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The Basic Rubber Compound

The Basic Rubber Compound

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The Basic Rubber Compound
The Basic Rubber Compound

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Categories:Types, Brochures
Published by: PIRZADA TALHA ISMAIL on Jan 29, 2014
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07/21/2015

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The Basic Rubber Compound

Introduction

Introduction
• First development ( Goodyear and Hancock) • Rubber compound is a mixture of a number of different ingredients • Raw gum elastomer as adhesive • Significant swelling capacity of raw gum.

The basic compound formula

Raw Materials

Raw gum elastomer
• The key ingredient in rubber industry • Many of the properties of the final product depend upon it

Sulfur
• Widely use cross-linking agent. • Results: 1) More dimensional stable 2) Less heat-sensitivity 3) Less swelling 4) Less sticking • Cheap, rubber-makers sulfur (particle size variation), oil coated.

Sulfur
• Rubber-makers sulfur
suitable for vulcanizing rubber  It has a low ash content Low acidity Sufficiently fine for adequate dispersion and reaction

• High sulfur level- bloom
“Blooming occurs if an additive dissolves totally in the polymer at the processing temperature but is only partially soluble at ambient temperature”

Sulfur
 Highly amorphous form of sulfur, known as insoluble sulfur, is available to reduce this problem.  Dispersion in the compound can be more difficult  NO affect on product’s performance  Aesthetically displeasing

 In the uncured compound, bloom can reduce tack needed in building operations such as
 plying up uncured sheets of rubber to obtain thicker sheets

Zinc oxide and stearic acid
• Zinc oxide + stearic acid  zinc stearate

• Together with sulfur & accelerator, constitute the ‘cure system’ for the formulation and speed up the rate at which sulfur vulcanization occurs • With this curing system, it can be reduced time from several hours to few minutes

Accelerators
• speeds up the rate of vulcanization • Grouped into several chemical classes
• delayed action accelerator (sulfenamides) • short induction accelerator (dithiocarbamate) o slow cure accelerator (guanidines) o Fast cure accelerator (thiurams and dithiocarbamate) sulfur donor accelerator (TMTD, DTDM)

Other cross-linking systems
• Peroxides • Electron beam curing • Miscellaneous

Peroxides
• • • • suitable for curing rubber they do not need unsaturated bonds Not as popular as sulfur In the basic rubber compound formulation, the zinc oxide, stearic acid, sulfur and accelerator can all be replaced by a single material, the peroxide • Contact with oxygen (air) should be avoided during vulcanization • These compounds can interact with the peroxide in peroxide cure systems and thus interfere with cure

Peroxides
• Advantages
 improvement in heat aging resistance of vulcanizate thus lifetime can be extended upper processing temperature limits can be pushed up a little

• Disadvantages
Reduced mechanical properties Post curing is sometimes undertaken for peroxide cured vulcanizates, to complete the cure and remove unwanted byproducts

Peroxides
• Coagents • cross-link density of a peroxide cured compound can be increased by addition of chemicals called coagents
e.g., methacrylates

• This results in a higher state of cure with improvements in properties such as compression set

Electron beam curing
• not widely used throughout the industry • process has found a place in partially crosslinking components of tires • radiation dosage:
about four Megarads for partial cross-linking much higher doses for fully vulcanizing even thin rubber sections

Antioxidants, age resistors and anti-degradants
• Many vulcanizates become brittle when they aged • Aging can be caused by the presence of oxygen, accelerated by heat • Antioxidants are designed to slow down this process and can act as free radical scavengers

Antioxidants, age resistors and anti-degradants
• many antioxidants are available • Selection criteria:
light colored compounds where the product comes into contact with a surface that can not tolerate a stain volatility

Antioxidants, age resistors and anti-degradants
• Antiozonants, such as p-phenylene diamines, provide protection against ozone, and are often added to a compound
This chemical group also has very good antioxidant activity

• Antidegradant
An antidegradant is a compounding material used to retard deterioration caused by oxidation, ozone, light or combinations of these

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