!' Dut"h s" ent sts ha$e n$ented means to re%!a"e o !. (ased %!ast "s (' us n# %!ant matter+F6H F6I L 7e, se* an or#an 1at on "a!!ed E$o"at $e has (een a(!e to use mushrooms to #enerate &u!!' susta na(!e mater a!s ,h "h "an a!so ser$e to re%!a"e man' %etro!eum uses &or nsu!at on and the ! 7e+F6F O$era!!* a #reat dea! o& s" ent & " ,or7 s #o n# nto su(st tutes &or %etro!eum and most are %!ant o !s and &ats (e"ause the' ha$e essent a!!' the same (ase "hem "a! stru"ture as %etro!eum+ So* the rea! ssue a#a n s focus+ Toda'* "ommer" a!!' a$a !a(!e* non.%etro!eum (ased %!ast " (ott!es 8K( o%!ast "”; are (e"om n# mu"h more "ommonF6G so t s "!ear that the rea! so!ut on to e$o!$ n# out o& our mater a! %etro!eum de%enden"e s an ssue o& ntent on (' the s" ent & " "ommun t'+ A#r "u!ture s another "on"ern+ Fert ! 1ers and %est " des re)u re o ! and natura! #as and t s ,e!! ar#ued that modern " $ ! 1at on* # $en ts rate o& &ood "onsum%t on and #ro,th* (ased on "urrent methods* ,ou!d not (e a(!e to &un"t on , thout these (ase means+ Th s s ! 7e!' true+ Ho,e$er* that s %art!' ,h' the %r or $ert "a! &arm n# se"t on s so m%ortant+ Rather than see7 to re%!a"e these med ums* , th n the "onte-t o& traditional a#r "u!tura!* the so!ut on s
F6D Sour"e< /o!one! Gre#or' 3+ Len#'e!* USAF* The 9roo7 n#s Inst tut on* F66 'eference3 The Elephant in the 'oom3 The 9*S* Military is <ne of the

De%artment o& De&ense Ener#' Strate#'* Au#ust 455F+

7orldRs +argest Sources of CB 8htt%<MM,,,+,ash n#tons(!o#+"omM455EM24Mremo$ n#.,ar.&rom.#!o(a!. ,arm n#+htm!; F6H Sour"e< 7ho "eeds <il 7hen Scientists an Ma#e Plastic (rom PlantsD 8htt%<MM# 1modo+"omMHGGHEHDM,ho.needs.o !.,hen.s" ent sts."an.ma7e. %!ast ".&rom.%!ants; F6I Sour"e< Supported !ron "anoparticles as atalysts for Sustainable Production of +ower <lefins 8htt%<MM,,,+s" en"ema#+or#M"ontentMDDHMI5F5MGDH+a(stra"t; F6F Sour"e< Mushroom Materials 8htt%<MM,,,+e"o$at $edes #n+"omMmushroom. mater a!sM; F6G Re&eren"e< o#e, (ord Eoin forces to Euice supply of plant$based plastic 8htt%<MM,,,+#reen( 1+"omM(!o#M4524M5IM26M"o"a."o!a.n 7e.&ord.0o n. &or"es.0u "e.su%%!'.%!ant.(ased.%!ast "; 44H

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

to ('%ass the %ro(!em , th the ne, methods+ O$era!!* & 'ou th n7 o& an'th n# o ! and h'dro"ar(ons do toda'* 'ou "an e ther & nd an esta(! shment.%reser$ n# re%!a"ement &or t 8 +e+ the %!ant o !.(ased %!ast "s ,h "h ,or7 n most e- st n# ndustr a! "onte-ts; or a "om%!ete!' ne, a%%roa"h (ased on re$ sed methods ,h "h ('%ass the %ro(!em a!to#ether 8 +e+ $ert "a! &arm n# and ts ! tt!e need &or su"h &ert ! 1er;+ Not to ment on* & ,e remo$e o ! and #as s m%!' &rom the ma n "om(ust on %ur%oses* 'ou then &ree u% so mu"h o& t that* a%art &rom en$ ronmenta! "on"erns* the resour"e (e"omes that mu"h more a(undant* # $ n# e$en more t me to & nd &urther so!ut ons to e! m nate an' and a!! en$ ronmenta!!' unsusta na(!e rea! t es+ TechnoCa,italist A,ologetics At the root o& the n"reased "a%a" t' &or a(undan"e* as noted %r or* s e%hemera! 1at on or do n# Kmore , th !ess”+ Moore?s La,* ,h "h s the %henomenon that "om%uter %o,er or "h % %er&orman"e essent a!!' dou(!es e$er' 2G months* has (een &ound n the modern da' to a!so n"!ude an' 7 nd o& n&ormat on.(ased te"hno!o#'+F6E For e-am%!e* the a%%! "at on o& !a(or automat on* ,h "h s a "om( nat on o& ro(ot "s and %ro#ramm n#* (oth o& ,h "h are de& ned (' n&ormat on n or # n* re$ea!s ho, the means o& %rodu"t on tse!& s (e"om n# an n&ormat on te"hno!o#' and hen"e su(0e"t to e-%onent a! #ro,th as ,e!!+ In & nan" a! terms* the resu!t o& th s %attern has (een "hea%er %r "e $a!ues as the e&& " en"' nherent redu"es "osts to ,hate$er de#ree a!!o,ed+ Th s "an (e seen n the shar% r se n ne-%ens $e and no, u( )u tous te"hno!o# es* su"h as "e!! %hones+ In a(so!ute a(stra"t on* , th a!! th n#s (e n# e)ua!* assum n# so" et' ma nta ned on!' ts "urrent s%e"trum o& use #oods* man' %rodu"t on trends ha$e the "a%a" t' to a%%roa"h Knear 1ero” $a!ue+ G $en th s* the )uest on ar ses< at ,hat state o& su"h e-"han#e $a!ue redu"t on 8%r "e; does $a!ue tse!& (e"ome so m n s"u!e as to (e"ome moot n and o& tse!&* as an e"onom " &a"torR /an ,e e-%e"t that %otent a! to o""ur to su"h an ant " %ated h #h de#ree n the mar7et s'stemR The ans,er s no+ The mar7et , !! ne$er "reate su"h !ar#e s"a!e* dramat "* %ost.s"ar" t' m%!' n# redu"t ons o$era!! due to ts "entra! need &or s"ar" t' to 7ee% monetar' turno$er and hen"e 7ee% %eo%!e em%!o'ed+ It s ,orth not n# that man' n the modern te"hno!o#' mo$ements st !! 0ust &' the e- sten"e o& mar7et "a% ta! sm* as a means to,ards Ka(undan"e”* (' o(ser$ n# th s #enera! "ost redu"t on %henomenon+ As the ar#ument #oes* the un&o!d n# o& a # $en %rodu"t on and ts n"reased demand &a" ! tates K(etter” %rodu"t on methods and hen"e more sa$ n#s (' the "om%an' means more sa$ n#s (' the "onsumer+ Th s then ma7es some #oods a$a !a(!e* o$er t me* to those ,ho ,ou!d not ha$e (een a(!e to a&&ord them %r or+ I& ta7en at &a"e $a!ue* th s o(ser$at on su##ests a!! #oods , !!
F6E Re&eren"e< /ig !dea3 Technology ?rows Exponentially

8htt%<MM( #th n7+"omMth n7.tan7M( #. dea.te"hno!o#'.#ro,s.e-%onent a!!'; 44I

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

a%%roa"h 1ero n $a!ue o$ert me* as a # $en mar7et n"reases n demand+ The & rst %ro(!em* ho,e$er* s that th s ar#ument s m%!' #nores the $ast arra' o& #enera! te"hn "a! ne&& " en"' ,h "h "an a!so* & addressed and so!$ed* "reate those same redu"ed "osts+ In other ,ords* t "on&!ates* erroneous!'* Kmar7et e&& " en"'” and Kte"hn "a! e&& " en"'”+ G!o(a! 1at on s a "ommon e-am%!e+ Wh !e "hea%* %r m t $e* Th rd Wor!d !a(or m #ht (e he!%&u! to (r n# the "ost do,n o& a # $en %rodu"t &or the Amer "an "onsumer mar7et* the ,asted ener#'* ,asted resour"es and %oss (!' nhumane "ond t ons "reatedMe-%!o ted to &a" ! tate that K%r "e ad$anta#e” rea!!' %resent dee% and "aust " ne&& " en" es* n the (road $ e,+ As an as de* ,h !e t s ndeed true that "erta n t'%es o& te"hno!o#'* usua!!' "om%uter re!ated* are toda' , de!' a$a !a(!e &or man' ,ho other, se ,ou!d not (e a(!e to a&&ord t* th s s a resu!t o& s" ent & " n#enu t'* not the mar7et+ Man' trad t ona! e"onom sts toda' ma7e the assert on "onstant!'* that K & t ,eren?t &or "a% ta! sm+++”* et"+ The truth s that the mar7et s noth n# more than an n"ent $e and de! $er' s'stem and ,h !e the %ro& t mot $at on ma'* at t mes* n"or%orate h #h !e$e!s o& te"hn "a! ad$an"ement ,h "h a"h e$e a h #her out%ut %otent a!* n$ #orat n# th s Kmore , th !ess” %henomenon* th s s (ut one %oss (!e out"ome amon#st man'+ Man' other h #h!' %ro& ta(!e means "an (e ut ! 1ed ,h "h ha$e 1ero to ne#at $e $a!ue n the %ursu t o& %ost.s"ar" t' tse!&+ Aerha%s the (est ,a' to th n7 a(out t s as a se!&.! m t n# thresho!d+ The %ro& t #oa! o& "ost e&& " en"' s to rema n K"om%et t $e” a#a nst other %rodu"ers* ,h !e natura!!' see7 n# ma- mum n"ome to 7ee% em%!o'ees %a d and the stru"ture o& the "om%an' nta"t+ That s the n"ent $e e)uat on+ O($ ous!'* no "om%an' ,ants to ma7e tse!& o(so!ete (' %ursu n# a state o& e-treme e&& " en"'+ L 7e, se* %ro& t "u!ture s shorts #hted (' nature+ Th s means that ,hen &a"ed , th a de" s on &or "ost e&& " en"'* the eas est and most mmed ate %ath to rea! 1e th s "han#e , !! ! 7e!' (e %ursued+ That "an* a#a n* mean the d &&eren"e (et,een u%dat n# a te"hn "a! o%erat on to (e more e&& " ent n ts %ro"ess o& a"tua! %rodu"t on . or s m%!' outsour" n# to a de$e!o% n# "ountr' ,h "h "an (e %a d so ! tt!e due to e- st n# %o$ert' . & t !oo7s (est on %a%er as &ar as "ost sa$ n#s+ The mar7et sees no d &&eren"e (et,een the t,o+ De" s ons are (ased mere!' on the trade $a!ue and the end tends to 0ust &' the means+ So* as t me %ro#resses* the mar7et %ro"ess ma'* ndeed* "ont nue to ma7e "erta n h #h demand #oods more a""ess (!e to those ,ho "ou!dn?t a&&ord them %r or+ Ho,e$er* that s not e$ den"e that the &ru ts o& a true* %ost.s"ar" t' or ented so" et' "an (e o(ta ned on the ,ho!e n the same &rame,or7+ It , !! on!' (e throu#h a d re"t re$ s on o& so" et' to a""e%t the %ost.s"ar" t' ntent* remo$ n# the nterest to %reser$e s"ar" t'* ,h "h s "ommon toda'* that true %ro#ress n a(undan"e , !! (e rea! 1ed+ Th s "on"!us on s a!so a$o d n# the $ast arra' o& other !ar#e.s"a!e e&& " en"' %ro(!ems nherent to mar7et
44F

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

"a% ta! sm , th res%e"t to "u!tura! and en$ ronmenta! susta na( ! t'* ,h "h ha$e (een d s"ussed at !en#th n other essa's+ As a & na! note* the de(ate o$er Kte"hno!o# "a! unem%!o'ment” has %ro$en to (e a %o,er&u! re$e!at on n th s "!ash o& %er"e $ed ntent ons as ,e!!+ /a% ta! st a%o!o# sts ha$e (een h d n# (eh nd the dea that ,h !e te"hno!o#' does re%!a"e human !a(or* t s a!so "reat n# t+ Wh !e th s ma' ha$e (een true n the s!o,er mo$ n# %ast* a h #h!' s7e,ed rea! t' has (e"ome e$er more a%%arent+FH5 For one* the e-%onent a! n"reases o""urr n# toda' ha$e %ro$en to (e out%a" n# human edu"at ona! ada%tat on #reat!'+ There s no 2<2 0o( !oss to 0o( "reat on %ro"ess un&o!d n# n the modern ,or!d+ 3o( !osses toda' and 0o( !oss %oss ( ! t es &or the &uture are enormous ,hen the ma"h ne a%%! "at ons are re$ e,ed o(0e"t $e!'* # $en the e-%onent a! trends+ The nterest n# th n# s that th s $er' %ro"ess o& automat on s a hu#e %art o& "reat n# a(undan"e* e$en thou#h "om%an es* n the !o# " o& see7 n# %ro& t* are us n# t to sa$e mone'+ The resu!t s a "om%!e- d "hotom'* , th &e,er human ,or7ers and hen"e !ess mone' a$a !a(!e as %ur"has n# %o,er+ O& a!! the s'm%toms o& &a !ure o& the "a% ta! st mode!* th s te"hno!o# "a! unem%!o'ment %henomenon 0ust m #ht (e the most %ro&ound as t rea!!' re$ea!s a "!ash o& s'stem &un"t ons+ /a% ta! sm %resu%%oses that human !a(or demand , !! (e near "onstant and a!! en"om%ass n#+ :et* & t s "hea%er to em%!o' ma"h nes to do human ro!es* ho, do ,e #et Ks%end n# mone'” to humans ,ho ha$e no, (een remo$ed &rom the !a(or &or"e due to those $er' ma"h nesR Ho, "an the ma"h nes "ont nue to %rodu"e , thout the K&ue!” o& monetar' " r"u!at onR In the end* the redu"ed $a!ue ar#ument , th n the "a% ta! st "onte-t s m%!' doesn?t ,or7 as t assumes a d re"t (a!an"e ad0ustment (et,een "ost redu"ed %r "e $a!ue 8sa$ n# o& mone' due to me"han 1at on to !o,er & na! #ood %r "e; to meet the e$er de"reas n# %ur"has n# %o,er o& the no, %oor!' em%!o'ed "onsumers 8those 0o(s remo$ed due to me"han 1at on;+ The on!' ,a' th s "ou!d ,or7 s & the %ro& t mot $e tse!& ,as remo$ed* ,h "h s essent a!!' m%oss (!e & ,e are to st !! th n7 , th n the "onte-t o& a mar7et e"onom'+ The on!' reason "om%an es em%!o' te"hno!o#' to re%!a"e human !a(or to (e# n , th s to sa$e mone' and n"rease the r "om%et t $e %!a"e n the o$era!! e"onom' (' some de#ree+ Th s ntent on underm nes an' 7 nd o& d str (ut on (a!an"e (et,een (u' n# %o,er and "ost.sa$ n#s+

FH5 Re&eren"e<

oming to an office near you 8htt%<MM,,,+e"onom st+"omMne,sM!eadersM42HE64EG.e&&e"t.toda's. te"hno!o#'.tomorro,s.0o(s., !!.(e. mmenseand.no."ountr'.read'; 44G

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

-TR&E ECO"O2$C FACTORSThe ,or!d has "han#ed &ar more n the %ast 255 'ears than n an' other "entur' n h stor'+ The reason s not %o! t "a! or e"onom " (ut te"hno!o# "a! . te"hno!o# es that &!o,ed d re"t!' &rom ad$an"es n (as " s" en"e+FH2 .Ste%hen Ha,7 n#

O/er/iew In Gree7* economy means the mana#ement o& a househo!d+FH4 The de& n n# )ua! tat $e attr (ute o& an e"onom' s ts !e$e! o& Ke&& " en"'”+ As o%%osed to the %ra"t "e o& Kmar7et e&& " en"'” "ommon toda'* th s &orm o& e&& " en"' re!ates to physical systems J not the nter.,or7 n#s o& Kmone'”* the Kmar7et” and other ar#ua(!' "u!tura! "ontr $an"es+FHD In th s %ro"ess o& %h's "a! e$a!uat on* ,e ne$ ta(!' end u% , th a set o& nterre!ated "om%onents a%%ro%r ate!' "a!!ed economic factors+ A#a n* these "om%onents* un! 7e the $ast & nan" a! theor es n %!a' n the modern ,or!d toda'* ha$e noth n# to do , th the a"t o& "ommer"e or the ! 7e+ Rather* the' &a"tor n the actual te"hn "a! %ro"esses* hen"e trends* %otent a!s and measurement re)u rements* needed &or o%t m 1ed s'stem or#an 1at on o& ndustr a! e-tra"t on* %rodu"t on* d str (ut on* des #n* re"'"! n# %roto"o!s and the ! 7e+ Ho,e$er* &or the sa7e o& "om%rehens on* e$en thou#h th s manner o& e"onom " thou#ht s a $ast de%arture &rom the trad t ona! monetar'.(ased e"onom " theor es ,e endure toda'* th s essa' , !! st !! &rame these resource$based e"onom " "om%onents n the "onte-t o& trad t ona! Km "roe"onom "” and Kma"roe"onom "” "ate#or "a! d st n"t ons* as ,ou!d (e &ound n "ommon te-t(oo7s , th res%e"t to monetar' e"onom "s+ The macroeconomic components ha$e to do , th the !ar#est %oss (!e %h's "a! s'stem de#ree asso" at ons ,e "an "om%rehend+ The microeconomic components re!ate to s%e" & " ndustr es or se"tors* usua!!' asso" ated , th s n#u!ar #ood %rodu"t on* re# ona! d str (ut on and re#enerat $e s%e" & "s+ 8Th s , !! (e e-%anded u%on more so !ater n th s essa'+; 9' system e-tens on* macroeconomic "om%onents natura!!' #o$ern the !o# " re!ated to the microeconomic components as ,e!!+ For e-am%!e* the ma"roe"onom " attr (ute o& global resource management has a un $ersa! (ear n# on the %ro%er un&o!d n# o& m "roe"onom " o%erat ons su"h as %rodu"t des #n e&& " en"' 8,h "h n$ar a(!' use su"h #!o(a! resour"es;+ Ho,e$er* (e&ore these "om%onent &a"tors are addressed* a &urther d s"uss on o& systems s n order* a!on# , th a de"!arat on o& ,hat our so" eta! goals a"tua!!' are+

FH2 Ste$en Ha,7 n#* 4 /rief >istory of 'elativity* T me Ma#a1 ne* De"em(er

D2st* 2EEE FH4 The term ?e"onom'? n Gree7 XO 7onom aY means the Tmana#ement o& a househo!dU thr &t” . hen"e to ea"onaoam 1e* or K n"rease e&& " en"'”+ FHD See the essa' Mar#et Efficiency vs* Technical Efficiency* 44E

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

!eneral S+stems Theor+ ?eneral Systems Theory s an dea ! 7e!' made most &amous (' ( o!o# st Lud, # Von 9erta!an&&'+ He stated< K+++there e- st mode!s* %r n" %!es* and !a,s that a%%!' to #enera! 1ed s'stems or the r su("!asses* rres%e"t $e o& the r %art "u!ar 7 nd* the nature o& the r "om%onent e!ements* and the re!at onsh %s or T&or"esT (et,een them+ It seems !e# t mate to as7 &or a theor'* not o& s'stems o& a more or !ess s%e" a! 7 nd* (ut o& un $ersa! %r n" %!es a%%!' n# to s'stems n #enera!+”FH6 Wh !e s'stems theor sts throu#hout the 'ears ha$e %ut a #reat dea! o& nte!!e"tua! "om%!e- t' and e!a(orat on &or,ard* the (as " re"o#n t on s rather s m%!e and ntu t $e!' eas' to #ras%+ The human (od'* &or e-am%!e* s "om%osed o& $ar ous s'stem nter"onne"t ons ,h "h not on!' nat $e!' re#u!ate s%e" & " %ro"esses &or a # $en %ur%ose 8su"h as the heart and ts ro!e n (!ood " r"u!at on;* these s'stems a!,a's ha$e sma!!er and !ar#er degree relationships as ,e!!+ In the "ase o& the heart* the blood t " r"u!ates has ts o,n set o& de& ned "hem "a! %ro%ert es and s'stem (eha$ ors 8sma!!er de#ree s'stem re!at onsh %; ,h !e the heart tse!& s a!so a "om%onent %art o& the tota! human organ array 8!ar#er de#ree s'stem re!at onsh %; and hen"e "onne"ts , th* &or e-am%!e* the lungs ,h "h ass st n o-'#en d str (ut on throu#hout the blood stream+ E-tend n# th s e-am%!e to larger degree re!at onsh %s* th s human s'stem s "onne"ted to an e"o!o# "a! s'stem*FHH ,h "h n$ar a(!' has a d re"t "orre!at on to human hea!th+ For nstan"e* %oor ndustr a! methods e- st n# , th n th s e"o!o# "a! s'stem "an ntrodu"e* &or e-am%!e* %o!!ut on nto the a r* "aus n# "ond t ons that m #ht set the sta#e &or !un# %ro(!ems or other detr ments to human hea!th+ O& "ourse* s'stem re!at onsh %s to human hea!th are not on!' K%h's "a!” n the trad t ona! sense o& the term* the' are a!so psychologically and sociologically "ausa!+ S" en"e has "ome to (etter understand ho, human !earn n# and (eha$ ora! %ro%ens t es are #enerated throu#h (oth #enet " and en$ ronmenta! n&!uen"es* n$ar a(!' en#a# n# a !ar#er s'stems "onte-t+ For e-am%!e* as noted n %r or essa's* add "t on %ro(!ems* su"h as , th dru#s or a!"oho!* "an o&ten (e &ound ! n7ed to ear!' ! &e stress and emot ona! !oss+FHI In truth* the $er' (as s &or understanding public health is of a systems recognition, without exception* No,* ( nd n# a!! s'stems are ,hat "ou!d (e termed K#enera! 1ed #o$ern n# %r n" %!es”+ In s" ent & " terms* a K#enera! 1ed” %r n" %!e or theor' s a &oundat ona! "hara"ter st " or assum%t on that
FH6 Lud, # Von 9erta!an&&'* ?eneral System theory3 (oundations, FHH E"o!o#' s de& ned as< the (ran"h o& ( o!o#' dea! n# , th the re!at ons and

=evelopment, 4pplications* Ne, :or7< Geor#e 9ra1 !!er* 2EFI* %+D4

ntera"t ons (et,een or#an sms and the r en$ ronment* n"!ud n# other or#an sms+ 8htt%<MMd "t onar'+re&eren"e+"omM(ro,seMe"o!o#'; FHI Dr+ Ga(or MatB n h s ,or7 !n the 'ealm of >ungry ?hosts 8North At!ant " 9oo7s* 4524; %resents an enormous amount o& resear"h re#ard n# ho, ?emot ona! !oss? o""urr n# at 'oun# a#es a&&e"ts (eha$ or n !ater ! &e* s%e" & "a!!' the %ro%ens t' &or add "t ons+ 4D5

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

#o$erns an ent re s'stem+ A nota(!e* on#o n# )uest o& modern s" en"e has (een the sear"h &or un $ersa!!' #o$ern n# %r n" %!es that a%%!' to a!! 7no,n s'stems n the un $erse* as #estured n the %r or )uotat on (' Lud, # Von 9erta!an&&'+ Wh !e a #reat dea! o& theoret "a! de(ate e- sts , th res%e"t to the "om%!e- (eha$ or o& "erta n s'stems* 8& nd n# "!ashes o& %ers%e"t $e (et,een* &or e-am%!e* K"!ass "a! me"han "s” and K)uantum me"han "s”; the understand n#s re!e$ant to e&& " ent e"onom " or#an 1at on . a s'stem design ntended to o%t m 1e human ,e!!.(e n# and !on# term e"o!o# "a!Mso" a! susta na( ! t' . need not #et !ost n su"h a(stra"t on+ Thus* the e"onom " re!at onsh %s %resented n th s essa' are &a r!' o($ ous and eas' to $a! date+ Ho,e$er* !et t (e stated that ,hen the systems worldview s tru!' understood n ts %ro&ound ram & "at on o& mmuta(!e nter"onne"tedness and hen"e nterde%enden"eM"o.res%ons ( ! t' o& ! tera!!' e$er'th n# n the 7no,n un $erse* trad t ona! "u!tura! not ons (ased on human or so" a! d $ s on . su"h as re! # ous !o'a!t'* ra"e !o'a!t'* "!ass* nat on states* %atr ot sm and other man &estat ons (orn &rom a ,or!d ar#ua(!' #norant o& th s rea! t' n the %ast J "an "reate noth n# (ut "on&us on* ma!ad0ustment and "on&! "t n the !on#.term+ Rea! 1 n# and str $ n# to thin# n the "onte-t o& nter"onne"ted s'stems s "r t "a! &or nte!!e"tua! de$e!o%ment* hen"e "reat n# an edu"at ona! m%erat $e &or %eo%!e to a!so !earn more as K#enera! sts” as o%%osed to r # d Ks%e" a! sts”* ,h "h s the "urrent %attern due to the stru"ture o& our trad t ona! !a(or ro!es+ Sad!'* our edu"at ona! s'stem toda' has (een sha%ed and stru"tured not to "reate ,e!!. rounded understand n#s o& the ,or!d* (ut rather d re"ts &o"us to so!ated and narro, s%e" a!t es* ,h "h redu"e s'stems "om%rehens on "onse)uent!'+FHF So* return n# to the s%e" & " "onte-t o& the "reat on o& an e"onom " mode!* th s s'stem re!e$an"e nherent!' "reates an essent a!!' Kse!&.#enerat n#” "ausa! t' that redu"es su(0e"t $ t' #reat!'+ When ,e re!ate "urrent understand n#s o& the human system to the ecological system, ,e & nd a %ro"ess o& o(0e"t $e "a!"u!at on , th res%e"t to ,hat s %oss (!e and susta na(!e* (oth n the #enera! stru"ture o& ndustr a! %ro"esses and the value structure o& so" et' tse!&+ In the end* on"e th s rea! t' s understood* 7no, n# that ,e ma' ne$er ha$e an a(so!ute understand n# o& the tota!* un $ersa! #o$ern n# s'stem* our tas7 s hen"e to der $e an e"onom " mode! that (est superimposes u%on su"h 7no,n %ro%ert es and re!at onsh %s o& the %h's "a! ,or!d* ada%t n# and ad0ust n# as e&& " ent!' as %oss (!e* as ne, &eed(a"7 8 n&ormat on; "ont nues to %ro$e $a! d+ Aut another ,a'* the "reat on o& an e"onom " mode! s rea!!' a %ro"ess o& stru"tura! a! #nment , th the e- st n# e"o!o# "a! s'stem a!read' n %!a' on the
FHF Re&eren"e< KEdu"at on and the Mar7et Mode!”* 3ohn M"Murtr'* &ournal of

Philosophy of Education Vo!ume 4H* Issue 4* %%s 45EJ42F* 2EE2 On! ne< htt%<MMon! ne! (rar'+, !e'+"omMdo M25+2222M0+26IF. EFH4+2EE2+t(55I64+-Ma(stra"t 4D2

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

%!anet earth+ The de#ree to ,h "h ,e are a(!e to a"h e$e th s* de& nes our su""ess+ Social !oals Wh !e d $erse #!o(a! "u!tures toda' sho, man' un )ue &eatures and nterests* there s st !! a (as "* $ rtua!!' un $ersa! set o& shared needs ,h "h re$o!$e around sur$ $a!+ In "on"ert* th s essent a!!' "om%r ses the (as s o& K%u(! " hea!th”* n ts (roadest de& n t on+ 9e!o, s a ! st o& #enera!* seem n#!' o($ ous so" a! K#oa!s” ,h "h th s ne, e"onom " mode! ,ou!d ,or7 to meet* , th deta !ed e-%!anat ons &o!!o, n#+ O$era!!* the' are "om%onent #oa!s o& the %ursu t to increase )uality of life &or the ,ho!e o& human t'* ,h !e ma nta n n# true susta na( ! t' n the !on# run+ Goa!s< 82; O%t m 1ed Industr a! E&& " en"'U A"t $e Aursu t o& KAost.S"ar" t' A(undan"e”+ 84; Ma nta n O%t m 1ed E"o!o# "a!M/u!tura! 9a!an"e @ Susta na( ! t'+ 8D; De! (erate L (erat on o& Human t' &rom MonotonousMDan#erous La(or+ 86; Fa" ! tate a"t $e S'stem Ada%tat on to Emer# n# Var a(!es+ 82; O%t m 1ed Industr a! E&& " en"'U A"t $e Aursu t o& KAost.S"ar" t' A(undan"e”< Un! 7e the "urrent* stru"tura! e"onom " mandate to preserve inefficiency &or the sa7e o& monetar' " r"u!at on* e"onom " #ro,th and %o,er %reser$at on*FHG th s #oa! see7s to o%t m 1e* (oth te"hn "a!!' and stru"tura!!'* a!! ndustr a! %ro"esses to ,or7 to,ards and "reate ,hat "ou!d (e #estura!!' termed a post$scarcity abundance+ In short* a post$scarcity abundance s an dea! 1ed state that e! m nates s"ar" t' o& a # $en resour"e or %ro"ess* usua!!' (' means o& o%t m 1ed e&& " en"' re#ard n# %rodu"t on des #n and strate# " use+ Need!ess to sa'* the dea o& a"h e$ n# universal %ost.s"ar" t' . mean n# an a(undant amount o& e$er'th n# &or e$er'one . s r #ht&u!!' an m%oss ( ! t'* e$en n the most o%t m st " $ e,s+ There&ore* th s term* as used here* rea!!' h #h! #hts a point of focus+FHE /ommon e-am%!es o& "urrent %ost.s"ar" t' rea! t es* ,h "h , !! (e addressed at !en#th n a !ater essa'*FI5 n"!ude the stat st "a!!' %ro$en a( ! t' to #enerate an a(undan"e o& nutr t on &or the ,or!d?s %o%u!at on* an a(undan"e o& ener#' &or res%ons (!e human use* an a(undan"e o& dom " !es to she!ter* at a h #h !e$e! o& )ua! t'* e$er' &am !' on earth* a!on# , th an a(undan"e o& #oods* (oth needs.(ased
FHG See the essa' Mar#et Efficiency vs* Technical Efficiency* FHE The matter o& de#ree* n &a"t* (e"omes ar( trar'+ E$en & on!' %oss (!e , th

a &e, resour"e sets* t does not "han#e the #oa! and m%ortan"e o& the %ursu t o& %ost.s"ar" t'+ So" a! m%ro$ement n #enera! has (een (ased u%on su"h a!!e$ at ons+ FI5 See the essa' Post$Scarcity Trends, apacity and Efficiency* 4D4

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

8 +e+ too!s; and reasonableFI2 ,ant (ased 8!u-ur'Ms%e" a!t' tems; to &a" ! tate an e$er.eas n# and m%ro$ n# )ua! t' o& ! &e un7no,n (' ! 7e!' EE> o& human t' toda'+ These and man' other %oss ( ! t es ha$e (een %ro$en as stat st "a! rea!t es &or the Earth?s "urrent %o%u!at on and (e'ond* a""om%! shed throu#h ,hat R+ 9u"7m nster Fu!!er #estura!!' "a!!ed the KDes #n.S" en"e Re$o!ut on”*FI4 or the re.des #n o& our so" a! n&rastru"ture to ena(!e th s ne, and %ro&ound e&& " en"'+ Need!ess to sa'* th s so" eta! redes #n su##ests a rad "a! de%arture &rom "urrent so" a! norms and esta(! shed trad t ons* n"!ud n# the $er' nature o& our so" oe"onom "M#o$ernmenta! stru"ture tse!&+ 8The "om%!e- su(0e"t o& trans t on , !! (e d s"ussed n a !ater essa'+;FID 84; Ma nta n O%t m 1ed E"o!o# "a! 9a!an"e @ Susta na( ! t'< Ma nta n n# en$ ronmenta! susta na( ! t' s o& o($ ous m%ortan"e # $en the human s%e" es has no nde%enden"e &rom ts ha( tat and s str "t!' su%%orted (' t+ In &a"t* e$o!ut on tse!& re$ea!s that ,e are a"tua!!' generated from the habitat* &urther e-%ress n# the dee%!' s'm( ot "Ms'ner# st " "onne"t on+ An' ne#at $e d stur(an"e o& these nter"onne"ted e"o!o# "a! s'stems , !! ! 7e!' resu!t n %ro%ort ona! ne#at $e d stur(an"es o& our ,e!!(e n# o$er t me+ There&ore* ma7 n# sure the e"onom " s'stem n %ra"t "e has a stru"tura!* (u !t. n res%e"t &or these natura! orders s "r t "a! to %u(! " hea!th and susta na( ! t' n the !on# term+ Th s as%e"t tse!& s* n &a"t* a #au#e o& an e"onom " s'stem?s o,n %ra"t "a! $a! d t' as a ! &e.su%%ort stru"ture+ It s ,orth re terat n# that the "urrent mar7et mode! o& e"onom "s ma nta ns ! tera!!' no structural ac#nowledgment o& these natura! order !a,s+ The mar7et s m%!' assumes su"h (a!an"e , !! (e ma nta ned throu#h ,hat are r #ht!' deemed metaphysical me"han sms re!ated to monetar'.mar7et d'nam "s a!one .FI6 A &a!se assum%t on+ 8D; De! (erate L (erat on o& Human t' &rom Monotonous* Dan#erous @ Irre$erent La(or< As , !! (e des"r (ed n te"hn "a! deta ! n a !ater essa'FIH , th res%e"t to the %o,er&u!* e%hemera! 1at on or ented trend o& ,hat s termed
FI2 The %h's "a!!' unsusta na(!e* e-"ess $e %ro%ert' and Khoard n#” menta! t'

"ommon to the "urrent "u!ture?s dea! o& h #h so" a! status and su""ess toda' needs a!!e$ at on+ FI4 Su##ested Read n#< R+ 9u"7m nster Fu!!er* ritical Path* St+ Mart n?s Aress* 2EG2 FID See the essa' Transition A The >ybrid Economy* FI6 See the essa' >istory of Economy* ,here Adam Sm th?s not on o& the KIn$ s (!e Hand” s d s"ussed+ FIH See the essa' Post$Scarcity Trends, apacity and Efficiency 4DD

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

mechani%ation 8mean n# the a%%! "at on o& ma"h nes* d s%!a" n# !a(or ro!es "ommon!' he!d (' humans; the need &or human to ! and su&&er n# n monotonous* rre!e$ant or dan#erous o""u%at ons has (e"ome n"reas n#!' !ess needed+ Th s ne, te"hn "a! rea! t' has a!so "reated trends ,h "h ,ere on"e un ma# na(!e* su"h as the &a"t that the a%%! "at on o& automat on has %ro$en to no, (e more e&& " ent than human !a(or* ma7 n# the %ers stent trad t on o& Kearn n# a ! $ n#” an n"reas n#!' rres%ons (!e so" a! "on$ent on # $en that ,e "an no, do more with less people n $ rtua!!' e$er' se"tor toda'+ L 7e, se* t s a!so m%ortant to "ons der the %attern o& human em%!o'ment o$er #enerat ona! t me* re"o#n 1 n# that the "urrent so" a! detr ment o& Kunem%!o'ment” s ent re!' man &est &rom the a%%! "at on o& te"hno!o#' to !a(or+FII The #reat m'th o& the 45th "entur'* %ro%a#ated (' mar7et e"onom sts s that te"hno!o#' "reates 0o(s n the same %ro%ort on as 0o(s are ta7en a,a' (' t+FIF Th s s no, %ro$en as stat st "a!!' n"orre"t as the e-%onent a! n"rease n n&ormat on te"hno!o#' and ts trans!at on nto e$er.ad$an" n# ma"h ne e&& " en"' %ro$es the &a!!a"' o& th s on"e seemingly true o(ser$at on+FIG Toda'* the 42st "entur' !a(or "r s s sho,s no s #n o& su(s d n#FIE and
FII E"onom sts ,ou!d ! 7e!' d s%ute th s statement toda'* , th the "!a m o&

Toutsour" n#T and other ssues (rou#ht nto the e)uat on 8a!on# , th other narro,* trun"ated d st n"t ons;+ In truth* !oo7 n# at human !a(or , thout (orders* on the #!o(a! s"a!e* o$er #enerat ona! t me* ,e see that t has (een te"hno!o#' and on!' te"hno!o#' that has sh &ted (oth %rodu"t on methods and ,hat s o& nterest to %rodu"e+ I& th s %ro#ress ,ere not seen* human t' ,ou!d ne$er ha$e e-%er en"ed the Neo! th " Re$o!ut on and hen"e ,ou!d st !! (e hunt n# and #ather n# n a %r m t $e ,a'+ FIF Th s assum%t on s %art o& ,hat has (een h stor "a!!' termed the KThe Ludd te Fa!!a"'”+ It s ,orth not n# that e$en & one ,ere to enterta n the Ludd te Fa!!a"'?s "!a m that ne, 0o(s are "reated to e)ua!!' "om%ensate &or d s%!a"ed !a(or n a no,.me"han 1ed se"tor* n"reas n#!' t s (e"om n# rea! 1ed that su"h 0o(s ar#ua(!' ha$e ! tt!e to no a"tua! re!e$an"e to the $ a( ! t' and &un"t on o& ! &e.su%%ort+ Hen"e* the Tne, 0o(s "reatedT n$ar a(!' ser$e as a 7 nd o& ,aste o& human ener#'+ It s one th n# to %er&orm a"ts o& nterest n one?s ! &e* on one?s o,n a""ord+ It s another to (e "oer"ed nto su"h mean n#!ess !a(or s m%!' (e"ause 'ou must T,or7 &or a ! $ n#T+ Su##ested Read n#< Da$ d Grae(er* <n the Phenomenon of /ullshit &obs* Str 7e Ma#a1 ne* 452D 8htt%<MM,,,+str 7ema#+or#M(u!!sh t. 0o(sM; FIG The ssue here s the rate o& te"hno!o# "a! a""e!erat on+ One hundred 'ears a#o* th s rate o& "han#e ,as mu"h !ess ra% d* ,h !e toda' the rate o& "han#e s n"reas n# e-%onent a!!' &or,ard+ Wh !e so" a! sh &ts n ndustr' and !a(or ,ere a(!e to d'nam "a!!' "om%ensate &or th s "han#e n the %ast due to the re!at $e!' s!o, %a"e* as t me mo$es &or,ard* t , !! (e"ome e$er more d && "u!t to ma nta n T!a(or &or n"omeT as ,e 7no, t n the "urrent trad t on+ Th s s a!so (e"ause the e-%onent a! #ro,th "ur$e redu"es the "ost o& ma"h ne automat on too!s o$er t me* sett n# u% a #enera! ne$ ta( ! t' that human !a(or n a "erta n se"tor , !! not on!' (e outdone n %er&orman"e (' ma"h ne (ut the' , !! (e "hea%er n the !on# run+ Su##ested Read n#< htt%<MM,,,+7ur1,e !a +netMthe.!a,.o&.a""e!erat n#.returns FIE Ne,s and stat st "a! re%orts on an emer# n# G!o(a! Unem%!o'ment /r s s 4D6

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

, !! on!' & nd reso!ut on throu#h a restru"tur n# o& ndustr a! !a(or methods* a!ter n# the K,or7 &or a ! $ n#” trad t on dramat "a!!'+FF5 86; Fa" ! tate a"t $e S'stem Ada%tat on to Emer# n# Var a(!es< Wh !e th s #oa! m #ht seem more a(stra"t than %r or #oa!s* a"7no,!ed# n# the emer#ent rea! t' o& nte!!e"tua! and ndustr a! e$o!ut on s "r t "a!+ We must structurally a!!o, &or ada%tat on+ The a##re#ate nte!!e"tua! "u!m nat on o& human 7no,!ed#e s and* as the trends "urrent!' sho,* , !! a!,a's (e* n"om%!ete+ Man' %ra"t "es that m #ht (e deemed Ksusta na(!e” or n a""ord , th %u(! " hea!th toda'* m #ht $er' ,e!! (e &ound to (e detr menta! n a re!at $e or a(so!ute sense n the &uture+ An e-am%!e ,ou!d (e the de"ades %ast o& o ! "om(ust on+ Wh !e ! tt!e ne#at $e retroa"t ons ,ere &ound dur n# ts ear!' use* toda' there s a stron# %ush to mo$e a,a' &rom h'dro"ar(on ener#' use due to the #ro, n# "onse)uen"es resu!t n# &rom ts em%!o'ment as the %r mar' ener#' sour"e &or so" et' J es%e" a!!' # $en the "urrent state o& more "!ean and more a(undant a!ternat $es+ There&ore* the ndustr a!Me"onom " s'stem must (e d'nam "a!!' u%data(!e* ena(! n# ra% d error "orre"t on and m%ro$ement as %ro#ress un&o!ds+ A#a n* th s t'%e o& &!e- ( ! t' s "urrent!' m ss n# n the mar7et e"onom' toda'* s n"e an' su"h "han#es o&ten ha$e a desta( ! 1 n# e&&e"t on the %ro& ta( ! t' o& re!ated ndustr es+ /han#e n #enera! s e-treme!' s!o, n the modern %er od n th s re#ard due to the paralysis that or # nates &rom the %reser$at on o& mar7et share and #rou% %o,er+ It "an (e ,e!! ar#ued that %ro#ress s o&ten detrimental to e- st n# %ro& t s"hemes+ 2acroeconomic Factors% In trad t ona!* mar7et.(ased e"onom " theor'* macroeconomics dea!s , th the (roadest n&!uen"es and %o! " es that a&&e"t* n %art* the d'nam "s and %ro(a(!e out"omes o& the microeconomic "ond t on+ Th s usua!!' re!ates to #ro,th measures* em%!o'ment !e$e!s* nterest rates* nat ona! de(ts* "urren" es and the ! 7e+ In the "onte-t o& a NLR9E* ,e "an a!so esta(! sh e"onom " "om%onents ,h "h "ou!d (e "ate#or "a!!' thou#ht a(out n the same ,a'* on!' th s t me t has to do , th the !ar#est order governing %ressures o& the %h's "a! ,or!d d re"t!'* a!on# , th ho, these physical principles re!ate to the more Km "roe"onom "” a"t ons o& #ood %rodu"t on* des #n* d str (ut on and the ! 7e+ In other ,ords* t s an
ha$e (een %ro! & " n the ear!' 42st "entur'* s%e" & "a!!' , th 'oun# adu!ts+ Re&eren"e< ?eneration Eobless 8htt%<MM,,,+e"onom st+"omMne,sM nternat ona!M42HFIIHF.around.,or!d. a!most.D55m.2H.46.'ear.o!ds.are.not.,or7 n#.,hat.has."aused; FF5 Re&eren"e< ould 4utomation +ead to hronic 9nemploymentD 4ndrew Mc4fee Sounds the 4larm 8htt%<MM,,,+&or(es+"omMs tesMs n#u!ar t'M4524M5FM2EM"ou!d.automat on. !ead.to."hron ".unem%!o'ment.andre,.m"a&ee.sounds.the.a!armM; 4DH

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

o$erar"h n# rule structure* su%%orted (' essent a!!' %h's "a! s" en"e* to ensure true e"onom " e&& " en"' s ma nta ned and o%t m 1ed+ At the "ore o& the ma"roe"onom " 8and* (' e-tens on* m "roe"onom "; a%%roa"h rests the method o& thou#ht and ana!'s s tse!&+ Th s s KThe S" ent & " Method”+ It s o&ten sa d that noth n# n s" en"e "an (e %ro$en* on!' d s%ro$en+ Th s s the (eaut' o& the method as ts nherent s7e%t " sm o& ts o,n "on"!us ons* & un nh ( ted (' human ( as* "an assure "ont nua! %ro#ress and ad0ustment+ S" en"e # $es a $eh "!e to arrive at conclusions* not Kma7e them”* and t s th s system$based logic ,here a!! e"onom " de" s ons are to (e or ented re#ard n# (oth %oss ( ! t es and restr "t ons+FF2 Inherent to The S" ent & " Method n the "onte-t o& Kma"roe"onom " %o! "'” &or a NLR9E are ,hat ,e "ou!d "ons der Earth$wide re"o#n t ons+ These "om%onents ha$e to do essent a!!' , th the &o!!o, n#< 82; G!o(a! Resour"e Mana#ement 84; G!o(a! Demand Assessment 8D; G!o(a! Arodu"t on and D str (ut on Aroto"o!s+ These three &a"tors are "ons dered Kma"roe"onom "” s n"e the' em(od' "ore* near un $ersa! n&rastru"ture "ons derat ons* re#ard!ess o& ,hat a # $en %rodu"t on s%e" & "a!!' enta !s or ,here t s on the %!anet+ 8It shou!d a!so (e mmed ate!' re"o#n 1ed that the "on"e%t o& a Knat ona! e"onom'” s no !on#er $ a(!e n th s %ers%e"t $e* nor ,as t e$er* n truth* te"hn "a!!' s%ea7 n#+; 67< !lo al Resource 2anagement% G!o(a! Resour"e Mana#ement s the %ro"ess o& tra"7 n# resour"e use and hen"e ,or7 n# to %red "t and a$o d shorta#es and other %ro(!ems+ In e&&e"t* t s no d &&erent than the !o# " under!' n# most "ommon n$entor' s'stems ,e m #ht & nd n the "ommer" a! arena toda'+ Ho,e$er* th s s'stem has to do %r mar !' , th tra"7 n# the rate o& natura! #enerat on to ma nta n dynamic e)uilibrium*FF4 A!! 7no,n natura! resour"es . ,hether !um(er* "o%%er ore* ,ater* o !* et"+ . ha$e the r o,n rates o& natura! re#enerat on* & an'+ In "erta n "ases* su"h as the state o& "erta n meta!s or m nera!s* re#enerat on rates are so !ar#e s"a!e that t ,ou!d (e more a%%ro%r ate to s m%!' assume a & n te su%%!' outr #ht+FFD O$era!!* th s %ro"ess ,ou!d (e# n , th a tota! Earth sur$e' to ,hate$er de#ree te"hn "a!!' %oss (!e* tra"7ed n rea!.t me to ,hate$er de#ree te"hn "a!!' %oss (!e+ The "ata!o#ue o& tra"7ed resour"e "om%onents ,ou!d n"!ude
FF2 See the essa' The Scientific 7orldview* FF4 D'nam " E)u ! (r um s de& ned as< KA "ond t on n ,h "h a!! a"t n#

n&!uen"es are "an"e!!ed (' others* resu!t n# n a sta(!e* (a!an"ed* or un"han# n# s'stem+” Sour"e< htt%<MM,,,+the&reed "t onar'+"omMd'nam "Qe)u ! (r um FFD For e-am%!e* meta!s su"h as "o%%er are no, , de!' a""e%ted to ha$e or # nated n stars* , th the earth "o!!e"t n# these mater a!s as t &ormed+ 4DI

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

a!! &orms* &rom ( ot " resour"es su"h as trees* to a( ot " resour"es su"h as ron ores and the ! 7e+ Ao!!ut on and other e"o!o# "a! d stur(an"es o& resour"e nte#r t' ,ou!d a!so (e a""ounted &or+ Wh !e su"h a tota! s'stems a%%roa"h to th s Earth., de resour"e a""ount n# and tra"7 n# s'stem m #ht seem ! 7e a d && "u!t tas7* t s a"tua!!' $er' &eas (!e n the modern da'* , th su"h te"hno!o#' a!read' (e n# em%!o'ed (' res%e"t $e ndustr es n the "or%orate sett n#+ 6?< !lo al Demand Assessment< G!o(a! Demand Assessment s the %ro"ess o& rea! 1 n# the demands o& the human %o%u!at on+ In short* th s %ro"ess ,ou!d (e (ro7en u% nto a ser es o& re# ona! sur$e's* "ou%!ed , th the re!ease o& %u(! "at ons that n&orm the %u(! " as to ne, des #ns %oss (!e n "onsumer or ndustr a! %rodu"t on+ Whereas &rom the "urrent "u!tura! %ra"t "e* ,h "h "ons sts o& %u(! " ad$ert s n# (' %ro& t see7 n# "or%orat ons* o&ten m%ose statusM$an t' or ented $a!ues on the %o%u!at on n man' res%e"ts rather than ser$ n# to ass st them , th e- st n# needs* the %ro"ess o& en#a#ement n a NLR9E dea!s e-%! " t!' , th "reat n# a,areness o& ne, te"hn "a! %oss ( ! t es as the' emer#e* ,h !e a!so a!!o, n# %u(! " "onsensus to de" de ,hat s o& nterest to %rodu"e and ,hat sn?t+FF6 Th s "ou!d (e termed the Kmar7et” o& a NLR9E+ In man' ,a's* t "an a!so (e "ons dered the me"han sm o& so" eta! K#o$ernan"e” tse!& s n"e th s t'%e o& so" a! ntera"t on to,ards de" s on.ma7 n# does not ha$e to (e restr "ted to mere #ood des #n and %rodu"t on+FFH A&ter a!!* at the "ore o& an' so" et' are really the te"hn "a! me"han sms that ena(!e order* ,e!!.(e n# and )ua! t' o& ! &e+ We o&ten &or#et ,hat the %ur%ose o& a #o$ernment rea!!' s n the modern da'+ At ts "ore* t s a means to ass st e"onom " or#an 1at on to m%ro$e ! &e* ease stress and "reate sa&et'+ The %ro(!em s that #o$ernment toda' has ne"essar !' turned nto a s'stem o& essent a!!' or#an 1ed "orru%t on and Kma& a” t'%e %rote"t on sm rather than a &a" ! tator o& ! &e su%%ort+ In th s ne, a%%roa"h* a %ure!' te"hn "a!M ntera"t $e s'stem s esta(! shed ,h "h ,or7s* n #esture* s m !ar to ho, the not on o& Kd re"t demo"ra"'”FFI has (een %ro%osed to ,or7 n the modern da'* ,here de" s on.ma7 n# %ro"esses n$o!$e #rou% %art " %at on n a direct ,a'* #oa! (' #oa!+ W th the e-%onent a! n"rease n "om%uter. (ased "a!"u!at on %o,er* th s t'%e o& a##re#ate so" eta! Kth n7 n#” s no, %oss (!e+ The deta !s o& th s ntera"t $e s'stem* a!on# , th an e-%ans on
FF6 Toda'* t s on!' throu#h %r "e and %ro& ta( ! t' that demand s a""essed+

Ver' rare!' s the %u(! " n$ ted to %art " %ate n &uture des #ns+

FFH Th s , !! (e addressed &urther n the essa'< The !ndustrial ?overnment FFI Un! 7e KRe%resentat $e Demo"ra"'” ,here e!e"ted re%resentat $es ma7e

de" s ons* D re"t Demo"ra"' a!!o,s nd $ dua!s to $ote on ssues+ Th s asso" at on s used !oose!' here as the trad t ona! not on o& d re"t demo"ra"' s too %r m t $e+ The su##ested s'stem has to do , th %u(! " %art " %at on n "umu!at $e des #n o& #oods to meet needs* n %art+ 4DF

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

o& an nte#ra! "on"e%t termed as Kautomated des #n” or the "a!"u!at on o& utility$based systems 8 n th s "onte-t the system (e n# a #ood n )uest on;* , !! (e addressed n a &o!!o, n# essa'+FFF Ho,e$er* !et t (e stated that a!! des #ns ha$e a (u !t. n !o# " to,ards ,hat ,or7s* ,hat s susta na(!e and ,hat redu"es ne#at $e retra"t ons 8or %ro(!ems;+ It s th s ne,* te"hn "a! re&erent a! (en"hmar7 that #u des the %ro"ess o& ndustr a! des #n+ No,* a & na! note ,orth ment on n# n %ass n# s that n the "urrent mar7et e"onom'* the demand assessment %ro"ess s or"hestrated n a dee%!' ha%ha1ard manner $ a ,hat s trad t ona!!' termed the K%r "e me"han sm”+FFG Man' n trad t ona! e"onom " s"hoo!s ha$e e$en ar#ued that the d'nam " $ar a( ! t' o& human nterests ma7es t te"hn "a!!' impossible to "a!"u!ate su"h demand , thout the %r "e me"han sm+ Wh !e th s ma' ha$e (een some,hat true n the ear!' 45th "entur' ,hen these "!a ms ,ere made* the a#e o& ad$an"ed "om%uter "a!"u!at on* "ou%!ed , th modern sens n# and tra"7 n# te"hno!o#'* has remo$ed th s (arr er o& "om%!e- t'+FFE 6;< 6a< !lo al Production . 6 < Distri ution Protocols% G!o(a! Arodu"t on and D str (ut on Aroto"o!s address the reason n# (' ,h "h the o$era!! ndustr a! s'stem s to (e !a d out n the "onte-t o& Earth sur&a"e n&rastru"ture+ Th s s m%!e not on has to do , th ,here these &a" ! tates are !o"ated and ,h'+ A (as " e"onom " &a"tor to "ons der here s ,hat ,e , !! "a!! the K%ro- m t' strate#'”+ In the "urrent s'stem* the %ro%ert' or entat on &or"es &a" ! t es &or %rodu"t on and d str (ut on to (e s"attered and rather random n %!a"ement+ The ad$ent o& #!o(a! 1at on and the "onstant sear"h &or "ost e&& " en"' (' "or%orat ons $ a "hea% !a(or and resour"es "reates enormous ne&& " en"' and ,aste* not to ment on a (as s &or nhumane !a(or e-%!o tat on and other %ro(!ems+ In a NLR9E* the or#an 1at on o& #!o(a! ndustr a! %ro"esses are (ased on o%t m 1 n# e&& " en"' at a!! t mes* "reat n# a networ# o& &a" ! t es* !o# "a!!' (ased around &a"tors re!ated to the purpose o& those &a" ! t es+ Th s s a"tua!!' s m%!e to "ons der s n"e the $ar a(!es re!ated "an (e )uant & ed n m%ortan"e &a r!' eas !'+ S n"e the shortest d stan"e (et,een t,o %o nts s a stra #ht ! ne* "ou%!ed , th the modern te"hn "a! "a%a" t' to %rodu"e man' #oods , thout the need &or re# ona! "ond t ons 8 +e+ ad$an"ed* en"!osed &ood %rodu"t on s'stems;* a "ore "on"ern to redu"e ener#' and ,aste s to !o"a! 1e* as mu"h as %oss (!e+ 6;a< !lo al Production Protocols% The (est ,a' to e-%ress th s s
FFF See the essa' The !ndustrial ?overnment* FFG Lud, # $on M ses n h s &amous ,or7 Economic

alculation in the Socialist ommonwealth ar#ues that the K%r "e me"han sm” s the on!' %oss (!e means to understand ho, to Ke&& " ent!'” "reate and mo$e #oods around an e"onom'+ Th s "r t " sm o& an' 7 nd o& K%!anned” s'stem has (een touted as sa"rosan"t (' man' toda' and as a $ nd "at on o& the "a% ta! st s'stem+ FFE See the essa' The !ndustrial ?overnment* 4DG

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

to %ro$ de a s%e" & " e-am%!e (' ,h "h $ar at ons "an & nd a "ommon "onte-t+ We , !! use the e-am%!e o& the te-t !e ndustr'* s%e" & "a!!' the manu&a"tur n# o& "!oth n#+ Toda'* EG> o& the "!oth n# Amer "ans ,ear s m%orted* most!' &rom /h na+FG5 Most "!othes are st !! made &rom "otton toda'+ Where does /h na ! 7e to #et a #reat dea! o& ts "ottonR . the Un ted States+FG2 So* toda'* the Un ted States %rodu"es a "ore ra, "ommod t' &or the te-t !e ndustr'* sh %s to /h na to ma7e the "!othes* on!' to ha$e t sh %%ed (a"7 to the US ,hen done+ We "an use our ma# nat on , th res%e"t to the m !! ons o& (arre!s o& o ! a!one ,asted o$er t me on th s mo$ement o& mater a!s* ,hen su"h har$est n# and %rodu"t on "ou!d (e !o"a! 1ed $er' eas !'+ A#a n* th s s a %rodu"t o& the mar7et e"onom'?s nterna! e"onom " me"han sms that ha$e no regard &or true* Earth!' e"onom " re!at onsh %s . ,h "h re)u re %h's "a! e&& " en"' and ,aste redu"t on . not & nan" a! e&& " en"' and a redu"t on o& monetar' "osts+ Th s s a "!ear d s"onne"t+ 6; < !lo al Distri ution Protocols% The same (as " !o# " a%%! es to %ost.%rodu"t on d str (ut on+ On"e #oods are "reated* the' are to (e made a$a !a(!e re# ona!!' n the most e&& " ent ,a' %oss (!e* (ased on demand and proximity+ On"e esta(! shed %er re# ona! needs* d str (ut on has three (as " "om%onents< D(2; Fa" ! t' Lo"at on D(4; Method o& A""ess D(D; Tra"7 n#MFeed(a"7+ ; 7< Facilit+ (ocation% Fa" ! t' Lo"at on s (ased on !o# "a! %ro- m t' o& a %o%u!at on "on"entrat on+ Th s s (est e-em%! & ed , th the "urrent %ra"t "e toda' o& 8usua!!'; %!a" n# #ro"er' stores n a$era#e "on$en en"e a(out a "ommun t'* thou#h e$en th s strate#' s o&ten "om%rom sed (' the mar7et?s nherent !o# "+FG4 Ho,e$er* other te"hno!o# "a! &a"tors "ou!d "ome nto %!a' to ease the mo$ement o& #oods and redu"e ,aste* a!on# , th more "on$en ent a""ess+ Wh !e !o"a! &a" ! t es "onta n n# the most "ommon!' needed #oods m #ht e- st n "!ose %ro- m t' around a "ommun t'* de! $er' s'stems* su"h as automated pneumatic tube stru"tures &or med um.s 1ed %rodu"ts* "ou!d (e nsta!!ed nto homes n the same manner as %!um( n# s (u !t nto a home toda'+
FG5 Sour"e< /!oth n# ?Made n Amer "a?< Shou!d U+S+ Manu&a"ture More

/!othesR 8htt%<MMa("ne,s+#o+"omM9us nessMMadeInAmer "aMmade.amer "a. "!othes."!oth n#.made.usaMstor'R dS2D25G4HG; FG2 Sour"e< /h na Sa d to 9u' 2 M !! on Tons o& U+S+ /otton &or Reser$es 8htt%<MM,,,+(!oom(er#+"omMne,sM4524.5I.2HM"h na.sa d.to.(u'.2.m !! on. tons.o&.u.s."otton.&or.reser$es.2.+htm!; FG4 Re&eren"e< 7hy do competitors open their stores next to one anotherD $ &ac de >aan 8htt%<MMed+ted+"omM!essonsM,h'.do."om%et tors.o%en.the r. stores.ne-t.to.one.another.0a".de.haan; 4DE

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Other $ar at ons "ou!d n"!ude s'stems o& a""ess (ased on s%e" & "* re# ona! needs* su"h as the "ase , th re"reat ona! a"t $ t es+ A""ess &a" ! t es "an (e %!a"ed on !o"at on &or $ar ous nterests* su"h as s%orts resour"es* su%%!' n# needed e)u %ment at the t me and %!a"e o& use+ ; ?< 2ethod of Access% Method o& A""ess s (est des"r (ed as a shared K! (rar'” s'stem+ Th s sn?t to m%!' that a!! tems retr e$ed must (e Kreturned” to these a""ess &a" ! t es* (ut to sho, that the' can be &or "on$en en"e+ It s "erta n!' a ,e!"omed %ra"t "e s n"e th s %ro"ess o& Kshar n#” s a %o,er&u! ena(!er o& (oth preservation e&& " en"' and %u(! " access e&& " en"'+ In other ,ords* &e,er #oods are needed to meet the nterests o& more o& the %o%u!at on throu#h shar n# s'stems* as "om%ared to the 2<2 un $ersa! %ro%ert' s'stem %ra"t "ed toda'+ A "ommon e-am%!e ,ou!d (e s%e" a! 1ed too! needs that are used re!at $e!' s%arse!' n the %o%u!at on+ Arodu"t on e)u %ment &or a s%e" & " %ro0e"t and re"reat on e)u %ment that m #ht (e used on!' a &e, t mes a 'ear* are s m%!e e-am%!es+ On the other s de o& the s%e"trum* e$er'da' needs* su"h as %ersona! "ommun "at on te"hno!o#' and the ! 7e* are made a$a !a(!e n the same ,a'* , th an e-%e"tat on o& return ! 7e!' on!' ,hen the tem &a !s* so t "an (e re"'"!ed or re%a red+ Th s "on"e%t o& mo$ n# &rom a property$oriented to an access$oriented society s a %o,er&u! not on+ Toda'* "erta n Krenta!” ndustr es ha$e a!read' seen the &ru ts o& th s "on"e%t n the &orm o& "on$en en"e* e$en n a mar7et s'stem+FGD A#a n* "om%ar n# to the "urrent mode!* these &a" ! t es e- st ! 7e Kstores” do toda'* , th re# ona! demand d'nam "a!!' "a!"u!ated to ensure su%%!' a(undan"e and a$o d shorta#es and o$erruns+ The d &&eren"e s that noth n# s Kso!d” and the ethos s o& an strate# "a!!' e&& " ent* ntera"t $e s'stem o& shar n#* , th* a#a n* returns o""urr n# a!so ,hen %rodu"t ! &e e-% res or ,hen the #ood s no !on#er needed+ As an as de* there s a "ommon rea"t on to th s dea that %ro(!ems su"h as Khoard n#” or some 7 nd o& a(use ,ou!d ensue+ Th s assum%t on s (as "a!!' su%er m%os n# current monetar'.mar7et "onse)uen"es on the ne, mode!* erroneous!'+ Aeo%!e n the s"ar" t' dr $en ,or!d toda' hoard and %rote"t m%u!s $e!' ,hen the' ha$e someth n# to &ear or , sh to e-%!o t #oods &or the r mar7et $a!ue+ In the NLR9E* there s no resa!e $a!ue n the s'stem s n"e there s no mone'+FG6 There&ore* the dea o& hoard n# an'th n# ,ou!d (e an

FGD 9 7e and /ar shar n# s'stems are "ommon e-am%!es+ The KZ %/ar” s a

"om%an' that %ro$ des !o"a! 1ed a""ess to "ar renta!s n a re# ona! "onte-t* (ased on need+ L 7e, se* Euro%e has seen a r se n on.!o"at on street ( 7e renta!s as ,e!!* , th $ar ous do"7 n#Ma""ess stat ons strate# "a!!' !o"ated around a " t'+ FG6 A summar 1ed e-%!anat on o& ,h' a monetar' e"onom' s stru"tura!!' n"om%at (!e , th the !e$e! o& e&& " en"' and #oa!s o& th s ne, mode! s deta !ed n the essa'< TAost.S"ar" t' Trends* /a%a" t' and E&& " en"'T 465

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

n"on$en en"e rather than an ad$anta#e+FGH ; ;< Trac#ing)Feed ac#% Tra"7 n# and Feed(a"7* as m%! ed a(o$e* s an nte#ra! %art o& 7ee% n# the s'stem* (oth re# ona! and #!o(a!* as &!u d as %oss (!e ,hen t "omes to not on!' the meet n# o& re# ona! demand throu#h ade)uate su%%!'* (ut a!so 7ee% n# %a"e , th "han#es n e-tra"t on* %rodu"t on* d str (ut on te"hno!o#' and ne, demands+ Natura!!'* these &a"tors are h #h!' s'ner# st "+ Sensor s'stems* %ro#rams and other resour"e tra"7 n# te"hno!o#' ha$e (een ra% d!' de$e!o% n# &or $ar ous ndustr a! uses+FGI Modern "ommer" a! n$entor' s'stems are a!read' )u te ad$an"ed n the %ro%er "onte-t ,hen t "omes to demand and d str (ut on+ The ssue s mere!' ts s"a!a( ! t' n "erta n "onte-ts to a""ount &or a!! ne"essar' attr (utes+ In "on"!us on to th s se"t on on ma"roe"onom " &a"tors* the o$erar"h n# "ons derat on s efficiency on all levels and th s has ts o,n "ausa! !o# " as noted (e&ore* ,hen "ons dered n the !ar#er e"o!o# "a! and %h's "a! s'stem nter"onne"t $ t' nherent to the natura! ,or!d+ Th s e&& " en"' has to do , th ,aste redu"t on and meet n# human needs* a!,a's or ented n ts %oss ( ! t es (' the "urrent state o& te"hno!o#' $ a the s" ent & " method+ 2icroeconomic Factors% G $en these so."a!!ed macroeconomic "on"e%ts* t s m%ortant to restate that the under!' n# %r n" %!es re#ard n# o%t mum e&& " en"'* %rodu"t $ t' and susta na( ! t' are the same throu#hout the ,ho!e mode!* &rom to% to (ottom+ Th s s* a#a n* the train of thought "om n# &rom the s" ent & " method* "a!"u!ated , th n the near.em% r "a! &rame,or7 o& natura! !a, !o# " tse!&+ No,* ,h !e trad t ona! mar7et.(ased e"onom " theor' "ons ders Km "roe"onom "s” as someth n# o& a stud' o& the (eha$ or o& nd $ dua!s* househo!ds and (us nesses ma7 n# de" s ons around mar7ets* %r "e determ nat ons and other &a"tors (ased essent a!!' around the mo$ement o& mone' n $ar ous ,a's* the m "roe"onom " "onte-t o& a NLR9E s )u te d &&erent+ M "roe"onom " "ons derat ons n th s ne, mode! re$o!$e around the a"tua! methods o& #ood des #n and %rodu"t on tse!&+ Th s s (as "a!!' or#an 1ed around t,o &a"tors% 2; Arodu"t Des #n E&& " en"' 4; Means o& Arodu"t on E&& " en"' 87< Product Design Efficienc+ re!ates to the nte#r t' o& des #n tse!&+
FGH The su(0e"t o& seem n#!' un%red "ta(!e* human (eha$ ora! a(errat on 8 +e+

K"r me”; s addressed n the essa' TL &est'!e* Freedom and The Human t' Fa"torT FGI Re&eren"e< >P invents a central nervous system for earth* htt%<MM,,,+&ast"om%an'+"omM2H6GIF6Mh%. n$ents."entra!.ner$ous.s'stem. earth.and.0o ns.smarter.%!anet.s,ee%sta7es 462

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Toda'* "ost e&& " en"' and the resu!t n# te"hn "a! ne&& " en" es* "ou%!ed , th the "or%orate %ro"ess o& "om%et t on and the $ast unne"essar' du%! "at on o& s%e" & " #oods* has "reated a "! mate o& unne"essar' ,aste and ! m ted %rodu"t ! &es%ans+ There are a!so* as , !! (e d s"ussed n #reater deta ! n a moment* &e, (u !t. n re"'"! n# %roto"o!s* & an'* dur n# these %rodu"t on des #ns as ,e!!+ Th s s m%ortant (e"ause ad$an"ed re"'"! n# ,ou!d ass st n more %reser$at on o& mater a!s n the !on# run* add n# to !on#.term e&& " en"'+ L 7e, se* proprietary te"hno!o# es* ser$ n# the nterest to %reser$e mar7et share &or a %art "u!ar (us ness* ha$e "reated an en$ ronment ,here there s $er' ! tt!e "om%at ( ! t' o& "om%onent %arts a"ross mu!t %!e manu&a"turers o& the same (as " %rodu"ts+ There&ore* & $e "om%onent &a"tors are re!e$ant here< 2a; O%t m 1ed Dura( ! t' 2(; O%t m 1ed Ada%ta( ! t' 2"; Un $ersa! Standard 1at on 2d; Inte#rated Re"'"! n# Aroto"o!s 2e; /ondu" $e &or Automat on 7a< O,timiAed Dura ilit+% O%t m 1ed Dura( ! t' s m%!' means that an' #ood %rodu"ed s done so , th the ntent on to !ast as !on# as %oss (!e* n th s most strate# " manner %oss (!e+ The not on o& strategic s m%ortant here &or th s s not to m%!' that a!!* &or e-am%!e* "om%uter en"!osures shou!d (e made out o& t tan um* s m%!' (e"ause t s $er' stron#+ On"e a#a n* th s s a synergistic design calculation ,here the not on o& the K(est” mater a! &or a # $en %ur%ose s a!,a's re!at $e to %ara!!e! %rodu"t on needs ,h "h a!so m #ht re)u re that t'%e o& mater a!+ There&ore* the de" s on to use a s%e" & " mater a! s to (e assessed not on!' &or ts use &or the s%e" & " #ood* (ut a!so (' "om%ar n# t to the needs o& other %rodu"t ons ,h "h re)u re s m !ar e&& " en"'+ Noth n# e- sts outs de th s s'stem."entr " "om%ar son+ A!! ndustr a! de" s ons are made , th "ons derat on o& the !ar#est s'stem de#ree o& re!e$an"e+ Th s nterest to "reate the Kstrate# "a!!' (est” s "r t "a! to human susta na( ! t'* es%e" a!!' ,hen t has (een re%orted that ,e are us n# our natura! resour"es toda' faster than the %!anet s #enerat n# them* due to su"h ne&& " en" es+FGF The modern Kthro,a,a'” "u!ture s not on!' dr $en (' a hedon st "* short.s #hted $a!ue s'stem m%osed (' modern ad$ert s n# and "urrent measures o& K,ea!th” and Ksu""ess”* t s a!so needed to ma nta n the %a d !a(or s'stem* a % $ota! %art o& 7ee% n# the mar7et e"onom' #o n#+

FGF Sour"e< 'eport3

onsumption of Earth0s resources unsustainable 8htt%<MM,,,+"(sne,s+"omMGD52.45HV2I4.HF6D6H4HMre%ort."onsum%t on. o&.earths.resour"es.unsusta na(!eM; 464

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

7 < O,timiAed Ada,ta ilit+% O%t m 1ed Ada%ta( ! t' s rea!!' a su(."om%onent o& KO%t m 1ed E&& " en"'” n the "onte-t o& des #n en# neer n#+ Toda'* &rom automo( !es to "e!! %hones* e&& " en"' n"reas n# te"hno!o# "a! ad$an"ements "ont nue ra% d!'+ :et* e$en , th th s ra% d rate o& "han#e* other !ar#er order attr (utes rema n the same &or re!at $e!' !on#er %er ods o& t me* as %er h stor "a! trends+ In other ,ords* d &&erent %rodu"t on "om%onents ha$e d &&erent rates o& "han#e and th s means a s'stem o& Kada%ta( ! t'” and a"t $e Ku%dat n#” "an (e &oreshado,ed throu#h trend ana!'s s* , th the resu!t n# e-%e"tat ons built into an e- st n# des #n to the (est de#ree %oss (!e+ An e-am%!e ,ou!d (e the rate o& "han#e o& a "om%uter s'stem?s "h % %ro"essor 8/AU;+ The ad$an"ement o& "h % %o,er has (een a""e!erat n# ra% d!' due to Moore?s !a,+ As a resu!t* man' so&t,are a%%! "at ons* as the' m%ro$e to em(ra"e these ne, s%eeds ena(!ed* , !! not ,or7 on "om%uter s'stem , th o!der "h %s+ Th s t'% "a!!' &or"es the user to (u' a ne, "om%uter s'stem* e$en thou#h the on!' true ssue s the /AU* not the ,ho!e s'stem+ Wh !e other &a"tors "an "ome nto %!a' su"h as s'stem "om%at ( ! t' , th the ne, "h %* se!dom do %eo%!e u%date these "h %s a!one* e$en thou#h t s &eas (!e+ Th s 7 nd o& ada%ta( ! t' s "r t "a! toda' on a!! !e$e!s* ,h "h a!!udes to the ne-t e"onom " "om%onent* Kun $ersa! standard 1at on”+ 7c< &ni/ersal StandardiAation% Un $ersa! Standard 1at on s a set o& o%t m 1ed %roto"o!s* #enerated &rom mass ndustr a! &eed(a"7 n a "o!!a(orat $e ,a' that ,or7s to "reate un &orm* un $ersa! "om%at ( ! t' o& a!! "om%onents asso" ated to a # $en #ood #enre+ Toda'* th s !a"7 o& standard 1at on s a sour"e o& not on!' #reat ,aste* (ut #reat nsta( ! t' n the &un"t on n# o& "ommon #oods* s n"e the "om%et t $e ethos and %ro%r etar' ntent restr "ts e&& " en"' n a %o,er&u! ,a'+ Th s %ra"t "e has (een 0ust & ed under the #u se o& K%ro#ress” n des #n , th the %rem se that "om%et n# "or%orat ons* n"ent $ 1ed (' & nan" a! #a n* , !! Koutdo” ea"h other and hen"e (e more %rodu"t $e , th ad$an"ement+ Wh !e there m #ht (e some truth to th s* the retardat on* ,aste and nsta( ! t' "aused does not 0ust &' the %ra"t "e+ Furthermore* t has* and , !! a!,a's (e* the shar n# o& n&ormat on n the !on# run that has !ed to ad$an"ement* (oth %ersona! and so" eta!+ /reat n# a resear"h data(ase o& 7no,n "om%onent %arts (' ndustr'* a"t $e!' shared a"ross the ,or!d as a %o nt o& des #n re&eren"e and &eed(a"7 n the "reat on o& "ommon %arts and #oods* s not a d && "u!t tas7 and "erta n!' ,ou!d not nh ( t te"hno!o# "a! ad$an"ement or n#enu t'+ I& an'th n#* t ,ou!d %resent more d $erse n&ormat on and %ers%e"t $es and hen"e (etter de" s ons "ou!d (e made &aster+

46D

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

7d< $ntegrated Rec+cling Protocols% Th s s m%!' means that the "urrent state o& "om%onent and mater a! reuse s o%t m 1ed d re"t!' and strate# "a!!' "ons dered n the $er' des #n o& the %rodu"t tse!&+ A#a n* th s does not ha%%en n the modern da'* n an' e&& " ent ,a'+ A sur$e' o& !and& !!s n the ,or!d & nds man' use&u! "om%onent %arts that ha$e (een d s"arded n asso" at on , th !ar#er s'stems 8#oods;+ S n"e a norma! "or%orat on ,ho ma7es su"h tems rare!' en"oura#es them to (e returned &or d re"t re%ro"ess n#* th s s the ne$ ta(!e out"ome+ Furthermore* ,h !e trad t ona! %!ast "* #!ass* %a%er and other re"'"! n# s'stems are n %!a"e , th moderate e&& " en"'* th s %ro"ess s rea!!' "rude and ne&&e"t $e n "om%ar son to d re"t* ndustr'."onne"ted re#enerat on+ In a NLR9E* o%t m 1ed re"'"! n# "ons derat ons to reuse mater a!s* %re&ormed or not* ,ou!d (e standard+ In the end* K!and& !!s” ,ou!d not e- st n th s a%%roa"h* as there s a ,a' to reuse $ rtua!!' everything ,e %rodu"e* & ,e had the nterest to do so+ 7e< Conduci/e for Automation% Th s means that a # $en #ood des #n a""ounts &or the state o& !a(or automat on* see7 n# to remo$e human n$o!$ement ,hene$er %oss (!e (' more e&& " ent* o&ten !ess "om%!e- des #n+ In other ,ords* %art o& the e&& " en"' e)uat on s to ma7e the %rodu"t on eas' to %rodu"e (' automated means* ta7 n# nto a""ount the "urrent state o& automat on te"hn )ues+ We see7 to s m%! &' the ,a' mater a!s and %rodu"t on means are used so that the ma- mum num(er o& #oods "an (e %rodu"ed , th the !east $ar at on o& mater a!s and %rodu"t on e)u %ment+ More on th s n the ne-t se"t on+ 8?< 2eans of Production Efficienc+% Means o& Arodu"t on E&& " en" es as an e"onom " "om%onent re&er to the a"tua! too!s and methods used n ndustr a! %rodu"t on tse!&+ Wh !e th s "ou!d a!so (e "ons dered a ma"roe"onom " &a"tor n man' ,a's* t s "ons dered m "roe"onom " (ased on the &a"t that t re!ates to d re"t* s%e" & " %rodu"t on as ,e!!* a!on# , th human !a(or ro!es+ The means o& %rodu"t on o& an'th n# s d re"t!' re!ated to the state o& te"hno!o#'+ From the Neo! th " Re$o!ut on* , th the ad$ent o& stone too!s* to the ( rth o& K"'(ernat on” toda' and Kth n7 n#” ma"h nes that "an assess* e-e"ute and %ro(!em so!$e* the "ore &oundat on o& a!! K!a(or” has (een an en#a#ement , th a$a !a(!e* ass st n# te"hno!o# "a! too!s+ The trend has (een an eas n# o& !a(or o$era!!* , th a #enera! redu"t on o& the human ,or7&or"e n ea"h se"tor as re!ated to "a%a" t'+ T,o hundred 'ears a#o* the a#r "u!tura! ndustr' em%!o'ed most o& the %eo%!e n the Un ted States+ Toda'* on!' a $er' sma!! &ra"t on s ,or7 n# n a#r "u!ture due to ma"h ne a%%! "at on and automat on+ Th s %henomenon and trend o& Kme"han 1at on” s m%ortant (e"ause toda' t s "ha!!en# n# the $er' (as s o& the !a(or &or n"ome s'stem* a!on# , th &oreshado, n# %rodu"t $ t' mo$ n# to,ards a %o nt o& ,hat "ou!d (e termed K%ost.s"ar" t'”+
466

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Toda'* ,e are more %rodu"t $e , th !ess %eo%!e n an' # $en se"tor* re!at $e to t me and "a%a" t'* due to the a%%! "at on o& ma"h ne te"hno!o#'+ In man' ,a's* th s rea! t' mar7s one o& the most s #n & "ant sh &ts n our so" a! e$o!ut on* "ha!!en# n# the $er' &a(r " o& our "urrent so" a! s'stem* re$ea! n# mmense %oss ( ! t es &or the &uture as &ar as the "reat on o& a strategic abundance+ So* n a NLR9E* th s a( ! t' s maximi%ed* redu" n# the human ,or7 &or"e as ,e 7no, t (' a ! (era! a%%! "at on and e-%ans on o& automat on* n"reas n# %rodu"t $ t' $ast!'+ Human !a(or n$o!$ement* ,h !e st !! ne"essar' e$en n more ad$an"ed %hases* s redu"ed to (road o$ers #ht o& these automated s'stems as the' are esta(! shed+ Fa"tor es are a!so no !on#er (ound (' trad t ona! restr "t ons due to an e #ht hour !on#* & $e da' a ,ee7 s"hedu!e s n"e there s no reason* # $en the mass $e redu"t on o& human "ontr (ut on %oss (!e+ These s'stems "ou!d no, &un"t on 46 hours a da'* se$en da's a ,ee7* & needed+ As an as de* the )uest on s o&ten %osed< KHo, man' %eo%!e are needed to o$ersee &!u d o%erat ons and hand!e %ro(!em reso!ut onR” Th s 7 nd o& )uest on "an (e ans,ered (' assess n# "urrent stat st "a! trends* a$era# n# them and then e-tra%o!at n# them &or,ard+ Ho,e$er* there s a "ommon "on&us on (et,een K,or7” n the sense o& "ommon drud#er' (' ,h "h the monetar' n"ent $e s a "ommon re,ard* and the K,or7” ,h "h a!! humans* due to %ure "reat $e nterest and "ontr (ut $e ntent* %er&orm as ,e!!+ A dee% $a!ue sh &t assumed (' TZM s that %ro#ress n the "!ass " d st n"t on o& K,or7” , !! mor%h nto a t'%e o& so" a! "ontr (ut on that s a"tua!!' o& en0o'ment and nterest to %eo%!e+ Toda'* a!! a"ross the ,or!d* the human nterest to e-%!ore* "reate and m%ro$e e- sts* re#ard!ess o& the monetar' m%os t on+ Ho,e$er* due the "onstant %ressure &or n"ome n the "urrent mode!* near!' a!! su"h a"ts assume the needed "onte-t o& a %ursu t o& mone' &or sur$ $a!+ It "ou!d (e ar#ued that th s has %o!!uted the more natura! human n"ent $e s'stem to e-%!ore* !earn and "reate* , thout su"h a %ressure+ That noted* the not on o& K,or7” then n the "onte-t o& o$ersee n# o%erat ons* re%a r n# s'stems and other ma ntenan"e ,ou!d ! 7e!' not (e redu"ed to the t'%e o& drud#er' ,e so o&ten "ons dered the K,or7” rea! t' n the modern da'+ Rather* the a"t s res%e"ted as a &orm o& %ersona! "ontr (ut on &or %ersona! and so" a! #a n* s n"e e$er' a"t en#a#ed n th s t'%e o& s'stem has a d re"t %ersona! (ene& t to the %eo%!e ,or7 n# to 7ee% t o%erat n# smooth!'+ A#a n* th s n"ent $e s a!most non.e- stent n the "urrent mode s n"e the "a% ta! st s'stem s des #ned &or a!! the "ore %ro& t (ene& ts to #o to the owners o& the (us nesses* , th the &ru ts o& %rodu"t on o&ten ne$er re!at n# to the ,or7er n a d re"t sense* a(sent mere ,a#e re,ards+ Toda'* em%!o'eeMo,ner re!at ons e- st as someth n# o& a K"!ass ,ar”* , th an mos t' (et,een the #rou%s a

46H

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

"ommon o""urren"e+FGG In th s ne, a%%roa"h* a!! a"ts o& "ontr (ut on (ene& t the %erson %er&orm n# the a"t* and the "ommun t' at !ar#e+ The' are "onne"ted d re"t!'+ That (e n# understood* on!' a $er' sma!! &ra"t on o& the %o%u!at on ,ou!d (e Kre)u red”* as t ,ere* to en#a#e n ma nta n n# the "ore s'stems* ! 7e!' a(out H> o& the %o%u!at on ,hen ndustr a! methods rea"h modern %oss ( ! t es+ Th s H> "ou!d then (e (ro7en.u% a"ross the %o%u!at on+ So* & a # $en %o%u!at on o& a " t' re# on s H5*555 %eo%!e* the ndustr a! s'stem ,ou!d re)u re 4H55 %eo%!e* assum n# a trad t ona! ,or7 ,ee7 o& e #ht hours a da' &or & $e da's %er ,ee7+ Th s trans!ates nto 255*555 hours (e n# ,or7ed a ,ee7+ In terms o& the tota! %o%u!at on th s ,or7 res%ons ( ! t' amounts to a mutua! o(! #at on o& ea"h %erson K,or7 n#” on!' t,o hours a ,ee7+ /!ear!'* th s s a h'%othet "a! as n su"h an ad$an"ed s'stem* a s'stem that ser$es e$er'one* human $a!ues ,ou!d "han#e #reat!' and man' ,ou!d ! 7e!' (e honored to ta7e on more hours* redu" n# the o(! #at on o& others+ On"e a#a n* ,e are ta!7 n# a(out (are(ones ma ntenan"e here* as o%%osed to an mmers $e T0o(T as s "urrent!' understood and re)u red+ In rea! t'* a &ree so" et' o& th s nature "ou!d "reate an eru%t on o& "reat $e ad$an"ement and %ro#ress ne$er (e&ore seen* , th %eo%!e ,or7 n# to "ontr (ute n $ast* ro(ust ,a's+ Wh'R . 9e"ause* a#a n* su"h nd $ dua!s ,ou!d a!so (e he!% n# themse!$es d re"t!' n the %ro"ess+ An' n$ent on* or (rea7throu#h n e&& " en"' ser$es the ent re "ommun t' n th s mode!+ Se!&. nterest (e"omes so" a! nterest+ So* to "on"!ude th s %o nt* th s ne, means o& %rodu"t on s a(out &o"us n# "ore !a(or on true te"hn "a! %rodu"t $ t' that has a d re"t so" a!M%ersona! return* , th the most ! (era! &o"us on automat on and su"h e&& " en"' n"reas n# te"hno!o#' and automat on as mu"h as %oss (!e+ Conclusion As , th an'th n# o& th s (re$ t'* ,e ha$e an ne$ ta(!e n"om%!eteness+ Other &a"tors* (oth ma"ro and m "ro* "ou!d (e e-%ressed n &urther deta !+ Ho,e$er* & one &o!!o,s th s (as " tra n o& thou#ht* a tra n o& thou#ht #o$erned (' s" ent & " !o# " to ensure o%t m 1ed physical efficiency and sustainability, these other %arameters ne$ ta(!' ma7e themse!$es 7no,n+ In short* the out"ome o& th s NLR9E s'stem re)u res the same t'%e o& res%e"t&u! en#a#ement as , th an' other natura! s'stem+ 3ust as our understand n# o& the &orest and ts re#enerat on and ( od $ers t' has !ed a (as " %h !oso%h' to en#a#e th s e"os'stem , th res%e"t to ts $u!nera( ! t es to ensure ts !on#.term nte#r t'* the same !o# " a%%! es to the NLR9E as a ,ho!e+ Th s so" a! mode! s an attem%t to mirror the natura! ,or!d n the most d re"t ,a' %oss (!e and "ou!d (e "ons dered a Knatura! s'stem” 0ust ! 7e an'th n# e!se ,e & nd n nature* su"h as an
FGG See the essa' Structural

lassism, the State and 7ar* 46I

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

e"os'stem+ Wou!d t e$er (e %er&e"tR No+ 9ut the !o# "a! &oundat on s there &or "onstant m%ro$ement* &ar (e'ond the state o& a&&a rs toda'+ The &o!!o, n# summar' tree* as a #enera! out! ne &or th s essa'* has (een #enerated &or re$ e,< NLR9E< An E"onom " Mode! O$er$ e,< .S'stem 8So" a!; Goa!s 82; O%t m 1ed Industr a! E&& " en"'U A"t $e Aursu t o& KAost. S"ar" t'” A(undan"e+ 84; Ma nta n O%t m 1ed E"o!o# "a!M/u!tura! 9a!an"e @ Susta na( ! t'+ 8D; De! (erate L (erat on o& Human t' &rom MonotonousMDan#erous La(or+ 86; Fa" ! tate a"t $e S'stem Ada%tat on to Emer# n# Var a(!es+ .Ma"roe"onom " /om%onents 8a; G!o(a! Resour"e Mana#ement 8(; G!o(a! Demand Assessment ./reat n# a,areness o& ne, te"hn "a! %oss ( ! t es .Au(! " "onsensus to de" de ,hat s o& nterest to %rodu"e 8"; G!o(a! Arodu"t on and D str (ut on Aroto"o!s .G!o(a! Arodu"t on .Strate# " Lo"a! 1at on .G!o(a! D str (ut on .Fa" ! t' Lo"at on .Method o& A""ess .Tra"7 n# @ Feed(a"7 .M "roe"onom " /om%onents 8a; S%e" & " Good E&& " en"' .O%t m 1ed dura( ! t' .O%t m 1ed ada%ta( ! t' .Un $ersa! standard 1at on .Inte#rated Re"'"! n# Aroto"o!s ./ondu" $e &or Automat on 8(; Means o& Arodu"t on E&& " en"' .A%%! ed Me"han 1at on

46F

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

.T-E $"D&STR$A( !O'ER"2E"TModern %o! t "s s (us ness %o! t "s+++Th s s true (oth o& &ore #n and domest " %o! "'+ Le# s!at on* %o! "e sur$e !!an"e* the adm n strat on o& 0ust "e* the m ! tar' and d %!omat " ser$ "e* a!! are "h e&!' "on"erned , th (us ness re!at ons* %e"un ar' nterests* and the' ha$e ! tt!e more than an n" denta! (ear n# on other human nterests+FGE .Thorste n Ve(!en

Political /s0 Technical !o/ernance The nature and un&o!d n# o& the %o! t "a!!' dr $en mode! o& re%resentat $e demo"ra"'* !e# s!at on "reat on and the san"t oned en&or"ement o& !a,* are a!! (orne out o& natura! tenden" es nherent to the a"t o& "ommer"e and trade* o%erat n# , th n a s"ar" t'.dr $en so" a! order+ The de$e!o%ment o& th s "ommer" a! re#u!at on and the rat ona!e (eh nd the $er' e- sten"e o& Kstate #o$ernan"e” s )u te eas' to tra"e h stor "a!!'+ A&ter the Neo! th " re$o!ut on* human t'?s on"e nomad " %atterns sh &ted to,ard a ne, %ro%ens t' to &arm* sett!e and "reate to,ns+ S%e" a! 1at on &!our shed and trade ,as hen"e ne$ ta(!e+ Ho,e$er* # $en the %oss ( ! t' &or m(a!an"e and d s%ute* as re# ona! %o%u!at ons #re, and re# ona! resour"es o&ten (e"ame more s"ar"e* a se"ur t' and re#u!ator' %ra"t "e man &ested to %rote"t a "ommun t'?s !and* %ro%ert'* trade nte#r t' and the ! 7e+ The use o& an Karm'”* ,h "h s san"t oned to %rote"t (' %u(! " de"ree* (e"ame standard 1ed* a!on# , th an ad0a"ent !e#a! or re#u!ator' author t' "om%!e-* san"t oned to essent a!!' # $e %o,er to a set #rou% o& o&& " a!s ,h "h &a" ! tate su"h %o! "' "reat on* en&or"ement* tr a!s* %un shment %ra"t "es and the ! 7e+ Th s s ment oned here as there are man' s"hoo!s o& e"onom " thou#ht n the ear!' 42st "entur' that ta!7 a(out redu" n# or e$en remo$ n# the state a%%aratus ent re!'* &a!se!' assum n# the state tse!& s a se%arate ent t' and the start n# %o nt o& (!ame &or "urrent so" eta! ,oes or e"onom " ne&& " en" es+ :et* on the other s de o& the de(ate s%e"trum s a #enera! "r' &or n"reased state re#u!at on o& the mar7et to ensure more ! m ts on (us ness man %u!at on and hen"e ,or7 to a$o d ,hat has (een o&ten %er"e $ed as K"ron' "a% ta! sm”FE5+ The truth o& the matter s that th s %o!ar 1 n#* &a!se dua! t' (et,een the Kstate” and the Kmar7et” s (! nd to the true root "ause o& ,hat s a"tua!!'
FGE The Theor' o& 9us ness Enter%r se* Thorste n Ve(!en* %+4IE FE5 K/ron' /a% ta! sm” s de& ned as TA des"r %t on o& "a% ta! st so" et' as (e n#

(ased on the "!ose re!at onsh %s (et,een (us nessmen and the state+ Instead o& su""ess (e n# determ ned (' a &ree mar7et and the ru!e o& !a,* the su""ess o& a (us ness s de%endent on the &a$or t sm that s sho,n to t (' the ru! n# #o$ernment n the &orm o& ta- (rea7s* #o$ernment #rants and other n"ent $es+T X htt%<MM,,,+ n$esto%ed a+"omMtermsM"M"ron'"a% ta! sm+as% Y It s m%ortant to note that TZM does not (e! e$e n th s d st n"t on as t &a!se!' assumes su"h "o!!us on s a$o da(!e+ 46G

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

"aus n# %ro(!ems* not rea! 1 n# that the d'ad o& state and mar7et s'ner#' s* n rea! t'* a s n#!e %o,er s'stem n %!a'* at on"e+ Irres%e"t $e o& the mer t o& an' s%e" & " ar#ument as to the &a$or n# o& the K&ree mar7et” $s+ the &a$or n# o& Kstate re#u!at on”* a!! (us ness dea! n#s ha$e h stor "a!!' re)u red some !e$e! o& !e#a! med at on+ Th s s (e"ause a!! transa"t ons are a &orm o& "om%et t on and a!! "om%et t on n$ tes the %oss ( ! t' o& &raud or a(use* # $en the natura! %ressure o& e-terna! " r"umstan"es and the nature o& sur$ $a! tse!&* , th n the (ounds o& the s"ar" t'.(ased mar7et+ The &a"t s* an' &orm o& "ommer"e that e- sts n th s s"ar" t'.re n&or"ed ,or!d$ e,* , !! man &est so."a!!ed K"orru%t” or d shonest (eha$ or "onstant!'+ It s & rm!' n"ent $ 1ed+ The de#ree o& "orru%t on tse!& e$en (e"omes a matter o& o% n on* n &a"t+ The ! ne (et,een a""e%ted (us ness a"umen and (!atant d shonest %ersuas on s not an eas' d st n"t on to ma7e toda' n the (road $ e,+ There&ore* some t'%e o& o$err d n# de" s on.ma7 n# %o,er has a!,a's (een #ranted to some #rou% (od' to med ate "on&! "ts and th s s the seed o& #o$ernmenta! %o,er* as ,e 7no, t+ :et* the %un"h ! ne o& the ,ho!e " r"umstan"e s that n a ,or!d ,here e$er'th n# s %o,ered (' mone'U n a ,or!d ,here* n truth* e$er'th n# s &or sa!e* the ra% d K"orru%t on” o& an' su"h re#u!at on or %o,er esta(! shment s a!so essent a!!' #uaranteed o$er t me* to one de#ree or another+FE2 Aut another ,a'* there , !! a!,a's (e a need &or !e#a! re#u!at on o& transa"t ons n the mar7et (' some %u(! "!' san"t oned nst tut on* and the mar7et eth " , !! a!,a's "orru%t su"h re#u!at on to some e-tent , th the n&!uen"e o& mone' (e"ause mone' and (us ness are a"tua!!' ,hat ma7e the ,or!d mo$e+ Th s s s m%!' ,hat s to (e e-%e"ted ,hen the ent re %s'"ho!o# "a! &oundat on o& e- sten"e s (ased on sur$ $a! throu#h a"ts o& "om%et t $e se!&. nterest* or ented (' the un $ersa! assum%t on o& em% r "a! s"ar" t'* , th no rea! stru"tura! sa&e#uards # $en to mem(ers o& so" et' &or some reassuran"e n sur$ $a!+ To th n7 an' re#u!ator' a#en"' ,ou!d not (e sus"e%t (!e to su"h "orru%t onU to th n7 state %o! "' and hen"e "oer" on "ou!d not (e ?%ur"hased? ! 7e an' other "ommod t' s to den' the (as " %h !oso%h "a! &oundat on nherent to the mar7et?s not on o& K&reedom” tse!&+ There&ore* "om%!a n n# a(out state re#u!at on or !a"7 thereo& s u!t mate!' a moot ssue n the (road s"heme o& !on#.term so" eta! "han#e+ True so" a! "han#e , !! not "ome a(out (' the !!us $e %re&eren"e o& one o& these o$er the other+ It , !! on!' "ome a(out (' nsta!! n# a "om%!ete!' d &&erent s'stem ,h "h e! m nates (oth the
FE2 /or%orate Lo((' n#* ,h "h s !e#a! a"ross the ,or!d* s a %er&e"t e-am%!e+

Th s s !e#a! (e"ause "ommer" a! nst tut ons are the (a"7(one o& e"onom " de$e!o%ment+ Go$ernment #a ns n"ome &rom ta-at on and the !e$e! o& #a n "om n# &rom that ta-at on s d re"t!' t ed to the (us nesses that h re %eo%!e and se!! #oods+ There&ore* t s on!' natura! to assume the' shou!d ha$e n%ut n %o! t "a! de" s ons* at !east n theor'+ :et* the mora! ha1ard s o($ ous s n"e the r n%ut , !! ne$ ta(!' ,or7 to ser$e the r (us ness nterests+ / $ ! #o$ernment s* n truth* (us ness #o$ernment+ Re&< htt%<MM,,,+o%ense"rets+or#M!o(('M 46E

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

mar7et and the state as ,e 7no, t* e!e$at n# the ent re &rame,or7 out o& the narro,* "om%et t $e &o"us o& mana# n# s"ar" t' n the "urrent Kearn a ! $ n# or su&&er” s'stem* to a &o"us on &a" ! tat n# a susta na(!e a(undan"e and the meet n# o& human needs d re"t!'+ So* the &o!!o, n# e"onom " and mana#ement n&ormat on %resents a $ast de%arture &rom the "urrent* da'.to.da' un&o!d n# o& ! &e as ,e 7no, t ,hen t "omes to "ommer"e and so" a! mana#ement+ What th s mode! does s ! tera!!' remo$e the ed & "e o& re%resentat $e #o$ernment and re%!a"e t , th a 7 nd o& %art " %ator' demo"ra"'+ Th s %art " %at on s med ated throu#h d # ta! "ommun "at on methods that "an (r n# the nterests o& the ,ho!e "ommun t' nto "a!"u!at on* ,hether dea! n# , th nterests o& the so."a!!ed K%u(! "” se"tor or the K%r $ate” se"tor+ In a"tua! t'* there s no d &&eren"e n the %ro"ess o& %art " %at on and hen"e there ,ou!d no !on#er (e a %u(! " or %r $ate se"tor+ The m%ortan"e o& th s 7 nd o& mana#ement res des n se$era! areas+ For one t assures that human so" a! o%erat on s n a""ord , th (as " susta na( ! t' %r n" %!es needed to o%erate , th #enerat ona! !on#e$ t'* ,h !st a!so ma nta n n# a $ # !ant &o"us on %rodu" n# the most strate# "a!!' ne"essar' #oods at the %ea7 te"hn "a! "a%a" t' 7no,n at the t me o& %rodu"t on+ Su"h mana#ement s a!so a(out remo$ n# the $ast n"ent $e and re)u rement &or "orru%t on and "orru%t (eha$ ors* a(use and (us nessM#o$ernment "o!!us on ,h "h has %!a#ued " $ ! 1at on s n"e ant )u t'+ The a"t $e %ursu t o& a(undan"e throu#h these susta na(!e means ensures not on!' sur$ $a! and e&& " en"'* (ut sta( ! t'* ease and a h #her state o& %u(! " hea!th on a $ast s"a!e+ Economic 2odel Defined An e"onom " mode! s a theoret "a! "onstru"t re%resent n# "om%onent %ro"esses (' a set o& $ar a(!es or &un"t ons* des"r ( n# the !o# "a! re!at onsh %s (et,een them+ I& one has stud ed trad t ona! or mar7et. (ased e"onom " mode! n#* a #reat dea! o& t me s o&ten s%ent on th n#s su"h as %r "e trends* (eha$ ora! %atterns* n&!at on* the !a(or mar7et* "urren"' &!u"tuat ons* and so &orth+ Rare!'* & e$er* s an'th n# sa d a(out %u(! " or e"o!o# "a! hea!th+ Wh'R . 9e"ause the mar7et s ! &e.(! nd and de"ou%!ed &rom the a"tua! s" en"e o& ! &e su%%ort and susta na( ! t'+ It s a %ro-' s'stem that s (ased on!' around the a"t o& e-"han#e and e-"han#e %re&eren"es+ There&ore* the (est ,a' to th n7 a(out a NLR9E s not n the trad t ona! terms o& an' &orm o& mar7et.or ented e"onom " mode! "ommon toda'+ Rather* th s mode! "an (est (e thou#ht a(out as an advanced production, distribution and management system* ,h "h s demo"rat "a!!' en#a#ed (' the %u(! "* throu#h a 7 nd o& K%art " %ator' e"onom "s”+ Th s t'%e o& a%%roa"h &a" ! tates n%ut %ro"esses* su"h as des #n %ro%osa!s and demand assessment* ,h !e a!so & !ter n# a!! a"t ons throu#h ,hat ,e "ou!d "a!! sustainability and efficiency
4H5

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

%roto"o!s+ These %roto"o!s are the (as " ru!es o& ndustr a! a"t on set (' natura! !a,* not human o% n on+ As noted* ne ther o& these t,o nterests s stru"tura!!' nherent n the "a% ta! st mode!+ !oals@ 2+ths . O/er/iew A!! e"onom " s'stems ha$e stru"tura! #oa!s and o&ten t mes these #oa!s are not e-a"t!' a%%arent n the theor es set &or,ard n %r n" %!e+ The mar7et s'stem and a NLR9E ha$e $er' d &&erent stru"tura! #oa!s+ .Mar7et "a% ta! sm?s stru"tura! #oa! s #ro,th and ma nta n n# rates o& "onsum%t on h #h enou#h to 7ee% enou#h %eo%!e em%!o'ed at an' # $en t me+ L 7e, se* em%!o'ment tse!& re)u res a "u!ture o& rea! or %er"e $ed ne&& " en"' and that o&ten means the %reser$at on o& s"ar" t' n one &orm or another+ .A NLR9E?s #oa! s to o%t m 1e te"hn "a! e&& " en"' and "reate the h #hest !e$e! o& a(undan"e %oss (!e* , th n the (ounds o& Earth!' susta na( ! t'* see7 n# to meet human needs d re"t!'+ That noted* there are a num(er o& assum%t ons* m'ths and "on&us ons that ha$e ar sen o$er t me that are ,orth address n# u%&ront+ The & rst s the dea that th s mode! s K"entra!!' %!anned”+ What th s assumes* (ased on h stor "a! %re"edent* s that an e! te #rou% o& %eo%!e , !! ma7e the e"onom " de" s ons &or the so" et'+ A NLR9E s not "entra!!' %!anned+ It s a /o!!a(orat $e Des #n S'stem 8/DS;+ It s (ased ent re!' u%on %u(! " ntera"t on* &a" ! tated (' %ro#rammed* o%en.a""ess s'stems* that ena(!e a "onstant* d'nam " &eed(a"7 e-"han#e that "an ! tera!!' a!!o, &or the n%ut o& the %u(! " on an' # $en ndustr a! matter* ,hether %ersona! or so" a!+ G $en th s* another out"r' s K(ut ,ho %ro#rams the s'stemR”* ,h "h on"e a#a n assumes that an e! t st nterest "ou!d e- st (eh nd the med at n# so&t,are %ro#rams themse!$es 8as , !! (e e-%anded u%on more so n th s essa';+ The ans,er* as odd as t ma' sound* s e$er'one and no one+ The tan# (!e ru!es o& the !a,s o& nature* as the' a%%!' to en$ ronmenta! susta na( ! t' and en# neer n# e&& " en"'* are an o(0e"t $e &rame o& re&eren"e+ The nuan"es ma' "han#e to some de#ree o$er t me* (ut the #enera! %r n" %!es o& e&& " en"' and susta na( ! t' rema n* as the' ha$e (een dedu"ed (' (as " %h's "s* a!on# , th se$era! thousand 'ears o& re"orded h stor' (' ,h "h ,e ha$e (een a(!e to re"o#n 1e (as "* 'et "r t "a! %atterns n nature+ Moreo$er* the a"tua! %ro#ramm n# ut ! 1ed (' th s ntera"t $e s'stem ,ou!d (e a$a !a(!e n an o%en sour"e %!at&orm &or %u(! " n%ut and re$ e,+ In &a"t* the s'stem s %red "ated ent re!' u%on the nte!! #en"e o& the K#rou% m nd” and the o%en sour"eMo%en a""ess shar n# $ rtue , !! he!% (r n# a!! $ a(!e nterests to the sur&a"e &or %u(! " "ons derat on* n an a(so!ute!' trans%arent manner+ Another "on&us on surrounds a "on"e%t that has* to man'* (e"ome* the de& n n# d &&eren"e (et,een "a% ta! sm and most a!! other h stor "a!!' %ro%osed so" a! mode!s+ That has to do , th ,hether the
4H2

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Kmeans o& %rodu"t on” s %r $ate!' o,ned or not+ In short* the means o& %rodu"t on re&ers to the non.human assets that "reate #oods* su"h as ma"h ner'* too!s* &a"tor es* o&& "es and the ! 7e+ In "a% ta! sm* the capitalist o,ns the means o& %rodu"t on* (' h stor "a! de& n t on+ There has (een an on#o n# ar#ument &or a "entur' that an' s'stem that does not ha$e ts means o& %rodu"t on o,ned as a &orm o& %r $ate %ro%ert'* us n# "urren"' as the n&ormat on me"han sm* s not #o n# to (e as e"onom "a!!' e&& " ent as one that does+ Th s* as the ar#ument #oes* s (e"ause o& the use o& the %r "e me"han sm+FE4 Ar "e* to ts "red t* has the a( ! t' to "reate e-"han#e $a!ue amon#st $ rtua!!' an' set o& #oods due to ts d $ s ( ! t'+ Th s "reates a &eed(a"7 me"han sm that "onne"ts the ent re mar7et s'stem n a "erta n* narro, ,a'+ Ar "e* %ro%ert' and mone' ,or7 to#ether to trans!ate su(0e"t $e demand %re&eren"es nto sem .o(0e"t $e e-"han#e $a!ues+ The not on o& Ksem ” s em%!o'ed here (e"ause t s a "u!tura!!' re!at $e measure on!'* a(sent a!most e$er' &a"tor that # $es true te"hn "a! )ua! t' to a # $en mater a!* #ood or %ro"ess+ Ar#ua(!'* the on!' tan# (!e te"hn "a! data %r "e that em(od es* "rude!'* re!ates to a resour"e?s ?s"ar" t'? and the ?!a(or ener#'M"om%!e- t'? %ut nto the "reat on o& a # $en #ood+ Cee% th s n m nd* as these t,o $a!ue $ar a(!es , !! a!so (e addressed a#a n !ater n th s essa' , th res%e"t to non.%r "e or ented "a!"u!at on+ That a!! noted* the reasona(!e )uest on (e"omes< s t %oss (!e to "reate a s'stem that "an more e&& " ent!' &a" ! tate &eed(a"7 , th res%e"t to "onsumer %re&eren"e* demand* !a(or $a!ue and resour"e or "om%onent s"ar" t'* , thout the %r "e s'stem* su(0e"t $e %ro%ert' $a!ues or mar7et e-"han#eR The ans,er s 'es+ The modern so!ut on s to "om%!ete!' e! m nate e-"han#e and "reate a d re"t "ontro! and &eed(a"7 ! n7 (et,een the "onsumer and the means o& %rodu"t on tse!&+ The "onsumer a"tua!!' (e"omes %art o& the means o& %rodu"t on and the ndustr a! "om%!e- as a ,ho!e (e"omes a too! that s a""essed (' the %u(! "* at , !!* to #enerate #oods+ To !!ustrate th s* most toda' ! 7e!' o,n a s m%!e %a%er %r nter "onne"ted to a home "om%uter+ When a & !e s sent to %r nt &rom the "om%uter* the user s n "ontro! o& a m n ature $ers on o& a means o& %rodu"t on+ L 7e, se* n some " t es toda'* there are no, DD %r nt n# !a(s* ,here %eo%!e n the "ommun t' "an send the r DD des #n and use these ma"h nes to %r nt ,hat the' need n %h's "a! &orm+ The mode! (e n# %resented here s a s m !ar dea+ The ne-t ste% n th s s"a! n# %ro"ess s the "reat on o& a strate# "a!!' automated ndustr a! "om%!e-* !o"a! 1ed as mu"h as %oss (!e* ,h "h s des #ned to %rodu"e* throu#h automated means* the a$era#e o& e$er'th n# an' # $en re# on has &ound demand &or+ As , !! (e des"r (ed* th s s $er' &eas (!e # $en the "urrent state o& te"hno!o#' and the e%hemera! 1at on trends at hand+ Ima# ne* &or e-am%!e* a "!oth n# store e-"e%t that s not or#an 1ed ! 7e
FE4 Th s o(0e"t on s "ommon to the Austr an s"hoo! o& e"onom "s+ Re&eren"e<

htt%<MMm ses+or#Me"on"a!"+as%

4H4

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

a TstoreT as s "urrent!' understood+ It s a mu!t .%ur%ose te-t !e. %r nt n# house+ :ou & nd the des #n 'ou are nterested n on! ne* a!on# , th the mater a!s 'ou %re&er and other "ustom 1at ons* and 'ou %r nt that art "!e o& "!oth n# Kon.demand” at that &a" ! t'+ /ons der &or a moment ho, mu"h stora#e s%a"e* trans%ort ener#'* and o$errun ,aste s e! m nated (' th s a%%roa"h & $ rtua!!' e$er'th n# "ou!d (e "reated on.demand* done (' automated s'stems ,h "h "an "ont nua!!' %rodu"e a #reater $ar et' o& #oods* &rom n"reas n#!' sma!!er manu&a"tur n# "on& #urat ons+ In truth* the rea! &a!!a"' o& th s K%r $ate o,nersh % o& the means o& %rodu"t on” o(0e"t on s ts "u!ture !a#+ Toda'* ndustr' s , tness n# a mer#er o& "a% ta! #oods* "onsumer #oods and !a(or %o,er+ Ma"h nes are ta7 n# o$er human !a(or %o,er* (e"om n# "a% ta! #oods* ,h !e a!so e$er redu" n# n s 1e to (e"ome "onsumer #oods+ The resu!t s an n"reas n#!' sma!!er and more o%t m 1ed ndustr a! "om%!e- that "an do more and more , th !ess and !ess+ It s a!so ,orth ment on n# that !a(or automat on s no, ma7 n# the h stor "a!!' nota(!e ?!a(or theor' o& $a!ue?FED n"reas n#!' moot as ,e!!+ Toda'* the !a(or ener#' that #oes nto a # $en #ood* ,h !e st !! a &a"tor &or %ro"ess re"o#n t on* does not ha$e mu"h o& a )uant & a(!e "orre!at on an'more+ Toda'* ma"h nes no, ma7e and des #n ma"h nes+ Wh !e the n t a! "reat on o& a ma"h ne m #ht re)u re a #ood dea! o& human %!ann n# and n t a! "onstru"t on at th s t me* on"e set n mot on* there s a "onstant de"rease n that !a(or $a!ue trans&eren"e o$er t me+

FED Re&eren"e< n$esto%ed a+"om 8htt%<MM,,,+ n$esto%ed a+"omMtermsM!M!a(or.

theor'.o&.$a!ue+as%;

4HD

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Structure and Processes

Design Efficiency
Edesign

Production Efficiency
Ep

Distribution Efficiency
Edist

Recycling Efficiency
Er
F #ure 2+ 9!o"7.S"heme o& S'stem Aro"ess

F #ure 4+ S'stem %ro"ess as E-%ress on

4H6

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

F #ure D+ Lo# " S'm(o!s and Des"r %t on

As , !! (e des"r (ed n deta ! (' se"t on* & #ure 2 sho,s the ! near s"hemat " o& the ndustr a! %ro"ess* mo$ n# &rom des #n to %rodu"t on to d str (ut on and re"'"! n#+ F #ure 4 sho,s ho, an o%t m 1at on o& su"h e&& " en"' "an (e "ons dered &rom a mathemat "a! %o nt o& $ e,* as a m n m 1at on or ma- m 1at on o& some &un"t ona!+ 9e"ause ,e are ta!7 n# a(out e&& " en"'* ,e "an "ons der the
4HH

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

%ro(!em as a ma- m 1at on o& the %rodu"t on &un"t on

f P + F #ure D

s

a ta(!e o& s'm(o!s and des"r %t ons* as , !! (e used n the &o!!o, n# e-%!anat ons+ It s m%ortant to note that not a!! attr (utes , !! (e "o$ered n th s te-t+ The %ur%ose o& th s essa' and the &ormu!as su##ested are done so to # $e a start n# %o nt &or "a!"u!at on* h #h! #ht n# the most re!e$ant* o$erar"h n# attr (utes &or "ons derat on+ A &u!! a!#or thm " "a!"u!at on o& th s nature* ta7 n# nto a""ount a!! re!ated su(.%ro"esses n rea! ! &e terms ,ou!d re)u re an enormous te-tM%ro#ramm n# treatment and , !! ! 7e!' o""ur n a &uture ed t on o& th s te-t?s a%%end -* as an on#o n# %ro0e"t de$e!o%ment+ Colla orati/e Design $nterface The start n# %o nt &or ntera"t on n a NLR9E s the /DI* or "o!!a(orat $e des #n nter&a"e+ The /DI "ou!d a(stra"t!' (e "ons dered the Kne, Kmar7et” or the mar7et o& deas or des #ns+ Des #n s the & rst ste% n an' %rodu"t on nterest and th s nter&a"e "an (e en#a#ed (' a s n#!e %ersonU t "an (e en#a#ed (' a teamU t "an (e en#a#ed (' e$er'one+ It s o%en sour"e and o%en a""ess and t ,ou!d "ome n the &orm o& an on! ne ,e( nter&a"e+ The not on o& Kmar7et” s e-%ressed here not to "on&!ate the not on o& trade* (ut rather the not on o& shar n# and #rou% de" s on. ma7 n#+ As , th the trad t ona! sa!es mar7et* there s a s,arm t'%e o& (eha$ or ,h "h ma7es de" s ons o$er t me as a #rou% ,ho!e , th res%e"t to ,hat #oods , !! de$e!o% 8demand; and ,hat #oods , !! %er sh 8!a"7 o& demand;+ In a "erta n sense* th s demo"rat " %ro"ess s em(ra"ed n a NLR9E* (ut (' d &&erent means+ Moreo$er* a!! su(m tted des #ns* n "reat on or deemed "om%!ete* are stored n an o%en a""ess* sear"ha(!e data(ase+ Th s data(ase ma7es a!! des #ns a$a !a(!e &or others to use or (u !d u%on+ In th s ,a'* t s s m !ar to a trad t ona! #oods "ata!o# "ommon!' &ound toda'* e-"e%t t "onta ns d # ta! des #ns that "an (e sent nto %rodu"t on at an' t me* on demand+ Th s des #n "reat on and %ro%osa! s'stem s ho, demand tse!& s assessed+ Instead o& trad t ona! ad$ert s n# and the un d re"t ona! "onsumer #ood %ro%osa! s'stem . ,here "om%an es ,or7 to %ersuade the "onsumer as to ,hat the' shou!d (u'* , th the %u(! " most!' #o n# , th the &!o,* &a$or n# or not &a$or n# a "om%an'?s % t"hed #ood* "om%onent or &eature (' %ur"hase or not . th s s'stem ,or7s n an o%%os te* more n$o!$ed and demo"rat " manner+ In th s ne,* o%en sour"e t'%e des #n a%%roa"h* the ent re #!o(a! "ommun t' has the o%t on o& %resent n# deas &or e$er'one to see* ,e #h n# n on and (u !d n# u%on des #ns* harness n# the %o,er o& "o!!e"t $e e-%er en"e and #!o(a! 7no,!ed#e+ The me"han sm o& the /DI ,ou!d "ome n the &orm o& an ntera"t $e nter&a"e* su"h as ,e see "ommon!' toda' , th "om%uter. a ded des #n 8/AD; or "om%uter.a ded en# neer n# 8/AE; so&t,are+ In short* these %ro#rams are a(!e to d # ta!!' "reate and re%resent an'
4HI

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

# $en %rodu"t des #n* "onta n n# a!! n&ormat on as to ho, t shou!d (e made n & na!* %h's "a! manu&a"tur n#+

A(o$e< /AD Inter&a"e Des #n E-am%!e

As an as de* man' "ons der n# the edu"at ona! re)u rements to en#a#e su"h an nter&a"e* m #ht (e "on"erned a(out use."om%!e- t'+ Natura!!'* the more ded "ated des #ner , !! de$e!o% the s7 !!s needed to ,hate$er de#ree nterested ,h !e* &or the more "asua! user* d &&erent de#rees o& nter&a"e "om%!e- t' and s7 !! or entat on "an (e ut ! 1ed+ Th s more user.&r end!' nter&a" n# "an de$e!o% n a s m !ar &ash on to ho, %ersona! "om%uters trans t oned &rom "om%!e%ro%r etar' "od n# nter&a"es , th manua!!' n%ut nstru"t ons* to the no, u( )u tous* s m%!e #ra%h " nter&a"e "on s'stem* ,h "h a!!o,s users to o%erate more ntu t $e!'+ Future /ADM/AE t'%e %ro#rams , !! ! 7e!' e$o!$e n the same ,a'* ma7 n# the ntera"t $e %ro"ess more a""ess (!e+ In man' "ases* as the data(ase s a!,a's %o%u!ated , th "urrent* a!read' e- st n# des #ns* the %ra"t "e , !! (e to (u !d u%on other?s ,or7+ For e-am%!e* & an en# neer s nterested n the o%t m 1at on o& a "e!! %hone* the' ha$e the o%t on o& (u !d n# u%on an' e- st n# %hone %rodu"t des #n n the data(ase* rather than start n# &rom s"rat"h+ The (ene& t o& th s "annot (e em%has 1ed enou#h as a "o!!a(orat $e %!at&orm+ Rather than ! m t the des #n n%ut to* sa'* a (oardroom o& en# neers and mar7eters* as s "ommon %ra"t "e toda'* ! tera!!' m !! ons o& m nds "an (e (rou#ht to#ether to a""e!erate an' # $en dea n th s a%%roa"h+ Th s ne, n"ent $e s'stem a!so ensures e$er'one nterested n the #ood , !! re"e $e e-a"t!' ,hat e$er'one
4HF

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

e!se s ! 7e!' to re"e $e n ts ad$an"ed o%t m 1at on states* ,here personal interest becomes directly tied to societal interest* A!so* # $en the %atterns toda'* ! 7e!' not e$er'one ,ou!d ,ant or need to (e a des #ner+ Man' %eo%!e ,ou!d (e sat s& ed enou#h (' ,hat had (een set n mot on a!read' (' others* , th %erha%s m nor "ustom 1at on a!on# the ,a'+ Toda'* a $er' sma!! %er"enta#e o& the %o%u!at on a"tua!!' "reate and en# neer the dom nant te"hno!o#' and #oods ,e useU and th s s%e" a! 1at on ma' natura!!' "ont nue n the &uture to some de#ree* e$en thou#h t s to the ad$anta#e o& e$er'one & more m nds "ame to#ether+ I& the edu"at ona! s'stem s or entated a,a' &rom rote !earn n# and ts ant )uated (as s that or # nated n the 2Eth "entur' so" a! order* ,e "ou!d see an e-%!os on o& n%ut and "reat $ t'+ A!! that understood* an n"red (!' m%ortant "om%onent o& these des #n and en# neer n# %ro#rams toda' s ho, the' "an no, n"or%orate ad$an"ed %h's "s and other rea! ,or!d* natura! !a, %ro%ert es , th the %ro%osed des #n &or test n#+ In other ,ords* the #ood sn?t 0ust $ e,a(!e n a stat " $ sua! mode! , th noted %ro%ert es* t "an a"tua!!' (e tested r #ht there* $ rtua!!'* to a re!e$ant de#ree+ For nstan"e* a!! ne, automo( !e des #ns toda'* !on# (e&ore the' are %h's "a!!' (u !t* are run throu#h "om%!e- d # ta! test n# %ro"esses that ass st n des #n nte#r t' #reat!'+FE6 O$er t me* there s no reason to (e! e$e that ,e , !! not (e a(!e to d # ta!!' re%resent* and set n mot on &or test n#* most a!! 7no,n !a,s o& nature* a%%!' n# them n d &&erent "onte-ts* $ rtua!!'+ O,timiAed Efficienc+ Standards% E&& " en"' standards are standards (' ,h "h a # $en des #n must "on&orm+ Th s e$a!uat on , !! (e "a!"u!ated automat "a!!'* or a!#or thm "a!!'* (' the /DS?s %ro#ramm n#+ Th s "an a!so (e thou#ht o& as a filtering %ro"ess+ In short* an' %ro%osed des #n , !! (e d # ta!!' & !tered throu#h a ser es o& sustainability and efficiency %roto"o!s ,h "h re!ate not on!' to the state o& e- st n# resour"es* (ut a!so to the "urrent %er&orman"e o& the tota! ndustr a! s'stem+ These ,ou!d n"!ude the &o!!o, n# Ke&& " en"' standards”+FEH a; Strate# "a!!' Ma- m 1ed Dura( ! t' (; Strate# "a!!' Ma- m 1ed Ada%ta( ! t' "; Strate# " Standard 1at on o& Genre /om%onents d; Strate# "a!!' Inte#rated Re"'"! n# /ondu" $eness e; Strate# " /ondu" $eness &or La(or Automat on
FE6 Re&eren"e< Engineering revolution3

4=. 4E advancements changing vehicle development* 8htt%<MM,ardsauto+"omMne,s.am%. ana!'s sMen# neer n#.re$o!ut on."ad"ae.ad$an"ements."han# n#.$eh "!e. de$e!o%ment; FEH A!ease note these %roto"o!s ,ere a!so addressed n the essa' True Economic (actors* n the "onte-t o& Km "roe"onom " "om%onents”* , th m !d $ar at on n the !an#ua#e+ 4HG

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

F #ure 6+ S'm(o! " Lo# " &or the KO%t m 1ed Des #n E&& " en"'” &un"t on

As %er & #ure 6* des #n e&& " en"'

Edesign

s one o& the ma n &a"tors

that "an a&&e"t the o$era!! e&& " en"' o& the manu&a"tur n# and d str (ut on %ro"ess+ Th s des #n e&& " en"' de%ends on se$era! 7e' i &a"tors* ,h "h "an (e "a!!ed "urrent efficiency standards E design + Here the nde- i "orres%onds to some %art "u!ar standard+ Ea"h standard , !! (e #enera!!' e-%!ored as &o!!o,s* e-%and n# n "erta n "ases , th res%e"t to the s'm(o! " !o# " asso" ated* &or the sa7e o& "!ar t'+ a; WStrate# "a!!' Ma- m 1ed Dura( ! t'N means to ma7e the #ood as stron# and !ast n# as re!e$ant+ The mater a!s ut ! 1ed* "om%arat $e!' assum n# %oss (!e su(st tut ons due to !e$e!s o& s"ar" t' or other &a"tors* ,ou!d (e d'nam "a!!' "a!"u!ated* ! 7e!' automat "a!!' (' the des #n s'stem* to (e most "ondu" $e to an o%t m 1ed dura( ! t' standard+ =urability

td

ma- m 1at on+ Th s durability

t d (d1 , d 2 ,..., d i )

ma- m 1at on "an (e "ons dered as a !o"a! o%t m 1at on ssue+ It "an (e ana!'1ed (' ntrodu" n# the &a"tors

di

,h "h a&&e"t t ,here

o o d1 , d 2 ,..., d io

are some o%t ma! $a!ues o& the &a"tors+

(; WStrate# "a!!' Ma- m 1ed Ada%ta( ! t'N

Adesign

means the h #hest

state o& &!e- ( ! t' &or re%!a" n# "om%onent %arts s made+ In the e$ent a "om%onent %art o& a #ood (e"omes de&e"t $e or out o& date* the des #n &a" ! tates that su"h "om%onents are eas !' re%!a"ed to ma- m 1e &u!! %rodu"t ! &e s%an* a!,a's a$o d n# the nterest to re%!a"e the #ood as a ,ho!e+

4HE

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

"; ?Strate# " Standard 1at on o& Genre /om%onentsN

2 i Nc g1 c , g c ,...g c ,...g c
means a!! ne, des #ns e ther "on&orm to or re%!a"e e- st n# "om%onents ,h "h are e ther a!read' n e- sten"e or outdated due a !a"7 o& "om%arat $e e&& " en"'+ Th s !o# " shou!d not on!' a%%!' to a # $en %rodu"t* t shou!d a%%!' to the ent re #ood #enre* ho,e$er %oss (!e+

The a m s to m n m 1e the tota! num(er o& #enre "om%onents other ,ords* the standard 1at on o& the %ro"ess , !! ena(!e the %oss ( ! t' o& !o,er n# the num(er

Nc + In

Nc

to a %oss (!e m n mum+

d; ?Re"'"! n# /ondu" $eness?

cr

means e$er' des #n must "on&orm to

the "urrent state o& re#enerat $e %oss ( ! t'+ The (rea7do,n o& an' #ood must (e ant " %ated n the n t a! des #n and a!!o,ed &or n the most o%t m 1ed ,a'+

e; ?Strate# " /ondu" $eness &or La(or Automat on? means that the "urrent state o& o%t m 1ed* automated %rodu"t on s a!so ta7en nto a""ount* see7 n# to re& ne the des #n to (e most "ondu" $e to %rodu"t on , th the !east amount o& "om%!e- t'* human !a(or or mon tor n#+ A#a n* ,e see7 to s m%! &' the ,a' mater a!s and %rodu"t on means are used so that the ma- mum num(er o& #oods "an (e %rodu"ed , th the !east $ar at on o& mater a!s and %rodu"t on e)u %ment+

Th s s denoted (' human !a(or

HL
4I5

and automated !a(or

AL + The

a m s to m n m 1e the human ntera"t on , th the %rodu"t on %ro"ess+

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Th s "an (e ,r tten as<

Us n# th s e)uat on* ,e "ou!d a!so ,r te a s m%!er "ond t on<

,here

li

are &a"tors that n&!uen"e human and automat " !a(or+

So* return n# to F #ure 6* th s KO%t m 1ed Des #n E&& " en"'” &un"t on "an (e des"r (ed (' a &un"t on

f design

,here

td

s dura( ! t'*

Adesign

s ada%ta( ! t'*

cr

s re"'"! n# "ondu" $eness*

Nc

s the

m n mum num(er o& #enre "om%onents and

HL

s a human !a(or+

The $ndustrial "etwor# The ndustr a! net,or7 re&ers to the (as " net,or7 o& %h's "a! &a" ! t es that are d re"t!' "onne"ted to the des #n and data(ase s'stem 0ust des"r (ed+ The s'stem "onne"ts ser$ers* %rodu"t on &a" ! t es* d str (ut on &a" ! t es and re"'"! n# &a" ! t es+ 8F #ure H;

4I2

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Des #n Ser$ers< These "om%uter ser$ers "onne"t the des #n data(ase to the des #nersM"onsumers* ,h !e "onstant!' (e n# u%dated , th re!e$ant %h's "a! data to #u de the %ro"ess o& %rodu"t "reat on n the most o%t m 1ed and susta na(!e ,a'+ As noted* the en#a#ed /DI 8or "o!!a(orat $e des #n nter&a"e; s an o%en sour"e %ro#ram that &a" ! tates "o!!e"t $e* "om%uter.a ded des #n* runn n# ea"h ste% throu#h the set o& e&& " en"' and susta na( ! t' & !ters 8I+e+ F #ure 6; ,h "h assure o%t m 1ed des #n+ These des #ns are tested n rea! t me* d # ta!!'* and n most "ases* the #ood , !! e- st n ,hate$er state on! ne &or others to o(ta n* on demand* or &or use as a %re! m nar' mode! (' ,h "h ne, deas "an (e (u !t u%on+ Arodu"t on Fa" ! t es< These stru"tures &a" ! tate the a"tua! manu&a"tur n# o& a # $en des #n+ These ,ou!d e$o!$e as automated &a"tor es that n"reas n#!' are a(!e to %rodu"e more , th &e,er mater a! n%uts and &e,er ma"h ne "on& #urat ons+ A#a n* & the nterest e- sted to "ons" ous!' o$er"ome unne"essar' des #n "om%!e- t es* ,e "an &urther th s e&& " en"' trend , th an e$er.!o,er en$ ronmenta! m%a"t and e$er !o,er resour"e use %er tas7* ,h !e ma- m 1 n# our a(undan"e %rodu" n# %otent a!+ The num(er o& %rodu"t on &a" ! t es* ,hether homo#eneous or hetero#eneous* ,ou!d (e strate# "a!!' d str (uted to%o#ra%h "a!!' (ased on %o%u!at on stat st "s* no d &&erent than ho, #ro"er' stores toda' tr' to a$era#e d stan"es (et,een %o"7ets o& %eo%!e around ne #h(orhoods+ Th s s the K%ro- m t' strate#'”* ,h "h , !! (e re$ s ted n th s essa'+ D str (ut on Fa" ! t es< D str (ut on "an e ther o""ur d re"t!' &rom the %rodu"t on &a" ! t'* usua!!' n the "ase o& an on.demand* one.o&& %rodu"t on &or "ustom use* or sent to a d str (ut on library &or %u(! " a""ess n masse* (ased on re# ona! demand nterest+ Some #oods , !! (e "ondu" $e to !o, demand* "ustom %rodu"t on and some , !! not+ Food s the eas est e-am%!e o& a mass %rodu"t on ne"ess t'* ,h !e a %ersona!!' ta !ored % e"e o& &urn ture ,ou!d "ome d re"t!' &rom the manu&a"tur n# &a" ! t' on"e "reated+ It s ,orth re terat n# that re#ard!ess o& ,hether the #ood s "!ass & ed to #o to a ! (rar' or d re"t!' to a user* th s s st !! an ?a""ess s'stem?+ In other ,ords* at an' t me* the user o& the "ustom or mass %rodu"ed #ood "an return the tem &or re%ro"ess n# or resto"7 n#+ Re"'"! n# Fa" ! t es< Re"'"! n# Fa" ! t es ,ou!d ! 7e!' e- st as %art o& the %rodu"t on &a" ! t'* a!!o, n# a""ess to returned %arts &or u%dat n# and re%ro"ess n#+ As noted n the des #n %roto"o!* a!! #oods ha$e (een %re.o%t m 1ed &or ?"ondu" $e re"'"! n#?+ The #oa! here s a 1ero.,aste e"onom'+ Whether
4I4

F #ure H+ Industr a! Net,or7 $ sua! a d

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

t s a %hone* a "ou"h* a "om%uter* a 0a"7et* or a (oo7* e$er'th n# #oes (a"7 to a re"'"! n# &a" ! t'* ! 7e!' the %o nt o& or # n* ,h "h , !! d re"t!' re%ro"ess an' tem as (est t "an+ O& "ourse* an tem ma' (e returned e!se,here & neededU the nte#rated and standard 1ed %rodu"t on and re"'"! n# "enters* ha$ n# (een "on"e $ed o& as a "om%!ete* "om%at (!e and ho! st " s'stem* ,ou!d (e a(!e to hand!e returned #oods o%t ma!!'* as s not the "ase toda'+ G!o(a! Resour"e and S'stem Mana#ement< These &our &a" ! t es are a!so "onne"ted* to one de#ree or another* to a ?lobal 'esource Management 8GRM; net,or7* ,h "h s a sensor and measurement s'stem that %ro$ des &eed(a"7 and n&ormat on a(out the "urrent state o& ra, mater a!s and the en$ ronment+ Resource 2anagement@ Feed ac# . 'alue As noted* th s "om%uter.a ded des #n and en# neer n# %ro"ess does not e- st n a $a"uumU t does not %ro"ess des #ns , th no n%ut as to the "urrent state o& the %!anet and ts resour"es+ /onne"ted to the des #n %ro"ess* ! tera!!' (u !t nto the noted KO%t m 1e Des #n E&& " en"'” &un"t on* s d'nam " &eed(a"7 &rom an Earth., de a""ount n# s'stem that # $es data a(out a!! re!e$ant resour"es ,h "h %erta n to a!! %rodu"t ons+ To ,hate$er de#ree te"hn "a!!' %oss (!e* a!! ra, mater a!s and re!ated resour"es are tra"7ed and mon tored* n as "!ose to rea! t me as %oss (!e+ Th s s ma n!' (e"ause ma nta n n# e)u ! (r um , th the Earth?s re#enerat $e %ro"esses* ,h !e a!so ,or7 n# strate# "a!!' to ma- m 1e the use o& the most a(undant mater a!s* ,h !e m n m 1 n# an'th n# , th emer# n# s"ar" t'* s a "r t "a! e&& " en"' "a!"u!at on+ A#a n* th s s* n %art* the %ur%ose o& the G!o(a! Resour"e Mana#ement s'stem ment oned %r or+ As &ar as K$a!ue” "a!"u!at on* %erha%s the t,o most m%ortant measures* ,h "h , !! under#o "onstant d'nam " re"a!"u!at on throu#h &eed(a"7 as ndustr' un&o!ds* s the !e$e! o& 8a; ?s"ar" t'? and the de#ree o& 8(; ?!a(or "om%!e- t'?+ 8a; ?S"ar" t' $a!ue? "an (e ass #ned a numer "a! $a!ue* &rom 2.255+ 2 ,ou!d denote the most se$ere s"ar" t' , th res%e"t to the "urrent rate o& use and 255 the !east se$ere+ H5 ,ou!d (e the stead'.state d $ d n# ! ne+ The s"ar" t' $a!ue o& an' # $en resour"e ,ou!d e- st at some $a!ue a!on# th s ! ne* d'nam "a!!' u%dated (' the G!o(a! Resour"e Mana#ement net,or7+

4ID

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

F #ure I+ S"ar" t' Ran7 $ sua! a d

For e-am%!e* & the use o& ,ood %asses the stead' state !e$e! o& H5* ,h "h ,ou!d mean "onsum%t on s "urrent!' sur%ass n# the Earth?s natura! re#enerat on rate* th s ,ou!d tr ##er a "ounter mo$e o& some 7 nd* su"h as the %ro"ess o& ?mater a! su(st tut on? or & nd n# a re%!a"ement &or ,ood n an' &uture %rodu"t ons+ As &ar as a "om%arat $e e$a!uat on* n a mar7et s'stem the %r "e me"han sm s used to de" de ,h "h mater a! s more "ost e&& " ent* assum n# a # $en %r "e , !! ha$e a!read' a""ounted &or re!e$ant te"hn "a! n&ormat on or* n th s "ase* the ssue o& s"ar" t'+ Th s ne, a%%roa"h* rather than use %r "e to "om%are or assess $a!ue* a""ounts &or a # $en te"hn "a! )ua! t' d re"t!' (' a "om%arat $e )uant & "at on+ In the "ase o& s"ar" t' "on"erns* t s (est to or#an 1e #enres or #rou%s o& s m !ar use mater a!s and )uant &'* to the h #hest de#ree %oss (!e* the r re!ated %ro%ert es and de#rees o& e&& " en"' &or an' # $en %ur%ose+ Then* a #enera! numer "a! $a!ue s%e"trum s a%%! ed to those re!at onsh %s+ For e-am%!e* there s a s%e"trum o& meta!s that ha$e d &&erent e&& " en" es &or e!e"tr "a! "ondu"t $ t'+ These e&& " en" es "an (e %h's "a!!' )uant & ed and then "om%ared (' $a!ue+ So* & "o%%er* a "ondu"t $e meta!* #oes (e!o, the H5 $a!ue o& e)u ! (r um re#ard n# ts s"ar" t'* "a!"u!at ons are tr ##ered (' the mana#ement %ro#ram to "om%are the state o& other "ondu" $e mater a!s* the r scarcity level and the r efficiency level* %re%ar n# &or su(st tut on+ Th s s 0ust one e-am%!e and natura!!' th s t'%e o& reason n# ,ou!d #et e-treme!' "om%! "ated de%end n# on the mater a! and %ur%ose %ro(!ems %osed+ Ho,e$er* that s e-a"t!' ,h' t s "a!"u!ated (' ma"h ne* not %eo%!e+ The human m nd* e ther s n#!' or or#an 1ed nto !ar#e #rou%s* s m%!' "annot %ro"ess su"h data e&&e"t $e!'+ A!so* t s ,orth %o nt n# out that th s t'%e o& d re"t $a!ue "a!"u!at on* (ased around %ur%ose* "ondu" $eness and susta na( ! t'* dramat "a!!' e"! %ses the %r "e me"han sm ,hen t "omes to true resour"e a,areness and nte!! #ent resour"e mana#ement n "a!"u!at on+ 8(; L 7e, se* K!a(or "om%!e- t'” and ts assessment s m%!' means est mat n# the "om%!e- t' o& a # $en %rodu"t on and dra, n# a
4I6

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

numer "a! $a!ue (ased on the de#ree o& %ro"ess "om%!e- t'+ /om%!e- t'* n the "onte-t o& an automat on.or ented ndustr'* "an (e )uant & ed (' de& n n# and "om%ar n# the num(er o& W%ro"ess sta#es+N An' # $en #ood %rodu"t on "an (e &oreshado,ed as to ho, man' Wsta#esN o& %rodu"t on %ro"ess n# t , !! ta7e+ It "an then (e "om%ared to other #ood %rodu"t ons* dea!!' n the same %ur%ose #enre* &or a )uant & a(!e assessment+ In other ,ords* the un ts o& measurement are these ?sta#es?+ For e-am%!e* a "ha r that "an (e mo!ded n three m nutes* &rom s m%!e %o!'mers n one %ro"ess* , !! ha$e a !o,er W!a(or "om%!e- t'N $a!ue than a "ha r ,h "h re)u res automated assem(!' do,n a more ted ous %rodu"t on "ha n* , th m -ed mater a!s+ In the e$ent a # $en %ro"ess $a!ue s too "om%!e- or hen"e "om%arat $e!' ne&& " ent n terms o& ,hat s "urrent!' %oss (!e 8(' "om%ar son to an a!read' e- st n# des #n o& a s m !ar nature;* the des #n ,ou!d (e &!a##ed and ,ou!d hen"e need to (e re.e$a!uated+ Su"h ad0ustments and &!a## n# ,ou!d "ome n the &orm o& &eed(a"7 &rom the des #n nter&a"e* dur n# the des #n sta#e+ There s a!so no reason not to assume that , th on#o n# ad$an"ement n AI* the s'stem "ou!d a"tua!!' &eed (a"7 , th a"tua! su##est ons or e$en d re"t so!ut ons to a # $en e&& " en"' or susta na( ! t' %ro(!em* n rea! t me+ Design Calculation Those #enera! 1at ons noted* a ,a!7throu#h o& th s o$era!!* ! near %ro"ess s e-%ressed (e!o,+ There , !! (e some re%et t on here &or the sa7e o& "!ar t'+ I& ,e ,ere to !oo7 at #ood des #n n the (roadest %oss (!e ,a' , th res%e"t to ndustr a! un&o!d n#* ,e end u% , th a(out &our &un"t ons or %ro"esses* ea"h re!at n# to the &our dom nant* ! near sta#es* n"!ud n# des #n* %rodu"t on* d str (ut on and re"'"! n#+ A#a n* ea"h o& these %ro"esses s d re"t!' t ed to the G!o(a! Resour"e Mana#ement s'stem that %ro$ des $a!ue &eed(a"7 that ass sts n the re#u!ator' a%%aratus to ensure e&& " en"' and susta na( ! t'+ The &o!!o, n# %ro%os t ons a%%!' 8F #ure 2;< A!! Arodu"t Des #ns must ada%t to< 2; O%t m 1ed Des #n E&& " en"' 4; O%t m 1ed Arodu"t on E&& " en"' D; O%t m 1ed D str (ut on E&& " en"' 6; O%t m 1ed Re"'"! n# E&& " en"'

F #ure 2+ 8re%eated;

4IH

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

2; O%t m 1ed Des #n E&& " en"'< A %rodu"t des #n must meet or ada%t to "r ter a set (' i X/urrent E&& " en"' StandardsY E design + X/urrent E&& " en"' StandardsY ha$e & $e e$a!uat $e su(.%ro"esses* as e-%ressed (e&ore< XDura( ! t'Y S

td

Adesign XStandard 1at onY S Nc
XAda%ta( ! t'Y S

cr XAutomat on /ondu" $enessY S H L
XRe"'"! n# /ondu" $enessY S A!ease note that &urther (rea7do,n o& ea"h o& these su(. %ro"esses and !o# "a! asso" at ons "an (e & #urat $e!' made as ,e!! to e$er.redu" n# m nut ae+ Ho,e$er* as noted* th s e-%ress on s the Kto%” t er (' ,h "h a!! other su(.%ro"esses are or ented+ It s* a#a n* not the s"o%e o& th s te-t to %ro$ de a!! attr (utes o& a ,or7 n# a!#or thm+ It s a!so not m%! ed here that the %arameters e-%ressed are tota! or a(so!ute!' "om%!ete+ 4; O%t m 1ed Arodu"t on E&& " en"' Th s & !ter?s %arameters "an "han#e (ased on the nature o& the &a" ! t es and ho, mu"h ma"h ne $ar at on n %rodu"t on 8& -ed automat on $s+ &!e- (!e automat on;FEI s re)u red at a # $en t me+ For the %ur%ose o& e-%ress on* t,o &a" ! t' t'%es , !! (e d st n#u shed< one &or h #h demand or mass %rodu"t on and one &or !o, demand or short.run* "ustom #oods+

FEI TF -ed automat onT* a!so 7no,n as Khard automat on*” re&ers to an

automated %rodu"t on &a" ! t' n ,h "h the se)uen"e o& %ro"ess n# o%erat ons s & -ed (' the e)u %ment "on& #urat on+ It s &ast (ut has !ess $ar at on n out%ut des #n "a%a" t'+ F!e- (!e automat on "an "reate more $ar at on (ut the d sad$anta#e s the t me re)u red to re%ro#ram and "han#e o$er the %rodu"t on e)u %ment+ These terms are "ommon to the manu&a"tur n# and ro(ot "s ndustr' ,hen t "omes to %!ant des #n+ 4II

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

F #ure F+ D $ d n# (' !o, and h #h+ A%%! "at on o& the "!ass determ nat on %ro"ess

Ver' s m%!'* a "!ass determ nat on s made ,h "h s%! ts

DS

the

dest nat on &a" ! t es (ased u%on the nature o& %rodu"t on re)u rements+ The ?h #h demand? tar#et assumes & -ed automat on

A (ai ) * mean n# un$ar ed %rodu"t on methods
automat on usua!!' n shorter runs+

dea! &or h #h

demandMmass %rodu"t on+ The ?!o, demand? tar#et uses &!e- (!e

~ A(t , Dc (t ), ai ) * ,h "h "an do a $ar et' o& th n#s (ut

A#a n* th s s"hemat " assumes on!' t,o t'%es o& &a" ! t es are needed+ There "ou!d (e more &a" ! t' t'%es (ased u%on %rodu"t on &a"tors* #enerat n# more s%! tt n# "ond t ons+ Ho,e$er* & the des #n ru!es are res%e"ted* there shou!dnNt (e too mu"h $ar at on o$er t me as the ntent s a!,a's to redu"e and s m%! &'+ To state the %ro"ess n ! near &orm 8F #ure F;< A!! %rodu"t des #ns are & !tered (' a XDemand /!ass Determ nat onY %ro"ess+ The XDemand /!ass Determ nat onY %ro"ess & !ters (ased on the standards set &or XLo, DemandY or XH #h DemandY+ A!! XLo, /onsumer DemandY %rodu"t des #ns are to (e manu&a"tured (' the XF!e- (!e Automat onY %ro"ess+ A!! XH #h /onsumer DemandY %rodu"t des #ns are to (e manu&a"tured (' the XF -ed Automat onY %ro"ess+ A!so* (oth the manu&a"tur n# o& XLo, /onsumer DemandY and XH #h /onsumer DemandY %rodu"t des #ns , !! (e re# ona!!' a!!o"ated as %er

4IF

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

the XAro- m t' Strate#'Y

dp

o& the manu&a"tur n# &a" ! t es+

D; O%t m 1ed D str (ut on E&& " en"' On"e %ro"ess 4 s & n shed* the %rodu"t des #n (e"omes a ?%rodu"t? and mo$es to the XO%t m 1ed D str (ut on E&& " en"'Y & !ter+ In short* a!! %rodu"ts are a!!o"ated (ased on ts %r or XDemand /!ass Determ nat onY+ XLo, /onsumer DemandY %rodu"ts &o!!o, the XD re"t D str (ut onY %ro"ess+ XH #h /onsumer DemandY %rodu"t ons &o!!o, the XMass D str (ut onY %ro"ess* ,h "h ,ou!d ! 7e!' (e the ! (rar es* ment oned %r or+ 9oth the XLo, /onsumer DemandY and XH #h /onsumer DemandY %rodu"t , !! (e re# ona!!' a!!o"ated as %er the XAro- m t' Strate#'Y* as (e&ore+

F #ure G+ I!!ustrat on o& the d str (ut on s"hemes A 8!e&t; J D re"t D str (ut on J !o, demand "ase* 9 8r #ht; J Mass D str (ut on J h #h demand "ase

In the "ase o& XLo, /onsumer DemandY

the d str (ut on s"heme s d re"t 8F #ure Ga;+ In th s "ase the %rodu"t #oes d re"t!' to the "onsumer , thout the he!% o& net,or7 ntermed ar es+

4IG

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

In the "ase o& XH #h /onsumer DemandY

the d str (ut on s"heme s mass 8F #ure G(;+ In th s "ase the %rodu"t #oes to ntermed ar' &a" ! t es* su"h as ! (rar es %otent a! "onsumers

Di

to en#a#e the

Ci +

S m !ar to the %rodu"t on e&& " en"' "ons derat ons* n the "ase o& ?D str (ut on E&& " en"'?

Edist * &or the !o, and h #h demand* the d dist

d str (ut on %ro"ess , !! (e o%t m 1ed n terms o& the d stan"e

to the e- st n# &a" ! t es+ In th s "ase the &a" ! t es are %!a"es n re# ona! d str (ut on 8! (rar es;* (ased on the !e$e! o& demand n the # $en re# on+ 8 +e+ Aro- m t' Strate#'

d p ;+

6; O%t m 1ed Re"'"! n# E&& " en"' A&ter d str (ut on* the %rodu"t then #oes throu#h ts ! &e."'"!e+ On"e ts ! &e."'"!e ends* the %rodu"t (e"omes T$o d” and mo$es to %ro"ess O6* or the XO%t m 1ed Re"'"! n# E&& " en"'Y & !ter+ In short* a!! $o ded %rodu"ts , !! &o!!o, the "urrent XRe#enerat $e Aroto"o!Y

Preg + Th s

%roto"o! em(ra"es the standards em%!o'ed at that t me to ensure the o%t m 1ed reuse or re n"or%orat on o& an' # $en #ood or "om%onent+ Natura!!'* the su(.%ro"esses o& th s are $ast and "om%!e- and t s the ro!e o& en# neers* em(ra" n# natura! !a, %h's "s* to (est understand e-a"t!' ,hat %arameters , !! (e set+ The Domestic Econom+ The %r or s"hemat " re#ard n# susta na(!e and te"hn "a!!' e&& " ent %ro"esses* o%t m 1ed d'nam "a!!' to #a n the most sta( ! t' and ma- m 1e the %otent a! o& an' # $en e"onom " o%erat on* s (oth e-treme!' "om%!e- n deta ! and de"e%t $e!' s m%!e n theor'+ The ted um o& "reat n# a "om%!ete* ndustr'.or ent n#
4IE

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

a!#or thm that ser$es as the natura! !a, re#u!ator' & !ter* (' ,h "h human t' "an assure the most o%t m 1ed te"hn "a! %ra"t "es* s "erta n!' a ma0or nte!!e"tua! %ro0e"t to underta7e* on"e a#a n+ The su(.%ro"esses nherent to su"h a mu!t d mens ona! "a!"u!at on ,ou!d run nto the thousands* &or sure+ :et* at the same t me* the un&o!d n# o& the o$era!! %ro"ess s )u te e!e#ant n &orm+ The dea o& %!a" n# ea"h human* & nterested* at the he!m o& ndustr a! "reat on* &a" ! tat n# the K#rou% m nd” ntera"t on &or %ro(!em so!$ n# and "reat on* "onta ns a dee%!' un &' n# "ommun t' #esture* "ou%!ed , th a 7 nd o& %ersona! &reedom o& e-%ress on n the "reat $e %ro"ess ,h "h has not (een seen (e&ore+ The $er' not on o& e-treme!' $ersat !e* on.demand %rodu"t on s'stems ,h "h "an %rodu"e a #ood &or a s n#!e %erson or #oods &or an ent re "u!tura! demo#ra%h "* s %ro&ound n ts m%! "at ons* not to ment on the $ast %os t $e out"omes nherent ,hen t "omes to "reat n# a more %ea"e&u!* humane so" et'+ G $en the te"hno!o# "a! trends* t s not &ar.&et"hed to ma# ne a sma!! to,n ,h "h* 0ust as t ma' toda' ha$e an e!e"tr "a! #r d ,h "h un & es that to,n n ts "entra! sour"e o& %o,er* no, has a %rodu"t on %!ant net,or7 des #ned to ! tera!!' "reate most e$er'th n# that to,n ma' need* on demand+ Ra, resour"es are (rou#ht nto the %!ant as %er "ond t ons and a!!o"at on a!#or thms surround n# the K#!o(a! resour"e mana#ement s'stem”* ,h "h "onne"ts a!! su"h e"onom " &a" ! t es (oth re# ona!!' and #!o(a!!'+ :et* , th n th s s"enar o* the ro!e o& the human (e n# s o&ten "on&used+ Wh !e the %ursu t o& %ost.s"ar" t' n th s ,a' , !! "reate a susta na(!e and a(undan"e #enerat n# %arad #m ,here %eo%!e "an ! $e , thout the (urden o& K,or7 n# &or a ! $ n#”* the de(ate o$er K,hat , !! %eo%!e doR” s a )uest on that o&ten ar ses* a!on# , th another ne$ ta(!e )uest on< KWho s runn n# the ma"h nes &or no %a'PR” The & rst )uest on #ets to the heart o& human $a!ues+ Aeo%!e ha$e a!,a's &ound nterest n# th n#s to do and e-%!ore* and t s se$ere!' dou(ted that an era o& (oredom ,ou!d ar se # $en that %eo%!e ,ou!d no !on#er need to & #ht 0ust to ! $e a h #h )ua! t' ! &e+ Rather* %eo%!e m #ht $er' ,e!! (e e!e$ated to a ne, t'%e o& e- sten"e and en#a#e n h #her order nterests that ,ere s m%!' unatta na(!e n the %r or mode!+ The se"ond )uest on s more nterest n#+ In an automated e"onom'* ,h "h strate# "a!!' ,or7s to remo$e humans &rom an' 7 nd o& monotonous* d && "u!t or unsa&e !a(or* there , !! st !! (e some (as " need &or o$ers #ht and mana#ement+ For man' ,ho shun %ost.s"ar" t' rhetor "* th s &a!!(a"7 s "ommon* ar#u n# that on!' n a 255> automated uto% a* ,here %eo%!e ! tera!!' ha$e no o(! #at on* ,ou!d the so" et' (e %oss (!e+ Other, se* some su(."u!ture , !! (e re)u red to do the rema n n# !a(or and hen"e some 7 nd o& strat & ed o%%ress on ,ou!d (e nherent+ The %ro(!em , th th s assum%t on s that t s dee%!' !o"7ed nto a mar7et.or ented ,or!d$ e, ,here t me s e)uated to mone'+ Aeo%!e toda' ha$e a 7nee.0er7 rea"t on to assume that n order &or
4F5

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

an'th n# to a"tua!!' #et done* mone' must (e n %!a' as an n"ent $e+ :et* stat st "a!!'* th s s s m%!' untrue+ In a 2EE4 Ga!!u% Ao!!* more than H5> o& Amer "an adu!ts 8E6 m !! on Amer "ans; $o!unteered t me &or so" a! "auses* at an a$era#e o& 6+4 hours a ,ee7* &or a tota! o& 45+H ( !! on hours a 'ear+FEF A more re"ent %o!! n De"em(er 452D sho,ed a stead' n"rease n $o!unteer n# &rom 4552 unt ! 452D+FEG F #ures &rom 455G n the US a!so sho,ed an n"rease n non.re! # ous $o!unteer n#* under! n n# the %o nt that so" a! "ontr (ut ons "an e- st &or the r o,n sa7e* as ,e!! as &or re! # ous reasons* and dur n# #reat e"onom " d && "u!t es+FEE The truth o& the matter s that human (e n#s* e$en n the h #h!' "om%et t $e and mater a! st " or entat on o& the Un ted States* st !! de" de to do a #reat dea! , thout an nterest n monetar' re,ard+ O%en sour"e %ro#ramm n# s another e-am%!e+ L nu-* ,h "h started n 2EE2 as a s m%!e e-%er ment* ,as a(!e to "om%!ete ts "ommun t'.dr $en* a!most mone'!ess %ro#ramm n# de$e!o%ment n 0ust three 'ears+ L nu- has o$er 25*555 ! nes o& "ode and the $ast amount o& ts "reat on ,as done &or &ree (' a #!o(a! "ommun t'+ W 7 %ed a s 'et another e-am%!e o& a non.%ro& t* "ommun t' #enerated "reat on* resear"h and e-%ress on+ It has (een est mated that W 7 %ed a too7 255 m !! on hours o& $o!unteer t me to "reate* and &eatures a te"hn "a!!' ad$an"ed and "om%!e- (a"7end* demonstrat n# that ,e!!.en# neered nterre!at n# s'stems* ,hen !e$era#ed , th !ar#e $o!unteer e&&orts* "an "reate ,or!d.& rst s'stems %re$ ous!' "ons dered unrea! st " or un&eas (!e+ So* ,h !e mone' st !! ru!es the o$era!! mot $at on n the "urrent so" et'* # $en some &ree t me* %eo%!e ha$e %ro$en the' , !! "ontr (ute #reat!' to %ro0e"ts ,h "h ha$e no monetar' return and the rea! ssue under!' n# the mot $at on o& su"h !a(or s the sat s&a"t on and the feeling of contribution* Toda'* most 0o(s do not #enerate th s &ee! n#+ Most %eo%!e ,a!7 nto a %r $ate d "tatorsh % & $e da's a ,ee7 and are under the "ontro! o& su%er ors* 7no, n# the' "an (e & red at an' moment+ The "ontr (ut on the' ma7e rare!' has a d re"t return to them and the &ee! n# o& a""om%! shment s d m n shed+ Some 0o(s m #ht e$en ma7e one ,onder ,hat the %o nt o& the o""u%at on e$en s n the "onte-t o& so" a! "ontr (ut on or %ersona! de$e!o%ment+ Man' 0o(s e- st toda' s m%!' &or the sa7e o& #enerat n# or mo$ n# mone' and noth n# more+ Ad$ert s n# and Wa!! Street o""u%at ons* &or e-am%!e* are e-am%!es o& h #h $a!ue o""u%at ons ,h "h* n truth* do $er' ! tt!e to m%ro$e so" et'+
FEF Source3 ?iving and Volunteering in the 9nited States3 (indings from a FEG Sour"e< Most 4mericans Practice

"ational Survey* Hod#7 nson @ We t1man* 2EE4* %4 haritable ?iving, Volunteerism 8htt%<MM,,,+#a!!u%+"omM%o!!M2II4H5Mamer "ans.%ra"t "e."har ta(!e.# $ n#. $o!unteer sm+as%-; FEE Re&eren"e< =espite Economy, haritable =onors, Volunteers 2eep ?iving 8htt%<MM,,,+#a!!u%+"omM%o!!M22D6EFMdes% te.e"onom'."har ta(!e.donors. $o!unteers.7ee%.# $ n#+as%-; 4F2

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

Th s %erha%s m #ht e-%!a n the K!a1'” tenden"' man' &ee! on"e o&& the r 0o( at the end o& the da'* return n# home &ee! n# de&eated and t red+ O$er t me* man' !ose s% r t and mot $at on o$era!! and & nd that the r 0o( (e"omes the on!' th n# that s su%%osed to ha$e mean n# n the r ! &e* &or#ett n# the en0o'a(!e %ass ons on"e nherent to the r de$e!o%ment+ That "ons dered* n a &u!!' rea! 1ed NLR9E* t s est mated that %erha%s H> o& a re# on?s %o%u!at on 8H> o& the #!o(a! %o%u!at on as ,e!!;* on a$era#e* ,ou!d (e needed to ass st the &!u d o%erat on o& th s ndustr a! s'stem and th s & #ure ,ou!d ! 7e!' "ont nua!!' d m n sh n the &uture as te"hno!o#' ad$an"es+ Th s %art " %at on m #ht (est (e e-%ressed n the &orm o& ,hat has (een termed the Kdomest "” e"onom'+ The domest " e"onom' em(od es the he!%&u! a"t ons o& %eo%!e n a non.%a d en$ ronment+ Househo!d ,or7* &am !' and "ommun t' nterests are trad t ona! e-am%!es+ In a NLR9E* su"h !a(or ,ou!d (e re!e#ated n the same #esture and the de!e#at on o& su"h !a(or ro!es "ou!d (e d str (uted amon#st a !ar#e.s"a!e %o%u!at on ma7 n# the a"tua! t me "omm tment m n s"u!e o$era!!+ E$en (' "urrent standards* & one ,ere to as7 the a$era#e ,or7er & the' ,ou!d (e , !! n# to ! $e* sa'* the e)u $a!en"e o& a b255*555 a 'ear ! &est'!e* (ut ha$ n# to $o!unteer H> o& the r t me &or ma ntenan"e o& the s'stem that su%%orts the r standard o& ! $ n#* there s ! tt!e dou(t a#reement ,ou!d (e met (' most+ The amount o& t me sa$ed a!one n th s t'%e o& so" oe"onom " mode!* "ou%!ed a#a n , th the $ast %ro(!em a!!e$ at on o& the en$ ronmenta! %ro(!ems and so" a! "on&! "ts nherent to the mar7et* !ea$e ! tt!e room &or rat ona! o(0e"t on+ L 7e, se* on"e set &ree* the "reat $e* "o!!a(orat $e "ontr (ut on %ro%ens t' tse!&* ,h "h s the true dr $er o& %ro#ress* , !! no !on#er (e nh ( ted (' the monoton' o& !a(or or the n"ome s'stem+ It s $er' d && "u!t to %red "t the n"red (!e !e$e! o& %rodu"t $ t' and &o"us a so" et' ma' a"h e$e on"e su"h o%%ress $e &a"tors are remo$ed+ The DecentraliAation Parado= Wh !e the rhetor " o& a global society , th global values unders"ores th s so" oe"onom " mode!* t s m%ortant to understand the nature o& ts redundan"' and ts de"entra! 1ed !a'out+ 3ohn Da!(er#.A"ton* 2st 9aron A"ton* on"e stated TAo,er tends to "orru%t* and a(so!ute %o,er "orru%ts a(so!ute!'”+G55 Th s %o,er.&ear n# %ers%e"t $e s "erta n!' ,e!! 0ust & ed n h stor' and man' ,ho hear a(out a NLR9E o&ten assume th s #!o(a! so" et' s Kru!ed” (' one ma n&rame* one ma"h ne* an e! te #rou% o& te"hno"rats or someth n# s m !ar+ It s m%ortant to rem nd ourse!$es that a!most a!! %r or so" et es ha$e ! $ed , th n #reat s"ar" t' and hen"e #reat "on&! "t+ Th s* "ou%!ed , th the &a"t that mone' and resour"es ha$e (een a means to #a n %o,er . usua!!' a&ter a #ood dea! o& (att!e* re n&or" n# a status and dom nan"e h erar"h' . !!ustrates that ,e shou!d not (e sur%r sed
G55 3ohn Emer "h Ed,ard Da!(er# A"ton* & rst 9aron A"ton 82GD6J2E54;+ The

h stor an and mora! st* ,ho ,as other, se 7no,n s m%!' as Lord A"ton* e-%ressed th s o% n on n a !etter to 9 sho% Mande!! /re #hton n 2GGF 4F4

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

at these rea"t ons+ Ho,e$er* th s statement s a!so dee%!' "ounter. %rodu"t $e on the ,ho!e as t # $es the %arano d sense that no one "an e$er (e trusted* & the' are # $en an' t'%e o& "ontro! o$er others+ A NLR9E s* ndeed* a #!o(a! stru"ture n ho, t %ro"esses e"onom " n&ormat on and assesses out%ut %oss ( ! t es+ On"e a #ood s des #ned* t runs throu#h the a&orement oned e&& " en"' and susta na( ! t' & !ters* ,h "h n$ar a(!' t e (a"7 to the status o& #!o(a! resour"es* a!on# , th a #!o(a! net,or7 &or des #n "ontr (ut on+ At the same t me* !ar#er order so" eta! de" s ons* mean n# those de" s ons on"e made (' e!e"ted re%resentat $es* are a!so a"h e$ed (' "onsensus (' the %o%u!at on* d re"t!'+ The on!' rea! "entra! 1at on nherent s th s d # ta! net,or7 "onne"t n# the ,or!d tse!&+ G $en that* ,e "ou!d "ons der a &e, %oss (!e %ro(!ems n th s " r"umstan"e n the same ,a' ,e th n7 a(out the Internet toda'* ,h "h s essent a!!' the same n&rastru"ture+ KHa"7 n#”* &or e-am%!e* ,h "h s the a"t o& d stur( n#* stea! n# or "orru%t n# a %ro#ram or d # ta! n&ormat on (' n$ad n# the sour"e "ode* m #ht (e a "on"ern+ Ho,e$er* ,e ha$e to & rst as7 why an'one ,ou!d %er&orm su"h an a"t n the ne, mode!+ S n"e the ent re s'stem s des #ned to %ro$ de &or e$er'one* ,here s the n"ent $e to d stur( tR An'one shutt n# do,n su"h a s'stem s a!so shutt n# do,n the r means to "ontr (ute and de$e!o%+ An ana!o#' ,ou!d (e a %erson toda' ! $ n# n an a%artment (u !d n#* ,here e$er'one shares the ut ! t' n&rastru"ture* de" d n# to destro' the &use or e!e"tr "a! (rea7er (o,h "h d $ des the n"om n# e!e"tr " t' to %o,er the ,ho!e a%artment (u !d n#+ Wh' ,ou!d the' do t & t shuts do,n the r o,n e!e"tr " t' as ,e!!R It s m%ortant to re$ e, ,h' %eo%!e "an (e so $ " ous toda'+ An#er s (red (' de%r $at on and some e-terna! a"t s o&ten nter%reted as the sour"e o& th s a(use+ So* n retr (ut on* %eo%!e toda' Kha"7” and $ o!ate ,e(s tes and the ! 7e to e ther ma7e a %rotest %o nt or to #et re$en#e+G52 In a NLR9E* t s hard to &athom ,here the sour"e o& su"h an#st and outra#e ,ou!d mater a! 1e+ I& a %erson doesn?t ! 7e the ,a' the s'stem s ,or7 n# n a s%e" & " ,a'* the' ha$e the "a%a" t' to "han#e t (' assess n# "onsensus , th others+ The s'stem s emer#ent+ Ho,e$er* n the e$ent that th s d d ha%%en* there s a s m%!e so!ut on< a"t $e redundan"'+ In a monetar'.dr $en so" et'* (ased around "ost e&& " en"'* ,e see ! tt!e &a !.sa&e redundan"' n %!a"e as t s una&&orda(!e+ For e-am%!e* ,e see an a r%!ane , th t,o en# nes and (oth are needed to &!'+ Wh' not "reate an a r%!ane , th t,o ma n en# nes and t,o (a"7.u% en# nes* ,h "h are not runn n# ,hen the &u!! %!ane s n ,or7 n# order* (ut n the e$ent an en# ne &a !s* another en# ne s a(!e to ta7e o$er+ The ma n ser$er net,or7 ,h "h &a" ! tates so" a! "onne"t $ t'
G52 An e-am%!e ,ou!d the #rou% 7no,n as KAnon'mous”* ,h "h s a !oose!'

asso" ated nternat ona! net,or7 o& Kha"7t $ st” ent t es that d sru%t ,e(s tes and "om%uter data(ases as a &orm o& %rotest+ 4FD

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

and un & "at on "ou!d ha$e H*I*F+++45 !e$e!s o& redundan"' and automat " (a"7u% n the e$ent an'th n# ,ent do,n+ It m #ht not (e %er&e"t+ Some data ma' (e !ost+ Ho,e$er* a#a n* th s sn?t a uto% a+ W th res%e"t to ,ho has the K%o,er” to not "e the %ro(!em and m%!ement th s redundan"'* te"hn "a! teams e- st to mon tor the net,or7* 0ust ! 7e an' other e- st n# $o"at on+ O& "ourse* the )uest on then ar ses< ,hat & someone on the te"hn "a! team s "orru%ted and %ur%ose&u!!' messes u% the s'stemR On"e a#a n* the "ounter )uest on s< ,h' ,ou!d the' do tR What s the n"ent $eR In the e$ent th s d d ha%%en* t ,ou!d not ta7e !on# &or others to not "e and the s'stem "ou!d (e "orre"ted n the same sem(!an"e o& redundan"'* , th the %erson remo$ed+ That %erson ,ou!d then (e )uest oned (' h s or her %eers and so" et' o$era!! to (etter understand ,h' th s a"t o""urred+G54 O$era!!* ,e trust&u!!' # $e ourse!$es o$er to Kauthor t'” a!! the t me+ Do"tors* me"han "s* and an' other s%e" a! 1at on a!,a's n$o!$e a !e$e! o& trust (' those see7 n# su"h he!%* and most o& the t me* e$en n a monetar' so" et' ,h "h #enerates d shonest'* %eo%!e are most!' honest* or as honest as the' can be, the ma0or t' o& the t me+ It s s m%!' too "'n "a! to assume that an' a!!o"at on o& "ontro! s dan#erous+ At no t me n human h stor' ha$e ,e not shared some !e$e! o& de!e#ated %o,er res%ons ( ! t' to ea"h other* and n a!most a!! "ases* as , th dent str' or me"han "s* the nature o& the T%o,erT de!e#ated n )uest on s "hara"ter 1ed (' ts te"hn "a! mer tU %re" se!' the 7 nd o& o$ers #ht ad$o"ated , th n the %resent "onte-t+ In a NLR9E* the re n&or"ement s to he!% onese!&* ,h "h means to he!% so" et'* not to e-%!o t or a(use+ There s ! tera!!' no re,ard re n&or"ement &or su"h ne#at $e (eha$ or* as o%%osed to the natura! state o& #enera! "orru%t on ,e endure toda'+ As &ar as the %h's "a! net,or7 tse!&* t s de"entra! 1ed n ts or entat on n man' ,a's* o&ten more so than ,e see toda'+ The to%o#ra%h " !a'out o& Earth ma7es man' th n#s !o# "a!!' o($ ous as &ar as stru"ture %!a"ement+ Aeo%!e* (e n# so" a!* natura!!' ha$e an nterest to ha$e some 7 nd o& "ommun t' "entra! 1at onU the e- sten"e o& "erta n ener#' %ro$ d n# areas* su"h as &or so!arM, ndM#eotherma!Mh'dro* "ar$e out the r o,n !o"at ons !o# "a!!'U e-tra"t on* %rodu"t on and d str (ut on net,or7s a!so ha$e a to%o#ra%h "a! !o# " nherent as e&& " en"' mandates ,e 7ee% su"h &a" ! tates as "!ose to ea"h other as %oss (!e* redu" n# ener#' ,aste and trans%ortU et"+ / t es themse!$es , !! "han#e n t,o ma0or ,a's+ For one* the "onstru"t on and net,or7 n# o& the nterna! " t' s'stem , !! see7 to meet the h #hest state o& te"hn "a! e&& " en"' %oss (!e* n"!ud n# susta na(!e n&rastru"ture* homes* %rodu"t onMd str (ut on net,or7s and the ! 7e* ta7 n# the s'stems (as s nto d re"t a""ount+G5D Se"ond!'*
G54 The su(0e"t o& Ken&or"ement” and ho, su"h an a"t s dea!t , th* , !! (e

ta!7ed a(out n the essa' +ifestyle, (reedom and The >umanity (actor #ood e-am%!e o& th s reason n#+

G5D The des #n ,or7 o& 3a")ue Fres"o* s%e" & "a!!' h s " t' s'stem "on"e%ts* s a

4F6

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

t s e-%e"ted that due to the e$o!ut on o& e%hemera! 1at on* a # $en " t' , !! %rodu"e a!! re# ona! #oods locally+ Mana#ement o& the " t' on the !e$e! o& (road n&rastru"ture* su"h as ,here to %ut a (r d#e* , !! a!so (e a re# ona! de" s on ma7 n# %ro"ess* set n mot on (' the d re"t demo"ra"'* /DS s'stem+ Land a!!o"at on ,or7s the same ,a'* e$en thou#h that s a !ar#er su(0e"t* ,h "h s addressed n the essa' KAost. S"ar" t' Trends* /a%a" t' and E&& " en"'”+ O& "ourse* ea"h " t' natura!!' "onne"ts to other " t es* dea!!' , th ad$an"ed trans%ort s'stems* ,h "h "an "!ean!' and &!u d!' mo$e %eo%!e+ Ma#!e$ t'%e tra ns s'stems are on %a"e to (e the ne-t sta#e o& &ast* sa&e and e&& " ent trans%ort , th ! tt!e to no en$ ronmenta! &oot%r nt* as "om%ared to o !.%o,ered %!anes* (uses and "ars+G56 As &or as the Ken# ne” o& a " t'* ,h "h s ts ndustr'* d # ta! net,or7s and sensor s'stems ,or7 to #ather m%ortant re# ona! and non.re# ona! data+ Th s re!ates to the K#!o(a! resour"e mana#ement” net,or7 as des"r (ed (e&ore and (oth re# ona! and #!o(a! net,or7s o& measurements a!!o, a!! " t esM" t 1ens to ha$e a ho! st " sense o& ,hat s #o n# on* a&&e"t n# %rodu"t on and other m%ortant en$ ronmenta! &a"tors+G5H So* th s net,or7 m #ht $er' ,e!! (e K"entra! 1ed” n ts data and ra, resour"e &!o, to a " t'?s nterna! %rodu"t on &a" ! t es* (ut t s decentrali%ed n that a " t' m%orts noth n# e!se+ It s most!' se!&. "onta ned+ A!! %rodu"t ons o""ur nterna!!'* m%ort n# and e-%ort n# no %rodu"ed #oods* on!' resour"es+ Th s dea o& Kse!&."onta nment %er s"a!e de#ree”G5I s m%ortant and e$en a%%! es to,ards stru"tures* su"h as houses+ The dea! house ,ou!d (e o&&.the.#r d and se!&."onta ned n ts ener#' sour" n# and , th redundant (a"7u% ener#' sour"es n %!a"e shou!d an'th n# (e"ome "om%rom sed+ Aut another ,a'* there s no "entra! Ko&& s, t"h” n su"h a natura! redundan"' (ased s'stem+ For e-am%!e* & a (ase.!oad %ro$ d n# %o,er #r d s (e n# used and that #r d #oes do,n* t ,ou!d ha$e ! tt!e e&&e"t on houses & those houses are a!so des #ned to har$est !o"a! ener#' sour"es 8 +e+ so!ar; and hen"e (e se!&."onta ned+
Re&< 3a")ue Fres"o* The /est That Money an0t /uy, G!o(a! /'(er$ s ons* 4554* /ha%ter 2H G56 KMa#!e$” trans%ort uses !ess ener#' and mo$es su(stant a!!' &aster than "ommer" a! a r! nes and "an a!so (e used as !o"a! trans%ort s'stems , th n a " t'+ ETD s a "om%an' "urrent!' ,or7 n# on th s te"hno!o#'+ htt%<MM,,,+etD+"omM Other, se* the use o& e-treme!' sa&e* dr $er!ess "ars ,ou!d ser$e other trans%ortat on needs+ htt%<MM,,,+n't mes+"omM4525M25M25Ms" en"eM25#oo#!e+htm!R %a#e,antedSa!!@VrS5 G5H Su"h sensor te"hno!o#' and s'stem net,or7s ha$e a!read' (een h'%othes 1ed and are s!o,!' ma7 n# the r ,a' nto "erta n &a"ets o& so" et'+ The tas7 s s m%!' to s"a!e t out+ HA has ntrodu"ed an dea &or ,hat t "a!!s a TA /entra! Ner$ous S'stem &or the EarthT+ htt%<MMh(r+or#M,e(M455EMh(r. ! stM"entra!.ner$ous.s'stem.&or.earth G5I To "!ar &' K%er s"a!e de#ree” . th s s m%!' means sma!!er and !ar#er order s'stems* , th the sma!!er ns de the !ar#er+ For e-am%!e* a house s one de#ree* ,h !e the city that "onta ns the house s a !ar#er de#ree+ 4FH

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

L 7e, se* no one th n# "an u%set the nternat ona! s'stem+ Un! 7e modern monetar' & nan"e and "urren"' stru"tures* ,h "h are h #h!' "entra! 1ed and "an ,rea7 ha$o" #!o(a!!' & th n#s #o ,ron#* a %ro(!em n one " t' has ! tt!e e&&e"t on an' other " t' n a NLR9E+ So* n truth* a %ro%er!' or#an 1ed NLR9E s not "entra! 1ed n an' rea! sense+ It s more a""urate to sa' that t s a #!o(a! de"entra! 1ed s'stem* , th $ar ous de#rees o& nherent redundan"'* ,h "h* de#ree (' de#ree* "onne"ts tse!& (' n&ormat on &!o, and %h's "a! "hanne!s to a")u re %ro%er resour"es* to (e used &or ea"h re# on?s !o"a! e"onom'+

4FI

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

-($FEST1(E@ FREEDO2 A"D T-E -&2A"$T1 FACTORIs &reedom an'th n# e!se than the r #ht to ! $e as ,e , shR Noth n# e!se+G5F .E% "tetus

What is ha,,iness5 It s d && "u!t &or most n the ,or!d toda' to ma# ne a so" et' , thout the duress and da !' str &e endured (' the a"t o& s m%!' tr' n# to sur$ $e and 7ee% a hea!th' menta! and %h's "a! state+ So mu"h o& our ! $es toda' s "entered around sta' n# & nan" a!!' ahead and ma7 n# sure ,e ha$e enou#h mone' &or toda'* tomorro,* our &am !' and e$en %erha%s &or the ne-t &am ! a! #enerat on* ,e o&ten !ose s #ht o& ,hat t s that a"tua!!' "reates ,e!!.(e n# and ha%% ness+ In &a"t* th s &ear and o&ten %redator' mot $at on has "reated a so" a! "! mate that has e$en #enerated a %os t $e $a!ue asso" at on to,ard narro,* se!&. nterested (eha$ or+ Wh !e the ! ne s a!,a's su(0e"t $e as to ,hat (eha$ ors are to (e "ons dered Keth "a!” or not* the "om%et t $e* s"ar" t'.dr $en or entat on to,ard #a n n# an a""e%ta(!e )ua! t' o& ! &e "ont nua!!' re n&or"es our !o,er (ra n* K& #ht. or.&! #ht” %ro%ens t es* %er%etuat n# a "onstant sense o& so" a! deta"hment and #enera! !oss o& em%ath' &or others+ In man' ,a's* mone' tse!& has e$en (e"ome the re,ard and status standard* not ,hat t "an do , th ts %otent a! to mo$e the ,or!d+ There&ore* # $en these $a!ues* t s a!,a's a "ha!!en#e to d s"uss a NLR9E?s non.mar7et %rem se , th the $ast ma0or t' o& those n modern "u!ture* as "erta n 7nee.0er7 "ontrad "tor' assum%t ons a!most a!,a's %re$a !+ It s not the %ur%ose o& th s essa' to address these n deta ! (ut to denote ho, "ommun "at on o& a &uture ! &est'!e not (ased on these no, !on#.susta ned $a!ues s d && "u!t* as the dea o& e- sten"e , thout su"h str &e s a!most m%oss (!e &or man'* due to our h stor'+ 2erging Societ+ and $ndi/idualit+ A'n Rand and other &amous authors and theor sts n the 45th "entur' s%ent a #reat dea! o& t me ta!7 n# a(out a dua! t' (et,een se!&. nterest and so" a! nterest* or nd $ dua! sm and "o!!e"t $ sm+G5G In these ,or7s* ,hether n & "t on.(ased ! terar' &orm or n a"tua! e"onom " treatment* rare!' s "ons derat on # $en to a %oss (!e (a!an"e (et,een the t,o+ Mart n Luther C n# 3r+ on"e sa d< K/ommun sm &or#ets that ! &e s nd $ dua!+ /a% ta! sm &or#ets that ! &e s so" a!* and the 7 n#dom o& (rotherhood s &ound ne ther n the thes s o& "ommun sm nor the
G5F Sour"e< )uote., se+"om 8htt%<MM,,,+)uote., se+"omM)uotesMe% "tetusM s.

&reedom.an'th n#.e!se.than.the.r #ht.to.! ;

G5G A'n Rand?s &amous no$e! KAnthem” s a nota(!e* n&!uent a! e-am%!e o& th s

art st " "u!m nat on o& $a!ues+ It ta7es %!a"e n a d'sto% an &uture ,here man7 nd has entered another dar7 a#e "hara"ter 1ed (' rrat ona! t'* "o!!e"t $ sm* and so" a! st " th n7 n# and e"onom "s+ The "on"e%t o& nd $ dua! t' has (een e! m nated+ For e-am%!e* the use o& the ,ord TIT s %un sha(!e (' death+ 4FF

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

ant thes s o& "a% ta! sm (ut n a h #her s'nthes s+ It s &ound n a h #her s'nthes s that "om( nes the truths o& (oth+”G5E There s no den' n# that human (e n#s ha$e e$o!$ed , th a dee%!' so" a! nature+ It "ou!d (e ar#ued that ,hat rea!!' de& nes us are the re!at onsh %s ,e ha$e "reated n our ! $es* not to ment on the $ast n&!uen"e o& "u!tura! de$e!o%ment tse!&* ,h "h s the ma n sour"e o& most $a!ue or entat ons at an' # $en t me n an' # $en so" et'+ :et* at the same t me* ,e "annot den' the %ersona! de$e!o%ment needs* &reedom o& e-%ress on sou#ht and #enera! nde%enden"e most a!! humans tend to need to &ee! n the r da'.to.da' ! $es+ Wh !e the not on o& K&ree , !!” m #ht (e h #h!' "om%!e- n ana!'s s* there a%%ears to a!,a's (e a %art o& us that na$ #ates (ased on ,hat ,e "ons der to (e K"ho "e” and & ,e &ee! o%%ress on o& that "ho "e* t tends to u%set us and desta( ! 1e+ So* ,h !e t s true that ,hen the s'ner#' o& the tota! ! &e e-%er en"e s (rou#ht nto &o"us ,e "an ,e!! ar#ue that a!! o& our "ho "es e- st under some !e$e! o& duress* n&!uen"e or m%u!se and hen"e are a"tua!!' not ent re!' K&ree”* ,e "annot #nore the emot ona! nterest ,e tend to ha$e n %er"e $ n# ourse!$es as se%arate* nde%endent and nd $ dua! n some ,a'+ True or not* the $er' dea o& free determination a%%ears "r t "a! to %ersona! de$e!o%ment* "on& den"e and ,e!!(e n#+ Th s s (rou#ht u%* as %erha%s the most m%ortant so" o!o# "a! out"ome o& a NLR9E s someth n# h stor "a!!' un%re"edented on a !ar#e s"a!e n the h stor' o& human so" et'+ Toda'* ,e ha$e the te"hno!o# "a! means to not on!' (r n# a!! human (e n#s nto a h #h standard o& ! $ n# due to the ra% d ad$an"ement o& te"hno!o#' and (as " understand n#s n s" en"e* ,e a!so ha$e the a( ! t' to stru"tura!!' rat ona! 1e ourse!$es as (e n# actually responsible to each other and the Earth itself* The mar7et s'stem has (een una(!e to re n&or"e th s sense o& "ommun t' or harmon' , th the ha( tat (e"ause ts $er' &oundat on ,or7s a#a nst (oth as a $a!ue or $ rtue+ The Earth* n the mar7et mode!* s $ e,ed as an n$entor' o& resour"es ,a t n# &or & nan" a! e-%!o tat on and the more #oods n ser$ "e* the more mone' s made and hen"e more 0o(s are "reated+ L 7e, se* %er%etua! human o%%ress on has (een a natura! ('%rodu"t o& the under!' n# Ma!thus an* s"ar" t'.(ased or entat on* s n"e the da,n o& e- sten"e+ Th s o!d s'stem* ,h "h s a natura! "onse)uen"e o& th s s"ar" t'.dr $en order* ,or7ed ,e!! dur n# %r m t $e %er ods ,here our m%a"t on the Earth and ho, mu"h dama#e ,e "ou!d do to ea"h other had Ka""e%ta(!e” ! m ts* & 'ou , !!+ The !ar#er stru"tura! %ro(!ems nherent s m%!' "ou!d not (e understood at that t me+ Ho,e$er* toda' the mar7et has re$ea!ed tse!& as no !on#er a method to,ards susta na( ! t' or a means &or nte!! #ent resour"e mana#ement and t
G5E From KWhere Do We Go From HereR*” De! $ered at the ,,th 4nnual S +

onvention 4tlanta* Ga+* 2EIF 8htt%<MMm!7. 7%%52+stan&ord+eduM nde-+%h%Men"'"!o%ed aMdo"umentsentr'M,hereVdoV,e V#oV&romVhereVde! $eredVatVtheV22thVannua!Vs"!"V"on$ent onM; 4FG

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

a!so "reates a "onstant %ro%ens t' to $ e, other human (e n#s as threats to one?s o,n sur$ $a!+ On the so" a! !e$e!* the ent re ed & "e 0ust & es a 1ero.sum #ame+ T,o %eo%!e #o n# nto a "o$eted 0o( nter$ e, &or the same 0o( ma' (e res%e"t&u! to ea"h other* (ut the' (oth 7no, on!' one o& them , !! #et the 0o(+ Th s &ear.(ased "om%et t $e nuan"e runs the #amut o& so" eta! a&&a rs &rom 0ust &' n# mass $e ,ea!th #a%s and "!ass m(a!an"e n the de$e!o%ed ,or!d to the o$era!! #nor n# o& mass %o$ert' and the #eno" de t s n the de$e!o% n# ,or!d+ A NLR9E* on the other hand* stru"tura!!' "om( nes so" eta! nterest , th %ersona! nterest and en$ ronmenta! nterest+ Its &un"t on n# s d re"t!' t ed to the resour"es and en$ ronment* a"tua!!' rewarding susta na( ! t' and e&& " en"'+ L 7e, se* there s no #a n to (e had (' the e-%!o tat on o& others or (eha$ n# n the d shonest and "orru%t ,a's ,e tend to a""e%t as norma! t'+ The&t* "r me* &raud and a!! stru"tura! out"omes "ommon to the s"ar" t'.(ased mar7et* , !! no !on#er ha$e an' rea! n"ent $e as the ent re so" et' s or ented to serve itself, and harming others only harms one0s self* For e-am%!e* an enormous num(er o& !a,s e- st toda' that %rote"t one?s %r $ate %ro%ert'+ Aeo%!e m #ht (e mot $ated to stea! &or a num(er o& reasons* (ut stat st "a!!' a !a"7 o& means* #enera! de%r $at on and hen"e re!at $e or a(so!ute %o$ert'* s the "ommon %re"ond t on+ When %eo%!e stea! %h's "a! #oods* the' are usua!!' stea! n# e-"han#e $a!ue n most "ases+ In a NLR9E there s no e-"han#e $a!ue and hen"e to Kstea!” an tem that "annot (e so!d s most!' %o nt!ess+ L 7e, se* a "ommon o(0e"t on s that & #oods ,ere a$a !a(!e , thout %r "e* there s no restr "t on on ta7 n# $ast!' more than one needs+ On"e a#a n* ,e need to "ons der the reason &or su"h an a"t on+ S n"e the same #oods "annot (e so!d* the' ,ou!d s m%!' e- st n another %!a"e* %erha%s e$en n"on$en en" n# the %erson ,ho too7 them+ What s one to do , th* sa'* 455 te!e$ s onsR Wh' ,ou!d someone ta7e & $e t mes the amount o& &ood needed & the' "annot eat t a!! and t , !! #o to ,asteR From an eth "a! stand%o nt* ,h "h s o&ten seen as "u!tura!!' su(0e"t $e* ,e see a #reat num(er o& "ustoms n so" et' toda' (ased u%on ,hat s "ons dered Ka%%ro%r ate”+ When a %erson ,a!7s do,n the street and ! tters on the #round* an'one ,at"h n# ,ou!d ! 7e!' not a%%!aud su"h (eha$ or+ In re# ons ,here ,ater or e!e"tr " t' s %a d &or , th a &!at rate* %eo%!e do not 0ust !et the ,ater run a!! da' !on# or 7ee% ! #hts on "onstant!'* s m%!' (e"ause the' don?t need to "are* & nan" a!!'+ There has a!,a's (een a #enera! so" a! and en$ ronmenta! sense o& res%ons ( ! t' under the sur&a"e o& the "urrent 1e t#e st and a NLR9E , !! & na!!' amplify these same res%ons (!e %ro%ens t es to a $ast de#ree* rather than n"ent $ 1e the r su%%ress on* ,h "h s ,hat the "urrent s'stem does+

4FE

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

-umanit+ Factor . Access Rights St !!* ,h !e a NLR9E , !! set n mot on* &or the & rst t me n h stor'* a 7 nd o& e"onom " and so" a! %rem se that re n&or"es susta na( ! t'* human so! dar t'* em%ath' and shar n# on a #!o(a! s"a!e* ,or7 n# to ! tera!!' un te the human &am !' , th "ommon "on"ern* there , !! a!,a's (e %ro(!ems o& some 7 nd* n"!ud n# (eha$ ora!+ There s an un%red "ta(!e e!ement to human de$e!o%ment+ The #reat man' and "om%!e- en$ ronmenta! and ( o!o# "a! n&!uen"es* ,h "h "reate our %ersona! 1ed &orm* "om%rehens on and %ro%ens t es* "an (e d && "u!t to understand n "ausa! t' to an' de#ree o& a(so!ut sm+ We s m%!' "annot a""ount &or a!! re!e$ant &a"tors+ Wh !e a #reat dea! has (een !earned a(out human n&!uen"es and ho, "erta n th n#s should and should not ha%%en to a %erson dur n# de$e!o%ment* as the' ha$e stat st "a!!' %red "ta(!e "onse)uen"es , th res%e"t to (eha$ or* there s a!,a's a %oss ( ! t' o& th n#s #o n# ,ron# that are out o& a &am !' or so" et'?s "ontro!+G25 We "an "a!! th s the Khuman t' &a"tor”+ The "urrent so" a! order* ,h "h s* a#a n* ! tera!!' (u !t out o& the mar7et.or ented* s"ar" t'.dr $en* "om%et t $e %rem se o& e"onom'* has an enormous !e#a! a%%aratus to "ontro! human (eha$ or+ In the ne, a%%roa"h* ,e "ou!d ! 7e!' e-%e"t a E5.EH> de"rease n su"h K"r m na!” a"ts s n"e the $ast ma0or t' o& K"r me” has to do , th mone'* trade and %ro%ert'+ These $er' deas are no !on#er re!e$ant n th s %ost.s"ar" t' mode! &or there s no (as s &or those %ro(!ems n #enera!+ The' ha$e (een designed out+ Ho,e$er* th s Khuman t' &a"tor” "an st !! #enerate une-%e"ted " r"umstan"es and %ro(!ems that re)u re a so" a!!' a""e%ted "ourse o& a"t on+ A s m%!e e-am%!e s menta! !!ness* ,h "h "an de$e!o% s!o,!' o$er t me and une-%e"ted!'+ It s a med "a! %ro(!em and must (e treated as su"h+ A $o!unteer #rou% ,or7 n# to he!% those s "7 n the (eha$ ora! "onte-t ,ou!d need to (e n %!a"e* no d &&erent than those ,ho ,or7 n an' other &a"et o& so" eta! ma ntenan"e+ Ho,e$er* th s team ,ou!d (e a $ast de%arture &rom the "rude dea o& K%o! "e” and Kse"ur t'” ,e see toda'+ L 7e, se* there are "erta n!' no %r sons e- st n# to n"ur nhumane treatment and %un shment+G22 E$en n the "ase o& K"r mes o& %ass on” or the ! 7e* the ,orst s"enar o s "onta nment & the nd $ dua! s una(!e to "ontro! destru"t $e a"t ons+ 3ust as ,e m #ht )uarant ne a %erson , th a h #h!' "onta# ous* n&e"t ous d sease & t ,ere a ser ous threat* the !o# " to
G25 The essa's The (inal 4rgument3 >uman "ature and =efining Public >ealth

are su##ested &or re$ e,+

G22 Th s ma' sound ! 7e a uto% an ste% &or a so" et' n the "urrent "! mate* (ut

th s trend "an a"tua!!' (e o(ser$ed em(r'on "a!!' n some so" et es toda'* su"h as n the Nether!ands and S,eden* ,here %r sons are (e n# "!osed do,n due to e-"e%t ona!!' !o, "r me rates+ Re&eren"e< htt%<MM,,,+the#uard an+"omMso" et'M452DMde"M52M,h'.s,eden."!os n#. %r sons @ The Nether!ands< htt%<MM0"0ust "e"enter+"omM452DM5EM26Mnether!ands."!os n#.2E.%r sons.due. to.!a"7.o&."r m na!sM 4G5

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

"onta n %eo%!e ,ho %ose (eha$ ora! threats to others ,ou!d su##est a s m !ar s"enar o . on!' th s "onta nment ,ou!d (e humane and &or the sa7e o& resear"h+ Whether ( o!o# "a! or de$e!o%menta!* a!! a(errant (eha$ ors ha$e a sour"e o& some 7 nd and as "om%!e- as the' ma' (e* on!' &urther stud' "an ,or7 to sour"e so!ut ons+ On a more moderate !e$e!* su"h as the "ase o& ado!es"ent 7 ds ,ho* n the "ommon d s"o$er' and re(e!! ous sta#e o& de$e!o%ment* a"t n so" a!!' o&&ens $e ,a's n e-%er mentat on* a d &&erent 7 nd o& understand n# s "u!m nated ,here the "ommun t' "an "ome to#ether to assess the nature o& the %ro(!em and ,or7 to deter the (eha$ or as a "ommun t'+ 3ust as m nors are treated n the Western ,or!d toda'* # $en non."r m na! "ondemnat on n most "ases* the same t'%e o& "ommun t' assessment "an (e %ro$ ded* ,h "h , !! ! 7e!' "ome natura! to an' &am !' or !o"a! re# on+ Ho,e$er* n some "ases* there m #ht (e a need &or a t'%e o& r #hts s'stem ,hen dea! n# , th a""essed #oods+ In other ,ords* a s m%!e ru!e s'stem o& some 7 nd m #ht (e use&u!* "entered not on property rights (ut access rights* Ima# ne a s"enar o ,here an nd $ dua! %ar7s h s or her ( 7e on a street* , thout a !o"7* enter n# a house+ Th s ( 7e ,as "he"7ed out o& a !o"a! d str (ut on ! (rar' &or the %erson?s use+ Then* a ('stander* ,ho s n a hurr'* not "!ose to a d str (ut on ! (rar'* sees th s ( 7e and ma7es an na%%ro%r ate de" s on to ta7e the ( 7e to #et ,here he needs to #o+ Th s s a d shonest and rude a"t+ In a %ro%ert' s'stem* th s ,ou!d (e "a!!ed Kthe&t”+ In an a""ess s'stem t m #ht ta7e a d &&erent term* su"h as an Ka""ess $ o!at on”+ The se$er t' o& the a"t on s $er' d &&erent and t s more o& an anno'an"e than a "r me+ In a %ro%ert' s'stem the ( 7e ,ou!d ! 7e!' (e so!d &or mone' or 7e%t+ In an a""ess s'stem* the or # na! user ,ou!d s m%!' o(ta n a ne, ( 7e and mo$e on* n"on$en en"ed* ,h !e the %erson ,ho too7 the ( 7e ,ou!d ! 7e!' 0ust dro% t o&& a&ter use* as there s no resa!e $a!ue and hen"e no rea! reason to 7ee% t+ :et* t doesn?t mean the a"t shou!d (e #nored and #o unnot "ed n ts a""ess $ o!at on* as su"h (eha$ or* as rare as t ! 7e!' ,ou!d (e* ,ou!d need a"7no,!ed#ment to ser$e as a &orm o& o%erant edu"at on+ It s no d &&erent than ho, %eo%!e toda' !earn (as " de"en"'* res%e"t and et )uette+ There&ore* rather than %ro%ert' r #hts* a s m%!e a""ess r #hts ru!e "ou!d (e nsta!!ed to deter su"h (eha$ or+ In other ,ords* an' %erson o(ta n n# tems throu#h the s'stem ,ou!d ha$e access rights to those tems &or the durat on o& use and & another "omes and ta7es those tems* t s an o&&ense+ Re n&or"ement to deter su"h &uture a"ts ,ou!d & rst (e ,arn n#s+ I& %ers sted o$er t me* t "ou!d mean a tem%orar' ! m tat on o& &uture a""ess n some #enre &or that o&&end n# %erson+ In rea! t'* t "ou!d (e "ons dered a Ks!a% on the ,r st” &or essent a!!' (e n# anno' n# and rude+ Ho,e$er* & a %erson ,ere to re%eat th s o$er and o$er* t m #ht ta7e on the ro!e o& mental illness* as someth n# o& an m%u!s $e (eha$ or d sorder and that med "a! "onte-t m #ht "ome nto %!a' at that t me+ 9ut on"e a#a n* th s t'%e o&
4G2

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

(eha$ or ,ou!d (e e-treme!' rare and & &ar &rom a ser ous "on"ern+ Ho,e$er* su"h %oss (!e measures shou!d (e understood* as th s sn?t a uto% a+ It shou!d a!so (e noted that te"hn "a! reso!ut ons are a!,a's sou#ht a&ter as the %r mar' %re$ent on strate#' to des #n out an' su"h %ro(!ems+ /r s s mana#ement s another ssue+ 3ust as ,e ha$e a $o!unteer & re de%artment n most " t es n Amer "a* ,ho ! $e the r norma! ! $es unt ! the' #et the "a!! &or an emer#en"'* th s same a%%roa"h "an ,or7 &or natura! d sasters or a"ts o& e-treme (eha$ or* su"h as (eha$ ora! $ o!en"e+ In the "ase o& an earth)ua7e* &!ood* tornado or the ! 7e* ea"h "ase ,ou!d natura!!' ha$e a %!an n %!a"e (' the so" et' to assure %ro%er hand! n#+ Th s %re%arat on "an "ross re# ona! ! nes as ,e!!* , th "ont n#en"' %!ans a#reed u%on on the #!o(a! !e$e! to 7no, ho, the rest o& the ,or!d ma' he!% & a # $en re# on has a se$ere %ro(!em+ Th s s a"tua!!' s m !ar to ho, the nternat ona! "ommun t' ,or7s to he!% n "r ses e$en toda'* ,hen su"h %ro(!ems o""ur+ O$era!!* ,e "an s%e"u!ate on a!! these deas and %ro(!em. so!$ n# measures to a $ast de#ree* (ut the under!' n# %re"ond t on set n mot on (' the NLR9E* , !! dramat "a!!' redu"e the "ommona! t' and se$er t' o& ea"h ssue and that s m%ortant to remem(er+ For e-am%!e* (u !d n#s "onstru"ted n re# ons sus"e%t (!e to earth)ua7es , !! (e made to , thstand them as (est the' "an+ Th s s $er' d && "u!t n the "urrent ,or!d due to the asso" ated & nan" a! "osts as the re$ s ons dee%!' needed are #reat+ Su"h m%ed ments , !! no !on#er e- st and %ro%er* te"hn "a!!' a""urate "onstru"t on and n&rastru"ture "an (e made to assure the !east amount o& dama#e n the e$ent o& su"h a natura! d saster+ (ifest+le As te"hno!o#' un&o!ds and s" ent & " understand n# e$o!$es* "u!ture "han#es+ Th s has (een the trend o& h stor'+ W th the e-%onent a! de$e!o%ment o& n&ormat on.(ased te"hno!o# es and hen"e the a%%! ed te"hno!o#' that then emer#es* ea"h #enerat on de$e!o%s ne, $a!ues* asso" at ons* means and e-%ress ons+ Let?s ma# ne ,a7 n# u% one morn n# n a NLR9E . a da' n the ! &e< :ou r se to a #enera!!' )u et hum o& m !d tra&& "* , th ma#!e$ tra ns ,h s7 n# a(out the " t'+ Ha$ n# a !o$e &or h #h $ e,s* 'ou #et out o& (ed on the 45th store' o& a s m%!e 'et e!e#ant* mo!d. e-truded a%artment "om%!e- that "on$erts a!! sun! #ht nto ener#' throu#h %hoto$o!ta " %a nts on ts outer she!!+ :ou ha$e a &!eet n# moment o& mar$e! n# at th s rea! t' as the sun (ursts throu#h the , ndo,s* &or" n# n"reased a!ertness out o& 'our ear!' morn n# stu%or+ As 'ou emer#e* 'ou are a!so rem nded o& 'our "ous n ha$ n# ta7en %art n that #!o(a!* un $ers t' dr $en n t at $e a(out t,o de"ades a#o* ,h "h sou#ht to %er&e"t th s %a nt te"hno!o#' to a de#ree o& e&& " en"' ne$er (e&ore seen+ In 0ust a &e, 'ears o& "o!!a(orat on* th s AV %a nt a"h e$ed E5> ener#' e&& " en"'* ma7 n# t ,or7a(!e n a!most an' stru"ture+ :ou remem(er the 0o' and sat s&a"t on 'our "ous n &e!t
4G4

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

,hen h s team ,as on the &ront ! nes ,hen th s (rea7throu#h &or human t' ,as a"h e$ed+ It ,as ! 7e the e!at on &e!t amon#st so""er teammates a&ter a #oa! has (een s"ored+ S!o,!' #a n n# &o"us as 'our %u% !s & nd (a!an"e , th the n$ad n# ! #ht* 'ou #!an"e out o& the , ndo, and not "e an enormous ma"h ne* sus%ended &rom a "rane o& sorts* s!o,!' add n# a ne, se"t on to the $er' (u !d n# stru"ture 'ou are a %art o&+ A!most ! 7e ma# "* the ma"h ne s a(!e to &orm* &rom ,hat & rst a%%ears ! 7e a 7 nd o& ! )u d %!ast "* a ne, a%artment "on& #urat on and a%%ends that &orm onto the e- st n# stru"ture+ [u et!'* sa&e!' and odd!' , th $er' &e, %arts* there s no te"hn " an n s #ht* e$en thou#h ! 7e!' someone s mon tor n# the %ro"ess &rom some,here+ 9! n7 n# and s"ann n# sensor ! #hts on the hu#e ma"h ne a%%ear to su##est that t understands e$er'th n# a(out the surround n# area and ,hat t needs to do+ G!an" n# &urther around the " t'?s s7'! ne* there s an mmed ate sense o& s'ner#' , th nature+ The " t' has no a,7,ard "on"entrat ons or m(a!an"e+ The s! "7 trans%ort s'stems that 1oom ('* ,h "h are h #h.te"h ndeed* seem to mer#e seam!ess!' , th the #reener'* !a7es and "ana!s+ Sudden!'* a % "ture on the ,a!! ne-t to the , ndo, "at"hes 'our e'e+ It s an o!d ar"h $a! shot o& a!most the same %ers%e"t $e* (ut ta7en man'* man' de"ades (e&ore* dur n# ,hat modern &o!7 no, "a!! the K!ast dar7 a#e”+ In th s shot a sense o& tens on* "on#est on and str &e s &e!t+ A !on# stream o& automo( !es s seen on a str % o& "rude "on"rete h #h,a' (a"7 n# u% a!! the ,a' out o& &rame+ :ou remem(er &rom 'our h stor' edu"at on 'ears a#o that (a"7 then a monetar' %ra"t "e "reated #reat duress and d s"ord* , th %eo%!e % ! n# nto " t es to #a n em%!o'ment and hen"e to #a n the mone'* n order (u' th n#s and sur$ $e+ :ou then th n7 o& ho, th n#s ha$e "han#ed ndeed* &ee! n# rather sorr' &or that %r m t $e "u!ture and ha%%' 'ou ,ere (orn ,hen 'ou ,ere+ O& "ourse* rea! 1 n# that 'ou too ! $e n a &!eet n# era as t me mar"hes on* 'ou &urther tr' to ma# ne ,hat as%e"ts o& 'our ! &e toda' , !! one da' (e "ons dered outdated n the &uture+ Fee! n# hun#r'* 'ou enter nto the a%artment?s 7 t"hen+ It s a &a r!' ne, des #n 'ou hadn?t seen (e&ore+ Wh !e the s'stems "on"e%t and the nterest to "om( ne and un &' ndustr a! des #n ,as ment oned %ro! & "a!!' n 'our edu"at ona! mater a!s as an en# neer n# student* 'ou not "e the ad$an"ed de#ree o& e&& " en"' no, a"h e$ed+ The 7 t"hen s one un t+ The d shes and ,are are des #ned &or the ,ash n# and %!a"ement %ro"ess* ,h "h s d re"t!' (u !t n+ On"e a %!ate s d rt'* t s set nto a "om%artment that a!read' understands the nature o& the %re.des #ned %!ate and %ro"esses the %!ate , th a 7 nd o& "!eans n# steam and a UV "on& #urat on that a!so ster ! 1es t+ Automat "a!!'* the %!ate s then returned to the %ro%er d s%erser !o"at on n the she!& &or the ne-t use+ It ,as as thou#h the 7 t"hen ,as one ( #* un & ed ma"h ne+ Ho,e$er* "he"7 n# the re&r #erator* 'ou rea! 1e 'ou ha$e &or#otten to % "7 u% %ro$ s ons &or 'our short sta'+ :ou %onder ,hether to do #o do,n to the !o,er !e$e! to % "7 u% su"h %ro$ s ons and "ome
4GD

The Ze t#e st Mo$ement De& ned

(a"7* (ut 'ou de" de t s t me to #et #o n# and 'ou , !! #ra( someth n# at a "a&B on the ,a'+ As 'ou e- t the a%artment* 'ou s, %e the a""ess 7e' nto the "ontro! %ane! to "on& rm 'our & na! e- t and then #!an"e at the "ontro! %ane! to & nd the K"!ean” (utton+ A&ter a ( t o& &rustrat on* 'ou & na!!' rea! 1e the a%artment has (een des #ned , th a t me.(ased mot on sensor s'stem to "!ean tse!& automat "a!!' ,hen no mot on s dete"ted+ :ou then not "e the /FI ro(ot n the "orner and ta7e %ause as to the ama1 n# te"hn "a! &eat t s to ha$e th s ro(ot understand the e-a"t nature o& the s%a"e* ,here th n#s (e!on# and ,here the' do not* a!! %ro#rammed , th a(so!ute DD s%at a! a,areness o& the a%artment to "!ean and arran#e+ It s hard &or 'ou to ma# ne ,hat t must ha$e (een ! 7e to ma nta n su"h da !' drud#er' #enerat ons %r or+ E- t n# the a%artment* ,h "h s a"tua!!' a tem%orar' a""ess !o"at on 'ou Krented” throu#h an on! ne ser$ "e* 'ou then enter the ha!!,a's and a!most "o!! de , th a &ast mo$ n# o!der man ,ho dro%s a sma!! !a%to%+ :ou rea! 1e he s one o& the mana#ers o& the a%artment "om%!e-+ :ou he!% h m % "7 t u% and he a%o!o# 1es %ro&use!'+ KVer' sorr'P” he e-"!a ms+ KWe ha$e a %ro(!em