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CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

The curve is used by engineers to determine the

suitability of a given pump for a particular duty.

H

H

HEAD

Q Q Capacity

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

Also be useful to pump operators to check if pumps are

performing correctly to their design specifications.

H

H

HEAD

Q Q Capacity

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

The head capacity curve can be used to illustrate two

important properties of a centrifugal pump:

H

1. The discharge from a

H centrifugal pump may be

throttled without causing

damage to the pump.

HEAD

Q Q Capacity

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

The head capacity curve can be used to illustrate two

important properties of a centrifugal pump:

shut-off 1. The discharge from a

centrifugal pump may be

throttled without causing

damage to the pump.

HEAD

Capacity

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

The head capacity curve can be used to illustrate two

important properties of a centrifugal pump:

2. The total head developed is

Water

Brain

Oil

not affected by the specific

gravity of the liquid being

pumped.

HEAD

Capacity

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

Radial Flow Pump

PERCENT OF HEAD AT DESIGN POINT

HEAD

BHP

EFF

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

Mixed Flow Pump

PERCENT OF HEAD AT DESIGN POINT

HEAD

BHP

EFF

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

Axial Flow Pump

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

System Curve

It is the relationship between flow and hydraulic losses in

a system.

The point where the pump operates on its curve is

dependent upon the characteristics of the system In

which it is operating.

By plotting the system head curve and pump curve

together, it can be determined:

2. What changes will occur if the system head curve or the pump

performance curve changes.

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

System Curve

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

System Curve

NO STATIC HEAD - ALL FRICTION

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

System Curve

POSITIVE STATIC HEAD

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

System Curve

NEGATIVE (GRAVITY) HEAD

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

System Curve

MOSTLY LIFT- LITTLE FRICTION HEAD

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

Specific speed (Ns) is a non-dimensional design index used to classify pump

impellers as to their type and proportions.

geometrically similar impeller would operate if it were of such a size as to

deliver one gallon per minute against one foot head.

Where:

N = Pump speed in RPM.

Q = Capacity in gpm at the best efficiency point.

H = Total head per stage at the best efficiency point .

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

The specific speed determines the general shape or class of the impeller .

Values of Specific Speed, Ns

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

Pumps of higher specific speeds develop head partly by centrifugal

force and partly by axial force.

A higher specific speed indicates a pump design with head generation

more by axial forces and less by centrifugal forces.

Values of Specific Speed, Ns

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

An axial flow or propeller pump with a specific speed of 10,000 or

greater generates it's head exclusively through axial forces.

Radial impellers are generally low flow high head designs whereas axial

flow impellers are high flow low head designs.

Values of Specific Speed, Ns

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

it is an analysis of energy conditions on the suction side of a pump to

determine if the liquid will vaporize at the lowest pressure point in the

pump.

The Hydraulic Institute defines NPSH as the total suction head in feet

absolute, determined at the suction nozzle and corrected to datum, less

the vapor pressure of the liquid in feet absolute.

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

NPSH Required

The NPSH Required is the positive head in feet absolute required at the

pump suction to overcome all pressure drops in the pump and maintain

the majority of the liquid above its vapor pressure.

The NPSH Required varies with speed and capacity within any

particular pump. Pump manufacturer's curves normally provide this

information.

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

NPSH Available

It is a function of the system in which the pump operates.

It is the excess pressure of the liquid in feet absolute over its vapor

pressure as it arrives at the pump suction.

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

NPSH Available

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

NPSH Available

section lift.

NPSHA =PB – (VP +LS +hf)

Where

PB= Barometric pressure in feet absolute.

VP= Vapor pressure of the liquid at maximum

pumping temperature, in feet absolute.

Ls = Maximum static suction lift in feet.

hf = Friction loss in feet in suction pipe at

required capacity.

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

NPSH Available

section head.

NPSHA =PB + LH - (VP +hf)

Where

PB= Barometric pressure in feet absolute.

VP= Vapor pressure of the liquid at maximum

pumping temperature, in feet absolute.

LH = Minimum static suction head in feet.

hf = Friction loss in feet in suction pipe at

required capacity.

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

NPSH Available

Where

P = Pressure on surface of liquid in closed

suction tank, in feet absolute.

pumping temperature, in feet absolute.

LH = Minimum static suction head in feet.

hf = Friction loss in feet in suction pipe at

required capacity.

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

NPSH Available

Where

P = Pressure on surface of liquid in closed

suction tank, in feet absolute.

pumping temperature, in feet absolute.

Ls = Maximum static suction lift in feet.

hf = Friction loss in feet in suction pipe at

required capacity.

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

NPSH Available

In an existing system, the NPSH Available can be determined by a gauge on

the pump suction. The following formula applies:

NPSHA = PB - VP - ± (Gr +hv)

Where

PB= Barometric pressure in feet absolute.

absolute.

Gr = Gauge reading at the pump suction expressed in feet (plus if above

atmospheric, minus if below atmospheric) corrected to the pump centerline.

hf = Friction loss in feet in suction pipe at required capacity.

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

Cavitation

Cavitation means different things to different people. It has been

described as:

• A reduction in pump capacity.

• A reduction in the head of the pump.

• The formation of bubbles in a low pressure area of the pump volute.

• A noise that can be heard when the pump is running.

• Damaged that can be seen on the pump impeller and volute.

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

Cavitation

It takes place as the following:

1. The pressure of the liquid is reduced to a value equal to or

below its vapor pressure.

2. The liquid begins to boil and small vapor bubbles or pockets begin to

form.

3. As these vapor bubbles move along the impeller vanes to a higher

pressure area above the vapor pressure, they rapidly collapse.

4. As these vapor bubbles move along the impeller vanes to a higher

pressure area above the vapor pressure, they rapidly collapse.

5. In high suction energy pumps, the collapses are generally high

enough to cause minute pockets of fatigue failure on the impeller

vane surfaces.

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

Cavitation

Now we will go back to clear up some of the confusion:

The capacity of the pump is reduced:

This happens because bubbles take up space and you cannot have bubbles

and liquid in the same place at the same time.

If the bubble gets big enough at the eye of the impeller, the pump will lose its

suction and will require priming.

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

Cavitation

Bubbles, unlike liquid, are compressible. It is this compression that can

change the head.

The bubbles form in a lower pressure area because they cannot form in

a high pressure area.

You should keep in mind that as the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure

of the fluid decreases. This means that high velocity liquid is by definition a

lower pressure area. This can be a problem any time a liquid flows through a

restriction in the piping, volute, or changes direction suddenly. The fluid will

accelerate as it changes direction. The same acceleration takes place as the

fluid flows in the small area between the tip of the impeller and the volute cut

water.

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

Cavitation

A noise is heard

Any time a fluid moves faster than the speed of sound in the medium you are

pumping, a sonic boom will be heard. The speed of sound in water is 4800

feet per second (1480 meters/sec) or 3,273 miles per hour (5,267 kilometers

per hour).

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

Cavitation

The bubble tries to collapse on its self. This is called imploding,

the opposite of exploding. The bubble is trying to collapse from

all sides.

If the bubble is laying against a piece of metal such as the

impeller or volute it cannot collapse from that side, so the fluid

comes in from the opposite side at this high velocity proceeded

by a shock wave that can cause all kinds of damage. There is a

very characteristic round shape to the liquid as it bangs against

the metal creating the impression that the metal was hit with a

"ball peen hammer".

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

Cavitation

This damage would normally occur at right angles to the metal,

but experience shows that the high velocity liquid seems to come

at the metal from a variety of angles.

This can be explained by the fact that dirt particles get stuck on

the surface of the bubble and are held there by the surface

tension of the fluid. Since the dirt particle has weakened the

surface tension of the bubble, it becomes the weakest part, and

the section where the collapse will probably take place.

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

Cavitation

The higher the capacity of the pump the more likely cavitation will

occur.

High specific speed pumps have a different impeller shape that allows

them to run at high capacity with less power and less chance of

cavitating.

This impeller is normally found in a pipe shaped casing rather than the

volute type of casing that you commonly see.

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

Cavitation

The cavities form for five basic reasons and it is common practice to lump all of

them into the general classification of cavitation.

This is an error because to correct each of these conditions, you must

understand why they occur, and how to fix them.

In no particular order they are :

• Vaporization cavitation

• Air ingestion cavitation.

• Internal recirculation cavitation.

• Flow turbulence cavitation.

• Vane Passing Syndrome cavitation.

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

Cavitation

The way to prevent the undesirable effects of Vaporization

cavitation in standard low suction energy pumps is to insure

that:

High suction energy pumps require an additional NPSH margin, above

the NPSH Required. Hydraulic Institute Standard (ANSI/HI 9.6.1)

suggests NPSH margin ratios of from 1.2 to 2.5 times the NPSH

Required, for high and very high suction energy pumps, when operating

in the allowable operating range.

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

In designing a pumping system, it is essential to provide adequate NPSH

available for proper pump operation.

Insufficient NPSH available may seriously restrict pump selection, or even force

an expensive system redesign.

On the other hand, providing excessive NPSH available may needlessly

increase system cost.

Suction specific speed may provide help in this situation.

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

Suction specific speed (S) is defined as:

Where:

(for double suction impellers divide total pump flow by

two).

constant - it does not change when the pump speed is

changed.

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

Experience has shown that 9000 is a reasonable value of suction specific

speed.

Example:

Flow 2,000 GPM; head 600 ft. What NPSHA will be required?

3550× ( 2000)

12

= 9000=

(NPSHR )3 4

34

NPSHR = 17.7

NPSHR = 46ft) Pump(

NPSHA =(NPSHR) (NPSH MarginRatio )= 46 x 1.5 = 69 ft

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

According to the Hydraulic Institute, NPSH margin is required above the

NPSHR of the pump to suppress incipient cavitation. The amount of margin is a

function of Suction Energy and the critical nature of the application as follows:

Low 1.1 - 1.3

High 1.2 - 1.7

Very High 1.7 - 2.5

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

By increasing the suction head

• Raise the liquid level in the tank

• Elevate the supply tank.

• Put the pump in a pit.

• Reduce the piping losses.

• Retrofit the pump with a higher specific speed impeller.

• Install a booster pump or inducer.

• Pressurize the tank.

• Be sure the tank vent is open and not obstructed. Some vents can

freeze in cold weather.

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

By lowering the fluid inlet temperature

• Injecting a small amount of cooler fluid at the suction is often practical.

pump suction; they can heat up the suction fluid.

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

By decrease the fluid velocity

• Remove obstructions in the suction piping.

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

By reducing the net positive suction head required (NPSHR)

• Use a double suction pump. Double suction designs can reduce the net

positive suction head required (NPSHR) by as much as 27%, or in some

cases it will allow you to raise the pump speed by 41%.

inducer. These inducers can cut net positive suction head required

(NPSHR) by almost 50%.

than one large pump plus a spare. This will also conserve energy at lighter

loads.

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

Affinity Laws

The affinity laws express the mathematical relationship between the several

variables involved in pump performance.

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

Affinity Laws

They are as follows:

With impeller diameter D held constant:

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

Affinity Laws

When the performance (Q1, H1, & BHP1) is known at some particular speed

(N1) or diameter (D1), the formulas can be used to estimate the performance

(Q2, H2, & BHP2) at some other speed (N2) or diameter (D2).

The efficiency remains nearly constant for speed changes and for small

changes in impeller diameter.

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

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