CHAPTER 8

Infancy

Infancy  Are defined as 1 month to 1 year of age Motor Development -Is strongly related to physical, cognitive and
social development. General principle associated with motor development include:

 

Voluntary behaviors follows the disappearance of primitive reflexes. Pronation occurs before supination. The ability to grasp an object precedes the ability to release it.

Gross

Motor Development •Head control is judged by the presence or absence of head lag •It can be determined when the infant is pulled by the arms from a supine to a sitting position Fine Motor Development •Is the ability to coordinate hand-eye movement in an orderly and progressive manner

PRINCIPLES OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
 Dev’t

is orderly and sequential  Dev’t is directional  Dev’t is unique for each child  Dev’t is interrelated  Dev’t becomes increasingly differentiated  Dev’t becomes increasingly integrated and complex  Children are competent  New skills predominate

Developmental Milestones in Infancy
 Infants

develop motor skills in a highly predictable sequence, but they differ in the age at which they achieve these skills. The bars in this chart show the age span at which most children reach a particular developmental milestone.

Some children will attain these milestones earlier or later than the ranges shown.

LEARNING TO WALK
A child takes her first steps. Most children learn to walk by 15 months of age, although some normal children do not begin to walk until 18 months. Mastery of walking soon leads to running and jumping.

If not given: Psychosexual development Oral stage (Birth to 1 year)
Oral

stimulation Or sucking is the central focus in this stage. Do not discourage thumb sucking give pacifier
Feeding,

Thumb

suckers, nail biters or pencil chewers and compulsive eaters or smokers in later life
The

Psychosocial development Trust vs. mistrust

clothing and comforting Promptly meet infants needs

infant will develop a sense of mistrust Delayed trust development