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CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

BEARINGS
Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

A bearing is a device which supports a shaft to enable it to


rotate or slide axially with the least possible frictional
resistance.
Bearing may be broadly grouped into two main categories:
Plain Bearings in which the surface of one component slides over
the surface of another. The materials for the bearings are carefully
selected and the surfaces specially prepared in order to minimize
friction and wear.
Rolling Element Bearings (anti-friction bearings) in which a
series of ball, rollers or needles are interposed between the two
surfaces in order to reduce friction to a low level.
Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Plain Bearings

Rolling Element Bearings


Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearings are also classified according to the type of


function they perform:
Journal Bearings which constrain radial movement of the shaft .
Thrust Bearings which constrain axial movement of the shaft

Bearings selection will be largely based on the type of load


they have carry.

Radial load Axial load Combined load


Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Plain Bearings
Principles of Operation

Internal surface
Outer surface
A film of lubricant

Surfaces materials
A film of lubricant (if used) and it’s correct distribution.
Temperature control (by sufficient supply of lubricant or by
passing water around a jacket which encloses the bearing.
Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Plain Bearings
Materials for Plain
Bearings
A plain bearing material must possess the
following important properties:
Compressive Strength – To resist shaft
loading without deforming or collapsing.

Fatigue Strength – To resist fluctuating dynamic loads.

Embeddability –To embed foreign matter and so protect the journal


from wear and scoring.

Conformability – To tolerate misalignment and deflection under load.


Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Plain Bearings
Materials for Plain
Bearings
Compatibility – To tolerate momentary metal-
to-metal contact without seizure occurring.

Corrosion Resistance – To resist attack by


water or oxidized lubrication products.
Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Plain Bearings
Materials for Plain
Bearings
Some of the more commonly used bearing
materials are described below.
Whitemetals
Known also as Babbitt alloys .
They are either tin-based or lead-based alloys and contain a
significant percentage of antimony.
They are usually applied as a coating deposited on to a shell made of
either steel, cast-iron or bronze.

Whitemetals
Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Plain Bearings
Materials for Plain
Bearings
Whitemetals
They have excellent properties in all
respects, except that their compressive and
fatigue strength declines rapidly as
temperature increases.
Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Plain Bearings
Materials for Plain
Bearings
Copper-lead Alloys:
They provide strength and fatigue
resistance up to four times greater than
Whitemetals.
Their conformability and Embeddability are not as good, but may be
improved by coating with a thin layer of whitemental.

Copper-lead Alloys
Whitemetals
Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Plain Bearings
Materials for Plain
Bearings
Bronze:
Bronzes can be produced with a wide range
of properties and are probably the most
economical of all bearing materials .
four types are normally used:

Lead-bronze – Can be used without a steel backing, but has low


conformability and must be accurately aligned. It is easily
cast and machined, and is used for moderate speed and
loading applications.
Tin-bronze – Has relatively high hardness and used in applications
where loads are high but speeds are low. Tin-bronzes
require reliable lubrication and a hardened journal.
Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Plain Bearings
Materials for Plain
Bearings
Bronze:
Bronzes can be produced with a wide range
of properties and are probably the most
economical of all bearing materials .
four types are normally used:

Aluminum- Has good resistance to wear and shock loads and is


bronze suitable for operating temperature of 260 oC and above.
It is best used for heavy duty, low speed applications.

Phosphor- Also useful for heavy load, high temperature applications.


bronze
Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Plain Bearings
Materials for Plain
Bearings
For more specific details regarding bearing
materials, manufacturer's information or
appropriate standards should be consulted.
Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Rolling Element Bearings


Principles of Operation

Outer race
Roller

Cage

Ball

Inner race
Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Rolling Element Bearings


Principles of Operation

The concept behind a bearing is very simple:


Things roll better than they slide. The wheels
on your car are like big bearings. If you had
something like skis instead of wheels, your
car would be a lot more difficult to push down
the road.
Bearings reduce friction by providing smooth metal balls or rollers,
and a smooth inner and outer metal surface for the balls to roll
against. These balls or rollers "bear" the load, allowing the device to
spin smoothly.
Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Rolling Element Bearings


Principles of Operation
The material requirements are quite different
Why? from plain bearings.
Because the relative motion between the
moving elements is one of rolling rather than
sliding.
Instead of the bearing materials needing to be soft in comparison with
the journal, both the rolling elements and their raceways are made of
Why? specially hardened steel.
This reduces the rolling frication because of
the smaller indentation produced by the load,
but friction can not be entirely eliminated and
so lubrication must still be provided.
Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Rolling Element Bearings


Ball Bearing:
These bearings can handle both radial and thrust
loads, and are usually found in applications where
Why?
the load is relatively small.
In a ball bearing, the load is transmitted from the
outer race to the ball, and from the ball to the inner
race. Since the ball is a sphere, it only contacts the
inner and outer race at a very small point, which
helps it spin very smoothly.
This means that there is not very much contact area holding that load,
so if the bearing is overloaded, the balls can deform or squish, ruining
the bearing.
Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Rolling Element Bearings


Thrust Ball Bearing:
It is mostly used for low-speed applications
and cannot handle much radial load
Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Rolling Element Bearings


Roller Bearing:
Can carry heavier loads , provide greater rigidity and
Why?
less expensive for heavier loads.
In these bearings, the roller is a cylinder, so the
contact between the inner and outer race is not a
point but a line. This spreads the load out over a
larger area, allowing the bearing to handle much
greater loads than a ball bearing. However, this type
of bearing is not designed to handle much thrust
loading.
A variation of this type of bearing, called a needle bearing, uses
cylinders with a very small diameter. This allows the bearing to fit into
tight places.
Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Rolling Element Bearings


Thrust Roller Bearing:
It can support large
thrust loads They are
often found in and
between the housing and
the rotating shafts.
Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Rolling Element Bearings


Tapered Roller Bearing:
It can support large radial and large thrust loads.

In some applications, tapered


roller bearings are used where
they are usually mounted in pairs
facing opposite directions so that
they can handle thrust in both
directions.
Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Rolling Element Thrust Bearings


Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Rolling Element Journal Bearings