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Please Understand Me II: Temperament, Character, Intelligence by David Keirsey

Please Understand Me II: Temperament, Character, Intelligence by David Keirsey

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  • Temperament Theory: Lost and Found
  • The Keirsey Temperament Sorter II
  • The 16 Combinations
  • What the Myers-Briggs Letters Mean
  • The Contribution of Isabel Myers
  • Looking Back
  • The Debt to Isabel Myers
  • How to Proceed
  • Myers’s Four Groups
  • Temperament, Character, Personality
  • Historical Overview
  • The Basic Dimensions of Personality
  • Psychological Functions vs Intelligent Roles
  • Plato’s Artisans
  • The Concrete Utilitarians
  • The Tactical Intellect
  • The Interests of Artisans
  • The Orientation of Artisans
  • The Self-Image of Artisans
  • The Values of Artisans
  • The Social Roles Artisans Play
  • Matrix of Artisan Traits
  • Artisan Role Variants
  • The Promoter [ESTP]
  • The Crafter [ISTP]
  • The Performer [ESFP]
  • The Composer [ISFP]
  • Plato’s Guardians
  • The Concrete Cooperators
  • The Logistical Intellect
  • The Interests of Guardians
  • The Orientation of Guardians
  • The Self-Image of Guardians
  • The Values of Guardians
  • The Social Roles Guardians Play
  • Matrix of Guardian Traits
  • Guardian Role Variants
  • The Supervisor [ESTJ]
  • Plato’s Idealists
  • The Abstract Cooperators
  • The Diplomatic Intellect
  • The Interests of Idealists
  • The Orientation of Idealists
  • The Self-Image of Idealists
  • The Values of Idealists
  • The Social Roles Idealists Play
  • Matrix of Idealist Traits
  • The Teacher [ENFJ]
  • Idealist Role Variants
  • Plato’s Rationals
  • The Abstract Utilitarians
  • The Strategic Intellect
  • The Interests of Rationals
  • The Orientation of Rationals
  • The Self-Image of Rationals 183
  • The Self-Image of Rationals
  • The Values of Rationals
  • The Social Roles Rationals Play
  • Matrix of Rational Traits
  • The Fieldmarshal [ENTJ]
  • Rational Role Variants
  • The Mastermind [INTJ]
  • The Inventor [ENTP]
  • The Architect [INTP]
  • Attraction
  • Getting Along Together
  • The Pygmalion Project
  • The Artisan Playmate
  • The Guardian Helpmate 221
  • The Guardian Helpmate
  • The Idealist Soulmate
  • The Rational Mindmate
  • Maturation
  • Basic Differences
  • The Artisan Child
  • The Guardian Child
  • The Idealist Child
  • The Rational Child
  • Parent and Child
  • The Artisan Liberator
  • The Guardian Socializer
  • The Idealist Harmonizer
  • The Rational Individuator
  • Temperament and Intelligence
  • Identifying Intelligence
  • Tactical Intelligence
  • The Tactical Leader
  • Logistical Intelligence
  • The Logistical Leader
  • Diplomatic Intelligence
  • The Diplomatic Leader
  • Strategic Intelligence
  • The Strategic Leader
  • Chapter 1 Notes 331
  • Chapter 1 Notes

Please Understand Me
i i

Temperament Character Intelligence

David Keirsey

© Prometheus Nemesis Book Company 1998 All rights reserved under the International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without permission in writing from the publisher. All enquiries should be addressed to the publisher. Published in the United States by Prometheus Nemesis Book Company, Post Office Box 2748, Del Mar, CA 92014. Printed in the United States of America First Edition ISBN 1-885705-02-6

“The point of this book,” writes my old friend David Keirsey, “is that people differ from each other, and that no amount of getting after them is going to change them.” The point is also, David might have added, that the important differences between us are our natural birthright, arising in just a few distinctive patterns. Recognizing these patterns can vastly enrich our sense of who we are, of who others are, and of how much we can learn from one another about the problems of life. No person that I know of has studied temperament in action more persistently and more brilliantly than Keirsey, and no one is in a better position to speak to us about it. Keirsey has been “people watching” for almost fifty years, and his interest in temperament as an organizing principle stretches back almost as far. If Please Understand Me was a valuable report on his progress to that time (1978), Please Understand Me II serves to present a report on what he has worked out in the interim twenty years, and also the valuable addition of his ideas about the relationship of temper­ ament to intelligence. I have known David for almost thirty years now. During those years I have had the pleasure of teaching and writing and learning with him, and the even greater pleasure of arguing with him. Our time together has been filled with logical discourse and theoretical speculation, and, at the same time, good, old-fashioned hair-splitting debate (including the use of devious debate tactics and other trickery to see if we could catch the other napping). We are both Rationals, and as you read this book you will understand why we Rationals treasure collecting various skills, exercising ourselves with logical investigation, but also finding delight in argumentation, logical trickery, and (I confess) terrible jokes—as long as they are clever plays on words. You will also see, by the way, why non-Rationals will—each tem­ perament for its own reasons—find what is so rewarding for us Rationals to be intolerable! What I find remarkable about Keirsey’s empirical investigations is which of the many problems in psychology he has chosen to investi­ gate—intelligence, madness, personality—each a very complex problem, and each with a checkered history. And I find his treatment of each unique. His theory of intelligence is like no other, nor is his theory of madness, nor is his theory of personality. Each is unique, true, but far more important, each is useful to practitioners, something that cannot be said, at any rate with much conviction, of any other extant theory of intelligence, or madness, or personality. From David’s study of temperament I have learned that the great personal differences between me and those around me were not an indication that there was something wrong with me—or with them. I have learned that the apparent deficiencies in a person’s characteristic ways of dealing with the world are offset by natural strengths in different areas. We don’t require

that a great painter be a wise teacher, nor that a trusted accountant be a brilliant physicist. We all, according to our temperament, have our areas of distinction and our areas of struggle. Both deserve to be respected for what they are. So it is with temperament: different temperaments naturally show us different patterns of intelligent behavior. Perhaps most important, I have learned that we must not judge either ourselves or others harshly when our (or their) values, preferences, and style of experiencing and dealing with the world are different. There is room for us all, and a need for us all. I am grateful that David has decided to offer us Please Understand Me II, and I feel certain that its readers will be fascinated and pleased with it. Ray Choiniere

Stephen Montgomery, himself an author of note, served as my editor not only for the first edition of Please Understand Me, twenty years ago, but for its recent revision. Without his help over the years I would never have finished the revision, given my penchant for continuously revising my revisions. He was even more than helpful, going as he did far beyond editing, by doing much of the composition. And even more than that, he did a tremendous amount of research over the years and in the remotest places. For instance, it was he who detected what Plato and Aristotle had to say about the different roles the four temperaments of Hippocrates played in the social order. And of course his years of research that went into his four volume set, The Pygmalion Project, are embedded throughout Please Understand Me II. Then there was my family, my son and daughters and their spouses, and of course my wife. They were always there to veto my more wayward speculations and to catch me in my many errors of omission and commission. And my former colleagues and students in the counseling department at California State University Fullerton have been of great help in reviewing the many drafts of the revision and in suggesting things that ought to be inserted or deleted. I wish especially to thank and to commend my colleague, psychologist Ray Choiniere, for his monumental study of the temperament of our forty American Presidents. In return for helping me complete my book on madness and temperament, I helped him complete his book, Presidential Temper­ ament. The findings of our collaborative study of the Presidents are included in the new version of Please Understand Me. And that is not all. Besides his years of research on our many Presidents, his years of work on madness and temperament, Choiniere has been a constant companion for me, assisting me in many ways in conceptualizing Please Understand Me II. David Keirsey

Chapter 1 Different Drummers
Temperament Theory: Lost and Found The Keirsey Temperament Sorter II The 16 Combinations What the Myers-Briggs Letters Mean The Contribution of Isabel Myers Looking Back The Debt to Isabel Myers How to Proceed

2 4 11 12 13 14 15 16

Chapter 2 Temperament and Character
Myers’s Four Groups Temperament, Character, Personality Historical Overview The Basic Dimensions of Personality Psychological Functions vs Intelligent Roles

18 20 22 26 29

Chapter 3 Artisans
Plato’s Artisans The Concrete Utilitarians The Tactical Intellect The Interests of Artisans The Orientation of Artisans The Self-Image of Artisans The Values of Artisans The Social Roles Artisans Play Matrix of Artisan Traits Artisan Role Variants The Promoter [ESTP] The Crafter [ISTP] The Performer [ESFP] The Composer [ISFP]

33 35 38 43 46 50 54 60 62 63 63 66 69 71

Chapter 4 Guardians
Plato’s Guardians The Concrete Cooperators The Logistical Intellect The Interests of Guardians The Orientation of Guardians The Self-image of Guardians The Values of Guardians The Social Roles Guardians Play

76 78 82 86 89 92 96 101

Matrix of Guardian Traits Guardian Role Variants The Supervisor [ESTJ] The Inspector [ISTJ The Provider [ESFJ The Protector [ISFJ 102 104 104 107 110 112 Chapter 5 Idealists Plato’s Idealists The Abstract Cooperators The Diplomatic Intellect The Interests of Idealists The Orientation of Idealists The Self-Image of Idealists The Values of Idealists The Social Roles Idealists Play Matrix of Idealist Traits Idealist Role Variants The Teacher [ENFJ] The Counselor INFJ] The Champion ENFP] The Healer [IN ■P] 116 118 120 123 129 132 136 140 145 147 149 149 152 155 157 Chapter 6 Rationals Plato’s Rationals The Abstract Utilitarians The Strategic Intellect The Interests of Rationals The Orientation of Rationals The Self-Image of Rationals The Values of Rationals The Social Roles Rationals Play Matrix of Rational Traits Rational Role Variants The Fieldmarshal [ENTJ] The Mastermind [INTJ] The Inventor [ENTP] The Architect [INTP] 161 163 165 169 176 178 183 187 192 194 196 196 199 201 204 Chapter 7 Mating Attraction Getting Along Together The Pygmalion Project The Artisan Playmate The Guardian Helpmate The Idealist Soulmate The Rational Mindmate 208 208 211 212 214 221 229 240 .

Chapter 8 Parenting Maturation Basic Differences The Artisan Child The Guardian Child The Idealist Child The Rational Child Parent and Child The Artisan Liberator The Guardian Socializer The Idealist Harmonizer The Rational Individuator 252 253 254 257 261 265 270 275 275 278 280 283 Chapter 9 Leading Temperament and Intelligence Identifying Intelligence Tactical Intelligence The Tactical Leader Logistical Intelligence The Logistical Leader Diplomatic Intelligence The Diplomatic Leader Strategic Intelligence The Strategic Leader 286 287 290 295 298 303 307 312 316 320 325 Chapter 2 Notes Bibliographies The Keirsey Four Temperament Sorter 331 337 341 .

perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music which he hears. however measured or far away.I f a man does not keep pace with his companions. —Henry David Thoreau .

or actions. Nor is there any reason to change them. I do not. but that you are no longer irritated or disappointed with me for my seeming waywardness. your friend. Or if I act. try not to ask me to feel other than I do. But whatever our relation. and. And one day. might preserve and even cherish those differences. I f you will allow me any of my own wants. your colleague. We differ in our 1 . please let me be. in the manner of your design for action. your offspring. please try not to tell me that my want is wrong. I may be your spouse. at least pause before you set out to correct them. We differ from each other in fundamental ways. or fail to act. this I know: You and I are fundamen­ tally different and both of us have to march to our own drummer. given the same circumstances. and that no amount of getting after them is going to change them. or beliefs. for the moment at least. ask you to understand me. far from seeking to change me. Or if my emotion seems less or more intense than yours. the point of this updated and expanded edition is that people are different from each other. because the differences are probably good. your parent. As in the original Please Understand Me. and might finally appear as right—for me. then you open yourself to the possibility that some day these ways o f mine might not seem so wrong. To put up with me is the first step to understanding me. in trying to understand me. Or if my beliefs are different from yours. That will come only when you are willing to give up trying to change me into a copy of you.1 Different Drummers I f you do not want what I want. you might come to prize my differences. or emotions. perhaps. Not that you embrace my ways as right for you.

Thus. On the other hand. John Watson. Of course we can be pressured by others. the best models for how humans should think. or crazy. Differences are all around us and are not difficult to see. provided that the child is put in his charge while yet an infant. and at best you’ll see his or her struggles to comply—but beware of building resentment. and literature up through the 19th century. Like Pygmalion. The idea continued in the mainstream of thought in medicine. in our wants and beliefs. we instinctively account for differences in others not as an ex­ pression of natural diversity. even with our flaws. and in what we say and do. and that what might seem to be higher motives are merely disguised versions of . and you ask the impossible. The task of sculpting others into our own likeness fails before it begins. Many investigators around the turn of the century also believed that people are fundamentally alike in having a single basic motive. Temperament Theory: Lost and Found That people are highly formed at birth. when Henry Higgins wonders why Eliza Doolittle can’t simply “be like me?” But our Pygmalion Project cannot succeed. the first American behaviorist. these variations in action and attitude trigger in us an alltoo-human response. if we look. Seeing others as different from ourselves. feel.. with fundamentally different temperaments or predispositions to act in certain ways. Our attempts to reshape others may produce change. After all. much as the mythical sculptor Pygmalion labored to shape his perfect woman in stone. Sigmund Freud claimed we are all driven from within by instinctual lust. And our job. at least with those we care about. the idea that people are born without predispositions and are therefore largely malleable appears to be an early 20th century notion. and the Roman physician Galen fleshed it out around 190 A. speak. but the change is distortion rather than transformation. is a very old idea.2 Different Drummers thoughts. Ask people to change their character. not a docile pussycat. are we not ourselves.D. in our feelings. Insist that your child or your spouse be like you. we labor to remake our companions in our own image. or bad. or a fox change into an owl. Ivan Pavlov saw behavior as nothing more than mechanical responses to environmental stimulation. we often conclude that these differences are bad in some way. Just as an acorn cannot grow into a pine tree. Remove a lion’s fangs and behold a still fierce predator. but in terms of flaw and affliction: others are different because they’re sick. philosophy. but such pressure only binds and twists us. Unfortunately. or stupid. It was first proposed in outline by Hippocrates around 370 B. is to correct these flaws. so we cannot trade our character for someone else’s. and act? Remember the line in My Fair Lady (based on Shaw’s play Pygmalion).C. and that people are acting strangely because something is the matter with them. claimed he could shape a child into any form he wanted by conditioning it.

” and what psychologist Henry Murray would much later call “personology.” Our preference for a given function is characteristic. a number of other investigators revived the long prac­ ticed study of personality that philosopher John Stewart Mill had called “ethology.” combined with our preference for one of what he called the “four basic psychological functions”—“thinking. devised a questionnaire for identifying different kinds of personality. The Mvers-Briggs Type Indicator. another Viennese physician. men such as Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. they all agreed that everyone had a single fundamental motive. He claimed that people have a multitude of instincts. The idea of inborn differences in human action and attitude was all but abandoned.” Largely inspired by Jung’s book.) .” “feeling.” “intuition. while psychology came to be dominated by Freudian psychodynamics on the one hand.” But their books. a Swiss physician named Carl Jung disagreed. Harry Sullivan. Interest in personality typology was restored in both America and Europe. the questionnaire was designed to identify sixteen patterns of action and attitude. in 1920. saw us striving for superiority. and it caught on so well that in the 1990s over a million individuals were taking it each year. and that one instinct is no more important than another. (By the way. the year of publication of Mvers’s book. or to both. In spite of their differ­ ences about what it might be. dusted off Jung’s Psychological Types and with her mother. What is important is our natural inclination to either “extraversion” or “introversion. most retained the idea of a single motivation. and Pavlovian conditioning on the other.” that drive them from within. At mid-century Isabel Myers. a layman. an American physician. and so we can be identified or typed by this preference. put forth social solidarity as the basic motive.” About this time. Breakthroughs in the behavioral sciences often come from outside the field. had us all seeking after self-actualization. and Jung’s ideas were given new life almost by accident.Temperament Theory: Lost and Found 3 that instinct. Kathryn Briggs. what he called “archetypes. In his book Psychological Types he wrote that people are different in essential ways. Thus Jung presented what he termed the “function types” or “psychological types. the test had been around as a research tool since the early 1950s. and the Japanese became interested in it in 1962. existentialist psychologists. Alfred Adler.” “sensation. Although many of Freud’s colleagues and followers took issue with him. gathered dust in college libraries. Finally. along with Jung’s Psychological Types. Behavior was explained as due to unconscious motives or to past conditioning. he wrote. Then. She called it “The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

1 When the phone rings do you __(a) hurry to get to it first 2 Are you more __(a) observant than introspective 3 Is it worse to __(a) have your head in the clouds 4 With people are you usually more __(a) firm than gentle 5 Are you more comfortable in making __(a) critical judgments 6 Is clutter in the workplace something you __(a) take time to straighten up 7 Is it your way to __(a) make up your mind quickly __(b) hope someone else will answer __(b) introspective than observant __(b) be in a rut _ (b ) gentle than firm __(b) value judgments __(b) tolerate pretty well __(b) pick and choose at some length . if given the chance.” and “do your own thing” express something that can be put to good use in everyday life? There is much to be gained by appreciating differences.” “different strokes for different folks. Of course. The Keirsey Temperament Sorter II Decide on answer a or b and put a check mark in the proper column of the answer sheet on page 10. There is no substitute for careful and informed observation. the best way to determine your traits of character is to watch what you actually do from time to time and place to place and in different company. But the first step toward seeing others as distinct from yourself is to become better acquainted with your own traits of character.4 Different Drummers That they will. Scoring directions are provided. excel at different sorts of work? Could it be that such popular sayings as “to each his own. and much to be lost by ignoring them or condemning them. and so devices like this questionnaire can be useful in getting you started asking questions about your preferred attitudes and actions. But self examination is quite foreign to most people. There are no right or wrong answers since about half the population agrees with whatever answer you choose.

The Keirsey Temperament Sorter II 8 Waiting in line. do you often __(a) chat with others 9 Are you more __(a) sensible than ideational 10 Are you more interested in __(a) what is actual 5 __(b) stick to business __(b) ideational than sensible __(b) what is possible 11 In making up your mind are you more likely to go by __(a) data __(b) desires 12 In sizing up others do you tend to be __(a) objective and impersonal 13 Do you prefer contracts to be __(a) signed. sealed. do you __(a) interact with many. and delivered 14 Are you more satisfied having __(a) a finished product 15 At a party. even strangers 16 Do you tend to be more __(a) factual than speculative 17 Do you like writers who __(a) say what they mean 18 Which appeals to you more: __(a) consistency of thought __(b) friendly and personal __(b) settled on a handshake __(b) work in progress __(b) interact with a few friends __(b) speculative than factual __(b) use metaphors and symbolism __(b) harmonious relationships 19 If you must disappoint someone are you usually __(a) frank and straightforward __(b) warm and considerate 20 On the job do you want your activities __(a) scheduled __(b) unscheduled .

unalterable statements __(b) tentative. is it more natural for you to __(a) point out mistakes 28 Are you more comfortable __(a) after a decision 29 Do you tend to __(a) say right out what’s on your mind 30 Common sense is __(a) usually reliable __(b) tax your reserves __(b) illustrate principles __(b) rather fascinating __(b) look for common ground __(b) merciful __(b) try to please others __(1 b) before a decision __(b) keep your ears open __(b) frequently questionable 31 Children often do not __(a) make themselves useful enough __(b) exercise their fantasy enough 32 When in charge of others do you tend to be __(a) firm and unbending __(b) forgiving and lenient 33 Are you more often __(a) a cool-headed person __(b) a warm-hearted person . do you __(a) stick to your guns 26 Is it better to be __(a) just 27 At work. preliminary statements 22 Does interacting with strangers __(a) energize you 23 Facts __(a) speak for themselves 24 Do you find visionaries and theorists __(a) somewhat annoying 25 In a heated discussion.6 Different Drummers 21 Do you more often prefer __(a) final.

do you like to __(a) tie up all the loose ends 42 Do you prefer to work __(a) to deadlines 43 Are you the kind of person who __(a) is rather talkative 44 Are you inclined to take what is said __(a) more literally 45 Do you more often see __(a) what’s right in front of you 46 Is it worse to be __(a) a softy 7 __(b) exploring the possibilities __(b) spontaneous than deliberate __(b) a private person __(b) a fanciful sort of person __(b) generalities than particulars (b) “There’s a sentimental person” _ ( b ) your feelings (b) move on to something else __(b) just whenever __(b) doesn’t miss much __(b) more figuratively (b) what can only be imagined __(b) hard-nosed .The Keirsey Temperament Sorter II 34 Are you prone to __(a) nailing things down 35 In most situations are you more __(a) deliberate than spontaneous 36 Do you think of yourself as __(a) an outgoing person 37 Are you more frequently __(a) a practical sort of person 38 Do you speak more in __(a) particulars than generalities 39 Which is more of a compliment: __(a) “There’s a logical person” 40 Which rules you more __(a) your thoughts 41 When finishing a job.

8 Different Drummers 47 In trying circumstances are you sometimes __(a) too unsympathetic __(b) too sympathetic 48 Do you tend to choose __(a) rather carefully __(b) somewhat impulsively 49 Are you inclined to be more __(a) hurried than leisurely __(b) leisurely than hurried 50 At work do you tend to __(a) be sociable with your colleagues __(b) keep more to yourself 51 Are you more likely to trust __(a) your experiences __(b) your conceptions 52 Are you more inclined to feel __(a) down to earth __(b) somewhat removed 53 Do you think of yourself as a __(a) tough-minded person __(b) tender-hearted person 54 Do you value in yourself more that you are __(a) reasonable __(b) devoted 55 Do you usually want things __(a) settled and decided (b) just penciled in 56 Would you say you are more __(a) serious and determined __(b) easy going 57 Do you consider yourself __(a) a good conversationalist __(b) a good listener 58 Do you prize in yourself __(a) a strong hold on reality __(b) a vivid imagination 59 Are you drawn more to __(a) fundamentals __(b) overtones .

The Keirsey Temperament Sorter II 60 Which seems the greater fault: __(a) to be too compassionate 61 Are you swayed more by __(a) convincing evidence 62 Do you feel better about __(a) coming to closure 9 __(b) to be too dispassionate __(b) a touching appeal __(b) keeping your options open 63 Is it preferable mostly to __(a) make sure things are arranged __(b) just let things happen naturally 64 Are you inclined to be __(a) easy to approach 65 In stories do you prefer __(a) action and adventure 66 Is it easier for you to __(a) put others to good use 67 Which do you wish more for yourself: __(a) strength of will 68 Do you see yourself as basically __(a) thick-skinned 69 Do you tend to notice __(a) disorderliness 70 Are you more __(a) routinized than whimsical __(b) somewhat reserved __(b) fantasy and heroism __(b) identify with others __(b) strength of emotion __(b) thin-skinned __(b) opportunities for change __(b) whimsical than routinized .

that you have two numbers for boxes 3 through 8. Each of the 14 boxes should have a number in it. so each box has only one number.10 Different Drummers Answer Sheet Enter a check for each answer in the column for a or b. however. Do the same for the b answers you have checked. Add down so that the total number of a answers is written in the box at the bottom of each column (see next page for illustration). . Now add all the pairs of numbers and enter the total in the boxes below the answer grid. a b 1 8 15 22 29 36 43 50 57 64 1 1t 1 E 2 a b 2 9 16 23 30 37 44 51 58 65 2 3 a b 3 10 17 24 31 38 45 52 59 66 4 3 a b 4 11 18 25 32 39 46 53 60 67 4 5 a b 5 12 19 26 33 40 47 54 61 68 6 5 a b 6 13 20 27 34 41 48 55 62 69 6 7 a b 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 8 7 — ► 1f — ► t 4 51 1 T F 6 — ► 1r 3I I s N 7 1 I I J P Directions for Scoring 1. Bring down the first number for each box beneath the second. 2. Do this for box No. Note. as indicated by the arrows. Transfer the number in box No. 1 of the answer grid to box No. 1 below the answer grid. 2 as well.

112 . 71] Four SJs [Guardians]: ESTJ [Supervisor. 69] ISFP [Composer. pg. If the two numbers of any pair are equal. pg. It should be one of the following: Four SPs [Artisans] ESTP [Promoter. Now you have four pairs of numbers. 63] ISTP [Crafter. 110 ISFJ [Protector. pg. 107] ESFJ [Provider. pg. pg. pg. 66] ESFP [Performer. pg. 104] ISTJ [Inspector. Circle the letter below the larger numbers of each pair (see sample answer sheet below for an illustration). 7 ✓ 15 ✓ 22 a a 7 ✓ 16 7 10 a a ✓ a ✓ 12 a ✓ ✓ 13 ✓ ✓ 20 ✓ 27 ✓ 34 ✓ 41 ✓ 48 55 a ✓ 14 ✓ 21 ✓ 23 ✓ 30 37 ✓ 29 ✓ 36 ✓ 43 50 ✓ 57 ✓ 64 ✓ * / / ✓ 11 ✓ 18 ✓ 25 ✓ 32 39 46 ✓ 53 60 ✓ 67 ✓ 17 ✓ 24 31 38 ✓ ✓ 45 ✓ 52 ✓ 59 ✓ 66 4 3 19 ✓ 26 ✓ 33 ✓ 40 47 ✓ 54 ✓ ✓ 61 ✓ 44 51 ✓ 58 / 65 / 2 3 / / 7 / / ✓ 28 ✓ ✓ 35 ✓ 42 ✓ 49 56 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 62 ✓ 69 ✓ 6 7 ✓ 63 70 ✓ 8 7 * 4 5 4 68 6 5 7 * © i 7 \ l 4 \ 6 18 T ® ® p The 16 Combinations You have now identified your type.The 16 Combinations 11 3. then circle neither. but put a large X below them and circle it. pg.

By the way. having family or friends take the FourTypes Sorter can be a fascinating and enjoyable way to promote discussion on the topic of personality differences. pg. then reading both ESTJ and ESFJ portraits may help you choose one or the other as more like you. pg. The letters represent the following words: E S T J = = = = Extraverted Sensory Thinking Judging or or or or I = Introverted N = Intuitive F = Feeling P = Perceiving Myers found these words in Jung’s Psychological Types. pg. 152] ENFP [Champion. chosen from four pairs of alternatives. Or perhaps your type label was XNFP. if an X appears in the S-N scale (or even if the two scores are nearly equal) it is advisable to disregard the Temperament Sorter and turn to the Keirsey FourTypes Sorter on page 348. pg. 201] INTP [Architect. SP. For example. By completing this questionnaire you may be able to identify your basic temperament type—NF. NT. 157] Four NTs [Rationals]: ENTJ [Fieldmarshal. E or I. pg. T or F. if we look closely at her type descriptions. and choose the one more like you. we discover that by . pg. 149] INFJ [Counselor. pg. but in adopting them she put her own spin on them. and extra scoring forms on pages 346 and 347. Myers elected to label them with a combination of letters. E = Expressive S = Observant T = Tough-minded J = Scheduling or or or or I = Reserved N = Introspective F = Friendly P = Probing Thus. as indicated above.12 Different Drummers Four NFs [Idealists]: ENFJ [Teacher. What the Myers-Briggs Letters Mean Instead of naming her sixteen types of personality with descriptive words. pg. SJ—and you can then scan the four variants of whichever type is indicated. 196] INTJ [Mastermind. Here again reading both INFP and ENFP portraits may help you decide which type seems more like you. 199] ENTP [Inventor. So let us consider what Myers actually meant in using Jung’s words in The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. S or N. 155] INFP [Healer. 204] If you have an X in your type label you should read the two portraits indicated. You will find individual portraits on the page number indicated in the list above. if your type label was ESXJ. However. J or P.

are friendly (F). for example. the ISFP. “the emperor has no clothes on!” One reason Myers could do this was that she was not weighted down by the long history of bickering among anthro­ . By “thinking” she meant being “tough-minded” or objective and impersonal with others. are sensibly observant of their environs (S). while. But in different circumstances. are eager to express their views to others (E). On the other hand.” For example. and op­ tions. But we are effective in different ways. the ISFPs and ENTJs. Isabel Myers handled the problem of individual differences with a freshness of vision not unlike that of the child (in the Hans Christian Anderson tale) who innocently exclaimed. Myers regarded the eight letters and the traits they represent as the parts or elements of personality. and are given to probing for options (P). Or take another pair. as sensually observant (S). hence “probing” or exploring. It is probably the apparent simplicity of this scheme that has caught the attention of millions of people around the world. who maintain a quiet reserve (I). are introspective (N). In her view ESTJs. and are at our best when contributing what she called our special “gifts differing. and are given to making scheduling judgments (J).” or highly imaginative of things seen only with the mind’s eye. are tough-minded (T). by “intuitive” she meant being “in­ trospective. by “feeling” she meant being “friendly. In contrast are the INFPs.” or sympa­ thetic and personal with others. in the case of “perceiving” Myers apparently failed to notice that her mentor Jung had said that sensation and perception are identical.”4 However. such as those requiring the marshalling of forces. the ENTJs are socially outgoing (E). are tough-minded (T). So here is a rather simple and literal way to spell out some easily observed differences between people.The Contribution of Isabel Myers 13 “extraverted” Myers meant having an “expressive” and outgoing social attitude.3 By “judging” she meant given to making and keeping “schedules”. The Contribution of Isabel Myers During the last thirty years of her life. by “introverted” she meant having a “reserved” and seclusive social attitude. independent of one another. are introspective (N). such as when artistic composition is called for. Myers presented all of her types as effective people. the ENTJ will be more effective than his or her opposite. Myers saw ISFPs as reluctant to exhibit themselves socially (I). It is the social context that determines which kind of personality will be more effective. little harm was done because when Myers said “perceiving” she actually meant looking around for alternatives. as friendly (F) and as opportunistic (P). the ISFP is in a much better position to succeed than the ENTJ.1 By “sensory” Myers meant being highly “observant” of things in the immediate environment. in some situations. and are judicious in scheduling activities (J). And this reversibility is thought to hold for all eight pairs of opposites. opportunities. so she went her own way and opposed “perceiving” to “judg­ ing.

Myers confined her efforts to that very practical purpose. when a visiting psychologist from Educational Testing Service handed me my psychological type portrait upon my completion of the Myers-Briggs questionnaire. etc. and set the stage for people around the world to get a word portrait of themselves and of their companions. values facts mainly in relation to theory. psychol­ ogists. philosophy. and the more complicated problems of engineering.1 remember vividly. so her definitions and explanations are very few and these few are very brief. Looking Back I must comment about the way the work of Isabel Myers struck me when I first encountered it in 1956... rather than four. That is just what Myers did. though based on Spranger’s Types o f Men. takes in the possibilities. is this too simple a way to approach the very difficult problem of identifying individual differences in personality? Of course it is. But only if the purpose is to define and explain the problem of individual differences to the satisfaction of behavioral scientists. like The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. wants to state the exact truth—and keeps it so exact and so complicated that few can follow . But the Myers-Briggs questionnaire did not fail. is good at pure science. No need to worry. here and now. Well now. And The Allport-Vernon Study of Values. Therefore it is the layman who must deal with those differences. biologists. mathematics. or. human differences confront us at every turn and are clear and present to the layman. she implied.. as a teacher cares more for the subject than for the . psychologists. thereby missing Spranger’s main point. psychology.. with non-technical interests.14 Different Drummers pologists. for different characters usually have different things in mind. biologists. The Grey-Wheelwright Type Schedule failed. and sociologists. Her solution was to figure out what different kinds of people have in mind. teacher. . abstract thinker in economics. is persevering and markedly independent of external circumstances . makes the scholar.. though. What we do... research. for that matter.. And what we have in mind is a matter of character.. about the problems facing anthropologists. and so failed to be useful. she proposed. The portrait said that I was an INTP who is primarily interested in the principles underlying things rather than the things themselves . And let it be noted that all previous attempts by behavioral scientists to devise useful tests of personality had failed. and in as straightforward a manner as possible. it was based on Jung’s Psychological Types.. identified six types. of epistemology. But maybe it isn’t too simple if the very practical purpose is that of devising a tool for identifying different kinds of personality. and sociologists on the question of human nature.. After all. even after forty or so years. of linguistics.. comes from what we have in mind. is inwardly absorbed in current analysis or problem . about the knotty problems of logic.

. only five years out of graduate school. working as a corrective interventionist for schools and trying very hard to figure out how to apply what I had learned about people in making myself useful to school children and their parents and teachers and administrators. and that therefore there had to be others just like me. ingenuity. Indeed. At the time I didn’t realize they were like me. It was then that I met two of them who turned out to be my friends for life. Wow. and why I was so very different from my fellow fighter pilots in the Marine Corps. long immersed in my studies of personology. and the one professor I admired was just like me. For I was later to find that the four groups of personality types described by Myers corresponded nicely with the four personality types of several prede­ cessors. Eduard Spranger. all of which could be traced back to the ideas of Plato. Had she not devised her personality inventory and its accompanying portraits of personality. likely to have insight. Isabel Myers. again! I also understood for the first time why I felt so different from everybody else.The Debt to Isabel Myers students . The Debt to Isabel Myers Myers must have accomplished her feat of developing Jung’s distinctions into sixteen type portraits by dint of considerable observation of people in action. So the debt owed Isabel Myers by students of human conduct is truly enormous. Aristotle. including my parents. I already knew some of that stuff about myself. Salvaging the useful parts of Jung’s cumbersome and self-contradictory theory of psycho­ logical types and making it available to scientist and layman alike was quite a feat. . fertility of ideas about problems .. 15 Wow! Here I was.. All those years growing up I hadn’t been sure whether there was something wrong with me or with all these other people. And along comes a little old lady from Princeton New Jersey. about who I was and what I was good for. intellectual curiosity. especially those of Eric Adickes. to tell me about myself. but I was sure that I had never met anyone like me until after the war when I began studying psychology at school. would not have been able to connect her portraits to earlier ones. looking back on my graduate studies I realized that my two best friends in the psychology department were just like me. but I didn’t know that I was a kind or type of person. quickness of understanding. and Eric Fromm. Oh. these people having all sorts of difficulties getting along with each other. and was my friend and mentor for my twenty years of graduate studies. and friends. I for one. brothers. and Galen. as well as a great deal of imaginative speculation. Ernst Kretschmer.. more interested in reaching solutions than in putting them into practice. only that we saw eye to eye on most everything we were interested in.

as are Guardians and Rationals (SJs and NTs). At the end of each temperament chapter are the role variant portraits. we are all different from each other. However. Chapter 2. or skip around at your pleasure. is a bit on the abstract side. turning directly to the chapter on their specific temperament: Chapter 3 (pg. or leader. focusing on the theory and history of temperament and character studies. With a firm grasp of their character style. 116) for the Idealist NFs. each of these chapters is also divided into sections pertaining to the four temperaments.16 Different Drummers How to Proceed As I said at the beginning of this chapter. parent. And maybe a glance at the role variants of their opposites might provide an interesting and enlightening contrast. and Leading in Chapter 9. and Chapter 6 (page 161) for the Rational NTs. which means that our most effective route through the rest of this book is likely also to be different. after Chapter 2 readers are invited to go their separate ways. and readers might at this point want to read about their fellow SPs. your choice depends largely upon your temperament. But remember: no matter how you proceed. Chapter 5 (pg. and many readers might want to skim it or save it for later. whether you read for comprehensive knowledge or for personal insight. Chapter 4 (pg. first page to last. or NTs—this will add details and round out their own portraits. I must say. SJs. In any event. Let me make some suggestions. 75) for the Guardian SJs. readers can move on to the last three chapters which discuss how the four temperaments play three key social roles: Mating in Chapter 7. after they have gotten better acquainted with the actions and attitudes of the four temperaments presented in the other chapters. whether you read in a traditional way. As explained in Chapter 2. so here again readers might want to read the brief introductory material and then turn to the pages on their particular roles as mate. NFs. . Parenting in Chapter 8. Artisans and Idealists (SPs and NFs) are opposites. 32) for the Artisan SPs.

and she wanted Oz to return her to the security of her Aunt and Uncle’s farm. four individuals set out on a strange and dangerous journey. Although the most ingenious of the four. ” he said. and he wanted the Wizard to give him back his nerve. Each of them was lacking something vital to his or her nature. Dorothy felt stranded and alone. Lion was lacking courage. ” he said. loving heart beating in his chest.2 Temperament and Character Once upon a time. “I don’t think we’re in Kansas any more. and each wanted to find the great Oz and ask him for his help. ” he said. As tender and sensitive as he was. ” she said to her little dog. Brain—Baum in his Wizard of Oz characters managed to catch the essence of four personalities. Arm-in-arm. and he wanted Oz to make him smart. in the land of Oz. Courage. “Toto. and he wanted Oz to help him feel a warm. “Brains are the only things worth having in this world. magnificent beast. “There’s no place like home. Scarecrow thought he had no brain. these four very different characters set off to the Emerald City to seek the Wizard’s help. Although a powerful. ” Though never really lost at all. he felt stiffened with rust and unable to love. Dorothy was afraid she had lost her way home. he considered himself witless and worthless. Heart. Tin Woodman believed he had no heart. he had grown cowardly and lost his self-respect. four distinct patterns of attitude and action that have been observed again and again in human beings for over two thousand years. “ As long as I know myself to be a coward I shall be unhappy. “No one can love who has no heart. Home. ” she said. These are also the four groupings that 17 .

” and “persuasive”—as “gifted with machines and tools”—as acting “with effortless economy”—as “sensitive to color.” Bingo! Typewatching from then on was a lot easier. This.” “tolerant. is very important to SPs. NFs. and though some are socially expressive (E) and some reserved (I). No chance is to be blown. then. as were her four “SPs. though Educational Testing Service had been using her questionnaire. all of them make sure that what they do is practical and effective in getting what they want Consistent with this view Myers described SPs as “adaptable. no opening missed. Adickes. helped me to see that Myers’s four “SJs” were very much alike. and NTs—being light years apart in their attitudes and actions. line. each having written of four types of character.” and “athletic”—as very much “aware of reality and never fighting it”—as “open-minded” and ever “on the lookout for workable compromises”—as knowing “what’s going on around them” and as able “to see the needs of the moment”—as “storing up useful facts” and having “no use for the­ ories”—as “easygoing. Spranger. or useful is checked out for advantage. and so let us start with her observations. the four groups— SPs. whenever or wherever an opportunity arises. Myers’s Four Groups Crossing paths with Isabel Myers got me in the habit of typewatching way back in 1956. SJs. and this is where I first encountered her work.” So SPs. the MBTI. I soon found it convenient and useful to partition Myers’s sixteen types into four groups. Myers completed her book The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in 1958 and published it in 1962. However.” “artistic. pleasurable. are very much . as seen by Myers. Though they may differ in their attitude toward tough-mindedness (T) and friendliness (F) in exploring for options. and texture”—as wanting “first-hand experiences” and in general “enjoying life. for some years doing personality research in numerous colleges and high schools around the country. no angle overlooked—whatever or whoever might turn out to be exciting.” “unprejudiced. is what Myers had to say about the four groups: The SPs Myers had SPs probing around their immediate surroundings in order to detect and exploit any favorable options that came within reach. and Fromm.18 Temperament and Character Myers seems to have had in mind when she discussed similarities among certain of her sixteen types. four earlier contributors. which she herself suggested in saying that all four of what she referred to as the “NFs” were alike in many ways and that all four of the “NTs” were alike in many ways—although what she called the “STs” seemed to me to have very little in common. Kretschmer. just as the “SFs” had little in common. Having the freedom to act on the spur of the moment.

and colleagues—feeling good about them­ selves and getting along with each other. To this end. The NTs Also on the introspective side. Myers had NFs as friendly to the core in dreaming up how to give meaning and wholeness to people’s lives. something they must deal with in a very personal way. Conflict in those around them is painful for NFs. and so they care deeply about keeping morale high in their membership groups. and NTs. The SJs Myers had SJs.” “persevering. an INFP herself. showing NFs to be very much like each other and greatly different from SPs. the SJs. all of them demand that ways and means of getting things done are proper and acceptable. all ap­ proved ventures carefully insured.” and “hard-working”—as “detailed. saw her fellow NFs as “humane” and “sympathetic”—as “enthusiastic” and “religious”—as “creative” and “intu­ itive”—and as “insightful” and “subjective. namely that of scheduling their own and others’ activities so that needs are met and conduct is kept within bounds. while they might differ from each other on how important judging schedules (J) or probing for options (P) is in acting on their friendly feelings.” “painstaking. and about nurturing the positive self-image of their loved ones. all legitimate needs promptly met. Thus for SJs. SJs. Though they may differ in their pref­ erence for judging schedules (J) or probing for options (P) as they tackle .” and “thorough. Mends. like SPs. but for an entirely different reason. and NTs.” and “unimpulsive”—as “patient. And so Myers described the SJs as “conservative” and “stable”—as “consistent” and “routinized”—as “sensible. all products thoroughly inspected. observing their close surroundings with a keen eye. every action should be closely supervised. NTs require themselves to be persistently and consistently rational in their actions. highly unlike that of the SPs. Though SJs might differ in being toughminded (T) or friendly (F) in observing their schedules. everybody should be doing what they’re supposed to. The NFs On the introspective side.Myers’s Four Groups 19 like one another and very much different from the other types. and NTs.” “factual.” Again this is a distinct picture of attitude and action.” This too is a clear-cut pattern of action and attitude. Indeed.” “dependable. NFs. and though they can be expressive (E) or reserved (I) in social attitude. NFs. Thus Myers. Myers had NTs as tough-minded in figuring out what sort of technology might be useful to solve a given problem. everybody should be getting their just deserts. all NFs consider it vitally important to have everyone in their circle—their family. and while their social address can be expressive (E) or reserved (I). everything should be in its proper place.

the emergent form. that whatever they do and say makes sense. Character. Furthermore. What. Thus.” “theoretical. building dams. say. and respectability. the SJs base their self-image on reliability. but that these actions and attitudes are unified—they hang together.20 Temperament and Character problems. This underlying consistency can be observed from a very early age—some features earlier than others—long before individual experience or social context (one’s particular software) has had time or occasion to imprint the person. not only are we predisposed to develop certain attitudes and not others. these three traits. foxes are predis­ posed—born—to raid hen houses. In the same way. developing together as if out of a single seed. Character is dispo­ sition. SJs. and though they can seem expressive (E) or reserved (I) around others. Thus temperament is the inborn form of human nature. . preclude the emergence of a self-image based on. unless arrested in its maturation by an unfavorable envi­ ronment. is this thing called “temperament. Personality Before I trace the history of these four underlying forms of personality. audacity.” and “research-oriented. our brain is a sort of computer which has temperament for its hardware and character for its software. or hunting at night. Thus. develops the habit appropriate to its temperament: stealing chick­ ens. one of which is temperament and the other character.” Here again is a unique and easily recognizable configuration of character traits. benevolence.” and what relation does it have to character and personality? There are two sides to personality. and NFs.” and “intellectual”—as “complex. Each type of creature.” “scientific. the SPs base their self-image on artistic action. which develops through the interaction of temperament and environment. for example. let me try to clarify the nature of temperament and character. nurturing companions. placing an identifiable fingerprint on each individual’s attitudes and actions. The hardware is the physical base from which character emerges. and owls to hunt alone in the dark. and authenticity. we might ask. and set the Myersian groups into this larger and more ancient context. Put another way. these three traits emerging together as a unified structure of personality. certain actions and not others. and personality are configured. these three traits evolving together of necessity. And again. So Myers described the NTs as “analytical” and “systematic”—as “ab­ stract. which means that.” “exacting” and “independent”—as “logical” and “technical”—and as “curious. character. beavers to dam up streams. while character is a configuration of habits. temperament pre-disposition.” “competent” and “inventive”—as “efficient. empathy. which are characteristics of the NFs. Temperament is a configuration of inclinations. character. starkly different from SPs. Temperament. and adaptability to cir­ cumstance. dolphins to affiliate in close-knit schools. service. all NTs insist that they have a rationale for everything they do. the NTs a breed apart. I want to emphasize that temperament.

and implied that those people who don’t make it nevertheless have a latent need for self-actualization. he said. then they might not all share the desire to take Maslow’s last step into self-actualization. There are other paths. And a few of us—not really very many. held that we are all motivated by a number of needs which displace each other as we satisfy them. he suggested—are able to arrive finally at what he called the “self-actualizing” stage of development. Personality 21 the unfolding of these three traits together weighs against developing a self-image based on ingenuity. Those of the SJ temperament hold themselves in higher regard when they attain a reputation as pillars of society. Only those of one particular temperament. rather. But beyond this point temperament theory counsels us to part company with Maslow and other hierarchists. Of course all must have self-esteem. and that we then turn our interest to achieving self-esteem. nor by needs for safety. Freud. as he supposed. born with different needs and inclinations. It is unfortunate that Maslow. no longer motivated by the primary physical needs. it is but one path to self-esteem. The first can be called the theory of hierarchical motivation. Alfred Adler was right in that the quest for powers motivates us—some of us—and those of the NT temperament look upon themselves with pride as their technological powers increase. and not as an end in itself.Temperament. then on to social needs (love. It certainly makes sense to say that in normal development many of us arrange our lives so that we satisfy our need for sustenance. Character. for social ties. are concerned with becoming self-actualized—finding their true selves—and value themselves more in the degree they achieve this aim. pride). clothing. saw the aims of the other three character types as merely arrested attempts at the NF goal of self-actualization. For if people are fundamentally different. We ascend. and in the service of self-esteem. belonging). Likewise. for safety. for instance. friend­ ship. Perhaps not even most of them. and next to the need for self-esteem (valuing self. But as it turns out. Harry Sullivan was also right. belonging. inborn and unified. This notion of four distinct temperaments. Thus it is not that self-actualization is a step beyond self-esteem. Myers’s NFs. Abraham Maslow. which will break forth as a full-blown motive once they satisfy their more primary needs. autonomy. a leading proponent of this theory. most people base their self-esteem on something else entirely. was right when he said that physical pleasure is the way. selfworth. but as a means to self-esteem. Maslow seemed to believe that the fully-realized. The security of social status is important—for some at least. himself an NF. from physical needs (food. . assurance). and self-esteem. Maslow was right in this. which is charac­ teristic of the NTs. and willpower. Those of the SP temperament prize themselves more when they live sensually and hedonically. self-actualized personality is everyone’s highest goal in life. protection. calls into question two major points of view in 20th century behavioral science. shelter) to safety needs (security. enlightened. But not for everybody.

and of character as exactly configured. Adickes. and Fromm. again. Kretschmer. Temperament will out in maturation as in all other domains of life. in how they defined temperament and character types. Just as the fox matures differently from the beaver. and Fromm saw the usefulness of an . and differed from men such as Apfelbach. to have become a full-blown specimen of what we were meant to be. who elected their own categories. so Dorothy wanted Security. and Sternberg.22 Temperament and Character The other point of view challenged by the four types theory says that not only do all of us have the same goals. just as the tiny acorn becomes the mighty oak tree. Such a position was taken. MacDougal. Erikson. as definitively systemic. To use the same criteria of maturity for all kinds of creatures is to miss the entire point of this essay. we are counseled that all mature persons have certain attitudes and certain habits. This. but we also go through the same stages of growth and development. inherent. of course. and the Scarecrow wanted Brains. But this way of defining maturity will not do. and so. SP or SJ. innate. Spranger. And it is not until these traits have developed that we can be said to have acquired our mature character. Reading the leading writers on mat­ uration. is unimaginable. Bulliot. Ames. Roback. James. to be chips off the old block. our traits of character entail each other and are bound together by a common origin and a common destiny. Imagine a mother fox schooling a young beaver in the art of sneaking into a chicken yard and making off with a fat hen. Ilg. Just as the Lion wanted Courage to get on with life. None of the temperaments are above wanting to validate their own style. Four of these. Piaget. unconsciously and involuntarily to be sure. Historical Overview In the first part of the 20th century a good many writers essayed their views on temperament and character. and picture also the little beaver’s astonished paralysis upon receiving such guidance. Spranger. and personology. agreed with each other. we are asked to think of temperament as inborn. characterology. Likewise. to sculpt their young into the image of themselves. to follow in our footsteps. as precisely patterned. the Tin Woodman wanted a Heart. and so set about. NF or NT. Adickes. Sheehy. sometimes explicitly and always implicitly. to name some of the more prominent contributors. Let us now turn to a brief look at the history of those rather neglected studies of ethology. a mature NT is astonishingly different from a mature SJ. and Levinson. implicitly at least. but as parents many of us encourage our offspring to emulate us. Kretschmer. and that all must take the same developmental steps to get there. so does the dolphin mature differently from the owl. The Pygmalion Project ascends to its greatest heights and generates its greatest intensity in pointing the young toward our own conception of maturity. by investigators such as Gesell. A mature NF is strikingly different from a mature SP.

” as they were called. “The fault. and from within and not from without. in terms of virtue.Historical Overview 23 ancient belief that came primarily from the early Greeks and Romans.4 only to be rediscovered. but at the same time we must acknowledge it to be a major departure from what had gone before. find happiness either in “sensual pleasure” (“Aerfone”) or in “acquiring assets” (“propraietari”). endowed with intuitive sensibility. A generation later. when interest in science and the physical nature of mankind revived. Not surprisingly. Thus. Our predispositions. and not the deities or the heavenly bodies.D. and playing a moral role in society. come in four styles. As Shakespeare would put it. And he named the Phlegmatic temperament the “dianoetic” (rational) character. Thus. In the Middle Ages the four temperaments theory appears to have been largely forgotten. writing many centuries later. and if our phlegm predominates. and playing an art-making role in society. rather. He named the Choleric temperament the “noetic” (idealist) character. Aristotle5 defined character in terms of happiness. said Galen. developing the ideas of Hippocrates. in the West at any rate. and not. Aristotle argued that there are four sources of happiness: “The mass of men. we see Geoffrey Chaucer (in 1380) describing a Doctor of Physic as knowing “the cause of every . the four “humors. our physiology was said to determine our attitudes and actions. and so he named the Sanguine temperament the “iconic” (artisan) character. then we are “Choleric” or passionate in temperament. it is the balance of our bodily fluids. proposed (around 190 A. then we are “Melancholic” or doleful in temperament. endowed with reasoning sensibility. endowed with artistic sense. is not in the stars but in ourselves.” he said. in the European Renaissance. then we are “Phlegmatic” or calm in temperament. and playing the role of logical investi­ gator in society.) that it is neither the stars nor the gods that determine what we want and what we do. for the first time. It was the Roman physician Galen1who. Nearly six hundred years before Galen. if not disregarded. If our blood predom­ inates Galen called us “Sanguine” or eagerly optimistic in temperament. Aristotle (a Rational himself) regarded logical investigation as bringing the truest happiness because it is the most self-sufficient. Plato was more interested in the individu­ al’s contribution to the social order than in underlying temperament. and playing a caretaking role in society. as his mentor Plato had done. like so many Classical ideas. and the least dependent on external conditions. Plato2 had written in The Republic of four kinds of character which clearly corresponded with the four temper­ aments attributed to Hippocrates. if our yellow bile predominates. He named the Melancholic temperament the “ pistic” (guardian) character. en­ dowed with common sense. while some few find happiness either in exercising their “moral virtue” (“ethikos”) or in a life of “logical investigation” (“dialogike”).” We might smile at this early view of human phys­ iology. if our black bile or gall predominates. dear Brutus.

Paracelsus characterized human beings as “Salamanders. and he came to look on the Sanguine temperament with special favor. in his Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion (1755). expressions. all to run one way. treasured up by a course of experience.” he made a remarkably accurate statement of the characterologist’s method. For instance.5 a mid-sixteenth century Viennese physician. Hume credited Aristotle and Hippocrates with teaching him to base his observations of humanity on “experience acquired by long life and a variety of business and company. In War and Peace. as “Gnomes. Voltaire and Rousseau in France. Hume spoke of the “usual phlegm” of a character having an “accurate philosophical turn” of mind.” Also Paracelsus. And philosophers of the 16th. and even gestures. 19th century novelists.” curious and calm. as “Nymphs. for . his spirits. Bruno in Italy. Moreover. and of what humour. had these four patterns of human attitude and action clearly in mind when they framed their characters. Moreover. proposed four totem spirits which symbolized four personality styles. and again descend to the interpretation of their actions from our knowledge of their motives and inclinations.” inspired and passionate. 1748) how one comes to see a “degree of uniformity and regularity” in mankind’s “temper and actions. 17th.” and concluded: By means of this guide we mount up to the knowledge of men’s inclinations and motives from their actions. took the idea of four humors as a matter of course. Although the ever-skeptical French essayist Montaigne cautioned his readers (in 1580) that “a man should not rivet himself too fast to his own humors and temperament.” creating his characters according to a formula he articulated in 1599: “Some one peculiar quality Doth so possess a man.” impulsive and changeable. from Jane Austen and the Brontes to George Eliot and Tolstoy. he argued that blood was simply the most sovereign of the four humors. Shakespeare’s contemporary Ben Jonson developed a whole style of play he called the “Comedy of Humours. a lover’s impassioned choler or a physician’s phlegmatic detachment. give us the clue of human nature and teach us to unravel all its intricacies. as part of the air they breathed.24 Temperament and Character malady. and 18th centuries. When William Harvey discovered the circula­ tion of blood in 1628. Kant in Germany.” industrious and guarded. and as “Sylphs. and his powers In their conductions. Shakespeare points out dozens of times what he called the “spirit of humours” in his enormous gallery of characters: a soldier’s sanguine appetite or a Countess’s sorrowful melancholy.” The same in other fields. that it doth draw All his affects. Hume in Scotland. when Hume described (in An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding. The general observations. and which ran parallel to the temperament types of Galen and the character types of Plato. And where they were from.” the playwrights of the period certainly made use of the ancient theory.

it must be said that the above is only the barest outline of the history of temperament and character theory. But in the behavioral sciences what had been the prevailing current of thought for centuries—that temperament determines character—gradually decreased to a tiny trickle in the latter part of the 19th century. pointed out in 1947 what he called four “mistaken goals” which different kinds of people pursue when their self-esteem declines too far for safety—Retaliation. and Skeptical. Other. more familiar voices were advancing similar ideas at this time. published in 1927. and Power. the four-temperaments theory found a few champions in Europe and America in the first half of the 20th century. but to machine. Receptive. Pavlov reduced mankind. In 1914 Spranger7wrote of four “value attitudes” which distinguish one personality from another—Artistic. Hoarding. and Marketing.9 looking at both negative and positive sides of personality. D.H. By the early part of the 20th century close to five thousand reports on temperament and character had been identified (See especially Roback’sA Bibliography of Character and Personality. Religious. Tolstoy divides the members of a lodge of Freemasons into what he described as “four classes” of character: some looking for social “con­ nections” and opportunities. Kretschmer. sanguine character in his novel Sons and Lovers (1913) as Paracelsus’ Salamander. Also in 1947 Eric Fromm. not to animal. Lawrence not only saw human nature as organized around “four poles of dynamic conscious­ ness. and Theoretic.” some seeking a “fully understood path for themselves. its actions nothing more than mechanical response to environmental stim­ ulation. In 1905 Adickes6 said that mankind could be divided into four “world views”—Innovative. And the 20th century was nearly swept away by these two new theories. both of which suggested that all humans are fundamentally alike and only superficially different. With social field theory invading the behavioral sciences. Similarly. Adickes. nothing more than a creature of blind instinct. The ancient idea of the human as a vital organism animated by four different spirits was all but forgotten.” but he actually described a ruddy. Doctrinaire. Rudolph Dreikurs. And in 1920 Kretschmei8 proposed that both normal and abnormal behavior can be understood in terms of four “character styles” similar to those of Adickes and Spranger—Hypomanic. Recogni­ tion. owing mainly to the ideas of two men. attributed four different “orientations” to the four styles—Exploitative. Even so. Economic. Sigmund Freud and Ivan Pavlov. a disciple of Alfred Adler.” Even some early 20th century writers demonstrated detailed knowledge of the roots of temperament and character theory. and Anesthetic. Service.” and some occupied exclusively with “the scientific secrets of the order. Depressive. Hyperesthetic. In summary. some interested in the lodge’s “external form and ceremony. and Spranger re­ vived the idea that mankind is designed on four distinctive configurations. Freud reduced mankind to mere animal. Traditional.Historical Overview 25 example. as did Kretschmer.) The table below lists a small portion .

but seems to reflect a fundamental pattern in the warp and woof of the fabric of human nature. Aristotle c325 Galen c l 90 A.C. curious. by so many people. the rest predominantly abstract. industrious. the other half cooperative. sanguine. Surely this idea would not have been employed for so long. in so many countries. or how a Rational (NT) is also likely to be dialectical. theoretical. traditional. If we scan the variety of contributors and the many characteristics they have attributed to the four temperaments. Nor is it difficult to see how an Idealist (NF) is also likely to be ethical. skeptical. had there not been some sort of widely shared recognition of its usefulness. Paracelsus 1550 Adickes 1905 Spranger 1914 Kretschmer 1920 Fromm 1947 Myers 1958 Artisan Hedonic Sanguine Changeable Innovative Aesthetic Hypomanic Exploitative Probing Guardian Proprietary Melancholic Industrious Traditional Economic Depressive Hoarding Scheduling Idealist Ethical Choleric Inspired Doctrinaire Religious Hyperesthetic Receptive Friendly Rational Dialectical Phlegmatic Curious Skeptical Theoretic Anesthetic Marketing Tough-minded Each successive contributor looked at the four types from slightly different but related angles. I would argue that the four types are most likely derived from the interweaving of the two most basic human actions. how we communicate with each other. Clearly. And so the idea that individuals are predisposed to develop into one of four different configurations of attitude and action has survived for well over two thousand years.D. such that it is not at all difficult to see how an Artisan (SP) is likely also to be hedonic. melancholic. And about half of us are utilitarian in our choice and use of tools. or how a Guardian (SJ) is also likely to be proprietary.26 Temperament and Character of this long history. we are able to see how true-to-type the four classifications have remained over the centuries. hyperesthetic. and scheduling. Indeed. As a personologist I must say that I have long found this history to be quite compelling. aesthetic. . doctrinaire. what sets human beings apart from the other animals are two advantages we have over them—words and tools. The Basic Dimensions of Personality That the characteristics of the four temperaments are this consistent over time is no accident. inspired. and friendly. The great majority of us are predominantly concrete in our word usage. And what sets us apart from each other is the way we use words and tools. and tough-minded. Plato c340 B. and how we use tools to accomplish our goals. and probing. innovative.

in Individualism Reconsidered. in his Character and Worldview. in his Essay on Man Cassirer had some talking more analogically than indicatively. some people are prone to send symbol messages. schematic. saw some as “heteronomous” or other-directed in orientation. Goldstein had some people talking more abstractly than concretely and others talking more concretely than abstractly. symbolic. spoke of “inner-directed” and “outer-directed” orientations. As for cognition. On the linguistic side Kurt Goldstein and Ernst Cassirer thought of humans as talking animals. Similarly David Riesman. symbols bringing to mind something absent from view. as follows: . In his Abstract and Concrete Behavior. In other words. Thoughts of course are not observable. and theoretical. others talking more indicatively than analogically. concrete words can be used in slightly different but related ways—detailed. signal. general. empirical. both. literal. and specific. factual. categorical. fictional. And Eric Adickes.The Basic Dimensions of Personality 27 Abstract versus Concrete Word Usage In considering human differences some investigators have focused on differences in linguistic orientation. Thus our thoughts and the words that reflect them keep us oriented to reality by telling us who we and our companions are. and what we and they are to do. others to send signal messages—signals pointing to something present to the eye. elemental. and others as “autonomous” or self-directed in orientation. the rest by sensory perception or observation. but words are. others on differences in cognitive orientation. Likewise. so some inspection of the kinds of words we choose may be useful. figurative. however. are concerned with the human imperative that bids us locate ourselves in our social context as we take action. indicative. Myers in The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator had some of us oriented by intuition or introspection. Similarly. To illustrate the relationships between these terms I have linked them together with overlapping Venn diagrams. Abstract words can be used in slightly different but related ways— analogical.

28 Temperament and Character The diagram suggests that an analogy. phone. Our vehicles are tools as are our roads and bridges and walkways and even our clothes. or how they will be regarded by others—in other words. all concrete in some manner.’ have many. a factual expression both indicative and detailed. As tools differentiated there was a reciprocal differentiation of words. To put it simply. The house itself is an enormously complex tool. and we are wise to keep this in mind as we compare and contrast those who are more prone to abstract speech with those more prone to concrete speech. Others will use the best tools for the job whether or not they have been approved. and so on. rugs. a figure of speech both symbolic and analogic. Thus both words. Let us think of the former as cooperative in going after what they want. and they choose tools that promise success with minimum cost and ef­ fort—whether or not they observe the social rules. that the habitually cooperative persons don’t care about useful and effective tools. books. mind you. Likewise. neither getting ahead or falling behind the other. Civilization itself is created and maintained by tools. is both fictional and figurative. a symbol both figurative and categorical. or morally correct. it is this array of tools that enables us to pursue goals not dreamed of in centuries past. boxes. computer. And this is where our character takes a hand. Some of us prefer to use tools that have been approved by our membership groups. Not. on and on and on. Indeed. television. but they see . and the latter as utilitarian in their pursuit of goals. a detail both factual and empirical. Cooperative versus Utilitarian Tool Usage Human beings are far more than word-using animals. Certainly they do. by being law-abiding and accommodating with those around them. tables. that is. the Util­ itarians tend to go after what they want in the most effective ways possible. In contrast. pictures. the Cooperators try to get where they want to go by getting along with others. No matter what our goals. radio. uses. We distanced ourselves from the other animals and made ourselves supreme among them by fash­ ioning a fantastic array of tools. for example. however. inside or outside our homes and throughout our communities. ‘abstract’ and ‘concrete. but related. we do not necessarily choose the same tools to reach them. Everything in it is a tool—chairs. Nearly everything we do to implement our goals requires several kinds of tools used both simultaneously and successively. Indeed the prolif­ eration of our words came only when there was a proliferation of our tools. whether they are socially acceptable. lamps. so that they are in full accord with the agreed-upon rules and mores of the social groups they belong to. No matter where we look we see tools in every direction. it is not that the habitually utilitarian persons refuse to cooperate with their social groups. all different forms of abstract speech. an indicative expression is both factual and literal. and so on. In the same way. but they consider the ef­ fectiveness of tools as secondary to whether they should be used.

It’s a matter of priorities. By intersecting the rows and columns in a four-cell matrix (see below). and are not like NFs in either way. So each temper­ ament has two complementary types and one opposite. unlike SPs in either way. Psychological Functions vs Intelligent Roles This idea of defining personality differences by sticking to what can be observed—words and tools—sets Myers’s and my view of personality . are cooperative like SJs and abstract like NTs. and Myers’s SJ.Psychological Functions vs Intelligent Roles 29 pleasing others and observing rules as secondary considerations. having first noticed that a person is. Observing people’s uses of words and tools gives us a convenient and remarkably accurate way of determining their temperament. These two dimensions of personality are the very foundation of my type definitions. an SJ Guardian. but our first instinct is to pursue our goals according to our habit of cooperating or utilizing. And so it goes with typewatching. an NF Idealist. Thus. NFs. coming only after they have determined how well their chosen tools will work in accomplishing their ends. say. the four types of character can be clearly seen in relation to each other: W ords Abstract Abstract Concrete Concrete Cooperative NF Abstract Cooperator Cooperator Concrete SJ Tools Utilitarian NT Utilitarian SP Utilitarian Note that SPs are utilitarian like NTs and concrete like SJs. we have determined the person we watch to be Plato’s Guardian. and again. and most of us opt for effective action. Most of us learn to get along with others most of the time. our obser­ vations of concrete or abstract word usage and cooperative or utilitarian tool usage enabling us to determine whether we are watching or interacting with an SP Artisan. or an NT Rational. when it comes to the way they communicate their messages and the way they implement their goals. Aristotle’s Proprietary. and then noting that he or she is habitually cooperative in getting things done. and will be referred to throughout this book. on the other hand. habitually concrete in speech.

which is based on close observation of people’s use of words. then we can be said to be intelligent in those circumstances. I base my type definitions on what people do well. On the other hand I was imbued with the 20th century organismic wholism of men such as Karl Biihler. as “cognitive ability. which assumed that personality could be pieced together from independent elements. see note 10 in the Chapter 2 Notes at the end of the book. thus creating four function types—Thinking Types. a book in which he presented the purely hypothetical notion that there are four “psychological functions”: “sensation. and Sensing Types. I must say I have never found a use for this scheme of psychological functions.” and of late. Feeling Types. Jung (with Myers following suit) defined eight types by combining extra­ version and introversion with the four psychological functions. and hence different intelligent roles. while the sensing types are those primarily concerned with concrete things. and which is thus unavoidably subjective. (For those interested in the specific differences between Jung’s and Myers’s function types and my intelligence types.” while the extraverted types are “interested in people and things. In other words it is not how well we think.) Let me point out that during most of the 20th century intelligence was also thought to be in the head. but how well we act in a given role. Common sense tells us that intelligence is being smart in what we do.” “feeling. If our behavior is adaptive to circumstances. Kurt Goldstein. Myers unwittingly adopted Jung’s 19th century elementalism. Indeed. and this is because function typology sets out to define different people’s mental make-up—what’s in their heads—something which is not observable. each with two variants. their skilled actions—what I call their “intelligent roles”—which are observable. The reason for Myers’s and my differences is that we start from widely different premises. a matter of speculation. while the intuitive types. A good example of the difficulties such guesswork can introduce is the way in which Jung and Myers confound introversion with intuition. Remember that Myers’s concept of types was heavily influenced by Jung’s Psychological Types.” Positing introversion and extraversion as the fundamental attitudes that separate personalities. and which thus can be defined more objectively. NFs and NTs. after forty years or so of typewatching. I have not found any SPs or SJs who were more inclined to discuss conceptual matters (abstractions) than to discuss factual matters (concretions).30 Temperament and Character rather far apart. .” But this has never been a very useful way of defining intelligence. Intuiting Types. so that we act effectively in such circumstances.” In my view. The sensing types are more perceptual than conceptual. Other circumstances are likely to call for different kinds of action.” and “thinking. the intuitives are the ones primarily interested in ideas and concepts.” “intuition. and occasionally of projection. defined as “the ability to think abstractly. To take some of the guesswork out of temperament theory. saying that the introverted types are the ones “interested in ideas and concepts. are more conceptual than perceptual.

but by a common origin and a common destiny. Thus. . David Katz. emerging gradually as an individ­ uated configuration. like anatomy. The next four chapters will examine the four integrated configurations of personality separately and in some detail—first the SP Artisans. Kurt Lewin. comes about not by an integration of elements. traits of character emerge just as cells do. So I have long believed that personality. I claim an organism never becomes integrated because it is always integrated. cohering—not by association. in the view of organismic wholism. with the traits clinging together. a fully integrated organism from the start. and Raymond Wheeler. Max Wertheimer. The tiny acorn.Psychological Functions vs Intelligent Roles 31 George Hartmann. by a process of differentiation. including their intelligent roles and their role variants. Wolfgang Kohler. to name the more prominent organismic psychologists. looks forward to the stately oak tree it is destined to become. but by differenti­ ation within an already integrated whole. and last the NT Rationals—defining their many traits of temperament and character. It differentiates by a process of evolution into the mature form it is meant to become. next the NF Idealists. Kurt Koffka. then the SJ Guardians.

.Sometimes I think we only half live over here. not only some of the century’s most gripping novels and short stories. but the experience of the war had whetted his appetite for excitement. to spend and sow freely. and human foxes. two plane crashes in Africa.” after the Greek fertility god Dionysus. and shown him how thrilling and necessary it was for him to “taste everything” and to “live all the way. convalescing from a shrapnel wound.” Foxes have got to be the craftiest of the mammalian predators. have got to be the 32 . There have been many such characters in history—the Desert Fox (General Erwin Rommel). resources are to be expended. the Gray Fox of Arlington (General Robert E. And of course he wrote. Dionysus would return from the underworld to release the land from the death-grip of winter. he skied. the Swamp Fox (General Francis Marion)—and the wily President Lyndon Johnson. For the “Artisans” (as I now call them). making him the most famous and daring war correspondent of his time. To be human is to be generous. impet­ uously. he ran with the bulls in Pamplona. and to make the land fruitful in flora and fauna. This was the creed of the young Ernest Hemingway.. In the mid 1970s I wrote of Myers’s SPs as “Dionysians. The Italians live all the way. for forty more adventurous.. creative years. In recent years I have come to think of the Dionysians as fox-like. he hunted lion and buffalo on the Serengeti Plain. the Red Fox of Kinderhook (President Martin Van Buren). spreading bounty like scattering seed.. after returning home from his tour in Italy as a volunteer ambulance driver for the Red Cross in World War I. Reborn in the spring of every year.3 Artisans Don’t be afraid. Hemingway was still on crutches.. who once quipped “I’m just like a fox. life’s cup is to run over. the Gray Fox of Hyde Park (President Franklin Roosevelt).. but he also dashed off hundreds of articles and dispatches from every war he could get himself assigned to.Taste everything. a hurricane at Key West. to feel the blood coursing in their veins. games are to be played.” And so. Lee). people are to be enjoyed. he fished for trout in Idaho and marlin off Cuba. he survived a car wreck in London. he boated. such as those mentioned. Hemingway boxed. exciting his followers to shake themselves free of the cold.

’ and ‘artifactor.’ have the same root as words such as ‘rational. I think Artisans ought to be enjoyed for what they are instead of condemned for what they are not. much of my work for thirty or so years as a family therapist was focused on those Artisan children who gave their parents and teachers a hard time by not doing their assignments and being noisy and restless at school. Thus Artisans and Rationals have something very important in common: they are both fitters. and objects that are useful in daily living. industrial arts. practical things. clever at getting what they want and remaining one step ahead of those who would restrain them. and I continue to admire their artistic capabilities. drawing. however. In addition. Well. as were my brothers and many of my friends and fellow fighter pilots in the Marine Corps.’ tend to become masters in the making of solid. rarely wasting their time on prey that cannot be easily caught—Aesop’s Reynard Fox. Tennessee Williams wrote that “We of the artistic world are. said that happiness is “the highest realizable . I still have some very good friends among the Artisans.. and thus in Plato’s Republic the Artisans’ social function is to fashion those sensory images. so the Artisans are the cleverest of the humans—clever tactically. that is. At the same time. So my long association with and understanding of Artisans of all ages has enabled me to be more useful to them than to others of different temperament. foxes are known for their skill in avoiding capture. Foxes thrive around the world on the edges of civilization while most other predators gradually become extinct. literature.’ the IndoEuropean root ‘ar’ and its reversed form ‘ra’ both having to do with fitting things together. Art is much more. Words such as ‘artist.’ and ‘reason. turned up his nose at those “sour grapes” on the trellis just beyond his reach. the Artisans having a practical and technique-oriented way of fitting things together. Aristotle. something that can also be said of the other three temperaments.’ ‘image-maker. medical arts.. Plato’s pupil.’ ‘artisan. remember.’ Artisans. the Rationals a pragmatic and technology-oriented way of fitting things together. indeed any activity in which successive actions are free variables rather than fixed constants. dance. Foxes thrive because they are so effective at hunting (and even at scavenging). both of my parents were Artisans. ornaments. every one of them smart like a fox. as suggested by the word ‘artifact. and just as foxes are one of the cleverest and nimblest of the canines.” Thinking back. athletic arts.the little gray foxes and all the rest are the hounds.’ or ‘arti-factor.Plato’s Artisans 33 most practical of the human predators. painting—and must include theatrical arts. than the so-called “fine arts”—music.’ ‘rationale. martial arts. Plato’s Artisans The term ‘Artisan’ is the English equivalent of Plato’s Greek word ‘eikonike’ otherwise ‘icon-maker. I have to say that I’ve been asked over and over again for years why I have championed the Artisans more than I have the other types. sculpture.

Plato’s Artisans pursue the arts more for the sensual pleasure involved than from any strong desire to make money. Also it may be that this changeability explains their disinterest in their own identity. or the taciturn Phlegmatics. and that behavior is motivated by the desire for pleasure and the avoidance of pain. The Renaissance physician Paracelsus likened the Artisan type to the Salamander. whispering in the Artisan’s ear what part is best played at any given moment in any given context. the somber Melancholics. For Artisans. as in the modern phrases “getting your blood up. the Idealist. to make an ethical statement. and Adickes’s . focused on the perception of beauty rather than the Construction of the beautiful. which. Perhaps it is this capacity to change themselves to resemble the other that makes Artisans such good actors. Aristotle’s type taking pleasure in art. Spranger referred to this character as the “Aesthetic” type. lizard-like creature. with equal facility and equal delight. Thus Paracelsus regarded the Artisan as a changeable or inconstant person.” In choosing the word ‘san­ guine’ Galen was referring to a certain “humor” or fluid—in this case blood—that at the time was thought to dominate Artisan behavior. then. taking on part after part. Hedonism is the doctrine holding that only what is pleasant or has pleasurable consequences is intrinsically good. while the Aesthetic experiences artistic works sensuously.” or “hot-blooded. or to expound a theory. in “ethical musing” (ethike). In a way Spranger is echoing Aristotle’s concept of the Hedonic type who focuses on pleasure. on the problems associated with one’s balance of humors. making them excitable and intemperate. So the changeling of Paracelsus was for Adickes an agent of change in a constant search for novelty.” hence one given to changing things and on the lookout for something new and different. The “Hedonics. something their opposite. Indeed. or in “theoretical dialogue” (dialogike). what we have here is a sort of artistic trinity—Plato’s type the producer of art. believed capable of changing color to blend in with its surroundings. The name Adickes gave to the Artisan type was the “Innovator. though similar to Plato’s Artisan. pursue the pleasures of the senses. So the guiding spirit of the Artisan is the mythical Salamander.34 Artisans good” and that some men find happiness more in “sensuous living” (hidoni) than in “proprietary acquisition” (propraietari). The Roman physician Galen considered these Artisans to be exceedingly optimistic. Paracelsus’ Salamander is a mythical. cannot comfortably exist without.” But Galen’s interests lay primarily on the negative side of temperament. and so he saw the over-optimistic Sanguines as different from. the irascible Cholerics. but temperamentally no worse than. so he called them the “Sanguines. so different from the Guardian who seeks to avoid change and to urge observance of tradition and custom. In Aristotle’s view. now villain. and indeed they are capable of mimicking anyone they approach. The Artisan makes works of art.” as Aristotle called them. “all the world’s a stage” and they the players. often con­ vincing others that they are just like them. now hero.

as will be shown.” “impulsive.” are “able to see the needs of the moment.” Now this is a very clear-cut pattern of action and attitude.” “want first-hand experi­ ences.” “tolerant.” “artistic.” “don’t get wrought up. Certainly Kretschmer was echoing Galen in seeing Artisans as exuberant and over-optimistic. If Artisans are forced by untoward circumstances to become recklessly impet­ uous they tend to do so as if compelled by irresistible urges which overcome their will. are “open-minded.” “athletic”. So in Kretschmer’s view what some call madness is determined in large part by temperament and not by illness.” “claiming. So in Tools beginning our consideration of the habits of action and attitude of the Utilitarian SPs.” are “gifted with machines and tools”.” “unprejudiced. Though apparently unaware of the contributions of her predecessors. Words Abstract Concrete NF SJ Concrete NT SP Utilitarians . but he was saying much more. So he named the Artisans “Hypomanics. all have something in common: they all characterize this type as concrete Cooperative in communicating messages and util­ itarian in implementing goals. whatever they are called. are “easy going.” “initiators. starkly different from NFs and NTs. are “sensitive to color.The Concrete Utilitarians 35 type sensitive to art. On the positive side of temperament Fromm saw Plato’s Artisans as “active.” Myers named Plato’s Artisans the “Sensory Perceptive” types or “SPs” and said of them that they are “adaptable. let’s look at their quadrant in the matrix of character at the right. namely that the kind of irrational behavior that some Artisans engage in is more a matter of temperament than something over which they have control. ever on the lookout for advantages or payoffs. quite different from the SJs. Myers was clearly able to identify the more salient traits that characterize Plato’s Artisans.” “self-confident. line. The Concrete Utilitarians These different views of Plato’s Artisans.” and “persuasive”.” thinking of them as recklessly impulsive. are very much “aware of reality and never fight it”. but he emphasized one of the negative traits that he attributed to them—exploitiveness.” “store up useful facts”. Fromm’s term ‘Exploiters’ looks forward to Myers’s notion that Artisans are op­ portunists.” Kretschmer was first to take a careful look at the dark side of character.” and “captivating. and texture. Fromm had many names for the Artisans.” “know what’s going on.” “proud. “act with ef­ fortless economy. these three ideas looking forward to what psychologist Marvin Zuckerman called the “Sensation Seeking Personality.” and in general “enjoy life.” are ever “on the lookout for workable compromises. and.

rhythmical language: “We shall defend our island. More aggressive gestures include the closed fist used to pound home one’s . and their tools are noticeably different from those of the NTs. Indeed. their words are noticeably different from those of the SJs. Many of our greatest poets and orators have been Artisans. more than the other types. content as they are to do without definitions. hy­ potheses.” Although they share concrete word usage with the SJs and utilitarian tool usage with the NTs. we shall fight in the fields and in the streets. the foundation of the SP character. Most SPs spend little time considering things that cannot be observed or handled. almost always accompanying their spoken words with distinctive hand gestures. and they are more inclined to be specific rather than to generalize. and in general they tend to be more experiential than theoretical in thought and speech. when making comparisons. The most common gesture is a pawing motion. if they wish. or what sounds good. Churchill stirred his countrymen during the darkest moments of World War II with his eloquent. whatever the cost may be. along with but a handful of Rationals? It has to be conceded that the Artisans have captured most of the top spots in this domain because of their sensitivity to harmonic coherence. we shall fight on the landing grounds. but not to them. who are the very opposite of SPs in their habits of using tools and words. to use similes more often than metaphors. Also they speak less of categories or classes of things and more of actual. as when. and. and the like. Their consciousness is sensuous. for example. interesting to others perhaps. we shall never surrender!” It might be added that. Concrete Word Usage The communication of Artisans can be said to be concrete in that they are apt to talk mostly of what is going on at the moment and what is immediately at hand. The Artisans’ ear for sound is incomparable. Artisans are comfortable in their bodies. individual things themselves. setting them apart unmis­ takably from the other three personalities.36 Artisans As indicated. is their unique combination of concrete word usage with utilitarian tool usage. from Lord Byron and Dylan Thomas to Winston Churchill and Ronald Reagan. with the palm down and slightly bent. the thumb held loosely next to the fingers. and thus I want to add another name to the list and call them the “Concrete Utilitarians. principles. we shall fight in the hills. Notice also that they have nothing important in common with the NFs. Why? Why are not the Idealists in the forefront. explanations. and they frequently use their hands to help their speech along. Their everyday speech is typically filled with details and devoid of planning. fantasies. instead of only a few. highly attuned to audible consonance. They usually consider such topics a waste of time. the abstract commands little of their attention. It may be said that paragraphs written by Artisans are in effect songs. This means that they are likely to take things literally rather than figuratively and. we shall fight on the beaches. dissonance.

then why do it? NTs share this utilitarian. the root of the word ‘art’ means “to fit together. the flats and hollows. immediately useful.” and SP artists even call their productions “works of art. using rather striking similes. There were many words you could not stand to hear and finally only the names of places had dignity. otherwise who needs it? If some action doesn’t fit your intention and advance you toward your goal. honor. sensory adjectives (“slick. an Artisan painter in Joyce Cary’s novel.” Artisans are primarily interested in what works. though not much more abstract. what fits. the numbers of regiments and the dates. wanted to avoid figurative language (the language of inference and interpretation. The colors and textures. the cools and warms.” “like taking candy from a baby. much like the Artisan hero in his novel. or hallow were obscene beside the concrete names of villages.” “ya know what I’m saying?”).” all of which suggests that a thing must be useful to interest an Artisan. “drunk as a skunk. SPs like to use colorful phrases and current slang in their speech. the smooths. When they reach for images. Much of everyday Artisan speech is far more lively. of metaphor and symbol). The Horse’s Mouth. trusting only de­ scriptive words to present his perceptions as sensually and realistically as possible. more filled with vivid. Gully Jimson. or they say what things are like. Certain numbers were the same way and certain dates and these with the names of the places were all you could say and have them mean anything.” Utilitarian Tool Usage In implementing their goals. unorthodox terms. whatever-works mindset with SPs. and the index finger apposed mid-joint by the thumb. “going for it. the names of rivers. Here Hemingway was artificially flattening his vocabulary and simpli­ fying his sentences in order to catch the tone of war-time disillusionment. There’s hundreds of little differences all fitting together. indicatives that indicate or that point to things seen and felt. Abstract words such as glory. claims he can feel a painting with his eyes: You feel all the rounds. But spoken or written. and only secondarily in what meets with social approval. the numbers of roads. or as they say.” “cool. As I’ve said.The Concrete Utilitarians 37 point.” “goes like a bunny. they tend to use quick. Artisan language is filled with concrete words. A Farewell to Arms. the index finger used to jab one’s point across.” “sharp”). courage. the lights and shades. the sharp edges.” “no way. And Ernest Hemingway. used to peck at an opponent. concretely useful. . and they pick up hip phrases quickly (“I’m outta here.

. and that brings success. flying in rough weather. the inward search. able to notice the smallest details in their immediate surroundings.. or point guards: they are always scanning for opportunities. Artisans simply and without hesitation give the chosen operation a try. pilots. Artisans will strike off down roads that others might consider impossible. Leave to others the protocol. and not on whose toes get stepped on. whether those moves are dabbing oils on canvas. need not be confined to the gym. the slightest changes in both foreground and background. making them up as he goes along. George Patton. on what pays off. the art studio. which allowed them to grasp the moment and to exploit fully whatever resources were at hand. however.. Tactics is the art of making moves to better one’s position in the here and now. SP battle leaders are no different from SP painters. or why things happen. or skirmishing on the battlefield. they could spot an opening. knocking down barriers—doing whatever it takes (authorized or unauthorized) to bull their way through to a successful outcome. by his own account.He has shamelessly and ef­ fectively exploited the media. With their ear to the ground and their finger on the pulse of battle.in order to promote American policy aims and to intimidate those who stood in his way. He has negotiated agreements of immense consequence on the fly. Indeed. Tactical intelligence. . If it works it is used. always looking for the best angle of approach. The Tactical Intellect What Artisans do most and best is work on their immediate environs in a tactical way.. at least one psychopath.38 Artisans but functional utility in the concrete differs from functional utility in the abstract. One prominent State Department negotiator has exhibited all of these SP traits in his roller-coaster career: He has yelled at Foreign Ministers and cursed at a President.. tackling problems. no deep meaning or intro­ spection. and so are able to come up with that particular action which at the moment gives them the greatest advantage. if it doesn’t it is set aside without a second thought.. and Erwin Rommel were all brilliant SP tactical leaders. making deals. on what works. the scientific inquiry. give it a whirl or a shakedown cruise. clearing hurdles. put it to the test. and taste a victory. what principles are involved. Robert E. Artisans are the great performers. dishing off the basketball on a fast-break.betting on himself and the deal in hand at two o’clock in the morning. He has politely negotiated with killers and. SPs focus on what actually happens in the real world. the cockpit.. sniff out an opportunity. No high-flown speculation for the Artisan. Lee. Because of their utilitarian character. or the battlefield. SPs do not map out the relationship between means and ends as do NTs.

Bob Hope. dancers. and always in working with equipment. John F. But whether on the battlefield or the stage. precisely and exclusively measured by the amount of practice. Moreover. much skill.” and comedians describe their skill with an audience as “working the room. owing to the middling amount of practice usually given them. Films such as Stalag 1 7. from paint brushes to basketballs. and the same skill will increase precisely in the degree it is given exercise in practice. no skill. we all have our short suit as well as our long suit in the things we do well. the Artisans’ keen perception makes them the natural scroungers or foragers among the four temperaments. and as tactical skill increases so then does interest in it. and Empire o f the Sun depict the incredible skill of the Artisan scroungers as prisoners of war. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson. Louis Armstrong. since the SPs are frequently interested in tactics and rarely interested in diplomacy. Note also that their strategic and logistical intelligence lag behind tactics but outdo diplomacy. skills are acquired by practice. . Use it or Lose it is Nature’s inviolable law. and actors call their voice or their body their “instrument. we are not totally without talent in our short suit—it is merely shorter. much practice. and to turn some sort of profit on them. Interest. Any skill will wither on the vine and gradually fade away in the degree it is starved of practice. The Great Escape. We improve in doing things we’re interested in doing. No practice. jet planes to tanks—even singers. just to name a few. skill reinforces interest. SPs are busy making maneuvers with equipment of all sorts. The­ odore and Franklin Roosevelt. Naturally. for example. and Gene Kelly. This disparity occurs because of the Artisans’ constant practice of tactical operations and inconstant practice of diplomatic operations. Skill Now. and Winston Churchill. Practice. there is a feedback relation between interest and ability. and neither seems to be the starting point. Interest reinforces skill. last. They also make gifted business and political leaders—John DeLorean and Rupert Murdoch. So the Artisans’ lifelong interest in tactical action fuels their daily exercise of tactical skills. Marlon Brando. in the corporate suite or the political arena. Whatever our long suit. notice that the tactical intelligence of SPs is usually far advanced over their diplomatic intelligence. which shows the natural variation in the devel­ opment of Artisan intelligence. The neural cell is no different from the muscle cell in this. In the following graph.The Tactical Intellect 39 stars such as Judy Garland.” Artisans can handle their equipment in an expediting or an improvising way—or both—but they are interested first. those with an uncanny ability to locate any and all available resources. and have greater interest in things we do well. Moreover.

depending on circumstances. Artisans are interested in playing the role of what I call the “Operator” or the “Entertainer.E xpediting— i . The following chart presents the SP tactical roles and role variants. SPs are concrete like SJs and so are likely to practice some of those concrete logistical operations that SJs tend to be so good at. But having nothing in common with NFs.Instrumenting—J SP Tactical Roles--------------- L rr O p erator-------------I — Crafter [ISTP] — Performer [ESFP]- — Working with Equipment • Demonstrating —| Entertainer l _ Composer [ISFP] - --------Improvising— ' Synthesizing - . Also. the “Performer” (ESFP). all Artisans in their own right. s* C A 0Q (JQ a > o 2§ •3" o 3 & 9 H & c /j o5 o N * » o c/i r^- o C/3 There’s a reason why the SP profile is the mirror image of the NF profile.” and these give rise to four tactical role variants. giving the SPs two second suits.40 H so n S’ Artisans NF C/3 & o co •i St K 0 Q NT o H "§i O p G 3 c u o* o c/5 C T Q C/5 SJ o N * « T 2. which usually come in a distant fourth in the race for intellectual development. and the “Composer” (ISFP). they differ in the kinds of tactical roles they like to practice. SPs tend to neglect diplomatic operations. Thus. but differing significantly in their artistry. alongside their most skilled intelligent actions: |— Promoter [estp] ■ -----Persuading— | ----------. logistical and strategic intelligence are likely to develop almost equally. SPs are utilitarian like NTs. Tactical Role Variants While all the Artisans have tactical intelligence in common. the “Crafter” (ISTP). In broad terms.o c/i cT C /3 3 2§ £ < w o V I B. the “Promoter” (ESTP). and so are likely to practice some of those utilitarian operations involved in strategic planning.

available. are well able to advertise. talk up. and how they can be modified to serve the purpose. Thus Crafters. and know how to use. and these friendly. These are also the directive SPs. and wheel and deal. Oddly enough. that is. these “smooth operators. often solitary Operators know about. Action of this kind is tactical by its very nature. handle power and hand tools. Entertainers have the tactical ability to notice every sensual detail of their surroundings and to react spontaneously. they are not at all shy about telling others what to do. adapting something on the spot. and cranes. entice. on the spur of the moment. boost. Crafters. All of these might be thought of as tactical actions to advance the Promoter’s enterprises. forklifts. and so on. lure. tempt. Promoters put boundless energy into persuading others to buy into their ventures. depending on their experience. requiring awareness of those instruments and resources that are close by. or what their intended use. operate earth movers. to fly by the seat of their pants—to make things up as they go along—far more comfortable sharing their creations with others than directing their actions. in using whatever maneuvers or instruments it takes to advance their current enterprise or project. or industrial negotiation—any occupation that calls for winning others’ confidence. whatever equipment will effectively accomplish the task at hand. informative Entertainers are able to use effortlessly whatever materials they find to wing it. Like Oper­ ators. publish. work gadgets. politics. on the other hand. mechanism. be they in sales. With all their charm. steer vehicles. publicize. These tough-minded Operators are masters of the expedient use of anything that can be adapted to their immediate intentions. show-business production. acting either as the expressive Promoter or the reserved Crafter. implement. property development. induce. focus on the tool. or instrument employed to get a job done. to play it by ear. in order to get what they want. and only rarely to decrease the possibility of failure. which means that. proclaim. These quiet. sway. mainly to increase chances of success. But the word has gradually come to suggest the clever moves of someone in a situation calling for timely tactics. Tactical Entertainers Other Artisans are drawn toward improvising works of entertainment.” as they are called. can skillfully do such things as sail boats. their skills spreading across the ever widening spectrum of operant equipment. convince. do surgical procedures. Operators make their moves in two roles. the word ‘expedient’ is derived from the activity of freeing a foot that is caught in a trap (ex = out + ped = foot). pilot aircraft. drive race cars. announce. They can hit upon ways of utilizing . which is to say they instinctively know where they want to go and the fastest way to get there.The Tactical Intellect 41 Tactical Operators The Operator Artisans are particularly interested in acting expediently. no matter how they are conventionally defined. wield weapons.

or novels. for instance. What distinguishes Artisans from one another is the structure of their intellect—their profile of tactical roles. whereas Engi­ neers envision and build whatever components are necessary for a system to operate as designed. real estate. painting. It is true. But skilled Composers excel in all aesthetic endeavors. poems. mixtures. and comedians. singers. staging. choreography. even though Performers are often successful at composing. sounds. groupings. fashion designing. while others are better as Composers of works. directing films. while others are better as Crafters manipulating instruments. politics—wherever skillfully handling an audi­ ence is part of the job description. Composers use their talents to fashion pleasurable works rather than to stage shows for others. and Composers often perform their own works with great skill. exer­ cising their improvisational skills by spotting parts or ingredients and then fitting them together into pleasing forms. However. in retail sales. and so they get good at demonstrating. In other words. even though persuading and instru­ menting skills often go hand-in-hand. tastes. an activity requiring NT strategic rather than SP tactical intelligence. and the like. Putting on a show for others to watch with pleasure is an extraordinarily demanding task. But these outgoing Entertainers also excel in less glamorous occupations. To get a clearer picture of the differences in likely tactical development among the Artisans. Often working alone. The most obvious examples of virtuoso Performers are of course the great Artisan actors. landscaping.42 Artisans what’s at hand to suit their current artistic intention. and they can do this without pre-planning. are better as Promoters of enterprises. Some Operators. that impro­ vising and engineering resemble each other in that both are methods of construction. displaying. enacting. however. writing songs. perfumery—any oc­ cupation calling for the attentive blending of sights. the reserved Entertainers make arrangements. dancers. some Entertainers are better as Performers putting on shows. textures. cooking. elementary and secondary teaching. presenting. Entertainers use creatively whatever bits and scraps of material are actually present and immediately available. showing. The most obvious examples of virtuosity in this synthesizing process are some of the great musical com­ posers. Comparing the Tactical Role Variants While every Artisan plays these four roles with skill. public relations. let us consider the following chart: . Performers improvise in front of others. The latter is called engineering. or smells. their style is to jerry-build or jury-rig things in front of them rather than to pre-configure and devise things out of the blue. interior decorating. Just so. or ex­ hibiting their artistic skills. they do not play them all with equal skill. Entertainers come up with their works of art in either the expressive role of Performer or the reserved role of Composer. combinations.

politicians. And last. any one of these four tactical roles well above those strategic. Complete portraits of the four Artisan role variants can be found at the end of this chapter. the Performers are the best of all in putting on a show of some kind. and diplomatic intelligence. The reverse holds for the Composers. Think about it: who are the most famous artists. and tend to do well in what we are interested in doing. These differences are most easily seen when placed side by side for comparison. even with their long and short suits. The interests of Artisans are diametrically opposite of those of Idealists and quite different from those of Guardians and Rationals. and thus will develop. But not tactical intelligence. and able to talk up their enterprises. It must be said that tactical intelligence. and entrepreneurs—all visibly persons of effective action—if not Artisans? The Interests of Artisans Everyone has interests. Artisans will tend to practice. but not everyone has the same interests. as in the following chart: . Re­ member that we are interested in doing what we do well. However. are hard to see or hear for what they are. so that we cannot help noticing it. Just so. logistical. in any of its forms. as are Crafters (ISTPs) and Performers (ESFPs). the Crafters are quite willing and able to run all sorts of machinery. entertainers. Thus the Promoters are usually ready. if observable at all. who are likely to create entertaining works with increasing energy. is so much more observable than the other kinds! Strategic. while they would find it more difficult to boost enterprises. athletes. or diplomatic roles of the other types. beginning on page 63. but less so to stage a performance. willing.The Interests of Artisans 43 3 o C D 3 n o 3 •8 a > » ~ l Promoter ESTP •n dn o 3 fa §• o n •-I a • -» o rb a 3 o a ► I Composer ISFP i n G > n o *0 3 o m o C /5 ft Crafter ISTP C D n o 3 3 ■ 8 a Q & O 3 o o « C /i * Performer ESFP Note that Promoters (ESTPs) and Composers (ISFPs) are mirror images of each other. though not the best at operating tools. shouting as it does into our ears and parading itself before our eyes. warriors. logistical. while they are less inclined to fashion works of art.

or the humanities. martial. when looking for work. such as music and dance. But SPs are rarely interested in building morale. when asked to study business (particularly clerical matters). for having taken up the study of this art to please myself. Parents and teachers only rarely give SP children permission. high-spirited and frank in all his ways.) But they are always interested. such as painting and sculpture. not to mention what Donald Trump called the “Art of the Deal” in big business.a most excellent craftsman and a very good fellow to boot. that artcraft must not be limited to the so-called fine arts.. culinary. he wished me to indulge my whim for drawing to the full. Idealists. and even bored. and that honest master of mine took marvellous delight in my performances. I did so willingly enough. mechanical. Remember. and can become quite successful in business and industry. and industrial arts. and steer clear of the humanities and sciences. if they are lucky. respectively. and they have only a passing interest in devising technology (the concerns. Preoccupied with Techniques Artisans don’t spend much time worrying about morality or morale. theatrical. of the Guardians. Artisans have a natural ability to excel in any of these arts—a Pete Sampras service game in tennis or a Chuck Yeager supersonic test flight is just as artistic as a Rembrandt painting or Beethoven symphony.44 Artisans Artisans Artcrafts Techniques Equipment Guardians Commerce Morality Materiel Idealists Humanities Morale Personnel Rationals Sciences Technology Systems Interests Education Preoccupation Vocation At school the Artisans typically head for the arts and crafts. literary. but give them the opportunity to practice any of the arts or crafts and watch them shine... or in worrying about morality. and Rationals. and even have some aversion to technology. or science and technology. son of Sandro. In regard . to the goldsmith’s trade with a man called Antonio. but in fact includes the athletic. against my father’s will. or the performing arts. some will study commerce. they get to work on or with tools and equipment. My father would not let him give me wages like the other apprentices. When they go to work. Later on. to follow their artistic interests. as the Italian Renaissance artisan Benvenuto Cellini reminds us: [at] the age of fifteen. but this has always been the case. or opportunity. SPs can appear to be dull. even preoccupied. Educational Interest in Artcrafts In school Artisans tend to be interested in artcrafts. with the acquisition of technique. however. I put myself. where they can practice the required techniques.

There’s thousands of cars. hardship. of throwing. implements. wield the scalpel. and instruments captivate them. they must perfect their repertoire of techniques. amplifying. who give over their lives to mastering the techniques of painting or sculpting. long before industrial civilization. for who but the Artisan is first to enlist . the business tycoon’s technique of making deals. extending the reach. The sling. there’s no comparison. however. peril. the club. If you want a thrill. fire the gun. Listen as a truck driver interviewed by Studs Terkel describes the excitement of being behind the wheel of a big tractor and semi-trailer: The minute you climb into that truck. not even a jet plane. toot the horn. Even in ancient times. Many then take up wind-surfing. Technology is the theoretical study of method. the spear.’ which means they have to do with effective building. and so on. Whether it be a President’s technique of speechmaking. Apparatus. the bow and arrow: these equipped the SP tribesmen for their deadly art. or the skip loader’s technique of earthmoving. No matter what the cost in time. They will spend hours daily—and for years—in perfecting their technique of riding the waves. technique the empirical perfecting of method. to climbing on a steel truck and going out there on the expressway. machines. although the two resemble each other in a superficial manner. augmenting. pilot the plane. they are fundamentally different. or expense. catching. brush. You’ll swear you’ll never be able to get out the other end of that thing without an accident. technique is the main issue. so that they can develop the technique of doing somersaults directly into the waves! No matter the SP’s activity. steer the boat. and sharpening the effects of the many techniques they increasingly acquire and perfect. Artisans must have been the chief hunters and the finest warriors. deployed—and the SPs cannot not operate them. it is the mastery of technique that draws the SPs like moths to a flame. it is necessary to understand that.The Interests of Artisans 45 to this distinction between SP technique and NT technology. energy. kicking. the adrenaline starts pumping. And this is where the Artisans shine. or chisel. Something about equipment strikes a chord in the character of the SPs. Both are derived from the root ‘tech. TTiey must drive the bulldozer. And is it not so even today. This is most easily observed in artists and athletes. Watch surfers. of playing musical instruments. and thousands of trucks and you’re shifting like a maniac and you’re braking and accelerating and the object is to try to move with the traffic and try to keep from running over all those crazy fools who are trying to get under your wheel. Vocational Interest in Equipment Artisans are happiest when working with any and all sorts of equipment. or riding the waves with a sail attached to their surfboard. they are things to be used—employed. but they are entirely different ways of building.

pleasure must wait upon a stoical acceptance of their duty. Indeed. never. Whatever we think or feel. owing to a shock or a danger. does not lead efficiently toward their goal. but if pleasure interferes with their altruistic goals. or pragmatic than we are.46 Artisans when war comes. in the iron crucible of social reality. for example. all of us want to have pleasure. Of course. Idealists would take pleasure in what they do. cynical about the past. stepping outside of it into isolation. Hedonistic in Looking Around It was Aristotle who detected the underlying hedonism in Plato’s Arti­ sans. if what is done is not pragmatic. must occur. or altruistic. present. say or do. occurs. we are the most social of all the animals. to be less stoical. we can be disoriented for short periods of time. We are oriented always from a certain angle. So let us look closely at these five dimensions of orientation so that we will not be surprised when our Artisan friends prove. ” or “worldview. But we soon reorient ourselves and return to our ordinary waking social frame of reference. a slant. Of course. and their preferred time is now. something Adickes spoke of as our built-in “Weltanschauung. Consider the following chart in making these comparisons: Orientation Present Future Past Place Time Artisans Hedonistic Optimistic Cynical Here Now Guardians Stoical Pessimistic Fatalistic Gateways Yesterday Idealists Altruistic Credulous Mystical Pathways Tomorrow Rationals Pragmatic Skeptical Relativistic Intersections Intervals Here it is claimed that Artisans are hedonistic about the present. for long. their preferred place is here in the middle of the action. How different are the other temperaments in the way they view these things. and who but the Artisan best wields the weapons and the machines of modem warfare? The Orientation of Artisans We are bom into a social field and we live out our lives in that field. then pleasure must be forsaken. no matter how much fun it might be. viewing time and place as well as past. and future differently. a standpoint. and duty need not be pleasurable at all. especially to the senses. optimistic about the future. Hedonism is the ethical philosophy that defines the “good” as what is pleasurable. some of the time anyway. but not with the insistence of the Artisans. that is. our sociability ending in massive and complex societies.” But different personalities have different perspectives. . then it is simply not done. And for the Rationals. As for Guardians.

to prepare. Come to the cabaret. What good is sitting alone in your room? Come hear the music play. SJs. SPs often live a life of violent ups and downs. old chum. which means that they don’t see life as having some larger pattern to it. today must be enjoyed. Artisans view life as chancy. And which can get them into trouble. sloughing off adversity with an attitude of “that’s life. SPs. And once on roll or a hot streak. To these Dionysians. take a hit. fated. The distant future is a long way off.The Orientation of Artisans 47 Artisans. Life is a cabaret.” No doubt it was some hardened . Along with their optimism. your book. which makes them easily the most devil-may-care of all the types. when we lose. SPs believe their luck will hold. SPs feel lucky: the next roll of the dice. to them. Each type has its own way of coping with such negative outcomes. that nothing could have been done to avoid them. to sacrifice for tomorrow—that is not the Artisan way. Optimistic in Looking Ahead Artisans are the supreme optimists. some smile from Lady Luck. defeat. as Sally Bowles sang in Cabaret. are in the wrong place at the wrong time. a leap in the dark. Life is a cabaret. What comes next is bound to be a break.” “that’s the breaks. and when their luck turns sour they simply shrug their shoulders. old chum. injuring themselves through inattention to possible sources of setback. the next move. But the next moment? Here the SPs shine with a natural confidence that things are going to turn their way. trusting the fickle goddess Fortune as she spins her wheel. The past is water under the bridge. It’s time for a holiday. a life without pleasure is not worth living. winning a fortune one day and gambling it away the next. to save. are inevitable. so forget it. drink. shot. for tomorrow might not come—or. never mind that the last few have failed. of explaining them or rationalizing them. so don’t waste time planning for it. look upon mishaps in a cynical manner. Put down your knitting. when they come. risky. a windfall. on the other hand. Cynical in Looking Back We all have times when things don’t turn out well. and your broom. for example. When luck smiles on them they ride the streak.” or “that’s the way the ball bounces. do things for the fun of it. tend to take a stoical view. Artisans have an incorrigible belief that they lead a charmed life. and they will push it to the limit. often believing that difficulties. Come to the cabaret. SPs are more subject to accidents and downturns than other temperaments. or loss. perhaps even that they are the will of some deity. or ploy will be a lucky one. and the hedonist’s motto of “eat. a crap-shoot—and they would have it no other way. and be merry” are words to live by. to store. To wait. on the other hand.

A Perfect World.. or referee the game. we all have feet of clay. But other types could do that and still not attain the SPs’ prowess. ” Artisans can be cynical about human motives as well. Black Heart. In another area of show business actor and film director Clint Eastwood explored the aesthetics of cynicism in his Italian-made “spaghetti westerns. The Artisans’ only concern is what is happening here at this very moment. or sit in the bleachers. a bon-bon. not a ‘bone.” Their time and space are inseparable. They could have swallowed anything. They must be in the game. . White Hunter.. After Eastwood’s artful display of cynicism. and so they can be said to live in the “here-and-now. With their cynical take on people’s intentions. and this makes them the masters of timing and graceful movement. American movies would never be the same. And a great source of chagrin for SPs is to be naive and fall for a trick. and Unforgiven.” says the SP. their place is here. and for long hours. Listen as P. to be a sap or a sucker. no matter how virtuous we think ourselves.’ but a regular tidbit. Such cynicism gives SPs a huge tactical advantage over the other more trusting and gullible types. is as morally correct for Artisans as the stoicism. at the very center of things where the action is. Indeed. and it is this unity of time and space that makes their precision of motion in the arts. duped. and relativism are for the other types. the philosophy of the cynic. with his sardonic take on the world reaching its zenith in his 1990s films. albeit eschewed by those Guardians and Idealists who strongly advocate cooperation. understandable.” then later in his popular Dirty Harry movies. They were ravenous. or at some other time. Just as their time is now. and they swallowed it in a single gulp. especially the athletic arts.I threw them.. The Place is Here Artisans do not care to take tickets at the gate. Barnum recalls how cleverly he manipulated the American public with one of his famous hoaxes (and notice how he expresses himself in feeding images): The public appetite was craving something. They harbor no illusions about people being noble or saintly—“come off it. to be taken. mysticism. Artisans know to look a gift horse in the mouth and to check on their wallet when someone is trying to give them something. for instance. for baseball players to hit a one hundred mile-per-hour fastball? Or for basketball players to hit so small a target from so far away? Of course they must swing their bats and shoot their jump shots daily.48 Artisans soldier who came up with the expression “c ’est la guerre.T. While others attempt their motions they are all too often concerned about what is going on elsewhere. How is it possible. we are all ultimately corruptible and self-serving.the community was absolutely famishing. who can become easy marks for Artisans. and..

. After all... however. He called across to one of the other officers.. not the last one or the next one. there’s a guy here sounds like he knows what he’s talking about. “tomorrow never comes” and yesterday is “water over the dam. ‘The two trucks together’1 1 hitch onto three points.’ the state trooper said. That’ll overcome the jackknifing. He or she acts to a great extent in the now. but less so the Artisans. when considering a problem he was totally absorbed. And so more often than not they win.. not that time. They do not mourn their losses as their concrete cousins the Guardians do. they do not dissect and redesign their mistakes as their abstract cousins the Rationals do. there’s no time like the present.. As always. He waved his cigar once more. more than the others.’ He began moving around. ‘.. there’s spilled gasoline around here. they tell us. . they can concentrate all their powers on a clear and present opportunity. or worry that the next shot might fail. SPs instinctively repeat those acts that bring them success. as he ignored almost all smoking reg­ ulations.‘Hank. trying to get that hunk of junk right side up tonight.’ ‘Hold it.’ . What SPs do is keep their eye on the ball and so are able. and to do that you need two more tow trucks—one on this side to push. and faster. Watch a thorough-going SP athlete in action. Others may grouse and groan about their errors. their talent for going with what works usually saves them. They’ll pull the cab first. nor do they live in anticipation of mistakes as their abstract opposites the Idealists do.Patroni ignored the instruction. there’s a price to pay for living so intently in the moment. including mine and yours. Airport: ‘Mister. Since Artisans do not reflect very much on their errors or analyze their mistakes to any great extent. repeating their mistakes. However. better seize the day. You’d better get that cigar out. so we’d better make the most of it. two over there to pull. Artisans live and act in the present.. to hit it at precisely the right instant. focusing easily on this time. on this stroke. Oblivious to the past and the future. The other truck.son..” To an SP. strike while the iron is hot. using his electric lantern to inspect the big articulated vehicle from various angles.The Orientation of Artisans 49 Arthur Hailey captured the here-and-now expertise of the Artisan in this scene of troubleshooting from his novel. Here. and so they do indeed learn from positive experience. He waved his cigar toward the overturned tractor-trailer. and so they can become caught in a loop. or get while the getting’s good.’ The Time is Now Far more than the rest of us. You’ll have to drag it clear so traffic can move. it is difficult for them to learn from their errors. you’d be wasting everybody’s time.

Likewise. and often to success. and with effortless freedom. But different types of personality base their self-image on entirely different things. contribute little to their self-image. For example.— ► Audacious —artistry. it be­ comes more difficult for us to maintain our self-confidence and self-esteem. Most Artisans enjoy presenting themselves as graceful in action. audacity. And it works the other way too—the more we prize ourselves the more we respect ourselves and the greater our self-confidence. it is well that we pause for a moment to compare the four temperaments on this important aspect of personality: Self-Image Self-Esteem Self-Respect Self-Confidence Artisans Artistic Audacious Adaptable Guardians Dependable Beneficent Respectable Idealists Rationals Ingenious Empathic Benevolent Autonomous Authentic Resolute Thus. as we lose self-respect. and self-confidence. self-respect. beautifully. Three aspects of our self-image or self-concept are of particular importance in determining how well we regard ourselves: self­ esteem. as suggest­ ed by the figure at the right. em­ pathy and benevolence. Still. adaptability— are mutually reinforcing. whether interdependent or independent of one another. audacious.50 Artisans The Self-Image of Artisans All of us have a concept of ourselves composed of things we believe about ourselves. to feel good about them­ The Self-Image of Artisans selves Artisans must regard them­ Artistic selves as artistic. Thus the self-image is a triangular affair. the three attitudes toward the self deserve careful examination. and self-confidence of the Artisans. and adaptable. A Self-Esteem in Artistry Artisan self-esteem is greatest when they see themselves and are seen by others as artistic in expediting and improvising productions. their sense of pride stemming from their ability to act fluidly. Since having a good opinion of oneself is one of the keys to happiness. the three bases of self-regard vitally affecting each other. so let us look at them one at a time. John Updike captures this pride-of-performance when his character . I believe that these three attitudes Adaptable — . this decrement tends to undermine our self-respect and self-confidence. such that they wax and wane together. self-respect. while other attributes. Perhaps this is so even though they independently characterize the self-esteem. when our self-esteem diminishes. for instance.

styling and restyling their performance. their positions and start over. Artisans will expend whatever effort is required to adorn an activity. a forgetfulness of everyone about you.. In contrast. he improvises as he goes. wiggling the ball with nervousness in front of his chest. And in this they can be quite wasteful of effort.’ he answers..The Self-Image o f A rtisans 51 Rabbit Angstrom stops to shoot baskets with some playground teenagers: As they stare hushed he sights squinting. On the other hand. Self-Respect in Audacity Artisans see themselves..‘Skill.. any lapse of what dancer Martha Graham calls “the physical use of the body in action. graceful action boosts the SPs’ self-esteem regardless of the effort they put into the perfor­ mance.is the eagerness to meet life. she was frustrated by the loss of her masterful technique: I wonder where all the loveliness. the wonder that you feel when you can really move—to work toward a perfect first or a perfect fifth position. whipping the net with a ladylike whisper. at least in the eyes of the NT.” When Graham became too old to dance with the fluid gracefulness which was her trademark.] ‘Hey!’ he shouts in pride. building up a tapestry of intricate sound.‘Luck. which sometimes frustrates the dancers of Real Tap Skills. pushing their artistry to its limits.[He] paces and taps in front of the mirror..’ he says.. You are so completely absorbed in this instrument that is vibrant to life. ‘Let’s go again. It is a mistake to confuse the artistic action of the Artisans with the efficient action of the Rationals. and NTs take pride in their efficiency.. all the awareness of the magic of the body. and it. one widespread white hand on top of the ball and the other underneath. There becomes an excitement.„Then the ball seems to ride up the right lapel of his coat and comes off his shoulder as his knees dip down.. He feels liberated. repeating them.. and wish to be seen by others.. hearing phrases..setting his feet with care... failing again and again until fluency has been reached. the curiosity. For example. an avidity.drops into the circle of the rim. the Artisans’ greatest source of embarrassment is in performing some action poorly or awkwardly. as he choreographs a number with his dance troupe. daring. as bold. [That his touch still lives in his hands elates him. has gone. ...’ one of the kids says. The action that gets the most result for the least effort is efficient.. jiggling it patiently. and they stolidly assume. is far more concerned with embellishing his moves than with running his rehearsal efficiently: As Glover takes the members of Real Tap Skills through the steps in rehearsals.... who struggle to keep up with him. Efficiency is measured by the proportion of input to output. witness how tap-dance prodigy Savion Glover.What I miss some days.

political negotiators. police work. trouble-shooters—and comedians. on the contrary. Johnny Carson. taking chances. Artisans feel guilty if they are cowardly. in driving ambulances. he found that he did not care what happened.” Artisans are the world’s great risk-takers. All these are SP occupations which require bold action .’ Now. not bawdy burlesque stories. Even if it means they must walk away from a good job or a settled life. but in construction work.. Carson’s quips were brash and slightly off color. the SP gravitates toward jobs where bold physical action is involved. and aircraft. but witty allusions. to look danger in the eye and defeat it under any circumstances. It is likely that most skydivers. They delight in putting themselves in jeopardy. toujour Vaudace”that wins battles..best jokes were usually about sex.52 Artisans venturesome—audacious. Not that all risks are death-defying. race drivers. The most successful Wall Street wheeler-dealers and corporate high-rollers are usually Artisans.. in loading freight. soldiering.” SPs do not hesitate. he believed. they might very well pay that price. in operations for pitting human force against the forces of nature. General Patton is credited with saying that it is “I’audace. was a matter of dignity. motorcycles. jobs where heavy machinery is employed. developed a brand of humor based on risque jokes and stories. and like the lion in The Wizard of Oz. if they are yellow or chicken out. they often find risk-taking so irresistible that they court it again and again. fire and rescue work. pushing ever closer to the edge. in the presence of actual danger.” and that “he who hesitates is lost.. in detective work. whatever form their endangerment might take. however. such as working the oil fields and logging. Even in college. SPs say that “life is too short.’ With this eagerness to live boldly “up to that minute. He gave thousands before him the feeling that here was a daring young man. or as biographer Laurence Learner puts it: Johnny’s. Generally speaking. Boldness is a virtue to cultivate. for freeways and mines.A man without inner dignity was an embarrassment. The SPs’ self-respect depends upon their ability to act fearlessly. ‘I knew it was better to live it so that if you died you had done everything that you could do about your work and your enjoyment of life up to that minute. in the building operations for dams and skyscrapers.. Ernest knew from personal experience ‘what is was to be a coward and what it was to cease being a coward.” that they must “make hay while the sun shines. not only in the performing arts and athletics. as are many surgeons and defense lawyers. hosting fraternity shows*. Hemingway often wrote about what his biographer Carlos Baker called “his favorite subjects of bravery and cowardice”: Courage. and mercenary soldiers are SPs who have become compulsive in risking themselves. for example. facing hazards.

endurance. a few women have entered professional athletics (golf. also heavy construction and the military. showed this knack of adapting to survive. had married. lying low and not rocking the boat. Perhaps the influence of the feminist movement will eventually make this style of life more socially acceptable for females. perhaps. involving precision. they are always adaptable. pliable. Winston and . The majority of women still enter three traditional occupations. but still abandoned. and yesterday’s ar­ rangements must give way in the face of more urgent demands. nursing. her lover. perhaps more than most people. Paracelsus. After a lingering illness. Only weeks before. nonetheless. Jennie Churchill. in order to operate effectively in the most unstable situations. as noted earlier. But win or lose. and now basketball). but only until a crisis occurs. none of which is likely to give the female Artisan much chance to build her self-respect. SPs will go along with such conventions for a time. a mythical creature capable of changing its appearance so as to blend in with its immediate surroundings. And. Her sons. and cler­ ical work. new situations demand new actions. bold­ ness. tennis. She lived with a vivacity which is rare. and some have succeeded as trouble shooters. unwilling to wait any longer. and timing.The Self-Image o f Artisans 53 and a considerable amount of physical courage. remain largely in the hands of men. SPs hate to be bound by rigid. Winston Churchill’s extraordinary mother. even in SPs. surviving setbacks which might leave other types permanently immobilized. and earlier commitments often have to be abandoned—with regret. Of course Artisans are not always successful in dealing with crises. raving mad. This is why Artisans work so well in a crisis. Unfortunately. Today is today. of all the styles Artisans are best able to respond quickly and flexibly to a changing envi­ ronment. strength. teaching. indeed. by the NF’s ethical concerns. cultural stereotyping provides male Artisans far more than female Artisans the opportunity to express their attraction to risk. but they base their self-confidence on their ability to adapt spontaneously to changing circumstances. to alter and shape their behavior in the moment. and have the ability to roll with the punches and land on their feet. her husband had died of syphilis. in spite of the fact that half of the SPs are women. and Ralph Martin caught her style when he wrote of a low point in her life: For Jennie. pre-established laws—by the SJ’s rules and regulations. Self-Confidence in Adaptability Artisans may well pride themselves on their artistry. They have successes and failures like everyone. True. current realities still exclude the SP female from most typical SP occupations. but the action occupations. or by the NT’s laws of logic. saw this type as guided by the Salamander. the year 1895 began bitter and bleak. and respect them­ selves for their boldness. and then they spring into action.

and aspire to virtuosity.. yearn to have impact on others. not even a home of her own. or less hungry for achievement than we are. Even though we may wish to value something. They enjoy being turned on and can tolerate a lot of excitement for long periods of time. working on their . often seek stimulation.. we cannot. Therefore is will serve us well if we study these six kinds of value in the case of Artisans lest we are surprised (and perhaps annoyed) to find them.. the SPs’ public performances even improve the more excited they get. prize generosity. but we cannot will to will. what they yearn for. little money. less sagacious. especially when things get dull. Different types differ in their preferred mood. These value preferences are radically different from those of other temperament.. such was the inner resource and resilience of this woman that her life soon took on an excitement and vitality such as she had never dreamed of. It is perhaps in our values that the patterns of personality are most easily discernible.So here was Jennie with the man who had loved her most now married to someone else. what they prize. but even in our values temper­ ament plays a decisive role. both had problems which required her full attention. said in a letter to her. if it is not in our nature to do so. They are excitable as children and they never seem to get less excitable as they grow up. for instance. Artisans at their milling machine or crawling on the World Wide Web. Lady Curzon. Unlike the other three temper­ aments... such as the self-image or the forms of intelligence. Being Excited Artisans like being excited and insist on being excited. We may will. ‘You are the only person who lives on the crest of a wave. and what they aspire to.And yet. Not that this excitement is always displayed openly. To appreciate these differences let us study the following chart: Value Being Trusting Yearning Seeking Prizing Aspiring Artisans Excited Impulse Impact Stimulation Generosity Virtuoso Guardians Concerned Authority Belonging Security Gratitude Executive Idealists Enthusiastic Intuition Romance Identity Recognition Sage Rationals Calm Reason Achievement Knowledge Deference Wizard I think that Artisans typically enjoy being excited. in what they put their trust in. Physically and emotionally she felt drained. what they seek. As her friend. trust their impulses. less security-minded.54 Artisans Jack. moreso than in other domains.’ The Values of Artisans Different people value different things.

a kind of repetition compulsion.The Values of Artisans 55 paintings or taking batting practice. the cardinal sin was boredom. as White House correspondent Nancy Dickerson recalls: To Jack. they are acting in the heat of excitement.needing constant variety”: He was magnetic. depending. Moreover. are just as keyed up. the atmosphere takes on a glow. rather. high-strung. live!” Excitability has its price. This excitability is what enables Artisans to be oblivious to pain or fatigue. during their excited actions. and show the same restless energy. seems brighter. and needed to have many projects going on at once. making them continue the action that has caught them in its energy field.. It is. grasped by the action itself—as by a magnet—then they are too excited to feel pain or fatigue. You could do anything to him—steal his wallet... SPs climb the mountain for the thrill of it—because it’s there—not to get to the top or the other side. are dedicated.. A friend of Leonard Bernstein remembers the brilliant young musician in his student days at Harvard as “endlessly energetic and. and so need not endure anything. He had a fascination with unique people and artistic projects. Kennedy hated boredom above all else. surrounded himself with many friends and had an abundance of acquaintances. rather. Similarly. however. Artisans (especially the sociable ones) lend an electricity to the environment and to the people around them. and he didn’t know how to handle it. more colorful—charged with an excitement that others often admire and even envy. SPs tend to live life at the level of a gourmet feast. urging her friend to take some risks: “Yes! Life is a banquet. which is that Artisans can easily become bored. “Yes! Live. fun-loving.He became bored if made to have a regimental existence. Very likely the SP’s love of excitement is why Kennedy pulled strings . outgoing. and most poor sons-of-bitches are starving to death! Live!” And her friend catches the SP fever. nor devotion. argue with him—but to bore him was unpardonable. not for something else. of course. Auntie Mame defies a disapproving world. on what they’re doing. When he was bored. Wherever they go. the rush. insult him. it was his biggest enemy. a hood would come down over his eyes and his nervous system would start churning. and they bring to work and to play a sense that something delicious is about to happen. and if it continues for long they are likely to do almost anything to end it. live. Action is for the high. but this is neither dedication. Some say that Artisans. from all walks of life. John F. commitment. If they’re caught up in some artistic activity. The rest of us get tired and sore in our efforts.. but the Artisans are not making effort in our sense. responding. Boredom is one of the most painful conditions SPs can experience.

To be impulsive. or because they have gained some control over their impulses. It may seem strange to distinguish between enthusiasm and excitement. so why get married? Ladies. she’ll worry. some SPs seem to calm down a bit. was more interested in playing the field than in committing to marriage: I have no desire to have children. want to get married and have children. ethics. but this may be because they have lost some of their steam. I start feeling locked in if I have to be somewhere at a certain time and then I worry if I’m not there. Most have been condi­ tioned that way. an opportunity. Joe Namath. but only slowly and rarely becoming enthused. looking ahead to what they think of as more valuable goals. SPs trust their impulses without reserve. is to be really alive. only to have his boat crushed by a Japanese destroyer. especially when dictionaries present them as synonymous. In old age. is ephemeral. particularly. professional football player (and one-time famous bachelor). Man. the biggest burden I ever had was love. “I . to be a live wire— and the other moods of calm. by definition. but he became impossibly “bored with sight­ seeing” in France while waiting for his assignment and wrote his sister. a contest. They even feel uneasy if they don’t have impulses. Action cannot be saved for tomorrow. I c a n ’t handle it. The young Hemingway suddenly quit his job and volunteered to drive ambulances in World War I. they can be calm. At one time or another all the types feel these sudden urges to act. for the most part. Artisans. and they love discharging them. behavior which would only make the SP feel bound and confined. But they are quite different attitudes. Inside of me I get a little crazy. an image. but only slowly and uneasily getting excited. or enthused like other types. Since an impulse. They like being that way. Trusting Impulses Artisans are impulsive. To be excited is to be stimulated by something outside—a game. SJs. Life for an Artisan means having impulses and acting spontaneously on those impulses. are capable of all the moods. spontaneous. Thus the prevailing mood of the SPs is opposite that of the NFs. or reason. and enthusiasm tend to be short-lived. a challenge. and with NFs frequently and easily showing enthusiasm. concern. Besides being excited. and NTs discipline their impulses in the name of duty. NFs. But even with their best years behind them. To be enthused is to be aroused by something inside—an idea. with SPs frequently and easily becoming excited. but the others try to control them. the SP must live in the immediate moment. of course. turned on.56 Artisans to get himself assigned to the dangerous PT boats during World War II. Artisans still prefer to be excited—to be hot. concerned. enjoy feeling them well up within. a goal. like setting off an explosion.

which disregards long term goals.” For SPs. And if the ties become too numerous or too binding. or whatever. to make a splash. Thus they may admit to being “compulsive gamblers. and they can sever social or family ties more easily than others. of course. Artisans must do whatever their impulse dictates and continue the action as long as the urge compels. whether in the world of art or corporate business. is life at its freest and most intense. to make no difference in human affairs. though he left broken trust behind. some held to be masterpieces. are most likely to answer the call to wander.The Values of Artisans 57 wish they’d hurry up and ship us off to the front. now they seem a suffocating burden. painting. or mocking the establishment. is like being deprived of oxygen. even though they may be aware of the distress such behavior causes those close to them. When the impulse lets up. a life of action in the moment. playing. SPs hunger to have a piece of the action. but still with little regret. sadly. This is not to say that SPs do not have goals and ties just like the rest of us. in his early forties. This is why so . family responsibilities are dropped. one of the great Gestalt psychologists. no matter how dangerous the action. For an Artisan. The SP can abruptly abandon either an activity or a relationship. But while compulsions are experienced by the other types as burdensome and onerous (NTs can be compulsive. At mid-life particularly. on stage or in the political arena. Although the SP himself created these ties. SPs will sometimes claim that they have to behave in a particular way. to be felt as a strong presence. walking away without a backward glance. too).” that is. then they can stop. or “compulsive drinkers. of all the types. Other types often find it hard to understand why an Artisan wants to live so impulsively.” for example. a longing to perform some conspicuous function in their social context and so make their mark. They do. then the SP is likely to become restless and get the urge to take off for elsewhere. only their goals are fewer and more tentatively held. Yearning for Impact Social impact is vital for Artisans. the SPs’ compulsions are almost all exciting and not at all burdensome. on the battlefield or ball field. even painfully. to be without impact. where he produced many paintings. to wait is psychological death. to hit the big time. Under stress. called “function lust. the Artisans’ need for freedom from constraints may be so intense that they can become unusually impatient. even for those who appear to shrug their shoulders and turn away from society. Gauguin. Artisans need to be potent. and they want to affect the course of events. but to an Artisan. shocking. when they no longer feel like racing. Artisans. that they can’t help themselves. A stifling career is suddenly discarded. turned away from his wife and children and sailed off to Tahiti.” and are likely to be labeled as such by therapists who encounter them. More than other types. the SP is subject to what Karl Biihler. a craving for impressive action. to make something happen. if only by defying.

and can lead to difficulty when an SP marries. and they seem to like their music a little louder than the other types.And see things. in other words.O. Prizing Generosity Child-like in other ways. This tends to be upsetting to the more conservative types.. And touch things. get action.Let’s be able to say—we have seen and experienced everything. perhaps Artisans are most child-like in the life-long pleasure they get out of giving.. they will either make it variations on a theme. SPs have been known to create a sensation—just to liven things up a little. to buy new cars. take a place wherever you are. when a job becomes too dull and routine. and their food and drink a little stronger. not a holiday—that sounds so damn conventional. Marvin Zuckerman. or they will tune out and reduce it to an automatic way of operating.create. Artisans believe that variety is the spice of life.. or M. their clothes a little more colorful. wanting to eat whenever the impulse strikes. their modus operandi. They never really lose the sense of fun that accompanies fortuitous generosity—not giving because some­ .. to try out new foods. In his Presidency.. so does the SP’s eagerness to take on the task.. As much as possible. the Artisan becomes disinter­ ested. do things. and in his life. Artisans are eager to try different vacation spots.touch trees—and grass—and—earth. Not that Artisans refuse to do what they’re supposed to do. an American psychologist. In family life.. But as the range of possibilities and emergencies increases. And smell things. spoke of this type as the “SensationSeeking Personality. or even to vary the dinner hour. They may or may not. And taste things.. little that is stimulating about it. Norman Dewers. or even to do it over and over again. new clothes. and they want their lives to be filled with new sensations and experiences.” Seeking Stimulation Artisans spend a good deal of their time seeking stimulation because they need it.” a name that British playwright Alan Ayckbourn seems almost to have had in mind when one of his comic heroes. act. excitement. to change houses. The same at work: if their job has little variety or unpredictability. depending on how they feel at the moment. they live in their five senses. and risk—but for powerful social impact. new places to eat. Teddy Roosevelt lived by a motto that speaks for all his fellow-Artisans: “Get action. and if they must repeat an action. But they will turn the job into play if they can.. or in the prescribed way... a habit pattern which Artisans often resort to. In fact. SJs particularly. I want us just to go. rather drunkenly begs his brother-in-law to join him on a holiday: no.58 Artisans many professional politicians are SPs: the world of politics allows not only for maneuvering.

“To use if you need it. Elvis asked the woman if she liked it. the elfin spirit of the Guardians. as seen in a story about one of Elvis Presley’s whims. such that those who make it to that level of expertise wonder how they got there. awesome acts of generosity—those grand gestures that Sicilians call la bella figura” For instance. still would not develop such extreme prowess. the aspiration becoming less secret as the technical mastery increases. for no reason other than having fun. even though it is clear that such skill requires daily practice for years on end. took her to the nearby car lot. and told her to pick one out. the spiritual guide of the Artisans. “This one is mine. something seen as almost out of one’s reach. is pleased to give of his bounty to all who come to the party. especially Guardians. and are just as delighted when this is done for them. short of virtuosity. something one would be if only one could. Now. Scratch an SP. a virtuoso is the ultimate technician. but impulsive giving is very gratifying. find a would-be virtuoso. How Olympic skaters perform those incredible turns and leaps so flawlessly is beyond imagination. Sinatra sent him a blank check with a note saying. Take figure skating. were we somehow to practice that much. Most of us. No. according to John Lahr’s New Yorker profile. After all. but I’ll buy you one.The Values of Artisans 59 thing is owed to them or by them. and then offered. Presley had parked his custom-made Cadillac near a car lot.” He caught the stranger by the arm. showing skill so great as to be unimaginable. it is something in the Artisans’ . “has always been known among his friends for impulsive. while Artisan women are the most likely to throw a party for spouse or child or parent just for the fun of it. so he handed her the keys to the car. candy. is known to give only to the deserving. Of course other types. Santa Claus. they so covet skill in technique that they tend to aspire secretly to becoming some sort of virtuoso of performance.” Aspiring to be a Virtuoso Aspiration is more of a dream than an ambition. but not to the same extent or frequency of pleasure experienced by Artisans. and told his aide to write her a check so that the woman could “buy some clothes to go with the car.” And Frank Sinatra. it’s one thing to dream of being a virtuoso—an ace in one’s field—and quite another actually to become one. wished her happy birthday. capable at times of perfect artistic execution. This impulsive generosity can be expensive at times. are pleased to give gifts. Artisan men are the most likely of all the types to bring flowers. one time when his friend actor George Raft was under indictment by the IRS. and when he returned he found a total stranger with her head in his car. In the case of Artisans. looking it over longingly. but giving that is done spontaneously. and whatnot to their girl friend or spouse. whatever their just deserts may or may not be. For SPs giving out of duty isn’t fun at all. After she had selected a gold and white model. but Dionysus. who. Presley learned that it was the woman’s birthday. can attain surprising proficiency in some art form. For example.

we have no choice but to enact our roles. the gunslinger could draw his long-barreled revolver. offspring. executive status—and so cannot aspire at the same time to virtuosity. the sculptor. are apt to be Artisans. the mountainclimber. siblings to our brothers and sisters. Allotted or embraced. Indeed. the chef. aim it. We perforce play offspring to our parents. and Mindmate in the other three types of personality. and fire it. and leading. cock it. and so on. parenting.60 Artisans temperament that puts virtuosity barely within their reach but not the reach of others. hitting unbelievably small moving targets. by any of the SPs: not only the figure-skater. It is impossible not to play a role in all of our social transactions. the racer. and followers. and leading roles are played: Social Roles Mating Parenting Leading Artisans Playmate Liberator Negotiator Guardians Helpmate Socializer Stabilizer Idealists Soulmate Harmonizer Catalyst Rationals Mindmate Individuator Visionary Note the striking difference between enacting the Playmate role in the case of the Artisans. The fast draw of the gunslinger is just as incredible as the bowing and fingering of the violinist. since interaction with others can never be role-free. and those that we reach out and take for ourselves. the surgeon. parenting. friend to friend. that is. in the effects their ways of mating. Let us consider a chart which shows the different ways in which mating. On the other hand we choose to play mate to our spouse. those that are allotted to us by virtue of our position in our social milieu. Three of our social roles are of special significance in the context of the study of personality: mating. After all. Virtuoso performers in the fine arts. or on stage and screen. but we must not forget that virtuosity in performance can be achieved. In these three roles the temperaments differ in important ways. and leading have on their mates. and relatives to our extended family members. but the surfer. the gambler. . subordinate to our superior. These different roles will require lengthy and complex study and so a chapter on mating (Chapter 7) is provided. the fighter-pilot. those of other type aspire to other things—wizardry. parenting. wisdom. the politician. the twirling of the ice-skater. without sighting down the barrel. He was able to perform this feat in less than one-fifth of a second—so swiftly that the motion of his hand could not be seen. or at least sought. superior to our subordinate. and the Helpmate. or the triple somersaults of the high board diver—all feats of the same character type. parent to our offspring. The Social Roles Artisans Play There are two kinds of social roles. important. even the con artist and the gunslinger of the Old West. Soulmate.

either Rationals or Idealists. a few remarks on each of the Artisan’s social roles can at least give outlines of how they are played. And a third reason is that SPs and SJs complement each other very nicely. so there is little chance of either of them even encountering. playing games. or bonding with their children. so the second time around the divorced Artisan goes for a Guardian. To say the least. The Negotiator Leader Negotiating is a kind of bargaining or dealing in such a manner that the negotiator is able to resolve a strained and trying situation. and never boring. and in taking the role of Playmate. suffice it to say that when taking on a leadership role. It must be the opportunism of the SPs—always on the lookout for an edge—that sets them up as good negotiators. For now. individuating. the Artisan has no peer in negotiating tense situations. In short. but Artisans are apt to encourage their kids to test the limits of their surroundings. with Guardian mates. and participating in sports or theater. SP parents are likely to see to it that they get to learn how to do lots of concrete operations such as using hand tools. if they do not start out. Even so. let alone marrying. The most hedonic of all. One reason is that together the Artisans and Guardians comprise about 85% of the population. Artisans can spot things that give them an edge where others can’t. so that they can do things on their own as early as possible—shoved out of the nest as soon as they’re ready to fly. In line with liberating their kids. for reasons to be discussed in Chapter 7. the Artisans seek to lighten up their spouses. at least not with the same ease and accuracy. that’s why SPs make good trouble shooters in corporations and institutions. The Playmate The spousal role the Artisan is something to behold. By the way. marriage to an Artisan can be exciting and fun. Artisan parents are likely to be less concerned than other types about socializing. running vehicles. and to their advantage. it is quite natural that Artisans would want freedom for their kids. The Liberator Parent Wanting freedom for themselves. Not that they let their kids get away with abusing their privileges.The Social Roles Artisans Play 61 Chapters on parenting roles (Chapter 8) and leadership roles (Chapter 9) are also furnished. Effective negotiators make do by using whatever is at hand at the moment. devote themselves to giving pleasure and excitement to their mates. building things. The vast majority of Artisans end up. and more concerned with encouraging them to become free spirits with enough gumption to take off and sample the world’s waiting pleasures. Another reason is that marriage between Artisans tends to be rather unstable and is often terminated after a few months or years. but more about this in Chapter 9. . That’s it: an edge. whatever the temperament of his or her mate.

The Traits of Temperament and Character Communication Implementation Character Language Referential Syntactical Rhetorical i— Concrete —i i— Abstract — i Utilitarian Cooperative Cooperative Utilitarian Artisan Guardian Idealist Rational Harmonic Indicative Descriptive Heterodox Associative Imperative Comparative Orthodox Inductive Interpretive Metaphoric Hyperbolic Deductive Categorical Subjunctive Technical Intellect Directive Role • Expressive Role • Reserved Role Informative Role • Expressive Role • Reserved Role Tactical Operator • Promoter • Crafter Entertainer • Performer • Composer Artcraft Technique Logistical Administrator • Supervisor • Inspector Conservator • Provider • Protector Commerce Morality Materiel Stoicism Pessimism Fatalism Gateways Yesterday Dependable Beneficent Respectable Concerned Authority Belonging Security Gratitude Executive Helpmate Socializer Stabilizer Diplomatic Mentor •Teacher • Counselor Advocate • Champion • Healer Humanities Morale Personnel Altruism Credulism Mysticism Pathways Tomorrow Empathic Benevolent Authentic Enthusiastic Intuition Romance Identity Recognition Sage Soulmate Harmonizer Catalyst Strategic Coordinator • Fieldmarshal • Mastermind Engineer • Inventor • Architect Sciences Technology Systems Pragmatism Skepticism Relativism Intersections Intervals Ingenious Autonomous Resolute Calm Reason Achievement Knowledge Deference Wizard Mindmate Individuator Visionary Interest Education Preoccupation Vocation Equipment Hedonism Optimism Cynicism Here Now Orientation Present Future Past Place Time Self-Image Self-Esteem Self-Respect Self-Confidence Artistic Audacious A daptable Excited Value Being Trusting Yearning Seeking Prizing Aspiring Social Role Mating Parenting Leading Impulse Impact Stimulation Generosity Virtuoso Playm ate L iberator Negotiator .62 Artisans Matrix of Artisan Traits The matrix below collects and highlights the terms used in this chapter to define the personality of the Artisans. For ease of comparison. I have placed these terms in parallel with those used to define the other three personalities.

Aristotle’s Hedonics. Artisan Role Variants These “Concrete Utilitarians” as I like to call them—Plato’s Artisans. Of all the Artisans. seek sensation. the ESTPs are little different from other SPs in most respects. In orientation they tend to be hedonistic. It might be said that people are instru­ ments in the hands of these Promoters. audacious. optimistic. and to maneuver others in the direction they want them to go. vehicles. The Promoter [ESTP] Promoting is the art of putting forward an enterprise and then of winning others to your side. yearn for impact. and aspire to virtuosity. so that each trait of character entails the other traits. and focused on the here and now. This means that Mother Nature does not permit Artisans. They want to be seen as artistic. and adaptable. any more than other types. are preoccupied with technique. with the Operators tending to play the role variants of Promoter or Crafter. unified pattern of attitudes and actions. These two divisions can be further broken down to reflect an expressive or a reserved social attitude. they are prone to practice tactics far more than logistics. all the Artisans seem to have a gift for tactical artistry. While it is useful to think of each of the four temperaments as a single. individual members of each tem­ perament clearly differ from one another. machines. They are interested in learning about arts and crafts. and work well with equipment. and especially diplomacy. If their environment enables them to develop a given trait it can only be one that is predetermined by their temperament. persuading them have confidence in you and to go along with what you propose. In a sense. with their tough-minded nature they tend to play the directive role of Operator more . and the Dialectical Rationals. and that they play them artistically. Myers’s SPs—have a tightly con­ figured personality. prize generosity. and the Entertainers playing Performer or Composer. they are able to operate people with much the same skill as ISTPs operate instruments. to pick and choose their traits. cynical. strategy. as well as to get a feel for its uniqueness and radical difference from the Proprietary Guardians. Intellectually. As a variant of Plato’s Artisans and Aristotle’s Hedonics. Thus. in order to get a sure grip on the complex configuration of the Hedonic Artisan Personality.Artisan Role Variants 63 It might prove useful to take time to study this matrix and thumb back to it from time to time. but some (the tough-minded SPs) are drawn to the directive role of Operator. while others (the friendly SPs) take up the informative or reporting role of Entertainer. they trust their impulses. Further. Like all the Artisans they are concrete in their communication and utilitarian in their use of tools. and other tools. ESTPs seem especially able to advertise or publicize their endeavors in this way. Often excited. Galen’s Sanguines. the Ethical Idealists.

and they usually know the best restaurants. Promoters can be hard-nosed utilitarians. none as suave and polished—and none such master manipulators of the people around them. many people by name. since they do not stand on ceremony. but Promoters are exhilarated by working close to the edge. Promoters have a knack for knowing where the action is. ESTPs keep their eyes on their audience. maybe ten or so percent of the population. and fashionable clothes. Rather. the best food. Concerned more with what works than with traditions or moral niceties. they live with a theatrical flourish which makes even the most routine events seem exciting. a theme of seeking excitement through taking risks runs throughout their lives. hypersensitive to the tiniest nonverbal cues that give away the other’s attitudes. ESTPs have a hearty appetite for the finer things of life. Indeed. willing to do whatever it takes to achieve their goals. and life is never dull around them. knowing many. None are as socially sophisticated as they. Witty. and with nerves of steel they will use this information to achieve the ends they have in mind—which is to sell the customer in some way. They always seem to have tickets to the hot show or big game (or can get them when others can’t). and fun. Winning people over with this kind of brinkmanship might seem exhausting to others. clever. expensive cars.64 Artisans easily than the informative role of Entertainer. they are uncanny at reading people’s faces and observing their body language. Not that they waste much time on routine events. and it is this utilitarianism that allows them to be such capable troubleshooters and negotiators. ever on the lookout for signs of assent or dissent. And they are extremely attentive to others and smooth in social circles. Promoters are so engaging with people that they might seem to possess an unusual amount of empathy. and are fully aware of all expe- . they can keep their cool in crises and operate freely. To visualize ESTP intellectual development consider the fol­ lowing graph which depicts the most probable profile of their tactical roles: The Tactical Roles of the ESTP Promoter Crafter Performer Composer Operator Entertainer - Promoter There are lots of Promoters. the best wine. And because of their expressiveness and sociability they prefer to be a Promoter boosting enterprises than an Crafter handling instruments. when in fact this is not the case. and knowing how to say just the right thing to most everyone they meet. To be sure. which takes a more friendly or soft-hearted character. where the headwaiters are likely to call them by name. do not worry much about justifying their actions.

aggressive industrialists and real estate developers. Promoters can be sharp entrepreneurs. rock-climbing. including Andrew Jackson. and negotiators. they make the very best negotiators. Whenever possible. they can be less generous. if their desire for excitement is not met constructively. able to swing deals and kick-start enterprises in a way no other type can—although they ordinarily have little patience with following through and mopping up. too. giving freely and generously to their spouses. Franklin Roosevelt. On the other hand. an institution—or a nation—is fortunate for their presence. Thus ESTPs are invaluable as hired gun administrators who can pull troubled companies or departments out of the red very quickly. willing to put anything and everything on the table. while they entertain and play with their children. which gives them a tactical edge over opponents who might hold some asset or procedure as sacred and thus non-negotiable. arbitra­ tors. they can be impatient with weakness . even dangerous activities. Concerning matters of personal sympathy and family commitment. John Kennedy. and Lyndon Johnson. and at times give their family responsibilities second priority. surfing. Teddy Roosevelt. with their eye on what they have to gain by their investment. As long as there is a social or sexual payoff for them. All relationships are essentially conditional for ESTPs. however. In their role as parents. and their mates may in time come to feel like possessions or negotiable commodities. and bringing fun and surprise to their relationships. They will push their children to take up competitive sports and to play hard at them—“nice guys finish last” they say. Thus. just as they make bold defense lawyers. racing. much like their children. However. they can be captivating mates. with the latest toys and equipment in abundance. They will arrange lavish birthday parties for their children. they may channel their energies into antisocial activities such as those of the con artist. ESTPs are energetic and spontaneous. This impatience can obscure their extraordinary talents. And they are proud to have their children tackle exciting. ESTPs are without peer as deal-makers. since people lose sight of their contributions and focus on the little things they’ve left undone. entrepreneurial capabilities of Promoters are used to constructive ends. Promoters are rarely interested in heartfelt. methodical assistants who will take care of completing their operations. and will often participate with them. long-term commitments with their mates. But neither does this type always succeed when they strike out on their own. and with style. because their unwillingness to bother with follow-up details may cause an otherwise excellent project to fail. and so on. ESTPs need careful. Although nothing is too good for their friends. If the promotional. criticizing their weaknesses rather than appreciating their strengths. Few companies or institutions use this type of Artisan as they should be used. And Promoters have been some of America’s most charismatic political leaders. sales promoters. skiing.Artisan Role Variants—The Promoter 65 dients that can be put to immediate use. and flamboyant show-business producers.

and weapons are just four of the many categories of the tools that surround us. outgoing Artisans carry on amusing repartee with friends and colleagues. Charming. In orientation they tend to be hedonistic. from tiny scalpel to giant crane. anecdotes. At the same time. Like all the Artisans they are concrete in the way they use words and utilitarian in the way they use tools. equipment. are preoccupied with technique. and work well with equipment. and focused on the here and now. with an innate ability to command tools and to become expert at all the crafts requiring hand tool skills. They are interested in learning about arts and crafts. From micro­ scopic drill to supersonic jet. since their boldness and sense of adventure tends to make ESTPs highly attractive to many other people. strategy. the laughter surrounding them as they recount from their endless supply of quips. and aspire to virtuosity. Further. As a variant of Plato’s Artisans and Aristotle’s Hedonics. these smooth Operators are usually something of a mystery to others. seek sensation. Most of us use tools in some capacity.66 Artisans or timidity in their children. they are prone to practice tactics far more than logistics. and adaptable. confident. Promoters understand well the maxim.” although they are not likely to be lonely for long. if a given tool is operated with a precision that defies belief. with their tough-minded nature they tend to play the directive role of Operator more readily than the informative role of Entertainer. They want to be seen as artistic. Intellectually. “He who travels fastest. While they live in the moment and lend excitement—and unpredictability—to all their relationships. a tool is any piece of equipment that extends or varies human powers—vehicles. they trust their impulses. the ISTPs are little different from other SPs in most respects. and especially diplomacy. but these Crafters (as much as ten percent of the population) are the true masters of tool work. prize generosity. Often excited. machines. audacious. cynical. and instruments of all kinds. and jokes. Even from an early age they are drawn to tools as to a magnet—tools fall into their hands demanding use. They have a low tolerance for anxiety and are apt to leave relationships that are filled with interpersonal tensions. that operator is likely an ISTP. To visualize ISTP intellectual development consider the following graph depicting the most probable profile of their tactical roles: . and they must manipulate them. which takes a friendly or fond-hearted character. these tough. travels alone. popular. and are all too often unavailable for the personal chat or the quiet moment of sharing. they rarely let anyone get really close to them. optimistic. Indeed. cutters. yearn for impact. lifters. And owing to their reserve and love of solitude they seem more drawn to be a Crafter wielding instruments than a Promoter boosting enterprises. The Crafter [ISTP] The nature of the ISTPs is most clearly seen in their masterful operation of tools. of course.

Of all the types. however. but play with them on impulse and not on schedule. or the carpenter is late to the job site because the surf was up or the fish were biting. There can be no end to the ways they seek thrills in their recreation. despite frequent injury. or fishing. soft-spoken Artisans communicate through action. if not. Indeed. regulations. or their technique. action is more enjoy­ able—and more effective—if it is unplanned. For these Artisans. Such urges to escape routine and to play can be irresistible and overpowering. Crafters also seek recreation on impulse. Not only impulsive. for instance. and show little interest in developing verbal skills. especially in the form of fast motion—racing. and their conversation is sparse and terse. This desire for the rush of peak experiences also makes them more subject to boredom than any other type. The surgeon shifts his schedule in order to get in a round of golf. they base their companionship on their mastery of tools. In general these hard-bitten. or laws. or water-skiing. Crafters are not bored while doing their thing. Strangely. serving no purpose other than the doing. ISTPs must be free to do their thing. daring disaster for the fun of it. Crafters can be fiercely insub­ ordinate. ISTPs prefer their actions to be spontaneous and unfettered. Crafters do not work with their tools. Their lack of expressiveness makes them seem like loners at school and on the job. They thrive on excitement. they want to follow their own lead. as during travel. hunting. these Artisans are most likely to pit themselves. their need for stimulation driving them to faster and faster pace. and to have their own impulses not subject to rules. Crafters are fearless in their play. taking off at any time just because they feel like it to play with their toys. In a sense. and not allowing them to influence execution.Artisan Role Variants—The Crafter 67 The Tactical Roles of the ISTP Crafter Promoter Composer Operator Entertainer Performer Crafter The Crafter’s tool artisanship is masterful. sky diving. and even though they hang around their own kind in play. risking themselves again and again. surfing. against chance or odds. fine. It is not so much a matter of going against regulations as it is simply ignoring them. and we are advised not to try to stop the ISTP who feels like doing something. seeing hierarchy and authority as unnecessary and even irksome. If an externally imposed schedule coincides with their impulse. varying each next move as the urge strikes them. Indeed. and they are proud of their ability to make the next move skillfully. this lack of interest in communication is often mistaken . so much the worse for the schedule. even though there may be long stretches when nothing happens. but it is also bom of impulse rather than of deliberate purpose.

Let ISTPs handle equip­ ment of any complexity and power and see how fast they learn to use it. teammates. or they might not. Warriors good and evil can be seen as weapons artists. not only the marksmen among soldiers and police. and their friends are best off not expecting them until they see them. or repairing their cars or boats. musicians—and warriors.” or “hyperactive. jewelry smiths. furniture makers. for example.68 Artisans by physicians and teachers as “learning disability” or “dyslexia. these Artisans are lone wolves who will not be tied to schedules and commitments. On the other hand.” both questionable notions of medics and academicians. Crafters make wonderful tradespeople. carpenters. humanities. Such labels are purely fictional. and this often gets them into trouble. house remodeling. ISTPs can treat their mates royally. and will often give generously of their time and tool skills to help their friends with building projects or mechanical jobs. and they also make incomparable surgeons.” and they are prescribed stimulant narcotics to drug them into apparent obedience. They will give their friends the shirt off their back. taking pride in their prowess. after all. or that all ISTPs are weapons experts. Crafters are not in the least interested in the clerical. trucks. Crafters are from an early age fascinated by weapons of all kinds. boats. This is not to say that all warriors are ISTPs. something that allows them to test their mettle. With their concrete. and sidekicks. they are egalitarian and can be fiercely loyal to their friends. but only in their stubborn insistence upon getting to do something interesting. This combination of generosity and waywardness is especially difficult for the members of a Crafter’s family. Crafters are hard to get to know. Gifted with their hands and eyes. but also the mob hit man and the gunslinger of the American West. and so on. Ordinary school work is. They might show up. and science curricula that abound in modern American schools. All too often this refusal to sit still and cooperate gets them labeled as “minimally brain damaged. On the one hand. and soon learn to wield their weapons with lethal virtuosity. Born hunters. mechanics. and this experimental narcotherapy is likely criminal. They are the very best pilots of all manner of vehicles. Certainly ISTPs are active. planes. weavers. and thus they cannot always be counted on to follow through on their offers of assistance. with ardent attention and beautiful gifts of their handiwork. mere preparation for something the ISTPs figure they’re never going to do anyway. because they refuse to do their assignments. and they can be great buddies with their children and patiently teach them their tool . In spite of poor schooling many Crafters manage to develop their tactical skills on their own. They’ll work in a tool-centered curriculum. athletes. but that the weapons virtuoso is more frequently than not an ISTP. and how precisely they speak of it. artists. as the impulse strikes them. trains. artisan intelligence.” or as having “attention deficit disorder. Crafters do not wish to prepare—for anything—and they are careful to make this clear to their would-be instructors. plumbers.

Further. and focused on the here and now. and seek the company of others whenever possible—which they usually find. and ESFPs are the natural performers among the types. They are interested in learning about arts and crafts. They aren’t comfortable being alone. seek sensation. something over ten per cent of the population. taking a road trip from family responsibilities. to cast off their concerns and lighten up. In orientation they tend to be hedonistic. optimistic. flying their plane. racing their motorcycle. They want to be seen as artistic. and mates who wish to keep them happy are wise to give them a long leash.Artisan Role Variants—The Performer 69 skills. and adaptable. they trust their impulses. and work well with equipment. Such Performers radiate warmth and festivity. witty conversationalists. They love the excitement of playing to an audience. in a sense. directive role of Operator. are preoccupied with technique.” Playful and fun-loving. Lively. they . with their friendly nature they tend to play the informative role of Entertainer over the tough-minded. Intellectually. strategy. But they can also forget their family and go off with their friends for extended periods of time. and that is fortunate. These Crafters need their freedom to seek adventure. cynical. people for whom it can truly be said “all the world’s a stage. yearn for impact. and whether on the job. Often excited. they are prone to practice tactics far more than logistics. these expressive Artisans’ primary social interest lies in stim­ ulating those around them. audacious. and especially diplomacy. and aspire to virtuosity. As a variant of Plato’s Artisans and Aristotle’s Hedonics. and they try to generate a sense of showtime wherever they are. arousing their senses and their pleasurable emotions—charming them. sailing their boat. To visualize ESFP intellectual development consider the following graph depicting the most likely profile of their tactical roles: The Tactical Abilities of the ESFP Performer Composer Promoter Crafter Entertainer Operator Performer Performers are plentiful. The Performer [ESFP] Performing is putting on a show or demonstration of some kind to entertain others. the ESFPs are little different from other SPs in most respects. or with their families. And with their outgoing expressiveness they lean more toward pleasing others as a Performer than as a Composer. Like all the Artisans they are concrete in their communication and utilitarian in their use of tools. because they bring joy to so many of us. for they make wonderful playmates. with friends. they are able to lift others’ spirits with their contagious good humor and their irrepressible joy of living. prize generosity.

to other types. Performers are emotionally expressive and affectionate people. even promiscuous. Performers also like to live in the fast lane. and without expecting anything in return. Unlike the ISTPs. or to the desire of the moment.70 Artisans always seem to know the latest jokes and stories. drink. and if forced to endure a tense. Most often. The Performers’ talent for enjoying life is healthy for the most part. drink. They haven’t a mean or stingy bone in their body—what’s theirs is yours—and they seem to have little idea of saving or conserving. ESFPs are the most generous of all the types. schedules. the chic new fashion. and variety is the spice of life. and life around them can have a continual party-like atmosphere. not always giving enough thought to the consequences. With their emotions so close to the surface—their heart forever on their sleeve—they tend to fall in love easily. they will do what they feel like in the moment rather than what is good for them in the long run. Performers can appear fickle. Although they are often popular with their classmates because of their good-hearted clowning and cutting up. and they don’t let themselves get too caught up in what they call “sticky” situations. They will let themselves appear outwardly concerned—and then go their own way to do what they enjoy. and rather innocently. . impetuously. and be merry wherever they go. just as they love freely. virtually unable to hide their feelings or hold their tongue. Their tolerance for anxiety is the lowest of all the types.” is their motto. sharing with others from the bounty of life. and grades. and always as if for the first time. the hot new musical group. they will not make waves or put up a show of resistance. and they will avoid worries and troubles by ignoring the unhappiness of a situation as long as possible. Performers are not deeply interested in school or scholastic pursuits. and entertainment. “Always look on the bright side. and second only to the ISFPs in kindness. which makes them vulnerable to seduction. Energetic and uninhibited. for example. These Artisans view life as an eternal cornucopia from which flows an endless supply of pleasures that require no effort on their part to create or to insure. ESFPs are not usually hostile to their teachers. or blaming someone else. Pleasure seems to be an end in itself for the Performers. or in a love relationship). complicated situation (at work. chalking it up to experience. if things don’t turn out well. the in nightclub. when in truth they are simply. food. and so they are open to trying almost anything that promises them a good time. Performers do quite well when life is easy for them. though it also makes them more subject to temptations than the other types. and seem up on latest fads of dress. and are quick with wisecracks and wordplay—nothing is so serious or sacred that it can’t be made fun of. caring little about preparation. Intent on pleasing everybody. Essentially communal in outlook. ESFPs create a mood of eat. giving in easily to the wishes of others. ESFPs are inclined to be impulsive and self-indulgent. they give what they have to one and all without expectation of reward.

who want knowledge only so that they can do practical things in the here and now. in music. poet. These Artisans love working with people. welcoming. Performers can be extremely effective real estate agents. laughing. loving friends to their mates and children. Performers prefer to walk by the graveyard whistling. often refusing to recognize their mate’s dissatisfactions or their child’s need for stability. and perhaps this is why they seem so finely attuned to children’s feelings. in the school play. vacation trips. song writer. sports cars. they prefer active people jobs over solitary.” composing must not be thought of as only writing music. thriving on the excitement of being on-stage. especially at the elementary level. a talent which often leads them into social work.Artisan Role Variants—The Composer 71 and will go along with the classroom agenda in a friendly way. They love to spend money on ftxn things (like clothes. But. finding fun where they can. because they are continuously and effortlessly scanning both clients and listings. But even in less glamorous pursuits. their sociability and adaptability making them easy to get along with and fun to be around. led by the ESFP who weaves his or her way through the party. and are also good at working with people in crisis. as with all the Artisans. but as bringing into synthesis any aspect of the world of the senses. and so when an especially gifted painter. and more. film director. though the work they hand in rarely shows the kind of effort the teacher hopes for. Performers put up with school. family problems will not be allowed to make their appearance. generous. particularly at selling tangible goods. for example. playwright. where they are very sensitive to the pain and suffering of others. and are outstanding at public relations. novelist. without giving much thought to family necessities. in sports. which may give their families a good deal of anxiety. and thus they avoid science and engineering and gravitate toward business. They can be effective teachers. Performers—sociable and outspoken Artisans—make exciting and en­ tertaining (though somewhat unpredictable) mates and parents. In such a generally festive atmosphere. particularly small children. chef. Performers make warm. where they are apt at selling. sculptor. ESFPs are childlike themselves. and so on). teasing. . ESFPs are happiest when their home is filled with people all having a good time. gathering information to help them fit people to properties. choreographer. The Composer [ISFP] Although ISFPs excel in what are called the “fine arts. and especially in fooling around with their friends. the traditional school is largely a waste of time for Performers. In the matter of career. ESFPs enjoy entertaining people and are thus drawn to the performing arts. technical occupations. but should not be expected to take these relationships much more seriously than that. in the limelight. Com­ posers have a sure grasp of what fits and what doesn’t fit in any and all kinds of artistic works. More than the other Artisans. and they will impulsively use up their credit card limits. jewelry.

Often excited. and work well with equipment. However.72 Artisans decorator. their senses finely tuned to concrete reality. They want to be seen as artistic. strategy. and Guardians. And like the other Artisans. Rationals. ISFPs are usually not interested in developing facility in speaking or con­ versation. are preoccupied with technique. yearn for impact. making this type probably the least understood of all. occasion a breach with language. and adaptable. In orientation they tend to be hedonistic. Like the ISTPs. That pulse must be felt—by touch. While a few of these Artisans become world famous. with their friendly nature they tend to play the informative role of Entertainer more comfortably than the tough-minded. or fashion designer shows up. This observant sensuality seems to come naturally to the ISFPs. such talent differing radically from that possessed by Idealists. they have a special talent for tactical artistry. they are prone to practice tactics far more than logistics. The spoken word. Perhaps such misunderstanding comes from their tendency not to express themselves verbally. in the ears. and especially diplomacy. say nine or ten per cent of the population. prize generosity. This insistence on the senses being so closely attuned to concrete reality can. Intellectually. the ISFPs are little different from other SPs in most respects. and focused on the here and now. aroma. but through action. As the word ‘tactical’ implies. in the muscles. as if inborn. seek sensation. which gives them an extraordinary ability to work with the slightest nuances of color. optimistic. and Composers prefer to have their fingers on their compositional tools and through them feel the pulse of life. they trust their impulses. after all. texture. such that they give up rather easily in their attempts to . Composers in general are very difficult to observe. And with their quiet reserve they prefer playing the part of a Composer than a Performer. he or she is likely an ISFP. tone. To visualize ISFP intellectual development consider the follow­ ing graph that depicts the most probable profile of their tactical roles: The Tactical Roles of the ISFP Composer Performer Crafter Promoter Entertainer Operator Composer Composers are just as plentiful as the other Artisans. audacious. while the Crafters are attuned to the tool and its uses. As a variant of Plato’s Artisans and Aristotle’s Hedonics. and flavor. in the eyes. Further. Artisans know their way around in the world. the Composers are attuned to sensory variation. They are interested in learning about arts and crafts. and aspire to virtuosity. cynical. Like all the Artisans they are concrete in their communication and utilitarian in their use of tools. is not as handy as the tool. in some ISFPs. directive role of Operator.

and neither is it artful play. Captured as they are by whatever actions are underway. and. rather. not the reverse. Of course. they live intensely in the here and now. and with a sympathetic impulsivity they give freely to the sufferer. with little or no planning or preparation. Art. the wilds. all ISFPs have not been and need not be artists in the narrow sense of the word. some art form. such as Crafters engage in with their tools. If Composers find a medium of expression. even wild animals. Although Composers often put long. Composers are seized by the act of artistic composition. Indeed. Composers seem oblivious to the fatigue. the out-of-doors. In this the ISFP is similar to other Artisans and different from all the other types. with only the ESFP as a near competitor. especially if they don’t drop out of school early (though a great number do. The ISFP is the kindest of all the types. and as gracefully as possible. ISFPs prove to be just as impulsive as the other Artisans. lonely hours into their compositions. is any action the next move of which is a free variable. as if caught up in a whirlwind. they simply do not notice the difficulties. since the school offers little that is of interest to them or that challenges their special talents).Artisan Role Variants—The Composer 73 express themselves verbally. and even the pain. and no one knows them. almost as if there were a bond of mutual sympathy and trust. they covet their impulses and see them as the center of their lives. absorbed and excited. the doing is elicited by the action itself. Submergence in their artistry is not preparation for something later. that accompanies many of their activities. but their nature is still far from visible. and nature seems to welcome them. Composers are especially sensitive to the pain and suffering of others. Again. and wholly engaged by an action. and yet they also have a social side. It is not that they are hardened to these difficulties as much as it is that. ISFPs can become celebrities. we must not assume that they are working on their art in the sense of careful planning and dutiful execution. They climb the mountain because it is there. These ISFPs do quite well . The act is their master. Some have a remarkable way with young children. in those rare cases where remarkable skill is achieved. If not. This ability to lose themselves in action accounts for the spectacular individual works some Composers are capable of. Here is unconditional kindness carried to its most extreme form. they dance or skate. in a sense. their reticence leaving their character all but invisible. In addition. But this reluctance in speech is not so much a lack of ability as disinterest. Many Composers have an instinctive longing for the pastoral. for to wait is to see their impulse wither and die. they write melodies or recipes—or whatever—simply because they must. and thus Composers have a lot of leeway in choice of occupation. On close observation. such as in the virtuoso. it simply doesn’t come out. ISFPs paint or sculpt. broadly conceived. then they will express their character quite eloquently via that medium. the bucolic. They do not wait to act or to consider their moves. In some instances a similar bond may be seen between the ISFP and animals.

and will roam when the opportunity presents itself. To be happy and productive they must choose free. While they enjoy their personal freedom as much as any Artisan. though they can be hard to get to know. and so on. and their reserve can be a barrier to close relations. Composers also make excellent teachers. Conflict in such marriages is almost inevitable. It is a sad day indeed when the ISFP chooses work wherein the operations are fixed by rule or iron-clad necessity. and even in veterinary medicine. especially of a school’s arts curriculum. they make wonderful nurses. hanging in there to keep the family intact—then will leave when the children are grown and go off to paint in the mountains. music. Composers are great friends and play­ mates. . With their kindness. particularly in decorative design (from automobiles to book covers) and purchasing (selecting a line of clothing. Notice that all of these careers allow them a great deal of freedom and spontaneity. and they can satisfy their love of nature by working in forestry. photography. in landscape design and gardening. variable actions and be rewarded for doing them. These friendly and soft-spoken Artisans tend to seek a safe anchorage in their home and family. With their children. home furnishings. drama. they seem to value the stability and patience of a dutiful spouse (most often an SJ Guardian of some sort) to help keep them from wandering off too far and for too long. subjects such as drawing. or gift shop items). but Composers will put up with a lot more interpersonal tension than the other Artisans. as with their mates.74 Artisans in business.

Washington’s first great feat was leading the rag-tag Continental army to victory over the powerful British expeditionary forces in the American colonies. and very much out-generaled. out-provisioned. but such words would ring true throughout Washington’s long career in public life. to do so only on his own terms. Colonel Washington is undoubtedly the greatest man present. he had to hold his tiny army of volunteers together for eight desperate years. and what concerned him was equipping and sheltering his soldiers. So his task was to conserve his meager forces and resources. or of a strategic commander. and as far as possible keeping them out of harm’s way. Thus Patrick Henry proclaimed his support for George Washington to be Commander of the Virginia militia. Washington struggled with internecine disputes within his cabinet and among the states.4 Guardians If you speak of solid information and soundjudgment. He knew full well that he was out-numbered. that was too wearisome and expensive for British taste. and on empty stomachs and bare feet. or if he did engage them. letting the British wear themselves out chasing after him. he had to avoid engaging the British in open battle. always under unbelievably harsh conditions. Further. Washington was instead a brilliant quartermaster with highly developed logistical skills. Freeing the colonies from the British was not Washington’s only achieve­ ment. To achieve such a stunning success. General Washington’s abilities were not those of a tactical commander. despite his prodigious efforts to supply his troops. And so. such as Andy Jackson. And he knew that. In this way he managed to make the Revolutionary War a guerrilla war. his men would have to fight in rags.” after 75 . Fortunately for his country. as had all previously liberated regions in Europe and Asia. In the mid 1970s I referred to Myers’s SJs as “Epimetheans. out-gunned. It would appear that he and he alone kept the new nation from regressing into monarchy or dictatorship. such as Dwight Eisenhower. He also saw it as his duty to oversee the United States of America’s ascent into democracy. a war of harassment and retreat. for eight more difficult and discouraging years as the first President of the United States.

Stephen Montgomery. At school all through the twelve grades such was the case. Plato’s pupil. During the eighties. meeting the needs of others and keeping them from want or harm. it became clear that the Greek goddess Demeter was a far better choice. the pillars of society. and they were alert to both the needs and the perils of others. ever on the lookout for lurking predators. I must say that most of my friends have been and still are Guardians. Though diametrically opposite in temperament from me. But the beaver also stands guard over the pond. who were too reckless for my taste. the Greek god of duty. Centered in the world of visible and tangible things. Plato’s Guardians The word ‘Guardian’ is the English equivalent of the Greek word ‘ pistike. for I was invariably drawn to the Guardians rather than the Artisans. keeping track of quan­ tities.76 Guardians Epimetheus. Plato’s Guardians were known for relying on common sense and for holding morally correct beliefs. First the beaver dams up a stream. I admire Guardians for their logistical capabilities (my short suit) and for their abiding social interest and constant dependability. or measuring stores and meting out portions. Conserving. The only other animal that comes close to the beaver as totem for the Guardian temperament is the squirrel. And this was true even during flight training in World War II. and that everyone’s doing what they’re supposed to be doing. In my own fighter squadron my buddy and wingman was a Guardian. detecting one. said that some men find happiness not in “sen­ . or carefully husbanding goods and services. I like them and appreciate them for what they are. creating a pond in which to build a safe house for protecting its family and for storing bark to eat during the winter months. Demeter was worshipped in autumn. Although the squirrel is diligent about storing nuts and other edibles for a time when food is scarce. spanks the water with its broad tail to warn its family and neighbors of the impending danger. What better totemic symbol of the Guardian temperament? Looking back. and second. Adminis­ tering. and her duty was to protect the harvest and to insure the careful provisioning of home and family as the year turned toward the long months of winter.” In Plato’s Republic the social function of Guardians was to keep watch over the activities as well as the attitudes of the people in their circle. ’ which means “those with trustworthy convictions. and. Even Demeter’s name suggests the logistical intelligence of the “Guardians” (as I now call them) in both its essential forms: first. Of late I have come to think of the Guardian as well represented by the Beaver. with a powerful nudge from my editor. And when working for public schools after the war my friends and tennis partners were invariably Guardian administrators. Aristotle. seeing to it that everything’s in its proper place. the beaver is an indefatigable worker for the good of the whole woodland community.

and he named the Guardians “Depressives. the Hobbits of the J.Plato’s Guardians 11 suous living” (hedone). and truisms. causing them to expect unfa­ vorable outcomes. Also. cere­ mony. Galen’s interests. and thus very similar to Aristotle’s Proprietary. or in “theoretical dialogue” (dialogike). and making them glum. together with tales of the Niebelungs.” identifying those who believe in and take part in the time-honored practices of their social groups. So in Aristotle’s view the social role of Plato’s Guardians is that of the Proprietary. doleful.” even on occasion using Galen’s term ‘Melancholics. considering . economics pertaining as it does to the production. on the four negative extremes. proverbs. that the kind of irrational behavior that befalls some Guardians is a matter of temperament rather than a matter of choice. and Snow White’s Seven Dwarves tell much of the character of Gnomes. or keepers of whatever is of most value. Besides being treasurers. and so has what I like to call a “Security Seeking Personality. Tolkien tales. as “heteronomous” or “other-centered” beings. precepts. but whose heteronomy took the form of careful observance of tradition. but in “a life of money-making. Paracelsus patterned this sort of person on the Gnome. and ritual at home and in the community. and solemn. but no worse than.” in “a life of gain. If Guardians are forced by untoward circumstances to become downcast for no apparent reason. or in “ethical musing” (ethike).” or in the acquisition and control of “property” (propraietari). Adickes’s name for Plato’s Guardian was the “Traditional. Like Kretschmer. maxims. custom.” Kretschmer was first to take a careful look at the dark side of character.R. Galen called these Guardians the “Melancholics” because their temper­ ament was dominated by black bile or gall. such that he regarded the somber Melancholics as different from. Gnomes are thought to be well-versed in pithy or “gnomic” old sayings such as adages. negative as well as positive. or the taciturn Phlegmatics (Rationals). morals. however. doleful. where they look after treasures. development. Fromm examined both sides of character.R. lay on the dark side of temperament. it is because they are beset by strong negative feelings that overwhelm them and render them immobile and helpless. the Leprechaun in Irish folklore is an elfin creature who can reveal hidden treasure to someone who catches him. It might be said that in Spranger’s view the Economic type tries to find security in money and property. the irascible Cholerics (Idealists). Tales of Gnomes such as Santa Claus and his helpers. aphorisms. and feel it helpful to offer them to those who seek their advice. one of a fabled race of dwarflike creatures who live in underground caves and hollows. He called the Guardians the “Hoarding” type.’ Thus he echoed Galen in seeing them as somber. Adickes thought of his Traditionals. Spranger considered the Guardian as the “Economic” type. like his Innovatives (the Artisans). the over-optimistic Sanguines (Artisans). and solemn. but Kretschmer was also suggesting much more. and management of material wealth.

and the movies. but they tend not to respond in kind and will shift to more concrete things to talk about. more solid and sensible topics. famous and infamous. we come to Myers’s contribution to the study of the Guardian character. radio.” “factual.” “hard-working. such as goods and services.” “painstaking. setting them apart unmistakably from the other person­ Utilitarian alities. quite different from the SPs. Of course they can and will discuss abstractions. the foundation of Tools the SJ character.” “dependable.” “thorough. but lacking much interest in them.” Concrete Word Usage Like their Artisan cousins.” “detailed.” “orderly. gains and losses.” and “unimpulsive. but on the positive side he praised them for their steadfastness and for being “careful. Guardians talk for the most part about the concrete particulars they observe in their material or social surroundings. rich and poor.” “persevering.” “loyal. starkly different from NFs and NTs. As mentioned earlier.” “consistent. . credits and debits.” “pa­ tient. they are inclined to shift the conversation away from the abstract to the concrete.” “routinized.” “undistractable.” This is a very clear-cut pattern of action and attitude. accidents and disasters. let’s look Cooperative NF SJ at their quadrant in a matrix of char­ Cooperators acter.” Last. Thus.78 Guardians hoarding a bad thing to do. all have something in common. As shown. prices and wages. namely they all suggest that this type is concrete in thought and speech Words and cooperative in implementing Abstract Concrete goals.” “cautious.” “patient.” “practical. They might listen politely to conversation on theoretical or fanciful topics. no matter what they’re called. transportation and recreation. and as will be shown. she named them the “Sensory Judging” types—“SJs”—and said of them that they are “conservative. food and clothing. is their unique combination NT SP of concrete word usage with cooper­ ative tool usage—and so I call them the “Concrete Cooperators.” “imperturbable. weather and shelter.” “composed. in beginning our consid­ eration of the habits of action and Concrete attitude of the SJ Guardians.” “stable.” and “reserved. TV. Though apparently unaware of the contributions of her predecessors Myers was clearly able to identify the more salient traits that characterize Plato’s Guardians. The Concrete Cooperators These different views of Plato’s Guardians.” “eco­ nomical.” “sensible.” “methodical.

the date. Not surprisingly he was well-known for his folksy comments. retrieval. and adages (particularly about value and amount). On topics that interest them Guardians are able to store an enormous fund of facts. birthdays.” At the same time.The Concrete Cooperators 79 Guardian speech is coherent in the associative sense. and issues. and always considered himself a hometQwn boy. They can remember people’s names.” “one bad apple spoils the barrel. something their opposites. but no single topic is pursued at length.” but that “just between you and me and the gatepost. And often this reminds others of something else. When in 1945 Franklin Roosevelt died in office. or civic events.” or “it’s either feast or famine. not enough). tend not to get settled. Harry Truman. how those children are doing at school. Besides being associative and comparative. and places. grew up in a rural setting. again. however distant from or unrelated to the topic at hand. I like it. which means they move from one topic to another associatively rather than deductively or inductively. SJs are very good at this sort of small talk. proverbs. as do Rationals and Idealists. who then mention that. each toppling the next. concerning specific persons. social. for instance. such as “a penny saved is a penny earned. times. And he expressed his satisfaction in true Guardian style when he admitted that being President “is an all day and nearly all night job. SJs are ever wary of putting on airs or getting fancy in what they say. like a row of dominoes. who their relatives’ friends are. SJs are inclined to warn others of possible danger. they mention it. who’s recently been born or has died (when. by contiguity rather than implication. and effortless association of such data that makes Guardians the most comfortable at conversation of all the types. the NTs. When Guardians are reminded of something. often throwing in old sayings. if surfaced. It is the storage. and so on.” Guardians also use words and sentences common to the area they call home. So they tend to use a rather conventional vocabulary and phrasing. the names of their friends’ parents and children. Such conversations are interesting to all who participate. freely associate in conver­ sation. one bit of information easily calling forth another. since each is speaking of what is pertinent to his or her own life. And so the conversation goes from topic to topic. indeed thrived under its enormous responsibilities. whether of hurting themselves . and of what). which they will call up and. History has shown that the feisty Truman was up to the job. Guardian speech is pre­ dominantly orthodox. he told newsmen that he felt like “a load of hay” had fallen on him. and lending itself to comparative value (this better than that) and amount (too much. Guardian speech is often laced with admonition.” “a stitch in time saves nine. time. and Truman suddenly found himself President of the United States. and location of family. This is concrete information. products. who’s gotten what job. are very poor at—which puts the SJs firmly in the social driver’s seat and the NTs in the trailer.

something Truman himself did when he summed up the responsibility of the Presidency: “The buck stops here. you’ll hurt yourself. Guardians usually avoid showy hand gestures when they speak. but that way is the road to ruin. the SPs. Now. SJs will bring one or both hands swiftly down in a chopping motion. SJs believe we should park on the right side of the street even if the left side is empty. communities. Cooperation. stop at red lights when there is no other traffic. No one is permitted to ignore the rules merely to have fun or just to speed things up.” They are also inclined to caution others about the danger of committing moral transgression—“It wouldn’t be right to do that. Our inclination can be either to cooperate with these rules or to go our own way. and so are quite willing to leave this task to the ever-vigilant Guardians. wherever there are tools there must be rules that govern their use. are not vitally interested in either rule making or rule enforcing. But when they do get animated out come the hands: the index finger wags in warning. and machines in those buildings. Cooperation is the safer way. In Myersian terms. for in the long run discipline and teamwork get us where we want to go. and businesses. sidewalks. or the fist rises in front of them—not the square. and thus safeguard our homes. for they are reluctant to let others get away with much.” And when their warnings are ignored they are the most likely of all to chide or reprove the transgressor. as if holding the reins and driving a team of horses. to emphasize their statements or to cut off further discussion. The other types. implements. and SJs are very much on the side of cooperation. says the Guardian.” Cooperative Tool Usage Civilization is a cluster of cities. and conveyances are all tools. Ignoring the rules might work for a while. For example. and even the NFs. and cities are clusters of tools. insisting that only by establishing and obeying rules and regulations can we hope to maintain civil order. Guardians work hard to make and enforce the laws that govern action. conformity. Indeed. and in those conveyances are also tools. It is fortunate indeed that most . obedience: these attitudes toward the rules loom larger in the consciousness of Guardians than any other temperament. menacing fist of the SPs. Let us all cooperate with one another in pursuit of common goals. Guardians can regard the Artisans’ utilitarian style—do whatever it takes to get the job done—as somehow anti-social and irresponsible. and this requires giving up one’s selfish concerns and working with others—mutual conformity to mutual agreements long held—else there will surely be chaos. buildings. And the millions of instruments. Streets. but a fist with the thumb atop the curled index finger. And perhaps most familiar of all.80 Guardians or others—“be careful. compliance. are content to let the SJs run the show in this area. and on and on. though they may be grateful that somebody is keeping order. NTs. on those streets. signal when turning even if there’s no one to signal to.

bylaws. as bailiffs. codes. In fact.. and it should come as no surprise that nearly half of the Presidents of the United States have been Guardians. Guardians believe in officially registered ownership of real property. We must never give up trying. the numerous laws. but some Guardian senses are just as acute when it comes to observing the rules. Artisans might be known for having highly discriminating senses. SJs also take pride in serving on grand juries and disciplinary bodies. of state licensing departments and panels on industry standards. while rightful ownership is something to be deeply respected. on having and not-having. Guardians become members of university rules committees and community review boards.. statutes. But even when not in the White House. or the board room. ordinances. as Supreme Court Justice William Brennan admits: Q: You seem to possess an abiding faith that the most difficult problems are susceptible to legal resolution. The Guardians’ grasp of regulation is exceeded only by their faith in regulation as the cornerstone of society. The SJ does not agree with the SP that possession is nine tenths of the law. prosecutors. Such confidence in the rule of law seems to find a natural home in Guardians. And Guardians come wellequipped for all of these activities. violation. we move much closer to understanding the Guardians if we can see the strongly regulatory basis for their outlook on doing and not-doing. • .The Concrete Cooperators 81 Guardians seek out the responsibility of command. A: I certainly believe so. the slightest degree of deviation. On the contrary.. and indeed. not to mention seeking careers as police officers and customs officers. and in all probability most high ranking officers in the American military and CEOs of American corporations have Guardian personalities. Moreover. SJs have confidence that legal authority is the only proper means of sanctioning action or solving problems. readily absorbed into their very bones.It is what is so magnificent about law. or transgression. the Pentagon. but I surely came away from law school with that. of government regulatory agencies and public watchdog groups. Illegal possession—even excessive indebtedness—is high on the SJ’s list of evils. law for the SJ is the only trustworthy basis of possession. and charters found in every community or institution exist for the Guardian as the best hope of maintaining civil order. I don’t know if by osmosis. where the lines are drawn. SJs know what the rules say. because how are we going to have an ordered society unless the problems are redressable somehow by law? Q: Where do you think that faith of yours in the law comes from? A: I can only suggest. and with a cocked ear and a sharp eye they are able to detect the smallest hint of non-compliance. and as judges.

there is a feedback relation between interest and ability. Logistics is vital to the success of any institution—a business. regulating and sup­ porting. on occasion. Interest. and the same skill will increase precisely in the degree that it is given exercise in practice. a household.” “I want to keep my feet on the ground.” Truman said. for example. a school. Truman quickly stepped back from many of FDR’s quick-fix. No practice. “I don’t want any experiments. he had no intention of following in the Artisan Franklin D. budget-busting New Deal social programs and proposed a more fiscally responsible plan he called the “Fair Deal. The neural cell is no different from the muscle cell in this. railroad timekeeper. SJs are less interested in fitting things together in new ways than in holding things together as they are. service.82 Guardians The Logistical Intellect Logistics is the procurement. no skill. strategy.” Truman was certainly no ordinary Guardian. Skill Skills are acquired by practice. Better that change occur through slow evolution than by sudden revolution. Practice. for they introduce change. Roosevelt’s footsteps. While Artisans have an eye for artistic variation. they must be viewed with a measure of suspicion. The SJ knows as well as others that change is inevitable. and storekeeper) show clearly the Guardian’s abiding interest in working with materiel. and diplomacy. skill reinforces interest. the American people have been through a lot of experiments and they want a rest from experiments. both in administering and conserving. and replacement of material goods. much practice. and have greater interest in things we do well. desirable. Interest reinforces skill. necessary. Even though SJs can develop skills in the other three spheres of activity. Guardians care about being reliable. but the talents he showed as President (as well as in his earlier jobs as mail clerk. In other words. Use it or Lose it is Nature’s inviolable law. . tactics. In addition. but it should be resisted when it is at the expense of old standby products and time-tested ways of the institutions that have served us well. Any skill will wither on the vine and gradually fade away in the degree that it is starved of practice. it is much easier and enjoyable for them to practice and thus to develop their logistical skills. When Harry Truman became President. and even. and change for the Guardian is unsettling. particularly in the maintenance and continuity of materiel. an army—and Guardians can be enormously creative in seeing to it that the right personnel have the right supplies in the right place at the right time to get the job done. Although new products and procedures might not be immoral or illegal. distribution. much skill. We improve in doing things we’re interested in doing.

just as NTs share abstract communication with NFs and utilitarian implementation with SPs. becoming quite the diplomat with other people. K * a > o' O Q C/1 o ii o 3 C/3 & o » -| C O * -+ a (TQ CO OQ * 1 r+ a T 2o3 o CO NT H C O o o C/5 90 o 3 o CO O o o’ C/i C/5 £ 00 O C/5 © o ii! o' 3 3 as ft 3 % Something else to note is that the SJ Guardian IQ profile is the exact opposite of the NT Rational profile. SP CO NF CTQ C TQ . because SJs share cooperative implementation with the diplomatic NFs and concrete communication with the tactical SPs. So the Guardians’ lifelong interest in logistical action fuels their daily exercise of logistical skills. strategy not so easy. and that their strategic capabilities lag far behind. and even though they are diametric opposites in . and even showing a good deal of skill in their short suit of long-range strategic planning. The kind of operation practiced most develops most. Guardians instinctively practice logistical operations far more and far earlier than tactical. All the same. Now. Logistics comes easy. Thus both SJs and NTs tend to develop their tactical and diplomatic intelligence from time to time as nearly equal second and third suits. Where the SJ is long. Nothing preventing. the NT is short. while that practiced least develops least. such as shown by General Omar Bradley in World War II. and particularly strategic operations. Of course. if ever.The Logistical Intellect 83 and neither seems to be the starting point. and it is virtually impossible for one person to develop all four of his or her capabilities equally. and therefore end up with logistical intelligence outstripping the others by a wide margin. in a sense every individual has not one but four IQs. circumstances can sometimes move Guardians to engage in those activities that are not so natural to them. while SJs practice logistics early in life. diplomatic. In other words. Note that in the graph below the Guardians tend to do better at logistics than at diplomacy and tactics. and with lots of practice (especially as children) they can develop the other abilities. they don’t get around to exercising their sense of strategy until it becomes necessary to do so. learning to spot immediate tactical advantage. and as logistical skill increases so then does interest in it. precisely and exclusively measured by the amount of practice. both can be nearly equal in their tactical and diplomatic abilities. and where the SJ is short the NT is long.

Enforcing —| SJ Logistical R oles------------------------. they are not likely to outdo one another in these two middle kinds of intellectual development. director. often work behind the scenes. overseeing what they do. putting the farmer’s crops. making sure that they behave in keeping with agreed upon procedures and standards of conduct—or else face the agreed upon consequences. they are given to regulating those procedures and products in their charge in the light of a standard of performance. Logistical Role Variants While all the Guardians have logistical intelligence in common. in contrast. These expressive Supervisors let you know how you’re doing. they differ among themselves a good deal in the kinds of logistical roles they are inclined to practice. controlling work areas. Supervisors enforce standard operating procedures. Administrators run a tight ship in two basic ways: by acting either as the expressive Supervisor or the reserved Inspector. their business is to mind others’ business.84 Guardians how they use tools and words.” and these differentiate into four logistical role variants. refer­ eeing disputes. the “Inspector” (ISTJ). surveilling the premises. Several terms may be used to depict the Administrator’s function: captain. that is. all to ensure compliance with the rules and regulations. keeping one eye on their people’s performance. the “Provider” (ESFJ). which means that their first instinct is to take charge and tell others what to do. exec­ utive. commander. the manufacturer’s . Inspectors. and superintendent. governor. and the “Protector” (ISFJ).Supplying— | r Administrator-----------------------Regulating —i 1 — Inspector [ i s t j ] -----------Certifying—^ '— Conservator-------------------------Supporting—' I — Protector [ I S P J ] -------------Securing—^ Logistical Administrators Tough-minded Guardians are particularly interested in the role of Ad­ ministrator. taking a close look at products and accounts. These Administrators are the directive Guardians. Broadly speaking. the “Supervisor” (ESTJ). conductor. all Guardians through and through. and the other on the rules and regulations that govern their activities.Working with Materiel |— Provider [ E S F J ] ----------. Guardians are interested in taking up the role of what I call the “Administrator” or the “Conservator. Consider the following chart which shows the Guardians’ logistical roles and role variants opposite their most often practiced intelligent oper­ ations: |— Supervisor [ e s t j ] --------. but quite distinct in their guard­ ianship. directing operations.

to serve others. measurer. that person whose job it is to support institutions by insuring the supply and security of those persons and properties they are responsible for. shelterer. others as Protectors against loss and injury. As Conservators. steward. in contrast. preserver. Some Administrators are better as Supervisors of personnel and procedures. accounts. shepherd. to see to their welfare. public role can be acted out in the form of banker. Providers work to furnish others with the necessities of life. judge. underwriter. supplier of someone in need with whatever is needed. and in general. that is. with no deviation from the legal standard left undetected There are several ways of speaking of the Inspector’s seclusive role: appraiser. Logistical Conservators The friendly Guardians are prone to choose the part of the Conservator. Guardians look after their responsibilities by working either as the expressive Provider or the reserved Protector. what distinguishes Guardians from one another is the structure of their intellect. surveyor. the importer’s shipments. host or hostess. their profile of logistical roles. the company’s books. and so on. Conservators tend to be more informative than directive. sponsor. Protectors. others as Inspectors of products and accounts. insurer. anyone who sees to the physical safety and security of those in need of care. distributor. In their support role. outfitter. and. Indeed. in general. auditor. examiner. fortifier. even though supervising and inspecting are two sides of the same coin. This seclusive. keep. equipper. assessor. with Supervisors often inspecting their people. caterer. checker. take on the task of shielding others from the dirt and the dangers of the world. benefactor. save. some Conservators are better as Providers of goods and services. stock. even though Providers must often protect their supplies and Protectors must often provide protection. consider the following chart: . gather. subsidizer. patron. and Inspectors often supervising operations. private role also has many forms: attendant. collect. This outgoing. To help visualize the differences among Guardians in their likely develop­ ment of logistical skills. husband. As in the case of the Administrator. hold. to make sure they feel well-provisioned and a part of the group. warder. and warehouse. bank. Comparing the Logistical Role Variants Every Guardian plays these four roles well. caretaker. and weigher—all keeping a watchful eye out for irregularities. under a magnifying glass so that each and every unit is properly inventoried and certified. there are many words that define the Conservator’s function: amass.The Logistical Intellect 85 goods. giving information—reports. records and so on—first. deposit. ombudsman. custodian. budget. but no Guardian plays them all equally well. garner. furnisher. Similarly. and giving orders only as a last resort. financier. reserve. tester. store. evaluator.

their interests are diametrically opposite from those of Rationals and quite different from those of Artisans and Idealists. though each of the Guardians is less skilled in some logistical roles than in others.86 Guardians co c 3 H > 3. as are Providers (ESFJs) of Inspectors (ISTJs). and therefore develop it more. preoccupational. Thus the Supervisors are usually eager to see to it that people do what they are supposed to. personnel. Just so. And last. and many have an aversion to technology. and strategic roles of the other types. In considering their unique educational. They work best with materiel. As for Guardians. More­ over. but less so to provide for the wants and needs of those whose products they inspect. rD o o •^0 o < o► T > Cl < O ) O C/5 «— >73 (X I C C/5 c C/5 a 3 K* i-» o O •-! o hd •-I o ol o D "d o o •-I 5 o c/3 S' c a n > 3 O C/3 o < o! rt Supervisor ESTJ Protector ISFJ Inspector ISTJ Provider ESFJ Note that Supervisors (ESTJs) are the mirror image of Protectors (ISFJs). while they are less inclined to safeguard the people they supervise. though not as skilled in taking care to inspect their products. diplomatic. They are far more interested in morality—right and wrong—than in building morale or in acquiring new techniques. our interests go hand in hand with our abilities. beginning on page 104. and vocational interests. The Interests of Guardians Everyone has interests. A more detailed portrait of each of the four Guardian role variants may be found at the end of this chapter. or complex systems. All the same. and tend to do well in what we are interested in doing. the Providers are the most skilled in supplying their people with what they need to fare well. who leave nothing to chance in insuring the safety of their charges. The reverse holds for the Protectors. and study arts & crafts. humanities. the Inspectors are quite willing and able to check up on the quality and quantity of the work done by their charges. At school the Guardians typically seek out courses that have some application in the world of commerce. it might be helpful . but not everyone has the same interests. than any of the tactical. they still practice their short suit more. Thus we are interested in doing what we do well. and sciences only as required to. or else be called to task. while they find it more difficult to let them know when they step out of line. rather than with equipment.

find little of personal value in learning about commerce.. where they tend to specialize in business. feel responsible for the morality of their group. even as children..and that’s all there is to it! Personally. and insurance law. Other types study commerce. who early on assume the responsibility for the morale of their companions.Be a good deal better if you took Business English and learned how to write an ad. Morality is concerned with people doing what they’re supposed to and not doing what they’re not supposed to. History. Preoccupied with Morality Guardians. I don’t see why. though related. while morale is concerned with how people feel about themselves. (Idealists. When his Artisan son questions why he has to read the classics in high school. and to understand financial markets as complex systems. however. and of Law Schools. Perhaps it is because of their . but while the NFs nurture good feelings. and is thus the natural field of education for Guardians.) Guardians. regard companies and corporations as indispensable social institutions that allow them to earn their keep and to provide for their families. but their eye is ever on the practical advantages of learning business skills. in order to find out how to play the game of wheel-and-deal. whether it be their family. even if they sometimes want to.The Interests of Guardians to study the following chart: Interests Education Preoccupation Vocation Guardians Commerce Morality Materiel Artisans Idealists Artcrafts Humanities Techniques Morale Equipment Personnel Rationals 87 Sciences Technology Systems Educational Interest in Commerce The world of commerce is the place where society comes together to evaluate and to exchange goods and services. Rationals to learn about economics and human engineering. But morale and morality. it must be said. English. the SJs guard right and wrong.. and Education. too: Artisans. In this they resemble the Idealists. Thus. are two different things. where they take accounting and administration. or their circle of friends.. or letters that would pull. both SJs and NFs are interested in helping or bettering others. of course. And so Guardians fill the ranks of Business Schools and of college Business Departments. tax. their classmates. and how they get along with others. particularly the Applied Sciences. They will study other subjects. And they are never able to shake off that responsibility.. Sinclair Lewis’s Guardian businessman George Babbitt tries to explain: It’s because they’re required for college.

Commercial food production. and so on. and men such as H. No auditor could gain a point on him. inasmuch as.it would be impossible to arrange them in the requisite order. finance.. and warehousing.which are frequently changed from one place to another as required. packing. describe in 1848 his idea of a card catalogue. Post made fortunes bringing processed foods to the tables of American families. for no other area of work is so well suited to standard operations and by-the-book procedures. Now. requisite order. Penney to F. brokers.W. Morgan to E. uniform size and substance: these notions are near and dear to Guardians. accounting—with the brightest becoming executives. all skills which Chaucer noted nearly six hundred years ago in his Canterbury pilgrim the Reeve (an estate steward): He kept his bins and gamers very trim. their arrangement will cause mechanical difficulties.. storing. [in which] the titles be entered under some ‘headings’ alphabetically arranged. Woolworth.. from J.be not uniform. Hutton.F.P. filing. for gathering. Of course. . each title is therefore written on separate ‘slips’ of paper. measuring. Listen to Antonio Panizzi. too.C. CPAs. particularly the tasks of planting. plant or office managers. tending. administrators.J. and perhaps this is why they find such satisfaction in office work and clerical jobs—keeping records.. SJs come up with new ideas. Paul Getty. many of the giants of the business world—particularly in commodities. and.. bankers.88 Guardians preoccupation with morality that Guardians so often study the right and wrong of business practices and seek occupation as administrators and conservators. insurance underwriters. It is self-evident that if these ‘slips’. as you might expect of Demeter’s children. In jobs of this nature SJs are incomparable. and distributing equipment and supplies. harvesting. checking inventory. attending to correspondence. but their creativity comes to the fore most easily in the areas of arranging and scheduling. Indeed. recording. And he could judge by watching drought and rain The yield he might expect from seed and grain. Vocational Interest in Materiel Guardians are interested in occupations that have to do with procedures for managing materiel. Rockefeller to J. from John D. and distribution are also natural vocations for Guardians. and retail sales—have been SJs. that is. Alphabetical arrangement. Heinz and Charles W.. both is size and substance. if they cannot be easily shifted. agriculture is second nature to the SJs. from J. Keeper of Printed Books for the British Museum. But the word ‘materiel’ has a more down-to-earth meaning as well.

present. stoical about the past. stepping outside of it into social isolation. with our sociability ending in great and complicated societies. and if there’s a job to be done. For Artisans. say or do. a penny saved is a penny earned. occurs. for long. Of course we can be disoriented now and then. ” or “worldview. or less skeptical than we are. or less mystical. indeed must occur.” But different personalities have different orientations. Whatever we think or feel. to be less optimistic. we are the most social of all the animals. a slant. or shock. Consider the following chart in making these comparisons: Orientation Present Future Past Place Time Guardians Stoical Pessimistic Fatalistic Gateways Yesterday Artisans Hedonistic Optimistic Cynical Here Now Idealists Altruistic Credulous Mystical Pathways Tomorrow Rationals Pragmatic Skeptical Relativistic Intersections Intervals Here it is claimed that Guardians are stoical about the present. By the age of five SJs have already adopted . So let us look closely at these five dimensions of orientation so that we will not be surprised or disappointed when our Guardian friends prove. they must do it. they are simply different views of the Good. But we soon reorient ourselves and return to our ordinary social frame of reference. We are oriented always from a certain angle. After all. danger. in our own and no other’s social context. Guardians have a stoical outlook. pessimistic about the future. that their preferred place is at the gates of social interaction and their preferred time is yesterday. Stoical in Looking Around While Artisans have a hedonistic outlook. a standpoint. something Adickes spoke of as a built-in point-of-view—our “Weltanschauung. Both of these outlooks are ethical. This stoical perspective can be seen in the Guardians’ conduct even when they are small children. Each act and attitude is shaped and governed by a prevailing outlook or perspective determined by our social matrix. don’t do it. never. How different are the other temperaments in the way they view these things. One is not right and the other wrong. if it’s not fun. and future. but for Guardians. differently. for example.The Orientation of Guardians 89 The Orientation of Guardians We are bom into a social field and we live out our lives in that field. viewing time and place as well as past. perhaps because of surprise. feeling obligated to shoulder the responsibility of working hard and accumulating assets so that family members will fare well and prosper. particularly in the areas of hard work and saving.

like the tireless beaver.” he urges. can’t help but say “I told you so. Grasshopper must knock at Ant’s door and stand there frostbitten and starving. and even though many of their preparations are for things to go wrong. we must not conclude that they are gloomily forecasting calamity and disaster. setting the table. Guardians have learned to expect the worst. Above all else. “Ant. and even find odd jobs (paper routes. church. Guardians are prepared. Join me on my blade of grass. making ends meet. Although Guardians do not readily confess that they are pessimistic. ignores the other’s warning and goes his own way. Aesop’s “The Ant and the Grasshopper” gives us a splendid analogy for the contrasting styles of Guardian and Artisan. it is in their temperament to keep at it all their lives. saving for a rainy day—these are all actions which come naturally to Guardians. snug in his storehouse of goodies. in complete contrast with the SPs’ things-are-looking-up optimism. When it turns out to be a long. chewing tobacco. without losing stride. Clipping coupons. the food that abounds. cold. hungry winter. “and we will fill the store­ house. In the fable. and we will enjoy together the warm summer. we might see them as being realistic about setbacks and shortages. and social organization—and usually all at the same time! Even when they have retired SJs work harder and spend less than the other types. And both hard work and saving become more and more important as the SJ gets older. if . shopping at sales. career. they do their homework. “Be Prepared.” then shakes his head and lets Grasshopper in.” Grasshopper replies. baby-sitting) to earn a little extra money. and singing “The World Owes Me a Living. washing the dishes). playing the fiddle.90 Guardians a surprisingly adult work ethic. Certainly the Boy Scouts’ motto. Artisans might believe you can’t take it with you. get the yard work done. To be sure. if you keep up this feverish pace. ever-changing situations. trying to maintain the status quo in fast-paced. Rather. scolds Grasshopper for not preparing for the upcoming winter months: “Join me. of course. The truth is that from this save-and-work ethic SJs can never retire. vegetable gardening. And no one ever accused an SJ of not giving his or her all to family. and making their own repairs on the house and car. because. Pessimistic in Looking Ahead Because so many of their efforts are holding actions. thus ensuring that none will suffer cold or hunger. and as they grow up they take on their school and family duties with little complaint: they help with family meals (preparing the food.” must have been coined by a strong Guardian.” Each. even the most cursory glance at thorough-going SJs will detect a streak of pessimism coloring their attitude. but Guardians save money by cooking and canning. you won’t make it to winter. and celebrate the world’s debt to us in song.” Ant. Ant. Ant is dutifully transporting large crumbs of bread from site to storage while Grasshopper reclines on a blade of grass near Ant’s path.

such as “everything costs more and takes longer. seriousness. emerald-studded gate manned by the Guardian of the Gates. Of course they’d much rather be optimistic. The spectacles.. broken only by a huge. says the Guardian. they find it surrounded by a great green wall. Guardians tend not to blame their bad luck (as do Artisans).. but quite another to explain away errors.. After all.” The four assure him of the seriousness of their quest. Ill and nearing death. When the four heroes in The Wizard of Oz finally reach the Emerald City. “What do you wish in the Emerald City?” and cautions them that their business with the Wizard had better not be frivolous: “He is powerful and terrible. the Murphys of this world—surely SJs—are the makers of the laws of pessimism. like their Artisan cousins. [a ‘melancholy’ attitude which] Victoria generally interpreted as Albert’s saintly acceptance of God’s will. caring about protocol. Remember Murphy’s Law. and those who think they have the right just to barge in (gate-crashers) need to be stopped and expelled—“shown the door. standing guard at the door and keeping a watchful eye on the coming and going of the people under their jurisdiction. which says “whatever can go wrong will.” and Olsen’s addendum. Guardians man the gates and keep the keys of all our social institutions.” There are many variants of this basic law. failures. Prince Albert comforted Queen Victoria and resigned himself to his fate: Not for the first time he explained to Queen Victoria quite calmly that he. losses. Rather. SJs believe with the Stoics that pain and suffering are unavoidable in this world. “Murphy’s Law is optimistic. are indeed part of some predetermined plan.” In just this way.he might be angry and destroy you all in an instant. and I have the only key that will unlock them.The Orientation of Guardians 91 pressed they will admit it.” Fatalistic in Looking Back It is one thing to expect things to go wrong.” as SJs tend to say. The Place is at the Gateways Guardians naturally assume the role of society’s gate-keeper. and if you come on an idle or foolish errand. The Guardian asks them. or to blame themselves (as do Rationals). and protection. ..was happy in his lot but if he were attacked by a severe illness he would let go without a struggle. and the Guardian gives them permission to enter through an inner gate.. caution. those who ignore boundaries (trespassers) must be caught and reprimanded. “are all locked on.. In their times of trouble. and therefore that men and women must endure their hardships bravely and patiently. and setbacks when they happen. but they cannot easily shake off their worries about all the possible things that can. go wrong. and often do. but only after they have put on green spectacles to protect their eyes from the emerald brilliance of the City.. Those without proper credentials (out­ siders) cannot be allowed through. for Oz so ordered it when the City was built.

the German philosopher who defined the worldviews of the four types of character. And it is the SJ who will take seriously the tracing and updating of the family tree. as Tevye the milkman says in Fiddler on the Roof. Guardians say. as do the scientific NTs. they eat at the same restaurants at the same times. a certain rank in the social hierarchy.92 Guardians The Time is Yesterday Eric Adickes. Guardians have a great and lasting respect for age. SJs are their society’s or their family’s historian. as do the romantic NFs. “the old ways are the best ways.” Guardians often come to focus their traditionalism on the family. self-respect. and even like to be served by the same salespersons. and they take great satisfaction in looking after the family property. The Self-Image of Guardians Our self-image is composed of qualities we attribute to ourselves. they drive the same way to work. and are certainly unsettling—or. “Without our traditions our lives would be as shaky as a. more than any of the other types. Nor on tomorrow. To the Guardians. saw the Guardians as keepers of tradition. for it is the historian who honors the past. when our . weddings and baptisms. SJs like to get up the same time every morning. to look fondly upon the good old days when people earned their living. and the innovative seem almost an affront to time-honored traditions. SJs are creatures of habit. and self-confidence.. when products were solidly built (they don’t make ’em like they used to). buy the same brands. Three aspects of this image are particularly important in determining our sense of well-being: self-esteem. they wash and dress according to the same routine. keeping track of births and deaths. Thus the selfimage is a triangular affair. and when the schools kept discipline and gave plenty of homework in the three Rs. and who passes on this traditional knowledge. following faithfully the same routines in their daily lives. the longer possessed the better.fiddler on the roof!” This reverence for the past perhaps explains why. with the three bases of self-regard bound together in mutual support or mutual decline.. of continuity with the past. confers importance. SJs are more inclined to turn their thoughts to yesterday. Rather. In a sense. by itself. For example. the heirlooms and collections and photograph albums—the treasures of family history—re­ gardless of their value in monetary terms. This means that SJs do not usually focus on the now. who values the lessons of history. the new. They hate to see old buildings torn down. as do the opportunistic SPs. And certainly not on timeless intervals. they shop at the same stores. even old trees cut down—as though age. ways in which we see ourselves and would like to be seen by others. of custom.” and “you can’t teach an old dog new tricks. knowing that all such family observances become more important with each passing year. But even in the community at large. the improvised. SJs prize family possessions.

base their self-image on entirely different attributes. This Dependable triangular relationship between de­ pendability. mowing the lawn. Whether or not they are mutually reinforcing. the paramount importance of these three attributes in undergirding our sense of well-being makes it advisable to look carefully at each of them. Since having a good opinion of ourselves is a major key to our happiness. and the faithful family man at home. “No matter what. Different types of character. and often to our success. as we gain self-respect. and re­ spectability is shown in the figure at the side. as dependable. or accountable in shouldering their responsibilities. Self-Esteem in Dependability Guardian self-esteem is greatest when they present themselves as de­ pendable. it is easier for us to keep up our self-confidence and self-esteem.” Picture the traditional Guardian male: the loyal company man at work. Guardians feel . I believe this undermines our self-respect and selfconfidence. and finding that special gift for her husband’s birthday. even working late to finish the job. preparing meals. washing the car. The problem is that SJs seem almost incapable of refusing added responsibility. a duty to fulfill. are likely to contribute little to their sense of well-being. and be seen by others. while other attributes. we would do well to pause for a moment to compare the four types on this all-important aspect of personality: Self-Image Self-Esteem Self-Respect Self-Confidence Guardians Rationals Idealists Dependable Ingenious Empathic Beneficent Autonomous Benevolent Respectable Resolute Authentic Artisans Artistic Audacious Adaptable Thus to feel good about themselves Guardians must see themselves. remembering his wedding anniversary. trustworthy. If there is a job to be done. beneficent. “you can count on me to fulfill my obligations and to honor my contracts. dressing (and ferrying) the children.The Self-Image of Guardians 93 self-esteem diminishes. shopping. and respectable. however. Then there is the traditional Guardian female: working to keep the house clean. volunteering her time at school and church. like authenticity and The Self-Image of Guardians autonomy. performing his duties conscientiously. Unfortunately.” says the SJ. which rein­ Respectable ^ ^ Beneficent forces respectability. the Guardian’s tireless sense of dependability can take its toll. beneficence. In the same way. and so on. Note how dependability re­ inforces beneficence. going to the kids’ games or recitals.

worrying about the time. especially when it comes to matters of food. candy-striping at hospitals. who labors to stock his lodge with food for the winter. who only too often is exhausted. and helping the needy by col­ lecting and distributing food. Thus E. (This is quite different from benevolence or good will. shelter. and perhaps even ill. At the same time. clothing. and they fill the ranks of the traditional service occupations: teaching. the SJ’s reliability. who will?” and reluctantly agrees to shoulder the extra load—anything to keep from appearing irresponsible or shiftless. He has worked hard all his life. lending a hand with the Scouts or the Red Cross. which is an attitude displayed by Idealists.” becomes people’s attitude. Forster describes Henry Wilcox. SJs seem burdened and obligated by their very nature—no matter how hard they work—and they spend much of their lives doing a thousand thankless jobs. with others coming to count on. “Jane will do it. and insisting that everyone go on and enjoy themselves. Guardians take on additional duties almost as if trying to stock their self-esteem against some future obligation. and transportation. And thus a vicious circle is set up. apparently trying to discharge the feeling that somehow they haven’t done enough. with little awareness or appreciation of the demands this may make on Jane. the impaired and infirm.M.) SJs are natural Good-Samaritans. “If I don’t do it. and the like. Of course. blankets. .” Forster says. just “Eternally tired. it is the Guardian host who may also feel a bit put upon if a few guests don’t at least offer to help so that they can be shooed away. At the Thanksgiving or Holiday dinner. they can develop a healthy self-respect based on their beneficence. sad. even if they are already overburdened. which means doing good deeds. ever on the lookout for ways to help their fellow man. and brought to conclusion. the Guardian banker in Howards End. and those in positions of authority. the SJ accepts all at the banquet despite the ingratitude of other character types. but even worse they often fail to appreciate themselves and to find satisfaction in their own hard work. is another concern of the Guard­ ians. and even if others are contributing far less than they. particularly the young and old.94 Guardians somehow obligated to see that the task is undertaken. The care of others. And Guardians serve tirelessly in their own homes. Self-Respect in Beneficence While self-esteem does not come easily to Guardians. the SJ hosts (and even the SJ guests) will be found in the kitchen both before and after the meal. Henry is not exactly “ill. seeing to the cooking and the cleanup. toys. many of whom are quite happy to be the so-called “members of the wedding” and eat their fill at the SJ’s expense. and even to take advantage of. SJs do a great part of community and church volunteer work.” Guardians suffer when not appreciated for their efforts. Much like the beaver. The Guardian worries. or if there’s enough food.

and public . they are often miserable patients. this is the best kind of recreation for these nose-tothe-grindstone people. dentistry. Guardians thor­ oughly enjoy being catered to and indulged. seeing their role in government or the military in almost sacred terms of self-sacrifice and service to others. Self-Confidence in Respectability Self-confidence can be a problem for Guardians. even self-effacing—and putting themselves forward comes perilously close to showing off.The Self-Image of Guardians 95 accounting. but in order to have a good time helps the host serve the refreshments—and then insists on cleaning up afterwards.” Although service to others comes quite naturally to them. civil service. for I have not only grown grey. George Washington begged indulgence for his aging eyesight: “Gen­ tleman.. in my view a Guardian.” Powell spoke of this inscription as “the essence of what we are supposed to be doing in this building—that’s serving. clerking in banks. SJ self-respect is built on fulfilling their obligation to serve. you will permit me to put on my spectacles. almost as if they feel derelict in their duties. described a painting hung in the Pentagon of a soldier and his family kneeling in prayer on the eve of war. Guardians do not do it freely and joyously. not the receiver. And though SJs make fine. pharmacy.. More than others. SJs also make devoted public servants. being respected by others is a great comfort. but almost blind in the service of my countrymen.” And in a speech to mark his appointment as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. and nursing. Under the painting is an inscription from the Prophet Isaiah answering the question. the care taker. SJs often seem grouchy and embarrassed to be receiving care. Even on vacation. a kind of behavior which they find truly repugnant. rather. unassuming. General Colin Powell. when reading a document to his staff. But if having confidence in themselves is difficult for SJs. not the cared for. When debilitated or ailing. then. When on vacation. In a sense. SJs can feel a sense of obligation—an obligation to enjoy themselves!—and they will schedule their time to see the sights. Guardians are innately modest. and in turn the greatest blow to their self-respect is to become dependent on the charity or the service of others.That’s the ultimate statement of selfless service: Send me. to let themselves be served and entertained. insofar as they can vacation (many never take the time). The SJ must be the giver. general medical practice. “Who will do the work of the Lord?” with the simple statement. as if it’s their duty to pack into their trip (and to record in snapshots) as many must-sees as possible. to take the tours’ to visit the historical buildings or ruins. Once. barbering and hair dressing. housekeeping. to forget their responsibilities for a little while. they look upon their service as obligatory—to do otherwise is to be shiftless and selfish. Witness the Guardian who goes to a party. caring physi­ cians and nurses. secretarial work. To take a short rest from their duties. “Send me.. One twist on this pattern is worth mentioning. however. retail sales.

The Guardian’s office or den may be conspicuous for its large display of such formal honors. he felt. such as the self-image. and are indeed much more easily discernible than differences in other domains. that the four types of personality stand apart most noticeably. It was not his wish to become President. . the domain of values. certificates. and having pre­ sided over the fierce intellectual battles of the Constitutional Convention with great dignity. But he could not resist this last call to duty. which can be summed up in the words of one Maryland official: “We cannot. to be chosen for a position of prestige and high standing. George Washington was entreated by his fellow-delegates to become the first President of the United States. Guardians will even take on extra burdens if they are sufficiently honored. or the forms of intelligence. or by their family proves they have put in long years conscientiously doing their part. and wished to retire to his home at Mount Vernon. awards. and photographs of spouse. Such recogni­ tion usually comes in the form of physical tokens of respect such as plaques. in what they put their trust in. and it is in this. since being highly respected in their business. These contrasts in values are usually what people see first in others.96 Guardians recognition is indeed the foundation of their self-confidence. children. when they begin to recognize the four temperament patterns. side by side with photographs of awards ceremonies. Let’s look at the following chart: Value Being Trusting Yearning Seeking Prizing Aspiring Guardians Concerned Authority Belonging Security Gratitude Executive Artisans Excited Impulse Impact Stimulation Generosity Virtuoso Idealists Enthusiastic Intuition Romance Identity Recognition Sage Rationals Calm Reason Achievement Knowledge Deference Wizard I believe that Guardians are often concerned about some serious matter. He had served long enough. and grandchildren. autographed pictures of polit­ ical leaders. sir. The temperaments differ in their preferred mood. The Values of Guardians Different people value different things. SJs take very seriously all of these public and personal honors.” Washington never thought of himself as worthy of such a grand position. in what they seek. and diplomas. in their community. and in what they aspire to. and then to accept the honor humbly—this is a scenario which fills the SJ with legitimate self-confidence and lifelong satisfaction. but to be honored by others. Having successfully conducted the War of Independence. in what they yearn for. in what they prize. do without you.

but not as extensively or as seriously as the Guardians. Of course. SJs can have a great sense of humor. others concern themselves with many of these matters. their jobs. lots of friends. yearn to belong to groups. Being Concerned The prevailing mood of Guardians is one of concern. enjoys having friends over for tea. their gas mileage. society seems to be decaying. no one shows respect anymore—what’s the world coming to? These grave concerns can furrow the brow of even the happiest SJs. service. like crime and punishment. about how they dress.) Your guardian enjoys the best of health. prize expressions of gratitude. their finances. MISS PRISM: (Drawing herself up. and he preferred to ask them himself. But even when giving a party Guardians can find things to worry about. especially about their loved ones. Of all the types. for instance. their health. or less reasonable than the rest of us. as Oscar Wilde shows us in his comedy with the perfect Guardian title. public mo­ rality. and they are concerned about little things. seek security. less intuitive. SJs are concerned about big things. school standards. and worry those around them. They are concerned about their homes. their neighborhoods. like doing the dishes.The Values of Guardians 97 trust authority. and sooner or later aspire to be an executive. They are concerned about their duties and responsibilities. and whether they’re on time. but also about the direction of society in general. their families. Tolkien’s hospitable little hobbit. and supplies: He liked visitors. I know of no one who has a higher sense of duty and responsibility. Therefore it will serve us well if we study these six kinds of value in the case of Guardians lest we are surprised and disappointed to find them. The Importance of Being Earnest CECILY: Dear Uncle Jack is so very serious! Sometimes he is so serious that I think he cannot be quite well. These values are radically different from those of the other temperaments. but frets about invitations. SJs tend to worry too much. Guardians can truly be said to be the “concerned citizens. too. less excitable. To many SJs. and will usually cultivate a full and satisfying social life. aphids on the roses. and his gravity of dem eanor is especially to be com m ended in one so comparatively young.” To put it simply. but he liked to know them before they arrived. Bilbo Baggins. which is very likely what prompted Galen to name them the “Melancholics. He had a horrible thought that the cakes .” Such thoroughgoing concern about anything and everything makes Guardians vulnerable to being down in the dumps. This is not to say that Guardians don’t lighten up and have just as good a time as others. morals and manners aren’t what they used to be.

Sinclair Lewis’s finely observed Guardian businessman. sniffing. and corporations. needing each and every day to confirm that they are a member-in-good-standing. far more than others. This occupational choice makes sense for many SJs. but also to handing down to the next generation a sense of order and a respect for authority. create and foster the social arm of the institutions they serve: the church auxiliary. churches. To this end. and chewing the happy hours away. the PTA. it is not too much to say that Guardians actually yearn to belong. the professional association. belongs not only to the Presbyterian Church. Yearning for Belonging Perhaps hoping in some degree to fulfill their search for security. the municipal or political organization. and more often. the lodge.” The rest of the children (mostly SPs) are more like puppies. and royalty of all types seem to capture their trust and their loyalty. and popes and pontiffs. we can . And many SJs believe that an even higher authority keeps an eye on us: “The propitious smiles of Heaven can never be expected on a nation that disregards the eternal rules of order and right which heaven itself has ordained. Guardians.” So said George Washington. and then he. but he is a member of the Brotherly and . should be governed by those in the highest positions. Guardians are prone to join a number of social and civic groups. Maintaining their membership status in such groups is fundamental to the SJ character. the com­ munity service club. They believe in a hierarchical structure of authority—rule from the top down. As the host. in elementary and secondary schools usually two out of three. By the way. and to the pantry to fetch two beautiful round seed-cakes which he had baked that afternoon for his after-supper morsel. schools. Trusting Authority Guardians trust authority.easily observe about half of the five-year-olds earnestly and tensely looking to their teachers to tell them what they are “s’posed to do.. that the actions of members of communities. They believe there should be subordi­ nation and superordination..” Moreover. the father of his country. The Guardian’s belief in authority makes its appearance early in life. George Babbitt. three out of four of the teachers are Guardians. tussling. he knew his duty and stuck to it however painful. If we watch a newly convened kindergarten class. and the Chamber of Commerce. SJs have an abiding trust in the heads of church and state. since the traditional school is committed not only to supplying students with certain basic clerical skills and a core body of factual information.found himself scuttling off to the cellar to fill a pint beer-mug.98 Guardians might run short. but also of families. while a smattering of NFs and NTs will seem self-conscious and somewhat lost in the shuffle. presidents and prime ministers. SJs tend to take the word of authorities in matters of education and medicine—their unquestioned assumption is “the doctor knows best.

“Better safe than sorry” SJs are wont to say. is a guardian but one who stands guard.. They have to participate through institutions. but they can never say that they’re galled.. after all.that hold people accountable and teach them certain values. The SJs’ concerns are more pressing than sensations.. but also against what many of them regard as the irresponsibility of human nature. and be glad that such a one rightly has grave concerns about matters of safety in a dangerous. Observe how one Texas social worker defends public institutions.a Prominent Citizen. health can fail. and serves on a committee of the State Association of Real Estate Boards. What. It is galling to them when others take their services for granted and express no gratitude. If you say I’m conservative because I think the church is important. I plead guilty. it is safe to say that Guardians have little interest in any of these other pursuits.We can’t rely on people by themselves to be good. I plead guilty.. and disappointment. ready to pounce. and rightly so.. Property can be lost or stolen. unstable world. Guardians seem drawn to the role of social protector.” and “accountability”: It is important for people to be connected to institutions... prepared for the worst. then I plead guilty. searching for ways to defend—both themselves and others—against loss.” “good and bad. identity.” well-respected in his profession and his community. Seeking Security While the Artisan is the Sensation Seeking Personality. and SJs devote themselves to establishing them. Prizing Gratitude More than other types. defeat. have done for them. Institutions are bastions of security in a chaotic world. the Guardians. standing watch against the insecurities of life. The world can go to hell in a handbasket. I plead guilty. the Idealist the Identity Seeking Personality. Guardians feel appreciated in the degree that others are grateful for what they. vice-president of the Boosters’ Club. and knowledge.. and expresses himself in a Guardian’s oft-used terms of “guilt and innocence.The Values of Guardians 99 Protective Order of Elks. relationships can fall apart.. no one . Lewis tells us that Babbitt’s various memberships “made him feel loyal and important. tending them. If you say I’m conservative because I think the public schools can be made to work. Perhaps this is why they put such trust in institutions. Let us then think of the Guardian as the Security Seeking Personality. If you say I’m conservative because I think communities are important. a warden of safety and security? Guardians know better than the rest of us what dangers lurk nearby. for they are more aware than the other types of the dangers of living. and the Rational the Knowledge Seeking Personality. In truth.If you say I’m conservative because I think the family’s important.. and perpetuating them.

a church.” the ill-fated “people’s Princess.100 Guardians deserves gratitude as much as Guardians. to hold the reins of power—in a word. its Commanding Officer. this is the thanks I get. Their guardianship is conscientious and unstinting. Perhaps this is why royalty. its Chief Executive Officer. such as a business. and imagine that parental respon­ sibility far outweighs parental entitlement to gratitude. record-keeping. its Chairman of the Board. nearly half of the forty-one Presidents of the United States have been Guardians. or a democratic nation. as did Lady Diana Spencer. a military unit. whether the institution is a royal family or something less exalted. to be in charge of things. Perhaps this is because they shift from the position of the child to the position of the parent far sooner than the other types do. and all the other routine and burdensome—but usually crucial—tasks as­ sociated with meeting logistical necessity. To run the show. where it still exists. its Supervisor. a school. Yet of all the types the Guardians are least able to ask others to express gratitude. often doing the many thankless jobs. the most honored executive status of all. Indeed. . Guardians dream of becoming its Director. to direct operations. Their attention to duty has a natural consequence: they help others. Finally the Guardian is likely to protest resentfully that he or she has worked long and hard.” However.” And well might they protest. William Howard Taft coveted his appointment to the Supreme Court even more than his time in the White House. its Commissioner. he was not truly content until he became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court—presiding over the nation’s legal hierarchy and thus achiev­ ing.” Interestingly. Aspiring to be an Executive Many a Guardian’s loftiest aspiration is to become a distinguished head of an important and well-regarded institution. and his or her efforts have not even been noticed—“After all I’ve done. cleaning up. Though elected to the Presidency. their attention to duty unflagging. washing. The result is that Guardians may not be (are almost certain not to be) thanked for what they have done. Imagine what happens to the glorious two-week family vacation if nobody remembers to check the car’s gas and oil. particularly someone of royalty who has the common touch. their attitude toward the office summed up in the words of Jimmy Carter: “The President of the United States is the steward of the nation’s destiny. a local community. its Regent—or its President. these jobs may be noticed only when they are not done. In fact. to be an “executive”—appeals strongly to the Guardians’ feeling for the rightful exercise of authority. fondly known as “Princess Di. These are important tasks. seems to have a special place in the heart of most SJs. but by their very nature they are almost invisible to others. for a Guardian. for those they help do owe thanks that is all too seldom given.

the Idealist Harmonizer. parenting.The Social Roles Guardians Play 101 The Social Roles Guardians Play There are two kinds of social roles. and followers. It is impossible not to play a role in all of our social transactions. Allotted or embraced. a few remarks on each of the Guardian’s social roles can give outlines of how they are played. and leading. We perforce play offspring to our parents. offspring. siblings to our brothers and sisters. friend to friend. and relatives to our extended family members. SJs are extremely loyal to their mates and feel obliged to stand by them in times of trouble and help them straighten up and fly right. Guardians more easily than any . the Idealist Catalyst. In enacting these three roles the different kinds of personality differ significantly in the effects they have on mates. those that are allotted to us by virtue of our position in our social milieu. subordinate to our superior. we have no choice but to enact our social roles. parenting. parents to our offspring. As a result. or the Rational Visionary. and those that we reach out and take for ourselves. Guardians regard themselves as Helpmates. Let us consider a chart which shows the four ways that the mating. In addition. The Guardian Socializer parent plays a far different part in the family than the Artisan Liberator. Three of our social roles are of special importance in the context of the study of personality: mating. just as the Guardian Stabilizer leader performs a vastly different function in a business operation than the Artisan Negotiator. Still. and leading roles are played: Social Roles Mating Parenting Leading Guardians Helpmate Socializer Stabilizer Artisans Playmate Liberator Negotiator Idealists Soulmate Harmonizer Catalyst Rationals Mindmate Individuator Visionary Note the striking difference between playing the Helpmate role in the case of the Guardians. and Mindmate roles in the cases of the other three temperaments. stable family life. or the Rational Individuator. Soulmate. and the Playmate. ready to roll up their sleeves and work side-by-side with their spouses to build a comfortable. since to interact with others can never be role-free. superior to our subordinate. These different mating roles will require careful study and so a chapter on this topic is provided in Chapter 7. and so on. On the other hand we willingly play mate to our spouse. The Helpmate In their spousal role. Separate chapters (Chapters 8 and 9) are also required for defining and describing the noticeable differences in the parenting and leadership roles of the four temperaments.

then it is up to the SJ leader to establish them and disseminate them. the leader who fails to stabilize an enterprise by not standardizing operations is liable to be met with misdirected efforts and diminished returns. at scout meetings. that is. Those who study this . and other social gatherings. and are in all ways conducive to its welfare. and certainly at gatherings of the extended family. Other types. and standard operating procedures that employees know about and are ready. The Socializer Parent In the parental role. This means that there ought to be schedules. It is not too much to say that the SJ parent’s highest value for his or her children is that they fit in smoothly and helpfully with the community. Remember that SJ self-respect rests on doing good deeds. Rules and regulations are there for the good of all. besides being upsetting to some members of the staff. lest there be chaos and discontent. In the Guardian view. at school. Even when some individualist does better with his own unique style of operating. “socialized.102 Guardians other temperament can be hooked into becoming the rescuer of troubled mates. regulations. and are to be observed. or strength­ ening their independence. fully in support of and in step with the community—in a word.” A Guardian’s children are to be increasingly helpful and productive in the home. to be good mates. willing. regarding it as possibly destabilizing and disruptive of the normal flow of work. The Stabilizer Leader The soundest basis of leadership in the Guardian view is carefully considered administration of what is to be done. at church. and who is to do it. The traits of the other three types are listed in parallel columns. and make sure that the mavericks and nonconformists (who are itching to set aside protocol and go off on their own) conform to the leader’s regimen. Guardian parents are far more concerned with this project than they are with the concerns of other types. how it is to be done. so that all four temper­ aments can be compared and contrasted at a glance. and so. If no such routines exist. with encouraging their children’s venturesomeness. of course. and want to help their spouses. Matrix of Guardian Traits The matrix on the next page gathers together and highlights the terms I have used to define and describe the Guardian personality. Guardians are more often than not set upon seeing to it that their children are civilized. and able to follow. wish to be helpful to their mates. they must help their spouses. but they do not pursue this objective with the seriousness of Guardians. enculturated. the Guardian leader has cause to question this show of initiative. nurturing their positive self-image.

Matrix of Guardian Traits 103 matrix. will have a better chance of grasping the complete configuration of the Proprietary Guardian Personality. and the Dialectical Rationals. The Traits of Temperament and Character Communication I — Concrete — | |— Abstract— | Implementation Utilitarian Cooperative Cooperative Utilitarian Character Artisan Guardian Idealist Rational Language Referential Syntactical Rhetorical Harmonic Indicative Descriptive Heterodox Associative Imperative Comparative Orthodox Inductive Interpretive Metaphoric Hyperbolic Deductive Categorical Subjunctive Technical Intellect Directive Role • Expressive Role • Reserved Role Informative Role • Expressive Role • Reserved Role Tactical Operator • Promoter • Crafter Entertainer • Performer • Composer Artcraft Technique Equipment Hedonism Optimism Cynicism Here N o w Logistical Diplomatic Administrator Mentor • Supervisor •Teacher • Inspector • Counselor Conservator Advocate • Provider • Champion • Protector • Healer Commerce Strategic Coordinator • Fieldmarshal • Mastermind Engineer • Inventor • Architect Sciences Technology Systems Pragmatism Skepticism Relativism Intersections Intervals Ingenious A u to n o m o u s Interest Education Preoccupation Vocation Morality Materiel Stoicism Pessimism Humanities Morale Personnel Altruism Credulism Mysticism Pathways Tomorrow Empathic B e n e v o le n t Orientation Present Future Past Place Time Fatalism Gateways Yesterday Dependable B e n e fic e n t Self-Image Self-Esteem S e lf-R e s p e c t Artistic A u d a c io u s Self-Confidence Adaptable Excited Impulse Impact Stimulation Generosity Virtuoso Playmate Liberator Negotiator Respectable Concerned Authentic Enthusiastic Intuition Romance Identity Recognition Sage Soulmate Harmonizer Catalyst Resolute Calm Reason Achievement Knowledge Deference Wizard Mindmate Individuator Visionary Value Being Trusting Yearning Seeking Prizing Aspiring Authority Belonging Security Gratitude Executive Helpmate Socializer Social Role Mating Parenting Leading Stabilizer . and occasionally consult it as they read on. and of appreciating its uniqueness and radical difference from the Hedonic Artisans. the Ethical Idealists.

The Supervisor [ESTJ] Supervising is making sure that others do as they should do. Intellectually. yearn for belonging. If their environment enables them to develop a given trait it can only be one that is predetermined by their temperament. They even feel obligated to do so. These Supervisors are eager to enforce the rules and procedures. They base their self-image on being seen as dependable. and the Conservators playing Provider or Protector. so that each trait of character entails the other traits. Further. Myers’s SJs—have a tightly configured personality. pessimistic. and some Guardians—the ESTJs—naturally grav­ itate to this role in their relations with others. Like all the Guardians they are concrete in communicating and cooperative in using tools. all the Guardians seem to have a great capacity for logistical reliability. and work well with materiel. unified configuration of attitudes and actions. and especially strategy. Aristotle’s Proprietaries. In orientation. Supervisors will set their jaw and make the call on anyone who steps up to bat. While it is useful to think of each of the four temperaments as a single.” as I like to call them—Plato’s Guardians. the ESTJs are little different from the other SJs in most respects. benef­ icent. Thus. diplomacy.104 Guardians Guardian Role Variants These “Concrete Cooperators. while others (the friendly SJs) prefer the informative role of Conser­ vator of people and property. and respectable. seek security. they tend to be fatalistic. but some (the tough-minded SJs) are drawn to the directive role of Administrator of policies and proce­ dures. with the Admin­ istrators tending to play the role variants of Supervisor or Inspector. and don’t do as they shouldn’t do. prize gratitude. stalwart umpires. they trust authority. And with . to pick and choose their traits. individual members of each temperament clearly differ from one another. They are interested in learning about commerce. and they’re sometimes surprised when others don’t seem grateful for their judgments. any more than other types. Often concerned about things. with their tough-minded nature Supervisors tend to take on the Administrator’s directive role more readily than the soft-hearted Conservator’s informative role. This means that Mother Nature does not permit Guardians. They do not hesitate to give their stamp of approval. Galen’s Melancholics. These two divisions can be further broken down to reflect an expressive or a reserved social attitude. and they can be serious about seeing to it that others toe the mark—or else face the consequences. and stoical as they guard the gateways and look to yesterday. and aspire to executive position. Like seasoned. nor do they withhold their directions or demands for improvement. they are prone to practice logistics far more than tactics. are preoccupied with morality. As a variant of Plato’s Guardians and Aristotle’s Proprietaries.

or spouse for that matter. they are wont to say. not spec­ ulation and experimentation. commands. Sociable and civic-minded. requests. Indeed. and directions come easily to them. and very often belong to a variety of service clubs. Rank. and so on. traditions being lost. they may not always be responsive to points of view and emotions of others and have a tendency to jump to conclusions too quickly. Supervisors worry a good deal about society falling apart. fine. Telling others what to do is a matter of duty. but also taking a vocal leadership role. They keep their feet firmly on the ground and make sure that those under their supervision do the same. subordinate. and they do all they can to preserve and to extend the institutions that embody social order. whether employee. so demands. they should not be surprised when the Supervisor calls them on the carpet. Supervisors are usually pillars of their com­ munity. time-honored institutions and ways of behaving within those institutions that they have a hard time understanding those who might wish to abandon or radically change them. offspring. ESTJs are comfortable issuing orders. These Guardians are so in tune with the established. membership groups of all kinds strongly attract ESTJs.Guardian Role Variants—The Supervisor 105 their outgoing expressiveness they seem to find it more rewarding to act the role of Supervisor than Inspector. Supervisors are cooperative with their superiors and carry out orders without fail and to the letter. morality decaying. ESTJs believe the table of particulars and the manual of standard operating procedures are what count. lodges. has its obligations. and associations. The top sergeant will not put up with such nonsense. To visualize ESTJ intellectual devel­ opment consider the following graph that depicts the most probable profile of their logistical roles: The Logistical Roles of the ESTJ Supervisor Inspector Provider Protector Administrator Conservator Supervisor Supervisors abound. At the same time. comprising at least ten percent of the population. perhaps because membership satisfies in some degree their need to maintain the stability of social institutions. supporting them through steady attendance. But if they fritter away their time while on duty. Like all the Guardians. and certainly not fantasy. but it also has its privileges. And they expect the same cooperation—even obedience—from their subordinates or dependents. They are generous with their time and energy. Highly materialistic and concrete. They may . If others wish to fool around and daydream. as long as they do it on their own time—which means after the job is done. standards being undermined.



not always be willing to listen patiently to opposing views, and are partic­ ularly vulnerable to this tendency when in positions of authority. They may need to make special effort to remain open to input from others who are dependent on them—their children, spouses, and employees. Supervisors enjoy and are good at scheduling orderly procedures and in detailing rules and regulations. In their view things are to be done correctly and established procedures observed. ESTJs put their trust in authority, and believe it fitting and proper that government agencies grant licenses and permits only to those passing the scrutiny of sanctioned of­ ficials—who are usually Guardians of some sort. ESTJs are comfortable evaluating others and tend to judge how a person is doing in terms of his or her compliance with rules and procedures. They may, at times, be abrupt with those who do not follow the rules correctly, or who do not pay sufficient attention to those details that will get the job done right. This type finds success in many occupations which require a high degree of dedication and discipline: corporate law, politics, police work, military service, and most especially business. The world of business is the ESTJs’ natural habitat. They follow routines well, are neat and orderly, are punctual themselves and expect others to be so. They are loyal to their institutions, are unbelievably hard working in their jobs, and the bright ones frequently rise to positions of responsibility in their company or firm. And yet, no matter how successful they become, Supervisors are always looking for ways of improving themselves, taking night classes, attending seminars, reading professional journals, listening to instructional tapes, and so on. Such earnestness and industriousness show up quite early in the Super­ visors. They are dependable and dutiful almost from infancy, and they usually respect their parents whether or not their parents have earned it. If, for example, they are punished by a parent, they do not hold it against that parent, and are likely, in retrospect at least, to say they deserved it. And in school ESTJs are usually model students, conscientiously following direc­ tions, doing all their homework, doing it thoroughly, and on time. Above all else, they wish to do what they are supposed to do, and they rarely question the teacher’s assignments, method of instruction, standards, or authority. School, particularly the first twelve grades, was made for them. Supervisors approach human relations through traditions and rituals, wanting to promote cooperation and contentment in their relationships through well-worked out routines and procedures. Social gatherings and ceremonies have great meaning for them, and they enjoy opportunities to see friends, colleagues, and relatives at functions such as holiday gatherings, weddings, and awards dinners. In social situations, ESTJs are relatively easy to get to know. They tend not to confuse people by sending double messages or putting on airs, and they are dependable and accountable. At home these tough and outspoken Supervisors insist that each member has an assigned position in a hierarchy—in so many ways, they want a

Guardian Role Variants—The Inspector


place for everything and everything in its place. Thus, elders are due both privileges and respect, and older siblings have higher status than the younger. The ESTJ tends to take control of the family and to define roles and duties. Spouse and children have certain jobs to do, and it is not enough just to do them; they are to want to do them, and for the right reasons. As mates and parents Supervisors are faithful and conscientious. They make sure to remember birthdays and anniversaries, and to mark such occasions with appropriate ceremonies and gifts. They worry about their children and take a firm hand in their upbringing—seeing to it that their children become well-mannered, hard working, productive members of society. Supervisors are especially watchful over their children, some per­ haps even over-watchful. Individualism and rebelliousness worry them, and the older their children are the more closely the ESTJ supervises them, rarely missing a chance to point out the dangers they face in straying from the norm. The Inspector [ISTJ] Inspecting is the act of looking carefully and thoroughly at the products and accounts of an institution—the company’s ledger, the farmer’s produce, the manufacturer’s merchandise, the family’s budget—and ISTJs take on this role with quiet dedication. These Inspectors are earnest and attentive in their inspecting; to be certified as right and proper, all must go under their scrutiny, so that no irregularities or discrepancies are let go by. Most often reporting to higher authorities, Inspectors tend to work behind the scenes, only rarely having to confront others with their findings. Indeed, Inspectors make their examinations without flourish or fanfare, and, there­ fore, the dedication they bring to their work can go unnoticed and unap­ preciated. As a variant of Plato’s Guardians and Aristotle’s Proprietaries, the ISTJs are little different from the other SJs in most respects. Like all the Guardians they are concrete in communicating and cooperative in im­ plementing goals. They are interested in learning about commerce, are preoccupied with morality, and work well with materiel. In orientation, they tend to be fatalistic, pessimistic, and stoical as they guard the gateways and look to yesterday. They base their self-image on being seen as depend­ able, beneficent, and respectable. Often concerned about things, they trust authority, yearn for belonging, seek security, prize gratitude, and aspire to executive position. Intellectually, they are prone to practice logistics far more than tactics, diplomacy, and especially strategy. Further, with their tough-minded nature they tend to choose the directive Administrator’s role over the soft-hearted Conservator’s informative role. And because of their natural reserve and softspokenness they seem to enjoy the role of Inspector more than that of Supervisor. To visualize ISTJ intellectual development consider the following graph depicting the most probable profile of their logistical roles:



The Logistical Roles of the ISTJ
Inspector Supervisor Protector Provider Administrator Conservator Inspector

There are a great many Inspectors—they make up perhaps as much as ten percent of the general population. They are characterized by decisiveness in practical affairs, are the guardians of institutions, and if only one adjective could be selected, ‘superdependable’ (a term used by Myers) would best describe them. Whether at home or at work, ISTJs are nothing if not reliable, particularly when it comes to inspecting the people and things in their jurisdiction—quietly seeing to it that uniform quality of product is maintained, and that those around them uphold certain standards of attitude and conduct. These hard-nosed and silent Guardians have a distaste for and distrust of fanciness in speech, dress, and place. Their words tend to be simple and down home, not showy or high-flown; their clothes are often homespun and conservative rather than of the latest fashion; and their home and work environments are usually neat, orderly, and plain, rather than up-to-date or luxurious. In their choice of personal property (cars, furnishings, jewelry, and so on) price and durability are of primary concern, comfort or appearance given small consideration. Classics, antiques, and heirlooms are especially valued, having achieved a certain time-honored status—Inspectors prefer the old-fashioned to the newfangled every time. Even on vacation, ISTJs are no-nonsense types who tend not to be attracted by exotic foods, beverages, or locales. While not outgoing like the ESTJs, ISTJs are likely to be involved in community service organizations that transmit traditional values to the young, such as Sunday School, Little League, or Boy and Girl Scouting. They understand and appreciate the contributions these institutions make in preserving the national heritage. Along with all the Guardians, the In­ spectors find value in ceremonies and rituals—weddings, birthdays, and anniversaries, for example—although they tend to be shy if the occasion becomes too large or too public. At work, they are apt to see the company picnic or holiday office party as a necessary nuisance, but are likely to enjoy these events once they arrive and loosen up a bit. More to the male Inspector’s liking is the men-only party, where he can drop his guard and use a bit of off-color language. The yearly hunting or fishing trip is often a cherished male ritual for an ISTJ. As Administrators they are patient with their work and with procedures within an institution, although not always patient with the individual goals and unauthorized behavior of some people in that institution. These Inspec­

Guardian Role Variants—The Inspector


tors are comfortable when people know their duties, follow the guidelines, and operate within the rules—rules are there to be followed, they say, not gotten around for personal reasons. For their part, ISTJs will see to it that goods are inspected and schedules are kept, that resources will be up to standard and delivered when and where they are supposed to be. And they would prefer that everyone’s attitudes and actions be this law-abiding. They can be adamant about the need for rule-compliance in the workplace, and do not hesitate to report irregularities to the proper authorities. Because of this they are often misjudged as having ice in their veins, for people fail to see their good intentions and their vulnerability to criticism. Their interest in thoroughness, detail, legality, standard procedures, and orderly flow of materiel leads this type to a number of occupations. Inspectors can handle difficult, detailed forms and columns of figures, and thus they make excellent bank examiners, auditors, accountants, or tax attorneys. Investments in securities are likely to interest this type, particularly investments in municipal bonds and blue-chip securities. Inspectors are not likely to take chances either with their own or others’ money, and the thought of a bankrupt nation, state, institution, or family gives them more than a little uneasiness. The idea of dishonoring a contract also bothers an ISTJ—their word is their bond—and they naturally communicate a message of trustworthiness and stability, which can make them successful in business. With their inspector’s eye, ISTJs make good librarians, dentists, optometrists, legal secretaries, and law researchers. High school teachers of business, home economics, physical education, civics, and history tend to be Inspec­ tors, as do quartermaster officers in the military. As a husband or wife, Inspectors are a source of strength. Just as they honor business contracts, so do they honor the marriage contract. Loyal and faithful mates, they take responsibilities to children and spouse seriously, giving lifelong commitment to them. In family matters, as in all other, “duty” is a word the Inspector understands. The male ISTJ’s concept of masculinity is patriarchal, and he sees himself as the head of the household and breadwinner of the family. He can accept a working wife—as long as she does not shirk her responsibilities to the children. The female ISTJ makes a steady, dependable partner, but with a commitment to respectability that may not always allow her to express her sensuality. In their parenting role, Inspectors are firm and consistent in handling their children; they make the rules of the family clear and expect them to be followed. A rebellious, nonconformist child may have a difficult time with an ISTJ parent, and vice versa. Inspectors care about passing along their work ethic to their children, and will often require them to help with household chores and projects. They patiently teach their children basic home maintenance skills, cooking, gardening, carpentry—time-consuming activities which sometimes leave them little opportunity to play with their children. The Inspector child is apt to be obedient and a source of pleasure to parents and teachers.



The Provider [ESFJ] Providing is the act of furnishing others with the necessities of life, and the ESFJs seem eager to serve others, making sure they feel well-supplied with provisions and a part of the group. These Providers take it upon themselves to arrange for the physical health and welfare of those in need, but they are also the most sociable of all the Guardians, and thus are the great nurturers of established institutions such as schools, churches, social clubs, and civic groups. Wherever they go, Providers take up the role of social contributor, happily giving their time and energy to make sure that the needs of others are met, that traditions are supported and developed, and that social functions are a success. As a variant of Plato’s Guardians and Aristotle’s Proprietaries, the ESFJs are little different from the other SJs in most respects. Like all the Guardians they are concrete in communicating and cooperative in im­ plementing their goals. They are interested in learning about commerce, are preoccupied with morality, and work well with materiel. In orientation, they tend to be fatalistic, pessimistic, and stoical as they guard the gateways and look to yesterday. They base their self-image on being seen as depend­ able, beneficent, and respectable. Often seriously concerned about things, they trust authority, yearn for belonging, seek security, prize gratitude, and aspire to executive position. Intellectually, they are prone to practice logistics far more than tactics, diplomacy, and especially strategy. Further, with their friendly or soft-hearted nature, they tend to take up the Conservator’s informative role more readily than the tough-minded Administrator’s direc­ tive role. And because they are so expressive and personable they seem happier taking the part of Provider than that of Protector. To visualize ESFJ intellectual development consider the following graph depicting the most probable profile of their logistical roles: The Logistical Roles of the ESFJ Provider Protector Supervisor Inspector
Conservator Administrator


Providers are very likely more than ten percent of the population. This is very fortunate for all of us, because cooperation and social facilitation is a key to their nature. Natural proprietors, ESFJs are skilled in maintaining teamwork among their helpers, and are also tireless in their attention to the details of arranging goods and services. They make excellent chairpersons in charge of banquets, rummage sales, charity balls, and the; like. They are without peer as masters of ceremonies, able to approach others with ease and confidence, and seemingly aware of what everyone’s been doing. And they are outstanding hosts or hostesses, able to remember people’s names,

Guardian Role Variants—The Provider


usually after one introduction, and always concerned about the needs of their guests, wanting to insure that all are involved and provided for. These expressive Conservators are personable and talkative, and may become restless when isolated from people. Even among strangers (on an airplane, in line at the grocery store, in a doctor’s waiting room), they will strike up a conversation and chat pleasantly about any concrete topic that comes to mind. Like all the Guardians, they follow a sort of free association, bouncing from subject to subject, from weather to sports to food to prices, and so on. In addition, ESFJs show a delightful fascination with gossip, not only concerning celebrities, but also their friends and neighbors. If we wish to know what’s been going on in the local community, school, or church, they’re happy to fill us in on all the details. Providers tend to have observable things on their mind rather than imaginary things. They are likely to be aware of and to enjoy discussing events and problems in people’s lives; but when conversations turn to philosophic or scientific abstractions, they may become restive. Wondering about abstract issues such as in anthropology, epistemology, psychology, sociology, theology, or whatever, does not excite their interest, as it does the Idealist’s or the Rational’s. On the contrary, ESFJs tend to listen to acknowledged authorities on abstract matters, and often rely on officially sanctioned views as the source of their opinions and attitudes. Social traditions matter to the Providers, and their conversations often drift to nostalgic recounting of past experiences in the good old days. At the same time, however, ESFJs can cause others undue tension by expressing anticipations of gloom and doom, exhibiting a bent toward the pessimistic that can be contagious. They need to control their fears that the worst is sure to happen. Providers are highly sensitive and are not at all reluctant to express their emotional reactions. They are quick to like and dislike, tending to put on a pedestal whatever or whomever they admire, and to come down hard on those people and issues they don’t care for. Ever conscious of appearances, they take very seriously the opinions of others regarding their own accept­ ability. They can be crushed by personal criticism, and will function ef­ fectively only when appreciated both for themselves and for the abundant service they give to others. ESFJs need to be needed, and may spend much energy making sure that they deserve to be. If treated unkindly, they can become downhearted, and are prone to take the blame for whatever might be wrong in their institution or their relationships. In their choice of careers, Providers may lean toward service occupations. They have such pleasant, outgoing personalities that they are far and away the best sales reps, not only regularly winning sales contests, but earning seniority in any sales group within an organization. Observation of ESFJs at work in a sales transaction will demonstrate how this type personalizes the sale. They are visibly—and honestly—concerned with their customer’s welfare, and thus the customer is not simply buying the product, but is



buying personally from the Provider. This same characteristic causes them to be good in many people-to-people jobs, as teachers, clergy, coaches, and so on. ESFJs seldom become a source of irritation to their superiors, for they are duty and service-oriented and respect and obey the rules and regulations. Conscientious and orderly, they are loyal to their employers, and make invaluable personal secretaries and office receptionists. These Providers take their role as family provider seriously, in both a material and a moral sense. They provide a sound and safe home, good food, nice clothes, and a store of possessions. But they are also conscientious about home responsibilities, are orderly about the house, and prefer that other family members be the same. In addition, they have a strong set of values with clear shoulds and shouldn’ts, which they expect their family to abide by. Providers want family decisions settled quickly and with little fuss, and they want family living regularly scheduled and correctly executed. They do not rebel against routine operations, are devoted to the traditional values of home and hearth, and are the most sympathetic of all the types. Providers make loyal and loving mates, willing to stand by their husband or wife through good times and bad, going beyond the call of duty to maintain the marriage and the appearance of happiness, even when the road is rocky. They enjoy socializing and entertaining, and observe all the rituals connected with serving wholesome food and beverages. They thrive on traditional festivities, and seem able to express the right feeling for a given social occasion. They are fond-hearted, sentimental, and usually observe with flourish birthdays and anniversaries, making them joyous occasions. Providers are fiercely devoted to their children, and will sacrifice to see that they get everything they need for their physical well-being. At times, ESFJs get their own sense of success as a parent wrapped up in their children’s successes and failures. They can see their children as an extension of the family, with whatever their kids do reflecting on them as parents. If their children are polite and productive, Providers glow with pride; but if their kids are rowdy or unappreciative, the Provider parent may be embarrassed and become critical toward them, trying to instill in them a sense of social decorum and gratitude. As children, Providers usually respect and revere their own parents, and in school are responsive and
obedient pupils.

The Protector [ISFJ] The primary desire of the Protector is to be of service and to minister to others. But here “service” means not so much furnishing others with the necessities of life (the Provider’s concern), as guarding others against life’s pitfalls and perils, that is, seeing to their security. These ISFJs derive a great deal of satisfaction from caring for others, and they offer their comfort gently and helpfully, quietly seeing to it that caretaking is scheduled to protect the health and welfare of those in need.

and for as long as it takes to cover in minute detail everything concrete in their lives. Protectors have a strongly held work ethic. their interest may wane when the recipient is no longer in trouble. they can chat tirelessly. They base their self-image on being seen as depend­ able. They are interested in learning about commerce. are preoccupied with morality. pessimistic. To visualize ISFJ intellectual development consider the following graph depicting the most probable profile of their logistical roles: The Logistical Roles of the ISFJ Protector Provider Inspector Supervisor Conservator Administrator Protector There is a large proportion of Protectors in the population. perhaps as much as ten percent. prize gratitude. and stoical as they guard the gateways and look to yesterday. but of their sincerity and seriousness of purpose. and respectable. they are prone to practice logistics far more than tactics. yearn for belonging. diplomacy. Their reserve ought really to be seen as an expression. except with close friends and relatives.Guardian Role Variants—The Protector 113 As a variant of Plato’s Guardians and Aristotle’s Proprietaries. or their place of business. which tells them that work is good. because they are vigilant in their protecting. They are not as open and talkative as the ESFJs. Like all the Guardians. unassumingly. seek security. they enjoy assisting the downtrodden and can handle disability and neediness in others better than any other type. Often seriously concerned about things. But their shyness with strangers is often misjudged as stiffness. Like all the Guardians they are concrete in communicating and cooperative in im­ plementing their goals. and especially strategy. the ISFJs are little different from the other SJs in most respects. however. their circle of friends. ISFJs go about their task of caretaking modestly. curiously. not of coldness. and because of this their efforts are sometimes not fully appreciated. they tend to take up the Conservator’s roles of Protector and Provider more comfortably than the tough-minded Administrator’s roles of Supervisor and Inspector. With these. and that play must be earned—if indulged in at all. they trust authority. Also. even coldness. giving happily of themselves to those in need—although. and work well with materiel. being friendly or fond-hearted in nature. Further. In orientation. Intellectually. beneficent. The least hedonic . And a good thing. And owing to their sense of quiet reserve they seem more comfortable acting as a Protector than a Provider. when in truth these Guardians are warm-hearted and sympathetic. they tend to be fatalistic. and aspire to executive position. and seem fulfilled in the degree they can insure the safekeeping of those in their family.

and they rarely question the effectiveness of going by the book. titles. they are humble to the core. librarians. Thoroughness and frugality are also virtues for them. and they tend to be devoted and loyal to their superiors. Their contributions. They are impressed by visiting royalty. To them. including their bosses. offices. and do everything they can to uphold custom and convention. and to the registered nurse. Protectors are frequently overworked. it is home to the family doctor. If others. who as insurance agents want to see their clients in good hands. regulations are tried and true. sheltered and protected. carry out routines. rescuer of life and limb. middle-management personnel. The same holds true at work. More likely. people should behave according to their place in the social order. These reserved Conser­ vators are quite content to work alone. For the ISFJ. To save. are often taken for granted. private secretaries. such irritation is turned inward and may be experienced as fatigue and as chronic stomach disorders. Protectors are distressed and embarrassed. and with their unusual talent for executing routines. When they undertake a task. and they may be annoyed by others who act above their station. To be sure. indeed. they admire high-ranking politicians. to prepare for emer­ gencies-—these are important actions to ISFJs. On the contrary. They believe in the safety of a traditional social hierarchy. the hospital is a natural haven for them. and credentials. and may try to do every­ thing themselves rather than direct others to do their jobs. and find the putting on of airs offensive. and they rarely get the gratitude they deserve. The insurance industry is also congenial to these Conservators. although they usually will not display these reactions. violate or ignore these standard operating procedures. they honor judges. Protectors are dependable and are seldom happy working in situations where established ways of doing things are not respected.114 Guardians of all types. the true angels of mercy. who would rather . ISFJs are willing to work long. ISFJs often seem to feel personally responsible for seeing to it that people in an institution or business abide by rules. and also their economies. they may experience some discomfort when placed in positions of authority. to put something aside against an unpredictable future. They also know the value of a dollar and abhor the squandering or misuse of resources. and especially as general medical practitioners. For all these reasons. Protectors are keenly aware of status given by birth. Protectors do well as curators. This can cause them to harbor feelings of resentment. With their extraordinary sense of safety and responsibility. Speculation and innovation do not intrigue Protectors. Not that they think of themselves as superior. and the military. long hours doing all the thankless jobs the other types seem content to ignore. they will complete it if at all humanly possible. or licensed practical nurse. just as they are frequently misunderstood and undervalued. causing them much undeserved suffering. with their bottled up emotion gnawing inwardly. the police. and behave as they are supposed to behave.

electrical work. In their parenting role. a sense of continuity with past events and relationships. Such parents worry a great deal. feeling a personal respon­ sibility to see to it that these standards are not only adhered to but honored. and may try too hard to protect their children from the dirt and dangers of life. Of all the types. For their part. books. dishes done. plumbing. She provides attractive. and follows a daily routine for keeping the house clean and tidy. nourishing meals. while remaining themselves safely an­ chored and down-to-earth. Protector mothers in particular need to learn how to encourage their children’s independence and to cut the apron strings. and the like. Protectors are devoted to mate and family. and is usually handy when it comes to minor repairs in masonry. old tools and wedding dresses. paintings. painting. for whatever is long-established and deeply rooted. The ISFJ male takes on all the other duties of keeping up the home: he usually handles the finances. maintains the car. They seem to have an innate regard for the past. does the laundry. cares for the yard (and often tends a vegetable garden). seeing to it that they are safely shelved and regularly dusted. old photograph albums. and beds made. but she still raises her daughters to respect traditions and to do the Right Thing at the Right Time—and always for the Right Reason. ISFJs are most likely to care about tracing family trees. and so on. both cultural and familial. and are usually excellent homemakers. these friendly and soft-spoken Protectors expect their children to conform to the rules of society. The ISFJ female often displays a flair for making the interior of the home attractive in a traditional manner. carpentry. . timeworn furniture. They are honored to care for collections of rare old things. Occasionally an ISFJ mother may be able to find humor in the wayward son. and often gives herself full-time to the duties of housewife. sees to the shopping. ISFJs value tradition. mends the clothes. china. with rooms straightened up.Guardian Role Variants—The Protector 115 leave such risky matters to others. But they are also the keepers of simple family things. They carry with them a sense of history.

116 . It was not in Gandhi’s nature to undertake military operations in any form. so he instinctively sought to oppose the British colonial govern­ ment on humane. Gandhi wrote in his Autobiography'. at the same time. Mohandas K. but.” Armed only in this manner. transient. and one would be blessed if one could catch a glimpse of that Certainty and hitch one’s wagon to it. Gandhi. Not only did Gandhi almost single-handedly free India and its then five hundred million people from their long subjection to the British Empire. he had no interest in waging a Washington-style logistical war. But there is a Supreme Being hidden therein as a Certainty.5 Idealists Generations to come will scarce believe that such a one as this ever in flesh and blood walked upon this earth. and yet. and without ever holding a political office.” Gandhi’s objective was political freedom for India. Like George Washington one hundred and fifty years before him. and it was his idealism that led him to seek divine truth and justice. over a period of years he developed a highly principled course of action. And so. Gandhi’s interests were in ethical matters and his talents in diplomacy. Gandhi knew he could never defeat British colonial power in armed confrontation. The quest for that Truth is the summum bonum of life. Gandhi courageously stood his ground even in the face of frequent incar­ cerations and sometimes brutal assaults. moral. He was an Idealist. for all his social activism. All that appears and happens about and around us is uncertain. he never lost sight of a higher goal for himself and his people. soft-spoken man accomplish such an incredible feat? The answer must wait upon an examination of the Idealist character. without firing a gun or taking a hostage. Gandhi believed that an entrenched political and economic system could only be overthrown by acting in accord with noble principle. even spiritual grounds. human dignity and integrity. With these glowing words Albert Einstein eulogized one of the most remarkable men of the twentieth century. a form of non-violent passive resistance which he called “satyagraha. but he did so without raising an army. finally bringing the British to their knees through an exercise of moral authority that journalist William Shirer referred to as “soul force. and true knowledge of God. How could one slight.

It made me happy to have them swimming around the canoe. playing and hunting together. whose oracle at Delphi was the hallowed and feared voice of prophecy throughout the ancient world. the first Idealist I ever met was a classmate of mine in Junior College. And he was the healer. Truth. And in the wild dolphins will follow ships for many miles. and helping family members who are ill or in trouble. After night fell I could still see them in my thoughts and it was because of this that I kept on paddling when I wanted to lie down and sleep. In the 1980s I began to think of the Dolphin as an appropriate totem animal for the Idealists. for me at least. Not only do they communicate in a complex sonic language. and they cooperate freely with researchers. Golden Apollo was the god of light. In captivity these friendly creatures get along well with their trainers and handlers.. in a Truth behind the worldly illusion of truth. Integrity. In the mid 1970s I wrote that Apollo was the guiding deity of these Idealists (Myers’s NFs).. whose lyrical music purified his followers and taught them how to find inner wholeness. a radiant figure of beauty and poetry in whom little of the savage remained.. because they are one of the most cooperative of all animals. holding them up near the surface with their backs or flippers so they can breathe. sometimes referred to as the sun-god. The war years. Even more. of spiritual illumination or personal enlightenment. it was the blue dolphins that took me back home. dolphins seem genuinely interested in relating with human beings. Island of the Blue Dolphins: Dolphins are animals of good omen.. but more often portrayed as the god of light in the symbolic sense of the word—the god of truth or insight. Everyone seemed so very concrete in what they talked about and either very utilitarian or very bythe-book in what they did. Justice. particularly the psychic healer.. The people around me seemed to be Artisans and Guardians. More than anything. but now I felt I had friends with me.. going on into the west. Apollo was for the Greeks the most ideal of all the gods. as in Scott O’Dell’s children’s novel. they also live in close-knit family groups. They left as quickly as they had come. The blue dolphins left me shortly before dusk. and are believed to offer a kind of mysterious guidance of ships into port. and she was the girl I . but for a long time I could see the sun shining on them.Idealists 117 Rare indeed is the man or woman with such confidence in a Certainty beyond earthly certainty. just as they were in high school. were filled with deadly dull days punctuated by terrifying hours. While some fasci­ nation with the primitive and the profane seemed to lurk just beneath his shining surface. Virtue: so ardently devoted are the Gandhis of this world to these ideals that we need not hesitate to call them the Idealists. In retrospect. He was also the seer and the revealer.I was very lonely before they appeared. For the Greeks. racing and diving around the keels. I don’t remember coming across any of these people during World War II. Indeed.

And during my years training graduate students in the technology of corrective coun­ seling. My guess is that it was our mutual interest in things abstract. I had thought that there was some secret that other boys were on to. that made all the difference and made our daily conversations delightful. and totally without effort or forethought. pure thinking done without recourse to either logical or empirical investigation. Plato saw these inspiring Idealists.” that is. Plato’s word for an idealist like himself was ‘noetic’ which. those of “superior refinement and active disposition. which leads to an understanding of the Good Life and thus to happiness. as I will discuss below. Plato’s Idealists Plato was the quintessential Idealist. Teaching them to intervene effectively into the lives of troubled children and their parents and teachers was enormously gratifying because they were so ready. At the time I did not know what to say to most girls. something Idealists are well endowed with. nor as the “proprietorship” (propraietari) of the Guardians. willing. So Plato’s Idealists. some special technique that one must know about and use in talking to girls. and rightly so. By nature a nerd. and no others. whatever our temperament. It was a revelation. but as the “study of ethics” (ethike). This wonderful companionship has lasted for over half a century. as the philosopher-kings of his ideal republic. roughly translated. nor even as the “logical inquiry” (dialogike) of the Rationals. Centuries later Galen named this type the “Cholerics.” identify happiness not as the “sensual pleasure” (hidoni) of the Artisans. destined to serve a philosophic function in society. They flocked to the coun­ seling department. During my years managing the work of school counselors I saw to it that most of them were Idealists. their job no less than to divine moral principles and the full meaning of life. in Aristotle’s view. for they are affirmed and coveted by most of us for their enthusiasm and for their often expressed appreciation of the rest of us. the inventor of a philosophy in which ideas are even more real than earth and its inhabitants. but I could chat for hours with her. They were beautifully fitted for that kind of work and were able to learn quickly and apply effectively the many methods of corrective intervention I had managed to collect. Aristotle said that happiness is “the highest realizable good” and that some men.”The word ‘cho­ . with others I could not. the vast majority of them were Idealists.118 Idealists married after the war. With her I could be myself. and able to learn these skills—and they learned them far better than other types. become the Ethical Idealists. At the very heart of corrective counseling is diplomatic intelligence. aside from our interest in each other. I don’t think there are enough of these caring people. but with my new classmate no technique was required—we just talked about what we were interested in. means “intuitive thought.

a principle. that is. one of the four humors or body fluids that were thought at the time to determine one’s predisposition to act in certain ways. the irascible Cholerics being seen as different from but no worse than the taciturn Phlegmatics. And yet Kretschmer was saying much more. and an intention to invite others to join in that way of living. Thus Idealists in Spranger’s view have what can be called an “Identity Seeking Personality. The religious types seek the meaning of life and the meaning of Self.” Nymphs are also passionately devoted to others. and the sea. During the Renaissance the Viennese physician Paracelsus chose as the Idealists’ guiding spirit the Nymphs. but autonomy in the Dogmatics takes the form of certitude regarding what they consider important social issues. and wood Nymphs can inspire great poetry. Spranger thought of the Idealists as the “Religious” types. are autonomous beings. as she waits eternally for her lost sailor. refusing to believe that they are insignificant or that life is meaningless. Note that Galen was more interested in the negative side of temperament. easily annoyed and quick to show their displeasure. unable. like his Agnostics. thus a doctor or dogmatist is one who embraces a doctrine strongly. in the sense of having a creed of personal ethics. the forests. lakes.” They. a frame of moral orientation. Thus water Nymphs (or Naiads) are believed to give profound insight to those who drink from their brooks and streams. they do so as if beset by negative feelings that .” which roughly translated means “oversensitive. In other words. rivers. those rarefied. and who are thought to have the power of prophecy and enlightenment. and the doleful Melancholics. Thus religion for Spranger was a cause. namely that the kind of irrational conduct that befalls some Idealists is a matter of temperament rather than a matter of choice. and he named the Idealists “Hyperesthetic. mountains.’ to “teach” or “cause to accept”). and thus are focused on the self. he meant a devotedness to an ideal way of life. an activity pursued with conscientious devotion. often invisible beings who watch over the different realms of nature. certain as they are of its immense value to mankind. offering it to others for their benefit. Those with a choleric temperament are thus bilious. Note that ‘dogma. If Idealists are forced by difficult circumstances to become estranged from themselves and others. not an object of piety.Plato’s Idealists 119 leric’ is Greek for yellow bile.” In this way he echoed Galen and Paracelsus in seeing Idealists not only as tempestuous but also as passionate. as did the “light-winged Dryad of the trees” in Keats’s “Ode to a Nightingale.’ and ‘doctor’ have the same root (‘dek. rather. to put their feelings on hold.’ ‘doctrine. by “dogmatism” Adickes did not mean bigotry or narrow-mindedness. Thus. and their affairs are affairs of the heart. Adickes called these Idealists the “Dogmatics. Dogmatics are inclined to embrace some humane doctrine and cling to it tenaciously. the over-optimistic San­ guines. in other words. The little Mermaid in the harbor at Copenhagen symbolizes undying love.” Kretschmer was first to take a careful look at the dark side of character.

heaven and hell.120 Idealists overwhelm them and numb their will. Like Kretschmer.” They talk instead of what can only be seen with the mind’s eye: love and hate. beliefs. fantasies. then. heart and soul.” “humane. and so understood them better than most and approved of them heartily. comedy and tragedy.” Myers’s contribution to the study of the Idealist personality is quite remarkable. tales and legends. no doubt because she was herself an Idealist.” “reli­ gious.” “polite. whatever they are called. char­ acter. selves. When he termed the Idealists “Receptive” he considered being a passive recipient of goods and services as bad. and personality. Fromm examined both sides of personality.” Though apparently unaware of the contributions of her predecessors.” “tender.” Abstract Word Usage Abstract words refer to things that cannot be observed but only imagined. Idealists talk little of what they observe—“of shoes and ships and sealing wax. symbols.” “optimistic.” “subjective.” “sentimental.” “adaptable. the foun­ Tools dation of the Idealist temperament is their unique combination of abstract Utilitarian NT SP word usage with cooperative tool us­ age. possibilities.” “enthusiastic. the neg­ ative as well as positive character traits. The Abstract Cooperators These different views of Plato’s Idealists. As we begin our Words Abstract Concrete study of the NF Idealist traits of char­ acter.” “sensitive. “Exultation is the going of an inland soul to sea. and only an NF would dare to speak of an emo­ . let us get our bearings by looking at the underlying basis of their Cooperative Abstract SJ NF personality in the matrix of temper­ Cooperators ament. describing them as “accepting. of cabbages and kings. and yes. while concrete words refer to things that can be observed and therefore need not be imagined. and so they can be called the “Ab­ stract Cooperators.” “idealistic. past the houses—past the headlands—into deep Eternity.” and “trusting.” and “sympathetic.” “charming.” “devoted. As shown at the side. Myers by herself was clearly able to identify the more salient traits that characterize Plato’s Idealists.” “insightful.” wrote the Idealist poet Emily Dickinson. As indicated earlier she named them the “Intuitive Feeling” types—“NFs”—and said that they are “creative.” “modest. eras and epochs.” “imaginative. temperament.” “re­ sponsive.” “adjusted. But he also praised this type for their responsiveness and other desirable traits. all have something in common: they all imply that this temperament is abstract in communicating and cooperative in implementing goals.

from the smallest sign of something to its entirety. he is one. mere sugges­ tions. inklings. and they do indeed follow their hunches. At the very least. tries passionately to connect “the seen to the unseen” in her life. and joining opposites. can observe what is before us as well as imagine what is not. It isn’t that the first person acts like a devil. All of us. Idealists show an extraordinary sensitivity to hints of things. half beasts. on the not visible and the not yet. that one an angel. which is to say that they move quickly from part to whole. But this does not mean that we do both equally. and insist they “just know” what people are really up to. or to have a sixth sense about people. NFs have no trouble saying this person is a devil. and not disciplined by the deductive logic of the NTs. To be sure. and the other person . erasing distinctions. visible or invisible.” can be astonishing to others. Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand. unconnected arches that have never joined into a man. Without it we are meaningless fragments. symbols. or to measure the journey to so great an abstraction as Eternity. NFs need hear only the first words of an explanation to feel they understand the subject fully. the Idealist heroine in E. Idealists opt for imagination. a joining she imagines as the building of the rainbow bridge that should connect the prose in us with the passion. which means they frequently comment how one thing is really something else. Idealists are the best suited of all the types to read between the lines. combining categories. Idealists are naturally inductive in their thought and speech. Even with complicated issues. With their focus on unseen potentials.M. Margaret Schlegel. and trying to understand what they believe is the real nature of things. glowing against the grey. especially in cases of mind reading and extra-sensory perception. When William Blake imagined in Auguries of Innocence that one can “See a World in a Grain of Sand. NFs spontaneously transform one thing into another. of course. Very early in life we begin to exercise one focus of thought and language—observation or imagination—more than the other. or what they really mean. sober against the fire. This zeal to connect disparate ideas is why Idealist communication is often laced with metaphors. from a few particulars to sweeping generalizations. requiring what is called the “intuitive leap. intimations. Forster’s Howards End. and alights on the highest curve. jumping from telling details to larger meanings. With it love is bom. Wanting to uncover meaning and significance in the world. and we con­ tinue to do so throughout life.” he was surely describing the Idealist’s inductive style. heed their feelings. Not tied to observable objects like the SPs and SJs. such inductive inferences. half monks. Idealist thought and speech tends to be interpretive.The Abstract Cooperators 121 tion—exultation—in this poetic way. And Eternity in an hour. ascribing features to people and things that belong to other people and things—animate or inanimate. And a Heaven in a Wild Flower.

finding implications and insinuations in the slightest remark. and voice inflections which. They will also row their hands like oars or wings in front of them. In just this way Gandhi described his search for what he called “Absolute Truth”: “The little fleeting glimpses. a million times more intense than that of the sun we daily see with our eyes. or with their fingers inter­ locked—all as if trying to hold together two halves of a message. . The Magic o f Believing. and love is a rose. and metaphors that it is almost impossible for them to keep their hands still. Things were either right or wrong to me. a train roars. or dissatisfied “in some degree” with a person’s behavior.” Beyond the vivid metaphor. as if trying to help the flow of words and ideas between themselves and others.. Idealists can become so caught up with their insights. sidewalks. “perfectly” delighted or “absolutely” appalled. quite the opposite of the Rationals’ penchant for understatement. about what we say. that they seem to have invested language with super­ natural powers. But unlike the SP’s paw. and at the same time short on gradation. produces results in the world. One consequence of this hypersensitivity is that now and then NFs make mistakes in attributing meanings to communications that are not intended by the senders. so we must be careful. interpretations. And the sun smiles at us. Idealist expression is rich in hyperbole and exaggeration. the NF reminds us. with their palms crossed and fingers wrapped. very careful.I have been able to have of Truth can hardly convey an idea of the indescribable lustre of Truth. This is just how Eleanor Roosevelt in her Autobiography described herself as a young woman: “I had painfully high ideals and a tremendous sense of duty entirely unrelieved by any sense of humor or any appreciation of the weaknesses of human nature. the body language.” Word magic refers to the ancient idea that words have the ability to make things happen—saying makes it so—and it has been the basis for many books on self-improvement. for example. NFs extend their open hands to others. And NFs are so sensitive to the subtleties of spoken language. Our speech. the other character types are not even aware of. or the NT’s claw.. as if offering their counsel freely. a corporation is grasping. they are “totally” fascinated or “completely” disgusted. what might be called “word magic. conveyances: all are tools. buildings.” While they tend to ignore degrees of gradation. the SJ’s cleaver. Gandhi also shows the Idealists’ charming habit of overstatement. with their palms meeting and fingers extended vertically. NFs do not say they are “somewhat” interested in an idea. facial expressions. Or they will bring their hands together in various ways. and that cities are clusters of tools—streets. quite often. Cooperative Tool Usage Bear in mind that civilization is a cluster of cities. or accepting another’s words as a gift.122 Idealists doesn’t simply have the attributes of an angel. Idealists are highly sensitive to the nuances of communication that qualify messages. or The Power of Positive Thinking. she is one.

who are more interested in compliance than consensus. people’s instruments and actions need to be acceptable to others. even if they prove less effective than some other disapproved instruments or actions. agreement. and machines in those buildings. and thus work with each other for the good of all. tactful manner. that good feelings will be sacrificed. Sustaining amicable relationships through conciliation. and many more—not simply because they are laws. accommodation: this side of cooperation is what looms large in the consciousness of Idealists. but these must undergo scrutiny lest there be some adverse consequence that undermines morale or makes for discon­ tent among their companions. Conventional uses of tools should not be lightly set aside for the sake of increased utility without due regard for people’s feelings about working together in harmony. tax laws. Their ideal is to help the people in their circle get along with each other. but because they represent a common assent of their community. but is a metaphor for the interpersonal touch or sensitivity in . NFs. on those streets. even care about each other. This is a slightly different shade of cooperation than that which characterizes the Guardians. and in those conveyances are also tools. Surely they are not at all resistant to the utility of tools. mutually supportive interactions lifted high above the fray of competition and contention. they worry that the warm human touch will be lost. Indeed. This is not to say that Idealists are indifferent to acquiring and using better ways and means of pursuing their . and that unity will dissolve in a quest for expediency. Accord. a unity of purpose or like-mindedness that NFs hold dear.The Diplomatic Intellect 123 And the countless instruments. Idealists dream of perfect interpersonal relationships. NFs can be quite suspicious of utilitarian actions which go after results too coldly or single-mindedly. rules of the road. Acting in concert with others for the good of the group—cooperation—is considerably more important to Idealists than the functional utility of their chosen tools and operations. The Diplomatic Intellect Diplomacy is the ability to deal with people in a skillful. Thus Idealists observe the many laws that govern our conduct—building codes. Now. pacification. Idealists would have a consensus on how they are to be used. for all the millions of tools that enable us to do our work and live together in harmony. implements. Fighting in any form is inordinately painful to NFs and they will do whatever is necessary to avoid it or prevent it.goals. like SJs. In any enterprise the NFs’ first consideration is always to foster caring human relationships—this seems to them necessary if they are to accomplish their ends. regard the Artisans’ and Rationals’ utilitarian style—get the job done any which way—as counterproductive if not unethical and offensive. only here ‘tact’ is not the concrete term I have used to describe the tactile Artisans. concurrence. For their part. In the Idealist’s view. facilitation is much more their style.

you. not exclusion..are bringing us your skills. and uniquely Idealist. We are offering you a home and a haven. and they prefer to focus on what they call those “shared experiences” and “universal truths” that project similar talents and potentials into everyone. and NTs more strategic as they grow and mature. with their ability to interpret each side’s communications in a positive way. and so on) to be artificial impositions onto the common experience of humanity. using their eye for pos­ sibilities to develop human potentials.. even the Rational’s insistence on clear-cut definitions and discrete categories can seem antagonistic to them. Conflicts and controversies unsettle them. Indeed. but also settling differences among them. view of the practice of law. Idealists are well-equipped for the difficult task of influencing people’s attitudes and actions. In just this all-embracing spirit did Eleanor Roosevelt welcome to the United States a group of refugees from Hitler’s Europe: We Americans are well aware that this is not a one-sided relationship. logical. We are grateful to you for broadening our scope and enriching our country which consists of newcomers just like you. Gandhi beamed inwardly: My joy was boundless. while SPs usually become more tactical. Having finally persuaded two Indian businessmen to settle a bitter dispute out of court. and with their metaphorical language easily and fluidly turning one thing into another. political. Only rarely do NFs entertain . ethnic.. to be sure.. disputes and debates set them on edge. This sensitive way with people shows up so early in NFs that it is tempting to assume they are born with it—born to use their personal empathy and interpersonal skills to improve relations between people. SJs more logistical.124 Idealists which Idealists seem to be both interested and particularly talented. not what walls divide them. Gandhi’s is a striking. not only inspiring them to grow. The Idealist’s eye is always focused on inclusion. Idealists consider all such differentiations (religious. With their instinct for seeking common ground.to find out the better side of human nature and to enter men’s hearts. smoothing difficulties—ever looking to enlighten the people around them and to forge unity among them. However. and using their verbal fluency to mediate interpersonal conflicts. I had learnt the true practice of law. and that minimize differences. with their gift for putting themselves in another’s place. your talents. Needless to say. NFs become more diplomatic in working with people or personnel—working in both ways. Gandhi’s earliest success as a lawyer revealed just this kind of diplomatic intelligence. I realized that the true function of a lawyer was to unite parties riven asunder. Perhaps Idealists are given to diplomacy because they are so deeply disturbed by division and discrimination. and your cultures. on what gifts people can offer each other.

and neither seems to be the starting point. Neural cells are like muscle cells. and diminishing in the degree it is neglected. and it is virtually impossible for one person to develop all four of his or her capabilities equally. while that practiced least develops least. or playing a musical instrument. Interest. In addition. Note in the chart below that the NFs’ diplomatic skills develop far beyond their tactical skills. and much more than in tactics. painting. depending of course on circumstances equalizing the amount of practice they are given. and have greater interest in things we do well. and therefore end up more highly skilled in diplomacy than in logistics and strategy. ceramics. precisely and exclusively measured by the amount of practice. and as diplomatic skill increases so then does interest in it. if they aren’t used they lie dormant and even degenerate. We improve in doing things we’re interested in doing. Also. note that their strategic and logistical skills can be almost equally developed. Interest reinforces skill. increasing precisely in the degree it is exercised. The kind of operation practiced most develops most. and with lots of practice they can even show a good deal of talent in their short suit. everyone’s alike” might itself be an artificial imposition onto the experience of other types. So the Idealists’ lifelong interest in diplomatic action fuels their daily exercise of diplomatic skills. as adults NFs often try their hand at tactical activities such as gourmet cooking. Now. Of course. tactics. sculpting. SP 00 C /J e iL o 3 09 cp NT T2L SJ O •S’ o 3 o 00 5* 00 V! 00 C O r? 00 O vo 3 & o o r o ft 2 n *3 H o' 05 o 3 o O c/i vs Strategy Logistics . skill reinforces interest. Skill Any skill is acquired by practice. in a sense every individual has not one but four IQs. and given enough practice they can come to be quite skilled in these hobbies. there is a feedback relation between interest and ability. Practice. In normal development the Idealists instinc­ tively practice diplomatic actions far more and far earlier than the others.The Diplomatic Intellect 125 the idea that their global belief that “down deep. circumstances can sometimes induce Idealists to develop those operations that do not come easily to them. For example.

Motivating —| r Mentor-----------------------------. the “Counselor” (INFJ). all Idealists in essence. the “Teacher” (ENFJ). Mentors work to develop human potential in two different but related . have the same potential as NFs for developing their logistical and strategic skills. Mentoring is the act of developing the mind or mentality of others. so inspiring—that without seeming to do so they can help others to grow. In broad terms. Thus.Guiding — ^ * —Advocate----------------------------. and so have some interest and aptitude for long-range planning and for managing supplies and services. sensitive to their needs. and Mentors are so enthusiastic and charismatic—in a word. but for the opposite reasons: SPs share concrete communication with SJs and utilitarian implementation with NTs. for instance. mirrored by their most skilled intelligent operations: |— Teacher [enfj] ------------Educating—| NF Diplomatic R oles---------------------Working with Personnel |— Champion [enfp] -------. the NFs and SPs usually end up mirror images of each other in their IQ profile.126 Idealists The reason for this potential equality in their second and third suits is that NFs share abstractness of thought and speech with NTs. those who prefer a clear agenda or program. There are other less benign kinds of mental influence. they differ significantly among themselves in the sorts of diplomatic roles they feel drawn to practice.Developing—i I — Counselor [INFJ]-----------. Consider this chart of the NF diplomatic roles and role variants. Idealists are interested in following the path of what I call the “Mentor” or the “Advocate. but fortunately Mentors are diplo­ matic in their directiveness. and who are comfortable directing others to act or to think in certain ways. the “Champi­ on” (ENFP). and wanting the best for them. partic­ ularly the scheduling Idealists. the strategists. but quite unique in their diplomacy.Mediating— ' ^ — Healer [INFP]------------Conciliating—^ Diplomatic Mentors Taking the role of Mentor is deeply satisfying to some Idealists. SPs.” and these lead to four diplomatic role variants. Diplomatic Role Variants While Idealists all share diplomatic intelligence. which means they are ethical and benevolent with others. and they share cooperativeness in implementing their goals with the SJs. brain­ washing and mind-control. kindling in them a passion for learning and guiding them in the search for their true nature. and the “Healer” (INFP). by the way. just as happens in the case of NTs and SJs. of course. the logisticals.

serving as their client’s activist. . Once these outgoing Advocates have explored issues and events. in support of others. appeal. supporter—whenever speaking up and standing up for others can help resolve differences and bring about justice. all in an effort to motivate (to encourage. take the role of Advocate. adherent. all the meaningful things happening in their world. These quiet Mentors have profound insight into the emotional needs of others. Advocates work to bring harmony to others in two complementary ways. first hand. enlightening. recommend. dreaming up imaginative learning experiences that call forth each learner’s potentials. urge—all with the intention of helping others discover those things that enhance their well-being. those who prefer open-ended experience. even to inspire) others to settle their conflicts and to act justly and wisely. Advocates act on behalf of others. illuminating. proponent. lecturers. Champions are eager to go everywhere and to experience. But the NF’s diplomatic advocating is most often done with the hope of mediating disputes and bringing people together. edifying. shepherd. embrace. As with mentoring. they are filled with ardent conviction and enthusiastically champion—adopt. suggest. encouraging and enabling them to get in touch with themselves. either as the expressive Champion or the reserved Healer. enthusiast. espouse. improving. expressive Teacher or the reserved Counselor. and go to bat for—the truth of a cause or an ideal they have come to believe in. and who tend to give information rather than issue directives. always with the intention of broadening. fight for. propagan­ dizing and proselytizing. beliefs and causes—ideas that people often can’t put into words for themselves—in order to nurture rapport and understanding be­ tween people. which emphasize one side against the other. and refining the attitudes and actions of pupils or students. therapists. depending on whether they are inclined to be the outgoing. clergy. To the Idealists. guiding them along the pathways that their nature allows them to follow. These expressive Mentors see themselves less as instructors (installing mental structure) than as educators or facilitators. there are other less honorable kinds of advocating. certainly.The Diplomatic Intellect 127 ways. and they can affect their clients in unconscious ways. ambassador. a keen intuition about their buried feelings. exponent. Counselors tend to be more private in their style of facilitating personal growth. but they still work enthusiastically with their clients. but also as journalists. prescribe. as classroom teachers. Diplomatic Advocates The probing Idealists. for example. personnel consultants—in any situation where the quest for learning takes place. Counselors advise. advocating is literally “giving voice” to views and positions. Teachers are naturally able to take control of almost any group of learners with extraordinary confidence and creativity.

The . with the hope of assisting others to find health through inner peace. reunification—all in the interest of mending relationships between people or making whole a divided self. Comparing the Diplomatic Role Variants Every Idealist plays these four roles well. and to regain their own threatened wholeness. to preserving or restoring. Thus Teachers are usually able to help even resistant students learn what they need to do or know. reconciliation. even though Champions want to bring healing to warring factions and Healers are forever championing ideals. forgiveness. some Advocates are better as Champions of causes.128 Idealists Healers are deeply committed to personal conciliation. even though teaching and counseling often develop side-by-side in the same person. the wholeness and health of those near and dear to them. just as the Counselors (INFJs) are exactly opposite of the Champions (ENFPs). they can be quite effective as leaders. resolution. What distinguishes Idealists from one another is the structure of their intellect. as the case may be. filled as they tend to be with an exalted sense of mission. their profile of diplomatic roles. that is. acting as a bridge between conflicting factions. indeed. accommodation. but no one Idealist plays them all equally well. others as Healers of conflicts. Consider the following chart of the four NF role variant profiles: O sr n 3 T3 o 9 £T CO CD n s* » n p 3 "2 o' d H 8L rT •i CD CO o V ) s r CD o •-» o* *1 n o c 3 X) 3 o 3 tr O o c " 2 o' s 3 3 Vi O •i Teacher ENFJ Healer INFP Counselor INFJ Champion ENFP Notice that the Teachers (ENFJs) are the exact opposite of the Healers (INFPs) in likely diplomatic development. they need to retreat periodically to private places to contemplate the mysteries of life. Some Mentors are better as Teachers of groups. In this way healing is a matter of acceptance. Healers are spiritual go-betweens. that is. and are thus more comfortable working out of the limelight. But when their ethical view of events thrusts them into public roles. Healers are deeply reserved in nature. others as Counselors of individuals. while they are less inclined to heal people in their times of conflict. and Counselors holding group sessions or teaching seminars. with Teachers counseling students in and out of class. In the same way.

who are likely to leave no stone unturned in making others whole. they are often averse to it. It is also the case that Counselors are eager to guide those in need of it for long periods of time and with untiring effort. However. they are best off doing personnel work rather than working with tools. though not the best at giving counsel. or systems. but less eager to serve as a champion for someone with a burning cause. The Interests of Idealists All of us have interests. but they find their true niche in the studying and teaching of the humanities. and personnel. Lastly. morale. and thus will develop. At work. materiel. more generally. Preoccupied from early on in morale building. beginning on page 149. Champions. even with their long and short suits. but they rarely stick with that sort of thing long enough to become more than enthusiastic amateurs. with their contagious enthusiasm. while being rather hesitant to take on a group of learners. but we certainly don’t have the same interests. and tend to do well in what we are interested in doing. are likely to be the best of all at fighting for causes. seeing it as a romantic thing to do. especially if resistant to learning. Some will try their hand at the fine arts (usually without much patience). Let us then consider the Idealists’ interests in the humanities.The Interests of Idealists 129 reverse holds for Healers. Some will dabble in the arts and crafts. far from being preoccupied with learning about new technology. nor do many pursue careers in the physical sciences. or tactical skills developed by the other temperaments. Idealists will tend to practice. they have little interest in acquiring new techniques or in developing a watchdogging morality. Educational Interest in the Humanities Most Idealists show little interest in buying and selling. in professions . The interests of Idealists are diametrically opposite of those of Artisans and quite different from those of Rationals and Guardians. Thus we are interested in doing what we do well. Detailed portraits of the four Idealist role variants can be found at the end of this chapter. and. any one of these four diplomatic skills well above those strategic. or. logistical. given their diplomatic skills. mainly because our interests are reciprocal with our abilities. These differences are best seen when charted: Interests Educational Preoccupational Vocational Idealists Artisans Guardians Commerce Morality Materiel Rationals Sciences Technology Systems Humanities Artcrafts Morale Techniques Equipment Personnel At school the Idealists are typically drawn to courses in the humanities and not to commerce or science.

NFs are so easily moved by literature. and their own students.130 Idealists which involve transmitting ideas through words. and not only are themes and characters meaningful to Idealists. with their insight and enthusiasm. but one cares for happiness and the other righteousness. Reinhold Nie­ buhr. and interpret it with such intuitive ease. and often make excellent students and teachers of literature. or with their self-image—their self-esteem. . and Paul Tillich. with its encounter groups—so popular in the 1960s—was chiefly the creation of NFs like Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. Thus NFs are concerned with others’ feelings of worth. Both NFs and SJs are guardians of the Good (‘morale’ is the French feminine of ‘moral’). legends. developing from Soren Kierkegaard through Martin Buber. NFs prefer working with words. self-respect. Idealists heavily populate the social sciences. Those who work at it come to speak and write fluently. those advocating growth models of counseling and psychother­ apy rather than the more confronting or controlling models. but they are more preoccupied with morality. Many Guardians have a similar interest in helping others.” stressing a new humanistic or being-centered theology. The movement after World War II called “religious existentialism. their classmates. and rabbis also tend to take on the role of group or individual counselor. to lift their spirits. and self-confidence. than with nurturing a positive self-image. But Humanities is not confined to the study of literature. are feeling about themselves. people’s sense of right and wrong. The fictional narrative in any of its forms—stories. but stylistic details and symbolic motifs loom for them with amazing significance. myths—is their delight and their strength. Karl Barth. to boost their morale. from the time they are children. often with poetic flair. or the unfolding of the mind and heart toward greater self-understanding and spiritual peace. particularly the fields of mental healing and personal or religious counseling—professions directed toward human metamorphosis. where they tend to take the most humanistic of approaches. and in its time served to focus interest in the Idealist’s pursuit of personal growth and self-actualization. poems. NF ministers. was certainly the work of Idealists. that they can inspire their teachers. seem preoccupied with how those around them. and Idealists. The human potential movement. NFs find great satisfaction in the mental health services. the spiritual guide who helps the members of a congregation learn how to become more loving and more reverent human beings. to brighten their mood. Preoccupied with Morale Morale has to do with the state of one’s spirits. or their circle of friends. and need and want to be directly or indirectly in communication with people. their loved ones. priests. And they want to do everything they can to keep people feeling good about themselves. Perhaps it is because of their preoc­ cupation with morale that Idealists are drawn to the studies of the humanities and seek out occupations in mentoring and advocating.

and so is counseling. Teaching is this sort of personal. and they instinc­ tively communicate caring for others and a willingness to become involved. to “talk so others will listen and listen so others will talk. into a set of ideas. as one UCLA writing teacher explains: Education has often functioned as a gatekeeper. . NFs seem able. and they seem to have little natural buffer against becoming caught up in others’ troubles. and counseling personnel. and of helping them develop over the course of their careers. But close involvement with others can be troubling. especially relationships which help oth­ ers fulfill themselves. Even without much formal training.the intent is to evaluate people and keep them out or let them in. The way I view education is really very different from that. It is an attempt to bring people into a kind of conversation. advancing. the Idealist sees education not so much as a process of training and certifying. but at school as well.” and this with young and old and with male and female. And if the relationship works right. is of prime importance to Idealists. their interest in human potential. then you automatically see it as a relationship. No doubt because of their compassionate identification with others. Forming personal relationships.The Interests of Idealists 131 Vocational Interest in Personnel In the workplace Idealists have one very special talent: they are drawn to and can do wonders in recruiting. and are highly intuitive pursuits for them. Idealists become involved so in­ stinctively that they can easily become weighted down with too many troubled relationships. training. occupation for NFs. and their glow of enthusiasm. deploying. talking. where they can be uncanny at divining the nature of others’ distress. interviewing. or risk being emotionally overwhelmed. into ways of thinking.. If you see education as an attempt to bring people in. Not only in business. in Faber and Mazlish’s phrase. and tutoring come easily to Idealists. in some sense romantic. but more as an invitation to a personal relationship. Indeed. and reading that are new to them. becoming personally engaged and finding themselves seeing through another’s eyes. Teaching. Idealists are often turned to for moral support. in particular. and at helping uncover their latent potential. NFs shine when they take on the job of finding quality employees. With their insight into people. which is to say they are naturally good at influencing the growth and maturation of others.. Idealist counselors. writing. it is a kind of romance. have to learn to disconnect themselves from their clients to some extent. counseling. And when championing causes and healing divisions NFs naturally empathize with others. of guiding them into the right positions. individual development is the Idealists’ domain. at soothing those of low self-esteem. It’s an invitation.

prove to be less hedonistic. that our greatest happiness comes in selflessly giving to others. or standpoint. How different the other temperaments in the way they view these things. stepping outside of it into some no-man’s-land disconnected from social reality. We are oriented always from a certain angle. never. But we soon reorient ourselves and return to our ordinary waking social frame of reference. Indeed. even when this involves self-sacrifice. owing to a surprise. present. for long.” But different personalities have different perspectives. or point of view determined by our social matrix. the Guardian stoical. This is by far the most metaphysical of the four . viewing time and place as well as past. The Artisan perspective is hedonistic. we are the most social of all the animals. a way of construing what we see around us—our perspective on the here and now. their natural place is on the pathways to understanding and their natural time is tomorrow. Our temperament dictates what sort of perspective we develop and hold to. for instance. all so different from the altruistic perspective of the Idealist. or a shock. and future. Altruistic in Looking Around All of us have a point of view. or less stoical. Of course we can be disoriented for short periods of time. in their devotion to altruism. a danger. Each act and attitude is shaped and governed by a prevailing outlook. must occur. perspective. Consider the following chart in making these comparisons: Orientation Present Future Past Place Time Idealists Altruistic Credulous Mystical Pathways Tomorrow Artisans Hedonistic Optimistic Cynical Here Now Guardians Stoical Pessimistic Fatalistic Gateways Yesterday Rationals Pragmatic Skeptical Relativistic Intersections Intervals Here it is claimed that Idealists are altruistic about the present. credulous about the future. mystical about the past. ” or “worldview. Altruism is the belief that it’s bad to be self-serving and good to be other-serving. differently. or less pragmatic than we are. in the iron crucible of social relationships. say or do. So let us look closely at these five dimensions of orientation so that we will not be surprised when our Idealist friends. or put another way. the Rational pragmatic. and with our socia­ bility ending in massive and complex societies. Whatever we think or feel. something Adickes spoke of as a built-in vantage point or viewpoint—what he called our ‘‘Weltanschauung. slant. occurs. with our choice of social membership groups creating our life-long framework.132 Idealists The Orientation of Idealists We are born into a social field and we live out our lives in that field.

her speech direct and to the point. her ways were natural. Thus. however. and in everyone. the altruistic Maid of Orleans whose life fascinated him: What could have put those strange ideas in her head?. This is why teaching and the ministry attract NFs. of course. the closer they come to the spiritual essence they believe is inside them. but also why missionary work can call to them. just as always before. there was nothing the matter with her mind. and the ever-skeptical Rationals will sometimes doubt the Idealists’ motives. But I watched her. Idealists. planning for others. I had made the religion of service my own. As Gandhi explains it: If I found myself entirely absorbed in the service of the community. and still stood ready to give the wayfarer her bed and content herself with the floor. as does community volunteer work and the Peace Corps. more coveted purpose for Idealists: self-actualization. unfettered by worldly fears and desires. and quite sincere in reaching for this goal of sacrificing for others. and it was not so. came to appreciate about Joan of Arc. a notoriously skeptical Ratio­ nal. and filled it with fantastic phantoms—yes. to help others grow and develop.. that must be it. No. There was a secret somewhere. which they see as the great stumbling block to self-actualization. They see good everywhere. paradoxically. sacrificing herself for others. as I felt that god could be realized only through service. Idealists see potential good in everyone. reasoning that if the payoff for altruism is self-satisfaction. as if believing that goodness is real and permanent in the . then. Idealists are being selfish when giving to others. NFs believe that as they let go of selfishness they get a clearer and clearer picture of who they really are—a glimpse of their true nature. They believe in things easily and without re­ serve—exactly the opposite of their skeptical cousins the Rationals. are quite comfortable with paradoxes. NFs are really quite innocent in their credulism. and altruism is only the illusion that one is acting selflessly. Credulous in Looking Ahead Idealists are credulous. the reason behind it was my desire for self-actualization. She went on ministering to her sick and to her poor. Her eye was clear and sane. And the clearer the picture becomes.. But altruism also serves another. it was still the soundest in the village and the best. She went on thinking for others. but even ordinary NFs often dedicate their lives to helping others.Grieving and brooding over the woes of France had weakened that strong mind. and they will gladly give of themselves to cultivate that potential.The Orientation of Idealists 133 worldviews. To put others first is the best way for NFs to rid themselves of selfishness or egocentricity. but madness was not the key to it. and tested her. Few Idealists are as saintly in their altruism as Joan of Arc. as Mark Twain.

especially if they believe personally in the leaders of the movement. spontaneously. it was chiefly populated by SPs. or to a cult. NFs may even exhibit an unusually passionate devotion to a cause. But they could neither be unconscious of self nor give up their concern for the future. Mystical in Looking Back Unlike the Rationals. when the Flower Power movement of the 1960s was centered in San Francisco’s Haight-Ashbury district. After pledging themselves to some individual or group. who tend to rationalize their misfortunes and setbacks. or Karma in Hinduism and Buddhism—satisfy many Idealists. they do not stay involved for very long if it fails to have deep. NFs are the most loyal of all the types. but it was joined by many NFs who watched the SPs living in the moment. These NFs are content to live with a mysterious sense of causation. As fast as the NFs moved into the communes. and who wanted to experience this freedom themselves. mystical causes. while Idealists can get caught up in a movement. not so much to the influence of bad Luck or Divine will (as do. they can also appear to be intellectual and emotional butterflies. seeing them as neutral events relative to one’s individual pointof-view. and will often use their enthusiasm to win followers and to advance the cause. But they will also search for causes in occult religions and cabalistic writings. dilettantes in their pursuit of meaning and authenticity. Idealists are more metaphysical in their explanations. Some Idealists believe that accidents are mystifying and inexplica­ ble—that bad things simply happen. lasting significance. respectively. so the movement held them only for a brief time and they left. For example.134 Idealists world. and at worst in denial. bravely accepting that the whys and wherefores cannot be known or communicated. So. or from cause to cause. while Idealists are apt to be passionate in pursuit of their beliefs. However. flitting from idea to idea. And in extreme cases they can lose their perspective and come to have what Pierre Janet called a “fixed idea” about their beliefs. even though such an attitude can make them appear at best naive. from person to person. as if hiding their head in the sand. though more to the persons involved than to the principles espoused. The dogma of the traditional religions concerning the source of evil—Orig­ inal Sin in Christianity. Other Idealists attribute the cause of unhappy events to some power above themselves. with some hope of bettering the conditions of people in the world. disenchanted. . but to more esoteric. and in various arcane. and thus they are quick to join causes and to go on missions. the SPs and SJs). and cannot be accounted for by any rational means. the Angel of Death in Judaism. clinging to them rigidly. and will usually take one of two enigmatic attitudes when trying to come to terms with life’s difficulties. unmoved and unmovable by any appeal to reason or experience. they moved out to search elsewhere for self-actualization and ways to express their unique identities.

following every path. no matter how far.. and the like. and evil?” he asked—and dissatisfied both by Christian teaching and Western rationalism. aimlessly at first. The Time is Tomorrow The Idealist is future-oriented and focused on what might be. a young philosopher imagines his spirit of inquiry roaming through the “high country of the mind” in pursuit of an elusive wisdom: Many trails through these high ranges have been made and forgotten since the beginning of time. and really of all humanity: .” And in Robert Pirsig’s Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance: an Inquiry into Values. the crusade. To the NF.. then Idealists are most comfortable on the pathways that lead them on the search for the meaning of existence.. it is unendurable to think that the here-and-now. Carl Jung remembers that even as a teenager he was fascinated by this question of causation—“What were the reasons for suffering. In Man of La Mancha. Anthony imagines the future of American women. but seeing nothing ahead of him that told him which way to go. he sought for answers in the occult world of myth.Phaedrus wandered through this high country.Even within a single civilization old trails are constantly closed and new ones open up. the pilgrimage. Don Quixote sings of his glorious quest “to follow that star” of ideal honor and virtue. transcendentalism. and is perhaps their favorite metaphor for their experience of life. space. “no matter how hopeless. is all there is in life. Guardians at the gateways of exit and entrance. that take them on the journey to some higher stage of personal development. because incomplete. and Rationals at the crossroads mapping coordinates. rather than what is. and parapsychology: If such [parapsychological] phenomena occur at all.. the SP place and time. whatever is is never quite sufficient—indeed. relates to another order of things lying behind or beneath it. every trail where someone had been before. im­ perfection. spiritualism. Then the possibility of an other-valued reality behind the phenomenal world becomes an inescapable problem. anthroposophy. The Place is the Pathway If Artisans like to be in the middle of the action. In Memories. Swedenborgianism. Eastern religion. seeing occasionally with small hindsights that he was apparently making some progress. and causality. astrology. The notion of the spiritual odyssey. is deeply satis­ fying to Idealists. with its time. Listen as early women’s suffrage advocate Susan B. Dreams. or the quest. the rationalistic picture of the universe is invalid. theosophy. in which neither ‘here and there’ nor ‘earlier and later’ are of importance.The Orientation of Idealists 135 metaphysical systems.. Reflections. and we must face the fact that our world..

The chart below shows that most Idealists see themselves.I look for the day. Likewise. I believe that these three bases of self-regard are mutually reinforcing. contributing almost nothing to the Idealists’ positive sense of themselves: Self-Image Self-Esteem Self-Respect Self-Confidence Idealists Empathic Benevolent Authentic Guardians Dependable Beneficent Respectable Rationals Ingenious Autonomous Resolute Artisans Artistic Audacious Adaptable . benevolent. all of which help the NFs to create in their imaginations a magical world. or want to believe. naturally. The Self-Image of Idealists All of us have a concept of ourselves made of things we believe. as we gain self-respect. this tends to bolster both our self-respect and our self-confidence. omens. Tarot cards. As in the case of the other kinds of personality. such as artistic gracefulness and audacity. The NFs’ fantasies. and character of the individual.. and a world pregnant with possibilities. even as the man of the future will surpass him of today. and I look for a far higher manhood and womanhood than we have now. and often our success. And this reciprocity can work the other way: a loss of self-confidence can undermine respect for and pride in ourselves. self-respect. about ourselves. when the only criterion of excellence or position shall be the ability.. and the like. base their self-image on quite different things. prophetic sensibilia. as empathic. equal business rights. so it is well that we pause for a moment to compare the four types on this all-important aspect of personality. honor. and equal political rights.136 Idealists The woman of the future will far surpass her of the present. fortune telling. it becomes easier for us to gain in self-confidence and self­ esteem. filled with meanings calling out to be understood. to divining the true nature and significance of things. The Idealists’ interest in the future also has a mystical aspect to it.. Different types of personality.. The ages are progressive. a world of signs and portents. Having a good opinion of ourselves makes for our happiness. important to Artisans. Idealists believe that life is rich with potentials waiting to be realized. and self-confidence. For example. when our self-esteem increases. three aspects of our self-concept are of special importance in determining how well we regard ourselves—self-esteem. and wish to be seen by others. as well as their favorite stories. with other at­ tributes.when women all over this country will have equal property rights. and authentic.. are often excursions into the world of oracular powers. The Idealist is drawn to exploring these potentials and uncovering those meanings.

share. and breathe. and the health of their relationships is beyond everything else the measure of their self-worth—enhanced when their relationships are deeply connected and vital. Idealists feel a kind of natural sympathy for mankind. and of course EST—all in an effort to find a way to live more freely and lovingly. of discussions about happiness. considering that they are the bases of the Idealist’s self-image. They explored verbal and nonverbal dimensions of communication. But even if the three attributes are not inter­ dependent. each undergirding or undermining. they still deserve close scrutiny. after all. That religion of the 1960s. Idealists can become absorbed in drawing close to a single person.” was mainly motivated and populated by NFs seeking greater empathy in their relationships. Let us then take a close look at empathy. dream. benevolence. be­ nevolence. reflect. I think there is a triangular relationship between empathy. called the “encounter group movement. trying to capture an elusive intimacy. a church congregation. as the case may be. Many of them joined T-groups. friends. . Gestalt groups. But they are simply not interested.The Self-Image of Idealists 137 As illustrated by the figure at The Self-Image of Idealists the side. and authenticity. or they can become deeply involved with a group (their family. Self-Esteem in Empathy Idealist self-esteem is greatest when they see themselves and are seen by others as empathic in bonding with people in their circle. not for very long at least. sensitivity groups. Idealist journalist and author Elie Wiesel remembers just how vital in his personal development were empathic friendships: As a child I needed friendship more than tenderness to progress. marathons (nude and otherwise). life is nothing without sensitive personal ties. humanity’s future. the class they’re teaching. without rapport so close that consciousness itself seems to be shared. even introverted NFs. The slightest dispute with a friend gave me a sleepless night as I lay wondering whether I would ever again know the excitement of a nighttime walk. without shared experiences and intimate attachments. Disappointment in this domain caused me greater pain than a failure in school. and so on). Transcendental Meditation groups. and authenticity. the others. NFs. but they base their self-esteem on the empathy they feel with those people closest to them. To the NFs. Primal Scream groups. cannot not be personal. in things other than empathic human relationships. and the meaning of life. and diminished when they are distanced or troubled.

any evidence of cruelty in the world stabs Idealists to the heart and they cry out against it. NFs are without question filled with good intentions and kind feelings. It’s hard to describe. the sense of communion they sought.. to ring true. the self-image they present to the world allows for no fa§ade. and. their genuineness as a person. no mask. But without question benevolence is the greatest virtue. Like you and this other person are out in space with each other and looking down on the earth. however. And God has put us on the earth to be pleasant to each other. Moore in A Passage to India simply cannot accept the smug superiority and callous prejudice of the British in India. Forster’s character Mrs.138 Idealists hoping to become more fully aware of their emotions.. revenge. if NFs somehow undercut their authen­ . describing the experience as a kind of high of spiritual bonding—or what Terry O’Bannion and April O’Connel referred to as a “Shared Journey”: At the exact moment when I encounter someone I feel as if I am some place I have never been before.. Sadly. for that matter. Self-Respect in Benevolence Idealists base their self-respect on their ability to maintain an attitude of benevolence or goodwill toward other people—toward all of existence. To be authentic is to have integrity. the Guardians’ good deeds and the Rationals’ sense of autonomy are admirable as well. inner unity. for a time at least.. no pretense.to love our neighbors and to show it. cruelty.M. driven by a Gandhi-like desire for Absolute Truth.India is part of the earth. while the Artisans’ audacity seems superficial. and malevolence the greatest evil. In truth. they have a fierce aversion to animosity of any sort. and they will suppress their own feelings of enmity and hostility as best they can.” To the Idealists. Idealists insist on an ever higher standard of authenticity for themselves. Self-Confidence in Authenticity Idealist self-confidence rests on their authenticity. and worthy of cultivation.. E. many Idealists report that after such an initial encounter is over the glorious empathy usually fades away in the routine of daily living. or other mean-spirited intentions. Perhaps this is because Idealists have a powerful and ever-present conscience which hurts them deeply whenever they harbor feelings of malice. and to learn how to relate more closely and sensitively with others. or put another way. Mrs. Moore fervently believes the British should base their colonial administration on the principle of everlasting kindliness—“Good will and more good will and more good will”—and she insists to her son that “The English are out here to be pleasant. In many of these groups they found. On the other hand.

being someone other than oneself. into the very role-playing they want to avoid. In his brilliant book. The problem for Idealists is that this ardent wish to be genuine at all times and everywhere actually separates them from the authenticity they demand of themselves. Laing describes the anxiety NFs can feel when they have lost their authenticity. playing a part. unified. but many live with some vague feelings of uncertainty about their genuineness. Few Idealists become this lost in inauthenticity. As his feeling of what properly belonged to his ‘true’ self contracted more and more. Be authentic”—always in the NF is that voice reminding them about being whole. Instead of the whole-hearted. this self began to feel more and more vulnerable and he came to be more and more frightened that other people could penetrate through his sham personality. Authenticity is also difficult for Idealists because of their spontaneous and uninvited self-consciousness. While Rationals typically reserve to themselves the right to judge their own actions.D. or NTs) seem to feel others’ eyes upon them. Idealists are very sensitive to how they are seen by others. SJs. and true. they can be taken over by fear and self-doubt. to a certain extent. and prompting themselves with lines. The self fears being engulfed by the spread of the identification. because the assumption of an alien identity is always experienced as a threat to one’s own. at the same time. this loss of self-confidence can become a truly debilitating fear of the losing of Self entirely—or as Laing puts it.The Self-Image of Idealists 139 ticity by being phony or false or insincere. and to grant those around them the right to pass judgment on them. But with this other voice in their head. psychotherapist R. The Divided Self. Laing writes. Idealists are inevitably caught in a dual role. which is to say that they are highly aware of themselves as objects of moral scrutiny. or when they find themselves being what Laing calls “like everyone else. authentic person they want to be. some secret doubt about their wholeness. and. they are at once director and actor: they are on stage. they are watching themselves being on stage. From very early in life. The ‘inner’ secret self hates the characteristics of the false self. of course. and forces them.” In one client’s case. and care a great deal about meeting others’ expectations. In extreme cases (and since Idealists believe the Self is something one finds). So here again NFs are caught in a . It also fears it. NFs report over and over that they are subject to an inner voice which urges them to “Be real. standing to one side and telling themselves to be themselves. The irony of this wanting to be authentically themselves is that it often leaves Idealists feeling divided and false. NFs (more than SPs.

Where Artisans value excite­ ment (from without) Idealists value enthusiasm (from within). and they make no bones about it. and Leon Festinger. they believe. yet at the same time devoted to pleasing others. Idealists value their intuition. the domain of values. Idealists valuing identity over stimulation. William James. in what we prize. in what we yearn for. they must walk on a razor’s edge. or less reasonable or less impulsive than expected. To make these comparisons let us study the following chart: Value Being Trusting Yearning Seeking Prizing Aspiring Idealists Enthusiastic Intuition Romance Identity Recognition Sage Artisans Excited Impulse Impact Stimulation Generosity Virtuoso Guardians Concerned Authority Belonging Security Gratitude Executive Rationals Calm Reason Achievement Knowledge Deference Wizard . Learning to reconcile these two often conflicting facets of their self-image is an important and sometimes arduous task for many NFs. Indeed. It is perhaps in this. Generally speaking. for the heart. The Values of Idealists Arthur Schopenhauer. in what we seek. Let me put it this way: Idealists are more prone to wishful thinking or value judgment than the other types. in The World as Will and Idea (1814). in A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (1957). in The Principles of Psy­ chology (1890).140 Idealists dilemma: confident of their integrity. How different especially from their opposites. but it is certainly true of Idealists. the Artisans. they are glad to let their heart rule their head. Guardians. where Artisans value impact on others. Now this may or may not be true of Artisans. and in what we aspire to. far more clearly. we can differ in our preferred being. recognition over generosity. where Arti­ sans value their impulses. that the four types of personality display discernible patterns most clearly. is the soul of humanity. certainly. How different they are from the other temperaments. and the sage over the virtuoso. We are wise to pay attention to how the Idealists’ values differ from ours lest we be caught off guard in our natural assumption that they value what we do. and Rationals. thus advising us that our values dominate our thoughts. than in domains such as the self-image or the forms of intelligence. with authenticity on one side. and so question why they seem less calm or less authoritarian than we. and moral approval on the other. telling all of us that this is the wise thing to do. followed suit. Idealists value romance with others. in what we put our trust in. said that our will dominates our intellect. And so it goes.

she was overcome at times by the mysterious and dreadful sadness of life. called them “Choler­ ics”—and they will respond furiously. not needing to wait for a rationale. remember. male or female. often making them inspiring figures in their groups. young or old. cannot shake off their intuitive understanding that existence is bittersweet.” or they will “walk a mile in someone else’s shoes. She took nothing calmly. because as much as they introject the . As the saying goes. But this sort of exuberance also has a darker side. NFs can become quickly irritated—Galen. Almost by the same token. given to bursts of enthusiasm. burning and destroying energy. Particularly when discussing ideas. This mimicry is unconscious and usually unwanted by Idealists. in the midst of happiness. Lewis notes the contradictions in her character: Externally. She also experienced chills of embarrassment and self-doubt. Fortunately. and great poetry set her aglow. beautiful objects made her senses race. Such identification can be so close that Idealists will even find themselves beginning to talk or laugh or gesture like the other person. but their ability to introject does give them the belief (rightly or wrongly) that they have accurate insight into others. she was a creature of gaiety. to harmless vanities and constant physical activity. Edith Wharton was well-known for her moods of light and dark. for what they believe. to put themselves in the other’s place. and so their emotional intensity is usually expressed as unbounded enthusiasm.The Values of Idealists 141 Being Enthusiastic Idealists are highly emotional people. their feelings or first impressions about people. Idealists wait for their intuition to show them the way. Trusting Intuition While Rationals trust their reasoning powers.” but her biographer R. But all the time her inner life was burgeoning.” which means they will unconsciously take into themselves another’s desires and emo­ tions—or what they believe these to be. or when treated unjustly. by the way—but to be really sure. in the sense that their emotions are both easily aroused and quickly discharged. or sharing per­ sonal insights.W. NFs will “crawl into another’s skin. NFs. NFs have to be particularly careful in this regard. that they know what’s going on inside the other person’s head and heart. Not only did her friend and fellow-novelist Henry James tease her about her “ravaging. when frustrated in their idealism. or even wanting one. the fire of their enthusiasm suddenly flaring out in anger. Moreover. sadness but awaits its turn. The Rational’s logic is acceptable for some conclusions—so is the Guardian’s authority. NFs tend to be positive types. Perhaps Idealists trust their intuition about people so unreservedly be­ cause of their extraordinary ability to identify with others. with defeat the other side of triumph—that. their display of enthusiasm can be both delightful and conta­ gious.B. Idealists trust their intuitive powers.

and how they deal with it—whether they choose to develop what they have. He was happy. he saw at every step that it was not at all what he had imagined. Artisans hunger for social impact. On the contrary. just as its opposite. Idealists have been known to romanticize their relationships. but having embarked on married life. Such disparity between what is and what might have been is the theme of countless novels and plays. Yearning for Romance The most important thing to remember about Idealists is this: one and all. But partic­ ularly in their love relationships. it is vital to their growth and happiness. they also tend to project their own attitudes onto those around them. infusing them with a glow of perfection that can rarely be sustained in the harsher light of reality. mind you. an Idealist himself. their personal meaning. All too often the NF falls into this pattern of romantic projection. It is not. but not in the way he had expected. Idealists are concerned not so much with practical realities as with meaningful possibilities. NFs have a keen appetite for romance—if any type can be said to be “in love with love. accompanied by a consid­ erable investment of effort and emotion. or move on to other dreams—de­ termines to a great extent the course of their personal lives. Seeking Identity Idealists devote much of their time to pursuing their own identity. is flat and stale and lifeless. . This kind of sobering reality check confronts Idealists sooner or later in all of their romantic relationships. what they signify—their true Self.142 Idealists traits of others.Levin was happy. while they fall in love easily. And yet. investing others with their own idealistic view of life. If their love life lacks this romance. Leo Tolstoy. Idealists have little interest in shallow or insignificant relationships. a nourishment they cannot live without. he finds himself sitting in it himself... describes in Anna Karenina a moment he had experienced in his own marriage: Levin had been married three months. Rationals for achieve­ ment. Idealists are not without these other yearnings.. happy motion of a boat on a lake.” it is the NF. commonplace relationship. some restless longing that needs to be satisfied each and every day. In all areas of life. At every step he was disappointed in his former dreams. but they have much less hold on them than their hunger for romance. they are incurable romantics. Guardians for belonging. full of beauty. and sensitivity. after admiring the smooth. with romantic ideals. the uninspiring. At every step he experienced what a man experiences when. Each type has an abiding hunger. Romance—in the sense of idealized love—is not something which NFs can take or leave. they want their relationships to be deep and meaningful. ending in a painful disillusionment. poetry.

sometimes physically. sometimes intellectually. But where was this Self. know­ ingly and acceptingly. nobody knew it—neither his father. like Hermann Hesse’s character Siddhartha. or. or selfish. the process which he inwardly and actually is.. To the Idealists. NFs are so intent on self-realization that they may be called the “Identity Seeking Personality. was it? To press towards the Self—was there another way that was worth seeking? Nobody showed the way. with the attendant feelings of guilt or self-depreciation. Carl Rogers. then. He is increasingly listening to the deepest recesses of his psychological and emotional being. however.—is self-realization. SJs. sometimes spiritually.” the type of person so often written about by humanistic psychologists. and to have an identity which is truly theirs. self-serving. at most. He moves away from being what he is not. To the SPs. from being a facade. the vital seed of their nature. But whether their own or another’s. describes the Idealist’s search for Self with remarkable insight: Becoming a Person means that the individual moves toward being. Thus Gandhi wrote that “What I want to achieve—what I have been striving and pining to achieve these thirty years. On Becoming a Person. As Siddhartha wonders. they wander. NFs are centered on the Self. with greater accuracy and depth. and so become completely themselves. Self has a capital “S” and is a special part of the person—a kind of personal essence or core of being. this innermost? It was not flesh and bone.” To be sure. concentrated on it. their individual actions or point of view. “How can I become the person I really am?” they ask. That was what the wise men taught. looking to actualize all their inborn possibilities. He is not trying to be more than he is.. nor the teachers and wise men. He is not trying to be less than he is. committed to it. or self-actualized. with the attendant feelings of insecurity or bombastic defensiveness. nor the holy songs. not unlike the Soul or Spirit of religious thought. even though the paths in search of identity are never clearly marked. about becoming who they are. NFs are passionate about finding this true Self. and finds himself increasingly willing to be. and NTs. in his book..The Values of Idealists 143 that they are self-centered. And so. the only important thing? . the word ‘self’ (when they bother to think about it) simply indicates their separateness from other people. it was not thought or consciousness. Idealists often dedicate their lives to this kind of self-realization—seeking to become realized. they focus on the Self of others as surely as on their own. that self which he most truly is. And the Self upon which they focus is not the self that the other types think of when they use the word. trying to get in touch with the person they were meant to be. For instance. Where.They knew a tremendous number of things—but was it worthwhile knowing all these things if they did not know the one important thing.

or.’ The seeking impedes the finding. and with their gift for language they can be powerful advocates for it being a necessary pilgrimage for all people. The reluctance of over ninety percent of humanity to join the search for self-actualization is a great source of mystification to the Idealists. But even more mystifying is the paradox coiled at the very center of this search. the more frustrated they are in their search. and simply accept themselves as they are. ‘it happens quite easily. to be receptive. It might be. the Idealists’ truest Self comes to be the Self in search of itself. because he is only thinking of the thing he is seeking. that the search for Self is fundamentally incompatible with the achievement of finding the Self. since the very act of reaching for the Self immediately puts it out of reach. which means that they finally give up struggling to become some perfected idea of themselves. ‘When someone is seeking.’ said Siddhartha. a Buddhist monk who has spent his life searching for himself. behind the public mask that must be worn.144 Idealists Idealists regard this search for identity as the most important enterprise in their lives. the Being behind the social role that must be played.’ ‘How is that?’ asked Govinda. because he has a goal. and they would cease being themselves if they ever found themselves. and SPs. Siddhartha tells him. For many NFs the search for Self is a quest which becomes very much an end in itself. the SJs. Thus. somewhat short of ideal..that he is unable to find anything. in other words. because he is obsessed with his goal. are troubled by the thought that they ought to be pursuing this goal. Late in his life Siddhartha tries to explain this contradiction between seeking and finding to his friend Govinda. In their enthusiasm for self-discovery. Some Idealists no doubt reach Siddhartha’s perspective and find their true Self. and which can come to dominate their lives. namely. even if the search for Self does not beckon them. Prizing Recognition The way to the Idealists’ heart is to show them that we know their inner person. then. the search for identity is its own obstacle. to have no goal. Seeking means: to have a goal. unable to absorb anything. Very often the other types. that as a result of your seeking you cannot And. Idealists can become trapped in paradox: they are themselves only if they are searching for themselves. but finding means: to be free. But how can one achieve a goal when that goal is to have a goal? Intent on becoming themselves. In other words. their purpose in life becomes to have a purpose in life.. NTs. to make them feel . that ‘you seek too much. Idealists can never truly be them­ selves. But for many NFs. the search for identity only winds them more deeply in the complexities of inner division and self-contradiction: the more they seek their ideal Self.

he will not rest in. To transcend the material world (and thus gain insight into the essence of things). we have no choice but to enact our roles. superior to our subordinate. Allotted or embraced. and relatives to our extended family members.. Aspiring to be a Sage The Sage is the most revered role model for the Idealists—that man or woman who strives to overcome worldly. On the other hand we choose to play mate to our spouse. unknown. as mentioned above. but will go on—the keen edge will not be blunted. those that are allotted to us by virtue of our position in our social milieu. since interacting with others can never be role-free.. is always striving after being—that is his nature. So it makes sense that they would feel prized by having their person known by another. This is not an easy thing to do. We perforce play offspring to our parents. and by that power drawing near and mingling and becoming incorporate with very being. and not till then. and. Plato. and who aspires to the philosophic view of life. You see. siblings to our brothers and sisters. to transcend the senses (and thus gain knowledge of the soul). to transcend the ego (and thus feel united with all creation). nor the force of his desire abate until he have attained the knowledge of the true nature of every essence by a sympathetic and kindred power in the soul. and those that we reach out and take for ourselves. continue searching for their true self or real self. parents to our children. to transcend even time (and thus feel the force of past lives and prophecies): these are the lofty goals of the sage. an so on.ap­ pearance only. will he cease from his travail. and in essence there are two kinds of social roles. if only on rare occasions.” as they put it. They are devoted to bringing the true self more and more into being. . mistaken for the roles they are forced to play by social reality.The Social Roles Idealists Play 145 appreciated we must encounter them. so that recognition by someone they care about is very important to them and very gratifying when it comes. friend to friend. temporal concerns. and they. and so it happens only rarely. more than others. Idealists believe that each of us is a unique and special person. [he will] live and grow truly. The Social Roles Idealists Play It is impossible not to play a role in all of our social transactions. and then. “meet them at their view of the world. characterized the sage by saying that the “true lover of wisdom” is on a metaphysical journey. and in their heart of hearts all Idealists honor this quest. go through life feeling misunder­ stood. perhaps the greatest of all Idealist philosophers. Idealists idealize themselves. subordinate to our superior.

for instance. and the Rational’s Visionary role.” Other types will settle for much less than this. and the Playmate. the Guardian’s Stabilizer role. contrasting the Idealist’s Catalyst role with the Artisan’s Negotiator role. Let us consider a chart which compares how the different ways mating. and followers. and who spontaneously expresses words of endearment. These different mating roles will require lengthy and complex study. and Mindmate role in the case of the other three types of personality. as they put it. and so Chapter 8 presents portraits of the four kinds of children. prefer to be Playmates. a spouse who knows their feelings without being told of them. In these three roles the different temperaments differ in very important ways. important. Here. and leading roles are played: Social Roles Mating Parenting Leading Idealists Artisans Guardians Helpmate Socializer Stabilizer Rationals Mindmate Individuator Visionary Playmate Soulmate Harmonizer Liberator Catalyst Negotiator Note the striking difference between playing the Soulmate role in the case of the Idealists. “deep and meaningful. and leading. would be Helpmates though they may not ask their Idealist spouse to be the same. parenting. offspring. and so a chapter (Chapter 7) on this topic is provided later in this book. Idealists want the marital relationship to be. and then distinguishes the Idealist Harmonizer parent from the Artisan Liberator parent. the Guardian Socializer parent. Guardians. Even so. More about this soulful rela­ tionship in Chapter 7.146 Idealists Three of our social roles are of special interest in the context of the study of personality: mating. Helpmate. and the Rational Individuator parent. suffice it to say that Idealists are asking their spouses for something most of them do not understand and do not know how to give. words that acknowledge their mate’s unique identity. and wonder what the Idealist means by a deep and meaningful relationship. Artisans. are more for being Mindmates than Soulmates. . in the effects these ways of relating to others have on mates. a chapter (Chapter 9) is provided to differentiate leadership styles. that is. Likewise. A separate chapter is also required for defining and describing the enormous differences in the parent-child relationship. on the other hand. And Rationals. wishing to share their consciousness with their mates. a few remarks on each of the Idealist’s social roles can at least give outlines of how they are played. The Soulmate What Idealists wish for in their spouse is a Soulmate. parenting.

Matrix of Idealist Traits


The Harmonizer Parent Idealist parents are mainly concerned with their children’s self-image, so in order to know how their children see themselves, and how they would be seen by others, Idealist parents make every effort to increase the strength of their harmony with their children, wanting to keep themselves closely bonded or ert rapport with them, even into adult life—harmony the means, a positive self-image the end. Here it is well to recall the constituents of the self-image. First, there is self-esteem, then self-respect, then selfconfidence. Idealist parents encourage their children to grow in all three respects. The concerns of Guardian and Rational parents—civility and individuality—take a back seat in the case of Idealist parents. Not that they are indifferent to these concerns, only that they see them as subordinate and dependent upon the growth of a healthy, positive self-image. As for the venturesomeness encouraged by Artisan parents, Idealists have little time for it and little concern if it does not emerge, and so tend to leave it to circumstance. The Catalyst Leader The Idealists’ style of leadership is quite unlike that of other types, for they are the Catalysts, acting as facilitators, motivators, or energizers with their unique capability of bringing their subordinates together in cooperative actions and of maintaining high morale in them. Since Idealists cannot not be personal in their relationships, it follows that when they are in positions of leadership they are compelled to lead in a personal way. To Idealists, every subordinate is a person whom they must know and must keep track of. In a way, this disinclination and perhaps inability to be impersonal as they direct operations can complicate matters, particularly if there are many individuals to relate to in managing an enterprise. Catalytic leadership is hard to define and even harder to explain, something that must be left to Chapter 9. Here, note that with the good feelings of their subordinates as their major concern, Idealist leadership is starkly different from that of other temperaments.

Matrix of Idealist Traits
The matrix on the next page brings together and highlights the terms I have used in this chapter to define and describe the personality of Plato’s Idealists. To aid in comparing and contrasting all four temperaments, I have listed the traits beside those of the other personalities. Those who take time to study this matrix, and refer back to it occasionally, will have a better chance of comprehending the whole configuration of the Ethical Idealist Personality, as well as getting a feel for its uniqueness and radical difference from the other three temperaments, the Hedonic Artisans, the Proprietary Guardians, and the Dialectical Rationals.



The Traits of Temperament and Character
Communication 1 Concrete ' Implementation Utilitarian Cooperative Character Artisan Guardian Language
Referential Syntactical Rhetorical

I Abstract 1 Cooperative Utilitarian Idealist Rational

Indicative Descriptive Heterodox

Imperative Comparative Orthodox

Interpretive Metaphoric Hyperbolic

Categorical Subjunctive Technical

Directive Role • Expressive Role • Reserved Role Informative Role • Expressive Role •Reserved Role

Operator • Promoter • Crafter Entertainer • Performer • Composer Artcraft Technique Equipment Hedonism Optimism Cynicism Here Now Artistic Audacious Adaptable Excited Impulse Impact Stimulation Generosity
V irtu o s o

Administrator • Supervisor • Inspector Conservator • Provider • Protector Commerce Morality Materiel Stoicism Pessimism Fatalism Gateways Yesterday Dependable Beneficent Respectable Concerned Authority Belonging Security Gratitude
E x e c u tiv e

Mentor • Teacher • Counselor Advocate • Champion • Healer Humanities Morale

Coordinator • Fieldmarshal • Mastermind Engineer • Inventor • Architect Sciences Technology Systems Pragmatism Skepticism Relativism Intersections Intervals Ingenious Autonomous Resolute Calm Reason Achievement Knowledge Deference
W iz a r d

Education Preoccupation Vocation

Present Future Past Place Time

Altruism Credulism Mysticism

Tomorrow Empathic Benevolent Authentic Enthusiastic Intuition

Self-Esteem Self-Respect Self-Confidence

Being Trusting Yearning Seeking Prizing
A s p irin g

Recognition Sage

Social Role
Mating Parenting Leading Playmate Liberator Negotiator Helpmate Socializer Stabilizer

Harm onizer Catalyst

Mindmate Individuator Visionary

Idealist Role Variants


Idealist Role Variants
These “Abstract Cooperators” as I like to call them—Plato’s Idealists Aristotle’s Ethicals, Galen’s Cholerics, and Myers’s NFs—have, like the other types, a tightly configured personality, so that each trait of character entails the other traits. Mother Nature will not permit Idealists, any more than other types, to pick and choose the traits that make up their character. If their environment enables them to develop a given trait it can only be one that is predetermined by their temperament. While it is useful to think of each of the four temperaments as a single, unified configuration of attitudes and actions, individual members of each temperament clearly differ from one another. Thus, all the Idealists seem to have a great capacity for diplomatic empathy, but some (the scheduling NFs) are drawn to the directive role of Mentor of human development, while others (the probing NFs) prefer the informative role of Advocate of harmonious interaction. These two divisions can be further broken down to reflect an expressive or a reserved social attitude, with the Mentors tending to play the role variants of Teacher or Counselor, and the Advocates playing Champion or Healer. The Teacher [ENFJ] Learning has to be beckoned forth, led out of its hiding place, or, as suggested by the word ‘education,’ it has to be educed by an individual with educative skills. More than any of the other Idealists ENFJs are natural teachers, with the uncanny ability to influence those around them, and without seeming to do so. Even as children these Teachers may attract a neighborhood gang of children ready to listen to them and to follow them in play. And adult Teachers are wonderful leaders of group learning experiences, more capable than any other type of calling forth each learner’s potentials. As a variant of Plato’s Idealists and Aristotle’s Ethicists, the ENFJs are little different from other NFs in most respects. Like all the Idealists they are abstract in communicating and cooperative in implementing goals. They want to learn about the humanities, are preoccupied with morale, and work well with personnel. In orientation they are altruistic, credulous, mystical, situated on pathways, and with their eye on tomorrow. They base their self-image on being seen as empathic, benevolent, and authentic. Often enthusiastic, they trust intuition, yearn for romance, seek identity, prize recognition, and aspire to the wisdom of the sage. Intellectually, they are prone to practice diplomacy far more than strategy, logistics, and espe­ cially tactics. Further, with their scheduling nature, they tend to choose the directive Mentor’s role over the probing Advocate’s informative role. And because of their expressiveness they prefer the part of Teacher over that of Counselor. To help visualize ENFJ intellectual development, consider the



following bar graph depicting the most probable profile of their diplomatic roles:

The Diplomatic Roles of the ENFJ

Mentor Advocate

Champion Healer


Teachers expect the very best of those around them, and their enthusiasm inspires action in others and the desire to live up to their expectations. ENFJs (around two percent of the population) have the delightful charac­ teristic of taking for granted that people will meet their expectations, never doubting that people will obey their implicit commands. And, more often than not, people do, because this type has extraordinary charisma. These outgoing Mentors arrange work and social engagements ahead of time and tend to be absolutely reliable in honoring these commitments. But they are also comfortable in complex situations which require the juggling of much data with little pre-planning. An experienced ENFJ group leader can dream up, effortlessly, and almost endlessly, activities for their groups to engage in, and stimulating roles for members to play. In some Teachers, inspired by the responsiveness of their students or followers, this can amount to a kind of genius which other types find hard to emulate. Such ability to preside without planning reminds us somewhat of an ESFJ Provider Guardian, but the latter acts more as a master of ceremonies than as a leader of groups. ESFJs are natural hosts and hostesses, making sure that each guest is well looked after, or that the right things are expressed on traditional social occasions. In much the same way, ENFJs value harmo­ nious relations, can handle people with charm and concern, and are usually popular wherever they are. But they are not so much social as educational leaders, interested primarily in the growth and development of individuals. Teachers consider people their highest priority, and they naturally com­ municate caring, concern, and a willingness to become involved with others. As a result, people often turn to them for nurture and support, which they usually manage to deliver, showing sincere interest in the problems of those around them, employees, colleagues, students, and so on. But they can also become over-involved in these problems, and find themselves unable to turn away from such demands even when they become unreason­ able. At times, indeed, the personal needs of others can overwhelm ENFJs, and they may find themselves over-extended emotionally, feeling responsi­ ble for the feelings of others to an extent which can place a burden on their families. Or, if forced to let go of other relationships through sheer unavail­ ability of time or energy, they experience a guilt all out of proportion to

Idealist Role Variants—The Teacher


the realities of their commitments. Teachers have a highly developed ability to empathize by introjection, that is, taking into themselves the characteristics, emotions, and beliefs of others—even to the point of unconsciously mimicking others. But this unusual ability to relate to others with empathy can also pose a danger for them, because they can easily over-identify with others and pick up their burdens as if they were their own, actually putting at risk their own identity. ENFJs are also vulnerable to idealizing their personal relationships, raising them to a plane which seldom can sustain the realities of human nature. Because of this tendency to project their own ideals into their relationships, they may unwittingly overpower their friends and loved ones, who doubt that they can live up to such an exalted conception of themselves, unaware that Teachers are their boosters, not their critics. A wide range of occupations offer Teachers success, even though their longing for the ideal often carries over to their careers and can cause them some restlessness. Good with language, they contribute to an unusual level when dealing with people, particularly face-to-face. The media and the ministry are populated with talented ENFJs, and they make excellent ther­ apists, educators, and primary care physicians. They should avoid occupa­ tions that do not make use of their interpersonal talents (accounting, law practice, the military); otherwise, almost any activity where sustained1 per­ sonal contact is involved suits their diplomatic skills. Teachers take communication for granted and believe that they are instinctively understood and that their communications are naturally ac­ cepted. Just as they themselves are accepting of others, so do they assume that others are the same with them. When they find that their position or beliefs were not comprehended or accepted, they are surprised, puzzled, and sometimes hurt. Fortunately, this does not happen with high frequency, since ENFJs have a remarkable fluency with language, especially when communicating in speech, face to face. They are influential, therefore, in groups, having no hesitation about speaking out, no matter how large or small the group may be. Outgoing, and perhaps the most expressive of all the types, ENFJs do not hesitate to communicate their feelings. Their negative feelings can be blurted out, like steam from a boiling teakettle with a rattling lid, and their positive feelings can be voiced with dramatic and even histrionic flourish. Teachers can, with practice, become spell-binding orators. These ENFJs would do well to follow their hunches, for their intuition tends to be well developed. On the other hand, their use of logic in decision­ making may not be so sound, and checking with a Rational might be at times advisable for them. In the framework of personal and interpersonal insight, however, they are unparalleled. Without a doubt, they know what is going on inside themselves, and they can read other people with remarkable accuracy. Seldom are they wrong about another’s intentions. Teachers place a high value on mutual cooperation in their closest



relationships, and thus make excellent companions and mates. They are tireless in their efforts to promote harmony with their loved one, giving generously of their time and energy to make sure their mate is happy. Indeed, ENFJs feel personally responsible when home life does not go smoothly. Unfortunately, this dedication often exists side by side with their dream of the perfect relationship—a characteristic of all Idealists, but one which is particularly strong in the Teachers. Their longing for an ideal mate can even cause them some restlessness, at times bringing on a vague dissatisfaction with the mate they already have. As parents, Teachers are deeply devoted to their children, yet tend not to be domineering. On the contrary, they are supremely affectionate and nurturing, so much so that they can be taken advantage of by a particularly demanding child. The Counselor [INFJ] Counseling is the side of mentoring that focuses on helping people to realize their human potential, and INFJs have an unusually strong desire to contribute to the welfare of others and genuinely enjoy guiding their com­ panions toward greater personal fulfillment. INFJs are scarce, little more than one percent of the population, which is too bad, considering their usefulness in the social order. Although these Counselors tend to be private, sensitive people, and thus are not usually visible leaders, they work intensely with those close to them, quietly exerting their influence behind the scenes with their families, friends, and colleagues. These seclusive and friendly people are complicated themselves, and so can understand and deal with complex ethical issues and with deeply troubled individuals. As a variant of Plato’s Idealists and Aristotle’s Ethicists, the INFJs are little different from other NFs in most respects. Like all the Idealists they are abstract in communicating and cooperative in implementing goals. They want to learn about the humanities, are preoccupied with morale, and work well with personnel. In orientation they are altruistic, credulous, mystical, situated on pathways, and with their eye on tomorrow. They base their self-image on being seen as empathic, benevolent, and authentic. Often enthusiastic, they trust intuition, yearn for romance, seek identity, prize recognition, and aspire to the wisdom of the sage. Intellectually, they are prone to practice diplomacy far more than strategy, logistics, and espe­ cially tactics. Further, having a scheduling nature they tend to choose the directive Mentor’s role over the probing Advocate’s informative role. And because they are quiet and reserved they seem more comfortable acting as a private Counselor than as a classroom Teacher. To visualize INFJ intel­ lectual development consider the following graph depicting the most prob­ able profile of their diplomatic roles:

Idealist Role Variants—The Counselor


The Diplomatic Roles of the INFJ
Teacher Healer

Mentor Advocate Counselor


Counselors can be hard to get to know. They have an unusually rich inner life, but they are reserved and tend not to share their reactions except with those they trust. With their loved ones, certainly, they are not reluctant to express their feelings, their face lighting up with the positive emotions, but darkening like a thunderhead with the negative. Because of their strong ability to take into themselves the feelings of others, Counselors can be hurt rather easily by those around them, which, perhaps, is one reason why they tend to be private people, quietly withdrawing from human contact. At the same time, friends who have known them for years may find sides emerging which come as a surprise. Not that Counselors are inconsistent; they value their integrity a great deal, but they have mysterious, intricately woven personalities which sometimes puzzle even them. This type of Idealist has strong empathic abilities and can become aware of another’s emotions or intentions—good or evil—even before that person is conscious of them. Such mind-reading can take the form of feeling the hidden distress or illnesses of others to an extent which is difficult for other types to comprehend. Even INFJs can seldom tell how they came to penetrate others’ feelings so keenly. Furthermore, the Counselor is most likely of all the types to demonstrate an ability to understand psychic phenomena. What is known as “ESP” may well be exceptional intuitive ability—in both its forms, projection and introjection. Such super­ normal intuition is found frequently in INFJs, and can extend to people, things, and often events, taking the form of visions, episodes of foreknowl­ edge, premonitions, auditory and visual images of things to come, as well as uncanny communications with certain individuals at a distance. Because of their vivid imaginations Counselors are often seen as the most poetic, even mystical, of all the types. They use an unusual degree of imagery in their language, the kind of imagery found in complex and often aesthetic writing such as novels, plays, and poems. To be sure, they often select liberal arts as a college major, and they may be attracted to creative writing as a profession. In all their communications they are masters of the metaphor, and will naturally describe a thing in terms of something else. Their great talent for metaphorical language—both written and verbal—is usually directed toward communicating with people in a personalized way. INFJ writers comment that they write with a particular person in mind, whereas writing to a faceless audience leaves them uninspired. In school INFJs are usually good students, high-achievers who exhibit

Often an INFJ’s expressions of affection will be subtle. Whatever their choice. become unhappy and immobilized. A female INFJ can bond with her children in a kind of mental symbiosis. taking a romantic. They value staff harmony and want an organization to run smoothly and pleasantly. they tend to lose confidence. or therapeutic counseling. and can eventually become physically ill. More suited to them is the general practice of medicine. or may choose to teach or to write in these fields. providing. They tend to be physically affectionate. but wish to choose when—which is when they are in the mood—and such a hot and cold style may be quite confusing to their mate. If they are subject to hostile working conditions or to constant criticism. As mates. especially on a one-to-one basis. INFJs may choose clinical psychology or psychiatric medicine. Counselors are devoted parents. extremely destructive to their happi­ ness. take their work seriously. They are highly sensitive in their handling of others and tend to work effectively in an organizational structure. making every effort themselves to contribute to that end. sometimes so strong an identification . and their interpretive skills can all be brought into play. their devotion. INFJs respond to praise and use approval as a means of motivating others. and long-standing. their enthusiasm. They enjoy helping people with their problems. and can understand and use human systems creatively and benevolently. As employees or employers. They enjoy problem-solving. Although they have a capacity for working at jobs which require solitude and close attention. though they are also the most vulnerable of all the types to the eruption of their own repressed thoughts and feelings. they are devoted to their spouses. their insight. although INFJs must develop an expressive attitude in both professions. Counselors thrive in occupations which involve interacting with people. of course. overt or covert. They listen well and are adept at consulting and cooperating with others. INFJs are concerned with people’s feelings and are able to act as a barometer of the feelings of individuals and groups within the organization. Counselors also do well when in contact with groups of people. and enjoy academic activity. just as they themselves are motivated by approval. even poetic turn. teaching and the ministry hold attraction. which for them requires a great deal of energy. but may not always be open to sexual approaches. They enjoy pleasing others and they find conflict disagreeable and destructive. As therapeutic counselors. These soft-spoken Mentors also want harmony in their homes and find interpersonal conflict.154 Idealists an unostentatious creativity. they generally are successful in therapeutic counseling because their personal warmth. their originality. As with all NFs. Their friendship circle is likely to be small. deep. nurturing their personal development. Counselors make outstanding indi­ vidual therapists who have a unique ability to get in touch with their patients’ inner lives. that the personal interactions are not super­ ficial. but they can also exhibit qualities of perfectionism and put more into a task than perhaps is justified by the nature of the task.

while firm in discipline. And because of their irrepressible expressiveness they are more eager to be a Champion of causes than a Healer of troubled souls.Idealist Role Variants—The Champion 155 as to be unhealthy for both mother and child. situated on pathways. As a variant of Plato’s Idealists and Aristotle’s Ethicists. but even more than the others they consider intense emotional experiences as being vital to a full life. and work well with personnel. exceptionally loving. say two or three percent of the population. To visualize ENFP intellectual development consider the following bar graph depicting the most probable profile of their diplomatic roles: The Diplomatic Roles of the ENFP Champion Healer Teacher Counselor Advocate Mentor ■ Champion Like the other NF role variants. hoping to disclose some truth about people and issues. Coun­ selors tend to be good friends with their children. Their enthusiasm is boundless and is often contagious. and . Like all the Idealists they are abstract in communicating and cooperative in implementing goals. and so can become bored rather quickly with both situations and people. ENFPs are rather rare. and with their eye on tomorrow. Champions have a wide range and variety of emotions. physical health. they are prone to practice diplomacy far more than strategy. The Champion [ENFP] In the view of the Champions nothing occurs that is without significance. and authentic. They base their self-image on being seen as empathic. logistics. They are typically concerned about the comfort. prize recognition. and aspire to be a sage. are preoccupied with morale. Intellectually. however. And they don’t want to miss any of it. seek identity. and a great passion for novelty. ENFPs must experience all the events that affect people’s lives. credulous. without profound meaning. the ENFPs are little different from other NFs in most respects. and especially tactics. having a probing or exploring nature they tend to prefer the Advo­ cate’s informative role over the more schedule-minded Mentor’s directive role. Further. and also inspiring others to join their cause. making them the most vivacious of all the types. In orientation they are altruistic. and emotional well-being of both mates and children. spilling over their own words to get it all out. like fountains that bubble and splash. they trust their intuition. This strong drive to speak out on social events can make these Champions tireless in conversing with others. Often inspired. and to motivate others with their powerful convic­ tions. mystical. benevolent. They want to learn about the humanities. and then they are eager to relate the stories they’ve uncovered. More often. yearn for romance.

ENFPs have outstanding intuitive powers and often find themselves trying to read what is going on inside of others. Champions exercise a continuous scanning of the social environment. and this intention always to be themselves is usually communicated non­ verbally to others. Thus. In this way they can make serious mistakes in judgment. repudiating any kind of subordination. Champions often see themselves in some danger of losing touch with their real feelings. While this interpretation can be accurate. who find it quite attractive. as is their capacity for the spontaneous and the dramatic. Champions constantly find themselves surrounded by others who look toward them for wisdom. always ready for emergencies. and are surprised when people or events do not turn out as antic­ ipated. ENFPs strive toward a kind of spontaneous personal authenticity. Their attention is never passive or casual. ENFPs are the keen and penetrating observers of the people around them. at times. These expressive Advocates are fiercely independent. and may introduce an unneces­ sarily toxic element into the relationship. They are warm and have fun with people. Their public role tends to be well developed. and leadership. Also. sometimes inaccurately negative. they fall short in their efforts to be authentic. Far more than the other NFs. a dependency which. Champions tend to be hypersensitive and hyperalert. Despite the occasional misinterpretation. In their probing way. either in themselves or in others in relation to them. inspiration. uninvolved in their experience. Unfortunately. and no suspicious motive is likely to escape their attention. Champions tend to attribute more power to authority figures than is there. seeing life as an exciting drama. and are unusually skilled in handling people. They are characteristically positive in their outlook. mistakes which derive from their tendency to project their own attributes onto others. it can also be negative.156 Idealists resist repeating experiences. weighs rather heavily on them. while they strive for emotional intensity. courage. All too often. They usually have a wide range of personal and telephone contacts. and others enjoy their presence. however. and to give over to these figures an ability to see through them—a power of insight which is usually not there. and because of this they may suffer from muscle tension. and giving special meaning to words or actions. expending energy in maintaining both career and personal relationships. and to focus on data which confirm their own biases. For instance. pregnant with possibilities for both good and evil. and they tend to heap coals of fire on themselves for the slightest self-conscious role-playing. interpreting events in terms of another’s hidden motives. At the same time. never wandering. and are capable of intense concentration on another individual. . In the same vein. Champions are good with people and make extensive use of their interpersonal powers. Often their confidence in the innate goodness of life and human nature is a self-fulling prophecy. but always directed. they can never quite shake the feeling that a part of themselves is split off. They are likeable and at ease with colleagues. In fact.

They can swing from extravagance to frugality. making talented journalists. ministers. screen writers. Champions are devoted although somewhat unpredictable in handling their children. People-to-people work is essential for Champions. If they are to lend their energy and interest to a project. sympathetic. and their projects tend to become quickly personalized into a cause. particularly those dealing with people. who find in them a sympathetic ear and a natural rescuer. challenging obsolete procedures and policies. In institutional settings they can be gadflies. novelists. they are warmly enthusiastic. They are good at inventing new ways of doing things. an idea or a project. and are good at initiating meetings and conferences. but non­ conformist. they may not be willing to enforce their dramatic pronouncements. They are largely disinterested in such things as domestic mainte­ nance. providing their children with all sorts of intriguing experiences. and in general are attracted to the communicative arts.Idealist Role Variants—The Healer 157 Champions have a remarkable latitude in career choices and succeed in many fields. Variety in day-to-day operations and interactions best suits their talents. Champions are outstanding in getting people together. they must make it their own. shifting from a role of friend-in-need to stern authority figure. but are not as interested in the more monotonous follow-through. since they need quite a bit of freedom in which to exercise their creativity. ENFPs are likely to lose inter­ est—what might be is always more fascinating than what is. and play­ wrights. It means treating oneself and relating . In occupational choice. Since they often seek new outlets for their inspirations. They are imaginative themselves. their mates can expect surprises. gentle. ENFPs tend to be appealing. Sometimes they get impatient with their superiors. In their parenting role. and even ready cash. They enjoy the process of creating something. but can have difficulty picking up on ideas and projects initiated by others. while necessities may be missing. fearing to lose rapport with their children. They have a strong sense of the possible and can solve most problems. and can be quite short with such behavior. life insurance. On the other hand they have little patience with whining or demanding children. As workers. Once people or projects become routine. While they voice strong opinions about discipline. and their home may contain expensive luxuries. and thus leaving it to their mate to follow through. and can do almost anything that interests them. As mates. imag­ inative. ENFPs quickly become restless if the choice involves painstaking detail and follow-through over a period of time. savings accounts. The Healer [INFP] To the INFP healing means mending those divisions that plague one’s private life and one’s relationships. and they will occasionally side with detractors of their organization. ENFPs can be creative parents. They make excellent teachers. high-spirited. although not as talented at providing for the logistical or operational details of these events. orators.

situated on pathways. and authentic. we must understand their idealism as almost boundless and selfless. Medicine Man. mystical. are preoccupied with morale. To visualize INFP intellectual development consider the following bar graph depicting the most probable profile of their diplomatic roles: The Diplomatic Roles of the INFP Healer Champion Counselor Teacher . And because of their seclusiveness and reserve they seem to care more to be a Healer of conflicts than a people’s Champion. honorable place. inspiring them to make extraordinary sacrifices for someone or something they believe in. Intellectually. to understand Healers. logistics. and aspire to the wisdom of the sage.” These Healers present a tranquil and noticeably pleasant face to the world. They want to learn about the humanities. integrity. helping to restore lost unity. Healer Healers have a profound sense of idealism derived from a strong personal morality. and espe­ cially tactics. seek identity.. but while to all appearances they might seem gentle and easy-going. yearn for romance. prize recognition. Further. menior. and with their eye on tomorrow. having a capacity for caring not usually found in other types. the True Knight or Defender of the Faith. and their fervent aim is to bring peace to the world and wholeness to themselves and their loved ones. As a variant of Plato’s Idealists and Aristotle’s Ethicists. and between themselves and others.. They are the Shaman. Indeed.. INFPs live a fantasy-filled childhood.. .. They base their self-image on being seen as empathic. Often enthusiastic.. or Witch Doctor of the tribe.158 Idealists to others in a conciliatory manner. benevolent. on the inside they are anything but serene. Healers care deep­ ly—passionately—about a few special persons or a favorite cause. because of a feeling of alienation which comes from their often unhappy childhood.. the INFPs are little different from other NFs in most respects. and they conceive of the world as an ethical. with their probing or exploring nature they lean more toward the Advocate’s informative role than the scheduling Mentor’s directive role. or what INFPs call “oneness. and work well with personnel. Isolated by their seclusiveness and infrequency (around one percent of the general population). In orientation they are altruistic. Like all the Idealists they are abstract in communicating and cooperative in implementing goals. they are prone to practice diplomacy far more than strategy. the Prince or Princess in fairy tales. credulous. like Don Quixote or Joan of Arc.. their idealism leaves them feeling even more isolated from the rest of humanity. they trust intuition. It may be that Healers seek unity within themselves.

Healers prefer to follow their intuition rather than logic. They have a natural interest in scholarly activities and demonstrate. college teaching in the humanities—and away from business. who does not feel compelled to make the issue public. just different from the others—swans reared in a family of ducks. they try to hide their differences. believing as they do (and unlike the Rationals) that logic is something optional. believing they are bad to be so fanciful. missionary work. however. With parents who require them to be sociable and industrious in concrete ways. but not knowing quite how to do it. They show a tendency to take deliberate liberties with logic. but can become engrossed with sin.” though they’ve never really mastered the details. social work. they tend to see things as either black or white. as well as creating them. Healers find it difficult to believe in themselves and to trust themselves. yet taught to believe there is evil in them. and also with down-to-earth siblings who conform to these parental expec­ tations. and the moral versus the immoral. whether they are OK. as do the . they may be given to acts of self-sacrifice in atonement. but seldom of feeling. at times. Other types may shrug off parental expectations that do not fit them. Then. albeit with some reserve. believing in their impressionistic way that they “know all about that. is discouraged or even punished by many parents.Idealist Role Variants—The Healer 159 which. and thus often write in lyric. library research. tutoring. They are drawn toward purity. Deeply committed to the positive and the good. and can be impatient with contingency. when they believe they have yielded to an impure temptation. child counseling. continuously on the lookout for the wickedness that lurks within them. The INFPs’ career choices should tend toward the ministry. They have a gift for interpreting symbols. are well aware of people and their feelings. sadly. global. welcome new ideas and new information. for the struggle between good and evil is within the INFP. They are patient with complicated situations. Healers are adaptable. assume an unwarranted familiarity with a certain subject matter. they can come to develop a certain fascination with the problem of good and evil. Others seldom detect this inner turmoil. They have difficulty thinking in conditional “if-then” terms. sacred and profane. so unlike their more solid brothers and sisters. They wonder. Wishing to please their parents and siblings. At work. but not the INFPs. Healers come to see themselves as ugly ducklings. some of them for the rest of their lives. They dislike telephone interruptions and work well alone. but impatient with routine details. They seem capable of applying themselves scholastically to gain the necessary training for professional work. and often do better in college than in high school. They are quite OK. They may also. diffused way. Impressions are gained in a fluid. They can make errors of fact. Even so. In evaluating things and making decisions. Metaphors come naturally to them but may be strained. They respond to the beautiful versus the ugly. poetic fashion. and relate well to most others. the good versus the bad.

although they may have difficulty in expressing interest and affection openly or directly. They will often give their children a voice in family decisions—until their value system is violated. or knowledge. and thus are easy to live with. As parents. even compliant with their mate’s ideas of discipline. while they might dream of greener pastures. These reserved and soft-spoken Advocates are fierce protectors of home and family—their home is indeed their castle. . In their mating role. and often find it difficult to reconcile a romantic. INFPs tend to be flexible. In the routines of daily living. idealized concept of conjugal life with the realities of everyday living with another person. INFPs cling to their dreams. Even at the best of times. This almost preconscious conviction that pleasure must be paid for with pain can cause a sense of uneasiness in INFPs when they marry. they seem fearful of too much marital bliss. Often they hear a calling to go forth into the world to help others. they are devoted to the welfare of their children. or wealth. even if it means asking their loved ones to do likewise. Healers have a deep commitment to their vows. They are loyal to their mates and. Then they dig in their heels and will not budge from their ideals. a remarkable facility with language. of success. The devil is sure to get his due if one experiences too freely of happiness. treating them with great sympathy. and can therefore have trouble relaxing in the happiness of mating. afraid that current happiness may have to be paid for with later sacrifices. Then they will resist and insist. if they stray into those pastures they soon locate the nettles. and adaptability. or. They are sensitive to the feelings of their mates and enjoy pleasing them. until an ideal is stepped on.160 Idealists other NFs. they may feel they must be ever-vigilant against invasion. for that matter. They like to live in harmony and they go to great lengths to avoid interpersonal conflict. and they seem ready to make the personal sacrifices involved in responding to that call. Life with a Healer parent will go harmoniously along for long periods. or beauty.

In his youth. a statement summing up his philosophy of life. but he made indispensable contribu­ tions to new understandings of thermodynamics. Einstein had enjoyed building models and playing with mechanical devices. Professorships at leading universities soon came his way. but letting none get close to him. enjoying the company of other brilliant friends. where he evaluated the plans of would-be inventors. and so his work at the Patent Office taxed him very little. coupled with his prodigious (and reportedly rather ar­ rogant) ability to comprehend the structure of “all that there is. A truly astonishing achievement for any human being. who graduated from a mere technical college with a teaching diploma. not just physicists.” enabled him to change fundamentally the way in which. Einstein grew into an thoroughly self-contained young man. My Credo. and deciding (he could do this almost instantaneously) if an invention would work. correcting errors of design. he remained remote. and on his own. Though popular with his colleagues and students. to do the theoretical work that would change the face of physics for the rest of the century. with a calm detachment from all personal ties. but particularly for someone who was considered a slow-learner as a child. and left him free in his spare time. From 1905 to 1925. the nature of light.6 Rationals To me it suffices to wonder at these secrets and to attempt humbly to grasp with my mind a mere image of the lofty structure of all that there is. This is how Albert Einstein concluded his essay. Rejected by academia. but all educated people look at the universe. and created in the process nothing less than the first new model of the universe since Isaac Newton’s. atomic structure. Einstein went his own way and took a job at the Swiss Patent Office. and expressing the essence of his fascination with science. Einstein’s insatiable curiosity about the secrets of the natural world. who dropped out of (and was then expelled from) his secondary school. over two centuries earlier. of all his classmates. Einstein not only conceived the theory of relativity. Shy and reserved as a child. and who. And then in his 161 . was passed over for a teaching position and post-doctorate appointment. and as his fame grew so did the legend of his eccentric character. and quantum physics.

162 Rationals later years he became the very icon of the absent-minded professor. the god of pre-learning (‘pro’ = pre + ‘metheus’ = learning). however. cost Prometheus dearly. and shells. an engineer sent along with my squadron to oversee our use of a giant rocket. was so enraged that mortal humanity had been given divine knowledge that he condemned Prometheus to live forever chained to a barren rock. for his was the noble cause of imparting to mankind knowledge of light and energy (symbolized by fire) in defiance of authority. the rest of the students and . upright like the gods. with. With their ability to see in the dark. thereby rescuing human beings from helplessness and ignorance. “Where am I and where am I meant to be?” One thing he never forgot. and horns. In the 1980s I chose the Owl as the Rational’s totem animal. fur. But Prometheus suffered this agony with dignity and serenity. secured for humanity the powers of science and technology. Einstein telephoned his wife and asked. and flight. owls surpass even the hawk and the eagle in their ability to spot and to seize their prey. It is no wonder that. First he shaped Man differently. however.” Myth has it that Zeus commissioned Prometheus to fashion a creature to live on earth with the animals. but one is delightfully succinct: on his way to an important meeting. Zeus. Then in graduate school after the war I met two students and one professor in the psychology department who were Rationals. of all the animals. weapons and defenses such as fangs. claws. The animals had already been given many different means of survival. This gift of fire. it is the professorial owl that best serves as the symbol of Rational pragmatics. swiftness. the abstracted. and with their oversized talons. even of triumphing over them. naming them the “Prometheans. even though he had to rob heaven to do so. only one other. And this is very much the nature of Rationals. while writing Please Understand Me. Owls are among the most efficient winged predators. Stories about his forgetfulness are legion. giving this precious knowledge to mankind as its means of surviving among the animals. The first was another cadet like me. feathers. After that. particularly in abstract matters: to penetrate the dark recesses of nature with their keen insight. I remember meeting only two Rationals during the war years. in some stories. then he went to heaven and stole fire from the wheel of the sun. and to grasp ideas with their sharp intellects.” In the mid 1970s. swiftness. Very few protections and powers were left to give human beings. and timing. Looking back. throughout his long and celebrated life: what he called “the never-ending task of Reason. a vulture eating daily at his liver (‘liver’ symbolizing life-sustaining). CEO of the Greek Pantheon. Prometheus. so Prometheus decided to provide his creation with gifts outdoing those of the animals. rarely missing their prey owing to their keenness of sight. fuzzy-haired scientific genius all but unaware of his social context. not to mention powers such as strength. We were buddies during preflight and primary flight training. I chose the Greek god Prometheus to represent these Rationals (Myers’s NTs).

parallel reasoning. bland. who conclude that this type has no interest in social reality. This is Aris­ totle’s Law of Identity. is that they’re no more than five or six percent of the population. Not. in order to avoid errors in reasoning. seemingly detached from social involvement. But provable or not. but that does not mean they do not care about others. in the thirty years I worked for schools in corrective counseling I met so few Rationals that I kept lowering my estimate of their numbers. . ratiocination—hence he considered this type as the “Rationals. as I’ve said elsewhere. These two rules of logic are called “truisms. Strangely. In any case that ought to be enough of these strategic pragmatists to keep science and technology advancing at a steady pace. One way is to realize that whatever we can identify is unique. something that Aristotle’s Dialecticals are careful to avoid doing. distant. The other cornerstone of Aristotelian logic is that things that are identifiable in a given context are either one thing or another. to violate Nature. For example. And indeed these Rationals. concerned as they are with logical investigation. My guess now. I found the profes­ sors and students in the philosophy department more given to reason than those in the psychology department. Logic. but to civilize it. seem detached and distant from others. They are just as caring as any other type when they are focused on those they care about. and so can’t be both. At that moment they are not interested in others. mind you. there is no such thing as half man and half beast. and careful scrutiny will reveal their difference. he said.” meaning that they are obvious even though unprovable. to make the natural order confluent with the social order. no matter how hard it is to distinguish it from other things. Galen named the Rationals the “Phlegmatics. his student Aristotle defined logic for the Western world. to violate them is to talk nonsense. they really aren’t.Plato’s Rationals 163 professors seemingly quite different from us. This is Aristotle’s Law of Contradiction. such as a Centaur. to get things straight. Plato’s Rationals Plato’s word for men like Einstein was ‘dianoetic’ which roughly trans­ lated means “dialectical thought”—coordinate thought. has an identity.” Plato re­ garded the Rationals as serving a particular function in society: to study nature and figure out ways to tame it. This conclusion is correct in the sense that when the Rationals are concentrating on some complex problem they do detach themselves from their social context and remain distant until they solve the problem.” The word ‘phlegmatic’ has come to mean disinterested. though two peas in the same pod may seem identical. tells us how to avoid such errors. that is. For example. to sort things out. even though we can imagine such a creature. A generation after Plato. Aristotle said that the “Dialectical” types (Plato’s Rationals) try their best to be accurate. Finally.

their doubting nature.” “sociable.” It would appear that Fromm.” “witty. to be sure.” In thus speaking of them he was echoing Galen. theory building is heady wine.” “toler­ ant.” for these people have their doubts about everything complicated. who might have given rise to them). who had said that they are distant and detached. their temperament alone deciding the matter. Adickes spoke of Plato’s Rationals as “Agnostics.” “curious. In his intricately reasoned treatise on what he called different “forms of living” (translated as “types of men”). some experimental probing into the nature of things.” they are also “adaptable. calling them the “Theoretic” type. Perhaps this was why Paracelsus chose the mythical Sylphs to be their tutelary spirit. one of the most fulfilling operations that tests and measures the mettle of their intellect. Thus it was Paracelsus who first emphasized the insatiable curiosity and restless research of the Rationals. like the other three types. Rationals. Thus in his view Rationals are not only “efficient. Myers contributed to the study of the Rational personality by naming them the “Intuitive Thinking” types—“NTs”—and saying of them that . Despite all their rigorous logic. thought better of them than the other types. and on mountain tops. Rationals think it best to speak only of the possible and the probable. they were cerebral spirits (much like the owl. With certitude so hard to come by. So it was Adickes who first touched upon one of the more puzzling features of the Rational character. presenting negative as well as positive traits of character. and skeptical. Like Kretschmer. Fromm considered the Rationals to be “Marketers. Kretschmer. called the Rationals the “Anesthetics” which roughly translated means “unfeeling. some investigation into complexity. have no choice in which kind of absurd behaviors to use in their self-defense.” “undogmatic.” thinking of marketing (or pragmatic transacting) as a negative trait. and their gossamer wings which gave them access to places otherwise impossible to explore. as rational. He believed that if and when life’s problems get the better of them. probably a Rational himself.” “farseeing. this type maintains a hint of uncertainty.” “generous. Sylphs were believed to live high above the ground.” “experimental. they are also usually absorbed in some enquiry. and Adickes.” “intelligent.164 Rationals Plato’s Rationals are not only logical and contemplative.” “flexible. in forest canopies. But he focused even more closely on their penchant for theory building. Spranger saw the Rationals. and particularly their probing empiricism. logical. but Kretschmer was saying more than this.” “purposeful. the first investigator to look carefully at the dark side of character. For the Rationals. their sensitive antennae which gave them vivid imagination. with their enlarged eyes which gave them pene­ trating sight. Fromm examined both sides of personality. while he lauded them for their efficiency and other desirable traits. their oversized forebrain which gave them powerful reasoning.” “open-minded. their studied contemplation. Aristotle. as did Plato.” and “youthful.

conceptual things rather than perceptual things. Of necessity we com­ municate messages with words. and while they understand that some redundancy is necessary they still are reluctant to state the obvious. or experiential. Rationals talk little of what is observable and much of what is imaginable. or inferential things to speak of over the observational.” “impersonal. All of us.” “competent.” “complex. conceptual. and with the Artisans a predominantly Words utilitarian manner of implementing Abstract Concrete their goals. Aristotle’s Dialecticals.” “scientific. the Utilitarian NT SP base of NT personality is their unique Utilitarians combination of abstract word usage with utilitarian tool usage.” “ef­ ficient.The A bstract Utilitarians 165 they are “abstract.” “logical. the trivial. In conversation Rationals try to avoid the irrelevant. They are inclined to speak more of what can be seen only with the mind’s eye. and we continue to do so throughout life. As Abstract shown in the matrix at the side. But this does not mean that we do both equally.” and “sys­ tematic. and implement goals with tools.” “research-oriented. it is well that we examine them in some detail. the NTs choose the imaginative. and thus NF SJ these two dimensions. of course. word usage and Cooperative tool usage. perceptual.” “analytical. limiting their explanations and definitions because they assume that what is obvious to them is obvious to others. It is for this reason that I think of Plato’s Rationals as the “Abstract Utilitarians.” Since these two dimensions are the bases of personality development.” “theoretical. The Abstract Utilitarians Plato’s Rationals.” “independent. concrete words to observable things. ideas rather than objects. have something very important in common with the Idealists and Artisans.” “inven­ tive. . can observe what is before us as well as imagine what is not. and the redundant. whatever their name. Very early in life we begin to exercise one focus of language—observables or imaginables—more than the other.” “exacting.” “intellectual. Like the NFs.” “curious. With the Idealists they share a predominantly abstract manner of communicating their messages. or to repeat themselves on a point. Abstract Word Usage Abstract words refer to imaginable things. and little in common with the Guardians. Myers’s NTs. They will not waste words. constitute the underlying Tools basis of personality development. she was clearly able on her own to identify the more salient traits that characterize Plato’s Rationals.” Though apparently unaware of the contributions of her predeces­ sors.

Many Rationals are dictionary readers. reference. On the other hand. bent as they are on erasing the NTs’ finely drawn distinctions. we can observe the language that makes it possible. But Rationals don’t mind being teased with such names because they assume that their distinctions enable them to control arguments and. whole to part). it might be added. things the other types are content to gloss over. they’re sometimes called “nitpickers” and “hairsplitters” by other types. are not certain. The way Rationals see it. of denota­ tions and connotations. Some spend a good deal of time with their dictionaries. philosophy. and so NTs make distinctions. They leave control of other things to others. Defining words to limit their usage is a deductive process. even when it is necessary to get on with their current speculation. do not refer to reality. induction requires the so-called “intuitive leap. medicine. Rationals also tend to enjoy playing with words. and nothing in common with the associative thought and speech of the Guardians. a skill not usually acquired by Rationals. Gladstone: . While we cannot observe deductive thought (going from general to specific. arrangement. and only as an excursion before returning to the unfinished topic. if not offended.” a leap only dubiously taken by NTs. most of the time. This basis has much in common with the inductive inference of the Idealists. and the overly terse and compact style of speech that results is hard for others to follow. even specialty dictionaries—an­ thropology. psychology. etymology. lots of them. And harmonic thought and speech requires selecting and arranging words for the way they sound. Their tacit assumption is that what is obvious to them is obvious to others. While their word arsenal grows through the years. as far as they refer to reality. Although inferential. law. Our words can have distinct reference only if we are careful in defining them. the coherence. Rationals are unusually exacting about definitions. something NTs will only occasionally and reluctantly do. Thus.166 Rationals NTs assume that if they did state the obvious their listeners or readers would surely be bored. They are delighted by comments such as Einstein’s reference to mathematics: “The laws of mathematics. and as far as they are certain.” And the more puckish of them are tickled by Disraeli’s retort to Gladstone. controls useful operations. finding pleasure in puns and paradoxes. enterprises. slang. NFs are even affronted by NT hairsplitting. though some (like Shakespeare) can become masters of it when they take it as their province. The basis of coherence in Rational thought and speech is deductive inference. associative thought and speech requires topic hopping. so too is arranging words in logical order to control coherence. whoever controls categories. Because of this Rationals sometimes lose their audience and wonder why. Indeed. little in common with the harmonic thought and speech of the Artisans. and choice of words tend to be done deductively by Rationals. of roots and derivations. aphorisms. and so too is choosing words to control shades of meaning. and so are aware of definitions and word families.

the expression ‘disorder leads to chaos’ presumes that chaos differs from disorder. I cannot but feel that in some places I may have pushed it too far. far more than others. the latter being the category that weeds belong to.’ ‘occasionally. and so they try to make certain that each phrase and clause advances the argument.’ Note how con­ cerned the great anthropologist James Frazer is with the accuracy of his statements in The Golden Bough. but the NT. the most arrogant of the German philosophers. but they rarely comment on them. is credited with (and condemned by some for) saying “if the facts do not comport with my theory.” Everyone minds such obvious errors. cannot speak for themselves. is mindful of unnoticed errors of category that result in subtle contradiction. and to bring a variety of scattered facts into some sort of order and system. so much the worse for the facts. NTs tending to qualify their statements with modifiers such as ‘likely. introducing nothing that doesn’t logically belong. Errors of category are just as scrupulously avoided by Rationals. .’ ‘usually. I will readily acknowledge and retract my error as soon as it is brought home to me. the SJs. In such speech data plays only a supportive and secondary role. If this should prove to have been the case.The A bstract Utilitarians 167 “You will either die on the gallows or from syphilis. in instant repartee: “Depending on whether I embrace your morals or your wife. and NTs are compelled by their very nature to point out the error. which necessarily presented itself to me at first in outline. and leaving out nothing that is logically required. Chaos cannot follow disorder because it is disorder. but must be spoken for by those conversant with and observant of the canons of logic.” Facts.” Rationals are careful in subjoining one word to another to avoid errors of sequence or of category. Many Rationals are obsessed with speculative enquiry. as does the merely factual. the SPs. For example it’s a mistake to say that “there were weeds among the plants” because weeds are plants.” Disraeli. This style produces carefully crafted communica­ tions. say the NTs. It is this feature of their language—their disinterest in dative and factual information—that sets NTs farther away from their concrete cousins. as if he cannot allow himself to overstate his case: Now that the theory. postulates and premises. Above all else Rationals want to be coherent in their arguments. let the error occasion contra­ diction in an argument being made. and how he qualifies almost everything he says. NTs frequently note such trivial errors of category in others’ speech. when in fact the words are synonymous. However. Hegel. probabilities and possibilities.’ ‘probably. has been worked out in detail. and their concrete opposites. An obvious sequence error would be to join the word ‘meow’ to the word ‘dog’ such as in saying that “The dog’s meow is worse than its bite. so their speech tends to be laced with assumptions and presuppositions. For example. hypotheses and theorems.’ and ‘in some degree. Meantime my essay may serve its purpose as a first attempt to solve a difficult problem.

Jr. are moral. pens and paper weights) and arrange them on a table or desk to help map out their ideas. NTs will make one or both hands into claws or talons. are legitimate. illegal. as if to seize the idea they are discussing. H ig g in s: . They will use their fingers like a calculator. NTs are interested in efficient operations. turning and shaping their ideas in the air. Professor Higgins’ mother has learned not to let her famous NT son meet her high society friends: M r s . You offend all my friends: they stop coming whenever they meet you. . ticking off point after point.. Rationals prefer to appear unemotional when they communicate (and they can seem rather stiff). with its esoteric vocabulary of ‘RAM. trying to minimize body-language. But when they become animated their characteristic hand gestures express their need for precision and control. Utilitarian Tool Usage Rationals are utilitarian in going after what they want.’ ‘bits. The opposite of high-tech speech is small talk. a way of communicating in which Rationals are notoriously disinterested. Buckley.’ ‘ROM..I’m serious.’ ‘bytes.’ and so on. Not that Rationals prefer to be immoral.. facial ex­ pression. are legal.. which means that they consider the usefulness of their tools as more important than their social acceptability—whether they should be used. They will also bend their fingers and grasp the space in front of them.. If a given operation promises to be too costly for the results it gets. Henry. Where SPs are inter­ ested in effective operations. and they will take small objects at hand (salt and pepper shakers. coming only after they have determined how well their intended means will work in achieving their ends. However. it must be emphasized that the Artisan’s concrete utility is different from the Rational’s abstract utility. but like their utilitarian cousins. but really you’re rather trying on more commonplace occasions. but NTs in emerging scientific or technological fields will often develop their own high-tech terminology to talk about their theories and inventions—thus the computerese of the 1980s. H ig g in s : Oh! Don’t they? Small talk indeed! What about your large talk?. the Artisans. erudite vocabulary (the speech of William F. But perhaps the most telling gesture of all is the apposition of the thumb against the finger tips.Henry: you are the life of the Royal Society [of Science]. H i g g i n s : Nonsense! I know I have no small talk.168 Rationals Rationals can also become highly technical in their vocabulary. Not only will they use an extensive. but people don’t mind. In Shaw’s play Pygmalion. is a good example). as if the NT is bringing an idea or an argument to the finest possible point and is savoring the precision. They do not refuse to cooperate with their social groups. that is. they see pleasing others and obeying rules as secondary considerations. or illegitimate in their tool usage. and other non-verbal qualifiers as much as possible. M r s .

In other words. reputation. The Strategic Intellect Strategy has to do with identifying the ways and means necessary and sufficient to achieve a well-defined goal. an attitude regarded by many as arrogant. but they will also disregard anyone who does not. NTs want to increase the efficient operation of that system. Niccolo Machiavelli acquired his knowledge of statecraft by studying many effective means of taking and holding power: “With the utmost diligence I have long pondered and scrutinized the actions of the great. one and all. neither are Rationals at all snobbish in their utilitarianism. But not just any goal is of interest to Rationals. authority. then at least it is not vanity. Other sorts of objectives are of considerably less interest and so are given little effort. manners—all of these marks of social approval mean nothing to the NTs when the issue is the utility of goal-directed action. even nice ones. They’re problem solvers. Rationals are ever on the lookout for systemic problems and are bent on solving them. Some Rationals concern themselves mainly with social systems. The concept of systems was understood and used by only a handful of behavioral and physical scientists during the first half of the 20th century. which is to say. Indeed. and by “the great” he meant any successful ruler. Rationals are wont to think of themselves as the prime movers who must pit their utilitarian ways and means against custom and tradition. badge of office. licence. they will listen to anybody who has something useful to offer regarding their choice of ways and means. while others are concerned with organic systems.” he wrote in The Prince. in an endless struggle to bring efficiency and goal-directedness to enterprise. from the trusted Moses to the treach­ erous Cesare Borgia. Status. like computers and aircraft and automobiles. prestige. They will heed the demons if their ideas are fruitful. they look for error in the order or in the organization of systems. invariably the goal that Rationals set for themselves is increasing the efficiency of systems. Indeed. degree. and without question it has driven Rationals to engineer the technology upon which civilization is based. But if this be arrogance. the NT will look for operations that are likely to take less effort to get the same result.The Strategic Intellect 169 inefficient though effective. and ignore the saints if theirs are not. The design of efficient action toward well-defined goals is no place for incompetents. But no matter what system they’re working with. Then at mid-century Norbert Wiener wrote his seminal work on what he . The way Rationals reach their objective of maximizing efficiency in systems is by analyzing systems in search of inefficiency. like plants and animals. perhaps the most important thing to understand about the strategic intellect is that it is activated by errors found in complex systems. like families and companies. credential. and still others with mechanical systems. If not socially or politically correct.

network control. organization with what is simultaneous with what.170 Rationals called “cybernetics. then cock the hammer. and the other with before-and-after. being as they are of lower order. Some things are of higher order than others. Take firing a single action revolver.” For instance. For example. certain technical procedures require a series of actions that must follow in a very specific order. First load it. not ranks or steps. one having to do with above-and below. the parts of an organizational system are connected organically to each other. Reversing this order will not do. a captain higher than a lieutenant. the one in search of disorder in systems. Where the ranks or steps of an ordinal system are separate from each other.” thus distin­ guishing sharply between linear and circular causality. Lower ranks are said to be subordinate to higher ranks. on the other hand.” The other kind of order can be called “serial order. Those Rationals interested primarily in order I call the “Coordinators. never really having much use for the notion of linear causality. then pull the trigger. any error in the sequencing of operations fraught with peril and inviting disaster. in the view of systems theorists.” Before we consider what the Coordinators and Engineers do. now embraced circular causality with enthusiasm and undertook the construction and reconstruction of complex systems with renewed vigor. This kind of order is hierarchical and is usually referred to as “rank order. first of all. Of course the kind of series that interests Rationals is a bit more complex than firing a gun. a major higher than a captain.” meaning by that term network (‘netics’) governance (‘cyber’). Magorah Maruyama would later say that feedback in systems is a matter of “mutually causal processes. He made his concept of cybernetics intelligible to those not conversant with systems theory by borrowing the term ‘feedback’ from radio technology and using it as a metaphor for circular processes in systems. let us study for a moment the distinction between their different objectives. Organization. Order and organization are different from each other: order is concerned with what follows what. that is. is always relative to the conditions surrounding an event. while on the other hand there is the unity of organization. a colonel in the army has higher rank than a major. has two forms. such that what happens anywhere in the system reverberates throughout the system. as the “necessary and sufficient conditions for the occurrence of an event. and so on down the ranks to the buck private. of . has to do with either devising (and revising) or configuring (and reconfiguring) complex systems that are com­ posed of parts. the other in search of disorganization in systems.” and those primarily interested in organization I call the “Engineers. The preparations for the invasion of Europe in World War II is an example of extreme complexity involving hundreds of planners over a period of years. Order.” Rationals. Causality. Thus organizations. Order and Organization Unity in systems is a two sided matter. On the one hand there is the unity of order.

So the Rationals’ lifelong interest in strategic operations—both arranging and construct­ ing—fuels their daily exercise of such operations. Neural cells are like muscle cells. increasing precisely in the degree it is exercised. which means that we practice and so improve in doing things we’re interested in. Practice. consider the following diagram: Strategic Analysis--------------------------Complex Systems r |— Hierarchical Mobilizing-------. Coordinators do the work of what might be called “arranging. if they aren’t used they lie dormant and even degenerate. Constructing is the act of determining what the parts of a system are supposed to do (its mechanism) or what parts of a system are required for it to work (its configuration). every part being present to every other part of that system.Order— i I — Serial Entailing-----------------Contingency Plans—I |— Mechanical Devising------. in contrast. Now. echelons) or the consecutive steps (sequence. Skill Any skill is acquired by practice. series. succession) that are required to achieve long range objectives. and as strategic skills . Mechanical constructing involves building functional. Construction. Moreover. the two forms of it being the devising of prototypes and the designing of models. are said to be integrated.” Arranging is the act of determining the various levels of rank (in other words. there is reciprocity between interest and skill. layers. Both kinds of construction are undertaken to determine what structures are necessary and sufficient for the system to do its work most efficiently. in contrast. the two forms of it being the mobilizing of campaign forces and the entailing of contingency plans. while configurational constructing involves making detailed two-dimensional blueprints and three-dimensional models. For their part. work­ ing prototypes. in a feedback relationship. enables the entailing of contin­ gencies in a plan of action. and are interested in things we practice and improve in. Serial arrangement. Interest reinforces skill. Engineers do the work of constructing.Functional Prototypes—| Constructing------------------------------------. hierarchy. works to reduce disorgani­ zation in systems. To summarize: Arrangement works to reduce disorder in systems.Campaign Forces—| Arranging -----------------------------------------------.The Strategic Intellect 171 whatever kind.Organization— 1 -Configural Designing--------Architectural Models—I L Interest. Hier­ archical arrangement enables the mobilizing of field forces in conducting campaigns. skill reinforces interest. and diminishing in the degree it is neglected. To help visualize the relationship between these many concepts of strategic operations.



increase so then does interest in them, precisely and exclusively measured by the amount of practice. Now, in a sense every individual has not one but four IQs, and it is simply not possible for one person to develop all four of his or her capabilities equally. The kind of operation practiced most develops most, while that practiced least develops least. Unless stunted by unfavorable circumstances, Rationals instinctively practice strategic actions far more and far earlier than the others, and therefore end up more highly skilled in strategy than in tactics and diplomacy, and much more than in logistics. Consider the following graph:








5 2 >

n GO


S o

Vi g] O * <

d o in

Notice in the graph above that logistics in the case of the NT profile falls far short of strategy. Note also that diplomatic and tactical skills lag behind strategic skills but outdo logistical skills, owing to the middling amount of practice usually given them as second and third suits. Another glance at the bar graph will suggest that, although NTs and SJs are opposites in the way they tend to use words and tools, they are likely to be equal in the extent they develop their diplomatic and tactical skills. Why? Rationals, like Idealists, are abstract in word usage and do considerable introspection, so it is not difficult for them to identify with others and to talk in a diplomatic way. As for tactics, Rationals share with Artisans a utilitarian way of selecting and using tools, so they, given enough practice, can get very good at making the right moves when in the field of action. On their side, Guardians share cooperative implementation with Idealists and concrete communication with Artisans, so they can match with Rationals in both diplomacy and tactics. Strategic Role Variants Rationals all have strategic intelligence in common, but they differ sharply among themselves in the kinds of strategic operations they choose to practice. The two sides of strategy explained above mark the first division, with one side having to do with the order in which things are to be done,

The Strategic Intellect


that is, coordinating operations, and the other side having to do with the organization of things, or engineering operations. Thus Rationals naturally set their minds to mastering the roles of Coordinator or Engineer, and these enable them to play four strategic role variants, what I call the “Fieldmarshal” (ENTJ), the “Mastermind” (INTJ), the “Inventor” (ENTP), and the “Architect” (INTP)—all Rational to the core, but decidedly singular in their rationality. Let us examine the strategic roles that Rationals are temperamentally inclined to take. The diagram below indicates the symmetry between the strategic roles and role variants, and systemic work. Those Rationals who develop their strategic intelligence to a high degree tend to gravitate to work with systems and to be preoccupied with the technology involved in such work. Note on the right side that work with systems involves both arranging and con­ structing; that arrangement is concerned with either mobilizing forces or entailing contingencies; and that construction is concerned with either de­ vising prototypes or designing models.
|— Fieldmarshal [ENTJ]-----Mobilizing — |

NT Strategic Roles --------------------------Working with Systems
|— Inventor [entp] -------------Devising — |


Coordinator------------------------- Arranging —i
I — Mastermind [intj]-------- Entailing----- ^

■ — Engineer--------------------------Constructing— *
I— Architect [intp]------------Designing — ^

Strategic Coordinators Those Rationals who are quick to judge and to make schedules are eager to take the part of Coordinator. Coordinators determine who is to do what at a given time and place, and this role requires a directive character. Coordinators steadily increase in directiveness as they mature, such that they easily and comfortably command others and expect to be obeyed. Indeed, Coordinators are surprised by any resistance to their directives, because it is so clear to them that others do not know what to do, presumably because their goal is unclear or absent, and because they apparently have no strategy in mind by which to proceed. So, in the view of the Coordinator, most people are operating blindly and going around in circles, plainly in need of direction. Fieldmarshals arrange a well-ordered hierarchy that makes possible the chain of command and the mobilizing of forces. In their campaigns these expressive, energetic Coordinators commandeer whatever human ca­ pabilities and material resources are available and use them to execute a complex strategy, such as was done by Napoleon in his twenty years of



campaigning in Europe, by Grant at Vicksburg and Chatanooga, by Sherman in his “scorched earth” march from Atlanta to Savannah, by Eisenhower at the beachheads of the Normandy invasion and the conquest of Germany, and by MacArthur in his Pacific island hopping, his reconstruction of Japan, and his Inchon landing. I hasten to add that although military cam­ paigns are the most publicized, they are by no means the most common form of mobilized operation. Any kind of undertaking, whether commercial, educational, political, or military—whatever—can be arranged hierarchi­ cally, indeed must be if success is to be achieved, and the more efficient the hierarchy, the greater the success. Masterminds arrange things in coherent and comprehensive sequential order, that is, they coordinate operations by making efficient schedules, with each item entailing the next, as a necessary precursor or consequence. Moreover, Masterminds make contingency plans for keeping their schedules on track. If plan A is in jeopardy or is aborted, switch to plan B. If that doesn’t work, then plan C. Often working behind the scenes, these quiet, reserved Coordinators are able to anticipate nearly everything that can go awry and generate alternatives that are likely to avoid the fate that might befall the first operation. And so it goes, the Mastermind ending with a flow chart of alternate ways and means to reach clearly defined objectives. Strategic Engineers Engineers structure the form and function of the instruments to be employed in pursuing objectives, and is the domain of the probing Rationals, those who prefer to keep their options open and to follow an idea where it leads them. Concentrated as they are on determining the ways and means of operation, Engineers tend to have an informative rather than a directive character, which is to say that they are usually eager to provide information and reports regarding what they are currently engineering, but not at all eager to tell others what to do. Inventors develop their skill in devising prototypes more than their skill in designing models. To these outgoing Engineers, functionality is the objective, as in the case of Nikola Tesla, the gifted inventor of the split-phase electric motor, the giant coil, alternating current, the radio, the inert gas light bulb, and countless other ingenious devices. Inventors must make sure their prototypes don’t just make sense on paper, but work in the real world, or else face the consequences. Consider the international airport at Denver, Colorado, completed in early 1994. Doubtless the construction of the airport was coordinated well enough, but the devising of the automated baggage transport apparatus was flawed, delaying the opening of the airport for nearly a year. Whoever engineered it apparently was insufficiently skilled for the level of complexity involved. Architects make structural plans, models, blueprints. To these reserved Engineers, often working alone at their desks, drafting tables, and computers, the coherence of their designs is what counts, the elegance of their config­

The Strategic Intellect


urations, be they plans for a building, an experiment, a curriculum, or a weapon of war. Howard Hughes, for example, designed a wonderfully versatile fighter aircraft in the late thirties. He offered his design to the United States, then to Britain and other European nations, all of which turned him down. But Japan bought the plans, and when the plane came to be built and used in the Pacific theater, it turned out to be the marvelous Zero, for which the allied fighters, the Curtiss P40, Brewster Buffalo, and Grumman Wildcat, were no match. And Hughes’s racer, and much later, his giant seaplane, the “Spruce Goose,” were like the Zero ingeniously designed, at least in the eyes of aviators. Comparing the Strategic Role Variants Every Rational plays these four roles well, but not equally well. Rationals differ from one another in the structure of their intellect, that is, their profile of strategic roles. Some Coordinators are better as Fieldmarshals, getting campaigns on track and moving, others as Masterminds, formulating a plan of operations; and even though campaigning is not contingency planning, these coordinating operations are interdependent, and so can never be found far apart. Similarly, some Engineers are better as Inventors of functional prototypes, others as Architects of structural designs, even though the two skills are often side-by-side, with Inventors drawing plans and Architects building working models of their designs. Consider the following chart of the four strategic role variant profiles:

Fieldmarshal ENTJ

Architect INTP

Mastermind INTJ

Inventor ENTP

Note that in the most likely development of their strategic capabilities the Fieldmarshals (ENTJs) are the mirror image of the Architects (INTPs), as are the Masterminds (INTJs) of the Inventors (ENTPs). Thus Fieldmar­ shals are usually better able to mobilize forces to achieve a goal than to make structural configurations. The reverse holds for the Architects, who are better at designing efficient models than marshalling efficient campaigns. Just so, the Masterminds are better able to do the exacting research required to make contingency plans than to engage in technological invention. And last, the Inventors are the best of all in devising ingenious prototypes,



though not the best at detailing a strategic plan. Still, even with their long and short suits, Rationals will tend to practice, and thus will develop, any one of these four strategic operations well above those tactical, logistical, or diplomatic operations developed by the other temperaments. (Portraits of the four variants of the Rational type can be found at the end of this chapter, beginning on page 196.)

The Interests of Rationals
Everybody has interests, but not everybody has the same interests. Moreover, our interests are reciprocal with our abilities, so that we are interested in doing what we do well, and tend to do well in what we are interested in doing. The interests of Rationals are diametrically opposite of those of Guardians and quite different from those of Artisans and Idealists. It may help to juxtapose the interests of all four types so that comparisons can be easily made: Interests Education Preoccupation Vocation Rationals Sciences Technology Systems Artisans Artcrafts Techniques Equipment Guardians Commerce Morality Materiel Idealists Humanities Morale Personnel

At school Rationals typically choose courses in the sciences (and math­ ematics) and avoid the humanities and commerce. Some will try arts and crafts owing to their utilitarian way with tools, but they only rarely stay with a given art or craft long enough to develop saleable skills in it. While preoccupied with technology from an early age, NTs are rarely interested in morality, and only slightly interested in morale building. On the other hand, they will work hard in adding new techniques to their collection, but they are not as consumed by this as they are by mastering technology. In career choice, it is best that they work with systems and not materiel, tools, or personnel. We will understand the Rationals better if we look carefully at their interests in science, technology, and systems. Educational Interest in the Sciences It is hard to get Rationals in school to study information that does not pertain to one of the sciences, and even harder to get them to practice clerical or maintenance operations. Long ago Rationals were the tribal sorcerers, attempting to bend nature to their will; later, in medieval times, they were the alchemists seeking the philosopher’s stone. Today, the largely clerical curriculum in most elementary and secondary schools is boring to NTs, simply because the curriculum is wrong for them. What arouses their inherent curiosity is the work of science—logical investigation, critical experimentation, mathematical description—and it can engage and absorb

The Interests of Rationals


them in lifelong study. Rationals do not have the function-lust of the Artisans so much as a lust to discover natural law, that is, an indomitable drive to find in nature what Francis Bacon thought of as
those laws and determinations of absolute actuality, which govern and constitute any simple nature....Of a given nature to discover the [fixed law]...is the work and aim of Human Knowledge...and the investigation, discovery, and explanation of it is the foundation as well of knowledge as of operation.

The Rationals’ desire to know how nature works never really ends for them. Even when in their nineties, if fortunate enough to reach them, NTs are still studying their books, still observing the world’s patterns, still designing their experiments, still learning what there is to learn about whatever sciences captured their attention and interest in youth. Preoccupied with Technology Rationals are preoccupied with technology, and continue to be preoc­ cupied with it all their lives. Technology is related to technique, something that Artisans are preoccupied with—to be sure, both words stem from the IndoEuropean root ‘tekt,’ with some of its more important derivatives being ‘architect,’ ‘technical,’ ‘tectonics,’ and ‘text’ (as in ‘context,’ ‘pretext,’ ‘textile,’ and ‘texture’). All of these terms have something to do with build, structure, fabric, form, configuration, and the like. In the word ‘technology,’ however, the suffix, ‘logy’ modifies the stem ‘techno’ so as to make it an abstract word meaning “the logic of building.” Compare this with the Artisan’s ‘technique’ which means “skill in building.” The abstract logic and the concrete skill are thus fundamentally different, indeed, so different that Rationals and Artisans usually end up going down totally different paths in life. Two widely different pioneers in electricity, Nikola Tesla and Thomas Edison, were both Rationals, and both preoccupied with technology all their lives, although Tesla was more interested in prototyping and Edison in product development. Then there was Abraham Lincoln, one of our eight Rational Presidents, who constantly tinkered with mechanical objects, (including his son’s toys, which he occasionally wrecked in the process), and who had an invention registered in the U. S. Patent Office. Then, when the Civil War erupted, Lincoln gathered information on how to conduct military campaigns, and he took special pleasure in trying out new weapons in the course of examining the latest technology of warfare. Another of our Rational Presidents, Thomas Jefferson, was more preoccupied than most others of his time with the technological aspects of 18th century science—astronomy, botany, optics, zoology, and more—keeping up with them to his dying day.



Vocational Interest in Systems Rationals are intrigued by machines and by organisms, the two kinds of systemic entities. Organisms are the province of anthropologists, biol­ ogists, ethologists, psychologists, and sociologists; machines, the province of engineers of any kind. Organismic systems are self-regulating and selfdeveloping, while mechanical systems are regulated by servo-mechanisms developed by engineers. Of course, any organism, whether plant or animal, is infinitely more complex than any machine. Even a sub-system, the mammalian eye for instance, is vastly more complex than the most modem airport, a giant machine itself with countless sub-assemblies. But whatever the level of complexity, it is complexity itself that intrigues NTs and therefore beckons them to take up systems-work, whether organismic or mechanical. Indeed, if some Rationals do systems-work in an organismic domain as their vocation, biology for example, those same Rationals will sooner or later get into mechanical systems as an avocation. And the reverse holds true, with many physicists in their later years getting into anthropology, biology, or psychology, Schrodinger, for example, writing What is Life? or Capra The Tao of Physics.

The Orientation of Rationals
We are bom into a social field and live out our lives in that field. Our periods of disorientation, owing to shock, danger, or surprise, are usually short-lived, after which we quickly reorient ourselves and come back to our ordinary waking social frame of reference. After all, we humans are the most social of all the animals, our intense sociability ending in massive and complex societies, and it is our choice of social membership groups that creates our life-long frame of reference. Whatever we think or feel, say or do, occurs, indeed must occur, in the iron crucible of social reality. Each act and attitude is shaped and governed by a prevailing outlook, perspective, or point of view determined by our social matrix. We are oriented always from a certain angle, a standpoint, something Adickes spoke of as our built-in “Weltanschauung" or “worldview.” But different personalities have different perspectives, viewing time and place as well as past, present, and future, differently. Consider the following chart in making these comparisons: Orientation Present Future Past Place Time Rationals Pragmatic Skeptical Relativistic Intersections Intervals Artisans Hedonistic Optimistic Cynical Here Now Guardians Stoical Pessimistic Fatalistic Gateways Yesterday Idealists Altruistic Credulous Mystical Pathways Tomorrow

but.” and they have a horror of repeating an error. or to devise if not. Rationals find that the actions of others are based on mere prejudice or convention. pragmatically. seem relatively unclear about ends. Pragmatic in Looking Around All of the different types of personality have a different way of viewing the world around them. They are efficiency-mongers at all times. to be less hedonistic. The perspective of the Rationals is like none of these. and thus for avoiding errors. Guardians are stoical in perspective. those that bring about maximum results for minimum effort. or less stoical than we are. So let us look closely at these five dimensions of orientation so that we will not be surprised when our Rationals friends prove. relativistic about the past. skeptical about the future. the other types. so they feel it incumbent upon themselves to select if available. To NTs. (NTs heed the warning that “Those who are ignorant of the lessons of history are doomed to repeat them. requiring themselves to bear up under the burdens of life and to keep an eye on the current needs and responsibilities of others. Pragmatism consists in having one eye on what John Dewey called “the relationship between means and ends. for example. however.) All too often. Rationals tend to do so somewhat halfheartedly. and never seem to leam to do such . Even when they take part in the customary or the conventional. And Idealists are altruistic in this matter. not because they are lazy—this they could never be—but because wasted effort bothers them so much. one of the most important things to know about the Rationals is that they are pragmatic to the core. Now. always concerned with giving of themselves to those they care about. or less altruistic. Thus they go for what might be called “mini-max” solutions.The Orientation of Rationals 179 Here it is claimed that Rationals are pragmatic about the present. and so must look to the efficiency of their means and must anticipate the practical consequences of their intended actions before they act. Efficiency is always the issue with Rationals. Minimum effort. Rationals regard social custom neither respectfully nor sentimentally. both of which they brush aside. the most efficient tools. unless some use can be found for them. The Rationals instead construe their immediate surroundings from a pragmatic perspective. their preferred place is at the intersections of interaction. and their preferred time is the interval. which means that they look for pleasurable actions in the here and now. SJs. For Artisans. and all but incapable of coming up with effective means.” and the other eye on what William James called “the practical consequences” of achieving one’s ends. no matter with whom they interact. in their insistent pragmatism. and NFs. everywhere they go. again. the SPs. and actions possible to make sure that the goal is reached. no matter what they do. How different from the other temperaments in the way they view these things. as something useful for deciphering the lessons of history. the prevailing perspective is hedonistic. materials.

nothing can be assumed to be correct. other types. expecting to get the breaks. and so are likely to believe that Rationals are uncaring. means and ends. and this can lead to interpersonal problems. But the new solution will be flawed in many ways. Skeptical in Looking Ahead In their anticipation of things to come Artisans are optimistic. Since NTs are naturally disinterested in tradition and custom. Rationals are strikingly different in their anticipations: they are skeptical. To an NT.” If not born skeptical. Not that one can or should put a solution to all possible tests before a prototype is built. having their doubts about almost everything proposed either to them or by them. all procedures and products. observations and inferences—and thus all must be doubted. especially Guardians and Idealists. Rationals. Rene Descartes. Too often what appears to be the way to go ends up in a box canyon with no way out except back to the entry. That’s what skepticism is. an attitude of doubt about whether appearances or beliefs are to be trusted. began his Meditations concerning First Philosophy by arguing for the rational necessity of Universal Doubt: Since reason already convinces me that I should abstain from the belief in things which are not entirely certain and indubitable no less carefully than from the belief in those which appear to me to be manifestly false.180 Rationals things as a matter of habit. If looking for solutions is the engine of research and development. Guardians are pessimistic^ expecting pitfalls. Unfortunately. therefore I am. looking for errors in coordinating or engineering is its brake. to be shot through with error. Best therefore to take a long and careful look at any proposed method or objective. The only thing that cannot be doubted is the act of rational doubt. all is uncertain and vulnerable to mistakes—all evidence of the senses. . but are reluctant to communicate such feelings. Rationals soon become so. and this first principle Descartes expressed in his famous formula: “I think. it will be enough to make me reject them all if I can find in each some ground for doubt. it should be no surprise that they readily abandon the customary for the workable. Of nothing else can I be certain. otherwise those inevitable errors of order or organization are likely to go undetected. even their own. One must doubt. says the Rational. no matter how careful its creator. believe that everyone should observe—and respect—social conventions. expecting the best of people. are just as caring as others. that quintessential seventeenth century Rational mathematician and philosopher. for error ever lurks in what appears true just as much as what appears false. though seemingly indifferent to conven­ tion in their single-minded pursuit of pragmatic ways and means. and Idealists are credulous. that’s for sure. and thus expect all human endeavors. That of course is impossible.

” All is subjective. what Kant called the “thing-in-itself. even those who care about us. .” The Place is the Intersection Rationals do not view places as simply positioned in space. and Merleau-Ponty tell us in their poetic manner. specifying “on the fifth floor. “is a joint phenomenon of the observer and the observed. we make up our world and only then find it outside of us. and some modern maps add lines of altitude. “are free creations of the human mind and are not. like truth and beauty. with an “x” and a “y” axis—and they define a place as the junction of these two independent coordinates. on presenting his theory of relativity. much as they might wish to.” Nor do they confine themselves to two dimensions. as it were. marooned. To Rationals. and to a Rational it is this intersection which defines the “place. we live in our mind’s eye and can only imagine the world about us. Each of us is alone in an envelope of consciousness. especially those things that did not turn out well.m . of reflecting on past events. the point at which these two lines cross each other. indicating the spot at which two dimensions intersect. they might add the fourth dimension (time): “at four p. cannot really share our consciousness. however it may seem. are far more often relativistic in their hindsight. “I’ll meet you at the corner of First and Main” is a common enough expression.” Or look at any global model of the earth and you will see lines of latitude and longitude. All is relative to our point-of-view. Reality. Sartre. on the earth as its sole inhabitant. or so the Rational phenomenologists Husserl. Idealists mystical. often adding a third. is in the eye of the beholder. Guardians are usually fatalistic about their troubles. Relativistic in Looking Back The different temperaments have different ways of looking back. while at times they might use any of these other ways of rationalizing the past.” Such a relativistic way of dealing with setbacks also gives Rationals a solipsistic view of the world. “Physical concepts.” and to finish defining the event. Rationals structure space as if making a map or plotting a graph—as a two-dimensional network.” Einstein reminds us. of coming to terms with things that have transpired. uniquely determined by the external world. It is in terms of such axes or crossing lines that the Rationals look at spaces and places. It’s all in the way one looks at things. events aren’t of themselves good or bad. Rationals believe that others. But Ra­ tionals. And bear in mind that Einstein. cannot know our minds. favorable or unfavorable. they say—all is relative to one’s frame of reference.” he said. With their eye always on relations between things. saw the real as subjective—“Reality.The Orientation of Rationals 181 Rationals know this. and that’s why they consider their skepticism as a useful and even necessary attitude. cannot feel our desires and emotions. There is no way to contact directly some independent reality. Artisans cynical.

Such coordinate tables speak powerfully to Rationals. even though the last note comes well after the first note. is aware of time only in relation to the task at hand—in this case. all else is timeless. and with the intersection of rows and columns—cells—resulting in a systematic array of combinations... The Time is the Interval The other types tend to view time as a line or a stream running from yesterday (the focus of the Guardians).” Thus a melody is composed of notes all of which belong to the same time. unnoticed. Only events possess time. a progression forming one entity. like time for Gestaltists. like a mountain rockslide. and into tomorrow (the focus of the Idealists). but the sweep of a single motion and a single unit of time.” in which the parts or movements of a whole are “contemporaneous.—to the moment. For example.182 Rationals Now consider the matrix. if not deliberately. Dagny Taggart. all contact with the time behind her—to the circling fall of a blade. Thus time for Rationals. The melody is not complete until the last note is sounded. heed Einstein’s dictum that events do not happen in time.. rather that time is of events: “Every referencebody (coordinate system) has its own particular time. like the notes of a piece of music: from the touch of her hand on the starter—to the blast of the motor’s sound that broke off. but as an interval. when the earth drops off.. perilous run. For them time exists not as a continuous line.. Rationals instinctively. the Guardian’s gateways.” The Gestalt psychologists describe time similarly when they speak of “temporal configurations. but . a segment confined to and defined by an event. But not so the Rationals. In a sense. getting her small airplane aloft: Then she climbed aboard—and the next span of her consciousness was not separate moments and movements. Ayn Rand’s Rational heroine in Atlas Shrugged. the focus of Rationals is outside of time as it is ordinarily understood. is not fixed and flowing.. there is no meaning in a statement of the time of an event. with its row and column factors. It is this attitude about spaces and places that is probably more puzzling to other kinds of character than any other of the Rational’s strange ways of construing reality. and the Idealists’ pathways. With such an orientation the Rational has little time and no interest in other spatial orientations.in the simple.—to the start for the runway—to the brief pause—then to the forward thrust—to the long. natural act of rising... unless we are told the reference-body to which the statement of time refers. and it is in this sense that they can be considered atemporal. through the now (the focus of the Artisans).that gathers power by spending it on a harder and harder and ever-accelerating effort. such as the Artisan’s centers. or more recently. since they enable them to stay on target and to produce accurate distinctions. the spread sheet of the computer.

as we gain in self-respect. the three bases of self-regard affecting each other.The Self-Image of Rationals 183 relative and contingent. and be seen by others. autonomy. since it is created by events rather than being a medium in which events occur. and re­ The Self-Image of Rationals solve are mutually reinforcing. calendars. timetables. Likewise. but create their own period of time. and self-confidence. this increment tends to bolster our self-respect as well as our self-confidence. must look upon themselves. but it does explain why Rationals tend to lose track of clock time. I think the self-image is a triangular matter. attributes so important to Guardians. as ingenious. This concept that events are not mere points on a time-line. Three aspects of our self-image. For all the types. The Self-Image of Rationals All of us have a concept of ourselves composed of things we believe about ourselves. Since having a good opinion of ourselves is one of the keys to our happiness. including the Rationals. to feel good about themselves. might be difficult to understand. or “self-concept” as it is sometimes called. Thus when our self-esteem increases. they still deserve in­ dividual attention. while feeling or appearing. But even if they are not interdependent. and can be oblivious to schedules. autonomous. then the self-image of the Rationals is tri­ Ingenious angular. and often to our success. and resolute. contributes little to their sense of well-being. it becomes less difficult for us to maintain our self-confidence and self-esteem. are of special importance in determining how well we regard ourselves: self-esteem. even changes from day to night. If ingenuity. it is well that we pause for a moment to compare the four character types on this vital aspect of personality: Self-Image Self-Esteem Self-Respect Self-Confidence Rationals Artisans Guardians Idealists Artistic Ingenious Dependable Empathic Autonomous Audacious Beneficent Benevolent Resolute Adaptable Respectable Authentic Note that Rationals. dependable and beneficent. say. with the three bases interde­ pendent. as suggested by the figure at the side. absorbed as they are in the unique time interval of whatever event they are considering. unfolding across their own temporal interval. But different types of personality base their self-image on different things. so that we can un­ Resolute ^ ► Autonomous derstand how Rationals are alike in A . self-respect.

so important to the other character types. to develop a theory or a long-range plan. so important is ingenuity to the Rationals’ self-esteem that artistry. Self-Esteem in Ingenuity Rationals pride themselves on their ingenuity in accomplishing the many and varied tasks they set their minds to. I want to drive over the bridge coming out of New York there and look down on that sea of lights that is New Jersey and say. You want to create something. conscious practice. each game or round must be the occasion for pondering the physics of the most effective swing.. impulsive activity. and so for the Rational the field of play is invariably a laboratory for increasing their proficiency. dependability. Thus it is impossible for Rationals to play with the thoughtless abandon of Artisans. That’s what I want to do. with improved game skills coming as a result of the doing. Rationals aren’t comfortable bragging on themselves. You want to innovate something. It doesn’t matter whether the task be to design a machine or an experiment. but listen as one of the engineers of the national information highway lets his NT pride show for a moment when he speaks of ingenuity: You want to be the first to do something. pale into insignificance for them. In this sense the Artisans are the Rationals’ mirror image. playing is a free. Although it is too much to say Rationals are grim in their recreational . unconscious doing. If the Artisan cannot be induced to try. If the Artisan is naturally impulsive and effortless in action. Both can become absorbed in practicing their sport or game. In tennis or golf. the Rational cannot be induced not to try. Indeed. and for trying out new strokes that seem to fit the paradigm. For the Artisans. Rationals play not so much to have fun but to exercise their ingenuity in acquiring game skills. the NT’s doing is absorbing. For example. which makes improvement come rather slowly and with great difficulty. Rationals are just the opposite. because it is deliberate. and empathy. engaged in for the fun of it. for example. I did that!’ And yet Rationals do not confine their ingenuity to business or profes­ sional matters. Fun for NTs means figuring out how to get better at some skill.184 Rationals this regard and how they are so different from others in how they view themselves.I often think of Edison inventing the light bulb. and less effective. but if the SP’s practice is absorbing because it is free... The degree of inventiveness which they bring to these tasks is the measure of their ingenuity and therefore the measure of their pride in themselves. in that they mightily tax themselves with improving their skills during play. ‘Hey. to build a computer or a business. not merely exercising the skills they already have. they apply it to almost anything they set out to master. the Rational is naturally thoughtful and purposeful in action.

efficiently and poetically executed. and NTs simply do not trust anyone else to have done the necessary research and applied the rules of logic adequately. so they require those who remark on their errors to be precise as well. or even cards and board games. On the golf course or the tennis court. but not Rationals. Rationals desire to live according to their own laws. and credentials do not matter. free of all coercion. Title.The Self-Image o f Rationals 185 activities. Ideas must stand on their own merits. “but even the best of us can err. and they respect themselves in the degree that they act independently. and when they see themselves as slow or second-rate in any activity they are merciless in their selfcondemnation. It doesn’t matter whether the person is a widely accepted authority or not. at the bridge table or the chess board. NTs resist any effort to impose arbitrary rules on them. there must be continuous improvement. at times even regardless of the consequences. the United States Constitution. they can be quite unhappy with themselves when they fail to eliminate errors. and the Bill of Rights were largely the work of Rationals such as Thomas Jefferson. autonomy is the basis of their self-respect. but are also likely to be scathing self-denunciations. reputation. In other words. with each term indicating the unforgivable crime of stupidity. Indeed. at the risk of learning the precise value they put upon such criticisms. Rationals burn with resentment and have even been known to fantasize about revenge. so lack of it is their shame. Just as NTs hold themselves to be precise.” “idiot. Self-Respect in Autonomy While ingenuity is the basis of Rational self-esteem. or convention that does not make sense to them. regulation. rooting out and condemning their errors quite ruth­ lessly.” comments the Rational.” “numbskull.” “turkey. Little wonder that the Declaration of Independence. Benjamin Franklin. Such self-recriminations are not mere critiques of their performance. calling themselves “klutz.” This natural lack of respect for established authorities tends to make the Rationals seem irreverent. As much as possible. though they are willing to obey those that do. with no backsliding. they prefer to ignore any law. others may shrug off mistakes. just as ingenuity is the NTs’ pride. From an early age Rationals will not accept anyone else’s ideas without first scrutinizing them for error. And when unjustly or inac­ curately criticized. Rationals regard . to see the world by their own lights. NTs allow no one else to criticize them without warrant—and even with warrant. Rationals want to govern themselves. But others beware. When an NT plays sports. some might say arrogant. Individualists all. the critic is advised to be cautious and accurate. and also to think for themselves. “I understand that Einstein said so.” and other pejoratives. the fact that a so-called “expert” proclaims something leaves the Rational indifferent. Rationals are easily the most self-critical of all the temperaments re­ garding their abilities. Instinctively taking autonomy to be the greatest virtue. and James Madison.

even though they know some things must happen of themselves. and so on. In Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre. And yet. as in the case of Hughes. and their own occasional lapse into dependency is their only source of guilt. conquer any enemy— even them­ selves—with the power of their resolve. and Buckminster Fuller each developed disease phobias. This is why so many NTs turn out to develop unreasonable fears. something they have no control over.’ Once Rationals resolve to do something they have in a sense made a contract with themselves. who are the most likely of all the types to develop gestural tics when they try to take control of . some of them incapacitating. NTs believe they can overcome any obstacle... but another feeling rose and triumphed: something hard. I was arranging a point with my destiny. such as speech.under his ebony brow. that they are not in charge of their will.” Self-respecting Rationals want to be self-directed and self-determined. warding off infection. the involuntary is by definition not subject to the will.” Rationals know.. After all.. Wild was the wrestle which should be paramount.. perhaps better than others. Indeed.to hold a quivering conflict. Miss Eyre. Rationals are hard pressed.” she wrote in The Fountainhead. for instance. sexual desire. however strong it has proved itself in the past. but that their will is in charge of them. dominate any field. and. Why is this? Why are NTs so fearful of their will power weakening? It is because they can never take will power for granted. And speech is a special problem for the Rationals. Howard Hughes. that they cannot will themselves to control involuntary functions. “All that which proceeds from man’s dependence upon men is evil. a contract they dare not go back on. The Rationals Mark Twain. after careful consideration.self-willed and resolute: it settled his passion and petrified his countenance. their will power might falter. Rochester must will himself to live with the secret of Thornfield Hall: He ground his teeth and was silent: he arrested his step and struck his boot against the hard ground. Self-Confidence in Resolution Rationals are self-confident in so far as they sense in themselves a strength of will or an unwavering resolution. but he cannot will what he wills. They know. Einstein was fond of quoting Schopenhauer’s words: “Man can do what he wants. Some hated thought seemed to have him in its grip. Rationals can dread this loss of control. not to join in her contempt for interpersonal dependency: “All that which proceeds from man’s independent ego is good.186 Rationals dependence on others as the greatest vice.. their worst fear is that their determination might weaken. Whether or not they agree entirely with Ayn Rand’s political and economic theories. he went on:— ‘During the moment I was silent. digestion. Nikola Tesla. especially of germs and other forms of filth. and that they will fail in their resolve. but must occur spontaneously.

S. when he came to look back on it—must be immediately under the cabin. or less enthusiastic than we are. and blazing fiercely. Rationals value being calm. lest we are surprised to find them. is one of calm. Forester’s Horatio Homblower discovers in a moment of crisis. under stress. as shown in the following chart: Value Being Trusting Yearning Seeking Prizing Aspiring Rationals Calm Reason Achievement Knowledge Deference Wizard Artisans Excited Impulse Impact Stimulation Generosity Virtuoso Guardians Concerned Authority Belonging Security Gratitude Executive Idealists Enthusiastic Intuition Romance Identity Recognition Sage These differences in values are so extreme that it will serve us to study all six Rational values in some detail. and collected. That store of paint. and particularly from the Guardians. It is in the domain of values that Rationals separate themselves most clearly from the other types. Rationals prefer to remain calm. and Idealists give their enthusiasm free rein. Where Guardians value being concerned. cool. where Guard­ ians yearn for belonging. Guardians are likely to get concerned about their responsibilities. Rationals yearn for achievement. Thus they can differ in their preferred mood.The Values of Rationals 187 their speech. they have no choice but to invoke their will and try harder. And the contrast extends to what they prize and what they aspire to. Rationals deference and wizardry. say. and in what they aspire to. in what they long for. as C. Artisans like to be excited. with a calm that would astonish him later. And if they cannot avoid these . Though it tends to impair their performance. less generous. strength of resolve is of such extreme importance to Rationals that. where Guardians seek security. in what they prize most. Hornblower calculated—he was calmer now. where Guardians trust authority. The Values of Rationals The different kinds of personality differ in what they value. when things around them are in turmoil. as Galen suggested. in what they continuously seek. after having set fire to the enemy ship which held him captive: A side pane fell in as they watched. in what they put their trust in. Guardians gratitude and executive power. and a rush of flame came through the opening. Rationals trust reason. This is particularly true in stressful situations. Rationals seek knowledge. Being Calm The preferred mood of Rationals. But NTs are also very different in their values from SPs and NFs. less authoritarian.

their impulses even less often. Thus they trust their intuition only now and then. is universal and timeless. and more than others. being closet romantics.” even the most difficult of problems might be solved. Trusting Reason The only thing Rationals trust unconditionally is reason—all else they trust only under certain conditions. and they completely distrust titular authority. and only its laws beyond dispute. if they are to be understood. For another. But make no mistake. they will try hard to avoid letting their concern. what is taken for indifference is not indifference at all. unfettered by convention or tradition. because they are reluctant to express emotions or desires. for here we are not afraid to follow truth wherever it may lead.” Jefferson’s vision was of a free competition of ideas. SPs. but the thoughtful. being careful to avoid reading their own desires. an inquiry limited only by the scope of the human mind and the laws of reason. But they have little or no patience for ideas that don’t make sense. NTs say. In this he was a typical Rational. and they will not be swayed by any argument that fails to meet their criterion of logical coherence. becoming as tight as a bowstring when they think they might be able to solve a problem if they put their mind to it. SJs.188 Rationals emotional states. When the Rational Thomas Jefferson wrote the charter for the University of Virginia. Yearning for Achievement One of the most important things to remember about Rationals. is that they yearn for achievement. More than the other temperaments. For one thing they can get quite intense and pressured about matters under their control (and few things will they admit they cannot control). Thus Rationals take it for granted that “if men would but reason together. though again. Rationals tend to hold them tightly in check. absorbed concentration of the contemplative investigator. he insisted that here education “will be based upon the illimitable freedom of the human mind. and NFs are puzzled more by this seeming unflappability in trying circumstances than by any other trait of the NT character. excitement. and expectations into their observations. Rationals are not the cold and distant persons they are often made out to be. emotions. Some might . Indeed. so Rationals are prone to examine and control themselves in the same deliberate manner. their feelings are just as varied and strong as those of other character types. nor tolerate error so long as reason is left free to combat it. Of all these only reason. However. Just as effective investiga­ tors carefully hold their feelings in check and gauge their actions so that they do not disturb their inquiry or contaminate their results. although they hold back on any intemperate displays. NTs are often criticized for being unfeeling and cold. NTs listen carefully to new ideas as long as they make sense—as long as they are logical. or enthusiasm show.

and because of their persistence. that Arrowsmith did not covet. This time. Making matters worse. a challenge they eagerly accept. then held in reserve until actually needed. while for the NTs skills are competencies to be sharpened through practice.. when consciousness of it has pierced through the layers of his absorption. at this point they can be unreasonably demanding of both themselves and others. Rationals tend over their lifetimes to collect a large repertoire of skilled actions. Because their hunger for achievement presses them constantly. Con­ demning an NT to idleness would be the worst sort of punishment. indeed. who also become skillful. if not unable. Achievement eats at NTs in this way because it demands of them ever greater knowledge and skill. failure is at hand. few of which they employ very extensively. Thus. Rationals work not so much for the pleasure of action (like the Artisans). so that anything less than their best is judged as mediocre. and their longing is never fully satisfied. No wonder that NTs frequently achieve notable success in their chosen field. Rationals work with a single-minded desire to achieve their objectives. However.The Values of Rationals 189 suppose that these seemingly calm and contemplative types have no strong desires. Unfortunately. skills are opportunities for action and have no meaning if they are not used. they must achieve. and are frequently haunted by a sense of teetering on the edge of failure. once involved in a project. setting their standards too high and becoming quite tense under stress. as Sinclair Lewis explains in Arrowsmith. Rationals tend to ratchet up their standards of achievement. in all probability. . and so constant self-doubt and a niggling sense of impending failure are their lot. While NTs prefer to acquire know­ how. he was hungry for every skill. his novel about a gifted young scientist: There was no strength. nor for the joy of helping others (like the Idealists). In this they are quite unlike the Artisans. Rationals demand so much achievement from themselves that they often have trouble measuring up to their own standards. This time their skill will not be great enough.no knowledge. setting the bar at the level of their greatest success. and would like to be ingenious. NTs never give themselves a break from this escalating level of achievement. If he was but little greedy for possessions. NTs typically believe that what they do is not good enough. The hard-won triumph becomes the new standard of what is merely acceptable. to limit their commitment of time and energy. For the SPs. they tend to be reluctant.. nor for the security a job provides (like the Guardians). But beneath the calm exterior is a gnawing hunger to achieve whatever goals they set for themselves. This time their achievement will not be adequate. work is work and play is work. and ordinary achievements are now viewed as falling short of the mark. Rationals live through their work. For them..

Knowledge for Rationals is never merely speculative. NTs want to be given a rationale in the answers they receive. is not to ask for the meaning or significance of these things (something that greatly concerns their abstract cousins. Prometheus) they would steal knowledge even from the gods. or computers. or why it was that way. as tell how to confront the world. Such a quest for pragmatic knowledge arises early for Rationals. why a lever has power. about how things work—and thus about definition and description of structure and function. something most parents and teachers have difficulty giving them.” so that her secrets could be extracted by scientific experimentation. To know about is to comprehend the necessary and sufficient conditions under which events occur. the Idealists).. Rationals consider problems of central importance. their pursuit of knowledge leads them to grapple with an ever-widening range of complex problems. who don’t understand what they are really asking. Rationals are on the lookout for knowledge. and they will persist in their . Francis Bacon declared at the beginning of the 17th century that knowledge is power. Guardians security. The Rationals’ questions are about why things take the form they do.. but pragmatic knowledge was Feynman’s specialty.There were other kinds of scientific knowledge. By knowing about and knowing how to. Nobel prize winning physicist Richard Feynman had no use for what he called the philosopher’s “soft” questions: Feynman’s reinvention of quantum mechanics did not so much explain how the world was. it acted and accomplished. they often dismay their parents and teachers. It was not knowledge of or knowledge about. Some of them are so relentless in their search. As his biographer James Gleick notes. As Rationals grow up. for they are actually interested in “how?” not “why?” And since they can be insistent in their questioning.. It was knowledge how to. To know how to is to comprehend the operational capabilities and limits of technol­ ogies—the possibilities and constraints of their tools. why water is wet. But since they are likely to pose their question as a “why?” they will often be unsatisfied with the answer they receive. The Rationals’ search for knowledge has two objectives: they must know how to as well as know about. and seems fueled by an insatiable curiosity. be they cutters. When NTs ask “why?” they are really asking “how?” or even “how to?” To ask why the sky is blue. Rationals increase their capability to predict and to control events. that (like their benefactor. car­ bines. as soon as they have the language for inquiring. For him knowledge did not describe.190 Rationals Seeking Knowledge While Artisans go in search of stimulation. Further. In doing so he established the Rational method of scientific investigation which has prevailed in the West for 400 years. and advised that nature be “put to the rack. and Idealists identity. Whether the problem is one of engineering machines or of coordinating operations.

and if they don’t have a problem to work on they will actually set one for themselves as a way of exercising their skills. Prizing Deference What is pleasing to one sort of person may not be nearly as pleasing to another. in contrast to the social and moral shoulds and oughts of the Guardians and Idealists.. you’re the czar of immunology. that they might be thought of as the “Knowledge-Seeking Personality. Guardians by gratitude...The Values of Rationals 191 search for models and maps.. the more exacting and stringent the demand they place on themselves for acquiring knowledge.” Horrors!. which is that the asking of the question is the important thing. Another way of looking at this is that. “Well..” Of all the traits of character that set the Rationals apart—and at the same time group them together—it is their life-long search for knowledge. with which to construe and attack these problems.None of that really interests me. Certainly Rationals are not indifferent to generosity... con­ cerning the essential mysteries of biology. for paradigms and algorithms. when they make something or do something it is usually after long and sometimes obsessive analysis. NTs regard such deference as being given not so much to themselves personally as to their productions.‘1 have a small romantic streak and a very definite belief that’s coupled to it. now. with pros and cons considered.So if you said to me. So even if they are not especially brilliant.’ So intent are Rationals in their pursuit of knowledge. gratitude. And though they can concentrate fully on one thing at a time. or recognition. it is to be expected that their productions have been carefully devised. Artisans are quite pleased by generous treatment. Having won a Nobel prize in 1972 for his work on immunology. After all. and errors of inclusion and exclusion rooted out. What interests me is dark areas. And the more extreme the Rational style. Problem-solving for the Rationals is a twenty-four hour occupation. biologist Gerald Edelman was not at all content to cease his inquiries: About three years after Edelman won the prize he essentially left the field to pursue even bigger questions—the biggest ones imaginable. But Rationals cannot ask for deference. the Rationals have a good many should-knows itemized in massive lists inside their heads. any more than Guardians can . They are especially drawn to problems that tax their knowledge base. rarely deleting or forgetting any. since practice with such problems adds to their knowledge and naturally expands their repertoire of useful models. especially if the request is for an exposition of their rationale.. but they are much more pleased when asked by an admirer to comment on something the NT has produced. and to work continually on solutions to the many problems that intrigue them. Idealists by being recognized as their unique selves. they are inclined to accumulate more and more useful knowledge.

Listen as Merlin. they are pleased when someone defers to them for definition and explanation of their production. out of interest in their work. Arthur: How could I learn if I couldn’t think?. and so have little or no reason to acknowledge and give credit to its maker. King Arthur’s wizard in Lerner and Loewe’s Camelot. and the understanding and explanation of their contexts.. if someone else is asked to expound on what they’ve accomplished. or worse.. But if they have done something rather well.I started to try to understand how that system works. is something you should definitely get into the habit of making use of as often as possible. of course. So the vast majority of Rationals who manage to achieve something great are unsung heroes to the public. or Idealists for recognition. Life is magic. I began to tease out the logic of the magic that I was so impressed by. then they have no desire to be consulted in the matter. boy. the way nature works seems to be quite magical. if in their view they haven’t achieved anything they regard as worth noting. But listen also to Jonas Salk as he explains his view of the magic of biological science: When I discovered there was more to learning than the books we were exposed to.. find a scientist. I recognized that there was a logic to the magic. and behold a wizard. Learn! Learn why the world wags and what wags it. with what seems an almost magical power over nature. After all. and in single-minded pursuit of the four aims of science: the prediction and control of events. And. Merlin: Yes. It must come to them spontaneously.192 Rationals ask for appreciation. especially the scientific genius. a wizard is the ultimate scientist.. Scratch a Rational.. but glimpse the figure the Rationals would aspire to become. and .. they tend to take as their idol the technological wizard. and they can be disappointed if none comes their way. Aspiring to be a Wizard Because Rationals value the strategic intellect so highly. Their problem is that their accomplishment is often so highly techni­ cal—designing a computer chip for instance—that most people are only vaguely aware of how difficult it was to make. The Social Roles Rationals Play It is impossible not to play a role in all of our social transactions.thinking. and then when I became interested in bringing science into medicine. and therefore heroes only to their family or their colleagues—and perhaps in their own eyes.. teaches young Arthur what he considers the most important lesson of all: Merlin: There’s only one thing for all of it.

The Social Roles Rationals Play 193 there are two kinds of social roles. epistemology and linguistics. and the NF Harmonizer. a few remarks can at least give an outline of how Rationals play their social roles. questions in ethics and religion. parenting. We perforce play offspring to our parents. if. the SJ Stabilizer. and those that we reach out and take for ourselves. and relatives to our extended family members. those that are allotted to us by virtue of our position in our social milieu. The Mindmate Sharing with their spouses what they have on their minds is of primary importance to Rationals. leading—are of special interest in the context of the study of personality. and leading roles are played: Social Roles Mating Parenting Leading Rationals Mindmate Individuator Visionary Artisans Playmate Liberator Negotiator Guardians Helpmate Socializer Stabilizer Idealists Soulmate Harmonizer Catalyst Note the striking difference between playing the Rational’s Mindmate role and the Guardian’s Helpmate role. the Idealist’s Soulmate role. Consider the following chart which com­ pares how differently the mating. Allotted or embraced. and so on. whether or not there is agreement. and. and followers. friend to friend. and the Artisan’s Playmate role. Even so. This desire for intellectual sharing puts limits on the kind of mate that Rationals are apt to choose. neither of whom are willing to pursue abstract topics either recurrently or for more than a few . These different roles will require lengthy and complex study and so a chapter (Chapter 7) on mating is provided later in this book. In these three roles the different kinds of personality differ significantly in the effects their roles have on mates. On the other hand we choose to play mate to our spouse. Separate chapters (Chapters 8 and 9) are also furnished on the NT’s parenting and leadership roles. the SJ Socializer. parenting. to distinguish the NT Individuator parent from the SP Liberator. we have no choice but to enact our roles. superior to our subordinate. and the NF Catalyst. as well as to differentiate the NT Visionary leader from the SP Negotiator. although the latter are usually too technical for much sharing. The desire will not be fulfilled in the event they are mated with either Guardians or Artisans. offspring. They are prone to initiate discussions with their mates on a wide variety of topics and to pursue them until the issue is clear. since to interact with others can never be role-free. parent to our offspring. of course. siblings to our brothers and sisters. breakthroughs in science and tech­ nology. the Rational is a scientist or technologist and the mate is not. subordinate to our superior. The issues they pursue with their mates are almost invariably abstract rather than concrete—issues such as theories of politics and economics. that is. Three of our roles—mating.

their plans leaving nothing important to chance. Even in marriage NTs are pragmatic. The Visionary Leader Rational leaders usually have a vision of how an organization will look and how it will fare in the long haul. if the desire for cognitive sharing is the Rational’s primary criterion for choosing a mate. there is no room for error in this choice since mating is for life. So. Rationals usually approach mate selection as a difficult and even threat­ ening problem. Those who do err in this are likely. The Individuator Parent Rational parents are usually more concerned about the growth of indi­ viduality in their children than the other types. the payoff being that of . is all but ignored by Rational parents in their determination to encourage their children’s individuation. important though they may be. so important to Guardian parents. such as the Idealist’s self-esteem and the Artisan’s venturesomeness.194 Rationals minutes. owing to their rather stringent code of ethics. And civility of conduct. After all. will probably entail less marital conflict. though choosing the more friendly types. It is vitally important to them that each and every child in the family becomes progressively more self-directed and self-reliant in handling the challenges of life. to honor the contract they made and do their best to minimize the underlying conflict of values. are thought to follow along naturally in the wake of their children developing a firm sense of their individuality and autonomy. These terms are placed beside those used to define the other three personalities. There can be considerable payoff for those who take time to study this matrix. if for some reason the Mindmate role is set aside. Matrix of Rational Traits The matrix that follows arranges and highlights the terms used in this chapter to define the personality of the Rationals. Other con­ cerns. the Rationals have just as much leeway as other types in finding their mate. such that their followers heartily join them in the enterprise they have envisioned. Conservator Guardians (ESFJs and ISFJs) and Improvisor Artisans (ESFPs and ISFPs). one requiring careful empirical study and calm but rigorous introspection. their long suit in intelligence being strategic planning. they are often able to convey their vision of things to come to their followers. he or she is prudent to choose another Rational or an Idealist. thus enabling us to compare the Rational traits to those of others. and refer back to it from time to time. And owing to their early and long pursuit of coherent and comprehensive speech. they say to themselves. On the other hand. They look far ahead and all around.

Matrix of Rational Traits 195 getting a grip on the whole configuration of the Platonic-Aristotelian Di­ alectical Rational Personality and getting a feel of its uniqueness and radical difference from the others. The Traits of Temperament and Character Communication I — Concrete —i Implementation Utilitarian Cooperative Character Artisan Guardian Language Referential Syntactical Rhetorical i— Abstract— i Cooperative Utilitarian Idealist Rational Inductive Interpretive Metaphoric Hyperbolic Harmonic Indicative Descriptive Heterodox Associative Imperative Comparative Orthodox Deductive Categorical Subjunctive Technical Intellect Tactical Logistical Administrator • Supervisor • Inspector Conserving • Provider • Protector Commerce Morality Materiel Stoicism Pessimism Fatalism Gateways Yesterday Dependable Beneficent Respectable Concerned Authority Belonging Security Gratitude Executive Helpmate Socializer Stabilizer Diplomatic Mentor • Teacher • Counselor Advocating • Champion • Healer Humanities Morale Personnel Altruism Credulism Mysticism Pathways Tomorrow Empathic Benevolent Authentic Enthusiastic Intuition Romance Identity Recognition Sage Soulmate Harmonizer Catalyst Strategic Coordinator • Fieldmarshal • Mastermind Engineer • Inventor • Architect Sciences Technology Systems Pragmatism Skepticism Relativism Intersections Intervals Ingenious Autonomous Resolute Calm Reason Achievement Knowledge Deference Wizard Mindmate Individuator Visionary Operator Directive Role • Expressive Role • Promoter • Crafter • Reserved Role Informative Role Entertainer • Expressive Role • Performer • Composer • Reserved Role Interest Education Preoccupation Vocation Artcraft Technique Equipment Hedonism Optimism Cynicism Here Now Artistic Audacious Adaptable Excited Impulse Impact Stimulation Generosity Virtuoso Playmate Liberator Negotiator Orientation Present Future Past Place Time Self-Image Self-Esteem Self-Respect Self-Confidence Value Being Trusting Yearning Seeking Prizing Aspiring Social Role Mating Parenting Leading .

while marshalling connotes binding effective forces to a goal. the only difference being that mobilizing connotes moving effective forces toward a goal.’ Personnel and materiel can be mobilized as well as mar­ shalled. any more than other types. These two divisions can be further broken down to reflect an expressive or a reserved social attitude.196 Rationals Rational Role Variants These “Abstract Utilitarians. all the Rationals seem to have a natural gift for strategic ingenuity. Aristotle’s Dialecticals. and he knew full well which commanders to pick to run the campaigns in the eastern and western theaters—Eisenhower. and Myers’s NTs—have a tightly configured personality.” in a word. but some (the scheduling NTs) are drawn to the directive role of Coordinator of efficient campaigns and contingency plans.” as I like to call them—Plato’s Rationals. While it is useful to think of each of the four temperaments as a single. and Douglas MacArthur—each a genius in strategic mobilizing and mar­ shalling of personnel and materiel toward world-wide aims. languishing with little to . the basic. Galen’s Phlegmatics. a mere colonel at the time.” Another word that is useful in defining this kind of coordinating activity is ‘mobilizing. unified configuration of attitudes and actions. Marshall. The Fieldmarshal [ENTJ] Myers had a special name for the ENTJs. This means that Mother Nature does not permit Rationals. Either way. Dwight Eisenhower. Best then to call them the “Fieldmarshals. “superleaders.” This no doubt because she could see how efficient the ENTJs are in marshalling task forces in the field in preparation for launching major enterprises. while others (the probing NTs) prefer the informative role of Engineer of efficient prototypes and models. individual members of each temperament clearly differ from one another. If their environment enables them to develop a given trait it can only be one that is predetermined by their temperament. to pick and choose their traits of character. She called them “the leaders of leaders. Marshalling forces is the coor­ dinating of personnel and materiel in the service of a clearly defined objective. but a brilliant student of warfare who had worked for Marshall as his best campaign planner. chair­ man of the Joint Chiefs of Staff at the outbreak of war. with the Coordinators tending to play the role variants of Fieldmarshal or Mastermind. It was no accident that World War II saw three of these ENTJs in command of our armed forces—George Marshall. something ENTJs seem especially cut out for. and General MacArthur. Thus. so that each trait of character entails the other traits. was already at the top. and the Engineers playing Inventor or Architect. driving force of these Fieldmarshals is to command forces that promise to be effective in achieving the objectives that they are able to visualize.

they are abstract in their communication and utilitarian in how they im­ plement their goals. it was no accident. and from early on they can be observed taking command of groups. the ENTJs are little different from the other NTs in most respects. exploring Engineer’s informative role. relativistic.Rational Role Variants—The Fieldmarshal 197 do in the Philippines. are preoccupied with technology. And because they are so forceful in their expressiveness they find greater satisfaction in the role variant of Fieldmarshal than Mastermind. and aspire to be wizards of science and technology. autonomous. hiring a cement contractor to pour the foundation. Such individuals. they seem to have influence beyond their numbers. focused on spatial intersections and intervals of time. No. In some cases. Then come the framer. But the reason is that they have a strong natural urge to bring order and efficiency wherever they are—to harness people and resources and to lead them toward their goals with minimum waste of effort and maximum progress. they are prone to practice strategy far more than diplomacy. They would if possible be calm. are bound to lead others. and he fully appreciated the high strategic intelligence of each. but also hiring a plumber to set the water pipes and connect the sewer lines before pouring the slab. for example. electrician. Like all the Rationals. are hungry for achievement. and are mystified as to how this happened. skeptical. painter. they trust reason. . they tend to choose the Coordinator’s directive role over the probing. They base their self-image on being ingenious. and work well with systems. Put a Fieldmarshal in charge of the job and he or she will coordinate all the steps in the operation. male or female. Intellectually. something less than two percent of the total population. Their point of view is pragmatic. because Marshall had long experience with both of these men. To visualize ENTJ intellectual development consider the following graph that depicts the most probable profile of their strategic roles: The Strategic Roles of the ENTJ Fieldmarshal Mastermind Inventor Architect Coordinator Engineer Fieldmarshal Although Fieldmarshals are just as rare as the other Rationals. having a decisive or scheduling nature. and especially logistics. prize deference. of whatever age. Take building a house. As a variant of Plato’s Rationals and Aristotle’s Dialecticals. They choose to study science. Fieldmarshals simply find themselves in charge of groups. drywaller. so forceful is their climb to the top. Every operation needed for achieving the objective shall be executed. and all unnecessary operations are quietly and permanently eliminated from the planned sequence of events. and cabinet maker. Further. roofer. tactics. seek knowledge. and resolute.

summarizing. what is expected. the ENTJ parent is not apt to make a scene. The ENTJ female. a well-developed autonomy. which enable them to be good at system­ atizing. Few children are not in awe of this sort of command. whether in the military. More than any other type they are skilled at reducing bureaucracy in any of its forms. need to possess a strong personality of their own. education. Although Fieldmarshals are tolerant of some established procedures. In just the same way. as a resource. may not be appealing to an ENTJ male. leaving little doubt about who makes the decisions. business. Fieldmarshals are thoroughly in command. or government. Parkinson’s law has little chance of survival where an ENTJ is in charge. Fieldmar­ shals are the supreme pragmatists. Superb executives. and they seem unusually able to communicate that vision to others. and people’s feelings usually are not sufficient reason. rather. however. compiling evidence. Any procedure the objective of which is no longer pursued is instantly eliminated and its users reassigned to more productive actions. always aware of the relationship of means to ends. When they don’t. to be socially sophisticated. and a healthy self-esteem. For the ENTJ. While . if not to be steamrolled. A career-woman. generalizing. ENTJs desire and have the ability to visualize where the organization is going. and their children will know what is expected of them—and will be expected to obey. who. many and varied interests. They are so single-minded and easily caught up in some project or campaign that they can easily block out other areas of life for the sake of their work. and at demonstrating their ideas. they can and will abandon any procedure when it can be shown to be ineffective in accomplishing its goal. These decisive and outspoken Rationals will usually rise to positions of responsibility in the workplace and enjoy being in charge. Male or female. and cannot not push to implement their goals. they expect a great deal of their mates. they mobilize their forces into smooth-functioning systems. More than all other types ENTJs are from an early age bent on the exacting and untiring practice of their budding coordinating skills. and what the inevitable consequences of disobe­ dience will be. there is more likely to be a low-key clarification about who is in charge. Fieldmarshals take full command at home. and to continue her education. keeping both short-term and long-range objectives well in mind. who is apt to view his home and family as a part of his professional background. on the other hand. arranging priorities. Fieldmarshals cannot not build organizations. When in charge of an organization. Also in their parenting role. may find it difficult to select a mate who is not overwhelmed by the force of her will. and they are willing to dismiss employees who cannot get with the program and increase their efficiency.198 Rationals with the ENTJ requiring that the construction follows a logical order so that there is minimum waste of manpower and material resources. there must always be a reason for doing anything. planning in advance. and thus adjunct to his own career development. He might expect his mate to be active in civic and community affairs.

. but Mastermind INTJs are head and shoulders above all the rest in contingency planning or what is called “entailment management. these roles must sometimes take a back seat to their strong career drive. prize deference. and to the enormous amount of time they spend on the job. and each of which can be subject to unforeseen problems. they trust reason. factory. Such operations involve many. The Mastermind [INTJ] All NTs are good at planning operations. they are prone to practice strategy far more than diplomacy. but they are always prepared to switch to Plan B—or C or D if they are called for. and especially logistics. Intellectually. comprising no more than. They would if possible be calm. the INTJs are little different from the other NTs in most respects. autonomous. each of which must be coordinated to follow one another in a necessary progression. Like all the Rationals. and work well with systems. are preoccupied with technology. As a variant of Plato’s Rationals and Aristotle’s Dialecticals. Further. They base their self-image on being ingenious. they tend to choose the Coordinator’s directive role over the probing Engineer’s informative role. one percent of the population. are hungry for achievement. To visualize INTJ skills development consider the fol­ lowing graph depicting the most probable profile of their strategic roles: The Strategic Roles of the INTJ Mastermind Fieldmarshal Architect Inventor Coordinator Engineer - Mastermind Masterminds are rare. Their point of view is pragmatic.” A contingency plan has if-thens in it. and resolute. seek knowledge. tactics. they are abstract in their communication and utilitarian in how they im­ plement their goals. focused on spatial intersections and intervals of time. say. and aspire to be wizards of science and technology. with their scheduleminded nature. INTJs never set the course of their current project without a Plan A firmly in mind. from planning a family vacation in Europe to preparing for the invasion of Europe. as in World War II. And because they are reserved around others they seem more comfortable in the role variant of Mastermind than Fieldmarshal. skeptical. and they are rarely encountered outside their office. put there to deal with foreseeable operational errors and shortages of personnel and materiel. They choose to study science. relativistic.Rational Role Variants—The Mastermind 199 both mating and parenting are highly important to the Fieldmarshals. All sorts of contingencies are bound to arise when any complex project is undertaken. many steps. and to prepare alternatives for difficulties that are likely to arise. Masterminds are able to grasp how each step necessitates or entails the next.

in their presence often results in working relationships . These traits of character lead them to occupations where theoretical models can be translated into actuality. preferring to stay in the background until others demonstrate their inability to lead. they are quick to realign operations to the forgotten goal. who love responding to a problem that requires a creative solution. These seclusive Coordinators usually rise to positions of responsibility. which can be a weakness in their careers. Difficulties are highly stimulating to INTJs. which is to say if they work efficiently toward accomplishing well-defined goals. having usually developed a very strong will. INTJs are not at all eager to take command. Only ideas that make sense to them are adopted. aren’t. inefficient paper flow. the Mastermind is completely open-minded and will entertain any idea holding promise of utility. they can hardly rest until they have things settled and decided. duplication of effort. Thus authority based on degrees. seeing reality as nothing more than a chess board for working out and refining their strategies. They can be outstanding in scientific research and as executives in businesses. and even incompetent. Their fellow workers often feel as if a Mastermind can see right through them. Once in charge. for by focusing so tightly on their own pursuits they can ignore the points of view and wishes of others. they are more interested in moving an organization forward than dwelling on mistakes of the past. all else discarded. set in concrete. They have a drive to completion. indeed. and often believe that they find them wanting. Decisions come easily to them. sparing neither their own time and effort nor that of their colleagues and employees. When planning. Masterminds tend to be much more self-confident than other Rationals. INTJs are the highest achievers in school of all the types. because of their tendency to drive others as hard as they drive themselves. or celebrity does not impress them.200 Rationals or laboratory. ordinarily. although they subject every idea to the test of usefulness. However. They build data and human systems wherever they work. Ideas seem to carry their own force for them. title. This tendency of people to feel transparent. Remember. if given the slightest opportunity. they can become single-minded at times. always with an eye to long-term conse­ quences. credentials. And on the job. they are thoroughgoing pragmatists. They tend. Fruitful theories are quickly applied. and if they encounter problems of overlapping functions. They will adopt ideas only if they are useful. their imperative is always costeffectiveness. Masterminds are certain that both internal and external consistency are indispensable in the well-run organization. To the INTJ. those that don’t. no matter who the author is. but can be improved. order is never arbitrary. they often seem demanding and difficult to satisfy. Although they are highly capable leaders. for they work long and hard and are steady in their pursuit of goals. nor do slogans or catchwords. and waste of human and material resources. to verbalize the positive and to eschew comments of a negative nature. however.

and they will not waste their time on courtships that seem to hold little promise. and they do not enjoy physical contact except with a chosen few. Masterminds rely on their head and not their heart to make these choices. and thus people receive a sense of hurry from them which is not always intended. Masterminds want harmony and order in their home and in their marriage. For example. the building of prototypes of devices that work to make systems more efficient. With their children. when in truth they are merely taking the goals of an institution seriously. and once they have decided a person is worthy of them. that is. they are fully aware that children need well-defined limits. however. and they loyally support them and tend to allow them to develop in directions of their own choosing. They know quickly—usually on the first or second date—whether or not a relationship has any future. they make passionate and loyal mates. the emotions of an INTJ are hard to read. The Inventor [ENTP] Inventing is the functional side of engineering. they have a strong need for privacy. On the contrary. All in all. As the people in an institution come and go. cold and dispassionate. loyal employees whose loyalties are directed toward the system. able to stand up to the sometimes formidable strength of their personality. These supremely definite INTJs encourage independence of action and attitude in their offspring. In general. Fortunately. INTJs may communicate that time is wasted if used for idle chitchat. who have their loyalties involved more with persons than projects. It is so natural for ENTPs to practice devising ingenious gadgets and mechanisms . they may appear cold and may neglect to observe small rituals designed to put others at their ease. For all that. Their children are a major focus in life. if they believe that they are right. and neither a male nor female of this type is apt to be very outgoing or emotionally expressive. On the other hand. and at times. and they are invariably firm and consistent in setting those limits. even romantic types.Rational Role Variants—The Inventor 201 which have some psychological distance. therefore. a matter of finding someone who correlates highly with their mental list of physical and intellectual requirements. indifference or criticism from their fellow workers does not particularly bother Masterminds. at times. they will seem cold and calculating. The most independent of all the types. since they regard the selection of a proper mate as a rational process. but not at the cost of having a submissive mate. rather than toward individuals within the system. and continually striving to achieve those goals. they make dedicated. these NTs have little difficulty getting on with their jobs—unlike the NFs. Courtship is a special problem for Masterminds. Even in more casual social situations. Masterminds are loving and unfailing in their devotion. Colleagues may describe INTJs as unemotional and. INTJs want their mates to be independent as well. Masterminds are deeply emotional. Make no mistake. almost hypersensitive to signals of rejection from their loved one.

they often bring fresh. prize deference. new approaches to their work and their lives. To visualize ENTP intellectual development consider the following graph depicting the most probable profile of their strategic roles: The Strategic Roles of the ENTP Inventor Architect Engineer Coordinator Fieldmarshal Mastermind Inventor There aren’t many Inventors. and aspire to be wizards of science and technology. and especially logistics. They are intensely curious and continuously probe for possibilities. Further. And these Inventors get such a kick out of it that they really never stop exercising their inventive talent. and work well with systems. tactics. who find themselves admiring the Inventor’s insatiable hunger for know-how. They base their self-image on being ingenious. Such curiosity can be inspiring to others. and resolute. though in the workplace they will turn their technological ingenuity to many kinds of systems. Inventors are confident in the value of their approaches and display a charming capacity to ignore the standard. espe­ cially concerning complex problems. Their point of view is pragmatic. As a result of this innovative attitude. they trust reason. new activities. Intellectually they are prone to practice strategy far more than diplomacy. They choose to study science. they are abstract in their communication and utilitarian in how they im­ plement their goals. autonomous. always on the lookout for new projects. the ENTPs are little different from the other NTs in most respects. skeptical. ENTPs are also the most reluctant of all the types to do things in a particular manner just because that is the way things have always been done. focused on spatial intersections and intervals of time. are preoccupied with technology. and often become expert at improving relationships between means and ends. social as well as physical and mechanical.202 Rationals that they start doing it even as young children. the traditional. Inventors are keen judges of the pragmatics of both social and technological organization. And owing to their ex­ pressiveness and interest in the world at large they prefer the role variant of Inventor over Architect. having a probing or option-minded nature they tend to prefer the Engineer’s informative role over the scheduling Coordinator’s directive role. and the authoritative. are hungry for achievement. As a variant of Plato’s Rationals and Aristotle’s Dialecticals. Good at functional analysis. They would if possible be calm. seek knowledge. Where the INTP Architect sees design as an end in itself. They characteristically have an eye out for a better way. the Inventor sees design as a means to an . new procedures. relativistic. Like all the Rationals. and they find chaos theory intriguing. say about two percent of the population.

Inventors are seldom con­ formists in the workplace. Inventors have an entrepreneurial spirit and can cleverly make do with whatever or whoever is at hand. continuously devising new and intriguing ways to get their students involved in learning. Inventors often have a lively circle of friends and are interested in their ideas and activities. however. as a way of devising the instrument that works. ENTPs may. ENTPs can be fascinating conversationalists. Inventors have also been known to engage in brinkmanship with their superiors. quickly grasping the politics of institutions and always aiming to understand the people within the system rather than to judge them. They are normally easy-going. A rough draft is all they need to feel confident and ready to proceed into action. at times. But the focus of the Inventors is on competency and a sense of achievement. seldom critical or nag­ ging.” They are not. Superficially. They make good leaders on innovative projects that test their ingenuity. the prototype that is replicable. ENTPs can succeed in a variety of occupations. If their job becomes dull and repetitive. just to give them an opportunity to come up with a solution—which. No matter what their occupation. Because of this tendency to depend on their capability and inventiveness. To stave off routine. “It can’t be done” is a challenge to an ENTP and elicits a reaction of “I can do it. Even after repeated failures in situations where their capability has met with defeat. and will take charge of activities only when forced to by circumstance. placing their own careers in jeopardy and behaving as if unaware of the consequences. they are non-directive in their handling of others. they succeed in doing. To these outgoing Engineers. Rather. Indeed. they resemble ESTP Promoter Artisans with their talent for improvisation and expedient action. And they are skilled at engineering human relationships and human systems. Inventors have faith in their ability to come up with solutions to problems. able . They may even work against the system just for the joy of holding the upper hand. more often than not. ideas are valuable when and only when they make possible actions and objects. the movers of mountains as are the INTJ Masterminds. counting on their capability to solve problems as they arise. Their good humor and curiosity tend to be contagious. They are usually outstanding teachers. rather than carefully generating a detailed blueprint in advance. they will develop ways of avoiding such situations rather than resorting to more thorough preparation. as long as the job does not involve too much humdrum routine.Rational Role Variants—The Inventor 203 end. neglect to prepare themselves adequately for a given task. they tend to lose interest and fail to follow through—often to the discomfort of colleagues. ENTPs will try to outwit the system and use the rules and regulations within the system to give themselves room to innovate. Thus they may create an unnecessary crisis on the job. and people seek out their company. rather than on the Promoter’s feeling of spontaneity and freedom of action. and they display an extraordinary talent for rising to the demands of even the most impossible situations. however. at which point they become restless.

and they usually solve this problem by letting their mates pick up after them. and are typically in good humor. ENTPs are the most able of all the types to maintain a one-up position with others. wonderful warmth and affection when they are with their children. structure. They are gregarious. and if their mates are not intellectually competitive they are likely to find such one-up/one-down transactions somewhat wearying. they respond quickly and adeptly to another’s shifting position. it is feast or famine. in their later years (after finding out that most others are faking an understanding of the laws of nature). and machines. however. INTPs are likely to think of themselves as the master organizers who must pit themselves against nature and society in an unending effort to create organization out of the raw . and of all kinds of theoretical systems. All of these Architects look upon the world as little more than raw material to be reshaped according to their design. offending their pride in being masters of the art of one-upmanship. bridges. as formless stone that must yield to their coordinate lines of demar­ cation. If the mate is competitive. In other words.204 Rationals to articulate their own complicated ideas and to follow the complex verbal­ izations of others. and if possible will leave such domestic details to their mate. Their home environment also tends to be full of life. build. Versatile and agile of mind. configuration—and Architects from a very early age are preoccupied with spatial relativity and systems design. Usually. But INTPs must not be thought of as only interested in configuring three-dimensional spaces such as buildings. while to be taken-in or manipulated by another is humiliating to them. Inventors may be very inconsistent in the attention they give to their offspring. In particular. Inventors have little time for the everyday tasks of caring for and disciplining their children. the result might be delightful give-and-take—or. and they can unknowingly navigate the family into dangerous economic waters. they are also the architects of curricula. Although usually dependable providers of economic necessities. INTPs are men and women whose aim is to design systemic structures and to engineer structural models. Indeed. deliberately employ debate tactics to the disadvantage of their opponents. They may. at times. however. marital conflict. Indeed. laugh easily and often. of corporations. In fact. but also benign neglect when they are engrossed in their many outside interests. life with ENTPs is at times an adventure. even when the opponents happen to be close associates and valued friends. but they are not apt to share these hobbies with their mate or children in the sense of teaching them. Inventors like to spar verbally with their loved ones. Inventors tend to have all sorts of hobbies and to be experts in unexpected areas. Orderliness in the routines of daily living is not apt to inspire them. The Architect [INTP] Architectonics is the science of spatial relationships—organization. Often they are several jumps ahead.

Where the Mastermind Rationals are would-be masters of order. and explained. They would if possible be calm. Architects prize intelligence in themselves and in others. As a variant of Plato’s Rationals and Aristotle’s Dialecticals. To visualize INTP intellectual development con­ sider the following graph depicting the most probable profile of their strategic roles: The Strategic Roles of the INTP Architect Inventor Mastermind Fieldmarshal Engineer Coordinator Architect Architects are rare—say one percent of the population—and therefore not to be encountered in ordinary places. and that whatever is stated about the universe be stated correctly. Like all the Rationals. And because they are reserved and highly attentive they seem to prefer the role variant of Architect over Inventor. and they care little whether others understand or accept their ideas.Rational Role Variants—The Architect 205 materials of nature. What is important is that the underlying structures of the universe be uncovered and articulated. For this type of Rational. External reality in itself is unimportant. and especially logistics. and seem constantly on the lookout for the technological principles and natural laws upon which the real world is structured. and resolute. are hungry for achievement. they are prone to practice strategy far more than diplomacy. and aspire to be wizards of science and technology. focused on spatial intersections and intervals of time. then not. Architects will learn in any manner and degree they can. prize deference. relativistic. If knowledge can be gathered from observing someone or taking some action. they trust reason. if not. Architects limit their search to only what is relevant to the issue at hand. not recognized. are preoccupied with technology. and thus they seem able to concentrate better than any other type. Curiosity concerning these fundamental structures is the driving force in INTPs. on the contrary. the Architect Rationals would-be masters of organization. they are abstract in communication and utilitarian in how they implement their goals. under­ stood. skeptical. Further. with coherence and without redundancy. They choose to study science. and work well with systems. a mere arena for checking out the usefulness of ideas. tactics. or if encountered. Intellectually. Their point of view is pragmatic. with their probing or exploring nature they tend to opt for the Engineer’s informative role rather than the quick-scheduling Coordinator’s directive role. autonomous. Architects can also . the INTPs are little different from the other NTs in most respects. the world exists primarily to be analyzed. The cognitive scanning of INTPs is not global and diffuse like an NF’s. They base their self-image on being ingenious. seek knowledge. then such is worthwhile.

they remember it. and they persevere until they comprehend the issue in all its complexity. or celebrity does not impress them. and often alone. whether a two. INTPs are often seen as difficult to know. or four dimensional model. once INTPs know something. and believe their function is to eliminate inconsistencies. their skill in differential analysis giving them an enormous advantage in discrediting their opponents’ arguments and in structuring their own. Like the ENTPs. the mathematician. no matter who is guilty of them. particularly for ad­ vanced students. Only sentences that are coherent carry weight with them. However. without inter­ ruption. This type of Rational is the logician. It is difficult for an INTP to listen to nonsense. With their grand desire to grasp the laws of unity and diversity. and other common social rituals. They are not good at clerical jobs and are impatient with routine details. content . It is hard for some types to understand these terse. and their reserve is difficult to penetrate. Mind you. they can be a bit snobbish and may show impatience at times with others less endowed with engineering ability. that process seems to have a will of its own. even in a casual conversation.206 Rationals become obsessed with analysis. architecting is not the Artisan’s fitting of physical shapes into pleasing forms. generate hostility and defensive maneuvers on the part of others. INTPs are devastating in debate or any form of adversarial discussion. although here again they rarely enjoy much popularity. they can be excellent teachers. the model is the thing. credential. For all these reasons. They regard all discussions as a search for understanding. and this makes communication with them an uncomfortable experience for many. and can detect contradictions in statements no matter when or where the statements were made. They tend to see distinctions and inconsistencies in thought and language instantaneously. If an organization is to use their talents effectively. They are inclined to be shy except when with close friends. and are seldom perceived at their true level of competency. and somewhat forgetful of appoint­ ments. anniversaries. without pointing out the speaker’s error. Architects take their mating relationship seriously and are faithful and devoted—albeit preoccupied at times. but the more abstract process of designing models. three. nor will they arrange it. Architects exhibit the greatest precision in thought and language of all the types. or less driven. They are not likely to welcome much social activity at home. For the Architect. They prefer to work quietly. observant Engineers because of their complex and technical speech and their avoidance of redundancy. the scientist—that person given to any pursuit that requires architectonics. Architects must be given an efficient support staff who can capture their ideas as they emerge and before they lose interest and turn to another idea. the technologist. Unfortunately. Moreover. at times. Once caught up in a thought process. or structural design. their pride in their ingenuity can. for they can be hard taskmasters. and thus authority derived from office. systems analysis.

Architects are keenly aware of what their mates actually say and do. Architects are. . They prefer to keep their desires and emotions to themselves. They do not visit their own expectations on their children and never attack them physically or verbally. until one of their principles is violated. they enjoy children. with rights. eventempered. compliant. and may seem insensitive to the desires and emotions of others. Each of their children is treated as a rational indi­ vidual. INTPs will retreat into the world of books and emerge only when physical needs become imperative. and as much autonomy as that child can handle safely. and easy to live with—that is. an insensitivity that can puzzle and frustrate their mates. Architects are devoted parents. When safe to do so Architects let the natural consequences of their children’s actions teach them about reality. If left to their own devices. and will often ask their mates to give a rationale for their statements and actions. INTPs encourage their children to take responsibility for their own lives and to chart their own course. When this is unsafe.Rational Role Variants—The Architect 207 to leave the scheduling of social interactions to their mate. in which case their adaptability ceases altogether. But if what their mates are feeling is a mystery to them. however. privileges. and are very serious about their upbringing. they somehow contrive to design logical consequences to inform their children’s actions.

race. family expectations to consider. But more often the phrase ‘my type’ suggests an awareness that we are most attracted to. and devising popular classifications such as the “strong. silent type” or the “girl-next-door. and educational level influence our range of romantic contacts. even looking to questionable astrological signs for clues to character. at least as powerful if not more. or the like.7 Mating It is not our purpose to become each other. And certainly our physique makes us attractive to some and not to others. For some. it should be emphasized that there are no right or wrong attractions. to learn to see the other and honor him for what he is. social background. is temperament. “our type”? For some this might have to do with physical appearance. likewise our age. hair color. And yet another factor involved in our choice of mate. or is not. —Hermann Hesse All sorts of factors enter into how we choose a mate. or economic circumstances to take into account. Guardians. there are obligations of social class to satisfy. and. what do we mean when we say that a person is. it is to recognize the other. second. physical attrac­ tion. first. any temperament can be attracted to any 208 . a particular sort of person. in individual cases. about how the temperaments attract each other. Attraction At the outset. People have long tried to identify some such categories of personality in their dating partners. we might w ell ask what temperament theory has to tell us. about how the Artisans. Given a number of choices determined by all the other factors—national origin. weight. religion. After all. Idealists. as well as attracting us to some and not to others. and so forth—we will select our mate according to temperament. Given that people seem to know instinctively that character styles play a significant role in their choice of mates.” just to name a few. and get along best with. Where we live plays a large part in determining the people we meet. and Rationals get along living with each other.” the “gentleman” or the “party girl. indicating a preference for a certain height.

Now. or. and both have their supporters. another person of the same temperament as their first mate. But which temperaments are most often attracted to each other? Folk wisdom offers two long-observed but apparently contradictory principles: that “like is attracted to like. rather.” and not only attract but even fascinate each other. logical NT Rationals should be attracted to other Rationals. fun-loving SP Artisans should be attracted to other Artisans.” On their face. responsible SJ Guardians should be attracted to other Guardians. or rather. the notion of like attracting like suggests that the excitable. In contrast. in terms of temperament theory. we are not so much seeking similarity in our mates as complementarity—the idea of contrapletion. and if they botch up the mating somehow. or the completion of oursetf by our opposite. become much more useful when the various styles of character are well defined. of similarity and complementarity. In other words. we might ask for some clarification of W ords what is meant by “opposite” in the Abstract Concrete context of temperament theory. of all that one is not. and again marry. For “like attracts like. but show clear patterns and frequencies. strictly speaking. In this view. they are likely to be attracted to. Recall that the four temperaments have been Abstract Concrete plotted along two axes of orientation: Cooperative NF SJ a concrete or abstract way of using Cooperator Cooperator words (positively correlated with My­ Tools ers’s S-N scale). and for all sorts of reasons. The idea of opposites attract is not so easy to plot out. Jung had a mysterious conception of the opposite which he called the “shadow. abandoned. On the other hand—and this is said cautiously—more than four decades of people-watching (I began observing character styles in 1956) reveal that romantic attractions are not random and indiscriminate. Whatever their usefulness. and a cooperative Abstract Concrete or utilitarian way of using tools to NT Utilitarian SP implement goals. by the way) was convinced that “opposites attract. as it were. it’s as if we are looking for that rejected. both of these ideas make some sense. that the enthusiastic. or lived out in oneself. or unlived half of ourselves.” and that “opposites attract. The matrix at the Utilitarian Utilitarian side summarizes the intersection of these four characteristics.Attraction 209 other. emotional NF Idealists should be attracted to other Idealists. persons of certain temperaments tend to be attracted to persons of certain other temperaments. that the concerned. in being attracted to our opposite. expressed. Carl Jung (and Plato.” witness the advent of mating bureaus with their computers scanning for similarity of interests as the basis of compatibility—birds of a feather flock together. two temperaments are opposite when they differ . the notions of likes and opposites. Thus. of all that one has not developed.” One casts a shadow. Indeed. and that the calm. And so.

in turn. an SJ-NF couple shares a cooperative style of achieving goals. that is. after a failed first try with an SP or an SJ. the SP-SJ relationship combines similarity with complementarity. married Mamie Doud. an NT. Here again. Indeed. Artisans and Guard­ ians share concrete thought and speech. George and Martha Washington were both SJs. Franklin Roosevelt. Abstract Cooperator). if opposites attract. Abstract Utilitarian). an SP. an NF. Rationals abstract). An SP-NT couple. the combination of similarity with complementarity does not seem to generate the same power of attraction when worked the other way around—or. but differ in their style of using tools to achieve their goals. and the SJ’s diamet­ rical opposite is the NT (Concrete Cooperator vs. the SP-NT and SJ-NF pairings don’t show nearly the same frequency . it is often the case that Idealists and Rationals make their matches with one or the other of these concrete types.” For example. The mating pattern for NT Rationals and NF Idealists is similar. Similarly. Certainly instances can be found of both kinds of attractions. the SP’s diametrical opposite is the NF (Concrete Utilitarian vs. Curiously. And yet. and Rationals insisting on functional utility. and vice versa. and even more so is the incidence of NT-NF second marriages. but differ in how they implement their goals. SPs preferring to use tools in a utilitarian way. married each other twice. But the patterns that emerge from long observation of a large number of marriages tell a different story. And. while Marie and Pierre Curie were both NTs. but differs in their style of communicating (Guardians are concrete. the NT-NF mating combines similarity with complementarity: The two temperaments share abstract communication. On the other hand. when abstract word usage is set against concrete word usage. By far the most frequent mating appears to be between SP Artisans and SJ Guardians. Idealists caring more about interpersonal cooperation. Thus. Rationals and Idealists attract each other most frequent­ ly—if given the chance to meet. while Dwight Eisenhower. as can be seen in the matrix. an SJ. which is neither exactly a matter of like attracting like nor of opposites attracting. and the SJs should be attracted to the NTs. in terms of the matrix.210 Mating on both orientations. “likes” as well as “opposites. then the SPs should be attracted to the NFs. although not quite so clear-cut. and when cooperative tool usage is set against utilitarian tool usage. Idealists abstract). the frequency of NT-NF marriages is remarkable. when worked horizontally instead of vertically. married Eleanor Roosevelt. owing to the huge numbers of Artisans and Guardians in the population. despite the difficulty Rationals and Idealists have in finding each other. How­ ever. Richard Burton and Elizabeth Taylor. shares the same style of using tools (both are utilitarian) but differs in the nature of their com­ munication (Artisans are concrete. two SPs. Tolstoy and his wife Sofya were both NFs. SJs in a morally cooperative way. for instance. But since Artisans and Guardians make up roughly eighty-five per cent of potential mates.

Getting Along Together 211 of attraction as the SP-SJ or the NT-NF. or about what they can imagine (N). speaks the same language. “likes attract likes. SPs mated with SJs and NTs mated with NFs thus know where each other is coming from or .” or a combination of the two. the force of temperament comes even more prominently into play. These strengths and weaknesses will be described in more detail in the four portraits that follow. Suffice it to say that it is the combination of similarity in thought and speech—concrete or abstract—with complementarity in how tools are used to implement goals—cooperative or utilitarian—which seems to hold the key to explaining human attraction. and it should be stressed that two well-adjusted people of any two temperaments can find ways of making their marriage work well for them. and immediately. the attraction of which can be observed as the character styles are defined more narrowly.” “opposites attract. but for now let’s look at the larger patterns. At the start of almost all relationships there is a period of harmony. of course. in which sharing and understanding seem relatively easy to come by. Similarity of thought and speech—abstract or concrete—tends to work for stability in a relationship. such as differences in expressiveness-reserve. and more easily form stable. up to a certain point. individual relationships defy generalizations. The question we must put to temperament theory is: no matter what the basis of the initial attraction. There are other areas of complementarity. But to sort through all possible combinations of SP-SJ or NT-NF differences is to put too fine a point on what is a readily observable pattern on the level of the four temperaments. It is not too much to say that abstract or concrete communication is the most significant of human differences—the first cut. are there certain temperaments which get along better with each other over time. but living together is something else. makes it clear to me that there are certain strengths and weaknesses to each of the temperament pairings. and this only underscores how important is the concrete-abstract (S-N) dimension in the make-up of char­ acter. that is. Getting Along Together Attraction is one thing. When both mates communicate primarily about what they can observe (S). so to speak—and perhaps it is not surprising that concrete characters and abstract characters are so frequently. they quickly realize that they are sending and receiving on the same wave-length as their partner. and the give-and-take of living with another person becomes an everyday reality. Forty years of marriagewatching. strengths and weak­ nesses which once again have to do with similarity and complementarity. in a sense. attracted to someone who. But after the honeymoon is over. satisfying relationships? Again. when the traits of character of both mates begin to reveal themselves in sharper relief. the so-called “honeymoon” period. however.

then at least boredom. the combination of similarity and complementarity in the Artisan-Guardian and Rational-Idealist matches seems to give the best chance of successful mating. an abstract.212 Mating getting at in their messages. Remember that familiarity breeds contempt. deeply introspective INFP Healer Idealist. But when speaking of the frequency of long-term compatibility. In essence. and there is pleasure. with different styles of implementing their goals. by creating not only a feeling of completion or combined resources in the two mates. she soon felt strong pressure from her husband to tone down her idealism and her poetic sensitivity. and if not contempt. but in her diary she recorded her private longing to meet with .) can have its down side. in this common bond. particular couples have a way of working out their relationships no matter what the mix of temperaments. the stability of shared language at times giving way to an irritating predictability. and strength. etc. even competition. and perhaps rivalry. In a cooperator’s match with a utilitarian. Anne went along with Lucky Lindy as best she could. As has been said. soulful. lasting problems.” as Anne termed them. different ways of using tools to implement goals. but also a charming sense of mystery and challenge. restless ISTP Operator Artisan. and without the common ground of a similar focus of language. whether problems of excessive similarity or excessive difference. the cooperative partner (Guardian or Idealist) might admire the utilitarian’s (Artisan’s or Rational’s) independence or resourcefulness. each can feel in the relationship like a stranger in a strange land. and might even hope to develop the other’s neglected side over time. a concrete. in the relationship. and at other times to an unhealthy duplication. Each might be intrigued by the other’s character. and which can grow over time. and accompanying him on expedi­ tions to map airline routes. But being too exactly alike (SP-SP. NF-NF. This is not to suggest that these problems cannot be solved. practical joking. or at least a tolerance for. But when the mates are diametrical opposites (SP-NF or SJ-NT). complementarity in a couple’s style of using tools (cooperation mated with utility) tends to enhance the level of satisfaction in a long-term relationship. and to become more worldly and adventurous—more like Charles himself. Although the early years of the marriage had many “Golden Hours. learning to fly. The Pygmalion Project In 1929 the internationally famous aviator Charles Lindbergh. met and married Anne Morrow. the exceptional vitality of these marriages comes from a shared style of communicating messages wedded to an appreciation of. while the utilitarian partner might value the cooperator’s interpersonal concern or conscientiousness. at least to a certain extent. problems difficult to ignore. On the other hand. and bridging the gulf can present serious.

We merely want them to take up our task as well as their own. Not that we want our mates to abandon their own natures completely. sadly. the Artisan.” Here it is only fair to see a little Pygmalion in all of us. namely.The Pygmalion Project sympathy and understanding and a kind of respect and acceptance of me and how I was trying to live and what I was trying to do. however. “You are not good enough. Although there is no way we can transform our mates into ourselves. our sense of success in the marriage becomes all the greater. serious business of the marriage.. It is a familiar pattern in our mating behavior. without the unrest of trying to change me. to shape . is that our mates cannot take to heart another aim as their own.. We go to all the bother of finding mates more or less unlike ourselves—in some cases exactly opposite in all important respects—and then we pull out all the stops in our attempt to transform them into our own image. I want you other than you are. The marriage license seems almost construed as a sculptor’s license. is simply not very concerned about the Guardian’s search for social and economic security. And. What we fail to realize. one’s preconceived standards? 213 Anne Morrow Lindbergh’s notion of keeping admirable distance in a marriage is an important insight. an all-too-human desire to control our nearest and dearest. that withdrawal before what they are doing and being? Is it incompatible with a real and powerful love. but not in a single person. but a common source of irritation in even the best of marriages. Such differences can be integrated successfully in a marriage. whose basic search in life is for exciting sensations. the Idealist’s search for personal identity. for all too often—again. They might be able to fake other goals to please their mates—for a while—but they will never adopt another’s way as their own. And so it is for all the temperaments. trying to make the other into the mirror image of the sculptor. and the attempt does great damage. A leopard cannot change its spots. By chipping away on our spouse we say. nor the Rational’s search for useful knowledge. in effect. And the Grand Hypothesis of this discussion is that Pygmalion Projects are not only the primary source of ruptured marriages. that respect for another person’s solitude. the greater the transformation we think we are bringing about.. to change their spouse into a person more like themselves. reform me.Why can’t one keep that admirable distance when one is married. since we all assume that our particular aim in life is the most valuable for everybody. or is it the result of one’s preconceived ideas of marriage. giving each spouse the warrant to chisel away in a Pygmalion Project. This intention to reform the mate is the Pygmalion Project I mentioned in Chapter 2 (or what Andras Angyal originally called the “Pygmalion theme” in interpersonal transactions). For example. we all seem to want to try. after the honey­ moon is over—mates who have been in part attracted by each other’s differences turn to what they regard as the true. not at least without violating their own character.

maybe.. could different temperaments live happily ever after. and Pygmalion Projects happen to be the price we have to pay. / just had to meet her. we seem to prefer opposition on some level in our mates. their sponta­ neity.. pause each time the impulse strikes. Then. I felt as if I'd been struck by a bolt of lightning. she knocked me out. and that quality which most characterizes their style of mating. —Armand Hammer A number of things attract us to Artisans. whatever they are doing. But surely the Artisans’ most charming trait. if we could suspend our efforts toward trying to make our mates change in our direction—to become more adventurous. Was I smitten!. She had an extraordinary combination of dark skin and light blue eyes.. remember to ap­ preciate what attracted us in the first place. or more rational—then we might.. say. their physical confidence. and to that extent. No. she stared straight back into my eyes and her smile was like fire. observation shows that types who are exactly alike (two ISTJ Inspector Guardians. and many more. indeed. do we not actually lose a great deal of satis­ faction in our relationships? Or is our desire to control our mates more satisfying than accepting them and loving them as the persons they are? This does not mean that we should only marry someone exactly like ourselves. Artisan Courtship Going out with an Artisan is a little like taking a ride on a roller coaster. For example. sexy voice.While she sang romantic gypsy ballads in a low. or more soulsearching. or more reliable. can we be anything but dissatisfied by changing them into copies of ourselves? In other words. Yet consider the supreme irony were we to succeed in transforming our loved ones. or two ENTP Inventor Rationals) are highly unlikely to marry each other. Wherever they are. The Artisan Playmate The moment I saw her.214 Mating them up according to our wishes. their optimism. with honey-blond hair and a glorious figure. and hold our tongue—then some interesting phenomena might begin to appear. SPs have a knack for excitement and will try to turn any occasion . just might. But suppose we could recognize our natural impulse to reform our mates. if we win the battle—and it is a battle—to change our mates. their generosity. Attracted in the first place by their differences. Many of the joys of complementarity—the delightful sparks that fly from reconciling different styles—would surely be lost if we only married our exact likenesses. no matter who they are with. And. is the incorrigible sense of fun and excitement they bring to their relationships.

Soulful Idealists can be enchanted by the Artisans’ lack of self-consciousness.The Artisan Playmate 215 into a party or a high speed adventure—they are typically the “fast” dates parents often warn their children about. Adventure in all things. In dating. and erotic films. but even the more reserved. and thus symbolic stimulation (as in love poetry) does not have much power to arouse them. Artisans are easily the most sexually ambitious of all the types. Never a dull moment. Expressive Artisans are often the life of the party. The Artisans’ joy of life can be infectious. and whether expressive or reserved.. and they love to hear about details of sexual activities. much as they might enjoy travelling to a new part of the world. male or female. It also means not getting tied down with one person for too long. exotic locales. jogging.. doing aerobics. and by their sheer physical attractiveness. if an SP can help it. the center of attraction. As the bumper sticker says: “So many men. At the same time. and in their hedonism are apt to spice up their lovemaking with sexy negligee. they are unimpressed with anything abstract. sex fascinates Artisans: they enjoy talking about sex. on the contrary. to an Artisan such pairs of lovers and their plaintive Idealist style of loving may appear rather boring. Artisans want to be excited in action. teasing and joking with everyone around them. just to keep things interesting. Confrontation is not likely to be their way of solving this problem. and seem to view mating as a game to be played or a wild ride to be taken. Artisans can find themselves quickly involved with another person. Certainly a good deal of the Artisans’ excitement is sexual. for the fun of it. delighting the other types (at least for a while) with their playfulness and sweeping them along with a rush of excitement. but to turn heads. Romeo and Juliet or Heloise and Abelard were clearly not Artisans. and . Artisans more than the other temperaments seem to care about looking sexy. making SPs impatient to get on with it. including sex. Such spur-of-the-moment intrigues are exhilarating for SPs. Also.” Very simply. and will put in more time developing their bodies and keeping in shape. and so on—not just to be fit and healthy. and seem happiest when pursuing new relationships. SPs do not often go out with others in a serious search for a life-partner. private Artisans are full of fun and mischief. only to find the romance growing stale and becoming a burden—the proverbial “tie that binds”—with the SP puzzled as to how to go about getting uninvolved. is likely to appeal to an SP. but can also cause them interpersonal problems. silence and absence are more likely to be the solution of choice. but are drawn to people impulsively. In the first place. The slow-moving love story is less likely to have appeal. working out at the gym. SPs are far more responsive to sensory stimuli. as in all other things. and this usually means trying something new or taking some sort of risk—anything out of the ordinary. but playing the field and experiencing as much freedom and variety as possible.so little time. they may have an extensive repertoire of sexual stories. they have an avid interest in sexual abundance and exper­ imentation. in fact.

and help lift the weight of more serious matters off their shoulders. while in reality they are biding their time. letting the partner do all the talking. However. Fun and games are rarely enough to keep Idealists. sensual Artisans an almost irresistible counterbalance to their own firmly set attitude of concern and responsibility. at which point the SP is likely to feel trapped and to become restless. the NF into an exploration of self. and will try to keep everyone smiling—to keep the party going—as long as possible. And. Artisans prefer not to get too serious about things. drawn-out courtships are not apt to hold their attention. can be drawn to the Artisans’ delightful sense of play and physical pleasure. though once the scene is over. SPs may actually appear quite decisive in their choice of mates. they may be quite oblivious to any scars they have left on the relationship. and that the effort can put a great deal of strain on the relationship. rather than the carefully thought through decision that would. but this is apt to be the whim of the moment. SPs would prefer not to confront the issue of marriage. waiting for some painless escape to present itself. On the other hand. and in this process the SP . This is not to say that SPs won’t commit to a long-term relationship. the SJ into recognition of social responsibilities. Artisans are capable of tactlessness and even physical force to assert their freedom. characterize an NT. or Guardians well-satisfied for very long in a relationship. the freedom and novelty are great fun for a while. preferring to hang loose and take one day at a time. expressions of emotional commitment are generally a burden to Artisans. Furthermore. Guardians find in the carefree. highly theoretical and workobsessive. or the NT into some comprehensive study. When ready to settle down. but rather that it is difficult for them. Rationals. Whoever happens to be there at the right time is likely to be accepted. Long. unreflective SP their own NF image of the spiritual poet or artist. Indeed. but especially for Guardians. under more intense pressure. or they will appear to go along with their partner’s plans. dating an Artisan is a little like taking a wonderful vacation.216 Mating will often project into the impulsive. speed is again of the essence. most of all. such as engagement and marriage. Rationals. their tendency to accept whatever exists at the moment can make it hard for them to recognize true quality or compatibility in a mate. for example. Once an Artisan does agree to a serious relationship. for instance. The other types eventually want more than a playmate for a partner. the light-hearted. While Artisans are extremely alert about concrete reality. and will often remain silent. for all the other temperaments. and will attempt to steer the SP into deeper waters. and will admire their effortlessness of speech and action. and they will often try to sidestep any talk of more permanent relations. driven as they are by their need for action. let the good times roll nature of the Artisans often becomes somewhat frustrating and disappointing to the other temperaments. which includes acting on their impulses as they occur.

Artisans are easy to get along with. although it usually turns out that the promised new behavior doesn’t last very long. indeed. and gregarious SPs can even enjoy being the center of attention at a big wedding. it is true. at times. SPs have uncritical. as on their honeymoons. willing to put up with a great deal of imperfection. Always optimistic and risk-loving. and can be quite convincing in their makeover. but also by extravagant promises to turn over a new leaf and reform their behavior. not looking for a match made in heaven. Financial matters. and this can lead them. formal religious ceremonies. bungee jumping. Artisans don’t care much for traditional. scubadiving. Artisan courtships are often marked by extravagant gifts. More often. being married while parachuting. into involve­ ments which might be unwise. by extravagant expressions of affection (SPs often express sexual attraction through ex­ pensive gifts). the kind that make a statement about their love of action and adventure: being married by a ship’s captain at sea. happy dispositions. and. Their tolerance for nagging is remarkable—like water off a duck’s back—though a carping spouse will usually find the SP spending less and less time at home. SPs will endure elaborate church weddings for their mate’s sake. And an Artisan is likely to be adaptable and agreeable with whatever is happening in the sexual sphere. and so on. and take their marriages in stride. the Artisan’s idea of a honeymoon is likely to be exotic. or spending-saving patterns. Artisans are not usually on the lookout for potential dangers in relationships. In the same vein. or different characters. not long bothered by the criticism. Artisans have the chameleon’s ability to assume different colors. Marriage with an Artisan is nothing if not stimulating. more spiritual for an Idealist. For instance. sailing in the Caribbean. are a source of . Artisan Married Life In married life. But SPs are often happier with unorthodox ceremonies. and would just as soon run off and elope. eco­ nomically. SPs can accept negative comments about their habits with relative ease. but the anger is likely to pass as quickly as it arises. or gambling and seeing shows in Atlantic City. or have a quick wedding in Las Vegas.The A rtisan Playmate 217 might not be able to differentiate between a person who is capable of great loyalty and a person who is just passing through. They truly do rush in where angels fear to tread—sexually. replete with beautiful clothes and flowers and photographers—and topped of with a killer wedding party or reception. socially. skiing in Aspen. though a hopelessly frigid or repetitive sex life can start them looking elsewhere for more stimulation. Artisans are quite sincere in their good-intentions. When it comes time for the wedding. and for a time they will do their best to become more like what is expected of them—more responsible for a Guardian. in order to please their mates. better-read for a Rational. They can have a temper. particularly the females. and may be quick to anger. and athletic: two weeks surfing in Hawaii.

the latest model car or motorcycle. . but SPs typically present their mates with major money problems. and can lead to some dissatisfaction on the part of their mates. especially time-consuming sports. Artisans simply can’t resist the grand gesture or the act of largess. regardless of price. tinkering with tools of all kinds—and readying their sports equipment. They love to give gifts. In the same way. The most damaging case is with members of the opposite sex. gone tomorrow—and their mates must be prepared to accept a life of feast or famine. and a claim for attention (or for money) from a new-found friend can be given as much attention as a claim from an intimate. hunting. They will buy a round of drinks for the bar or pick up the check at dinner. the hottest fashion. expensive gifts. the newest tool. money. sometimes to the extent that their spouses feel put in second place. as might Guardians. For SPs. thoughtlessly. New experiences or new gadgets to play with might well fascinate an SP for weeks. and to spend valuable time and money on them. even though she might have only a few other clothes in the closet. indis­ criminately. Male SPs spend a lot of time in their garages. cronies and sidekicks. They live so thoroughly in the present that they are sometimes unreliable in meeting the financial obligations of a long-term relationship. like sex. and the like). and delight in the impact on the witnesses. They take up with people suddenly. especially if they have an audience for their exuberant generosity. The fun and excitement involved are what count for the SPs—the pleasure of playing Big Spender—and they will bask in the surprise of the recipients. mind you. and energy must be used—right away—to explore the chic restaurant. SPs all too often infuriate their spouses by paying unusual attention to attractive friends. Married life for Artisans tends to find them satisfying their hunger for action through a number of physical activities. In essence. Artisans do not tend to attach much priority to saving their resources. until an even newer interest comes along. making furniture. money. off-roading. whoever catches their eye seems to delight them for the moment. They may make a bundle one day. dirt-biking. a mink coat for the wife could well appear on her birthday. rather. but soon troubles mates of other temper­ aments. Artisan impulsiveness extends to people as well. surfing. Generally speaking. needing extensive gear (such as fishing. but the intention to displease is seldom present. working on their cars. But Artisans are also known to collect friends of the same sex. sailing. Artisans mean no harm. is to be used and enjoyed. or even strangers. Male SPs are heavily into sports. responding to each new personal contact with equal energy. and they are unaware of how flirtatious this makes them appear. After marriage. but spend it all the next—here today. Such generosity can be impressive for the moment. either sexually or financially. not saved for a rainy day. so that their wives often come to feel like sports-widows. SPs may not bother to sort out their personal priorities. even if they’re short on money for groceries. time.218 Mating conflict in most marriages.

by their need for personal or spiritual enlightenment. Clutter is acceptable to the SP female. But each pairing has its strengths and weaknesses. and love of tools. but also use their homes for arts and crafts. with both partners living and playing so hard—going so fast in the same direction—they can quickly exhaust each other and lose interest. However. chances are that Artisans will grow puzzled by. Plants are apt to be set about the rooms in profusion. Artisan-Idealist: Generally. She is more likely to share cheerfully and freely whatever is there. Artisan Pairings Easy-going and fun to be around. so different from their own hedonism. The only problem is that. Two SPs live primarily in the same world. Artisans can mate successfully with all the temperaments. irreverence. Drop-in guests are sure to be welcome almost any time. Color is likely to be abundant and strong. and her home tends to be filled with various projects in various stages of completion. it sometimes happens that Artisans grow impatient with a Rational’s desire for extensive knowledge. the world of external. She may get excited about gourmet cooking for a time. Artisan-Rational: Artisans can feel right at home with the Rationals’ natural pragmatism. and the female Artisan is not apt. parties. as if their own SP gift of physical pleasure is somehow inferior when viewed from the NT’s abstract heights. while they can be im­ pressed by the NTs’ theoretical interests. as would the Guardian.The Artisan Playmate 219 Female SPs get involved in sports as well (tennis. pushing aside current projects to make room for seating or eating. And they can even feel resentful of the NT’s calm. tactical grasp of things. skiing). and they also share each other’s childlike love of fun and excitement. clothes. the Idealist’s moral delicacy. This pattern of two Artisans lighting up the sky brightly and then burning out and falling apart is a familiar one. and slightly cynical about. detached life of the mind. and they can be intrigued by the NFs’ spirituality and sense of personal ethics. Two SPs have so many interests and activities in common—travel. as well as by what Artisans sometimes call the NFs’ “airy fairy” soulfulness and flights of fantasy. and then move on to an avid interest in weaving or throwing pots. On the other hand. particularly if there exists a good degree of sexual compatibility. so different from their own practi­ cal. shows. the Artisans’ excitement and sensuousness dovetail nicely with the enthusiasm and romanticism of Idealists. A rtisan-A rtisan: Artisans have a considerably better time of it mating with other Artisans. sports. to be put off-balance by a less-than-guest-ready home. . speaking the same language of concrete objects. physical reality. golf. and so on—that they can come together as playmates in a way not possible with persons of other temperament.

outgoing Promoters (ESTPs). bursting with energy and yearning for the excitement of new experiences. this Artisan-Guardian compatibility is even more pro­ nounced in marriages which interweave extra threads of complementarity. Theoretically. the match seems incongruous and difficult to account for. Points of conflict are there.” The inherent conflicts in such a relationship may even be enjoyable up to a certain point: the Artisan likes to have someone to tease. SP-SJ marriages go along nicely. Not only do Artisans and Guardians both make their home in the concrete world. but the complementarity of their natures seems to fill a void in each temperament. Crafters and Providers can be expected to mate happily. with Artisans and Guardians often finding a comfortable balance in their opposi­ tion: the SJ able to settle the SP down a good deal. just as it takes the high jinx of Artisans to bring a smile to Guardian faces and help them bear up under the burdens of life.220 Mating Artisan-Guardian: The most stable and satisfying marriages for Arti­ sans are with Guardians. Perhaps seeking the stability they lack. between insubordination and respect for duty. Here is the adventurous. all the factors for successful SP-SJ mating. attracted to the concerned and responsible SJ. Promoters and Protectors are likely to get along famously. tend to call their SJ wives “Mother. In many ways. to be sure—between impulse and deliberation. perhaps wanting some missing center to their lives. the Rock of Gibraltar standing watch over the established rules and traditions of society. fun-loving SP. and the Artisans’ Pygmalion Projects remain benign. It is great fun for the tough. to see if they can win over the reserved and friendly Protectors (ISFJs) and persuade them to let go of their caution and concern for a little while.” just as SJ wives often refer to their SP husbands as just another of their “boys. it often takes the moral weight of Guardian expectations to get Artisans off their motorcycles (surfboards. between spending and saving—but as long as these differences are taken in stride. and the Guardian needs someone to care for. the differences of expressiveness or reserve (E-I). on paper at least. in particular. namely. adept with tools and machinery. and take a few risks. SP-SJ marriages resemble the relationship between a mischievous child and a caretaking parent. and tough­ mindedness or friendliness (T-F). silent. perhaps just needing someone to take care of them—whatever the reason. sail-boats) long enough to build careers or to raise families. SP husbands. with tolerance and good will on both sides. born gamblers and wheelerdealers. and the SP able to loosen up the SJ. The reserved and tough-minded Crafters (ISTPs). Artisans choose marriage with Guardians by far over any other temperament. airplanes. and yet the frequency with which SPs choose to marry SJs is compelling. Indeed. In many cases. seem to want the care and the kindly anchoring in family or society offered by the expressive and soft- . and hankering for the freedom to adventure. And just as frequently these SP-SJ marriages do well over time. Consider the following four pairings as having.

familyoriented mating role. and trustworthi­ ness. mating with an Artisan requires that we learn to put our hands in our pockets and not project unrealistic expectations onto them. but appreciate them as the exciting. Arti­ sans tend to have a live-and-let-live attitude to begin with. spontaneous. usually welcome a little livening up. Also. the expressive and friendly Performers (ESFPs). nothing could hurt him. the garden blowing. hard-working. entertaining and bursting with energy. but step back when we can and give them center stage. dependable. Performers and Inspectors should match up especially well. We must not deny them their grand gestures and their audience. close to nature and absorbed in artistic activity. entertaining. even proud. and thus their efforts to reform their mates rarely escalate into serious power struggles. — Virginia W oolf If there is one temperament that best fulfills the traditional. If he put implicit faith in her. More than others. the paragons of insurance. doing favors. For the rest of us. Crafters are the least inclined of all the Artisans to try to chisel their mates into their own image. all-business existence. And we must not demand too much devotion from them. not for a second should he find himself without her. The Guardian Helpmate [Mrs.The Guardian Helpmate 221 hearted Providers (ESFJs). the house was full. and the expressive and tough-minded Supervisors (ESTJs). that it was real. given to nesting and to nurturing. but provide them with a stable. preparation. and the reserved and tough-minded Inspectors (ISTJs). sexually stimulating. Ramsay] assured him (as a nurse carrying a light across a dark room assures a fractious child). however. The reserved and friendly Composers (ISFPs). Composers and Supervisors ought to make a good team. including the institution of marriage. incomparable lovers they are. the excitement of putting on a show of some kind. Guardians are quite content. are the most gentle and sensual of all the types. to see themselves (and to be seen) as the Good Wife and the Devoted Husband. tolerant home. Artisans generally make charming mates. it is the Guardians. despite their skill with hand tools. physically talented. however deep he buried himself or climbed high. . the party. open-handed. and hosting. Guardians provide a solid foundation for all our civilized institutions. Whatever the mix of temperaments. yearn for the bright lights. like it when someone brings a little pastoral beauty into their hard-nosed. Loyal. We must not begrudge them their tools (or toys) and their adventures. we must learn to hold our breath and enjoy the fast ride. those given to soothing. and relatively easy-going with their Pygmalion Projects. In short. the persons most suited to be in charge of institutions and establishments.

not only to have a good time. With so much of a Guardian’s interpersonal energy given over to observing the social etiquette of dating. for example. and to be a part of social or civic events. but to do their part as active. arranging for tickets in advance. gardens. In general. to amusement parks. They also speak of pre-marital sex as a matter of sanitation. to observe community or family traditions. such as dinner parties. the Guardian male always tries to behave like a gentleman. In the same way. mind you. there is little left for sexual explo­ ration. and walking her to her door at the end of the evening. supportive members of the community. On their side. and so often keep their dates waiting downstairs. for instance. and help on with her coat. Of course. In this comparison with Artisans. to church or school dances. charity balls. But they are never casual or irresponsible about sex—they do not sleep around—and even with their steadies they are cautious about going too far. leaving nothing to chance or to whim. the more extraverted SJs do indeed like to go to parties. And though always reluctant to spend a lot of money. where they can feel treated like royalty. a female Guardian likes to receive traditional tokens of esteem (flowers. but they themselves have the habit of fussing over last minute details of dress or makeup. but even on the most ordinary dates she expects to be treated with the best of manners. SJ women also like their dates to be punctual. SJs have as much curiosity as the next person—they are rarely prudes—and they can be quite affectionate with steady boyfriends or girlfriends. as well as to popular restaurants. long-running musicals. with doors opened for her. and the like. social activities. and will attend his date with old-fashioned courtesy. and VIP receptions. to keep up with friends and colleagues. historical monuments). Although Guardians have little interest in wild parties or racy entertainment. a famous hotel dining room. SJs go out with others not so much for the excitement and variety of it (like the SPs). referring to a virgin as someone “pure. the preparation for. but in order to take part in social activities. too—only this is their fun. arriving punctually. and to wonder. and ultimately to find a suitable mate. to practice social graces. hit plays. making sure of dinner reservations. many love going on dates to popular movies.222 Mating Guardian Courtship Guardians have these institutions very much in mind when they begin to date. “is it true SPs (like blondes) have more fun?” But we must remember that Guardians want to have fun. once in a while Guardians love to go to really impressive places. SJs tend to regard pre-marital sex in moral terms. On these formal occasions. as if chastity were Good and sexuality Evil.” . Nor do social activities need be thought of as boring. not to let loose. like a lady. standing when she enters the room. candy) from her escort. but to interact socially—to help mark special occasions. and so on. Further. to civic attractions (zoos. chair pushed in after her.” “clean. it is easy to see Guardians as over-serious. SJ men are also happy to take responsibility for the proper scheduling of an evening. and the participation in.

In some cases. most telling of all. And what Guardian father has not urged his daughter to get the marriage contract signed before giving away the goods—warning.” or “stained. it is the high-flying Artisans who are most attracted to Guardians—that is. who often dismiss social traditions as being trivial. For SJs. When SJ males are in social contact with other males—for example. are generally more critical of Guardians. when looking to settle down.The Guardian Helpmate 223 or “spotless. even shabby. and Artisans all in their own way have a strong desire for individuality that can clash with the Guardian’s stubborn sense of tradition. torn about life and identity. just as they are intent on keeping their “treasure” under lock and key. but become quite attractive when the other temperaments are ready to settle down and start a family. Rationals. but can be attracted by their social skills. and they will sometimes place the SJ on a moral pedestal. while often prim and proper in public. compliance.” And.” It is with members of the opposite sex that Guardians are alert to be on their best behavior. a lady or a gentleman who might be able to straighten them up and make them fly right. Not that Guardians are rigidly straightlaced. SJs think of pre-marital sex in terms of spending and saving: they are opposed to “free love” and “cheap” sexual experiences. and on “saving” themselves for marriage. calmed by their unambiguous values and knowledge of the world.” and picturing someone sexually active as “dirty. Idealists. to sow their wild oats. the Guardian style can cause problems for the other temperaments. there is always the unexpressed attitude that “nice girls don’t. and can enjoy jokes and sexual gossip with a playful shake of the head and a teasing “aren’t you awful. Idealists. it is likely that peer pressure led them into sexual activity because it was the thing to do. as well as by their family loyalty and their competence in handling the demands of home and hearth. on the golf course—they can rival the SPs in their command of off-color language and their repertoire of sexual jokes. Male Guardians have more opportunity. seeing them as someone more civilized than they. can feel safe in the hands of Guardians. at conventions.” “trashy. and they will project a kind of nobility of spirit onto the Guardians’ sense of moral earnestness. can have a surprisingly earthy side in private with close female friends. Rationals. but they tend not to do so joyously and freely like Artisans. usually have only limited sexual expe­ rience before they marry. feeling instead a sense of responsibility to their partner. and feeling dishonest. in particular. if they take advantage of a young woman. even in an age of sexual freedom. And female SJs.” If they do. on hunting trips. Under the marriage im­ pulse. “Why buy the cow when the milk’s free?” Female Guardians. However. and more social sanction. The Guardians’ caution and conventionality can put other types off at first. naturally. and regulation. SPs press for un­ . SPs are drawn to SJs as to a place of stability and safe harbor where they can rest and recover from their adventures.

registering for gifts. sharing important family and social experiences. verbalizing expressions of love in conventional language. customary preparations for the wedding cere­ mony—and so many more—give full range to the Guardian’s talents for scheduling and accomplishing social rituals. sex can become a possibility for Guardians.224 Mating fettered action. but it is the social side of the wedding plans. Guardians will turn their attention to what they consider the serious business of living—establishing a home and family. The Idealist notion of the grand passion is likely to mystify a Guardian. and so favor long engage­ ments which work to cool the heat of passion. reserving the church. and at this point SJs are likely to begin neglecting romance. This willingness of the other temperaments to strike out on their own and explore new territory both attracts and troubles SJs. and legal sanction. it can be the cause of broken relationships. not the surprise or audience impression as with an SP. and which allow them to satisfy social obligations. And the urging of the Artisan to run off and elope might flatter a Guardian. but have value as objects and are to be kept and treasured. making social connections. or sink into gloom for no apparent reason. but also introduces a disturbing element of recklessness into the relationship. The certainty and predictability of married life is much more to their liking than the whirl of dating (courtship is something one does before vows are taken). and seldom complain of boredom. Guardian Married Life After the ceremonies have been observed (including the carefully ar­ ranged honeymoon). They may enjoy eating out at the same restaurant. who might enjoy the fantasy. SJs are content to live on an even keel. For the most part. publishing banns. SJs always try to look before they leap. which really interest them. or they may be willing to visit the same vacation . Asking for Mom and Dad’s blessing. SJs are good-hearted. but who wants to keep both feet on the ground and go carefully about the business of courtship. To be sure. obtaining the license. cultivating a circle of friends. Once they have a firm commitment to marriage in hand. and getting ahead in their career. every Friday evening. Guardians give themselves plenty of time to sort these things out. they tend to suppress emotional spontaneity. good-natured adherents of the tried-and-true. religious. are happy to keep within established routines. and giving gifts to show their intentions are serious. Normally. SJs like to court in traditional ways. however. shopping for clothes: all these necessary. and NTs resist any and all constraints on their freedom of thought. which can prove disappointing to mates of other temperament. and when it troubles them enough to make them dig in their heels. and the securing of family. say. These gifts are usually not symbolic or emblematic. Although the most marriage-minded of all the temper­ aments. NFs search for their unique personal identities. The ritual of transaction—of sealing a bargain—is what’s impor­ tant. however. although when fatigued or under stress they can suddenly flare into grouchiness.

washing the car. and they enjoy entertaining relatives. clothes. Guardian mates do not mind members of their family (and others) making demands on their time. with no surprises and with everyone having a pleasant but not rollicking good time. and other conservative investments make sense to Guardians. and then not thrown away. Insurance policies. And they feel good about taking part in the functions of community-based organizations. Reading a newspaper usually has more appeal than reading a novel. not wasted on fantasies. First of all. especially with holiday customs such as the Thanksgiving turkey and the Easter ham. Family time is apt to be filled by the Guardian mate with domestic activities. or even high-school. On her side. These cherished possessions are to be dutifully serviced and cared for. certainly. whether professional. They like to keep in touch with the extended family circle. as long as such demands are for sensible reasons. they have a diligent sense of family history. savings accounts. Male SJs are punctual and expect their mates to be also.” and material possessions can also be held dear. planning well for the future. tools. government bonds. who under­ stand their safety. Generally. and the like. a Guardian mate will likely belong to the traditional civic groups of the community—the Chamber of Commerce. SJs keep up their house and yard faithfully. the Lions Club. Clothing especially should be simple and durable—SJs dress conservatively. SJs tend to be careful with money and are likely to budget strictly. for example. sewing. the League of Women Voters—and probably will be knowledgeable of the status hierarchy and pecking orders in those groups. Guardians may be possessive about family members. appropriately. In addition. grocery shopping. School and Church-related activi­ ties—PTA fund-raisers. with “their house” or “their car” claiming much interest and attention. both char­ itable and social. and the like.” or “their children. and taking night school Business courses makes more sense than studying art. often referring to “their wife. straightening up the house.” “their husband. Clearly. from volunteering for the March of Dimes to supporting the home town ball team. and they often make their own clothes. worn out. Christmas bazaars. but donated to a charitable agency. to show pride of ownership. they like to make and keep schedules for themselves and sometimes even for their wives and children. and never wasted in frivolity. “Waste not. SJs value time as a thing to be used in worthwhile pursuits. and greatly value stories and information about their families. orderly manner. Fathers’ Club pancake break­ fasts—may often occupy the SJs’ free time. the female SJ wants social events to proceed in an enjoyable. tradition has a strong press for Guardian mates. gardening. want not” is understood and . but also to maintain property values in the neighborhood. Also understood is the value of property. college. looking forward to the same recreational activities with the same people in the same place. sometimes at the cost of much sacrifice in the present. and they expect their neighbors to do likewise.The Guardian Helpmate 225 spot year after year. Goods of all kinds should be used up.

Guardians are ready to roll up their sleeves and work side by side with their spouses to build a comfortable. presumably in return for social and economic security. The unexpected and unusual are not usually a part of the married SJs’ sexual repertoire. While Artisans. As Helpmates. to the exclusion of all else. and. wanting to be comforted both emotionally and physically. Guardians often view intercourse as a service to be delivered by the female. communicating the message that a favor has been done for him. Both male and female SJs may worry about loved ones when they are away from home and will tend to make frequent contact by telephone. Guardians. SJs prefer sex with their lawfully wedded partner. Although certainly not blind to the charms of others. and both male and female SJs may reflect the attitude that having children. At bottom. with the SJ female highly vulnerable to the effect of the “empty nest syndrome. married SJs regard sex as a means of reproduction rather than a form of recreation. they are more comfortable making love at an accustomed time and in an accustomed place. for instance. Because of this. and keeping a clean and orderly house may take her time and become her reason for living. or that his needs have been served. Guardians are usually conservative about their sexual practices. stable family life. preparing meals. especially one who is seclusive. When the children leave home. and who will continue the family line. In the same way. performed dutifully and on request. or to ease fatigue. a female SJ is likely to place the sexual needs of her mate over any she might have. Guardians would be more likely to use sex to forget their troubles. males and females alike.” Retirement can bring about the same trauma for the male SJ. is expected and desirable in a marriage. the SJ male is apt to express gratitude to his partner for the sexual experience. While this is less true in our so-called sexually liberated age.226 Mating honored as a motto by the Guardians. Caring for husband and children. and concerning herself more with her husband’s physical comfort and welfare than with her own sexual pleasure. the job or place of business often being to him what the home and family are to the female. and are apt to establish their routines early in marriage and to observe them throughout life. Guardian mates may have some difficulty understanding the emotional . home may be a focal point. a regularity which becomes more and more pronounced as the years go by. perhaps seeing sex as a wifely duty rather than a pleasure. making it unlikely for them to experiment very much with sexual approaches or techniques—or partners. might greatly enjoy the playfulness and sensuality of sex. generally speaking. the view of sex as recreation is still not ordinarily held by most married Guardians. tend to be more serious about their sexual activities than the other temperaments. this can occasion a major crisis. Guardians sometimes suffer with excessive worry about unlikely calamities happening to their spouses and children. And while Idealists and Rationals might consider sex a mutually pleasing activity. who will bring joy and comfort. For a female SJ.

for whom transactions outside the bedroom loom vital as a precursor to sexual response. particularly the Idealists and Rationals. the constructive lessons they offer should not inhibit the other’s affection. or sensibly. of whatever age or temperament. The notion of getting turned on by books or ideas—philosophy. grow up and start behaving responsibly. Guardian-Idealist: Guardians share with Idealists a concern for society and for the morality of behavior. But there are pitfalls. and with their renewed efforts to stabilize and solidify the marriage only taken as a sign of superficiality. Thus. even scolding them. especially if the mating partner in each case places a high value on home and family. They can be angry with their mates. which the SJ worries might break with tradition and jeopardize a stable home. or respectfully. and they do not hesitate to impose their values and procedures onto their mates in the form of Pygmalion Projects. as the case may be. their propensity to get carried away with an idea. again. Apparently. Guardians believe that. Guardian Pairings Despite their tendency to take a firm hand with their loved ones. with no clue on how to proceed. so different from their own down-to-earth. which means the ways learned from parents and social tradition.The Guardian Helpmate 227 needs of other types. and they often admire the . and then expect them to come to bed with open arms. but it does appear that their parental disposition seems naturally turned toward trying to shape up their mates’ attitudes and actions. and for seeing that they know the Right Thing to do and the Right Way to do it. which seem very much like their own pessimism and sense of duty. caring for the mate means having the responsibility both for seeing them safe and well-provided for. Guardians can be quite critical of Idealist enthusiasm. as long as they care for their mates and take the proper responsibility for their health and welfare. a wish to do right and to help other people. literature—does not make much sense to SJs. Guardians tend to communicate a nurturing attitude as well as a critical attitude. Guard­ ians can mate happily with all the temperaments. SJs have a sure sense of what is Good and Right. And they can be badly frustrated when asked by NFs to increase the depth and the meaning of the relationship. for the SJ. and at the same time they can be impressed by the NFs’ spirituality and eye for potentiality. psychology. Sex is sex and philosophy is philosophy. Nor does emotional conflict seem to carry over into the bedroom for SJs. Guardian-Rational: Guardians are comfortable with the Rationals’ skeptical attitude and obsession with their work. But there are also areas of likely incompatibility. but also in many other areas of married life. traditional way of life. and. Not only in the bedroom. SJs care deeply that their loved ones. they are not shy about communicating their expectations. having separated these criticisms from the sexual relationship. This is not to say that all Guardians are devoted Pygmalions.

which is such a reach from their own reliance on by-the-book routine. with the SP spreading the seed one way or another. And then two SJs share so much interest in domestic stability. an industrious work ethic. such Guardian-Artisan complementarity should be es­ pecially satisfying in marriages which combine differences of expressiveness or reserve (E-I) and tough-mindedness or friendliness (T-F). conservative attitudes toward parenting. and all too often neglect to thank their Guardian mates for their care and keeping. on the other hand. Providers and Crafters should mate most happily. likes to arrange for rest and sustenance. Guardians can feel blocked out of a Rational’s cognitive life. The expressive and friendly Provider (ESFJ). and the SJ carefully managing the harvest. tough-minded Promoters (ESTPs) tend to have high periods during which they are in a whirlwind of euphoric activity. Consider the following four pairings as probable models of successful SJ-SP mating. The outgoing. and while the combination might appear incompatible on the face it—concerned. not to mention an appreciation for each other’s carefulness and willingness to do thankless jobs. the cautious. Two Guardians can step all over each other trying to run the house and do for each other. each steadfastly trying to call the other’s balls and strikes. ever-responsible Guardian is both a fixed center for their footloose way of life and a parental figure they can enjoy surprising and loosening up with their impulsive sense of fun. of all the temperaments NTs are perhaps the least appreciative of the SJs’ interest in everyday household matters. and comforting in nature. at times. in theory. Imagine two umpires. Protectors and Promoters are apt find their best match with each other. We can safely guess that this sort of relationship will have its share of conflicts. recreation. Indeed. toward memberships. including a devotion to home and family. But this marriage also presents its problems. the impetuous Artisan is both a child to take care of and. collecting. For Artisans. in SJ-SJ marriages the critical attitude of one mate is met with the same critical attitude in the other. And worse. caring. sensuous Dionysus—these ant and grasshopper marriages complement each other quite well. Guardians seem to mate most success­ fully with Artisans.228 Mating NTs’ ingenuity. both insisting that their routine is the right one. For Guardians. and the reserved and tough-minded Crafter (ISTP) is a natural born risk-taker who needs someone to be there when the high-speed adventure is over. Guardian-Artisan: On average. In the first place. a wonderful diversion from their own shoulder-to-the-wheel existence. However. and the . Now. civic responsibility. Guardian-Guardian: Guardians have similar ups and downs mating with other Guardians. spending and saving. giving. sober Demeter mated with carefree. and feel the scorn that many NTs hold for routine and convention. and so on. Guardians are not particularly troubled by familiarity or predictability in a relationship—being two peas in a pod sounds rather comfortable to them. Two SJs can be attracted to each other and get on surprisingly well together.

just as their hunger for membership makes them loyal and hard-working supporters of all the established institutions in their communities. Here is the seclusive and tough-minded Inspector (ISTJ). and legitimacy. Nor will Guardians give up on their Pygmalion Projects when their Artisan mates get into trouble with excessive drinking. Very simply.H. indispensable foundation of our concrete world—they are truly the pillars who hold up society—and we would do well to value their rock-steady support for tradition and order in our more and more fast-paced. Supervisors and Composers might well be mates of choice. All told. You are the night. if the Guardians’ greatest chance for happiness comes with Artisan mates. Guardians make up the solid. You and I. just as they take all of their responsibilities seriously. philandering. in nourishing traditions. And while they might hope to instill in the impetuous. and I the fulfillment. they might also find in the reserved and friendly ISFP a mate who can help them forget the great responsibilities they manage to accumulate. Guardians more than any other type can be hooked into becoming the rescuer of addictive Artisan spouses. It is perfectly complete. Running the establishment. the Guardians’ need to be of service makes them faithful. SJs are extremely loyal and feel obliged to stand by their SP spouses and help them straighten out. You are the wish. the model of trustworthi­ ness. and they regard their efforts to reform their SP mates in the SJ image as a necessary and a worthy. wanting to bring some accountability to the Performer. attempt to make them over into better human beings. Guardians take their family responsibilities seriously. Even in these abusive relationships. keeping it steady. unstable existence. devil-may-care Artisan. Lawrence Idealists approach mating quite differently from the other three temper­ . while at the same time enjoying the outgoing and friendly ESFP’s vivacity and sparkle. and in respecting order. within the rules. As a result.The Idealist Soulmate 229 seclusive and friendly Protectors (ISFJs) enjoy preparing a quiet place for the high-rolling entrepreneur to crash. bohemian Composers some of their own respect for tradition. gambling. —D. What else? It is perfect enough. unruly. and the like. reliable mates. and when married to an impulsive. so does their greatest temptation to start up Pygmalion Projects. thoroughness. steady. that’s what’s enjoyable and satisfying to the expressive and tough-minded Super­ visors (ESTJs). and I the day. The Idealist Soulmate You are the call and I am the answer. even a loving. Inspectors and Performers are likely to be most compatible. on schedule. they see their duty quite clearly. How many times have novelists and playwrights told the story of the “banker and the showgirl”? However. SJs believe in following the rules.

NFs are looking for more than life partners in their mates—they want soul partners. Idealists want to talk about abstract matters—ideas. for example. Idealists firmly believe in such deep and meaningful rela­ tionships—they will settle for nothing less—and in some cases they try to create them where they don’t exist. but prefer to go out with one person at a time and to explore the potential for special closeness in each relationship. In other words. goals. are singularly idealistic about choosing a mate. their inner division and their search for wholeness. Idealists will eventually separate themselves mentally from the rides. personal philosophies. and they lose interest rather quickly with dates which center around social events and physical activities. and the like—inwardly-felt topics that break through social surfaces and connect two people heart-to-heart. and the action. NFs love to talk about movies or novels that have touched them deeply. Idealist Courtship The Idealists’ desire that their relationships be deep and meaningful (that is. the sights. At parties. and begin to observe the people around them. insights. Indeed (and this surprises Artisans and Guardians). on the other hand. and Rationals assume their mates to be fallible. Idealists would usually rather talk with their dates than do things or go places. although chatting about concrete. wondering about their personalities and fantasizing about their personal lives. NFs will often look for a quiet corner where they can talk with their date (or someone else) on a more personal. and how the characters’ lives symbolize their own experience or the wider experience of mankind. dreams. which is to say that Artisans. but they usually try to find their own kind of enjoyment as the evening wears on. And at amusement parks or sporting events.230 Mating aments. And . and all-important in their lives) is very much in evidence in the way they go about dating. NFs do not usually choose to play the field to any great extent. intense. family relationships.” joined with them in a match made in heaven and creating a love timeless and eternal. literal. what they call the “love of their life” or their “one true love. of course. or factual things doesn’t particularly interest them either. persons with whom they can bond in some special spiritual sense. Idealists can enjoy this skin-deep sort of date for a while. and they will go along with a good deal of compromise in making their marriages work. enduring. sharing their complex inner lives and communicating intimately about what most concerns them: their feelings and their causes. intimate level. Guardians. the aesthetic or moral issues involved. but they don’t want to describe the plot so much as discuss what the story suggests between the lines. NFs typically look past surface relations to more deeply-felt connections. spiritual beliefs. Never casual or occasional about dating. In their own ways the other types tend to be realistic about mating. altruistic causes. Idealists. and most often take up the romantic task of seeking the perfect mate and the ideal relationship. their romantic fantasies and their ethical dilemmas.

and they tend to project this vision of . NFs can also be romantic when expressing love through gifts. and poetry. and expecting so much in return. even poetry and quotations. music. in some cases a baring of their soul. particularly about what a work of art signifies to them. and often they vow not to date at all for periods of time rather than go through the search. NFs are highly sensitive to rejection. a painful process of trial and error. For the NF. once the special person comes their way (the man or woman of their dreams). meaningful way most often determines whether or not the Idealist can become serious in a given relationship. Often a story book flavor permeates their courtship behavior. though they are likely to present the gift in private. However. so do the possibilities in relationships inspire them. it is an opening of their heart and mind to the other person. at the other extreme. Idealist courtships are marked not only by romantic gestures. they will remain in a relationship longer than they should just to put off the soul-hurting scene of rejection. and to select with extraordinary care something with special or even symbolic meaning—a beloved piece of music. and to believe in the illusion that life together will proceed happily ever after (although the details of this happily ever after are rarely explored in depth). The ability to communicate comfortably with their dates in this imaginative. and they see in each new relationship the potential for bringing them the perfect love that will fulfill them completely. or when having to break off a relationship themselves.The Idealist Soulmate 231 NFs will talk enthusiastically about art. which is not surprising. since one of the arts at which they are most skilled is that of creating the romantic relationship. In the early stages of a romance. or. The trauma of breaking up can be so difficult for Idealists that at times they will avoid getting involved with others for fear of things not working out. Idealists go about turning their courtships into works of art. and can be deeply hurt when spurned by another. Idealists can be carried away with their feelings. a favorite book of fiction or poetry. and carries with it both a promise and an expectation of deep regard and mutual understanding. and so the courtship becomes the center of his or her world. not just a compatible marriage but an all-consuming. and NFs are not afraid of using imaginative language. In a sense. to give voice to their feelings. undying passion is in the offing. a treasured picture. And because they are offering so much of themselves to the other. Just as the possible rather than the actual lures NFs in other parts of their lives. Finding the rare person with whom they can share their inner world is difficult for Idealists. and give almost all their attention to pursuing the relationship. Idealists hold dear a compelling though often vague inner-vision of what their ideal mate will be like. and they spare no effort or flight of imagination to win the heart of their loved one. but also by the idealization of the relationship. both NF males and females are likely to be blind to flaws in their beloved. dating someone means more than physical fun or social experience. For NFs. Idealists have a flair for dramatizing their courtships.

feeling compelled (if only in their imag­ inations) to pursue the dream of a larger-than-life goddess who will satisfy all their desires and be wife. Thus. and the love which he believes will be perfect and undying can come to seem ordinary and inadequate in the harsh light of everyday reality. and some relationships are unable to survive the truth. anticipation can be more attractive than consummation. NFs are very intimate. Fortunately. mother. it appears that female Idealists are able to sustain the roman­ ticism invested in a relationship longer than male Idealists. In other words. Curiously. once the physical relationship is consummated. NFs believe that everyone has the potential for spiritual growth. NFs tend to fall in love with a dream of beauty and passion. They also tend to romanticize sex as soulful communion. ‘love’ puts the relationship on a higher plain. And so. Needless to say. with their rich fantasy lives. and out of this capacity can grow lasting. NFs of both genders feel deeply bonded with their partner and are certain the relationship will be blessed with eternal bliss. and mistress to them. Generally speak­ ing. they tend to idealize physical beauty and to project their own poetic nature into the object of their sexual attraction. at the slightest sug­ gestion.232 Mating perfection into their all-too-human loved ones. NFs will see soulfulness and poetic sensitivity in the people they’ve fallen in love with—whether or not they are indeed soulful or poetic. But make no mistake. warm. intimate relationships. remember. even passionate people who are highly responsive to physical beauty and sexual attraction—to Paracelsus. and in many cases they intend to use their love to develop this latent mystical side of their mates. such romantic projec­ tion—and such disillusionment—are most often a problem in cases where there is a strong sexual attraction. Idealists who attempt to make their loved ones live up to their ideals are sooner or later faced with disillusionment in their relationships. after the physical side of the relationship has lost its mystery. as do the other temperaments. At the same time. But for the male NF. both male and female Idealists have a capacity for deep affection and caring over and above sexual expres­ sion. On the one hand. they were Nymphs. nor will they often sit still to have their spirituality nurtured in such a way. Idealists can be deeply divided about their sexual feelings. and the Rational view of this attribution of soulfulness is often skeptical at best. Many Artisans react with goodnatured sarcasm. Now. they insist that sex must be an expression of love rather than lust. most human beings cannot live up to such romantic ideals. for all their other-worldliness. many Guardians seem impatient with such foolishness. the problem for Idealists is that. Even the word ‘sex’ seems a little crude to the Idealist. Idealists. Many NFs are not fully prepared for the moment of truth when they come to see the imperfect reality of their lovers. want a certain amount of variety and change in . some male NFs can become disinterested and hunger after another fantasy. only to be rather painfully disillusioned by the flesh-and-blood imperfections which they eventually encounter in their loved ones. Although many Idealists are reluctant to admit it.

and who became most militant in demanding equal rights in the bedroom. orgasmic response on her part can be seen as secondary compared with the more selfless pleasure of giving herself body and soul to her mate. to dramatize ordinary inter­ actions with her mate. rather than make the necessary effort to develop the one he has. whereas an indispensable part of the female Idealist’s mating identity is the image of falling in love once and for a lifetime. Like the Guardians. She seldom seems disappointed in the sexual act. but the other temperaments will often seek this through adjustment of living routines. most Idealists—sexual revolutionaries or not—regard the social conventions of marriage as less important. travel. these Idealist females seemed to be willing to live for the possibility of finding a more fulfilling way of relating to males. Idealists are concerned . But. For the male Idealist. and so on. asking that both wait until she was sure she was doing the right thing. More and more NF females seemed willing to bear their children outside a legal marriage and to raise them alone. Soijiehow female Idealists decided that selfless devotion to their mates was not enough. in the 1960s and 1970s a striking phenomenon occurred. putting off the urging of their housemates. and thus a danger he faces is that he will move from relationship to relationship. to give small transactions profound significance. new social or recreational activities. The female Idealist does not as often demonstrate this loss of interest. and that a better. restlessness can set in as a result of familiarity. She becomes more and more devoted. Thus. new fields of study. In fact. in ever growing numbers. she is likely to increase her dedication after the physical relationship is consummated. This is not to say that other types were not also involved in this liberation movement. con­ tinuing to romanticize the relationship and to believe in its perfection.The Idealist Soulmate 233 their lives. than their personal commitments. it was the female Idealists who said “No!” most loudly to the double sexual (and other) standards in society. The fact that this does not always work out does not seem to negate the possibility of the dream coming true. They seemed willing. The male Idealist is most vulnerable to seeking variety through searching out a new person to love. but it was the NFs. Instead of being ready and willing to die for love. and far less sacred. more and more the NF females seemed reluctant to tie themselves down to a traditional legal arrangement. more satisfactory relationship with men could be actualized. along with a small number of NT females. either in or out of a legal contract. However. to take whatever risks were necessary to find that better relationship. then. who provided the vanguard of the revolution. and she can satisfy herself by exploring the emotional intimacy of sexual intercourse. to be willing (like so many NF fictional characters) to die for love. perhaps arising from the female Idealist’s ability to imagine a more perfect mating relationship. The group that spearheaded the sexual revolution was largely made up of female Idealists (particularly the ENFP Champions). on the contrary.

and can become quite flustered at the altar. are quite attractive to the other tem­ peraments. especially when this involves hurt and conflict. Both NF females and males seem to have their antennae always alert to what others are feeling. and their insight into people—traits that the phlegmatic NTs often note are poorly developed in themselves. the meaningfulness of their vows so overwhelming them emotionally that they seem lost in a blur during the ceremony. but only that they do not always need this sort of external moral authority to sanctify their relationships. but they truly admire the NFs’ emotional sparkle. for not only do they share the NFs’ abstract. and an unsurpassed ability to communicate emotionally. though this is likely because they’ve taken a hand in creating non-traditional ceremonies. feel secure with the Idealists’ powerful sense of life’s moral serious­ ness. support. and not able to find themselves again until alone with their mates afterwards. and thus care a great deal about licenses and wedding ceremonies. but with a difference. vivacious. are often embarrassed to express their private feelings in public. and selecting unconventional readings and music for the occasion. generous. and thus will consider themselves married when they’re sure that deep bonding has taken place with their mates. and they will find enormous significance and holiness in the rituals. Artisans feel some kinship with the Idealists’ romantic or poetic sense of life as a work of art. NFs will go along quite happily with the wishes of mates (or parents) for traditional wedding ceremonies. Some outgoing NFs will even look forward to their weddings. These Idealists. This is not to say that Idealists will try to avoid walking down the aisle. and can feel morally uplifted by the ethical dimension that NFs bring to their relationships. for instance. However. it is the Rationals who are most attracted to Idealists. on the other hand. when the mating of souls and the personal vows are the important things. personally consci­ entious and interpersonally sensitive. introspective cast of mind. their personal warmth. and they characteristically respond to their . Guardians. Reserved NFs. in particular. In the affective areas Idealists are without equal. Idealist Married Life Whatever the mix of personalities in their marriages. and thus have someone interesting to talk with. For many NFs the arrangements and formalities of wedding ceremonies can seem a needless burden. Idealists are apt to follow their innermost feelings and personal religious convictions. and when private words of devotion have been exchanged. soulful.234 Mating about having moral sanction for their actions. and can feel livened up a bit by the enthusiasm and creativity with which NFs throw themselves into things. both male and female Idealists are likely to be a source of continuing love. warm. bringing to their marriages an extraordinary sensitivity to the moods and feelings of their mates. While Guardians tend to put their trust in institutional authority (including church authority). however. and understanding to their spouses. writing their own vows. If need be.

loving rela­ tionships is the most natural thing in the world. insisting unexpectedly that their mates stop hanging on their approval and learn to stand on their own two feet. complete understanding. NFs are able to communicate nuances of emotions that might not even be noticed by the other temperaments. even though their own sensitivity sometimes encourages dependency. and their private conversations are often liberally sprinkled with terms of endearment and with frequent. more and more signals of deep affection—Idealists can become resentful of pressures to deliver what they had seemed to promise their mates: the ideal love. The Idealist does not mean to be unkind. and they are apt to be generous in expressing heartfelt approval of their loved ones. at times. as they do when the amount of emotional input from their mates becomes a psychological overload. Idealists find that building close. In addition.The Idealist Soulmate 235 mates with kindness. having the ability to take into themselves another’s mental state (both thoughts and feelings) so completely that the other feels totally understood and accepted. he or she is simply disconnecting from a relationship which can no longer be handled. Of all the temperaments the NFs are the most empathic. and appreciative mate. and Idealists have been known to become upset when these affective ties begin to bind. It is undoubtedly the Idealist who is the most loving. and is unstinting in the expression of these emotions. dedicated. especially in the area of personal qualities. more and more expressions of the NFs’ unusual appreciation. and unconditional love. for slipping into another’s skin. They are usually ready to lend sympathy to a mate when the outside world turns hostile. This shift in attitude is usually abrupt and the loved ones who heretofore believed that they were very special in the eyes of the Idealist now find themselves apparently rejected. Indeed. and are reluctant to use that moment to point out the errors of a mate’s ways. With their talent for identifying with the other person. particularly when those experi­ ences are negative or unhappy. And yet such emotional sensitivity (some would say hypersensitivity) can take its toll. They are the true masters of the art of intimacy. If their mates begin to seem weak and clinging—to need more and more attention. something which the other three temperaments are more inclined to do. both verbal and nonverbal—giving hugs and saying “I love you” are often a natural part of their interaction with their mates and children. pas­ sionate expressions of love. At this point NFs can turn irritable. Possessing facility with language. affectionate. NFs report that. emotional dependence in a mate can really bother an Idealist. Idealists often are experts in the arts of appreciation. and total acceptance. . Perhaps Idealists are this sensitive to their mates because of their ex­ ceptional ability to introject or to empathize—to see the world through another’s eyes. they find their emotional circuits so overloaded with their own concerns that they cannot deal positively with the emotional experiences of others who are especially close to them. tenderness.

gardening (NFs love flowers). their homes usually filled with a great variety of music and art. and often they become quite accomplished in the activity. Thus. Idealists may have difficulty freeing themselves from the demands of their careers in order to preserve time for their families. and it is hard for them not to offer their empathy and special understanding to whoever happens to be near. Idealists care a great deal about keeping the romance alive and well in their marriages. recorder). they no longer resonate to that person. self-hypnosis. even though their loved ones may be waiting elsewhere. be available to their own mates. Idealists pride themselves on being sensitive to others and caring about them. personal growth. Idealists often have to learn how to detach themselves from their personal involvements away from home. but books on religion and mysticism. the large majority of NFs find their greatest satis­ faction in developing one special relationship. or parishioners that they may neglect their mates and their family priorities. to make sure they give their mates and families first importance in their lives. novels of all kinds. Idealists have a flair for artistic hobbies. such as interior decorating. Those Idealists (male or female) who cannot order their personal prior­ ities are tempted to move from person to person. Especially if their jobs involve working closely with others in personal development (teaching. nutrition. not only books of philosophy and poetry. and may be hurt on coming to believe that they are not valued as uniquely as they first thought. It is almost impossible for NFs to be unaware of others’ emotional needs. counseling. but their sensitivity tends to be reflexive and indiscriminate. Their mates may not realize that Idealists cannot help but respond to others’ needs. along with various other kinds of personal therapies. yoga. and the like). Ideal­ ists can become so wrapped up in the problems and progress of their students. clients. Still. and when they leave one person. Whoever is there and demanding time gets it. but to the person now present. playing a musical instrument (piano.236 Mating Such rejection can take subtler forms as well. Idealists will also develop other life-enhancing enthusiasms. NFs may be unable not to respond to the emotional demands of others. Much like Artisans. and they structure much of their lives around their homes and families. gourmet cooking. especially those that enhance the home. this can cause some difficulty for mates who want the NF’s empathy to be exercised more exclusively. In much the same way. NFs are imaginative and creative around the house. guitar. using their energies to pursue new significant relationships at the expense of deepening those they already have. spiritual icons—and everywhere books. and often children’s books. and they love to go on dates with their spouses no matter . Under­ standably. and will usually try to interest their spouses in their latest passion. for the moment. Idealists will find themselves responding to relative strangers with a degree of warmth and acceptance which may not. In other words. family photographs. pastoring. along with cherished personal items.

there is one potent seed of dissatisfaction in these NF-SP marriages. and they weave their interpersonal spell in marriages with all the temper­ aments. as deeply as they are appreciative when theirs are noticed. the lack of interest that SPs have in talking of their inner lives. however. Also the sensuality and sexual boldness of SP mates can intrigue NFs and fire their romantic imaginations. Idealist-Artisan: Idealists thoroughly enjoy their Artisan mates’ free­ dom and spontaneity in the real world. Idealists quickly find their way. attending concerts. and they would not have it any other way. capable of sustaining a deep physical intimacy with their mates. and people usually feel wanted and well-hosted in their homes. taking up vital social issues and current trends in education. although they will actively support the arts and humanities in their communities. a good restaurant. NFs are spontaneously thoughtful with their family members. plays. and they admire the ease with which SPs can live artfully in the moment. Idealist Pairings Creating warm. Idealists are generally skilled socially. although. religion. or at most needing only a hint. for they are strangely innocent about sexuality. becoming involved (and hoping to involve their spouses) in a variety of cultural and personal development programs. and film societies. again. such as great books courses. making up in enthusiasm what they might lack in technique. Reserved NFs keep more to themselves and their immediate loved ones. Lovemaking. their own special days are forgotten. even deceitful. so different from their own often torn. like an Artisan. loving relationships is indeed second nature to Idealists. Being a smooth and suave lover. where they read voraciously and contemplate the mysteries of life. and so on.” of “transcendental meditation. and more often than not they expect themselves to know intuitively the most loving and tender approach. If. and such without being prompted. literature. would make an Idealist feel inauthentic. or an evening at the symphony or the theater. Expressive or reserved. and they will also join discussion groups. usually remembering birthdays. Seeing themselves as a lover as well as a spouse is a major part of their personality. And Idealists strive to be authentic sexual partners. Expressive NFs are likely to be socially active. in turn. and other cultural events. and tend to make cave-like private spaces in their homes.The Idealist Soulmate 237 how many years they’ve been together. however. Idealists can be deeply hurt. Still. poetry readings. namely. in particular. enjoying a romantic weekend getaway. However. anniversaries. NFs can be caught up in the romanticized expectations of psychological and sexual perfection generated in their own imaginations. psychology.” their Artisan mates do not really understand and cannot offer much enthusiasm or insight on such abstract . drama groups. can be disappointing in the early stages of NF relationships. there can be trouble in paradise.” or of “deep consciousness. conscience-stricken experience of life. When an Idealist speaks of the “true self.

someone eager and able (like the NF) to dream the world. an Idealist’s first encounter with a Rational can be a revelation. Conflicts of NF emotional expressiveness against NT self-control. Indeed.238 Mating topics. And. two empathic NFs can create a wonderfully intimate bond for a time. it is from this seed that Pygmalion Projects grow in these relationships. the rules and laws that govern everyday life. The basis of their compatibility is that NFs and NTs both live primarily in the world of abstract concepts—the world of theories and possibilities. or at least respecting. NFs often come to regard their NT . of NF intuition against NT logic. Idealist-Idealist: Idealists have much less trouble with mates of their own temperament. reassuring stability and dependability in the home. as the Idealist partners try with all their imaginative might to cultivate a heightened inner-awareness in their Artisan mates. and would like to emulate. SJs also have a firmly fixed moral center—a sure sense of Right and Wrong—that Idealists. The Guardian might listen dutifully to the Idealist’s flights of imagination. and of NF ethical or humanitarian concerns against NT technical pragmatics can prove challenging in even the best Idealist-Rational marriages. and Idealists often get along exceptionally well with other Idealists. Yet here again Guardians have trouble sharing the rich inner lives of Idealists. Idealist-Rational: The choice of a Rational mate seems to hold the best promise of success for Idealists. of insights and symbols. sadly. and can disappoint their NF mates’ deep longing for soulful bonding and romantic sexuality. In addition. so often of two minds about moral issues. Idealist-Guardian: With Guardian mates Idealists find a comfortable. two characteristics which give the NT a strength of character—a firm grasp of who they are—that the easily ruffled. but sooner or later the SJ feels unappreciated and begin to resist the force of the NF’s Pygmalion Project—and the result can be head-on battles. al­ though if the pair are too much alike in their ethical concerns. Also fascinating is the Rational’s calmness and auton­ omy. literal-minded Artisans and Guardians. And Idealists and Guardians are both social cooperators. Two NFs can find deep-felt satisfaction in sharing each other’s inner world and exploring each other’s personal development. and might try to be more fanciful and passionate in order to please the NF. they can become rather narrowly devoted to the pilgrim’s journey and tire themselves out along the way. These Idealist-Rational relationships do not always remain harmonious. or pursue the same spiritual goals for too long a time. traits which can help give the somewhat scattered NFs a feeling of solid earth beneath their feet. but eventually such mutual introjection can also invade each partner’s privacy—constantly getting into each other’s skin can result in getting on each other’s nerves. and to see far distances with the mind’s eye. which defuses a lot of conflict over following. of course. deeply respect. soul-searching NF greatly admires. After dating more down-to-earth. to build castles in the air. putting the NF in touch with a new and intriguing type of person.

Healers and Fieldmarshals are likely to find great satisfaction marrying each other. their spouse will be taxed by having to deal with such spiritual intensity. tools. tend to become trapped in introspection and tied in ethical knots. The reserved and schedule-minded Counselors (INFJs). with their complex. Often narrowly focused in their concern with planning and directing projects. the well-ordered. perhaps. and more outspoken about their discoveries.The Idealist Soulmate 239 mates’ resistance to expressing emotion. Champions (the expressive and probing ENFPs) are much like Healers in their crusader phase. and what better target than the reserved and probing Architect (INTP)? For beneath the Architect’s cool. that is. this diamond-in-the rough can be inspired to fulfill his or her potential. Only Champions are more outgoing and high-spirited. If. not unlike pup­ pies. or whatever can be engineered. in theory. But while sparks might fly—or maybe because of the sparks—Idealists take to Ratio­ nals as to no other temperament. Now who would be likely to enjoy this curious. sometimes even reckless Inventors find their soul and significance in the scheme of things. Champions and Masterminds should match up well. Now. mysterious. Counselors might also find great satisfaction in trying to help the non-conformist. no doubt due to their fervent view of life as either a crusade against Evil or a retreat into religious contemplation—and the same Healer can tack back and forth. Healers (the reserved and probing INFPs) have more problems in mating than any other type. their seemingly aloof rationality. math­ ematics. such Idealist-Rational compatibility should reach its peak when particular couples complement each other in the expressive or reserved social attitude (E-I). The educator or growth-catalyst inherent in the expressive and scheduling Teach­ er (ENFJ) wants to bring out the latent talents in his or her loved ones. collected. symbolic inner-worlds. and doubting exterior lies an engineer of buildings. frisky—yet soulful—person? Strangely. detached. Masterminds (the highly reserved and well-scheduled INTJs) can find a vital connection to the outside world in the person who knows what’s going on. busily marshalling his or her forces toward distant objectives. seems well . languages. fiercely dedicated to meaning in life and looking into everything of Good and Evil in the world. Counselors and Inventors are apt to fit extremely well together. In either case. or at least chipped at with Pygmalion’s chisel. and their preference for what works over what’s right as barriers to be broken down. strongwilled Masterminds. now a monastic. now a crusader. operations. machines. The following four NF-NT pairings suggest how these added complementary factors might make for successful mating. and in making schedules or probing for options (J-P). and the expressive and scheduling Fieldmarshal (ENTJ). Teachers and Architects have every chance of being well suited. and they can be freed up considerably by the outgoing and probing Inventors (ENTPs). sniffing around to see what’s new and then barking to let everyone know what they’ve found.

Rational Courtship Rationals do not care to spend much of their time or energy making social connections. Indeed. it is not too much to say that they are the best of all the temperaments at creating successful and fulfilling marriages. which makes dating usually something of a trial for them. are fairly difficult to get close to. But for all the satisfactions they bring to a marriage. and they bring all their finest qualities to the enterprise. even hidden from view.. and not in the least possessive. a promise she fulfilled only many years later. intellectual development seems to proceed at a faster rate than does social development—they are often the math whizzes and science nerds in high . honest and aboveboard in their communications. then Idealists offer their mates the possibility of exceptional happiness. on the whole. a pastime which the other temperaments are apt to find dreadfully dull.I was a little worried (I am not joking) that she did not know calculus. uncomplaining. their desire for deep bonding. No matter what kind of persons Idealists marry. their ability to communicate their feelings. if we can assume that Pygmalion Projects are an inevitable part of any marriage. Their sensitivity. to be rather serious and cerebral. but she promised to remedy that. they tend. Even the outgoing Rationals. which included mathematical social science. their passion for their mates. While some NTs will attempt to cover their lack of social skills by clowning around.240 Mating equipped to handle this alternating-phase style of life. able. Simon Rationals make wonderful mates—they are loyal.. warm­ ly sexual.. to provide dear direction to a person who might otherwise get lost in meditation or in devotion to a cause. but they seem to have more difficulty than other temperaments engaging in play. their personal warmth and enthusiasm—all these traits work their magic in the NF’s relationships. that is. Not only do they find the rituals of dating slightly absurd. The Rational Mindmate I wanted my wife to share all my interests. For most NTs. establishing romantic relationships with Rationals usually requires more time and energy than with the other temperaments. that at best such intimate coercion can be kept loving and sympathetic. and more than compensate for their tendency to start up Pygmalion Projects. at times. Developing harmonious personal rela­ tions is their joy and their area of expertise. for their personality structure is characteristically complex and. enjoying discussions on esoteric topics full of technical details (everything you wanted to know about chemical bonding—and more). —Herbert A. their spirit of cooperation. however. although apparently easy to get to know.

a long-term com­ mitment is made. a short-term investment is made. Thus. provided. seeing the whole courtship process as perhaps more trouble than it’s worth. in all likelihood. and many show almost no interest in developing social graces or in being popular. and they will not be slow to discourage someone who does not fit the bill. with only mild regrets. dating for Rationals is a sometimes difficult search for a person they deem worthy of their personal investment. Nor is the NT likely to verbalize any disappointment or dissatisfaction if such is the case. can be rather passive about the search. Both styles can lead to errors: Coordinators can be .The Rational Mindmate 241 school and college—and they tend to prefer their books and computers to football games and prom dates. on the other hand. Engineers. Once in a college or business environment. Rationals usually regard sexual promiscuity with distaste. Wanting always to know what they’re doing and where they’re going. Coordinators will often have in mind a list of physical and cognitive features they hope to find in their mate. But when establishing more lasting rela­ tionships they are not likely to give in to impulse. social participation (as it is for Guardians). and. that a response has been forthcoming from the recipient. they will develop the relationship as they have conceived it. dating for Rationals is neither entertainment (as it is for Artisans). they are unlikely to have a change of mind. rather. generally speaking. The Coordinator NTs (ENTJs and INTJs) are more systematic in this search for a mate than the Engineer NTs (ENTPs and INTPs). But even in young adulthood. giving prolonged consideration to their intentions and expectations. Once the matter has been mapped out to their satisfaction—once their coordinates are clear—they are ready to pro­ ceed with investing in the relationship. and they are not likely to discuss past involvements with a partner or with others. If the relationship calls for a short-term involvement. on the other hand. and the NT makes sure the temporary nature of the affair is clearly understood by the other party. the NT is likely to shrug his or her shoulders and turn away. Rationals remain somewhat stiff and awkward when it comes to dating. Once Rationals have made their search and decided on a mate. and some might experiment with sexual practices. A few highly private. and will be honored even if the relationship does not develop as satisfactorily as anticipated. and they are likely to settle down with the first person of quality who happens to show an interest in them—just to get the mating problem solved. NTs think through relationships carefully. extraverted Rationals might decide (quite deliberately) to date around for the fun of it. seriously committed relationships is the usual pattern of an NT’s love life. Should this not be agreeable. of course. and as a matter of personal ethics. Indeed. the relationship calls for a long-term commitment. and almost never discuss their current sex life with friends. If. Even talking about their sexual experiences is uncomfortable for them. probably because Rationals (like many Idealists) tend to develop intimate relationships rather slowly. nor deep bonding (as it is for Idealists).

however. and will be put up with only to please their family or their mate. but NFs also marvel at the NTs’ ability to focus and to concentrate. But the false impression—almost a stereotype—of Rational coldness remains the source of much disappointment and conflict in their marriages. Guardians. and this personal contract is worthy all their loyalty. and strictly adhered to. for they know what powerful passions surge within them. but may or may not conform to the general mores of sexual behavior current in any given time. divided. but their own personal standards of conduct certainly do. they feel pledged to the relationship—with or without a marriage license. What matters to the Rational is individual commitment. All in all. so different from their own tendency to be scattered. a deeply satisfying mutual interest in abstract ideas. What’s the cause of this misunderstanding. NTs. Although the Rational mating style can seem over-controlled at times. Idealists feel the strongest attraction to Rationals. and how keenly interested they are in their mates. But unless their choice is a complete disaster. Once Rationals have given themselves to a mate. In most cases. providing them with an enjoyable. Rationals tend to stand by their commitments and make every effort to see their relationships through. The rules and formalities of society have little pressure for them. in contrast. Not only do Idealists share with Rationals a rare compatibility of mind. and sadly. conventional social life. The sexual ethics of NTs are carefully considered. Rationals are not at all reluctant to explore their sexuality once they have committed to a relationship. who will accuse them of being cold and unemotional. Rational Married Life Once an investment has been made in a mate. for their part. this discrepancy between ap­ . It is frequently. and Rationals are free to pursue their varied interests—both know-abouts and know-hows—they come face to face rather quickly with a major problem in their marriages. the case that Rationals are misunderstood on one important point by their spouses. are amazed that their way of relating and loving can be seen by their mates as aloof or uncaring. while Engineers some­ times find that short-term solutions can result in long-term regrets. NTs often have a curious amorality concerning the generally-accepted standards of mating behavior. and take real pride in helping the lost-in-thought NTs keep their feet on the ground.242 Mating naive about their requirements and make faulty lists. think highly of the Rationals’ seriousness and hard work. it has its attractions for the other temperaments. Society’s seal of approval—in the form of a church ceremony or marriage license—means nothing to them. and distracted. getting them to stop being so serious and obsessive about their work. and of seeming distant and unconcerned with their welfare. while at the same time they enjoy trying to jolly the NTs up a bit. Artisans admire both the Rationals’ penchant for effective action and their refusal to be bound by convention. The same goes for their attitude towards pre-marital sex.

as if a million miles away even when sitting with their spouse in the living room. Making matters worse. while Rationals might seem unaware of their mates and the domestic life around them.The Rational Mindmate 243 pearance and reality? The answer lies in the combined strength of three of the Rationals’ core character traits: their abstractness. photography)—ever in the business of acquiring knowl­ edge—and this makes them often seem out of touch with the real world of people and objects. their computer files—to get out of their heads—and join the family circle. “doesn’t know I’m alive. which means they want. astronomy. NTs have a unique ability to concentrate on whatever problems they are trying to solve—and they are always working on solutions to problems—which can make them seem remote and preoccupied with their work. lost in thought. This is an all-too-common impasse in Rational marriages. or why (always on the lookout for mistakes and wasted effort) they often frown and appear to be angry when concentrating. Rationals have an almost obsessive need to be efficient in whatever they do and say. or why they are so hard on themselves when they make errors. It’s just that NTs don’t notice everyday reality—and this includes their spouses—very well on their own. and oblivious to the daily. their need for ef­ ficiency. usually showing genuine interest when these people and events are brought to their attention. because many husbands and wives feel humiliated having to ask their Rational mates to pay attention to them. re­ search models. their technical journals. This is one of the major complaints of their mates: that NTs seem to direct exclusive attention to the world of theory and technology. The Rational. This constant striving for peak efficiency. theories. for example. explains many things about NT behavior: why they put their trust in the precision of logic. and when this fails. to achieve maximum results with minimum effort in all their endeavors. Along with their abstractness. at the expense of giving sufficient attention to them.” And yet. principles. . But there’s the rub. In the first place. without having to be reminded—as a spontaneous expression of love. it can sometimes seem to his or her mate. they are studying other subjects (the Civil War. but that they are by nature both abstract and highly focused. Thus the problem is not that Rationals are cold and inhuman. system designs. homely events that comprise much of family life. their desire for autonomy. Rationals spend much of their time absorbed in the abstract world of ideas. they will accuse them of thoughtlessness or indifference. and the like. hypotheses. they are not indifferent or unresponsive. and last but not least. or to give time to the family. for mini-max oper­ ations and communications. and have to be reminded to get their nose out of their books. if at all possible. technologies. When they aren’t puzzling over a problem from work. They want their Rational mates to think of them and care about them of their own volition. And so they will wait with growing anger for the NT to offer interest or affection.

and so once they have indicated their feelings by choosing their mate. the commitment stands until notified. alone unto himself. codes of conduct—those shoulds and shouldn’ts—that govern most social behavior. not only on significant matters such as tending the children. however. All too often. that would try to make them march to someone else’s drum. and might even raise a doubt about the sincerity of the message. but they are innately mistrustful of them—after all. dressing for a party. emotions. or. as if the lady or the gentleman “doth protest too much. business institutions. and with growing annoyance. who are often hurt by the silence. manners. this obsession with efficiency figures into a familiar problem in Rational marriages. Their spouses might long for more frequently verbalized expressions of affection and concern.244 Mating At the same time. . Thus. or an icy blast. passive resistance. but they allow their autonomy to be abridged only under duress. and. to the ever-efficient Rationals. but it is rare for any NT simply to follow orders without some word of protest or gesture of self-assertion. On occasion. both for themselves and for their spouses. desires) that well up from within themselves and seek to take control of them.” Once the NT makes a commitment to a mate. but that they have a distaste for stating the obvious or being redundant. they might lead to mistakes and inefficiency. appetites. of selfishly regarding their own efficiency as more important than the feelings of their mates.” but also on seemingly trivial things such as cleaning up the kitchen. governmental institutions. and they resist (and resent) any and all forces that would coerce them into acting against their will. and their resistance hardens against social or moral expectations that are meant to control them. worse. they are not apt to engage in sentimental love talk. It’s not that NTs don’t feel love for their mates. And this is just as true if the coercion comes from educational institutions. NTs have just as many of these irrational impulses as the next person. Rationals are accused of being cold and unromantic. again. or from the institution of marriage. Rationals are not at all comfortable with the involuntary impulses (urges. Their refusal might take some form of silent. or saying “I love you. every man is an island. but. Nothing more need be said. that NTs are reluctant to speak of love to their spouses. their mates come to believe that this lack of emotional expressiveness is due to a lack of emotion. NTs allow no compromise when it comes to their own autonomy. regulations. The third cause of the seeming coldness of Rationals is their principled insistence on individual autonomy. those rituals. or helping bring in the groceries. Beyond this resistance to interpersonal constraint. They are the most self-directed and independent-minded of all the temperaments. To Rationals. if Rationals detect in their mates’ messages even the slightest pressure to behave in a socially acceptable way. or to have a better attitude—if they sense the subtlest suggestion of social or moral obligation—they will balk and refuse to cooperate. namely. repeating what is clearly established is a waste of time and words. they might bite their lip and go along in order to avoid a quarrel. both of which are unacceptable to them.

or interest. deep in your soul. For the most part. Rationals tend not to own the behaviors of their mates as might those of other temperament. Such people are sorely lacking in self-sufficiency. says the Rational. A public display of emotion or affection is particularly repugnant to most NTs. the Rationals’ tight rein on their impulses also takes its toll on their marriages. “Analysis. for the Rational to continue loving them. “People who need people. they expect their mates to do the same. the NT will turn quickly away and refuse even to meet them half way. says the NT. Personal dependence (on alcohol.” are not. NTs have difficulty allowing themselves to give up control and go with their impulses and emotions and to express them freely and openly. Unfortunately. But not only do Rationals live according to their own lights. To NTs. as the song from Funny Girl puts it. children.The Rational Mindmate 245 Basing their self-respect on their autonomy. however.” as Artisan athletes like to say. “the luckiest people in the world” (“a feeling. not out of modesty or respect for decorum. mind you. NTs are even inclined to keep certain aspects of their personalities. which effectively kills them in the process. but because it shows a lack of self-control—a lack of autonomy—and this attitude contributes to the image of the Rational as the cold automaton. or hope to extort sympathy with some overdone complaint. and need to become whole in themselves. and as in all Pygmalion Projects it is meant benevolently. or even old friends who happen to be in need of help. and no one can make you happy but yourself. “is paralysis. We are all on our own in life. Rationals are full of loyalty and support for mates. such a shift for yourself way of relating to loved ones strikes many less self-reliant mates as cold and uncaring. but so is interpersonal dependence. Showing off is loathsome to them (it is acting for others. If those close to them (especially their spouses) try to make a crutch of the NT. Even with their closest loved ones. In all fairness. Rationals show little sympathy with mates who look to the Rational to give them happiness or wholeness. as well as some of their talents. now you’re whole”). The Rationals’ intention to instill their own fierce sense of autonomy in their loved ones is a common basis of NT Pygmalion Projects. for example) is repellant to them. and so do not feel they . with only their eyes transmitting depth of reaction. NTs prefer to restrain and hide their emotions behind an immobile facial stance. says you were half. On the contrary. not for themselves). Rationals try to govern their impulses and bend them to their will by consciously evaluating them and analyzing them. to help the mate become what the NT believes is a better person. or facet of character in the Rational that had not been apparent previously. when in truth it is the Rationals’ way of showing just how much they care. to themselves. but only if there is no sign of dependency or game-playing in the needy person. self-determined and self-possessed. and so their loved ones are often surprised to learn of some skill.” Not surprisingly.

Rationals will usually not let themselves be hooked into the interper­ sonal battle. biography. this urge seldom lasts long enough to make that fortune. overwrought behavior. with books: with technical journals and dictionaries.) Parenting. as if they can handle any problem that might arise. video camera. even strewn. science fiction. and the physical and social sciences. waiting for the anger to burn itself out. and unforgivable. say. is usually a pleasure for a Rational. be it power saw. they are content with enjoying the beauty of. therefore. And in the case of a quarrelsome mate. as it . And NTs seldom lose interest in owning books—they are some of their most valuable tools. or in acquiring expensive things (cars. sometimes to the delight and sometimes to the irritation of their mates. with works of philosophy. and mysteries). are once again accused by their mates of being aloof and uncaring. Possession as an end in itself seems not to motivate Rationals. Their attention quickly turns once again to the theoretical. but also with books for recreation. such benign detachment often only feeds the fire. rather. taking pleasure in their efficient design and construction. a classic airplane. clothes) just for the status or the pride of ownership. and so can be regarded objectively. Rationals find irresistible to own. The errors. but will quietly step back and observe their mate’s curious. For Rationals. spy novels. Rationals love to feel capable. most efficient design of any tool they happen to find useful. as well as books of math puzzles and complex game strategies (chess. While NTs are period­ ically inspired to acquire the wealth needed to own such expensive toys. A Rational’s home is likely to be well-lined. of their family members are not the NT’s errors. or an exquisite art object. (The NT’s own errors are those which are inexcusable. a vintage car. This characteristic Rational trait—caring without needing to pos­ sess—also extends to many material goods. NTs tend to be relatively uninterested in acquiring material wealth beyond what is necessary for reasonable security and comfort. instead of being valued for their patience and self-control. Owning tools is another weakness for NTs. bridge. and finding satisfaction in their elegant functioning. Unfortunately. history.246 Mating have the right to interfere with them—even for their own good. works of far-flung imagination (especially historical novels. who seems to watch the growth of children with joy but as something of a bystander. secure from bureau­ cratic trespass. or computer hardware or software. and the like). jewelry. and so they surround themselves with the best tools available. and Rationals. and this might well have to do with their wanting to assure their personal freedom and autonomy—the idea of a man’s home being his castle. and the momentary interest in becoming wealthy dissipates—only to return from time to time with the same result. or at least the non-logical errors. however. Land is one kind of property that NTs have a powerful need to possess. who will think very little of the cost of buying the latest. Certain things. sensuality also has much to do with imagination.

particularly males. or which contains an unexpected double meaning. politics. Isn’t this the way everyone should be? But such discussions are often as witty as they are logical. However. Rationals tend to enjoy arguing about ideas with their mates. At the same time. their mate need not be quite their intellectual equal. While they. Rationals generally have a well-developed sense of humor. Male NTs have a slightly different standard concerning brain power. either one-on-one or within a circle of friends. NTs will insist that logic be adhered to in such discussions. NTs love to spar over ideas and theories. just as quick-witted debate can bring Rationals alive. get a kick out of off-color jokes and stories. Rationals seem to have eternal hope that one day they can prevail upon their mates to share their fascination with science and technology. Obviously. the degree of sexual satisfaction in an NT’s marriage will be correlated with the mental closeness of the relationship. but this is not to say their wit is always abstract and pedantic. this places the intelligent female NT in a position of limited choices. although the amusing and humorous is usually subtle and. Contrary to the stereotype of them as always cold and serious. NTs especially enjoy humor which is ironical. at least when not in mixed company. Moreover. and normally the sexual act is given meaning beyond mere playfulness or release from sexual tension. given other personal or domestic talents. and understands the necessity of making his romantic approach through mutual exploration of ideas. The female NT. the Rationals’ imaginative way in sexuality can sometimes block the full expression of their physical nature. and that they can shape up their loved ones into being more logical in their thinking and speaking. makes the effort. their attitude is more apt to be that. in particular. rela­ tionships that are fraught with emotional infighting can aggravate and exhaust them. more often than not. science (and many other topics). though it must be said that they are not that good at telling dirty jokes—they often lose their timing and forget the punch lines. as their overtures to the sexual encounter become threaded with subtleties and symbolism. and both temperaments are capable of appreciating the imaginative nuances of physical intimacy which Artisans and Guardians might find irrelevant or even unfathomable. but conflict on a . Many Rationals. too. arousing her mind as well as her body.The Rational Mindmate 247 does for Idealists. logic or rationality is the other major area (besides autonomy) in which Rationals are likely to start up Pygmalion Projects with their spouses. Indeed. based on a play on words. The messages that both NTs and NFs send through the physical relationship are apt to become more and more complex over time. prefer mates who are just as smart as they are (and unintelligent females actually turn them off). history. taking great pleasure in the lively discussion of economics. or at least by someone whose quality of mind she greatly admires. to be sure. may have difficulty with sexual responses unless her mate takes the time. it is likely that an NT female will be sexually stimulated only by a mate who is as bright as she is.

spontaneity—even mis­ chief—which can help get NTs out of their heads and show them how to let go and wing it. like raising children. birthdays. and the like. which means it must be comfortable and functional. wanting to give as little time and attention as possible to outward form. Rationals. Rationals need to learn how to play. vacations. and caring to please only herself and to keep her husband happy. . holidays. do indeed greatly please their mates. For Rationals. to give more than passing regard to color or style or expensive labels is worse than a waste of time. and just as results-oriented. Indeed. it is going along with the crowd. not fashionable. there are principles of efficiency and autonomy involved. makeup. who will get after their Rationals for being so careless. for instance. again. SPs can also disappoint their NT mates by their general lack of interest in the internal world. NTs find mates just as irreverent as they. trying to please others. or a shirt with the price tag hanging from the sleeve. and also about hair styles. NTs enjoy expounding their theories and hypotheses and describing their latest inventions and paradigms to their mates—at times. This can embarrass some social-minded mates. and such are important. NTs admire SPs their interest in tools and tool skills. For the social graces. unless reminded. and if you happen to see someone wearing two different colored socks. and make highly successful marriages with all the temperaments. and preferably inexpensive. Rationals tend to have little time or interest. it is likely to be an NT. like taking out the garbage}—is something NTs find destructive.248 Mating personal level—quarreling and bickering over acceptable social behavior. similarly. if she attends to these fashion issues at all. improvisation. coercive mate. just as willing to ignore convention. and at the same time they find in SPs an aptitude for fun. or locking horns over matters of family or domestic control (from big things. tries to keep her appearance unpreten­ tious. jewelry. Female NTs have pretty much this same attitude about clothing. and is thus a loss of autonomy. to little things. more than this. both male and female. of annual social rituals. But watch out for thorns. and Artisans love to spread their playfulness around. Rational Pairings In spite of these misunderstandings. particularly to how they dress. Rational-Artisan: The Rationals’ lack of possessiveness and reluctance to interfere with their mates makes a very nice fit with the Artisans’ freedom-loving nature. most NTs give very little thought to their personal appearance. if pushed too hard SP fun and games can come to seem frivolous to NTs. The female NT. and this can lead to difficulty when their mate is a type to whom anniversaries. putting whatever psychological distance is needed between themselves and a cross. Moreover. But. NTs (especially the reserved NTs) may be utterly unaware. and they will walk away from this kind of interaction. clothing is to be efficient. In the SPs. Notoriously absorbed in their research. But this is more than absentmindedness. Of course.

Two Rationals are likely to be fascinated by each other’s research and discoveries. they do offer Rationals one invaluable gift as a mate: a stable. esoteric. and Guardians love to help their mates remember their social obligations. and thus doubling the distance to be overcome in the relationship. Rational-Rational: Two Rationals married to each other do not have this problem. particularly if they are able to discuss their brainstorms with their colleagues at work. and an SJ mate happily steps in to see that things get done and that the details of running the home are taken care of. highly detailed lectures. Preoccupied as they are in their ivory towers. perhaps. a mutual love of insights and concepts. But Rationals with concrete mates (Guardians or Artisans) sometimes sense they’re missing some vital connection. each forgetting to notice the other. critical. of course. NFs bring a personal warmth to their relationships which appeals to the analytical. self-controlled . This competition can get rough at times—NTs will go for the jugular in the heat of argument—but the main trouble in NT-NT marriages is just the opposite: that each tends to stay absorbed in his or her own cognitive world. A satisfying social life. down-to-earth matters. these breakfast-table conversations can turn into lengthy. but a full. and they will grimly protect their autonomy from SJ bossiness. But a more important problem is that Guardians. and competitive. Rational-Idealist: Marriage to an Idealist is probably the best option for a Rational. Rational-Guardian: While Guardians won’t usually take the lead on merrymaking. and SJs make sure their NT mates remember to take part in the social functions and family traditions they might otherwise forget. and when they find the time to come together they have intense discussions. NTs and NFs share an abiding interest in the abstract. no matter how intelligent in their concrete logistical roles. have little interest in the Rationals’ abstract world of systems analysis and technological design. NTs often lose touch with the everyday workings of family life. even a similar fluency with abstract language. NTs and SJs share a strong sense of loyalty to close friends and family. reliable center in the home. enjoyable.The Rational Mindmate 249 in fact. SJ social reminders can sound to NTs like nagging. that bond them securely. logical. But it is very difficult for NTs to hold an SP’s attention on such abstract subjects. SJs also see to it that NTs have a social life—not one as varied and exciting as that whipped up by an SP. often family-oriented social life nonethe­ less. Rationals need to be reminded to relate to people. and so can find with each other a companionship of ideas. At the same time. family life. NTs may not need a great deal of intellectual interaction with their mates. internal world. Rationals married to other Rationals need to learn how to get away from their work and meet each other on a personal level. and Rationals are quick to note when interest wanes and their mates begin turning the conversation to more concrete. by their tools and technologies. If pushed too far. and sexual life may be enough for them.

with each candidate required to meet certain criteria. Conflicts. the expressive or reserved (E-I) social attitude and the scheduling or probing mindset (J-P). have a sometimes secret passion for fairy tales and mythical stories). In their questing phase. The inventor. are inherent in both of these areas of RationalIdealist attraction. and their personal sensitivity. and launch their campaigns with missionary zeal. and only if the discussion remains friendly. bringing to the marriage an enthusiastic and effervescent enjoyment and wonderment about life—the very antithesis of the tightly focused. And conflict between the NT’s cool resistance to showing emotion and the NF’s desire for emotional expressiveness is an endless problem in their relationships. that is. broadly conceived. Masterminds and Champions should match up best. the outgoing and probing Inventors (ENTPs) are of necessity iconoclastic and tend to get into a bit of trouble with the . Mate selection must be done in a logical and methodical way. and consequences. who are willing to engage in such debates for only short periods of time. operation. the outgoing and schedule-minded Fieldmarshals (ENTJs) are natural mobilizers. If sharing ideas with an NT means arguing over def­ initions. In their saintly or monastic phase. Fieldmarshals and Healers would seem to fit well together. are com­ plementary. Healers can offer their imperious Fieldmarshal mates a welcome respite from the wars. and necessary consequences. it is onerous to NFs. What in the seclusive and probing Healer (INFP) seems to fit so well with the Fieldmarshal? First note their one point of similarity. Inventors and Counselors are most likely to find great satisfaction together. or else be quickly dropped. the reserved and scheduling Masterminds (INTJs) are probably more systematic than all other types in choosing a mate. for all their rationality. thoughtful exactitude of the master of contingency planning. of course. Masterminds and Champions speak the same language of ideas and fantasies (INTJs. Masterminds will rarely go wrong with an expressive and probing Champion (ENFP). Whether in the military or not. But ENFPs also complement INTJs significantly. Out to exercise their ingenuity in the world. If theory holds. Wishing to control events. perhaps sharing with them their quiet spirituality.250 Mating NTs. logical categories. logistics. they’re itching to get their hands on several armies so they can mobilize their forces and conduct their campaigns as they should be conducted—with an eye to long-term strategies and their derivative tactics. or enterprise now existing with a better one. On the one hand. Healers also become leaders of armies (as did Joan of Arc). and helps them put aside their work and take time for a personal life. however. their desire for inner-harmony. It may well be that the stereotype impugning the Rational approach to mating has as its target the thorough-going Mastermind. this compatibility is enhanced in Rational-Idealist mar­ riages when the other factors of personality. In any event. though one that is usually overshadowed by these two temperaments’ rare compatibility. Here are four NT-NF pairings that illustrate the paradigm. is bent on replacing whatever tool.

logic. or Soulmates. then Rationals could be accepted as the excellent mates they are. indeed. who usually are not all that pleased to see the tried-and-true device set aside for the better mousetrap.The Rational Mindmate 251 custodians of the establishment. more law-abiding. and not criticized for the qualities they lack. that is. then the task for all of us is to keep our coercion as loving and sympathetic and playful as possible. a conflict much more serious than the “battle of the sexes. are catalysts of the personal growth process in others. and thirst for knowledge. all-too-easily lost in their abstract designs and desire for coherence. not to mention their skepticism. or more emotionally expressive. resolve. as the qualities that attracted them in the first place. not better tools and technologies. however. sometimes antagonistic ENTP greatly admires the INFJ’s ability to help other people find their way. composure. If we cannot—if our ma­ nipulation becomes bullying or nagging or exhorting or intimidating—then we have to expect our mates to defend themselves. as positive traits. Fortunately. and thus they become the natural targets of Pygmalion Projects to make them more playful. the expressive and schedule-minded Teachers (ENFJs). but Teachers seem to have it in abundance—and Architects find this combination of intellectual spark and personal sparkle quite irresistible. efficiency. can despair of ever finding a mate who will listen to them and appreciate their visions. Do not Artisans urge their mates to lighten up? Do not Guardians work on their mates to be more responsible? Do not Idealists try to inspire their mates to be more soulful? And do not Rationals pressure their mates to be more logical? If it can be assumed that Pygmalion Projects are an inevitable part of any mating. Because of their single-minded. All the Idealists seem to have this facilitative capability in some degree. Helpmates. logical focus and their fiercely independent character. to re-shape them into Playmates. yearn­ ing for achievement. and even more than the other types. and what might be called the “battle of the types” is joined. Architects and Teachers are apt share a rare compatibility. though it is better personal rela­ tionships and the development of the self.” . The reserved and probing Architects (INTPs). Rationals are easily seen as cold and uncaring. able to bring out the best in others with inspiring personal enthusiasm. — In Conclusion— None of the temperaments are immune from the Pygmalion impulse. But if their spouses—of whatever temperament—could recognize the Rationals’ focus and independence. that inspire their inventiveness. Regardless of the particular pairing. brimming with ideas in their own right. In the seclusive and scheduling Counselor lies the soul of the advisor—the personal guide to a more harmonious life—and the irreverent. Rationals need to be appreciated for the many qualities they bring to a marriage. Counselors (INFJs) share this desire to better things.

is perhaps even more of a temptation in parenting. or perhaps in steering them. their children are very much their own persons—Artisans. no matter what the parents do to discourage one direction in favor of another. Unfortunately. Indeed. Most parents believe quite sincerely that their responsibility is to raise their children. this hands-on model of parental responsibility—wellintentioned though it may be—all too often ends in struggle and rebellion. thinks or feels— are usually quite wrong. Ide­ alists.. well-meaning parents are very likely to disconfirm the different messages their children are sending. Guardians.of having an ideal for our children. Even more than the husband-wife relationship. Rationals—and that no amount of disconfirmation. Such parents fail to realize that. —D. Or worse. Acting on this assumption.H. our parental herbicides killing the good and the bad indiscriminately. Lawrence The Pygmalion Project.8 Parenting Let us beware and beware and beware. So doing. The truth is that kids of different temperament will develop in entirely different directions. almost unavoidable in mating. The root of the problem is that parents tend to assume that their children are pretty much the same as they are—extensions of their own personality who will naturally follow in their footsteps. the parentchild relationship has this serious factor of interpersonal manipulation seem­ ingly built into it. or 252 . to take an active part in guiding them. on their way to becoming mature adults. so that their mature personalities can take their rightful form. and perhaps even to intrude on the private space of their children with their own agendas. we damn them. from the beginning. in many cases. attribution. But the temperament hypothesis suggests that. In our natural zeal to discourage moral weeds from springing up we risk discour­ aging mental flowers from growing.. as though part of the job description of Mother or Father. children are fundamentally different from their parents and need to develop in entirely different directions. parents of other temperament who assume that they share their child’s experience of life— that they know what their child wants or needs. just as they are likely to attribute their own attitudes to their children. To manipulate growth is a risky business.

skeptical. economical. The same holds for the mature Idealist. If our children were born to be like us—chips off the old block—then they need no shaping. uninhibited. curious. as propri­ etary. Some little ones seem to go straightaway for what they want. giving in to our all-too-human desire to shape our loved ones in our own image. and so on. calm. “alert” babies or “calm. The first signs of these larger patterns of character are observable quite early in life. religious. as Plato believed. theoretical. with no regard for the constraints that might alter their course or delay their action. Mother Nature will no more allow a child to come into this world temperamentally undifferentiated and formless—a blank slate—than she would allow a snowflake to be asymmetrical. passionate. receptive. as the other contributors to personology. A mature Artisan. as Galen believed. How different this pattern is from what these contributors said of the mature Guardian. Other children seem to . in other words. for instance—they are observably utilitarian or cooperative in their behavior. which means we must allow our children to become actually what they are potentially. doctrinaire. and for the mature Rational. industrious. innovative. from Paracelsus to Myers. and sanguine. Some infants and toddlers are outgoing and easy around strangers. our project ought not be that of Pygmalion. and probing. No. we must let nature take its course by giving our children ample room to grow into their true. hedonic.Maturation 253 intrusion can change their inborn structure. mar­ keting. ethical. and friendly. Maturation A mature individual is one whose latent attitudes and actions have become fully developed and habitual. then shaping can only have disappointing results. have told us. and will test the limits again and again. Perhaps easiest to observe are differences in gregariousness.” babies. Also. dialectical. who was said to be logical. is recognizably artistic. sensitive. and tough-minded. melancholic. solemn. traditional. How then are we to take up the task of parenting? We dare not make it a Pygmalion Project. These four mature types are so different in their character that they can hardly be confused with one another. cautious. mature character. as Aristotle believed. while some are shy and reserved. And they can be visibly frustrated by having to obey a parent or a teacher’s rules. when children begin pursuing their own goals—exploring the sooty fireplace. aesthetic. but of Mother Nature. preferring to peek from behind their mother’s leg when introduced to people. exploiting. phlegmatic. And more than that. if not. the mature Artisan is changeable. for instance. choleric. and scheduling. Then by the time they begin to interact socially children are showing unmistakable signs of having distinct traits of character. Babies in the crib show incipient dispositions—parents and pediatric nurses call them “active” babies or “fretful” babies. who was described as having common sense. who was described as philosophic.

Only then can they find ways to help them unfold and develop. and beckoned to come forth into the social environment. and seem more comfortable when pleasing the adults around them by behaving as their elders wish. however.” This means that overseeing Mother Nature’s project—maturation—re­ quires parents to become child watchers. not child shapers. Learning how to utilize effective ways and means takes a good deal of practice. takes on more and more distinct form. Later they become more defined. awakened. like their parents. more specific. will lean toward becoming either utilitarian or cooperative in how they use the myriad tools of civilization. This means that the task of parents is stimulation. aroused. “What kind of person is my child. so practicing either of these requires some neglect of the other. Indeed. expanding process. at least to the casual observer. and either concrete or abstract in how they communicate the continuous messages of civil life. I learned from organismic psychology that we do not mature as a function of time alone. abstract thought and speech have to be neglected. Let us remember that maturation in all these facets of character is an evolving.254 Parenting comply with rules easily. acting only when they detect a teachable moment or opportunity to encourage the growth of some attitude or action that is consistent with the child’s temper­ ament. But stimulation of a special kind: stimulation that is both timely and relevant to whatever attitudes and actions are ready to emerge. have their characters. Now. In the case of language. In psychology this is called “the teachable moment”. so that personality. happily. and what can I do to help him or her grow in that direction?” Basic Differences In trying to understand children of any age we must bear in mind that they. however. but that maturation is stimulus induced. like anatomy. in enterprise. “the window of opportunity. in the absence of stimulation there is no maturation. and vice versa. The same holds for practice in communicating: if concrete thought and speech come naturally to a child and are practiced most of the time. but by the time they reach their late teens their bodies have taken on a much more mature form and so. in many ways. Parents must be able to answer the question. Children begin practicing their particular . branching. If parents do not know what end to seek—their child’s innate character structure—then they cannot know what means will help stimulate it. which is to say that our character growth must be stimulated. differences in abstractness or concreteness take more time to become recognizable. and more revealing of the child’s personality. parents must understand what these latent attitudes and actions are. unfolding. Infants look somewhat alike at birth. At first a child’s words are relatively vague and undifferentiated. differentiating. To do this. The change progresses from gross to fine. as does learning how to cooperate with others.

utilitarian children (Artisans and Rationals) usually wonder—and some of the bolder ones even venture to ask—“why that way?” or “what’s the use of doing it that way?” For example.Basic Differences 255 mix of these two dimensions of character as soon as they can use words meaningfully and tools effectively. Because of their ready cooperation. so Words that by around the age of four it starts Abstract Concrete becoming clear that the child is well on his or her way to being either con­ Abstract Concrete cretely utilitarian (SP Artisan). indeed. Guardian and Idealist children soon become sophisticated about rule-governed social transactions—about traditions. Little SJs and NFs want to do what’s expected of them. after all. and are chary of going their own way and trying out what might be useful changes in how to do things. often to the dismay of their elders. Artisan children also catch on easily to social conventions. please refer Utilitarian Utilitarian to the matrix at the side. and differ radically in different cultures. that a given tool is to be used in a conventional or traditional way. It is only Rational children who are not very interested in conventions. to the delight of their elders. and they don’t give a second thought to ignoring traditions if they can get away with it. in . and Artisan children are increasingly aware of the rules governing social transactions. to use their knives and forks in a socially correct manner at dinner means little to SP and NT children. or simply because such use is looked upon with favor by their elders. and to fit in with the people around them. First consider tool use. Actually. and protocols. and they seem to want to know that they are pleasing others with their respect for convention. SP children learn quickly how to appear to obey them while they try to get around them. Cooperative children are not at all comfortable with questioning authority and testing limits. While SJ and NF children learn quickly how to obey and enforce the rules. procedures. The mere fact that a given tool is used in a conventional way is not sufficient reason for the utilitarians to use it that way. Abstract Concrete To help keep these four combinations Utilitarian NT SP of traits clearly in mind. On the other hand. ab­ NF SJ Cooperative stractly utilitarian (NT Rational). con­ Cooperator Cooperator cretely cooperative (SJ Guardian). so if they act that way it is to keep out of trouble and not an admission that it makes sense to them. When bid by parents and teachers to use tools in a conventional way. customs. In either case. Idealist. or Tools abstractly cooperative (NF Idealist). is usually sufficient reason for Guardian and Idealist children to conform. if only to sidestep them. it doesn’t bother SP and NT children at all to use tools in unconventional ways. Guardian. unless they make sense. arbitrary. Conventions in eating are. and so they are inclined to give great power to adults and their rules.

Of course. stories such as fables. Idealist children are not at all similar to their cooperative cousins. but they tend to prefer straightforward stories about the familiar and the factual. Stories especially are the NT and NF children’s joy—and from very early in their lives—but particularly stories of fantasy and far-flung imagination. And yet even these stories don’t have quite the pull for little SPs and SJs that any and all stories do for NTs and NFs. . their word usage predominately con­ crete. or a dinosaur. are very much like Guardian children in this respect. in some cases before the age of two. or to run up and down a road. The net effect of all of this exposure to make-believe is that the fantasy life and abstract vocabulary of Rational and Idealist children grow faster than that of Artisan and Guardian children. but are more like Rational children in showing interest in talking about imaginative things. and nothing like their utilitarian counterparts. concrete children will rather easily abandon story time for play time or activity time. if given the chance. and in talking and listening to adults. both SPs and SJs tend to speak primarily to other children rather than to adults. O f course. and they talk about toys and tools. Also. adventure stories and animal stories. or to deliver things. In fact. the relatively few NF and NT children found here and there certainly enjoy toys and handicrafts. they acquire a concrete vocabulary and a repertoire of instrumental actions earlier than Idealists and Rationals do. and how to play with them and make things with them.S. the Rational children. And a tricycle becomes an ice cream maker. and fairy tales. to be used to move dirt.256 Parenting which case they are interested because such usage makes sense and not because it is conventional. and will often ask their parents to repeat them again and again. folk tales and Mother Goose stories—“The Three Little Pigs” is a good example. Rational and Idealist kids can be captured by such fanciful stories even before they have the vocabulary to understand what they are hearing. the Guardian children. Artisan children. and on and on. This temperament-based disinterest makes catch­ ing on to the conventions a slow and sometimes regressive process for little NTs. An NT or NF child. For example. stories with lots of action and realistic details. stories filled with magic and sorcery. Lewis’s Narnia stories). and large cardboard boxes become architectural spaces. in hearing and reading stories. myths. might well turn the truck into a submarine. in the way they talk. toys for a concrete child are likely to retain their character—a truck remains a truck. on the other hand. but their abstract style of play is markedly different from that of SP and SJs. On the abstract side. concrete children want to hear stories too. making their parents wonder at times if maybe they aren’t very bright. and with metaphors and symbols. In the same way. The development of word usage looks a lot different than the develop­ ment of tool usage. and a wardrobe cabinet becomes a passageway to a secret world (as in C. or a flying chariot. because Artisan and Guardian youngsters spend their time playing with toys and making things with tools.

Enixt nous I do not feel very sorry for he certainly is a handful.. Improvising artful works and actions. they can manipulate their toys over and over—only . public or private. SP children are indeed excitable. They can spend day after day on a musical instrument. —Duchess of Marlborough Galen called Plato’s Artisans the “Sanguines” because of their obvious good cheer and their irrepressible love of excitement. able to get excited more quickly and to stay excited longer than other types of children. and followed by the Guardians. so too are they easily bored. and of competitive games and sports. as well as handling people and equipment. from which he or she can branch out. in-the-moment action roles of Operator and Entertainer—roles of the kind requiring skill in what I have called “tactical artistry. But just as they are easily wound up. to provide models for the tactical roles. and if they have the opportunity they quickly take to the physical. however. He is so excitable. their excitability is apparent from the start and is the temper­ amental soil from which spring all their mature Artisan character traits.. The other kinds of intelligent roles—lo­ gistical. they can spend hours finger painting. just like me. the responsibility—of parents? First. But he goes back to school on Monday. and should be introduced to them as early as possible. and then to stop and move on to the next thing that interests them.. and thus seem ever on the lookout for some sort of risky business or mischief to get into. Let’s begin by looking at the four kinds of character in children. are all activities that SP children find compelling. diplomatic—can wait until the SP child has developed a positive self-image. The Artisan Child I fear Winston [Churchill] thinks me very strict. Artisan children are likely to give their attention for hours on end.except to use bad language.. At any rate.The Artisan Child 257 Again. Only by doing so can they hope to facilitate their children’s growth rather than impede it. they must bring themselves to abandon the perspective that says “my children are.” And then they must begin to acquaint themselves with the nature of the character differences in as much detail as they can manage. but I really think he goes out too much & I do object to late parties for him. These children shine in action. and Rationals. Idealists. In any of these activities. what is the task—indeed. will grab budding Artisans—they need physical movement and novelty. strategic.” The entire range of fine and practical arts. Better to take on this task themselves.. rather than get after the school to change its curriculum. or find role-models in the community. And it is fruitless for parents to count on the schools. Meantime he is affectionate & not seriously naughty. It won’t because it can’t. and they love contests. underneath. starting with the Artisans. just to keep things interesting.

All things considered. and be seen by others. and so feel compelled to risk themselves to prove their boldness to their peers.” . To be proud of themselves even very young Artisans must be graceful in some form of tactical behavior. as they say. Little SPs have to take up every challenge and answer every taunt—to be the first to jump into the pool.258 Parenting to lose interest completely in those paints. as Promoters. authorities. so that by the time they are teenagers they have learned to turn on the charm or play it cool and get their way more easily than the rest. Young Artisans gradually become more and more sophisticated in interacting with others. young Artisans will often practice out of the sight of their peers. it means that young. Like adult Artisans. or toys. especially the Idealists and Guardians. SP children are the first to do dangerous tricks on their bikes or skateboards. As for self-respect. Parents. this is not going along with your agenda as much as it is giving you the impression that they are on the same wave length as you. Parents would do well to see to it that their little SPs have many chances to develop some kind of fluency of physical action. whether with their peer groups or with adults in charge (teachers. In learning to skate or to surf. and Composers. otherwise they will have little respect for themselves and may take up destructive habits. or that instrument tomorrow. and so on). so that they can see themselves. The more reckless Artisan teenagers will even play games of chicken with their cars. Performers. to sing or to dance or to play the guitar. that they know. On the other hand. youthful Artisans are self-confident in the degree they see themselves as being adaptable. Again. and as teenagers they are the first to start smoking and drinking in order to show their bravado. and to hide their clumsy actions from others. wanting to avoid their critical scrutiny. Crafters. parents need to be careful not to make their SP children show their skills until they are ready. “where you’re coming from. as artistic in some manner. they are thrilled to show others how well they can perform. Young Artisans feel guilty when they are seen as scaredy cats by other children. rather. sometimes with disastrous results. coaches. the first to try on mother’s makeup. Those who do not lose interest will practice endlessly on whatever technique they are drawn toward. self-confident SPs see themselves as able to fit smoothly into any situation that they care to enter. and can go on to become outstanding in the four tactical role variants. boldness in Artisan children is better encouraged than put down. once they have achieved some mastery of a given action. too much restraint can lead to timidity and self-contempt. At the same time. whatever. SP children regard themselves highly in the degree that they are bold and daring. must therefore steel them­ selves to permit more risk than they feel comfortable with in order to validate boldness in their Artisan children. Here the parent of an SP faces a dilemma: too little restraint can lead to injury. their self-esteem rising with their artistry in action. This certainly does not mean conforming.

and should be given sturdy. since even very young Artisans seek it. sounds. For this reason many psychologists have come to see impulsivity as the most distinguishing characteristic of this type. which means they are apt to enjoy coloring books. And so there are two sides to the development of self-confidence in Artisan children: they want to be smooth and sophisticated outside the home. The Artisan’s search for sensation. they are the first to go for skateboards and the last to stop using them. but are often defiant and contrary with their parents. and so on. to see if he or she can get away with it. but looking takes time and requires us to quell our impulse until we see a safe line of movement. even some of the Guardians. Of course. but not with the recklessness and persistency of Artisans. however. which helps to explain why so many of them get into drugs and sex much earlier than the other types. noting vividness and variety of colors. and to be what are called “good eaters. Wheels bring them the enjoyable sensation of going elsewhere fast. just as their childhood tricycles and bicycles turn into the dirt bikes and motorcycles of their adult years. Little SPs respond to sensory details. SPs are also more likely than the other types to seek the stimulating pleasures they see adults indulging in. who will go . Like colts in a corral. something to arouse their senses. for example. explains in part why Artisans go for wheeled toys of all sorts so early in life. by the way. It certainly is not for Artisans. then the two-year-old must do it again. or better. Looking before leaping is for those who do not trust their impulses. some with vigor.” They are also likely to enjoy animals. music. As they get older. We are all told to look before we leap. and why they never really give up their wheels. of all the types. For example. The little SP’s self-confidence depends on it. Indeed. are impulsive when they are very young. and in some cases they run away from home in pre-adolescence. just as they are usually rather hard on their toys and clothes. SPs have to kick each and every rail in the fence to see if it will give way. This search. but want to be free to roam where the impulse takes them. but in some cases even increases with age. for stimulation. Artisans from infancy on can be seen testing the limits of their immediate environment—and not being very charming about it. tastes. parents say “no” to something their two-year-old SP does. Recall that Zuckerman installed the “Sensation Seeking Personality” in the research agenda of many psychologists in the 1950s. But Artisan children are far more impulsive than any of the other types. Most children. the Artisans are most likely to leave home early in search of thrills. If. something to get the adrenaline flowing. and that impulsivity rarely declines. other types in early childhood will test the limits too. Artisan kids keep their eyes peeled for something exciting to do. well-made objects that can stand a lot of wear and tear. although they will often be rough with them. Artisans act on their impulses because they trust them. does not wait for adolescence. As children they are not content to be confined in a play pen or backyard.The Artisan Child 259 In their own families.

Early on SP children learn to be indifferent to such reprimands. They seem to feel lucky. this moment must be spent in joyful action. Yet the . Oriented as they are to the here and now. But not Artisans. This will be a winning shot. a thrilling leap. and so on. to these children. it is the trouble their parents have in denying them their immediate gratification that they count on to get them what they want. but. and they press their parents for it without regard to the trouble it causes their parents. To show off is gratifying to some of the other types of children. but it is more than gratifying to Artisans—it is exhilarating to them. to have impact on them. which usually come too many and too soon. and they may have to be reminded to get dressed. This day. Such nonsense is a waste of time when a person could be off having fun. they are on time for school. and even serious accidents. but usually to no avail. collected from here and there. Their rooms are likely to be a jumble of toys. The parents are fed up with this. and they are more likely to brag about their accomplishments than others. they demand it. hedonic attitude often leads to a scolding from exasperated parents. and valued objects. for instance. The fun of living in the moment means not paying attention to schedules or planning for the future. Having a good time for an SP child also means getting into messes—leave one of these children in the yard even for a moment and he or she somehow manages to get dirty. So sure are they that what they are about to do will be fun that it is difficult for them to wait. all in a rat’s nest. In a sense enjoyment is compulsive with them. This press for enjoyment in the moment may be fueled by the optimistic nature with which Artisans seem to be endowed. but Artisans can keep on bragging clear up into their adult lives. to take out the trash. to make a big splash. so they pull all stops to make it impossible for their pessimist to be disappointed and their optimist to be greatly pleased: the pessimist is given a gilded bicycle. his brother nothing bad. They insist on it. just as they want it. This carefree. may illustrate the point. Not that the other types. so that they look forward to the next move with eager anticipation. clothes. And Artisans are less likely than other types to understand demands for clean rooms or neat and orderly closets. to influence others. They hunger for chances to stand out. to do their homework. indeed. do not brag. Other types can sometimes forgo immediate pleasures for later ones. The story of the twin boys. and. On Christmas day each year the pessimist can find nothing good about his presents. They are too busy having fun to want to take time to hang and fold their clothes just so. often resulting in close shaves. a pessimist and an optimist. They seem to have a yearning to impress others. Artisans must have fun every day and all day long. this hour. Thus Artisan children may seem unconcerned about whether. “What difference does it make?” they ask. when young. scrapes. anyway. the optimist only a pile of horse manure. a great ride.260 Parenting headlong into dangerous situations. to hot dog it. to come to dinner.

making good marks and never breaking the rules. and of Administrator of their friends’ activities and productions—the two sides of what I have called “logistical reliability. most teachers (most teachers are Guardians) can count on their Guardian students to be good examples for the other . strategic—because Guardian children won’t take to them very well. It would be wiser to wait until these children make themselves comfortable in the logistical role variants of Supervisor. the optimist is found excitedly digging into the pile of manure while repeating delightedly “there’s gotta be a horse here somewhere!” The Guardian Child I loved going to school at Ashley Hall. even very young ones. even pre-school teachers. and are likely to feel bad about themselves if expected to practice them successfully. who are sensitive to per­ sonality differences find that SJ children are their helpers. relatives. there is plenty of role modeling around for this kind of behavior since these are the very things that many of their parents. keeping their toys nice. In school. There is no point in providing models for the other kinds of roles—tactical. Inspector. Guardian children are proud of themselves when they show their elders that they can be depended on to do what is expected of them. pleasing their parents and teachers.The Guardian Child 261 parents fail in their intent.[That year) my friends and I eased very gently into traveling in a group with both boys and girls. sex. I was a true square.. are busy beavers.. And it is quite natural for SJ children to copy their elders in these actions. picking up their rooms. Presumably Guardians are born that way. —Barbara Bush Galen called Plato’s Guardians the “Melancholics” no doubt because of their prevailing mood of serious concern. to be the so-called “good little girls and boys. and violence were not constantly thrust at us by television. those teachers. and at times this concern can turn to worry and fear that they aren’t being responsible enough. where I grew up quite a bit. and Protector before introducing other kinds of role practice. so that by the time they start school they are already well versed in these logistical roles. that they are trustworthy and accountable for all that they should or should not do.” which makes their concerned temperament the foundation for the maturation of all their traits of character. Indeed. Drugs. and teachers are engaged in. Provider. siding with them in advancing the teachers’ agendas. taking upon themselves the role of Conservator in their home and family.” Fortunately. and helping them keep control of class proceedings. diplomatic. It was so much easier than it is now. SJ children are concerned about many things. The pessimist cries uncontrollably when he finds a grease spot on his bike. Guardian children. helping around the house..

and with SJs making up. such as emptying the wastebaskets. and arms. but also for their siblings and friends. Guardian elementary school teachers. SJ children will respond to scolding and negative criticism. wanting to build self-confidence. And the Guardians’ dependable attitude lasts all through school. Guardian self-respect seems to be enhanced when they are serving others. Little SJs usually respond well to the assignment of specific responsibilities. particularly the SPs. However. something that little Artisans and Rationals would rarely. shov­ eling snow. for example. but most Guardian children are. which can make them try all the more. who are usually less cooperative. with doing household chores. Guardian self-respect can fade away rapidly and be replaced by guilt feelings if they have been less than helpful. student aids. It is usually plain to see from the outset that SJ children are far more prone to such guilt feelings than others. team managers. and half the children at home. doing yardwork. such as “You did that just the way I wanted.262 Parenting kids in class. and their source of pride is the approval given by adults for performing these activities reliably.” or “Your work is very neat. with these students most likely becoming hall monitors. not to mention on their faces. In the home. By the way. sorting wash. nearly half the student body at school. or for doing their homework neatly. they need tasks within their ability to perform. Of course. and so on. Self-confidence in Guardian children grows when their elders award them visible signs of approval. but they tend to enjoy routine mainte­ nance chores. setting the table. and far more than the other three types. if ever. teachers and parents need not ask for a more solidifying and stabilizing social force. class officers. the little SJs (often nearly half the class) will sit quietly and wait for instructions when their teacher asks them to. Even as young as five. SJ children thus respond well to praise. hands. who seem to feel no compunction at all about not pitching in. paste or stamp all sorts of insignias on their students’ papers and folders. In kindergarten. And in school Guardian children vie with each other to see who can be of more service to the teacher or the other students. It is doubtful whether their Artisan and Rational students are honored by such laurels. crossing guards.” Doing their best loses appeal if adult approval is not forthcoming. say. Guardian children also build their self-esteem on their dependability. think of doing. On the other hand. not only for their parents and teachers. For example. SJ first graders are delighted with a gold star on their forehead for never being tardy. on average. At home they are quick to ask their mother to let them lend a hand with preparing the meals. signs of censure such as . and the like. just as these signs of praise increase their self-confidence. and with helping bathe or feed a little brother or sister. whereas the little SPs (also nearly half the class) are busy discharging their irresistible impulses by tussling or chatting or roaming around. Guardians can be seen doing good deeds. No doubt the Guardians’ beneficent attitude stabilizes parent-child and teacher-pupil in­ teractions.

while the Artisans and Rationals care about it even less. Two-year-old Guardians. In the same way. What Guardians are looking for. is security. Guardians of any age just can’t seem to get enough security. and traditions are most carefully observed. the YMCA. So the question arises. They like tidy closets. as soon as they have sufficient mobility to seek anything. SJ children also respond happily to well-established. Also. and NT kids don’t mind being considered wits and nerds. they prefer to stay closer to home. and their toys are arranged carefully on shelves. It is very different with utilitarian Artisans and Rationals. Guardian children tend to play in their own yards or in safely supervised public places such as city parks and recreation centers. There’s no place like home for Guardian children. are already far more cautious than their siblings and playmates of other type. if Artisan children are the most impetuous of the four temperaments. and yarn. and to want to cut the vacation short. looking twice and even thrice before they leap. rituals. and they get a lot of enjoyment from the traditional holidays. the establishment where ceremonies. Guardian children do not seek stimulation the way Artisan children do. and if they go on some sort of trip they are likely to feel homesick more quickly than the rest. and they seem to worry and fret more than the rest. But self-confidence in little Guardians depends in great part on being commended for good behavior. and of course to their school’s athletic field. how early in their lives does this search begin? The answer is. the speedy wheeled toys that so capture Artisan children are less attractive to Guardian children.The Guardian Child 263 demerits can plant in Guardian youngsters seeds of self doubt and fear. or in and around their home rooms at school. who prefer to work on home crafts. so that by their teen years they covet their respectability even more. knowing the familiar agenda at home or school and not being asked to deviate from it gives SJ children a . even the more gregarious ones. are prone to homesickness. there are risks involved in getting into highly stimulating circum­ stances—the greater the stimulation. who are largely oblivious to others’ criticism of their deportment. Basically. For that matter. After all. as rowdies and cutups. Guardians see home as a haven where they can be safe. very early in life.” Thus. cooking. Even those SJ boys with athletic build. Guardian children are the most cautious. their bureau drawers are apt to contain neatly folded clothes. no matter how physically powerful they are. sewing. and for this reason I have called the Guardians the “Security Seeking Personality. Guardian children are likely to enjoy social gatherings at home with their parents and relatives. and therefore seldom leaping. Like Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz. clearlydefined routines that bring them predictability. Where Artisan children are drawn to the exciting (and often elicit) places in their neighborhood. no matter how much of it they have amassed during their lifetimes. cloth. and making objects from wood. such as Christmas and Thanksgiving. SP kids are not averse to being seen as mischievous. the greater the risk.

baby-sitters and chaperones. school system. who not only resist situational constancy.264 Parenting feeling of safety. “legitimate. They get along well with large numbers of brothers and sisters. uncles. Indeed. More than being secure and legitimate. their intuition. Contrast this attitude with that of SPs of the same age. Guardian children need to know that what is so today will be so tomorrow. Guardian children want their actions and attitudes to be authorized. grandparents. teachers. and they expect their parents. To be a member of a family is important to all children. Indeed. but to literal self-destruction. it is difficult for Guardian children to get enough legitimacy. or their reason. certainly. their aunts. and community. scout troops. enough sense that they have permission to act and are pleasing those adults above them. the first social group for any of us is the family. purposive movement toward security. youth fellowship groups. Parental expectations need not make sense. and crises can cause them distress and arouse feelings of insecurity. Thus. SJ children are most comfortable following the rules. the better. they do better when raised in the same neighborhood. changing teachers at midyear can be difficult for an SJ child. Divorce is particularly devastating to them. and with friends who grew up with them. and teenage and preteenage suicides are far more prevalent among Guardians than all the other types combined. but they must be clear and constant. They also enjoy stories of family history and remember these stories when they have grown up. In the same way. of any age. sanctioned. and the more memberships—and the more recognized status in their social groups—they can collect along their path to maturity. For example. There are few loners among Guardian children. not to self-destructive behavior as do many Artisans. SJ children begin early on to satisfy this hunger. and more than the other types. and cousins. . principals. Because of this. confusion. joining school clubs. but are eager for changes and surprises. doing what they’re told.” And. whereas constant changes. even their den mothers and troop leaders. and they greatly enjoy relating to their extended family. to be in charge and to say what’s right and wrong. meeting the expectations and the demands of those in authority. like their continual. but to Guardian children it can be a matter of survival. and Guardian children take to family life like ducks to water. and the like. and even more than the Idealists. while an SP might well perk up with the new opportunities. While the other types might trust their impulses. these children need the steadiness of parental firmness and agreement. stamped with approval—in a word. Guardian children seem to want to trust authority. must belong. frequent residential changes can be especially unsettling to little SJs. whether or not they are really abandoned. Of course. Very likely this is because when SJ children feel abandoned. and this trust never wanes. their despair is so great that they abandon themselves. SJs seem to have a lifelong hunger for belonging. Guardians. Guardian children put their trust in authority. coaches. To be caught between a strict parent and a lenient one can upset them.

Little SJs happily let their siblings do the griping. and are hardly able to keep quiet about their thoughts and feelings. the highly enthusiastic nature of Idealist children is clear. as they will in anyone’s life. I believe they can be partly explained by an impetuous vitality and by a lack of all moderation which I have never grown out of completely. especially outside the home. —Simone de Beauvoir Plato’s Idealist children are the enthusiastic ones. they seem to have an inborn sense of the boy scout’s motto—“Be Prepared”—and so feel it better to expect the worst than to be caught off guard. And even though the latter is the case for most Guardian children. In either case. too. Seeking security as they do. provided that the squeaks are not too loud and the wheel keeps on turning. but not when setbacks are normal and infrequent.. and service than complaining. they also can . those whom Galen spoke of as “Choleric” because their feelings.I have often wondered what were the causes of these outbursts and what significance they had. NFs are likely to begin to talk early. An unbridgeable chasm separated the things I loved from the things I hated. Such stoicism can show up at remarkably early ages in Guardians.The Idealist Child 265 Although such extreme measures are rare. but they go after it by letting their parents know that they can put up with being in pain or sad or worried without complaint.. pessimism is usually not apparent in Guardian children be­ cause they are likely to keep their fears to themselves. whether positive or negative. reassurance. and may have some difficulty communicating. they but confirm the Guardians’ faith in pessimism as the safest attitude to cling to. and want sympathetic attention from their parents.. And when bad things do actually occur. Reserved NFs have these same strong feelings. The Idealist Child I was a madly gay little girl: I had fits o f rage during which my face turned purple. They start out pretty early in life expecting bad things to happen. vaguely aware that griping gets them nothing but parental disgust.. they tend to anticipate all sorts of things going wrong. SJ children are quite often the family’s worry warts. Indeed. However.. and forms the temperamental basis of their adult actions and attitudes. but tend to be more shy about expressing them. and expressive NFs may seem to their parents never to stop talking. Even at an early age Idealist children seem to be fired with a passionate intensity. SJ kids have troubles. Now this gloomy outlook is understandable in those cases in which a child is subjected to a number of serious setbacks. They are quick to learn that showing willingness to bear up under adversity is more likely to gain sympathy. are easily aroused and sometimes expressed with surprising vehemence. Although Idealist children can occasionally be irascible. however. who find out that the squeaky wheel gets the grease.

since Idealist kids are usually eager to try all sorts of things and look forward to learning in school with keen anticipation. or relatives—or even teachers. while rifts may open with the other parent or the siblings. In addition. far more than the rest. in a dysfunctional and distantiated family Idealist children can run into serious problems. in a loving and supportive family self-esteem in the Idealist child can grow early and fast owing to the strong empathic bonding they are free to maintain. On the other hand. Few parents. so Idealist children must usually learn on their own rather than by taking after a good role model. like to play at being Teachers and Counselors. and far more by the cruelty of the punishment than by the pain inflicted. There is no way of determining how early in their lives their empathic response to others becomes strong. or strategic roles. since it shows up so early in the lives of NF children. if competition among family members is encouraged by their parents. lack defenses against things the other types take in stride. dependable like the Guardians. and from a very early age. or for what I have called “diplomatic empathy. NF children can be deeply hurt. Unfortunately. What they take pride in. NF children seem to have a natural talent for relating intimately with others. logistical.” These children. even very young ones. and when their family members are in harmony they feel at peace with themselves. These children. Even if their brothers or sisters are spanked. cannot bear to see other children being treated harshly. both peers and adults. they. and such interest in the diplomatic role variants may be inborn. little Idealists (particularly boys) can be badly torn between a fierce desire to win and a sharp guilt for . Or if their parents spank them. and will lead to endless practice if encouraged by their parents. Doubtless much depends upon circumstances within the family. and if reared in a home where the parents quarrel a good deal. Thus. For example. there is in most cases very little modeling of such behavior for them to copy. In such a competitive atmosphere. is their ability to maintain and enhance empathic relationships with their friends and loved ones. NFs will feel the hurt. NF children are apt to be almost hypersensitive to the feelings of those closest to them. but a personal warmth that communicates sincere interest in understanding others. But in the degree that they do become fluent in the two diplomatic roles—the Mentor and the Advocate— Idealist children develop a positive self-image. they can benefit from adult modeling in the tactical.266 Parenting be charming—not the smooth charm of the Artisan. NF youngsters can feel a shameful sense of division. Champions and Healers. Showing themselves to be artistic like the Artisans. especially if reserved. they are apt to become withdrawn and insecure. there may develop a strong bond between the Idealist child and one parent. And in competitive games. just as when their parents or siblings are distressed they are distressed right along with them. In the same way. these children are devastated by conflict. or ingenious like the Rationals enhances but little the self­ esteem of the Idealists. for that matter—are very skilled in diplomacy.

which is that they often find themselves out of step with their classmates. build their self-confidence on being authentic. but while NTs simply go their own way. Idealists are such a small minority (less than ten percent of the population) that until they reach college they are unlikely to find more than one or two others like themselves. NFs actually take some comfort in feeling that they are like no . is not in any way visible. cooperative family games and competition against themselves are more likely to appeal to and be healthy for NF children. after all.” much as Maslow called them the “Self-Actualizing Personali­ ty. or act in a devilish way. They feel the difference between themselves and others. and they like to be praised by adults. But the wish to be authentic is there. without realizing what that difference is.The Idealist Child 267 wanting to outdo a loved one. Guardians. Idealist children base their self-respect on their capacity for feeling benevolent toward others. more of an attempt to show their good intentions than to meet the concrete needs of others. Quite the opposite: Idealist children. who are the diametric opposites of Idealists in most respects: SPs actually get a kick out of guile or trickery—it is. particularly as they begin to develop sexually. But even more than being seen as authentic. Idealist children seem born with a high moral expectation of themselves. they are apt to have the same experience as Rational children. even though NF kids appear to have a sincerity and open­ heartedness—perhaps an innocence—about them that sets them apart from the other types. and for this reason NF kids harbor as many good intentions as they can imagine and hold strongly to them as long as they can. as if they are the worst of criminals. Particularly of Artisans. and they seldom seek applause.” In school. In all other cases they will have a hard time developing much self-esteem. This search for identity begins so early in life for Idealists that I have called them the “Identity Seeking Personality. Authenticity. After all. at the same time suppressing as best they can those pesky bad intentions that keep welling up from within. they try to fit in with people (thereby avoiding conflict and rejection). and want to be perfect—blameless. and can be deduced by watching how they behave on those occasions when they are deceitful. Both NF and NT children can feel some estrangement. On such occasions their fear and self-doubt is far greater and longer lasting than that of deceitful Artisans. Although both NFs and SJs seem to be intent on helping others while still very young. Idealist children are not comfortable when deliberately playing a role with others. virtu­ ous. or Rationals. And on those occasions when Idealist children do in fact have bad intentions. artfulness—and certainly do not experience even a whisper of anxiety from such behavior. but they do not base their self-confidence on such things. Of course. even as young as five. they feel guilty about it. of course. the NFs’ helpfulness is usually a different kind. perhaps even saintly—in their attitudes and actions towards others. Idealist children want to be recognized as unique individuals. For this reason. Such intense moral idealism is quite a burden for them to bear.

“You are special. Idealist kids also trust authority to a great extent. Not autonomous like the NTs. some caution should be exercised in monitoring the reading material of NF . and the messages they need most are those which say. who are never fully certain of their sense of self. At times. as they look for their unique qualities. Idealist kids trust the voice of their intuition more than any of the other guides to action. for example. In short. and by adolescence their trust in intuition is deep-seated and heartfelt. The same in the family. they are apt to identify with characters in stories.268 Parenting one else. of knights and their ladies. NF kids thrive on an abundance of personalized attention. but they will give far more weight to what their heart tells them about their feelings and the feelings of others. and Jam es and the Giant Peach are all real for the Idealist child to a degree not shared by other types. indeed. so important to them is their unique personal identity. NFs. at least their good impulses (to show affection. NF children may want the same story read over and over. Some NF children might even try too hard in school to be different or exceptional in their actions and attitudes.” Idealist children are the most trusting of all the types. It may seem strange to describe Idealist children as “romantic. unlike the Artisans. Fairy tales and children’s stories such as the Winnie the Pooh. and always inexplicable. I value you. and are always looking to define their special position in the family system. of dragons and wizards. like NTs. Indeed. of princes and princesses. They will even make up stories and recount them with vivid imagery. NF youngsters need their parents to recognize their uniqueness and to personally acknowledge their significance in order to feel they are a valuable family member in their own right. this transition needs to be very carefully handled with Idealist children. one of a kind. though their participation tends to be personal and enthusiastic. or to help others). though it must be said that.” but they certainly are romantic in the sense that. And. and traditions of home and school. And Idealist children trust reason in some part and will. Mary Poppins. When very young. resembling the Guardians in their regard for the ceremonies. to show spite. No matter: NF children know. Although all children are subject to sibling rivalry and to feelings of demotion when a new member is added to the family. ponder the sense of doing this instead of that. like the Rationals. The symbolism in such stories can be quite emotionally powerful to Idealist children. also like NTs. you are important to me. rituals. usually enjoy being read stories which are beyond their own reading capabilities. Such intuitions come to them from who knows where. while that of the SJs is more dutiful and solemn. In elementary school. and can make them dream of taking off on romantic quests. They trust their impulses to a certain degree. NF kids love stories of the medieval era. though they don’t know how they know. but they are sometimes uncanny. they may be accused of lying when in fact they are only exercising their romantic imagination. their negative impulses (to lie. to retaliate) tend to frighten them and inhibit them. as if special or singled out. but which fire their imagination.

Many NFs become interested in religion. and when need be they will take on the difficult responsibility of mediating family conflicts. Some even know as children that they want to enter the ministry or priesthood. For their part. Such happily-ever-after stories capture Idealist kids from the very beginning and never let go of them. but because they begin wondering about the meaning of life long before the other types. and even villains having a change of heart in the end. and a lost toy friend. Also. The group of children singing “I’d like to teach the world to sing in perfect harmony” nicely reveals the NFs’ inherent altruism: the belief. NFs are more likely to weave stories around them rather than to try to understand how they work. who would feel personally rejected. however much their hopes and dreams are defied by reality. and don’t mind appearing . one accidentally thrown away by a parent. and these treasured toys become very much a part of their fantasy life. Idealist children also project this sort of romantic make-believe onto their toys. but Idealist children also instinctively take up the very same role in all their social groups. and friends. they are also peace­ makers within their peer groups. Although (and like the NTs) they are apt to play with all their toys as fantasy objects. witches. If Rationals have a precocious skepticism about what grown-ups tell them is true. political. Idealists are more likely than the other types to have an invisible companion. ethical. dolls. with heroes winning. who can easily become over-stimulated by the disturbing imagery in stories of dragons. Isabel Myers said of NFs that harmonious human relations are more important to them than anything else. when still quite young. ogres. Idealist children would like to think well of everyone and everything. they go to church not because their parents make them or because they want more social life. and artistic.The Idealist Child 269 children. And so parents should try to steer their little Idealists toward stories that have happy endings. worse. I call Idealist parents the “Harmonizers” in their families. families. And certainly the rejection or ridicule of this imaginary friend by others would especially crush an NF child. or. and will train to be acolytes and altar boys and girls. that the world can be made a better place through their selfless actions. for example. and the elderly. Idealist teenagers will also investigate other belief systems. stuffed animals—to which they can attach a human personality. NF kids are apt to enjoy non-mechanical toys—soft hand puppets. The altruism of NF children can be global in this way. Idealist children become tutors for younger students and they volunteer to help the physically and mentally handicapped. and to give of themselves for the good of others. but more often it focuses on their own communities. Idealists have a precocious interest in finding some doctrine or philosophy of life to believe in. Such religious exploration is sincere in these children. and monsters—all of which can resurface in their nightmares. Moreover. A teddy bear or a ceramic figurine can be unbelievably dear to NF children. even as children. is a real tragedy to them.

And this calm. No matter how often they are reminded to clean up. Guardian parents who model logistical roles are usually disappointed with their Rational child’s indifference.270 Parenting seriously philosophical to their friends. in the evening.and I showed my comrades a large heap of stones. Often they flit from creed to creed. But this does not mean that these children are unemotional. However.. Something less than six percent of the population. and working with them diligently.. The next morning the workmen were surprised at missing the stones. but only a few of them have anyone that show them how to act like a Coordinator or an Engineer. Accordingly. Inventor and Architect... NTs only rarely have even one parent or teacher to be a role model. . now believing one thing. now another. Rationals also feel tension from their intense desire to predict and control events. Moreover.. contradicting themselves without concern.. NT children are erratic about the way they maintain their room and clothes.. stamps. NF children passionately seek out something to believe in.I assembled a number of my play-fellows.on the edge of which we used to stand to fish for minnows. They may at one time keep order and at another let disorder reign. NTs are born to play strategic roles. and can be a puzzle to parents of other type. and though I pleaded the usefulness of the work. animal artifacts. The Rational Child There was a salt-marsh.we brought them all away and built our little wharf. and the like. as if unable or at least reluctant to express affection.. They are apt to have extensive collections: rocks. mine convinced me that nothing was useful which was not honest. cool.. —Benjamin Franklin Galen called Plato’s Rationals the “Phlegmatics” no doubt because of the four temperaments they are the calm ones. butterflies.. especially reserved ones. Artisan adults can help their Rationals kids by providing models for tactical roles. the tranquil ones. which were intended for a new house near the marsh. with whatever progress they make coming from their own experimentation and speculation. for behind their quiet self-possession can be mounting tension from the effort to control their emotions.In­ quiries were made. we were discovered and complained of. and collected nature shows up right from the start.. and which would very well suit our purpose. NT infants often appear rather still and self-contained. coins. But regardless of what system they embrace. because little Rationals are usually eager to add concrete techniques to their skills repertoire. Mastermind. Probably the most frequent condition of their room is one of apparent chaos. but little Rationals will be likely to know where each and every treasure is placed. so they’re mostly on their own in learning the role variants of Fieldmarshal. On the other hand. nor for how long. Rational children. several of us were corrected by our fathers. can seem distant and detached. My proposal was to build a wharf there.

Rational children don’t like to be governed or directed by others—told how to think. some at the tender age of three or four. Rational children usually have many fears and sometimes recurring nightmares. But also observe their total frustration when they find one of these high-tech activities beyond their grasp. NT kids are self-doubting. and they turn to new weapons. or act. Theirs is an entirely different base of self-respect: they must be autonomous. offering them encouragement (not praise). for example. electronics sets. Parents and teachers must thus take care: helping NT children when they ask for help. the video game player and the computer reach out and grab Rational children. refused to talk until he was able to say whole sentences. How ashamed they feel. unlike their utilitarian cousins. these are the children of Prometheus. Language development can be a special source of both feelings of self-worth and inadequacy. and his parents worried about his intelligence. and it is on their cleverness and inventiveness that they base their self-esteem. NTs will spend days learning the maps and defeating the enemies in the latest Nintendo adventure. And. Some Rational children can be linguistically precocious. But not just any kind of ingenuity will do. an imagination which taunts them with all manner of terrible consequences that might follow on the heals of any incompetent action. the SPs. Legos. This is why . Such fears spring from their vivid imagination. or in learning computer animation. in exercising their ingenuity. parents and teachers are unwise to set Rational children tasks which are beyond them. already blaming themselves for their stupidity. Rational children. Witness how proud NT children are of themselves when they have mastered any of these strategic operations. showing an interest in archery or karate. and for them to feel proud of themselves they must feel smart. and never let them go. and the like). NT children certainly cannot base their self-respect on their boldness. giving them play activities and materials appropriate to their developmental level. As they get a bit older. But just as many can appear slow in this matter—Einstein. learning to read long before they go to school. and Erector sets with which they can experiment with different structures and functions. Little NTs have a special fondness for busy boards. More than all the other types. So. and the males will turn almost any object into a weapon of some sort. have to be bright in techno­ logical matters—after all. or feel—and they will stubbornly oppose parents or older siblings who try to manipulate them. Because of this. like their adult counterparts. and talking very early with a large vocabulary. Lincoln logs. with too much failure undermining their self-esteem. of course. the bringer of technology. They are particularly vulnerable here. NT children want chemistry sets. these allow them to grow up with self-esteem intact. or to criticize their failures.The Rational Child 271 Anything which can be collected and which requires technical documentation and classification is apt to have appeal for the NT child. they begin to play strategic games such as chess and Master­ mind. Rationals start very young. for construction sets of all kinds (building blocks.

but that does not mean that they all base their self-confidence on their willpower. Rational kids want to think. but it does mean that they are going along with them only to avoid displeasing their parents and for no other reason. dignity is unusually important to NT children. the issue is not pride but autonomy. and no amount of discussion will reveal their underlying rationale. This does not mean that NT children will refuse to go along with family routines. All types of very young children can be stubborn in insisting on their demands. and their indignation is extreme and permanent. So routinizing a Rational child is not a task to take on lightly. And being in receipt of such trifles does not bolster their self-confidence in the least. To be sure. they see this abuse of their body as an unforgivable assault on their autonomy. and their requirement for autonomy increases geometrically as the years go by. the NT wants to know the reason for doing something. Rational children are individuals in every sense from birth on. feel for themselves. act. and titles make much sense to them. But strength of will does. However. and it can show up in NT children very early in their lives. because there isn’t any underlying rationale. for instance. so NTs can profit from coaching in the social niceties. resolution is not to be confused with stubbornness. because such a little individual will never become completely routinized. that is. and which can make them want to knock NTs off their high horse. or anyone else for that matter. As a rule routinizing NT children takes longer than for the other types. and the concern of many parents is how to get this little individualist to join the family in its routines. Family routines are arbitrary and as such are bound to be questioned by the budding Rational. and of course all types of children can develop willpower. the child is at least hesitant. Other types of children can be . Particularly as a child. and customs. ceremonies. if not reluctant. if none is forthcoming. These ways of acting are totally arbitrary and as such are puzzling to NT children. to be independent and self-sufficient. Family routines simply exist. By the way. Take table manners. and they experience a growing sense of guilt the longer they remain dependent. its rituals. though they will not usually express their puzzlement. so that by the late teens even their financial dependency on their parents is irksome to them. to do it. Only Rational children feel confident in the degree that when they resolve to do something they are able to hold to their resolve. But because manners make no sense it takes more time for NT kids to catch on to how eating is supposed to be done. to go their own way. for instance. to figure things out for themselves.” an attitude which others can find offensive. Rational kids don’t see. There’s no way around it: Rational self-respect is diminished as long as they feel such dependency. Nor do insignia.272 Parenting being spanked is so deeply violating to Rationals. badges. Rationals will never see a reason for such conduct. Even by the age of two this is the case. what a gold star on their work sheet has to do with them. and they are often described as “prideful” or “arrogant. they are there simply because they are there.

In fact. but not Rationals. if this happens as a result of their investigations.” with know-how at first more important than know-about. These are the children who must take things apart and then must put them back together again. For this is what I call the “Knowledge Seeking Person­ ality. NT children are not the least bit interested in grappling with others. Let a little NT of two stand in the driver’s seat of a car. it is no longer interesting. And these are the children with the endless “why?” questions: “Why does the sun come up here and not there?” Why can’t I fly like a bird?” “Why can’t I have dessert before my vegetables if I eat both?” Just as Artisans pursue stimulation. To encourage logical investigation. to find out. How things work. More than anything else. and then move on to the next. so do Rationals pursue knowledge. and watch as every button.The Rational Child 273 irresolute and not be bothered by it. parents should furnish the NT child with a variety of toys. NT kids.. switch. who deliberate on what they are to do. a button is to push. playing with it for hours. Their self-doubt increases directly as their resolution decreases. These are the children who require of themselves that what they do is informed by their own knowledge. but both more important than anything else. but only a few at any one time. to develop their own answers. give the things that interest them a functional definition—a switch is to flip. Parents do well to be patient and to provide their Rational children with answers to their questions. Once the toy’s function and operation are understood. explore it to his or her satisfaction. they accept this as a natural consequence. These are the children who have to think before they act. Shutting off investigation is likely to occasion disobedience. Thus the NT child is likely to become intensely involved with a new toy. investigating its properties—and then abandon it. since the Rational tends to concentrate fully on one thing. wondering “What would happen i f . whether overt or covert. that’s the issue that Rational children would settle by experimentation. but also to give them abundant opportunities to experiment. learning how to control these intriguing causes of predictable response. lever. especially if they have been asked or advised or commanded by an adult. . They start their logical investigations early and continue them through­ out life. the little manipulator can be entertained for long periods of time. Rational children wish to learn how things work.?” and attempting to find the answer. “What would happen if I pull this drawer all the way out?” “What would happen if I put my bread in the water pitcher?” “What would happen if I push all the numbers on the phone?” None of these explorations are designed to annoy their parents. and knob is activated and deactivated time and again. whether their parents approve or not. but to satisfy their desire to find out.. If the manipulation of a switch or button is accompanied by a sight or sound or movement of any kind. a door is to open. a wheel is to turn—and they will manipulate whatever they can get their hands on to determine what can be done with it. although. even as early as the age of two.

Once calm and focused. they now become overly tense and high-strung. The pragmatic outlook shows up in Rational children even when very young. Unfortunately. such as goodguy gunslingers. it makes sense” is the motto of the NT. brilliant scientists. and they quickly lose respect for those who are not reasonable in their rules and reprimands. must be considered. And the fascination lasts long after children of other types have turned their attention elsewhere. “Do it if. as do Idealists. Admittedly. impatient with everything and everyone around them. so that tension builds as they struggle to rid themselves of error. and epics of heroism and achievement are their favorites. trust authority. and the escalation of standards makes Rational children vulnerable to fear of failure even when they are succeeding in the eyes of others. triumphant warriors. all else becomes unimportant to these children once in the pursuit of achievement. From early on NT children seem calm and contemplative. Also. Yesterday’s triumph is today’s expectation. this obsessiveness can make NT kids demand more of themselves than they can deliver. successful explorers. despite its occasional deficiency. As they grow older their col­ lection of heroes steadily increases. deliberated. that level of achievement immediately becomes standard for them. Rationals learn to have more and more trust in reason as the basis of action. leading an observer to suppose them without strong desires. pondered to determine if it’s worth doing. Where Guardian children. and ingenious inventors. Neither do Rational children put much trust in their intuition. As is the case with adult Rationals. But the calm exterior conceals a yearning for achievement that all too often can turn into obsession. The Rationals’ enjoyment in being read to is probably a function of their curiosity. It may well be that the early onset of achievement hunger follows in the wake of the NT child’s excessive and obsessive reading of stories about the great exploits of heroic figures. once caught in the grip of accomplishing some goal. Watch a little NT and you will see that every action must be reasoned—that is. Rational children remember every instance in which authority fails to be trustworthy. since through stories they encounter complex ideas which stimulate their imagination well beyond their own reading level.274 Parenting Most important of all. and only if. tales of magic and sorcery. For their part. parents would do well to read to their Rational child. reluctant duelists. acquired in youth and never abandoned. By adolescence trust in reason has become an absolute in the case of any thorough-going Rational. once they achieve something. Rational children will go along with a parent or teacher only if their demands makes sense. NTs are fascinated by stories—science fiction. as do Artisans. and later Guardian adults. We can see them studiously experimenting with the relationship . nor in their impulses. so that by their teens there has grown in many of them an active and permanent distrust in authority. and in some cases a large measure of contempt. such an attitude is often a source of annoyance to their parents and teachers. and even those whose exploits are not in the fields of science and technology are seldom forgotten.

and so get the jump on the rest in making technological progress. already they seem to be frustrated by wasted effort.Parent and Child—The Artisan Liberator 275 between means and ends and between structure and function. Rationals—have a different view of the correct way to raise children. and they will keep at whatever they’re doing until they have eliminated all errors. What they do must work and work efficiently. Parent and Child So: the first task of parents is to recognize the different characters of their children. Their children must have leeway to test the limits of their environment. young Rationals are invariably skeptical about proposed ways and means of doing things. and therefore judged to be inferior. Rational children need help in understanding that customs and traditions are important to other people. Idealists. Let’s turn now to a brief discussion of the four styles of parenting and some of the strengths and weaknesses that each style has with the four types of children. Already they like nothing better than tinkering and experimenting with any and all devices—anything that can be activated. Those who are not allowed to fail are also not allowed to succeed. one that reflects their own personality. By taking nothing for granted. nothing on authority. Guardians. The Artisan Liberator Artisan parents instinctively play a hands-off role. and must look critically at any plan of action. these children position themselves early on as researchers and developers. and one that is often unexamined and unquestioned. or more gullible. Too stringent controls on children will reinforce their natural timidity. experimenting on their own and learning the hard way those important lessons about the consequences of impetuous or intemperate action. and to the smooth operation of society. Scrupulously aware as they are of their own mistakes. Already they seem to want to spend as little effort as possible in getting the desired result. and timidity on the part of children is something SP . and to under-supervision more than to over­ supervision. NT children have their doubts about almost everything told them. But this skepticism can also make them appear to be intellectual snobs. giving their children wide latitude in what they get to do. particularly if based on custom or tradition. anything that stores energy which can be released by a touch or a turn or a yank or a pull. nothing on faith. and prone to overindulgence more than to overprotection. looking down on others who are perhaps less intelligent. say the Artisans. All types of parents—Arti­ sans. But parents must also recognize the role their own character plays in their way of bringing up their children. They are usually more permissive with their children than other types. Although they will listen to the ideas of those who clearly know what they are talking about.

if girls. Artisan parents can be great pals with their Artisan kids. themselves very much like children in wanting to have fun now and getting down to business later on. but they can compensate for this by being very clever in managing them so that they do not get too far out of line. particularly when they tell them to do something—they want no questions asked and will tolerate no back talk. SP children need no encouragement to be bold and adven­ turous and to take up sports of all kinds. and more attention to their fun and games and adventures. exciting. and thus have trouble with authority. Operators (ESTPs & ISTPs) pay less attention to their children’s decorum and physical and safety needs. Because they share so many traits of attitude and action. On the down side.276 Parenting parents find hard to accept. The bad news about such permissiveness is that it can be a kind of unhealthy neglect that sometimes. Artisan children can easily be the apple of their Artisan parents’ eye—if boys. Indeed. letting them spread their wings and fly gracefully away to an adventurous. especially in suburban and rural contexts. gives them more freedom than they can handle and fewer limits than they need. and other arts and crafts. They need no urging to try their hand at music. are usually obliging and easygoing with their children. or they might come to expect indulgence and lenience from adults. they can be very strict. and with certain types of children. their way with tools or their fashion sense. whereas they find it much easier to hoodwink adults of other type. hoping to help loosen them up and show them that life is for living here and now. they are all boy. delighting in their toughness or their charm. reinforcing instead their children’s natural impulsiveness and insubordination. and creative life. Artisan parents can be so taken with their Artisan children that they can fail to give them sufficient limits. Nor do they need to be taught how to have fun and be popular with their friends. in contrast. At other times (and like their Administrator Guardian cousins). Artisan Parent—Guardian Child: Artisan parents have little or no difficulty in rearing Guardian children. and on occasion even harsh with their children. But the good news is that such a lenient. It is hard for them to be strict with their children. They enjoy encouraging their Guard­ ian children to get into all sorts of sports and arts and adventures. they are sure to break hearts. . acting. Their children soon learn that they are not as clever as their parents and have a hard time fooling them. Of the two main types of Artisans. quite unpredictably showering them with expensive toys and taking them on pleasure trips. At times they can be over-extravagant with their children. dance. live and let live parenting style can be just the thing for other kinds of children. Entertainers (ESFPs & ISFPs). As a result. their craftiness or their graceful­ ness. their children might push too close to the edge and get into jams. Artisan Parent—Artisan Child: When Artisan parents beget Artisan children they find their offspring more than ready to grab their freedom and run with it.

and might want the child to toughen up and take hold of reality. free in physical action. tolerance. not worried about who they are—they don’t sweat the small stuff—and all of these attitudes and actions can help give balance to the soulful. comfortable with their bodies. and can thrive both at home and school. it is unusual for both parents to be Artisans. and resolute. or so lost in fantasy. emotional. and often is. And this is what SP parents can give them: in modeling artistry. Moreover. who often cannot understanding the child’s interest in logical investigation and tech­ nological development. and adaptability. NF kids tend to get lost in abstraction and a self-absorbed search for meanings and portents. empathy. Rational children need no encouragement to learn new skills and know-how. and in the worst case the parent might show impatience with the child for being so soul-searching. want to be independent—to have no hands put on them. they make it much easier for budding NTs to overcome their fear of failure and to come to see themselves as ingenious. the Rational child can be a puzzle to Artisan parents. As with the Idealist child. Artisan parents can be valuable models for their Idealist children. But they do need encouragement to put down their books and to enjoy themselves—even to risk themselves— now and then. The SP parents’ hands-off style is perfect for NT children. so head-in-the-clouds. Fortunately. Artisan parents tend not to value in their Idealist children such important traits as authenticity. they’ll do that on their own. Artisan Parent—Idealist Child: Although they can have some trouble understanding each other. Artisan parents are easygoing with people they don’t under­ stand. such differences can be a problem. and someone to show the way to duty.Parent and Child—The Artisan Liberator 277 With such modeling on how to have fun Guardian children can overcome their natural caution and seriousness. In the main. and so most often they model for their Idealist children lenience. So the Guardian child often has the best of both worlds: someone to show the way to joy. though. and altruism. On the other hand. If SP parents expect (or demand) boldness and impetuosity from their SJ children. after all. autonomous. who. The Artisan parent’s attitude is often “why not get . happy and productive. however much their reasons for doing so differ. and quite usual for the other parent to be a Guardian. easy-going about moral absolutes. both parent and child share in a strong and ever-present desire to function usefully and to increase their powers. and teach them they are a failure. and a spirit of fun. and the SP’s warm embrace of immediacy can be an important lesson for them. self-examining Idealist child. they will only frighten and inhibit them. Artisans are in touch with reality. Artisan Parent—Rational Child: The relationship between Artisan parents and Rational children can be. letting it be known they aren’t happy with a goody-goody child of either gender—teasing them about being a mama’s boy or a little pris. boldness. There is a danger that highly aggressive Artisan parents can com­ municate dissatisfaction with their Guardian child’s over-concerned attitude.

their positive self-image. and only then held to a strict standard of acceptable conduct. the way they usually see it is that fully socialized children are in a much better position to become venturesome. or to establish their independence than those who are not well socialized. kind. that is. cheerful. If they do spank their kids (and often they believe . Conservators (ESFJs & ISFJs) are usually less strict than Administrators. courteous. friendly. helpful. at church. So conscientious are these parents in providing for the physical and safety needs of their children that they can sometimes be overprotective. clean. But Guardian parents also want their children to value their duty and to want to obey. is to spoil the child. Among the Guardians. they believe. and certainly at gatherings of the extended family—to become fully a part of their communities. or their individuality. most of which can be neatly summarized in the twelve points of Boy and Girl Scout Law. obedient. clothed. Scouts are to be: trustworthy. and thus to be increasingly helpful and productive at school. The Guardian Socializer Guardian parents are mainly concerned with socializing their children. First their children are to be well fed. and they will at times resort to corporal punishment to get their point across—to spare the rod. Dutifulness and obedience for the wrong reasons are not acceptable. with fostering their children’s venturesomeness. and would pass on the attitudes of good citizenship. and reverent. willing to sacrifice their own comforts to safeguard their children from the world of hard knocks. brave. and this because they are more concerned with looking after their children than they are in keeping them on the straight and narrow. These are the parents who believe that punishment is the best way to keep their kids in line. Their children must behave in a seemly manner and must not do things that reflect badly on the family. Indeed. and sheltered. loyal. They would teach them the customs and conventions of their society. a point made abundantly clear by Alfred Adler and his disciple Rudolf Dreikurs. though they are very likely to scold them when their conduct is improper or they are disobedient. For this reason Conservator Guardian parents are not given to spanking their children. Administrators (ESTJs & ISTJs) tend to be strict parents because their main concern is that their children do what is right and not do what is wrong. thrifty. They regard it as their obligation to the family and the community to keep their children under their watchful eye lest they stray from the fold.278 Parenting your nose out of that book and have some fun?” or “why not get out in the world and make some money?” But such misunderstandings as Artisan parents and Rational children have are usually overlooked in their mutual interest in effective action. Guardian parents want their children (whether they join Scouts or not) to do their best to do their duty. at social functions. to feel increasingly good about themselves. SJ parents are far more concerned with this project than they are with the concerns of other types.

may get into serious trouble. such easy agreement between parent and child can have its negatives. Artisan children want to be excited and bold. Such children can retaliate vigorously. But little do Guardian parents know how much their well-meant but unnecessary admonitions and instructions bother their little NFs. Guardian Parent—Guardian Child: With offspring of their own tem­ perament. yet here they are expected by their parents to be concerned. Perhaps it is in this relationship. they will say “this hurts me worse than it hurts you. and obedient. some­ times with disastrous consequences.Parent and Child—The Guardian Socializer 279 they must. Guardian parents can find their methods of control not working as well as before. But such humility can only serve to further inhibit SJ children. Young Artisans. sensual and impulsive. Guardian children rarely have a rebellious period. in their rebellion against an authoritarian parent. forming a rock band. bent on getting even with the old man no matter how long it takes. to follow the rules. to be responsible. and so fit with their Guardian parents hand-in-glove. Scoldings and spankings usually backfire. Idealist children are good children. SJ kids would do well with a more carefree and optimistic model from at least one of their parents. Guardian Parent—Artisan Child: It is a rare Artisan child who does not have at least one Guardian parent. to be good parents). using tools—that allow them to shine in action. However. and since SJs are more prone to marriage and family than the rest. NF kids are naturally moral and eminently cooperative—they care about right and wrong. Much of this antagonism can be avoided if SJ parents can support their SP children in productive activities—playing sports. an attitude and a way of acting which SJ parents go to great lengths to instill in all their children. but seem born to trust in authority. But the picture can change quickly. Guardian parents have a relatively easy time of it.” with the little culprits wondering what on earth they mean by that. conservative Guardian parents often want their children to be quiet and in their place—to be seen and not heard—as if their children’s obedience and modesty reflect on them as parents and show a proper upbringing. say. a short leash being just the thing for the normally impetuous little Artisan puppies. reliable. . respectable. Guardian Parent—Idealist Child: Guardian parents have few overt problems with their Idealist children. the SJ parent and the SP child. When their adventurous children get into their teens. since the two types together make up well over eighty percent of the population. and who often need encouragement to develop venturesomeness. where the Pygmalion Project can takes its worst turn. who are over-controlled to begin with. with drugs. Also. and they like to serve the needs of others. traditional. Guardian children are naturally cautious and prone to worry. In most cases SJ parents and their SP children get along famously. This is especially the case when tough Administrator fathers try to come down hard on equally tough Operator teenagers. or with the law. and Guardian parents tend to reinforce these fears and concerns. especially while the kids are young.

If Artisans tend to be hands off parents. and make them the original touchy-feely parents. Remember that NTs. and this relationship works out quite well when SJ parents show regard for their little NTs’ fierce sense of autonomy. pushing the child into rebellious behavior.280 Parenting at home. because they need to be good. especially about . Guardian Parent—Rational Child: Guardian parents admire their Rational children’s seriousness and will-to-achieve. Fortunately. but it often weakens the relationship between parent and child. takes credit for the child’s good behavior. harmonious rela­ tionships with their children. like their Artisan cousins. just to establish a unique identity. More specifically. However. They are good because they want to be good. in extreme cases. Guardians marry Artisans most frequently. and in the community. the child will feel personally violated and will likely respond with growing contempt. pats. and so make every effort to keep themselves in touch and en rapport with their children. the effect of such a clash can be lasting estrangement. at school. and as empathic. because they must see themselves and be seen by others as authentic. it is the toughminded Administrator Guardian that the Rational child is most likely to run afoul of. And it can be irritating when their SJ parents come along and remind them to be reliable (which NFs naturally are). must have a reason for doing anything. NF parents want to be intimately involved in their children’s lives and the growth of a positive self-image. to steer clear of an arbitrary parent most of the time. back rubs. and having this live-and-let-live parent in the mix often saves the Rational child from the worst consequences of the Guardian parent’s authoritarian style. The unintended result of such intrusion is that the SJ parent. even into adult life. Idealists seek to form close. The probing Engineer Rationals usually manage. which can make the little Idealist feel dominated and manipulated. This sort of parenting is not always bad for Idealist children. but the schedule-minded Coordinator Rationals tend to meet such a parent head on. But even more important is mental and emotional bonding. the little NTs will do what they are told only reluctantly and with little respect. Idealist parents will talk with their children from a very early age. and other signs of physical affection are very dear to Idealists. head scratches. Idealists are literally hands on—hugs. to do good deeds (which NFs do because they have good intentions). and not the NF child. and when a parent is not forthcoming with a rationale for action other than convention or authority. In extreme cases. and the parent consci­ entiously trying to arbitrate choice. If the SJ parent tries to admonish or punish the NT child into obedience. at any age. causing alienation and. the child wanting to be free to choose. discipline can be a knotty problem. and to be respectable (which NFs are because they are naturally cooperative). The Idealist Harmonizer In their role as parents. Physical bonding is surprisingly important for such abstract types. as benevolent.

Parent and Child—The Idealist Harmonizer


their dreams and fantasies, and they will read to their children book after book of make-believe and fairy tale. In times of sadness, NFs often try to act as counselors for their children or, at the very least, as patient, under­ standing listeners, always hoping to help their children feel good about themselves. Idealist parents also extend their bonding efforts to harmonize the whole family. With their cooperative natures, NFs care about promoting mutual consideration in the family, asking that their children avoid arguing, and not only care about but work to meet the needs of their siblings and other family members. The Idealists’ need for harmony in the family sometimes makes them take on the role of family diplomat or peacekeeper, wanting to make sure that all in the family are happy and fulfilled, that all emotional needs are being met, and that kindness prevails—an impossible and largely thankless task that can cause the NF a good deal of grief. Fortunately, the Idealists’ love for their children is boundless, and they will overcome every difficulty with renewed enthusiasm. For their part, Mentor Idealists (ENFJs & INFJs) tend to take on an active teaching and counseling role with their children, and can be quite energetic in encouraging them to develop in all three aspects of selfimage—self-esteem, self-respect, and self-confidence. Searching for the most enriching pre-school, providing travel experiences for their children, arranging art and music lessons, taking their children to plays and concerts, urging the discussion of books and ideas, talking with their children about how to get along with their friends: these and many other personal growth producing activities come readily to mind for these Idealists. Advocates (ENFPs & INFPs) are also determined to foster a healthy self-image in their children, and are ever alert for opportunities for cognitive and social growth. But these Idealists, perhaps more intensely than their counterparts, concern themselves with their children’s moral and spiritual development, and so work to establish an even closer bond of understanding with them, hoping to instill in their children the purity of their own ideals. Idealist Parent—Artisan Child: Idealist parents tend to be puzzled by the Artisan child’s disinterest in fantasy and heart-to-heart sharing, and by the accompanying paucity of empathy for other members of the family. Wanting their relationship with their child to be deep and meaningful, they can be disappointed when the relationship does not grow in that direction, but continues to be what they regard as somewhat shallow and uninspiring. This as long as they persist in their Pygmalion Project, trying to turn the child into an Idealist like themselves. Once they see that their child is not like them at all, but is bent on racing from one concrete action to another, with hardly a trace of intuition or altruism, then they are quite able to give up their project and encourage the child’s thrust toward artistry and optimism, if not the accompanying impulsivity, bravado, and tactical cleverness. Idealist Parent—Guardian Child: Unlike Artisan children, whose strengths show up bright and early, positive traits of character are slow to



emerge in Guardian children, so that, at first, it is easier to say what they are not—not bold, for example, not independent, not adaptable, not light­ hearted, not eager to learn new things, and so on. Unable to figure out the child’s nature, Idealist parents keep looking for signs of Idealism, convinced that the child is going to value what they value. For example, the SJ child is naturally cooperative with others, and this desirable trait makes the Idealist parent think that it might be the beginning of empathy and intuition and a deep identification with the parent. But this identification never quite materializes, and the deep and meaningful relationship sought by the parent remains just out of reach. Also, NF parents may well put some Pygmalion pressure on their little SJs to follow the NF path. Often Idealist parents have favorite books they want to read to their Guardian child, hoping to develop the child’s interest in fantasy and fairy tales, but whatever interest that does appear under the urging of the parents gradually fades away as the child gets older. Eventually, Idealist parents catch on that their Guardian child is a both-feet-on-the-ground little person who is unusually concerned about responsibility, security, authority, and belonging, but who displays little of the parents’ romanticism or enthusiasm. At this point the Pygmalion Project ceases and the Idealist parent sets about encouraging the child to be what he or she was bound to be from the beginning. Idealist Parent—Idealist Child: Idealist parents find fertile soil for the care and nurturing of their Idealist child’s unique self-image. Here it is well to be reminded of the constituents of Idealist self-image. First there is self-esteem based on empathy; then self-respect based on benevolence; and last there is self-confidence based on authenticity. Idealist parents want to enhance these traits in all their offspring, and their Idealist children are happy to meet them more than half way. NF kids are born with empathy for others, with benevolent feelings toward others, and they know exactly what their parents mean when they speak of being authentic. While it might puzzle the other three types, the idea of having inner unity, of being wholly, genuinely themselves is perfectly understandable to Idealists—par­ ent and child—and they do not hesitate to support each other in the quest to get in touch with their true Self. At the same time, NF kids and NF parents can easily rub each other the wrong way. Both tend to be touchy and prickly in their relations with others, and when their ideals come into conflict they can hardly avoid irritating each other. Idealist Parent—Rational Child: There are many reported cases at­ testing to the strong tie that can form between Rational children and their Idealist parent. After all, the NF parent, male or female, is bent on bonding with the child, searching for growth potentials, and beckoning to them to come out of hiding. The NT child, inherently eager to enlarge his or her meager collection of skills, can only flower given such ever-present ap­ preciation and encouragement. And yet this relationship is not quite made in heaven. Idealist parents can be dismayed by their Rational child’s some­ times ruthless pragmatism and calm autonomy. These traits show up quite

Parent and Child—The Rational Individuator


early in NT children, but can seem cruel to NFs, who prefer warm, friendly, cooperative relations with others, and who will sometimes start up Pygmalion Projects to help their NT youngsters learn to be agreeable and considerate of others. Needless to say, Rational children aren’t about to change their ways, and Idealist parents soon learn that they need to let their little Rationals be, and value them for what they admire in them, their ingenuity, imagination, curiosity, and calm reasonableness. The Rational Individuator Rational parents encourage an ever-increasing individuality in their children and do not impose unreasonable rules on them. It is of paramount importance to NT parents that each and every child in the family progressively increases his or her repertoire of capabilities, and is ever more self-reliant in conducting his or her life. And thus children are to be, and to be treated as, individuals, responsible to themselves alone to develop in their own direction whatever is in them to develop. NT parents are reluctant to interfere with their children and shape up their behavior, even if they see them foundering a bit. Rational parents stand ready to assist their children in reaching their potential, whatever it might be, but they will neither nag their children nor shield them from the consequences of putting off the task of individual development. Natural pragmatists, Rational parents happen quite instinctively upon Alfred Adler’s principle of “logical consequences” as a way of handling their children, and practice what I call the “abuse-it-lose-it” method of discipline increasingly as the years go by. NTs seem to understand better than other parents that most of the things their children get to do are privileges rather than rights: eating with the family, talking to adult family members, being in a given room, playing with toys, playing with the family pet, and more. Even as young parents, many Rationals figure out that, when their children abuse one of these privileges, instead of scolding, admonishing, hitting, or even reasoning with them, all they need do is simply remove the abused privilege immediately and unconditionally for a set period of time, making sure not to comment about their child’s behavior. Now this is the pragmatic thing to do, but it is not very easy, even for Rationals, while for the other types it is nearly impossible, particularly going against the grain of the cooperative Guardians and Idealists. On the one hand, Coordinator Rationals (ENTJs & INTJs) leave nothing to chance when it comes to watching over the maturation of their children. The parenting books have been read, the parenting magazines have been subscribed to, the parenting techniques have been researched and consid­ ered—the whole thing is planned out well in advance with all important contingencies factored in. After all, many of these NTs are capable of running large organizations, so running a family is done with little difficulty and with little doubt as to the right course to take. On the other hand, Engineers (ENTPs & INTPs) are more puzzled by



their children than they are certain of what to do with them. Unlike the other Rationals, they have few if any set plans for raising their children, but simply wonder how it is with each of them, and try to find out by watching them and asking questions of them. These NTs are the least given to Pygmalion Projects of all the types—the only thing they expect of their children is that their children expect things of themselves. They figure that if they are reasonable with their children and do their best to help them grow they will turn out OK in the long run. Rational Parent—Artisan Child: The pragmatic perspective of Ratio­ nal parents serves them well in overseeing the maturation of an Artisan child. Their objectivity keeps them from expecting things of their children, so that there is no disappointment when they note that their little SP is stimulus bound, impulsive, going headlong and gleefully into any activity that is exciting—and thus is not going to become a little scientist buried in technical books. Rational parents follow along in the trail of their Artisan child’s impetuous doings and try their best to corral the child with firm limits which can stand up to the child’s inevitable and vigorous testing. It is in the case of the Artisan child that Rational parents can most effectively apply the principle of logical consequences and the method of immediate and unconditional removal of any privilege that the child abuses, however accidentally. The naturally practical and adaptable Artisan child does not fight the reality of such firm limits, and soon plays happily within the boundaries. But this is not all that Rational parents can do for the maturation of Artisan children. They are also surprised and pleased by the show of artistry so many of the Artisan children display, if given the chance, so NT parents systematically, and as a matter of principle, encourage the develop­ ment of any art that beckons the child, whether it be entertaining, athletic, or constructive. Rational Parent—Guardian Child: Rationals find their relationship to Guardian children somewhat problematic and sometimes frustrating. They really don’t know how to act, don’t know what they might do to help SJ children develop their ingenuity, become more independent, and increase their strength of will, none of which are of particular interest to the child. Rational parents are, in fact, bothered by their Guardian child’s attempts to fit in socially. SJ children tend to go along with their social groups, and it can distress Rational parents to see little SJs doing things because the other kids are doing it. And Rational parents are disappointed by their Guardian child’s wanting always to feel secure. Why can’t their SJ child be bold or enthusiastic or curious like their SP, NF, or NT siblings? Why must their child report every pain, every disappointment, every wrong, every fear? Such children make Rational parents feel inadequate and helpless, because they cannot appeal to their children’s reason, nor to their courage, nor to their hopes, nor to any desire to strike out on their own. Yet here are their SJ children trying in every way they can think of to please their baffled and uncertain NT parents, by being helpful, by serving, by doing

Parent and Child—The Rational Individuator


good deeds, by conforming to all the social rules. It is well that Rational parents step aside and let their mate oversee the maturation of the Guardian child into the pillar of society he or she is meant to become. Rational Parent—Idealist Child: Rational parents, pragmatists one and all, are quick to catch on that what works with most kids does not work with NF kids. For a Rational parent, it can be disconcerting to confront an emotional, thin-skinned Idealist child who is quite impervious to logical explanation and persuasion. Even imposing logical consequences does not impress the sometimes irritable Idealist child, even though such measures may curb the child’s excesses in the end. Given neither to scolding nor to spanking their children, Rational parents quickly learn that the thing to do with irritability is to back off and quietly observe what transpires, thus adding no fuel to the fire of temper. In the meantime, NT parents are both fascinated and delighted with the enthusiasm, imaginativeness, and fancifulness that their NF children continuously display. Indeed, such mutual delight in imagination is usually the basis of a strong bond of affection between Rational parent and Idealist child, one that is rarely severed. Rational Parent—Rational Child: Most little kids are seldom reason­ able in their requirements and expectations, and reasoning with them is like shouting into the wind. But Rational children will listen to reason, and the older they get the more they will listen. So Rational parents have little, if any, difficulty in dealing with their Rational children, confident in the belief that, if they are reasonable in their requirements and expectations, their children will live up to them. Also, NT parents delight in many of their NT children’s traits, but particularly in their strong sense of autonomy and their drive to gain knowledge and skills. NT children are born insisting on their independence, and (like their NT parents) they can become almost single-minded in their efforts to enlarge their storehouse of knowledge, and to sharpen and enlarge their repertoire of skills. Now, Rational parents might enjoy seeing their own characteristics mirrored in their offspring, but they must also recognize their Rational child’s need for social develop­ ment. Better for NT children to have at least one SP, SJ, or NF parent to help show them how to get along smoothly and productively with others. — In Conclusion— Without a doubt, increasing our success as parents requires us to under­ stand both our children and ourselves, at least in outline. In the degree that we understand our children’s personalities, as well as our own pre-set ideas and intentions in raising them, we stand a good chance of being effective or functional as parents, that is, we can succeed in our function of promoting a positive self-image in our children. If both parents are functional in this sense, then the family system becomes functional, with children having no difficulty in acquiring a self-image positive enough to enable them to become independent and self-affirming adults.

Leading and Intelligence
I have often reflected that the causes of success or failure of men depend upon their...character and nature, and [are] not a matter of choice. —NiccolO Machiavelli

Winston Churchill and Mahatma Gandhi, two giants of the 20th century. Churchill was the virtuoso of political maneuvering, wheeling and dealing in unending political skirmishes; and Gandhi was the sage of interpersonal diplomacy, seeking freedom and justice for his people by appealing to the conscience of his oppressors. The tactician and the diplomat, diametric opposites in leadership style, yet each able to do for his country something that men of other character could not possibly have done—deliver it from bondage. Equally brilliant leaders, but brilliant in radically different ways. George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, two giants of earlier centu­ ries, each crucial to the survival of the United States of America. Except for a large measure of kindness and great physical strength, these two men had nothing important in common. Washington was a superb logistical commander who, faced with obstacles of incredible proportion and tenure, put in his way by his Congress, his generals, and his fellow citizens, freed his country from colonial bondage. And Lincoln was a superb political and military strategist who, despite the long continued blunders of a train of ill-chosen generals, the weakness of the Congress, and the intrigues of many of his fellow citizens, saved the United States from national dissolution. The logistical leader and the strategic leader, diametric opposites in both attitude and action, yet each achieving the same end, and earning his country’s eternal gratitude. Why would these four men—Churchill, Gandhi, Washington, and Lin­ coln—go about leading their people in such fundamentally different ways? The answer is: temperament It takes a certain kind of temperament to achieve certain ends. The steadfast Guardian Washington had precisely the kind of temperament that the War of Independence and the establishment of a republic required, and the pragmatic Rational Lincoln precisely the


Temperament and Intelligence


kind of temperament the Civil War, and the Reconstruction, had he lived, required. Similarly, only an indomitable Artisan like Churchill could have rallied the English people during the dark days of World War II and convinced his wily friend Franklin Roosevelt to throw in with him before it was too late; and only a benevolent and altruistic Idealist like Gandhi could have inspired the Indian people to the swell of passive resistance that ultimately set them free from British dominion.

Temperament and Intelligence
The leader’s objective, whatever his or her temperament, is to execute a plan of operations in the pursuit of a specified goal. However, since implementing any goal requires a certain kind and degree of intellectual development on the part of the personnel assigned to it, all types of leaders must take intelligence—their own and that of their employees—into account if they are to lead well. What is the relationship between temperament and intelligence? The kind of intelligent role enacted by a leader or follower is determined by temperament, and the degree of skill in that role is determined by practice. Thus Churchill saved his country by relying heavily on his well-practiced tactical intelligence, Gandhi on his well-practiced diplomatic intelligence, Washington on his well-practiced logistical intelligence, and Lincoln on his well-practiced strategic intelligence. Without holding to their own highly developed intelligent roles in their great and desperate enterprises, it is doubtful whether any of these men would have succeeded. • Of course, most enterprises are multi-faceted, and therefore leaders would do well to understand that different kinds of intelligent roles are necessary for implementing different goals. Leaders can stay on top of things by studying the many forms of intelligence just in case they are called on to implement a new goal calling for unfamiliar operations. Indeed, it appears that nothing has greater payoff for the effective leader than recognizing the kind and degree of intelligent operations needed for getting a variety of jobs done. The best policy for a leader of any temperament is to look for intelligence and put it to work where it is most effective. The leader’s first job is to match talent to task. But it is not enough that leaders recognize the intellectual strengths of their followers. They would also profit a great deal by learning to appreciate their employees for the different skills they contribute to the enterprise. The Importance of Appreciation Bear in mind that we are leaders only insofar as we attract and keep followers. If we want our assistants to adopt certain methods and they do not do so, then, plainly, they have not followed our lead. Likewise, if we want our employees to work toward certain results, quite apart from how

Rather. Now these are the only two ways that we can be leaders: we can encourage certain methods and we can encourage certain results. Sooner or later they’ll leave the job in search of a place where their work is appreciated. If the conference strays from progress. The effective leader is on the lookout for increase in skill and in attainment of results. Now. On the other hand. The frequency and length of conferences are the assistant’s measures of his or her worth . The greater the contri­ bution the greater the desire for appreciation. They do their thing.288 Leading they go about it. “I appreciate what you are doing for our cause. If there is no progress to report on. effective leaders are wise to hold frequent conferences with assistants in order to acknowledge progress in skills development. again they have not followed our lead. of course they are. Progress Reports To this end. which makes the boss rather imprudent if he or she fails to say. and so want to please the boss. at least temporarily. learn for our teacher. then. win for our coach—and we work for the boss. watch those high achievers whose boss fails to show appreciation for their contribution. so these two things are usually^ the focus of the conference. and their thirst for appreciation is assuaged.” Is not the paycheck and the satisfaction of doing a good job enough? Apparently not. We grow up for our parents. The degree to which we get what we’re after is the measure of our leadership. then it follows that: The leader’s second job is appreciation. Whatever our type we are all social creatures. and if the boss fails to notice. and they do not do so. Watch those who strive to achieve. We not only want our contribution to be appreciated. and since achievement creates a desire for appreciation from the leader. in some manner. it is to say that they are not enough. they hightail it over to their private appreciator. This is not to say that pay and satisfaction are not important. They return to work with renewed energy. Their appreciator strokes them with their warm fuzzies in a manner precisely fitting their private conception of their achievement. Even the most independent among us presents his or her work as a gift to the boss. and to express appreciation for progress in getting results. a follower is a follower only insofar as he or she does what a leader requests. Since leadership is getting people to achieve what the leader wants them to because the leader wants them to. stashed somewhere close by in the organizational bushes. it is up to the leader to steer the conversation back to progress. It seems that big contributors have more appetite for appreciation than small contributors! Achievement generates appreciation hunger. We all want appreciation. And the surprising thing is that followers do what the leader wants primarily to please the leader. the leader asks the assistant what the leader might do to help the assistant make progress. and we want it from the person in charge. we also want the appreciation to be proportional to our contribution.

their talent—engaged in the enterprise. . In the discussion of results-producing methods instances of desired results are bound to surface. are the ones to confer with at length and to thank. those who can be observed striving to become ever more skilled in their work. they ask for clarification and for examples. the motor of effective leadership consists in matching assistants’ talents to tasks and in consistently expressing appreciation for their best efforts. This not only proves that they are vitally interested in useful methods (methods that get results). the pay check is not enough.Temperament and Intelligence 289 in the eyes of the leader. simply and pointedly. and so not only applies all of his or her skills to the desired results. Again. but also seeks to improve those skills by continuously learning on the job. Entrepreneurs will always outdo wage workers because entrepreneurs have their intelligence—their skill.” a method of interviewing that can be learned by any leader regardless of temperament. which has to happen frequently. not. tactical. “thank you. In active listening leaders repeat what their assistant says about method and ask if they have got it right.” Douglas MacGregor in his book The Human Side of Enterprise was very clear on this point: leaders are wise to show appreciation for their employees’ contribution of means and ends. their ability. Such opportunity should never be missed. for the reason that it is there that the assistant can best give an accounting of methods and results. It works best if the leader holds conference at the assistant’s workplace. So appreciative leaders get interest on their investment. interest they do well to share with their more ambitious personnel. or diplomatic methods. strategic. while wage workers are merely punching the clock. for it is the exact time to say. It is imperative that they do not let up on their search for method until they fully understand it. then. If this means that the leader invests more time in his or hers more productive followers. Or better. so be it. And when they don’t get it. Time spent in discussing useful methods with one’s followers is time well spent. thus encouraging them to be entrepreneurs contributing their talents to a shared enterprise. The major advantage of having a bevy of entrepreneurs working together is that each of them becomes committed to the success of the enterprise. but also vitally interested in the person who possesses useful methods. time so invested is time well invested. The leader is wise to show avid interest in the assistant’s work by looking and listening carefully and by asking pertinent questions that show insight into what is shown or said. Those with ambition of any kind. The effective leader invests heavily in his or her followers. whether it be to increase their logistical. This is called “active listening. The more time invested in the assistant the more the worth of the assistant. Appreciating Intelligence Theoretically. By discussing in detail how the employee gets results leaders have the opportunity to show their appreciation for their employee’s intelligent operations.

and the owners are quite rightly going to get a new coach. Even so. failing to note when their assistants are intelligent in those roles that the leaders have neglected to practice. all of whom are very much aware of their long suit. while as diplomats they are likely to be even less than mediocre. Identifying Intelligence To be worthwhile to our employer we must be skillful in some ways and willing to contribute our repertoire of skills to the enterprise we join. and who therefore fail to comment on the talents of their Vice Presidents. when we bring our particular skills to the workplace. we want our boss to see them for what they are and to appreciate us for the function we perform in the enterprise. Chairmen of the Board are ill-advised if they do not appreciate the varied skills of their Directors. And so. Presidents who are unaware of variations of talent. Leaders of different temperament have difficulty appreciating those intelligent roles that they have not practiced very much and therefore have not developed very well. if we don’t. they might avoid the mistake of showing appreciation for the kind of intelligence they value and not showing it for those kinds they do not value—or may not even be aware of. then it won’t. even if leaders grant that appreciating their assistants’ intelligence is one of their main tasks. Imagine that! Thanking employees for doing something they’re supposed to do and something they’re payed to do! That sticks in the craw of some leaders. for another. Remember. then they would do well to learn about their own best intellectual roles and those of their assistants. not only in money. Smart employers will be aware of our skills and will pay us for them.290 Leading at any rate. for instance. this rule holds true up and down the organizational hierarchy. But there’s a catch. but largely unaware of their short suit. for the high-achieving entrepreneurs. Of course. but will also have little to show for . if leaders accept the idea of appreciation being the prime motivator in the workplace. moderately aware of their second or third suits. they are very likely to foul up by unconsciously evaluating their assistants in light of their own type of intelligence. are not a good example for their Vice Presidents. tend to be skillful tacticians. but by acknowledging and appreciating that we are smart in ways that benefit the enterprise. And if we apply our skills at work. they had best swallow the medicine or their team is going to lose. but much less skillful as logisticians and strategists. And so it goes with other types of leaders. For one thing. they could assign those tasks that require their own less-developed roles to the appropriate lieutenants. Task force Chiefs who pick their operations managers for reasons other than their particular skills will not only have little to appreciate. Now. money is not enough for those who are proud of their repertoire of skills. Artisan leaders. If they’re smart leaders they will thank us for our contribution. Thus. then the enterprise will profit from our contribution.

logistics is their best skill. with strategy and logistics in between and often nearly equal. the leader then checks on results and shows appreciation for his or her talented followers being smart enough to get the results they were hired to get. whether tactician or logistician (SP or SJ). So let’s take another look at a graph shown in Chapters 3. This done. and the least developed is diplomacy. the others in between. . And crew foremen or team coaches who lack a keen eye for the varied abilities of the crew or the team members are at best going to muddle along with minimal results. In short. with tactics and diplomacy in the middle. leaders of whatever type are wise to consider their major function to be that of matching talent to task—matching Smarts to Works to produce SmartWork. As I have said. while Rationals are usually best at strategy. Leaders who appreciate what I like to call the “SmartWork” of followers are smart leaders. It’s very likely impossible to get anywhere by continuing to perform either sort of operation exclusively over a long period of time. had better check on reality now and again. Predictably the most developed skill of the Artisan leader is tactics. The abstractionist. worst at logistics. and 6: SP NF in oo NT SJ O n o oo a £ S o C / i co d o C/ 3 o Note first of all that SP Artisans. Thus NT engineers have to try out their mechanisms to see how they work. with tactics and diplomacy middling and nearly equal.4. since the task force is likely to be derailed and the mission aborted. and that NT Rationals are the mirror image of SJ Guardians. with diplomacy relatively high and tactics relatively low. and the concretionist. The Idealist leader is the reverse. In the case of Guardians. it takes going back and forth between concrete operations (tactics and logistics) and abstract operations (diplomacy and strategy) to get work done. had better give an eye to plans and personnel every so often. in the role of leader. whether diplomat or strategist (NF or NT). leaders at any level are wise to study variations of talent so that they will know them when they see them. strategy least. then back to the drawing board armed with their observations. Of course.Identifying Intelligence 291 their own efforts. are the mirror image of the NF Idealists. and so be in a position to appreciate them.5.

Operator-i L . Thus a Mentor of personal development. you want get the job done well.Entertainer-1 Coordinator------------------------.292 Leading In the same way. For example (looking at the top of the diagram).Conservator-i 1. as are strategic roles and logistical roles.Administrator-' Note that both diplomatic and strategic operations and the roles they generate are abstract. Next. then back to their hammers and power saws. we see that diplomatic roles and tactical roles are opposites. And (at the bottom of the diagram) a brilliant design Architect would surely find it hard to be a brilliant floor Supervisor. but you can’t have one without the other.Teacher [ENFJ]-----------Crafter [ISTP]— f— NF Diplomatic Roles------------------------. Why not? Because it takes continuous practice to become highly profi­ . SP carpenters have to refer to the construction blueprints. at least in theory. following the branching lines in from the left and from the right.Performer [ESFP] J Concrete Abstract _____________________________________ Operations Operations p Fieldmarshal [ENTJ]— Protector [ISFJ]— | r Mentor----------------------------------.Champion [ENFP]-----Composer [ISFP] -j I I L r I Advocate------------------------------. if. will not be very good as an Operator of enterprises and machinery. The following diagram aligns the various intelligent roles and role variants so that they face their opposites: j |. an individual might perhaps become adequate at a given role. but not brilliant. an Advocate involved in personal mediation will not excel as an Entertainer improvising works of art.Inspector [ISTJ] — I I— Architect [1NTP]----. This is the first and most important opposition to observe. And vice versa. The abstract and the concrete side of operations are opposites.Mastermind [INTJ]-----Provider [ESFJ] -I | j-Inventor [ENTP]------.Supervisor [ESTJ]— I I '— NT Strategic Roles--------------------------SJ Logistical Roles— Engineer---------------------------.SP Tactical Roles — L HeaIer[INFP]--------. and an Engineer of technological organization will not do well as an Administrator enforcing regulations. though I suspect that it does. a brilliant classroom Teacher is not likely also to be a brilliant workbench Crafter. My guess is that the development of each kind of intelligent role largely inhibits or precludes the development of its opposite. Whether such mutual exclusion extends to the sixteen role variants is a question that I cannot answer.Counselor [INFJ]------Promoter [ESTP] -I |. even though some skill in both roles is needed to get work done. In any of these cases. that is. while both tactical and logistical operations and their accompanying roles are concrete. a Coordinator of efficient plans will not shine as a Conservator ensuring logistical support.

when an Administrator Guardian is hired to do engineering work. to lose interest in such work and long to go back to engineering. The rightly famous Peter Principle nicely accounts for this case where a competent engineer is promoted to his “level of incompetence. It has to be enacted consistently with the abiding self-image. For instance. someone interested in engineering usually has little interest in administering and so manages to practice it as little as possible. or for Idealists as tactical leaders. For now I claim only that these eight different kinds of work roles are observable—in other words. I hope it will take some of the obscurity out of the problem of intelligence and put the problem itself into of the hands of business leaders. interests. the more they will be able to observe such work and to estimate how well it is done. for Guardians to present themselves as strategic leaders. Thus. when an Engineer Rational is promoted to administrative work in the engineering department. But especially the role must be played from a position of strength. Peter was wrong in speaking of different levels of competence. explaining. even for less pay. that person will very likely look for promotion to some form of administration in the engineering department. Recall British General Bernard Montgomery’s folly in trying to roll up . so to speak. one in which they prove to be less competent. to see the intellect-as-a-whole.” with both employee and employer losing by the promotion (see The Peter Principle by Larry Peter. That. even if it were possible to do so. sooner or later. describing. that it is possible to watch people doing these things. Nor is it prudent for Artisans to pose as diplomatic leaders. after all. Whatever their temperament. In a way the leader’s role is like that of parents and spouses: there’s no choice but to play the role in character. The reason I present the theory of operational preclusion in outline is that it may enable leaders to see the relations between the varying kinds of intelligent roles. On the other hand.) Incidentally. It will not do. just as someone who finds satisfaction in administering finds little time to practice engineering. what happens to many employees highly competent in their job is that they are promoted to a different kind of job. and values of the leader. Saying that intelligence is smart work rather than smart thought—doing work rather than thinking thoughts—may prove to be a step in the right direction toward solving the terribly complex problem of intelligence. and possibly evaluating the differing categories of intelligence. for instance. is a very large task to be accomplished down the line in a work devoted exclusively to defining. he or she is very likely. the more leaders are able to get a grip on the different kinds of intelligent work roles. or Rationals as logistical leaders. But this is not the occasion to spell out just how the eight kinds of intelligent roles preclude each other. Whether or not this hypothetical construct proves to be useful remains to be seen.Identifying Intelligence 293 cient in doing anything. granting that some are easier to observe than others. and continuous practice is done only by someone who is interested in and enjoys a particular kind of work.

It is without doubt a tall order to understand intelligence. is a many splendored thing. and those who do not understand this fact of life will sooner or later pay the piper for their failure to do so. and de­ stroyers. thus setting the stage for the eruption of World War II but one generation later. Halsey swallowed the bait and headed north with his entire fleet. This strategic blunder left MacArthur’s ground forces vulnerable to the awesome power of Admiral Kurita’s central task force. Here was a great logistical leader who diminished his reputation by failing to understand that his strategic capabilities fell far short of his logistical capabilities. The brilliant tactician. faced with a crucial strategic decision. General Grant. Then of course great tactical leaders have been known to stumble badly when they attempted strategic planning. and that defeat and loss ensue when leaders fail to understand their own abilities and that of their opponents. This was a case of a brilliant logistical leader being outmaneuvered by two wily tactical leaders. For instance. and who knows but what we would find on investigation that great diplomatic leaders have blundered when they essayed tactical maneuvers. having proven himself a superb tactical leader in the South Pacific naval campaign against the overwhelmingly superior Japanese forces. He succeeded. Upon study­ ing Halsey’s character Osawa prepared to sacrifice six (nearly empty) carriers by dangling them north of Halsey’s Third Fleet to lure Halsey away from his guardpost. some believe. a strategic wizard by the end of the war. of drawing General Ulysses S. in the vain hope. Pennsylvania in the spring of 1863. Lee’s disastrous adventure into Gettysburg. after all. Here was a remarkable case in which a Japanese Admiral (Osawa) based his strategy on Halsey’s notoriously impulsive character. Admiral William “Bull” Halsey. Halsey. Had not Kurita then blundered just as badly as Halsey.294 Leading the German flank at the north end of the Allied line of battle in World War II (the film One Bridge Too Far dramatized this disastrous maneuver). This adventure showed that Lee’s strategic intelligence was far less developed than his well-honed tactical intelligence. made a nearly catastrophic strategic blunder in leaving his post in the battle of Leyte Gulf. Then there was General Robert E. And 20th . would in all probability have been wiped out. In the same way. so that General MacArthur’s ground forces could invade Leyte safely. Grant away from his siege of Vicksburg. was totally eclipsed by General McLelland in the logistical matter of preparing an army for battle. the consensus of historians is that MacArthur’s forces. Or consider the American President Woodrow Wilson vying with the English Prime Minister Lloyd George and the French Premier Clemenceau in crafting the Versailles treaty after World War I. The point not to miss is that intelligence cannot be evenly developed across the board. The intellect. Halsey’s Third Fleet was to guard the entry into Leyte Gulf. carriers. battle ships. leaving nothing to stand at the entrance to Leyte Gulf. muffed it. cruisers. receiving little protection from the Seventh fleet of Admiral Kincaid.

can be effective leaders. and in any event is “cognitive ability” (see Sternberg’s massive Handbook o f Human Intelligence).Im nrnvism fi— ■ Composer [isfp] ----------Synthesizing—^ . most of them going along with the Binet-Spearman notion that intelligence is correlated primarily with abstract thought. usually taking place. even more visible than logistical intelligence. or by Entertainers improvising their presentations. and provided that we show our appreciation whenever we note our followers contributing their intelligence to our mutual enterprise. tactical intelligence is easily the most visible of the four kinds of intelligence. Indeed. want their leaders to appreciate their talents. behind the scenes. whether those moves are made by Operators expediting their enterprises. provided that we come to understand our own strengths and weaknesses as well as those of our followers. r |— Promoter [estp] ----------. concrete logistical Guardians are just as smart as abstract strategic Rationals—though again in quite different ways. while diplomacy and strategy are abstract. But the bottom line is that concrete tactical Artisans are just as smart as abstract diplomatic Ideal­ ists—but in quite different ways. beginning with the tactical Artisans.Persuading—| -Operator---------------------------u p e r a io r -------------------------------tx Expeditingpeam ng—i l _ Craffler [ISTP]-----------Instrumenting —I tical Roles-------------------------Working with Equ L |— Performer [ESFP]-----. Now let us turn to the four patterns of intellectual development. The reason is that tactics are maneuvers in the field. Tactical Intelligence The tactical intelligence of Artisans (SPs) can be defined as making smart moves that better one’s position. The myth that intelligence depends on abstract thought has left in its wake a great deal of misunderstanding on the part of both leaders and followers. The following diagram from Chapter 3 mirrors the Artisans’ tactical roles and role variants and the kinds of work they do exceptionally well.Demonstrating —j ■ -Entertainer-------------------------ImprovismgR ntprtainpr---------------------------------. like everyone else. Likewise. as it were. whatever our temperamental makeup. and observing their roles is not at all difficult. on stage—where the action is—and as such are very immediate and concrete. Please understand me on this point if on nothing else: any of us. Artisans.Tactical Intelligence 295 century psychologists have not been helpful in this.

machinery. surety. They are the tough-minded Artisans. . those SPs who are smart at working with people and machinery in order to advance their interests. and trust. since they are usually eager to impress leaders and peers alike. faith. Operators outdistance all the other Artisans in two of the sixteen role variants: the expressive Promoter and the reserved Crafter. . Promoters are outgoing. since they are artistry just as surely. And finding occasions for appreciating the Promoters’ skill is also easy. These are the so-called “smooth operators” who excel in all the forms of persuasion: assurance. conspicuous people. will usually lag slightly behind for the simple reason that it gets slightly less practice. confidence. belief.296 Leading Tactical Operators Operators work on the expediting side of tactical intelligence. or unrewarded. positiveness. a giant skip loader or backhoe or crane can be awesome. The graph below shows a theoretical curve of the most likely role development profile of those Artisans who become smart Operators. Operations Conservator Coordinator Ahafmrt strategic Engineer Operations Mentor Diplomatic Advocate ESTP & ISTP Note that the other tactical role. implements. say. Leaders should not let such feats of skill go unsung. as playing first violin in a symphony orchestra. for instance. and by the ease with which their promotional activities win over other employees to go along with whatever they have in mind. surfing on the twenty-five foot waves at Sunset Beach on the shores of Oahu. Promoters (ESTPs) are able to do whatever it takes to gain others’ confidence in them and their enterprises. that of Entertainer. and other tools. Crafters (ISTPs) are just as easy to observe because of the remarkably graceful way these quiet Operators work with instruments. Though not as spectacular as. still the Crafters’ virtuosity with. if the observer has any idea at all of how much skill is required to operate these machines. in order to accomplish the task at hand. and who are directive or quick to tell others what to do. calling attention to themselves by their charm and wit. and so are always available to discuss their promotional activities. Role Development of the Typical Tactical Operator Operator Entertainer Tactical Administrator Concrete Logistical _ _ . and for the same reasons. whether recreational or productive in intent.

in the eyes of most Artisans. that is. Then there is diplomacy. note that the logistical and strategic roles are rarely on a par with the tactical roles. Steven Spielberg. or at this time of day rather than that. For example. and pamphlets. Operator Artisans are not nearly as smart as when they are acting tactically. Think of it. we might ask. In that case the improvising abilities of the Performer can be unleashed to full advantage. to display. consider what the film director does to get just the right camera shot. and whose first impulse is to inform those around them by making or showing them something beautiful or exciting. Composers seem to have an uncanny sense of synthesis. fond-hearted Artisans. But these talents need not be confined to presentations to customers. and this being so. Still. And yet less obvious. Performers are easy to spot in a work force. just as are musical prodigies like Mozart. Entertainers are the friendly. computer graphics. only random and indifferent practice. to exhibit. It is not at all clear to observers why the shot is taken from here rather than from there. Performers are entertainers at heart. since logistics is a concrete operation. Chopin. and of course decorations and ornamentations of all kinds. Though not as . Federico Fellini. posters. it is. and many others are obvious virtuosos of tactical improvisation. Who. and for the same reason. and so the typical Operator tends to be a little smarter at logistics than strategy. Performers (ESFPs) love to demonstrate their talents. and far less dramatic compositions are being made daily in many businesses and enter­ prises. and consequently when it comes to acting in diplomatic roles. In this kind of art the composition speaks for itself. which is abstract. to put on a show. though their contribution to the enterprise may not always be so obvious. while the skill creating the composition is often hidden from sight. an ability to see what fits and what doesn’t fit in any work of art. video presentations. as do book jackets. Composers (ISFPs) find joy in bringing into entertaining form any aspect of the world of the senses. there is some likelihood that it will be more interesting to Operators than strategy. those SPs who want to amuse or to charm others. a very dull sort of activity. They can just as well be used in displays and demonstrations to company personnel of new techniques and their relationship to the objectives of the company. to present. Directors such as Orson Welles. or why the background sounds are this rather than that. Because they are so naturally outgoing. with scant checking on results. and company newsletters have to be composed. it is well that the leader of such individuals applaud them. Entertainers shine as two of the sixteen role variants: the expressive Performer and the reserved Composer. unless they are employed to advertise products or company image. and Tchaikovsky. are the best interior decorators or fashion designers? Surely it is Composers. Tactical Entertainers Drawn to the improvising side of tactical intelligence.Tactical Intelligence 297 Second. Compared to tactics.

Entertainers Artisans are not nearly as smart as when they are acting tactically. however young. and so when it comes to acting the diplomat. there is some likelihood that it will be more interesting to the Improvisers than strategy. but the Smart Work characteristics of Artisan leaders are just as vital to an organization. Still. blending. with scant checking on results. ISFPs are smart at all of these acts of composi­ tion—mingling. The graph below shows a theoretical curve of the most likely role development profile of those Artisans who become smart Entertainers. by dint of practice. and of course it is not imprudent to assign them to this kind of work. combining—and need to be recognized for the beauty they bring to the job at hand. types of personality other than Artisans can... But if the employer is looking for virtuosity in the tactical roles it is a much better bet to find an Artisan.He knew that he had great aptitudes for leadership and he always grasped the opportunity to . and so ordinary Entertainers tend to be a little smarter doing logistics than strategy. since logistics is a concrete operation. which is abstract. Leaders need to identify and appreciate their Artisan followers’ tactical intelligence. Without a doubt. to fill the position. Role Development of the Typical Tactical Entertainer Entertainer Operator Conservator Administrator Engineer Coordinator Advocate Mentor ^ Strategic Tactical Concrete Operations Abstract Operations Diplomatic ESFP & ISFP Note that the other tactical role. only infrequent and careless practice. that of Operator. become fairly smart Operators and Entertainers. in the eyes of most Artisans. And what about diplomacy? Compared to tactics. it is.298 Leading visible as the others SPs. a very boring sort of activity.. Then the leader’s appreciation for such an employee’s contribution can be genuine and oft-spoken. and for the same reason. The Tactical Leader [Churchill] never feared taking responsibility nor was he wont to lay blame on others when events wore an ugly aspect. Second. note that logistical and strategic roles are rarely on a par with tactical roles. will usually lag a little behind for the simple reason that it tends to get a little less practice.

Lee of the Confederacy. The other seven were more friendly and informative Entertainers—Zachary Taylor. The most prominent Artisan commander was General Robert E. and by delivering their composed speeches with a captivating flair. Ronald Reagan. Some large corporations make efficient use of the skills of this group when they buy another company which is in the red. But other notorious Artisan leaders were J. and Philip Sheridan and George Custer on the Union side. and thus feel they are using their talents and keeping their organization on the move.The Tactical Leader exercise it. Six of these were tough-minded and highly directive Operators—Andrew Jackson. Artisan leaders negotiate with ease and. Thus they can be called natural “Negotiators.B. The leadership of the Operator Presidents was clearly different from that of the Entertainers. especially Garfield. Indeed. Churchill The boldness and opportunism of Winston Churchill are rare in British politics. especially the Roosevelts and Lyndon Johnson. Reagan. Ties to the past and ties to the future are negotiable and even expendable. by speaking extemporaneously. and Lyndon Johnson. since thirteen of the forty-one Presidents of the United States (those holding office until the turn of the 21st century) were Artisans. Artisan leaders feel alive—“having fun” they call it—when they are playing these tactical roles. and is done now. but which they want . but certainly not in American. Martin Van Buren. and Clinton.” They’re good at putting out fires.” but other names which might capture their style are “Troubleshooters” and “Beachmasters. The­ odore and Franklin Roosevelt. Because of their tactical adaptability. at untangling snarls. the most practiced and therefore most developed intelligent roles of Artisans are those of Operator and Entertainer. James Garfield. Chester Arthur. If there was a battle he always aspired to be in the front line. these three able to forward their agendas by chatting pleasantly with ordinary people. Running through this style is a note of tactical utilitarianism—what­ ever needs to be done to solve a problem is done. the American Presidency gives us an illuminating way of looking at Artisan leaders. or their variants. But the Entertainers were the best speech-makers. His tactical virtuosity on the battlefield remained unmatched by any other SP commander until George Patton and Erwin Rommel in World War II. even if not in actual command 299 —Randolph S. Biographies and other accounts of the American Civil War give us another way of looking at Artisan leaders. and at responding to crises in a way which the other types can match only belatedly and with great effort. of all the types. both in the sense of drumming up support and crafting political tactics.E. John Kennedy. were far more capable than the friendly Entertainers of pushing their programs. and Bill Clinton. The tough Operators. Franklin Pierce. have the highest sense of immediate reality. Stuart and Nathan Forrest on the Confederate side. As discussed above. Warren Harding. yet quite similar in its tactical form.

Consider the military beachmasters. look at all that gold. he does not send in someone who is laden with traditions and the rules of warfare. the beachmaster has but one objective—to get the men off the beach and safely into the bushes—and he has absolute authority to shove anything into the sea. right now. So when a commander has men stacking up on a beachhead and needs a beachmaster. to the Negotiator everything—and everybody—is negotiable! Other types who sit down at the bargaining table reserve some of the things they own or the things they have done as non-negotiable. an overwhelming sense of what is right here. The corpo­ ration sends in an Artisan Troubleshooter to take over the smaller company. In other words. with personal cares and old relationships. to incorporate it into the body of the larger company. with directions to implement the take-over. for somehow these SPs are capable of getting others to cooperate with them and with each other on the basis of expediency. however. and say. who often go into a trouble spot with several sets of glasses firmly placed over their views of the situation.300 Leading to acquire for personnel. that is. They go into a difficult situation. They plan to give up a pittance in exchange for whatever they can get. “Hey. No one can say a word to the beachmaster about what goes and what does not. They are the leaders who go in with the second wave of troops invading an island or a continent. Beachmasters have to have a split-second sense of timing. securities. into the sea. not like a babe in the woods. and in an instant decide what has to be pushed into the ditch. SP Negotiators. Troubleshooters have an attitude of certainty and self-confidence that causes others to go along with their decisions and directions. making others seem like amateurs in the art of give and take. and tax write-offs. or under the ground. They are not saddled with rules and regulations. Artisans also make everyone else look like amateurs when it comes to improvising survival tactics. Somehow this character is more sharp-eyed or present to reality than the other types. Others filter what needs to be done through fixed lenses—customs. If these kinds of leaders experience self-doubt. with a sharp eye for opportunity. what is right here. do not consider anything on either side as sacred or untouchable. The Troubleshooter is empowered with the authority to do whatever has to be done to make this new acquisition a part of the parent organization. patents. and what is right now. with policies and contracts. With all the men and material on the beach. the need to be liked—all of which obscure a clear view of what is immediate. or who is acutely aware of . like bargaining chips. but more like a fox. personal sympathies. Negotiating SPs wear none of these lenses. procedures. They go back and look in closets. Some of this confidence seems to stem from the Artisan’s strong sense of reality. they do not transmit it to those around them. And this can happen rather quickly. They take their places with a tiny bit of something in mind which they intend to negotiate with. who func­ tion in a shooting war. Let’s bring it out and negotiate it!” This keen sense of reality gives this type a big edge over others.

or who is overconcerned with the meaning of death. they can over-praise when such praise is not earned. the students were learning less and less.” In three months the war had ceased. They deal with concrete problems. They verbalize appreciation easily. in all probability they would have been able to function just as effectively. They’re at their best in verbal planning and on-the-spot decision making. They usually know what is really going on in an organization. and will do whatever it takes to solve them. Needless to say. or the penalties of failure. The faculty was made up of two hostile factions. that they can see the opportunities current in each new situation. and did so with unfailing regularity. and the faculty was pulling together as unit. Survival is the issue. This type is outstanding in rising to the occasion in any crisis. in order to encourage greater efforts. hour by hour. SP leaders do not fight the system but use what is immediately at hand to get operations back on line. Operations are apt to run smoothly with these Troubleshooters in charge. If there had been a different staff at that school. while they may not enjoy and are loath to produce routine paperwork. Nothing counts on that beachhead but getting off the beach and surviving to attack and secure the objective. since they will detect early signs of trouble and can prevent small problems from becoming large ones through inattention. and they are known to voice appreciation before their subordinates have accomplished anything. and then rapidly improvise corrections. For instance. indeed. These Beachmasters are so immediate. . Of course the Beachmaster brand of leadership is not restricted to war. No one could deal with the situation: the faculty became more and more at odds. but each side knew how to dismantle a principal. I remember well an ailing high school notorious as a graveyard for principals. once they learn that there is a payoff in this sort of action. and with an economy of motion. parents were up in arms.The Tactical Leader 301 the future. Artisan leaders are practical in every sense of the word. each battling the other. Things are sure to happen with this type around. for they have keen and untiring powers of observation. All other considerations are ex­ pendable. and they are usually aware of the comfort and working conditions of employees. They can observe social networks close-up and see how they work—day to day. SP leaders are not likely to allow unnecessarily bad working conditions to exist for employees without attempting to do something about them. minute by minute—and they can spot where breakdowns and mismatches occur. Their productivity is apt to be high. so unfettered with things of the past. A principal would be assigned to that school and the faculty would send him packing within a few months. Artisans can spur action in a leadership team as can no other type. with mutually facilitative transactions. Finally. the superintendent told the assistant superintendent to “take over that school and straighten it out. Under their leadership things happen expeditiously. the assistant superintendent was an Artisan Beachmaster with an unerring instinct for getting people to work with each other in an emergency situation.

love to intervene in crises. administrative regulations. but they should neither be required nor allowed to stay in a . and have nothing worthwhile to do. They are open-minded and can change positions easily.302 Leading Artisans don’t like being told how to work. they feel that they’re not using their skills. Such impulsiveness can annoy fellow workers when Artisans forget to follow through on agreements and fail to inform others of the oversight. or getting an industry out of the red. SP leaders can be reluctant to attend to kid-glove diplomatic issues. standard operating procedures make them restless and impatient—they would rather fly by the seat of their pants. love to gamble. and can spring the unexpected on colleagues now and then. establishing goals. institutional change is usually smooth and easy. They don’t get their jollies from stabilizing because in trying to do so. for an organization of any size. They themselves are the very essence of flexibility—flexible with themselves and flexible in their expectations of others. With SPs in charge. Things that can be changed—procedures. responding readily to the ideas of others if they are specific. set fires so that they can put them out. They love to take risks. such leaders can become rigid and entirely too predictable. behavior which understandably can upset the person on whose behalf a commitment was made. Suppose they are asked to maintain an organization. On the other hand. or they can be unprepared at times when preparation is called for. personnel—are all in their hands in a crisis. The moral of this story is that. At times they make commitments for others without getting an OK. and so are bored—and it’s then that they are likely to go looking for trouble to shoot. When Artisans are getting a school out of trouble. Current demands preempt anything else. they are excited and energetic. Yesterday is quickly gone and just as quickly forgotten. and may react negatively to change they have not wrought themselves. rescuing a business from going under. Beachmasters tend to be impatient with writing goal statements and statements of philosophy. and employee morale. They live so fully in the moment that they may have difficulty remembering prior commitments and decisions. What are they going to do? Some of them are going to make mischief to give themselves the opportunity to operate in a manner that exercises their tactical skills. claiming these are only exercises in futility. when there is no crisis to manage. having nothing to do. This here-andnow orientation leaves Artisan leaders in a position of being somewhat unpredictable to their colleagues and subordinates. But consider the situation if the negotiating and troubleshooting SPs are asked to stay and consolidate an organization. They are like firemen who. Suppose they are asked to head up an enterprise that is now in the black. regulations. That is the penalty of having Troubleshooters stay on as Stabilizers. for they can adapt easily to new situations. They welcome and seek change. Artisans also may be careless about details and this may irritate others. but they do not waste their time and effort in worrying about changing what cannot be changed. Artisans are needed for crisis situations.

people who consider those long-term issues that can so easily be put off for some other time. that is. patient. everyday matters of materiel. and who carefully set times and places for the routine tasks often forgotten by their Artisan leader. This is because logistics has to do with concrete. spotting logistical intelligence is almost as easy as spotting the Artisan’s tactical intelligence. They do not trouble themselves or others seeking to understand underlying motives or hidden meanings.Logistical Intelligence 303 situation once it is unsnarled. These leaders ought to be kept mobile and used only in emergencies that call for their amazing tactical skills. so they are likely to take risks and to encourage others to do the same. fortunately. seldom finding this shift in position a threat to their self-image. people who reliably provide reminders of appointments and deadlines. Leaving them to do the work of another temperament is a disservice to the Artisan and to the organization. accepting their actions as realistically as they do changing circumstances. to the benefit of the organization as well as their own personal fulfillment. in their smart handling of goods and services. and who can capture in writing the endless flow of projects for future reference. down-to-earth. Those Artisan leaders who for whatever reason remain in charge of a given enterprise are well-advised to select a support team comprised of: 1) schedule-oriented Guardians for regulation and support of material resourc­ es. consider the diagram on the next page (first presented in Chapter 4) which parallels the Guardians’ . Like the other temperaments. and. and far easier than spotting either the Idealist’s diplomatic or the Rational’s strategic intelligence. people who know how to maintain smooth relations and high morale in the work force. They change their position easily as new facts and new situations arise. easy to get along with. These Negoti­ ators are not threatened by the possibility of failure in themselves or others. In summary. Guardians want to have their own pattern of intelligence appreciated by their leaders. With such support there is no reason that Artisan Negotiator-Troubleshooter-Beachmaster lead­ ers cannot continue exercising and improving their tactical skills. To get a better picture of the overall pattern of logistical intelligence. Artisan leaders are usually flexible. open-minded. Artisan leaders are matter-of-fact about things as they are and do not chafe about what might have been. while diplomacy and strategy are abstract operations dealing with the subtleties of personal interactions and the hypotheticals of complex systems. 2) Idealists for personnel development and mediation. and 3) Rationals for arranging and constructing in research and development of technology. And they do not judge their employees. and adaptable in working with others. whether in the role of Administrator of regulations or Conservator of support mea­ sures. Logistical Intelligence The intelligence of Guardians (SJs) comes to the fore in their logistical reliability.

or team—someone who not only doesn’t mind directing employees to toe the line and come up to snuff. though (unlike the ESTJs) they prefer simply to note and report discrepancies and not confront the violators. but feels good about doing this sort of thing. and leaders would do well to let them know how important they are by telling this to them face to face. the Inspector judges the degree to which it meets the standard. As in the case of smart Supervisors. who will apply them to the operations of a staff. setting it aside as a second or a discard if it doesn’t measure up. and they keep their eyes peeled for compliance—and they are quite comfortable directing others to shape up or ship out. Administrators know what an institution’s established policies and measurements are. Supervisors (ESTJs) manage their people by enforcing standards of behavior and pointing out whenever their behavior crosses or fails to cross some agreed-upon line. ISTJs are unbelievably hard-working and thorough in their inspections. or crew. After examining a product. ESTJs are the least likely of all to be praised for their contribution. then the Inspector must be judged competent in this line of work. smart Inspectors are of enormous value to any .Regulating —i I — Inspector [ISTJ]----------. Both in manufacturing and in services most oper­ ations become standardized. Inspectors (ISTJs) look more at products and accounts than at proce­ dures. Perhaps because calling workers out of line is unpleasant to those who err. So if the Inspector falsely reject too many products.304 Leading logistical roles and variants with their most skillful intelligent operations in the work place: j— Supervisor [ESTJ]--------. These are the tough-minded Guardians. If on the other hand each and every reject is justifiably set aside.Enforcing —| SJ Logistical Roles ------------------------. And yet Supervisors are of immense value to companies. and that is the time to employ a tough Supervisor who knows the standard operating procedures. those SJs who run their organizations by applying and enforcing administrative regulations. then he or she is not very good at the job. and so rarely have the visibility of Supervisors. and wisely commended for being so.Securing —^ Logistical Administrators Administrators work on the regulatory side of logistics.Working with Materiel r Administrator----------------------.Certifying —I LConservator-------------------------Supporting—■ |— Provider [esfj] ------------Supplying — | I — Protector [isfj]------------. Two of the sixteen role variants find real satisfaction in the Administrator’s duties: the expressive Supervisor and the reserved Inspector.

The graph below shows a theoretical curve of the most likely role development profile of those Guardians who become smart Administrators. leases. accountants. strategy is pretty uninteresting in the view of most Guardians. and the security of the people and property in their charge. Then there is strategy. actuaries. Role Development of the Typical Logistical Administrator Administrator 1 Conservator Tactlcill Entertainer Concrete Operations U. and who take pride in ensuring a steady flow of materiel to an organization. only irregular and cursory practice. so their largely unseen contribution to enter­ prise ought not be taken for granted. and for the same reason. that of Conservator. since tactics is a concrete operation.Logistical Intelligence 305 enterprise in which quality control and cost effectiveness are to be maintained at a high level of accuracy. corporate and tax attorneys. For example. Look at the smart purchasing agent in business or the . those SJs who prefer the task of logistical support to logistical command. and so ordinary Administrators tend to be a bit smarter taking on tactical roles than diplomatic roles. contracts. making sure that they are well stocked with provisions. and consequently when it comes to acting in strategic roles. which is abstract.tnrt Adv0Cftte ' Mentor Engineer Coordinator Diplomatic Operations ESTJ & ISTJ Note that the other logistical role. and the like. Still. people who can competently detect discrepan­ cies and glitches in fiscal reports. are indis­ pensable in financial matters. Logistical Conservators Conservators are the friendly and informative Guardians. Administrator Guardians are not nearly as smart as when they are acting logistically. Second. with scant checking on results. so is largely ignored. Providers (ESFJs) work to furnish their office or company with whatever supplies are needed to get the job done. brokers. Two of the sixteen role variants surpass all others in doing the Conservator’s job: the expressive Providers and the reserved Protectors. note that diplomatic and tactical roles are rarely on a par with logistical roles. will usually lag a little behind for the simple reason that it gets a little less practice. there is some likelihood that it will be more interesting to Administrators than diplomacy. Providers are usually outgoing and seem to enjoy supporting others. Compared to logistics.

there is some likelihood that it will be more interesting to Conservators . defenders. all to secure the safety of the people and property they care about. Providers can be just as creative in their own way as Fieldmarshal Rationals (ENTJs). so leaders need to take special care to appreciate this type even when things are safe and sound. Still. who are busy with the abstract operation of coordinating forces in the field. but also protected his new nation from anarchy on the one hand and monarchy on the other. or when equipment breaks down. with not much attention to results. for the reason that it gets a bit less practice. Protectors are quiet and can often be taken for granted. patrollers. typically lags a bit behind. and so on. Of course. Bear in mind that George Washington. the most famous and beloved of all ESFJs. wardens. screening officials. but none of them are so devoted and committed to security and maintenance as the Protectors. sergeants-at-arms.306 Leading smart supply officer in the military: they do whatever they can to keep warehouses full with all necessary stores. For them security is the highest priority. timekeepers. so they practice it early on and continuously. Then note that the diplomatic and tactical roles are rarely on a par with the logistical roles. only sporadic and half-hearted practice. their opposites. all Guardians are naturally cautious and security minded. Protectors are much like Providers in being naturally concerned about the welfare of others. for another eight trying years. doorkeepers. Role Development of the Typical Logistical Conservator Conservator Logistical Administrator Entertainer Concrete Tactical Operations Operator Mentor Abstract Diplomatic Advocate Operations Coordinator Strategic Engineer ESFJ & ISFJ Note that the other logistical role. coming to be noticed only when security has been breached. curators. so that there is no interruption in the pace of operations. Protectors (ISFJs) see to it that safeguards are in place and preventive measures are observed. that of Administrator. and for the same reason. since tactics is a concrete operation. custodians. becoming the very best security guards. The graph below shows a theoretical curve of the most likely intellectual profile of those Guardians who become smart Conservators. Although logistical conserving is a concrete operation. not only provided the wherewithal for his army’s continued existence for eight desperate years.

Calvin Coolidge. and consequently when called upon to act in strategic roles. Grover Cleveland. Thirteen of these were tough-minded. But politics is not the only work where Guardians can excel as leaders.The Logistical Leader 307 than diplomacy. George McLelland of the Union Army and James Longstreet of the Con­ federate Army come to mind. both answering to Dwight Eisenhower. Eisenhower. Tru­ man—were outstanding chief executives. The military also provides a place where logistical intelligence is highly useful and highly sought after. The most famous of these were Omar Bradley and Bernard Montgomery. surfaced. As for strategy. the American Civil War yielded a great many highly effective Guardian commanders. and George Bush. James Buchanan. compared to logistics. Mill­ ard Fillmore. —Thomas Jefferson Of the forty-one Presidents of the United States. is rather uninteresting. like the Rational Commander-in-Chief Lincoln eighty years earlier. the great Rational strategist. The Logistical Leader Perhaps the strongest feature in [Washington’s] character was prudence. and that is precisely (though belatedly) how Lincoln used him. And several of these Administrators—Monroe. and Bush coming in a distant second. so is mostly ignored. In World War II many superb logistical leaders. twenty were Guardians. As in the case of the Artisans. Rutherford Hayes. when once decided. Wilson. but. John Tyler. Harry Truman. James Polk. directive Administrators: James Mon­ roe. and Jimmy Carter. William Taft. Cleveland. Woodrow Wilson. informative Conservators—George Washington. extremely capable in conducting the business of government. which is abstract. Richard Nixon. Longstreet too was a brilliant logistician. with Washington overshadowing all others in administrative performance. only one or possibly two of these Conservators come to mind. Conservator Guardians are not nearly as smart as when they are acting logistically. William McKinley. Andrew Johnson. going through with his purpose whatever obstacles opposed. Incidentally. setting him the task of refurbishing the defeated and demoralized Army of the Potomac. The other seven Guardian Presidents were more fond-hearted. The characteristics of logistical intelligence need to be identified and valued in leaders just as much as in followers. Polk. As for outstanding executive leadership. the view of most Guardians is that strategy. refraining when he saw a doubt. never acting until every circumstance. every consideration. McLelland was a brilliant logistical leader. and so ordinary Conservators tend to be a little smarter as tacticians than as diplomats. soon learned how to . Gerald Ford. and Robert E. mostly Guardians. Benjamin Harrison. William Henry Harrison. was maturely weighed. Lee used him often for crucial defensive functions.

and thus might be called the “Stabilizers. while he steered down the middle between urban and agrarian interests. the debt relieved. the Guardian leader is likely to see to it that . and gave the equally steady Montgomery the task of staying put as fulcrum for the Allied sweep through France into Germany. owing to his many adventures. in keeping with the name. Guardians feel dependable. Should the organization lack traditions. They are good at drawing up lines of communication. They are patient. reliable. and at following through on jobs until completion. rules. making sure to have a majority of those who understood business and finance. routines. So when Elizabeth took the throne her Guardian temperament guided her unerringly to avoid the pitfalls of intemperate action. These SJ leaders also answer to the name of “Traditionalists. Also. and standard operating procedures. and a sense of permanence to employees and clients alike. Elizabeth. They know better than most that strong traditions give comfort. First of all. the contrast between the leadership of Elizabeth I and her father Henry VIII is as striking as it is instructive. a sense of belonging. steady. Washington stabilized the economy by permitting the war between Jefferson and Hamilton on fiscal policy to go on for eight years. while he asked the steady Guardian Bradley to slog it out across opposing battle lines. They know that personnel and materiel and business agreements will all be kept in good order under the sensible guidance of the Guardian. When their occupation calls for them to enact these logistical roles. administrative regulations. In a way she did for England what George Washington did for America. within a mere eight years had the English ship of state holding a steady course toward prosperity. Henry was a blazing Artisan who. too. Stabilizers are careful to identify their own duties and just as careful to point out the duties of their subordinates. the currency stabilized.308 Leading make use of the differences in his top commanders. got his country into all sorts of troubles and debts. and most importantly. orderly. People under SJ leaders know that they can count on things remaining constant and familiar. Thus Eisenhower gave the flamboyant Artisan Patton the assignment of flanking enemy forces. and foreign entanglements all but eliminated. The dutiful worker is prized—and rewarded—by the Guardian leader. she took extreme care in selecting her cabinet of ministers. thorough. As outlined above. knowing that they are serving their organization well and thus earning their salary. Guardian leaders at work tend to have a stabilizing and consolidating effect on the organization that employs them. the most practiced and therefore most developed intelligent roles of Guardians are those of Administrator and Conservator. or their variants. which his successors and their ministers failed to relieve. and protocols. and offsetting those of conservative bent with those of radical bent. They value contracts.” Their abilities lie in establishing schedules. they carefully (and quite sentimentally) preserve and nurture the traditions of the institutions they belong to.” for.

but there is a tendency. To solve persistent problems of production they are more likely to add personnel to operate in customary ways than to redesign operations. the Fourth of July picnic for employees and their families. for stability to go too far. and ceremonies—a gold watch for the retiring septuagenarian. Given that appreciation of their subordinates’ contributions is a powerful tool for any leader. As Traditionalists. something Guardians are reluctant to do. Indeed. a welcoming luncheon for new employees. And this increase of input without a corresponding increase in output seems to be a function of time alone. which states that “things that can go wrong will go wrong. Guardian leaders.” and that “everything costs more and takes longer. Guardian leaders lead well when they keep a sharp eye out for the silent and steady creep and domination of ways and means over goals and ends. that is. customs. and for organizations to fall victim to Parkinson’s Law—the law of “the hegemony of means over ends. Guardian leaders tend to watch operational costs more than they do results costs. interested as they are in institutional stability. Certainly SJs can learn to make the necessary changes. Now. how do Guardian leaders show their appreciation? . with older institutions usually being more bureaucratic than younger ones. and standard operations. customers change. in their earnest wish for rules. SJ leaders have a tendency to resist change and so must regulate their own behavior to make sure that. They should. they may set up a roadblock to necessary and healthy organizational growth.” This law informs us that in any organization operational costs increase without a corresponding increase in production. if. Their employees will be dutifully doing things just because they did them previously. and so on—all in an effort to solidify the organization. Or a budget item will be adopted only because it was adopted on the previous budget. Murphy’s Law. wasting much of their own and others’ efforts. which is to say. periodically take a look at the effects of operations and eliminate those that are no longer useful. they are alerted to the stalking of Parkinson’s Law—or at least to the implications of a law they are more comfortable with. the only thing that is surely constant is situational inconstancy. the annual office Christmas party. regulations. Stabilization is a necessary stage in the life of any organization. moving quickly to establish a basic schedule of rituals. Paradoxically. So to continue to get the same results leaders have to make changes in operations. personnel changes. therefore. they do not overshoot the mark and attain stagnation instead of progress. after a time.” Even Murphy’s Law advises that Guardian leaders temper their built-in traditionalism and develop their flexibility. the only thing that doesn’t change is the inevitability of change.The Logistical Leader 309 they are created. The same operations cannot continue to get the same results because situations change over time—parts and suppliers change. uniformity of production can only be ensured by variation in operation. the organization gradually becomes more bureaucratic. are more prone to fall victim to Parkinson’s Law than the other types. If they do.

Traditionalist leaders would do well to examine their implicit belief that only the truly deserving may be shown appreciation. but no other player gets anything. trophies. SJ leaders must train themselves to pay attention to the least achievement and deliberately reward those achievements just because they were achieved. Guardians will try to be clear-cut in their dealings with colleagues and. only those employees who have been most hard-working should be appreciated. Also Guardians may find it easier to comment on others’ weaknesses than on their strengths. They like to get things clear. Otherwise (the unconscious belief dictates) employees might become less industrious. if they feel that they are not observing agreed-upon proce­ dures and regulations. But they may do this publicly rather than privately. and wrapped up. so that they see only the very hardest workers as deserving of appreciation. and get on to the next item on the agenda. believing that they must always earn their keep. Guardian leaders are happiest when they can schedule their work and follow through on the schedule. And they tend to project onto others their own need to prove themselves worthy. They feel that. They may withhold appreciation unless they believe it is fully deserved. settled. and so on. must do their duty. must be needed. SJs may find that conferring honors. the Rationals. They feel responsible and obligated seemingly from birth. only the winner can receive the grand prize. therefore. is easier for them than saying that they appreciate an employee’s skills and achievements. titles. and that these can be only the outstanding few. and less reliable than they are. the least pro­ ductive employee has contributed. tending to take strengths as obvious and expected —and therefore not needing comment. they are often at a loss. Giving credit where credit isn’t most deserved would be bad for morale. Guardians must serve. will call this to their attention. they are less at home in handling people.310 Leading How do they give strokes? How do they give feedback to their employees (and superiors) that they have noticed what they are doing and know about what they have contributed? Here character will out. They want lots of facts and little theory. Those in second and third place may receive a blue and green ribbon. appointments to coveted positions. and they may have difficulty in accepting appreciation from others. and occasionally with words which are un­ necessarily critical. no matter how trifling. SJs themselves are orderly and want others to be the same. less sensible. make a decision. they are indebted to society and must always work at paying what they owe. somehow. each and every day. In discussing issues Guardian leaders want their colleagues to get to the point quickly. including the earning of appreciation. and may be restless . and they are determined to be on time and on schedule. And when it comes to handling their diametric opposites. and to express appreciation for that. They need to experiment with finding something. To be most effective. especially those who are less stable. Although quite at home in handling data. Since SJs must always earn their keep.

They are thorough about the business of the organization. and far-reaching decisions may be made at inappropriate levels—by clerical personnel. they can fall into relationships that create tensions. On the other hand. An organization without a Guardian-Stabilizer-Traditionalist leader may find itself in a constant state of change without a sound base of rules and regulations. are loyal to its purpose and personnel. Guardian leaders are able to survey. given to scolding and criticizing. They can maintain an effective data flow up and down the company hierarchy so that staff are well informed. waste in effort and supplies can increase. A good day’s work for a good day’s pay makes sense to them. just as they are prone to commend only the most respectful. Without SJ controls.The Logistical Leader 311 until a decision is reached on materiel. They simply do not understand people who are ignorant of or indifferent to schedules.” Thus these Guardian Stabilizers would do well to have an Idealist Catalyst on their management team. at times. to know. Also they are likely to hold that some people are good and some people are bad—and that the latter should be told of it. if an organization does not have an SJ on the leadership team. may not notice new things which need to be done. official style in dealing with colleagues until they are well acquainted. and apply a great amount of detail. and keep themselves briefed to the last detail. Deadlines for SJs are important. they may get in the habit of focusing on the negative charac­ teristics of people. and they are impatient when these deadlines are ignored. expecting them to apply equally to all. Others with whom they work will know where they stand on procedural issues. important details may be missed. Guardian leaders will run orderly meetings. If SJs do not make a conscious effort. There may be poor control in materiel and personnel divisions. and follow the rules. They may be inclined to decide issues too quickly and. . respect. They may even annoy fellow workers by admonishing them for minor delinquencies. as can their subordinates. Plant utilization may be poor. for example. While pleased to do their duty and be respected for it. As they become overtired and discouraged. remember. Their superiors can count on them. at times. Guardians can also irritate others by letting their occasional periods of fatigue and worry show. Guardian leaders want their organization to be run on solid facts. They can be superdependable leaders and extraordinarily hard workers. personnel. someone who brings a strong focus on personnel development and management-employee relations. obedient employees and to overlook the contributions of those who question authority. caused by their being. and the calendar of events. Guardian leaders may be somewhat impatient with projects that get delayed by unforeseen complications. From this position. Guardians are irritated by any who brush aside their responsibilities and disregard standard operating procedures long observed at work. they may slip without awareness from thinking “this is a bad act” to “this is a bad person. and will establish a formal.

Even so.312 Leading To summarize. whatever their temperament.Mediating—• I — Healer [infp]------------. and of any success they achieve with personnel.Developing—i I — Counselor [infj] ----------. and to express how much they value them.Conciliating —I Idealists are keenly aware of their diplomatic efforts. do very well with painstaking work.Guiding—J '— Advocate----------------------------. and base what they decide to do on common sense.Working with Personnel |— Champion [ENFP]------. Of all the types. whether as a Mentor involved in personal development or an Advocate involved in personal mediation. They understand institutional policies and honor their intent. They are decisive and take satisfaction in settling things. and can be counted on to follow through on commitments. Guardian leaders naturally and easily do those things which stabilize and consolidate an organization. so leaders are well advised always to be encouraging and positive in conferring with these thin-skinned employees. to learn how to identify their followers who are skilled in the diplomatic roles. They have a no-nonsense understanding of the values of an organization and do their best to conserve these values.Educating —| NF Diplomatic Roles -------------------. and ever-grateful for the progress shown. the Idealist’s diplomatic intelligence shows most . Before they take action. To help leaders spot diplomatic intelligence. but diplomatic intelligence is not easy to observe. it pays leaders. Guardians will weigh the consequences and will try to see the practical effect of such action.Motivating—| r Mentor-----------------------------. let’s look again at a diagram (first presented in Chapter 5) that juxtaposes the Idealists’ diplomatic roles and role variants with their most highly developed intelligent operations: |— Teacher [enfj] -----------. since it is abstract in nature and particularly hard to define. in whatever role they take. The slightest disapproval is devastating to them. gently focusing on method and results. They seldom make errors of fact. Diplomatic Intelligence The diplomatic intelligence of Idealists (NFs) shows itself in their natural gift for working with people. Idealists are like other types in wanting to have their own brand of intelligence appreciated by their leaders. patient. and work steadily with a realistic idea of how long a task will take. As indicated above. They are persevering. They always look before they leap. NFs are the most sensitive to appreciation or lack of it on the part of their leaders.

Two of the sixteen role variants seem born to be Mentors: the expressive Teachers and the reserved Counselors. if anything. These are quiet. enlightening. and each and every learner feels attached to and involved with the Teacher. Teachers (ENFJs) are personally committed to the task of educating others.Diplomatic Intelligence 313 clearly in two SmartRoles. illuminating. literally “leading out” the best that is in others. guiding their personal growth and directing them into activities that fulfill them more deeply than the phrase ‘job satisfaction’ can express. facilitating their learners to discover themselves and to explore their talents. and less likely to put themselves forward. Indeed. individualizing instruction so that each lesson is personal.” Diplomatic Mentors Mentors use their talents on the developmental side of diplomatic intel­ ligence. Counselors are even harder to find in an organization. Just as rare as Teachers. which I call the “Mentor” and the “Advocate. playing their Mentor role with enthusiasm and charisma. those NFs who care deeply about helping others achieve their potential. Role Development of the Typical Diplomatic Mentor Mentor Advocate Coordinator Engineer Administrator Conservator Operator Tactical Entertainer Strategic ' Diplomatic Abstract Operations Concrete Operations Logistical ENFJ & INFJ The graph above shows a theoretical curve of the most likely role . and they exert their influence on an almost unconscious level. and refining the attitudes and actions of their learners. by broadening. sensitive people who work intensely with their clients. the learner is. and so employers should consider themselves lucky when they have one in charge of personnel. and they should show their appreciation whenever possible. improving. These Teachers are rare in the workplace. INFJs have an uncanny awareness of the needs and abilities of others. These are the scheduling or agenda-minded Idealists. This type seems to be the most positively charged of all the Idealists. drawing them out. inspired by this dynamic force and would not dream of resisting. and who are so enthusiastic about personal growth that they seem almost unable to keep from stepping in to offer directions and suggestions. but are worth their weight in gold in personnel deployment and development. Counselors (INFJs) are the more private Mentors. Teachers naturally identify with their students. edifying.

so they have little in the way of method to offer their student teachers. that professors of psychology—academicians rather than practi­ tioners—have even one method of corrective intervention that they can teach their student counselors. Champions (ENFPs) are the most vivacious Idealists and are so filled with conviction that they can easily motivate those around them. Advocates are devoted to the spiritual journey and will take up romantic causes with passionate intensity. without much attention to results. and for the same reason. for example. since strategy is an abstract operation. by entering another’s frame of reference and empathizing with his or her feelings. or by locating individuals who are willing to demon­ strate the methods that they have found useful in practice. In the eyes of most Idealists. professors of education. and so can interview others with consummate skill. The truth of the matter is that most teachers and counselors learn their trade after leaving college. and hoping to nurture sympathy and understanding. there is some likelihood that it will be more interesting to Mentors than logistics. to encourage. will usually lag a little behind simply because it gets a little less practice. is a negative and even distasteful sort of activity. that of Advocate. those NFs who are more inclined to nourish personal growth by exploring the pathways of faith and philosophy than by implementing an agenda. Mentor Idealists are not nearly as smart as when they are acting diplomatically. Note that the other diplomatic role. and who naturally offer infor­ mation rather than issue directives. tactics. oddly enough. even to inspire those close to them with their enthusiasm. Second. Consequently when it comes to the tactical roles. are usually not well practiced in instructional technology. And. to rouse. and so the typical Mentor tends to be a little smarter as strategist than logistician. Champions are quick to embrace an ideal and then set about to instill their belief in others. It is extremely rare. Two of the sixteen role variants show exceptional aptitude as Advocates: the expressive Champions and the reserved Healers. so is mainly ignored and even regarded as counterproductive.314 Leading development profile of those Idealists who become smart Mentors. Let me add that schools and counseling centers tend to be in short supply of skillful Mentor personnel. note that logistical and strategic roles are rarely on a par with diplomatic roles. either by emulating models from their own past experience. working to kindle. These are the probing Idealists. searching for the core of unity or integrity in themselves and their groups. Diplomatic Advocates Advocates find their calling on the mediational side of diplomatic intelligence. only occasional and unenthusiastic practice. Champions are not often to be . Still. also mainly academicians. In Carl Rogers’ phrase. compared to diplomacy. ENFPs are more “client centered” than all of the other types. since the schools that ostensibly train them are also in short supply of role models. which is concrete.

to reconcile their warring values. personal or interpersonal harmony. leaders are wise to take the time to appreciate these rare indi­ viduals. Advocate Idealists are not nearly as smart as when they are acting diplomatically. note that logistical and strategic roles are rarely on a par with diplomatic roles. and so ordinary Advocates tend to be a little smarter as strategists than logisticians.” Quiet and reserved themselves. Consequently when it comes to the tactical roles. which is concrete. and for the same reason. and is seen as a negative and perhaps a distasteful sort of activity. or resolution—all in the interest of bringing together a divided staff or a troubled self. and defeated children. compromise. unity. The graph below shows a theoretical curve of the most likely role development profile of those Idealists who become smart Advocates.” to moderate their inner conflicts. will usually lag slightly behind simply because it gets slightly less practice. that of Mentor. in the view of most Idealists it compares very poorly with diplomacy. adjustment.” “witch doctor. since strategy is an abstract operation. Still.’ and indeed Healers encourage others to “pull themselves together.” or “medicine man” is not in the least offensive to the Healers. withdrawn. But in any workplace. Thus INFPs specialize in bringing about conciliation in all its forms—accommodation. . only periodic and uninterested practice.Diplomatic Intelligence 315 seen in any organization. INFPs make excellent child counselors and tutors. As for tactics. Healers (INFPs) take as their task the wholeness or health of others. with scant checking on results. Role Development of the Typical Diplomatic Advocate Advocate Mentor Engineer Coordinator Strategic Diplomatic Abstract Operations Concrete Operations Conservator Logistical Administrator Entertainer Tactical Operator ENFP & INFP Note that the other diplomatic role. so it is more often than not ignored and even regarded as counterproductive. Some will even describe themselves as “spiritual healers” or “ordained healers. The word ‘heal’ has the same root as ‘whole’ and ‘holism. or to temper their opposing desires. especially in the case of shy. Second. but are irreplaceable in recruiting personnel and building team morale. To be called “shaman. there is some likelihood that it will be more interesting to Advocates than logistics.

to some conception of the meaning of life on this perplexing earth. NFs are comfortable working in a . their focus is on the individuals within the organization regardless of their status. with documents and products a fallout rather than a primary target. biographical research shows that no Idealist has ever been President of the United States. and they are first and foremost people-oriented.. which acts as a reagent in a chemical mixture. or their variants. forever alert to possibilities in both career development and personal growth. Anthony leading the fight for women’s rights. but in other fields: Pope John XXIII convening the ecumenical council. In this they are like a chemical catalyst. enthusiastic leaders. even inspired to do his or her very best work. Shirer Idealists almost never take the forefront as political or military lead­ ers—Gandhi (a directive Mentor) and Joan of Arc (an informative Advocate) being the rare exceptions. Maria Montessori founding a network of schools for self-expressive children’s education. with the development of the institution being secondary. As presented above. Idealist leaders are appropriately called the “Catalysts. The individual who encounters such a leader is likely to be motivated. animated. people-oriented work place.316 Leading Appreciating diplomatic intelligence in followers is one thing. with Eleanor Roosevelt the Idealist coming closest to that seat of power. With a natural aptitude for working with people. Indeed. and thus their focus is primarily on the potentialities of their staff. catalyzing or activating otherwise latent potentials. That is. The Diplomatic Leader I count the days with Gandhi the most fruitful of my life. Martin Luther leading the protestant reformation. When in charge of personnel. —William L.. but let us look now at the characteristics of diplomatic leaders. Their ideal is a harmonious. Idealists are natural democratic and participative leaders. Idealists feel a sense of professional accomplishment and personal fulfillment when en­ gaged in these diplomatic roles. No other so shook me out of the rut of banal existence and opened my ordinary mind and spirit. Susan B. Catalyst leaders demonstrate an interest in personal development. No other experience was as inspiring and as meaningful and as lasting. and doubtless many more. Idealists tend to practice and develop the diplomatic roles—Mentor and Advocate—more than the other kinds. They can draw out the best in people. They are very personal in their transactions and tend to become committed to the progress of those around them.” because their talents as Mentor and Advocate enable them to energize productive human relations. they feel they are helping others and thus keeping their organization running smoothly. Idealists make dynamic.

They sorely need to schedule renewal time for themselves if they are not to have their energies drained to the point where they are emotionally exhausted. wanting to spare others any . Gen­ erally NFs hide their despondent moments. church. and with an abundance of verbal and nonverbal feedback. Because they are so responsive to others’ prior­ ities—and. and they are happy to communicate the fact that they are seeing this goodness. or that seems to impede progress or development. They are forever looking for and reacting to the best in their company. of course. is for Idealists to review periodically their goals. They forget very easily yesterday’s negative. Here again. and purposes to see if they are moving in a desired direction. They can. Sometimes.The Diplomatic Leader 317 climate where everyone has a vote. and they are sympathetic to their people. indeed. priorities. intently. and of forgetting necessary recreational time. The way to avoid this. Idealist leaders are enthusiastic spokesmen for their organization. Catalyst leaders value encour­ agement and acceptance. how a liability can be turned into an asset. Focusing as they do on human growth. Idealists seem to know how to say the right things at the right time to express their appreciation. disagreeable events and tend to remember the positive and agreeable—they are always the romantic about both the future and the past. Yesterday’s projects. generous with their willingness to listen to employee troubles. With the proper balance of professional and private time. disapproves. office. both for themselves and for their administrative unit. anything that denies. although these seem to come in bursts powered by a new enthusiasm. better than others. in the process. school. at that point. other people’s priorities can very quickly take over because of the NFs’ tendency to place the needs of others before their own. and sincerely concerned with their personal problems. Idealist leaders find that their involvement with employees takes too high a toll on their time and energy. may not receive needed attention. seek them out—NFs can allow other people’s priorities to eat up much of their work day. sometimes to the degree that the wishes of others almost erase those they hold themselves. and so on. subordinate their own wants and needs to the wants and needs of others. Idealist leaders can see. Like Guardian leaders. particularly when dealing with personnel problems. They listen care­ fully. Idealist leaders can then get overtired and come to a point where they find little personal reward in their work. NFs are outstanding as personal appreciators. With their gift of empathy. They often have an unusual store of energies. and always the cheerful dreamer in their public presentation of self. however. so that they have little left for themselves. even to the point of neglecting their own family or community obligations outside the organization. They have trouble communicating anything negative. so that their colleagues are aware that they are being carefully and completely attended to—and that they are valued. They tend to be very generous with their time.

rather than on the basis of what might be best for the organization. their superiors. and so their expressions of appreciation are quite spontaneously given. Whatever they do is done by them personally. just as they tend to see the positive in others and events. because of his or her empathic feedback.” no matter how accurate the comments are. All too often both factions conclude that the Idealist leader. if they are met with continual disapproval. as if they were only their job or office. NFs may actually irritate their superiors and fellow workers by taking things personally no matter how impersonal the context. and not only do they need this acknowledgment by their leaders. Sometimes Catalysts may feel it necessary to make administrative deci­ sions on the basis of personal likes and dislikes. without forethought or effort. If they receive this affirmative support they can continue contributing at their very high degree of productivity. and they want constant feedback concerning both as verification. and their subordinates. or title. not by their office. In truth. Catalyst leaders appreciate others instinctively. in turn. but also by colleagues and subordinates. only to turn to another tomorrow. NFs tend to be motivated themselves by positive comments rather than negative ones. If they do not. even immobilized. so that others feel fully received and validated. badge. they themselves need to be replenished by having others. and they can appreciate the intentions of the giver even when the approval is oblique. who may become dejected. they can become discouraged and may look outside the organization for the kind of recognition they feel they deserve. including comments in fitness reports about “need for improvement. Because Idealists give so much.318 Leading discomfort that might spill over from these down times. They listen with enthusiasm and approval. They can also annoy others by playing favorites and being particularly charmed with one person. NFs are so in tune with the feelings of others that they are vulnerable to finding themselves wanting to please all of the people all of the time. offer them expressions of recognition and approval. . when met with negatives. They value—and long remember—words of appreciation from their colleagues. Idealists are also pleased by being recognized as unique persons making unique contributions. nor how kindly they are put. since they are so sensitive both to helping those under them and to pleasing those above them. It is important to Idealists that their feelings as well as their thoughts are appreciated by others. subscribes to their position. They do not wish to hide behind their uniform any more than they wish to be confined by it. and even when cautioned not to. Idealists become irritated when treated impersonally. They can find themselves viewed as the champion of two opposing groups because they have listened to both sides sympathetically and have communicated understanding. They may also find themselves tom between the needs of their subordinates and the requests of their superiors. It should be added that the other three kinds of temperament can handle negative criticism more easily than can the NFs. and is so to be seen.

their feelings. Idealists in positions of authority are sociable and like being with their staff. They enjoy personal contacts. Idealists are outstanding in public relations. and even resentful. they may become frustrated. at times. only to find that larger difficulties have resulted. If their unit is under criticism from superiors. perhaps excessively. conversely. they find that they have taken what was a temporarily easy way out. They touch base frequently with their staff and know a great deal about their problems. Catalysts are able to create a climate where people in their administrative unit have considerable autonomy. mandated operations do not get carried out. Idealists may give offense by insisting on expressing their feelings in situations where thoughts are more appropriate for exploration. Others will tend to lean on them for support. seeking direction. they may quickly lose self-confidence. as a result of members’ freedom to act on their own initiative. Usually the Idealist will be at a loss as to how this happens. and their pleasures. Idealist leaders relate well and are popular with their colleagues. Idealists also can be over-helpful. however. perhaps hoping that. Catalyst leaders may find themselves creating dependency relationships. or if things do not go well within their unit. internalizing what may be the failures of others as their own failures. and mystified how to prevent it from developing again and again with a variety of people. but. and expressive Idealists in particular go out of their way to seek these connections. Another hazard for Idealist leaders is that they have a tendency to avoid unpleasantness. if they have too many arbitrary standard operating procedures to follow. for they have facility in communicating their abundant enthusiasm. If they are given freedom to create and to manage. the problems may somehow disappear. Sometimes. giving help that is neither wanted nor needed. NFs may find themselves rescuing those they regard as “victims” of the system and this may lead them into conflicts between their loyalty to the institution and their loyalty to personnel. For the most part. at times at the expense of seeing organizational . This usually enables healthy growth for the unit. Idealist leaders have to bear the responsibility for this—which may limit career opportunities. Those around Idealist leaders may tend to be loyal to them personally. They can take the side of a supposed underdog and in the process imply that others present are hard-hearted and unsympathetic to the needs of others. In spite of their best efforts to avoid this. Nor does it bolster their self-image. personal relationships with their colleagues and find their job a source of social satisfaction as well as a place to be productive. then. and make excellent advo­ cates for an organization. Also. They work well with all types of people and can sincerely sell an organization to its clients.The Diplomatic Leader 319 seemingly abandoning the first without an explanation. and generally draining their energies by bids for attention. if they can delay facing problems. they can really produce. whether socializing or working. They tend to seek close.

or a computer company in Silicon Valley (places in which most employees are Rationals of one kind or another). joyless. focusing intuitively on their strengths. or some Technical Institute. people-centered point of view to a leadership team and can speak with more insight than the other types about the social consequences of a proposed change. Of course Rationals who have joined some sort of think-tank. and complain about the decline of morale. of being able to make business a pleasure. priorities. as the head of a democratically-run organization. Observ­ ing strategic operations is more difficult than observing tactical and logistical operations. whether as a Coordinator formulating com­ plex orders. most of them doubt that these others can understand strategic intelligence. other members are apt to enjoy working with Idealists and find them supportive and attentive to their points of view. the people handling the data may not feel good about the organization and about their place in it. The Idealist can be extraordinary as the head of an organization. the visible leader who speaks well for the organization itself and for the people in it. dull. as do Artisans.320 Leading needs. and issues. They have the characteristic. find their brand of intelligence is commonplace and taken for granted. inhuman. Also. that is. NFs add a personalized. If an organization does not have an Idealist on a team. NFs usually are comfortable in unstructured meetings. is that there are only one or two NTs on any given job . Although Rationals are like others in wanting to have their own pattern of intelligence appreciated by their superiors. or as an Engineer constructing complex organizations. Strategic Intelligence The strategic intelligence of Rationals (NTs) is shown in their ability to work with systems. All in all. subordinates. Far more likely. because tactics and logistics are concrete and thus more visible and in-the-world than the abstract stratagems of NTs. They excel in working with and through people and. to figure out complex ways and means to accomplish well-defined goals. They tend to be patient with complicated situations and can wait for the right time to move forward. More often than not. the leadership style of Idealists is marked by personal charisma and commitment to the people they lead. They usually have a tongue of silver and communicate through speech their caring and enthusiasm. however. sterile. and peers. They are often gifted in seeing the possibilities of both the institution and the people they work with. they are accurate about the organizational climate. Although excellent data systems may exist. members of the organization may find the environment cold. On a leadership team. Esprit de corps may be low and enthusiasm minimal. they allow the contributions of all members of that organization to surface. Many a troubled water can be calmed when an Idealist-Catalyst leader is present to pour on the necessary oils.

But in business as well these .” and indeed in the military Fieldmarshals do extremely well in mobilizing their forces and in getting campaigns up and running. let us review a diagram that was presented in Chapter 6. it is quite unlikely that Rationals understand it themselves. Those Rationals who are lucky enough to be assigned strategic work must be content to pat themselves on the back now and then and take pleasure in doing what they love to do.Constructing F. their strategic capabilities. Masterminds focus on sequential order. no doubt because there are so many interlocking concepts which define that sort if intellect. which means they naturally commandeer whatever human capabilities and material resources are required to execute a strategic plan. and so they must have their doubts about others being able to imagine. and Archi­ tects focus on configurational organization. Inventors focus on functional organization. and their cor­ responding intelligent operations: |“ Fieldmarshal [entj] Mobilizing — | r ■Coordinator--------------------------Arranging*_oorainaior----------------------------. those NTs who know what they want done and when it is to be done. showing the strategic roles and role variants. and who are not shy about directing others to follow their plans of operation.Strategic Intelligence 321 site. let alone observe. Isabel Myers referred to this type as “the leaders of leaders. Not only do other types of personality have trouble understanding the Rationals’ strategic intelligence. By way of review. These are the scheduling Rationals.ncnnppr Pnnctm rtSno — I Architect [ i n t p ] -----------Designing— ^ As indicated above. let us be reminded of the four role variants that NTs are enabled to play given their strategic intelligence: Fieldmarshals focus on hierarchical order.Arranging —i I — Mastermind [INTJ]---------Entailing-----^ |— Inventor [entp] -----------. To make it easier to remember this NT intellectual pattern. and then form a chain of command to make sure the object is accomplished.” Strategic Coordinators Coordinators concern themselves more with order in systemic work than with organization.Devising— | ■ ■■ ategic R o les--------------------------Working with S L-Engineer-------------------------. By far the most competent Coordinators come from the ranks of two of the sixteen role variants: the expressive Fieldmarshal and the reserved Mastermind. Fieldmarshals (ENTJs) are the best of all the Rationals at arranging hierarchical order. Rational strategic intelligence is most powerfully in evidence in two SmartRoles which I call the “Coordinator” and the “Engineer.

In architectural plans there are no contingencies. en­ tailing successive operations in a complex project so that all probable contingencies are anticipated and all appropriate measures are taken to keep the project on course. no ifs. arranging their priorities. which show all of the interrelated parts of a complex structure. the wizard of Menlo Park. Role Development of the Typical Strategic Coordinator Coordinator Engineer Strategic Abstract Mentor Diplomatic Operations Advocate Operator Concrete Tactical Entertainer Operations Administrator Logistical Conservator ENTJ & INTJ It is worthwhile noting that the other strategic role. they would just as soon assist a competent leader as take command them­ selves. while in contingency plans there? are no parts. But when those in charge show confusion about coming up with efficient means to achieve clear-cut ends. which show what is to happen if certain things do or do not happen. Masterminds are smart at making contingency plans. The graph below shows a theoretical curve of the most likely role development profile of those Rationals who become smart Coordinators. INTJs see the whole picture with eagle-eyed clarity and when put in charge begin immediately formulating their strategies. usually lags a bit behind. holder of countless patents for devices he invented during his long career. While certainly not as brilliant an inventor as his rival Nicola Tesla. Edison was far superior to Tesla in his ability to coordinate an incredible array of contingent efforts on the part of his team of engineers. In other words. Consider Thomas Edison. Masterminds (INTJs) are the masters of sequential order. and making their flow charts in order to achieve their goals with a minimum waste of time and resources. and then in selecting the personnel and resources that will most efficiently achieve the desired ends. but less smart at making architectural plans. that is. note that the diplomatic and tactical roles are rarely on a par with strategic . for they are not at all shy about stepping forward and taking charge of operations. Second. Although few and far between in any work force. Masterminds are not as conspicuous as Fieldmarshals in the work force.322 Leading ENTJs are quick in designating tasks to be accomplished. that of Engineer. Masterminds feel compelled to take over and get things back on track. mainly because it gets a bit less practice. Fieldmarshals are the most visible of all the Rationals.

who might start out in engineering but end up coordinating operations. like the steam engine. Civilization rests on an accumulation of hundreds of thousands of inventions made by many thousands of inventors. Two of the sixteen role variants are especially gifted in the role of Engineer: the expressive. Unlike the Masterminds. outgoing Inventors and the attentive. As in the case of prototypes. not only particular weapons but complex strategic weapons systems. back and forth until the fully functioning device is completed. preferring to report on their project and progress rather than to direct others to follow orders. so it is largely ignored and only rarely practiced. are taken for granted.Strategic Intelligence 323 roles. their inventors known only by a handful of men. makes its inventor (James Watt) immortal. Inventors (ENTPs) devise mechanisms with a definite function in mind. which is concrete. there is some likelihood that it will be more interesting to Coordinators than tactics. now devising the prototype. A large invention. few Rationals are able to find much interest in logistics. Thomas Jefferson was just such an INTP. reserved Architects. in the construction of useful prototypes and models. these inventive engineers are interested only in adapting the technology and building the prototype. most of whom go unher­ alded for their achievements. but the overall layout of the campus. now redesigning it. Compared to strategy. with little attention to results. namely.” ENTPs can go unappreciated by their leaders and unsung by the public at large. those NTs who are drawn to the harnessing of scientific principles to practical ends. rather sporadic and indifferent practice. All the same. As a result. while the oper­ . Thus. and then designing the academic curriculum to boot. These are the probing Rationals. Architects (INTPs) design the structural plans for the many tools that surround us. not only individual buildings but entire cities. when it comes to acting in the logistical roles. Then there is logistics. Inventors have little desire to be in command of others and are quite content to go on engineering in their labs and workshops for the rest of their lives. Fortunately. the same person playing the two roles reciprocally. since diplomacy is abstract like strategy. Architecture and invention go hand-in-hand. and thus the typical Coordi­ nator tends to be somewhat smarter at diplomacy than tactics. such as the handshake linking device holding train cars together. models are quite visible for inspection. and then in moving on to tackle the next problem that intrigues them. even though their prototypes are directed out into the world. But smaller ones. and for the same reason. de­ signing not only the buildings of the University of Virginia. These are also the informative Rationals. and in this sense they can be said to be “outgoing. not only single planes but whole airline companies. Strategic Engineers Engineers do their SmartWork on the organizational side of strategic intelligence. Coordinator Rationals are not nearly as smart as when they are acting strategically.

defining the parts of a structure. Fortunately. Grant and Sherman. and need to be identified and appreciated. Even so. and they can easily let the more visible Fieldmarshals and Masterminds get the applause. the reason again being that practice in these roles tends to be haphazard and lacking dedication. that of Coordinator. The graph below shows a theoretical curve of the most likely role development profile of those Rationals who become smart Engineers. did quite well in command of Federal forces.324 Leading ations that produced them remain largely invisible. Lincoln. the structural blueprint. when forced to take over the Coordinator’s role by the inertia of a paralyzed Congress and inexperienced commanders. As far as logistics is concerned. Role Development of the Typical Strategic Engineer Engineer Coordinator Advocate Mentor Diplomatic Strategic Abstract Operations Concrete Operations Entertainer Tactical Operator Conservator Logistical Administrator ENTP & INTP Note well that the other strategic role. he kept pace with his best commanders. in general. but the same can . and thus INTPs are known more for their products than for their engineering skills. typically lags slightly behind. Engineer Rationals end up not nearly as smart as when they are acting strategically. with results not often checked out. the matrix of factors. since diplomacy is an abstract operation like strategy. and thus the typical Engineer tends to be somewhat smarter in diplomacy than tactics. Not that they are incapable of coordinating operations. it is a most unusual Rational who shows more than passing interest in logistics. Indeed. to these often solitary Architects the model’s all that matters. in order to map out the most efficient organization. there is some likelihood that it will be more interesting to Engineers than tactics. The consequence of this neglect is that when it comes to playing the logistical roles. Employees with any sort of strategic intelligence are extremely rare in a work force. which is concrete. in learning how to coordinate the vast military forces from the industrial north. so most of them do little of it and hope that someone else will take care of such matters. Also note that the diplomatic and strategic roles rarely even come close to the strategic roles in development. Architects are happy to do the work of systems design. and the relation between the parts. But. mainly because it gets less practice. For example.

informative. —Rexford Tugwell The government and the military of the United States have had their share of Rational leaders. NTs go happily to work. and later on Northern Europe. John Adams. Grant. even though it was necessary to catapult him into top command over the heads of countless officers of superior rank and greater seniority. and MacArthur was in command of army forces in the Philippines. Sicily. NT leaders feel competent when they are playing such strategic roles or their variants. As defined above. on the issues most difficult for all politicians of his time. Ulysses S. to rise to challenges of design for increased efficiency. and want to use their innate understanding of factors to reduce the complex to the simple. Army had studied the pragmatics and technology of war as continuously. at solutions not only expedient but right—so right that.The Strategic Leader 325 be said of strategic leaders. and then to conceive strategic plans to implement those goals efficiently. Herbert Hoover. But both had had Major Dwight Eisenhower working for them as their staff officer in planning strategy. Marshall’s choice of Eisenhower to head the attack on North Africa. once started. and Dwight Eisenhower were decisive. Of the forty-one Presidents of the United States (up to 1998). Rational leaders might be called “Visionary” leaders because they have the ability to envision the goals of the organization. All eight were extremely able leaders. which is twice the number that might be expected based on their small percentage of the population. Thomas Jefferson. the most practiced and therefore most developed intelligent roles of Rationals are those of Coordinator and Engineer. Douglas MacArthur and George Marshall were already four star generals when World War II broke out. as comprehensively.S. eight were Rationals. and Abraham Lincoln were probing. At the time Marshall was chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. tactics. and adaptable Engineers and unusually capable in architectural design and technological invention. James Madison. The Strategic Leader [Lincoln] came out in the end. and as astutely as Eisenhower. directive Coordinators and highly skilled in mobilizing forces and contingency plan­ ning. since they are doing that . they seemed to have the persuasive power of the simplest axiom. When called upon to devise something new—a prototype—they are all the more happy. As for Rational military leadership. and logistics. NTs pride themselves on their ingenuity and technical know-how (including managerial technolo­ gy). They both knew that nobody in the U. John Quincy Adams. to get models onto paper. they are applying their reason and their know-how and thus con­ tributing to their organization. When called upon to come up with a strategy. was unhesitating and final.

who put long-range strategy before tactics. those NTs who in the 1970s tried to peddle the results management model to business soon found that it was not so warmly embraced by leaders of different temperament. and a hundred years later both Douglas MacGregor. we would keep telling our followers about the end state of affairs we have in mind.326 Leading which.” By the way. in The Human Side o f Enterprise. would keep regaling them with anecdotes that are analogous to their concerns. is an ex­ traordinary treatise on leadership as intuitively practiced by Rationals. in The Effective Executive. would keep checking on their results. many management consultants made a switch from a focus on objectives to a focus on operations. and. Consider the principles of leadership that Lincoln spoke of and consistently used to govern his managerial conduct: • Advocate a VISION and continually reaffirm it • CIRCULATE among followers continuously • Build strong ALLIANCES • Search for INTELLIGENT assistants • Encourage INNOVATION • PERSUADE rather than coerce • Influence people through STORIES • Be RESULTS oriented Were we to adopt Lincoln’s style of leadership. such as Jefferson. sought to manage those who helped him preserve the United States through the perilous and agonizing years of the Civil War. Grant. who gave us the first intelligible model of what was to be called “results management” or “management by objectives” in the latter half of the 20th century. and Hoover. It demonstrates coherently and comprehensively how Abraham Lincoln. him­ self a brilliant Visionary leader. Lincoln thus demonstrated the natural actions and attitudes of the Ra­ tional leader. and diplomacy. and began to speak of “operational objectives.” the switch amounting to an abandonment of management by objectives. Lincoln on Leadership. seeking to strengthen our relationship with them. Madison. in their view. is most worthwhile. Puzzled by this cool reception. displayed. logistics. It would appear that it was Lincoln. would keep in constant contact with our followers. whatever our character type. This is the kind of leadership other Rationals. defined and explained his implicit model. would keep looking for intelligent behavior on their part. would keep giving our followers convincing reasons for their actions. would always show our appreciation for useful changes in operations our followers come up with. in the mid-19th century. written by Donald Phillips in 1992. and Peter Drucker. Eisenhower. last. . Undoubtedly results management is a fine leadership model—for Ra­ tionals. and it is also the sort of leadership that came to be known as “results management” or “management by objectives.

Even though Visionary leaders can envision how an organization might look ten years in the future. Rationals prefer not to say anything twice and assume thorough understanding on minimal information. But not strategic arrangement and con­ struction. sooner or later goals and objectives are lost in the shuffle. and diplomatic operations needed in any enterprise. while they are timeconsuming and difficult for other types. People follow such leaders because they find their visions of the future intriguing. if something is only implied. Multivariate analysis and flow­ charting are quickly and easily accomplished by NTs. so that practices that do not efficiently serve the goals of the organization are pruned as fast as they sprout. the Visionary leader’s far-reaching and all-inclusive plans. What exists presently can be changed. They will not put up with bureaucracy in any form or in any place in the system they are running. with all relevant constants and variables considered in recursively updated matrices and flow charts.The Strategic Leader 327 Indeed. and only those that answer to the Rational’s utilitarian criteria are allowed to survive. and systemic perspectives. procedures. since it is a mere remnant of the past. Without such a leader on board. and ways and means unrelated to the lost ends will spring up and multiply. logistical. When it comes to displaying their ideas. these Visionary leaders keep their eyes open to new possibilities. It is the Rational’s strategic intellect and well-developed pragmatism that keeps the organization on course. try to anticipate the tactical. All rules. and blueprint that ten-year condition. and diplomatic development and mediation can be well provided for by Guardians. and Idealists. With their scientific. so that personnel with these different skills can be deployed to do the things that are necessary and sufficient to get the job done. being reluctant to state the obvious lest they appear naive on the one hand. tactical expediency and improvisation. Artisans. Logistical regulation and support. or insulting to their listeners on the other. Using such analytical tools the Visionary leader provides an eagle-eye view of things to come together with a contingency plan for implementing goals. technological. the strengths of the Rational. especially in larger enterprises where so many factors must be considered. and often is. . it is invariably and sometimes ruthlessly countered by Rational leaders. that is. Parkinson’s law—“the hegemony of means over ends”—inexorably and inevitably takes hold of that organization which does not keep means rigorously harnessed to ends. They do not believe it necessary to verbalize implications. Any lingering or creep­ ing bureaucracy is quickly discovered and surgically removed whenever and wherever an NT leader is in charge. They exercise an economy of communication. and offices are questioned. While Guardian and Idealist leaders are now and then victimized by Parkinson’s law. that suffices. and so value and support research and development efforts. but they sometimes get lost because of the NT’s tendency to avoid redundancy. they can have difficulty communicating their vision.

and are likewise embarrassed when they express appreci­ ation for their followers’ contributions. and complicated analyses. may also become too technical in the way they talk. the NT leaders. people. If they do. using highly specialized termi­ nology and presenting enormously complex matrices and flow-charts that show the relationship between means and ends—and naturally expecting their followers to grasp at once what seems so obvious to them. in the name of the organization. if people are not told overtly and clearly that they are appreciated. Probably part of the truth is that NTs themselves are embarrassed when told by their boss that they have done a good job. Nor are Rationals natural appreciators.328 Leading Visionaries. is approved. and part of their difficulty in the art of appreciation stems from their reluctance to state the obvious. Thus. In other words. Often their would-be followers despair of following them at all in their detailed. The fact that the employee is paid in dollars for this accomplishment is beside the issue. the employee will have to be paid in a currency over and above dollars. Even so. must be the one who holds the office of leader. and that it matters. need say nothing. they may find . “Why is my boss saying this? Is it not perfectly obvious that I have done a good job? What’s the boss up to?” And so Visionaries are hesitant to express appreciation for fear of being seen as manipulative. If the organization is to get all the employee’s commitment. never take for granted that they are appreciated unless they are told that they are. When Visionary leaders are first involved in creating a model they have enormous drive. then the spokesman for that organization. then that fact is obvious—obvious to them and obvious to all others—and therefore they. Certainly Rational leaders understand the idea of appreciation that was so well articulated in the group therapy movement: that. they have difficulty with this interaction and should study the behavior of an Idealist leader in this area. They unwittingly assume that if a person has done a good job. If an employee accomplishes something. while Rational leaders might grasp the need for expressing personal appreciation. And the leader has no substitute: the leader. the person who made the contribution and who is the recipient of the appreciation might think. At least that is one rationalization. precise. regardless of character type. they will conclude that they are not. be it ever so small. they are more than willing to allow someone else to take over. the voice of the corporate body. So with these rationalizations—that others would find verbal appreciation either devious or too personal—Ra­ tionals tend not to say anything to their subordinates or superiors about their efforts and achievements. one that responds to the basic need of that employee’s personality. and only the leader. is in a position to express appreciation officially. with their love of abstract strategic analysis. but once their model is constructed. he or she needs to be told by the leader that the accomplishment is recognized. if an employee is to be made aware that the organization appreciates his or her contributions. As a result.

Colleagues may not feel comfortable in com­ menting on the domestic events in their lives. all-business attitude makes it difficult for them to chat with their subordinates about what the NTs think of as trivia. the Fieldmarshals and the Masterminds. Appreciation by a leader of a routine task well done does not delight them. colleagues. at times. Their subordinates. They insist on getting maximum effect with minimum effort and are bothered when custom and the need for diplomacy get in their way. Rationals in leadership positions can give the impression that they value only their brightest subor­ dinates. These Visionaries expect a great deal of themselves and others. at times. the Inventors and Architects. they may. They cannot bear for either themselves or others to make the same mistake twice. indeed. Visionaries prefer observers who will take the trouble to follow the complexities of their work. and be hesitant to approach them.The Strategic Leader 329 that their designs and plans were not carried out to their satisfaction. This is particularly true with Engineer Rationals. The Coordinator Rationals. especially in logistical or tactical matters. not with admonition (like the SJs). And they can irritate others by what seems to be an unwarranted insistence on making so many fine distinctions that others forget the point at issue. only themselves—but in the next situation they will tend to repeat their premature loss of interest. Also some Rationals are seen as using a vocabulary which their listeners find pretentious and pedantic. they typically feel restless and unfulfilled. rather. often more than can be delivered. because of their focus on long-range strategies and the big picture. but with irony and ill-concealed contempt. no matter what the price. Another weak spot for Rational leaders is that. are apt to do the same thing but usually at a later stage. This restlessness sometimes takes the form of verbalized impatience with errors. their single-minded. recurrence of the same error. and they might do well to remind themselves of Drucker’s rule that people with great strengths also have great weaknesses. Visionaries have little patience with snarled and tangled situations. they respond to recognition of their strategic intel­ ligence. Aspiring as they do to technological wizardry. and thus the NT leader can become isolated from the after-hours activities of people within the organi­ zation. be unaware of the feelings of others. whether good feelings or bad feelings. They seldom blame others for this failure. or superiors. an impatience with finding it necessary to cover ground already traversed. Rational leaders can be adamant and stand on principle against all opponents. it might even make them suspicious of the leader. Rationals can become irritated when asked to do something—like of­ fering unearned appreciation—that defies logic and is inefficient if not ineffective. Not much good at small talk in the first place. . given their usual doubt about others’ capabilities. therefore. and. Because NTs tend to escalate standards for themselves. may regard them as distant and even cold. NTs also can hurt others. One error is forgivable but not forgettable. unthinkable. Seldom do the Rationals enjoy comments of a personal nature.

And second. and we must see to it that our followers get timely feedback on the results of their intelligent operations. which means that they are carefully studious of the relationship between means and ends. Goals must be defined clearly so that operations likely to reach those goals can be identified. The fact that the person expressing appreciation holds a high office means nothing if he or she does not also possess competency in the area being appreciated. and applied. SmartPeople do SmartWork if they have a SmartBoss. acquired.330 Leading Only the competency of the appreciator is significant to NTs. Rational leaders are consistently pragmatic. we must nurture the talents of followers we already have. But if nothing else. All ways and means must be scrutinized for their potential inefficiency. Traditional ways and means are not automatically applied. but must compete with new ones in the crucible of strategic analysis. to be effective leaders we must contin­ ually search for talent. Rational leaders are consistently skeptical and error activated. we must make sure that our followers engage in massed and distributed practice of those skills that they contribute. . as well as frequent appreciation for and acknowledgment of their smart methods. Just as Rationals have difficulty appreciating others verbally. please remember these two characteristics of Rational leadership: First. they have difficulty accepting appreciation. —In Conclusion— Whatever our personality type.

we must define the two concepts. the Expressive are quick to speak and slow to listen. quiet and seclusion actually exhaust Expressive persons. when they leave a lively party at two o’clock in the morning. And thus they can be thought of as socially seclusive or retiring. by contact with other people. however. they are quick to approach others. and is much less useful than T-F and J-P. In fact. but in terms of social address or social attitude. even strangers. Remember. Thus they can also be thought of as socially gregarious or outgoing. people who are more quiet and private (the so-called “introverts”) can be described as “reserved. charged up. while Expressive persons tend not to listen very well. but not in the same degree. not in terms of mental focus or interest. having received so much stimulation from the social interac­ tion. finding this an easy and pleasant thing to do.” Interest­ ingly. Important or not. Their batteries are almost overcharged.Chapter 1 Notes 331 Chapter 1 Notes 1 Extraversion or Introversion While Jung considered the distinction between extraversion (E) and introversion (I) as the most important of his dimensions of personality. everyone is expressive in some degree. Owing to the surge they get when in company. I think of it as least useful in understanding people and predicting what they’ll do. And so to make the E-I distinction useful at all. while the Reserved are quick to listen and slow to speak. they might well be ready to go on to another one. and they report feelings of loneliness (or power drain) when not in contact . Such interaction apparently charges their batteries and makes them feel alive. that these distinctions are not clear cut: each individual surely varies from time to time in his or her desire to be expressive and in company or reserved and in seclusion. Thus when someone is observed to be talkative and sociable (the so-called-“extravert”) he or she can be described as “expressive. Indeed. Imagine that a person’s energy is powered by batteries. and something they don’t want to do without. Thus. because Reserved persons tend to hold their fire verbally. So in general. ENFJs. On the other hand. and talk to them. Those who are more expressive appear more comfortable around groups of people than they are when alone. Myers’s E-I scale is badly flawed because she inherited Jung’s error of confusing extraversion with observation (S) and introversion with introspection (N).” In contrast. and that may be the reason the Jungians and therefore the Myersians consider the concept to be so important. Of course. Given this. etc. then Expressive persons (ESTPs. A metaphor might shed light on this difference.) appear to be energized. so eager are they to tell others of what they have on their minds. Presumably extreme extraverts and extreme introverts are easy to spot. those who are more reserved seem to be more comfortable when alone than when in a crowd. they tend to listen carefully to what others say. in my view it borders on the trivial compared to S-N.

but not what isn’t present. Thus we look at objects to see them. after fifteen minutes or so.’ and ‘exteroception. and mouth substances to taste them. 2 Sensation or Intuition Carl Jung used the words ‘sensation’ and ‘sensing’ (S) to mean paying attention to what is going on outside ourselves. if Reserved persons go to a noisy cocktail party. Thus ‘sensation’ may be used synonymously with three words pertaining to external attention. They enjoy socializing with others.332 Chapter 1 Notes with others. INTJs. touch surfaces to feel them.’ ‘externalization. Thus. For them.’ and ‘interoception’ with ‘exteroception. Reserved persons can remain only so long in contact with others before their energies are depleted.’ ‘internalization. Whatever isn’t present to our senses we can only imagine by means of introspection. but Reserved persons have no reason to feel that there is anything wrong with them.) can be said to draw energy from a different source. listen to sounds to hear them.’ For the purposes of describing personality types. he or she may. . They prefer to pursue solitary activities. half an hour—they are ready to go home. This is not to say that Reserved persons do not like to be around people. is “listening to the inner voice” or “heeding the promptings from within. we observe objects through our senses. feel bored and tired.‘observation. and have to exercise strong will-power to keep from taking a short brain break and striking up a conversation with the librarian. however simple or complicated it may be. and such isolated activities are what seem to charge their batteries. I have found the easiest and most accurate terms to be ‘introspection’ and ‘observation. Jung gave us two engaging metaphors to convey how he used the word ‘intuition’ (N). that is. he said. if an Expressive person goes to a library to do research in the stacks. Reserved persons (ISFJs. working quietly alone with their favored project or hobby.’ So we can contrast ‘introspection’ with ‘observation. ‘introspection. Thus ‘intuition’ can be used synonymously with three other terms pertaining to internal attention. these promptings coming as thoughts and feelings. We can observe what is present. On the other hand. Intuition.” The word ‘intuition’ is engaging because it literally means “internal attention. Indeed.’ ‘internalization’ with ‘external­ ization. family. after a short period of time—say. the party is over. or social responsibilities to be expressive or outgoing—to make a great interpersonal effort—they are soon exhausted and need alone time in quiet places to rest and to restore their depleted energy. sniff odors to smell them. There is some social bias toward expressiveness in American social life. If required by their job.’ and ‘interoception. and should be sure to provide adequately for their legitimate desire for quiet time to themselves.’ Very simply. their batteries are drained. etc. For example.’ In contrast. but at large social gatherings or professional meetings they tend to seek out a quiet corner where they can chat with one or two other persons. external attention.” We pay attention to what is going on inside ourselves with our mind’s eye and our mind’s ear.

but we cannot divide it. This does not mean.” concrete.” Observers want facts. Absorbed as they often are in their internal world. seem to be more raptly attentive to inner promptings. to outer promptings. attending to concrete things —food. and they want to deal with the facts of a situation as they are. imagining. of course. In contrast. trust facts. or more introspective than observant. spend most of our waking hours looking at. When we observe what’s going on around us. down-to-earth beings who keep their feet on the ground. Observers might be called “earth­ lings” or “terrestrials. Now. The vast majority of us. and very little of our time introspecting. But if the reason for this preference in attention is obscure. We may alternate our attention. making inferences. To put this difference another way. Introspectors might be called “extraterrestrials. what would happen if. The reason for this difference in attention is not at all clear. or what might occur in the future. musing.Chapter 1 Notes 333 Naturally.” abstract beings who live with their head in the clouds. Introspectors tend to miss a great deal of what’s right around them—current reality is merely a problem to be solved. or what has happened. Nor does this mean that Introspector types are unaware of the objects around them—not at all—but simply that they are more inclined to become absorbed in their ideas. Observers (SPs and SJs) seem more at home when looking after the particulars of everyday living. . Those of us who attend inwardly much of the time as children strengthen that preference. our inner voice becoming louder and clearer. if we look at Myers’s type descriptions. Introspectors (NTs and NFs) tend to be more content when these concrete concerns are handled by someone else and they are left free to consider the more abstract world of ideas. others. strangers in a strange land who wonder about the curious antics of the earthlings. and touching objects in our immediate presence. clothing. They focus on what is happening. In turn. either in the here and now. The point not to be missed is that we cannot do these things simulta­ neously. all of us do both observation and introspection. but it is a rare individual who does an equal amount of each. transportation—and to practical matters such as recreation and safety. those of us who heed the external much of the time come to see and hear objects in more detail and with greater specificity. from infancy on. Likewise. people are either more observant than introspective. listening to. our inner promptings more vivid and complex. rather than anticipating what might be. or wondering about things not in our presence. and certainly it is a matter of conjecture. and remember facts. or as recorded in the past. we cannot at the same time observe what’s going on within us. shelter. daydreaming. It is said that “they don’t miss much. that Observer types are without an inner life—far from it—but simply that their introspection takes a back seat to their observation. Some of us. maybe 85%>. the consequences of it are not. These persons see what is in front of them and are usually accurate in catching details. that is. and are likely to leave the more abstract issues to others.

For their part.334 Chapter 1 Notes or a stage of development toward some future ideal. both kinds of people are capable and even creative in their own way—it’s just that they attend to very different sides of life. The Toughminded are often accused of being “inhuman. some people are more “toughminded” and others more “tender-minded. Introspectors can appear to Observers as flighty. Both views are exaggerations. Introspectors practice introspection much of their time. and each will usually show a strong preference for one over the other. But more than disinterest. we see that her distinction is between those who can be called “tough-minded” and those who can be called “friendly. which means that much of what they do is based on emotion or desire. and the significance of life is found more easily in their own world. Not only can they miss details. while what is central to the other’s world seems relatively foreign. but not for long and with little pleasure. impractical. and for instance drive right past their highway turn-off. while Observers do occasionally look inward to ponder. and they may end up with relatively undeveloped introspective abilities. and unrealistic—the dreamer or absentminded professor who can’t be bothered with the nitty-gritty of living. but the penalty they pay for this is that they can end up with relatively undeveloped observational abilities. concerned only with trivial pursuits. Introspectors can be discontent with reality. to register their relative disinterest in the merely concrete. and speculate about possible ways of improving it.” “heartless. On the other hand. Observers can seem to Introspectors as unimaginative. the immediacy. with the other side getting short-changed.” But if we note the words Myers used in her type portraits. If we use a distinction made by the great pragmatist William James. but neither type can be in both worlds at once. Those who attend mainly to their thoughts are said to govern themselves with their head. Introspectors have no choice but to turn outward at times and concern themselves with the business of everyday living. and with pleasure. and make inferences. uninteresting.” There is some criticism exchanged between these types. and unimportant. but the penalty they pay for ignoring the promptings from within is that these promptings can gradually fade away. They may now and then introspect. those who pay more attention to their feelings are said to follow their heart. and exasperatingly slow to consider implications and possibilities.” . For both types.” “stony-hearted. Indeed. Thus Observers can manage the material world with skill. they can also lose track of where they are. Such excursions can even be stimulating and satisfying. even bothered by it. The two ways are not mutually exclusive. Because of their tenuous grasp of reality. their concepts and percepts being their guides to action. and dream. the vitality. “It’s only reality” they sometimes say. 3 Thinking or Feeling Everybody has thoughts (T) and feelings (F) but some pay more attention to their thoughts than to their feelings while others pay more attention to their feelings than to their thoughts. In contrast.

” and of living “without the milk of human kindness. the Friendly are chided for being “too soft-hearted. while the son might wish his father could “lighten up” and be more understanding of what he really is and can do.” while he might wish she “would be logical for once. outlines. lists. Each orientation has problems. for example. they are often described as “cold” and “indifferent. Schedulers are judicious about schedules. with the Tough-minded partner providing a source of clarity and toughness. the difference being a matter of display. In other words. syllabi. and will hide their feelings rather than be seen as losing self-control. 4 Judgment or Perception Myers claimed that she confined her usage of the word ‘judgment’ (J) to mean “coming to a conclusion. By keeping their options open Probers are reluctant to commit themselves to schedules and so are inclined to .” but again and'again she used ‘judgment’ to describe people who make and keep schedules in their daily lives. When they can get past the stereotypes. for opportunities and alternatives that might be available to them. An ENFP wife. calendars. the truth is that both react emotionally with similar frequency and intensity. Myers also used the word ‘perception’ (P) to describe people who prefer to probe for options and thus not be tied to a schedule. these two orientations usually find they can complement each other quite well. Another polarizing (and inaccurate) stereotype is that the Friendly types have more and deeper emotions than the Tough-minded types—one side is seen as sensitive and warm-hearted. so others see them as capable of deep feelings. The Friendly tend to make their emotions and wishes quite visible and audible.” In the same way. their own emotions even aroused by the display. Probers per­ ceptive of options.” “fuzzythinkers.” Or an ESTJ father might want his ISFP son to straighten up and “use his head” for a change. By committing themselves to a set agenda. whether in business or in marriage.” when in fact they are feeling something quite strongly—only working hard to contain themselves. are embarrassed by an exhibition of intense feeling. and the other seen as insensitive and cold-hearted. timetables.” “muddleheaded. Schedulers make agendas. Schedulers tend to stop looking for alternatives and options and so may never know what they’re missing. others cannot help being affected. programs. Because of this. and the Friendly partner providing a source of compassion and personal consideration.” “bleeding-hearts. might want her INTP husband to open up emotionally and “let his feelings show. when they show their feelings. To be sure. particularly in mar­ riages and other family relationships. in contrast. Here again.” “too emotional.Chapter 1 Notes 335 “remote. however. Probers keep their eyes open for chances to do things they want to do. and so on. registers.” Such accusations can be vehement and damaging.” of having “ice in their veins. The Tough-minded. when two people of different orienta­ tion are in conflict over an important decision.” and for “wearing their heart on their sleeve. for themselves and others to follow.

who seem more playful about their work. expecting others to do the same. tend to believe that one’s work comes before all else.” Usually.” as “uptight. the latter where opposites must work together to accomplish a task. Also. whether observant or introspective. then they may balk at doing it. or wander off and leave it to someone else. bed made. and can be heard to describe them as “indecisive” and “foot-dragging. Some can actually come to see that the . if the given task is not directly instrumental (is mere preparation. and will describe them as “in too big a hurry” and “too rule-bound.” On the other hand.” “rigid and inflexible. And they are willing to do all sorts of preparation. in contrast. the difference between Schedulers and Probers can be a source of irritation in personal relationships. Probers. and are somewhat oblivious to the details of housekeeping. Schedulers can become impatient with Probers for what seems their passiveness and playfulness. Not so with Probers.336 Chapter 1 Notes miss deadlines and leave tasks unfinished. Many become fascinated and entertained by their differences. and then dropped when they have finished with them. used. and with further understanding find it easy to make allowances for the other’s way. They like their desk at work to be tidy. but they are unhappy when their personal space is a mess. or clean up). Schedulers. and so on.” as “driven” and “wearing blinders. house. and their house picked up— dishes done. and straightening things up is often near the top of their list. maintenance. car— are often cluttered with a variety of objects they have picked up. This strict work ethic has a marked effect on what they will to do to get the job done. car washed. Indeed. Unfortunately. Probers are much more insistent that the work be enjoyable and to the purpose. and cleaning up afterwards—just because these are necessary to see the job through to its conclusion. and they tend to look upon deadlines as mere alarm clocks which buzz at a given time.” and even as “neat-freaks. Schedulers tend to be neat and orderly.” as “aim less” and “lazy.” and a “roadblock.” “quibbling. And so their personal spaces— office.” as “uncooperative.” as “arbitrary. garage. Probers can become impatient with Schedulers because of their pressure and urgency. The job doesn’t have to be finished before play or rest begins. These two styles— Oscar and Felix in The Odd Couple —can get on each other’s nerves. easily turned off or ignored while they catch an extra forty winks.” “stre'ssed-out. and must be finished before one rests or plays.” as “sloppy” and even “slovenly. This difference extends to the physical environment as well. maintenance. almost as if the deadline were used more as a signal to start than to complete a project. such irritation and name-calling will subside when the two study each other’s behavior. have a much greater tolerance for disorder in their physical environment. both in the home and the workplace. Not that they always manage all of these chores.” and “slave-driving. They seem absorbed in whatever they’re doing or thinking about at the moment. They tend to establish deadlines and to take them seriously.

It is in The Republic that Plato defined Utopia. See Siegel’s Galen on Psychology. A pupil of Plato. in which different types of character serve different social functions: artisans. and Function. Studies in philosophy through the centuries are regarded by many philosophers as mere “footnotes on Plato.D. which is to say that it’s unique even though it may be difficult to distinguish it from things that seem identical to it. metaphysics. A follower of Socrates. tutor of Alexander the Great. Many see him as the originator of the view that ideas are eternal and the essence of reality. the rule of Identity is that anything that is identifiable in a given context has an identity in that context.C. guardians.).). idealists. Agrippa. Selsus. or the perfect society.C. Psychopathology. Galen.) To sum up. His theories formed the basis of European medicine until the Renaissance. Paracelsus. and rationals. and author of works on logic. and aren’t one thing . 3 Aristotle Greek philosopher (384-322 B. Maxwell. Mesmer. natural sciences. And the rule of Contradiction says such a thing cannot be both one thing and another.C. hence more real than people and things.) also known as Galenus. and logic is based on the syllogism. Plato presented his ideas in the form of dramatic dialogues. things identified in a given context are unique. and Contradiction. Excluded Middle. Aristotle said logic consists in three rules: Identity. the essential method of rational inquiry. politics. The rule of Excluded Middle says that a thing identified in a given context is either one thing or another. Chapter 2 Notes 1 Galen A Roman physician and writer (130-200 A.” so highly prized are his works. Simply put. as in The Republic. where he taught—Aristotle was one of his students—and wrote for much of the rest of his life. Erickson. are either one thing or another. 2 Plato Greek philosopher (427-347 B. He extolled and expanded the writings of Hippocrates and was second in a line of methods-hungry Faustian healers—Hippocrates.Chapter 2 Notes 337 two styles are complementary in turning in a job well done: Probers to spot opportunities and lay out alternatives. and Schedulers to be timely and press for closure. the rule being that a thing identified in a given context cannot be part of itself. (Bertrand Russell’s rule of logical types was added to Aristotle’s rules in the 20th century. ethics. He profoundly influenced Western thought with his philosophical system in which theory follows empirical observation.). Plato founded the Academy (386 B. and poetics. Bemheim.

) imagined mankind as embodied in the shape of “four living creatures. Likewise in the New Testament..C. shoulders a bow (like Apollo.And every one had four faces” sym­ bolizing four types of character: “the face of an ox..the face of an eagle. The Gospel according to Matthew. and represents the threat of foreign conquest. holds a grain scale.. the Gospel according to Luke is a scholarly explication of the Jesus story. Saint John (writing around 96 A. even mystical Idealist. The third (the Phlegmatic?) rides a pale or gray horse and wields the power to turn nature against man in the form of pestilence and plague. says Russell)..” one the face of “a man. full of symbolism and metaphor. for example. The notion that mankind has four faces is thus clearly in evidence in the Bible.” one the face of “a calf... And what did the four beasts bid St. For instance. and brings the scourge of war. miracles and mysterious mean­ ings.D. and perhaps this helps to explain why the New Testament has four Gospels. and was also thought to be a trained physician). Most books on logic spell out the implications of these rules of how to talk sense and avoid talking nonsense. loosely organized. John witness? Not only “four angels standing on the four corners of the earth. is an eye-witness version of Jesus’s story. The second (the Melancholic?) rides a black horse. written to inspire faith in Jesus as the supernatural Son of God—and unmistakably penned by a soulful. the Archer god). The Gospel according to Mark. the Lion was Mark’s symbol in Medieval art). 4 Editor’s Note on Biblical References: There are tantalizing hints of the four temperaments in the JudeoChristian tradition just as in the Graeco-Roman. and the face of a lion” [Ezekiel 6:10]. The first (the Sanguine?) rides a red horse. In turn. and brings the bane of scarcity and famine. written in a technical and classical style. but also the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse [6:1-8]. is a historical or traditional account of Jesus. on the other hand.. with a broad Graeco-Roman education. as if thrown together by a man of impulsive Artisan character (also. written in four different styles by four very different person­ alities. The question of why the early Church included four separate Gospels in the New Testament has been debated by Biblical scholars for nearly two .” and one the face of ”a flying eagle” [Revelation 4:7]. holding the four winds of the earth” [7:1]. Lastly. and is likely the work of a Guardian (Matthew was a customs house official and tax collector. And the fourth (the Choleric?) rides a white horse. Ezekiel (writing in the Old Testament around 590 B. a student of Hebrew Law and the scribal tradition).338 Chapter 2 Notes and another (nor part of themselves.) beheld mankind in the form of four beasts arrayed around the throne of heaven: one beast had the face of “a lion.the face of a man. full of vivid details and physical action. carries a great sword. the Gospel according to John is a wholly spiritual interpretation of the story. probably the work of a Rational (Luke was the most learned of the Gospel writers. four symbolic figures representing four terrible sufferings to be visited on Christians.

5 Paracelsus The book Nymphs. the word ‘Lucifer’ means “bearer of light”. as did Prometheus.” Like Spranger he had the four types paired. written around 1540. The distinction between “autonomy” and “heteronomy” . just as Lucifer. His name was Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim. Erickson. he was released by his powerful brother Atlas (another Titan). Mesmer.” the Guardians “traditional. give his right eye for know-how. iii. and made to suffer having his liver eaten daily by giant vultures. chained to a rock. chief of Valhalla. He called the Artisans “innovative. by Gnomes. while Agnostics (Rationals) and Dogmatics (Idealists) are both “autonomous” types. Paracelsus. based his explanation (in 185 A. was one of a line of methods-hungry Faustian healers obsessed with developing the technology of physical and mental therapy—Hippocrates. The story of Faust tells of the Faustian healers’ eternal hunger for the pragmatics of healing.II. thus the one who gave mankind the means of survival. He conceived of four kinds of temperament: those inspirited by Salamanders.. Galen. the one who enlightens. a treatise on the Graeco-Roman theory of the four temperaments (not that he was aware of either Plato’s or Aristotle’s contribution).D. Sylphs. Thus for Adickes the Innovatives (Artisans) and Traditionals (Guardians) are both “heteronomous” types. concerned mainly with how they are seen by others.Chapter 2 Notes 339 thousand years.” the latter a Roman physician famous for his curative powers. displayed Paracelsus’s view that healing is both enabled and constrained by the mental health of people who are ill in some manner.. 6 Eric Adickes A German scientist who in 1905 wrote Charakter und Weltanschauung. i.) on what appears to be the common assumption of early Christian theology: that since “Living Creatures are quadriform. but Irenaeus.” and the Rationals “agnostic. Celsus. Bishop of Lyon. Maxwell. and Salamanders. but on a different basis than Spranger—Spranger distinguishing between “political” and “social” types.the Gospel also is quadriform” \Adversus Haereses. mainly concerned with how they see themselves.e. Fortunately. so too did Odin (Wotan). Note tooN that both Lucifer and Prometheus payed dearly for their gift to mankind: Lucifer was thrown out of heaven to rule on Earth and Prometheus was thrown off Mt. so that he could go on forever enlightening his creature. by Nymphs. or by Sylphs. Agrippa..8]. like Galen.” meaning by this “better than Celsus. Incidentally. Adickes between “autonomous” and “heteronomous” types.” the Idealists “dogmatic. Bernheim. we can never know for certain. continues to enlighten mankind such that it is understood that there are natural consequences for messing up. Gnomes. Why didn’t the Church fathers integrate the various accounts of Jesus into one narrative? Of course. ruling Earth as he is said to do. Just as Faust sold his soul to Mephistopheles (Lucifer) for know­ how. but this Viennese physician called himself “Paracelsus. Olympus. Paracelsus.

Wertheimer. and others. Ernest Becker. along with Abraham Maslow. Carl Rogers. and like the organismic psychologists he was a strong advocate of organismic field theory in the behavioral sciences. Both of these views are similar to the distinction between introspective types (Rationals and Idealists) and observant types (Artisans and Guardians). Fromm. 10 Function Types vs Intelligence Types What follows shows the great contrast of Jung’s and Myers’s four . Varieties of Delinquent Youth. 8 Ernst Kretschmer A German physician prominent in psychology after World War I who achieved fame for his work on the relation between body build and personality. 8-19). and Atlas of Men). Few psychologists in America paid much attention to either foetschmer or Sheldon thereby missing their carefully crafted descriptions and definitions of temperament-determined behavior. He wrote Man for Himself and Escape from Freedom. Spranger was a precursor of the organismic wholism school of psychology as presented later by Biihler. pp. Therein he distinguished between “outer-centered” and “inner-centered” types. and his Religious (Idealists) with his Economicals (Guardians) on the grounds that they were both “social” types concerned mainly with moral sanction. in the wake of World War II. 9 Eric Fromm A Viennese physician who came to America in the late 1930s to escape the Nazi takeover of Austria. Spranger paired his Theoretics (Rationals) with his Aesthetics (Artisans) on the grounds that both were “political” types concerned mainly with functional utility. an American physician.S. two seminal works on personality that influenced many psychologists during its vigorous expansion in the U. Two of his more influential books were Physique and Character and The Psychology o f Men of Genius. Katz. achieved fame by expanding Kretschmer’s work in long and careful studies of temperament and behavior (see The Varieties o f Temperament. Koehler. Hartmann. Lewin. Koffka. 7 Eduard Spranger German psychologist who wrote Lebensformen (1914) which was translated into English in 1920 as Types of Men.340 Chapter 2 Notes correlates rather well with a similar distinction made by David Riesman in his Individualism Reconsidered and The Lonely Crowd. softening the harsh view of Man given by Behaviorism and Psychoanalysis. the former by radar. The distinction between social and political types correlates nicely with Gregory Bateson’s distinction between “symmetrical” and “complementary” ways of defining roles that are to be played in a relationship (see especially Jay Haley’s Strategies in Psychotherapy. William Sheldon. headed the movement called The Third Force in psychology. his metaphor for the latter doing social navigation by gyro. and Wheeler.

and thus nearly identical in attitude and action. including ESTJ Administrators. The second major difference lies in the two typologies’ view of the ISFP and the INFP. After all. are concrete in communicating messages and cooperative in using tools. Myers and Jung see them as nearly identical. however. while all SJ Guardians. In considering the contrasts please bear in mind that Jung and Myers were trying to figure out what the different types have in mind. while I am trying to figure out what they can do well under varying circumstances. see them as light years apart. hence diametrically opposite to the ISFP Entertainer. Myers and Jung put them in the same category—the “Introverted Feeling” type—very much alike and very little different. Jung and Myers call both ESTJs and ENTJs “Extraverted Thinking” types. while I consider them just as far apart as the ENTJ and ESTJ. All NT Rationals.Chapter 2 Notes 341 function types and their variants with my four intelligence types and their skilled action roles. with a few . are abstract in communicating messages and utilitarian in using tools to im­ plement their goals. both “Introverted Thinking” types. a concrete utilitarian SP Artisan. including ENTJ Coordinators. abstract in thought and speech and cooperative in implementing goals. I. Function Types Thinking Types ESTJ—ENTJ [Extraverted Thinking] ISTP—INTP [Introverted Thinking] Intelligence Types NT Rationals ENTJ—INTJ [Coordinator] ENTP—INTP [Engineer] Intuitive Types ENTP—ENFP [Extraverted Intuiting] INFJ—INTJ [Introverted Intuiting] NF Idealists ENFJ—INFJ ENFP—INFP [Mentor] [Advocate] Feeling Types ESFJ—ENFJ [Extraverted Feeling] ISFP—INFP [Introverted Feeling] SP Artisans ESTP—ISTP ESFP—ISFP [Operator] [Entertainer] Sensory Types ESTP—ESFP [Extraverted Sensing] ISFJ—ISTJ [Introverted Sensing] SJ Guardians ESTJ—ISTJ ESFJ—ISFJ [Administrator] [Conservator] The first great difference between the two schemes lies in the way function typology and intelligence typology see the ESTJs and the ENTJs. The third great difference between the intelligence and function typol­ ogies is the way the two see the INTP and the ISTP. the INFP Advocate is an NF Idealist.

The two have in common a cooperative attitude about ways and means of pursuing goals. see them as far more different. Thus function theory has the INFJ quite similar to the INTJ. And function theory sees the ENFP as much like the ENTP.342 Chapter 2 Notes minor differences. but the ENFJ. the ENTP as an Engineer Rational. . While they are both utilitarian in choosing and using tools. a Conservator Guardian. but less important in comparison to the ones I have just discussed. while intel­ ligence typology sees a much greater difference. Admittedly ENFPs and ENTPs can be hard to tell apart. The other differences are great. the INTP is an Engineer Rational. is unmistakably abstract in thought and speech. very different in their behavior and corresponding attitudes. the INTJ a Coordinator Rational. The fourth great difference is in the two views of the ENFJ. the two miles apart in what they do and what they want. I. the two. while intelligence theory has the INFJ a Mentor Idealist. while intelligence theory sees the ENFP as an Advocate Idealist. is unmistakably concrete. but watch for any length of time and their differences show up one by one until it is abundantly clear that the resemblance is at best superficial. again. and the ESFJ. at least on short acquaintance. and the ISTP is an Operator Artisan. a Mentor Idealist. just as steadfastly concrete in thought and speech. however. steadfastly abstract in thought and speech. Function typology sees the ENFJ as very little different from the ESFJ.

Ruesch J 1951—Communication: The Social Matrix of Psychiatry Bateson G 1972—Steps to an Ecology of Mind Bateson G 1979—Mind and Nature Chess S. Character.Bibliographies 343 Bibliographies on Human Nature and Organismic Psychology Human Nature: Temperament. Keirsey D 1992—Presidential Temperament Christie 1970—Studies in Machiavellianism Cleckley H 1964—The Mask of Sanity Drucker P—The Effective Executive Fromm E 1947—Man for Himself Hartl E et al 1982—Physique and Delinquent Behavior Hippocrates 450BC—Human Nature Hunt J [ed] 1944—Personality and the Behavior Disorders Jackson H 1931—Selected Writings of John Hughlings Jackson Janet P 1903—Obsessions and Psychasthenia Janet P 1907—The Major Symptoms of Hysteria Jung C 1920—Psychological Types Kagan J 1994— Galen }s Prophecy: Temperament in Human Nature Keirsey D 1949—Personality in Essential Hypertension Keirsey D 1967—The Polarization of Intelligence Keirsey D. & Personality Adams P 1973—Obsessive Children Adickes E 1907—Charakter und Weltanschauung Alexander F 1948—Studies in Psychosomatic Medicine Allport G 1955—Becoming Ansbacher H 1956—The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler Ansbacher H 1958—The Social Psychology of Alfred Adler Angyal A 1965—Neurosis and Treatment Bateson G. Thomas A 1986— Temperament in Clinical Practice Choiniere R. Bates M 1978—Please Understand Me Keirsey D 1987—Portraits of Temperament Kelley G 1955—The Psychology of Personal Constructs Kipnis D 1971—Character Structure and Impulsiveness Kretschmer E 1920—Physique and Character Kretschmer E 1931—Psychology of Men of Genius Laing R 1960— The Divided Self Lecky P 1968—Self-consistency Lewin K 1935—A Dynamic Theory of Personality Maslow A 1954—Motivation and Personality MacGregor D— The Human Side of Enterprise Montgomery S 1989— The Pygmalion Project I: The Artisan Montgomery S 1990— The Pygmalion Project II: The Guardian .

Psychopathology. Scheerer M 1948—Abstract and Concrete Behavior Gurwitsch A 1964— The Field of Consciousness Haldane J 1919—The New Physiology Haley J 1963—Strategies of Psychotherapy .” J Consult Psych 28: 477-482 Organismic Psychology: Wholes.344 Bibliographies Montgomery S 1993— The Pygmalion Project III: The Idealist Montgomery S 2000— The Pygmalion Project IV: The Rational Myers I 1962— The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Myers I 1980— Gifts Differing Paracelsus 1540—Nymphs. and Function Snygg D. Sylphs. the Theory o f Inquiry Ellis W 1942—Readings in Gestalt Psychology Frazer J 1922—The Golden Bough Goldstein K 1939—The Organism Goldstein K 1947—Human Nature Goldstein K 1948—Language and Language Disorders Goldstein K. Gnomes. Polarities Bertalanffy L 1933—Modern Theories of Development Blanshard B 1939— The Nature of Thought Biihler K 1924— The Mental Development of Children Cannon W 1939— The Wisdom of the Body Cassirer E 1945—Language and Myth Cassirer E 1948—An Essay on Man Cassirer E 1950— The Problem of Knowledge Child C 1924— Physiological Foundations of Behavior Child C 1941—Patterns and Problems of Development Coghill G 1929—Anatomy and the Problem of Behavior Dewey J 1938— Logic. Fields. and Salamanders Ruesch J 1957—Disturbed Communication Roback A 1927— The Psychology of Character Roback A 1927—A Bibliography of Character and Personality Shapiro D 1965—Neurotic Styles Sheldon W 1942—Varieties of Temperament Sheldon W 1949— Varieties of Delinquent Youth Sheldon W 1954—Atlas of Men Siegal R 1973— Galen on Psychology. Combs A 1959—Individual Behavior Sternberg R [ed] 1982—Handbook of Human Intelligence Strauss E 1948— On Obsession Spranger E 1920—Types of Men Sullivan H 1956— Clinical Studies in Psychiatry Sullivan H 1972—Personal Psychopathology Vieth I 1965—Hysteria Zuckerman M 1964— “The Sensation Seeking Scale.

Perkins F 1933— The Principles of Mental Development Wheeler R 1934— The Laws of Human Nature Wheeler R 1935— “Organismic vs Mechanistic Logic.” Psych Review.Bibliographies Hayek F 1947— The Sensory Order Herrick C 1956— The Evolution of Human Nature James W 1907—Pragmatism Koffka K 1935—Principles of Gestalt Psychology Kohler W 1947—Gestalt Psychology Lewin K 1951—Field Theory in Social Science Merleau-Ponty M 1962— The Phenomenology of Perception Norris L 1956—Polarity Przywara P 1935—Polarity Sainsbury G 1927—The Theory of Polarity Strauss E 1963— The Primary World of the Senses Wiener N 1950—Cybernetics Werner H 1957—Comparative Psychology of Mental Development Wertheimer M 1954—Productive Thinking Wheeler R. 335 .

Circle the letter below the larger numbers of each pair (see sample answer sheet on page 11). Bring down the first number for each box beneath the second. Each of the 14 boxes should have a number in it. If the two numbers of any pair are equal.346 Extra Scoring Form. Do this for box No. • Third. then circle neither. transfer the number in box No. 1 below the answer grid. Then follow the directions on pages 11 and 12. Now add all the pairs of numbers and enter the total in the boxes below the answer grid. however. you now have four pairs of numbers. • Second. a b 1 8 15 22 29 36 43 50 57 64 1 a b 2 9 16 23 30 37 44 51 58 65 2 3 a b 3 10 17 24 31 38 45 52 59 66 4 3 a b 4 11 18 25 32 39 46 53 60 67 4 5 — 5 a b 6 13 20 27 34 41 48 55 62 69 6 7 a b 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 8 7 — ► a b 12 19 26 33 40 47 54 61 68 6 5 ► t L— ► r \t 2 I r ■1 E 1 31 s 1 N 4 5 6 T F 7| | J P Directions for Scoring • First. Do the same for the b answers you have checked. 2 as well. . The Keirsey Temperament Sorter II Enter a check mark for each answer in the column for a or b. but put a large X below them and circle it. add down so that the total number of a answers is written in the box at the bottom of each column. Note. that you have two numbers for boxes 3 through 8. as indicated by the arrows. 1 of the answer grid to box No. so each box has only one number.

but put a large X below them and circle it. . Note. as indicated by the arrows. add down so that the total num ber of a answ ers is written in the box at the bottom of each column. however. Each of the 14 boxes should have a number in it.Extra Scoring Form. Bring down the first number for each box beneath the second. Now add all the pairs of numbers and enter the total in the boxes below the answer grid. 2 as well. • Second. 1 below the answer grid. Do this for box No. Then follow the directions on pages 11 and 12. The Keirsey Temperament Sorter II Enter a check mark for each answer in the column for a or b. then circle neither. 347 a b 1 8 15 22 29 36 43 50 57 64 1 2 9 16 23 30 37 44 51 58 65 2 3 a b 3 10 17 24 31 38 45 52 59 66 4 3 a b 4 11 18 25 32 39 46 53 60 67 4 5 a b 5 12 19 26 33 40 47 54 61 68 6 5 a b 6 13 20 27 34 41 48 55 62 69 6 7 a b 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 8 7 a b — ► — ► r r I4 sl 1 l‘ ► t 7 1t >l I I2 3I E I s N T F J P Directions for Scoring • First. so each box has only one number. If the two numbers of any pair are equal. Do the same for the b answers you have checked. 1 of the answer grid to box No. that you have two numbers for boxes 3 through 8. transfer the number in box No. Circle the letter below the larger numbers of