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I - Hng dn o bng ng h (VOM)

1) Gii thiu v ng h vn nng ( VOM)

ng h vn nng ( VOM ) l thit b o khng th thiu c vi bt k mt k thut vin in t no, ng h vn nng c 4 chc nng chnh l o in tr, o in p DC, o in p AC v o dng in. u im ca ng h l o nhanh, kim tra c nhiu loi linh kin, thy c s phng np ca t in , tuy nhin ng h ny c hn ch v chnh xc v c tr khng thp khong 20K/Vol do vy khi o vo cc mch cho dng thp chng b st p.

2) Hng dn o in p xoay chiu.

S dng ng h vn nng o p AC Khi o in p xoay chiu ta chuyn thang o v cc thang AC, thang AC cao hn in p cn o mt nc, V d nu o in p AC220V ta thang AC 250V, nu ta thang thp hn in p cn o th ng h bo kch kim, nu thanh qu cao th kim bo thiu chnh xc. * Ch - ch : Tuyt i khng thang o in tr hay thang o dng in khi o vo in p xoay chiu => Nu nhm ng h s b hng ngay lp tc !

nhm thang o dng in, o vo ngun AC => s hng ng h

nhm thang o in tr, o vo ngun AC => s hng cc in tr trong ng h * Nu thang o p DC m o vo ngun AC th kim ng h khng bo , nhng ng h khng nh hng .

thang DC o p AC ng h khng ln kim tuy nhin ng h khng hng

3) Hng dn o in p mt chiu DC bng ng h vn nng.


Khi o in p mt chiu DC, ta nh chuyn thang o v thang DC, khi o ta t que vo cc dng (+) ngun, que en vo cc m (-) ngun, thang o cao hn in p cn o mt nc. V d nu o p DC 110V ta thang DC 250V, trng hp thang o thp hn in p cn o => kim bo kch kim, trng hp thang qu cao => kim bo thiu chnh xc.

Dng ng h vn nng o in p mt chiu DC * Trng hp sai thang o : Nu ta sai thang o, o p mt chiu nhng ta ng h thang xoay chiu th ng h s bo sai, thng thng gi tr bo sai cao gp 2 ln gi tr thc ca in p DC, tuy nhin ng h cng khng b hng .

sai thang o khi o in p mt chiu => bo sai gi tr. * Trng hp nhm thang o Ch - ch : Tuyt i khng nhm ng h vo thang o dng in hoc thang o in tr khi ta o in p mt chiu (DC) , nu nhm ng h s b hng ngay !!

Trng hp nhm thang o dng in khi o in p DC => ng h s b hng !

Trng hp nhm thang o in tr khi o in

p DC => ng h s b hng cc in tr bn trong!

4) Hng dn o in tr v tr khng.
Vi thang o in tr ca ng h vn nng ta c th o c rt nhiu th.

o kim tra gi tr ca in tr o kim tra s thng mch ca mt on dy dn o kim tra s thng mch ca mt on mch in o kim tra cc cun dy bin p c thng mch khng o kim tra s phng np ca t in o kim tra xem t c b d, b chp khng. o kim tra tr khng ca mt mch in o kim tra i t v bng bn dn.

* s dng c cc thang o ny ng h phi c lp 2 Pn tiu 1,5V bn trong, x dng cc thang o 1Kohm hoc 10Kohm ta phi lp Pin 9V. 4.1 - o in tr :

o kim tra in tr bng ng h vn nng o tri s in tr ta thc hin theo cc bc sau :

Bc 1 : thang ng h v cc thang o tr, nu in tr nh th thang x1 ohm hoc x10 ohm, nu in tr ln th thang x1Kohm hoc 10Kohm. => sau chp hai que o v chnh trit o kim ng h bo v tr 0 ohm. Bc 2 : Chun b o . Bc 3 : t que o vo hai u in tr, c tr s trn thang o , Gi tr o c = ch s thang o X thang o V d : nu thang x 100 ohm v ch s bo l 27 th gi tr l = 100 x 27 = 2700 ohm = 2,7 K ohm Bc 4 : Nu ta thang o qu cao th kim ch ln mt cht , nh vy c tr s s khng chnh xc. Bc 5 : Nu ta thang o qu thp , kim ln qu nhiu, v c tr s cng khng chnh xc. Khi o in tr ta chn thang o sao cho kim bo gn v tr gia vch ch s s cho chnh xc cao nht.

4.2 - Dng thang in tr o kim tra t in Ta c th dng thang in tr kim tra phng np v h hng ca t in , khi o t in , nu l t gm ta dng thang o x1K ohm hoc 10K ohm, nu l t ho ta dng thang x 1 ohm hoc x 10 ohm.

Dng thang x 1K ohm kim tra t gm

Php o t gm trn cho ta bit :


T C1 cn tt => kim phng np khi ta o T C2 b d => ln kim nhng khng tr v v tr c T C3 b chp => kim ng h ln = 0 ohm v khng tr v.

Dng thang x 10 ohm kim tra t ho trn l php o kim tra cc t ho, t ho rt t khi b d hoc chp m ch yu l b kh ( gim in dung) khi o t ho bit chnh xc mc hng ca t ta cn o so snh vi mt t mi c cng in dung.

trn l php o so snh hai t ho cng in dung, trong t C1 l t mi cn C2 l t c, ta thy t C2 c phng np yu hn t C1 => chng t t C2 b kh ( gim in dung ) Ch khi o t phng np, ta phi o chiu que o vi ln xem phng np.

5 - Hng dn o dng in bng ng h vn nng.


Cch 1 : Dng thang o dng o dng in bng ng h vn nng, ta o ng h ni tip vi ti tiu th v ch l ch o c dng in nh hn gi tr ca thang o cho php, ta thc hin theo cc bc sau

Bc 1 : t ng h vo thang o dng cao nht . Bc 2: t que ng h ni tip vi ti, que v chiu dng, que en v chiu m .

Nu kim ln thp qu th gim thang o Nu kim ln kch kim th tng thang o, nu thang o thang cao nht th ng h khng o c dng in ny. Ch s kim bo s cho ta bit gi tr dng in .

Cch 2 : Dng thang o p DC Ta c th o dng in qua ti bng cch o st p trn in tr hn dng mc ni vi ti, in p o c chia cho gi tr tr hn dng s cho bit gi tr dng in, phng php n y c th o c cc dng in ln hn kh nng cho php ca ng h v ng h cmg an ton hn. Cch c tr s dng in v in p khi o nh th no ?

* c gi tr in p AC v DC Khi o in p DC th ta c gi tr trn vch ch s DCV.A

Nu ta thang o 250V th ta c trn vch c gi tr cao nht l 250, tng t thang 10V th c trn vch c gi tr cao nht l 10. trng hp thang 1000V nhng khng c vch no ghi cho gi tr 1000 th c trn vch gi tr Max = 10, gi tr o c nhn vi 100 ln Khi o in p AC th c gi tr cng tng t. c trn vch AC.10V, nu o thang c gi tr khc th ta tnh theo t l. V d nu thang 250V th mi ch s ca vch 10 s tng ng vi 25V. Khi o dng in th c gi tr tng t c gi tr khi o in p

II - Hng dn s dng ng h Digital


1) Gii thiu v ng h s DIGITAL ng h s Digital c mt s u im so vi ng h c kh, l chnh xc cao hn, tr khng ca ng h cao hn do khng gy st p khi o vo dng in yu, o c tn s in xoay chiu, tuy nhin ng h ny c mt s nhc im l chy bng mch in t ln hay hng, kh nhn kt qu trong trng hp cn o nhanh, khng o c phng np ca t.

ng h vn nng s Digital

Hng dn s dng : 2) - o in p mt chiu ( hoc xoay chiu )

t ng h vo thang o in p DC hoc AC

que ng h vo l cm " V mA" que en vo l cm "COM" Bm nt DC/AC chn thang o l DC nu o p mt chiu hoc AC nu o p xoay chiu. Xoay chuyn mch v v tr "V" hy thang o cao nht nu cha bit r in p, nu gi tr bo dng thp phn th ta gim thang o sau. t thang o vo in p cn o v c gi tr trn mn hnh LCD ca ng h. Nu t ngc que o(vi in mt chiu) ng h s bo gi tr m (-)

3) - o dng in DC (AC)

Chuyn que ng h v thang mA nu o dng nh, hoc 20A nu o dng ln. Xoay chuyn mch v v tr "A" Bm nt DC/AC chn o dng mt chiu DC hay xoay chiu AC t que o ni tip vi mch cn o c gi tr hin th trn mn hnh.

4) - o in tr

Tr li v tr dy cm nh khi o in p . Xoay chuyn mch v v tr o " ", nu cha bit gi tr in tr th chn thang o cao nht , nu kt qu l s thp phn th ta gim xung. t que o vo hai u in tr. c gi tr trn mn hnh.

Chc nng o in tr cn c th o s thng mch, gi s o mt on dy dn bng thang o tr, nu thng mch th ng h pht ra tin ku

5) - o tn s

Xoay chuyn mch v v tr "FREQ" hoc " Hz" thang o nh khi o in p . t que o vo cc im cn o c tr s trn mn hnh.

6) - o Logic

o Logic l o vo cc mch s ( Digital) hoc o cc chn ln ca vi x l, o Logic thc cht l o trng thi c in - K hiu "1" hay khng c in "0", cch o nh sau: Xoay chuyn mch v v tr "LOGIC" t que vo v tr cn o que en vo mass Mn hnh ch "" l bo mc logic mc cao, ch "" l bo logic mc thp

7) - o cc chc nng khc

ng h vn nng s Digital cn mt s chc nng o khc nh o i t, o t in, o Transistor nhng nu ta o cc linh kin trn, ta ln dng ng h c kh s cho kt qu tt hn v o nhanh hn