Centrifugal Pumps Bearings - Part 2 | Bearing (Mechanical) | Lubricant

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearing Assembly Design
Shaft and Housing Fits: As a general rule, a rolling element bearing should be installed so that its inner race is a tight fit on the rotating shaft and the outer race is an interference fit in the stationary housing. The tolerances for shafts and bearing housings should be established using the recommendations of bearing manufacturers or ISO standards.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearing Assembly Design
Thermal Expansion:

Shaft

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearing Assembly Design
Thermal Expansion:

Shaft

Free Bearing

Held Bearing

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearing Assembly Design
Types of Mounting:
Shaft Nut and Locking Washer: This is one of the most common arrangements and can be used for both single and double row radial bearings. After tightening the nut, the tab washer is bent against one of the flats on the nut, so preventing it turning.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearing Assembly Design
Types of Mounting:
Slotted Nut and Pin : A castle nut or slotted nut may be used with a split pin or cotter pin in order to provide adjustment for tapered roller bearings .

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearing Assembly Design
Types of Mounting:
End Plate and Locking Screws : This arrangement may be used as an alternative to the slotted nut and pin. Each screw has a small hole drilled through the head, through which a wire is passed and its ends twisted together. The wire thus prevents the screws from becoming loose.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearing Assembly Design
Types of Mounting:
End Cap and Shims : This arrangement may be used for tapered roller bearings or for angular contact bearings where pre-load has to be set with adjusting shims.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearing Assembly Design
Types of Mounting:
Snapring : When it is not suitable for the housing to contain a shoulder, then a snapring can be used to locate the bearing in the housing . This requires a special bearing with a recess machined in the outer race to enable the snapring to be fitted.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearing Assembly Design
Types of Mounting:
Adaptor Sleeve : Some types of bearing are made with a tapered bore and are mounted as "floating" bearings on an adaptor sleeve .
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Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Typical Pump Bearing Arrangements:
Ball Radial and Ball Thrust :
For shaft diameters up to about 55 mm and speeds up to 3600 rpm, anti-friction double-row angular-contact bearings may be used for both radial loads and thrust loads in either direction.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Typical Pump Bearing Arrangements:
Ball Radial and Ball Thrust :
Because of the rolling action of the balls between the races, the heat generated is not as great as a plain bearing. Most of the heat which is produced is due to the sliding action of the balls against their retaining cage which maintains equal ball spacing.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Typical Pump Bearing Arrangements:
Ball Radial and Ball Thrust :
Lubrication is usually provided by an oil ring which hangs from the shaft with its lower part dipped into an oil reservoir in the bearing housing. As the shaft rotates, the oil ring splashes oil to the bearings.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Typical Pump Bearing Arrangements:
Sleeve Radial and Ball Thrust :
For shaft diameters and speeds which are above the limits for ball radial and ball thrust construction, cylindrical sleeve bearings are used to carry the radial loads. Axial loads in either direction are taken by two ball bearings mounted back-to-back.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Typical Pump Bearing Arrangements:
Sleeve Radial and Ball Thrust :
The sleeve bearings are steel or bronze lined with Babbitt and are split parallel to the shaft. Lubrication may be by oil rings and cooling coils may be built in to the oil reservoirs through which either cold water or the pumped product may be circulated to remove excess heat from the oil. mounted back-to-back.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearing Lubrication:
The choice of lubricant is determined by the following factors:
Load - The load on the bearing will determine the pressure against which the lubricant must work. Speed - The lubricated surfaces will wear faster at higher speeds. Temperature - The properties of the lubricant may be affected by the operating temperature. Environment - The lubricant may have to cope with the presence of water or corrosive substances.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearing Lubrication:
Lubricant selection should normally be in accordance with the recommendations of the equipment manufacturer. However, as a general rule, the following guide is useful to remember:
For light loads and high speeds, use a lubricant of low viscosity.
For heavy loads and low speeds, use a lubricant of high viscosity.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearing Lubrication:
The decision whether to use oil or grease as the lubricant will depend upon operating conditions. The following comparative advantages may be useful to consider when making a choice:
Oil: Assists cooling. Absorbs less torque. Feeds more easily and form a central supply. Washes away dirt. Can also lubricate other elements such as gears.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearing Lubrication:

Grease: Permits simpler bearing designs. Provides better sealing against foreign matter. Is easier to contain and seal. Allows longer periods without attention.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearing Lubrication:
The following basic principles govern the application of lubricants:
Cleanliness is vital. Lubricating equipment must be kept free from dirt and other foreign matter. Lubricants of different brand or grade should never be mixed. If it is necessary to change the type of lubricant, then the equipment should first be drained and cleaned out. An excess of lubricant, especially grease, will cause heat to build up. This will eventually break down the lubricant and bearing failure will result.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearing Lubrication:

Lubricant filters and strainers should always be changed at the recommended time intervals. The selection of lubricant for a given application should be as recommended by the equipment manufacturer. Inadequate lubrication can often be identified by the operating condition of the bearing, such as excessive noise or temperature. In general, if a bearing feels too hot to touch with a hand, then its lubrication may not be correct and should be checked.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearing Lubrication:

Lubricants are potentially hazardous materials and should be properly stored with regard to safely and effect on the environment.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearing Lubrication:
Oil: Oil lubrication is often used for light to moderate duty in high-speed applications. The oil should be changed at regular specified intervals and this should be done sooner if the oil has become dirty or contaminated. When changing oil, it is good practice to thoroughly clean the bearing housing or sump with flushing oil before adding the new lubricant. This ensures that all foreign matter is removed.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearing Lubrication:
Grease : Grease lubrication is generally used for heavy loads at low to moderate speeds. When grease is used in pump bearings, make sure it is of the type specified by the pump manufacturer. Usually, soda-soap-compounded grease that has a mineral oil base is acceptable. All greases used for bearings should be free from fillers such as clay, mica or talc. These mineral fillers are highly abrasive, even when finely ground and mixed with oil or grease.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearing Lubrication:
Grease : Pumps are greased at around 3 monthly intervals and this may be extended to 6 months if the pump is not operated frequently. When the pump is running, however, the bearings should be checked daily for noise, cleanliness and operating temperature.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearing Lubrication:
Methods of Lubrication: Lubrication methods include:
Oil reservoirs. Constant-level oilers . Drip-feed . Ring type oilers . Pressurized systems.

Whatever method is used, daily checks should be made to ensure that the correct amount of lubricant reaches the bearings.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearing Lubrication:
Methods of Lubrication: The constant-level oiler is a combination drip feed and ring type oiler. The ring used to distribute the oil is the same as any other ring oiler. Its purpose is to maintain a constant oil level in the sump by replacing the oil that leaks out.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearing Lubrication:
Methods of Lubrication:

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearing Lubrication:
Methods of Lubrication: Some pumps are fitted with grease cups . Lubrication is carried out by turning the cap or handle one or two turns at regular intervals.

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearing Seals:
There are two main types of bearing seals:
Contacting type seals (rubbing). Clearance type seals (no rubbing).

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearing Seals:

A

G

D

F

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearing Seals:
The simplest type of clearance seal is obtained by providing a relatively long close-clearance fit between the shaft and housing. One or more grooves may be arranged in the housing to help prevent the escape lubricant.
B Slingers are often fitted to clearance seals when they are used for oil-lubricated bearings. The slingers help to prevent the escape of any oil which may have passed the seal by flinging it into a groove in the seal housing, from where it can drain back into the bearing housing .

Centrifugal Pumps Bearings

Bearing Seals:
Another type of clearance seal is the labyrinth type . In a labyrinth seal, the long and staggered close-clearance path is filled with lubricant and offers a high resistance to flow in either direction. Clearance type seals can operate without any restrictions regarding speed or operating temperature, but they do permit more leakage of lubricant than rubbing contact seals and also are not as effective in keeping out dirt and other foreign matter.
B

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