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Running Header: Reflection on Developing ID Expertise

Reflection on Developing ID Expertise Four case studies: Michael Bishop, Craig Gregersen, Abby Carlin, Paul Lindley Jason Thorne EDCI 672

Reflection on Developing ID Expertise Looking at my first through fourth case study you will notice a significant progression in expertise. I felt confident in my first case study but didnt realize what I didnt know. By the fourth case study my confidence level was backed up by my previous experiences. I have now learned the structure and methodology to crafting a strong analysis.

To analyze each case I will be applying the Ertmer and Stepich dimensions of instructional design expert thinking (2005). I organized my reflection by each of the seven dimensions with each case reviewed in those dimensions. The comparison will be looking at my either novice or expert approach. Summarize vs. Synthesize Michael Bishop For this dimension of the case, a majority of it focused on summarizing instead of synthesis. The issues identified in the case were reflected in the paper without looking deeper to identify the primary issues. On one section of my paper I used a question to identify the problem. The How? is another challenge that needs to be overcome. How will teachers be trained on and use the software. In this excerpt from my paper it is clear that I was identifying issues but I wasnt looking at the bigger picture and what this issue means in terms of the case. Instead it sounded more superficial because I was answering a question with a question. Craig Gregersen In this case I also simply describe what the issues are in the case without further synthesis or focusing on primary issues. Many of the issues I presented were no more thought out than they were in the case. For example I said To get approval for training it must first be ran by the legal department. They see the training as a way to discuss possible legal problems in general terms. This is simply a combination of what Louise and Richard described in the case. I did not apply ADDIE or any other model that could help identify some of the bigger issues in the case. Abby Carlin This case shows a significant change towards synthesis instead of summarization. Instead of repeating what is described in the case, I begin to apply the ADDIE model in order to look for the primary issues. For example, I say Abby must determine how to Analyze, Design, and Implement if she wants to be successful. It would be best to prioritize based on the order they are used in the ADDIE model to prevent getting stuck on a step This shows a step in the direction of synthesis and working towards the expert level. Paul Lindley Finally, for this case I show more growth in synthesizing the issues. Having applied the ADDIE model as well I start to look at what the issues are and how they are going to impact the

Reflection on Developing ID Expertise evaluation stage of ADDIE. In this case, I identify the issues in the analysis, design, and implementation phases but I synthesize from the evaluation phase. I say The style of game play is challenging because they must find a way to engage students but also be education. I see this as looking at the issues as they will show up in the ADDIE model. Principles vs. Features Michael Bishop For this case I presented the issues in a clear manner but I did not apply any principles or explain why they were issues. There was no elaboration or explanation of why they are issues. For example I say The two key design challenges are determining who the target audience should be and how to implement the game. As I reflect on this, I made a claim but I didnt back it up with any wellestablished principles.

Craig Gregersen The approach to this case is very similar to the Michael Bishop case and maybe even a step back. I simply described features of the case and used the word topics which I think was a poor word choice. A better choice would have been objectives or goals. The word topics is vague and says nothing about what should be learned. In my paper, I say The most complex of the design challenges is choosing what topics to cover. The topics for each of the different audiences fit different needs. To take this to the expert level I would need to use different terminology like objectives, and they will be taught using an effective pedagogy for conveying ethics. Abby Carlin My approach this time, improved from the previous two cases. There is still improvement needed in the terminology needed but the right idea is conveyed. When describing the features in this case, I say She must find a way to communicate with the SMEs and learn the processes of operating the machinery Abby will also need to make the SMEs feel engaged so that they want to participate. This approach shows Im organizing the problems that Abby is facing and discussing principles like communication and engagement. Further improvement would be elaborating communication and engagement with established principles. Paul Lindley For the final case, I began to associate principles with issues. I summarize the problems in the case with the principles they relate to. I write The school they are originally designing this game for has a history of success in problem-based learning. To continue on this path of success, the instructional designers should continue to use this method. They would need to develop a game that is open-ended and allows the student to explore the problem. In this example, I identify the issue, associate the principle, and explain why they are tied together.

Reflection on Developing ID Expertise Relationships Among Issues

Michael Bishop For this case I do connect two issues but I dont elaborate or explain their relationship. I only identify them as the two main issues. I wrote Michael may find it difficult to change from his original target audience or develop a thorough implementation. Upon determining a path forward past these two challenges, other obstacles will be easier to overcome. I could have improved this significantly by showing a strong relation among issues. This could be an explanation that shows how these two issues lead to the big picture problem. Craig Gregersen This case again took a step back, at no point did I connect ideas. I mention and briefly describe issues with topics, legal department, target audience, and timeframe but at no point did I combine these issues until I try to address them with a solution. I believe the problem I ran into in this case is that I didnt tie issues together so that it was a solvable case for the solution. An expert ties the issues together so that they can have a solution applied. Abby Carlin I made a large improvement on this case. I identified the issues in terms of ADDIE and proposed the order that they should be solved in. Prioritizing based on the biggest and first unknowns will greatly reduce the challenges. By first focusing on the analysis, then design, and implementation challenges, she can work in the order she will develop the lesson. Further elaboration on the order is explained in the proposed solutions. This example shows an organized approach to the issues were they are connected and even sets up a solution for the order they should be in. Paul Lindley In the final case I connected the issues several times throughout. I started out by reiterating what Paul says in the case when I say The analysis phase brings up a challenge that Paul identifies as well: the constraints and resources. I also address what the issues in terms of what solutions need to look like. This example was also used in the Principles vs Features section above. In both of those cases Im narrowing in on main issues and showing how they connect. This sets my analysis for clear solutions because the issues are focused. Reflective vs Reflexive Michael Bishop For this case, my focus was too broad and I described the issue in vague terms. Instead of thinking of what I knew from the case, I reacted to what I didnt know. The unknowns left my case vague and broad. In it, I said This relates to the case because of the need to be flexible and create learning that is appealing to all visitors but also adjust to the environment. Using words like learning

Reflection on Developing ID Expertise

and environment do not show the focus on the known information and what can be inferred. It leaves the problem broad and this same sentence can be applied to many different cases because of how unspecific it is. Craig Gregersen This case was also approached in more reflexive way. I did use terms that were more focused on my primary issues but I still focused on all the information I didnt have. I did not reflect on information I did have or that I could determine. I react to issues by saying The employees have too many other time constraints and cant afford to spend any more time on training. If there was one topic and the audience was more focused then this might not be an issue. Instead of an expert focusing on the solution, I was approaching it as a novice worried about a problem. Abby Carlin I only improved a small amount for this case. It was still mostly reflective as I describe many issues, some of which I should have sat aside because they werent as useful in solving the case. I say there are issues that need to be addressed in the Analyze, Design, and Implement phases of ADDIE along with two case issues related to time and goals. A more reflective approach would have been to focus on the design and implementation phases because the other issues in this case not the primary ones. Paul Lindley In this case I was reflective but also reflected in what I think is an interesting way. In the example I shared above for this case in the principles verse features section I focused on the issues that would lead to the solution in this case. What I found more interesting is that I reflected on my personal experiences. I related to this case what I had experienced in my own job. I said I have been a part of four video games that were developed. The big difference between my experience and this case is that the games I was part of had a much smaller scope. I think this is a very good way to help focus the issues and get direction for the proposed solutions. I had brought issues, organization, and a direction towards a solution all together in a reflective way rather than being reflexive. Problem Solving Relationships Among Solutions Michael Bishop For this case, instead of proposing two solutions that address the issues I present a solution that solves one issue and another solution that addresses another issue. I said The first possible solution is to pilot the program in summer camps and through a series of evaluations, develop an effective implementation. and The second possible solution is to find another school as a partner and begin a top down implementation. To show the relationship among the solutions I would need to

Reflection on Developing ID Expertise propose solutions that address both the analysis and implementation phases. To take this to the expert level I would need to connect the issues I identified in the case and connect them to the solutions Im proposing.

Craig Gregersen In this case I used the same approach as the Bishop case. The two solutions I propose address different issues. Neither solution works to address both issues. The first possible solution I propose is to rework the legal departments presentation. and The second possible solution is either locate or ask legal and upper management to develop a code of ethics with principles that match the company. No connection is made between the primary issues of the case and a universal solution. Abby Carlin A considerable change took place in this case, both solutions that were proposed were tied to all the issues. I said I think it is key to get the new employees working with the SMEs. The SMEs contain a wealth of information and the training probably wont be a success without at least a little time working with them. The solution becomes how you will get the new employees to a level of knowledge that they can begin learning skills. This not only shows the solutions are related but that they are both working towards completely addressing the issues. Paul Lindley This case relates the solutions to the issues and also to themselves. The two solutions in this case are closely aligned with several parts the same in either solution. I start this unified section by saying The two solutions I propose for this problem are similar in nature put provide two different outcomes. As I read the case a general direction for a solution seemed most viable. I go on to describe the similar approach that I recommend both cases take and then describe were they vary. I think it was a good approach because some of the issues I identified needed to be approached in the similar manner with common solutions. Consideration of Implications Michael Bishop I mention several alternatives that could happen in this case and didnt do bad overall. I discuss them throughout the solution but not all of them are well developed. For example, I say A negative attribute is that several schools might withdraw from the program if they dont see results quickly. Schools may be hesitant to add the game to their curriculum and finding new schools with interests may be few and far between. This example could be more thought out. It identifies issues but is also reviewing information already provided in the case. A well-developed implication might describe the actions taken to make these schools easier to find or to avoid the problem all together.

Reflection on Developing ID Expertise Craig Gregersen For this case, I stayed too vague. I acknowledged there was implications but didnt discuss them in a meaningful way. For example I said This solution could continue to be more effective over time and The clearest pro of this solution is that you can reach your desired end result and satisfy the legal department early on. Neither sentence is really elaborated past this. In both of these cases there is so little information that it can be talking about anything. Abby Carlin This case shows a significant change in identifying the action that can be taken. The

implications are identified from Abbys point of view. For example I would recommend the first possible solution where Abby develops a thorough training that includes video and discussions on each step of the process before they go out to the factory floor. And My personal experience, as I described above, included significant classroom training and then application on a simulator. In both of these examples the implications are thought out and the rest of the paragraph further elaborates on these ideas. Paul Lindley Having played the actual game and some insight, I further developed my thoughts on possible implications. I said Having played the game, a change I would suggest is communicating to the students what all the objectives are for the game. Instead of completing one challenge and wondering what the next one will be, I suggest that they all be provided up front so that students can see what they have to do to fully complete the game. In this example I identify a problem that may turn up in the evaluation stage. I describe the issue and context then propose a potential solution. Flexible vs Rigid Michael Bishop My solutions for this case are relatively rigid with some flexibility. The language I used could have been less absolute in some areas. One interesting example is when I described that the definition of success could be flexible. I said Even if you spend years trying to develop a way to effectively use the game in schools and are not successful but you are successful in summer camps then I would consider it a success. I think this is interesting because instead of including flexibility in my solution I recommend flexibility in what success might be. I think this could be a good view for some situations, other times success is more rigidly defined. Craig Gregersen In this case I provided no flexibility. Instead I discussed what Gregersen should do in absolute and firm terms. I used terms like rework, using, and needs to be that didnt have any language about it not going as planned. The one example I can find of flexibility is actually a compromise. This compromise can lead towards teamwork between them. In many ways, while it may

Reflection on Developing ID Expertise seem flexible on the surface it isnt. I dont describe any back up plans if the compromise isnt worked out and Im counting on it for my solution to work out. Abby Carlin For this case I describe the potential solutions in flexible and realistic terms. The solutions seem possible even if everything doesnt work perfectly. I sum it up by saying Room for adjustments

will allow time to identify and fill in any of that information that the new employees dont have. This will allow room for flexibility and adjustments for any problems identified. This really opens up the possibilities and presents the solution in a very realistic manner. It can be adapted to fit an authentic situation. Paul Lindley In this case I also propose the solution in flexible terms. These terms help it adapt to realistic scenarios. I said The final product that they create needs to have a game and lesson plans that allow for flexibility. Teachers will need to be able to adapt the learning to fit their needs. The only thing absolute I describe is the need to be flexible. In this case, the flexibility needs to happen in the classroom. With many different teachers running their classroom in different ways, the game needs to be very adaptable to fit the teachers needs. Action Plan for Moving Forward Going forward, I can see the parallel between these analyses and how I can apply this process to my life. In simplified terms, I think the move from novice to expert is about thoughtfulness. It is about putting the time and effort into the case to understand what you do know and what your next steps should be. Time and effort isnt the whole picture for becoming an expert. I spent the same amount of time or more working on the first two cases than the last two cases. My progression towards an expert increased dramatically with the last two cases. As I think back, it was the improved thoughtfulness that shifted my approach to cases. That thoughtfulness comes from a combination of experience and organization. As I move forward and I will need to apply these lessons Ive learned. My approach will need to be organized and my ideas developed in a way that I can clearly communicate. I will also need to think about not only what is presented in front of me but also what it means and the implications of possible actions.

Reflection on Developing ID Expertise I wont become an expert overnight, but with persistence and thoughtfulness I will work towards it.

With each new case study and real life experience I learn new lessons and develop experiences that will help me in the future.

References: Ertmer, P.A., Stepich, D.A. (2005). Instructional Design Expertise: We Know It When We See It? Educational Technology. Pp 38-43. Thorne. J. (2013). Michael Bishop. Case Study 1. Thorne. J. (2013). Craig Gregersen. Case Study 2. Thorne. J. (2013). Abby Carlin. Case Study 3. Thorne. J. (2013). Paul Lindley. Case Study 4.