CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS BEARINGS

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

A bearing is a device which supports a shaft to enable it to rotate or slide axially with the least possible frictional resistance. Bearing may be broadly grouped into two main categories:
Plain Bearings in which the surface of one component slides over the surface of another. The materials for the bearings are carefully selected and the surfaces specially prepared in order to minimize friction and wear. Rolling Element Bearings (anti-friction bearings) in which a series of ball, rollers or needles are interposed between the two surfaces in order to reduce friction to a low level.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Plain Bearings

Rolling Element Bearings

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearings are also classified according to the type of function they perform:
Journal Bearings which constrain radial movement of the shaft . Thrust Bearings which constrain axial movement of the shaft

Bearings selection will be largely based on the type of load they have carry.

Radial load

Axial load

Combined load

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Plain Bearings
Principles of Operation

Internal surface A film of lubricant Outer surface

Surfaces materials A film of lubricant (if used) and it’s correct distribution. Temperature control (by sufficient supply of lubricant or by passing water around a jacket which encloses the bearing.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Plain Bearings
Materials for Plain Bearings A plain bearing material must possess the following important properties: Compressive Strength – To resist shaft loading without deforming or collapsing. Fatigue Strength – To resist fluctuating dynamic loads. Embeddability –To embed foreign matter and so protect the journal from wear and scoring. Conformability – To tolerate misalignment and deflection under load.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Plain Bearings
Materials for Plain Bearings Compatibility – To tolerate momentary metalto-metal contact without seizure occurring. Corrosion Resistance – To resist attack by water or oxidized lubrication products.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Plain Bearings
Materials for Plain Bearings Some of the more commonly used bearing materials are described below. Whitemetals Known also as Babbitt alloys . They are either tin-based or lead-based alloys and contain a significant percentage of antimony. They are usually applied as a coating deposited on to a shell made of either steel, cast-iron or bronze.
Whitemetals

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Plain Bearings
Materials for Plain Bearings Whitemetals They have excellent properties in all respects, except that their compressive and fatigue strength declines rapidly as temperature increases.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Plain Bearings
Materials for Plain Bearings Copper-lead Alloys: They provide strength and fatigue resistance up to four times greater than Whitemetals. Their conformability and Embeddability are not as good, but may be improved by coating with a thin layer of whitemental.
Whitemetals Copper-lead Alloys

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Plain Bearings
Materials for Plain Bearings Bronze: Bronzes can be produced with a wide range of properties and are probably the most economical of all bearing materials . four types are normally used:
Can be used without a steel backing, but has low Lead-bronze – conformability and must be accurately aligned. It is easily cast and machined, and is used for moderate speed and loading applications. Tin-bronze – Has relatively high hardness and used in applications where loads are high but speeds are low. Tin-bronzes require reliable lubrication and a hardened journal.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Plain Bearings
Materials for Plain Bearings Bronze: Bronzes can be produced with a wide range of properties and are probably the most economical of all bearing materials . four types are normally used:
Aluminumbronze Has good resistance to wear and shock loads and is suitable for operating temperature of 260 oC and above. It is best used for heavy duty, low speed applications. Also useful for heavy load, high temperature applications.

Phosphorbronze

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Plain Bearings
Materials for Plain Bearings For more specific details regarding bearing materials, manufacturer's information or appropriate standards should be consulted.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Rolling Element Bearings
Principles of Operation
Outer race Cage Ball Inner race Roller

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Rolling Element Bearings
Principles of Operation The concept behind a bearing is very simple: Things roll better than they slide. The wheels on your car are like big bearings. If you had something like skis instead of wheels, your car would be a lot more difficult to push down the road. Bearings reduce friction by providing smooth metal balls or rollers, and a smooth inner and outer metal surface for the balls to roll against. These balls or rollers "bear" the load, allowing the device to spin smoothly.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Rolling Element Bearings
Principles of Operation The material requirements are quite different from Why? plain bearings. Because the relative motion between the moving elements is one of rolling rather than sliding. Instead of the bearing materials needing to be soft in comparison with the journal, both the rolling elements and their raceways are made of specially hardened steel. Why? This reduces the rolling frication because of the smaller indentation produced by the load, but friction can not be entirely eliminated and so lubrication must still be provided.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Rolling Element Bearings
Ball Bearing: These bearings can handle both radial and thrust loads, and are usually found in applications where the load is relatively small. Why? In a ball bearing, the load is transmitted from the outer race to the ball, and from the ball to the inner race. Since the ball is a sphere, it only contacts the inner and outer race at a very small point, which helps it spin very smoothly. This means that there is not very much contact area holding that load, so if the bearing is overloaded, the balls can deform or squish, ruining the bearing.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Rolling Element Bearings
Thrust Ball Bearing: It is mostly used for low-speed applications and cannot handle much radial load

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Rolling Element Bearings
Roller Bearing: Can carry heavier loads , provide greater rigidity and less expensive for heavier loads. Why? In these bearings, the roller is a cylinder, so the contact between the inner and outer race is not a point but a line. This spreads the load out over a larger area, allowing the bearing to handle much greater loads than a ball bearing. However, this type of bearing is not designed to handle much thrust loading. A variation of this type of bearing, called a needle bearing, uses cylinders with a very small diameter. This allows the bearing to fit into tight places.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Rolling Element Bearings
Thrust Roller Bearing: It can support large thrust loads They are often found in and between the housing and the rotating shafts.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Rolling Element Bearings
Tapered Roller Bearing: It can support large radial and large thrust loads.

In some applications, tapered roller bearings are used where they are usually mounted in pairs facing opposite directions so that they can handle thrust in both directions.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Rolling Element Thrust Bearings

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Rolling Element Journal Bearings