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Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Relationship between Head and Capacity The curve is used by engineers to determine the suitability of a given pump for a particular duty.
H H
HEAD
Q Q Capacity
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Relationship between Head and Capacity Also be useful to pump operators to check if pumps are performing correctly to their design specifications.
H H
HEAD
Q Q Capacity
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Relationship between Head and Capacity The head capacity curve can be used to illustrate two important properties of a centrifugal pump:
H H
1. The discharge from a centrifugal pump may be throttled without causing damage to the pump.
HEAD
Q Q Capacity
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Relationship between Head and Capacity The head capacity curve can be used to illustrate two important properties of a centrifugal pump:
shut-off
1. The discharge from a centrifugal pump may be throttled without causing damage to the pump.
HEAD
Capacity
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Relationship between Head and Capacity The head capacity curve can be used to illustrate two important properties of a centrifugal pump:
Water Brain Oil
2. The total head developed is not affected by the specific gravity of the liquid being pumped.
HEAD
Capacity
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Pump Characteristic Curves
Radial Flow Pump
PERCENT OF HEAD AT DESIGN POINT PERCENT OF BHP AT DESIGN POINT PERCENT OF BEST EFFICIENCY
HEAD
BHP
EFF
PERCENT OF DESIGN FLOW
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Pump Characteristic Curves
Mixed Flow Pump
PERCENT OF HEAD AT DESIGN POINT PERCENT OF BEST EFFICIENCY
HEAD
BHP
EFF
PERCENT OF DESIGN FLOW
PERCENT OF BHP AT DESIGN POINT
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Pump Characteristic Curves
Axial Flow Pump
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Pump Characteristic Curves
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
System Curve It is the relationship between flow and hydraulic losses in a system. The point where the pump operates on its curve is dependent upon the characteristics of the system In which it is operating. By plotting the system head curve and pump curve together, it can be determined:
1. Where the pump will operate on its curve. 2. What changes will occur if the system head curve or the pump performance curve changes.
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
System Curve
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
System Curve
NO STATIC HEAD - ALL FRICTION
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
System Curve
POSITIVE STATIC HEAD
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
System Curve
NEGATIVE (GRAVITY) HEAD
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
System Curve
MOSTLY LIFT- LITTLE FRICTION HEAD
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Specific Speed and Pump Type (NS)
Specific speed (Ns) is a non-dimensional design index used to classify pump impellers as to their type and proportions.
It is defined as the speed in revolutions per minute at which a geometrically similar impeller would operate if it were of such a size as to deliver one gallon per minute against one foot head.
Where: N = Pump speed in RPM. Q = Capacity in gpm at the best efficiency point. H = Total head per stage at the best efficiency point .
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Specific Speed and Pump Type (NS)
The specific speed determines the general shape or class of the impeller .
Values of Specific Speed, Ns
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Specific Speed and Pump Type (NS)
Pumps of higher specific speeds develop head partly by centrifugal force and partly by axial force. A higher specific speed indicates a pump design with head generation more by axial forces and less by centrifugal forces.
Values of Specific Speed, Ns
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Specific Speed and Pump Type (NS)
An axial flow or propeller pump with a specific speed of 10,000 or greater generates it's head exclusively through axial forces. Radial impellers are generally low flow high head designs whereas axial flow impellers are high flow low head designs.
Values of Specific Speed, Ns
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Net Positive Section Head and Cavitation (NPSH)
it is an analysis of energy conditions on the suction side of a pump to determine if the liquid will vaporize at the lowest pressure point in the pump. The Hydraulic Institute defines NPSH as the total suction head in feet absolute, determined at the suction nozzle and corrected to datum, less the vapor pressure of the liquid in feet absolute.
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Net Positive Section Head and Cavitation (NPSH)
NPSH Required The NPSH Required is the positive head in feet absolute required at the pump suction to overcome all pressure drops in the pump and maintain the majority of the liquid above its vapor pressure. The NPSH Required varies with speed and capacity within any particular pump. Pump manufacturer's curves normally provide this information.
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Net Positive Section Head and Cavitation (NPSH)
NPSH Available It is a function of the system in which the pump operates. It is the excess pressure of the liquid in feet absolute over its vapor pressure as it arrives at the pump suction.
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Net Positive Section Head and Cavitation (NPSH)
NPSH Available
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Net Positive Section Head and Cavitation (NPSH)
NPSH Available
Suction supply open to atmosphere with section lift. NPSHA =PB – (VP +LS +hf) Where PB= Barometric pressure in feet absolute. VP= Vapor pressure of the liquid at maximum pumping temperature, in feet absolute. Ls = Maximum static suction lift in feet. hf = Friction loss in feet in suction pipe at required capacity.
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Net Positive Section Head and Cavitation (NPSH)
NPSH Available
Suction supply open to atmosphere with section head. NPSHA =PB + LH - (VP +hf) Where PB= Barometric pressure in feet absolute. VP= Vapor pressure of the liquid at maximum pumping temperature, in feet absolute. LH = Minimum static suction head in feet. hf = Friction loss in feet in suction pipe at required capacity.
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Net Positive Section Head and Cavitation (NPSH)
NPSH Available
Closed suction supply with suction head. NPSHA =P + LH - (VP +hf) Where P = Pressure on surface of liquid in closed suction tank, in feet absolute. VP= Vapor pressure of the liquid at maximum pumping temperature, in feet absolute. LH = Minimum static suction head in feet. hf = Friction loss in feet in suction pipe at required capacity.
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Net Positive Section Head and Cavitation (NPSH)
NPSH Available
Closed suction supply with suction lift. NPSHA = P - (VP - LS +hf) Where P = Pressure on surface of liquid in closed suction tank, in feet absolute. VP= Vapor pressure of the liquid at maximum pumping temperature, in feet absolute. Ls = Maximum static suction lift in feet. hf = Friction loss in feet in suction pipe at required capacity.
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Net Positive Section Head and Cavitation (NPSH)
NPSH Available
In an existing system, the NPSH Available can be determined by a gauge on the pump suction. The following formula applies: NPSHA = PB - VP Where PB= Barometric pressure in feet absolute. VP= Vapor pressure of the liquid at maximum pumping temperature, in feet absolute. Gr = Gauge reading at the pump suction expressed in feet (plus if above atmospheric, minus if below atmospheric) corrected to the pump centerline. hf = Friction loss in feet in suction pipe at required capacity.
± (Gr +hv)
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Cavitation
Cavitation means different things to different people. It has been described as:
• A reduction in pump capacity. • A reduction in the head of the pump. • The formation of bubbles in a low pressure area of the pump volute. • A noise that can be heard when the pump is running. • Damaged that can be seen on the pump impeller and volute.
Just what then is this thing called cavitation?
Actually it is all of the above.
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Cavitation
It takes place as the following: 1. The pressure of the liquid is reduced to a value equal to or below its vapor pressure.
2. The liquid begins to boil and small vapor bubbles or pockets begin to form. 3. As these vapor bubbles move along the impeller vanes to a higher pressure area above the vapor pressure, they rapidly collapse. 4. As these vapor bubbles move along the impeller vanes to a higher pressure area above the vapor pressure, they rapidly collapse. 5. In high suction energy pumps, the collapses are generally high enough to cause minute pockets of fatigue failure on the impeller vane surfaces.
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Cavitation
Now we will go back to clear up some of the confusion:
The capacity of the pump is reduced: This happens because bubbles take up space and you cannot have bubbles and liquid in the same place at the same time. If the bubble gets big enough at the eye of the impeller, the pump will lose its suction and will require priming.
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Cavitation
The discharge head is often reduced Bubbles, unlike liquid, are compressible. It is this compression that can change the head. The bubbles form in a lower pressure area because they cannot form in a high pressure area. You should keep in mind that as the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure of the fluid decreases. This means that high velocity liquid is by definition a lower pressure area. This can be a problem any time a liquid flows through a restriction in the piping, volute, or changes direction suddenly. The fluid will accelerate as it changes direction. The same acceleration takes place as the fluid flows in the small area between the tip of the impeller and the volute cut water.
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Cavitation
A noise is heard Any time a fluid moves faster than the speed of sound in the medium you are pumping, a sonic boom will be heard. The speed of sound in water is 4800 feet per second (1480 meters/sec) or 3,273 miles per hour (5,267 kilometers per hour).
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Cavitation
Pump parts show damage The bubble tries to collapse on its self. This is called imploding, the opposite of exploding. The bubble is trying to collapse from all sides. If the bubble is laying against a piece of metal such as the impeller or volute it cannot collapse from that side, so the fluid comes in from the opposite side at this high velocity proceeded by a shock wave that can cause all kinds of damage. There is a very characteristic round shape to the liquid as it bangs against the metal creating the impression that the metal was hit with a "ball peen hammer".
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Cavitation
Pump parts show damage This damage would normally occur at right angles to the metal, but experience shows that the high velocity liquid seems to come at the metal from a variety of angles. This can be explained by the fact that dirt particles get stuck on the surface of the bubble and are held there by the surface tension of the fluid. Since the dirt particle has weakened the surface tension of the bubble, it becomes the weakest part, and the section where the collapse will probably take place.
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Cavitation
The higher the capacity of the pump the more likely cavitation will occur. High specific speed pumps have a different impeller shape that allows them to run at high capacity with less power and less chance of cavitating. This impeller is normally found in a pipe shaped casing rather than the volute type of casing that you commonly see.
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Cavitation
The cavities form for five basic reasons and it is common practice to lump all of them into the general classification of cavitation. This is an error because to correct each of these conditions, you must understand why they occur, and how to fix them. In no particular order they are : • Vaporization cavitation • Air ingestion cavitation. • Internal recirculation cavitation. • Flow turbulence cavitation. • Vane Passing Syndrome cavitation.
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Cavitation
The way to prevent the undesirable effects of Vaporization cavitation in standard low suction energy pumps is to insure that:
NPSHA > NPSHR
High suction energy pumps require an additional NPSH margin, above the NPSH Required. Hydraulic Institute Standard (ANSI/HI 9.6.1) suggests NPSH margin ratios of from 1.2 to 2.5 times the NPSH Required, for high and very high suction energy pumps, when operating in the allowable operating range.
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
NPSH and Suction Specific Speed
In designing a pumping system, it is essential to provide adequate NPSH available for proper pump operation. Insufficient NPSH available may seriously restrict pump selection, or even force an expensive system redesign. On the other hand, providing excessive NPSH available may needlessly increase system cost. Suction specific speed may provide help in this situation. Suction specific speed (S) is defined as:
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
NPSH and Suction Specific Speed
Suction specific speed (S) is defined as: Where: N = Pump speed RPM. GPM = Pump flow at best efficiency point at impeller inlet (for double suction impellers divide total pump flow by two). NPSHR = Pump NPSH required at best efficiency point.
For a given pump, the suction specific speed is generally a constant - it does not change when the pump speed is changed.
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
NPSH and Suction Specific Speed
Experience has shown that 9000 is a reasonable value of suction specific speed. Example: Flow 2,000 GPM; head 600 ft. What NPSHA will be required? Assume: at 600 ft., 3500 RPM operation will be required. = NPSH R
34
9000=
3550× ( 2000)
12
(NPSHR )3 4
= 17.7
NPSH = 46ft) Pump( R
NPSHA =(NPSHR) (NPSH MrginRatio a ) = 46 x 1.5 = 69 ft
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
NPSH and Suction Specific Speed
According to the Hydraulic Institute, NPSH margin is required above the NPSHR of the pump to suppress incipient cavitation. The amount of margin is a function of Suction Energy and the critical nature of the application as follows: Section Energy Low High Very High NPSHMrgin a (NPSHA/NPSHR)
Rtio a
1.1 - 1.3 1.2 - 1.7 1.7 - 2.5
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
How to stop vaporization Cavitation
By increasing the suction head • Raise the liquid level in the tank • Elevate the supply tank. • Put the pump in a pit. • Reduce the piping losses.
• Retrofit the pump with a higher specific speed impeller. • Install a booster pump or inducer. • Pressurize the tank. • Be sure the tank vent is open and not obstructed. Some vents can freeze in cold weather.
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
How to stop vaporization Cavitation
By lowering the fluid inlet temperature
• Injecting a small amount of cooler fluid at the suction is often practical. • Insulate the suction piping from the sun's rays. • Be careful of discharge re-circulation and vent lines re-circulated to the pump suction; they can heat up the suction fluid.
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
How to stop vaporization Cavitation
By decrease the fluid velocity
• Remove obstructions in the suction piping. • Do not run the impeller too close to the pump cutwater. • Reduce the speed of the pump. • Reduce the capacity of the pump. • Do not install an elbow too close to the pump suction.
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
How to stop vaporization Cavitation
By reducing the net positive suction head required (NPSHR)
• Use a double suction pump. Double suction designs can reduce the net positive suction head required (NPSHR) by as much as 27%, or in some cases it will allow you to raise the pump speed by 41%. • Use a lower speed pump. • Use a pump with a larger impeller eye opening. If possible install an inducer. These inducers can cut net positive suction head required (NPSHR) by almost 50%. • Use several smaller pumps. Three half-capacity pumps can be cheaper than one large pump plus a spare. This will also conserve energy at lighter loads.
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Affinity Laws
The affinity laws express the mathematical relationship between the several variables involved in pump performance.
They apply to all types of centrifugal and axial flow pumps.
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Affinity Laws
They are as follows:
With impeller diameter D held constant:
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Affinity Laws
With speed N held constant:
When the performance (Q1, H1, & BHP1) is known at some particular speed (N1) or diameter (D1), the formulas can be used to estimate the performance (Q2, H2, & BHP2) at some other speed (N2) or diameter (D2). The efficiency remains nearly constant for speed changes and for small changes in impeller diameter.
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Series Operation of Centrifugal Pumps
Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
Parallel Operation of Centrifugal Pumps
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