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# 2.

1 Measures of Relative Standing and Density Curves Introduction this section focuses on describing the location of an individual with a distribution. o Using raw data We can easure location Mean and standard deviation Median and !uartiles hel"ful to use a gra"hical odel o density curve#\$or al distribution Measuring Relative Standing: Z-score standardizing o converting scores fro original values to standard deviation units o If x is an observation fro a distribution that has %nown ean and standard deviation& the standardi'ed value of x is
z= x mean s tan darddeviation

(he value is often called '# score Read e)a "le 2.1 on "age 11* the z- score o tells how any standard deviation away for the ean the original observation falls and in which direction observation larger than the ean are "ositive observation s aller than the ean are negative o the '#score can use o co "are relative standing of individuals in different distributions. Read e)a "le 2.2 on "age 11+

Measuring Relative standing : Percentiles o p th "ercentile of a distribution as the value with p of the observation less than or e!ual to it o May be defined as p th "ercentile of a distribution as the value with " "ercent if observation below it. o Remember Tip: when exploring data from a single uantitative variable! ,lways "lot your data o Ma%e gra"h -istogra or ste "lot .oo% for overall "attern o Sha"e o Center

o S"read o /or stri%ing deviation as such as outliers Calculate a nu erical su ary to briefly describe center and s"read o Mean o Median o Standard deviations for large observation o draw a s ooth curve this can hel" us describe the location of individual observations within the distribution.

"ensit# \$urve. athe atical odel for the distribution o gives co "act "icture of overall "attern of data but ignores inor irregularities note 0 no set of real data is e)actly described by a density curver the curve is an a""ro)i ation that is easy to use and accurate enough for "ractical use. o the area under the curve is 1 o area under the curve then re"resent "ro"ortions of the observations o ay co e in any sha"es Median and Mean o Median 1!ual#areas "oint (he "oint with half the are under curve to left and re aining half to the right 2uartiles divide the area in to fourths o Mean 3alance "oint Median and ean are of