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Chapter #23 Identifications Thomas Nast American Cartonist and artist who created political cartoons in the 19th

century during the Gilded Age; deemed the Father of Political Cartooning; his work exposed a lot of political corruption of the time and helped end this age of corruption; exposted Boss Tweed

Horace Greely founded of the Republican party, lead reformer during the Gilded Age; editor of the American Newspaper, The New York Tribune; supported multiple reform movements and anti-slavery movements; also was a politician of the time Roscoe Conkling corrupt politician originating in New York; member of the House of Reps and U.S. Senate; leader of Stalwart faction of Republican parrties; against civil service reforms; one of his henchmen mostlikely killed Garfield; believed in the spoils system James G. Blaine U.S. Representative; Speaker of the House of Reps; U.S. Senator for Maine; Secretary State for two times; funded Bates College; passed the Blaine Ammendments; leader of the Half-Breeds (moderate faction of the Republican Party who believed in support of civil service reform) Samuel Tilden Democratic nominee for president in 1876 Charles J. Guiteau U.S. Attorney; a Stalwart; person who killed Andrew Garfield and mislead people into believing that Conkling was the one who assasinated Garfield Hard or Sound Money species of money or metallic backing of money; notable during the Panic of 1873 where greenbacks were causing inflation because of lack of hard money; without hard money money is essentially useless Gilded Age period in the 19th cenury where America was ruled by corruption; Mark Twain coined the term; from surface, the time looks fine, but beneath it all lies poverty, corruption, and crime; lack of morality Bloody-Shirt when politicans used the hatred and animosity between the North and the South to gain office during thee post bellum period in the 1860s and 1880s; waving the bloody

shirt; refered to flaunting the blood of the Civil War to arouse emotions of anger or remind people of those feelings to gain office Tweed Ring corrupt part of Tammany Hall in New York City; burrow pocketed by Boss Tweed ; a political machine; Samuel Tilden overthrew this political machine by reforming the area and ending the Tweed Ring Credit Mobilier Scandal scandal where a joint stock company was made in 1863 and reorganized in 1867 to the Union Pacific Railroad; basically hired themselves to build a railroad and charged 300 times the railroad cost to U.S. government; in 1872, when the scandal was revealed, several high government officials allegedly accepted bribes Whiskey Ring during the Grant Admin where a group of officials imported whiskey and avoided taxes by using their offices; were actually supposed to pay the U.S. treasury millions of dollars in taxes from the Whiskey Resumption Act act from the U.S. government that promised to remove greenbacks from circulation and ensure that all paper money was backed by hard money or metal species to prevent another Panic of 1873. Crime of '73 What the Fourth Coinage Act was caled by many; 4th Coinage Act passed in 1873 demonetized silver; made gold extremely valuable; the U.S. now used gold as the specie standard, not silver which upset miners leading to the coining of the name Crime of 73 Bland-Allison Act passed in 1878; U.S. federal law put in place afer the 4th Coinage Act made silver unvaluable; tried to bring silver back as a valuable metal since after the 4th Coinage Act left gold as the only valuable metal to use for monetary standards Half-Breed moderate faction of the Republican Party; Hayes supported this party; lead by James G. Blaine; supported civil service reform as well as lenient treatment of the South; James Garfield is also connected with the Half-Breed; did not win party nomination in 1876 and 1880 Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction; fulfilled promise to South; did three things: 1. Demilitarized in South 2. Put a Democrat into cabinet. 3. Used federal money to construct railroad

Civil Service Reform platform demanded by the Liberal Republicans in the national convention in Cincinatti in 1872; this platform hated the Republicans Southern policy; nominated Horace Greely for president Pendleton Act passed in 1883; U.S. federal law that crated the Civil Service Commision which put employees in an award system based off of merit, not by the spoils system; started during the Chester A. Arthur Administration; was a way to fight corruption and repsond to the assasination of James Garfield "Billion Dollar" Congress 51st congress held by Harrison; passed the Land Revision Act of 1891 (forming national forests firstw as Yellowstone); McKinley tariff; Sherman antitrust Act(prevented business combinations that reduced competition like Credit Moblier Scandal, and Sherman Silver Purchase Act which requrie U.S. to mint silver.

Chapter #23.1 Guided Reading Questions The "Bloody Shirt" Elects Grant Know: Ulysses S. Grant, Ohio Idea, Repudiation, Horatio Seymour, Bloody Shirt 1 Was General Grant good presidential material? Why did he win? General Grant was not considered good presidential material due to his lack of political experience but was able to win the election by waving the bloody shirt and emphasizing his importance as a military hero. He constantly reminded the North that he was the reason they won the Civil War. In addition, his Democratic opponent Seymours popularity plunged when he stated he did not support taking greenback money for its full value.

The Era of Good Stealings Know: Jim Fisk, Jay Gould, Black Friday, Boss Tweed, Graft, Thomas Nast, Samuel J. Tilden 2. "The Man in the Moon...had to hold his nose when passing over America." Explain. This phrase talks about the corruption and sinfulness of America during the post war era, emphasizing the stink of America in terms of its political corruption and use of the spoils system in this era as well as the widespread plague of scams. A Carnival of Corruption Know: Credit Mobilier, Whiskey Ring, William Belknap 3. Describe two major scandals that directly involved the Grant administration. Two major scandals that directly involved the Grant administration was the Credit Moblier scandal and Whiskey Ring. In the Credit Moblier Scandal, one company subhired itself to build a railroad for double the price it took to build. A newspaper exposed this scandal. In the Whiskey Ring, government workers stole whiskey tax money, Grants own secretary

was involved! Other scandals he was involved of was when the Secretary of War William Belknap was caught getting24,000$ by selling Native Americans trinkets. The Liberal Republican Revolt of 1872 Know: Liberal Republicans, Horace Greeley 4. Why did Liberal Republicans nominate Horace Greeley for the presidency in 1872? Why was he a less than ideal candidate? The Liberal Republicans nominated Horace Greeley for presidency in 1872 because they were sick of the Reconstruction under the Grant Admin., but Greeley was not the ideal candidate because he had criticized the Democrats in the New York Tribune, however, the Democrats did respect how he reluctantly agreed that the south shoud become part of the nation again! Depression and Demands for Inflation Know: Panic of 1873, Greenbacks, Hard-money, Crime of '73, Contraction, Softmoney, Bland-Allison Act 5. Why did some people want greenbacks and silver dollars? Why did others oppose these kinds of currency? Some people wanted greenbacks and silver dollars to use in soft money strategies to help create inflation so paying off debts would be easer. This way debtors could actually pay back debts, however, the rich and bankers favored hard money policies which would keep the money stable and backed by gold because soft money strategies also reduced the value of the money. Pallid Politics in the Gilded Age Know: Gilded Age, Grand Army of the Republic, Stalwarts, Roscoe Conkling, HalfBreeds, James G. Blaine 6. Why was there such fierce competition between Democrats and Republicans in the Gilded Age if the parties agreed on most economic issues? There was fierce competition between Democrats and Republicans due to the sectionalism remaining from the Civil War during the post war era. Furthermore, rivalries that arose during this time period as well as differences in values and opinions between Northerners and Southerners added to the heated competition. The differences in opinions on Reconstruction was also a major factor. The Hayes-Tilden Standoff, 1876 Know: Rutherford B. Hayes, Samuel J. Tilden 7. Why were the results of the 1876 election in doubt? The results of the 1876 election was in doubt because Tilden was 1 vote away from winning the Electoral college after winning the popular vote. The electoral votes that determined the election was Lousiana, S. Carolina, and Florida who each had 2 ballots sent to congress. One with the Republicans as the winner and one with the Democrats as the winner meaning a tie was found between the two states. In this case, normally, the person who would determine the winner of this election would be the Senate or the Speaker, but in this case, both had their respective party aliances.

The Compromise of 1877 and the End of Reconstruction Know: Compromise of 1877, Electoral Count Act, David Davis, Civil Rights Cases (1883), 8. How did the end of Reconstruction affect African-Americans? The end of Reconstruction affected African Americans by ending racial equality in the South and disenfranchised blacks. It also allowed for the ratification of Jim Crow Laws, illegal laws which targeted blacks and took away practically all chances of equality. The majority of blacks were forced to become sharecroppers which technically made them slaves under different titles.

Chapter #23.2 Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age Big Picture Themes 1. The government did reach the billion dollar level for the first time. This was largely due to military pension plans. The plans were very popular and revealed the goal of the legislatorspass something that will get me reelected. 2. Populism started. This was a farmer and worker movement that sought to clean up the government, bring it back to the people, and help the working man out.

Chapter #23.2 Identifications James A. Garfield 20th president of the U.S. in 1881; 2nd U.S. president to be assasinated; in office for about six months; Chester A. Arthur 21st president of the U.S.; suspected to have planned Garfields assasination; Colelctor of Customs for the Port of NY before Hayes fired him for faulty info of bribery and corruption; devoted to civil service reform and the passing of the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act. Charles J. Guiteau U.S. Attorney; a Stalwart; person who killed Andrew Garfield and mislead people into believing that Conkling was the one who assasinated Garfield Grover Cleveland 22nd and 24th U.S. Presidents; honest president who was strongly against corruption and the spoils system of the Gilded Age Mugwump American political movement made up of Republicans who supported Democratic candidate Grover Celeveland for the election of 1884; switched parties because they did not trust the Republican candidate James Blaine; after the election, the party continued for a decade; connected with reforms all the way into the 20th century

Pendleton Act of 1833 federal law passed in 1883 that created a system where employees were hired based of merit not by the spoils system; created the Civil Service Commision Thomas B. Reed American novelist who wrote popular novels in unusual settings notably with the American West; wrote based off of his own adventures in America; captured the attention of American youths including Theodore Roosevelt Pension Act passed by the 51st Congress in 1890 under President Harrison; awarded stipends to Civil War veterans who served for at least 90 days and can no longer do manual labor; preceded the welfare state of the next century Chapter #23.2 Guided Reading Questions The Birth of Jim Crow in the Post-Reconstruction South Know: Redeemers, sharecropping, tenant farming, Jim Crow laws, Plessy v. Ferguson 1. Analyze the data in the lynching chart on page 513.

Class Conflicts and Ethnic Clashes Know: Great Railroad Strike of 1877, Denis Kearney, Coolies, Chinese Exclusion Act 2. What was the significance of the Great Railroad Strike of 1877? After President Hayes cut wages for railroad workers, workers went on strike, but this strike was stopped by government authorities when Hayes sent troops to stop the strike revealing the weakness of the labor union and loss of worker self-esteem. This showed how easily thwarted such a movement was at the time.

11Garfield and Arthur Know: James A. Garfield, Charles J. Guiteau, Chester A. Arthur, Pendleton Act of 1883 3. What new type of corruption resulted from the Pendleton Act? A new type of corruption was created. Although now jobs were awarded on a merit-based system which reduced a lot of corruption in lower ranks, now politicians were forced to find support and funds by themselves without jobs or positions as leverage. Because of this, they now needed to marry big businesses to get funding to run campaigns which introduced corporations into the political game of America. The Blaine-Cleveland Mudslingers of 1884 Know: James G. Blaine, Tattooed man, Mugwumps, Grover Cleveland, Ma, ma where's my pa?, Rum, Romanism and Rebellion 4. Explain how character played a part in the presidential election of 1884.

When poor character of the presidential candidate Blaine, was revealed through the Mulligan letters, he lost heavy support due to his dishonesty. Cleveland, on the other hand, had his affair and possible illegitimate child revealed to the public. The election of 1884 lead to a lot of mudslinging that determined the outcome of the election. Old Grover" Takes Over 5. Assess the following statement: "As president, Grover Cleveland governed as his previous record as governor indicated he would." Grover Cleveland had said that the people should support government, but the government is not obliged to support the people. Because of this, Cleveland vetoed several military pension bills as well as acts that provided seed money for businesses. Cleveland was a man of his word and had a lassiez faire mindset that supported business. Cleveland Battles for a Lower Tariff 6. What were the reasons behind Cleveland's stance in favor of lower tariffs? Cleveland favored lowering tariffs to end budget surplus. The government was taking in more money from the people then it needed and there were two ways to fix this issue. One of which was to cut taxes while the other way was to invent things that would basically eat this money. The Billion Dollar Congress Know: Thomas Reed, Civil War pensions, McKinley Tariff Act of 1890 7. Explain why the tariff was detrimental to American farmers. The tariff was detrimental to American farmers. It supported businesses since it protected their businesses by making foreign products expensive, but it also in turn, decreased the price of agricultural goods and increasing price for equipment needed in agriculture to compete with other farmers. The Drumbeat of Discontent Know: Populists 8. What was the most revolutionary aspect of the Populist platform? Defend your answer with evidence. The most revolutionary aspect of the Populist platform was that it rallied the farmers and workers that were suffering in this time period and created a lot of strikes which created the possibility of a government truly for the people. With the Populist platform, the government would be more laws made to benefit the common man like a graduated income tax. Cleveland and Depression Know: Grover Cleveland, Depression or 1893, William Jennings Bryan, Sherman Silver Purchase Act 9. What could Cleveland have done to lessen the impact of the financial turmoil? Cleveland could have lessened the impact of the financial turmoil by keeping the tariff high since in 1893, the government actually had a government deficit which also meant that the people of America could not go to the government for the little welfare that was provided. It could have also offered inflationary policies like silver currency as propoed in the Sherman

Silver Purchase Act and somehow preventing the people from trading money in for gold.Cleveland Breeds a Backlash Know: Wilson Gorman Tariff 10. Is the characterization of the Gilded Age presidents as the forgettable presidents a fair one? Explain. These presidents, however sweet and promising at first sight, eventually lead the country into economic downfall due to their greed and lack of foresight. The damage and corruption of the Gilded Age could be seen as one of the darkest periods in American History which in large part was due to the poor, and often times corrupt, leadership in this time period. Chapter #24: Industry Comes of Age Big Picture Themes 1. Before the Civil War, railroads had become important. After the war, railroads boomed and were critical to the nation. Railroads, along with steel, were to be the skeleton on which the nations economy would be built. 2. A class of millionaires emerged for the first time ever. Tycoons like Carnegie and Rockefeller made fortunes. This type of wealth was championed by Social Darwinism where the strong win in business. 3. Unfortunately, many of the mega-industries, like railroads, grew at the expense of the little mans interest. As businesses, they were out to make money, and they did. But the working man cried foul. 4. To right these wrongs, the beginnings of anti-trusts began (to bust the monopolies) and organized labor got a jumpstart (although they were still rather ineffective). Chapter #24: Identifications Government Subsidies financial assistance paid by a business sector; also called a subvention; given out by government to railroad companies to expand the railroad industry

Transcontinental Railroad stretched from cost to cost; connected Californias railroad in present day Utah to the Eastern Railroad; buuilt in 1869; made transportation, communication easier, detrimental to Native Americans and buffalos; further unified the Unites States Cornelius Vanderbilt a robber barron of the Gilded Age in the East in the 1800s. Controled steel railroads from NYC to the Greatlakes where his railroads converged wth the railroads of Standford, nicknamed Commodore

Jay Gould

Robber barron; got rich by selling bonds worth a lot more than his product; involved with the political machine of Tammany Hall and Boss Tweed; tried to monopolize the Gold marke; exposed; one of the many schemes made during the Grant Admin.

Interstate Commerce Commission came as part of the Insterstate Commerce of 1887; set regulations to prevent discrimination and inequality; forced railroads to set their own prices and not charge more for a short trip over a long trip and treat all shippers equally

Vertical Integration controlling an entire industry by controlling everything for production ranging from the raw material to production to shipping

Horizontal Integration Monopolizing an industry by taking out competitors by joining forces; used by Rockefeller in the oil industry to produce his wealth

Trusts Squashing several companies in the same industry to create a monopoly in that industry and eventually take out all competitors to maximize profit

J.P. Morgan Banking giant; bought Carnegies steel company; refinanced railroads during the depression of 1883; bought stocks in competing railroads; made his millions through banking

Sherman Anti-Trust Act signed in 1890 by President Harrson; wanted Congress to control the monopolies and end the inequality of monopolies, ended up being used against workers and labor unions; ineffective but later used by President Theodore Roosevelt

Yellow Dog Contracts AKA Ironclad Oaths; contracts that employers forced laborers to sign stating that the laborer could take th job if the worker agrees not to join a labor union; used in companies to prevent workers from protesting agaisnt hard conditions


lists of workers that were considered wild or unruly due to protesting; passed around corporations to make sure certain people dont get hired to prevent more labor unions

Haymarket Square incident When 100,000 workers rallied at Haymarket Square, Chicago, to protest against police brutality; one immigrant set off a bomb killing multiple officers leading the antiimmigrant feelings

Chapter #24 Guided Reading Questions

The Iron Colt Becomes an Iron Horse Know: Land grants 1. What were the advantages and disadvantages of government subsidies for the railroads? The advantages were that more tracks could be laid which would make a cheap way for faster and more effective communication and transporation. One huge disadvantage was that the land that railroads were being built on were already paid for by people meaning that more money had to be paid. Spanning the Continent with Rails Know: Union Pacific, Central Pacific, Paddies, Leland Stanford 2. Describe how the first transcontinental railroad was built. The first transcontinental railroad began in Sacramento and was built eastwards over the Sierra Nevada and Rockie Mountains (this was the Central Pacific Railroad Company) and the other half began from the Missouri River westwards(this is the Union Pacific Railroad) with the two meeting at Promontory, Utah. Binding the Country with Railroad Ties Know: The Great Northern, James J. Hill 3. Explain how the railroads could help or hurt Americans. The railroads helped the economy of Americans by increasing transportation and communication. It helped populate he West by making shipping easier as well as foreign trade with Asia. The biggest downfall was that it lead to the loss of lives due to the perilous nature of building railroads and it hurt the American economy by filling it with corruption and leading it to be ruled by robberbarrons. Railroad Consolidation and Mechanization Know: Cornelius Vanderbilt, Pullman Cars 4. What technological improvements helped railroads? The railroads would not have been possible without the Besemer Process to produce steel which replaced expensive, traditional iron rails. The Westinghouse air brake also increased

safety for railroads. Pullman Cars reduced the time needed to move through a railroad contruction site. Revolution by Railways Know: Time Zones 5. What effects did the railroads have on America as a whole? Railroads started an entirely new American economy and helped increase the efficiency of America as a industrialist nation by increasing transportation and communication and stimulating the spread of urbanization and the population of the Wes Wrongdoing in Railroading Know: Jay Gould, Stock Watering, Pools 6. What wrongdoing were railroads guilty of? The companies of railroads bribed Congressmen and politicians to overcharge governments to earn profits. It also took part in stock watering which allowed stock promoters to inflate quality claims so the stocks will increase. Government Bridles the Iron Horse Know: Wabash, Interstate Commerce Commission 7. Was the Interstate Commerce Act an important piece of legislation? Yes, it stpped rebates and pools as well as created standards to prevent inequality. For example, it forced railroads to publish rates which prevenged the overcharging of farmers. This was also the first time the government violated the lassiez faire economic mindset that was characteristic of the U.S.

Miracles of Mechanization Know: Mesabi Range, Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Edison 8. What factors made industrial expansion possible? A lot of liquid capital, access to natural resources, cheap labor (immigrants) and better transportation in the form of railroads allowed Industrial Expansion to occur as well as better communication from the telegraph and longer hours thanks to the light bulb. The Trust Titan Emerges Know: Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, J.P. Morgan, Vertical Integration, Horizontal Integration, Trust, Interlocking Directorate 9. How did businesses organize to try to maximize profits? Businesses tried creating monopolies through horizontal integration and by using trusts to create a competitor free zone and bribing politicians to get their ideas or their perspective into legislation to help their profit margins.

The Supremacy of Steel Know: Heavy Industry, Capital Goods, Consumer Goods, Bessemer Process 10. Why was steel so important for industrialization? It was important because it allowed for more flexible structures for a cheaper cost like skyscrapers and railroads while creating a new market in the economy and pushing industry to making capital good over consumer goods. Carnegie and Other Sultans of Steel Know: Andrew Carnegie, J.P. Morgan 11. Briefly describe the careers of Andrew Carnegie and J.P. Morgan. Anfrew Carnegie made money off of Bessemers steel and process and ended up becoming a robber barron making 25% of the nations steel. J.P. Morgan was a huge banker who refinanced railroads, insurances, etc and eventually bought out Carnegies business for 400 million dollars which lead to him becoming the first billionare in history.

Rockefeller Grows an American Beauty Rose Know: Kerosene 12. How was John D. Rockefeller able to become so wealthy? Rockefeller was able to become so wealthy by sing horizontal integration and trusts eventually monopolizing the oil industry pushing him to the top of the wwealth chain with his Standard Oil Company of Ohio.

The Gospel of Wealth Know: Social Darwinism 13. How did the wealthy justify their wealth? The wealthy justified their wealth using the idea of Social Darwinism which was the doctrine of survival of the fittest in the world and the Gosepl of Wealth meaning that they deserved to be wealthy similar to the idea of divine rights.

Government Tackles the Trust Evil Know: Sherman Anti-Trust Act 14. What two methods were tried by those who opposed the trusts? Those who opposed trusts tried forming labor unions or conducting protests/strikes, but were not effective since the nonstop flow of immigrants kept on creating cheap labor for factories to use to replace strikers. The South in the Age of Industry 15. How successful were Southerners at industrializing? The Southerners wee not successful since Northern Industrialists limited them in industrialization. However, they eventually found a way to get goods by means of a machine that produced cigarretes.

The Impact of the New Industrial Revolution on America 16. Describe the positive and negative effects of the industrial revolution on working Americans. The positive effects were that the farmers became wage earners and women ended up earning a bit more independence. Other pros can be seen in increased populization and urbanization and increased transportation. The negative effects were bad working conditions, political and economical corruption, and a wider disparity between social classes. In Unions There is Strength Know: Scabs, Lock-out, Yellow-dog Contract, Black List, Company Town 17. What conditions existed in America that led Jay Gould to say, "I can hire one half of the working class to kill the other half"? Jay Gould is referring to the low job security of the time and the low wages. Everyone wsa trying to find a way to survive on the bare minimum and those on strike made way for eager workers who were trying to get whatever money they could.

Labor Limps Along Know: National Labor Union, Knights of Labor 18. Explain the similarities and differences between the National Labor Union and the Knights of Labor. National Labor Union was inclusive for all people of the lower class exempting the Chinese, women, and blacks. The Knights of Labor on the other hand created in 1869. Included EVERYONE except for nonproducers. They both sought economic and social reform, safety and health codes, and shorter workdays. Unhorsing the Knights of Labor Know: Haymarket Square 19. What factors led to the decline of the Knights of Labor? The decline of the Knights of Labor came after the failed May Day Strikes of 1886 and accidentally became a part of the Haymarket Square incident which included both skilled and unskilled workers marring their goal. The AF of L to the Fore Know: American Federation of Labor, Samuel Gompers, Closed Shop 20. How was the AFL different from previous unions? The AFL were differet because it focused on skilled workers and artisans, not politics. It focused on getting issues with wages, working hours, bargaining agreements, safety issues, and better working conditions fixed. Chapter #25: America Moves to the City Big Picture Themes

1. Cities grew because factories grew. The Industrial Revolution kicked into gear in America in the late 1800s and factories needed workers, so people flocked to the cities. 2. Problems arose as cities boomed. The problems included: exploitation of immigrant laborers, poor/unhealthy work conditions, over-crowdedness and sanitation problems, corrupton, and nativism (anti-immigrant feelings). 3. Booker T. Washington & W.E.B. DuBois were the top black leaders. They disagreed on how to help blacksWashington encouraged blacks to obtain a practical skill at a trade school, DuBois encouraged blacks to study anything they wished, even academic subjects. 4. The roles of women began to change, if only slightly. More women worked, though most were still at home. The new woman was idealized by the althletic, outgoing Gibson Girl.

Chapter #25 Identifications Florence Kelley middle class women dedicated to improving life for urabnites; part of the first generation of college graduates; founded the Hull House in 1889 as a settlement home for immigrants; won Nobel Peace Prize in 1931; hated war and poverty Mary Baker Eddy founder of the Church of Christ in 1870; strong belief that Christianity can cure all ailments, idea of spiritual healing; wrote Science and Health with a Key to the Scriptures which detailed this doctrine

William James Harvard philosopher who wrote: Principles of Psychology The Will to Believe Vatieties of Religious Experience and pragmatism; all of his works can be traced to modern themes in philosophy and psych.

Henry George Journalist and reformed; wrote Progess and Poverty; belueved that the increasing population and limited amounts of land woul increase land value and a tax on land could balanceo ut economic inequalities Horatio Alger writer who started as a Puritan in New England; wrote 100+volumes of juvenile

fiction; sold past 1 million copies; believed that good morals and actions will lead to success and wealth Mark Twain Missuri author who got famous from The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras county; wrote the Gilded Age with Charles Dudley Warner; known for his satire; real name is Samuel L. Clemens; wrote The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Nativism antiforeignism; anti-immigrant attitudes; belief that immigrants should be treated badly and were inferior to natives

Philanthropy education improvements made from donations from industrial giants.

Social Gospel belief that Christianity could create socialism; preached by Fladden and Rauschenbusch

Settlement House salons where women could speak their mind; where female activism and social reform often started Women's Christian Temperance Union created to temper the amount of alcohol people drank

Eighteenth Amendment later appealed; prohibition of everything alcohol related Chapter #25: Identifications The Urban Frontier Know: Louis Sullivan, Walking Cities, Department Stores, Tenements 1. What factors led to the growth of cities in the second half of the 1800's? The creation of skyscrapers allowed more people to live on the same amount of land. Department stores increased job oppurtunities while offering entertainment. Walking cities were developed and soon become populated. Better life conditions helped increase population as well as the development of modern day pop culture.

The New Immigration 2. How were the new immigrants different from the old immigrants? The new immigrants were different from old mmigrants in that they came from Southern and Eastern Europe instead of Western Europe. They were used ti working in industrial jobs rather than agriculture. The Old immigrants were also generally more educated and were generally Protestant or Catholic. Southern Europe Uprooted 3. Why did the new immigrants come to America in such large numbers? New immigrants came to America in large numbers because Europe was beginning to overpopulate and the unemployment rate there soared. Furthermore, politican turnoil in Europe lead to people searching for a safe haven. Reactions to the New Immigration Know: Political Bosses, Social Gospel, Jane Addams, Hull House, Settlement houses, Lillian Wald, Florence Kelley 5. How did political bosses help immigrants? Political bosses helped immigrants by setting them up in neighorhoods and finding homes for them. Poltiical bosses got them settled and situated so that they could vote. However they would soon not be needed after the establishment of settlement houses like the Hull House and social reform groups like the Social Gospel. Churches Confront the Urban Challenge Know: Dwight Lyman Moody, Cardinal Gibbons, Salvation Army, Mary Baker Eddy, YMCA 7. What role did religion play in helping the urban poor? Religion allowed the poor to find a way to hope for a better life. Moddy was a man who needed to find a balance between secularism and religion which is what YMCA sought to do. Cardinal Gibbons worked for the social reform movement cause as well as the Salvation Army. Religious people were often times the ones who intiated social reform.

The Lust for Learning Know: Normal Schools, Kindergarten, Chautauqua 9 What advances took place in education in the years following the Civil War? Public education continued to improve. Tax supported elementary schools were garnering power and Americans were now taking advantage of public schools. By 1870, a lot of states made elementary school retired which limited child labor. Free textbooks were also beginning to be provided. Immigration added to the culture of these schools to increase literary rates and education levels. 1880s and 1890 s high schools developed. Booker T. Washington and Education for Black People Know: Booker T. Washington, Tuskegee Institute, Accomodationist, George Washington Carver, W.E.B. Du Bois, NAACP

10. Explain the differences in belief between Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois. Washington took a self help approach that the nations racial problems in a slow and calm manner whereas Du Bois demaded immediate and complete equality for blacks which Washington recognized as impossible. The Hallowed Halls of Ivy Know: Vassar, Howard, Morrill Act, Land Grant Colleges, Hatch Act 11. What factors allowed the number of college students to dramatically increase? College enrollment after the Civil War increased dramatically because of land grants and the creation of the elective approach university throughout America as well as the philanthropy of the growing rich. The March of the Mind Know: William James 12. Describe some of the intellectual achievements of the late 1800s. Some intellectual achievments of the late 1800s include the seeking of a higher education, the elective selection of courses in higher education, and increased philosophy and psychology, as well as improvements in public health, safety, and wellbeing.

The Appeal of the Press Know: Joseph Pulitzer, William Randolph Hearst, Yellow Journalism 13. How did the ability to produce newspapers inexpensively change their content? Cheapter newspapers meant that newspapers were now available to the masses meaning that the masses had to be entertained. The audience for neewspapers changed so the content now had a lot of sex, satire, gossip, etc. Apostles of Reform Know: Edwin L. Godkin, Henry George, Edward Bellamy 14. How did writers in the 1870's and 1880's try to address the problems of their time? Writers promoted social reforms through their works. They publicized their opinions through honesty and bluntness often using satire to capture public opnion to encourage civil service reform and change. Postwar Writing Know: Dime novels, Horatio Alger, Walt Whitman, Emily Dickinson 15. Did the trends in writing after the Civil War make it a good period for literature? Explain. The trends made the literature great writing due to a vast amount of historical context that made it both realistic and effective. New plot lines were also introduced to vary the boring formula of novels at the time. Literary Landmarks

Know: Kate Chopin, Mark Twain, Bret Harte, William Dean Howells, Stephen Crane, Henry James, Jack London, Frank Norris, Paul Laurence Dunbar, Charles W. Chestnut, Theodore Dreiser. 16 What did many writers in the late 1800's have in common? Many writers in te late 180s all wrote in some way about the industrialistic aspect of society. Mark Twain, Stephen Crane, Bret Harte, William Dean, Howells and Chopin all had at least one work on the horrors of Industrialism.

The New Morality Know: Victoria Woodhull, Anthony Comstock 17. What evidence demonstrated a battle raging over sexual morality? The dresses of the Woodhull Sisters and Comstock helped show the battle in the late nineteenth century over the appropriate sexual attitude for women and where women lie in society as entities.

Families and Women in the City Know: Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Carrie Chapman Catt, National Women Suffrage Association, Ida B. Wells 18. What changes were occurring in the women's rights movement? Carrie Cat stressed the need for women to step out of their traditional duties as homemakers and mothers to the urban world to give them the right to vote. Women needed avoice on boards, commisons, so suffragists were now encouraging women to get involved and get out there and to participate and makefemale opinion heard. Know: Women's Christian Temperance Union, Carrie Nation, Anti-Saloon League, 18th Amendment, Clara Barton 19. What social causes were women (and many men) involved in the late 1800's? Some social causes included temperance and prohibition movements, animal protection, womens suffrage, labor unions or urban social reform groups. The Business of Amusement Know: Vaudeville, P.T. Barnum, Buffalo Bill Cody, Annie Oakley, James Naismith 21. What forms of recreation became popular from 1870 to 1900? Baseball, football, croquet, boxnng, cycling, Wld West Shows, circues, and minstrel shows all became popular in ths time period.

Chapter #26.1 The Great West Big Picture Themes

1. Native Americans out West faced two options: agree to settle on a reservation or fight the U.S. Army as hostiles. Some chose reservations, others to fight, but all were cleared out. . Chapter #26.1 Identifications Sitting Bull one of the leaders of the Sioux tribe; medicine man; leader during Sioux Wars of 1876 and 1877; made medicine whle another indian lead the army in Custers Last Stand; Sitting Bull and the Sioux were forced into Canada George A. Custer General during Civil War; in 1874 lead his 7th cavalry to put Plain Indians into the Sioux reservation, but was defeated because his army was outnumbered 10 to 1. Chief Joseph leader of Nez Perce; fled with his tribe to Canada instead of to American reservations, but U.S. troops brought him and tribe from Canada back to the reservations; an example of Indian resistance. Sioux Wars lasted from 1876 to 1877; fought between white men and Sioux Indians; started when miners went onto Sioux land and broke a treety between the Whites and Indian; Sioux lead by Sitting Bull and defeated Custer; Custer led the white men until he was killed at the Battle at Little Bighorn; Indians were forced into Canada after being forced to surrender from starvation Ghost Dance a cult that tried bringing spirits of past warriors as inspiration for young warriors to fight; crushed at the Battle of Wounded Knee; led to the Dawes Severalty Act Dawes Severalty Act tried to reform Indian tribes and turn them into white citizens; extremely unsuccessful, came as the result of the Ghost Dance; set up individuals as family heads; tried to produce rugged individualists out of the Indians Battle of Wounded Knee a group of white Christian reformers tried to convert Indians; American troops went with the reformers because they were afraid of the Ghost Dance; while camped outside of the Indian reservation, a gun was fired and troops moved into the reservation, murdering Indians.

Chapter # 26.1 Guided Reading Questions

The Clash of Cultures on the Plain Know: Indian Territory, Sioux, Great Sioux Reservation, Tenth Cavalry 1. Describe the effect of westward expansion on Native Americans. Native Americans suffered due to American westward expansion. The number of Native Americans was in fact dwindling because of the white man diseases that plagued them as well as the Indian Wars between 1864-1890. Many Indians were forced to leave their homes and move into reservations, land that was supposingly untouched by the white man, however, this lead to the destruction of their native culture and disruption of their lives for the benefit of the white man. Receding Native Americans Know: George Armstrong Custer, Bozeman Trail, Sitting Bull, Battle of Little Big Horn, Chief Joseph, Geronimo 2. How was the West "won?" The West was won by the whites through a combination of the following factors/tactics: disease, encroachment of land due to railroads, wars, and lack of buffalo (which were a major staple in their diet and resource for clothing, trading, etc). Right after the Civil War ended, Americans were already using dirty tactics against the Native Americans such as in the Sand Creek Massacre. Then when the Indians retailiated in the Fetterman massacre, a nasty precedent for Indian-American relations was set. The Treaty of Fort Laramie appeared to have created a Sioux reservation but this ended once gold was found by Col. Custer leading to the Battle of Little Bighorn which lead to the permanent creation of American thirst for revenge against Indians. This worsened when the Nez Perce tribe lead by Chief Joseph revolted leading to the Battle of Bear Paw Mountain and the Nez Perce were sent to Kansas where a little less than half of the Nez Perce perished from disease. The Apache tribe was chased by the American military into Mexico and later imprisoned in Florida and Oklahoma. Bellowing Herds of Bison Know: Buffalo Bill Cody 3. How were the Buffalo reduced from 15 million to less than a thousand? The Buffalo were reduced from 15 million to less than a thousand due to Westward expansion. Thanks to the railroads, the Great Plains were divided into sections which prevented the buffalo from roaming as per their nature to reproduce. Then railroads brought out the whites that would eventually hunt them for hides, leisure, or simply to ruin the Indian way of life. The End of the Trail Know: Helen Hunt Jackson, Ghost Dance, Battle of Wounded Knee, Dawes Act, Carlisle Indian School, Indian Reorganization Act 4. What did the government do to try to assimilate Native Americans? The governments tried to assimilate Native Americans by forcing them into the White way of life. They outlawed the sun Dance to try to convert them to Christianity, only to have the Ghost dance rise as a fad for the Native Americans. Then the Dawes Severalty Act was passed which had a goal of eradicating Indian tribes. The Carlisle Indian School was a product of the Dawes which taught native American Children in the white mans ways. The

offensive Dawes Act was revised to later create the Indian Reorganization Act by which, it was already too late to save the Indian culture. Mining: From Dishpan to Ore Breaker Know: Pike's Peak, Comstock Lode, Silver Senators 5.. How did the discovery of precious metals affect the American West? The discovery of the American west hastened the development of the West by practically creating states overnight when fifty niners would flock into cities leading to the influx of general stores as well as saloons, schools, sheriffs, entertainment would later arrive to populate the area. Beef Bonanzas and the Long Drive Know: Long Drive, Wild Bill Hickok 7. Why was cattle ranching so profitable in the 1870's? Cattle ranching was so profitable in the 1870s because of the population boom of the East that lead to an increased demand for food and meat. The concept of the long drive allowed for the transport of longhorns from the South to the north (side note: this is where cowboys developed since they drove the herds northwards). Later on when railroads moved Southwards, cattle ranching no longer needed cowboys, only the tracks. Barbed wires changed ranching from open ranches to closed ranches making cattle ranching more profitable with less land! Barbed wires-Samuel Glidden. The Farmers Frontier Know: Homestead Act, Great American Desert, John Wesley Powell, Joseph F. Glidden 8. Did the Homestead Act live up to its purpose of giving small farmers a descent life on the plains? The Homestead Act gave 60 free acres of free land to settler s who paid a small fee to build a cabin and improve the land. The other method was to buy land 1.25 per acre. Although the Homestead Act indeed offered free land, but what many settlers failed to realize was that the and was completely undeveloped meaning the land was much different than land in the East. Furthermore, some people scammed others by building their cabins12x14inches instead of feet. Eventually, settlers were pushed beyond the 100th meridian where rainfall was sparse, not enough to grow crops. The Far West Comes of Age Know: Boomers, Sooners, 1890, Frederick Jackson Turner, Yellowstone 9. What were some milestones in the closing of the West? Some milestones in the closing of the West included the introduction of several states like Idaho, Washington, Montana, Wyoming, and N&S Dakota in a one block vote. The Oklahoma territory was finally settled and became a state. Utah was admitted as a state and Mormons banned polygamy. The Fading Frontier Know: Francis Parkman, George Catlin, Frederic Remington 10. What effects has the frontier had on the development of the United States?

As written by Frederick Turner, Americn history was in large part written by the history of the colonization of the West. A new attitude of life of renewing life again called Chapter #26.2 Agricultural Revolution and Populism Big Picture Themes 1. Miners looking for silver and/or gold fled to Colorado and Nevada seeking quick fortune. A few found it, the vast majority didnt. 2. Cattle became king in Texas as cowboys drove herds north to the Kansas railroads and reaped quick money. 3. Farmers struggled out west due to several problems: weather, insects, high mortgage rates, high railroad shipping rates, and low prices for their crops. 4. The farmers struggles led to the Peoples (or Populist) Party. This party sought cheap money (or silver money) in order to create inflation and thus make it easier to pay off debts. Chapter #26:2 Identifications Joseph F. Glidden inventor of barbed wire which was essential for the creation of ranches as we know them today and for making modern day image of ranches

James B. Weaver populist nominee for the presidential election of 1892

Oliver H. Kelly foundeer of the Grange, a farmer organization that supported gradual income tax, lower tariffs, and governmental ownership of railroads

Mary Elizabeth Lease Populist feminist who believed that Wall Street or Robber Barrons were the owners of the United States

Comstock Lode in the late 19th century when gold was found in Nevada causing western migration and the accelerated process of nevadas growth to statehood.

Long Drive

Btinging cattle long distances to railroads for faster trasnport and increased profit margins. Homestead Act 160 acres of free land with payment of 30$ for 5 years ; helped urbanize and settle the Western frontier ______________________________________________________________________ _ Granger Laws eventually declared unconstitutionl; tried to control railroad rates to protect farmers from inequality and discrimination

Farmers' Alliance national organization of farmers leading to the creationg of the Populist party; sponsored social gatherings; active poltically and organized cooperateriives fought against dominance of railroads and manufacturers. Populists supporters of farmre, factory workers,socialists, etc Jacob S. Coxey leader of unemplyed in 1894; lead march to Washington demanding government begin public works program Bimetallism Using silver and gold in an economic system Free Silver issue involving unlimited coinage of silver; supported by Bryan and farmers to help pay off debts faster Depression of 1893 worst panic to date; during Cleveland Admin; caused by overspec, labor disorder, agricultural issues

Cross of Gold Speech ______________________________________________________________________ Bryans pro silver speech made in Nebraska Chapter #26.2 Guided Reading Questions The Farm Becomes a Factory Know: Montgomery Ward, Combine 1. Explain the statement, "The amazing mechanization of agriculture in the postwar years was almost as striking as the mechanization of industry." Historians agreed that the civil war was the first modern war where technology and industrial strength actually affected the outcome of the war. Deflation Dooms the Debtor

Know: Deflation 2. What problems faced farmers in the closing decades of the 19th century? At the end of the 19th century, farmers became slaves to a one crop economy and their prices of their product were in freefal with no security thanks to lack of currency. Lack of circulation also lead to the decrease of the price of their plants and many farms had mortgaes with everincreasign mortgage rates. Unhappy Farmers 3. How did nature, government, and business all harm farmers? The West had soil that was deteriorarting rapidly and flooding caused erosion of essential nutrists. In 1887, droughts began driving people out of the West and the lack of structure from government lead to unprotected pricing for agricultural products. Businesses and trusts controlled farmers from harverster trust, barbed wire trust, and fertilizer trust.

The Farmers Take Their Stand Know: The Grange, Cooperatives, Greenback-Labor Party, James B. Weaver 4. How did the Grange attempt to help farmers? The Grange in the late 1800s helped farmers get organized with their crops. They helped farmers figure out exactly what they need to grow and when they need to grow to get better prices. Prelude to Populism Know: The Farmers Alliance, Mary Elizabeth Lease 5. What steps did the Farmers Alliance believe would help farmers? The Farmers Alliance tried getting free mills and gins that they could use. It believed in graduated income taxes, sub-treasures warehouses, and government ownership of railroads. Coxeys Army and the Pullman Strike Know: Coxeys Army, Eugene V. Debs, Pullman Palace Car Company 6. Why did President Cleveland send in federal troops during the Pullman Strike? When the railroad workers stopped working, they were essentially damaging the US economy and hurting commerce leading to Clevelands action to stop the Pullman Strike.

Class Conflict: Plowholders versus Bondholders Know: Fourth Party System 8. The free-silver election of 1896 was probably the most significant since Lincolns victories in 1860 and 1864. Explain. This election was so important due to the weakening of party organizations and the lack of pariticpate in voting which lead to the idea of the fourth party system where the dividing factors were no longer money and reform but now concern for industrial regulation and the welfare of labor!

Republican Standpattism Enthroned Know: Dingley Tariff Bill 9. Did McKinley possess the characteristics necessary to be an effective president? Mckinleys strong stance on foreign policy as a Republican lead to support.McKinley was a strong supporter of the bimetallic standard whcich helped nurse the US economy back to health. Varying Viewpoints: Was the West Really Won? Know: Frederick Jackson Turner 10. Which criticism of the Turner Thesis seems most valid? Explain The idea that the U.S. character was shaped by the West is largely incorrect since the culture of the u.S. was defined by the centers of activity which occurred on the Eastern Seaboard.