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NOORUL ISLAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING
AE-1353 Experimental Stress Analysis
Two Mark Questions
1. Define Measurement:
The measurement of a given quantity is essentially an act or result of comparison
between a quantity whose magnitude (amount) is unknown, with a similar quantity whose
magnitude (amount) is known, the later quantity being called a standard.
2. What are the basic requirements for measurement?
(i) The standard used for comparison purposes must be accurately defined & should be
(ii) The standard must be of the same character as the measure and (ie, the unknown
quantity or the quantity under measurement)
(iii) The apparatus used and the method accepted for the purposes of comparison must be
3. What are the methods of measurements?
(i) Direct Method: In these methods, MEASURAND is directly compared against a
(ii) Indirect Method: Measuring systems are used in indirect methods for measurement
4. What are the uses of measuring instruments?
Measurements involve the use of ‘instruments’ as a physical means of determining
quantities (or) variables. In simple cases, an instrument consists of a single unit which
gives an output reading or signal according to the unknown variable (MEASURAND)
applied to it.
5. What is dimensional measurement?
Dimensional Measurements are characterized as determination of size of an object.
These are the measurements of dimensions of an object.
6. Explain the measurements of length and displacement
A displacement means the movements of a point with respect to another point. Generally
length (or change in length) means it referring a distance between two reference points.
Thus measurement of length includes both the dimensional measurement and the
7. What are the ‘STANDARD’S for the measurement of an angle?
The primary standards of angle may be taken either as angle subtended by a circle at its
centre ie, 360° or as angle between two straight line intersecting in a manner such that all
four angles so formed are equal, ie, each angle is 90°
8. How we can measure the Area of survey plats?
Measurement of area of regular and standard geometrical figures can be obtained from
the dimensions using standard mathematical relationships.
There are many engineering applications which require the measurement of plane area.
Graphical determination of the area of survey plots form maps, the integration of function
to determine the area enclosed by a curve analysis of experimental data may require the
use of measurement of plane area.
9. Give any two methods for measure an unknown force
An unknown force may be measured by the following methods,
1. Balancing the unknown force against the known gravitational force either directly
(or) indirectly using a system of levers.
2. Transferring the unknown force to a fluid pressure and then meaning the resulting
fluid pressure. Hydraulic and Pneumatic load cells are used for transferring the
force into pressure.
10. How we can measure the temperature changes?
Temperature is not measured directly, but is measured through indirect means; change of
temperature of a substance causes a variety of effects. These effects may be physical,
chemical, electrical (or) optical and they may be used for the measurement of temperature
through use of proper temperature sensing devices.
11. Tell some thing about ‘static characteristics’ and ‘static calibration’ in
‘Static characteristics’ of a measurement system are in general those that must be
considered when the system or instrument is used to measure a condition not varying
with time. All the static performance characteristics are obtained in one form or another
by a process called’ static calibration’
12. What is accuracy and tell about point accuracy?
Accuracy is the closeness with which an instrument reading approaches the true value of
the quantity being measured. Thus accuracy of a measurement means conformity to
‘Point Accuracy’ is the accuracy of the instrument only at one point on it scale.
13. Give the Type of errors in measurements
(i) Gross errors
(ii) Random errors
(iii) systematic errors
- Instrumental errors
- Environmental errors
- Observational errors
14. Differentiate Gross error and Instrumental Error
Gross errors mainly cover human mistakes in reading instruments and recording and
calculating measurement results.
Instrumental Error occurs due to the wrong adjustments of a measuring devices while it
construction or misalignments of its pats.
15. Differentiate environmental and systematic errors
Environmental errors causes due to the surrounding condition of instruments, but
systematic errors causes because of the fault of the arrangement of measuring system
during the whole measuring process.
16.. What absolute static error? Give example
Absolute static error is the difference between measured values of quantity and the
true value of quantity. ie, Eo= X(m) – X(t)
Example: an error of 2mm is negligible when the length being measured is of the
order of ( 1000 mm) 1 m but the same error of 12 mm may be considerable when the
measurement of 10mm length.
17. What is relative static error?
It is the ratio between absolute error to the true value of quantity
ie, Er= Eo/Xt
18. What is static correction?
Static correction is the negative value of absolute static error ie, Cs= -Eo
19. A meter reads 127.50V and the true value of the voltage is 127.43v.
Determine (a) static error and (b) static correction for this instrument.
Sol: (a) static error (E0) = Xm- Xt = + 0.07V
(b) static correction (Cs)= – Eo= -0.07V
20. a thermometer reads 95.45 0c and the static correction given in the
correction curve is – 0.08 0c Determine the true value of the temperature
Sol: Cs= - ( Xm- Xt) ie, Xt= Cs + Xm = -0.08 + 95.45 = 95.37 °C
21. An inclined Limb manometer is used for measurement of flow rate reads
0.161 x 10- ³m³/s. The true value of flow rate is 0.159 x 10-³ m³/s. Determine (a)
static error (b) static correction.
Sol: Eo= Xm – Xt = ( 0.61- 0.15) x 10-³ = 0.002 x 10-³ m³/s
22. What do you mean by limiting errors?
The limits of the deviations from the specified values of measurement datas are
defined as ‘Limiting errors’ (or) ‘Guarantee error’
23. Determine relative limiting error:
The relative error (fractional error) is defined as the ratio of the error to the specified
magnitude (nominal magnitude) of a quantity.
Relative limiting error A Limiting error
( Er) = ____ = ____________________
As A Normal Value
24. What is an uncertainty in a measurement?
Un certainty of measurement is a parameter associated with the result of
measurement, that characterizes the dispersion of values that could be reasonably
attributed to the measurand.
25. Define static sensitivity
the static sensitivity of an instrument or an instrumentation system is the ratio of the
magnitude of the output quantity to the magnitude of input )quantity being measured)
26. What is known as deflection factor?
Deflection factor or inverse sensitivity is the reciprocal of the static sensitivity.
27. Define scale range:
The scale range of an instrument is defined as the difference between the largest and
the smallest reading of the instruments.
28. What is the frequency range in measurements?
Frequency range is defined as frequency over which measurements can be performed
with a specified degree of accuracy.
29. What is extensometer?
Extensometer is an instrument used top measure minute deformation of material
while it is subjected to a stress.
30. Classify the extensometers depending upon the magnification systems.
1. Mechanical Extensometers
2. Optical extensometers
3. Acoustical (Vibrating wire) extensometers
4. Electrical extensometers
5. Pneumatic extensometers.
31. What are the Basic Requirements of extensometer?
1. Very high magnification:The magnification required is usually greater than 1000: 1
2. Sensitivity: The relation between input and output should not be affected by the
reversal in the direction of input and this requires that the movement should not have
3. Low input force: The input force required to cause displacement should be
extremely small thus there is no defamation of the component due to the process of
32. Classify the mechanical extensometers depending upon the manner of
obtaining the magnification.
1. Wedge magnification
2. Screw magnification
3. Compound magnification
4. Lever magnification
33. Give the disadvantages of a simple mechanical lever magnification
For strain measurements on inner surfaces of small structures, the clearance may be in
sufficient for the gauge and all its auxiliary equipment.
34. Give the magnification and gauge length of porter- Lipp strain gauge.
Gauge length is 25 mm
Magnification is 300 times
35. Give the advantages of porter- Lipp gauge
1. Very compact
2. Light weight
36. Give the magnification capacity & gaugelength of Huggen-Berger tensometer
The magnification may vary from 300 to 2000 depending upon the model. The gauge
length varies from 12.5 to 25 mm.
37. What is the measurement capacity of C.E. John extensometer?
C.E. Johnson extensometer can measure strain up to 5 micro strains over a gauge
length of 50 mm.
38. Give the minimum strain value that scratch gauge can be sense.
The minimum strain that a strain gauge can sense is above 100 micro strains.
39. Give the advantages of scratch gauge
1. Compact in size
2. It can be attached to almost any surface with clamps or screws & adhesive bonding
3. It can measure scratch under all types of loading (static, shock, fatigue)
4. It can be used to record stress in all types of environments.
40. Tell something about the magnification capacity of Marten’s extensometer
This instrument is extremely sensitive and by using telescope, regarding may be
estimated to 1/10 mm which corresponding to a length charge of approximately
41. What is the sensitivity of Tuckerman gauge?
The sensitivity of tucker man gauge is 2 micro strains
42. For the following reading find the deformation sensitivity & strain sensitivity
for Tuckerman optical gauge. Base length = 25 mm, d= 1/20, magnification
factor = 5
solution Ds=d/m = 1/(20x5)= 0.01mm
Ss= Ds/L = 0.01/25 = 4 x 10-4 strains
43. Give the formula to obtain fundamental frequency for a vibrating wire
F = (1/2L) (P/m) = (1/2L) ¦|E ( L/L)/m]xA}
Where A = Cross sectional Area of vibrating wire
E = Young’s moduls of wire material
L = Length of Vibrating wire
M = Mass for unit length
P = tensioning force in the wire
L = incremention length of the vibrating wire.
44. Give the classifications of Electrical strain gauges
(a) inductance (or) magnetic strain gauges
(b) Electrical resistance strain gauges
(c) The capacitance strain gauges.
45. How strain can be measured by using Electrical strain gauges?
Electrical strain gauge is a device in which a change in length produces a change in some
electrical characteristics of the gauges.
46. Give the working principle of inductance strain gauges?
An electrical inductance gauge is a device in which the mechanical quantity to be
measured produced a change in the magnetic field, and hence in the impedance of a
current carrying coil.
47. Give the working principle of variable air gap gauges
In this types of gauges the reluctance of the magnetic field is varied by changing the air
48. Give the working principle of movable core solenoid gauges
In this type of gauges the reluctance of the magnetic circuit is varied by changing the
position of the iron core in the coil.
49. Give the working principle of eddy- current gauges
In this types of gauges the losses in the magnetic circuit are varied by changing the
thickness or position of the high- loss element inserted in the magnetic field.
50. Give the formula for the impedance of a coil to the passage of alternating
Z= (2πfl) ² + R²
Where Z= impedance in ohms
F= frequency in herzs
L= inductance of the coil in henrys
R= resistance component in ohms
51. How the displacement of material structures can be measured by using electrical
resistance strain gauges?
In the electrical resistance strain gauges the displacement (or) strain is measured as a
function of the resistance change produce by the displacement in the gauging circuit.
52. What is known as bonded strain gauges?
A thin paper sheet or metal sheet with strain gauge wire is bonded with an adhesive
material to the structure under strictly.
53. What is the use of gauge factor in strain gauge measurements?
Gauge factor is used to determine the sensitivity of strain gauges.
54. Give the requirements for strain gauges?
Gauge factor should be high
Wires used in a strain gauge should have high resistance.
The wires should have a linear relationship between strain & resistance of the wire.
55. What is the resistance of material?
Resistance is the property of a material that restricts the flow of charges through the
56. What is known as foil strain gauges?
The foil strain gauge has metal foil photo- etched in a grid pattern of the electric insulator
of the thin resin and gauge leads attached.
57. Give the formula for electrical capacity between parallel plates in capacitance
C= [8.86 x 10-3 KA (N-1)]/H
Where c- capacitance in picofoarads
K- dielectric constant of the medium between the two plates
A- area of one sife of the plate, mm2
N- No of plates
H- distance between plates in mm
58. What is the basic principle of unbonded metallic strain gauges
the principle of unbonded metallic gauges is based on change in electrical resistance of a
metallic wire due to change in tension of the wire.
59. What is photo-etching?
Photo etching is the act of producing grid configuration on metal foil with the help of
60. What is known as strip gauges?
The number of strain gauges are arranged in a particular manner is called strip gauges.
61. What is known as strain rosettes?
An arrangement of strain gauges in particular orientation or angle is known as strain
62. Give the quantities required for a good gauge material?
High gauge factor
Low temperature sensitivity
High electrical stability
Good corrosion resistance
High yield point stability
63. Give some arrangements of strain gauges to obtain strain rosettes
1. Two gauge rosette
2. Rectangular rosette
a) Three element
b) Four element
3. Delta (or) Equiangular rosette
4. T. Delta rosette
64. Give the formula for strain measured by a strain gauge in particular angles
εθ= ½ (εx + εy) + ½ (εx- εy) cos2θ + ½ ϒxy sin2θ
Where εθ is the strain value in θ direction
65. Give the relation on between principal stress and principal strains
σ1=[E/(1-v²)](ε1+vε2) and σ2=[E/(1-v²)](ε2+vε1)
where σ1 and σ2 are principal stresses
ε1 and ε2 are principal strains
66.What are the methods are available for computing the strain rosette datas?
1. Analytical Solutions
2. Graphical Solutions
3. Semi – graphical (or) vectorial layout method
4. Nomographic Solutions
5. Geometrical Computers.
67. Give the advantages of strain Rosette analysis.
(i)Extreme simplicity and speed of application.
(ii)Possibility of allowing for transverse effects.
(iii)No requirements for additional equipments.
(iv) The possibility of training relativity unskilled persons to use the method.
68.Give the type of strain gauge circuits.
1. Wheat stone bridge circuits for static strain measurements.
2. Potentiometer circuits for dynamic strain measurements.
69. Define sensitivity of potentiometer:
Sensitivity of the potentiometer circuit is defined as the ratio of the output voltage
divided by the strain.
70. Define Light
Light is usually defined as the radiation that can affect the human eye.
71. Define White light:
Light from a source that emits a continuous spectrum with equal energy for every wave
length is called white light.
72. Define monochromatic light:
Light of a single wave length is called monochromatic light.
Example: sodium vapour lamp, Hg arc lamp.
73. What is wave front?
The focus of points on different radial lines from the source exhibiting the same
disturbance at a given instant of time, in a surface known as a wave front.
74. Define Ray?
A line normal to the wave front, indicating the direction of propagation of the waves is
called a ray.
75. What are longitudinal waves?
The waves in which vibration are along the direction of their travel is known as
76. What are transverse waves?
Transverse waves are waves in which vibrations are perpendicular to the direction of
77. What is polarized light?
The light having vibration only along a single straight line perpendicular to the
direction of propagation of light is said to be polarized.
78. What is plane of polarization?
The plane containing the direction of propogation of light, but containing no
vibrations is called the plane of polarization.
79. What are the methods are available to obtain plane polarized light?
(i) Refraction and Reflection for glass plate.
(ii) By using Nichol Prism.
80. What are the disadvantages are available in Nichol prism when we use that to
obtain plane polarized light?
2. Intensity is Poor.
81. What is the basic principle for photo elasticity?
When polarized light enters a loaded transparent component, it is split into two beams
both beams travel along the same path, but each vibrates along a principal direction and
travels at a speed proportional to the associated principal stress.
82. What is Refractive index?
The ratio of the velocity of light In air to the velocity in the medium is called the
refractive index of the medium and is denoted by ‘n’.
83. What is wave length?
The wave length of any given frequency in the distance traveled during one complete
84. Define Amplitude?
Amplitude is a magnitude of the disturbance, the intensity of light may be taken
as directly proportional to the square of the amplitude of the vibration.
85. Define phase
The phase of vibration at any instant defines the stage of the cycle reached at that instant.
86. Give the general equation of motion of a transverse light wave propagating in Z-
E = a cos( -wt)
Where E = magnitude of light vector
t = amplitude of the wave.
87. What do you mean by Polariscope?
Polariscope is an optical instrument that utilizes the properties of polarized light in its
88. Give the types of polariscopes used in experimental stress analysis?
(i) Plane Polariscope
(ii) Circular Polariscope
89. Give the four different possible setups in circular polariscope?
Setup Polariser- Analyzer Quarter wave plates Field
90. What is the standard setup in circular polariscope?
The crossed – crossed setup is called the standard setup of the circular polariscope.
91. State Stress optic law:
The relative change in index of refraction is proportional to the difference of principal
92. What is known as isotropic point in a polariscope setup?
In a particular point in a stressed model where 1 2. that fringe order is zero and
permanent block dots appear at these points such are called isotropic points.
93. What is known as singular points in a polariscope setup?
If 1 = 2 0 then also the fringe order is zero at these points and permanent block dots
appear such are called singular points.
94. What are the properties of photo elastic materials?
1. Transparent to light used in the Polariscope.
2. Easily machinable by conventional means.
3. It should be force form residual stresses
4.They should have both mechanical and optical isotropy and homogeneity.
95. Give the most commonly used methods for compensation techniques
1. Babinet compensation method.
2. Babinet soleil compensation method
3. Tension or compression stop method.
4. Tardy method of compensation.
5. Senarment method of compensation
6. Photometric method.
96. What are the techniques used to determine the stresses at the inner layers of the
body in 3D photo elasticity?
1. Locking in the stresses in the model
2. Multilayer reflection technique.
97. Define Non – destructive testing
Non –destructive testing is a technique for revealing flaws and defects in a material or
device without damaging as destroying the test sample.
98. Give some advantages of NDT:
1. Can be done directly on production items without regards to part cost or
2. Can be done on 100% of production of on representative samples.
99. Give the limitations of NDT:
1. Results often must be interpreted by a skilled. Experienced technician.
2. In absence of contact with each other, different observers may disagree on
meaning & significance of test results.
100. What is neutron Radiography?
Radiographic inspection using a stream of neutrons known as neutron Radiography.
101. Give the advantages of Radiographic inspection.
- The ability to detect internal flows
- An ability to detect significant variations in composition.
- Permanent recording of raw inspection datas.
102. Give some advantages of Brittle coating method.
- Provides nearly whole field area
- Is non destructive if the coating is sensitive enough.
- Is simple to analyze
103. Give some advantages by using fiber optic sensors.
- Light weight (very small in size)
- Low power requirement
- Resistant to electromagnetic interference
- High sensitivity