Welcome to

Visa Integrated Circuit Card Application Overview
The Visa Integrated Circuit Card (ICC) Application Overview has been updated. Please see the Chapter 1, Section 1.6, “Impact Summary” for information on what has changed from Visa ICC Specification (VIS) version 1.3.2. This document is the final copy of the Visa ICC Specification version 1.4.0. It reflects changes from the copy published on the Visa website in April 2001. These changes are noted in a separate changes list available on the Visa website. It is important that Visa staff, members, and vendors review the changes list. If you have any comments regarding this manual, please contact your regional representative. Your opinion is important to us.

Effective: 31 October 2001

Visa Integrated Circuit Card

Application Overview Version 1.4.0
Effective: 31 October 2001

 Visa International 1998, 1999, 2001
Visa Public

5101-03

 1998, 1999, 2001 Visa International Service Association. All rights reserved. Permission to copy and implement the
material contained herein is granted subject to the conditions that (i) any copy or re-publication must bear this legend in full, (ii) any derivative work must bear a notice that it is not the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification published by Visa, and (iii) Visa shall have no responsibility or liability whatsoever to any other party arising from the use or publication of the material contained herein. Visa makes no representation or warranty regarding whether any particular physical implementation of any part of this Specification does or does not violate, infringe, or otherwise use the patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets, know-how, and/or other intellectual property of third parties, and thus any person who implements any part of this Specification should consult an intellectual property attorney before any such implementation. Any party seeking to implement this Specification is solely responsible for determining whether their activities require a license to any technology including, but not limited to, patents on public key encryption technology. Visa International Service Association shall not be liable for any party’s infringement of any intellectual property right.

Printed on recycled paper.

Contents
Chapter 1 • About This Specification
1.1 Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–2 1.2 VIS Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–2

1.3 Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–3 1.3.1 Mandatory/Required/Recommended/Optional 1.3.2 Card/Integrated Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . 1–3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–3

1.3.3 Terminated Transactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–3 1.4 Document Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–4 1.4.1 Volume Overview 1.4.2 Chapter Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–4

1.4.3 Subheading Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–6 1.5 Revisions to This Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–6 1.6 Impact Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–7 1.6.1 Terminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–7 1.6.1.1 Mandatory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–7 1.6.1.2 Optional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–7 1.6.2 Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–8

1.6.2.1 Mandatory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–8 1.6.2.2 Optional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–8

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1.7 Reference Materials

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–10

1.7.1 International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) Documents . . . . 1–10 1.7.2 EMV Documents 1.7.3 Visa Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–11

Chapter 2 • Processing Overview
2.1 Functional Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–1

2.1.1 Application Selection (mandatory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–1 2.1.2 Initiate Application Processing/Read Application Data (mandatory) . . . . 2–2 2.1.3 Offline Data Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–2

2.1.4 Processing Restrictions (mandatory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–3 2.1.5 Cardholder Verification (mandatory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–3 2.1.6 Terminal Risk Management (mandatory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–3 2.1.7 Terminal Action Analysis (mandatory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–4

2.1.8 Card Action Analysis (mandatory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–4 2.1.9 Online Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–4 2.1.10 Issuer-to-Card Script Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–5 2.1.11 Completion (mandatory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–5 2.2 Mandatory and Optional Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–7

2.2.1 Card Functional Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–7 2.2.2 Terminal Functional Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–9

2.2.3 Command Support Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–11 2.3 Visa Low-Value Payment (VLP) Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–12 2.3.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–12

Chapter 3 • Application Selection
3.1 Card Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–2

3.2 Terminal Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–3 3.3 Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–3

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3.4 Building the Candidate List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–4 3.5 Identifying and Selecting the Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–4 3.5.1 Terminal Makes Application Decision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–4 3.5.2 Cardholder Makes Account Decision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–5 3.5.2.1 Terminal Supports Cardholder Confirmation . . . . . . . . . . 3–5 3.5.2.2 Terminal Supports Cardholder Selection . . . . . . . . . . . 3–5 3.6 Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–6 3.7 Subsequent Related Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–7

Chapter 4 • Initiate Application Processing
4.1 Card Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–2 4.2 Terminal Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–3

4.3 GET PROCESSING OPTIONS Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–3 4.4 Terminal Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–3 4.5 Card Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–4 4.6 Terminal Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–4 4.7 Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–5 4.8 Prior Related Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–6 4.9 Subsequent Related Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–6

Chapter 5 • Read Application Data
5.1 Card Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–2 5.2 Terminal Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–3

5.3 READ RECORD Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–3 5.4 Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–3

5.5 Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–4 5.6 Prior Related Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–5 5.7 Subsequent Related Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–5

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Chapter 6 • Offline Data Authentication
6.1 Keys and Certificates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–3 6.1.1 Visa Certificate Authority (CA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–3 6.1.2 RSA Key Pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–3

6.1.2.1 Visa Public/Private Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–3 6.1.2.2 Issuer Public/Private Keys 6.1.2.3 ICC Public/Private Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–4 . . . . . . . . . . 6–4 . . . . . . . . . . 6–5

6.1.3 SDA Key, Certificate, and Signature Relationships 6.1.4 DDA Key, Certificate, and Signature Relationships 6.2 Determining Whether to Perform SDA or DDA 6.3 Static Data Authentication (SDA)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–8

6.3.1 SDA Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–9 6.4 Dynamic Data Authentication (DDA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–11 6.4.1 Data Elements for DDA Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–11 6.4.2 Standard DDA Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–13 6.4.3 Combined DDA/AC Generation Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–14 6.5 Prior Related Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–16

6.6 Subsequent Related Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–16

Chapter 7 • Processing Restrictions
7.1 Card Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–2

7.2 Terminal Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–3 7.3 Application Version Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–4

7.4 Application Usage Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–4 7.5 Application Effective Date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–4

7.6 Application Expiration Date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–5 7.7 Prior Related Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–7

7.8 Subsequent Related Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–7

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Chapter 8 • Cardholder Verification
8.1 Card Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–3 8.2 Terminal Data 8.3 Commands 8.4 Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–8

8.4.1 CVM List Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–8 8.4.2 CVM Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–10 8.4.2.1 Offline Plaintext PIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–10 8.4.2.2 Offline Enciphered PIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–10 8.4.2.3 Online PIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–11 8.4.2.4 Signature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–11

8.4.2.5 No CVM Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–11 8.4.2.6 Fail CVM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–11

8.5 Prior Related Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–14 8.6 Subsequent Related Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–14

Chapter 9 • Terminal Risk Management
9.1 Card Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9–2 9.2 Terminal Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9–3

9.3 GET DATA Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9–4 9.4 Terminal Exception File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9–4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9–4

9.5 Merchant Forced Transaction Online

9.6 Floor Limit Checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9–4 9.7 Random Transaction Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9–4 9.8 Terminal Velocity Checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9–5 9.9 New Card Checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9–5 9.10 Prior Related Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9–8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9–8

9.11 Subsequent Related Processing

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Chapter 10 • Terminal Action Analysis
10.1 Card Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–2 10.2 Terminal Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–3

10.3 GENERATE APPLICATION CRYPTOGRAM (AC) Command . . . . . . . 10–4 10.4 Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–4

10.4.1 Review Offline Processing Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–4 10.4.2 Request Application Cryptogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–5 10.4.3 Processing Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–6 10.5 Prior Related Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–7 10.6 Subsequent Related Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–7

Chapter 11 • Card Action Analysis
11.1 Card Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–2 11.2 Terminal Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–2

11.3 GENERATE APPLICATION CRYPTOGRAM (AC) Command . . . . . . . 11–2 11.4 Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–3

11.4.1 Card Risk Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–3 11.4.2 Card Response Decision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–4 11.4.2.1 Standard Response to GENERATE AC . . . . . . . . . . . 11–4 11.4.2.2 Response to GENERATE AC for Combined DDA/AC Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–5 11.5 Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–6 11.6 Prior Related Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–7 11.7 Subsequent Related Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–7

Chapter 12 • Online Processing
12.1 Card Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–2 12.2 Terminal Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–3

12.3 Online Request and Response Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–3

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12.4 Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–4 12.5 Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–5 12.5.1 Online Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–5 12.5.1.1 Combined DDA/AC Generation Processing 12.5.1.2 Standard Online Processing . . . . . . . . . 12–5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–5

12.5.2 Online Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–5 12.5.3 Issuer Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–6 12.5.4 Processing Flow 12.6 Prior Related Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–8

12.7 Subsequent Related Processing

Chapter 13 • Completion
13.1 Card Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13–3

13.2 Terminal Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13–4 13.3 GENERATE Application Cryptogram (AC) Command . . . . . . . . . . 13–4

13.4 Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13–5 13.4.1 Terminal Determines Transaction Disposition . . . . . . . . . . . 13–5

13.4.1.1 Transaction Authorized Offline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13–5 13.4.1.2 Online Authorization Completed Successfully . . . . . . . . . 13–6 13.4.1.3 Online Authorization Unable to Complete . . . . . . . . . . 13–6

13.4.2 Card Responds to Final GENERATE AC Command . . . . . . . . . 13–7 13.4.2.1 Online Authorization Completed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13–7 13.4.2.2 Online Authorization Unable to Complete . . . . . . . . . . 13–8

13.4.3 Terminal Completes Transaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13–9 13.5 Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13–10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13–11

13.6 Prior Related Processing

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Chapter 14 • Issuer-to-Card Script Processing
14.1 Script-Related Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14–3 14.1.1 Message Authentication Code Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14–3

14.1.2 Data Encipherment Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14–3 14.2 Card Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14–4 14.3 Terminal Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14–5

14.4 Online Response Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14–5 14.5 Commands 14.6 Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14–6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14–8

14.6.1 Issuer Scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14–8 14.6.2 Command Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14–8 14.6.3 Secure Messaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14–9 14.7 Processing Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14–10

14.8 Prior Related Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14–11 14.9 Subsequent Related Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14–11

Appendix A • Acronyms Glossary Index

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Figures
2–1: 3–1: 4–1: 5–1: 6–1: 6–2: 6–3: 6–4: 7–1: 8–1: 8–2: 8–3: 9–1: 9–2: Sample Transaction Flow Application Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–6 . 3–6 . 4–5 . 5–4 . 6–5 . 6–6 6–10 6–15 . 7–6 . 8–9 8–12 8–13 . 9–6 . 9–7 10–6 11–6 12–7

Initiate Application Processing Flow .

Read Application Data Processing Flow . SDA Key Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

DDA Data—Key Relationships . Processing Flow for SDA. Processing Flow for DDA. Processing Restrictions . . . . . . . . . .

CVM List Processing Flow . PIN Processing Flow (1 of 2) PIN Processing Flow (2 of 2)

Terminal Risk Management Processing Flow (1 of 2) . Terminal Risk Management Processing Flow (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10–1: Terminal Action Analysis Flow . 11–1: Card Action Analysis . . . . . . . .

12–1: Online Processing Flow . 13–1: Completion . . . . .

. 13–10 . 14–10

14–1: Issuer-to-Card Script Processing .

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Tables
2–1: 2–2: 2–3: 3–1: 3–2: 4–1: 4–2: 5–1: 5–2: 6–1: 6–2: 6–3: 6–4: 6–5: 6–6: 7–1: 7–2: 8–1: 8–2: 8–3: 8–4: 9–1: 9–2: Card Functional Requirements . Terminal Functional Requirements Command Support Requirements . Application Selection—Card Data . Application Selection—Terminal Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–7 . 2–9 2–11 . 3–2 . 3–3 . 4–2 . 4–3 . 5–2 . 5–2 . 6–7 . 6–8 . 6–8 6–11 6–12 6–12 . 7–2 . 7–3 . 8–3 . 8–4 . 8–5 . 8–6 . 9–2 . 9–3 10–2 10–2

Initiate Application Processing—Card Data .

Initiate Application Processing—Terminal Data .

Read Application Data—Previously Sent Card Data . Read Application Data—Card Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Offline Data Authentication Processing Priority . Terminal Data Used in SDA . Card Data Used in SDA . Terminal Data Used in DDA Card Data Used in DDA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Card Data Used in Combined DDA/AC Generation Processing Restrictions—Card Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Processing Restrictions—Terminal Data . CVM List Processing—Card Data . Offline PIN Processing—Card Data . . . . . .

Offline Enciphered PIN—Card Data . CVM Processing—Terminal Data . .

Terminal Risk Management—Card Data . Terminal Risk Management—Terminal Data

10–1: Review Offline Processing Results—Card Data 10–2: Request Cryptogram Processing—Card Data .

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10–3: Review Offline Processing Results—Terminal Data 10–4: Request Cryptogram Processing—Terminal Data . 11–1: Card Action Analysis—Card Data . . . . . . . .

. . . . .

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. 10–3 . 10–3 . 11–2 . 11–4 . 12–2 . 12–2 . 12–3 . 12–3 . 13–3 . 13–4 . 13–4 . 13–7 . 14–4 . 14–5 . 14–5

11–2: Card Response to GENERATE AC Command . 12–1: Online Processing—Card Data . . . . . .

12–2: Online Processing Issuer Authentication—Card Data . 12–3: Online Processing—Terminal Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12–4: Online Processing—Online Response Data . 13–1: GENERATE AC Response . . . . . . . . . .

13–2: Completion—Card Data (Partial List) . 13–3: Completion—Terminal Data . . . .

13–4: Authorization Response Code for Offline Action Taken 14–1: Issuer-to-Card Script Processing—Card Data . . . .

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14–2: Issuer-to-Card Script Processing—Terminal Data .

14–3: Issuer-to-Card Script Processing—Online Response Data

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About This Specification

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The Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification (VIS) provides the technical details of chip card and terminal functionality related to Visa Smart Debit and Visa Smart Credit (VSDC) transactions (Visa’s chip-based credit and debit programs). It focuses on the functions performed by the chip card and terminal as well as the interaction between the chip card and terminal at the point of transaction. The objective of the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification is to:
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Communicate the implementation details of Europay, MasterCard, and Visa (EMV) specifications to ease vendor development efforts Aid members and vendors in understanding the changes that chip brings to the credit and debit payment services, especially in terms of the processing taking place between the chip card and terminal at the point of transaction Provide Visa’s minimum requirements for chip-based credit and debit programs Identify options that members and vendors can implement to meet market needs Support Visa’s payment service rules and International Operating Regulations for Visa Smart Debit and Visa Smart Credit (VSDC) Define Visa’s implementation of optional EMV features

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Because VIS is based on EMV, the two specifications should be used together for reference and development purposes. However, VIS builds on the EMV requirements in order to support the Visa payment service rules. To facilitate understanding of the differences between these two specifications, please refer to Chapter 2, Processing Overview.

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1.1 Audience
This document is intended for members, vendors, and readers seeking a technical understanding of the functionality of chip cards and terminals supporting Visa Smart Debit and Visa Smart Credit programs.

1.2 VIS Update
This document serves as an update to VIS 1.3.2. The update includes changes reflecting EMV 2000 Integrated Circuit Card Specification for Payment Systems, Version 4.0, enhancements to VSDC functionality, and corrections and clarifications to VIS 1.3.2. An impact summary highlighting the differences between VIS 1.3.2 and the current version, VIS 1.4.0, is provided later in this chapter.

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1.3 Terminology

1.3 Terminology
This section provides clarification on several terms used throughout the specification.

1.3.1 Mandatory/Required/Recommended/Optional
Visa’s philosophy is to facilitate market requirements while ensuring global interoperability. To this end, Visa’s minimum requirements reflect the EMV mandatory items in addition to specific requirements outlined in the Visa payment service rules or International Operating Regulations. All other functionality is optional and not required. Visa’s minimum requirements are designated using the terms “mandatory”, “required”, and “shall.” Recommended functionality is designated in the document using the term “should.” Elective data elements and functions are designated using the terms “optional” or “may.” Markets can customize their programs beyond the minimum requirements through adoption of the optional functions and through proprietary processing. Proprietary processing, however, must not interfere with global interoperability.

1.3.2 Card/Integrated Circuit
In general, the term “card” is used to describe functions performed by the VSDC application on the card. When it is necessary to distinguish between the chip itself and another card feature such as the magnetic stripe, the term “integrated circuit” may be used.

1.3.3 Terminated Transactions
When the term “terminal terminates transaction” is used, it includes the processing to end the transaction and the display of the message to the cardholder and merchant indicating why the transaction cannot be completed.

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1.4 Document Structure
This section provides an overview of the structure of the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification. It begins with an overview of the three volumes, is followed by an overview of each chapter, and concludes with the subheading structure of each chapter.

1.4.1 Volume Overview
The document is organized into three volumes.
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Application Volume—This volume provides a technical overview of the processing between the card and terminal. This volume may be used as an overview to understand the processing and sequence of events involved in a VSDC transaction flow. Card Volume—This volume specifies the technical details of EMV related to the data and processing performed by the card. It also includes additional Visa specific requirements for card functionality. Vendors involved in the creation of the VSDC card application should focus on this document for their development efforts. Terminal Volume—This volume specifies the technical details of EMV related to the data and processing performed by the terminal. It also includes additional Visa specific requirements for terminal functionality. Vendors involved in the creation of the VSDC terminal application should focus on this document for their development efforts.

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To provide clarity, requirements from EMV may be restated in the various volumes and, where necessary, information is replicated in the three volumes to provide comprehensive information. Each volume includes a list of acronyms, a glossary, and an index.

1.4.2 Chapter Overview
This guide is organized according to the functions that occur during VSDC transaction flow and is divided into the following sections: Chapter 1, About This Specification—This chapter provides an overview of the VIS specification, VIS terminology, a summary of revisions for this version of the VIS documents, and a list of reference materials. Chapter 2, Processing Overview—This chapter provides an overview of the each function and highlights whether the function is mandatory or optional. Chapter 3, Application Selection—This function determines which of the applications, supported by both the card and terminal, will be used to conduct the transaction.

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1.4 Document Structure

Chapter 4, Initiate Application Processing—During this function, the card receives any terminal data which was requested by the card during Application Selection. Chapter 5, Read Application Data—During this function, the terminal reads the data records necessary for the transaction from the card. Chapter 6, Offline Data Authentication—During this function, the terminal authenticates data from the card using RSA public key technology. Chapter 7, Processing Restrictions—During this function, application version checks, effective and expiration dates checks, and other checks are performed by the terminal at the point of transaction. Chapter 8, Cardholder Verification—During this function, the terminal determines the cardholder verification method (CVM) to be used and performs the selected CVM. Chapter 9, Terminal Risk Management—During this function, the terminal ensures that higher-value transactions are sent online and that chip read transactions go online periodically. This risk management check protects against threats that might be undetectable in an offline environment. Chapter 10, Terminal Action Analysis—During this function, the terminal applies rules set by the issuer in the card and by the acquirer in the terminal to the results of offline processing. This analysis determines whether the transaction should be approved offline, declined offline, or sent online for an authorization. Chapter 11, Card Action Analysis—During this function, velocity checking and other risk management, internal to the card, is performed. Chapter 12, Online Processing—During this function, the issuer’s host computer reviews and authorizes or rejects transactions using the issuer’s host-based risk parameters. Chapter 13, Completion—During this function, the card and the terminal conclude transaction processing. Chapter 14, Issuer-to-Card Script Processing—During this function, the card applies post-issuance changes sent from the issuer.

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1.4.3 Subheading Overview
For ease of use, the main chapters are structured in the same manner:
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Card Data—Provides the mandatory and optional data elements required on the card to support the function. Data element tags are listed when multiple tags are associated with a single data element name. Terminal Data—Provides the mandatory and optional data elements needed in the terminal to support the function. Data element tags are listed when multiple tags are associated with a single data element name. Commands—Provides the requirements for the commands used to support the function. Processing—Provides the technical details of the function. If there are several functions within a process, they may be listed separately. NOTE: Flowcharts are representative of processing and may not include all steps that may be performed.

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Prior Related Processing—Outlines prior processing to aid in understanding previous activities related to this function. Subsequent Related Processing—Outlines subsequent processing to aid in understanding future activities related to this function.

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1.5 Revisions to This Specification
Revisions to this specification may be required to accommodate future EMV changes, Visa payment service rules, or market needs. The impacts of these changes will be communicated in the VIS changes list or in an update to this document.

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1.6 Impact Summary

1.6 Impact Summary
The following is an outline of changes and additional functionality from both a card and terminal perspective for VIS 1.4.0 (April 2001).

1.6.1 Terminal
This section includes mandatory and optional changes. The testing of terminals to support mandatory changes shall be aligned with the EMV 2000, Version 4.0, migration requirements. Refer to the EMVCo website for information on testing schedules.

1.6.1.1 Mandatory
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If the Directory method of Application Selection fails, the terminal shall switch to the List of AIDs method. The terminal shall not allow Partial Selection during Application Selection if the terminal indicators show it is not supported for the AID. During SDA and DDA, the terminal shall save the Data Authentication Code (if present) and ICC Dynamic Number after recovery. If the SDA Tag List is one of the data elements read from the card, the terminal shall validate that the only tag it contains is the tag for the AIP. ATMs supporting Offline PIN shall support CVM List processing.

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1.6.1.2 Optional
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Visa Operating Regulations may permit the terminal to eliminate certain common applications from consideration during Application Selection. The EMV Combined DDA/Generate AC option is included as a terminal option. The public key encipherment used in the Offline Enciphered PIN processing may occur either in the PIN pad or in the card reader. Secure transfer of the PIN from the PIN pad to the card reader is required. Terminal support for Visa Low-value Payment feature of VSDC.

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1.6.2 Card
This section includes mandatory and optional changes. Contact the CAA for information on testing schedules. Changes are backward compatible and cards tested under versions 1.3.1 and 1.3.2 will continue to work in the new devices.

1.6.2.1 Mandatory
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If a card is personalized with an SDA Tag List, the only tag in the list must be “82”, the tag for the Application Interchange Profile. Prior to adding this requirement to EMV a survey was conducted to determine if the SDA tag list was being utilized. The results indicated that it was not in use and that the requirement could be added to EMV. To ensure interoperability and backward compatibility cards should begin compliance immediately. An SDA tag list that does not comply will result in Offline Data Authentication failure in EMV 4.0 terminals. Support of Cardholder Verification must be indicated in the Application Interchange Profile and a CVM List is required. Cumulative amounts are no longer incremented for offline declines. The Online Authorization Indicator is no longer reset after offline approval.

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1.6.2.2 Optional
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The Issuer Public Key length may equal that of the corresponding Visa CA Public Key. The ICC Public Key length may equal that of the corresponding Issuer Public Key. The EMV Combined DDA/Generate AC option is included as a VSDC card option. The EMV optional session key generation method is referenced as a VIS option. A new cryptogram generation method, Cryptogram Version 14, is referenced as a VIS option. An Application Default Action bit has been added to allow issuers to decline the transaction and block the application if the PIN Try Limit was exceeded on a previous transaction. NOTE: Cryptogram Version 14 is not currently supported in VisaNet systems and Issuer’s wishing to implement this option must be aware that they will not be eligible for VisaNet Authentication Services.

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1.6 Impact Summary

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The Online Authorization Indicator is optional in the card unless Issuer Authentication or Issuer Script processing is supported. The Visa Low-value Payment feature of VSDC has been added. A “Cumulative Total Transaction Amount Upper Limit” has been added. An Application Default Action bit has been added to allow issuers to send transactions online if issuer script processing failed on a previous transaction.

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1.7 Reference Materials
The following documents contain additional information on Visa Smart Debit and Visa Smart Credit. The websites for obtaining these documents or information on obtaining them are listed below. For additional information, contact your Visa member representative.

1.7.1 International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) Documents
Information on ordering these documents is available on http://www.iso.ch
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ISO 639:1988. Codes for the Representation of Names and Languages. ISO 3166:1997. Codes for the Representation of Names of Countries. ISO 4217:1995. Codes for the Representation of Currencies and Funds. ISO/IEC 7810:1995. Identification Cards—Physical Characteristics. ISO/IEC 7811:1995. Identification Cards—Recording Technique. ISO/IEC 7812:1994. Identification Cards—Identification of Issuers. ISO/IEC 7813:1995. Identification Cards—Financial Transaction Cards ISO/IEC 7816-4:1995. Identification Cards—Integrated Circuit Cards with Contacts—Part 4: Interindustry Commands for Interchange. ISO/IEC 7816-5:1994. Identification Cards—Integrated Circuit Cards with Contacts—Part 5: Numbering System and Registration Procedure for Application Identifiers. ISO 8583:1987. Bank Card Originated Messages—Interchange Message Specifications—Content for Financial Transactions. ISO 8583:1993. Financial Transaction Card Originated Messages—Interchange Message Specifications. ISO 8859:1987. Information Processing—8-bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets. ISO 9564:1991. Banking—Personal Identification Number Management and Security.

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1.7 Reference Materials

1.7.2 EMV Documents
Available on the EMVCo Website: http://www.emvco.com/specifications.cfm
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EMV 2000 Integrated Circuit Card Specification for Payment Systems, Version 4.0, Book 1, Application Independent ICC to Terminal Interface Requirements, December, 2000. EMV 2000 Integrated Circuit Card Specification for Payment Systems, Version 4.0, Book 2, Security and Key Management, December, 2000. EMV 2000 Integrated Circuit Card Specifications for Payment Systems, Version 4.0, Book 3, Application Specification, December, 2000. EMV 2000 Integrated Circuit Card Specifications for Payment Systems, Version 4.0, Book 4, Cardholder, Attendant and Acquirer Interface Requirements, December, 2000.

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1.7.3 Visa Documents
Available on the Visa website: http://wwws2.visa.com/nt/chip/visdownload.html
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Visa Integrated Card Specification (Application Overview, Card Specification, and Terminal Specification) (VIS - versions 1.3.2 and 1.4.0) VIS Corrections and Updates

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Available on the Visa website: http://visa.com/nt/suppliers/vendor
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Chip Card Products: Submission Requirements—Describes Visa International requirements for approval of new and upgraded chip card products. Visa supports and recognizes approvals by EMVCo, LLC for EMV level 1 (Interface Module) and EMV level 2 (device application). EMVCo is the owner of the EMV Integrated Circuit Card Specifications for Payment Systems. EMVCo specifications, type approval administrative documentation, test requirements and test cases for EMV levels 1 and 2 may be obtained through the EMVCo website www.emvco.com.

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Chip Card Products: Testing and Approval Requirements—Describes Visa International requirements for approval of new and upgraded chip card products. It summarized Visa’s present testing services, policies, and pricing.

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Common Personalization—A guide to a common approach to personalization of all applications. NOTE: This guide is the final authority for non-application specific requirements.

Available on Visa InSite Global Products eLibrary: (http://insite/global/Consumer Platform Search/content) or through a regional representative:
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Certificate Authority User’s Guide—Visa Smart Debit and Visa Smart Credit, Visa Cash—Information and procedures related to the Visa Certificate Authority including Visa Certificate Authority Public Keys and Issuer Public Key Certificates. Common Personalization for Visa Smart Debit and Credit (VSDC)—A guide to personalization of VSDC Applications using the Common Personalization Approach. NOTE: The Visa Smart Debit and Visa Smart Credit Personalization Templates have been added to this document.

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Visa Smart Debit and Visa Smart Credit Certification Authority Key Revocation Visa Policies and Procedures—The Visa-specific policies and procedures related to key revocation. Visa Smart Debit and Visa Smart Credit Member Implementation Guide for Acquirers—Describes best practices, suggestions, considerations, and step-by-step activities to assist with implementation for VSDC Acquirers. Visa Smart Debit and Visa Smart Credit Member Implementation Guide for Issuers—Describes best practices, suggestions, considerations, and step-by-step activities to assist with implementation for VSDC Acquirers. Visa Smart Debit and Visa Smart Credit Planning Guide—A reference guide and roadmap for Acquirers and Issuers implementing Visa Smart Debit or Visa Smart Credit programs. It describes the components and decisions necessary for program implementation and focuses on what is new and different about implementing a Visa Smart Debit or Visa Smart Credit program. VSDC Service Activation Guide (SAG)—Describes planning considerations, business aspects, technical aspects and other regional tasks associated with completing a member implementation of VSCD. Visa Smart Debit/Visa Smart Credit Service Description—A document focusing on the features and benefits of the service.

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1.7 Reference Materials

Available on Visa InSite or through a Visa regional representative: http://insite/ref/docs
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Card Acceptance Device Reference Guide: Requirements and Best Practices Version 5.0—Provides vendors with insight towards designing their card acceptance devices to meet current and future industry and Visa scheme specific requirements and best practices. Visa Certification Management Service (VCMS) Testing and Certification Guide-VIP System, Member Version—A guide for the VIP System component of the VisaNet Certification Management System. Visa Certification Management Service (VCMS) User’s Manual-BASE II System—A guide for the BASE II System component of the VisaNet Certification Management System. VisaNet Card Technology Standards Manual—The standards applied to PINs, PIN-related security, and the management of cryptographic keys as well as the guidelines for encoding account and cardholder data on Track 1 and Track 2 of the magnetic stripe of a Visa card.

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Available on Visa InSite or through a Visa regional representative: http://insite/dept/buspubs1/library/vsmart/techlet.pdf
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Visa Smart Debit and Visa Smart Credit System Technical Manual—A document that describes the changes to VisaNet to support VSDC.

Available on Visa InSite or through a Visa regional representative: http://insite/dynaweb/opregs
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Visa International Operating Regulations—Specifies standards all Members must meet to operate and participate in Visa Payment Services (Volumes I-IV).

Available through Visa regional representative:
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Visa Smart Debit/Credit Certificate Authority Internal Procedures—Describes guidelines for enrolling the Visa Certificate Authority and is intended for use by Regional staff supporting VSDC. Visa Smart Payment Operating Principles Guide—Board-approved payment service principles for Visa Smart Debit and Visa Smart Credit.

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Available by request to the VSDC Hotline:
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Visa Smart Debit/Visa Smart Credit Early & Full Data Options for Host Systems—Provide Member center managers with an overview of the Early and Full options for their host systems.

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This chapter provides an overview of a Visa Smart Debit and Visa Smart Credit (VSDC) transaction. This is followed by a transaction flow showing the order in which these functions may be performed and the commands sent by the terminal to the card for communications. Charts at the end of the chapter show functional and command support requirements for cards and terminals. Regions may have additional restrictions and requirements.

2.1 Functional Overview
The following functions are used in VSDC transaction processing. Functions marked as mandatory are performed for all transactions, though some steps within the mandatory functions may be optional. Functions not marked mandatory are optional and are performed based upon parameters in the card or terminal, or both.

2.1.1 Application Selection (mandatory)
When a VSDC card is presented to a terminal, the terminal determines which applications are supported by both the card and terminal. The terminal displays all mutually supported applications to the cardholder, and the cardholder selects the application to be used for payment. If these applications cannot be displayed, the terminal selects the highest priority application as designated by the issuer during card personalization.

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2.1.2 Initiate Application Processing/Read Application Data (mandatory)
When a VSDC application is selected, the terminal requests that the card indicate the data and functions supported for that application and the functions supported. The card may indicate different data or different support functions based upon characteristics of the transaction such as domestic or international. The terminal reads the data indicated by the card and uses the supported function list to determine the processing to perform.

2.1.3 Offline Data Authentication
The terminal determines whether it should authenticate the card offline using either offline static or dynamic data authentication based upon the card and terminal support for these methods. Offline Static Data Authentication (SDA) validates that important application data has not been fraudulently altered since card personalization. The terminal validates static (unchanging) data from the card using the card’s Issuer Public Key, which is stored on the card inside a public key certificate and a digital signature, which contains a hash of important application data encrypted with the Issuer Private Key. A match of the recovered hash with a generated hash of the actual application data proves that the data has not been altered. Offline Dynamic Data Authentication (DDA), like SDA, validates that the card data has not been fraudulently altered and additionally validates that the card is genuine. DDA has two forms: Standard DDA and Combined DDA/Generate AC. With Standard DDA, the terminal requests that the card generate a cryptogram using dynamic (transaction unique) data from the card and terminal and an ICC Private Key. The terminal decrypts this dynamic signature using the ICC Public Key recovered from card data. A match of the recovered data to the original data verifies that the card is not a counterfeit card created with data skimmed (copied) from a legitimate card. With Combined DDA/AC Generation, the generation of the dynamic signature is combined with the generation of the card’s Application Cryptogram during Card Action Analysis to assure that the Application Cryptogram came from the valid card.

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2.1.4 Processing Restrictions (mandatory)
The terminal performs Processing Restrictions to see whether the transaction should be allowed. The terminal checks whether the effective date for the card has been reached, whether the card has expired, whether the application versions of the card and terminal match, and whether any Application Usage Control restrictions are in effect. An issuer may use Application Usage Controls to restrict a card’s use for domestic or international, cash, goods, services, or cashback.

2.1.5 Cardholder Verification (mandatory)
Cardholder verification is used to ensure that the cardholder is legitimate and the card is not lost or stolen. The terminal uses a Card Verification Method (CVM) List from the card to determine the type of verification to be performed. The CVM List establishes a priority of cardholder verification methods, which consider the capabilities of the terminal and characteristics of the transaction to prompt the cardholder for a specific method of cardholder verification. If the CVM is offline PIN, the terminal prompts the cardholder for a PIN and transmits the cardholder-entered PIN to the card, which compares it to a Reference PIN stored secretly in the card. The CVM List may also specify other methods of cardholder verification, such as online PIN, signature, or no cardholder verification required. Under certain conditions, the terminal may use a default CVM as defined by Visa International Operating Regulations.

2.1.6 Terminal Risk Management (mandatory)
Terminal Risk Management checks whether the transaction is over the merchant floor limit, the account number is on an optional terminal exception file, the limit for consecutive offline transactions has been exceeded, the card is a new card, or the merchant has forced the transaction online. Some transactions are randomly selected for online processing. Terminal Risk Management also includes optional velocity checking by the terminal using data elements from the card. The card data elements used are those defined by Europay, MasterCard, and Visa (EMV) specifications. Terminal velocity checking results are considered during Terminal Action Analysis. Visa recommends support for velocity checking by the card and the data elements used card velocity checks are defined by Visa. Card velocity checking results are considered during Card Action Analysis

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2.1.7 Terminal Action Analysis (mandatory)
Terminal Action Analysis uses the results of Offline Data Authentication, Processing Restrictions, Terminal Risk Management, and Cardholder Verification and rules set in the card and terminal to determine whether the transaction should be approved offline, sent online for authorization, or declined offline. The card rules are set in fields called Issuer Action Codes (IACs) sent to the terminal by the card and the terminal rules are set in Terminal Action Codes (TACs). After determining the transaction disposition, the terminal requests an application cryptogram from the card. The type of application cryptogram is based upon the transaction disposition with a Transaction Certificate (TC) for an approval, an Authorization Request Cryptogram (ARQC) for an online request, and an Application Authentication Cryptogram (AAC) for a decline.

2.1.8 Card Action Analysis (mandatory)
Upon receiving the application cryptogram request from the terminal, the card performs Card Action Analysis where Card Risk Management checks may be performed to determine whether to change the transaction disposition set by the terminal. These may include checks for prior incomplete online transactions, failure of Issuer Authentication or offline data authentication failure on a previous transaction, and count or amount velocity checking limits having been reached. The card may convert a terminal request for an offline approval to an online transaction or an offline decline, and the card may convert an online request to an offline decline. The card cannot override a terminal decision to decline a transaction. After completion of the checks, the card generates the application cryptogram using application data and a secret DES key stored on the card. It returns this cryptogram to the terminal. For offline approved transactions, the TC and the data used to generate it are transmitted in the clearing message for future cardholder disputes or chargeback purposes, or both. The TC may be used as a ‘proof ’ of transaction when a cardholder disputes a transaction and to verify that the transaction data has not been changed by the merchant or acquirer. For offline declined transactions, the cryptogram type is an AAC.

2.1.9 Online Processing
If the card and terminal determine that the transaction requires an online authorization, the terminal transmits an online authorization message to the issuer if the terminal has online capability. This message includes the ARQC cryptogram, the data used to generate the ARQC, and indicators showing offline processing results. During online processing, the issuer validates the ARQC to authenticate the card in a process called Online Card Authentication (CAM). The issuer may consider these CAM results and the offline processing results in its authorization decision.

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The authorization response message transmitted back to the terminal may include an issuer-generated Authorization Response Cryptogram (ARPC) (generated from the ARQC, the Authorization Response Code, and the card’s secret DES key). The response may also include post-issuance updates to the card called Issuer Scripts. If the authorization response contains an ARPC and the card supports Issuer Authentication, the card performs Issuer Authentication by validating the ARPC to verify that the response came from the genuine issuer (or its agent). Successful Issuer Authentication may be required for resetting certain security-related parameters in the card. This prevents criminals from circumventing the card’s security features by simulating online processing and fraudulently approving a transaction to reset card counters and indicators. If Issuer Authentication fails, subsequent transactions for the card will be sent online for authorization until Issuer Authentication is successful. The Issuer has the option to set up the card to decline the transaction if Issuer Authentication fails.

2.1.10 Issuer-to-Card Script Processing
If the issuer includes script updates in the authorization response message, the terminal passes the script commands to the card. Prior to applying the updates, the card performs security checking to assure that the script came from the valid issuer and was not altered in transit. Supported script commands allow updating offline processing parameters, blocking and unblocking the application, blocking the card, resetting the Offline PIN Try Counter, and changing the Offline PIN value.

2.1.11 Completion (mandatory)
The card and terminal perform final processing to complete the transaction. An issuer-approved transaction may be converted to a decline based upon Issuer Authentication results and issuer-encoded parameters in the card. The card uses the transaction disposition, Issuer Authentication results, and issuer-encoded rules to determine whether to reset card-based counters and indicators. The card generates a TC for approved transactions and an AAC for declined transactions. If the terminal transmits a clearing message subsequent to an authorization message, the TC is transmitted in the clearing message. With single message systems or systems involving acquirer host data capture of approved transactions, the terminal must generate a reversal for issuer-approved transactions which are subsequently declined by the card.

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Figure 2–1:

Sample Transaction Flow

KEY
Card Mandatory process List of Supported Applications Mandatory process w/ optional steps SELECT Command/Response READ RECORD Command/Response GET PROCESSING OPTIONS Command/Response Initiate Application Processing Terminal

Application Selection

Supported Functions & Pointers to Application Data

Optional process

Provide Application Records

READ RECORD Commands/Responses

Read Application Data

1 - If DDA 2 - If Offline Enciphered PIN 3 - Optional for Offline PIN 4 - If Offline PIN

Generate Dynamic Cryptogram

INTERNAL AUTHENTICATE Command/Response

1

Offline Data Authentication SDA or DDA

Processing Restrictions Generate Unpred. Number PIN Try Counter Validate PIN Last Online Application Transaction Counter (ATC) Register

GET CHALLENGE Command/Response2 GET DATA Command/Response
3

Cardholder Verification

VERIFY Command/Response4

GET DATA Command/Response

Terminal Risk Management

GENERATE APPLICATION CRYPTOGRAM Command Perform Card Action Analysis & Generate Application Cryptogram

Terminal Action Analysis

GENERATE APPLICATION CRYPTOGRAM Response

Online Transaction?

Y Online Processing N Validate ARPC Cryptogram EXTERNAL AUTHENTICATE Command/Response Issuer Authentication

Perform Final Check & Generate Final Cryptogram

GENERATE APPLICATION CRYPTOGRAM Command/Response

Completion

Apply Script

Issuer-to-Card Script Commands/Responses

Issuer-to-Card Script Processing

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2.2 Mandatory and Optional Functionality

2.2 Mandatory and Optional Functionality
2.2.1 Card Functional Requirements
VSDC cards must support the mandatory functions shown in Table 2–1. Optional functions may be supported at the issuer’s discretion or may be required by market, regional, or Visa rules. Support for conditional functions is required if the associated condition is true.
Table 2–1: Card Functional Requirements (1 of 2)

Function
Application Selection
q

Card Support
Mandatory Optional (EMV) Mandatory (EMV) Mandatory (EMV) Mandatory (EMV) Optional (EMV) Optional (EMV) Conditional—If DDA supported (VIS) Optional (EMV) Conditional—If Combined DDA/AC Generation supported (VIS) Optional (EMV) Mandatory (EMV) Mandatory (EMV) Optional (EMV) Optional (EMV) Mandatory (EMV) Optional (EMV) Required (VIS) Optional (EMV) Required (VIS)

Directory Method Explicit Selection Method

q

Initiate Application Processing Read Application Data Offline Data Authentication
q

SDA Standard DDA Combined DDA/AC Generation

q

q

Processing Restrictions
q

Application Version Number Application Usage Control Effective Date Check Expiration Date Check

q

q

q

Cardholder Verification
q

Individual CVMs

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Table 2–1:

Card Functional Requirements (2 of 2)

Function
Terminal Risk Management
q

Card Support
Optional (EMV) Mandatory (VIS) n/a (Card plays no role) n/a (Card plays no role) n/a (Card plays no role) n/a (Card plays no role) n/a (Card plays no role) Optional (EMV) Not supported but not precluded (VIS) Optional (VIS) IACs optional (EMV); IACs required (VIS) Mandatory (EMV) Mandatory (EMV) Optional (EMV), Not supported (VIS) Optional (EMV) Mandatory (VIS) Some Card Risk Management steps are optional in VIS (refer to the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification, Chapter 11, Card Action Analysis) Optional (EMV) Algorithm option provided (EMV) Multiple algorithm options provided (VIS)

Terminal Exception File Merchant Force Online Floor Limits Transaction Log Random Selection Velocity Checking New Card

q

q

q

q

q

q

Terminal Action Analysis Card Action Analysis
q

Online/offline decision Offline referrals Card Risk Management

q

q

q

Advice Messages Application Cryptogram

q

Online Processing
q

Online Capability Issuer Authentication

Mandatory (EMV) Optional (EMV) Mandatory (EMV) Optional (EMV) Some form is mandatory if scripts supported (EMV) Recommended form (VIS)

q

Completion Issuer-to-Card Script Processing
q

Secure Messaging

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2.2 Mandatory and Optional Functionality

2.2.2 Terminal Functional Requirements
VSDC terminals are required to support the mandatory functions shown in Table 2–2. Optional functions may be supported at the merchant or acquirer’s discretion or may be required by market, regional, or Visa operating regulations. Support for conditional functions is required if the associated condition is true.
Table 2–2: Terminal Functional Requirements (1 of 2)

Function
Application Selection
q

Terminal Support
Mandatory Optional (EMV) Mandatory (EMV) Not used for financial interchange (EMV) Mandatory (EMV) Mandatory (EMV) Conditional—If offline capable (EMV) Conditional—If offline capable terminal (EMV) or if DDA supported (EMV) Optional (EMV) Conditional—If DDA/AC Generation supported (VIS) (VIS recommends for offline capable terminals) Optional (EMV) Mandatory (EMV) Mandatory (EMV) Mandatory (EMV) Mandatory (EMV) Mandatory (EMV) Mandatory (EMV) with Operating Regulation exceptions (VIS) Mandatory (EMV) Mandatory (EMV) Optional (EMV) with Operating Regulation exceptions (VIS)

Directory Method Explicit Selection Method Implicit Selection Method

q

q

Initiate Application Processing Read Application Data Offline Data Authentication
q

SDA Standard DDA Combined DDA/AC Generation

q

q

Processing Restrictions
q

Application Version Number Application Usage Control Effective Date Checking Expiration Date Checking

q

q

q

Cardholder Verification
q

No CVM Required Fail CVM Processing Other CVMs (Offline PIN, Online PIN, signature, etc.)

q

q

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Table 2–2:

Terminal Functional Requirements (2 of 2)

Function
Terminal Risk Management
q

Terminal Support
Conditional—If merchant controlled terminal (EMV) Some functions do not apply for online-only or offline-only terminals (EMV) Optional (EMV) Optional (EMV) Mandatory (EMV) Optional (EMV) Conditional—If both online & offline capable (EMV) Conditional—If offline capable Mandatory Mandatory (EMV) n/a (card function)

Terminal Exception File Merchant Force Online Floor Limits Transaction Log Random Selection Velocity Checking New Card

q

q

q

q

q

q

Terminal Action Analysis Card Action Analysis Online Processing
q

Online Capability Advice Messages Issuer Authentication

Optional (EMV and VIS) Optional (EMV and VIS) Conditional—If online capable Mandatory Conditional—If online capable

q

q

Completion Issuer-to-Card Script Processing Miscellaneous Functions
q

Cardholder amount validation Voice Referrals Card initiated referrals Merchant forced acceptance Prompt for chip read

Recommended (EMV) Recommended Not supported (VIS) Optional (EMV) Mandatory (EMV)

q

q

q

q

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2.2 Mandatory and Optional Functionality

2.2.3 Command Support Requirements
Card and terminal support for the VSDC commands is shown in Table 2–3.
Table 2–3: Command Support Requirements (1 of 2)

Command
APPLICATION BLOCK

Card Support
Application blocking capability is optional. If supported, using APPLICATION BLOCK is recommended (VIS) Application unblocking capability is optional. If supported, using APPLICATION UNBLOCK is recommended (VIS) Card blocking capability is recommended. CARD BLOCK command is one method (VIS) Conditional—If Issuer Authentication supported (EMV) Mandatory (EMV)

Terminal Support
Pass through from Issuer mandatory (VIS)

APPLICATION UNBLOCK

Pass through from Issuer mandatory (VIS)

CARD BLOCK

Pass through from Issuer mandatory (VIS)

EXTERNAL AUTHENTICATE

Conditional—If online-capable (EMV) Mandatory (EMV)

GENERATE APPLICATION CRYPTOGRAM (AC) GET CHALLENGE

Conditional—If Offline Enciphered PIN supported (EMV) Optional (EMV) Mandatory (VIS)

Conditional—If Offline Enciphered PIN supported (EMV) Conditional—If ATM or merchant controlled device (EMV)

GET DATA

GET PROCESSING OPTIONS INTERNAL AUTHENTICATE

Mandatory (EMV) Conditional—If DDA supported (EMV) Unblocking PIN—Conditional if Offline PIN supported. Method used may be PIN CHANGE/UNBLOCK (VIS) PIN Change—Optional, must be in issuer controlled environment (VIS)

Mandatory (EMV) Conditional—If DDA supported (EMV) Performed at special issuer-controlled devices

PIN CHANGE/UNBLOCK

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Table 2–3:

Command Support Requirements (2 of 2)

Command
PUT DATA

Card Support
Optional (VIS)

Terminal Support
Pass through from Issuer mandatory (VIS) Mandatory (EMV) Mandatory (EMV) Pass through from Issuer mandatory (VIS) Conditional—If Offline PIN supported (EMV)

READ RECORD SELECT UPDATE RECORD

Mandatory (EMV) Mandatory (EMV) Optional (VIS)

VERIFY

Conditional—If Offline PIN supported (EMV)

2.3 Visa Low-Value Payment (VLP) Feature
The Visa Low-value Payment (VLP) feature of VSDC offers an optional source of pre-authorized spending power that is reserved for rapid processing of offline low-value payments.

2.3.1 Overview
Risk management features may differ from those supported for non-VLP VSDC and are selected by the issuer. VLP supports a cumulative amount limit and a per transaction amount limit. Since VLP consists of many low-value transactions, adding these transactions to standard VSDC velocity checking counters could cause VSDC transactions to be processed online more frequently than intended by issuers. Therefore, standard VSDC velocity checking counters are not incremented by VLP transactions. The amount of spending power is reset to the spending limit at any online capable VSDC terminal if an online authorization or status check transaction is approved by the issuer and the card. A reset without a financial transaction can also take place at a dedicated online unattended device, which performs an online status check. For details on VLP, refer to Appendix G of the Card Volume and Appendix D of the Terminal Volume of this specification.

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Application Selection

3

Application Selection is the process of determining which of the applications that are supported by both the card and terminal will be used to conduct the transaction. This process takes place in two steps: 1. 2. The terminal builds a candidate list of mutually supported applications. A single application from this list is identified and selected to process the transaction.

This chapter is organized into the following sections: 3.1 Card Data 3.2 Terminal Data 3.3 Commands 3.4 Building the Candidate List 3.5 Identifying and Selecting the Application 3.6 Flow 3.7 Subsequent Related Processing

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3.1 Card Data
The card data elements used in Application Selection are listed and briefly described in Table 3–1. For a detailed description of these elements and their usage, refer to the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification, Appendix A, Card and Issuer Data Elements Table.
Table 3–1: Application Selection—Card Data

Data Element
Application Definition File (ADF)

Description
The ADF is a file, which is the entry point to application elementary files (AEF), which contain data elements for the application. The ADF contains information about the application such as the name of the application, language preferred and the priority of the application relative to other applications on the card. AEF contains data elements used by the application in processing.

Application Elementary Files (AEF) Application Identifier (AID)

The AID is composed of the Registered Application Provider Identifier (RID) and the Proprietary Application Identifier Extension (PIX). The AID identifying the Visa Debit Credit application is “A0000000031010”. A DDF is a file that designates the structure of files beneath it. A directory file is a file listing files contained within the directory. The terminal uses a READ RECORD command to access directory files. The FCI is information from the card about the application that is provided in response to the SELECT command issued by the terminal. The Payment Systems Directory is a directory file containing entries for applications that conform to Europay, MasterCard, and Visa (EMV) specifications. The PSE is a DDF named “1PAY.SYS.DDF01”. The directory file designating the structure of the files beneath the PSE is known as the Payment Systems Directory. The PDOL is a list of tags and lengths for terminal data needed by the card. It is obtained from the card by the terminal using the SELECT command. The terminal provides the data requested in the list to the card in the GET PROCESSING OPTIONS command. The SFI is a pointer to Elementary Files (EF)

Directory Definition File (DDF) Directory File

File Control Information (FCI)

Payment Systems Directory

Payment Systems Environment (PSE)

Processing Options Data Object List (PDOL)

Short File Identifier (SFI)

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3.2 Terminal Data

3.2 Terminal Data
The terminal data elements used in Application Selection are listed and described in Table 3–2. For a detailed description of these elements and their usage, refer to the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Terminal Specification, Appendix A, Card and Issuer Data Elements Table.
Table 3–2: Application Selection—Terminal Data

Data Element
Application Identifier (AID)

Description
The AID is composed of the Registered Application Provider Identifier (RID) and the Proprietary Application Identifier Extension (PIX). The AID identifying the Visa Debit Credit application is “A0000000031010”. Indicates whether the associated AID in the terminal must exactly match the AID in the card including the length of the AID, or only up to the length of the AID in the terminal. There is only one Application Selection Indicator per AID in the terminal and its format is at the discretion of the terminal vendor. The terminal shall maintain a list of application AIDs supported by the terminal.

Application Selection Indicator

List of supported applications

3.3 Commands
SELECT The terminal sends the SELECT command to the card to obtain information from the card about an application supported by the card. This information may be issuer preferences as to the priority in which the application is selected, the name of the application, and the language in which information is displayed to the cardholder. In the card response to the SELECT command, response codes are used to indicate processing results. The card’s response contains the Processing Options Data Object List (PDOL), if present on the card. The PDOL is used during Initiate Application Processing. READ RECORD The terminal sends the READ RECORD command to the card to read the records in the PSE (if Directory Selection is supported) or other DDFs in the List of AIDs Selection Method. The command includes the Short File Identifier (SFI) of the file to be read and the record number of the record within the file. In response to the READ RECORD command, the card provides the requested record to the terminal.

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3.4 Building the Candidate List
There are two approaches used by the terminal to build a list of mutually supported applications.
q

Directory Selection Method is optional for cards and terminals, but if supported by the terminal, it is attempted first. If the Directory Selection Method is attempted and fails, the terminal uses the List of AIDs Method. In the Directory Selection Method, the terminal reads a file from the card. This file is a list of the applications supported by the card. The terminal includes any applications listed on both the card list and the terminal list on the candidate list. List of AIDs Selection Method is mandatory for cards and terminals. In the List of AIDs Selection Method, the terminal issues a SELECT command for each terminal-supported application in a list contained in the terminal. If the card response indicates that the card also supports the application, the terminal adds the application to the candidate list.

q

NOTE: Terminals may eliminate applications from the final candidate list under conditions specified in Visa Operating Principles and Regulations.

3.5 Identifying and Selecting the Application
If there are no mutually supported applications, the transaction is terminated. If there is at least one mutually supported application, the processing is as described in the following sections.

3.5.1 Terminal Makes Application Decision
A terminal that does not support cardholder selection or confirmation shall issue a SELECT command to the highest priority application that does not require confirmation. If more than one application has the highest priority, the terminal may issue a SELECT command for either application. If the Directory Selection Method was used to build the list of applications, the card’s response to the SELECT command may indicate that the application is blocked. If this occurs, and there are more available applications on the list of available applications, the terminal should issue a SELECT command for the application with the next highest priority.

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3.5 Identifying and Selecting the Application

3.5.2 Cardholder Makes Account Decision
3.5.2.1 Terminal Supports Cardholder Confirmation
A terminal that does not support cardholder selection from a list of displayed applications, but supports cardholder confirmation of an application shall first request cardholder confirmation for the highest priority application. If more than one application has the same priority, the terminal may process in the order encountered or choose one of the applications. If the cardholder confirms the choice, the terminal uses the SELECT command to select the application. If the cardholder does not confirm, the terminal offers the next highest priority application until the cardholder confirms or there are no more available applications. If the Directory Selection Method was used to build the list of applications, the card’s response to the SELECT command may indicate that the application is blocked. If this occurs, and there are more available applications on the list, the terminal should remove the rejected application from the list of available applications and request confirmation of the next available application.

3.5.2.2 Terminal Supports Cardholder Selection
A terminal that supports cardholder selection shall present a list of applications in priority order to the cardholder for selection. If more than one application is given the same priority, the terminal may display them to the cardholder in the order encountered or decide the priority. The cardholder selects the application from the list and the terminal uses the SELECT command to select the application. If the Directory Selection Method was used to build the list of applications, the card’s response to the SELECT command may indicate that the application is blocked. If this occurs, and there are more available applications on the list, the terminal should display “Try Again” and display the list of available applications excluding the rejected applications. If the cardholder does not select an application, the terminal terminates the transaction.

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3.6 Flow
Figure 3–1: Application Selection

Card

Terminal checks for card applications supported and builds candidate list

Terminal
T

B

Any mutually supported applications?

N

Terminal terminates the transation

N

Y
Terminal supports selection by cardholder? Terminal displays applications by priority and asks cardholder to select Cardholder selected application?

Y

N Terminal displays highest priority application on list for confirmation

Terminal supports confirmation by cardholder? N Applications available without confirmation?

Y

Cardholder confirms?

Y

Y

Terminal identifies highest priority application not requiring confirmation

Y

N

N
T

Card responds with FCI for requested AID and “9000” (selection successful) or “6283” (application blocked) or other SW1SW2

SELECT command

Terminal issues SELECT command with the identified application

SELECT response

Successful SELECT “9000”? Y Terminal proceeds to Initiate Application Processing

N

Terminal removes application from list

B

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3.7 Subsequent Related Processing

3.7 Subsequent Related Processing
Initiate Application Processing The GET PROCESSING OPTIONS command sent to the card by the terminal includes any terminal data elements specified in the PDOL. If supported, the PDOL was included in the SELECT response during Application Selection. If geographic restrictions do not permit the selected application to be initiated, the terminal terminates the transaction and returns to Application Selection for selection of another application.

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Initiate Application Processing

4

During Initiate Application Processing, the terminal issues the GET PROCESSING OPTIONS command to the card to signal that transaction processing is beginning. When issuing this command, the terminal supplies the card with any recognized data elements requested by the card in a Processing Options Data Objects List (PDOL). The PDOL is a list of tags and lengths of data elements, optionally provided by the card to the terminal during Application Selection. The card responds to the GET PROCESSING OPTIONS command with the Application File Locator (AFL), a list of files and records that the terminal needs to read from the card. The card also provides the Application Interchange Profile (AIP), a list of functions to be performed in processing the transaction. This chapter is organized into the following sections: 4.1 Card Data 4.2 Terminal Data 4.3 GET PROCESSING OPTIONS Command 4.4 Terminal Processing 4.5 Card Processing 4.6 Terminal Processing 4.7 Flow 4.8 Prior Related Processing 4.9 Subsequent Related Processing

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4.1 Card Data
The card data elements used in Initiate Application Processing are listed and described in Table 4–1. For a detailed description of these elements and their usage, refer to the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification, Appendix A, Card and Issuer Data Elements Table.
Table 4–1: Initiate Application Processing—Card Data

Data Element
Application File Locator (AFL)

Description
Indicates the file location and range of records that contain card data to be read by the terminal for use in transaction processing. A list that indicates the capability of the card to support specific functions in the application (Static Data Authentication (SDA), Dynamic Data Authentication (Standard DDA), Cardholder Verification, Issuer Authentication, and Combined DDA/AC Generation. The FCI is information from the card about the application that is provided in response to the SELECT command issued by the terminal. Visa proprietary data element indicating whether a card supports domestic transactions, international transactions or both. Visa proprietary data element indicating the issuer’s country code. Used in the Geographic Restrictions check if this check is supported by the card. It may also be used to determine which records from the card should be read by the terminal based on whether a transaction is domestic or international. The PDOL is an optional list of tags and lengths for terminal data requested by the card. It is part of the FCI obtained from the card by the terminal using the SELECT command. The terminal provides the data requested in the list to the card in the GET PROCESSING OPTIONS command.

Application Interchange Profile (AIP)

File Control Information (FCI)

Geographic Indicator

Issuer Country Code

Processing Options Data Object List (PDOL)

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4.2 Terminal Data

4.2 Terminal Data
The terminal data elements used in Initiate Application Processing are listed and described in Table 4–2. For a detailed description of these data elements and their usage, refer to the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Terminal Specification, Appendix A, Card and Issuer Data Elements Table.
Table 4–2: Initiate Application Processing—Terminal Data

Data Element
Terminal Country Code

Description
Terminal data indicating the country of the terminal. It is provided to the card in the GET PROCESSING OPTIONS command if requested by the card.

4.3 GET PROCESSING OPTIONS Command
The GET PROCESSING OPTIONS command from the terminal signals the card that transaction processing is beginning. The terminal also uses a list (if present), called the Processing Options Data Objects List or PDOL, which was provided by the card during Application Selection. The terminal includes the data specified in the PDOL in the GET PROCESSING OPTIONS command.

4.4 Terminal Processing
To Initiate Application Processing, the terminal: 1. Extracts the Processing Options Data Objects List (if present) from the File Control Information (FCI) provided by the card in response to the SELECT command. Sends the GET PROCESSING OPTIONS command to the card. Any data elements requested in the PDOL and recognized by the terminal are passed to the card in this command.

2.

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4.5 Card Processing
Upon receiving the GET PROCESSING OPTIONS command, the card performs the following actions: 1. Compares Terminal Country Code (if requested in the PDOL and returned by the terminal) to Issuer Country Code to determine if the transaction is domestic or international. Determines the files and records that are to be read (they may differ for domestic/international) and locates or builds the AFL. The terminal may return a different AIP in the response to GET PROCESSING OPTIONS. Performs Geographic Restrictions Check, if supported, to determine if restrictions apply. If Geographic Restrictions are checked and apply, the card responds to the GET PROCESSING OPTIONS command with an error code “Conditions of use not satisfied”. If geographic restrictions are not checked, or are checked and do not apply, the card increments the Application Transaction Counter (ATC) by 1 and responds to the GET PROCESSING OPTIONS command with the AIP and AFL.

2.

3.

4.

4.6 Terminal Processing
The terminal processes the response to the GET PROCESSING OPTIONS command from the card as follows: 1. 2. Receives the card response to the GET PROCESSING OPTIONS command If the card responds with “Conditions of use not satisfied”, the terminal: a. Removes the application from the list of available applications b. Returns to Application Selection 3. If the card responds with the AFL and the AIP, the terminal: a. Proceeds to Read Application Data

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4.7 Flow

4.7 Flow
Figure 4–1: Initiate Application Processing Flow

Card

Terminal

Terminal reads PDOL for terminal data to be provided to the card

Card Supports Geographical Restrictions Check?

GET PROCESSING OPTIONS command

Terminal issues GET PROCESSING OPTIONS (includes data requested by card in PDOL)

Y

Terminal Country Code = Issuer Country Code?

N

International Transactions Allowed?

Card responds to GET PROCESSING OPTIONS with “Conditions of use not satisfied”? GET PROCESSING OPTIONS response

N

Y

N Card responds to GET PROCESSING OPTIONS with “Conditions of use not satisfied” Y

N

Domestic Transactions Allowed

N

Terminal receives AFL and AIP

Y

Y Card determines which records and files are to be read by the terminal Card returns AFL and AIP

Terminal proceeds to Read Application Data (Chapter 5)

Terminal eliminates this application from the list of available applications and returns to Application Selection (Chapter 3)

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4.8 Prior Related Processing
Application Selection The card supplies the PDOL (if present) to the terminal as part of the FCI provided in response to the SELECT command.

4.9 Subsequent Related Processing
Read Application Data The AFL provided by the card in response to the GET PROCESSING OPTIONS command is used by the terminal to determine what application data to read from the card and what data is to be used in Offline Data Authentication. Offline Data Authentication The AIP provided by the card in response to the GET PROCESSING OPTIONS command is used by the terminal to determine if the card supports Offline Data Authentication. Cardholder Verification The AIP provided by the card in response to the GET PROCESSING OPTIONS command is used by the terminal to determine if the card supports Cardholder Verification. Online Processing The AIP provided by the card in response to the GET PROCESSING OPTIONS command is used by the terminal to determine if the card supports Issuer Authentication.

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Read Application Data

5

During Read Application Data, the terminal reads the card data necessary to process the transaction and determines the data to be authenticated during Static Data Authentication (SDA) or Dynamic Data Authentication (DDA). This chapter is organized into the following sections: 5.1 Card Data 5.2 Terminal Data 5.3 READ RECORD Command 5.4 Processing 5.5 Flow 5.6 Prior Related Processing 5.7 Subsequent Related Processing

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5.1 Card Data
A detailed description of these card data elements and their usage is found in the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification, Appendix A, Card and Issuer Data Elements Table. The data element described in Table 5–1 was previously sent from the card to the terminal in the response to GET PROCESSING OPTIONS and is used during Read Application Data.
Table 5–1: Read Application Data—Previously Sent Card Data

Data Element
Application File Locator (AFL)

Description
Indicates the file location and range of records containing card data to be read by the terminal for use in transaction processing. Each entry designates the first record and last record numbers to read from the file and which records are to be used for authentication during Offline Data Authentication.

The terminal uses the card data structures described in Table 5–2 during Read Application Data.
Table 5–2: Read Application Data—Card Data

Data Element
Application Elementary Files (AEF)

Description
Card data files containing data used for application processing. An AEF consists of a sequence of records that are addressed by record number. The terminal reads these records using the READ RECORD command. The READ RECORD command contains a designation of the SFI and record number to be read, which the terminal obtains from the AFL. The SFI is a number used to uniquely identify application data files. It is listed in the AFL and used by the terminal to identify the files to be read.

Short File Identifier (SFI)

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5.2 Terminal Data

5.2 Terminal Data
No terminal data is used in the Read Application Data function.

5.3 READ RECORD Command
The terminal sends the card a READ RECORD command for each record to be read. The command includes a Short File Identifier (SFI) that identifies the file and a record number to identify the record within the file. The card’s response to the READ RECORD command contains the requested record.

5.4 Processing
The terminal uses the Application File Locator (AFL) from the card to determine which records to read from the card. For each AFL entry, the terminal uses the READ RECORD command to request the first record designated to be read. When the requested record is received from the card, the terminal saves the data objects from the record for subsequent processing. If the AFL entry has specified that the record is needed in authentication of static data during Offline Data Authentication, the terminal puts the record data into the static data authentication input list. The terminal continues reading records from the file until it reads the last record designated to be read. The terminal processes subsequent AFL entries in the same manner until all AFL entries have been processed. At this point, the terminal proceeds to Offline Data Authentication.

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5.5 Flow
Figure 5–1 shows how Read Application Data might be performed.
Figure 5–1: Read Application Data Processing Flow

Card

Terminal
Terminal completes Initiate Application Processing

Terminal selects first entry from AFL

Card passes record to terminal.

READ RECORD command

Terminal requests record using READ RECORD command

Requested record in READ RECORD response Record to be used for offline data authentication? Y Terminal concatenates data into SDA input list

N

Record read = last record number in AFL entry? Y

N

More AFL entries?

Y

Terminal selects next AFL entry

N Terminal proceeds to Offline Data Authentication (see Chapter 6)

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5.6 Prior Related Processing

5.6 Prior Related Processing
Initiate Application Processing The terminal receives the AFL from the card for use in Read Application Data.

5.7 Subsequent Related Processing
Offline Data Authentication SDA and DDA use the static data authentication list built during Read Application Data to validate the signed static data. Other Functions Other functions use the data read during Read Application Data for processing.

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Offline Data Authentication is the process by which the terminal authenticates data from the card using RSA public key technology. Offline Data Authentication has two forms:
q

Static Data Authentication (SDA) Dynamic Data Authentication (DDA)

q

During SDA processing, the terminal authenticates static (unchanging) data from the card. SDA ensures that issuer-selected card data elements have not been altered since the card was personalized. During DDA processing, the terminal authenticates the static card data and also authenticates a signature, which the card generates using transactionunique data. DDA ensures that issuer-selected card data elements have not been altered since the card was personalized. DDA also confirms that the card is genuine and has not been created by copying data from a valid card to a counterfeit card (skimming). DDA can be performed using either Standard DDA or Combined DDA/Application Cryptogram (AC) Generation. Offline Data Authentication results are considered in the card and terminal’s decision of whether to approve offline, go online for authorization, or decline offline. Online authorization systems may use the results of Offline Data Authentication in their authorization response decision. Support for SDA is mandatory for all offline capable terminals and support for DDA is recommended for all offline capable terminals. Offline Data Authentication support is optional for cards.

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This chapter is organized into the following sections: 6.1 Keys and Certificates 6.2 Determining Whether to Perform SDA or DDA 6.3 Static Data Authentication (SDA) 6.4 Dynamic Data Authentication (DDA) 6.5 Prior Related Processing 6.6 Subsequent Related Processing

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6.1 Keys and Certificates

6.1 Keys and Certificates
The terminal performs Offline Data Authentication using RSA public key technology to validate digital certificates and signatures from the card. RSA public key technology uses private keys to generate enciphered values (certificates or signatures) of data elements, which are later deciphered (unlocked) for validation and data recovery.

6.1.1 Visa Certificate Authority (CA)
Offline Data Authentication requires a Certificate Authority (CA), which is a highly secure cryptographic facility that signs the issuer’s Public Keys with the Visa CA Private Keys to create an Issuer Public Key (PK) Certificate. Terminals contain the CA’s public keys for every application supported by the terminal. Visa is the CA for Visa Smart Debit and Visa Smart Credit (VSDC) applications.

6.1.2 RSA Key Pairs
6.1.2.1 Visa Public/Private Keys
Visa, as a Certificate Authority (CA), generates up to six RSA public/private key pairs. Visa assigns a unique Public Key Index (PKI) to each key pair. The Visa CA Public Keys and their indexes are loaded into terminals by acquirers. The Visa CA Private Keys are kept secret and used to sign Issuer Public Key Certificates. Terminals supporting SDA, DDA, or Offline Enciphered PIN contain the Visa CA Public Keys with their corresponding Registered Application Identifier (RID) and Certificate Authority Public Key Indexes (PKI) assigned by Visa.

6.1.2.2 Issuer Public/Private Keys
Both SDA and DDA require that the issuer generate an RSA public/private key pair and obtain Issuer Public Key (PK) Certificates from the Visa CA. To do this, the issuer sends its RSA public key to Visa CA, which generates and returns one or more Issuer PK Certificates to the issuer. The Visa CA returns an Issuer PK Certificate for each Visa CA Public Key that is longer than the Issuer Public Key and expires after the expiration date of the Issuer PK Certificate. The Issuer PK Certificate contains the Issuer Public Key enciphered with the Visa Private Key. All cards that support SDA or DDA must contain an Issuer PK Certificate and related data including the index to identify the Visa Public Key the terminal should use to decipher the certificate. The Issuer Private Key is kept in a secure device by the issuer and used to sign cards’ static data (for SDA) and ICC certificates (for DDA) prior to card personalization.

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6.1.2.3 ICC Public/Private Keys
DDA requires that the issuer generate a unique public/private key pair for each card. The ICC Private Key is stored in a secure card location. The ICC Public Key is enciphered with the Issuer Private Key to form an ICC Public Key Certificate that is stored on the card. The ICC public/private keys may also be used during Offline Enciphered PIN processing. See Chapter 8, Cardholder Verification, for details.

6.1.3 SDA Key, Certificate, and Signature Relationships
The following SDA key-related data is personalized on the card:
q

Certificate Authority Public Key Index (PKI) is used with the RID portion of the AID to identify the Certification Authority Public Key used for offline data authentication. The Issuer Public Key Certificate containing the Issuer Public Key signed with the Visa CA Private Key The Issuer Public Key Exponent The Issuer Public Key Remainder, if required, contains the portion of the Issuer Public Key which does not fit into the Issuer Public Key Certificate The Signed Static Application Data (SAD) which is a signature enciphered with the Issuer Private Key and which contains a hash of important card data

q

q

q

q

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6.1 Keys and Certificates

The relationship between keys, certificates, and signatures for SDA is shown in Figure 6–1.
Figure 6–1: SDA Key Relationships

Issuer

Certification Authority (Visa)

Acquirer

Initial Setup

Issuer Private Key - SK I

Issuer Public Key - PK I

Visa CA Private Key SKCA

Visa CA Public Key PKCA

Visa CA Public Key PKCA

Issuer PK Certificate (PKI signed w/ SKCA )

Terminal

Personalized on each Card

Signed Applic. Data (signed) with SKI)

Issuer PK Certificate

ICC Card Application

Transaction

ICC Card Application

READ RECORD response containing Issuer CA PK Index Issuer PK Certificate Signed Applic. Data

Terminal

- Uses PKCA to recover PKI from Issuer PK Cert. - Uses PKI to recover Signed Applic. Data

6.1.4 DDA Key, Certificate, and Signature Relationships
The same issuer public/private key pair and Issuer PK Certificate are used for DDA and SDA. For DDA, a unique ICC public/private key pair is required for each card. The ICC Public Key and a hash of static data is signed with the Issuer Private Key to form an ICC Public Key (PK) Certificate, which is personalized on the card. The ICC Private Key is also personalized in a secure card location.

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The relationship between the data and the cryptographic keys for DDA is shown in Figure 6–2.
Figure 6–2: DDA Data—Key Relationships

Issuer
Initial Setup
Issuer Private Key - SK I Issuer Public Key - PK I

Certificate Authority (Visa)
Visa CA Private Key SKCA Visa CA Public Key PKCA

Acquirer
Visa CA Public Key PKCA Terminal

Issuer PK Certificate (PKI signed w/ SKCA )

Personalized on each card

ICC Private Key - SK ICC

ICC Public Key - PK ICC

Issuer PK Certificate

ICC Public Key Cert (PKICC signed w/ SKI)

Card

Transaction

Card

READ RECORD response with CA PK Index, Issuer PK Certificate, & ICC PK Certtificate

Terminal

Card

INTERNAL AUTHENTICATE* or first GENERATE AC** command

- Calculates Dynamic Signature using SK ICC

- Uses PKCA to get PKI from Issr PK Cert. - Uses PKI to get PKICC from ICC PK Cert. - Validates static data hash in ICC PK Cert.

INTERNAL AUTHENTICATE* or GENERATE AC** response with Dynamic Signature * INTERNAL AUTHENTICATE fcommand for Standard DDA ** GENERATE AC command for Combined DDA/AC Generation

Terminal

- Validates Dynamic Signature using PK ICC

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6.2 Determining Whether to Perform SDA or DDA

6.2 Determining Whether to Perform SDA or DDA
Only one method of Offline Data Authentication is performed during any transaction with Combined DDA/AC Generation given highest priority, Standard DDA next, and SDA next. Table 6–1 indicates the method of offline data authentication to be performed based on card and terminal support.
Table 6–1: Offline Data Authentication Processing Priority

Card Application Interchange Profile indicates card support for:
SDA SDA Standard DDA SDA Standard DDA Combined DDA/AC Generation

Terminal Supports SDA
SDA SDA

Terminal Supports SDA and Standard DDA
SDA Standard DDA

Terminal Supports SDA, Standard DDA, and Combined DDA/AC Generation
SDA Standard DDA

SDA

Standard DDA

Combined DDA/AC Generation

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6.3 Static Data Authentication (SDA)
When SDA is performed, the terminal validates important card data described in Table 6–2 and Table 6–3 to assure that this card data has not been altered.
Table 6–2: Terminal Data Used in SDA
Description
The Payment System public keys stored in the terminal and used to recover the Issuer PK Certificate from the card, which has been signed, with the Certificate Authority Private Key. Used with the RID to designate which Visa CA Public Key to use for offline data authentication. A portion of the Application Identifier that identifies the Payment System.

Data Element
Certificate Authority (CA) Public Keys

Certificate Authority (CA) Public Key Index (PKI) Registered Application Identifier (RID) Terminal Verification Results (TVR)

Status of processing functions as seen from the terminal perspective.

Table 6–3:

Card Data Used in SDA
Description
Each Visa Public Key used for offline data authentication in SDA is identified by the Certificate Authority Public Key Index (PKI) in conjunction with the RID portion of the AID. The Issuer Public Key Certificate contains the Issuer Public Key signed with the Visa CA Private Key. The exponent used in the RSA algorithm to recover the PK Certificate. If required, the Issuer Public Key Remainder contains the portion of the Issuer Public Key, which does not fit into the Issuer Public Key Certificate. An internal indicator set and saved by the card if SDA fails and the transaction is declined offline. The SAD is a signature enciphered with the Issuer Private Key, which contains a hash of important card data.

Data Element
Certificate Authority Public Key Index (PKI)

Issuer Public Key Certificate

Issuer Public Key Exponent Issuer Public Key Remainder

SDA Failure Indicator

Signed Static Application Data (SAD)

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6.3 Static Data Authentication (SDA)

6.3.1 SDA Processing
The card performs no processing during SDA. The following summarizes the processing by the terminal. 1. Retrieval of the Certification Authority Public Key The terminal uses the Certification Authority Public Key Index (PKI) and the RID from the card to retrieve the terminal-stored Visa CA Public Key and related information. 2. Retrieval of the Issuer Public Key The terminal uses the Visa CA Public Key to recover the Issuer Public Key from the Issuer PK Certificate. The format of the Issuer PK Certificate is validated. 3. Verification of the Signed Static Application Data The terminal uses the Issuer Public Key to recover the Signed Static Application Data that contains the hash of card data calculated at personalization. The terminal calculates a hash of the actual data elements. This hash is compared to the hash in the recovered data. If the hashes are not equal, the data may have been altered and SDA has failed. 4. SDA Results If all of steps above are executed successfully, SDA passes. If SDA fails, the terminal sets indicators in the TVR to show SDA results and to use in later processing to determine the disposition of the transaction.

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Figure 6–3:

Processing Flow for SDA

Card
Response to Read Record contains Visa CA Public Key Index, Issuer Public Key Certificate, and SAD

Terminal
READ RECORD response
Retrieve Visa CA Public Key using RID and Public Key Index

Recover Issuer Public Key from Issuer PK Certificate using Visa CA Public Key

Use Issuer Public Key to recover a hash of static application data from the SAD

Calculate hash from Static data used for signing and compare to recovered hash

Set SDA failed in the TVR if any of the above steps are not successful

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6.4 Dynamic Data Authentication (DDA)

6.4 Dynamic Data Authentication (DDA)
If offline DDA is to be performed, the terminal validates static data from the card using the Issuer’s Public Key and the Visa CA Public Key in a process similar to SDA. After validating the static data, the terminal requests a dynamic signature from the card. This request uses the INTERNAL AUTHENTICATE command for Standard DDA and the first GENERATE AC command for Combined DDA/AC Generation. The card signs the terminal challenge data and dynamic data from the card with the ICC Private Key to generate a digital signature called the Signed Dynamic Application Data. With Combined DDA/AC Generation, the signed data includes the Application Cryptogram. The card sends this dynamic signature to the terminal. The terminal deciphers the signature from the card using the ICC Public Key, which has been recovered from the ICC PK Certificate. Recovered data is compared to actual data to determine whether DDA passes. Successful DDA means that card data has not been altered and that the card is not counterfeit.

6.4.1 Data Elements for DDA Processing
The terminal uses the SDA terminal data and the additional data for DDA described in Table 6–4.
Table 6–4: Terminal Data Used in DDA

Data Element
Default Dynamic Data Authentication Data Object List (default DDOL) Unpredictable Number

Description
If the card does not provide a DDOL, the terminal uses a default DDOL containing the tag for the terminal unpredictable number.

An unpredictable, transaction-unique number generated by the terminal and sent to the card in the INTERNAL AUTHENTICATE command.

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All of the SDA data except for the Signed Static Application Data is also used for DDA. In addition, the data described in Table 6–5 is used for DDA.
Table 6–5: Card Data Used in DDA

Data Element
DDA Failure Indicator

Description
An internal indicator set and saved by the card if Standard DDA fails and the transaction is declined offline. List of tags for terminal data objects to be passed to the card in DDA processing.

Dynamic Data Authentication Data Object List (DDOL) ICC Dynamic Number

A unique number generated by the card and validated by the terminal as part of the dynamic signature in Combined DDA/AC Generation. Used by the card to generate a dynamic signature. The ICC Public Key Certificate contains the ICC Public Key signed with the Issuer Private Key. The exponent used in the RSA algorithm to recover the ICC PK Certificate. If required, the ICC Public Key Remainder contains the portion of the ICC Public Key that does not fit into the ICC Public Key Certificate.

ICC Private Key ICC Public Key Certificate

ICC Public Key Exponent ICC Public Key Remainder

All of the data elements used in Standard DDA data except for the DDOL are also used for Combined DDA/AC Generation. In addition, the data described in Table 6–6 is used.
Table 6–6: Card Data Used in Combined DDA/AC Generation

Data Element
Application Cryptogram

Description
A 3DES cryptogram returned by the card in the GENERATE AC response. With Combined DDA/AC Generation if an ARQC or TC is returned, it is validated as part of the dynamic signature. Information on the type of cryptogram provided by the card and validated by terminal in Combined DDA/AC Generation.

Cryptogram Information Data

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6.4 Dynamic Data Authentication (DDA)

6.4.2 Standard DDA Processing
This processing is performed by the terminal except for the card generation of the dynamic signature. The following summarizes this processing. 1. Retrieval of the Certification Authority Public Key The terminal uses the Certification Authority Public Key Index (PKI) and the RID from the card to retrieve the terminal-stored Visa CA Public Key and related information. 2. Retrieval of the Issuer Public Key The terminal uses the Visa CA Public Key to recover the Issuer Public Key from the Issuer PK Certificate. The format of the Issuer PK Certificate is validated. Validation of the Certificate Serial Number, which is listed as optional in Europay, MasterCard, and Visa (EMV) specifications, is not supported in this version of the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification. 3. Retrieval of the ICC Public Key The terminal uses the Issuer Public Key to decrypt the ICC PK Certificate that contains the ICC Public Key and a hash of static application data. The terminal validates the hash by comparing it to a hash of the actual data. If the hashes are not equal, DDA fails. 4. Dynamic Signature Generation (Standard DDA only) The terminal passes the card an INTERNAL AUTHENTICATE command that includes dynamic challenge data. Upon receiving the INTERNAL AUTHENTICATE command, the card generates a dynamic signature by encrypting a hash of the terminal and card dynamic data with the ICC Private Key. The card passes the dynamic signature to the terminal. 5. Dynamic Signature Verification (Standard DDA only) The terminal decrypts the dynamic signature using the ICC Public Key, which was recovered from the ICC PK Certificate. If a terminal-generated hash of the actual dynamic data does not match the recovered hash, DDA fails.

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6.4.3 Combined DDA/AC Generation Processing
For Combined DDA/AC Generation, the terminal performs Standard DDA Steps 1 through 3. The terminal requests the dynamic cryptogram using the first GENERATE AC command. The INTERNAL AUTHENTICATE command is not used. The requesting and validation of this cryptogram involves the following steps: 1. Dynamic Signature Generation (Combined DDA/AC Generation only) If the terminal is requesting an online cryptogram (ARQC) or offline approval cryptogram (TC) during Terminal Action Analysis, the first GENERATE AC command indicates that Combined DDA/AC Generation is to be performed. If the card decides that the Application Cryptogram is a TC or ARQC, the card signs the Application Cryptogram and related data with the ICC Private Key and returns this dynamic signature in the GENERATE AC response. 2. Dynamic Signature Verification (Combined DDA/AC Generation only) During Card Action Analysis if the first GENERATE AC response contains a TC or ARQC, the terminal deciphers the dynamic signature using the ICC Public Key recovered in Step 3. If the signature is successfully recovered, processing continues based upon the type of cryptogram received. If the signature recovery fails, the transaction is declined offline.

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6.4 Dynamic Data Authentication (DDA)

Card

Terminal
Retrieve Visa CA Public Key using RID and CA Public Key Index

Recover Issuer Public Key from Issuer PK Certificate using Visa CA Public Key

Recover hash and ICC Public Key from ICC PK Certificate using Issuer Public Key

Calculate hash from Static data used for signing and compare to recovered hash

Standard DDA Only
Calculate dynamic signature using ICC Private Key

INTERNAL AUTHENTICATE command
INTERNAL AUTHENTICATE response with dynamic signature

Send INTERNAL AUTHENTICATE and dynamic data to card

Validate dynamic signature using ICC Public Key

Set DDA results in the TVR if DDA fails

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6.5 Prior Related Processing
Read Application Data The terminal reads application data from the card. This data includes the data required for the supported Offline Data Authentication methods. The AFL and the Static Data Authentication Tag List designate the data to be used to validate the static data hash in the Signed Static Application Data during SDA and in the ICC PK Certificate during DDA.

6.6 Subsequent Related Processing
Terminal Action Analysis The terminal uses the Offline Data Authentication results and card and terminal parameters to determine whether the transaction should be declined offline, sent online for authorization, or approved offline. When Combined DDA/AC Generation is to be performed and the transaction is to be sent online or approved offline, the terminal sets the Combined DDA/AC Generation indicator in the GENERATE AC command. Card Action Analysis SDA and Standard DDA The card sets an indicator in the CVR if SDA failed on a previous transaction and the transaction was declined offline. A similar CVR indicator is set if DDA failed on a previous transaction and the transaction was declined offline. If SDA or DDA failed and the transaction is to be declined offline, the SDA Failure Indicator or DDA Failure Indicator is set. Combined DDA/AC Generation If the GENERATE AC command received from the terminal indicates that Combined DDA/AC Generation is to be performed, the card returns ARQC and TC Application Cryptograms in a dynamic signature signed with the ICC Private Key. Online Processing Combined DDA/AC Generation When the returned Application Cryptogram is in a dynamic signature, the terminal deciphers the signature using the ICC Private Key. If the decipherment is successful, the terminal continues processing based upon the Application Cryptogram. If the decipherment fails, the transaction is declined offline.

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6.6 Subsequent Related Processing

Completion After an online authorization, the card may reset the SDA Failure Indicator and DDA Failure Indicator based upon Issuer Authentication options and results. If SDA or DDA failed and the transaction is to be declined offline because an online authorization could not be completed, the SDA Failure Indicator or DDA Failure Indicator is set. Combined DDA/AC Generation If Combined DDA/AC Generation failed and the Application Cryptogram returned was an ARQC, a second GENERATE AC command requesting an AAC is sent to the card. If Combined DDA/AC Generation failed and the Application Cryptogram returned was a TC, the transaction is declined offline with no second GENERATE AC requested.

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7

The Processing Restrictions function is performed by the terminal using data elements from the terminal and the card. The terminal shall support checks on application versions, effective and expiration dates, and conditions at the point of transaction. This chapter contains the following sections: 7.1 Card Data 7.2 Terminal Data 7.3 Application Version Number 7.4 Application Usage Control 7.5 Application Effective Date 7.6 Application Expiration Date 7.7 Prior Related Processing 7.8 Subsequent Related Processing

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7.1 Card Data
The card data elements used in Processing Restrictions are listed and described in Table 7–1. For a detailed description of these elements and their usage, refer to the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification, Appendix A, Card and Issuer Data Elements Table.
Table 7–1: Processing Restrictions—Card Data

Data Element
Application Version Number

Description
This data element (tag “9F08”) indicates the version of the application on the card. It is used in application version number checking by the terminal. Cards complying with this specification should use the value of 140 AUC is an optional data element. This data element indicates any restrictions set forth by the issuer on the geographic usage and services permitted for the card application. It is used in Application Usage Control checking by the terminal. The Issuer Country Code is a Europay, MasterCard, and Visa (EMV) specification data element indicating the country of the card issuance. It is used in Application Usage Control checking by the terminal. The Application Effective Date is the date when the application becomes activated for use. The Application Expiration Date is the date after which use of the application is no longer permitted.

Application Usage Control (AUC)

Issuer Country Code

Application Effective Date

Application Expiration Date

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7.2 Terminal Data

7.2 Terminal Data
The card data elements used in Processing Restrictions are listed and described in Table 7–2. For a detailed description of these elements and their usage, refer to the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Terminal Specification, Appendix A, Card and Issuer Data Elements Table.
Table 7–2: Processing Restrictions—Terminal Data

Data Element
Application Version Number

Description
This data element (terminal tag ‘9F09’) indicates the version of the application In the terminal. Terminals complying with this specification should use the value of 140. Indicates the capabilities of the terminal in regard to card data input, verification of the cardholder, and security. It is used in Application Usage Control checking by the terminal. This data element indicates the country in which the terminal is located. It is used in Application Usage Control checking by the terminal. This is the local date (in the terminal) on which the transaction processing is taking place. It is used in application effective and expiration date checks by the terminal. This data element indicates the type of financial transaction. It is used in Application Usage Control checking by the terminal.

Terminal Capabilities

Terminal Country Code

Transaction Date

Transaction Type

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7.3 Application Version Number
The terminal compares the Application Version Number in the card to the Application Version Number in the terminal to see if they are the same. If they are not the same, the terminal indicates in the Terminal Verification Results (TVR) that the application versions differ.

7.4 Application Usage Control
Application Usage Control checking is a process in which the terminal checks various conditions at the point of transaction to determine if processing should continue. These checks are similar to service code checks performed for magnetic stripe transactions and include checks for restrictions on the following transactions:
q

Domestic – – – – Cash Goods Services Cashback

q

International – – – – Cash Goods Services Cashback

q

ATM Other than ATM

q

7.5 Application Effective Date
Application Effective Date checking ensures that the application is active by validating that the card’s Application Effective Date if present is less than or equal to the terminal’s local Transaction Date. If the effective date is greater than the Transaction Date, the terminal indicates in the TVR that the application is not yet effective. Presence of the Application Effective Data is optional for the card. Application Effective Data checking is mandatory for the terminal if the data element is present in the card.

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7.6 Application Expiration Date

7.6 Application Expiration Date
Application Expiration Date checking validates that the application has not expired by ensuring that the card’s Application Expiration Date is greater than or equal to the terminal’s local Transaction Date. If the Application Expiration Date is less than the Transaction Date, the terminal indicates in the TVR that the application has expired.

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Figure 7–1:

Processing Restrictions

Card

Application Version Number for card and terminal present?

Terminal

Y

N

Application Version Numbers Identical?

Y

N
Terminal sets ICC and terminal have different application versions bit to “1” in TVR

Application Usage Control and Issuer Country Code present?

Y

Do any restrictions apply?

Y

Terminal sets requested service not allowed for card product bit to “1” in TVR

N N

Application Effective Date < Current Date?

N

Terminal sets application not yet effective bit to “1” in TVR

Y

Application Expiration Date > Current Date?

N

Terminal sets expired aplication bit to “1” in TVR

Y
Terminal proceeds to cardholder verification

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7.7 Prior Related Processing

7.7 Prior Related Processing
Read Application Data The terminal uses the READ RECORD command to obtain the Application Version Number, and Application Expiration Date from the card. The AUC, Issuer Country Code, and Application Effective Date are also read from the card, if present.

7.8 Subsequent Related Processing
Terminal Action Analysis During Terminal Action Analysis, the terminal checks the Issuer Action Codes and Terminal Action Codes to see what action should be taken if application versions differ, cards are not yet effective or expired, or the requested service is not allowed for the card product.

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8

Cardholder Verification is used to ensure that the cardholder is legitimate and the card is not lost or stolen. In Cardholder Verification, the terminal determines the cardholder verification method (CVM) to be used and performs the selected CVM. The results of CVM processing play a role in later processing. CVMs supported are:
q

Offline Plaintext PIN Offline Enciphered PIN Online PIN Signature

q

q

q

Signature may be combined with the Offline PIN validation methods. CVM processing is designed to support additional CVMs, such as biometric methods, as they are adopted. With the Offline PIN methods, the validation of the PIN is done within the card. Offline PIN results are included in the online authorization message and should be considered in the issuer’s authorization decision. The terminal uses rules in the card’s CVM List to select the CVM to be used. The selection criteria in the CVM List may include the type of transaction (cash or purchase), the transaction amount, and the capabilities of the terminal. The CVM List also specifies the terminal action if the CVM fails.

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This chapter is separated into the following sections: 8.1 Card Data 8.2 Terminal Data 8.3 Commands 8.4 Processing 8.5 Prior Related Processing 8.6 Subsequent Related Processing

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8.1 Card Data

8.1 Card Data
The terminal uses the card data described in Table 8–1 and Table 8–2 for CVM List processing. A detailed description of these card data elements and their usage is in the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification, Appendix A, Card and Issuer Data Elements Table.
Table 8–1: CVM List Processing—Card Data

Data Element
Application Interchange Profile (AIP) Cardholder Verification Method (CVM) List

Description
Contains an indicator showing whether the card supports cardholder verification. This indicator must be set to “1”. A prioritized list of methods of cardholder verification for the card application. A card may contain multiple CVM Lists for use in different circumstances such as international and domestic transactions. A CVM List contains the following:
q

Amount X—An amount that may be used in CVM usage conditions Amount Y—A second amount that may be used in CVM usage conditions CVM entries—The CVM List may contain more than one entry, with each entry containing the following subfields: Description Designates the action to take if the CVM fails. Choices are to process the next CVM entry or to fail CVM processing. The type of CVM to perform, for example, offline PIN. Conditions when this CVM entry should be used, for example, if the terminal supports the CVM Type (offline PIN).

q

q

Subfield CVM Code CVM Type CVM Conditions

Refer to the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification, Chapter 8, Cardholder Verification, for an example showing how issuers might define a CVM List.

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Table 8–2:

Offline PIN Processing—Card Data

Data Element
Application Default Action (ADA) Card Verification Results (CVR)

Description
A data element used by the card to determine what action, if any, to take if offline PIN tries are exceeded. Contains indicators, which the card sets for the following conditions:
q

Offline PIN verification performed Offline PIN verification failed PIN Try Limit exceeded Application blocked because PIN Try Limit exceeded

q

q

q

PIN Try Counter

Number of offline PIN tries remaining. The card decrements the PIN Try Counter each time a cardholder-entered offline PIN fails verification. The card resets the PIN Try Counter to the PIN Try Limit when the cardholder-entered PIN matches the Reference PIN stored in the card or when a script command to reset the counter is successfully processed. The terminal may request the PIN Try Counter from the card prior to PIN entry so the terminal may determine whether the PIN tries have already been exceeded and notify the cardholder if only one PIN try remains. Issuer-specified maximum number of consecutive incorrect PIN tries allowed for a single application. The cardholder PIN, which is stored in a secure location on the card.

PIN Try Limit

Reference PIN

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8.1 Card Data

Support for Offline Enciphered PIN requires card-level RSA public/private key data. The issuer may either generate an ICC PIN Encipherment public/private key pair to use solely for PIN encipherment or, if the card supports DDA, use the same ICC public/private key pair used for DDA. The card shall contain the data elements described in Table 8–3 for whichever key pair is used.
Table 8–3: Offline Enciphered PIN—Card Data

Data Element
Certificate Authority Public Key Index (PKI) ICC PIN Encipherment or ICC Private Key ICC PIN Encipherment or ICC Public Key (PK) Certificate ICC PIN Encipherment or ICC Public Key Exponent ICC PIN Encipherment or ICC Public Key Remainder Issuer Public Key Data

Description
With the RID, designates the Visa CA Public Key to use to recover the Issuer PK Certificate. Used to decipher the enciphered PIN after it is received at the card. Stored in a secret location on the card. Encrypted with the Issuer Private Key. Contains the card’s public key to be used in PIN encipherment. Used in the algorithm that deciphers the enciphered PIN.

Contains the portion, if necessary, of the public key that does not fit into the public key certificate. Used to decipher the ICC PIN Encipherment or ICC PK Certificate. This is the same certificate and other Issuer Public Key data used for DDA and SDA (see Chapter 6, Offline Data Authentication). Used by the terminal with the Certificate Authority Public Key Index to identify the Visa CA Public Key to be used to recover the Issuer PK Certificate.

Registered Application Provider Identifier (RID)

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8.2 Terminal Data
The terminal data described in Table 8–4 is used during CVM processing. A detailed description of these data elements and their usage is in the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Terminal Specification, Appendix A, Card and Issuer Data Elements Table.
Table 8–4: CVM Processing—Terminal Data

Data Element
Enciphered Personal Identification Number (PIN) Data Personal Identification Number (PIN) Pad Secret Key

Description
Transaction PIN enciphered at the PIN pad for online verification or for offline verification.

Secret key used by the PIN pad to encipher the entered offline PIN and by the card reader to decipher the enciphered PIN. This key is required when the PIN pad and card reader are not integrated into a single tamper-evident device. This key is different from the key used for Offline Enciphered PIN. Indicates the CVMs supported by the terminal. Indicators are set in the TVR for the following conditions:
q

Terminal Capabilities Terminal Verification Results (TVR)

Cardholder verification was not successful Unrecognized CVM PIN Try Limit exceeded PIN entry required and PIN pad not present or not working PIN entry required, PIN pad present, but PIN was not entered Online PIN entered

q

q

q

q

q

Transaction Personal Identification Number (PIN) Visa CA Public Keys

Contains data entered by the cardholder for PIN verification.

Must be present if the terminal supports Offline Enciphered PIN.

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8.3 Commands

8.3 Commands
The following commands are used for offline PIN processing: GET DATA Used by the terminal to obtain the PIN Try Counter from the card in order to determine whether the PIN Try Limit was exceeded on a previous transaction or is close to being exceeded. The GET DATA command contains the tag of the PIN Try Counter. The GET DATA response contains the PIN Try Counter. If the PIN Try Counter is in a proprietary data file, the card returns an error response to GET DATA and the terminal bypasses the checking of the PIN Try Counter and continues with Offline PIN processing. GET CHALLENGE Used by the terminal to obtain an unpredictable number from the card for use in Offline Enciphered PIN. The card and terminal support the GET CHALLENGE command if they support Offline Enciphered PIN. The GET CHALLENGE response contains a card-generated unpredictable number. VERIFY Used for Offline Enciphered PIN and Offline Plaintext PIN. The VERIFY command contains the cardholder-entered PIN and initiates the card comparison of this PIN with the Reference PIN stored on the card. The card response indicates one of the following conditions:
q

The PINs match The PINs do not match and the number of PIN tries remaining is “n”. If “n” is equal to “0”, PIN tries have been exceeded on the current transaction The PIN tries were exceeded on a previous transaction

q

q

The card and terminal support the VERIFY command if they support Offline PIN processing.

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8.4 Processing
Cardholder Verification processing is divided into two parts: the processing of the card’s CVM List and the execution of the CVMs specified in the CVM List.

8.4.1 CVM List Processing
The card has no role in CVM List processing beyond providing the CVM List and other required data to the terminal. The terminal performs the following steps: 1. Determines whether to perform Cardholder Verification—If the card supports Cardholder Verification (as indicated in the AIP and if the card provided a CVM List during Read Application Data, the terminal continues with Cardholder Verification. If not, the terminal shall perform the Visa-specified method of cardholder verification for the terminal. If none is specified, the terminal proceeds to Terminal Risk Management. Processes the CVM List entries—Starting with the first entry in the CVM List, the terminal performs the following actions: a. Checks whether the CVM Condition is satisfied. If the condition is not satisfied, the terminal proceeds to the next CVM List entry. b. If the CVM is not recognized or is not supported, the terminal sets Unrecognized CVM to “1” in the TVR. The CVM is considered not successful. c. Performs the CVM specified. d. If the CVM is not successful (for example, Offline PIN verification failure), the terminal proceeds with the action specified in the CVM Code in the CVM entry. If CVM Code is “proceed to next CVM,” the terminal processes the next CVM List entry. If it is “fail CVM,” the terminal sets the Cardholder Verification Not Successful flag to “1” in the TVR and proceeds to Terminal Risk Management. e. If the CVM is successful, the terminal proceeds to Terminal Risk Management. 3. If the terminal reaches the end of the CVM List without a successful CVM, CVM processing fails—The terminal sets the Cardholder Verification Not Successful flag in the TVR to “1” and proceeds to Terminal Risk Management.

2.

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8.4 Processing

Card
Card supports cardholder verification?

Terminal
Terminal uses default CVM according to Visa Operating Regulations

C

N

Y

CVM = No CVM Required?

Y Card provided CVM List? Terminal sets chip data missing in TVR

N

D

N

Y

A
Terminal selects first CVM in CVM List CVM Code = go to next CVM? N N CVM List condition satisfied? Y Any more CVM entries? Terminal recognizes & supports CVM? N Terminal sets unrecognized CVM code in TVR Y N Y CVM is signature. Terminal prints receipt w/ signature line Y CVM = Fail CVM?

B

N

Terminal selects next CVM in CVM List

Y

B
Terminal sets “cardholder verification not successful” in TVR

A

CVM = PIN?

Y

Perform PIN Processing (Figure 8-2)

D
N

Terminal proceeds to Terminal Risk Management

C

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8.4.2 CVM Processing
8.4.2.1 Offline Plaintext PIN
In Offline PIN processing, the card checks a Transaction PIN entered by the cardholder against a Reference PIN stored in the card. Unlike Online PIN, the Offline PIN is not included in the online authorization message. The Offline PIN results are included in the online authorization message, if the transaction is processed online. With Offline Plaintext PIN, the terminal may issue a GET DATA command to the card requesting the PIN Try Counter. If the card does not support transmitting the PIN Try Counter, the terminal proceeds to PIN entry. If the PIN Try Counter returned is zero (no more PIN tries left), Offline PIN processing fails. If the PIN Try Counter returned is one, the terminal displays “Last PIN Try”. If there are PIN tries remaining, the terminal requests the cardholder to enter a PIN at the PIN pad. If the PIN pad and card reader are not integrated into a single tamper-evident device, the PIN is enciphered with the PIN Pad Secret Key and deciphered by the card reader. The cardholder-entered Transaction PIN is passed in the clear from the card reader to the card using the VERIFY command. The card compares the Transaction PIN to the Reference PIN stored on the card.
q

If they match, the card returns an indicator that the Offline PIN has been verified, and cardholder verification is complete. If they do not match, the card decrements the PIN Try Counter and returns an indicator of the number of PIN tries remaining. – – If no PIN tries remain, Offline PIN fails. If PIN tries remain, the terminal requests that the cardholder enter the PIN again and repeats the verification process.

q

8.4.2.2 Offline Enciphered PIN
Offline Enciphered PIN processing works the same as Offline Plaintext PIN processing except that the cardholder-entered Transaction PIN is enciphered at the PIN pad or terminal and remains enciphered until the card receives it. To encipher the PIN, the terminal issues a GET CHALLENGE command to the card. The card returns an unpredictable number, which the terminal uses in an RSA algorithm to encipher the PIN. The enciphered PIN is included in the VERIFY command to the card. The card recovers the plaintext PIN from the enciphered PIN using a secret RSA key stored on the card. Verification of the deciphered PIN is the same as with Offline Plaintext PIN processing.

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8.4 Processing

In support of this process, the issuer may either generate a card-unique ICC PIN Encipherment key pair or may use the same ICC key pair used for DDA.

8.4.2.3 Online PIN
With Online PIN processing, the PIN is enciphered after entry and is included in the online authorization message for verification by the issuer’s online system. Online PIN processing follows current procedures, which are outside the scope of this document.

8.4.2.4 Signature
When signature is the CVM, the terminal prints a receipt with a line for the cardholder to sign.

8.4.2.5 No CVM Required
When the CVM is “No CVM Required”, CVM processing is considered to be successful.

8.4.2.6 Fail CVM
When the CVM is “Fail CVM”, CVM processing is considered to have failed.

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The following flow gives an overview of the steps in PIN processing.
Figure 8–2: PIN Processing Flow (1 of 2)

Card
Perform PIN Processing

Terminal

CVM is online or offline PIN

Is PIN PAD operable?

N

Perform CVM Code action (see A in Figure 8-1)

Y

Type of PIN?

Offline or Online PIN?

Offline PIN

Online PIN

Offline PIN

Card allows GET DATA of PIN Try Counter?

GET DATA command

Issue GET DATA command requesting PIN Try Counter (optional step) return from A on next page) Y

Offline PIN Processing Online PIN

N Response to GET DATA is “Not Supported” Get Data response Response to GET DATA is PIN Try Counter

Y

PIN Try Counter returned and = 0?

N

Prompt for PIN Entry Encipher PIN and include in authorization request PIN entered? Terminal proceeds to Terminal Risk Management (Chapter 9)

Y Perform CVM Code action (see A in Figure 8-1)

N Perform CVM Code action (see A in Figure 8-1)

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8.4 Processing

Card

Terminal
Offline PIN Processing

Card generates unpredictable number

GET CHALLENGE command

Y

Offline Enciphered PIN?

GET CHALLENGE response w/ unpred. number

Encipher PIN using unpred. number & ICC PIN Encipherment (or ICC) Public Key

N (Plaintext PIN)

Enciphered PIN?

N

PIN Try Limit Already Exceeded?

VERIFY command w/ PIN

Issue VERIFY command with PIN

Y Decipher PIN using ICC PIN Encipherment (or ICC) Private Key

N

VERIFY successful?

B
Decrement PIN Try Counter by 1. N Entered PIN = Reference PIN? Y

N

PIN Try Limit Exeeded?

Y PIN Try Limit Exceeded? N Reset PIN Try Counter to PIN Try Limit Set VERIFY return code to Fail with no retries remaining Perform CVM Code action VERIFY response Y Return to PIN Prompt Figure 8-2

Y

A

Y

ADA “If PIN Try Limit exceeded, block applic” = 1?

N

Set VERIFY return code to Successful Completion

Y N

Set VERIFY return code to Fail with retries remaining

Return VERIFY command response to terminal

Card blocks application

Terminal proceeds to Terminal Risk Management (Chapter 9)

B

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8.5 Prior Related Processing
Initiate Application Processing The Application Interchange Profile (AIP), which indicates whether the card supports cardholder verification, is retrieved from the card. Read Application Data The terminal reads the CVM List and other data used in CVM processing from the card.

8.6 Subsequent Related Processing
Terminal Action Analysis The terminal uses cardholder verification results and card and terminal parameters called IACs and TACs to determine whether the transaction should be declined offline, sent online, or approved offline. Card Action Analysis The card uses cardholder verification results and parameters in Application Default Action to determine whether to decline the transaction or go online for authorization when the PIN Try Limit is exceeded. Online Processing CVM results including Offline PIN verification results are included in the authorization request and should be considered in the Issuer’s authorization decision. The Offline PIN is not included in the online authorization message. Completion After a failed attempt to go online for an authorization, the card uses cardholder verification results and parameters in Application Default Action to determine whether to decline the transaction. Issuer-to-Card Script Processing The PIN CHANGE/UNBLOCK command can be used to reset the PIN Try Counter to equal the PIN Try Limit and to change the Reference PIN. The APPLICATION UNBLOCK command can be used to unblock an application that was blocked during CVM processing.

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Terminal Risk Management

9

Terminal Risk Management provides issuer authorization for higher-value transactions and ensures that chip-read transactions go online periodically to protect against threats that might be undetectable in an offline environment. Although issuers are mandated to set the Terminal Risk Management is to be Performed bit to “1” in the Application Interchange Profile (AIP) to trigger Terminal Risk Management, terminals shall perform Terminal Risk Management regardless of the card settings. This chapter is organized into the following sections: 9.1 Card Data 9.2 Terminal Data 9.3 GET DATA Command 9.4 Terminal Exception File 9.5 Merchant Forced Transaction Online 9.6 Floor Limit Checking 9.7 Random Transaction Selection 9.8 Terminal Velocity Checking 9.9 New Card Checking 9.10 Prior Related Processing 9.11 Subsequent Related Processing

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9.1 Card Data
The card data elements used in Terminal Risk Management are listed and described in Table 9–1. For a detailed description of these elements and their usage, refer to the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification, Appendix A, Card and Issuer Data Elements Table.
Table 9–1: Terminal Risk Management—Card Data

Data Element
Application Primary Account Number (PAN) Application Transaction Counter (ATC) Last Online ATC Register

Description
Valid cardholder account number used in terminal exception file checking.

A count of the number of transactions processed by the card since personalization. It is used in terminal velocity checking. The ATC value of the last transaction that went online. If terminal velocity checking or new card checking by the terminal is required by the card, this data element and both of the data elements listed below must be present. This data element (tag “9F14”) is the Issuer-specified preference for the maximum number of consecutive offline transactions allowed before a transaction must be sent online if the terminal is online capable. It is used in terminal velocity checking. This data element (tag “9F23”) is the Issuer-specified preference for the maximum number of consecutive offline transactions allowed before transactions must be declined offline. It is used in terminal velocity checking.

Lower Consecutive Offline Limit

Upper Consecutive Offline Limit

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9.2 Terminal Data

9.2 Terminal Data
The terminal data elements used in Terminal Risk Management are listed and described in Table 9–2. For a detailed description of these elements and their usage, refer to the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Terminal Specification, Appendix A, Card and Issuer Data Elements Table.
Table 9–2: Terminal Risk Management—Terminal Data

Data Element
Amount, Authorized

Description
This numeric data element stores the amount (excluding adjustments) for the current transaction. It is used in floor limit checking. Value used for random selection of transactions for online processing.

Maximum Target Percentage to be used for Biased Random Selection Target Percentage to be used for Random Selection Terminal Floor Limit

Value used for random selection of transactions for online processing.

This data element (tag ‘9F1B’) indicates the floor limit in the terminal associated with the Application Identifier for the application. It is used in floor limit checking and random selection of transactions for online processing. A series of indicators in which the results of offline processing from a terminal perspective are recorded. It is used to record the results of all terminal risk management checks. Value used for random selection of transactions for online processing.

Terminal Verification Results (TVR)

Threshold Value for Biased Random selection Transaction Log

To prevent split sales, the terminal may have a transaction log of approved transactions. This log minimally contains the Application PAN and transaction amount and optionally contains the Application PAN Sequence Number and Transaction Date. The number of transactions to be stored and maintenance of the log is outside the scope of this specification. This log, if present, may be used in terminal floor limit checking. Indicates the functions performed by the terminal. This data element is not provided in the online authorization and clearing messages but is used by the terminal to indicate that terminal risk management was performed.

Transaction Status Information (TSI)

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9.3 GET DATA Command
The GET DATA command is used by the terminal to read the Last Online ATC Register and the Application Transaction Counter (ATC), if not previously read by the terminal, from the card.

9.4 Terminal Exception File
If a terminal exception file is present, the terminal checks whether the Primary Account Number (PAN) on the card is listed on the exception file. If the card is listed on the exception file, the terminal sets the Card Appears on Terminal Exception File bit to “1” in the Terminal Verification Results (TVR).

9.5 Merchant Forced Transaction Online
At online-capable terminals, the merchant may indicate to the terminal that the transaction should be processed online. If the merchant forces the transaction online, the terminal sets the Merchant Forced Transaction Online bit to “1” in the TVR.

9.6 Floor Limit Checking
Floor limit checking is performed so that transactions of amounts above the terminal floor limit are sent online for authorization. The terminal compares the Amount, Authorized to the Terminal Floor Limit. If the transaction amount is greater than or equal to the floor limit, the terminal sets the Transaction Exceeds Floor Limit bit to “1” in the TVR. Even when the floor limit is zero, the terminal performs this check and sets the Transaction Exceeds Floor Limit bit to “1” in the TVR. If the terminal contains a transaction log, the terminal checks whether the amounts from a previous transaction from the same card combined with the current amount put the transaction over the floor limit.

9.7 Random Transaction Selection
Terminals capable of supporting both offline and online transactions shall randomly select transactions for online processing. The terminal indicates in the TVR if a transaction is randomly selected. Examples of this processing are provided in the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Terminal Specification, Chapter 9, Terminal Risk Management.

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9.8 Terminal Velocity Checking

9.8 Terminal Velocity Checking
Velocity checking permits issuers to request online processing after a prespecified number of consecutive offline transactions. Offline-capable terminals shall support Terminal Velocity Checking. Issuers may elect not to support velocity checking by the terminal. The terminal shall perform Terminal Velocity Checking if both the Lower Consecutive Offline Limit (tag “9F14”) and Upper Consecutive Offline Limit (tag “9F23”) are provided by the card in Read Application Data processing. If either of these data objects is not present in the card, the terminal shall bypass this processing. The terminal sends a GET DATA command to the card requesting the Last Online ATC Register and the ATC. The card returns these data elements in the command response. The terminal compares the ATC and the Last Online ATC Register:
q

If the ATC minus the Last Online ATC Register is greater than the Lower Consecutive Offline Limit, the terminal sets the Lower Consecutive Offline Limit Exceeded bit to “1” in the TVR. If the ATC minus the Last Online ATC Register is greater than the Upper Consecutive Offline Limit, the terminal sets the Upper Consecutive Offline Limit Exceeded bit to “1” in the TVR.

q

NOTE: The card may also perform similar velocity checks during Card Action Analysis. Velocity checking by the card does not result in the setting of the TVR bits.

9.9 New Card Checking
In new card checking by the terminal, if the Upper and Lower Consecutive Offline Limits are present, the terminal checks the Last Online ATC Register if provided by the card. This register is reset during Completion after an online approval based on Issuer Authentication results and card parameters. The terminal sends the GET DATA command to the card requesting the Last Online ATC Register (if this data element is not already present in the terminal). The card responds to the GET DATA command with the Last Online ATC Register. The terminal checks the Last Online ATC Register. If the register is zero, the terminal sets the New Card bit to “1” in the TVR. NOTE: The card may also perform a similar new card check during Card Action Analysis

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Figure 9–1:

Terminal Risk Management Processing Flow (1 of 2)

Card

Terminal
A

Terminal exception file present?

Transaction log present in terminal?

Y

Y

Card appears on exception file?

N N

Log Entry Present that matches current transaction?

Y

Amount, authorized + amount in log > terminal floor limit?

Y

N

N

Y

Terminal sets card appears on terminal exception file bit to “1” in TVR

Transaction amount > terminal floor limit?

Y

Terminal sets transaction exceeds floor limit bit to “1” in TVR

N

N

Merchant elected to force transaction online?

Terminal randomly selects transaction for online processing?

Y

Terminal sets transaction selected randomly for online processsing bit to “1” in TVR

Y N Terminal sets merchant forced transaction online bit to “1” in TVR N B

A

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9.9 New Card Checking

Card

B

Terminal

Lower and Upper Consecutive Offline Limits read by terminal?

Y Card responds to GET DATA command with ATC and Last Online ATC Register
GET DATA command GET DATA response

Terminal issues GET DATA to obtain ATC and Last Online ATC Register N

Both ATC and Last Online ATC Register returned?

N

Terminal sets ICC Data Missing bit to “1” in TVR

Y

ATC minus Last Online ATC Register > Lower Consecutive Offline Limit?

Terminal sets both Lower Consecutive Offline Limit Exceeded and Upper Consecutive Offline Limit Exceeded bits to “1” in TVR

Y Terminal sets Lower Consecutive Offline Limit Exceeded bit to “1” in TVR

N

ATC minus Last Online ATC Register > Upper Consecutive Offline Limit

N

Y
Terminal sets Upper Consecutive Offline Limit Exceeded bit to “1” in TVR

Last Online ATC Register =0 Y Terminal sets New Card bit in TVR

N

Terminal proceeds to Terminal Action Analysis (Chapter 10)

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9.10 Prior Related Processing
Read Application Data The following data is read from the card:
q

Primary Account Number is used in checking the terminal exception file. Upper and Lower Consecutive Limits, if present on the card, are used in Terminal Velocity Checking.

q

9.11 Subsequent Related Processing
Terminal Action Analysis Based on card and terminal settings, the terminal determines what action to take if:
q

The card was on terminal exception file The merchant forced the transaction online The floor limit is exceeded The transaction is randomly selected for online processing Velocity checking amounts or counters are exceeded New card

q

q

q

q

q

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10

In Terminal Action Analysis, the terminal applies rules set by the issuer in the card and by the acquirer in the terminal to the results of offline processing to determine whether the transaction should be approved offline, declined offline, or sent online for an authorization. Terminal Action Analysis involves two steps: 1. Review Offline Processing Results—The terminal reviews the results of offline processing, recorded by the terminal in the Terminal Verification Results, to determine whether the transaction should go online, be approved offline, or be declined offline. This process considers issuer-defined criteria from the card called Issuer Action Codes (IACs) and Visa-defined criteria in the terminal called Terminal Action Codes (TACs). Request Cryptogram Processing—The terminal requests a cryptogram from the card.

2.

A decision for an offline approval or request for online processing made during Terminal Action Analysis is not final. As a result of Card Action Analysis (see Chapter 11, Card Action Analysis), the card may override the terminal’s decision. Decisions to decline offline may not be overridden. This chapter is organized into the following sections: 10.1 Card Data 10.2 Terminal Data 10.3 GENERATE APPLICATION CRYPTOGRAM (AC) Command 10.4 Processing 10.5 Prior Related Processing 10.6 Subsequent Related Processing

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10.1 Card Data
The card data elements described in Table 10–1 were previously received from the card and are used during Terminal Action Analysis. The Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification, Appendix A, Card and Issuer Data Elements Table, contains detailed descriptions of these elements and their usage.
Table 10–1: Review Offline Processing Results—Card Data

Data Element
Issuer Action Codes (IACs)

Description
The IACs are three data elements called IAC Denial, IAC Online, and IAC Default. Each IAC consists of a series of bits, which correspond to the bits in the Terminal Verification Results (TVR).
q

IAC Denial bits set to “1” reflect the TVR conditions for which the transaction is to be declined offline IAC Online bits set to “1” represent online authorization conditions IAC Default bits set to “1” are the conditions for an offline decline if online processing is not available

q

q

Similar codes called Terminal Action Codes (TACs) are defined in the terminal.

The card data element shown in Table 10–2 is used in cryptogram processing.
Table 10–2: Request Cryptogram Processing—Card Data

Data Element
Card Risk Management Data Object List 1 (CDOL1)

Description
The CDOL1 contains the tags and lengths of the terminal data objects that are needed by the card to generate the first application cryptogram and for other processing.

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10.2 Terminal Data

10.2 Terminal Data
The Visa Integrated Circuit Card Terminal Specification, Appendix A, Card and Issuer Data Elements Table, contains detailed descriptions of these elements and their usage. The terminal data elements described in Table 10–3 are used to review offline processing results.
Table 10–3: Review Offline Processing Results—Terminal Data

Data Element
Terminal Action Codes (TACs)

Description
The TACs are three data elements called TAC Denial, TAC Online, and TAC Default. Like the IACs, each TAC consists of a series of bits, which correspond to the bits in the Terminal Verification Results (TVR).
q

TAC Denial bits set to “1” reflect the TVR conditions for which the transaction is to be declined offline TAC Online “1”bits represent online authorization conditions TAC Default “1” bits are the conditions for an offline decline if online processing is not available

q

q

The required TAC settings are defined by Visa in the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Terminal Specification, Version 1.4.0, Chapter 10. Terminal Verification Results (TVR) The TVR is a series of bits, which are set during transaction processing to represent offline processing results.

The terminal data elements described in Table 10–4 are used in cryptogram processing.
Table 10–4: Request Cryptogram Processing—Terminal Data

Data Element
Terminal Data Elements

Description
The terminal data elements specified in the CDOL1 from the card are included in the GENERATE APPLICATION CRYPTOGRAM (AC) command.

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10.3 GENERATE APPLICATION CRYPTOGRAM (AC) Command
The terminal sends a GENERATE AC command to the card to request an application cryptogram. The terminal also indicates in this command if Combined DDA/AC Generation is to be performed. The command designates one of the following types of application cryptograms:
q

Transaction Certificate (TC)—For an approval Application Authentication Cryptogram (AAC)—For a decline Authorization Request Cryptogram (ARQC)—To go online

q

q

The command also includes the terminal data objects requested by the card in the CDOL1. When the card receives the GENERATE AC command, it proceeds to Card Action Analysis. The command response is not returned during Terminal Action Analysis.

10.4 Processing
Terminal Action Analysis processing has two steps:
q

The review of offline processing results The request for an Application Cryptogram

q

10.4.1 Review Offline Processing Results
The terminal reviews the results of offline processing to determine whether the transaction should go online, be approved offline, or be declined offline. This process uses issuer-defined criteria from the card called IACs and Visa-defined criteria in the terminal called TACs. The Visa Integrated Circuit Card Terminal Specification, Chapter 10, Terminal Action Analysis, contains an example of how IACs and TACs are used with the Terminal Verification Results (TVR) to determine transaction disposition.

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10.4.2 Request Application Cryptogram
The second phase of Terminal Action Analysis involves requesting an Application Cryptogram from the card. The outcome from the Review Offline Processing step determines the type of cryptogram to request:
q

Approve offline—TC (Transaction Certificate) Go online for authorization—ARQC (Authorization Request Cryptogram) Decline offline—AAC (Application Authentication Cryptogram)

q

q

The terminal also indicates in this command if Combined DDA/AC Generation is to be performed.

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10.4.3 Processing Flow
Figure 10–1 shows how Terminal Action Analysis might be performed.
Figure 10–1: Terminal Action Analysis Flow

Card
Any transaction conditions which card or terminal have set to Decline?

Terminal

N Any transaction conditions that the card or terminal have set to Decline if no online? Y Y

Online capable terminal?

N

Y

Any transaction conditions which card or terminal have set for Online Auth?

N N

Y Cryptogram type = ARQC (Send Online) Cryptogram type = TC (Approve) Cryptogram type = AAC (Decline)

Proceed to Card Action Analysis (See Chapter 11)

GENERATE AC command with CDOL1 data

Request cryptogram from card

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10.5 Prior Related Processing

10.5 Prior Related Processing
Read Application Data The terminal reads application data from the card. This data includes the CDOL1 and the IACs. Offline Data Authentication, Processing Restrictions, Cardholder Verification, and Terminal Risk Management These offline functions set bits in the TVR based upon the results of processing. These bit settings are used with the IACs and TACs during Terminal Action Analysis to determine transaction disposition.

10.6 Subsequent Related Processing
Card Action Analysis During Card Action Analysis, the card performs additional risk management to determine whether to override the terminal’s Terminal Action Analysis decision to approve offline or send online.

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11

Card Action Analysis allows issuers to perform velocity checking and other risk management that is internal to the card. Visa proprietary card risk management features described in this section include checking:
q

Activity on previous transactions New card Velocity counters

q

q

This chapter is organized into the following sections: 11.1 Card Data 11.2 Terminal Data 11.3 GENERATE APPLICATION CRYPTOGRAM (AC) Command 11.4 Processing 11.5 Flow 11.6 Prior Related Processing 11.7 Subsequent Related Processing

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11.1 Card Data
The card data elements used in Card Action Analysis are listed and described in Table 11–1. For a detailed description of these elements and their usage, refer to the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification, Appendix A, Card and Issuer Data Elements Table.
Table 11–1: Card Action Analysis—Card Data

Data Element
Application Cryptogram

Description
A cryptogram returned by the card in the response to the GENERATE APPLICATION CRYPTOGRAM (AC) command.
q

An Application Authentication Cryptogram returned for declines is known as an AAC A Transaction Certificate returned for approvals is known as a TC An Authorization Request Cryptogram returned when online processing is requested is known as an ARQC

q

q

Data Requested in Card Risk Management Data Object List (CDOL1)

The terminal provides the data requested by the card in the CDOL1. Refer to the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification, Appendix E, Cryptogram Versions Supported, for a list of data required.

11.2 Terminal Data
No terminal data is used during Card Action Analysis.

11.3 GENERATE APPLICATION CRYPTOGRAM (AC) Command
The GENERATE APPLICATION CRYPTOGRAM (AC) command is used by the terminal to request that the card provide a cryptogram indicating the card’s authorization response. The terminal also indicates in this command whether Combined DDA/AC Generation is to be performed.

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11.4 Processing

11.4 Processing
At the end of Terminal Action Analysis, the terminal issues the GENERATE AC command to the card to request an application cryptogram and to provide data requested by the card in the CDOL1. This processing is described in Chapter 10, Terminal Action Analysis. The GENERATE AC command, which the card receives from the terminal, contains the Cryptogram Type, which the terminal is requesting. This Cryptogram Type indicates the terminal’s transaction decision (approve offline, decline offline, send online). The GENERATE AC command received from the terminal also indicates if Combined DDA/AC Generation is to be performed.

11.4.1 Card Risk Management
The card performs the following Card Risk Management checks if supported by the card and the required data is available:
q

Activity on previous transactions: – – – – – – Online authorization not completed Issuer Authentication failure on last online transaction SDA failure on last transaction DDA failure on last transaction Issuer script processed on last transaction PIN Try Limit exceeded on previous transaction

q

New card check Velocity checks to see whether offline processing limits have been exceeded for: – – – – – Total consecutive offline transactions Total consecutive offline international transactions based on currency Total consecutive offline international transactions based on country Total cumulative offline transaction amount in designated currency Total offline transaction amount in the designated currency and a designated secondary currency

q

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11.4.2 Card Response Decision
Based on the results of this card risk management, the card determines a transaction response. The card’s response may override the terminal’s decision indicated by the Cryptogram Type:
q

The card may override the terminal’s decision to approve offline by deciding to either send online or decline offline. The card may override the terminal’s decision to go online by deciding to decline offline.

q

These decision rules are shown in Table 11–2.
Table 11–2: Card Response to GENERATE AC Command

Card Responds

AAC
Decline

ARQC

TC

Terminal Requests

AAC

ARQC

Decline

Go Online

TC

Decline

Go Online

Approve

11.4.2.1 Standard Response to GENERATE AC
The card generates a DES-based cryptogram utilizing the data provided by the terminal and data from the card. Data requirements are detailed in the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification, Appendix E, Cryptogram Versions Supported. The DES key requirements and the algorithms used in the cryptogram generation process are detailed in the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification, Appendix D, Authentication Keys and Algorithms. The card returns this cryptogram to the terminal in the GENERATE AC response. The Cryptogram Type in this response indicates the card’s decision for transaction disposition (approve offline, decline offline, send online).

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11.4 Processing

11.4.2.2 Response to GENERATE AC for Combined DDA/AC Generation
If the terminal has indicated in the GENERATE AC command that Combined DDA/AC Generation is to be performed and the card is returning a TC or an ARQC in the response to GENERATE AC, the card encrypts the Application Cryptogram, Cryptogram Information Data and other data with the ICC Private Key. The card returns the signed data to the terminal in the response to GENERATE AC.

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11.5 Flow
Figure 11–1: Card Action Analysis

Checks previous transaction processing: - Online Auth not completed - Issuer Authen. failed - SDA or DDA failed - Issuer Script processed

Card
First GENERATE AC command

Terminal
Terminal during Terminal Action Analysis requests a cryptogram (AAC, ARQC or TC) for the first time

Sets indicators based upon results

Checks new card & velocity - Cons. Offline Transactions - Cons. Offline Txns (Int'l) - Cons. Offline Txns (Int'l—Country) - Cum. Offline Txn. Amount - Cum. Offline Txn. Amount (Dual Currency)

Uses above results to determine card response (approve, decline, or go online)

D Y

Y

Terminal Requested Decline (AAC)?

N
Card Response = Decline (AAC) Terminal requested Go Online (ARQC)? N Terminal requested approval (TC)

Y

D

Y

Card Response = Decline (AAC)?

N
GEN AC response = Go Online (ARQC)

Y

Card Response = Go Online (ARQC)?

N
Combined DDA/AC Generation? GEN AC response = Approve (TC)

N Y
Create Dynamic Signature of ARQC or TC

D

Respond to GENERATE AC

First GENERATE AC response

Terminal proceeds to Online Processing

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11.6 Prior Related Processing

11.6 Prior Related Processing
Read Application Data The terminal reads the Card Risk Management Data Object List 1 (CDOL1) from the card.

11.7 Subsequent Related Processing
Completion If online processing was requested, but the terminal was unable to send the transaction online, additional card and terminal processing is performed. The terminal performs additional analysis (similar to Terminal Action Analysis) using the Issuer Action Code (IAC) Denial and Terminal Action Code (TAC) Denial to determine which cryptogram (AAC or TC) to request in the final GENERATE AC command. The card also performs the following card risk management checks to determine final transaction disposition:
q

Velocity checking for total consecutive offline transactions (Upper Limit) New card Offline PIN verification not performed

q

q

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Online Processing

12

Online Processing allows the issuer’s host computer to review and authorize or decline transactions using the issuer’s host-based risk management parameters. In addition to performing traditional online fraud and credit checks, host authorization systems may perform Online Card Authentication using a card-generated dynamic cryptogram and should consider offline processing results in the authorization decision. The response from the issuer may include post-issuance updates to the card and an issuer-generated cryptogram, which the card can validate to assure that the response came from the valid issuer. This validation is called Issuer Authentication. This chapter describes the card and terminal online processing functions, which are new with Visa Smart Debit and Visa Smart Credit (VSDC). Online processing functions, which are also performed with magnetic stripe-read and key-entered transactions, are outside the scope of this document and not described. This chapter is organized in the following manner: 12.1 Card Data 12.2 Terminal Data 12.3 Online Request and Response Data 12.4 Commands 12.5 Processing 12.6 Prior Related Processing 12.7 Subsequent Related Processing

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12.1 Card Data
The terminal uses the card data described in Table 12–1 during Online Processing. The Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification, Appendix A, Card and Issuer Data Elements Table, contains a detailed description of card data elements and their usage.
Table 12–1: Online Processing—Card Data

Data Element
GENERATE APPLICATION CRYPTOGRAM (AC) response data

Description
This response data includes the following:
q

Cryptogram Type (an Authorization Request Cryptogram (ARQC) if transaction is to be authorized online) Application Cryptogram Application Transaction Counter (ATC) Issuer Application Data

q

q

q

Application Interchange Profile (AIP)

The AIP received during Initiate Application Processing contains a bit that indicates whether the card supports Issuer Authentication.

The card uses the card data described in Table 12–2 during Issuer Authentication.
Table 12–2: Online Processing Issuer Authentication—Card Data

Data Element
Authorization Request Cryptogram (ARQC)

Description
The cryptogram generated by the card earlier in the transaction. The ARQC and the Authorization Response Code are the input to the Authorization Response Cryptogram (ARPC) validation process. The DES keys used for ARPC validation. These are the same keys used to generate the ARQC. Contains a bit that is set if Issuer Authentication fails. A bit that is set if Issuer Authentication fails.

Unique DEA Keys (UDK)

Card Verification Results (CVR) Issuer Authentication Failure Indicator

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12.2 Terminal Data

12.2 Terminal Data
The terminal data described in Table 12–3 is updated with the Issuer Authentication status. The Visa Integrated Circuit Card Terminal Specification, Appendix A, Card and Issuer Data Elements Table, contains a detailed description of these data elements and their usage.
Table 12–3: Online Processing—Terminal Data

Data Element
Terminal Verification Results (TVR) Transaction Status Information (TSI)

Description
Contains a bit that is set when Issuer Authentication is unsuccessful.

Contains a bit that is set when Issuer Authentication is performed.

12.3 Online Request and Response Data
The online authorization request includes the data required for magnetic stripe transactions as well as additional VSDC data, which is used to validate the Authorization Request Cryptogram (ARQC) generated by the card. The VSDC data elements to be transmitted from the terminal are listed in the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Terminal Specification, Chapter 12, Online Processing. The online response may contain the data described in Table 12–4.
Table 12–4: Online Processing—Online Response Data

Data Element
Issuer Authentication Data

Description
Issuer Authentication Data has two components:
q

Authorization Response Cryptogram (ARPC), which is an Issuer-generated cryptogram to be validated by the card Authorization Response Code, which is the response value to be used in the validation of the ARPC

q

Issuer Script

Contains issuer updates to the card.

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12.4 Commands
The following commands are used during Online Processing: GENERATE APPLICATION CRYPTOGRAM (AC) Command Response The terminal receives the card’s response to the GENERATE APPLICATION CRYPTOGRAM (AC) command, which contains the Application Cryptogram. The GENERATE AC command is sent to the card during Terminal Action Analysis. The GENERATE AC command may indicate that Combined DDA/AC Generation be performed. The card returns the GENERATE AC response at the end of Card Action Analysis. The response is received by the terminal at the beginning of Online Processing. The response includes the first Application Cryptogram and the Cryptogram Type. If the response is an ARQC or a TC and Combined DDA/AC Generation is performed, the response is a dynamic signature. EXTERNAL AUTHENTICATE Command If Issuer Authentication is to be performed, the terminal issues the EXTERNAL AUTHENTICATE command with the Issuer Authentication Data requesting that the card validate the Authorization Response Cryptogram (ARPC), which is included in the command. The response from the card indicates whether Issuer Authentication passed or failed.

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12.5 Processing

12.5 Processing
Standard Online Processing includes processing the online request, processing the online response, and optionally performing Issuer Authentication. If Combined DDA/AC Generation is to be performed, processing includes validation of the dynamic signature.

12.5.1 Online Request
Online request processing differs depending on whether Combined DDA/AC Generation has been requested.

12.5.1.1 Combined DDA/AC Generation Processing
If Combined DDA/AC Generation indicated in the GENERATE AC command and the cryptogram returned is an ARQC or a TC, the terminal performs the following processing:
q

The terminal deciphers the dynamic cryptogram using the recovered ICC Public Key to recover the Application Cryptogram. If the hash does not match the terminal indicates in the TVR that Combined DDA/AC Generation failed and proceeds to Completion. If the hash matches, standard online processing is performed.

q

q

12.5.1.2 Standard Online Processing
If the card returns an ARQC to the terminal in the GENERATE AC response and the terminal has the capability to go online, the terminal transmits an online authorization request message. If the card does not respond with an ARQC or the terminal is unable to send the transaction online, the terminal proceeds to the Completion function.

12.5.2 Online Response
After the online request message is successfully transmitted to the issuer, the terminal receives the online response message, which may include an issuer script containing updates to the card parameters or a cryptogram, or both, to be validated using Issuer Authentication to prove that the response came from the valid issuer. If the online response contains the Issuer Authentication Data and the card supports Issuer Authentication, the terminal performs Issuer Authentication. Otherwise, the terminal proceeds to the Completion function.

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12.5.3 Issuer Authentication
The terminal transmits an EXTERNAL AUTHENTICATE command to the card instructing the card to perform Issuer Authentication. The card validates the ARPC using the ARQC generated previously by the card, the Authorization Response Code from the issuer, and the Unique DEA Keys (UDK) stored in a secret location on the card. Both the card and terminal record Issuer Authentication results:
q

The card sets Issuer Authentication results in the Card Verification Results (CVR) and the Issuer Authentication Failure Indicator and returns the results to the terminal in the EXTERNAL AUTHENTICATE response. The terminal sets Issuer Authentication results in the Terminal Verification Results (TVR) and the Transaction Status Information (TSI) before proceeding to the Completion function.

q

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12.5 Processing

12.5.4 Processing Flow
Figure 12–1 shows the interaction between the card, the terminal, and the issuer’s host system for Online Processing.
Figure 12–1: Online Processing Flow

Card
Card Action Analysis (see Chapter 11) Card sets cryptogram to send online, approve offline, or decline offline

Terminal
GENERATE AC command response Y

Online Authorization Systems
A

AAC (decline cryptogram) returned? N Combined DDA/Gen. AC requested?

Terminal proceeds to Completion (see chapter 13)

Y
Valid Dynamic Signature? N Terminal indicates in TVR DDA/AC Generation failed Online Response Online Response Perform online authorization processing and return response

A
N

N

Y

ARQC returned? Y Send transaction online for authorization

Card performs Issuer Authentication, sets IA results indicators, and returns results

EXTERNAL AUTHENTICATE command

Y

Issuer Authentication to be performed?

EXTERNAL AUTHENTICATE command response

Terminal sets Issuer Auth. results indicators

N

Terminal proceeds to Completion (see chapter 13)

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12.6 Prior Related Processing
Card Action Analysis The card sets the Cryptogram Type to an ARQC if an online authorization is to be done.

12.7 Subsequent Related Processing
Completion During Completion, the card uses Issuer Authentication results and card parameters to help determine the disposition of the transaction and whether to reset certain counters and indicators. If a TC was requested by the card and Combined DDA/AC Generation was performed and failed the terminal declines the transaction. If an ARQC was requested by the card and Combined DDA/AC Generation was performed and failed, an AAC (decline cryptogram) is requested by the terminal in the final GENERATE AC. Issuer-to-Card Script Processing If the online response contains an Issuer Script, these post-issuance updates are applied.

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Completion

13

The terminal and the card perform Completion to conclude transaction processing. Completion includes the following actions:
q

If online processing was requested and the terminal did not support online processing or the online authorization was unable to complete, the terminal and card perform additional analysis to determine whether the transaction should be approved or declined offline. If Combined DDA/AC Generation was performed and failed the terminal processes as follows: – – If an ARQC was requested by the card, the terminal requests an AAC (decline cryptogram) in the second GENERATE AC. If a TC was requested by the card and Combined DDA/AC Generation was performed and failed the terminal declines the transaction with a Z1 Response Code.

q

q

An issuer’s online approval may be changed to a decline based upon Issuer Authentication results and card options. Indicators and counters are set to reflect what has occurred during transaction processing. After an online authorization, indicators and counters may be reset based upon Issuer Authentication results and card options.

q

q

The terminal may perform additional functions subsequent to Completion, such as allowing the cardholder signature to be verified, printing a receipt, and capturing data for clearing. The terminal may perform additional Completion functions if they do not interfere with the Completion functions defined in the VIS card and terminal volumes.

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This chapter is organized as follows: 13.1 Card Data 13.2 Terminal Data 13.3 GENERATE Application Cryptogram (AC) Command 13.4 Processing 13.5 Flow 13.6 Prior Related Processing

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13.1 Card Data

13.1 Card Data
The second GENERATE AC command response, which the card returns to the terminal, includes the card data elements described in Table 13–1. The Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification, Appendix A, Card and Issuer Data Elements Table, contains a detailed description of card data elements and their usage.
Table 13–1: GENERATE AC Response

Data Element
Application Cryptogram (AC) Application Transaction Counter (ATC) Cryptogram Information Data

Description
The cryptogram generated by the card. A count of card transactions.

Contains indicators for
q

The type of cryptogram: – An Application Authentication Cryptogram (AAC) for a decline – A Transaction Certificate (TC) for an approval – An Authorization Request Cryptogram (ARQC) when online processing is requested (first GENERATE AC only)

q

Other status information including Service Not Allowed

Issuer Application Data

Includes Visa discretionary data and issuer discretionary data for transmission to the Issuer, including the CVR. A Visa proprietary data element containing indicators, which are set based upon the results of offline processing for current and previous transactions. The CVR is included in the clearing transaction as “proof” of card processing.

Card Verification Results (CVR)

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The card uses the internal card data elements described in Table 13–2 during Completion. Other data elements used are listed in the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification, Chapter 12, Completion.
Table 13–2: Completion—Card Data (Partial List)

Data Element
Application Default Action (ADA) CDOL2

Description
A Visa proprietary data element indicating the action a card should take when exception conditions occur. A list of data objects (tags and lengths) for the terminal to pass to the card with the second GENERATE AC command.

13.2 Terminal Data
The terminal data elements described in Table 13–3 are used during Completion. The Visa Integrated Circuit Card Terminal Specification, Appendix A, Card and Issuer Data Elements Table, contains a detailed description of these data elements and their usage.
Table 13–3: Completion—Terminal Data

Data Element
Authorization Response Code

Description
Provided to the card to indicate if the transaction is approved or declined and if the authorization was performed offline or online. Contains indicators that are set to record offline processing results, such as SDA failure or floor limit exceeded, from a terminal perspective.

Terminal Verification Results (TVR)

13.3 GENERATE Application Cryptogram (AC) Command
The GENERATE APPLICATION CRYPTOGRAM (AC) command is used by the terminal to request a final Application Cryptogram from the card. It may indicate that Combined DDA/AC Generation is to be performed. The GENERATE AC command contains the terminal data elements specified by the card in the CDOL2, which was received by the terminal during Read Application Data.

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13.4 Processing

The GENERATE AC response includes the card transaction counter, the cryptogram type indicating the card’s authorization decision, the application cryptogram, and the CVR indicating processing results. Issuer discretionary data may also be provided.

13.4 Processing
Completion involves three steps:
q

The terminal determines the transaction disposition and issues a second GENERATE AC command to the card if an online authorization was completed. The card determines the final transaction response and resets card indicators based card parameters and Issuer Authentication status. The terminal completes the transaction.

q

q

13.4.1 Terminal Determines Transaction Disposition
The terminal processing during Completion varies based upon what has occurred during previous processing of the transaction:
q

At the end of Card Action Analysis, the card may have: – – Requested an offline approval or decline Requested an online authorization

q

During Online Processing, the online authorization request may have: – – Completed successfully Not completed because the terminal did not support online processing or because an online response was not received.

13.4.1.1 Transaction Authorized Offline
When the card responds to the first GENERATE AC command in Card Action Analysis with a Transaction Certificate (TC) or an Application Authentication Cryptogram (AAC), the terminal completes the transaction offline. If a TC was requested by the card and Combined DDA/AC Generation was performed and failed, the terminal declines the transaction. The terminal displays a message indicating the action taken: approved, declined, or service not allowed. If the terminal requested in the GENERATE AC command that Combined DDA/AC Generation be performed and an AAC is returned by the card, the terminal indicates in the TVR that Combined DDA/AC Generation has failed.

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If Combined DDA/AC Generation was performed and failed, the terminal processes as follows:
q

If a TC was returned, the terminal declines with a Z1 response code. If an ARQC is returned, the terminal requests an AAC in the second GENERATE AC command.

q

13.4.1.2 Online Authorization Completed Successfully
If the online authorization was successfully completed, the terminal issues a final GENERATE AC command to the card to request additional card analysis and a final Application Cryptogram. The terminal uses the Authorization Response Code received from the issuer in the online authorization response to determine the type of cryptogram to request from the card:
q

If the issuer has approved the transaction, the terminal requests an approval (TC). If the issuer has requested a referral, it is recommended that the terminal request a decline (AAC). However, the terminal may request an approval (TC) if the issuer has requested a referral. If the Authorization Response Code does not indicate approve or refer, the terminal requests an AAC.

q

q

For valid Authorization Response Codes (field 39) for approvals, declines, and referrals, refer to the V.I.P. System Technical Reference Volume 2, Field and Code Descriptions.

13.4.1.3 Online Authorization Unable to Complete
If the card requested online processing and the terminal does not support online processing or the online authorization did not complete, the terminal uses the Issuer Action Code (IAC)—Default and the Terminal Action Code (TAC)—Default to determine the transaction disposition. This IAC and TAC processing is similar to the processing in Terminal Action Analysis described in Chapter 10, Terminal Action Analysis. If any TVR bits and the corresponding bit in the IAC or TAC are both “1”, the terminal requests a decline.

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13.4 Processing

Based on the results of this processing, the terminal issues the final GENERATE AC command to the terminal. The Cryptogram Type requested in the final GENERATE AC command indicates whether the transaction is to be declined (AAC) or approved (TC). This command also includes an Authorization Response Code, shown in Table 13–4, which indicates that an online authorization was not completed.
Table 13–4: Authorization Response Code for Offline Action Taken

Terminal Requests
TC AAC

Authorization Response Code
Y3 Z3

Transaction Disposition
Unable to go online (offline approved) Unable to go online (offline declined)

13.4.2 Card Responds to Final GENERATE AC Command
The card uses the Authorization Response Code received from the terminal in the final GENERATE AC command to determine whether an online authorization was completed.
q

If the Authorization Response Code is one of the offline codes listed in Table 13–4, the online authorization was unable to complete or the terminal did not support online processing. If the Authorization Response Code is not one of the offline codes, the online authorization was completed.

q

13.4.2.1 Online Authorization Completed
When the online authorization completed, the card uses the final GENERATE AC Cryptogram Type and results from Issuer Authentication to determine the final transaction disposition:
q

AAC (Decline) Requested If the terminal requests a decline (AAC) in the final GENERATE AC command, the card always returns an AAC in the response. Prior to responding to the terminal with an AAC, the card updates indicators and counters as indicated in the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification, Chapter 13, Completion.

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q

TC (Approval) Requested If the terminal requests an approval (TC) in the final GENERATE AC command, the card responds with either an approval or a decline response based on the status of Issuer Authentication processing and card’s Issuer Authentication options.

The card converts the approval to a decline if either of the following conditions is true:
q

Issuer Authentication failed and the ADA indicates that the transaction should be declined if Issuer Authentication fails Issuer Authentication is mandatory, was not performed, and the ADA indicates that the transaction should be declined if Issuer Authentication is mandatory and not performed

q

If neither of the above conditions is true, the card responds with an approval. Refer to the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification, Chapter 13, Completion, for details on how indicators and counters are set and reset for these conditions.

13.4.2.2 Online Authorization Unable to Complete
When the Authorization Response Code in the final GENERATE AC indicates that online processing was requested but not completed, the card performs additional card risk management steps prior to responding to the terminal. These steps are performed whether the terminal has requested an approval or decline.
q

Card Risk Management The card performs the following optional card risk management checks if they are supported and the required data elements are present in the card: – Velocity Checking for Total Consecutive Transactions (Upper Limit) This optional check causes the card to respond with a decline (AAC) if the upper limit for consecutive offline transactions has been exceeded. – New Card If the card is a new card and the card’s Application Default Action (ADA) indicates that a new card transaction should be declined if it cannot be online authorized, the card responds with a decline (AAC). – PIN Try Limit Exceeded on Previous Transaction If the PIN Try Counter is zero and the card’s ADA indicates that a transaction should be declined if the PIN Try Limit was exceeded on a previous transaction, the card responds with a decline (AAC).

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13.4 Processing

q

Card Response to Terminal The card responds to the final GENERATE AC command issued by the terminal as follows: – Card Declined Transaction If the terminal requested an AAC or the card risk management steps have determined that the card should decline the transaction, the card updates internal indicators and counters as described in the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification, Chapter 13, Completion, and responds with an AAC. – Card Approved Transaction If the terminal requested a TC and the results of card risk management indicate that the transaction should be approved, the card updates internal counters and indicators according to the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification, Chapter 13, Completion, and responds with a TC.

13.4.3 Terminal Completes Transaction
Upon receipt of the card’s response to the GENERATE AC command, the terminal processes the Issuer Script, if present (see Chapter 14, Issuer-toCard Script Processing). Final terminal action is determined by the type of cryptogram the terminal requested and the response from the card in the final GENERATE AC:
q

Terminal requested a decline (AAC) in the final GENERATE AC The terminal completes the transaction and displays a message indicating that the transaction was declined.

q

Terminal requested an approval (TC) in the final GENERATE AC – – If the card responds with a TC, the terminal completes the transaction and displays a message indicating that the transaction was approved. If the card responds with an AAC, the terminal completes the transaction and displays a message indicating that the transaction was declined.
s

At an ATM, if an online-approved cash disbursement or account transfer transaction is declined by the card because of an Issuer Authentication failure, the ATM shall transmit a reversal. If a balance inquiry transaction is declined for the same reason, the ATM shall not display the balance. At a POS device, if an online-approved purchase transaction is declined by the card because of an Issuer Authentication failure, a reversal is required if the acquirer’s authorization system is single message or host-data-capture.

s

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13.5 Flow
Figure 13–1: Completion

Card

Terminal
Terminal analyzes first GENERATE AC response Set Authorization Response Code to Y1 (approve) or Z1 (decline) based on card response and results of Combined DDA/AC Generation if performed

Card returned ARQC?

N

Y A

Transaction completed online?

N

Perform Terminal Action Analysis using IAC & TAC - Default

Y

Set Authorization Response Code to Y3 (approval) or Z3 (decline)

Card receives Final Generate AC

Final GENERATE AC Command

Set Application Cryptogram to TC (approval) or AAC (decline)

Auth Resp. Code = Y3 or Z3 (Unable to go online)?

N

Card may convert online approval to a decline based on Issuer Authentication results

Terminal requests AAC or TC in Final GENERATE AC

Y
Card performs card risk management checks for the upper offline limit, new card, and PIN Try Limit exceeded previously Terminal receives Final GENERATE AC response

Card may decline based upon card risk management results

Card may reset counters and indicators based upon Issuer Auth results

Terminal processes Issues Script if in auth. response Final GENERATE AC Response Terminal completes transaction

A

Card responds to Final GENERATE AC with TC (approve) or AAC (decline)

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13.6 Prior Related Processing

13.6 Prior Related Processing
Online Processing If the card receives an EXTERNAL AUTHENTICATE command from the terminal, the card performs Issuer Authentication processing and sets indicators for Issuer Authentication performed and successful or failed. These indicators are used during Completion by the card in the response decision and in determining which card counters and indicators should be reset.

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Issuer-to-Card Script Processing

14

Issuer-to-Card Script Processing permits issuers to change personalized data on cards without card reissuance. With this function, the issuer transmits commands in issuer scripts contained in the authorization response message. The terminal passes these commands to the card where they are executed if security requirements are satisfied. Commands are supported for:
q

Updating card parameters Blocking or unblocking the application Blocking the card Unblocking the PIN Try Counter Changing the Offline PIN

q

q

q

q

Issuer-to-Card Script Processing limits credit and fraud exposure by allowing blocking of overspent and stolen cards. Card parameters can be modified to correspond to changing cardholder circumstances.

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This chapter is organized in the following manner: 14.1 Script-Related Keys 14.2 Card Data 14.3 Terminal Data 14.4 Online Response Data 14.5 Commands 14.6 Processing 14.7 Processing Flow 14.8 Prior Related Processing 14.9 Subsequent Related Processing

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14.1 Script-Related Keys

14.1 Script-Related Keys
The recommended secure messaging methods for Issuer-to-Card Script Processing mentioned in Section 14.6.3 use the following card and issuer-based keys.

14.1.1 Message Authentication Code Keys
The Message Authentication Code (MAC) keys are used in the generation and validation of the script command’s MAC. The MAC is a cryptogram included in script commands that ensures that the command has not been altered (message integrity) and that the command came from the valid issuer (issuer authentication). The MACing process uses three keys:
q

Master Message Authentication Code Key (MAC MDK) is an issuer-unique double-length DES key. The MAC MDK is used to generate the card’s Unique Message Authentication Code Key (MAC UDK) and the transaction’s MAC Session Key. Unique Message Authentication Code Key (MAC UDK) is a double-length DES key personalized on the card. The MAC UDK is used to generate a MAC Session Key during the transaction. It is derived from the issuer’s MAC MDK. The MAC Session Key is a transaction-unique double-length DES key used to generate and validate the script command’s MAC at the time of transaction.

q

q

These MAC keys are required if the Visa recommended method of secure messaging is supported.

14.1.2 Data Encipherment Keys
The Data Encipherment Keys are used to encipher confidential issuer script data such as Offline PIN values during the transmission of the script from the issuer host computer to the card. This encipherment process uses three keys:
q

Master Data Encipherment DEA Key (ENC MDK) is an issuer-unique double-length DES key. The ENC MDK is used to generate the card’s Unique Data Encipherment DEA Key (ENC UDK) and the transaction’s Data Encipherment Session Key. Unique Data Encipherment DEA Key (ENC UDK) is a double-length DES key personalized on the card and used to generate the Data Encipherment Session Key. The ENC UDK is derived from the ENC MDK. Data Encipherment Session Key is a transaction-unique double-length DES key derived from the ENC MDK and used by the issuer host computer to encipher confidential data in the issuer script.

q

q

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These data encipherment keys are required if the Visa recommended method of secure messaging is supported and the issuer script commands may include confidential data such as Offline PIN values.

14.2 Card Data
The indicators and counters in the card described in Table 14–1 are used in processing script commands. The Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification, Appendix A, Card and Issuer Data Elements Table, contains a detailed description of card data elements and their usage.
Table 14–1: Issuer-to-Card Script Processing—Card Data

Data Element
Application Transaction Counter (ATC) Card Verification Results (CVR)

Description
The ATC is used in the generation of the Message Authentication Code (MAC) and Data Encipherment session keys. The CVR contains flags related to script processing, which are updated with the script results. The Issuer Script Command Counter is used to count the Script Update commands received during a transaction. The Issuer Script Failure Indicator is set when Issuer Script processing fails and remains set until it is reset after a subsequent online transaction.

Issuer Script Command Counter Issuer Script Failure Indicator

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14.3 Terminal Data

14.3 Terminal Data
The terminal data elements described in Table 14–2 are used during Issuer Script processing. The Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification, Appendix A, Card and Issuer Data Elements Table, contains a detailed description of terminal data elements and their usage.
Table 14–2: Issuer-to-Card Script Processing—Terminal Data

Data Element
Issuer Script Results

Description
The Issuer Script Results contains the results of Issuer Script processing and is sent to the issuer in a clearing message or other online message. The TVR contains indicators that are set if Issuer Script processing fails.

Terminal Verification Results (TVR) Transaction Status Information (TSI)

The TSI contains an indicator that is set if an issuer script is processed.

14.4 Online Response Data
The data elements described in Table 14–3 are included in the issuer script received in the online response from the issuer.
Table 14–3: Issuer-to-Card Script Processing—Online Response Data

Data Element
Issuer Script Command

Description
The Issuer Script command contains the command transmitted from the issuer, which is sent to the card. The Issuer Script Identifier is a number used to uniquely identify an issuer script. The Issuer Script Template 2 contains proprietary issuer data for transmission to the card after the final GENERATE AC command.

Issuer Script Identifier Issuer Script Template 2

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14.5 Commands
The following script commands for Issuer Script processing are supported: APPLICATION BLOCK This command blocks the use of the selected application. If the application is blocked during the processing of a transaction, the card and terminal continue to process the transaction through Completion. During any subsequent application selection, the card does not allow the blocked application to be available for application selection to perform a financial transaction. The terminal may select an application that was blocked in order to unblock the application. However, if this occurs, the card is required to return an Application Authentication Cryptogram (AAC) in response to a GENERATE APPLICATION CRYPTOGRAM (AC) command. APPLICATION UNBLOCK This command reverses the status of an application that is blocked. Unblocking of an application occurs only at a special device designated by the issuer. CARD BLOCK The CARD BLOCK command permanently disables all applications on the card. PIN CHANGE/UNBLOCK The PIN CHANGE/UNBLOCK command provides the issuer with the capability either to unblock the Reference PIN (reset the PIN Try Counter) or to simultaneously change and unblock the Reference PIN. PIN changes using PIN CHANGE/UNBLOCK or other methods should only be performed within a secure environment controlled by the issuer.

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14.5 Commands

PUT DATA The PUT DATA command allows specific primitive data objects in the card to be updated. In this version of the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification, only the following data elements should be allowed to be updated using Issuer Script processing:
q

Lower Consecutive Offline Upper Consecutive Offline Limit Consecutive Transaction Limit (International) Consecutive Transaction Limit (International—Country) Cumulative Total Transaction Amount Limit Cumulative Total Transaction Amount Upper Limit Cumulative Total Transaction Amount Limit (Dual Currency) Currency Conversion Factor VLP Single Transaction Limit VLP Funds Limit

q

q

q

q

q

q

q

q

q

If terminal velocity checking is not supported, all of these card data elements, if present, are stored in proprietary internal files. If terminal velocity checking is supported, the Lower Consecutive Offline Limit and the Upper Consecutive Offline Limit are stored in records and accessible to the terminal using the READ RECORD command. UPDATE RECORD The UPDATE RECORD command is used to update a record in a file with the data provided in the command’s data field. The UPDATE RECORD command is required to update the PIN Verification Value (PVV) in the track data on the chip to support a PIN change. It is also required for updates to the Upper and Lower Consecutive Offline Limits if Terminal Velocity Checking is supported by the card. Issuer script commands cannot be used to update the data on the physical magnetic stripe.

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14.6 Processing
Issuer-to-Card Script Processing is comprised of issuer scripts, command processing, and secure messaging.

14.6.1 Issuer Scripts
The Issuer Script is transmitted to the acquirer by the issuer in the response message. In this version of the Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification, at most only one Issuer Script shall be transmitted in the response message. In a subsequent version, multiple Issuer Scripts may be allowed in a response message. Issuer Scripts transmitted in the response message always have tag “72”, indicating that Issuer Script processing is to be performed after the final GENERATE AC command. The issuer uses secure messaging in Issuer Script processing for each command that instructs the card to modify any information contained in the card.

14.6.2 Command Processing
The recommended Issuer Script commands are used to perform the functions described earlier in this chapter. The card performs the requested command to update, reset, change, or alter the data contained on the card only if 1) that command supports secure messaging and 2) secure messaging was performed successfully. Visa requires that some form of issuer authentication be successfully performed prior to processing an Issuer Script Command. This requirement may be satisfied by successfully performing secure messaging for that command since secure messaging is a form of issuer authentication. The originator of an Issuer Script Command is assumed to be the card issuer. If an entity other than the issuer originates the commands, the same requirements apply.

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14.6 Processing

14.6.3 Secure Messaging
The principle objectives of secure messaging are to ensure data confidentiality, message integrity, and issuer authentication. Data confidentiality ensures that secret data remains secret during transmission from the issuer to the card. Message integrity ensures that commands and command data are not altered during transmission. Issuer authentication ensures that the command came from the valid issuer. Message integrity and issuer authentication are achieved using a MAC. Data confidentiality is achieved using encipherment of the plaintext command data (if present). Validation of the MAC and decryption of enciphered data requires the use of session keys. These session keys are unique for each transaction and generated as described in Section 14.1 Script-Related Keys, of this chapter.

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14.7 Processing Flow
Figure 14–1 illustrates how Issuer-to-Card Script Processing might be performed.
Figure 14–1: Issuer-to-Card Script Processing

Card
Terminal completes Online Processing and Completion

Terminal

Issuer Script present in response?

N

Y Terminal parses out Issuer Script command in sequential order Card processes command including performing secure messaging

Y

Script Command

Terminal sends command to card

Command processing successful?

Y

Card sets response code for success

Response code shows error?

N

Another command present?

Y

Y N Card sets response code to show error Terminal sets Script Processing Failed in TVR bit N

Card returns command response with response code Script Command Response

Another script present?

N

Terminal sets Issuer Script Processing Performed in TSI bit

Terminal completes transaction processing

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14.8 Prior Related Processing

14.8 Prior Related Processing
Online Processing The online response received from the acquirer may contain an issuer script to be processed during Issuer-to-Card Script Processing.

14.9 Subsequent Related Processing
Card Action Analysis (subsequent transactions) During Card Action Analysis for the card’s next transactions, the CVR subfields are set to indicate script results from the previous transaction based upon the Issuer Script Failure Indicator and Issuer Script Command Counter stored in the card. The issuer receives this Card Verification Results (CVR) data in the next clearing record and next online authorization. Completion (subsequent transactions) The card resets the Issuer Script Failure Indicator and Issuer Script Command Counter to “0” after online transactions if any of the following conditions exist:
q

Issuer Authentication was successful Issuer Authentication was optional and not performed Issuer Authentication was not supported

q

q

The Issuer Script Failure Indicator and Issuer Script Command Counter are not reset if an online authorization is not completed or if the card’s Issuer Authentication requirements are not satisfied.

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Acronyms

A

Acronym
a AAC AAR AC ADA ADF AEF AFL AID AIP AMD an ans

Meaning
alpha Application Authentication Cryptogram Application Authentication Referral Application Cryptogram Application Default Action Application Definition File Application Elementary File Application File Locator Application Identifier Application Interchange Profile Application Management Data alphanumeric alphanumeric special

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Acronym
APDU ARPC ARQC ATC ATM AUC Auth. b BIN C CA CAM CDOL Cert. CID CLA cn Cons. CPLC Cum. CVM

Meaning
Application Protocol Data Unit Authorization Response Cryptogram Authorization Request Cryptogram Application Transaction Counter Automated Teller Machine Application Usage Control authentication binary BASE Identification Number conditional Certificate Authority Card Authentication Method Card Risk Management Data Object List certificate Cryptogram Information Data Class Byte of the Command Message compressed numeric consecutive Card Production Life Cycle Data cumulative Cardholder Verification Method

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Acronyms

Acronym
CVR CVV DDA DDF DDOL DEA DES DF EEPROM EMV ENC MDK ENC UDK FCI FCP FMD GPO hex. HHMMSS HSM IA IAC

Meaning
Card Verification Results Card Verification Value Dynamic Data Authentication Directory Definition File Dynamic Data Authentication Data Object List Data Encryption Algorithm Data Encryption Standard dedicated file Electronically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory Europay, MasterCard, Visa Master Data Encipherment DEA Key Unique Data Encipherment DEA Key File Control Information File Control Parameters File Management Data GET PROCESSING OPTIONS hexadecimal hours, minutes, seconds host security module Issuer Authentication Issuer Action Code

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Acronym
IC ICC IEC IFD INS Int’l ISO Lc Le LD LRC M MAC MAC MDK MAC UDK MCC MDK n N/A NCA NI

Meaning
integrated circuit integrated circuit card International Electrotechnical Commission interface device Instruction Byte of the Command Message international International Organization for Standardisation Length of the Command Data Field Expected Length of the Response Data Field Length of the plaintext data in the Command Data Field Longitudinal Redundancy Check mandatory Message Authentication Code Master Message Authentication Code DEA Key Unique Message Authentication Code DEA Key Merchant Category Code Master DEA Key numeric not applicable Length of the Certification Authority Public Key Modulus Length of the Issuer Public Key Modulus

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Acronyms

Acronym
NIC No. O P1 P2 PAN PDOL PIN PIX PK PKI POS PSE PVV R RFU RID ROM RSA SAD SAM

Meaning
Length of the ICC Public Key Modulus number optional Parameter 1 Parameter 2 Primary Account Number Processing Options Data Object List Personal Identification Number Proprietary Application Identifier Extension public key Certificate Authority Public Key Index point of service payment system environment PIN Verification Value required Reserved for Future Use Registered Application Provider Identifier Read-Only Memory Rivest, Shamir, Adleman Signed Static Application Data Secure Access Module

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Acronym
SDA SFI SW1, SW2 TC TDOL TLV Txn. TSI TVR UDK var. V.I.P. VLP YDDD

Meaning
Static Data Authentication Short File Identifier Status Words Transaction Certificate Transaction Certificate Data Object List tag-length-value transaction Transaction Status Information Terminal Verification Results Unique DEA Key variable VisaNet Integrated Payment Visa Low-value Payment year, day where Y = right-most digit of the year (0–9) and DDD = Julian day of the year (001–366) year, month where YY = year (00–99) and MM = month (01–12) year, month, day where DD = day (01–31)

YYMM YYMMDD

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Glossary

This is a glossary of terms used in this specification; it is not intended as a data dictionary. For descriptions of specific card and issuer data elements, refer to Appendix A of the Card and Terminal volumes of this specification.
acquirer

A Visa member that signs a merchant or disburses currency to a cardholder in a cash disbursement, and directly or indirectly enters the resulting transaction into interchange.
ANSI

American National Standards Institute. A U.S. standards accreditation organization.
application

A computer program and associated data that reside on an integrated circuit chip and satisfy a business function. Examples of applications include payment, stored value, and loyalty.
Application Authentication Cryptogram (AAC)

A cryptogram generated by the card for offline and online declined transactions.
application block

Instructions sent to the card by the issuer, to shut down the selected application on a card to prevent further use of that application. This process does not preclude the use of other applications on the card.
ATM

An unattended terminal that has electronic capability, accepts PINs, and disburses currency or checks.

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ATM cash disbursement

A cash disbursement obtained at an ATM displaying the Visa, PLUS, or Visa Electron acceptance mark, for which the cardholder’s PIN is accepted.
authentication

A cryptographic process that validates the identity and integrity of data.
authorization

A process where an issuer or a representative of the issuer approves a transaction.
authorization controls

Information in the chip application enabling the card to act on the issuer’s behalf at the point of transaction. The controls help issuers manage their below-floor-limit exposure to fraud and credit losses. Also known as offline authorization controls.
authorization request

A merchant’s or acquirer’s request for an authorization.
Authorization Request Cryptogram (ARQC)

The cryptogram generated by the card for transactions requiring online authorization and sent to the issuer in the authorization request. The issuer validates the ARQC during the Online Card Authentication (CAM) process to ensure that the card is authentic and was not created using skimmed data.
authorization response

The issuer’s reply to an authorization request. Types of authorization responses are:
q

approval decline pickup referral

q

q

q

Authorization Response Cryptogram (ARPC)

A cryptogram generated by the issuer and sent to the card in the authorization response. This cryptogram is the result of the Authorization Request Cryptogram (ARQC) and the Issuer’s authorization response encrypted with the Unique Derivation Key (UDK). It is validated by the card during Issuer Authentication to ensure that the response came from a valid issuer.
Bank Identification Number (BIN)

A 6-digit number assigned by Visa and used to identify a member or processor for authorization, clearing, or settlement processing.

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Visa Integrated Circuit Card Application Overview, Version 1.4.0 BASE I Authorization System

BASE I Authorization System

The V.I.P. System component that performs message routing, cardholder and card verification, and related functions such as reporting and file maintenance.
BASE II

The VisaNet system that provides deferred clearing and settlement services to members.
byte

8 bits of data.
card acceptance device

A device capable of reading and/or processing a magnetic stripe or chip on a card for the purpose of performing a service such as obtaining an authorization or processing a payment.
card authentication

A means of validating whether a card used in a transaction is the genuine card issued by the issuer.
Card Authentication Method (CAM)

See Online Card Authentication.
card block

Instructions, sent to the card by the Issuer, which shut down all proprietary and non-proprietary applications that reside on a card to prevent further use of the card.
Card Verification Value (CVV)

A unique check value encoded on a card’s magnetic stripe and chip to validate card information during an online authorization.
cardholder

An individual to whom a card is issued or who is authorized to use that card.
cardholder verification

The process of determining that the presenter of the card is the valid cardholder.
Cardholder Verification Method (CVM)

A method used to confirm the identity of a cardholder.
cash disbursement

Currency, including travelers cheques, paid to a cardholder using a card.

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cashback

Cash obtained in conjunction with, and processed as, a purchase transaction.
CCPS

Chip Card Payment Service, the former name for Visa Smart Debit and Visa Smart Credit (VSDC).
Certificate Authority (CA)

A trusted central administration that issues and revokes certificates.
chargeback

A transaction that an issuer returns to an acquirer.
chip

An electronic component designed to perform processing or memory functions.
chip-capable

A card acceptance device that is designed and constructed to facilitate the addition of a chip reader/writer.
chip card

A card embedded with a chip that communicates information to a point-of-transaction terminal.
clearing

The collection and delivery to the issuer of a completed transaction record from an acquirer.
cleartext

See plaintext.
cryptogram

A numeric value that is the result of data elements entered into an algorithm and then encrypted. Commonly used to validate data integrity.
cryptographic key

The numeric value entered into a cryptographic algorithm that allows the algorithm to encrypt or decrypt a message.
cryptography

The art or science of keeping messages secret or secure, or both.

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Visa Integrated Circuit Card Application Overview, Version 1.4.0 CVM List

CVM List

An issuer-defined list contained within a chip application establishing the hierarchy of methods for verifying the authenticity of a cardholder.
data authentication

Validation that data stored in the integrated circuit card has not been altered since card issuance. See also Offline Data Authentication.
Data Encryption Algorithm (DEA)

An encipherment operation and an inverse decipherment operation in a cryptographic system.
Data Encryption Standard (DES)

The public domain symmetric key cryptography algorithm of the National Institute for Standards and Technology.
decryption

The process of transforming ciphertext into cleartext.
DES key

A secret parameter of the Data Encryption Standard algorithm.
digital signature

A cryptogram generated by encrypting a message digest (or hash) with a private key that allows the message content and the sender of the message to be verified.
double-length DES Key

Two secret 64-bit input parameters each of the Data Encryption Standard algorithm, consisting of 56 bits that must be independent and random, and 8 error-detecting bits set to make the parity of each 8-bit byte of the key odd.
Dynamic Data Authentication (DDA)

A type of Offline Data Authentication where the card generates a cryptographic value using transaction-specific data elements for validation by the terminal to protect against skimming.
Easy Entry

A replication of the magnetic stripe information on the chip to facilitate payment as part of multi-application programs. Easy Entry is not EMV-compliant and is being phased out.

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EMV specifications

Technical specifications developed jointly by Europay International, MasterCard International, and Visa International to create standards and ensure global interoperability for use of chip technology in the payment industry.
encryption

The process of transforming cleartext into ciphertext.
expired card

A card on which the embossed, encoded, or printed expiration date has passed.
floor limit

A currency amount that Visa has established for single transactions at specific types of merchants, above which online authorization is required.
Hardware Security Module (HSM)

A secure module used to store cryptographic keys and perform cryptographic functions.
hash

The result of a non-cryptographic operation, which produces a unique value from a data stream.
host data capture system

An acquirer authorization system that retains authorized transactions for settlement without notification from the terminal that the transaction was completed.
Integrated Circuit Card (ICC)

See chip card.
Integrated Circuit Chip

See chip.
interchange

The exchange of clearing records between members.
International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)

The specialized international agency that establishes and publishes international technical standards.
interoperability

The ability of all card acceptance devices and terminals to accept and read all chip cards that are properly programmed.

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Visa Integrated Circuit Card Application Overview, Version 1.4.0 issuer

issuer

A Visa member that issues Visa or Electron cards, or proprietary cards bearing the PLUS or Visa Electron Symbol.
Issuer Action Codes (IACs)

Card-based rules which the terminal uses to determine whether a transaction should be declined offline, sent online for an authorization, or declined if online is not available.
Issuer Authentication

Validation of the issuer by the card to ensure the integrity of the authorization response. See Authorization Response Cryptogram (ARPC).
key generation

The creation of a new key for subsequent use.
key management

The handling of cryptographic keys and other related security parameters during the entire life cycle of the keys, including their generation, storage, distribution, entry and use, deletion or destruction, and archiving.
magnetic stripe

The stripe on the back of the card that contains the magnetically coded account information necessary to complete a non-chip electronic transaction.
Magnetic Stripe Image

The minimum chip payment service data replicating information in the magnetic stripe required to process a transaction that is compliant with EMV.
Master Derivation Keys (MDK)

Master DES keys stored in the issuer host system. These keys are used to generate Unique Derivation Keys (UDKs) for personalization, to validate ARQCs, and to generate ARPCs.
merchant category code (MCC)

A code designating the principal trade, profession, or line of business in which a merchant is engaged.
message authentication code (MAC)

A digital code generated using a cryptographic algorithm which establishes that the contents of a message have not been changed and that the message was generated by an authorized entity.

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multi-application

The presence of multiple applications on a chip card (for example, payment, loyalty, and identification).
nibble

The four most significant or least significant bits of a byte of data.
offline approval

A transaction that is positively completed at the point of transaction between the card and terminal without an authorization request to the issuer.
offline authorization

A method of processing a transaction without sending the transaction online to the issuer for authorization.
offline-capable

A card acceptance device that is able to perform offline approvals.
Offline Data Authentication

A process whereby the card is validated at the point of transaction using RSA public key technology to protect against counterfeit or skimming. VIS includes two forms: Static Data Authentication (SDA) and Dynamic Data Authentication (DDA).
offline decline

A transaction that is negatively completed at the point of transaction between the card and terminal without an authorization request to the issuer.
offline-only terminal

A card acceptance device that is not capable of sending transactions online for issuer authorization.
offline PIN

A PIN value stored on the card that is validated at the point of transaction between the card and the terminal.
offline PIN verification

The process whereby a cardholder-entered PIN is passed to the card for comparison to a PIN value stored secretly on the card.
online authorization

A method of requesting an authorization through a communications network other than voice to an issuer or issuer representative.

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Visa Integrated Circuit Card Application Overview, Version 1.4.0 online-capable terminal

online-capable terminal

A card acceptance device that is able to send transactions online to the issuer for authorization.
Online Card Authentication (CAM)

Validation of the card by the issuer to protect against data manipulation and skimming. See Authorization Request Cryptogram (ARQC).
online PIN

A method of PIN verification where the PIN entered by the cardholder into the terminal PIN pad is DES-encrypted and included in the online authorization request message sent to the issuer.
personalization

The process of populating a card with the application data that makes it ready for use.
plaintext

Data in its original unencrypted form.
point of transaction (POT)

The physical location where a merchant or acquirer (in a face-to-face environment) or an unattended terminal (in an unattended environment) completes a transaction.
point-of-transaction terminal

A device used at the point of transaction that has a corresponding point-of-transaction capability. See also Card Acceptance Device.
post-issuance update

A command sent by the issuer through the terminal via an authorization response to update the electronically stored contents of a chip card.
private key

As part of an asymmetric cryptographic system, the key that is kept secret and known only to the owner.
public key

As part of an asymmetric cryptographic system, the key known to all parties.
public key cryptographic algorithm

A cryptographic algorithm that allows the secure exchange of information, but does not require a shared secret key, through the use of two related keys—a public key which may be distributed in the clear and a private key which is kept secret.

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Glossary

Visa Integrated Circuit Card Application Overview, Version 1.4.0

public key pair

The two mathematically related keys, a public key and a private key which, when used with the appropriate public key cryptographic algorithm, can allow the secure exchange of information, without the secure exchange of a secret.
purchase transaction

A retail purchase of goods or services; a point-of-sale transaction.
quasi-cash transaction

A transaction representing a merchant’s sale of items, such as gaming chips or money orders, that are directly convertible to cash.
random selection

An EMV online-capable terminal function that allows for the selection of transactions for online processing. Part of Terminal Risk Management.
receipt

A paper record of a transaction generated for the cardholder at the point of transaction.
referral response

An authorization response where the merchant or acquirer is instructed to contact the issuer for further instructions before completing the transaction.
reversal

A BASE II or online financial transaction used to negate or cancel a transaction that has been sent through interchange.
ROM (Read-Only Memory)

Permanent memory that cannot be changed once it is created. It is used to store chip operating systems and permanent data.
RSA (Rivest, Shamir, Adleman)

A public key cryptosystem developed by Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman, used for data encryption and authentication.
secret key

A key that is used in a symmetric cryptographic algorithm (that is, DES), and cannot be disclosed publicly without compromising the security of the system. This is not the same as the private key in a public/private key pair.
secure messaging

A process that enables messages to be sent from one entity to another, and protects against unauthorized modification or viewing.

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Visa Integrated Circuit Card Application Overview, Version 1.4.0 session key

session key

A temporary cryptographic key computed in volatile memory and not valid after a session is ended.
settlement

The reporting of settlement amounts owed by one member to another or to Visa, as a result of clearing.
Single Message System

A component of the V.I.P. System that processes Online Financial and Deferred Clearing transactions.
smart card

A commonly used term for a chip card.
Static Data Authentication (SDA)

A type of Offline Data Authentication where the terminal validates a cryptographic value placed on the card during personalization. This validation protects against some types of counterfeit, but does not protect against skimming.
Terminal Action Codes (TACs)

Visa-defined rules in the terminal which the terminal uses to determine whether a transaction should be declined offline, sent online for an authorization, or declined if online is not available.
transaction

An exchange of information between a cardholder and a merchant or an acquirer that results in the completion of a financial transaction.
Triple DES

The data encryption algorithm used with a double-length DES key.
V.I.P. System

VisaNet Integrated Payment System, the online processing component of VisaNet.
Visa Certificate Authority (CA)

A Visa-approved organization certified to issue certificates to participants in a Visa payment service.
Visa Low-value Payment (VLP)

VLP is a feature of VSDC designed to provide an optional source of pre-authorized spending power that is reserved for rapid processing of offline low-value payments.

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Glossary

Visa Integrated Circuit Card Application Overview, Version 1.4.0

Visa Smart Debit and Visa Smart Credit (VSDC)

The Visa service offerings for chip-based debit and credit programs. These services, based on EMV and VIS specifications, are supported by VisaNet processing, as well as by Visa rules and regulations.
VisaNet

The systems and services, including the V.I.P. and BASE II systems, through which Visa delivers online financial processing, authorization, clearing, and settlement services to members.

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Index
A
AAC, 10–4 to 10–5, 11–2, 11–4, 11–7, 12–8 to 13–1, 13–3, 13–5 to 13–9, 14–6 AC. See Application Cryptogram ADA. See Application Default Action ADF. See Application Definition File AEF. See Application Elementary Files AFL. See Application File Locator AID, 3–2 to 3–3 AIP. See Application Interchange Profile Amount X, 8–3 Amount Y, 8–3 Amount, Authorized, 9–3 to 9–4 Application Authentication Cryptogram. See AAC APPLICATION BLOCK command, 2–11, 14–6 Application Cryptogram, 6–11 to 6–12, 10–4, 11–2, 11–5, 12–2, 12–4 to 12–5, 13–3 to 13–4, 13–6 Application Default Action, 8–4, 8–14, 13–4, 13–8 Application Definition File, 3–2 Application Effective Date, 7–2, 7–4 Application Elementary Files, 3–2, 5–2 Application Expiration Date, 7–2, 7–5 Application File Locator, 4–1 to 4–2, 4–4, 5–2 to 5–3 Application Identifier. See AID Application Interchange Profile, 4–1 to 4–2, 4–4, 8–3, 8–8, 9–1, 12–2 Application PAN. See PAN Application Primary Account Number. See PAN Application Selection, 1–7, 2–1, 2–7, 2–9, 3–1 to 3–7, 4–4, 4–6, 14–6 card data, 3–2 functions, 3–1 identifying and selecting the application, 3–4 processing flow, 3–6 terminal data, 3–3 Application Selection Indicator, 1–7, 3–3 Application Transaction Counter. See ATC APPLICATION UNBLOCK command, 2–11, 8–14, 14–6 Application Usage Control, 7–2, 7–4 to 7–5 Application Version Number, 7–4 Application Version Number (‘9F08’), 7–2 Application Version Number (‘9F09’), 7–3 ARPC, 12–2 to 12–4, 12–6 ARQC, 6–14, 10–4 to 10–5, 11–2, 11–4, 12–2 to 12–6, 12–8 to 13–1, 13–3 ATC, 4–4, 9–2, 9–4 to 9–5, 12–2, 13–3, 14–4 ATM, 1–7, 13–9 AUC. See Application Usage Control Authorization Request Cryptogram. See ARQC Authorization Response Code, 12–2 to 12–3, 12–6, 13–1, 13–4, 13–6 Authorization Response Cryptogram. See ARPC authorization response message, 14–8

B
biometrics, 8–1

C
CA Public Key Index. See Certificate Authority Public Key Index candidate list, building the, 3–4 Card Action Analysis, 2–4, 2–8, 2–10, 6–14, 10–1, 11–1 to 11–7, 12–4, 12–8, 13–5 card data, 11–2 processing, 11–3 processing flow, 11–6 terminal data, 11–2 CARD BLOCK command, 2–11, 14–6 card data for Application Selection, 3–2 for Card Action Analysis, 11–2 for Completion, 13–4 for Initiate Application Processing, 4–2 to 4–3 for Issuer-to-Card Script processing, 14–4 for Online Processing, 12–2 for Processing Restrictions, 7–2 for Read Application Data, 5–2 for Terminal Action Analysis, 10–2 for Terminal Risk Management, 9–2

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Visa Public

Index–1

D

Visa Integrated Circuit Card Application Overview, Version 1.4.0
Completion, 2–5, 2–8, 2–10, 12–5 to 12–6, 13–1 to 13–11 card data, 13–4 processing flow, 13–5 terminal data, 13–4 transaction flow example, 13–10 Consecutive Transaction Limit (International), 14–7 Consecutive Transaction Limit (International—Country), 14–7 credit, 12–1 credit risk, 14–1 Cryptogram Information Data, 6–12, 11–5, 13–3 cryptogram type, 11–3 to 11–4, 12–2, 12–4, 12–8, 13–7 cryptogram version 14, 1–8 Cumulative Total Transaction Amount Limit, 14–7 Cumulative Total Transaction Amount Limit (Dual Currency), 14–7 Cumulative Total Transaction Amount Upper Limit, 1–9, 14–7 Currency Conversion Factor, 14–7 CVM Code, 8–3, 8–8 CVM Conditions, 8–3 CVM Entry, 8–8 CVM List, 1–7 to 1–8, 2–3, 8–1, 8–3, 8–8 CVM List processing, 8–3, 8–8 card data, 8–3 processing flow, 8–9 CVM Type, 8–3 CVR, 6–16, 8–4, 12–2, 12–6, 13–3, 14–4

card reader, 8–10 Card Risk Management, 11–3, 13–8 Card Risk Management checks, 11–3, 11–7 Card Risk Management Data Object List 2. See CDOL2 Card Risk Management Data Object List. See CDOL1 card velocity checking. See velocity checking, card Card Verification Results. See CVR Card Verification Value. See CVV cardholder confirmation, 3–5 cardholder selection, 3–4 to 3–5 Cardholder Verification, 2–3, 2–7, 2–9, 4–6, 8–1 to 8–14, 10–7 card data, 8–3 CVM List Processing, 8–8 CVM Processing, 8–10 processing, 8–8 Cardholder Verification Method List. See CVM List Cardholder Verification Method. See CVM processing Cardholder Verification Value. See CVV CDOL1, 10–2 to 10–4, 11–2 to 11–3, 11–7 CDOL2, 13–4 Certificate Authority, 6–3 Certificate Authority Public Key Index, 6–4, 6–8 to 6–9, 6–13, 8–5 Certificate Serial Number, 6–13 CID. See Cryptogram Information Data Combined DDA/AC Generation, 1–7 to 1–8, 2–2, 2–7, 2–9, 6–7, 6–11, 6–14, 11–5, 12–4 to 12–5, 12–8 to 13–1, 13–4 to 13–5 online processing, 12–5 Combined DDA/AC Generation failure, 6–17, 13–5 to 13–6 command support requirements, 2–11 commands APPLICATION BLOCK, 14–6 APPLICATION UNBLOCK, 14–6 CARD BLOCK, 14–6 EXTERNAL AUTHENTICATE, 12–4, 13–11 GENERATE AC, 10–4, 11–2, 12–4, 13–4 GET CHALLENGE, 8–7 GET DATA, 8–7, 9–4 GET PROCESSING OPTIONS, 4–3 INTERNAL AUTHENTICATE, 6–13 PIN CHANGE/UNBLOCK, 14–6 PUT DATA, 14–7 READ RECORD, 5–3 UPDATE RECORD, 14–7 VERIFY, 8–7

D
Data Authentication Code (DAC), 1–7 data confidentiality, 14–9 Data encipherment, 14–3 Data Encipherment Session Key, 14–3 to 14–4 DDA, 2–2, 5–1, 6–1, 6–11 to 6–17 card data, 6–12 processing flow, 6–15 terminal data, 6–11 DDA failed on last transaction, 11–3 DDA Failure Indicator, 6–12, 6–16 DDA key relationships, 6–6 DDF. See Directory Definition File DDOL, 6–12 Dedicated File Name. See DF Name default CVM, 2–3 Default DDOL, 6–11 DES, 11–4, 14–3 DES keys, 11–4, 14–3

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Visa Integrated Circuit Card Application Overview, Version 1.4.0
Directory Definition File, 3–2 Directory File, 3–2 Directory Selection Method, 1–7, 3–4 to 3–5 Dynamic Data Authentication Failure Indicator. See DDA Failure Indicator Dynamic Data Authentication. See DDA dynamic signature, 6–11, 6–14, 11–5, 12–4 to 12–5 Geographic Restrictions, 4–4 GET CHALLENGE command, 2–11, 8–7, 8–10 GET DATA command, 2–11, 8–7, 8–10, 9–4 to 9–5 GET PROCESSING OPTIONS command, 2–11, 4–1, 4–3 to 4–5

E

H
hash, 6–9, 6–13, 12–5

E
EMV, 1–3, 1–6 to 1–7 EMV documentation, 1–11 ENC MDK, 14–3 ENC UDK, 14–3 Enciphered PIN Data, 8–6 Europay, MasterCard, Visa. See EMV Expiration Date. See also Application Expiration Date EXTERNAL AUTHENTICATE command, 2–11, 12–4, 12–6

I
IACs, 8–14, 10–1 to 10–7, 13–6 ICC Dynamic Number, 1–7, 6–12 ICC key data, 8–11 ICC PIN Encipherment key data, 8–11 ICC PIN Encipherment Private Key, 8–5 ICC PK Certificate, 6–3 to 6–5, 6–12 to 6–13 ICC Private Key, 6–4 to 6–5, 6–11 to 6–14, 11–5 ICC Public Key, 1–8, 2–2, 6–4 to 6–5, 6–13 to 6–14, 12–5 ICC Public Key Certificate. See ICC PK Certificate ICC Public Key Exponent, 6–12 ICC Public Key Remainder, 6–12 Initiate Application Processing, 2–2, 2–7, 2–9, 3–7, 4–1, 8–14 card data, 4–2 to 4–3 card processing, 4–4 functions, 4–1 processing flow, 4–5 terminal processing, 4–3 to 4–4 INTERNAL AUTHENTICATE command, 2–11, 6–13 ISO documentation, 1–10 Issuer Action Codes. See IACs Issuer Application Data, 12–2, 13–3 Issuer Authentication, 2–5, 12–5 to 12–6, 13–1, 13–5, 13–7 to 13–8, 14–8 to 14–9 Issuer Authentication Data, 12–3, 12–5 Issuer Authentication Failure Indicator, 12–2, 12–6 Issuer Authentication Failure on Last Transaction, 11–3 Issuer Country Code, 4–2 Issuer Country Code “5F28”, 7–2 issuer host, 12–1, 12–7 Issuer PK Certificate, 6–3, 6–8 to 6–9, 6–13 Issuer Private Key, 6–4 to 6–5, 6–8 Issuer Public Key, 1–8, 2–2, 6–3, 6–9, 6–11, 6–13 Issuer Public Key Certificate. See Issuer PK Certificate Issuer Public Key Component, 6–4 Issuer Public Key data, 8–5 Issuer Public Key Exponent, 6–8 Issuer Public Key Remainder, 6–4, 6–8 issuer script, 12–3, 12–5, 13–9

F
Fail CVM, 8–11 FCI. See File Control Information File Control Information, 3–2, 4–2 to 4–3 floor limits, 9–4 fraud risk, 12–1, 14–1 functional overview, 2–1 functional requirements card, 2–7 miscellaneous terminal, 2–10 terminal, 2–9 functions Card Action Analysis, 11–1 Cardholder Verification, 8–1 Completion, 13–1 Issuer-to-Card Script Processing, 14–1 Offline Data Authentication, 6–1 Online Processing, 12–1 Processing Restrictions, 7–1 Read Application Data, 5–1 Terminal Action Analysis, 10–1 Terminal Risk Management, 9–1 functions, mandatory and optional, 2–7

G
GENERATE AC command, 2–11, 6–14, 6–16, 12–2, 12–4 to 12–5, 13–3 to 13–9, 14–6, 14–8 Terminal Action Analysis, 10–3 to 10–4, 11–2 to 11–5, 11–7 GENERATE APPLICATION CRYPTOGRAM. See GENERATE AC command Geographic Indicator, 4–2

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Index–3

K

Visa Integrated Circuit Card Application Overview, Version 1.4.0

Issuer Script Command Counter, 14–4 issuer script commands, 14–5 Issuer Script Failure Indicator, 14–4 Issuer Script Identifier, 14–5 Issuer Script Processed on Last Online Transaction, 11–3 Issuer Script Results, 14–5 Issuer Script Template, 14–5 issuer scripts. See Issuer-to-Card Script processing Issuer-to-Card Script Processing, 2–5, 2–8, 2–10, 14–1 to 14–11 card data, 14–4 online response data, 14–5 processing, 14–8 processing flow, 14–10 terminal data, 14–5

N
new card, 9–5, 11–3, 11–7, 13–8 No CVM Required, 8–11

O
Offline Data Authentication, 2–2, 2–7, 2–9, 4–6, 5–2 to 5–3, 6–1 to 6–17, 10–7 Offline Enciphered PIN card data, 8–5 CVM processing, 8–10 optional terminal changes, 1–7 processing commands, 8–7 supported CVMs, 8–1 Offline PIN processing, card data for, 8–4 Offline PIN Verification not Performed (PIN Try Limit Exceeded), 11–7 Offline Plaintext PIN, 8–1, 8–7, 8–10 online authorization, 10–1 Online Authorization Indicator, 1–8 to 1–9 Online Authorization Not Completed (on previous transaction), 11–3 Online Card Authentication, 2–4 Online Card Authentication. See CAM online PIN, 8–1, 8–11 Online Processing, 2–4, 2–8, 2–10, 4–6, 8–10, 12–1 to 12–8, 13–5, 13–11, 14–11 card data, 12–2 commands, 12–4 flow, 12–7 online response data, 12–3 Processing, 12–5 terminal data, 12–3 online request, 12–5 online response, 12–5 optional, 1–3

K
keys, 11–4, 14–3 Keys and Certificates, Offline Data Authentication, 6–4 to 6–5

L
Last Online Application Transaction Register. See Last Online ATC Register Last Online ATC Register, 9–2, 9–4 to 9–5 List of AIDs Method, 1–7, 3–4 Lower Consecutive Offline Limit “9F14”, 9–2, 9–5 Lower Consecutive Offline Limit “9F58”, 14–7

M
MAC, 14–3, 14–9 MAC MDK, 14–3 MAC Session Key, 14–3 to 14–4 MAC UDK, 14–3 magnetic stripe, 14–7 mandatory, 1–3 Master Data Encipherment DEA Key. See ENC MDK Master Message Authentication Code Key. See MAC MDK Master Message Authentication Code Session Key. See MAC Session Key Maximum Target Percentage to be used for Biased Random Selection, 9–3 merchant floor limit. See floor limit checking Merchant Forced Transaction Online, 9–4 Message Authentication Code Keys. See MAC keys Message Authentication Code. See MAC message integrity, 14–9

P
PAN, 9–2, 9–4 Payment Systems Directory, 3–2 Payment Systems Environment, 3–2 PDOL, 3–2 to 3–3, 4–1 to 4–3, 4–6 Personal Identification Number. See PIN PIN CHANGE/UNBLOCK command, 2–11, 8–14, 14–6 PIN Pad Secret Key, 8–6, 8–10 PIN processing flow, 8–12 PIN Try Counter, 8–4, 8–7, 8–10, 13–8, 14–6 PIN Try Limit, 8–4, 8–7, 11–3, 13–8 PIN Verification Value. See PVV

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Index–4
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31 Oct 2001

Visa Integrated Circuit Card Application Overview, Version 1.4.0
PIX, 3–2 to 3–3 PKI. See Certificate Authority Public Key Index Point of Sale Entry Mode. See POS Entry Mode POS device, 13–9 post-issuance updates. See also Issuer-to-Card Script Processing Processing Options Data Object List. See PDOL processing overview, 2–1 Processing Restrictions, 2–3, 2–7, 2–9, 7–1, 10–7 card data, 7–2 processing, 7–6 terminal data, 7–3 Proprietary Application Identifier Extension. See PIX PSE. See Payment Systems Environment Public Key Index. See Certificate Authority Public Key Index PUT DATA command, 2–12, 14–7 PVV, 14–7

R

R
Random Transaction Selection, 9–4 Read Application Data, 2–2, 2–7, 2–9, 4–4, 4–6 to 5–1, 6–16, 7–7, 8–14, 9–8, 10–7, 11–7 card data, 5–2 processing, 5–3 processing flow, 5–4 terminal data, 5–3 READ RECORD command, 2–12, 3–3 receipt, 13–1 recommended, 1–3 Reference PIN, 8–4, 8–10, 14–6 Registered Application Provider Identifier. See RID required, 1–3 RID, 3–2 to 3–3, 6–4, 6–8 to 6–9, 6–13, 8–5 Rivest, Shamir, Adleman. See RSA RSA, 6–3

Session Key Generation, 1–8 SFI. See Short File Identifier Short File Identifier, 3–2, 5–2 to 5–3 signature and offline PIN, 8–1, 8–11 signature, cardholder, 13–1 Signature, cryptographic, 6–5 signature, cryptographic, 6–4 Signed Dynamic Application Data, 6–11 Signed Static Application Data, 6–4, 6–8 to 6–9 Standard DDA, 2–2, 2–7, 2–9, 6–13 to 6–14 Standard Online Processing, 12–5 Static Data Authentication Failure Indicator. See SDA Failure Indicator Static Data Authentication. See SDA stolen cards, 8–1, 14–1 Subsequent Related Processing Card Action Analysis, 6–16, 8–14, 10–7, 14–11 Completion, 6–17, 8–14, 11–7, 12–8, 14–11 Issuer-to-Card Script Processing, 8–14, 12–8 Online Processing, 6–16, 8–14 Terminal Action Analysis, 6–16, 7–7, 8–14, 9–8

T
TACs, 8–14, 10–1 to 10–7, 13–6 tamper-evident device, 8–10 Target Percentage to be used for Random Selection, 9–3 TC, 6–14, 10–4 to 10–5, 11–2, 11–4, 11–7, 12–4 to 12–5, 12–8 to 13–1, 13–3, 13–5 to 13–9 Terminal Action Analysis, 2–4, 2–8, 2–10, 6–14, 10–1 to 10–7 card data, 10–2 processing, 10–4 processing flow, 10–6 terminal data, 10–3 Terminal Action Codes. See TACs Terminal Capabilities, 7–3, 8–6 Terminal Country Code, 4–3, 7–3 terminal data for Application Selection, 3–3 for Cardholder Verification, 8–6 for Completion, 13–4 for Issuer-to-Card Script Processing, 14–5 for Online Processing, 12–3 for Processing Restrictions, 7–3 for Terminal Action Analysis, 10–3 for Terminal Risk Management, 9–3 Terminal Exception File, 9–4 terminal floor limit, 9–3 to 9–4 Terminal Floor Limit. See also floor limit checking

S
SAD. See Signed Static Application Data Script Processing. See Issuer-to-Card Script processing SDA, 2–2, 2–7, 2–9, 5–1, 6–1, 6–8 to 6–17 processing, 6–9 processing flow, 6–10 SDA failed on last transaction, 11–3 SDA Failure Indicator, 6–8, 6–16 SDA key relationships, 6–5 SDA or DDA, determining which to perform Offline Data Authentication, 6–7 SDA Tag List, 1–7 to 1–8 secure messaging, 14–3 to 14–11 SELECT command, 2–12, 3–3 to 3–5

Draft 12/18/00
Visa Public

31 Oct 2001

Index–5

U

Visa Integrated Circuit Card Application Overview, Version 1.4.0
VLP Single Transaction Limit, 14–7

Terminal Risk Management, 2–3, 2–8, 2–10, 8–8, 9–1 to 9–8, 10–7 card data, 9–2 processing flow, 9–6 terminal data, 9–3 terminal velocity checking, 9–5, 14–7 terminal velocity checking. See velocity checking, terminal Terminal Verification Results. See TVR terminated transactions, 1–3 Threshold Value for Biased Random Selection, 9–3 Transaction Certificate. See TC Transaction Date, 7–3 to 7–5 transaction flow, sample, 2–6 Transaction Log, 9–3 to 9–4 Transaction PIN, 8–6, 8–10 Transaction Status Information (TSI), 9–3, 12–3, 12–6, 14–5 Transaction Type, 7–3 TSI. See Transaction Status Information TVR, 6–8 to 6–9, 7–4 to 7–5, 8–6, 8–8, 9–3 to 9–5, 10–3 to 10–4, 12–3, 12–5 to 12–6, 13–4 to 13–6, 14–5

Y
Y3 Authorization Response Code, 13–7

Z
Z1 Authorization Response Code, 13–1, 13–6 Z3 Authorization Response Code, 13–7

U
UDKs, 12–2, 12–6 UDKs. See Unique DEA Keys Unique Data Encipherment DEA Key. See ENC UDK Unique DEA Keys A and B. See UDKs Unique Message Authentication Code Key. See MAC UDK Unpredictable Number, 6–11 UPDATE RECORD command, 2–12, 14–7 Upper Consecutive Offline Limit, 11–7 Upper Consecutive Offline Limit “9F23”, 9–2, 9–5 Upper Consecutive Offline Limit “9F59”, 14–7

V
velocity checking, card, 11–1, 11–3, 11–7, 13–8 velocity checking, terminal, 9–5 VERIFY command, 2–12, 8–7, 8–10 Visa CA Private Key. See Visa Private Key Visa CA Public Key. See Visa Public Key Visa documentation, 1–11 Visa Integrated Circuit Card Specification, 1–1 impact summary, 1–7 revisions, 1–6 update, 1–2 Visa Low-value Payment, 1–7, 1–9, 2–12 Visa Private Key, 6–3 to 6–4, 6–8 Visa Public Key, 6–3, 6–8 to 6–9, 6–11, 6–13, 8–6 VLP Funds Limit, 14–7

Draft 12/18/00
Visa Public

Index–6

31 Oct 2001

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