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# Introduction to

## What This Presentation Covers

Introduction to Different Numerical Method Introduction to FEM - Concept & Philosophy Practical Application of FEA Need & Advantages of Finite Element Analysis Different Professional FEA Tools/Software Steps involved in any Finite Element Analysis Best Practices Approach Types of Analysis

## Objective of this Session

By the End of this session, You will be able to : Understand and apply the Concept of FEM / FEA on Actual practical day-to-day / complex problems Understand Different Type of Analysis covered in FEA Prepare a suitable FE model for a given problem Know the Behavior of different type of FE Elements used , Concept of FE

## Mesh , Loads and Boundary Condition

Step by Step approach followed in any Finite Element Analysis

## Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Introduction to FEA
Methods to Solve Any Engineering Problem

Analytical Method
Classical Approach 100% Accurate Results Applicable only for Simple problems like Cantilever , simply supported beams and Cylinders etc.. Complete in itself

Numerical Method
Mathematical Approach Approximate, Assumptions Made Applicable to real life complicated problems

Experimental Method
Actual Measurement Time Consuming , Needs expensive setup Applicable only if physical prototype is available

Results can not be believed blindly and must be verified by experimental methods and Hand Calculations. Finite Element Method: Linear , Nonlinear , Buckling , Thermal, Dynamics & Fatigue analysis Boundary Element Method: Acoustics / NVH analysis Finite Volume Method: CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) & Computational Electromagnetic Finite Difference Method: Thermal & Fluid Flow analysis (in combination with FVM)

Results can not be believed blindly and Minimum 2 or more prototypes must be tested. -Strain Gauge - Photo elasticity - Vibration measurement (accelerometers) - Sensors for Temp & pressure etc - Fatigue test

Although applicable to simple shaped geometries only , Analytical methods are considered as Closed form solutions i.e. 100% Accurate

## Different Numerical Methods

Finite Element Method (FEM) :
Very Popular Method based upon discretization of component into Finite number of blocks (elements) Applications : Linear, Nonlinear, Thermal, Dynamics , Buckling and Fatigue Analysis

## Boundary Element Method (BEM) :

Its a very powerful and efficient technique to solve acoustics and NVH problems Just like Finite Element Method, it also requires Nodes and Elements but as the name suggest, it considers only the outer boundary of the domain

## Finite Volume Method (FVM) :

All Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) soft wares are based upon FVM. Unit Volume is considered in Finite Volume Method (similar to Elements in Finite Element Method) Variable properties at nodes are Pressure , Velocity , Area , Mass etc. It is based on Navier Stoke equations ( Mass ,Momentum and Energy Conservation equations)

## Finite Difference Method (FDM) :

Finite Element and Finite Difference share many common things. In general, Finite difference Method is described as a way to solve difference equation. It uses Taylors series to convert differential equation into algebraic equation. Higher order terms neglected.

Is it possible to use all the above listed methods (FEA ,BEM , FVM, FDM) to solve same problem (say Cantilever problem)?
Answer : YES ! But the difference is in Accuracy achieved , programming ease and time required to obtain the solution
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## Are FEA and FEM different ?

Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Finite Element Method (FEM) both are one & the same.
FEA is a method/process based upon FEM

## Why Finite Element Method ?

FEA is the most widely applied computer simulation method in Engineering. It is very closely integrated with CAD/CAM applications. It is very well proven , tested and validated method for simulating any complex practical scenario in the area of Structural ,Thermal ,Vibration etc..

## Application of FEM in Engineering

Mechanical / Aerospace / Civil Engineering / Automobile Engineering Structural Analysis ( Static / Dynamic , Linear / Non-Linear ) Thermal Analysis ( Steady State / Transient ) Electromagnetic Analysis Geomechanics Biomechanics

etc.

## Practical Applications of FEA

Aerospace Domain

Automotive Domain

## Practical Applications of FEA

Hi-Tech /Electronics

Medical Devices

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and many more .

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Cost

## Design Cycle time

No. of Prototypes

Testing
Design Optimization

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## Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Analysis Types
Structural Analysis

Static Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

Linear

Non-Linear

Modal Analysis

Harmonic Analysis

Random Analysis

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## Steps involved in FEA

Understanding the Problem (Thermal , Structural, Dynamic etc) Element Selection (Solid , Shell , Beams etc) Deciding the Boundary Conditions (Constraints , Connections etc..) Load Application (Point , Surface , Body loads etc..) Solution (Solver , Sub step / Time step , Nonlinearity etc) Solution Pre Processing

## In-Depth study & interpretation of Analysis Results (Sanity Checks)

Post processing of Results (Deflection , Stress , Strain etc..) Report Preparation Observation and Conclusion from the Analysis (MoS Calcs, Design ok) Suggestion and Recommendation for Design Changes, if required.
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Post Processing

## FEM Philosophy in layman terms

The Philosophy of FEA can be explained with a small example such as Measuring the Perimeter of a Circle If one need to evaluate the perimeter of a circle without using the conventional formula (2*pi*r), FEA approach is analogous to Dividing the circle into a number of segments and joining the points using Straight lines

Since it is very easy to measure the length of straight line. Measure the length of one line and multiply it by No. of lines to get the perimeter.

Approximate results.isnt it ?

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Physical System

FE Model

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## Concept of Discretization (Meshing)

Concept of FEM is all about Discretization (Meshing) i.e. Dividing a big structure/component into small discrete Blocks (Nodes and Element concept) But why do we do this Meshing ???

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## Concept of Discretization (Meshing)

Parameters deciding the Quality of Mesh : Aspect ratio Skew / Warpage Element internal Angles and more

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## Different Type of Elements

Linear - 1st Order Element
Triangular Element

2D

Hexahedral Element

3D

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## Types of Contacts used in FEA

Bonded Contact
This is the default configuration and applies to all contact regions( surfaces, solids, faces, edges). If contact Regions are bonded, then no sliding or separation between faces or edges is allowed. This type of contact Allows for a linear solution since the contact length/area will not change during the application of the load. Eg: Welding, Glued connection, Bolted connection.

No Separation Contact
This contact setting is similar to the bonded case. It only applies to regions of faces(for 3D solids) or edges (for 2D plates). Separation of the geometries in this contact is not allowed, but small amount of frictionless Sliding can occur along contact geometries.

Frictionless Contact
This contact setting models standard unilateral contact, that is normal pressure equals to zero if separation occurs. Thus gaps can form in the model between bodies depending on the loading. This solution is non linear because the area of contact may change as the load is applied. A zero coefficient of friction is assumed, thus allowing free sliding. The model should be well constrained when using this contact setting.

Frictional Contact
In this contact setting, the two contacting geometries can carry shear stresses upto a certain magnitude across their interface before they start sliding relative to each other. This state is known as sticking. The model defines an equivalent shear stress at which sliding on the geometry begins as a fraction of contact pressure. Once the shear stress exceeded, the two geometries will slide relative to each other.
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## Types of Boundary Conditions, Loads & Results

Boundary Conditions : Fixed Boundary Conditions (U , ROT etc.. = 0) Prescribed Displacements (U , ROT , Temp etc.. 0) Loads: Point /Concentrated Load (Force) Surface Load (Pressure , Flux etc..) Body Load (Temp , Inertia g etc..) Results: Displacement Reaction Forces Stresses /Strains (Equivalent Von Mises , Directional & Principal ) Temperature etc..

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## Finite Element Analysis At a Glance

Best Practice Approach

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## Best Practices Approach

Plan your analysis Analysis type (Static/Dynamic, Linear/Non-Linear etc..) Material Details (isotropic/orthotropic , Constant/Temp dependent) Choice of Elements and Meshing (2D/3D , Hex / Tet) Results Evaluation (Detailed Post processing) Verification (Sanity Checks , Test data match)

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Thanks !

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