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Emily McMahon Professor Scarnecchia Theology 115 Summary of Sections of the Catechism of the Catholic Church I.

Life in Christ 1691- Christians should recognize their own dignity as eo le who share in the di!ine nature of "od and should not return to their sinful nature. They should remem#er that they are a art of the #ody of Christ and ha!e #een redeemed and rescued from sin and e!il$ allowed to share in the #eatific !ision. 1692- The sign of faith is found in the confession that "od%s gift to man are found in the creation &e has made$ as well as in how &e rescued us and sa!ed us from our sin. Christians are the children of the Lord' they share in &is di!ine nature. This is witnessed #y the sacraments of re#irth. Therefore$ #ecause they share in this di!ine nature$ Christians must li!e a life that reflects the gos el of Christ. They are aided in this #y grace and the gifts of the &oly S irit$ recei!ed through rayer and rece tion of the sacraments. 1693- (esus always did what was good and leasing to "od the )ather and li!ed in harmony with &im. Christians are called to li!e in this way$ as well. 1694- Through #a tism$ Christians ha!e died to sin and are ali!e in Christ$ and therefore artici ate in &is risen life. *s followers of Christ$ they should imitate &im in their lo!e$ in their thoughts$ in their words$ and in their actions$ following the e+am le of (esus. 1695- Christians ha!e #een !indicated in (esus Christ and are called to #e &is saints. They are the tem le of the &oly S irit$ and &e teaches them how to ray and guides them so they li!e with lo!e. The &oly S irit ,heals the wounds of sin, and s iritually transforms and strengthens Christians. 1696- )ollowing Christ leads to eternal life$ while not following Christ e!entually leads to destruction and death. The story in the "os el a#out the ,two ways, demonstrates how im ortant our choices are for our sal!ation and shows the huge difference #etween the two ways. 1697- Catechesis has made clear the things demanded #y the Lord and how a Christian%s life in &im should #e. The catechesis of the &oly S irit ins ires and guides$ strengthening the Christian%s life. The catechesis of grace is what Christians are sa!ed #y and how eternal life is o#tained. The catechesis of the #eatitudes is the life of Christ summed u . The catechesis of sin and forgi!eness shows that man has to realize his sinfulness$ or he cannot #ear fruit. The catechesis of the human !irtues hel s the Christian understand the dis osition of man to rightness and goodness. The catechesis of the

Christian !irtues -faith$ ho e$ and charity. hel s the Christian to understand these !irtues. The catechesis of two fold chastity is e+ lained in the /ecalogue. )inally$ the ecclesial catechesis hel s the Christian understand the need for s iritual goods and the communion of saints$ in order for the Christian life to grow and de!elo correctly. 1698- (esus is the way$ the truth$ and the life. 0y following &im$ Christians can ho e for a fulfillment of the romises &e made. 0y at least trying to lo!e &im with the same lo!e &e lo!ed them with$ they can do wor1s that are in line with their self res ect and dignity. II. The /ignity of the &uman Person 1699- Li!ing life grounded in the &oly S irit is the calling of e!ery man. If fulfills him. This life in the &oly S irit is made of ,di!ine charity and human solidarity., This life is offered to Christians as their sal!ation. 1700- The human erson is created in "od%s image. This is where the intrinsic dignity and !alue of the human erson is found. The dignity of the human erson is fulfilled in ,his !ocation to di!ine #eatitude$, and it is im ortant that a human frees himself to ursue this fulfillment. The actions a erson erforms either conform or do not conform to ,the good romised #y "od and attested #y moral conscience., Therefore$ humans are in charge of their own growth. They are hel ed in this tas1 #y grace and !irtue and #y gi!ing themsel!es to "od. This is how humans ,attain to the erfection of charity., 1701- (esus Christ ma1es clear the mystery that is "od and hel s man realize his !ocation. Man has #een created in "od%s !ery image$ #ut it is in (esus Christ that man%s li1eness to "od is true and ,restored to its original #eauty$, #ecause original sin has o#scured this li1eness. 1702- Man%s li1eness to "od$ or ,the di!ine image$, is resent in e!ery human and is dis layed in the ,communion of ersons, and in the li1eness and unity that di!ine ersons share. 1703- Man is the only erson that "od created for its own sa1e. &e has a ,s iritual and immortal soul, and is ,destined for eternal #eatitude., 1704- Man shares in "od%s light and ower$ and through reason$ he can come to realize the way "od has ordered things. Man%s free will is ca a#le of directing him toward what is right$ and in see1ing what is right$ he will find his erfection. 1705- Man has #een gi!en freedom through !irtue and his ,s iritual ower of intellect and will$, and this freedom is a ,manifestation of the di!ine image, in an outward form.

1706- Through reason Man can discern and understand "od%s leading and understand that his first goal is to do good and a!oid e!il. E!ery erson has an o#ligation to follow this goal' it is inherent in the conscience of e!ery erson. This o#ligation is fulfilled in the ,lo!e of "od and of neigh#or., 1707- 2hen Man first fell and ,succum#ed to tem tation and did what was e!il$, he misused the freedom that was gi!en to him. Man still wants good now$ #ut #ecause of original sin he tends toward wrong$ or e!il$ and is ,su#3ect to error., 1708- (esus Christ deli!ered us from sin #y his Passion and death$ gi!ing us ,new life in the &oly S irit., 1709- Those who #elie!e in "od are &is children. This ado tion allows the erson to follow (esus% e+am le$ to choose correctly #etween good and e!il$ and to e!entually attain erfect charity in hea!en. 1710- (esus Christ hel s man understand himself and his !ocation. 1711- The human erson was gi!en a soul$ intellect$ and free will #ecause he was designed #y "od and is ,destined for eternal #eatitude., &is goal is to see1 erfection in ,what is true and good., 1712- The ,manifestation of the di!ine image, in man is true freedom. 1713- Moral law must #e adhered to #y man. &e must ,do what is good and a!oid what is e!il$, and this law is made 1nown in man%s conscience. 1714- 0ecause of original sin$ man is !ulnera#le to sin$ error$ and e!il while ,e+ercising his freedom., 1715- 2hoe!er #elie!es in "od has moral life in the &oly S irit that will #e fulfilled in hea!en. III. 4ur 5ocation to 0eatitude 1716- The essence of (esus% teachings can #e found in the #eatitudes. The #eatitudes fulfill the romises made ,to the chosen eo le since *#raham$, romising ossession of hea!en. 1717- The #eatitudes gi!e us an image of (esus% attitude$ they re!eal to Christians their !ocation in light of (esus% life$ they ma1e clear the attitudes and choices a Christian should ma1e in their life$ they hel Christians to see ho e e!en in the midst of great suffering and turmoil$ they romise rewards and #lessings to those who follow them$ and they can #e clearly seen in the li!es of the 0lessed Mother and in the li!es of the saints.

1718- Man%s desire for ha iness$ res onded to through the 0eatitudes.

laced in his heart #y "od$ is seen and

1719- The ultimate end and goal for human life is seen through the #eatitudes$ for "od calls e!ery erson$ as well as the Church$ to a life of li!ing out the #eatitudes. 1720- Se!eral different ways in which a Christian%s calling to #eatitude can #e found in the 6ew Testament. 1721- "od wants &is eo le ,to 1now$ to lo!e$ and to ser!e &im$ and so come to aradise., )ollowing the #eatitude allows them to do this and ,enter into the glory of Christ, and the Trinity. 1722- Man cannot fully com rehend this #eatitude that "od desires for Christians and gi!es to those who desire it' it is ,su ernatural$, a ,grace that dis oses man to enter into the di!ine 3oy., 1723- These #eatitudes force Christians to ma1e ,decisi!e moral choices$, to ma1e their hearts ure and to ,see1 the lo!e of "od a#o!e all else., Through them$ we$ as Christians$ can understand that the source of true human ha iness is not found in worldly$ #odily leasures$ #ut through "od only. 1724- Christians can com rehend the way of life that leads to hea!en through such tools as the /ecalogue$ the Sermon on the Mount$ and the teachings of the a ostles$ and they can follow that way aided #y grace$ li!ing the way in their daily li!es ,ste #y ste $ #y e!eryday acts$, slowly strengthening and ,#earing fruit, for the Church and for "od%s glory. 1725- The 0eatitudes are the fulfillment of the romises "od made to *#raham$ and are ,a res onse to the desire for ha iness, that is in each human heart. 1726- Through the #eatitudes$ we can learn what "od%s ultimate goal is for us7 ,the 8ingdom$ the !ision of "od$ artici ation in the di!ine nature$ eternal life$ filiation$ rest in "od., 1727- Eternal life is an amazing su ernatural gift from "od that we are led to #y grace. 1728- Through the 0eatitudes$ we are faced with significant choices a#out the things of this world. &owe!er$ these choices are good #ecause they , urify our hearts in order to teach us to lo!e "od a#o!e all things., 1729- Through the 0eatitudes$ we ha!e a goal to reach for concerning ,earthly goods, and the choices we ma1e regarding them.

I5. Man%s )reedom 1730- The human erson is rational and dignified$ in control of these actions' gifts from "od$ the Creator. "od wanted to gi!e man free will so that he might choose on his own to see1 "od. 1731- )reedom is ,the ower$ rooted in reason and will$ to act or not to act$ to do this or that$ and so to erform deli#erate actions on one%s own res onsi#ility., )reedom$ or free will$ allow the human erson to follow their own choosing$ although it only ,attains its erfection when directed toward "od., 1732- 9nless man%s freedom is com letely #ound to "od$ he can choose #etween good and e!il$ and can either grow more erfect or sin. This is the characterization of free will #y which , raise or #lame$ merit or re roach, is #ased. 1733- )reedom is increased the more good a erson does$ for ,there is no true freedom e+ce t in the ser!ice of what is good and 3ust., To choose e!il is to a#use the gift of freedom that "od ga!e us. 1734- )reedom causes a man to #e res onsi#le for his !oluntary actions. The more !irtue and 1nowledge a man has$ the #etter his ,mastery of the will o!er his acts., 1735- Ignorance$ fear$ ha#it$ or a num#er of other factors can diminish the res onsi#ility an indi!idual has for their actions. 1736- 2hen an action is willed #y a erson directly$ they are res onsi#le for it. &owe!er$ an action can #e ,indirectly !oluntary, if it is a result of negligence or not doing something that should ha!e #een done. 1737- *ctions that are effects from other circumstances can e+ist without #eing willed #y the erson doing the action. 1738- "od%s gift of freedom is e+ercised #y humans in their relationshi s with each other. E!ery erson has a right to #e recognized as free and inde endent$ created #y "od. This res ect is due to e!ery human erson. The right to e+ercise "od%s gift of freedom is inaliena#le$ and must #e ,recognized and rotected #y ci!il authority., 1739- Man%s freedom is limited ca a#le of failure$ as can #een seen #y the fall of man. In this act$ man sinned and refused "od%s lo!e$ o ening himself u to sin and alienating himself from "od. 1740- (ust #ecause Man has the gift of freedom does not mean he can do or say anything he wants to' a erson doing whate!er they will to fulfill their own satisfaction is not the ,su#3ect of this freedom., Man needs to follow moral law to fulfill his own freedom' #y ,de!iating from :it; man !iolates his own freedom.,

1741- Through &is Passion and Cross$ (esus ,won sal!ation for all men$, sa!ing us from sin and setting us free to li!e in communion with &im. &e ga!e us the &oly S irit$ and in the &oly S irit$ we ha!e freedom. 1742- The grace Christ has gi!en us does not ri!al freedom #ut enhances it and hel s it to grow. 1743- "od wanted to gi!e Man free will$ so he would #e a#le to search for "od of his own choosing. 1744- )reedom is ,the ower to act or not to act$, to erform ,deli#erate acts of one%s own will., Perfect$ fulfilled freedom is found when it is directed toward "od. 1745- &uman acts are characterized #y freedom' freedom ma1es us res onsi#le for the acts we commit. 1746- 4ur res onsi#ility for our actions can #e ,diminished or nullified, #y such things as ignorance$ fear$ ha#it$ etc. 1747- It is an unaliena#le right of man to #e a#le to e+ercise their freedom. &owe!er$ this right does not allow us to do or say anything we wish. 1748- ,)or freedom Christ has set us free, -"al 571.. 5. The Morality of &uman *cts 1749- 0ecause of freedom$ man is a ,moral su#3ect., 2hen an act is done deli#erately$ it ma1es man ,the father of his acts., *cts can #e ,morally e!aluated,' they are either good or e!il. 1750- ,The morality of human acts, de end on the o#3ect$ intention$ and circumstances of the act. 1751- The o#3ect is the ,good, to which ,the will deli#erately directs itself, and ,is the matter of a human act., 1752- The intention ,resides in the acting su#3ect$, and is the ,element essential to the moral e!aluation of an action., It is ,a mo!ement of the will toward the end., 4ne action can #e guided #y se!eral intentions. 1753- "ood intentions do not ma1e #ad #eha!iors or actions right$ for ,the end does not 3ustify the means., 1754- The circumstances are the conse<uences and ,secondary elements, of an action. They either increase or decrease the morality of an act$ although they do not change the ,moral <uality of acts themsel!es.,

1755- In order for an act to #e considered morally good$ goodness of the o#3ect$ end$ and circumstances must #e resent. 1756- Therefore$ one cannot 3ust the morality of a human act solely #y the intention that ins ires the erson to act$ or the circumstances that arouse #ecause of the act. 1757- The three ,sources, of human acts are the o#3ect$ intention$ and circumstances. 1758- The o#3ect s ecifies the ,act of willing, and ,3udges it to #e good or e!il., 1759- ,*n e!il action cannot #e 3ustified #y reference to a good intention., -St. Thomas *<uinas. Therefore$ the end does not 3ustify the means. 1760- )or an act to #e morally good$ the o#3ect of its end and its circumstances must #oth #e good. 1761- Some acts are always e!il and wrong to choose$ #ecause$ for e+am le$ they end in moral e!il. 5I. The Morality of the Passions 1762- * human is ordered to #eatitude #y his acts$ #ut e+ eriences it through his assions and feelings. 1763- The meaning of the word , assions, is the idea that feelings or emotions of the ,sensiti!e a etite...incline us to act or not to act, #ecause of some feeling or imagination we ha!e. 1764- Passions are art of the human syche and connect his senses and his mind. (esus ,called man%s heart the source from which the assions s ring., 1765- There are many assions$ #ut the most #asic of all is lo!e$ which causes a desire for good and an a!ersion to things that are e!il. 1766- Lo!ing means willing the good of another erson. *ll other assions are rooted the fact that the human heart is made for the good$ and only good things can #e lo!ed. 1767- In and of themsel!es$ assions are not good or e!il$ #ut go!erned #y reason. 1768- Strong assions do not determine the morality of a erson. They are good if they contri#ute to goodness and e!il if they contri#ute to e!il$ and can #e a lied to !irtues or !ices.

1769- The wor1 of the &oly S irit is accom lished in #y ,mo#ilizing the whole #eing., 1770- Perfect morality is found when a erson is ,mo!ed to the good not #y his will alone$, #ut ,#y his sensiti!e a etite$,' his feelings. 1771- ,Passions, mean feelings and emotions. These are how man ,intuits the good and sus ects e!il., 1772- Lo!e$ hatred$ desire$ fear$ 3oy$ sadness$ and anger are the main assions. 1773- Passions are not good or e!il #y themsel!es$ #ut can #ecome morally good or morally e!il de ending on how they ,engage reason and will., 1774- Passions can #e ,ta1en u in the !irtues or er!erted #y the !ices., 1775- Man%s morality is erfected if he is mo!ed not only #y his will #ut #y his assions and feelings. 5II. Moral Conscience 1776- 2ithin a man%s conscience is a law that ,he has not laid u on himself #ut which he must o#ey., This law tells him to lo!e$ to do good and a!oid e!il and is ut on his heart #y "od. 1777- Man%s moral conscience ,en3oins him, to do good and a!oid e!il$ and it also 3udges choices. "od s ea1s to man through his conscience. 1778- Conscience ,is a 3udgment of reason, which ena#les the erson to 3udge the morality of a articular act he is ,going to erform$ is in the rocess of erforming$ or has already com leted., Man is o#ligated to follow his conscience and his 1nowledge of right and wrong. 1779- E!ery erson must ,#e sufficiently resent to himself$, in order to hear and understand his conscience. 1780- E!ery erson is re<uired to ha!e ,u rightness of moral conscience., This includes a erson%s erce tion of morality$ their a lication of it$ and their 3udgment of acts. 1781- Conscience allows man to ,assume res onsi#ility for acts erformed., 1782- Man has the right to use his conscience and freedom when ma1ing decisions' he can%t #e forced to act against his conscience. 1783- Conscience ,must #e informed, and moral 3udgment ,enlightened.,

1784- The edification of the conscience is ,a lifelong tas1,' it #egins during !ery early childhood and ,awa1ens, the erson to ,1nowledge and ractice of the interior law., 5irtue is gained and e!il !ices re!ented #y this edification. 1785- In the formation of the conscience$ "od%s 2ord light our ath. 2e ha!e a duty to e+amine our conscience #efore the Cross. 2e are aided in our 3ourney #y the gifts of the &oly S irit$ the witness of other eo le$ and the teachings of the Church. 1786- 2hen faced with a moral decision$ our conscience can either made the right decision using reason and di!ine law$ or a wrong decision that ,de arts from them., 1787- * erson can sometimes face decisions that ma1e his 3udgment seem ,less assured, and the decision ,difficult., In this cases$ he must always ,seriously see1 what is right and good, and try to discern "od%s will. 1788- Man should always try to ,inter ret the data of e+ erience and the signs of the times, along with the gifts of the &oly S irit. 1789- Sometimes$ rules a ly in e!ery decision$ such as ,one may ne!er do e!il so that good may result from it$, or the "olden =ule. 1790- Man must always o#ey the 3udgment of his conscience' he would #e wrong to act against it. &owe!er$ his conscience and 3udgment can #e erroneous if his conscience is in ignorance. 1791- Ignorance can #e ,im uted to ersonal res onsi#ility., * erson is cul a#le for his erroneous 3udgment if he ,ta1es little trou#le to find out what is true and good., 1792- Ignorance of Christ$ the gi!ing of a #ad e+am le$ re3ection of the authority of the Church$ etc.$ can #e the source of ,errors in 3udgment of moral conduct., 1793- If ignorance is in!inci#le$ Man is not res onsi#le for his 3udgment or the e!il that came a#out #ecause of his 3udgment. 1794- ,* good and ure conscience is enlightened #y true faith$, and charity comes from ,a ure heart and good conscience and sincere faith., 1795- Man%s conscience is his ,most secret core and his sanctuary$, where he is ,alone with "od whose !oice echoes in his de ths., 1796- Man%s conscience is his 3udgment of reason$ #y which the moral <uality of human acts are recognized. 1797- )or someone who has done an e!il act$ his conscience ,remains a ledge of con!ersion and ho e.,

1798- * ,well>formed conscience, is ,u right and truthful., It%s 3udgments corres ond with reason and di!ine law. E!ery erson must try to form his conscience. 1799- 2hen a erson is faced with a moral decision$ his conscience must ma1e either a right 3udgment$ which is in accord with reason and di!ine law$ or an erroneous 3udgment that goes against reason and di!ine law. 1800- Man is always o#liged to follow the ,3udgment of his conscience., 1801- Conscience can #e ignorant or guilty of ma1ing erroneous 3udgments that are not always free from cul a#ility. 1802- "od%s 2ord lights our ath. 2e must ut it into ractice and form our conscience. 5III. 5irtues 1803- 5irtues are ,ha#itual and firm dis osition:s; to do the good., They hel a erson to erform right acts and ,gi!e the #est of himself., 1804- Human !irtues are firm attitudes$ dis ositions$ and , erfections of the intellect and will., They regulate our actions$ assions$ and conduct to reason and faith and are ac<uired with effort. 1805- There are four cardinal !irtues that all other !irtues deri!e from7 rudence$ 3ustice$ fortitude$ and tem erance. 1806- Prudence ,dis oses of ractical reason to discern our true good in e!ery circumstance., This !irtue guides other !irtues and sets standards and rules to follow$ guiding one%s conduct. 1807- (ustice ,consists in the constant and firm will to gi!e :what is; due to "od and neigh#or., 1808- )ortitude ,ensures firmness in difficulties and constancy in the ursuit of good., This !irtue allows a erson to o!ercome fear and trials. 1809- Tem erance ,moderates the attractions of leasures and ro!ides #alance in the use of created goods., This !irtue restrains man%s sensiti!e a etites. I?. Mercy and Sin 1846- The message of the gos el re!eals "od%s mercy to sinners$ through the re!elation in (esus Christ$ as does the Eucharist$ ,the sacrament of redem tion.,

1847- 2e ha!e to admit our failings to recei!e mercy$ #ecause if we say we ha!e no sin we are only decei!ing oursel!es. 1848- St. Paul tells us that were there is more sin$ there is more grace. &owe!er$ grace has to ,unco!er sin so as to con!ert our hearts$, to gi!e us righteousness. 1849- Sin ,is an offense against reason$ truth$ and right conscience., It fails to lo!e "od and neigh#or #ecause of ,a er!erse attachments to certain goods$, and it hurts man%s nature and ,in3ures human solidarity., It is contrary to eternal law. 1850- Sin offends "od$ diso#eying &im and re!olting against &im in a will to #ecome ,li1e gods$, and it is lo!ing ,oneself e!en to contem t of "od., 1851- In Christ%s Passion$ where#y his mercy was ,a#out to !an<uish, sin$ sin is most clearly manifested in ,its !iolence and its many forms., &owe!er$ des ite the hysical ugliness of sin manifested in this$ through &is assion$ Christ ,secretly #ecomes the source from which the forgi!eness of our sins will our fourth ine+hausti#ly., 1852- There are many 1inds of sins$ including ,fornication$ im urity$ selfishness$ 3ealousy$ anger$ selfishness$ etc., 1853- Sins ,can #e distinguished according to their o#3ects., They can #e classed according to what they concern or which ty e of sin they are. The root of e!ery sin ,is in the heart of man., 1854- Sins are classed #y how gra!e they are$ into the categories of mortal and !enial sin. 1855- Mortal sin ,destroys charity, in man%s heart and turns him away from "od. 5enial sin ,allows charity to su#sist$, #ut it does wound it. 1856- 0ecause mortal sin attac1s charity$ it re<uires a ,new initiati!e of "od%s mercy and a con!ersion of heart., 1857- )or a sin to #e a mortal sin$ it must #e a sin ,whose o#3ect is gra!e matter and with is also committed with full 1nowledge and deli#erate consent., 1858- "ra!e matter is found in the Ten Commandments' ,/o not 1ill$ /o not commit adultery$ /o not steal$ /o not #ear false witness$ etc., )or a sin to #e gra!e$ the gra!ity of the sin must #e great. 1859- Mortal sin re<uires the doer to ha!e full 1nowledge of the sinfulness of the act and com lete consent to choosing to act in that way. 1860- 9nintentional ignorance can diminish or remo!e cul a#ility for a gra!e sin.

1861- Mortal sin ,is a radical ossi#ility of human freedom., If it is not ,redeemed #y re entance and "od%s forgi!eness$, it causes ,e+clusion from Christ%s 1ingdom and the eternal death of hell., 1862- Man commits a !enial sin when he diso#eys the standards of moral law in less serious matters or commits a gra!e matter without full 1nowledge or com lete consent. 1863- 5enial sins diminish charity in man%s soul and show a wrong affection for ,created goods., 5enial sins that are deli#erate and unre ented ,dis ose us little #y little to commit mortal sin., 1864- "od%s mercy has no limits$ #ut those who refuse to acce t &is mercy$ who re3ect &is forgi!eness and sal!ation are li1ely to e+ erience a hardness of heart that ,can lead to final im enitence and eternal loss., ?. Proliferation of Sin 1865- Sin creates a tendency toward more sin$ it endangers man #y ma1ing !ice and corru ting his 3udgment. 1866- 5ices are classified li1e !irtues and are lin1ed to the ca ital sins$ which are ride$ a!arice$ en!y$ wrath$ lust$ gluttony$ and sloth. 1867- Some sins cry to hea!en$ li1e the murdering of *#el or the o the eo le of Egy t. ression of

1868- Sin ,is a ersonal act, and we ha!e res onsi#ility for other%s sins if we artici ate in them directly and !oluntarily$ if we order$ ad!ise$ raise$ or a ro!e them$ if we do not hinder them when we are o#liged to$ and if we rotect those who do e!il. 1869- Sin ,ma1es men accom lices of one another., It causes ,concu iscence$ !iolence$ and in3ustice., 1870- ,"od has consigned all men to diso#edience$, so &e can ha!e mercy on us all. 1871- Sin ,is an utterance$ a deed$ or a desire contrary to eternal law., 1872- Sin ,is an act contrary to reason, that wound%s man%s nature and solidarity. 1873- In man%s heart lies the root of all sin. 1874- 4ne commits a mortal sin when choosing deli#erately a gra!e offense contrary to di!ine law with full 1nowledge and consent.

1875- 5enial sin ,constitutes a moral disorder that is re ara#le #y charity., 1876- The re etition of all sins ,endangers !ices, and the ca ital sins. ?I. The )all 385- "od is good and e!erything &e created is good. &owe!er$ where does e!il come from@ ,The mystery of lawlessness is clarified only in the light of the mystery of our religion., 386- Sin has always #een resent in the history of humanity. The rofound relationshi that man has with "od must #e recognized$ and then sin can really #e understood$ for sin re3ects this relationshi with "od and o oses &im. 387- The light of /i!ine =e!elation ma1es clear what sin is' without it$ we cannot see and understand it clearly. 2ith it$ we can ,gras that sin is an a#use of the freedom that "od gi!es to created ersons so that they are ca a#le of lo!ing him and lo!ing one another., 388- 2ithin =e!elation$ the reality of sin is made clear. ,2e must 1now Christ as a source of grace in order to 1now *dam as the source of sin., 389- The ,re!erse side, of the message of "ood 6ews is ,the doctrine of original sin., 2e cannot understand original sin without ,undermining the mystery of Christ., 390- The account of the fall ,affirms a rime!al e!ent that too1 lace at the #eginning of the history of man., 391- E!en #efore the fall of *dam and E!e came the fall of an angel$ ,Satan$, or ,the de!il., *t first$ Satan was a good angel$ created #y "od$ who e!entually #ecame e!il. 392- The sin of the angels consisted of their free choice to re3ect "od. Satan ,has sinned from the #eginning, and is the ,father of lies., 393- The sin of the angels is unforgi!a#le #ecause it is the ,irre!oca#le character of their choice$, not ,a defect in the infinite di!ine mercy., 394- The reason (esus came ,was to destroy the wor1s of the de!il., 395- Satan%s ower is not infinite$ #ecause he is only a creature. &e cannot re!ent "o%s reign$ and while his actions can cause gra!e s iritual and e!en hysical in3uries$ this actions are only , ermitted #y di!ine ro!idence,' it is a mystery why this is ermitted$ #ut ,we 1now that in e!erything "od wor1s for good with those who lo!e &im.,

396- "od created man in &is image as a s iritual #eing who can li!e in friendshi with "od ,only in free su#mission to "od., Still$ man is de endent on "od as Creator ,and su#3ect to the laws of creation and to the moral norms that go!ern the use of freedom., 397- 0ecause of the tem tation of the de!il$ man ,let his trust in his Creator die in his heart, and he a#used his freedom and diso#eyed "od. 0ecause this was man%s first sin$ all sins after it would also #e in diso#edience to "od. 398- Through the first sin$ man made it clear that he , referred himself o!er "od, and he scorned &im in that act$ choosing ,himself o!er and against "od$ against the re<uirements of his creaturely status and therefore against his own good., 399- This first sin had tragic conse<uences' *dam and E!e immediately lost the grace ,of original holiness, and #ecame afraid of "od. 400- In the first sin$ *dam and E!e found that ,the harmony in which they had found themsel!es . . . :was; now destroyed, and #ro1en$ and #ecause of that$ all man1ind is now su#3ect to #ondage and decay. 401- *fter the first sin$ the world was ,inundated #y sin., 402- Through the first sin$ all men are im licated. 403- The Catholic Church teaches that ,the o!erwhelming misery which o resses men and their inclination toward e!il and death, can%t #e understood without insight from the first sin and the effects it has o!er all man1ind. 404- &ow did the first sin affect all man1ind@ It is #ecause ,the whole human race is in *dam %as one #ody of one man.%, The human race is unified$ and #ecause of this$ all men are im licated in the first sin$ ,as they are all im licated in Christ%s 3ustice., 405- 4riginal sin ,does not ha!e the character of a ersonal fault in any of *dam%s descendants$, meaning that it does not totally corru t human nature$ #ut only wounds it and de ri!es it of ,original holiness and 3ustice., 406- The Church%s teaching ,on the transmission of original sin, was made more clear in the fifth century with St. *ugustine%s reflections and writings. 407- The doctrine of original sin , ro!ides lucid discernment of man%s situation and acti!ity in the world., It gi!es the de!il ower o!er man. 408- The conse<uences of sin , ut the world as a whole in the sinful condition a tly descri#ed, as the sin of the world.

409- The situation #y which ,the world is in the ower of the e!il one, ma1es man%s whole life a s iritual #attle. 410- "od did not a#andon man after the fall$ #ut instead continues to call him and ,heralds the coming !ictory o!er e!il and his restoration from his fall., 411- The ,6ew *dam$, (esus$ ,ma1es amends su era#undantly for the diso#edience of *dam., Mary$ the ,6ew E!e$, was the first to #enefit from Christ%s !ictory and was , reser!ed from all stain of original sin., 412- "od didn%t re!ent *dam and E!e from sin #ecause &e ermits e!il to ,draw forth some greater good$, and #ecause ,Christ%s ine+ ressi#le grace ga!e us #lessing #etter than those the demon%s en!y had ta1en away., 413- "od didn%t ma1e death and doesn%t delight in it' it was through the de!il that death entered the world. 414- Satan and the other fallen angels freely refused to ser!e "od' their choice was definiti!e and they try to draw man into that decision. 415- *t the !ery #eginning of time$ man a#used his freedom$ lifting ,himself u against "od and see1ing to attain his goal a art from him., 416- 0y sinning$ man lost original holiness and 3ustice for all man1ind. 417- *dam and E!e ,transmitted to their descendants human nature wounded #y their own first sin$, as well as the de ri!ation of original holiness and 3ustice$ which is called ,original sin., 418- &uman nature is wea1ened #ecause of original sin and is su#3ect to its owers. 419- 4riginal sin is transmitted with human nature ,#y ro agation$ not #y imitation$, and is , ro er to each., 420- The !ictory that Christ one for us ,has gi!en us greater #lessings that those which sin had ta1en from us., 421- Christians #elie!e that ,the world has #een esta#lished and 1e t in #eing #y the Creator%s lo!e., It fell into sla!ery #ut is set free #y (esus Christ. ?II. The Sacrament of Penance and =econciliation 1440- Sin is an offense against "od that damages communion with &im and the Church$ and it re<uires #oth "od%s forgi!eness and reconciliation with the Church$ which is accom lished through the Sacrament of Penance.

1441- "od is the only 4ne 2ho forgi!es sins. 1442- Christ has willed that the Church ,should #e a sign and instrument of the forgi!eness and reconciliation that he ac<uired for us at the rice of &is #lood., 1443- (esus forga!e sins in &is u#lic life$ and he also made it clear that the effect of forgi!eness is a reintegration of ,forgi!en sinners into the community of the Peo le of "od., 1444- 0y gi!ing the * ostles the authority to forgi!e sins$ "od also ga!e ,them authority to reconcile sinners with the Church$, an a#ility that was e+ ressed when Christ ga!e St. Peter the 1eys of hea!en. 1445- The words ,#ind and loose, mean that whoe!er is e+cluded from your communion is e+cluded from "od%s communion$ and whoe!er is recei!ed into your communion is recei!ed into "od%s communion. ,=econciliation with the Church is inse ara#le from reconciliation with "od., 1446- Christ instituted Penance ,for all sinful mem#ers of &is Church$, es ecially for those who had fallen into mortal sin after 0a tism. 1447- The way in which the Church administers this sacrament has changed multi le times. 1448- /es ite the changes that the sacrament has undergone$ the #asic fundamental structure of it has stayed the same. It has two elements' the act of man ,who undergoes con!ersion through the action of the &oly S irit$ and$ secondly$ "od%s action ,Through the inter!ention of the Church., 1449- The form for a#solution follows the ,essential elements of this sacrament., 1450- Penance re<uires ,the sinner to endure all things willingly$, to #e ,contrite of heart$, to ,confess with the li s$, and to , ractice com lete humility and fruitful satisfaction., 1451- Contrition is the first act of a enitent$ which is the ,sorrow of the soul and detestation for the sin committed$ together with the resolution not to sin again., 1452- Perfect contrition ,arises from a lo!e #y which "od is lo!ed a#o!e all else$, and it remits !enial sins and o#tains the forgi!eness of mortal sins ,if it includes the firm resolution to ha!e recourse to sacramental confession as soon as ossi#le., 1453- Im erfect contrition -or attrition. is a rom ting of the &oly S irit ,#orn of the consideration of sin%s ugliness or the fear of eternal damnation and other enalties

threatening the sinner., It doesn%t o#tain forgi!eness for gra!e sins$ #ut ,dis oses one to o#tain forgi!eness in the sacrament of Penance., 1454- =ecei!ing the Sacrament of Penance ought to #e receded #y an e+amination of conscience made ,in the light of the 2ord of "od., 1455- The confession of sins ,frees us and facilitates our reconciliation with others., 1456- Confessing sins to a riest is essential to the Sacrament of Penance. 1457- E!ery Catholic ha!ing o#tained the age of reason is o#liged to ,confess serious sins at least once a year., 1458- 2hile not ,strictly necessary$, confessing e!eryday !enial sins is strongly recommended #y the Church. =egularly confessing !enial sins hel s to form one%s conscience and fight e!il. 1459- Many$ many sins harm our neigh#or$ and ,one must do what is ossi#le in order to re air the harm., *lso$ although a#solution ta1es away sin$ it does not ta1e away the effects of sin$ and therefore ,the sinner must still reco!er his full s iritual health #y doing something more to ma1e amends for the sin,' he has to ma1e e+ iation$ or enance$ for them. 1460- The enance gi!en through the sacrament ,must ta1e into account the enitent%s ersonal situation and must see1 his s iritual good., It has to correlate with the gra!ity of his sins and ,can consist of rayer$ an offering$ wor1s of mercy$ ser!ice of neigh#or$ !oluntary self>denial$ sacrifices$ and . . . the atient acce tance of the cross we must #ear., ?III. 2hy /id the 2ord 0ecome )lesh@ 456- In the 6icene Creed$ we say that ,for us men and our sal!ation &e came down from &ea!en' #y the ower of the &oly S irit$ &e #ecame incarnate of the 5irgin Mary$ and was made man., 457- The 2ord #ecame flesh ,in order to sa!e us #y reconciling us with "od., 458- The 2ord #ecame flesh ,so that thus we might now "od%s lo!e., 459- The 2ord #ecame flesh ,to #e our model of holiness., 460- The 2ord #ecame flesh ,to ma1e us arta1ers of the di!ine nature.,

?I5. The 5irtues and "races 1810- Education$ deli#erate acts$ di!ine grace$ and erse!erance are re<uired for humans to gain !irtue. 1811- It is hard for man to ,maintain moral #alance$, #ut Christ%s sacrifice gi!es us the ,grace necessary to erse!ere in the ursuit of the !irtues., 1812- The human !irtues ,are rooted in the theological !irtues$, which ha!e "od for their origin$ moti!e$ and o#3ect. 1813- The theological !irtues are ,the foundation of Christian moral acti!ity$, and they ,inform and gi!e life to all the moral !irtues., They are faith$ ho e$ and charity. 1814- )aith ,is the theological !irtue #y which we #elie!e in "od, and all &e has told us. 1815- )aith ,remains in one who has not sinned against it., &owe!er$ faith re<uires good wor1s$ or else it is dead$ #ecause it is ,de ri!ed of ho e and lo!e, and does not ,fully unite the #elie!er to Christ., 1816- * disci le of Christ must ,1ee the faith and li!e it$, as well as rofess it$ #ear witness to it$ and s read it. 1817- &o e ,is the theological !irtue #y which we desire the 1ingdom of hea!en and eternal life as our ha iness, and we lace our trust in Christ and &is strength. 1818- &o e is the res onse ,to the as iration to ha iness that "od has laced in the heart of e!ery man., 1819- Christian ho e fulfills the ho e ,of the chosen eo le$, which originated with *#raham. 1820- &o e is fulfilled and re!ealed in the #eatitudes$ which ,raise our ho e toward hea!en as the new Promised Land., &o e does not disa oint #ut is an anchor$ a wea on$ and gi!es us 3oy. 1821- 2e can ho e for hea!en$ and we should ho e in e!ery circumstance to , erse!ere to the end., 1822- Charity ,is the theological !irtue #y which we lo!e "od a#o!e all things for &is own sa1e$ and our neigh#or as oursel!es., 1823- Charity is the new commandment that (esus as1ed &is disci les to imitate when &e said ,This is my commandment$ that you will lo!e one another as I ha!e lo!ed you.,

1824- Charity ,1ee s the commandments of "od and Christ., 1825- (esus died #ecause &e lo!ed us$ e!en when we were still his enemies. Therefore$ &e as1s us to lo!e in the same way. 1826- 2ithout Charity$ St. Paul says$ we are nothing. Charity is a#o!e all other !irtues. 1827- Practicing all the !irtues is ,animated and ins ired #y charity,' it hel s form all other !irtues and is ,the source and the goal of their Christian ractice., 1828- Practicing the moral life gi!es Christians the freedom to #ecome children of "od. 1829- (oy$ Peace$ and Mercy are the fruits of Charity. 1830- The ,moral life of Christians, is ,sustained #y the gifts of the &oly S irit., 1831- The se!en gifts of the &oly S irit are wisdom$ understanding$ counsel$ fortitude$ 1nowledge$ iety$ and fear of the Lord. 1832- The fruits of the &oly S irit are charity$ 3oy$ eace$ atience$ 1indness$ goodness$ generosity$ gentleness$ faithfulness$ modesty$ self>control$ and chastity. 1833- 5irtue is a ,ha#itual and firm dis osition to the good., 1834- &uman !irtues are ,sta#le dis ositions of the intellect and will., They guide the actions$ assions$ and conduct of our li!es. The four cardinal !irtues are rudence$ 3ustice$ fortitude$ and tem erance. 1835- Prudence ,dis oses the ractical reason to discern, the true good in e!ery circumstance. 1836- (ustice is the ,firm and constant will to gi!e "od and neigh#or their due., 1837- )ortitude ,ensures firmness in difficulties and constancy in the ursuit of the good., 1838- Tem erance ,moderates the attraction of the leasures of the senses$, ro!iding #alance ,in the use of created goods., 1839- Moral !irtues are grown through education$ actions$ di!ine grace$ and erse!erance in struggle

1840- The theological !irtues ,dis ose Christians to li!e in a relationshi with the &oly Trinity$, and they ha!e "od as their origin$ moti!e and o#3ect. 1841- The three theological !irtues are faith$ ho e$ and charity. 1842- 2ith faith$ we can #elie!e in "od and all that &e has told us through &is re!elation and through the Church. 1843- 2ith ho e$ we can desire and trust in eternal life ,and the graces to merit it., 1844- 2ith charity$ we can lo!e "od a#o!e all things and lo!e our neigh#ors #ecause of our lo!e for &im. 1845- The se!en gifts of the &oly S irit are wisdom$ understanding$ counsel$ fortitude$ 1nowledge$ iety$ and fear of the Lord. ?5. "race and (ustification 1987- The grace of the &oly S irit ,has the ower to 3ustify us$, or cleanse us from sin$ as well as to ,communicate to us %the righteousness of "od through faith in (esus Christ% and through 0a tism., 1988- Through the grace of the &oly S irit$ we can ta1e art in Christ%s assion #y dying to sin and in &is =esurrection #y #eing #orn to new life. 1989- The &oly S irit%s first wor1 of grace is con!ersion$ where#y man is encouraged to re ent$ to turn toward "od and away from sin$ and acce t forgi!eness and righteousness from on high. 1990- (ustification ,detaches man from sin$, urifying his heart$ freeing him$ and reconciling him with "od. 1991- (ustification is ,the acce tance of "od%s righteousness, through (esus. =ighteousness means the ,rectitude of di!ine lo!e., 1992- (ustification has #een ,merited for us #y the Passion of Christ., 1993- (ustification ,esta#lishes coo eration #etween "od%s grace and man%s freedom., 1994- (ustification ,is the most e+cellent wor1 of "od%s lo!e$, clarified in (esus and gi!en #y the &oly S irit. 1995- The &oly S irit ,is the master of the interior life$, and 3ustification allows for the sanctification of man.

1996- (ustification comes from "od%s grace and is a fa!or$ free and underser!ed. 1997- "race ,is a artici ation in the life of "od, and it introduces us to life in the Trinity. 1998- 4ur !ocation$ to attain eternal life$ is su ernatural and ,de ends entirely on "od%s gratuitous initiati!e., 1999- "race is "od%s gift that &e of ,his own life$, infused #y the &oly S irit to heal and sanctify our soul. It is the sanctifying grace we recei!e at 0a tism. 2000- Sanctifying grace is ,ha#itual$, ,sta#le$, and ,su ernatural$, a dis osition that erfects our souls and allows us to li!e with "od. 2001- Man%s re aration for grace%s rece tion is$ in itself$ a grace. This strengthens our ,colla#oration in 3ustification though faith and sanctification through charity., Through it$ "od com letes what &e has #egun. 2002- Man is re<uired and demanded to gi!e a free res onse to "od%s free initiati!e$ to enter ,freely into the communion of lo!e., 2003- "race is$ firstly$ ,the gift of the S irit who 3ustifies and sanctifies us., The sacramental graces and s ecial graces$ or charisms$ are included in it. 2004- "races of state ,accom any the e+ercise of the res onsi#ilities of the Christian life., 2005- "race ,#elongs to the su ernatural order, and it ,esca es our e+ erience., It cannot #e 1nown e+ce t through faith$ which means that we cannot rely on our feelings or wor1s and ,conclude that we are 3ustified and sa!ed., 2006- Merit means the ,recom ense owed, #y a community or society ,for the action of one of its mem#ers., This recom ense can #e a reward or a unishment$ and it is relati!e to 3ustice. 2007- Man has no strict right to merit$ #ecause ,#etween "od and us there is an immeasura#le ine<uality$ for we ha!e recei!ed e!erything from &im$ our Creator., 2008- Merit e+ists #ecause ,"od has freely chosen to associate man with the wor1 of &is grace., 2009- *do tion ma1es true merit a!aila#le to us ,as a result of "od%s . . . grace., This ma1es us co>heirs with Christ ,and worthy of o#taining %the romised in heritance of eternal life.%,

2010- 6o one can merit ,the initial grace of forgi!eness and 3ustification., &owe!er$ we can merit them for oursel!es and for others. "races and goods are the o#3ect of rayer$ which ,attends to the grace we need for meritorious actions., 2011- Christ%s charity is the source of all our merits$ and grace ,ensures the su ernatural <uality of our acts and their merit #efore "od and #efore man., 2012- "od always wor1s for the good of those who lo!e &im$ and &e lanned for them to #e made in the image of &is Son. 2013- *ll Christians are called to ,the fullness of Christian life and to the erfection of charity$, as well as to holiness and erfection. 2014- S iritual growth ma1es men closer to Christ and a mystical union that "od calls man to li!e in. 2015- The ,way of erfection, consists of the ,way of the Cross,' there can #e no holiness without s iritual #attle. 2016- The children of "od ,rightly ho e for the grace of final erse!erance and the recom ense of "od., 2017- The &oly S irit%s grace gi!es us "od%s righteousness$ uniting us to Christ and ma1ing us ,sharers in &is life., 2018- (ustification has two as ects. Through grace$ man turns from sin toward "od$ acce ting &is forgi!eness and righteousness. 2019- (ustification ,includes the remission of sins$ sanctification$ and the renewal of the inner man., 2020- 0y &is Passion$ Christ won 3ustification for us$ and through 0a tism is it gi!en to us. 2021- "race is "od%s hel to us in res onding to our !ocation to #e &is children$ and it ,introduces us into the intimacy of the Trinitarian life., 2022- /i!ine initiati!e through grace recedes$ re ares$ an elicits ,the free res onse of man$, and it ,res onds to the dee est yearnings of human freedom., 2023- Sanctifying grace ,is the gratuitous gift that "od gi!es us$ and it is infused #y the &oly S irit into the soul to ,heal it of sin and to sanctify it., 2024- Sanctifying grace ma1es us more leasing to "od$ and "od acts through actual grace ,to #e distinguished from the ha#itual grace which is ermanent in us.,

2025- 0ecause "od associates man with grace$ we can ha!e merit in &is sight. Man%s merit is credited to "od$ due to &im. 2026- The &oly S irit%s grace can gi!e us true merit$ #y the !irtue of our ado tion and in accordance with "od%s 3ustice. 2027- 6o one can merit initial grace$ #ut we can merit grace for oursel!es and for others. 2028- *ll Christians are called to Christian erfection. 2029- Matthew 1A7BC > ,If any man would come after me$ let him deny himself and ta1e u his cross and follow me.,