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First Principles of Instruction

Learning is promoted when learners acquire knowledge and skill in the context of real-world problems or tasks. Learning is promoted when learners reflect on, discuss, and defend their newly acquired knowledge and skill. Learning is promoted when learners activate a mental model of their prior knowledge and skill as a foundation for new skills.

INTEGRATION

ACTIVATION

PROBLEM-CENTERED

APPLICATION
Learning is promoted when learners apply their newly acquired knowledge and skill.

DEMONSTRATION
Learning is promoted when learners observe a demonstration of the knowledge and skill to be learned.

M. David Merrill, First Principles of Instruction Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduced by permission of Pfeiffer, an imprint of Wiley.