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tutorial on basic logic gates

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NOT, AND, and OR Gates NAND and NOR Gates Exclusive-OR (XOR) Gate Multiple-input Gates

X 0 1 Y 1 0

AND Gate

AND X Z Y Z = X & Y X 0 0 1 1 Y 0 1 0 1 Z 0 0 0 1

OR Gate

OR X Z Y Z = X | Y X 0 0 1 1 Y 0 1 0 1 Z 0 1 1 1

NAND Gate

NAND X Z Y Z = ~(X & Y) nand(Z,X,Y) X 0 0 1 1 Y 0 1 0 1 Z 1 1 1 0

NAND Gate

NOT-AND X W Y W = X & Y Z = ~W = ~(X & Y) Z X 0 0 1 1 Y 0 1 0 1 W 0 0 0 1 Z 1 1 1 0

NOR Gate

NOR X Z Y Z = ~(X | Y) nor(Z,X,Y) X 0 0 1 1 Y 0 1 0 1 Z 1 0 0 0

NOR Gate

NOT-OR X Y W = X | Y Z = ~W = ~(X | Y) W Z X 0 0 1 1 Y 0 1 0 1 W 0 1 1 1 Z 1 0 0 0

NOT, AND, and OR Gates NAND and NOR Gates DeMorgans Theorem Exclusive-OR (XOR) Gate Multiple-input Gates

NAND Gate

X Y Z = ~(X & Y) X 0 0 1 1 Y 0 1 0 1 W 0 0 0 1 Z 1 1 1 0 Z

NOR Gate

X Z Y Z = ~(X | Y) X 0 0 1 1 Y 0 1 0 1 Z 1 0 0 0

Exclusive-OR Gate

XOR X Z Y Z = X ^ Y xor(Z,X,Y) X Y 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 Z 0 1 1 0

Exclusive-NOR Gate

XNOR X Y

Z = ~(X ^ Y)

X Y Z 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1

Z 1 0 0 1

Z = X ~^ Y xnor(Z,X,Y)

Multiple-input Gates

Z1 Z2

Z3

Z4

Z1

Output Z 1 is HIGH only if all inputs are HIGH An open input will float HIGH

Multiple-input OR Gate

Z2

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