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of
Elementary
Mathematics
Notes, Recreations,
Essays
By
William
State Normal
F. White,
School,
New
Ph. D.
New York
Paltz,
Chicago
The
Open
Kegan
Court
London
Publishing Company
Agents
Trubner "
Paul, Trench,
Co., Ltd.
1908
Copyright
by
The
Open
Court
Publishing
Co.
1908.
" c
.
""
""
e
*
CONTENTS.
PAGE
Preface The
two
7
systems
of numeration
of
large numbers
9
11
Repeating
products
at
Multiplication
A A
sight:
a
new
trick
with
an
old
principle..
15 17
repeating
few
table curiosities
'.
numerical
19
Nine Familiar General
Test Test
25
tricks
test
based
on
literal
arithmetic
27 30
31
of
divisibility
of of
divisibilityby 7 divisibilityby 7, II, and
notes
on
13
32 34 34 35 35
Miscellaneous
The
number
theory
of
numbers theorem
Fermat's
Wilson's
last
theorem for
Formulas
A Are
prime
numbers for
one
36
numbers of
Chinese
there
criterion
more
prime
set
36
factors of
a ber? num
than
prime
2"7
Asymptotic
Growth
Some Tables Some of
laws
the of
37
concept
of
number
2"7 27
39
results
permutation
problems
long
may
a
numbers
40
How
Numbers Decimals Some
particular number
measurement
arise
?
41
arising from
as
43 of. accuracy of
measure..
indexes
of
degree
44
applications
interest Indians hadn't
45 47
Compound
If the
spent
the
3
$24
47
424KK4
4
A"Stft\^"OOtK,OT
separatrixes
trends
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
PAGE
Decimal Present
49
in arithmetic and division of decimals
51 59 66 aids
to
Multiplication
Arithmetic
in the
rods in and
Renaissance
other mechanical calculation.
. .
Napier's
Axioms
Do the
69
J2"
elementary algebra
apply
solution
to
axioms
the
equations ?
an
76
81
Checking Algebraic
Two
of
equation
fallacies
common
83
factors numbers of of
highest
and
89
90
Positive Visual
negative
representation
of the
complex signs
in
numbers
92
Illustration
A
law
algebraic multiplication.
97 97
geometric
a
illustration
From A
more
definition of multiplication
98
general
as
form
a
of the
law
of
signs
99
100
Multiplication
Gradual
proportion
of
generalization
multiplication
100 101 102
Exponents
An
exponential equation negative
three conclusions reached in the
Two
The
19th century.
.
.
.
103
parallel postulates illustrated puzzles rings plane into regular polygons leveling
device
105
109
Geometric
Paradromic
117 118
120
121
Division
A
of
homemade
"Rope
The The The The
stretchers."
three circle
famous
problems
of
antiquity
122
squarer's paradox
that
are
126
130
instruments
postulated
triangle
and
and
its circles
133
"Linkages
The
straightline motion
theorem of forces
136
140 142
fourcolors
Parallelogram
A
question
of
fourth
dimension
by analogy
143
CONTENTS.
PAGE
5
Symmetry Apparatus
illustrated
to
by
paper
folding
values of
144
illustrate
line
trigonometric
tions func
146
Sine Growth Some Law of the
148 philosophy
of of the calculus
149
illustrations of commutation of U.
limits.
152 154 of of
Equations
The
S. standards
treatment
length
and
mass
155
mathematical
statistics
156
162
Mathematical
symbols
of mathematics facts
on
Beginnings
A
the
Nile
164
165
166 168 yrinths signatures, labI/O
few
surprising
on
in the
history of mathematics
Quotations Autographs Bridges
and
mathematics mathematicians
of
isles,figure tracing, unicursal
The
number
squares
of the
beast
180
Magic
Domino
183
squares
magic hexagons
of
187 187
Magic
The
A
square
Gotham
189
191 193 194
mathematical of
more
gamepuzzle
camels oldtimers
Puzzle A A few few
the
catch
questions
game
196
197
Sevencounters To determine
direction advice
age
to
by
a
a
watch committee
199
201
Mathematical The The
building
golden
movement
of
to
mathematics make mathematics
203
teaching
more
crete con
205 The mathematical recitation
as an
exercise
in
public speaking
210
The Alice
nature
of
mathematical of
reasoning
mathematics
212
in the
wonderland
218
6
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
PAGE
Bibliographic
Mathematical Publication
notes
234
recreations of
234
foregoing
sections
in
periodicals
235
Bibliographic
General index
Index
236
241
PREFACE.
Mathematics
is the of
language
those who
of
definiteness,
Hence and and
the the
cessary ne
vocabulary
connection The of
know.
timate in
between
to
mathematics the
science. tions illustramercial com
tendency
mathematics and
select
problems
from of the
mostly
activities accord. have this of
scientific,
is
one
industrial writer pages is in
today,
seem
with in the the over, Morematics. mathe
which
the
It may
too
a
that taken
following place
of
puzzles
But is
one
largely
textbook. of
problems.
is not the fields
amusement
applied
The
author M.
desires
to
express
obligation Colgate
four for years
to
Prof.
James (whose
Taylor,
the
LL.
D.,
was
of for
University
and ward after
pupil
his
author for
two
assistant in
years)
early inspiration
to
and
guidance
who
mathematical favored the
study;
author
many
maticians mathewords of
tions sec
have
or
with
some
encouragement
of form have
most ; and
suggestion
have authors in been and
while
of in of
the
the
to
book the
appearing publishers
periodical
books that in the
been
cases,
used
preparation.
reference
Footnotes
to
give, identify
see
only
For
sufficient full thanks
book
cited.
bibliographic
are
data
to
pages
236240.
M.S.,
of
were
Special
the
due
E. the His
B.
Escott,
of
mathematics who read value the
department manuscript. theory
of
University
comments
Michigan,
of
especial
in' the
7
of
numbers.
Ex
8
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
tracts
from
his
notes
on
that
subject generously
Where be is made Escott. less found
(many
of
them the
hitherto
unpublished)
of the
were
placed
used,
at
at
disposal
of the
present
will
writer.
mention the
name
generally
place.
kindness
Grateful and The the
acknowledgement
critical
acumen
of
the
of in
Mr.
arrangement
for favor of occasional notification
more
or
distinct The author that
sections asks be
accounts
repetitions.
of
any
errors
the found. The
may
aim and
has
been
to
present
some
of the
the
most
esting interTo this has that
suggestive
others have
phases yielded,
been be
of
subject.
that It
accuracy
aim,
never
all
except
intentionally
little book and may
sacrificed. found
is all
hoped
the
this
to
possess its title The
unity,
completeness
originality
that
claims. Author.
New
Paltz,
N.
Y.,
August,
1907.
THE
TWO
SYSTEMS LARGE
OF
NUMERATION
OF
NUMBERS.
What In Great of groups
=
does
a
billion and the
mean?
Britain
usually
numeration
in
the of
northern numbers
tries coun
Europe
of six
is
by
1018 and
figures
while
(106
in
=
million,
1012
=
billion,
trillion, etc.)
America 10"
=
south of
=
European
three
countries
in
it is
by
groups 1012
figures etc.).
:
( 106
Our
=
lion, mil
billion,
from
a
trillion,
usage
names
are
derived of
; etc.
the
;
English
billion, the
power of
second
a
power
million
trillion, the
third
lion mil
As
the which
difference
are
appears best of written
only
and
in read
such
large by
"
bers, num
exponents,
indeed the in
;
one
it
is
not
a
matter
practical
is
importance
noticed
"
difference
case
in billion.
a
usage
rarely
word when
except
heard
the it half of
of
This
is
often
and
means
thousand and
a
million
spoken
in the
by
of the
the other
world,
half. "A
a
million
million
mouths
Billion.
mind dollar
a. as
billion
does number has
a
not
strike in this
the
average of
at
very yet
great
a
day
that had
billion 10 :40
trusts,
scientist
computed
minutes wonders but verified.
m.,
April
the
29, 1902,
birth of data of his
only
Christ." for such
billion One accuracy,
elapsed
where he
since obtained
correctness
the
the
general
"Billion"
result
is
easily
IO
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
is
here
used
in
the
French
and
American
sense
sand (thou
million).
An
English
created in been till
professor
4004 able B. C.
has
computed
that
if
Adam and uously continthree
was
(Ussher's
work 24 hours the
chronology),
a
if
he
had
to
day
of half the
now
at
counting
have but
at
rate
a
second,
he the
would task of
little
more
than in
pleted com
counting
a
billion
English
sense
(million
million).
REPEATING
PRODUCTS.
If
142857
be
multiplied
in the around
same
by
successive
numbers,
order in the
at
;
the 1
figures
that
repeat
cyclic
the but circle
is, they
in the
read
same
7
4 2 8
margin
a
order,
each
beginning
5
different
figure
time. 285714
" =
2x142857=
3x 4x
428571 571428 714285 857142 999999
"
=
5x 6x 7x
8x
" =
"
=
" =
"
=1142856.
(When
in occupy the
our
we
attempt
to
put
this the
seven
place
and last
we
ber num
sixplace
same
circle,
Add
first
figures
have
the
place.
them,
and
still
circular
order
142857.)
1285713
"
=
9x142857= 10
11 23
x
"
(285714) (428571)
1428570 1571427 3285711 12714273.
six

x
"
=
(57142,$)
(285714)
x
"
=
89
x
=
(Again adding
placing figures
the 12 and
in that
the
would
place
circular
the
same
order
and
or
occupy
place,
taking
adding
=
it
to
the
73,
we
have
714285.)
the 50
to
356x142857
the
50857092
(adding
092,
857142).
12
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
The
to
one
exception given
order number:
above the
(7x142857=999999)
clew
to
the this
circular
furnishes
the
identity
of
of the
"peculiar"
142857
is the
repetend
fraction
1/1 expressed
to
decimally. just
Similar
erties propthe
belong
number of of is
any
"perfect repetend"
is
one
(repetend
the the
whose
figures
common
less than
to
nominato de
the
fraction
which
late circu
equal).
=
.
Thus
"/"
=
.0588235294117647; (same
;
2x
;
0588.
.
1176470588235294

circular
order)
x
7
x
0588
...
41 17647058823529
while the
17
0588
. . .
=9999999999999999.
which
So
also
with
repetend
of
V20,
is 0344827586206896551724137931.
to
a see
It is easy
why,
the
in
reducing \/p (p being
figures
must
a
prime)
in in the than
to
decimal,
than of
begin
at
to
peat re
less process
p
decimal
places ;
the therefore
for
every be

step
less ferent difthat
division There that
can
remainder
must
the
divisor.
are
only p
1
numbers the process
be
remainder.
After
repeats.
7
.14285 W.lf .14" .142?.1428^
"
=*
=
=
7
7
7
7
7
7
=
.142857^
=
...
Hence
the
if
we
multiply 142857
after
by 3, 2, 6, 4, 5,
the
we
get
repetend beginning
1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th
figures respectively.
"If
a
repetend
p

contains
t"
"
"
1
"
digits,all
two
the
multiples
each
con
up
to
1
y
will
"
give
one
of
numbers
1
i"
\
sistingof
digits. Example:
"
==
.076923
REPEATING
PRODUCTS.
13 153846
1x76923=
76923
2x76923
=
"In into
the
repetend
sum
for
1/7, if
is
we
divide
of
the
number
+
halves, their
=
composed
is true
9's, viz., 142
of the
857
for
999.
A
similar
This
property
is true
repetend
the
we
1/17 etc. repetends
property
from
also
of
two
numbers the
obtained
1/13. However,
when
find
con
of fractions
\/p
where
the
repetend
form
tains
but only^" digits,
the but halves the
two
which
numbers
is of the which
An
+
3,
it is not
of the
are
mentary, compleExample:
numbers
themselves.
^
SO
"
=
.032258064516129
^=
.096774193548387
=
.967741935483870
Sum
=
.999999999999999" useful
(Escott)
be made of this
"A of
applicationmay
a
property
decimal.
as
repeating, in reducing
a
fraction been
\/p
to
a
After
more
number be
of found
figures have
It
found,
many
may
by multiplying those already found
is, of
a
by
the
remainder.
on
course,
advantageous
small In
to
mainder re
carry
the
has
work
been
until
found.
we
a
comparatively
obtained 5.
same
Example:
have
reducing 1/97
the
to
a
decimal,
we on
after
digits
of
.01030927835
this
get
remainder the
Therefore, from
as
point
the
digits are
those
1/97
multiplied by 5.
Multiplying by
5
(or dividing by 2)
14
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
we
get
11 of
more
digits reciprocals
as
at
once.
The
lengths
have been
of
the
periods
at
the least
of
primes
100,000."
mined deter
far
as
/"
=
(Escott.)
MULTIPLICATION
TRICK WITH AN
AT OLD
SIGHT: PRINCIPLE.
A
NEW
This
property
numbers,
that the
seem
of
repeating
one
the
to
figures,
possessed
rations opestands under:
by
these
enables marvelous For
perform
the
one
certain
till
observer says below three
process.
example,
you
may
"I
it
will
any
write
the
multiplicand,
you
write
two
or
multiplier
and I will
choose
of
"
say down
"
figures, product,
the tiplicand mulwrite number
immediately
left
to
set
the He
complete
for
writing
from
right."
writes observers of 493 the
x
142857.
493
as as
Suppose
He he
the thinks
then the first Now
the
=
multiplier. 703/7
;
so
493/7
the
writes from of
as
70
left 3
x
as
figures
of
product
3
x
(writing
is
to
right).
3/7
and it
(i. e.,
1/7)
to
thought
the
repetend,
to
is necessary the determined
determine in the
first circular
where order. since the
next
one
begin
This
in may
ing writbe units is in the
figures by
the the
thinking multiplicand)
first
that,
=
3x7
last
(the figure
1
figure
therefore circular
of
21,
the
1;
the 4
figure
4. So From
is
after may in
order,
3
namely by
4285.
be
(Or
he the
obtain the
by
dividing
the
7.).
writes 71
product
the
(after
first
70)
remaining,
the
70
written of
must
subtracted
(compare above).
This stands themselves
correct
nation explathe
89x142857
given
01, and
have the
leaves
last When
two
figures
the
product
satisfied is the
70428501.
spectators
by
tual ac
multiplication
that
this
15
product,
let
l6
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
us
suppose
that
as a
they
test
the
"lightning
117
calculator"
Write is 8.
with 6
x
825 7
=
multiplier. figure
825/7=
2 in
6/7.
117.
Write Write
42. From
Next the
after 142
repetend
the
857.
remaining
subtract
117.
025.
Note in the that last six after the
figures
have
obtained
by
division there number
(117
remain first
example)
to
been and from order
written,
that the the
just
written found
figures
is to be the the may
write,
subtracted
sixplace
subtracted
a
number from
from in
circular
last
(117
After
857142
example).
written in
little
practice,
tion. hesita
products
be
this
way
without
If
even
the
multiplier
Take
as
is
a
multiple
for Write
of
7,
the
process
is
=
simpler.
of six
378
multiplier.
53. 7
x
378/7
the from
54.
Think
it
53
7/7.
repetend
999999,
gives
write,
This
to
nines. the
may
Mentally 53, 999946.
be varied
subtracting
53
after trick
in
many
ways, will
so
as
not
repeat.
E.
(Few
g., the
such
performances
may
say,
bear will
tition.) repe
operator
may
"I
give
divide
"
multiplicand,
your
soon
you
write
I
the
multiplier,
the
product
as
by
have
13, and
written
will
the
write
quotient
He
as
you
as
multiplier."
which rule be is above.
then
writes and the is
multiplicand
1857141,
the
13x142857
written
instantly by
the
Now,
as
as
13
cancels,
was
quotient
in
may
written
the Of
product
course
written number
the
foregoing
have
illustrations. been used
another
could
instead
of
13.
A
REPEATING
TABLE.
Some
of the 9's
peculiarities depending
number. table. 9x 1= 2= The
on
the
sum
decimal
of the
tion nota
first
is the
digits
in
9 18; 1+8
2 3
+
=
9x
9x 9x
9 9
9
3=
4=
27;
36;
7
6
=
+
=
9x
9
x
9= 10
=
81:
90
;
8+1=9
9 9
+
0
=
9
1 8
=
9x11=
99;
+
9=18;
9
9x12=108;
1+0+8=9 1+1+7=9
9x13=117;
etc.
The
following
are
given
:
by Lucas*
in
a
note
entitled
Multiplications
curieuscs
1x9 12x9 123x9
+
2=11 3=111 4=1111
=
+
+
1234x9+5 12345x9 123456x9 1234567x9 12345678x9
*
11111
+
6=111111
+
7=1111111
8
=
+
11111111
+
9=111111111 IV,
Thcone des Norn
Recreations
8.
Mathcmatiqucs,
"
2323
;
brcs, I,
7
I
8
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
9 98 987
x
9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
+
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
=
88 888 8888 88888 888888 8888888 88888888
x
+
=
x
+
=
9876 98765 987654 9876543 98765432
x
+
=
x
+
=
x
+
=
x
+
=
x
+
=
888888888
1x8+1=9
12x8 123x8 1234x8
+
2 3 4
=
98
+
=
987 9876
+
=
12345x8 123456x8 1234567x8 12345678x8 123456789
x
+
5=98765
6 7 8 9
=
+
987654 9876543 98765432 987654321
+
=
+
=
8
+
=
12345679x8
=
98765432
12345679x9=111111111
to
which
may,
of
course,
be
added
12345679 12345679x27 12345679
etc.
x
18
=
222222222 333333333 \W\\\\\\
=
x
36
=
A
FEW
NUMERICAL
CURIOSITIES.*
112=121;
l + l +
1112
2 + 2 + l
=
=
12321;
11112
2 + 2 +
=
1234321;
2 + l
=
etc.
22;
+
l +
3 +
32;
3+4
3 +
l=42;
333X333
etc.
22X22.
m_l
The the
+
2 +
l'
i^1l
three
,
etC'1
f
+
2 +
3 +
2 +
l'
following
lowest
consecutive divisible
numbers
are
ably probthan 1
:
that
are
by
1377
and
cubes
other
1375,
1376,
of
(divisible by
A of
are
the
cubes
5, 2
3
respectively).
Certain
curious 37
are
property
still
of 37
and of 259 37
=
41.
multiples figures
16 and of
x x
multiples cyclically
:
when
their
permuted
=
7
x
37 ;
592
=
37 851
;
;
925
25
629 of
x
37.
and 41
:
The 962.
same
is true similar
of
185, 518
is true
=
296,
A
=
property
tiples mul
17589
41
x
429;
75891
41
1851
=
;
58917
2238.
=
41x1437;
89175=41x2175;
91758
41
x
Numbers the of
differing
of
the
from
their
logarithms
The
only
in
position
such
decimal has been
point.
discussed
are
determination Euler and of
a
numbers Tait. be
all of
the
by
by
list
Professor that
*
Following
extended
the
three
examples
could
indefinitely.
curiosities Escott. in this section
were
Nearly
to
numerical
given t The
writer
by
;
Mr.
Monist,
1906
XVI,
625.
19
20
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
log 1.3712885742= log
237
.
.13712885742
=
5812087593
2
.
375812087593
log 3550.2601815865
Powers
=
3.5502601815865
having
same
digits
whose squares have the
same
Consecutive
: digits
numbers
132 142
=
169 196
1572
1582
=
24649 24964
9132 9142
=
833569 835396
=
=
=
Cubes
containing the
3453 3843
=
same
digits:
3313
=
41063625 56623
104
36264691 66923416
=
4063
=
4053
A
=
66430125
two
pair of
same
numbers
: digits
=
of whose
powers
are
composed
of the
322 492
1024 2401
324 494
=
1048576 5764801
=
=
Square
1.
numbers
containingtht digitsnot repeated
the
Containing
1 18262
=
nine
digits:*
203162
228872 230192
=
139854276 152843769 157326849 215384976 245893761 254817369 326597184 361874529 375468129 382945761 385297641
in the Mathematical
412739856 523814769 529874361 537219684 549386721 587432169 589324176 597362481 615387249 627953481 653927184 Washington,
des D.
123632 125432 146762
=
=
=
=
=
231782
234392
=
156812
159632 180722
190232
=
=
=
242372 242762
244412
=
=
=
=
=
193772 195692
196292
*
=
248072 250592 255722
=
=
=
=
=
Published
in
Magazine,
1883, completed ciens, 1897 (4:168).
C,
and
in L' Inter mediaire
Mathemati
A
FEW
NUMERICAL
CURIOSITIES
21
259412 26409267 332
=
672935481
697435281 714653289
27273'
290342 291062 303842

743816529
8429731 56
=
=
=
=
847159236
923187456
271292
2.
=
735982641
the
ten
=
Containing
320432 322862
=
digits :f
45624s
=
1026753849 1042385796 1098524736 1237069584
1 532487609
2081549376
3074258916
=
55446s
687632 839192 990662
=
331442
351722
=
=
4728350169
7042398561
=
=
391472
=
=
9814072356
Arrangements of
If the number less than each
the
digits
be
to
123456789 9 and contains
multipliedby digits and
subtraction
all the
tegers in
prime
the
9, namely 2, 4, 5, 7, 8,
uses
product
once.
nine
each
digit but
Each each of
term
in nine
the
following
contains
the
digits once.
987654321 123456789
864197532
To 100:
arrange
the
nine
digits additively
so
as
to
make
t L 'Intermediaire
dcs
Mathematicians,
1907
(14:135)
22
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
To 100:
arrange
the
ten
digits additively so
as
to
make
50i
80H
19*
100
49ff
100
Many
To
ways
of the
doing
ten
this also.
as
place
digits so
to
produce
each
of the
: digits
'6?_97q_0
31
13i85_s
02697
34182 05697
'
485 485
X
62 31
970"
1
97062 48531 107469
41832 05976 25496
=
8
35823"
23184
_
~
03187 57429
_ ~
95742 10638 the
ten
05796 Lucas* also
zero
06381
gives examples
not
where the first
digits are
a
used, the
occupying
numbers noticed
place in
number,
for all of the ten
above
except 6, which
possible. is im
It will be above The for nine
that, in the
twice. form
a
example given
3, the
digit 3
occurs
digitsarranged
/
to
perfect cube:
125 438976
8__=
~
2_\3
8_
~
/ 2
V
_/5\3
\76/
32461759
\ 319/
24137569 512 438976
\ 289/ /8X3
\76,
to
The
ten
digitsarranged
9261 804357
form
/91^3
a
perfect cube
:
\93/
*
Thcoric
dcs
N ombres,
p. 40.
A
FEW
NUMERICAL
CURIOSITIES.
23
The of
?r:
ten
digitsplaced
to
give
an
approximate
value
fJlS*MW"+
Fourier's
method the
of
division*
by
9.
a
number Increase
of the each that
two
digits of
of E. the
which
units
digit is
visor di
by 1, and
g., 43268^29. 1492
increase the
the
dividend
used
at
step step.
operation by
quotient figure ordinary
for
The
29)43268
29 142
29)43268
1492
116
266
261
58 58
is shown the left for need the be
arrangement
form
at
at
comparison.
written in
The rier's Fou
the
right
To
as
is all that
method. of in the the divisor
perform
30; 4"3,
add
reason
operation, one
; write
thinks the
=
(43=30,) 1
it to the 43
;
1
quotient
; etc.
and
44

30
14 ;
14f3, 4
E.
g.,
at
The second
underlying
we
it is
easilyseen.
common we
the
step
have, by the
method the
same
method,
142
+
1424x29.

By
The
Fourier's of minuend
have
4
4
x
30.
addition both
number subtrahend
(the quotient figure) to
does
not
and
affect
the
remainder. method 30
as
In the
one
customary
for the
foregoing example
in
practicallyuses
*
divisor
determining
the
Fourier,
p.
187.
24
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
quotient
In Fourier's
figure
(thinking
method this
at
the is
second extended
step,
to
14^3,
the short
4).
whole sion. divi
operation
and
the
work
is
reduced
to
mere
So
also
in
dividing
not
by
19,
to
39,
divisors be
49,
etc.
The
method
is,
to
of those
course,
limited in in 9. It
of used in
two
places, dividing
the divisor
nor
ending ending
may
by
a
number
8,
the
7
etc.
by
increasing
used for
at
by
2,
the first 3
2,
etc.
3
etc, times
and the of
also
dividend
each
step
step.
by
But
quotient
the method
figure
lies
that in
advantage
stated. "The
chiefly
the
case
method and
is hailed
rediscovered
every
little
"
while
by
some
one
as
a
great
discovery.
NINE.
Curious
tricks
properties
with
of
the
number and
nine, and
ical numer
it,
them
are
given
Dr. Of
explained
Brooks,
in
by
his
many
writers
; among
Edward all such is the
losophy Phi
of
the and
as
Arithmetic.
properties, perhaps
check
on
most
practical application
out
division
check
multiplication by casting
it
to
nines, the
come
Hindu
is
called. inverted there debit has side of
Next numbers. been of
might
In inversion
one
the
bookkeeper's ing, bookkeepwritten in the It the trial
can
clue
doubleentry
if in the
(e.g., $4.83
and
account,
no
$4.38
credit balance also made. be
side
another)
be in "off" what
and
other
mistake,
of nine.
will
seen
by
a
multiple
the
columns
transposition
was
Recently
another
suggested,
of
and the but
of
no
practical interest,
number,"
is
property
like the
"magic
at
easily
curious:
;
plained, ex
rest,
of any the nine
or
first
glance
number
vert inthe verted in
the difference
figures
between
threeplace original
; and
divide the
number
may
and read
number the
over
by
you
quotient
the
forward.
that
backward. in the first
More
845 548
figure
occurs
quotient
and last
:
is the
difference
of the
c
between
number the
the
taken.
9)297
33
figures
Let
a,
Explanation
tens,
units
b,
be
hundreds,
of
+
ures fignumber. number Then inverted
respectively
the is number is 10"
+
any
threeplace
+
100a
a.
10b
c,
and
the
100c
+
25
26
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
(100a + lQ{"+c)(10Gc+10b
9
+
a)
99
(ac)
9
The both
product
of 1 1 and
any
may
oneplace number
be read either
"
will have
way.
figures alike, and
known
on are
Better all
the the
following three
by 9,
sum
all old
and
depending
after the the
principle,that
of
a
the
remainder,
same as
after
dividing any
number
is the its
the 9.
remainder 1. Find
dividing the
difference
number made from
me,
digits by
of
betweeen
number
two
figures and
conceal of the the
by inverting the figures,
but tell
me one
numbers
figure
is
other an
difference.
I will tell you
whether
so,
there what
every
figure (This
can
in the
difference, and, if
be
one
it is.
tator spec
scarcely
that the
a
repeated merely
from of three
without subtracts
noticing
figure of
2. Write
the
given
difference number
me
9.)
or
more erase
places, divide
one
by 9,
zero,
and
tell
the
remainder;
will the
figure,not
and tell
me
divide remainder.
the
resulting number
I tell you
by 9,
the
the
figure
the
erased the
(which
second,
then the
is, of
or
course,
first remainder
minus
if the first +9
a
first is not

greater
than
second,
I
the
second).
with the
a
3. Write will the
to
number fill in
missing figure, and
necessary
to
immediately
number written. the
=
figure by
9.
make
exactly
Write
divisible
(Suppose
; for
728
excess
57
be
7 in the
after be
space
the
from 92 the
given
This with
number
may
a
casting out
shall
a
9's is
2, and
to
7.) by
varied that
by undertaking
make the
fill
space
figure
and
number
divisible
*
nine
from
leaving
I, 22
remainder.* specified
Adapted
Hooper,
FAMILIAR
TRICKS
ARITHMETIC.
BASED
ON
LITERAL
Besides other
the
tricks
with
the
number
9, there
most,
are
many but
not
wellknown
arithmetical
on
diversions,
the Arabic in this
all, of
them,
used.
numerous,
depending
Those
can
notation section you
of
are
bers num
illustrated be "made and
cially spe
while
an
wait"
by
any
one
with of
a
little
ingenuity
(or,
set
more
elementary
of literal
edge knowlmetic) arithment mo
algebra
and,
when
properly,
are
forth,
in and
transparent
notation.
no
the
they amusing supply
be from of
as
are
expressed
children,
is
literal it is The The
was
They
that three
are
are
to
wonder
the may taken
them
perennial.
types.
which them
following
first
two
given
Dr.
fairly good
book,
of
Hooper's quotation
published
in the order
in
to
1774.
serve pre
Verbatim
the in
terms
is
made
flavor of
of
quaintness.
arithmetic is
Only by
on
explanation
writer.
to
literal
the any
present
1. A him
that After double whole the let him
person
number. the it and
privately
fixing
number,
tell'
person
has 4
to
fixed that let
on
a
number,
then add
sum
bid
him the
add the
sum', him the you last fixed the
multiply
12, and
of the
by
5 ; to
product
10. and the that
ply multi
amount
by
320,
cut
From tell
two
whole
from number
deduct if you
remainder,
the
which,
that
off be
figures,
on.
remains
will
he
27
28
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
Let member
n,
n
represent
of the
any
number
selected.
The reduces
first
to
following equality readily
the trick. rl00
a
and
the
identityexplains
{[(2rc+4)5 + 12]l0320;
2. number stand. Let number
sum;
=
".
Three
dice each
being
thrown and
on
table,
to
tell the
of
the of then add
of them,
who
next
the
order
in which
they
the that the let
person that
has his the
thrown left hand,
amount
the and
dice add
double
5
to to
multiply
the be
by
middle
5, and
product
the add there that dice Let
on
number
of
the
die ; then that the the of
whole the be
multiplied by
of the third
10, and
die. the
to
product
total number three let
number subtracted
From
250, and
answer on
figures of points
of the
remains
as
will stand
to
the
the
they
x,
the the order.
table. numbers Then
y, three in
z
represent
dice in
points
shown
the
instructions,
expressed
symbols, give [(2"r+ 5)5
+
:y]10+
we
xr250.
have
Removing
signs
of
grouping,
lOO.r
+
lOy
+
s,
the
number
represented by 'the
the number for of the 2
three
digits x, y,
in which
z
in
order.
3. "Take
were
month for
;
you
born
(1
January,
add month and born
February, etc.),
add your
age
double
years;
it ; add subtract your years
5
;
multiply by 50
115.
and in The
in
365;
age
"
resulting number
E. g.,
a
indicates 19 would
years."
August
son per
old
at
(8th month) operation,
have,
the
successive
stages of the
FAMILIAR
TRICKS.
29
8,
819
16,
21,
for
1050, August,
m
1069,
19
704;
for
and the the
for
the
final
number,
(8
If
we
years).
number of the
let the
represent
of years,
month,
the rule
and
y
a
number
we
can
express
as
formula:
{2m
+
5)50
+
y
365
+
115,
which
simplifies
to
100m
+
y,
the
number and
of the the
hundreds number number
being
expressed
of years.
the
number
of last
the
two
month,
by
the
digits
being
GENERAL
TEST
OF
DIVISIBILITY.*
Let factor but
M that
represent
is
not
a
any
integer
of 10
containing
(that
is,
no
prime primes
is
factor
no
5
and
2).
Call
Then the
1/M
number
any
expressed
of
decimally
in the decimal 1. Then
terminate.
m.
places
except
Let
N
represent
of N of
prime
5, 2,
is
a
the Call 1.
reciprocal
the The M number
expressed places
obtained
as
decimally
the
circulate.
in
repetend dividing by
n.
remainder is the
same
by
any
integer,.
the.
I, by
number of I
that the
obtained last
dividing
m
represented by
is M. If the
by
(righthand) by
M,
digits
m
number
represented
I is
those and
digits
divisible
by
M,
divisible
by
not
otherwise. 2. the The
same
remainder
as
obtained obtained
by by
dividing
the
I
sum
by
of
N
is the
n
that
dividing
successive
numbers
expressed
of I
by
If and
the
sum
periods by
N,
of I
digits
divisible
on
by
N.
that
not
is
divisible This 1

is
by
N,
otherwise. P^
to
~
depends
Fermat's when
theorem,
and number than
that
'
is
divisible
by
p
p
If
a
P
are
prime
each
and
other. contains of
a
3.
factor may
is
composite
and
prime
I
other be tested and
5
2, the
with
divisibility
the factors
by
it
bv
testing
separately
by
*
(1)
(2)'.
without remainder
a
Divisible
in
is
of
course
the
meaning
of
"divisible"
such
connection.
30
GENERAL
TEST
OF
DIVISIBILITY.
3
1
Thus
it is
possible
other
to
test
the
of divisibility is is
any of
teger in
by
theoretic in the and these
case
any
integer.
actual
This
usually
only
But
interest, as
of
division
preferable.
test
2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9 and
A
10 the
of
is easy each of
practical.
simple
cases
statement
it for
any
particular
11a of
is
found
in
almost
metic. arith
For
test
slightly easier
test
than
the
cation special appliThat
the the
sum
general
of the
is
usually given.
is,
the the the
subtract
sum
evennumbered
digits from
from than if smaller
of
the and
oddnumbered add 11 The
to
digits (counting
the minuend the
right)
subtrahend. when The and divided
result 11
as
gives
the
same
remainder
by
original by
11 remainders
number if that
may
gives.
result be in
original number
not
same
is divisible These
as
are
is,
otherwise.
manner
used
in the
out
the
not
remainders
so
used
casting
the Test
test
nines,
but
conveniently
known
as
obtained. of the eral gen
of divisibility by f.
in this
case
No
form
is
as
easy of
actually dividing by 7.
it may
a
From
the
point
as
of
view
theory
of direct
be
worth
noticing that, repetend,
Let
us
7's reciprocal gives
test
complementary
of
the
general
admits the 6 A
variety
form.*
consider, however,
the
application.
test
Since
repetend
is of
as
has
places, the
number
for
bility divisi
by 7
if the
sum
follows: the of
e.
is divisible the
by 7
cessive suc
numbers 6
represented by
each is divisible
periods
not
figures
by 7,
and
otherwise
;
g.,
Given
*
the
number
Brooks's 7.
26,436,080,216,581
Philosophy of Arithmetic
is devoted
to
chapter of divisibilityby
A
32
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
216581 436080 26
7)652687
93241 No
remainder;
therefore
the
given
number
sible is divi
by 7.
Test Since
of divisibility by J,
7x
If 11
x
n
and
JJ at the
the
same
time.*
13
=
1001, divide
given
number
or
by
13,
1001.
the
the
remainder is
is divisible
not
by 7, 11, digit
a
given
number
also, and
otherwise. each from the
To third 1001 method
divide
by
1001, subtract
An this clear
digit following.
will
mav
inspection of simple
an
division holds.
by
The
show
why
rule
be made
by
example, 4,728,350,169
1001.
4728350169
472^626543
3
Quotient, 4723626
The
x
;
remainder,
4
543
third the 2.
digit before
84 4
the
being
the for
0 4.
(understood), Similarly
is have for here
write
difference, 4, beneath
=
7
and
(which 8).
We
illustration
next
written
beneath
the
should
to
37.
changes 'phis
the 4 just found
3, and
=
puts 6 under
the7 original 3
/
ber the third
(that is, 8347
a
36).
the
52,
03
(always subtracting from
to digit
digitof
numoriginal
the left in the
difference,or lower,
number) ,16,
we
etc.
Making
as
the corrections The number is the
mentally
sented repre
have
the the
number
written.
by
*
last three
to
543, digits,
by Mr.
it is
so
remainder
writes
:
This
was
never
given
seen
the
not
author
Escott, who
"I have
be
it published, but
simple that it would
surprising if it had
been/'
GENERAL
TEST
OF
DIVISIBILITY.
33
after number the be
dividing
the
given by
a
number the other
by
1001,
and
the is
represented quotient.
With
digits,
this
4723626,
method
can
little without alone
practice, making
is needed
applied
rapidly 543,
be
and which
erasures.
The the of in
remainder,
also
for the
test, the the
may
obtained
by
of the
subtracting
three of
sum
evennumbered
periods
number A from
figures
the
each oddnumbered the
original periods.
thus is is
sum
rapid
method but
of
obtaining
the way
remainder above
easily
convenient.
acquired
;
illustrated
more
However
obtained,
11
or
the
remainder the is is number
is
divisible number
or
not
by
7,
13,
not.
according (Here
4728350169 543
as
given
divisible
is
divisible 13
or
not
by by replaced,
of
7,
either
11
or
;
therefore The of
not
divisible
is thus number
of the
them.)
purpose
at most.
original
for three
investigation,
As this
tests
by
for
a
places
at
once,
three
common
primes large
bers num
it without
is
convenient factor
for
one
factoring
a
table.
MISCELLANEOUS
NOTES
ON
NUMBER.
The but is
theory
of
numbers
has
been
"*
called
"
a
"neglected
charm"
matician mathesaid also:
singularly
the
fascinating
ascribed nineteenth
queen
to
subject.
it
Magic
quality
of the
by
the
foremost Gauss
century
of the the
.f
"Mathematics
the of
master
some
sciences, and
crown
arithmetic
[i.e., theory
And it be he
was
numbers]
of the in
of of his
mathematics."
time.
sciences abstract
no
"While
it may is and
requires
taken
up
facility
reasoning,
with
practically
to
technical
mathematics,
easily
leads branch that
new
amenable
numerical frontier. where discoveries
exemplifications,
It there is
readily
of
to
the
perhaps
is
any
the
only
mathematics and valuable
possibility
made out withmatics. mathe
might
with
be
an
extensive
acquaintance
technical
"%
An
interesting
theorems numbers
exercise and
to
in the
higher
established
arithmetic
is
to
investigate particular
*
properties
have
of
determine
which
their
Ball, Hist.,
most
p.
416.
theorems
are
t "The
this while
beautiful that
of
higher
discovered
arithmetic
have
peculiarity,
on
they
hand
easily
out
by
lie in
induction,
the and
other
can
their ferreted
demonstrations
exceeding
metic arithscience
obscurity
that of
be is
only
which
made
to
by
very
to
searching higher
favorite
vestigati in
It
precisely
which
this has
not
gives
it the
magic
wherein
charm
leading
mathematicians,
it
so
mention all other
p.
its
inexhaustible
richness,
mathematics."
far
excels
parts
of
pure
(Gauss;
p.
quoted
by
Young,
155.)
X Young,
155.
34
MISCELLANEOUS
NOTES
ON
NUMBER.
35 which
origin in
due
to
the
nature'
of
number in
itself and which
are are
the
decimal
scale
the
numbers
expressed.
Fer mat's numbers been called last theorem. Of the
many
theorems all have
in since
discovered A
by Fermat,
wellknown
nearly
the
proved.
his "last
exception
It "is to be
an
is sometimes effect
to
theorem." of
x,
that
no
integral values equation
This from been the
xn
+
y,
s n
can
found
satisfy the
than 2.
yn

zn, if has
no
is
integer greater
demonstration
to
proposition
fact that
acquired extraordinary celebrity general
is
no
of that and
it has it is
given,
It has
but
there
reason
doubt
true."*
been
proved
for
specialcases,
be
proved
Fermat
generally
asserted
if certain he had
assumptions
a
granted.
That may
that
valid
proof.
new
yet be
will be in
rediscovered found
; or,
some new
more
likely,a
method of the
proof
by
attack.
"Interest
seems
problems
hereafter other
connected
with
theory
is
of numbers
may
recently to have
that lines. "f
flagged, and
the
possibly it
be
found
on
subject
be
approached
better
Wilson's
a
theorem
may
a
stated
as
follows: This
If p is
prime,
1
+\p
was

1 is
multiple
of p.
wellknown
proposition
*
enunciated
p. 2"7
by Wilson,^
first
published
Ball, Recreations,
f Ball, Hist., p. 469.
little but professional mathematician, lowing folis made in histories of the subject. The items be of interest. De Morgan's They are from may Wilson Budget of Paradoxes, John (17411793) was p. 1323. educated While he at "was Cambridge. an undergraduate considered in in than the algebra one University, stronger any Professor of the most ists Waring, one powerful algebraexcept of the century." senior of 1761. Wilson the wrangler was He entered the law, became judge, and attained a high repua tation.
was
X As
he
not
a
mention
of
him
^6
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
by Waring
Formulas that
in
his
Meditationes in 1771. numbers.
Algebraic",
"It is
and
first
proved by Lagrange
for prime
no
strated easily demoncan
rational Several
algebraic formula
remarkable which values
always
have of gave
or
give primes.
been
expressions
a x. x
found, however,
for consecutive
give
of for x2
+
large
0
+
number
primes
2x2 29
+
Legendre

29, which
of
x x.
gives primes
Euler 0
to
to
28,
for
values for
found
x
A\, which
of
x.
gives
I have
; and
primes
found 3x2
+

39, i. e., 40
values
6x2+6x+3l, giving primes
3x
+
for 29 values of
of
x.
x
23, giving primes for 22 values
different will
These
expressions give
them
x,
so
primes.
For
x

We for
can more
transform,
values of
that
not
they
give primes by
but
different
we
primes.
x
instance, in Euler's 40,
we
formula
+
if
replace
get x2

79 x
1601, which
gives primes
criterion socalled
for
80
consecutive
values
of xT A
(Escott.)
Chinese
to
for prime
numbers.
a
With
number
erence ref
the
criterion, that
~
p is
prime
when
the
condition, that 2^
Escott makes
l

1 be
divisible
by
p, is satisfied, Mr.
comment
: a
the
following prime
esting inter
"This
is
wellknown but
to
property
it is
of
not
numbers
(Fermat's Theorem)
attention
was
sufficient.
a
My
in
a
drawn des
me
the
problem by of
to
question
led
to
L'Intermediaire
little article As and the
Mathematiciens,
in the
which
by
Messenger
which is
Mathematics. condition it
smallest is not
number
satisfies the
which
prime
341, and
verify
by
the of
ordinary Theory
2:H0the 1
test
arithmetic of
of (not having the resources would Numbers) require the division it is
by 341,
bv
a
probable
that the
Chinese
obtained
mere
induction."
MISCELLANEOUS
NOTES
ON
NUMBER.
37
Are number?
there
more
than
one
set
answer
of prime factors of
no
a
Most is correct But
to
textbooks if when
; and
this
are
swer ansidered. con
only
the
arithmetic
numbers of number the
conception
numbers,
into E. factored
to
is
tended ex
include
can
complex
be
proposition,
factors
=
that
a
number
one
prime
g., 26
in
=
only
wav,
ceases
hold.
2x13
(5+Vl)(5Vl).
Asymptotic
"laws
as
laws.
which
This
happily
chosen
name
scribes decuracy ac
approximate
concerned bestknown of of of the the the
more
closely to
here.
the
numbers
become
names
* larger."
Legendre
of the
is among
One of
on
most
celebrated middle
original researches
last century,
was
Dirichlet, in the
this branch of
the the of
theory
concept
the
numbers. from the the metic arith
Growth
of
of
of number,
ratios and
integers
fractions
as versus
Greeks,
through
rational nized recog
Diophantus,
in the
irrationals
numbers
sixteenth
century,
negative
and
positive numbers
and
fully grasped by proceeded
and the without in
recent
Girard
Descartes, imaginary and
Euler
new
complex by Argand, Wessel,
times
to
Gauss, f has
of numbers
theories
of irrationals
establishingof
it
the
continuity
borrowing
The the taken
from
space.J
Some for of results the
of permutation problems.
of
n
las formunumber
r
number
permutations,
dissimilar
and
combinations, of
are
things
at
a
time
given
may
in be
every
higher algebra.
into
one
The
most
important
nVr
condensed
equality:
=
n{nl)
*
(n2)
.
.
.(;,r+l)
=
T^=
"Cr
\r
"
\n
"
r
Ball, Hist., p. 464.
admirable
summary.
t See
Hist,
p.
94. p.
t
See
Cajori's
of Math.,
372.
38
A
SCRAPCOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
There
set
are
3,979,614,965,760
ways
set
of
arranging
zero
a
of
28
dominoes in the
no a
(i. e.,
line, with
of
a
from
double
to
double
six)
that the
many
like numbers
in contact.t
to
"Suppose
small than how the
letters of the them
alphabet
take
square
be
more
wrote
so
one
shall of
a
up
space
:
hundredth
square
part
inch
to
find all Dr.
yards
of the that
as
it would 24
require to require
earth in the
to
write
permutations
computes
times
as
letters in that
size. "J
a
Hooper
18620 the
"it would
that 24 of the
surface write all
large
of
permutations
has been
the
letters
size
above
mentioned." Fear
expressed
should of
that
if the
epidemic
combinations become
of
organizing
and We
societies
persist,the might
I.O.O.F.,
permutations
have
initial letters
hausted. ex
F.A.A.M.,
K.M.B.,
K.P., A.B.A.,
more
I.O.G.T., W.C.T.U.,
A.B.S., A.C.M.S.,
than and which
are same a
Y.M.C.A.,
An
Y.W.C.A.,
almanac in New
names
etc., etc.
as
hundred
"prominent
of is known societies But
to
York
City/*
there the
can
its list is exclusive
the
cases
fraternal
organizations,of Already
names
number of
two
be vast.
having
with this
initial letters. be avoided.
to
by judiciouschoice
calculation in every 3
or
long
entire
Hooper's
be
supposed
4 letters.
the
alphabet
employed
the A
combination. And
Societies
a or
usually employ only 2,
repeat,
A.A.A. from that
as
letter may of the
in the
title of the
A.L.A.
The above.
present
The
two at
a
problem
number
is therefore of
different
tions permutatwo
of 26
not
letters taken
time, the
three
Annali
at
a
being
;
necessarilydissimilar,
p. 30,
is 262
;
time, 263
t Ball, Recreations, Milan, Nov. 1871. t Hooper,
I, 59.
citing Reiss,
di matcmatica.
MISCELLANEOUS
NOTES
ON
NUMBER.
39
etc.
As
there
is
occasionallya society known
known 26"
by
have
one
letter and
occasionallyone
+
by five,
=
we
261 This total
262
+
26:! + 264
+
12,356,630.
is
of
possible permutations By lengthening
have the
to
easily beyond
of societies total
can
immediate
needs.
seems
names
(as
be made
already begun)
Since the
two
the when
much
larger,
were
time
er's Hoopbeen societies be
calculations added reaches well
to to
made,
When
letters number
have of
the about
alphabet.
the
the
twelve
a
million
mark,
it would of the
agitate for
these of
further
extension
may
bet. alphaon
With the for the
one possibilities
be
assured,
is
no cause
authority
immediate
exact
science, that there
The author
alarm. of
hastens
to
allay
apprehensions Many
the
to
prospective organizers.
would of
not
Tables. without
computations
of tables. Some
be
are
possible
ments monu
aid
them
the
patientapplicationof
are a
their makers. The
Once time
one
made,
saved item table.
extent
they
to
permanent
who in
to
uses
possession.
the table the of
the
computer
account
is the value
taken It
into is
judging
been
of and
a
difficult work that
appreciate
done
the in
variety
of
of the For
has
an
constructing
Professor tannic Bri
tables.
this purpose article "Tables"
examination in the
Glaisher's
a
Encyclopedia
of tabs book
is instructive. that
Anything
is tabs
at
facilitates the
use
a
of tables
important.
"
Spacing, marginal
all such
of
(incuts), jecting proa
devices the book
economize
;
little time
each
handling
is
use no
and
in the
aggregate
collections the
for
this economy
of
trifle. in
Among
of
American mathematics
tables
for of
elementary
best
example
convenience
arrangement
ready
40
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
reference and
Taylor's Fiveplace mic LogarithTrigonometric Tables (1905). Dietrichkeit's
und
Antilo
is doubtless
Siebenstellige Logarithmen (1903)
When
can
garithmen they
made
to
is
a
model
of convenience.
to
logarithms readily
purpose,
many
places by
means
are
needed,
tables
be the
calculated such
as
of
for 24
Gray's
for
carrying
which
them
places (London, 1876).
Factor tables into, the have been
printed
any
enable
one
to
as
resolve far
as
prime
factors
composite
were
number
10th
million. "Prof.
They
D.
now
computed
Lehmer,
work
on
by
the
different
calculators. of
N.
at
of
University
tables which
California, is
will extend
to
factor When
the
12th
million. the
completed they
tables
as
will be
published by
D. C.
Carnegie
to
stitution In
Washington,
According
factors calculated in the
Petzval,
numbers
giving the
as
smallest have
prime
been
of
far
100,000,000
remained in
.
by Kulik,
but
have
manuscript
far 20
possession of
des Diviseurs is very
pact, com
the Vienna des N ombres
Academy.
goes
as
.Lebesgue'sTable
as
115500
and
occupying only
Some
of 346
w
pages."
The
(Escott.)
of the and. feats of value
e
long
707
numbers. decimal
computation
Shanks* famous
to
places by
are
to
places by Boorman,f
of of the
of
lation. calcu
"Paradoxes
calculation value of
a
sometimes
new
appear In
as
lustrati il
method.
1863,
Mr. Clare
G.
Suffield,M.A., and
Mr.
J.
R.
Lunn,
M.A., of
divided
College and
of
St.
John's College, Cambridge,
10000.
.
.
published the whole quotient of of 7699, throughout the whole
*
by
one
of
the
recurring
See
page
124.
f Mathematical
Magazine,
1:204.
MISCELLANEOUS
NOTES
ON
NUMBER.
41
periods, having
of Mr.
7698
digits.
This
was
done
tration in illussion."* divi
Suffield's
method
of
synthetic
Exceptions
on
have
been
found he
was
to
Fermat's careful
to
theorem
say
binary
not
powers
(which
The
+
he
had of
proved).
form 2zn if
x
theorem
are
is, that
Euler
all numbers
the
1
prime.
formula
showed,
in
1732,
which it has
that
=
"
=
5,
the
gives 4,294,967,297,
the last
641
6,700,417. "During
that the
thirtyyears
are posite com
been when
shown
resultingnumbers
thousands of added
n
n6,
9, 11, 12, 18, 23, 36, and
contain these
now
38; the
millions 2?n
n
=
two
last numbers
many
of which value
of is
digits."f composite, J.
C.
To
must
values be
for the
+
1
73.
that
+
"Dr.
Morehead
has
proved
the 24
this year number
[1907]
275 is
to
"
this number This the
is divisible
by
prime
5
1.
last number
contains number
digits and
up
were
probably
the
ent.":]: pres
largest prime
If the
discovered
number notation
to
2273+ 1 itself
without the number many
written and if
in it
the
were
ordinary
desired those be
on
exponents,
in
print
page,
figures the
like
size this
of
this
how
volumes make
a
would millions Hozv
required? They
of times may
a as
would the
librarymany Congress. (1)
From
large as
Library
in the
of
particular number analysis
"
arise ?
purely
the
mathematical of the
investigationof
the the
method
properties
in
numbers,
as
in
illustrations
just given,
*
of investigation
"Suffield's
properties of
was
De
Morgan,
Fourier
many
p. 292.
'new'
ered discovhas been
by
as
a
in the
early
a
rediscovered
new
times
part of the since. It was
years
ago
century in the
and
published, apparently
Mathematical
Gazette
r
discovery, (Escott.) Recreations,
few
i Ball,
p. 37.
%
Mr.
Escott.
42
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
some
ideally diagonal
constructed the side of
magnitude,
a
as
the in
ratio
of
the
to
square,
or
any
tigation inves
involving
from
measurement
only
of
mathematical actual
elements;
(2)
etc.
:
magnitude,
when
a
time
(3)
or
a
by
arbitrary
makes
invention,
as
textbook
writer
teacher
examples
;
or
(4)
by
combinations
of
these. Those of in
class
(3)
are
generally
of numbers
used
to
develop
skill
the
manipulation
from
classes
(1)
and
(2).
Numbers from of the
source
(2),
section.
measurement,
are
the
subject
next
NUMBERS
ARISING
FROM
MEASUREMENT.
There
is
no
such
thing
mass,
as
an
exact
or
measurement
of
distance,
It is "The week
capacity,
a
time,
any
such
quantity.
only
question
of
degree
can
of
accuracy.
to
measure
a
best within
on
timepieces
one
be
trusted
"*
part
155
in
756,000.
show the the In lines is
The
equations
of accuracy Bureau of of be
of
standards attained of in
page
two
degree
International
instances Measures.
two
by
Weights
distance the
or
and
the
on
measure
length
(the
between range in five of
a
bar
to
measure
platinum0.2
of
are
iridium)
million,
it is
one
error
shown In the But
in
mass
a
one
million. million. their of under
in
five famous
hundred for is
these made
urements meas
precision, prime
the is
in and
cases
in
which
accuracy effected such technical be fair
importance,
most
the
ditions. con
comparisons
No In
a
favorable in of for. in
most
a
accuracy
attained
work. per
cent
certain
to
school,
of
twotenths
error
is held in
tolerance The artisans
"exact
measurement
work"
chemical
analysis. by ordinary
accuracy in their
attained
work
is
of
a
.somewhat
Now of in
lower
a
degree. expressing figures
the
one
number
measurement
the
ber num
significant
Hence
indicates of
to assert
the
degree
of
curacy. ac
number
were
significant
that the
digits
distance
is
limited.
If
any
*
Prof.
William
Harkness, Report
for
"Art
of
p.
Weighing
616.
and
ing," Measur
Smithsonian
1888,
43
44
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
of
Neptune
from
the be
sun
is
2,788,820,653 miles,
A
the
statement
would
immediately rejected.
can
distance
of billions be measured four number
of miles
to
or
not,
by
any
means
now
known,
that and What the that
tronomers as
the
mile.
We
must
should be
be
sure
last this
five is not
figures
to
unknown
be
taken the
seriously.
is
do miles. The
to
state
is that
distance
2,788,800,000
metrology expand
numbers
of
the
the
future limits of
will doubtless
be
able
extend
to
gradually
the
precision,and
of numbers.
fore thereBut
significant parts
hold. from the
the
principle will always arising
but few
The
measurements
of
daily life have
The the
significant figures.
is another illustration of
following paragraph
indexes is
principle.
as
Decimals
The but .42 wish the
cm, to
of degree of
that .42
=
accuracy
=
of
ure. meas
child scientist and
taught
scientist
.420
a
.4200.
True;
is
cm,
who
reports that
who
certain it
as
distance
the
reports
to
.420
convey,
and
do
convey, the
their
we
readers
ent differthat dredth huncm
impressions.
the distance of less than is .420 than
cm
From .42 that
cm
first
understand the than
we
is
cm;
cm.
correct
to
more
nearest
a
is, it is
the
.415
learn
and that it
.425
to
From
nearest
second
the
thousandth
; that
is, more decimals,
.4195
and
less than in the
.4205'.
Compare
the
including0.00100,
meter,
Exact which
an
equation
is
of the U.
S. standard
p.
155.
measurement
ever an
ideal.
It
is
is
the
limit
improving metrology
The
approaching degree
of is answered
forever
accuracy
nearer.
question always
And this
is of
of
measure.
question
NUMBERS
ARISING
FROM
MEASUREMENT.
45
the result is
by
the
number
of decimal
places in which
The
expressed.
Some
applications. why
for very notation that
a
foregoing principle
very
plains ex
large and
star to
no
small
numbers
the
index
is sufficient ; in certain is 5
which
x
it is said, for from the 13
example,
earth.
1013 miles
This
is easier there is
write need
than
to
5 followed
and
by
ciphers, and
such
serves
a
enumerate
a
read
number.
to
Similarly 10
such of
a a
with
negative exponent
as
write
decimal
wave
fraction of
is used any of
to
express
the
length
light or
the
minute The
measurements
of
microscopy.
also
not
principle explains
for four
why
a
table
of
rithms logayond bein the
;
ordinary
or
use
need
tabulate
or
numbers
five
use
places (four
the technical of numbers
five
places
to "arguments/'
term to
of table makers
or
only
to
use
the
logarithms
common
10,000,
100,000,
the them
phraseology).
more
tends Interpolation ex
to
one
place
one
with
fair accuracy, needs the
and
for
ordinary computation
of
a
rarely
five of If any the
rithm logain
are
number
of
more
a
than method
significant digits. approximation
of the
can
It
explains also why
so
is multiplication furnished
desirable.
data be
by
at
measurement,
best.
result VII
on
only
plained ex
approximate
on
Example
a case
page To
64,
page
to
62, is
six
; to
in
point.
would
compute
time.
that Worse
to
an
product
than
decimal show
places
such
a
waste
that
result would
pretend
decimal decimal
accuracy that the
not
attained, by conveying the impression
is known
to to
circumference in fact
six
two
places
when
it is known
but
places/1'
* seen
Even
the
second
by taking for
place is in doubt, as may multiplicand first 74.276,then 74.284.
decimal
be
46
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
In the
a
certain
village
the for .01981 divisor
tax
rate,
the for contains is
found
by
the
dividing
total
sessed as
total
appropriation
valuation,
was
year
by
year
the
1906.
As factor
always
but To 2 how and
(unless 5)
many
the the
no
prime
quotient
should be cents"
an
interminate decimal far
decimal. be carried?
places
it "correct should
the carried when
Theoretically
a
enough
used In
to
to
give
product
tax
to
compute
case
the decimal
of is
the
highest enough
As of this
a
taxpayer.
for all of
this
the
accurate
assessments
not
exceeding
several For of in
$1000.
excess
matter
fact,
there
were
amount.
an
understanding
it is
of
the that
common
applications
the of learner the ciate appre
arithmetic the
important
considerations
he
elementary
least that
theory
"To how
of
error
;
at
habitually
result be
ask
himself,
as
many
places
may
my
regarded
accurate
?"
COMPOUND
INTEREST.
The
enormous
results
"
obtained
as
by
wide
computing divergence
from
a
pound com
interest these
or
as
well results
terms
the obtained and from
tween be
any many
geometric
found in amples" "ex
progression
actual life
"
of
may
the the
results
be
seen
following
:
At
3% $1
(the
put
to
prevailing
at
rate
at
present
in
savings
of the
now
banks)
Christian
amount
interest
at
the
beginning
would of
era
be
compounded
which
annually by
the
use
to to
$(1.03)1906,
be, in round
The but
at
logarithms
is
found
numbers,
amount
$3,000,000,000,000,of
000,000,000,000.
time and
rate
$1
for would
the be
same
simple
interest
only
$58.18.
If
the
Indians first
hadrit
spent
of
New the money
the
$24.
In
1626
Peter
Minuit,
Manhattan The
rate
governor Island from
on
Netherland,
Indians for in
purchased
about
new
$24.
tries, coun
of
interest
is higher
as
and Within
state
gradually
the
decreases
wealth the
accumulates.
rate
present
fallen from
rate
generation 7%
of
to
legal
Assume 1626
to
in for
the plicity sim
has
a
6%.
from had
uniform that that
rate
7%
the
present,
at
and
suppose
at
the
Indians
put
their in had
$24
New added
terest in
(banking
for
facilities !) and
York the
being
always
taken
granted
47
48
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
interest
to
the
principal
after 280
yearly. years?
What
would
be
the
amount
now,
24xl.07280=
more
than The of
4,042,000,000.
latest
tax assessment
available
for This the is the
at
the of
time hattan Manbe
writing
as
gives
the
realty
borough
estimated actual
$3,820,754,181.
the actual than of the
to
78%
little The be than
of
value,
making
value
a
more
$4,898,400,000.
the Indians' money assessed The would valuation Indians could
amount
therefore
but less have
more
than the back from actual
present
valuation. of the
bought
;
most
property
now,
with
the
ments improvemoral The of rise
which and of the has but
one
might
it
at
point
interest!
saving
in the
money value it
putting
real
estate
of
Manhattan,
than
enal phenompace
as
is,
of
little
more
kept
with But
the New
growth
York the
money values would
at
7%
are
compound
now
interest.
realty
Indians
growing purchase
soon!
more
idly: rap
better
DECIMAL
SEPARATRIXES.
The the
term
separafrix
and
in
the
sense
of of
a
a
mark
between written He used used
a
integral
was
fractional used
parts
number 1631. had
decimally,
the mark in
a
by
the
Oughtred
purpose.
or
in
L
for circle order
Stevin
each
figure
indicate
over
under decimal have
decimal Of
place
the four may
to
the
of
that
place.
been
ous variare
other in
common
separatrixes
use
that if
used,
below
today,
(2)
and
(3)
be
counted 1. dollars ratrix 1613. This is A
separately:
vertical in the
line:
e.g.,
that
etc.
separating
As work
a
cents
from
sepa
ledgers,
line
bills
temporary
appears
in the line
a
by
Richard
Witt, 1617.
civilized
Napier
a
used
common
in
his
Rabdologia,
in every
very
separatrix
country
2. decimal Pitiscus The
today. period. point
is
Fink,
found in
citing
the
Cantor,
says
that tables
the of
trigonometric Napier, period
a or
(in Germany) speaks
of
1612. the of
at
in
the
logia, RabdoHis obsolete
using
is
comma.
usage,
however,
he
uses
mostly
notation
now
(but
has
the been
comma
least
once).
form of
The the
period
decimal
always
in The
the
prevailing
point
3.
America. Greek colon the
(dot point
above in
the this
line).
Newton
"to vent preused
advocated it from
placing being
position
the
confounded
with
period
49
50
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
as so
a
mark
of in
comma.
punctuation1' (Brooks). England
The
now.
It is
commonly
of its
written 4. The
first known is said
to
instance in the
next
use
as
decimal of
separatrix
which
be
Italian
nometry trigoof it.
Pitiscus, 1608.
may
Perhaps
dated of the
by Kepler,
use
1616, from
be table
German in
Briggs English
comma
used
it in his writers
logarithms
1624r and
comma.
early English
usage is the continent
usage
generally employed
to
the
changed
customary
of
as
the of
Greek the
colon;
decimal
but
the
on
form
point
the
Europe.
to
The uniform
one
decimal the
point
is
not ;
absolutely
but, in general,
in
in
any
of
countries 1
named
expects
of 1
.
to
see
25/100 written
125
in
decimally England,
the
form in
mere
25
in
America,
or
and
1,25
A be
Germany,
space
as
France
to
common
Italy.
the
indicate in
a
separation
of
may
also
mentioned The vertical should
print. decimals)
one
line
(for
A.
column
and of
the the of
space
doubtless G.
persist, and
Miller,
comma
form
"point."
who Illinois,used
Prof.
of
the
as
University
the
argues the
for the
being
symbol
by
much
largest
it is very
number is
of
mathematicians,
politan cosmo
remarks
:* "As
and
mathematics
preeminently
that its national
as
eternal world line
important
All
symbols
should
be this
symbols.
should
be
distinctions
along
obliterated
rapidly
as
possible."
of Elementary Symbols Mathematics," and Mathematics, May, 1907. Where the decimal the separation of long point is a comma numbers into periods of three (or six) figures for convenience of reading is effected by spacing. of the School Science
*
"On
Some
PRESENT
TRENDS
IN
ARITHMETIC.
"History
Such Freeman. arithmetic
is past is the In
or
politics, apothegm
case
and of
a
politics
the
is present
tory/' his
famous and
an
historian
the the and
of
science of
art,
like is fact of it is
more
teaching
method is the in the
arithmetic,
history
The
past
that
method,
our
is present
history.
make the
generation
and of
helping teaching
other
reason
to
history
"
arithmetic also
of
arithmetic that
as
making
history
is
"
matters
attract
public
some
attention of is is to the
a
for in
considering
A has
now
present
trends
arithmetic. what
a
present
been Lord
to
trend what
pointer
be,
since
pointing
the
we
from is
science
continuum.
to
Bolingbroke
to
said the
that
to
study
make the in
history
most
know the
or
how future.
ent pres
act
in is
future,
we
of
That
why
in
to
study
so
history
as
the
making,
for
us,
trends,
the
far those
it is trends.
possible
living
in
midst,
see
Very
noticeable of
among
them
is
the
gradual
10
is
malization deci
arithmetic.
Counting
the If
we
by
10 been
we
prehistoric being
at
in
nearly
all
parts
of
world,
had
fingers
the the
evident
explanation.
of arithmetical
race
present
beginning
the
a
history,
advice would the
might
as
have
given
of
primitive
radix
to
valuable ! It
to
to
the been of of 12
choice tune opporover
of call from
notation attention the
then
have
advantage
10 Or if
arising
greater
factorability
5i
12.
52
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
the
pioneers
of 2 Sam. would such
of
arithmetic 21
:
had
been
like
on a
the each
Gath
giant they only
20, with
have
six ringers used 12
as
hand,
ing Lackwith metic arithbeen
a
doubtless
radix.
nature
counsel, and
being equipped by
as
10
on
fingers to
a
use
counters,
they
thus
started has
decimal in
basis. the
History
time, where
units fixed
since
steady
progress
direction of the
chosen the
(except
defied
in details
like the
table
surable incommen
ratio
even
between
by
to not
nature
the
French
Revolution).
notation "was
The the
Arabic
or
brought
did
perfection in
become
.
fifth in
sixth
century,"* but
till the sixteenth Roman
mon com
Europe
the the
century.
numerals the
It is not
quite
used
universal
on
yet, the
of
being
titles of and
still
ereigns, sov
dials numbers in
timepieces, in
of book where numerals
chapters
an are
sions, subdivieffect
more
and,
general,
Arabic
archaic
so
is
sought.
convenient these in the The
But
the
much Roman
that
they
The
are
superseding
has been
the
in
even
places.
last ten extension
was
change
noticeable
or
fifteen years. of the in the Arabic latter
system part
the
to
include the
tions frac
made But
of
sixteenth
nience conve
century.
of and
may
notwithstanding
in be
superior
times "common
decimal
fractions, they spread but
slowly ;
that
it is be
only
to
comparatively
more common
recent
they
tions." frac
said
than
The Within what The
we
next
step
next
was
logarithms
"
a
step taken
in 1614.
to
the
ten
years
they
base"
were
accomodated
should dawn well of
call "the the
10.
nineteenth in the
century
found
decimal
a
coinage
*
started
United
p.
States, and
gen
Cajori, Hist, of
Eicm.
Math.,
154.
PRESENT
TRENDS
IN
ARITHMETIC.
53
under in
eral France The
movement
toward
decimalization with of the the metric
over
way
contemporaneous
revolution. political
subsequent spread
continent world has of the been
system
many
over
most
of the of
Europe
the
and
means
other
parts
of
teaching
value
more
decimal
fractions. The
movement
is still
are
on.
The
and
every
tance imporyear.
of decimals And much remains fractions Three and
now
recognized
decimalized.
not
to
are
be
In
stock
tations, quo
yet
still to
expressed decimally. adopt decimal, weights England
has still to has of arithmetic
great nations
measures
have
in
popular
slow
use,
and
adopt
the
decimal
coinage.
a
The
history of
wellmarked
been, in large part,
decimal who idea.
are
but
growth
wide
Those
working
and
measures
for
"
world
as a

decimal in
as a
coinage, weights
schoolroom,
boon
"
timesaver
"
counting
owe
house
and
workshop
well
as
that
we
to
posterity as
a
to
ourselves both
a tion cau
may
learn and
from
such
historical
not
survey
courage. Multitudes
Caution
move
to
expect
matters
sudden
change.
a
slowly
The
in
requiring
ments move
mental
"
readjustment.
for decimal
present
and
reform
weights making
or
measures
in and
the
United in Great the the
States, and
Britain
"
decimal
are
weights, measures
more
coins than
;
rapid progress
fractions
are
Arabic
numerals of the
decimal
made
so
and
opponents
or so
present reform
as
not
ous numer
prejudiced
Arabic also
were
their in the
prototypes
Middle
who and
servatism con
opposed
later.
the
notation
Ages
with
a
Caution whose
against impatience
are
arguments
of
"
drawn
any
from
the
porary tem
inconvenience
to
making
change.
age Cour
work
and
wait
in line with
progress.
54
In the
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
using
fractions,
constant
the
Egyptians operated
and with
Greeks the
kept
numerators
and and and Romans
inators. denoma
The
constant
Romans
Babylonians preferred performed
reduced
denominator,
The
operations
their
on
the
to
numerator.
fractions
to
the
common
denominator also
;
12, the
fractions
Babylonians
to
a
60ths.
We
reduce
we
our
common
denominator characteristic
but trends
use
choose of modern
100.
One
of
the
most
arithmetic
"
is the
rapid
growth
of the
in the decimal
of percentage The broker
another and the
development
the biologist, and
cents.
idea. the
statistician and mathematician
salesman, the manufacturer
express results in per
the
alike
These
and have
other
changes subject
from
in
the
methods
of
puters com
brought about, though tardily, ing correspondin the
matter
changes taught place
to must to
of
arithmetic
are
as
in
the
schools. drawn
Scholastic the
puzzles
life of
giving
order
problems
one
today. topic
in industry
Perhaps
merit be
or a
may
venture
the
opinion that, in
curriculum,
or
a
place (3)
in the
arithmetic
useful
either
(1)
in
commerce
(2)
be
in science.
Under
(3)
may
included,
is in later have
conceivably, a topic whose
mathematical been for
not
sole, or
least two
chief, use
other
work. for
At
reasons
given
retaining a subject: (4)
But it will
one
It is that
required subjects
of this would It
examination.
be
found
on clearlyjustified
of the
grounds above'menbodies
out,
tioned
are
rarely required by examining
and such be withdrawn from
generation ;
doubtless
subjects, if pointed
any But
syllabus. (5)
on
gives superior mental
this argument of results becomes
training.
somewhat
closer
scrutiny
A
vey sur
evanescent.
in that branch
of educational
psychology
PRESENT
TRENDS
IN
ARITHMETIC.
55
between
which
a
treats
of
the
coefficient in
of
correlation
pupil's
faith
attainments in
our
various
a
activities, weakens
certain of be
as a
one's
abilityto give
a
amount
of
by general discipline
Moreover,
that of
certain
amount
ing. specialtrainwell
can discipline
acquired
to
by
the
study
We
subjects
then,
or
that limit
serve
our
direct, useful
these:
purpose.
may,
criteria
utilityfor
for work
business in science. these of
not
our a
industrial
pursuits, and
contained
see
utility
in the
many
riculum cur
Applying
schoolbooks of them
are
tests
to
the
topics
ago,
we
generation
of
a
that crowded the in
worthy
of
are
place
in the
to
of
we
generation.
these
Turning
less
schools,
find
that
many
topics have,
be mentioned and
a
fact, been
each count, disof of
dropped.
year.
Others such
receiving
may
attention
:
Among
"true"
partnership involving time,
payments
equation
false idea
(all three Troy
for
giving, besides,
and
business), and
root
apothecaries weight,
purposes with advanced
cube pils) pu
(except
and the
are
certain
compound
same
proportion. topics
other in
;
At
course
time, other
the
arithmetic those
of
increasing importance
and stock economic
notably
other
involving percentage
and those
decimal and
operations,
opments devel
relatingto
of modern
companies
activity.
social in the
School
life is
not
adjusting
in the
way
itself to
present
ditions, con
only
and
no
topics taught, but
in which
set
lems prob
used Good books the As what
the
the
topics are
in stocks of "Let
treated. ing involv!
longer
of
a
problems
purchase
fractional of
number
shares
Agesilaus, king
will be useful
to
Sparta, said,
boys study
men."
56
A
SCRAPROOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
The and
Greeks
studied
or theory d/oify^"*^,
of
numbers,
the ern mod
or practicalcalculation. XoyicrTiKr),
Hence of
definition and Smith the
art
of
arithmetic, "the
As
science Prof.
numbers
of
computation."
out
David
Eugene
schools
points
much the
(in
his
Teaching
arithmetic It includes
of Elementary
of the the tion introducand
Mathematics)
includes of
"the
modern
besides
this."
the
on
pupil
to
commercial,
the
industrial
scientific life of
today
of
quantitive side.
is the
as
Characteristic arithmetical instruments of tables
our
time
extensive machines be
use
of and and
machines from which
(such
per
roots
adding
may
cents
read)
(of
tables
square
for
certain
scientific work, initial invention
interest of such
for
banks, etc.). The
is not
recent
appliances
; it is their
variety,
that
may
and adaptability be classed
as a
rapidly extending
present
usefulness
phenomenon.
eliminated the
may
They
for
have
not,
however,
reckoners.
necessity
have
rowed nar
training good
the is both standard feature
They
in that
field somewhat,
but
which the
practical and
of attainment of the
men
necessary
remaining part they have set
Indeed,
is the
turn
an
higher.
the
soon
portant im
present situation
that
must
insistent
out
demand
of business
schools
come,
ter beta
computers. stronger
four
There
on
in
school,
in
emphasis
accuracy
and
rapiditv
in
the
fundamental
on use
operationsaccuracy
Emphasis
leads
to
and
rapidity
calculation abstract
the
of
on
"examples"
the business
use an
involving
of
numbers. leads which Both
to
Emphasis
the almost the
applicationsalone "problems'
said that
'
exclusive is but been
in
compilative
necessarv.
incidental well
feature.
exam
are
It has
PRESENT
TRENDS
IN
ARITHMETIC.
57
exercises
are
pies
the
are
to
the
on
arithmetic the
pupil
while the
to
what
are
to
learner what
no
piano,
are
problems
latter.
to
the
former
tunes
Without
no
cises, exer
skill ; with The exercises
can
exercises
are
alone,
ment. accomplishof the
art.
for the
to
technique
The
teacher
not
afford
neglect
been
either.
The methods
last century in
or
more
has has
the age
of
special
in
teaching.
Each that
One has
succeeded
us an
another
popular
lesson
to
"
favor.
taught
a
important acquisition
are more
something pedagogy
the
to
will be science. of each
some
permanent
Few
the
of the
things
of
interestingto
methods than
to
student
trace
the
history
arithmetic
schoolroom
practice
to
of
today
science
to
its
origin
the the
in
worthy
contributor
use
the
(e.g., in
primary grades, the
"number
as
. .
of blocks Busse
;
Trapp, 1780;
tables
pictures" to preparation
and Tanck have
Von the
counting by 2's, 3's.
to
for
;
plication multiMore which
Knilling
But best the
etc.).
recently several
are a
famous
methods
appeared
trend eclectic
still advocated.
present
each
"
is toward method.
choosing
Most
of the
from
an
questions
tested. It
of
method
have
never
been
quately adesome
is, for
that of
instance, asserted
by
as
and
denied
by
at
others the end
pupils would
the with 8th the doubt school
know
year
or even
much if
arithmetic
were
they
later.
to
begin
may
can
arithmetic well tell? lead The
us
5th
History
but who arithmetic the
to
the
proposition;
in all of in
greatest
the
desideratum
teaching today is subject by the scientific
thorough
with be
study
methods
one
employed
benefactor
educational
psychology.
for
Some
facilities for
a
doing
this service
arithmetic
could
58
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
indeed. and
Questions
measurement
that should
are
matters
for remain
accurate
test
not
always
questions.
Meantime,
empiricism
is
unavoidable.
To
summarize of of
the
tendencies
noted of the
:
the
zation decimalition eliminain ernizing moddemand clination inmetic, arithgation. investi
arithmetic,
many with the
growth
from
percentage,
school
on
topics
increased
treatment
curriculum
arithmetic
emphasis
of
others,
remaining
in
topics, computation,
in
for
more
accuracy
and
an
rapidity
method
toward
eclectic
teaching
present
This but it is believed such
empiricism
list
pending
course, true
scientific far from
is, of
to
exhaustive,
be
and
significant.
as
Lacking
for of
as
exact
information of of
that make
our
just
the
asked best And
art
the
desideratum observation
today,
the trends in the
w
e
may
mere
of
time. of the and the
as
to
the
great
movements
history
are
of cisive. de
arithmetic
itself,
the
conclusions
definite
By
and with in
orienting
the
ourselves,
we
by
may
studying acquaint
and
may
are
past
noting
the
currents,
of
course.
ourselves take conditioned
direction
present
Our
forces
part
shaping
our
our
todays by
by
yesterdays,
tomorrow
today.
MULTIPLICATION
AND
DIVISION
OF
MALS. DECI
For invented Of has in I
the
multiplication
many
of
whole Pacioli
numbers
the
Italians
methods.*
one
was
(1494)
use,
gives
and
eight.
these,
survived
on
only
in
in
common
it alone Shown cake
or
commerce
and called
the
schools.
p.
64.
It
was
bericiiocolo and
(honey
scacchiera The
ginger
or
bread)
by
the
Florentines,
the Venetians. into
(chess
checker the
names
board)
by
little squares with them the
in the
partial products
which form the in
appear
fell made
p.
disuse
(and
they
II
on
appropriate)
The Treviso
leaving
arithmetic
a
familiar
64.
(1478), example
would
first
arithmetic
printed,
which of
contains about
long
as
multiplication,
on
appears
an
it
the
blackboard
American
school
today.
In
1585
appeared
seven
Simon
pages,
Stevin's
but the first the
immortal
La
to
Disme,
only
publication
same
expound
had used
decimal them Ill
on
fractions,
in p.
an
though
table La in of
same
author the and
or
interest
published
Disme, circles,
year shows
theses, paren
before. Stevin's
64 (the
the IV
is
from
notation
numbers order is the
indicating
first order
decimals,
tenths
the the in
debted in
etc.) expressed
example
now
with
decimals
*
by
facts
the
in
notation
this
section and
prevalent
the author David
on
For
the
historical
to
is
mainly
Smith,
the
two
Professor American
Cajori
Prof.
Eugene
leading
authorities
the
history
of
mathematics.
59
6o
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
America. vin's An
a
Let
us
call this arrangement
of
work
Ste
method.
arrangement
column Adrian
not
in which
all decimal is said of
a
points
to
are
in
vertical
(see V
Romain been sake
a
below)
quarter
the of
have
been later.
used He
by
may
;
century
this
have for the
inventor
a
of
ment arrange
but,
name,
call it Romain's
method. Romain
recent
's method
is advocated
in
a
few
of
the
best
advanced
common
arithmetics, but
;
Stevin's
are
is still vastly
the in
more
use.
and has
an
these four
two
the only methods
:
Romain's
slightadvantages
from
as
(1 )
A
person
setting down
to
example
soon
dictation the
can
begin
decimal waits
any
write
the
multiplieras
while entire
to
place
method he
of its he
point
to
is seen, the
in
Stevin's
hear
multiplier before
its last
writes
of it, in order beneath this the
have last
may
(righthand) figure
the
stand
figure
be
of
multiplicand
as a essential non
(though
positon
in fits
regarded
the
feature method method that
are
Stevin's
arrangement).
of
(2)
main's Ro
more
naturally with (decimal point (3)
After
to
"Austrian"
over
of of
division
quotient
and
dividend).
it is not
as
the
count
partial products point
are
added,
necessary
off in the
in the the
product point
is
many
decimal
places as
well
there
multiplicand
and
multiplier together, product (as
that
more
as
since
decimal
in the
in the
partial
to
sults re
products) (4)
directlybeneath
method is
in the
multiplicand. adapted
method
Romain's
readily
abridged multiplication where
are
only approximate
hand, Stevin's
:
required. On
very
the
other
has
one
decided
advantage
the
first
ten figure writits
in
each in the
partial product multiplier,so
is that
directly beneath
it is
not
figure
necessary
MULTIPLICATION
OF
DECIMALS.
6
1
(as
it is in
Romaiirs)
in
a
to
determine
the So
place
of
the is
to
decimal
point
partialproduct.
alone has the been
numerous
important
this, that
children,
Stevin's
generally taught points in
to
notwithstanding
to
favor
of Romain's. It occurred in
one
the
writer
recently to try
of both of the
combine Flemish rule :* last each
method and
the he
advantages
the the
the
methods,
Write the
hit upon
following simple multiplierunder
method of
units
figure of
of in the which
the
(righthand) figure partialproduct (as
under decimal the
multiplicand, begin
familiar
you
are
Stevin)
all
figureby
in the
may
multiplying,and
then be Decimal
or
points
that in
products will
be the written rule
neath directly be
multiplicand.
points
as
in
partial products
The
reason
not,
desired. VI shows
underlying
is apparent.
the arrangement In
of work. the
as
this arrangement is
placing
Stevin's is
of
the
partialproducts
and
as
automatic,
off in the
in
method,
the main's. Ro
pointing
product
for
use
automatic,
the child the
in
It is available
by
in his first
puter com
multiplication of
in his To column in VII
are as
decimals
and
by
skilled
abridged work. keeping
be One like decimal that drawn of the
an
assist in
orders vertical the
uses
in the
same
it is recommended and VIII
the
line shown
before
partial products
of the
in line
written.
earliest
decimal
separatrix
is in
example
it
Napier's partial
first the
the
Rabdologia
and
*
(1617).
He
draws It
author Court
through
to
the
complete products.
Since of
is
said
be
writing
2930
this the
the
has
come
upon
same
method
in Lagrange's Lectures, multiplication of
delivered is
in
1795
One
to
(p
invents who find that "the
Open Publishing anything in elementary mathematics
have stolen his ideas."
Co.'s
edition).
likely
ancients
62
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
example
is VII advocated
of
abridged multiplication. A
whose diameter the is 635. the
circumference
computed
to
illustrates
application of
which of diameter
method
an
here
multiplicationin
The be
to
only
a
mation approxiis found
to
is
sought.
No
circle
by
0.01
to
are
measurement
cm.
74.28
can
cm.
This the
is correct circumference
computation
of
give
to
any
higher degree
to
accuracy.
Partial determine
products
the
rect cor
kept
three for
places in
second
order
figure
The
to
the
place
of work
in the shows
complete
what
duct. pro
arrangement
figures
of
omit.
It should be remarked decimals numbers that
are
"
all three
"
methods like the may
of multiplication of first
or
alike
and
one
tiplication mulply multi
whole
in that order first.
by
the
digit of
the
lowest order
in the The
was
multiplier
method of described
by
the
the
digit of highest
multiplying by by
may
highest
order
as a
first
Italian
to
arithmeticians be
dietro.
Though
so
it in
seem
working
the
more
backwards,
it is not before the
fact and
;
for has like
it puts
important
in VII. But
less,
practical advantage
that shown the
one
abridged multiplication,
that
in
question
is
distinct Stevin the units units the last
from writes
under
consideration. the
the of
last the
figure of
method
multiplierunder
Romain writes writes
figure
multiplicand;
here whole
under under
units ; the last. In
proposed
units
numbers,
figure is
last.
to
or
Applied
as
the
ordinary multiplicationof decimals,
the
to
in be
VI well
VIII,
method schoolroom
here
use,
proposed
classes
was
seems
to
adapted
to
possessing
in
all
the
simplicity of
school
Stevin's.
whom the
Methods method
this
normal
presented,
MULTIPLICATION
OF
DECIMALS.
63
in the
immediately preferred it, and
school for used it
a
grade
trainingnothing,
its advocates.
readily.
is
a
Of
success
course
this proves in the hands
are,
as
every
method The
of
changes
;
here
set
forth
however,
a
not
advocated
they
are
merely proposed
for division It
bility. possi
The possesses
analogous
of
method
of
decimals the
cessity ne
analogous
of 10
now
advantages.
divisor the
most
avoids dividend
multiplying the
as
and
by
the
such in
a
power
will make
divisor in
integral (as
and
the
method of of
perhaps
to
favor)
the
cessity ne
counting
minus
point
in the
of! in the
to
quotient a
number
ber num
decimal
places equal
that Like like the the
in the
the
dividend method division
divisor the
(as
in
older the
still
at
common).
;
latter, it
begins
The
once
and shows
former, its pointing off
is automatic. under the last
IX
arrangement.
is units
figure
the decimal
figure of
the divisor the
figure of
the
quotient. point.
the That
This
determines
place
of
part of the quotient which
projectsbeyond
has been
seen
divisor, is fractional.
of used multiplication division in IX is
a
If the order
as
dietro,
to
in
VIII, the
readily
be in
the the
inverse
same
operation.
order
as
The
partialproducts
in use, remainders it may below
appear
partial dividends.
methods the be viated abbredend. divithe
Like
each
of
the
by writing only
Shown If whole had the in X. "little castle" with
method
of
multiplication of multiplicand,
board,"
in the for
numbers,
multiplier above
of the "chess
now
prevailed, instead
century,
the and multiplication
fifteenth the
arrangement
proposed
would
division of decimals
have
afforded
slightlygreater advantage.
64
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
II
2
9
13
7
12
2
2 9
13
7
12
2
65
MULTIPLICATION OF DECIMALS.
ARITHMETIC
IN
THE
RENAISSANCE.
The
invention
not
of because
printing
it made the
was
important
books
more
for
metic, arith
only
because
accessible,
Hindu
but
also
it. spread with textbook
to
use
of
the
abic") ("Ar
numerals The oldest is said of
to
their
on
decimal arithmetic of
notation.
to
use
these
an
merals nu
be
that about
Avicenna,
1000 A. D.
Arabian
physician According
of
Bokhara,
Cardan who Liber instance
(firooks).
it
was
(sixteenth
introduced
century)
the numerals In in
use
nardo Leorope Eu
Pisa his
one
into
(by
there is
Abaci,
of in
1202).
their
use
England,
a
though
of
ceptional ex
manuscript
somewhat Then
came
1282," and
another
even
1325,
their
is
in and
the
a
fifteenth
more
century.
printed
decimal The
books notation.
general
acceptance
of
the
importance
Even
of the
this
step
with
can
hardly
all their with and had of
be
estimated. over
Greeks,
ical mathemat
acumen,
had
contented of
themselves numbers in the
mystic
made
and
paratively com
philosophic
properties
little
progress
art
computation.
such
a
They
lacked
was
a
suitable
at
notation. close That
a
When of the Middle
was
tion nota
adopted
the
Ages,
one
the
art
advanced the
rapidly.
advance in the
feature
of
Renaissance,
of "the choice that
age
detail
great century
intellectual from
awakening
to
marvelous of
half
1450
1500,
The
progress."
the
66
between
old
and
the
new
in
arith
ARITHMETIC
IN
THE
RENAISSANCE.
67
illustration* of
metical
notation in the
is well first
pictured by
Two is
the
arithmetic
rita printed cyclopedia, the Margaaccountants
are
Philosophica (1503).
their voting The tables.
man,
at
The the
old Hindu looks
man
using
so
the
abacus
; the to
us.
numerals askance
at
familiar
aered reckoner
face both the is
his youthful
;
rival,
a
in whose behind have younger doubt The
hope
the
and
confidence
to
while
on
dais shall
stands
goddess
Her her
decide
are
which
on
ascendency.
candidate,
at to
eyes
fixed there be
can
the be
no
right, and
is to is
that
the
new
numerals the
the
victory.
of
background
It is
an
of
picture
of of four the
characteristically
of the
medieval. the old
apt illustration
To has
us
passing
of old
arithmetic.
one
centuries
towers
after, it
ford) Ox
whispers (as
"the The
said
last enchantment book
of the known
as
Middle the
Age."
metic, arithmetic first arithIn this
anonymous from
ever
Treviso the
its
place long
of It
publication,is appeared
the
printed.
of
in
1478.
Italian
work
ago
was
But method
long
then
division
ern. looks modmultiplication by the galley (or "scratch")
prevalent.
Summa
say
ten
Paciolrs 1494 Hindu
di
Arithmetical
was
published
uses
in
(some
years
earlier).
It also
the
numerals.
f
Tonstall's
arithmetic
work book
(1522)
of
was
"the
first
tant imporDe
arithmetical
"J English authorship.
the
most
Morgan
which in
*
calls the
ever
was
"decidedly
on
classical
written
the
subject
of
in
Latin, both
purity
See
of
style and
goodness
matter."
frontispiece.
the for words the "zero"
fin Pacioli's work, found (millione) are 284.
(cero)
in
and
"million"
first time
print. Cantor,
II,
t Cajori, 'Hist, of Elem.
Math.,
p.
180.
68
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
Recorde's written teaches in
celebrated
Grounde It the
of
Aries
(1540)
numerals,
was
English. by
uses
Hindu The
but is in
reckoning
form. first
counters.
exposition
dialogue
The
English
Mellis
work
on
double
entry
has
an
ing, bookkeepappendix
by
on
John
(London,
1588),
arithmetic. The
Pathzvay
Dutch in The into 1596.
to
Knowledge, English
It contains has
anonymous, W.
two
translated
from London
by
P.,
was
published
which
are
in mortal. im
lines said
to
translator In modernized Of is
been form the
be
the known
author
to
of
the
lines.
they
are
every
schoolboy.
age,
all
arithmetical the classic
doggerel
:
of
that
this
preeminently
hath
"Thirtie
daies
September,
Aprill,
June,
and
vember, No
Februarie,
and
eight
one."
and
twentie
alone
;
all
the
rest
thirtie
On
the
subject
Books
of is
to
early
the the
arithmetics standard work. is Prof. Old Co.
De
Morgan's
An David esting intergene Eu
Arithmetical
contribution
subject
"The "
Smith's
illustrated
article,
and in
the
New
book Text
Arithmetic,"
Bulletin,
published
February.
by
Ginn
their
1905.
NAPIER'S
RODS
AIDS TO
AND
OTHER CALCULATION.
MECHANICAL
No has
to
mathematical been made for
invention three
to
facilitate that
or
computation
is
centuries
comparable
bones,"
to
logarithms.
famous,
that
owe
Napier's
their the
rods,
interest
"Napier's
now
once
largely
man
the gave Mer
fact
they
to
are
invention
of
the
who of is the
logarithms
chiston. in of his The The
the
world,
John
Napier,
of in
baron the rods
inventor's
description published
tained con
his
Rabdologia,
1617,
year
death. rods with consist
square
of
10
strips
A
of
wood has
on
or
other each of
terial, ma
ends. the
rod of four
its
four One the Each
lateral of the
faces rods of
multiples
on
one
of
the
digits.
has,
0,
the
faces of
two
respectively,
0, 2,
multiples
square
1, 9,
the
8;
another,
of
9,
7;
etc. two
gives
the
product being
E. the left
g.,
digits, by
the
figures
of hand
of the
product
separated Fig.
2 and the
the
onal diagright
the
square.
in
lowest
square
contains 9 the
digits 7
of the
same
2,
72
being
and 8
product
the
of of 2
(at
the
row)
(at
top
rod).
the and nine faces of the rods and
as
Fig.
represents
of
giving against
the
a
multiples
rod all
4,
3 the
to
8,
placed digits
438
to
together
be used
any
containing
in
multiplier,
"
position
multiply
by
number
say
69
yO
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
26.
the
The
tens
products
are
written
case
off, from
be added
a
the
to
rods. the
But
next
are
digitin
The
each
is to
units
to
digit; that is, the
added.
two
figures in
of
rhomboid
be
operation
multiplying438 by 26,
Fig.
i.*
after
arranging
as
the
:
rods
as
in
Figure 2,
at
would
be
somewhat
follows first
beginning
we
the
+
right hand
and
multiplying
*
by 6,
have
8, 4
8, (carrying the
From
Lucas, III, 76.
NAPIER
S
RODS.
71
1
)
1
4.
1
+
4^ 2,
first
giving
the
number
(from
left to
right)
is read
at
2628,
the
partialproduct.
from the
Similarly 876
row
of squares
the It is
right of
shifted
the
one
multiplier2. place
to
the
left in tial partwo
writing it
numbers Somewhat
use
under
the former Then
these
product.
are
added.
analogous
rods for that
to
is the
of the
division.
"It is evident
be of little the
as use
they would
one
any
who
as
knew far
table multiplication
x
9
9."*
Though
later
so
lished pubthan much
(and invented) logarithms,
admire,
more
which rods
were
we
the
welcomed
cordially by
Several
raries. contempoof the
out
editions
Fig.
Rabdologia
2. on
were
brought
within rude of the
a
the
more
Continent
cade. deof
"Nothing
arithmetical
shows
clearly the
the
state
teenth seven
knowledge
than invention
a
at
beginning
welcomed
century
which
and this
the
universal
was
satisfaction
with
Napier's
as
by
rods
all classes It is from is interesting
regarded point
and of
real aid to calculation."* that
to
view
the
us.
study
other
of
the
instructive
The
Rabdologia
of rods mechanical
contains for
matter
besides
the
description
But such
multiplication and
are
division.
seded. super
aids to calculation
soon
*
Dr.
Glaisher
a.
in
his
article
"Napier"
in
the
Encyclopedia
Britannic
*J2
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
It in the
is
worthy
absence
of of Arabic
note
in
this
connection,
an
however,
for
that tion calculadevices
so
facile
instrument
as
our
notation,
so
simple
as
mechanical
to
might
turies.
be The
found
serviceable which is
persist
to
for
cen
abacus,
as
familiar
almost of
every
one,
but
only
a
historical
a
relic,
a
a
piece
tive illustraaid
to
apparatus,
or
toy,
the
was
highly
and
important
Romans.
computation
to
among is the
Greeks
Similar It
to
the
abacus
Chinese
are
swan
pan.
its and
use,
is make
said
that
Oriental
accountants
able,
accuracy with
by
putations com
rivaling by
Modern Occidentals
in
speed
on
those
formed per
numerals
cent
paper. and the
adding complicated
machines,
and such
per
devices,
more
costly
mechanical and the
calculating
marvels machines tables of
as
instruments "electrical of
have
led
up
to
calculating
and and
machines"
which
Babbage logarithms
Scheutz,
of
latter functions
prepare
logarithmic
without
error
arithmetical and
or
typographical,
them If
computing,
for be the press.
stereotyping
ering deliv
ready
rods the
Napier's
of of
regarded
century, of
as
exemplars they
are
of
such
products
members
nineteenth
primitive
a
long
line
honorable
succession.
AXIOMS
IN
ELEMENTARY
ALGEBRA.
Many
with 1.
are
a
textbooks list of axioms
on
the such
subject
as
introduce
equations
the
following:
or
Things equal
to
equal
each be be
to
the
same
thing
equal
things
other. added
to
2.
If If
are
equals equals equal. equals
equals,
from
the
sums
are
equal.
ders remain
3.
subtracted
equals,
the
4.
are
If
be
multiplied
by
equals,
the
products
equal.
5.
If
equals
be
divided
by
equals,
the
quotients
are
equal.
6. The Like whole
powers,
is
greater
or
than roots,
any
of
its
are
parts.
7.
like
of
equals
equal.
the based dation founalso
These of the
timehonored
"common arithmetic. On But
notions" them it is
to
are
logical
of
is
most
reasoning
we
algebra.
their
we
desirable
that, when
of of
extend
meaning
should
the the
comparison
limitations of tations limi
algebraic
the axioms.
numbers,
notice is
a
Generalization When have been those them.
we
characteristic
we
mathematics. that
true true
generalize,
stated
or
remove
implied.
may
or
A
may
tion proposinot
we
with
limitations For of the
be
ceed pro
without from
illustration:
two
When
to
geometry
dimensions
geometry
understood
are
of in
three
dimensions,
geometry,
limitation,
all
always
considered
plane
while
that
figures
motion
73
cept (exsuper
employing
the
postulate
for
74
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
position) in
removed.
the
plane
of in
of
the
paper
or
blackboard,
true
is
Some hold this
the
propositions
some
in
not.
plane
pare Coma
geometry
in
also
solid, and
two
one
do
respect the
theorems,
"Through
can
given
drawn
external
to
a
point only
perpendicular
a
be
and, "Through given line,''
one
given internal
point only
line."*
For
perpendicular
another than when
can
be
see
drawn the of
means
illustration
one
given paragraph (p.
to
a
37), "Are
of
a
there
more
set
prime
factors
number?"
; yes
No the
factor
arithmetic is extended instances of
number
to
when
meaning
of the word See also
include
complex
numbers.
p.
the We
"fallacy of accident,"
85
f.
of the axioms metic of arithmight expect that some when would need qualification tend we attempt to exthem
so
as
to
apply
to
algebraic numbers.
we
And that all
that
is what have
we
find.
But
their
do
not
find the
authors
or
notified them
too
readers
own
of
use
limitations
have
observed it is not shall
terms
in their
to
of the axioms. of in
Surely
a
much
true
expect that the axioms
science the
be
are
and
applicable in
axiom,"
it should
the
sense
which The
used
in that science.
fifth,or
"division
receive
best Without of
the the such
important qualification given
books, "divided
limitation A
on
by
the
by equals,except zero.3'
statement
the
is far "axiom"
from may
:
axiomatic.
also have
+

writer another
or
of the page
sixth
7
something Seeing
how
ever
like this
one
"+ 3 is the
5
whole,
+ on
sunt/'
wonders could whole
that
of its parts is
a
+2

7, one
the
author, in
have written than
in
textbook the
of "ax
1 3
algebra,
+
iom," "The
*
is greater
any
the
its
parts."
in
Using the term perpendicular elementary geometry.
sense
customary
AXIOMS
IN
ELEMENTARY
ALGEBRA.
75
In
the
seventh
axiom,
Otherwise
like
roots
of
:
equals
Like taken.'"
are
equal
roots
arithmetically.
of
worded
real
equals
When
we
are
equal,
use
like word else
signs
being
in
the
"equal"
"same"
the If
two
axioms,
numbers
same
do
we
mean
anything
same as a
than
"
are
the
third
number,
they
are
the
as
each
other,
The of
"
etc.?
*
defense
often
are
heard
for in axiom Besides
the
unqualified
that
"
axiom,
here Roots this that
or are
Like
means are
roots
equals
they
To
equal,
the
algebra
to
like
equal equal
and cube
to
would if
reduce
are
a
platitude, insipid,
must mean,
equal.
of
to any use,
being
axiom each
a
is if
sufficient inC
a
be
the
D
are
known
of A then for inference the and C
represent
B and
same
square
root, and known the
case
each known be
two
root, be
respectively,
D
are as
and
if
A
B
equal,
this
certainly
Now in when like
to
expressions
roots
number.
of
are
square
is
justified
only
signs
3
taken.
For
cube
roots,
if
A=B=1,
then
"
t^
+
t^v/
B;
"
is
a
cube
root
of
A,
and"
"
"
^s/"
3
are
3
is
a
cube
root
of
but
"
+
?
\/"
3
and
"
=
"
"/
Tj
"
not
expressions
be taken and be
to to
for
the
same
number.
If
their
are
modulus
(page
to
94)
other axiom
as
their real
absolute cube Like
root
value,
1
they
absolute
roots
equal
value.
each
our
the
to
in
If it cube
made such
read,
odd
real
are
equal,
one
is
applicable
root
roots
without
has but
trouble.
one,
A
has
are
but
that
is
real,
and
B
and
they
It
equal.
is
interesting
to
notice
in
passing
that
the
two
numbers
just
used,
"
"+"%/"
each of
3
and
"
"
"
3, ?\/"
of
are
a
pair
of
unequal
numbers
which
is
the
square
the
other.
DO
THE
AXIOMS
APPLY
TO
EQUATIONS?
them
Most if in
textbooks
in Most
or
elementary
of the
algebra
have,
use
as
they
the
applied.
first
algebras
somewhere like this:
fifty
sixty
3*
pages,
something
+
4=19 member,
Subtracting
4
from
each
3x
=
15
Ax.
3
Dividing
by
3,
x
=
5
Ax.
5
This
on
shows
how is.
common
some
very
no
loose
thinking
has of been
this in
subject
the
For
although
mistake citation
made
as
algebraic operation,
for these
the
axioms
a
authority
divide which other As
a
steps
of
a an
opens
the
way
for
an
pupil
to
both
case
members he
equation
* or
by
to
unknown,
one
in the
drops
and
solution,
a
apply
of
axioms
matter
introduce axioms
one can
solution.
not
of for
fact, the
do
apply
the which and
directly
axioms,
is correct inout
can
to
equations:
no
(A)
and
can
follow
a
make
mistake,
;
arrive violate from
at
result
(B)
he the
the
axioms
come
right;
not
(C)
axioms,
to
their
very
nature,
apply
*
directly
teacher of
equations.
elementary carefully
to
Every
of
algebra guided)
note to
is
to
aware
of
the
tendency by x" when
the
pupils
o.
(unless
and
"divide have
through
lost
out
possible,
x
=
fail
that
they
solution
76
DO
THE
AXIOMS
APPLY
TO
EQUATIONS?
out
JJ
(A)
To
follow
axioms
and .,1=2
come
wrong'.
(1)
x
"
Multiplying Subtracting Dividing Adding
But that
each
member .r2"r
+
by
5
=
$f
Ax. 4
2.r10
x

7 from x27x+\2
each
=
member,
x3
"
Ax.
3
each
member
by
x
3,
Ax. 5
4T4=1
4 to each
member,
.r
=
5
The
.
Ax.
2
x
x

5 does
not
satisfy ( 1 )
is 3.
at
only
value
of
satisfies
(1)
Misunderstanding
it is deemed tedious. solution
x

this
point
is
so
common
that
best
to
be
explicitat
x x

the
risk of being
introduces the tion solu
The
x
=
multiplicationby
the division be when and value
;
5

5, and
Now
by
3 loses the that the
3.
it may section
zero,
argued,
that of
x
axioms
of
the
preceding
division
clude properly qualifiedex
by
3
x

3
is here which shows for what The this
a
form
of
zero
since
is the
for
equation
that in value
(1 )
of
to
is true. with
are
Exactly
true
but the
to
this
only
raised. them
operating
x
equations
is bound and axioms
question
be
they
attempt
qualify the
adjust
to
to
necessity
to
will,if thoroughgoing, lead
of
*
of equivalency principles is
equations.*
Such,
add for To subtract
Any
as
objector
the
same
requested
study
following : expression (known or unknown) of an to both members equation, does not affect the value of x (the resulting equation is equivalent to the original). To multiply or divide both members number not by a known
or
example,
the
zero,
does
not
affect the
or
value both
of
x.
To of
x,
multiply
introduces of
divide
or
members
by
an
integral function
solution
the
loses, respectively,solutions (namely, the formed by putting the multiplier equation
equal
the
to
zero)
it
being
understood
that
the
equations
are
in
standard
form.
?8
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
carefully the principlesof equivalency
one
as
set
forth
to
in
the
of the best
on on
algebras and
one
notice
to
their relation with then
axioms
the
hand
see
and
operations
he
not
tions equapared pre
the
say
other, and
that the
whether do
is not
to
axioms
apply directlyto
is not
on
equations.
It attack should
on
be
noted
that the
the
foregoing
not
an
the
integrityof
them where in
axioms, but
are
only
not
the
application of
If it be
they (A)
applicable.
are
objected that
the axioms
are
really
as
followed, the
reply is, that they
here
followed
to
they
them
are
naturally followed by
the authors
are
by pupils taught
as
apply
to equations, and directly
they
are
occasionally
the
followed
of
some
elementary algebras,
more
only
the
errors
here
made
glaring and
process
reduced
ad
absurdum.
(B)
In
To
violate the
to
axioms
and
come
out
right:
made
order
avoid
the
objection that
may
the
errors
by violating two only
Add
one
axioms will be
just balance (1)
not to
each
other,
axiom
violated. x\=2
10
to
one
member deemed
a
and
the other.
This
will
doubtless of
be the
sufficiently flagrant transgression
axiom":
^" +
"addition
9
=
2
x

(2)
3,
Multiplying each Subtracting 2x6 Dividing Adding
each
member
x2
+
by
27
=
6x
2x6
(3) (4)
Ax.
4
from
each
member,
Ax. 3
.r* + 4.r21=0
member
by
.r3
x
+
=
7,
0
(5)
Ax.
5
3 to
each
member,
x
=
3
Ax.
2
DO
THE
AXIOMS
APPLY
TO
EQUATIONS?
of been in
79
Inasmuch
error
as
3 is the
correct
root
equation (1), the
balanced
in the
or
first step must several.
at
have done
by
other, an
by
It
was
obtaining (3)
were
and
(5), though
(C)
have The
etc.
"
both
steps the axioms
applied.
can
The
axioms,
from
their
very
nature,
not
any
direct
application to equations.
say
are
axioms the
that
"
if
equals
But value for
to
be
added
to
equals
ing solv
results
equal.
what
the of
x
question in
are
equations is, For
Of when
to
x.
they equal?
of
x.
course
they
are was
equal
added
were
some
one
value member
some
So
not
something
and value
to to
the
other, the results
equal for
numbers,
are
of
Arithmetic, dealing with
certain
;
needs
know certain the
on
same known un
that others
resulting
numbers
equal
the
to
but
algebra, dealing
the
with
equation,
know the of the
conditional zvhat number
equality of expressions, needs expressions represent
for what In values is true. is not in other
condition
"
words,
the
to
are
equation
(B)
above, the
jection ob
equation (2)
are
that
as
its two much but
as
members
are
not
equal (they
of the the
same
"equal"
value
the
are
two not
members
first
equation) of
x as
that
they
equal for
; that
in the
first equation
is
(2)
is not
equivalent to (1).
of
The in
a
principlesof equivalency
few of the best The Even of the
texts
equations
are
as
given
ferred de
not
too
difficult
for the
beginner.
till later.
proof
if
of them
may
well be
never
proved, they
would that be
would axioms
be, for the
that do
not
present
purpose,
vastly superior to
no
apply.
the
To
give
reasons
erable prefnot
to
practice of quoting
axioms
do
apply.
So
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
The
axioms
have in
their the the
place proof
axioms
in of
connection the
with of
equations equivalency.
of
;
namely,
To
principles
in the
apply
is be
an
directly
lution so
equations
can
error.
Pupils
the
nature
hardly
of the of have
expected
when
to
think
clearly
are
so
about misled. tary elemenin
equation
the made is
they majority
How
the
authors
great
so
of
the
texts
can
palpable
of the
seven
a
mistake wonders
so
elementary algebra.
a
matter,
one
of
CHECKING
THE
SOLUTION
OF
AN
TION. EQUA
The
habit their for
which
many
of
highschool
an
pupils by
have
first
of
stituting sub
checking
solution
x
equation
of upon the
in
both like
members
given
tion, equa
performing
until
a
operations
is
both and
members then claring dethe
numerical their work
identity
obtained,
may the be
"proved/'
in
illustrated is
by
following
:
"proof,"
Syi
which
absurdity
rent appa
Checking
in
one
in
the of
legitimate
the
to
manner
"
by substituting
and then
member number
given
equation
form,
to
reducing
the
resulting
in
we
its
simplest
substituting
form
"
the have
other 1
+
member
and for the
are
reducing
first
not
simplest
and 1

y7
As
member,
V 7
for
the
a
second.
root
these
equal
is
no
numbers,
root.
5 is not
of
the
equation.
There
81
82
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
'
The
5
was
introduced
in but either for
squaring.
not
That
is,
#
=
5
satisfies
equation
of
a
(3)
in
(2)
or
or
(1).
we
By
obtain
the
an
change
sign
is
(1)
x
=
(2)
equation
that
true
5:
1+
When rational
V*+2
:
=
1+
V12*
equations
there from
are
are
derived other the
from irrational of
irrational
by
involution,
always
in
tions, equafrom derived.
differing
which
In
a
these
sign
a
term,
be
the
same
rational
equations
may be found
would the
popular
algebra
equation
x+5and is
not.
Vjtr+5
=
6 the
in
the for
answer
list
printed
4 instance
in is
book, solution,
"4,
but
or
1"

given
this
equation.
this in that the all
a
1

is
Unfortunately
As
the
is
not
unique.
shown
fallacy
erroneous
method
above that
is
in
assuming
may To be
operations by
5
2 4
=
are
reversible,
method
caricatured
'
the 1
old
absurdity,
prove
that
\J
Subtracting Squaring
3
from
each,
2/^
= =
4
,.5
=
1!
ALGEBRAIC
FALLACIES.
A
are
humorist
maintained
a
that with
in
all
literature
there and
really only
to
few
a
jokes
many into
variations,
which
all A
proceeded
could be
give
"
classification list of
jests
placed
a
limited
to
type
jokes.
fellow
humorist
if the
proceeded
writer's
memory
reduce is the that
this
number
(to three,
Whereupon
a
correct).
third
representative
step
and declared
of
profession
there in
to
on are
took
none.
the
ing remain
Whether
these
gentlemen
or
succeeded another
eliminating
an
jokes
enormous
gether alto
in
adding
already point
and of
number,
The of of the
depends
writer
commoner
perhaps
to
the
view.
some
purposes
classify
illustrate the but of fond the
algebraic striking
certain like
to
fallacies, in
hope,
rather
not
adding
a
original
types,
specimen,
at
are
of
standardizing
them.
the
risk
not
blighting
of
Fallacies,
is
ghosts,
all
light.
Analysis
Of divided notice of the
perilous
or
species
of into
a
genus. Aristotle
classes,
fallacies
subclasses,
of
which few is merit that
the here.
logic, only
among
as
special variety
In
or
Prominent known it
a
these
paralogism
undistributed the is
middle. of
converse,
mathematics
masks
as
fallacy
not
employing
as
process For
that
uniquely following:*
reversible
if
it
were.
example,
the
*
Taken,
with
several
of W. W.
the R.
other Ball.
illustrations,
See his
from
the
fallacies Recreations
compiled
and
by
Mathematical
Essays.
83
84
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
Let numbers
c
be
a
the and
arithmetic b ; that
mean
between
two
unequal
is, let
a
+ b
=
2c
(1)
2bc 2bc
Then
(a + b) (ad)=2c(ad)
a2
"
b2
2ac
=
=
2ac
"
Transposing, Adding
c2 to
a2
"
b2
"
each,
a22ac+c2
.'.a"c
=
b22bc+c2
b
"
(2) (3)
=
c
and
a
=
b
But Of
a
and
course
b
were
taken
two
unequal.
of
the but of of that
so
members
(3)
The
are
ally arithmeticsquares, the
equal
two
so
opposite quality;their
(2),
are
members
equal.
seem
fallacy here
expose
is
apparent
it would
common
superfluous to
one
it,were
For
it not another
in take
form
or
another.
used in the
example
to
the
an
absurdity
erroneous
preceding section
checking
a a
caricature
of
an
method
us
of
to
solution
equation.
Let
resort
parallel column
A
arrangement:

bird
is
an
animal;
animal;
Two
equal
squares;
two
numbers
have
equal
A horse is
an
These
numbers
have
equal
.".
squares;
A
horse The
is
a
bird.
.".
These
two
numbers
are
equal.
untutored
at
man
poohthe'
The
firstyear highschool
derides this
poohs
to
this, because
is
a
pupil
the
whenever
conclusion
notice of
absurd, but fails
conclusion allow
the
to
is absurd, but
pass
like
fallacy on
the
would
unchalmethod
lips
the
own
politicalspeaker
party.
lenged
of
fallacious
shown
of his
checking
in the preceding
section.
In much
to
case
of indicated
square
roots
common
the
fallacy may
convention
be
as
less
apparent.
is understood
By
the
sign, +
before
V
Considering, then.
ALGEBRAIC
FALLACIES.
85
real odd
root,
only
true
the that
even positive
root
or
the
are
it is
"like
roots
of
equals
v
equal," and
v av
ab=
b
But
no
if
a
and
b
are
negative, and by assuming
n
even,
the have
identity
the surdity ab
longer holds,
and
it
we
V(_l)
(1)=
V^T.
Vl
1=1
Or
take
for
granted
The
that
x\\b
4
V, a
=
7
for all values
of
Vb
an
the
letters.
=
following is
identity, since
each
member
V"
1:
VI
Hence !
Vi
Clearing of fractions,
Or The from
a
( Vl )2= ( V"
1=1
1
)
2
"fallacy of
general
rule renders and fallacy, De
accident," by
to
a
which
where
one some
argues cumstance cirverse con
special case
the
rule
and inapplicable, third
its
Morgan's suggested
one
variety general
form of
of
the
fallacy,from
special case
to
another, all
As
a
find
exemplificationin pseudoalgebra.
but The is the
common
rule, if equals be divided
by equals, the quotients are
divisors
are
equal ;
zero.
case
not
if the
equal
the
any
to
of application method
general rule
the
this
special
of
underlying
largest number
the
fallacies. algebraic
86
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
"""
9

O

x
x
x

X
Factoring the
and the
first member
as
the difference
a common
of squares,
second
by taking (x
+
out
factor,
x) (xx)
x
=x(xx)
x=x
Canceling
xx,
+
(1) (2)
(3)
2x 2
=
x
=
1 into
Dividing by
which is true
0
changes identity(1)
for
x
equation (2),
0. viding Di
only
leaves old
one
value
of x,
namely
(2) by
Take another
the
absurdity (3).
illustration:*
The
use
of
a
divergent
which which
one
series
assumes
furnishes
another
to
type
be
of
fallacy,in
of all series For
something only
series
true
in fact is true the harmonic
of the is
convergent.
this
purpose
perhaps oftenest employed.
+ i+++
...
Group
the
terms
thus:
1
/l
.
1\
/l
.
1
.1
.
1

+
.
.
.to
8
+ (~\ terms)
Every
written
*
term
(after the
Therefore
second)
the
as
in the of the
in
a
series first number
as n
now
"}/2.
sum
terms of the
Referred to by De Morgan of forty years Athcnccum ago.
"old"
ALGEBRAIC
FALLACIES.
87 indefinitely.*
But

increases
The the series
without has in
no
limit finite series
as
sum
n
increases
; it is
divergent.
and
if
signs
this
are
alternately+
the
series
2^3
is convergent. is transparent With
4+5
the
this in mind,
:
following fallacy
enough
10*21!+!!+!!+... "'1 H+.. .HK+I+...)
+
3
.[(:+!+!+...)+(!+!+
"!+!+!+.
"")
0
But
log 1
"
=
0 written in
Suppose
30
place
of
each
parenthesis.
the
and
0
are
both
convenient
"quantities" for
have
same
fallacymaker. By tacitly assuming
and
as
that all real numbers
are
rithms logalaws
that
they
amenable
to
the
the
logarithms
of arithmetic
numbers,
another
type
of
fallacv emerges:
(d2=i
Since
the
logarithms
2
of
equals are
(1)=0
equal,
=
log (l)=logl
0
/.log /.log
and
*The
sum
(l)=logl
1
terms
=1
"l
+
of the
first 2"
!4".
88
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
The
idea
of
this type have and
is credited turned
out
to
John Bernoulli.
like these found who light dehave
Some
as
great minds
conceits
byproducts,
in the
a
same
many
amateurs
occupation. tangle
may be may
to
a
To for
those their
enjoy
to
weaving
And
mathematical diversion the
friends
as
unravel, the
recommended be
weave
less. harmising promgent tan
following
which
suggested
a
as
points
of for those
an
around
snarl:
the
angle becoming (n
the
;
discontinuous
function
are
particular values by
+
of the
angle
k does
which
resented rep
discontinuous ^)"7r;
tions; algebraic funcare
the unit
vectors

fact
that
when
h, j and
law
theorems
rectangular
not
commutative wellknown
true
hold, but
etry geom
hjk

kjh
are
the
not
of
plane
that
in solid
geometry
without
fication qualiorder.
; etc.
Let In the
us
use
one
of
these if the
to
make
a
fallacy to
be
fraction
1/x,
denominator
diminished,
the
fraction
x
"
is increased.
When then
S, 3, 1,

1, 3, 5,

a

decreasing series, 1/5, an
series ing increas
l/x
=
1/5, 1/3, 1,
term
1,
the

1/3,
second
series,
as,
by rule, each
the the
term
of it:
is greater 1/3. is
than Then
before
term
1/3 " 1/5, l"l/3,
than the 1.
l/5""
fourth
is greater
third ; that
1"
Neither
the fallacies sound
not
+
of
formal
logic nor
From
those
the
of
algebra invalidate
coin
one
reasoning.
infer that the counterfeit
terfeit coun
does of
genuine
is valueless.
us
Scrutiny
avoid
the
may
enable
to
being
deceived
later
by
some
clever particularly
so
specimen.
Counterfeit
coins
also, if
stamped,
make
good playthings.
TWO
HIGHEST
COMMON
FACTORS.
If
asked will
for
the
H.C.F.
and
of
a2

x2
and
x3a3,
a.
one
pupil right?
raise
give
Both.
a

x,
another
x
Which
that
is

It
is
only
the
in
such
a
case
pupils
in
the
question
two
;
but
example given
would
is
not
peculiar
had been
having
x2

H.C.F.
x3
If
the
expressions naturally
be
a2
and
a3,
xa
obtained,
;
and
would
probably
as
be
the
only
factor
H.C.F.
offered
but
a

x
is
much
a
common
and
is
of of
as
high
"
a
degree.
it
Perhaps
is but
it
is
taken
as
a
matter
course
certainly
rarely
has
stated
"
that
every
set
of
gebraic al
expressions
two
highest opposite
is used in
common
factors,
arithmetically
As the
term
equal
but
of
quality.
a
"highest"
perhaps
technical solecism
way,
the
purist
will
pardon
the
"two
highest." Similarly,
set
of
course,.
there
are
two
L.C.M.
of
every the
of
algebraic
list for
expressions.
exercises in L.C.M.
By
going
in
an
through algebra
list of
answer
and
changing
the
signs,
one
obtains
another
swers. an
*
POSITIVE
AND
NEGATIVE
NUMBERS.
To still so'
speak
common
of
arithmetical
an error
as
numbers
to
as
positive,
at not
is
need
correction
are
every
opportunity. They
are
The
are
numbers numbers
of
arithmetic
tive. posi
without either
race.
quality.
in How than the
Negatives
individual's
not
later
or
than in
positives,
that of the be
conception
of
one
can
the
idea
or
of
two
opposites
terms
earlier and
the
other,
clearer?
The
"positive"
can
"negative"
without
being
the
correlative,
other.* An
on
neither
have
meaning
"algebraic
the
balance"
has
to
been
patented
and
put
and other
market,f
numbers,
on an
designed
also
illustrate and
positive
the of The
a
negative operations
of of this
transposition
It with in is
equation.
scale pans
composed weights.
tem sysvalue and
levers excellent
and
apparatus
is E. the in
a
ijlustrating positive
them in the
to
negative
of pan
*
numbers other.
showing weight
on
be
opposites
scale
each
g.,
positive
exerted
the
neutralizes
A
pull
the
clear
and the
beam
by
a
good
between
the of
an
exercise
to
develop negative
of the
thinking
arithmetic and
as
to
tion rela
positive, equation
rise
to to
numbers
is,
to
consider
correspondence
the
positive
and the is
negative
of the
to
tions solu
arithmetic
solutions
problem
what
that
gave
equation,
question
due. in School
primary
t By
and N.
assumptions
P, C. Donecker,
this
correspondence
Described
Chicago.
also
1905; and
Science
Mathematics.
See
"Another
Algebraic
id., Jan.
Balance,"
for 1907,
by
High
J. Lennes,
School
id., Nov.
"ContentProblems
School
Algebra,"
Review.
by
G.
W.
Meyers,
reprinted
from
90
POSITIVE
AND
NEGATIVE
NUMBERS.
9I
weight
two
of
equal
are
mass
in
the
negative
mass,
as
scale the
two
pan.
The
weights
of into
of
equal
numbers
are
equal
arithmetical scale
;
value.
pan,
When
the
a
weight
"real,"
is
or
put
either number
it
represents
+
or
.
quality,
The
to
it becomes
either "less
unfortunate the
expression
attempt
and
to to
than
nothing"
(due
Stifel),
from and
consider
negative
numbers after
apart
positive
the absurd
name
teach
for
;
negative
negative they
became and of the
tive, posi
"fictitious"
numbers,
so
all when
seem
enough
now
but
only
as
the
real
was
significance clearly
and
seen.
of
positive
The value
to
negative
the
opposites
from from
out
tion illustraand
debts
credits lies of in
(due
the
Hindus)
for
the the
thermometer,
aptness
and
bringing
oppositeness
the illustration
page.
positive
from
negative.
lines,
see
For
on
directed
Fig.
3
the It is
following appropriate
balance
use
that the
the
advertisements
from
of
the
gebraic al
quotation
Cajori's
tory His
of appeared
Elementary
'absurd'
had
not
or
Mathematics:
"Negative
so
numbers
as
'fictitious'
upon
a
long
or
maticians mathe
hit
visual all
graphical
by
resentatio replines,
of
or
them
.
.
Omit
.
illustrations numbers
were
by
the
thermometer,
to
and students
negative
as
will
to
be
as
absurd
modern
they
the
early
algebraists."
VISUAL
REPRESENTATION NUMBERS.
OF
COMPLEX
If
the of
sect
OR,
be taken
one
unit
to
long
and
+
extending
1,
to
to
the be
right
O,
represent
one
then the
1

will of
represented
by
OL,
extending
left be
a
O.
+a
would
a
pictured
units
U
by
and
a
line
to
long
a,
the
right;
and
to
units
long
This
the and rected dius a
left.
simplest
use
bestknown
o
R
of
lines
gives
geometric
of The gave
D
tion representareal numbers.
Hindus this
to
early tion interpreta
numbers
of
;
Fig.
3
opposite
it
does
quality
not
but
appear
to
have
been
given
by
a
European
until
1629,
by
Girard.*
Conceiving
in what
the
line
as
of the
unit
length
to
be
revolved
is assumed 1

positive
the
direction factor that
clockwise) (counterrevolves factor
may
to
be
called
from
OR
(+1) being
OL
(1).
Then
Vl
that
en
is the
which,
*
used
twice,
produces
Nouvelle
to
result;
using
dam. Amster
Albert
Girard,
also
Invention
the first
VAlgcbre,
recognize
Perhaps
roots
distinctly
imaginary
of
an
equation.
92
REPRESENTATION
OF
COMPLEX
NUMBERS.
93
it of
once
as
a
factor
revolving
the
line
through pictures
one
the
two
f
right angles.
Then
OU
the
number
Vl.
twice
by
as

Vl
the
of 1 Similarly,since multiplication produces +1, Vl may be considered

factor
to
which OD.
to
revolves
If distances the left
are
from
to
,
OL the
+
through
right are
one
right angle
+, then
called denotes
distances
and
Vl
*
b
o
A
Fig.
4.
a
line b units
b units
long
the
and
extending
down.
was
up,
and The

Vl
H.
"
b
a
line
long extending imaginary
the Transactions
geometric
by
Kuhn
of interpretation in
made the
1750,
To
in
of
St.
Petersburg
b
Academy.
the number represent graphically
we
a +
(see \/~\
a
Fig. 4), by
lay
off OA
in the and The
+
direction
and
units
long; AB,
b units
long
OB.
in the
direction
indicated repre
Vl
; and
draw
directed
line OB
94
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
sents
the
complex
number
a
+
b
Vl.
of
a
And a^b
the
length
The made
of
OB,
V
a2
+
b2, is the
modulus such
Vl.
was
of geometric interpretation
number
by Jean
The
term
Robert
Argand,
of
Geneva, in his Essai, 1806.
was
"modulus"
in 1814.
in this connection
first used
by him,
These
geometric interpretations by
and the
Kuhn
and
gand, Artended ex
especiallyone
method
to
a
made
by Wessel,*
who
space
representation in regarded
Hamilton
as
of
three
dimensions, may
methods Rowan
be
precursors
to
of the
beautiful
of vector
analysisgiven
in
the world and
by Sir William
under The the
name
1852
1866
"quaternions."
i
as
letter
symbol
for
the
unit Euler. and
of
imaginary
numbers,
for
Vl, was
to
suggested by
the Kuhn
It remained
the
Gauss
popularize by
terms
sign i
and
geometric
as
made interpretations The
Argand.
contrasting
the The
roots
name
"real"
an
and
were
was
"imaginary"
first used
so
applied to
Descartes.
of
equation
by
"imaginary"
seems seen
well
so,
started
that it still persists, and it has writers
likelyto
be
a
do
although
A in few
long
use
been the
to
misnomer.
f
terms
scalar
and
orthotomic
place
of real and The
an
imaginary.
development
of this
historical
subjectfurnishes
we
illustration
new
of the
general rule, that, as
as
advance,
what
eral genas
each
we
generalizationincludes previously known
of the the
on
specialcases subject.
a +
have form
the
The
complex
real
number,
and
of
bi, includes
special cases
*
number
the
imaginary.
If
To
the
Copenhagen
of
Academy algebra :
letters
Sciences, 1797.
usage
t It is interesting to notice the prestige of Descartes's
in
fixing the language
for
the for
first letters of the
bet alpha
knowns,
the the
last dot
form
of exponents,
between
present factors for multiplication.
unknowns,
the
REPRESENTATION
OF
COMPLEX
NUMBERS.
95
b
=
0,
a
+
bi
is
real. of
If
a an
a
=
0,
a
+
bi
is
imaginary.
is the
sum
The of
a
common
form number and
complex
the
number
real
imaginary.*
first of his three has
a
In that
a +
1799
every
Gauss
published
proofs
form
algebraic equation equation
values forces
root
of
the
bi.
The linear of
us
to
the
=
consideration
x
of numbers satisfied
pure roots:
opposite quality: xa
f a
0 and
+
a
=
0,
by
the
and

a
respectively.
contrast
The real
quadratic gives imaginary
,r2a2
=
in
with
0
and
x2
+
a2
=
0
satisfied
by"a
and
ztai.
The
complete quadratic
ax2
+
bx
+
c
=
0
numbers b is
has when
not
for its roots the
=
a
pair
of
conjugate complex

discriminant, b2
4ac, is negative and
0.
But
though
numbers
the is
a
recognition of imaginary
necessary consequence
and of
plex com
simple
or
algebraic analysis,no
of them
or
complete understanding possible until
of there them. is
some
preciation apgible tan
is
visible
us
representation complex
History's
tive, nega
lesson
to
in this respect is
plain: positiveand
numbers
must
imaginary, and
represented
The be further in
be
ically graphmight
teaching algebra.
mentioned the addition should pan
one on
algebraicbalance
developed by imaginary
into main
a
page of be
an
90
appliance
effect of
whereby
numbers certain
to
illustrated,a
the
weight put pulling the
for
having
side, and
other
beam
arrangements
to
pulling the complex
beam
in several
directions
trate illus
numbers.
*
Professor
Schubert
numerical
(p. 24)
form
to
adds which
that the
"we
have of
found
the
most
can
general
lead."
laws
arithmetic
96
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
If in the
in
a
football
game
we
denote
the
forces real in
exerted
direction then the
OR
(in
Fig.
3)
energy
by
positive
exerted
bers, num
opponents'
OL,
in the
exactly negative
will forces the be
the
opposite
direction,
Forces
will line
be of
denoted
by
or
numbers. denoted in the
OU
and
OD other
by
game,
imaginary
acting
denoted
numbers;
in any other
all direction
on
field,
will
be
by
complex
numbers
of
the
eral gen
type.*
Each is real force
represented
into and is the the
two
by
a
general
one
complex represented
ber num
resolvable
number
forces,
by
as
a
other
by
of OA
an
imaginary,
and AB.
OB
(in
A
Fig.
4)
resultant
trigonometric
as
representation
is furnished
of the
an
imaginary
formula
ber num
exponent
by
1 i sin
e*
=
cos
+
1
.
*
Illustration
from
Taylor's
of
Elements and
of
Algebra,
where numbers
the is
visual made in
representation
full.
imaginary
complex
ILLUSTRATIONS ALGEBRAIC
OF
THE
LAW
OF
SIGNS
IN
MULTIPLICATION,
A If distances
to
Geometric
the will
.
Illustration. of
.
to
right
be
O
be
called distances OR ab is
+,
then
up
tances disfrom units
the those Assume
left down
Call
O of
+,
and
Rectangle
the
has
+.
ab
area.
that
product
Fig.
5
Suppose
to
SR
of became
to
move
to
the
left
until
it is
The
a
units
the
left
O,
in
zero,
the
position
and
S'R'.
base that
minished di
passed
;
so
through
also the
value,
and The
therefore
is of
now
negative
and +b
97
rectangle.
product
a
is ab.
98
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
Suppose
below
TR' The
to
move
downward
until
,
it is b units has
O.
rectangle, previously
and
must
now
passed
of
through
a
zero,
be
+.
The
product
and
b
is +ab.
Similarly (+a) (~b)=ab.
From
a
Definition
the
of Multiplication.
of
Multiplication is
one
same
process
performing
the
upon
of
two
given
which the
numbers is
(the multiplicand)
upon
the
operation
to
performed
number
an
primary
unit
obtain the unit
other
(the multiplier.)* integer, the
we
When
multiplier is
is that that is
arithmetical
primary
school
are
of arithmetic,
1, and
in
have
the
special case
as,
correctly defined
number
as
the
primary
as
"taking one
in another."
we
many
times
there
units
Suppose
+1
*
are
to
multiply +4
by +3.
Assuming
as
the
primary unit, the multiplieris produced by
unit
most to
In
this definition, "the
the
to
upon
primary
mean
the
be obtained multiplier may is primarily signified by the multiplier. E. g., If the multiplier is 2, this number primarily means unity taken twice, or the unit added to itself;multiplying 4 by 2 therefore means to adding 4 itself, giving the result 8. Dr. Young, in his new book, The Teaching of Mathematics, p. 227, says that as 2 is i + i2,therefore would 2X4 by this definition be 4+42, or 20; is therefore would be 4+4/4, or 2 if 1/1, or, as 2X4 5; etc. But it is true while that i + i2 and if1/1are each equal to 2, neither of them is the primary signification of 2, or represents
2
operation which is performed stood multiplier" is to be underfundamental the operation by which from unity, or that operation which
same
obtain
the
in the
sense
of the
the
definition.
Neither
of
them,
is
of
a
proper
statement
of
multiplier
"within
or
It is not maintained that this that it directlyhelps a learner of such
a
the meaning definition has
in
no
law." difficulties,
the the
ing mean
comprehending only
for
multiplication as V2XV3", but is helpful for the purpose generalization
that
that which
it is
a
it is
used, and
The
that
so
it is in line with
as
the
fundamental
idea
of multiplication does
far be
that is
idea
is understood. this treatment
not
definition
to
a
pretend
only tentative, and proof.
THE
LAW
OF
SIGXS.
(JO,
taking +(+1).
that That
unit
additively "three
the
to
times/' (+l)+(+l)
+3
to means;
is what
number do that
and
to
multiply +4 by it,means
+4. of
(+4)+(+4)
4
+(+4)
(_4)
To
+
=+
12.
+
Similarly, the (4)
+4
=
product
by
the
+3
=
(4)
12.
multiply
with
its
by
3
:
The times
multiplier is
additivelv
The
result
obtained unit 3
by taking
the
three
the
primary
of +4
quality changed.
result
product
by
is therefore
obtained
by taking
4 its
three
times
additively +4
=12. three take
with
its
quality changed. multiply
with
(4) + by
3
(4) + (4)
is to
Similarly, to
times
additively 4
=+12.
cases,
we
quality
law of of like
changed: signs" :
(+4)+(+4)+(+4)
the four is
+
Summarizing
the

have factors
"the
are
product
when
when of
the unlike
quality,
A In
they
are
quality.
Lazu
more
General
Form law from
was
of
the
of Signs.
of plication, multi
deriving the
the the
the
definition
as
primary
unit
assumed
+1.
Assume +3. The
1
as
primary unit,
is obtained times three
and
multiply
the
+4
by
with
on
+3, multiplier,
from
primary unit, 1,
unit its the
by taking changed.
the
+
additivelythe
the
same
sign
tiplicand, mul
Performing
+4,
we
operation
+3 The
have of 4
(4) + (4) + (4)
4
=12.
larly, Simi=
product multiply + change =(+4)
3 have the
:
by

=
(+4)+ (+4) + (+4)
multiplieris
the the
12.
To
by
3
:
sult re
obtained

by taking
of
three
times
additivelythe unit, product
So also these of 4 four
as
1, without
4
sign ;
+
therefore
+
by
3
+
(+4)

(+4) signs they
=+12.
multipliedby
cases,
we
gives
law the
12. of
Summarizing
when

1 is taken the
the
are
primary
of like
unit
product
when
is
are
when of
factors
quality,+
unlike
quality.
IOO
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
In the the the
we
geometric by
of
a
illustration +b
to
above,
we
first assumed the contrary,
rectangle+a sign
have 1 law each
be
+.
Assuming
is the of
subsequent product
illustration the
reversed, and
law
of
geometric
as
signs
when The that into
is taken of 1
primary
as
unit.
signs taking +1
as :
the
primary unit, and
may
are
taking
one
the
primary unit,
factors
be
combined
law
thus
If the two
alike in in
ity, qual
the the the Or:
two
product
factors is
is like the
are
primary
in that of
unit
quality; if
unit.
like un
opposite
to
quality,the quality of
the
product
Like
opposite
like
primary
signs give
of
(like the primary unit) ;
numbers
signs give unlike
The unit
(the unit).
still other
"
assumption
leads
to
as
primary
other
laws
other
"algebras."
Proportion.
bears the
same
Multiplication as
Since
to
a
by
definition
a
product
the
relation
to
the
multiplicand
this
a
that
multiplier bears
relation
may
the
primary unit,
in the form of
:
equality of proportion :
::
be
stated
product
or,
multiplicand
multiplier : primary
unit
primary
unit
': multiplier:
:
multiplicand : product.
Gradual
From
Generalization
when Pacioli
of Multiplication.
found
case
the time
it necessary of proper the
term
(and
tions fracplicand, multiplication multi
to explain how, difficult)
in the
in
arithmetic, the product is less than
to
the
present
with
its
use
of the is
a
in It is of
a
higher mathematics,
best
was
long
evolution.
one
of the that
illustrations
of the
generalization
at
term
etymologicallyrestricted
the
beginning.
EXPONENTS.
The
definition is
of
exponent
for the the
found
case
in which
are
the
elementary
it is
algebras
the
"
sufficient in which
to
applied
tegers. in
case
exponents
of
a
arithmetic unit for
Our
assumption
it
primary
algebra
being
numbers
what
as
is, the
distinction and
between numbers may
arithmetic
as ponents ex
exponents
positive
Or
we
is
usually
neglected.
The is
simply
arid those
define tional fracwho
tion nota
pos'tive
exponent.
meaning
deduced. invented
of
negative
In fact
exponents
first used
easily
and
exponents
in in the
an
exponential
and Stevin
as
(Oresme
fourteenth
century
had And
dependent inas
the
as
sixteenth)
exponents.
before Each
fractions
well
whole had
numbers been
negative
studied these
can
exponents
them be used
to
invented
Wallis of
in
the
seventeenth
century.
And modern
defined other follow tegral insigned as
separately.
forms the of laws
mathematics
has been made for
exponents.
of
They
first their thereto. A
have
exponents
and
proved
ordinary
has been
exponents,
in of all known of
significance
Each
conformity
is defined. express
as
separate
species
of them all
exponent
unifying
in
a
.conception
might
forms
itself
definition The
covering
treatment
special
yet
to
cases.
general
exponents
Wanted:
a
is
come.
definition
of
exponent
that
shall
be
general
for
elementary
mathematics.
C
"
*
"
C
AN
EXPONENTIAL
EQUATION.
so
The
is to be
chainletters, once
numerous,
are
now was
"
it
hoped
"
obsolete. the
In
the
form
that
ably probletters,
send
most
common,
first writer
sends
to
three copy number
each
numbered
1.
Each
recipientis
so on
and
three, numbered
reached.
2, and
until
SO
is
Query
were
:
If every
one
were
to
do
to
as
requested, and
any
it
possible to
number
woman
a
avoid
sending
be in the
person when
twice,
every
ceived re
what
man,
of and
letter would child
reached
world
should
have
letter?
Let of the
n
represent
to
the
number. hundred of the
Take
the
population
Then this
earth
be
fifteen
sum
million. series
large number
is the
3, 32, 33...3*
"
a
(rnl)
r1
3
(3"l)
2
(3"1) =1,500,000,000
3W1
=
1,000,000,000 log
n\og
3
=
(109)
n
=
z9'z 18.86
=
log 3
There letters
are
not
enough
19
to
people
be
in the
world
for
the
numbered
all sent.
TWO
IN
NEGATIVE THE
CONCLUSIONS
NINETEENTH CENTURY.
REACHED
1. That
are
general by
pure
equations algebra. equations
known since
above
the
fourth
degree
insoluble The solution had half
of
of
the
third Two his
and
fourth centuries for the has
degree
and
a
been
1545.
in
later, young
Gauss,
every
thesis
doctorate,
a
proved
or
that
algebraic
He made
to
equation
the
root, 1801
real that
imaginary.* might
be of
conjecture by
the radicals fourth.
in
any
it
impossible higher
a
solve than
general
was
equation by
1824,
years
degree Norwegian,
This
was
proved
in Two
Abel,
when later with
more
whose
proof
printed
old.
he the
was
about
was
twentytwo
years
an
proof
detail.
published'
in
expanded
Thus 2. That
form,
inventive the from
effort
was
turned
in of
other Euclid and
directions.
can
"parallel postulate"
the other in
to
never
be
proved
Ever
postulates
the second
prove
axioms. the
tempt ator
since had
Ptolemy,
been made
century,
this
postulate,
In
''axiom,"
*
and
thus
place
it
among
theorems.
1826,
Of
this
proof,
published
Dec.
when
Gauss remarks
p.
was
twentytwo
years
old, proof
Professor
Maxime
Bocher
1904,
(Bulletin
note)
has
: a
of
Amer. first
Mathematical
Society,
that
every
118,
"Gauss's
root
was
(1799)
algebraic
use
equation
in of
gives
intended and
a
striking
as an same
example absolutely
time
most
of
the
of
intuition
what the
rigorous
critical be the should of
proof
added
by
one
greatest
the world afterward
at
the
ever
mathematical that
minds Gauss
has
gave
seen." other
It
two
proofs
theorem.
103
104
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
Lobachevskv,
of and
professor
Russia,
his
and the in in and
rector
at
the
University
attempt,
a
Kasan,
proved proof
futilityof the
He
the
published
1829. which the
constructed other of and
selfconsistent and axioms that be
are
geometry
assumed is
postulates
this, thus
therefore of In
to
contrary
of No till them
showing
can
this
independent
from in
was a
not
proved
them.
notice 1840.
his
searches re
appeared Lobachevsky's
readers Bruce The work
Germany
made translation
1891
easily available by
Prof.
lish Eng
through
George
the
Halsted.*
effort
was
previously expended
henceforth
to
in
attempting
to
impossible
of
be
turned
to
the
ment develop
nonEuclidean of
geometry,
the
investigating the
of certain is usual
ioms, ax
consequences
to
assuming
contrary
"As
every
wdimensional intellectual has of
geometry.
in culty diffi
every
marked removed
advance,
up and and
new
existing
of of
opened thought
new
fields
research,
new
tendencies and
methods
more
tion, investigaproblems
consequently
solution.
difficult
calling for
Euclid's
"f
must
Highschool geometry
postulate of
of
to
simply
assume
(choose)
preferably
can
parallels, perhaps
in
not
Playfair's form
both
*
it: Two the
same
intersecting lines
line.
a
be
parallel
Austin, Texas, 1892. by the translator. work (1891), compiled NonEuclidean Geometry
and has himself the and
It contains Dr.
a
most
interesting
also
duction intro
Halsted
translated
written
Bibliography of (1878) of 174 titles by 81 authors, the extensively on subject, being
in America
on
Bolyai's and Hyperspace
probably
geometry
foremost allied
p.
writer
nonEuclidean
topics.
f Withers,
634.
THE
THREE
PARALLEL
POSTULATES
ILLUSTRATED.
In
contrast
to
Euclid's
postulate
a
(just quoted) point plane,
an
Loba
chevsky's
number
cut
a
is, that
of
lines line
can
through
be the the
not
given
in
a
indefinite of which
drawn
none
given
is, that
in
plane, point
cut
while
no
Riemann's
line
can
late postube
through
that
drawn
we
in have
the
plane
three
will
the
given
line.
Thus
elementary simple
:
plane
geometries.
of
two
An been
excellent
illustration and
the
contrast
has lines in
devised
Let
AB
PC
be
straight
Fig.
6.
the fixed say
same
plane,
position
both
;
unlimited
PC
in
both about
directions
the
; AB
in in the
and
rotating
point
P,
positive (counterclockwise)
toward the results
ceases
direction,
in
secting inter
first 'Three the
one
right
are
as
shown
Figure
6. When
line in
different line
logically possible.
intersect the it will fixed
rotating
direction
to
[toward
the
right]
immediately
106
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
intersect
or
in
the
opposite
to
direction for
a
[toward
time will be
the
left],
section interof
it will
continue
rotate
before
a
takes time
place, or
which first of
else there
period
during
The second
the two these
lines intersect
in both
tions. direc
the
possibilities gives Euclid's, Lobachevsky's, and the third Riemann's
attitude toward these three
in
a
geometry.
"The taken mind's
possibilities
way
as
successivelyillustrates
of it.
curious
the
we
essentially empirical nature
conceive
as
the
straight line
this
Logically one
the other. is
to
of these From
is just possibilties
acceptable as
point
of for
view
ferring pre
strictlytaken
one
there
certainly no
reason
of them
another.
seems
ever, howPsychologically,
dictory, absolutely contra
Riemann's and
as even
hypothesis
Euclid's
is not
quite
so
acceptable
these
that As
a
of
Lobachevsky."
of the relative of acceptability the that
to
on
slighttest
the drew
hypotheses
writer mentioned and asked
unsophisticated mind,
a
present
the blackboard
figure like
the three
on
above,
in
simple language
express
possibilities,
paper.
true
one
pupils to
out
opinion
that the
slipsof is,' twenty
ten
Fortysix
one.
of said
54
voted
second it
is the
Two
they "guessed"
"felt first No
one
"thought" so, Six "thought"
two
thirteen that the
sure," and
"knew."
and
supposition is correct,
voted but
one
"felt sure"
writer in has favor had
of it.
never
for the person
third, and
express of
the
heard the
a
opinion
the Of
of had who
as
third
supposition. Some
of
pupils
these,
as
few voted
weeks in the
plane geometry.
wanted the
to
most
soon
majority
out
change
both be
it
was
pointed
two
that
second
can some
supposition implies parallelto
that
same
intersecting lines
line.
the
Undoubtedly
THE
THREE
PARALLEL
POSTULATES.
I07
of
the
more
immature
are
were
unable
to
grasp
the
idea
that
may
the be
lines
of
unlimited that
length, and
those who that
possibly it
favor idea. the Such
not
somewhat
general
not
second
a
supposition do merely
whole treated
fullygrasp
that Euclid's
test
illustrates
postulate is
is
in all its forms The
apodictic. question by
Dr. of
parallel postulates
to
mirably ad
Withers/1'
for
whose
two
book
(p.
117)
In
the
writer
is indebted
the
paragraphs
quoted above. trigonometry. The representing the
at
familiar
figure in trigonometry
of the
as
line values of
a
tangent
the
of
an
angle
this the
the and
center
unit
circle 90"
angle
form
creases inof of
passes
through
the
is another that the
figure. And
final
at
assumption
with
intersection of
(revolving) side
an our
line
at
on
tangents
instant Euclidean it
begins
ceases
infinite distance
below
the
a
above, places
trigonometry
basis.
Parallels
seem
meet
at
infinity.Kepler's definition
offered in advanced made in
to
would
paradoxical if
is valuable in when
more
elementary geometry,
work, and
gible is intelliof limits. farther
but
enough
Let and PP' be farther be
as
the
language
;
perpendicular
to
SQ
P
let
Q
move
the
right
while
remains
fixed; and
proaches ap
let PTR
the the
limit distance
toward of
which
angle P'PQ
P' increases
Q
from
with
Euclid's Its Parallel Postulate: William *John Withers, his thesis Nature, Validity,and Place in Geometrical Systems, for the doctorate lishing at Yale, published by The Open Court PubIt includes Co., 1905. bibliography of about a 140 titles on related this and less or subjects, mentioning more closely Roberto Halsted's bibliography of 174 titles and Bonola's titles. To lists might be added ning's Manof 353 these is mentary eleNonEuclidean which brief, Geometry (1901) and interesting.
108
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
out
limit.* is
Then attributed
as
PR
to
is
parallel
the
of sake
to
SQ.
That
is, parallelism
of secting interout withmay
at
press ex
limiting
position
lines limit
;
the
point
the
intersection of
recedes
we
which,
for
brevity,
by
the
familiar
sentence,
''Parallels
meet
finity." in
The
move,
three P
postulates
fixed of PT
again.
and
Now
suppose
to
PS
the
to
remaining
the limit Then
S
moving
as
left,
TPP' without
being
limt.
angle
is
SPP'
to
P'S
increases
parallel
SQ.
According
^S
P'
Fig.
7
to
Euclid's
postulate
to to
PT
and
PR
are
one
straight
not;
while
line
;
according
Lobachevsky's
they
and
comes
are
cording ac
Riemann's
Q Q
S
can
not
recede
so
to
an
infinite
distance
(but
P'
around,
there the
sense
to
speak,
through (in
no
S,
the
to
again)
and of
is
no
limiting position
of
terminology
in the Euclidean
theory
of the
limits)
and
parallel
*
term.
In
Fig.
the
6
the fixed
moving
line
rotates
line
toward
rotated the
until In the
after the
it
ceased
to
intersect
right.
as
present
of
tration illus
(Fig.
recedes
7) PQ along
only
Q,
point
tion, intersec
the
line
SP'Q.
GEOMETRIC
PUZZLES.
*"A
wide
rectangular
was
hole in
13 the
inches bottom
one
long
of of
and
a
5
inches The with inches
discovered had
ship.
board
ship's
which square
carpenter
to
only
and
piece
that
was
make square
repairs,
but hole
8
(64
inches)
while
the
contained
Fig.
8.
65
so
square
as
inches. make it
But
he
knew
how ! Or
to
cut
more
the
board
to
:
fill the
hole*
in
prosaic
form
Fig.
8
is
a
square
8
units
109
on
a
side,
area
64;
cut'
it
IIO
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
through
indicated
the
heavy
the
lines
and
rearrange and you
.
the
pieces
a
as
by
letters in
Fig. 9,
have
angle rect
5,by 13v area
65.
Explain.
Fig.
9.
Fig.
io.
Fig.
is
a
10
explains.
Proof: the
EH
is
a
straight line, and
not
HG
same
straight line, but they
X be
are
parts of the
straightline.
Let
point
at
which
EH
produced
meets
GEOMETRIC
TL'ZZLES.
Ill
GJ EXJ
;
then
from
the
similarityof triangles EHK
:HK
and
XJ
=
EJ
:EK :8
XJ
But
:3=13
XJ
=
4.875 5.
line. the
area
GJ
a
=
Similarly, EFG
The of the
area
is
broken
of the
rectangle is, indeed, 65, but
EFGH
uses
rhomboid Ball* and
is 1. this to illustrate that
to
Professor dissection
proofs by
with
superposition are
be
regarded
suspicion until supplemented by
'This well
mathematical
ing. reason
geometrical paradox...
in
seems
to
have
been in
known
1868,
as
it
was
published
that und
year
Schlomilclrs Vol. In which
fiirMathematik Zeitschrift
162."
Physik,
13,
an
p.
article in The the
Open
four The be
Court, August
are
1907, (from
Mr. Escott that famous
preceding
not
lines
quoted),
is
so
generalizes this puzzle.
his
puzzle
of
analysis can
In
but
interest.
: we can
With
his permission
it is here
reproduced
shown the
=
Fig. 11, it is
so as
how
arrange
the
same
pieces
If C
=
to
x
=
form
three
figures,A, B,
have
A
=
and
=
C.
we
take
5,
v
3,
we
shall
63, B
64,
65.
us
Let
the investigate A B C
=
three
+
figures by algebra.
=
2xy (x
x2 x2
+
+
2xy y)
+

=
3xy y(2yx) x2 + 2xy + y2
2x2
+
+
2y2
=
x(2x

y)

=
xy
C
B
*


B A
=
xy xy
y2 y2.
=


Recreations,
p. 49.
B
Fig.
112
ii,
GEOMETRIC
PUZZLES.
113
These
=
three
figures
would
be
equal
if x2
xyy2
0, i. e., if
x
1 + 2
a/5
and
y~
so are
the
three
figures cannot
in rational
be
made
equal
of and
if
x
y
expressed
We the
numbers. values A
x
will try to find rational difference
and B
or
y which between
will make B and
between
C
unity.
the
Solving
we
equation
x2

xy of

y2
=
"
1 that the y and
x
find be
by
the
as
Theory
any
two
Numbers consecutive
may
taken
numbers
in the
series
1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55,
where numbers. The values For
next
each
number
is the
sum
of
the
two
preceding commonly
" "
B
y
=
3
we
=
and
x

5
are
the
ones
given.
The A
=
these
have, 8, y
=
as
stated
above, A
" B
"
C.
pair, x
=
5 give A
C, i. e.,
170,
B
169, C=168.
shows
an
Fig. puzzle.
A B
=
12
interesting modification x) y2 + 2y2 + 2yz
+
of
the
4/rv +
(y + x) (2y
y
+

=
+
3xy
+
+

xz
=
(x (x
+ + at
x
z)
2

x2
+
+
"2
2y^ +
f
2^i+
=
2xy
5srjr 4 xy
C
=
C
=
2z) (2x
=
y
+
=
z)
=
2x2
2z2 A
2yB
=
When
6, j =5",* 1
10, y
A
= =
we
have
we
144.
When
=
10, z 530,
B

3
=
have
=
A" 528.
B "
C, viz.,
529, C
Another
puzzle
13
is made
by constructing a
it
cardboard of the
rectangle
the other
by
11,
cutting
and
through
one
diagonals (Fig. 13) along
sliding one
common
triangle against
to
their
hypotenuse
the
B
Fig.
M
12.
GEOMETRIC
PUZZLES.
115
How
on
position shown
be made
up
in
Fig.
14.
Query:
can
a
Fig.
14
of square
VRXS,
area
12 units
side, area
area
144,
+
triangle PQR,
area
0.5, + triangle STU,
the
area
0.5,total
143?
145
; when
of
Fig.
13
is
only
the VS side
Inspection
cross
of
the
figures,especiallyif
that " " 12. 1 VRXS is not
a
aided
by
lines, will show
square. shorter
is 12 in
long;
but but
SX
TX=11
(the
in
Fig. 13)
ST
(see
ST
Fig.' 13).
Fig. ST ST
:
13.
VP
:
=SU
=
:VU
:
11
1
13
ST

iy
12
x
Rectangle VRXS Triangle PQR
Fig.
14
=
1 1"/18 =
=
triangle STU rectangle+
2
1422/13 */, n/13
"
*
1
=
"/"
=
triangles
=
=
142V"
+
"As
143
Il6
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
By
slidingthe trianglesone
the other 10 total 14 is direction
two
we
place (to
appear
to
the
first
a an
cross
line) in
14 of 13
have
angle rectarea
by
and
area
small
"
triangles with
much the and smaller
y2 each,
as
141
as
than
Fig.
more
Fig.
in the
larger. Slide
last used,
trianglesone
the
place
direction
apparent
area
Fig.
is 139. The for
14.
explanation
14. also
is of
course
similar
to
that
given
This
Fig.
that
paradox
might
be Mr.
treated Escott
by
has
an
analysis
the
resembling preceding. Very
shows
by
is A
which
treated
similar
a
puzzle
a
due
to
S.
area
Loyd,
64
"the B
puzzlist." Fig.
the
area
is
square in
8x8,
a
Fig.
pieces rearranged
63.
rectangle apparently
7x9,
GEOMETRIC
PUZZLES.
II7
Paradromic
sort
rings*
as
A
puzzle
Take
a
of
a
very of
different
paper,
;
is
as
made wide
follows. twice and
as
strip
this other
say
one
half end thus
a a
and
long
it to
as
page
give
The
half formed
turn
paste
in
the of
end.
to
can
ring
is used that has from
theory
one
functions
: a
illustrate be drawn
surface the
only
any
face of
line
on
paper
point
it to
any
other
point
Fig.
A.
of
or
it, whether
on
the sides
two
points
the is to the what effect
were
on
the which
same
side
opposite
made.
way
of
strip
be
from
"
the
ring
all
was
The
ring
slit
cut
lengthwise
half the
the
around,
State in
making
advance the
strip
of
present
width.
see.
will of
a
result. and
Try
a
and third
Now
predict
second
slitting.
*
The
10.
theory
See
of Ball's
these
rings
is
p.
due
to
Listing,
Topologie,
part
Recreations,
756.
DIVISION
OF
PLANE
INTO
REGULAR
GONS. POLY
The
theorem
as
seems
to
have
been
pleasing today,
to
the
a
ancients,
it
is
to
highschool
divided into
pupils
that
plane
squares,
surface
or
can
be
equilateral
that the these
triangles,
are
regular polygons regular
hexagons,
into which
and
the
only
regular
As
a
surface
is divisible. into
hexagon
is divided
by
its radii
Fig.
15.
Fig.
16.
six into
equilateral triangles (Fig.
The
triangles,
and
the
division
of
same
the
surface
ment arrange
hexagons
gives
the
16).
form and chosen
a
hexagonal
attention
of
the
bee's
cell The
has little had
long
worker had
tracted at
admiration.
a
could
not
have of
better in
form Euclid It
was
if he ! The
the is
a
advantage
best
full the
course
hexagon
from
adapted
to
purpose.
118
discussed
REGULAR
POLYGONS.
II9
mathematical
last the
papers
point
he
of
view It need be
by
has
not
Maclaurin been be
in
one
of
the that
wrote.*
structure
pointed
attributed
to
outf
to
hexagonal
anical mechsure. pres
instinct, but
may
due
solely body,
pressure
external
(The
become
cells
of
the
human
originally
from
round,
morbid
hexagonal
under
growth.)
Agricultural
trees
journals
corn
are
advising
the
the of the
tree
planting
of
(as
also instead
nearest
etc.)
of the
on
plan
Each
equilateral
is in each
as
triangle
from The its
square.
far
neighbors
in
on
in the which
Fig.
corner
16
as
Fig.
15.
circles the
indicated soil
etc.
of
tree
figure
be
as
represent
to
as
each in
so
may
are
posed sup
draw.
The but As altitude of the
out
a
circles is
not
Fig.
much from
16
large
tween bein
in
Fig.
them.
15
there the of the
space
row
lost
to
row
distance
one
Fig.

16
=
=
the
of
the
equilateral
triangles
it
quires re
V3
2
0.866
distance first
between
trees,
(beyond ground plan
15.
as
row)
number
out
as
only
of
on
87%
trees
as
much
on
to
set
given
set
this
is may
required
be
to
them
the
plan
of
Fig.
It
predicted
force the
that,
land
becomes and
scarce,
pressure
into
a
will
orchards,
gardens
fields
uniformly
hexagonal
Transactions E.
p.
arrangement.
for 1743.
*
In
Philosophical
for
f See
Animal
example
P.
Evans's
Evolutional
Ethics
and
Psychology,
205.
A
HOMEMADE
LEVELING
DEVICE.
The
newspapers
a
have
been
printing
useful in in is
instructions
for the in
making grades
which
a
simple
ditches
instrument
on a
laying
simlar
out
for
farm,
accuracy
are
or
work
high
of
to
degree
board
a
of
not
needed.
as
Strips
in The line
thin form of
nailed with is
together, equal
shown sides.
Fig. 17,
triangle
base the
so
vertical and
a
midpoint
is let fall is
the
marked,
vertex.
crosses
plumb
the
from
opposite
that the
When the
instrument
placed
line
mark,
Fig. 17.
the the
bar
at
the
base The
is
horizontal,
median
to
being
the base. be base
perpendicular of
an
to
plumb
is
line.
to
isosceles
triangle
of may the be
perpendicular
of the
the
From
the
lengths
"
sides found
a
triangle
"
it may far from
so
computed
the middle the
or
it the
by
trial
must
how be
of
crossbar
mark
placed
shall
that
a
when
plumb
of 1
in
line
crosses
it the
bar
indicate
grade
200,
1 in
100,
etc
120
"ROPE
STRETCHERS."
If
a
rope
12
units 5
long
be
marked the end the
was
off
into
three
ments seggether, to
of and is
3, 4, and
the
rope
imits,
points triangle
used
brought
thus formed
stretched,
18).
This
rightangled
(Fig.
by
the
build
Fig.
18.
ers
of
the
means,
pyramids.
The
Egyptian
word
for
veyor sur
literally, "rope
use
stretcher.''
Surveyors
off chain.
some
to
this
day
of
the
same
principle, counting
in links of their
multiple
these
numbers
121
THE
THREE
FAMOUS
PROBLEMS
OF
TIQUITY. AN
1. 2. 3. The
To To To
trisect
an
angle
the
or
arc.
''duplicate "square
trisection the of has
cube."
circle."
an
angle
is
an
ancient
problem
in
to
;
"but
tradition The
not
enshrined of the
its
circle
origin
is said The
mance."* ro
squaring by
"was in
have
been
to
first
attempted
the cube
Anaxagoras.
known in
problem
times
as
duplicate
Delian Delians form is of
ancient of
a
the the
one
problem,
had the
consequence Plato
on
legend
that In
consulted
the
subject.
story,
the
which Athenians of
is related in 430
by
Philoporus,
B.
it
asserted from the
that the oracle
C,
when
suffering
consulted
plague
at
eruptive
as
typhoid
how double
fever,
could size
learned un
Delos that the
to must
they
the To and its
stop
of his
it.
Apollo
which
replied
was
they
form
altar
in
of
more
a
cube.
easy,
the
a
suppliants
altar double that the
a was
nothing
seemed
new
constructed that of the
was
either old
one
having (from
each which
of it
or
edges
followed
volume
increased altar the
next to
eightfold)
the old
one.
by
cing pla
similar
cubic
to
worse
upon, Where
according
the fresh
as
legend,
than
the
indignant
and
to
god
informed with
a
made
a
pestilence deputation
new
before,
useless
a
that
must
it
was
trifle have
him,
his
*
altar
be
cube
and
volume
Ball, Recreations,
p.
245.
THE
THREE
PROBLEMS
OF
ANTIQUITY.
123
exactly double
to
that
of his old
one.
Suspecting
who referred
a
tery mysthem had hearted hardon so
the Athenians the
a
applied to Plato,
of the
geometricians,and specialstudy
historical criticism
especiallyto Euclid, who problem."*
would this Plato
on
made
It is
a
a
that
as
cast
doubt of born
a
story inherently so
circumstance Euclid Elis
credible
as
account not
a trifling
that
was
till
429
B.
C. and of
an
much
later. the it
was
Hippias
section of
invented and
quadratrix
later Greeks
for the for
tri
angle,
the the
used devised in
the
quadrature
curves
of
circle.
Other
other and
to
effect
construction and Nicomedes such
required
(1)
(2).
these
Eratosthenes instruments
curves can
invented But ruler
ical mechannone
to
draw
curves.
of
pass com
be
constructed
was
with
and
alone. the solution
And of the
this
the
limitation
imposed
on
problems.
to
Antiquity bequeathed
unsolved. efficient Modern has ruler
modern
times
all three with its
lems probmore
mathematics,
methods,
with
proved
and
them
compass
all
impossible
"
of
construction which have the
alone
a
result could ing solvbe of
moved, re
shrewdest
"
investigator in antiquity
has shown
new
only conjectured
them if the and has devised
ways
of
limitation
of ruler and
and
compass methods
applied
the
proximatio ap
It has
term
dissolved
problems,
if that
may
was
be
not
permitted.
until
k
It of The
1882
was
that
the
transcendental
nature
the
number results
established all three of
are
(by Lindemann).
the
final
in
problems,
in A
with
mathematical Famous
*
demonstrations,
given
Klein's
more
Problems
of Elementary
434;
Geometry.
in his
Ball, Hist,
p.
nearly
the
same
Recreations,
p.
239240.
124
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
popular
It
and
elementary
Theorems be noted
as a
discussion and that the Problems. the ratio
a
is
Rupert's
Famous
Geometrical should
number of the
w9
which
the
student
to
first meets diameter in of
circumference that appears mentary ele
the
circle, is
number
remote
often
analysis
geometry
;
in
e.
connections g., in formulas
from the
in
calculus
of
probability.
The value of
?r
was
computed
His of in Vol.
to
707
places
of
mals deci
by
in
William with
may
a
Shanks. discussion be found
result the
(communicated
formula he used
1873)
(Machin's)
of the
the 21.
out
Proceedings
No
to
of
the
Royal Society of London,
sort
"
other
a
problem degree
of of scopic microlated calcuracy accu
has "an
been accuracy
worked
such
accuracy
to to
exceeding
"
the
ratio
telescopic distances. give
some
An of in the
illustration
conception
be found and
degree
of
attained Mathematical
may
Professor p.
Schubert's
140.
to
Essays
was a
Recreations,
He
to
Shanks
computer. expect
serves,
stands find
a
in contrast "solution."
no
the
who circlesquarers, of his
Most pose. pur"
computation
But
to
apparently,
deterrent of
to
useful who and
it should the
be
a
those
mune im
demonstration
to
Lindemann
others
"
still The
hope
of
find
an
exact
ratio. has been the The
most
quadrature
of
the
circle
cinating fasof
mathematical been
problems.
recruited
as
a
"army they
;
circlesquarers"has
"Their efforts
to
in each
as
generation.
had
remained
futile
though (Cajori)
the have
attempted
were
jump
be
into In
rainbow"
yet they
that
zest
no
undismayed.
can
some
seems
minds,
proof
lent
solution the
found
only
to
to
search.
THE
THREE
PROBLEMS
OF
ANTIQUITY.
I25
That
these
problems
fact
a
are
of
perennial
to
interest,
them
is
tested at
by
In
the
that little The also
contributions book Secret the
was
still in and
pear. ap
1905
entitled
published
the of is Circle
Los the into The
Angeles Square,
any
of
in
which of C.
division
"any
considered. methods Mathematics
angle
number
equal
angles'' gives
Science
author,
J.
Willmon,
School
original
and of the
of
proximation ap
for
May
1906
contains
a
"solution"
trisection
lem probently, appar
by
to
a
highschool
show that
boy
the
in
Missouri,
still later
printed,
has number
problem
In is
a
fascination of that from
for
the
youthful
the
mind.
magazine
the
problem ground
of
discussed
by
another
vantage
While the
higher
mathematics. have all been
three under
problems
the
proved
still find
not
a
to
be
insolvable
made have led
condition many
more
imposed,
to
the
lution so
attempts
through
to
centuries valuable
much
results,
only
but that
able un
by
quickening by
made the the
interest the many in the
in and
mathematical
questions,
discoveries
voyagers and
one were
especially
have been
to
important
The
effort.
find that
northwest search
was
passage,
can
easily
in the
see
now
necessarily
continents
futile whose
;
but
attempt
they developed,
indeed.
discovered make the
resources,
whe.n
poor
wealth
of
the
Indies
seem
THE
CIRCLESQUARER'S
De
PARADOX.
Professor
Morgan,
gave
in
his
Buaget
of
the
more
Paradoxes honor of
(London,
more
1872)
circlesquarers
notice accorded in the and them.
extended than in the of of the all
individual is often
complete
The
refutation first it
Budget
where
tributions con
appeared
instalments
Athen"um,
and and
treatment
attracted
correspondence
the
wouldbe the like of in
circlesquarers,
His
severest
teurs, ama
day.
their
facetious
them
turn
drew gave
says
forth
most
criticisms,
for New the
which
interesting
means
material
Budget.
Zealander
He shall circleof is the
out
he
that the Theirs
the
coming
know squarers. many of
how
present
is of
rare
one
generation
of he the the
most
regards amusing
The book
paradoxes print,
and
so
which that
wrote.
following
quotations
from
it may
be
acceptable: pitchandtoss
to
"Mere
has of
given
the
a
more
accurate
approach
reached
as
the
some
quadrature
of
my
a
circle
than The
has method usual Let
been is
by
paradoxers
. . .
follows: thin
a
Suppose
visible
seams
planked
between
floor the
of
the
kind,
there
as
with be
planks.
not
so
thin of
straight
the
rod,
or
wire,
rod,
clear
long
tossed the and
the
at
or
breadth
plank.
fall
seam.
This
being
of
up
hazard,
will
will
across
either
one
quite
Now
seams,
lay
Buffon,
That of in
after
him
run
Laplace,
the
proved
of
the the
following:
whole number
126
the in
long
which
fraction
trials
a
THE
CIRCLESOUARER
S
PARADOX
127
which twice of the
seam
is intersected
will rod
be
the the
a
fraction
the
length
1855
of
the the
is of of
circumference for
circle In
having
Mr.
breadth
plank
of
its diameter. made distance tions, intersecto
Ambrose
a
Smith,
rod there
on
Aberdeen,
of the
3,204 trials with
between the and decide.
7r
=
threefifths
were
planks:
11
contacts
1,213 clear
it
was
which
difficult .this
. .
Divide A
these
contacts
equally.
made the
gives
a
31553.
of the
pupil
of
mine
600
seams,
trials with and
rod
3137."
"The which
length between (P. 1701.)*
mathematician
to
got
ir
celebrated the
interminable calls
?r,
fraction is the
314159...,
ratio of the of
circumference
the It is
diameter.
But
it is thousands
up
things
without
besides.
:
constantly turning
and
in mathematics studied
and
if arithmetic
n
algebra
have
come
had
been in
geometry,
at
must
or
somehow,
must
though
This
what upon
stage
the
under of
what
name
have
depended
will
casualties
seen
algebraicalinvention.
it is stated that
k
readily be
four
1
when the I
is
nothing
but
times
series
1_1
be of
i_
wonderful if
so
ad
infinitum. had but
It would
one
simple
it
a
series
kind
occurrence.
on
As
is, our
pears ap
trigonometry being
as
founded stated. fluctuation
?r
the
circle,k first
instance,
the
a
the
ratio
If, for
from
deep
had
study
of
probable
average
as as a
preceded geometry, might have emerged perfectlyindispensable in such problems
*
number
"
What
is
Ball, in his Mathematical
the adds
citing 1 134)
some
Messenger
that
additional
Essays (p. 261, 1873, 2 : Cambridge, of Mathematics, "in 1864 Captain Fox trials with made 1120 value the mean as precautions, and obtained
and
Recreations
7T:=3.I4I9."
128
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
the
chance
+
x
of and made than
the
a
number million
of
x,
aces
lying between
six million
a
million throws "More
was
.
.
when
of
are
with
a
die?" ago
(P. 171.)
I had
a
thirty years
up
etc.
friend.
.
.who
.
thoroughly
be of ascertained
a
in all that
relates
to
mortality,
him how the it
vivors sur
life assurance, should
One
day, explaining to
what of the chance
now
is of
large
of
number
persons
at
alive of
a
lying
of
between
given
came,
limits of number
course,
the
end
certain
7r,
time, I
which
upon
as
the the
introduction ratio of the
I could of
a
only
circle
must
describe
to
a
ference circummy
its diameter.
delusion
; what
'Oh,
can
dear circle
friend have time?'
! that
to
"
be
the of
a
do 'I
with
cannot
"
the numbers demonstrate
alive at the end it to you;
given
it is
but
demonstrated.' "The
(P. 172.)
tempts
persons
to
feelingwhich
a
this
problem
made
[exact quadrature] impossible for
to
a
is that
to
which, in
pass I
a
romance,
it
knight
castle which gave
a
belonged
lecture
to
on
giant
I
or
an
enchanter.
once was
the what
subject: a gentleman who
said
introduced
to
it
by
all I
remarked,
to
loud
me
enough
it is
be
heard
around, 'Only prove
will set "This
once
that
impossible,and
be
about
it this very
evening.'
cannot
rinderpest of geometry
seated itself in the what the
cured, when
can
it has is to who
system:
call
all that
be
done those
apply
are
learned
to prophylactics
yet sound."
two
mean
(P. 390.) proportionals is problem
of the the liminary preold
"The
finding of
to
the
famous
tion duplicascience/
tion, mo
of the himself.
"
cube, proposed by Apollo (not Apollonius)
DTsraeli
speaks
the
of the 'six follies of
the
quadrature,
the
duplication,the
perpetual
and
philosopher's stone,
magic,
astrology.
THE
CIRCLESQUARER'S
PARADOX
129
He
might
as
well
have
added but
the had
trisection,
he done
so,
to
make he would in
the
mystic
still have
number been from said
seven
:
very mathematics such
lenient
; to
only chemistry
as
seven
follies ! Science used for
all
science,
have who
might
to
to
a
judge
"
convicts it there
say
got
my
mav
seven
years,
expecting
you
life,
'Thank
you,
Lord,
the
and
may
sit Literature
till outlive
they
are
over,'
Follies
Curiosities
of
the
"
of
Science!"
(P.
71.)
THE
INSTRUMENTS
THAT
ARE
LATED. POSTU
The
use
of
two
instruments the due that For
to
is ruler Plato. compass compass
not
allowed and the
in
theoretic
"
elementary
limitation It is
geometry,
said
to
compass
a
be
understood
the if the
is
to
be
not
of
limited un
opening.
as
would
used third and
to
open
far
as
we
please,
demanded
it could in with
be
effect
the the
construction
Euclid's
any
center
postulate,
any
drawing Similarly, length
Also
even
of
a
circle
radius. unlimited
it is understood the the marks
use
that the is the
the
ruler
is of
for that
two to
of ruler
on
second
postulate.
If and
so as
ungraduated. straightedge
move
there
we
were
were
allowed
use
these
and
to
the
an
ruler
to
tit
a
figure,
to
the
problem
trisect
could
angle readily
(impossible
solved,
as
elementary
:
geometry)
be
follows Let
on
ABC
be
the
angle,
and
P,
19.)
Q
the
two
points
the On
straightedge.
one
(Fig.
B
arm
of
angle
lav
off
BA
=
PQ.
Bisect
BA,
at
M..
Draw
MKBC,
the
and
ML
1
to
BC.
fit
at
Adjust
P lies
on
straightedge Q
passes
on
the the Then
figure
same
so
that the
MK,
ML,
and B.
time BP
straightedge
the
through
trisects
angle.
130
1X
STRU
MEN
TS
POSTULATED.
131 ZBPM.
NM.
rt.
Proof.
Mark X, is the N the
ZPBC
of
=
its alternate
midpoint
of the the
PQ,
and
draw of the the
Then
A
midpoint
hypotenuse
vertexes
=
POM,
equidistant from
of
triangle.
..ZBPM
Exterior
ZPMN ZBPM 2ZBPM
4
ZBNM
=
ZPMN
=
Q
Fig.
19.
"."NM
=
JPQ
ZBNM iZBNM
=
BM
:.ZMBN
ZPBC

=
ZBPM
=
=
JZABN
=
iZABG
132
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
A.
known Euclid
B.
Kempe,*
solution does is
from
whom raises
this the
form
of
the
well
adapted,
a
question
and the he
whether
not
use
graduated
1,
to
ruler
fitting
fits side
process
AB
when,
of first
in
book
proposition
AE
4,
of
triangle proof pupil
not
ABr
side
triangle
every that found He
AEZ
"
the school does
by
is
superposition,
It may
with be
which
highEuclid in the
familiar.
replied
P is
determine
a
point
and in be
(as
angle
above) only
in
by
his
fitting reasoning,
must
measuring.
his
poses super
proof.
or
Our
straightedge
much
;
ungraduated,
or
it
grants
us
us
too
it
must
be
unlimited
it
grants
too
little.
*
How
to
Draw
a
Straight
Line,
note
(2).
THE
TRIANGLE
AND
ITS
CIRCLES.
The definitions
following
may
statement
of
:
notation
and
familiar
be
permitted
of the three
0,
concurrence
orthocenter of
center
triangle
altitudes
center
ABD,
of
mass,
the the
or
point
of
the
triangle.
centroid,
of the of three
G,
the
of
gravity,
the
of
triangle,
point
of
concurrence
medians.
C,
circnmcenter
of
the
triangle,
of
concurrence
center
of of
the the
cumscribed cirpendicular per
circle,
bisectors
point
of the the
sides
of
center
the of
triangle.
.
1, incenter
circle,
three
of of
triangle,
the
inscribed of the
point
interior
concurrence
of the
centers
the
bisectors
angles
excenters,
of
triangle.
of the of escribed the and
E,
each
two
E,
E
E,
the
circles,
of
point
of
concurrence
bisectors
one
exterior
angles
of
the
triangle
interior
angle.
An
tnat
obtuse the
centers
angled
may
triangle
be
is
used
in
the and
figure
the
so
farther
apart
figure
less
crowded.
centers.
Collinearity of
and
O,
G,
and
C
are
collinear,
OG
=
twice The
GC. distance the distance from from O C
to to
a
Corollary: triangle
that
vertex
of
the
is twice
the
side
site oppo
vertex.* independently proved line of straight a
and which
*
Or
this
corollary
that
may
easily
and C
133
be
are
the
proposition
O,
G
in
134
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
The
ninepoint
of the
circle.
Let
L,
M,
N
be
the
points mid
sides ;
A', B', D', the projections of the
Fig.
20.
vertexes
on
the
opposite sides; H, J, K, respectively. Then
derived
me
the
midpoints
nine
of
G
OA,
is
a
OB,
OD,
these
points
once
trisection point be
from
it,as
that
the writer had been
did
when
unacquainted
with
results
achieved
in this field.
THE
TRIANGLE
AND
ITS
CIRCLES.
I35
are
concyclic ninepcint
The
center
;
and circle
the of
circle the
through triangle
circle radius
them
is
called
the
(Fig.
is the of
20). midpoint
the scribed circum
of
the
ninepoint
is half the
of
OC,
and
its radius
circle. The
discovery
of
the
to
ninepoint
Euler. in
circle
has
been
roneously er
attributed discovered nineteenth
to
Several the nineeditor
investigators
part
circle of the
it
independently
The
name
early point
of
century.
to
is said nates. An
be
due
Terquem
Wilhelm is
now
(1842)
Feuerbach known of
a as
Nouvelles in
a
Karl of The
proved,
"Feuerbach's
is
pamphlet
theorem":
1822,
what
ninepoint
circle
circle and
triangle
the
tangent
circles
to
the the
inscribed
each
of
escribed
of
triangle.
So
been many beautiful that of
a
theorems
"
about
one
the of
triangle
the
have
proved
Crelle it
"
himself
:
foremost
investigators
that
so
exclaimed
as
"It
is indeed is
so
wonderful
ible inexhausterties prop
simple
figure
How
the many
triangle
as
in
properties.
of other
yet
not
unknown
figures
is referred
may
to
there
be!"
The
reader
Cajori's
treatises and
History
on
of
mentary Ele
Mathematics mentioned in his
note,
and
p.
the
this
subject
259,
to
the
delightful of
the angle Triof
monograph,
and the of North Dr.
Some Its Texas
Notezvorthy by
W.
Properties
H.
Circles,
State
Bruce,
president
Normal and
some
School,
of
Denton. his theorems
Many
are
Bruce's
proofs
original.
LINKAGES
AND
STRAIGHTLINE
MOTION.
Under B.
the
wrote to
title
a
How little
to
Draw which
a
Straight
is full
one
Line,
A.
Kempe
book
as
of of
theoretic the dation foun
interest
the
geometer,
of the
run
a
it touches
postulates
We
a
science.
occasionally
pencil
one
around circle
:
a
coin
to
draw
other. an
circumference,
But
not
thus is
using
a
to
we
produce
have
to
an
this
only
makeshift with when that
strument, ina
itself
circular, Now,
which
we come
draw
to
circle
a
"
the
compass. line
we
draw
us
straight
say
that
postulate
grants
the
Fig.
21.
use
of
a
ruler.
a
But
this
is line
demanding
"
a
straight edge
line
to not
for copy. itself
an
drawing
Is it
straight
to
given
an
a
straight
possible
which
was
construct
instrument,
line?
straight,
shall first in that
to
draw
a
straight by
Such
a
instrument army
invented
the time
Peaucellier,
corps. other It is
French
officer Since invented
engineer (1864)
rectilinear
a
"linkage."
have of been them
linkages
some
effect
motion,
But
as
simpler
be
to
than taken
Peaucellier's.
as
his
is
earliest, it may
the
type.
Preliminary
its construction,
136
however,
let
us
con
LINKAGES
AND
STRAIGHTLINE
MOTION.
137
end and
sider
a
single link
a
(Fig. 21) pivoted
at
at
one
carrying
a
pencil point
F
the
two
other. links
to
The
pencil
describes
circumference.
If
(Fig. 22)
the
be
hinged
P is
at
H,
and
fastened
plane, point
Fig.
free
25.
Fig. 26.
direction of If links
a
to
move
in any number motion.
;
its
path
be of odd
is indeterminate.
to
The
must
give
links
terminate debe
system
three
I38
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
fastened
a
at
both
ends,
curve
a
point
say
a
in the
middle Five
; but
link links
scribes decan
definite
"
loop.
give
lier's
the
was a
once
motion requisitestraightline
a
Peaucel
sevenlink
can a
apparatus.
be made
one
Such writer
linkage
made fastened
by
any
teacher.
out
The
small
of links cut
of cardboard
and also
a
together by
times bolts. with in
a
shoemaker's the F size of and above O
eyelets ; Fig. 23) (Fig. 23)
the board, black
larger one
boards
to
(about 30 joined
fasten
of thin
were
made and
mouldings
of class would
use.
P
carried
a
piece
crayon. for think The
a
This
proved
It such is the
very
to interesting to
geometry
no
lecture. of any ruler
is needless
say
that
one
appliance Fig. Fig. 23.
F 24
for
daily
classroom
practicalinstrument.
is FA and
=
a
diagram
FB.
are
of
the
apparatus
shown is
a
in
In all fastened Then is O
;
positionsAPBC
at
bus. rhom
O
points
moves
whose in
an
distance
arc
apart is equal
circle with whose
center at
to
OC.
C A
of
arc
a
center
and shown
B
move
in P
moves
an
F.
It is to be
that
in
a
straightline.
Draw in
a
PP'
1 FO
a
produced.* right angle.
in common,
FCC
Hence
being
As
inscribed FP'P and
semicircle, is
FCC,
having ZF
are
similar, and
:
"
pp..
FP
"
fP FC each
=
FC
FC FC
A
=FP'
(1)
and
F, C and
lie in the
rhombus other.
*
P,
being
equidistant from
;
B,
same
straightline
are
and
the
diagonals
bisectors of
of the each
APBC Hence
these
as can one
perpendicular
Imagine straight line straight line
lines be
drawn,
in ! the
if
one
step
drawn
process
objects to drawing of showing that
a a
LINKAGES
AND
STRAIGHTLINE
MOTION.
I39
FB2 PB2
..
=
FM2
+
MB2 MB2 MP2
=
MP2
FM2

+
FB2

PB2
=
=
(FM
FPFC FC'
=
+
MP)(FMMP)
=
(2)
FB2 FB

From But
as
(1)
the
and
(2),
FP'
"
PB2. and PB
linkage
moves,
FC\
FP' is
all
That
main re
constant;
therefore of P
on
constant.
is,
same
P',
the
or
projection
in other
to
FO,
P
moves
is
always
in
a
the
point;
words,
straight line
(perpendicular
If the distance
FO).
between than of
a
the the
two
fixed of the
points,
link
F
and P O
O,
moves
be
made in
an
less
arc
length
with
OC,
circle
concave zero
toward
as a
(Fig. 25).
the radius limit. Then than
as
As of
OCOF
the
arc
approaches
traced
limit,
by
P
increases
without
would P
traces
be
expected,
an
if OF is
be
convex
made
greater
toward O the
so arc on
OC,
arc
that
(Fig. 26).
radius small of the
a
The
arc
smaller traced may
OFOC,
the
longer
that
an
of
an
the
by
be
P. used
It is curious
to
instrument
with side
enormous
describe
circle
radius
arc
and the
with
center
opposite
of
"
the
from
instrument.
of
The
straight line
"
the
"simplest
these
two
curve"
arcs,
maticians matheis the
lies of
between
each. many
and
limiting form Linkages subject
showed any
was
possess first
interestingproperties.
to
The
dents stu
presented
Professor
Englishspeaking
Mr.
to
by
the
late
a
Sylvester.
can
Kempe
describe
"that
linkmotion
be
found
given algebraic curve.,,
THE
FOURCOLORS
THEOREM.
This
theorem,
has
known become for
any
also
as
the It
map
makers' four ing havsame
proposition,
colors
a
celebrated.
map,
no
is, that
districts the
are
sufficient
two
common
boundary
no
line
numerous
to
be
colored the
;
and
this
matter
how
districts,
how their
irregular
arrangement.
That
their
boundaries
or
how
complicated
four
colors
may
be
necessary
can
be trials that draw four. of
seen
from
vince con
Fig.
27.
most
A
few persons
to
will it is
a
ably probquiring re
impossible
more
map
than
To
give
a
mathematical
matter.
proof
it, is quite
another The been
as a
proposition
makers. It
is
was
said
to
have
long
known
to
map
mentioned
mathematical and later
to
proposition popularized
a
by
De
A.
F.
Mobius,
All
in that
1840,
by
Morgan.
is to science.
is needed it
one
give
proposition problems
that
celebrity
of this least the
one
proclaim Cay
of
the
unsolved in
ley's remark,
unproved
was
1878,
had
remained onstrations demhad invent
a
followed within
two
by
or
at
two
published
But
one
three
years. for
some
each
to
flaw.
a new
The method the
chance of
is still open attack.
were
If
proposition by
a
not case,
140
true,
it
could
a
be
proved dis
single special
by
producing
"map"
THE
FOUR
COLORS
THEOREM.
HI
with
five have has
districts tried
of
which this.
each
bounds
every
other.
Many
It the refers For
to
do that
been
shown would
there hold
are
surfaces The
on
which theorem
proposition
to
a
not
true.
plane
or
the
surface and
of
a
globe.
notes,
historical Ball's
presentation
pp.
bibliographic
or
see
Recreations,
513;
for
a
more
tended ex
discussion,
Lucas,
IV,
168
et
seq.
PARALLELOGRAM
OF
FORCES.
One
if
a
of
the
bestknown is the it to takes struck ball
to
a
principles
blow which and
a
of
physics
if
is, that
alone alone
at
ball, B,
drive drive the ball
acting
which delivered
would would
once,
A,
both
blow
are
C,
and the
blows
direction the
BD,
the
diagonal
of force drive is
two
of BA is the
re
parallelogram
BC,
and the
to
A
D
and
just
ball
sufficient
to
D. of
BD the
the
"g
Pig
2g
sultant
q
forces. sented repre
If
a
third
force,
some
by
operates
and and
so
on.
line
BE,
BA BD And
simultaneously
then is the the
with of of
those the the
represented parallelogram
three forces.
by
of
BC,
BE
diagonal
resultant
Hence
the
sum
the of the The each
resultant forces
more
of unless
forces the
is forces
always
act
less in the
than
same
direction.
nearly
the
more
their
lines does
of their
action
proach ap
other,
sum.
nearly
resultant
approach
One have of
on a
their is
tempted
to
draw
the
an
moral,
that
social the
forces result
resultant the
and
obey
or
analogous
social
law,
energy less line.
all
a
educational
or
other
expended
than the
child,
unless
in
a
community,
act
being
same
sum,
all
forces
in
the
T42
A
QUESTION
OF
FOURTH
DIMENSION
BY
ANALOGY.
After
class
one
day
a
normalschool
pupil
received the
asked
the
writer
the
following
:
question,
and
ing follow
reply
Q.
is If
the
path
of
a
moving
and
point
the
(no path
and of
dimension)
a
a
line
(one
a
dimension), (two
is
a
moving path why
of
line
is
surface
dimensions),
solid
the
a
moving
the
surface
(three
solid
a
dimensions),
fourdimensional
isn't
path
?
of
a
moving
magnitude
A: If
your
hypotheses by always
except
"slides in
were
correct, The
your of
conclusion
should
follow
analogy.
a
path path
line
a
moving
a
point
line
is,
is
indeed,
surface
line.
The
of
moving
in its
a
when
the
moves
own
dimension,
surface is
its
"
trace.
The
path
motion
of
a
moving
a
a
solid
only
when
the
is
in
third
dimension.
The
generation
the motion of
a
of
a
four

dimensional
magnitude
the solid is
by
to
solid
presupposes
that
be
moved
in
a
fourth
dimension.
SYMMETRY
ILLUSTRATED FOLDING.
BY
PAPER
The writer
following
'to
simple pupils
an
device
idea which
has of
no
been
found
by
with
the
a
give
and
symmetry
verbal each
certainty
unaided
a
directness
explanation pupil
to
can
approach.
calendered
or
Require
sized
take
crease
piece
of
paper, draw
fold
and
it once,
any
straighten
on one
it out half of
again,
the
rapidly
and fold
with
ink
figure
the
trace
paper,
together
and
while the with
a
ink
on
is the
to
still other the
damp.
half
crease
The of
as
original
paper
are
drawing
the
an
symmetric
Fold
respect
in
a
axis. In lie
a
Again:
one
paper
two
perpendicular
whose fold
two
so as
creases.
quadrant
in in is each each
draw
crease.
figure
end
to
points
make
one
Quickly
the other is
trace
of which of
quadrants.
with
center.
A
closed
to
figure
the
formed
symmetric
as
respect
intersection
the T.
creases
Sundara
Row,
in
his and
to
Geometric revised make
Exercises
in
and
structions con
Paper Smith),*
Folding
has of beautiful
(edited
shown how
by
many
paper
Beman
of, the
plane
geometry
by
of of
folding,
of the
some
cluding in
illustrations the
some
regular
of the
polygons higher
*
and
locating
points
on
plane
The
curves.
Chicago,
Open
Court
Publishing
Co.
M4
SYMMETRY.
I45
Illustrations
well in
of
symmetry
out
by
a
the
use
of
the
mirror
are
brought
American
in Education
brief
*
article
recently
lished pub
*
Number
for
March
1907,
p.
4645,
article
"Symmetrical
Plane
Figures,"
by
Henry
J.
Lathrop.
APPARATUS OF
TO
ILLUSTRATE
LINE
VALUES
TRIGONOMETRIC
FUNCTIONS.
A lines
piece
of
apparatus
the
as
to
illustrate
trigonometric
ratios may
:
representing
somewhat
center
trigonometric
follows
disc A is
be
constructed To which the
may
(Fig.
attached rod
29)
a
O
of
a
rod
OR,
be
revolved.
tangent
is
screwed
R
Fig.
29.
to
the
disc T is
at
A.
Along
to
this
a
little
block The
bearing
block the R is
the also
letter connected
made the
two
slide
easily.
so
to
rod
OR,
that
T
a
marks block
a
section inter
of
the
lines. rod
Similarly
BR. another
1
is moved distance is
along
from
the
tangent
the rod
At
P,
rod
unit's
O
on
OR,
(PM)
pivoted.
46
LINE
VALUES
OF
TRIGONOMETRIC
FUNCTIONS
I47
A
weight
at
the
lower
end
keeps
a
the
rod which the
in is
a
vertical made M.
position.
slide As
It
passes
through
OA is and revolved
block bears in the
to
freely
the rod
along
OR
which
letter
positive
the the OT
direction,
increasing
sine,
tangent,
secant,
OM BR
the the the OR
angle
O,
MP
represents
increasing
increasing
the
decreasing decreasing
the
cosine,
cotangent,
AT
ing increas
decreasing
cosecant.
"SINE/'
Students
the line
in
trigonometry
or
sometimes
say:
"From of the
value,
geometric
it is named.
easy
representation,
to
see
trigonometric
and the is
secant
were
ratios
so
why
the
tangent
are
And
the
cofunctions
functions the
of of
the the
complementary
name
angles.
It that it is of
a
But
what tion. ques
origin
The
sine?"
is deems entire
good
following
;
answer
Cantor,
Fink,
and The The double used
Cajori
Greeks
but used
Cantor
the
doubtful. of half double the
a
chord
the chord
arc.
Hindus,
the for which it
arc
though (what
former
employing
we
of
call
name
sine for
in the
unit entire
a
circle);
chord,
natural
their
meant
jiva,
literally "bowstring,"
Their work the
came
designation
the Arabic
for who
chord.
to
us
through jiva
in into pointed "unographer's sten
Arabs,
transliterated Arabic
Sanskrit written
a
dschiba. text"
being vowels)
usually
like
no
(without
dschiba
modern in the the Al
notes, and the it
having
dschaib the
means
meaning having
to
abic, Arsame
Arabic
was
word
easy
consonants,
of the former. the
a
for
latter
take
place
Bat
But
dschaib
astronomer
"bosom."
of the the ninth
tani,
wrote
foremost book
on
century,
bodies. Latin word is
the
motion this who
was
of
heavenly
into Arabic
In
the Plato the
twelfth
century
translated the
by by
Tiburtinus,
sinus
rendered And
Latin
(bosom).
sinus, Anglicized,
"sine."
i48
GROWTH
OF
THE
PHILOSOPHY
OF
THE
CALCULUS.
The that the
latter
half
of
the
seventeenth of
*
century
produced
research,
powerful
differential
instrument calculus. and
mathematical
master
The
minds
to
that clear
vented in
it, Newton
Leibnitz,
difficulties. is based
on
failed
the
subject
of
philosophical reasoning
Newton's
in the
this the
initial ratios
theorem of tities, quan
Principia:
that
"Quantities,
any
and time
during
and
any
finite the
constantly
of that time
are
approach approach ultimately
this
ment state
each
nearer
other,
than It
before
end
given
difference,
that
gave
equal."
nor
is its
not
surprising
neither
demonstration
universal
considered
tion. satisfacin the
The
"zeros"
whose
ratio
was
*
Newton
it
to
and
Leibnitz
invented
it
as
in
an
the
sense
that
of been others
they
search. re
brought
comparative
most
perfection
Fermat
must
instrument it had
many
Like
epochmaking Cavalieri, Kepler,
toward of mathematics it. Mr. it One
to note
a
discoveries and
go
a a
shadowed. forehad into
no
been the
working
history
that discovered of
long
when the
way
back
was
find
time
there
suggestion
a
As
this
is penned Danish in
newspapers
says
bring
he
a
report
Hiberg,
in
a
scientist,
has
cently re
palimpsest
'On the in
Constantinople,
hitherto
script, manu
unknown
work
on
mathematics
which
and of certain
is
entitled
to
by Archimedes. is dedicated Method/ applying
geometry.
that bears of mechanics There
a
"The
to to
thenes, Eratosthe tion soluancient
to
relates
problems
method of of
is in
this
Greek
the used
manuscript a integral calculus
for the and solution Newton
modern
days,
centuries
and
resemblance strong of is capable for the
problems
reserved
being of genius
Y.
Leibnitz
eighteen
later."
(N.
une. Trib
)
149
I50
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
method
of
fluxions
as
were
characterized of
on
by the
astute
Bishop
Berkeley
based substitute from it
"ghosts
calculus any
a
departed quantities."
the
Leibnitz
one
his for
principle that
another which
may
magnitude
of axiom."
differs This
only by
as
small. quantity infinitely Pressed for
an
is assumed he
"a
sort
explanation,
said treated
that, in comparison
with
finite
as
quantities, he
with should have
infinitelysmall
of
quantities
sand in
incomp arables, negligible"like grains
the made sea." the
parison com
This,
a
if
mere
consistently held,
method of
calculus
proximati ap
According
the
were were
to
the
explanations
should have But
of
both, strictly applied,
results that results ward afterdue
calculus
produced
close
approximations.
accurate.
instead, its
that this of the
absolutely
L. N. M.
Berkeley first,and
out
was
Carnot, pointed
of
errors.
to
compensation perhaps
The
not
This in
a
phase
more
subject
is
nowhere
treated
piquant style
tion demonstra
than
in Bledsoe's method
Philosophy of
of limits the the
Mathematics.
a
permits
pure latter
rigor of
to
possible to
methods As
on
infinitesimalists.
are
ally Logicas
the
of
be
regarded
the
abridgments.
is admirable for
treated
a
by
the
best
writers
culus cal
today
sound
as
philosophical basis.
well
as
It is
its
logic
for
its marvelous
efficiency.
But of the many writers
are so
dominated
use
by
the 0
thinking
to
mean
past that
"an
they
still
the
symbol
sometimes
small infinitely
zero. or
absolute
use
Clearer i
or
quantity" and thinking impels
symbol
zero.
times some
to
the
an
of
t
(iota)
some
other 0
to
mean
infinitesimal, denoting by
This
distinction
only
implies
that
between
their
recipro
PHILOSOPHY
OF
THE
CALCULUS.
I5I
cals. Wallis both
The in for the
symbol
seventeenth variable
" ,
first
used
for has
an
infinite been and
by
used for
century,
long
limit of
a
increasing
The revised introduced for absolute
without edition
absolute Calculus contraction
for be
infinity.
(Ginn
of infinite
Taylor's
op,
"
1898)
a
new
symbol
a
a/0,
(the
that
infinity,
of will is be
an
using
only
It
is
an
reciprocal
usage
to
infinitesimal).
universal.
the clearest of and methods
to
hoped
book concise
this
become
In
and the the used
the
just
referred
statement
perhaps
found
most
to
anywhere
calculus
inverse
problems
calculus,
calculus.
of
the well
differential of the
integral
in the
as
as
three
SOME
ILLUSTRATIONS
OF
LIMITS.
Physical
to
illustrations similar of
case
of of
a
variables
are
numerous.
But The
find
a
constant,
of search of
is not
easy.
long
meter
history etc.)
the
determination of
a
standards for
(yard,
stants. con
is the
history
are
physical
or
Constants limited
the
result
abstraction
constants
are
by
and
definition.
enter
Nonphysical
into
most
a
are
merous, nu
problems.
older
to
If ratio
one
person the
age
.
is of
just
the
year
than that of
another,
the 49
the
at
of
younger .01234
older,
50
.
successive
birthdays,
:
u

1S


...__...
In is of The
a
general
variable their
the
ratio
of
the
ages
as
of
any
two
persons
sum
approaching
.is
a
unity
limit.
The without
of limit.
ages
variable their
increasing
ages
difference
between
is
a
constant.
1
1
1
1
A
P
P
P
B
Fig.
30.
When
pupils
P which half have the
have
moves
the half
idea
way
of from
the A the
timehonored
to
point
second,
etc.,
and
a
B
the
first
remaining
with have
distance the
next
second,
constant
but
trouble
product
been
of
a
variable,
they
sometimes
:
helped yourself
by
the
following
at
"optical illustration"
30
as
Imagine
that makes
to
ing look
Fig.
twice
through large
as
a
glass
it
152
everything
naked eye.
look
appears
the
SOME
ILLUSTRATIONS
OF
LIMITS.
153
AP the
still "real"
seems
to
approach
AB
as
limit the
; that
is, twice
AB 3 the then
as
AP
is
approaching
your
twice
"real"
limit.
n
Now AP of
x
suppose
glass
AB AP
magnifies magnified
=
times,
same
times.
still times.
approaches
That
number
constant
is, if
x
AB,
any
AP the
=
that
constant
AB. look onenth with
x
Reverse
glass, making
It
AP
onenth of the
part
as
large
AB. the
as
at
first.
approaches
in
"real"
Putting
variable, and
this
c
symbols,
constant,
representing
the
"U"JU
Or in words: is of The the the limit ratio of of the ratio of
a
variable
to
a
constant
the
to
limit the Let
variable
constant.
x
represent
from A
to
the C
broken
line
(Fig.
first of
31),
4 of
composed
then of last the
etc.
parts,
16
8,
then
(the
in of
division
shown then
figure)
The
32,
polygon
x,
bounded and BC of Most this But
a
=
by
A
AB
ABC
of
What x?
the
length
to
Fig.
sons perold
31.
whom
figure
is
new
answer
offhand,
that
x
"x
=
AC."
minute's
+
reflection
shows
is constant
and
=
AB
BC.
LAW
OF
COMMUTATION.
This and
law,
emphasized Psychology
all of
for
arithmetic
in and attention
McLellan
Dewey's
in
side
of
that is
Number,
explicitly
to
employed logical
is and is often
algebras
the
give
one
the
subject,
So of
whose it is used
importance implicitly
its
overlooked.
as
long
as
regarded neglected.
in
universal
:
application,
remember
not
import
are
An
antidote this law
to
that
there E. g.
:
regions
In the used of
which
does
apply.
of
"geometric
in does factors in
multiplication"
the but the
a
rectangular
tors vec
quaternions,
not
reverses
commutative
property
in the
factors of
hold,
change
of the
cyclic
order Even
sign
or
product.
the
mutative com
elementary
is
algebra
not
arithmetic,
the in
principle
Professor
valid
in
operation
his
of
volution in
Schubert,
has
"
Mathematical
to
Essays
fact that
and
Recreations,
this limitation and
called
attention of any
the
the
"
impossibility
renders useless
changing inter
base
exponent
high
operation
of
continued
involution.
*54
EQUATIONS
LENGTH
OF
U.
S.
STANDARDS
OF
AND
MASS.
By April kilogram yard,
All
order
approved
1893,
the
by
international
the
secretary
of
the
treasury
and
5,
prototype
fundamental
meter
are
regarded
etc.
as
standards,
of them.
the
pound
of the
being
nations
defined
in
terms
taking copies
of accuracy the of
part
the
in
the
convention
have
very The
accurate
international
dards. stan
degree
from
of
the
comparisons
the tion rela
be
may
seen
equations
and
expressing kilogram
20,
of
meter
no.
27
no.
of
the
United
States,
the number
to
the
international
prototypes.
of the
T
resents rep
of
degrees
centigrade
last
term
scale
of
the
hydrogen
shows
thermometer.
The
in
each
equation
M
the
of range
error.
no.
27=
lm
1.6/*
0.039

+
8.657//T
"
+
0.00100/*T2"0.2/*
K
no
.
20
=
1kg
coast
0.002 mg
mg
(U.
S.
and
geodetic
survey.)
THE
MATHEMATICAL STATISTICS.
TREATMENT
OF
This
is
one
of of
the
most
important
to
and needs
interesting
of modern
applications
civilization. observer the
"
mathematics
as
the
Just
are
data
"
gathered
or
by
an
incompetent
unless the the of
sult re
worthless be measured
by
and
a
biased
observer,
from
even
bias
so
can
eliminated
from the
also
one
conclusions
obtained with value.
are
best
tistics sta
data
by
unacquainted
be of of doubtful
principles
must
The
laws
statistics
applications permutations,
illustration of them
two
of
ical mathemat
formulas,
and
especially
Take
of for
combinations
probability.
mathematical
:
simple
would
not
laws be
(the
so
derivation
simple)
1.
made. the
Suppose
If number the of
a
number
measures
of be each the the for the
measurements
have
as
been and
laid
measure
of!
abscissas,
be
times
as
occurs
sented repre
graphically
line the drawn
corresponding points
these axis thus
measures.
ordinate,
the
through
*curve
plotted
is The
called
area
distribution this
between
line
and
of
x
is
the
surface
of
frequency.
If
a
quantity
of
an
one
is
measuring
number and
is due of all is of
to causes,
chance
binations com
infinite
equal
likely
shown
in
to
amount occur,
and
independent,
of
equally
the form
the
surface
frequency
156
TREATMENT
OF
STATISTICS.
1
57
in
Fig. 32,
Most
the
equation
that
are
of
the
curve are
being
not
y
=
e~~**.
such
effects
measured and their but
due
to
combinations
are more
or
of less
causes,
distribution favorable
curves ditions con
irregular;
under
they frequently approximate
be called In these the
cases
this, which
may
"
normal, "the normal
the
are
probabilityintegral.
been
tables
that
have
computed
for
this surface
of
great assistance.
2.
Every
one
knows
that,other things being equal,the
of measurements
greater the number
the the
made, the greater
probabilityof
true
one.
their average is shown
(or
other
mean)
being
the
It
mathematically
that
probability varies
of
were
as
the
square
one
root
of
the
number
cases
measures.
E.
g.,
If in in
investigation 64
25
be
cases,
more
measured,
the those first from
and
another
the
returns
from than
will investigation the second in the
trustworthy
5.
deviation
measures
ratio of 8 to
It is also other their the
measure
apparent
of in
that, if the
average
(or
from
variability)of
one
the
average
set
is greater in that
than
set
in
another,
the
average
is less the
trustworthy
varies
in which
is variability the E.
greater.
Expressed inversely as
average
mathematically,
the
trustworthiness g., in
one
variability.
of
investigation the
deviation
I58
the
or
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
measures
from the
their average
unit may
is 2
(2cm,
in of the
2 grams,
whatever
be) while
same
another
measures
vestigati in
(involving the
number Then
etc.)the
approach
first the second
average
to
deviation
of
to
is 2.5. average
probable
in the in
accuracy
the
obtained
investigationis
as
that
of the
average
as
obtained 4.
in the
ber num
1/2
and
is to
1/2.5,or
5
to
If the of both
two
investigationsdiffered
in the deviation factors in
enter to
both from
measures
the average, the tive relaE. g., graphs: para
would confidence
as
determining
two two
be
reposed
in
in the
results.
combine
the An
examples
average
was
the
preceding
from 64 from
obtained
measures
whose
was variability
2, and
another Then 
25
ures meas
whose
trustworthiness
of first average
was variability )
2.5.
\trustworthiness
'
/jrj
"
' 
1 2
"
nz^
1 2.5
)
of second
average
F
=
2:1
a
The
trustworthiness varies
of the the
mean
of
number of the
of
ures meas
directlyas
and
square their
root
number
of
measures
inversely as
variability.
B and
The
science the
most
"
foregoing principles
"
the
A
C
of
statistical
show
some
of which
its method it is
on
its value
and the
direction readable L.
in
working.
subject
to
Perhaps
is the
treatise
the
Professor
Edward
Thorndike's and Social
Introduction
Measurements. of
Theory
and
on
of
Mental
an
It presupposes mathematics works
only
elementary knowledge
references
to
more
contains
technical
the
subject.
Professor Data"
W. S
Hall, in "Evaluation
Med.
of
metric Anthropo
(Jour. Am.
Assn., Chicago, 1901)
TREATMENT
OF
STATISTICS.
I
59
showed is the
that
curve
the
curve
of
distribution in the
of
biologicdata
of
an
of the
coefficients In
a
expansion
algebraic binomial.
Guide School
to
most
interestingarticle,"A
of for
the
Equitable
and
Grading
the
Students,"
in he
Science this in
a
Mathematics
June, 1906,
of
applies
records In the 32. the
principle to
class. of
distribution
student
expansion
are
(a + ")5
their
there
are
6 terms, Their
are sum
and is and
ditions, con
coefficients If 320 under and
1, 5, 10, 10, 5, 1.
do work and
students normal
tested
graded
D, E, F
(though perhaps unusual)
marks of
are
6 different
used
"
say
A, B, C,
of these
"
the number should
pupils attaining each
rated in
standings
under would the when
approximate
students
10, 50, 100, 100, 50, 10,
were
respectively. If 3200
similar be
ten
in 6 groups the groups
conditions, the
times
as
numbers
great
"
100, 500, 1000
etc., and
than
ditions con
approximation only
that of 320
cause
would tested.
be
relatively closer
The
were
study
of
the
deviation
from
this normal both
tion distribu
standings
is instructive
and statistically
pedagogically.
A
roughandready
cases,
statistical illustrated
method,
as
available
:
in
certain
we are
may
be in
follows number
Suppose
of words
engaged
ascertaining the
of
now7
in
an
the
vocabulary Margaret Paltz.)
"
normalschool in progress
juniors.
under normal
a
(Such
investigationis
Dr. Let
the
direction
of New
K.
us
Smith, of the
select 13th of this and
"
faculty at
page of the
tests
at
random
dictionary
ascertain the
say
the
and
by
on
appropriate
this page that
number divide page,
words number thus
the of
ex
pupil knows,
words
on
by
a
the
number
the
obtain
convenient
l60
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
pression for
the similar pages
"
the be
part of the
.3016. divide
of Turn the words
words
to
known. page 113 known both 213
case
Suppose
and
on
quotient to
make both
tests, and
number
on
by
"
the
number After
pages, the the far
giving
result is
say found
.2391. for three the
trying
In result the
page each
pages. total
decimal
in
to
represents
reached
thus
the be
experiment.
Suppose
successive
decimals
.3016 .2391 .2742
.2688
.2562 .2610
.2628 .2631 .2642 .2638 A few decimals that thus the be obtained
may
convince
the
perimenter ex
first
figure has "become
to
constant." the second above.
Many
If the knows
more
may the
necessary
determine
figure unless
first two
"series
converges" rapidly as
found in
to
figures be
the words
be
26, this student
plying Multi
26%
the of
of
the
dictionary.
correct
"dictionary total" by
the student's If
a
this
coefficient, gives
to
the
extent
vocabulary,
1%
have
of the had
dictionarytotal.
determined. method has
at
higher degree
of accuracy would
been
required,a threeplacecoefficient
the each
been
This
practicaladvantage
that
the
coefficient found with
the of the
step furnishes, by comparison
an
coefficients
previously obtained,
that will be
tion indica
degree
of accuracy
attained
by
TREATMENT
OF
STATISTICS.
l6l
its
use.
The each of
labor
of
division
may
be 20 each
diminished words student is
by
other be
using, multiple
examined. certain
on
page,
only Similarly
the
first with
(or
10).
The classes
to
method of
here
described
applicable
to
measures.
MATHEMATICAL
SYMBOLS.
The
may
origin
be learned
of
most
of
any
the
symbols
of
in
common
use
from
history
recentness.
are
mathematics. Of which
,
The
noteworthy
of
thing
the
is their oldest
our
symbols
appear in
operation
+
and
Widmann's Consider middle had still been many of
arithmetic the the used years another and
was
(Leipsic,
in
1489).
to
situation sixteenth
respect
symbols
radical and "
at
the
century.
The
~,
sign
were
by
in
Rudolff,
the
( ),
=
x,
"
not
future,
for
not
had
same
yet
had
use.
appeared
been used Almost
mere
(though slightly) everything
symbol
and

the in
+
were
general
or
expressed
Yet
at
by
time solved that
a men
words both and
by
and
breviatio ab
that been
cubic the with
ratic biquadlished. pub
equations
It
acumen
had
methods the of
is
astonishing
to
intellectual
necessary third
or
invent
solution
not
equations
hit for
upon
of
the
a
fourth
degree
as
should of
have
device
so
simple
of their
symbols
operation
the
abridgment
The
work. of the
"
inconvenience tested
lack
say
"
of
a
symbols
may
be
easily
and of
by
it
writing
without
quadratic ordinary
equation symbols
solving algebra.
Even after
was
any
of
the
the slow.
introduction But until
of
symbols
it has
began,
moved do
a we
the with have of
process
recently
now
accelerating
a
velocity,
for each
not
only
symbol
operation
1
"
sometimes
choice
6
j
MATHEMATICAL
SYMBOLS.
163
symbols
engaged
a
but
"
most
of
the
letters
of
the
alphabet
E.
g.
:
are
for
special quantity, A,
mathematical known number, axis
uses.
finite
side of
of
triangle
opposite
b known
intercept
side axis of of
on
x"
altitude.
. .
number,
triangle
y.
. .
opposite
B,
base,
intercept
c
on
constant
. .
.
d
differential,
base of
distance...
e
Napierian
logarithms.
A
considerable
inroad
has
been
made
on
the
Greek
alphabet,
y
""
e.
g.
:
inclination
to
axis
of
x.
3.14159...
of
S
sum
terms
similarly (in
obtained.
standard
cr
deviation of
theory
is
of
measurements).
means
But There
the is
supply
no cause
alphabets
for alarm.
by
no
exhausted.
BEGINNINGS
OF
MATHEMATICS
NILE.
ON
THE
Whatever
may
the
excavations reveal
as
in
to
Babylonia
state
and
Assyria
ultimately
in those
the
of it
mathematical is established
learning"
that facts record The
case
early
civilizations,
of ancient
in and
Egypt
the
knowledge
was so
certain
as
mathematical
to
processes its
have
left
no
of truth
origin.
of the
Pythagorean
theorem
may
for
the
cial spe
of known
the
isosceles among New the sides
right triangle using
tile
have
been Be
widely
man
people
Plane of of
a
floors
p.
(see
and
Smith's 5
are
Geometry,
103).
was
That known
3, 4, and
and The of used Ahmes
right triangle
the
by
the
builders
pyramids
C. and based
and
on
temples.
a
papyrus 3000 B.
a
(1700
C.
or
B.
work metical arith
perhaps
earlier)
of
contains
many
problems,
the solution of the
table
unitfractions,
in which
one
etc.,
hau
and
simple
unknown.
must
equations, Though
be the
(heap)
feel of
sure
represents
that
may
arithmetic
oldest
member of
the
mathematical
family,
and
still the
are
beginnings
arithmetic,
When
we
algebra
curtain
men
geometry
on
all of linear
prehistoric.
human
the
see
raises
the
drama
history,
and
computing, simple
case
solving
of the
equations,
using
a
Pythagorean
proposition.
i64
A
FEW
SURPRISING OF
FACTS
IN
THE
TORY HIS
MATHEMATICS.
That
than former That fourth of
spherical
trigonometry
was
developed by
the fact
earlier that the
plane
was
trigonometry
used in
(explained
astronomy).
of the
=.
the
solution
equations
use
of
most
the of
third the
and
degree
preceded
even
of
symbols
operation,
That
of
"
decimals been in
so
simple
and
convenient
so
should
"
not
have
invented
till after research and
much numbers
"had had
been been
attempted
so
physical
deeply
That
pondered" logarithms
(Mark
were
Napier).
invented of in before
exponents
from
nents expo"
were
used
"
;
the
.derivation
used
logarithms teaching
more
now
always
out
logarithms
than
a
ing be
first later. That
pointed
by
Euler
century
the
earliest constructed
systems
for should
of the have
logarithms
sole
(Napier's,
of that Gunter tating facilimark and
Speidell's),
object
computation, (leaving others)
it for but
missed
Briggs,
have
Gellibrand,
attained
to
Vlacq,
should
theoretical purposes of
tance, impormodern
lending analytical
themselves
the
methods
(Cajori).
165
QUOTATIONS
Following
used above Let
leave
ON
MATHEMATICS.
are
some
of
the in
quotations
the
that
have of
a
been frieze
room:
at
different
blackboard
one
times in is
near
decoration
the
no
the
writer's
recitation with
on
who
unacquainted
the door that the and Plato
geometry
the said inside
to
"
here.
(This
of the
an
adaptation
over
motto
is
to
have of
acquainted un
had
the
outside the
of
entrance
his
school is
philosophy,
Academy:
geometry
"Let
enter
no
one
who
with
here.,,)
Plato.
God
There
geometrizes
is
no
continually.
road queen
to
royal
the is the
geometry.
the the sciences. hurnan
Euclid.
Gauss. mind. nitz. Leib
Mathematics,
Mathematics
of of
glory
Mathematics
is
the of
most
man
marvelous for the
instrument
ated cre
by
Laisant.
the
genius
discovery
of
truth.
Mathematics
is
the
indispensable
instrument
of
all
physical
All
my
research.
Berthelot. is
physics
nothing
else
than
geometry.
cartes. Des
There
is
nothing
so
prolific
in
utilities
as
tions. abstrac
Faraday.
The
two
eyes
of
exact
science
are
mathematics
and
logic.
All
De
Morgan.
education which does
not
commence
scientific
166
QUOTATIONS
ON
MATHEMATICS.
167
with
mathematics
is,
of
necessity,
defective
at
its
dation. foun
Compte.
It method is in mathematics followed
we
ought by
the
to
learn
the mind
general
in its
always
researches. science
human
positive
A
Compte.
is
a
natural
science
only
in
so
far
as
it
is
mathematical. The linked If the
Kant. the
progress,
to
improvement
of the
state.
of
mathematics
are
the Greeks
prosperity
had have loses
not
Napoleon.
sections,
WhewcU.
cultivated
conic
ler Kep
could No
not
superseded
more
Ptolemy.
mathematics its
subject
'to
than from
by
Glaisher.
any
tempt at
dissociate
it
history.
AUTOGRAPHS
OF
MATHEMATICIANS.
For
was
the made
photograph
the writer
an
from is indebted in
which
to
this Prof.
cut
(Fig.
33)
David of
Eugene
ical mathemat
Smith.
x\s
explorer
a
the of
bypaths
history
therefrom,
The the
and Dr.
collector
interesting
without
to
see a a
specimens peer.*
of grange La
Smith will of be
is, perhaps,
interested and
reader
facsimile
handwriting
and
Euler and
Johann
Bernoulli,
and others page.
Laplace
Legendre,
Hamilton,
on
Clifford and
one
Dodgof In the the
son,
and
William
Rowan
immortals,
upper
grouped
corner
together
is the
right
historian
autograph
On the
verses
of the is in
Moritz sheet faint
Cantor,
the
of
name
mathematics.
over
ping overlap; it
that, the
of
is that
J. J. Sylvester,
late
professor
Johns
Hopkins
University.
One may who feel tries that he
to
decipher
indeed
some
of the
not
these Mazes
as a
documents of class matics. Mathenoted
is
"In
are
"f
for and the
Mathematicians
or
elegance
the
are
legibility
not
of
their
as
chirography,
models of of
one
these
examples
But of
submitted the
penmanship.
of the builders
each the
bears
sign
structure
manual of
proud
modern
mathematics.
*
Several
handsome Dr.
sets
are
edited
by
Smith,
of portraits published by The
of
mathematicians,
Open
Court
lishing Pub
Company.
t This
The
section first March
printed
"
in
a
series
bearing
that
title, in
Open
Court,
July,
168
1907.
AUTOGRAPHS
OF
MATHEMATICIANS.
169
bio
E
BRIDGES
AND UNICURSAL
ISLES,
FIGURE
TRACING,
SIGNATURES,
LABYRINTHS.
This results these
section of the
presents
a
few of
of
the
more
elementary
methods
to
application
mathematical
interesting puzzle
questions.*
Fig. 34
The
city
of
Konigsberg
has
at
is that the
arose
near
the
an
mouth island
of
the
Pregel
river, which
The
point
seven
called
Kneiphof.
in
*
situation A
of
bridges
as
is shown it
the ad
Fig.
For
34.
discussion
to
whether
of
is
more
extended
discussion,
Euler's
and
for
proofs
rems theoGeo
here
stated,
Situs Per
see
Solutio
Problcmatis
zur
metriam
tine ntis, Listing's
170
Vorstudicn
Topologie,
BRIDGES
AND
ISLES,
LABYRINTHS
ETC.
171
possibleto
without famous
cross
all the
any
was
bridges
a
in
a
singlepromenade
time.
crossing
memoir of St.
bridge
in
second
to
Euler's
of this
presented
the
the in
Academy
answer
Sciences
Petersburg
to
1736
to
question. Rather,
him the occasion and number
Konigsberg
the of shrink
problem
furnished of any
solve
general problem
isles and
to
combination the isles to
more
bridges.
the
Conceive
may
to
a
points,and
with
a
lem prob
be
stated
as
conveniently
of
reference
diagram
the
problem
tracing
given figure
Fig 35without
removing
any
the
pencil from
; or,
the
paper
and
out with.do
so
retracing
with
are one
part
to
if not hozv
a
possible to
many such
stroke,
determine is
strokes
necessary.
Fig. 35
the
diagrammatic Kneiphof
from
tation represenat
of
Fig. 34,
of be
isle
being
the
point
The
a
K. number lines
proceeding
the order
any
point
of
figure may
called
of that
point. Every
Ball's Mathematical
Mathematiques,
last two
Recreations and tions RecreaEssays, Lucas's and the references given in notes by the
To these
two
writers
named.
the
present
writer
is
especially indebted.
172
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
point
odd of
will
therefore E. g., the
even. now
as
be
of there
either
are
an
even
order from
; the
or
an
order.
3
lines is odd
point
order
A of
Fig. 36,
E is Enler
order The
of the
point
point by
wellknown stated
as
conclusions follows
:
reached
may
be
Fig. 36.
Fig.
In
a
37
Fig. 38.
with
no
closed the the
figure (one figure is
closed
free odd
not.
point
order
or
"loose
even,
end")
whether
a
number
of points of
unicursal
or
is
E. g..
Fig. 36,
of odd
multicnrsal
figure, has point
four points
is
order. A be
figure of
traced
which
every
of
even
order
can
by
one
stroke
startingfrom, any
point of
the
BRIDGES
AND
ISLES,
LABYRINTHS
ETC.
173
figure. E.g., Fig. 3/,
the
Pythagorean commonly
used
on
magic pentagon, symbol of gram school, and Fig. 38, a "magic hexathe called the shield of David have and
no
quently fre
synagogues" (Carus),
each is therefore
two
points
be
of A
odd
order
;
unicursal. odd order those
can
figure with by
has
one
only
points of
one
traced E. g.,
stroke
by starting at points
of odd
one
of
points.
Z ; it
at
Fig.
39 but
(taken originally from
two
Listing's To polo
and
gie)
may either
order, A
stroke
therefore of these
be
two
traced
by
beginning
at
points
and
ending
the
other.
Fig.
39
One Lucas
may
make
a
game like
a
of
it
by drawing
but in
on
a
figure, as
scale
on
suggests,
Fig. 39,
small
larger
the
cardboard,
each the
placing
to
counter
middle
of
line that
joins two
determine
counters
neighboring points,and
the
course
setting
in
moving re
problem
to
follow
all the
successively (simply tracing
each
counter
as
continuously
an
and
removing
of
it is
passed,
have
objective
traced).
A
method
recording
tzvo
which
lines
been
figure
odd order
to
with
more
than
points of
more
odd
two
order
is multicnrsal.
of
E. g.. and
Fig. 40
has
more
than
one
points
or
requires
it.
than
course,
stroke,
traverse
174
The of
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
last two
theorems
just
number
stated
are
special cases
odd
are
Listing's:
Let Zn
represent
the
of points of
then
n
order;
sary neces
strokes and
sufficient
to
trace
the 39
figure.
2
E.
g., of
Fig.
odd
with
points
order, requires
one
Fig.
has
.
stroke;
40.
Fig. 40,
a
senting repreof four
fragment requires
of
masonry, strokes. Return
8
points
the
of
odd
order
and
now
to to
Konigsberg problem
diagram
of odd in
Fig.
seen
34.
By
reference
are
the
Fig. 35
and
it is
that
there
four
cross
points
every strolls.
order.
once
Hence but
it is not
once
possible to taking
An consideration describe of
we an
bridge
out with
two
interestingapplication
of ngon of the number its and the
of of
these
theorems
necessary
is the
to
strokes As
diagonals.
are
the
even
points
order,
from every lines
intersection need
to
diagonals only
the
all of
consider
vertexes.
Since
a
each other from 'if
n
vertex
there the
is
line to of
vertex,
each is
number is nl.
vertex
Hence,
is of
can even
odd,
every
point
order, and
traced
the
entire
figure
be
any
unicursally beginning
e.g.,
at
point;
with
n

Fig. 41,
If
a n
pentagon
is even, is of odd
its 1 is
diagonals.
of be
Fig.
order is
odd, every
vertex
4
order, the number
n,
points
of odd in less
and
the
figure
can
not
described
BRIDGES
AND
ISLES,
LABYRINTHS
ETC.
175
than
n/2
two
courses
;
e.
g.,
Fig. 36,
A
quires quadrilateral,re
strokes.
Unicursal
is of
signatures.
respect
to
to
signature (or
the
same
other
as are
ing) writother
pen
course
subject to
the the
laws of the
figures with
must
number Since with
times terminal of be
the
be
put
paper.
point starting
counted
two. to
could
without
as a
have
been
connected
pen,
the
point
may
the lifting
the
signature
no
closed number
figure if
of The dot
it has of
an
free order
end
but be
a
these found
The be
points
over
odd
will of
even.
i, the
cross
t,
or
any
Fig.
42.
Fig.
43.
other
mark
leaving
There that
are
a are
free
so
point, makes
many
names
the
not
more
signature requiring
unicursal
multicursal.
separate strokes
one
would
expect
De
signatures than
shown but with
most
actually found.
in the
Morgan's
(as
in
the of
cut
preceding section)
there Of the shown
were
is one; made
to
the
signatures
each.
several
strokes of
signatures
is not
one
the is
as
Declaration
Independence
;
there
that looks / that
unicursal strictly if the often end have of the been
though
h and
that of Th the
Jefferson of the in
beginning
might
case
completely joined, and
I76
his
course
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
signature
of the
would pen. of
have
been
written
in
a
single
Fig. 42, sign
manual traced without
formed of
two
crescents, said
to
is "the have of
socalled
Mohammed,
sand
been
inally orig
in the the
by
the
point
the
his scime.tar
or tracing re
taking
any
scimetar
off
ground
can
part of the
at
figure," which point
of the The horns order.
easily be
it of
tains con
done
beginning
no
any
figure,as
mother of
point
suggests
of
odd
the
writer
that, if the
Mohammed's
Fig.
44.
crescents
can
be be of
omitted,
traced
a
figure (Fig. 43)
There strokes
two
is left which
are
not
unicursally.
;
then
four
points
to
odd. order
the
hence
are
requisite
shown in
describe
figure.
as
Labyrinths Fig.
are
such
the in
very
simple
London
one. so
one
44
(published
1706
to
by
and In
easy
Wise)
some
familiar, as
more
drawings,
in the
.every it is not
of
the
complicated mazes
way,
even
to
thread entire
one's
drawing,
where
the
BRIDGES
AND
ISLES,
LABYRINTHS
ETC.
1
77
maze
is in
or
sight,while
conceal the
one
in the
actual
labyrinth,where
but the
walls is
hedges
at
everything
the
a
path
one
taking
The
moment,
needs
is greatly difficulty of
creased in
and
rule
procedure.
are
mathematical
principles involved figures;
to
the
same
as
for
tracing
two
other
are
but
in
their in the it
application
conditions
not
are
several of the
a
differences
be
noticed
problems. figure;
as are
A the the
labyrinth,as
entrance
stands, is
center
closed
for also
and
the blind
free the odd
ends,
maze
ends These
of any
are
alleys that points
of
not to
may
contain. There in
a
therefore other
of
order.
are
usually
But
to
points
can
odd
be
so.
order.
Hence
single trip
is,
the the from
the
maze
completely
The
traversed. here
it is not go
required
the the
entrance
do
to
problem
the
the
center, the
shorter rules of
route
found do
not
better.
over, More
game
forbid
retracing
that
a trance, en
one's
course.
It is
readily seen
over
(as
first
suggested by Euler)
the it
maze
by going
closed
each
line
twice where
as one
becomes
at
figure,terminating including the
center
begins,
the
point
even
in the
course,
and every
over
containing only points labyrinth can
every be
"
of
order.
Hence
completely
once some
traversed
by going
It is
the
path
twice
to
in each
means
direction. of
only
routes
necessary
have
marking
to
already
taken
(and
their
way.
direction)
This and is
avoid
the
of losing possibility
course one
one's
no
duplication
so
of the entire
a
permits
does
failure need in But
may
to
general anything
it the is
method the
that
not
know
to
a
about
particular labyrinth confidently.
had,
a
order if be
traverse
successfully and labyrinth can
shorter. be
plan
found
of that
course
178
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
Theseus,
of the
as
he threaded would
mazes
the Cretan have
as
Minotaur,
labyrinthin quest matical regarded Euler's matheless the romantic
outer
theory
the there
to
of
much
at
than
; but
silken
are
cord
with
Ariadne
a
end
occasions the "a
where
modern
finds the
not
it necessary
"go by
was
book."
Doubtless
maze,
labyrinth
a
of
Daedalus
mighty
one
but
most
without
plan.""
It is
Fig. 45 presents though by no means
described in the
as
of the among
famous
most
labyrinths, (article
the
puzzling.
Eneyclop"dia
follows:
Britannica
"Labyrinth")
Fig.
45
"The
maze
in the
to
gardens
be
one
at
Hampton
the finest
Court
ace Palin
is considered
of
examples
of the that
England.
of
maze
It
was
planted
there
on
in the it has
early part
been time and
reign
a
William had
III, though
existed the
supposed
of
since
the
Henry
VIII.
and
It is constructed
was,
we
hedge
have
alley system,
out, and
the
a
believe, originally planted with
of the
hornbeam,
been
placed re
but
many
plants
died
so
by hollies,yews,
mixed.
and the The
extent
etc.,
about
that half
vegetation is
in
walks of
acre.
are
mile
a
length,
over
a
ground 'occupied
The
center
is
little
two
quarter
of
an
contains
large
BRIDGES
AND
ISLES,
LABYRINTHS
ETC.
1
79
trees,
with
a
seat
beneath
each. the from
The hand
key
to
reach
this in round
resting
contact
place
with
is the
to
keep hedge
right
first
continuously
last,
to
going
all
the
stops."
THE
NUMBER
OF
THE
BEAST.
"Here
him
count
is
wisdom. the number
:
He of
that the
hath
beast is Six ancient
understanding,
; for
let
ber num
it is the and
of and
a
man
and
his
number
hundred
sixty
read
six." hundred No wonder
to
(Margin,
and that
a
"Some
authorities 13:18.
a
Six
sixteen/')
these of words
Revelation have been who such
powerful
incentive
class
interpreters especially
hidden in which
to
delight
as
in
a
apocalyptic Pythagorean
There
were
literature,
have numbers.
regard
centuries
for
meaning
no
in
satisfactory
At about the and
pretation intersame
was
generally Benary,
number In
known.
time,
connected
in
1835,
the
Fritzsche,
666
with
Hitzig
Reuss
"Emperor
notation
) =
(Csesar)
of the
^
=
Neron,"
the
pn:iDp.
letter 50. final
the
D
number
=
brews He
p
=
100,
60,
200,
3=50,
666.
200,
1=6,
*]
=
These letter the
numbers from the
added
name
give
ting Omitit the peror "Emginal mar
the
(making
is
Nero") reading.
is that the
;
number The
represented
present
is the the writer's
616,
casual intended Nero number
opinion
in the the
foregoing
that of had the
to
meaning
fear of of the
passage
and
after
passed,
knowledge
faded,
It the and
meaning
be
gradually
afterward.
after of
to
rediscovered
that
long
about
a
is, however,
strange,
of the
only
century
writing
with
Apocalypse
was
the
connection
the Ire
number
Nero
apparently
unknown
180
THE
NUMBER
OF
THE
BEAST.
l8l
naeus.
He
number. the
was
made
several
conjectures
and and
a
of
words
to
fit
the In
later made
Middle
to
Ages
afterward, the
individual little
ber num
fit heresies found that
heretics. could
ber num
Protestants discover and
a
in turn similar
ingenuity
the of
correspondence
for of
name
between
or names
symbols exchange
When the
the these
papacy
popes.
tinued. con
So
the
expressions
in
of
regard
is taken
Greek, the number
every letter is
is
a
expressed
numeral and I have
in Greek when
numerals, where
Latin is
; but
used, only M, D, C, L, X,
V
numerical
values. FILII DEI +1+500 Luther's
+1
=
VICARIVS 5 +1+100 This and
a
+1 similar
most
+5 derivation famous
+1+50+1 from these
666
are
name
perhaps
De from that He Greek these He
the
of book
names, to
performances.
David
Morgan
which have he been 18
cites
a
by
Rev.
Thorn,*
etc.
quotes
shown
mottoes significant
spell out
the Latin the many
sources
the and
number 38 from Some
666. the of
gives
and
were
such
from those in
omits made
from
Hebrew. in
jest,but
from other
grim
than
earnest.
also
gives
number the
a
few
the
book
mentioned. The
to
of claim
such
is interpretations
so
great
as
destroy
the
of any. the
"We
fits the
can
not
infer much
a
from
fact that almost
to
key
lock, if it is
A certain
lock
in which
any
key
will turn." cabalistic
to
interest
still attaches
all such
hermeneutics, and
us, but
they
are
not
without
their lesson the
Names
it is not it
comes
the
to
lesson
*
intended
Number
by
and De
interpreter. When
The
I,
Svo, 1848. See
of the Apocalyptic Beasts, part Morgan's Budget of Paradoxes, p. 4023
1
82
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
the Church
use
of
such
interpretations
another,
one
by
would De
one
branch
of less the
the reverent ir
against
the
prefer
that the the
as
suggestion
of the and three half
of
Morgan,
is that of
true
explanation
are
sixes dozen
interpreters
other."
"six
of
one
a
MAGIC
SQUARES.
"A
of is 1
magic
square like
a
is
a
one
divided
into
in
any each numbers of
number which from
a
equal placed
up
to
a
squares,
one
chessboard,
of the consecutive number
sum
of
series of that
the
manner
square
of those
two
cells in the
in
same
side,
row
in such
or
the
of the
column
and
in
each
of
diagonals
is
stant/'. con
(Encyclopedia
The of
term
Britannica.)
to
is often
not
extended
include
an
assemblage
all other
quirements re
numbers
consecutive this definition.
but
meeting
If every
of magic
or
number
q,
in
a
square
be
multiplied
by
any
or
number,
integral
such law
fractional,
arithmetical,
is
real and
are
imaginary,
distributive
an
assemblage
formed,
its
sums
by
the
of each
multiplication
q
times
those
in the
inal origX
i i
square. One of
way
(DelaLoubere's)
any
constructing
square 1. In is
as
ber oddnum:
r
follows the
y
assigning
tive consecu
numbers,
proceed
up 6
in and in
an
oblique
the
direction
to
right
(see 4, 5,
Fig.
p;g ^
46).
2.
square,
When
write of the
this that column
would number
or
carry in
row,
as
a
number cell
at
out
of
the
the
the
case
opposite
of the
end
shown of
in
canceled
figures
in
the
margin
183
Fig. 46.
184
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
3. When number in
a
the cell
applicationof
cell beneath
to
rule
1
would the
one new
place
ber, num
a
already occupied, write
the 3 and the
instead, in the
last
filled.
(The
4
cell above
right of
being occupied,
is written 4. Treat
beneath the
3.)
square
marginal apply
marked
x
as
an
cupied oc
cell,and
5.
column. This
rule
3.
Begin by putting
rule will fill any
row
1 in the
top cell of the middle
square column.
some
having
of is the
an
an
odd
number
of cells in each The
and
investigationof
squares For
properties of
the
simple
have he the
just
described after and the the
one
sion. interestingdiver
example,
constructed himself
5square and
is familiar
to
7square
the
been
with
a
rule,
for
may
sum
set
problem
in each that is the
find
formula
or
of the numbers square.
to
row,
column
diagonal
lower
of any left
Noticing
upper
to
diagonal from
of
corner
right
composed
if we left
consecutive
for the
sum
numbers, it will be easy
of that series for the number number
we
write the formula
can
(the requiredsum)
in the lower
or
we
find
ula the form
corner.
Since
the
of cells in each
row
column
of. the
that
squares number
are
considering general
have it is
seen
is
odd,
represent
an
by
Our
=
the
formula is
a
for
odd
number,
If
a
2w+l.
taken
etc.
square,
we
then,
a
(2/Hl) square.
if
"
=
n
be
1,
3square ;
2,
5square;
number
Now lower in the
by inspection that n(2n+l)+l,
to
the
in the numbers
left cell is
the
+
succeeding
2,
have This the
diagonal being n(2n+l)
this series
etc. "(2fHi)+3,
we
Summing
tabulated of
a
2/2+1 terms,
the
quired re
formula,
as
(2n+l) (2n2+2n+l).
might
be
follows
(including 1
as
limiting case
magic square) :
MAGIC
SQUARES.
185
Following
68 80 92 104 116 7 19 31 43 81 93
is the
11square
120 1112 24 36 48 60 1 13 25
94 106 118 9 21 33 34 46 58 70 82
107 119 10 22 23 35 47 59 71
105
117 8 20 32 44
37
49 61 73 85 97 109 121
.72
84 96 108
45
57 69
55 56
83 95
l86
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
There which the and
as
are
also
"geometrical magic
of the numbers If
an a
squares,"
row,
in
product diagonal
the
in every number
umn col
is the
same.
be
selected square
base used
and
as
numbers
in
ordinary magic
to
be
exponents
form
a
by
which
affect
ing it,the resultthe first law the
bers numas
powers of
geometric
Take
square 2
as
(by
exponents).
E.g.,
base square The
and
in the
(Fig. 46)
exponents.
resultinggeometrical magic square (Fig.47)
the
has
215
for
product
line.
of
the
numbers The in
in each
theory
of
magic
with
squares
general, including
squares,
ber evennum
squares
tional addiding incluidea
to
Fig.
.properties, etc., and
47
the
extension
of the
cubes, is given in the article "Magic
Squares"
some
in the
Encyclopedia
of their
Britannica, together with
See also Ball's
account
history.
Recreations ;
the of
Lucas's res Car
Recreations, vol. 4, Cinquieme
Recreation, "Les
and
magiques
article, "A
de
Fermat"
;
comprehensive Squares,"
p.
Mathematical
Study
Monist
Magic
for
by
L.
S. Frierson, in The
April, 1907,
272293.
The oldest dates
manuscript
from named the
on
magic
or
squares
still preserved It is
graved en
fourth
fifth century.
by
a
Greek
on
Moscopulus.
stone
are
Magic
to
squares
as
metal
or
said
to
be
worn
mans talis
in
some
parts of India
the
most
this of
day.
the
(Britaiinica.) ophers philosperfecting
model
Among
who the of
prominent
amused
squares
modern
have of
themselves is
by
theory
magic
Franklin, "the
practicalwisdom."
MAGIC
SQUARES.
187
is the
Domino
magic
of
squares.
squares
A with
set
pleasingdiversion
dominoes. This forth
forming
of the
magic
phase
;
subject has
them The
been
by
Mr.
several coin
writers
among squares.
Ball,* who
also
are
mentions
magic
re
following
by
Escott, who
Fig. 48.
marks I
Fig. know
two
49.
:
"I do
not
how
are
many
solutions
there
are.
give
five
[of
which
a
reproduced here], which
In each of these
I found squares
after the
sum
few
trials.
magic
is the If
greatest possible,19.
we
subtract from
every
ber num
6, we
where
get magic
the
sum
squares the
is
least
possible,5."
h exagon
Magic
Sum
=
s.
f
of any
sum
side of triangle of
vertexes
=
of either
vertexes
=
triangle sum
of
convex
of
gon hexaof 26. 'There
are
sum
of vertexes
=
any
parallelogram
only
six solutions,
of which
*
this is one."
p.
(Fig. 50.)
Recreations,
Mr. in
1656.
says:
f From
Escott, who
the
"The
first
to
1895. and
second
is due
edge, appeared in KnowlS. Mr. Lloyd."
l88
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
Place
the
numbers
1 that
to
19 the
on
the
sides
of
the side
lateral equiis the
triangles
same.
so
sum
on
every
8
a3
A
19
a3
\\
i o
p
fj
jg
ie
u
12
V
[
13
16"44
4A"
13"
V
9
\
M
H
/IO
*?
J 5
7
ii
9^8
2
io
Fig.
5i.
Fig.
52.
The is 22.
sum
on
the
sides it is 23.
of If
the
triangles
subtract solutions
in each
Fig.
of
51
the the
In numbers
Fig.
52
from
we
above
20,
38
we
have
where
sums
are
respectively
and
37,
THE
SQUARE
Teachers Note
OF
GOTHAM.
(From
Book,
by
permission.)
The
wise
once
men
of
Gotham,
the
famous
for
their of the
eccentric
a
blunders,
undertook their into and In 9 24
management
in The the
school of
pied occua
;
they
square
arranged
divided the
establishment
rooms.
form
playground
rooms
center,
in each.
scholars of the
around of
it,
3 it
being
was
spite
the
strictness
were
discipline,
habit of
suspected
that
boys
in
the
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
Fig.
53
Fig.
54
playing
watch.
on
truant, To
assure
and
it
was
determined that the all
rooms,
to
set
a
strict
were
themselves
the and
went
boys
the
premises,
or
they
a
visited Four visited all
was
found
3
in the 9
each,
wise in each
came
9
in
soon
row.
boys
the
then
rooms,
out,
and
and
men
after
finding boys
; and
row,
thought
right. by
four
The
four
then the in
back,
accompanied
on
strangers
Gothamites,
each
row,
their
third
no
round,
finding
of
were
still had
9
entertained Then 4
more
suspicion
"churns"
what
taken
place.
admitted,
189
I90
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
but fourth
the
wise
men,
on
examining
9 in each
the
establishment and
a
time,
still that
found their
row,
so
came
to
an
opinion
previous
suspicions
had
been
unfounded.
Figures
5356
show
how
all
this
was
possible,
as
they
Fig.
55
Fig.
56.
represent
the
contents
of
each the had
room
at
the
four of
ferent difthe
visits; watch;
when the and
Fig. 54,
when
53,
at
commencement
Fig.
four
gone another had
out;
four
Fig.
had them.
55,
turned re
four,
accompanied 56,
when
four
by
;
Fig.
more
joined
A
MATHEMATICAL
GAMEPUZZLE.
"Place
15
checkers either
on
the
table.
; then
You your
are
to
draw
is to draw him
to
(take
draw
away
1, 2
or
or
3)
his
opponent
; then to
you
(take
;
1,
your
2
3
at
option)
You
are
again
take
then last
:
opponent.
force
the
one." When be your
Solution
there Since
must at
or
opponent
checker
are
makes left
to
his for him
last
to
draw,
take. either 1 draw
next not
or
just
draw
can,
one
every
you
limited last the
removing
leave
1, 2
and either
to
3,
you
by
find You leave
next
your
on
draw,
just
that your he
can
if,
only
2, 3
last
if, you
or
board
before after that
4.
must,
the
to
therefore,
board the that last you
so
the
draw,
his the
but 4.
leave, after
5 is
draw,
must
either leave if
2, 3
at
clearly
number takes
that
time;
since
if he after
1, he
next next
leaves
4;
2, 3;
you
if
3, 2.
must
Similarly,
leave
must
your your
2.
preceding preceding,
draw 13
;
9 ; after first draw
that he
is, yon
makes,
number
Then
after
each
draw
that and the
you that
draw
he has
the
difference
between
4
takes
just drazvn,
takes
(if
he take
1, you
follow
by
taking
take and make
3 ; if he Four
2, you
the
may
sum
2 ; if he the
takes
3, you
number
1).
the the
being
that of
two
of
smallest you draws
can
largest
sum
be
drawn,
always
ponent's op
consecutive you
can
(your
make
and any other
yours)
4, and
not
always
it
number.
Following
would
be
a
more
general
problem:
Let
191
192
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
your checkers
opponent
place
you
on
the choose
board who
any shall leave
number first the he draw
of
leaving
2
or
to
(1,
checker
3 for
as
before).
Solution: number first.
Required
If of Then the the
to
last
him. is draw in that that he and
number form the
places
choose
on
the he the
board shall board
a
4n+
1,
number
that
keep making
there the it is board
left
on
form
by
until
his but
draw
+
yours If that is of
=
4,
until number draw
n
=
0;
that first
is,
one
left. of that
the
places
reduce
on
is
not
form;,
that The the
to
a
number
form,
and
proceed
as
before. further be taken
problem
number
might
that may
be
generalized
at
a
by
ing vary
draw.
PUZZLE
OF
THE
CAMELS.
There his will
to
was
once
an
Arab his eldest
who
had
three
sons.
In of of
one
he his
bequeathed
sons,
property,
son
consisting
have onehalf
camels,
the
son
to
them,
ninth.
not not
the The divisible be
second Arab
onethird,
died
and 17 As
the
youngest
a
leaving
2,
3
or
camels,
the
was
number could in
sultation. con
by
a
either
9. sheik
camels called
divided,
neighboring
He
loaned
them
a
camel,
so
that
they
had
18
to
vide. di
The The The Total
first second third
son
took took
1/2 1/3
. .
9 6
took
'*/"
_2
17
They
the It camel
had
divided that had be numbers
equitably,
been noted loaned that
and
to
were
able
to
return
them.
=
should The
l/2 + .*/s .+ 1/9
are
"not 17/18,
ratio
as
unity.
7,", Y"
This inheritance
9, 6, 2
in
the
same
V..
is
probably problem
an
imitation
may p.
of be
the found
or
old in his
Roman
which
Cajori's History
History
of
Mathematics,
7980,
p.
in
of Elementary
Mathematics,
41.
193
A
FEW
MORE
OLDTIMERS.
A wanted
measures
man
had
to
eight
it three
so
gallons
as
of
wine
onehalf.
a
in
a
keg.
He had
He
no
divide but
a
to
get
gallon
How
keg,
did
five
gallon
it?
keg
and
a
seven
gallon keg
keg.
is
he
divide
(The
five
gallon
unnecessary.)
Only
one
dimension
to
see
on
Wall
street.
Broker
termined (detime when go I
the
a
bright
rise, they
side)
went
:
"Every
down
; and
bought
1 sold
stocks
for
them,
they
went
up.
Luckily
they
can't
sidewise."
The each 2 for
apple
for sale.
women.
Two the would hers
at
apple
had
women
had hers
at
30
the
apples
rate
If she
first
sold
received 1
of the
1 cent, had 10
have 3 for
15
she
cents.
If
other received But
a*
sold
cent,
have and
would
have
cents.
cents.
Both all thus
would
had the What
25 60
they
5
for 2
put
them
together
getting
24
sold
apples
became
cents,
cent?
cents.
of
the
other
G.
D.
with
as
same
remainder.
Given
to
three find
same
(or more)
greatest
integers, integral
Solution of the
27, 48, 90;
that will the G.
required
leave
their
divisor
:
the
remainder. from each is G. C. the D.
Subtract The
smallest D.
=
number the
others. divisor.
C.
of
differences
=
required
4827
21;
9027
63;
194
A
FEW
MORE
OLD
TIMERS.
I95
of
21
and
63
is 21. is
a
If
the
given
of 6
numbers in each
case.
be
divided
by 21,
there
remainder
"15
the
same
Christians
and in
a
15 Turks,
terrible of
being
at
sea
in
one
and claring de
ship
a
storm,
the
rest to
and
one
the half
pilot
of be
necessity
into the
casting
that the
those saved should
;
persons
sea,
might
cast
they
be
set
all
agreed, by
that
the
persons
manner,
be
away
out
lot after in
this
a
viz., the
form like of ninth 30 the
a
30
persons and
should then and be
be
placed
to
round
at
ring,
beginning
proceeding
cast
count
one
passengers, should there 30
mained re
circularly,
sea,
every the
person
into
the
until
of
persons those
only 15.
should upon the be
The
question is,how
that and the
not
persons fall
placed,
15
Turks
lot
upon
might
any
infallibly
the
of
15
tians." Chris
The
early history Cajori
p.
of
this
problem
is
given
by
fessor Pro
in
his who 4
History
also
of Elementary
quotes
mnemonic then
matics, Matheverses
2212,
solution:
etc.
giving
2
the
Christians,
5
Turks,
then
Christians,
The
or
solution
counters
is
really
in
a
found
or
by arranging
in
a row
30 be
bers num
ring,
to
read
in
of
circular the
are
order.
Count
according
every the ninth
to
the
one
conditions "T" until
problem,
marked,
same
marking
then mark has of
15
remaining
in take
15
"C."
forms.
The
problem
other and of classes
appeared
persons sometimes
other the
Sometimes
the Christians
places
tenth
of
Turks,
every
every
one
is lost
instead
ninth.
A
FEW
CATCH
QUESTIONS.
divided other number
What without
number
a
can
be
by
every
remainder?
"Four
fourths This
exceeds
threefourths will
by
what
a
tional fracpany. com
part?"
question
usually
divide
Can
a
fraction
be
whose
numerator to
a
is
less
than
its
nominator de
equal
its
fraction
whose If
numerator
is
greater
than
denominator?
not,
how
can
3=
+ 6
+5
10
In
the
proportion
+
6:3
::10 than
: +
5 either is to
mean
is not has is
to
either
extreme
greater
old
?
as
What
become less"?
of
the
rule, "greater
less
greater
Where
is 1 ..2
the mile
fallacy
square square
in
=
the 1
following?
mile miles
square square
miles
2
(Axiom:
If
equals
Or A
be in
multiplied
this l/2
..
by
is of
equals,
from
=
etc.)
:
(which
full A
Rebiere)
a
glass
water
glass glass
y2 empty
empty
glass
full
=
a
(Axiom:
If
equals
be
multiplied.)
196
SEVENCOUNTERS
GAME.
Required eight place
spots
a
to
place
seven
counters to
set
on
seven
of rule
:
the To is
in
conformity
one
the
out
following
from
a
counter, and
counter
must
spot
to
that the
unoccupied
where the
move
along
is
to
a
straight
line
spot
be
placed.
The the that
game
writer
was
remembers
seeing
new.
this
as
a
child is
so
when
easy
lution so
probably
no
The then.
one
solution A in
it offered is
seen
difficulty
almost
a
puzzle
a
whose
or
by
any
minute
to
see
two
is
hardly
worth Recreations "The
name,
and
one
wonders and Seven
it in
Lucas's the Lucas title
mathematiques
Game the game,
197
dignified
and
by
American that
of
Eight."
explains
invented
by
Knowlton,
I98
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
of
Buffalo,
N.
Y.,
was
published,
at
in
1883,
to
by
an
ican Amerwho
journal
should in the Lucas's
offering
within
a
first
a
prize
the
the
person
send,
fewest
fixed
time,
solution
expressed
words. of the solution
statement
is,
Take
always of
4,
1 parture. delowing folthe
for
point
of
destination for
the
preceding
from the
point point
at
Starting,
the 4 4 the line
example,
and
4"1,
the the
placing
spot
of
a
counter
;
spot
reach be
must
be
second line of
arrival.
As
one
can
only
second
by
74, departure
the
spot
;
7
will
the
necessarily
seven moves
point
etc.,
being
41,
Lucas* other
74,
27,
the with
52,
game
85,
38,
somewhat less
63.
generalizes
amusements
and
adds "the
counters,
trivial
than
American
game."
*
Vol.
in
3, the
sixth
text
recreation,
are
from
which
the
figure
and
tion descrip
taken.
TO
DETERMINE
DIRECTION
BY
A
WATCH.
Those
who
are
familiar take made it
with
for
this
very that
a
elementary
every of
one
operation
knows school heard method. informed it.
usually Inquiry
granted
in
recently
the could
not
class but
or
normal few had the well
at
students of it The persons it. the
sun.
revealed
not
one
fact
that
and
explain
state
writer
to
has
infrequently surprise
and
known
express
pleasure
hearing
With
to
face Then
of
the the XII hour
watch
up,
point
the
hour the E. the
hand ent presg.,
at
the hour
point
midway
the is held
between south. toward
mark when
and the the may
is toward hand
4 II
o'clock,
is Or toward the
sun,
south. be stated the XII is thus
:
rule
With hour
the and
point
XII E. line the
that held
is
midway
the
between
sun,
present
toward the
to
sun
toward 4 the line. The hour The o'clock
center
the
south. the is
g., from
at
hold of
II the
toward face
; then
the
mark
XII
south
reason
is and
apparent.
XII mark hand makes in
to
At
are
12
o'clock all toward in the
the
sun,
the
hand
sun
the the hour the due
the
same
south. tion, direc
and the
hour hand
sun
revolve the Hence the
but in 12 The
complete
the watch and rule.
revolution
hours,
errors
24.
holding
of the
horizontal
to
stead indiffer
of
in
the
plane
ecliptic,
the
199
200
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
ence
between for Ball* the mentions
standard
time which the
and this
solar rule is
time,
is
are
gible negliput.
W. H. ing Beknown
purpose
to
usually by
1883."
that
"rule
given
Richards,
so
Military simple
and
Topography,
convenient,
it
London,
was
probably
earlier. Professor southern the which and the
Ball
also
gives
"If the the between
(p.
356)
watch
the is
rule held the of
for
the that
hemisphere: figure
bisects XII the XII
so
points angle
will
to
sun,
then
the hour
direction the
day
figure
point
due
north."
*
Recreations,
p.
355.
MATHEMATICAL
ADVICE
COMMITTEE.
TO
A
BUILDING
It
will
be
remembered Lewis
was
that
the
wrote
man
who,
under Adventures
the
pseudonym
in
Wonderland
Carroll,
Alice's Charles
at
a
new
really
in
Rev.
Lutwidge
To
a
Dodgson,
lecturer committee
some
mathematics
to erect
Oxford. school
to at
building
he gave
about advice that who of
building
the the erations. delibMock
sea,
as
added have
gaiety laughed
life
same
Children Turtle's
description
to
his
school the
in humor
the
given
Alice,
to
will
the
recognize building
in
these
suggestions
"It
accurate to
a
committee: for students in
to
is
often
impossible
carry
on
mathematical
calculations
to
close
contiguity
and
one
another,
to
owing
their
mutual
interference
tendency
processes
general require
conversation. different who
rooms
Consequently
in found which
to
occur
these
repressib ir
conversationists,
in every branch fixed. "It the funds "A.
common
are
of
society, might
be
carefully
and
manently per
may
be
sufficient
for
the
present
to
enumerate
as
following
requisites
:
; others
might
be
added
the
permitted
A
very
measure.
large
To
common
room
for
a
calculating
one
greatest
be
tached at
this
small
;
might
for be
least
multiple
this, however,
might
dispensed
"B.
A
with. of open
piece
ground
201
for
keeping
roots
and
202
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
practising keep
apt
to
their
extraction;
it
would
be their
advisable
to
square
roots
by
others. for
themselves,
as
corners
ate
damage
A This
room
"C.
reducing
be
fractions with
to
their for
lowest
terms.
should
provided
when which lantern in found.
a
cellar
ing keep
the
lowest A
terms,
"D.
fitted
large
with
a
room,
might
for the the
be
darkened of
and
up
magic
purpose of off
hibiting ex
circulating
"E.
A
narrow
decimals
act
circulation.
and
strip
for
of
ground, practically
purpose of
railed
fully care
leveled,
lines
meet
or
testing
;
whether it should
parallel
reach,
so
not
for
this
to
"
use
the
expressive
language
Euclid,
'ever
far.'
THE
GOLDEN
AGE
OF
MATHEMATICS.
"The
eighteenth
scientific."
century
Mathematics Gauss
was
philosophic,
"
the queen
teenth nineof
itself it
"
"the the
the method "The of
sciences,"
of laws all of No
as
phrased
is
necessary exclaimed:
exact nature
investigation.
are
Kepler
but
the
mathematical that in the
extent
thoughts
nineteenth and ety vari
God."
wonder,
its
therefore,
century
of One
surpassed
mathematical reads
now
predecessors
invention and
application.
of
or
of
"the is its the rise
recent
no
renaissance
new
matics." mathe
Strictly,
of
there
birth
awakening long
progress, been it has
mathematics,
for
productivity
of
has
continuous.
must
Being
with
the of
index of
scientific
rise
so
civilization.
That
rise
been
one
rapid
be
late in
as
that,
speaking
the
comparatively,
present great
may
justified
characterizing
a
mathematical "The
activity
committee
renaissance.
appointed
of
by
the
Royal
Society
to
report
on
a
catalogue
that
more
periodical
than
literature memoirs
on
mated, estipure
in mathematics Poets
1900,
were
1500
now
issued age of
annually."*
the the
race
put
have
the
seen
golden
that of
age
in
the
past.
recent
Prophets
marvelous
it is in mathematics
future. has
or
The been the
growth golden
Professor
said immediate
to
place
future.
*
its
in
the
present
James
455. the
Pierpont,f
after
summing
up
Ball,
Address
Hist.,
p.
t
before
department
203
of
mathematics
of
the
Inter
204
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
the
mathematical
exclaimed:
achievements
of stand
the
nineteenth the of threshold
tury, cen
"We
look into
who back the
on
of
a
new
century
can
on
an
era
unparalleled bright
fields of rich matics mathe
progress.
Looking
greets
invite
our
future all sides
an
equally
fruitful
prospect
research
eyes
;
on
our
labor this is
and the
promise golden
easy
and of
returns.
Surely
I"
age
And
this
golden
or
age
must
last
as
long
seek and
as
men.
rogate intermatics "Mathe
nature
value
precision cosmopolitan
or
truth.
is
preeminently
eternal."
national
1904,
on
Congress
"The
of
Arts of
and Mathematics
Science,
in 11:3:
St.
the 159.
Louis,
Nineteenth
Sept.
20,
History
Am.
Mathem.
tury," Cen
Bull.
Society,
THE
MOVEMENT
TO MORE
MAKE
MATHEMATICS CONCRETE.
TEACHING
With
come
a
the
movement
increased for
many
mathematical
production teaching.
worldwide The
ment move
has petus im
improved
lands. "The
is in which this The
we
felt the
in
teaching
are
of the
mathematics,
recent
in
of
the
a
midst leader
of in
stand,"
*
words
department.
movement
is, in
a
large
part,
for between
more
concrete
teaching
"
for
closer
correlation and
the the
matical mathematics matheuse
subjects
and the
themselves natural
between for
sciences,
the
extensive of
more
of
graphical
representation,
to
introduction interests and
to
lems proba
pertaining larger
expense
use
pupils'
and
experiences,
intuition years, and
at
of of
induction
appeal
in the
the the the
rigorous
of
to
proof
more
earlier
postponement
constant
the
abstract useful
topics,
aim of the
show
more
the
applications. things
that
are
Some
are
conservative teacher
some
urged
years.
what the
every
good
hand,
has of the
been
more
doing
radical and is
for
On
other
tions suggesbe doned. aban
will
doubtless
prove
movement
impractical
as a
Still
and full of
the
whole
healthful
promise.
American
t
Among
*
publications
assistant
that
are
taking
part
Dr.
J. W.
the and
A. in
Young,
the
of
mathematics
University
section
of
of the professor pedagogy in of address Chicago, an the Nov. Central
30,
before
Science
mathematical Mathematics
Association
of
Teachers,
205
1906.
206
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
in it may and
be
mentioned
which
the is
pure
Mathematics,
of of the
magazine School for doing much
and
Science
the
relation cor
elementary
Central
applied mathematics,
the and ings Proceedmatics MatheDr. of Science
the
Reports
of the
various Association
committees,
Teachers
and
similar
organizations, and
Mathematics. "The be
Young's
The mathematics and
most
new
book, The
School
as a
Teaching of
says,
Public
Journal tonic
position of
is the
mental
would
strengthened,"
of nature
quotes Fourier, "The
fruitful
movement
source
deeper study
mathematical the
of
to
study."
through
attracted
gineering en
The
teach and
calculus has
problems
attention.
the
like
wide
Some
of
the
applications of
to
the
rudiments
of
scriptive de
geometry
drawing (mechanical, perspective
in works
on
etc.) are
The have
were
not
far to seek
drawing.
to elementary science applicationsof geometry been It would be well if there given in outline.
available E. chalk g.,
lists of the
common
applicationsin
the
trades. The
(in the carpenter'strade) : straight(etymologically, the old statement, "The Illustrating
to
a
line
mark
stretched) straight points.
"
line. is
line
the
shortest
distance
between
two
level Putting the spirit
on a
in two whether
nonparallelpositions
the surface
two
plane
"A
surface
to
see
is horizontal.
plane
is determined
by
intersecting
straightlines.,,
Etc.
Perhaps
induced is not
most
teachers
of
some
geometry
such
have
made,
the in
or
pupils to make,
aware
list ; but
writer
that
any
extensive the
compilation is
print.
Fairly complete
lists of
applicationsof algebra
TO
MAKE
TEACHING
MORE
CONCRETE.
207
to
the natural above.
new
sciences
may
be found
in the
publications
the be
an
named The
industrial of
our
arithmetic time. drawn of There
is
one
of
tional educametic arith
features with life. Normal The
should from
problems
1905
largely
the
agricultural
Illinois State fied classi
catalog
Northern
a
School, De
of child Dr. in
Kalb, contains
activities
A.
valuable
outline number. Method
more
involving and
in need the the than
illustrating
his of
Charles
McMurry,
data
Special
"much
Arithmetic,
mentions
abundant
statistical
arithmetics
contain."
If
we
could the
have
these of
things
a
as
teaching material, teaching
matics mathe
without
affliction
fad
for
entirely through
would be
a
its
practical applications,it
for correlation
two
boon
indeed. the
movement
While
mathematics should
rejoicingin
and be the
not
of
other
:
sciences, these
points
not
overlooked
1. The the
sciences
commonly
sciences.
as
called The
natural field of
are
only observational
is
as
applied
field The
mathematics
or
broad
the
field of definite knowledge
investigation. Some
of note
parts
of
this
are
speciallyworthy
the
to
in this connection. treated of
tistical sta
sciences, the social sciences
ically, mathematscience in educational
applicationof
and
the such the
methods
.as
exact
social measurements
those of
obtained
psychology
health, economic
study
etc.
"
population, public
are
problems They
offer
these achieve of The the
sciences
aiming
at
accuracy. law.
seek
some
to
expression
best tunities oppor
in natural of in the marked
They
applied
that
mathematics. has
recent
growth
Nor
sciences than
of this group of the
been, if possible, more
sciences.
are
physical
208
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
they
less characteristic it has been section said
of that
the the be
was
spiritof
extended
our
time.
deed Inthe
say,
quotation beginning
so as
preceding
"The
should
to
eighteenth century
and scientific, the statistical sciences mathematical and lore
philosophic, the
is to be
a
teenth nine
twentieth call for which
sociologies' acquaintance regarded
not
The with
as
broad
is sometimes certain social
abstract
impracticalby
curricula.* The who
critics of current sciences
are
mathematical studied
by
those
are
pursuing elementary proposed
in
use
matical mathe
courses.
It is not should be
that
elementary
instead thereto.
mathematics of But with the
correlated
with
them
physical sciences, or
be
no
addition in the aim
it should is
remembered
means
that
physical
which
sciences makes
by
the
only place
be
ultimate
mathematics beautiful The
practical.
has its in mathematics and the
we
2. The elsewhere. business
as
p!*ose of
ordinary
intercourse
to
of
correspondence might
to
held
be
most
practicaluse
be poor Mathematics
which without has
language
the its
is put, but of the
should
indeed
too
literature of its
imagination.
creative and
triumphs
form has
agination, imcesses pro
its beautiful
theorems,
proofs
them
whose
*
perfectionof
that the
the he entire of of had
made
classic.
cature, carinounced anords rec
It is true
as
in
statistical sciences story of the German
tabulated
returns
are
exposed
the
to
statistician who
that of that
to
from
year year
marriage
had
the
country
men
for
the
and
was
discovered
exactly equal women same period of time! It is true that statisticians have results (rarely) computed that might have been deduced priori. It is true also that a of the results of statistical science have not some proved to be But these returns. things practical or yielded material inestimable might be said also of the natural sciences, whose is everywhere value social sciences matically matherecognized. The developed are to be one of the controlling factors in
the number married in the
the
number
married
that
civilization.
TO
MAKE
TEACHING
MORE
CONCRETE.
209
He in
must
be
a
"practical"
! be but
man
who
can
see
no
poetry
mathematics Let mathematics be the
correlated let the in
with
physical
be of the
science understood broadest
;
let and
it
concrete
;
movement
subject
taught
the
light
educational
philosophy.
THE
MATHEMATICAL EXERCISE
IN
RECITATION PUBLIC SPEAKING.*
AS
AN
*
The in
to
value
of the
translating vocabulary
from
a
foreign
language,
the of mind ing, draw
broadening
move
by
compelling
of
in
unfrequented
the
paths
thought;
of
exact
in
quickening
and
appreciation
; of
relations, sciences,
is all been in
proportion developing
to
perspective
of
the
natural this
"
independence
student of of
thought
often studies hears for these in
a
iar familtold
the
oratory;
these
one
has for of
he
one
the his
value
pursuing
But
as a
entering
ical mathemat
profession.
recitation
rarely
the
preparation
with
public
studies
speaking.
their
Yet
mathematics and has
shares another
vantages, adthan
higher
degree
either Most healthful attention
away
of
them. readers will agree in and that
a
prime
requisite
is drawn
upon
for the
experience
of from In in the
public
hearers and other
speaking
alike be
that
speaker
the
wholly
his
so
speaker
no
concentrated classroom where the the
thought.
easy
as
perhaps
is close of
this
ing, reason
mathematical, demonstration,
from
the
rigorous
tracing
sary neces
conclusions and who other
secures
given
mental of his
hypotheses,
power of
commands the student In what
the
entire and do
is
explaining,
classmates. feel
so
circumstances
students
instinctively
ican Amer
*
Article
by
the for
writer
in
New
York
Education,
now
Education,
January,
1899
AN
EXERCISE
IN
PUBLIC
SPEAKING.
211
that In
manner
counts
for
so
little and
mind
for is
so
much
?
what
other
easy,
circumstances,
therefore,
so
a
simple,
and
mere so
unaffected,
graceful
manner
naturally
that
are
healthfully
affectation
to
cultivated?
or
Mannerisms of bad
the
result and
are
literary
habits while
recede those and
the
background
that
finally disappear, expression
of
peculiarities
are
the its
personality
inseparable
the student
from
activity continually
presents,
to
an
develop,
audience
where of his
frequently
peers,
a
intellectual
connected
train
of
ing. reason
How
view !
interesting
I do
not
is
a
recitation
more
from
two
this
point
of
recall
an
than
manner. a
pupils
both
was
reciting
this
mathematics
in
affected of the her
was
In who
cases
passed
away.
One
with lost that
these,
work
lady
previously early part
class took that
acquainted
of up the
a
done
during
when work
to
the the
term,
mannerisms advance powers. of
subject
out
her, and
called The clear The ways and
her
higher
use
continual stimulates effect of of
diagrams
power
to
make of
on
the
meaning
the
student's
illustration. the
orator
mathematical is apparent from wish and doors his that
"
study
the known
our
in of
his
thinking
cultivation facts. institutions of
clear
vigorous
One
could of
deduction almost the
for
the
teaching
would
over no one
science their
to
the the school with
art motto
public
that
speaking
Plato had "Let here."
put
the who
over
entrance
of
philosophy:
enter
is
unacquainted
geometry
THE
NATURE
OF
MATHEMATICAL
SONING* REA
Why
of its
is
mathematics
"the limitations.
exact
science"? Mathematics
Because
concerns
selfimposed
not
itself,
in
with
any but
problem
with
the
of
the
nature
of
things
of the nite defito
are
themselves,
between
simpler Starting
problems
from certain seeks
relations
things.
the
assumptions,
arrive
mathematician
at
only
that
by
legitimate
if the
processes data is shall if
are
conclusions
;
as
surely
So of
to
right
right
in that
geometry.
the result data is in
the his
arithmetician
concerned be he that
correct
only
computation
correct;
assuming
a
the
he
be
though
concerned shall
is
also
teacher,
of the
that
set
capacity
for his
the
data
to
problems
pupils
or
correspond
conditions
actual the with
commercial,
industrial Mathematics of Of
most
scientific is
one or
of
present
the of
a a
day.
usually
a
occupied
of the
tion considerasituation. of the
only
many
few
phases only
the
conditions and the
are
involved,
most
few
important
other variables the
available
as
"
are
considered. Take
as
All
treated
constants.
for
illustration in B. of the
"cistern
of Heron
problem,
of very in
which
it 2d the
can
occurs
writings
must
:
Alexandria
(c.
on
cent.
score
C.)
age
be
deemed the time
respectable
which each
given
of
pipe
treatment
fill
a
vanced
and
new
section
teachers of
institutes.
For the
a
of referred
old
to
definitions
Maxime
mathematics,
"The
Bull. Am.
reader
is
Prof. Methods
Bocher's
Fundamental Math.
Conceptions
Soc,
11:3:115135.
and
of
Mathematics,"
NATURE
OF
MATHEMATICAL
REASONING.
213 which
to
cistern
separately,required the together.
fills while
to
time
the
in flow
they
stant. con
will fillit
This
assumes
be
Other
one
statements
of
the
problem,
the
rate
in
which the is full is
pipe
another
constant
or
empties, presuppose
whether cistern of
as a
outflow
or
also
be
;
nearly empty
as an
at rate
least and
the
outflow
constant.
taken Or the
average
treated is
"dayswork problem" (which
only
the cistern
man
in which each : given the time problem disguised) do a piece of work can required the separately, in which the
men
time that
they
work
will do
at
it
same
together. .This
rate
assumes
the
whether
alone labor
or
gether. to
Some
how violent the "If do A
an
persons
who
have this
employed
is,and
work them
are
know
to
assumption
the do
prepared boy
5
defend says, B
can
positionof
can
thoughtless school
in
who
a
piece of
days
which
in 3
together,"as
deemed up
to
days, it will take against the answer
among for
8
days working days,
Or,
which
to
:
1%
is
orthodox
arithmeticians.
an
move
the differential calculus which
illustration
"The
differentials of variables
are
change nonuniformly
increments the if of the
what the
would
be
their
corresponding
considered uniform with
at
corresponding
and variable."*
values
change
to
each
same
became
continued
respect
Mathematics
some mass
resembles
fine art in that each
some
abstracts the ment elenot
one
pertinentthing,or things
of and The grass,
out
as
few
things,from
on
of
concentrates
attention
the
us,
selected. every
serve
landscape painter
but
gives
blade
to
only
those of the
elements
scene.
that
bring
valuable
the
meaning
then
With
result be in tained obThe
mathematics
a
also
with
fine art, this may any that could
more
product
into
p. 8.
by taking
*
account
every
element.
Taylor's Calculus,
214
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
portrait painted by the artist
the
does
any
not
one
exactly
moment
duce reproof his
subject as
may
he
a
was
at
life,yet it
than of
one or
be
truer
representation of
So and dramas
truest
the
man one
all of his
photographs.
"The
it is with the
are
Shakespeare's
were never
historical
annals
which that
its "source/'
things
things
,
happened."
is
a
Mathematics of chalk mark the
science exist but
a
of
the
as
ideal. mental aid
to
The
tudes magnia
geometry
only
creations,
the mind
being
physical
of
a
in
holding
The
conception
is of
geometric
is
line. the stract ab
concrete
can
necessity complex; only
This
"
be of
simple.
The
why
in
mathematics
is the
to
simplest
mastery
all studies
simplest
same
proportion
of mastery
the
attained.
standard
being
it is
applied, physics
more
is much As
we
simpler
than
biology:
mathematical. relations become
rise in the scale mathematically, in astronomy
we
simple, until
to
find
nature
the
to
nearest
a
approach
conformity by physical
law, and
"God
we
see a
single
Plato's
mathematical
meaning
in
dictum,
geometrizes thought
to
tinually." con
Mathematics When
is is
thinking God's
statement.
after be
him.
anything
of
understood, it is found
The
tible suscep
mathematical
vocabulary
centuries
of
mathematics universe."
"is the ultimate The
as
vocabulary
for among many the
of the material been ies bod
planets had
"wanderers"
come
recognized
; much ;
heavenly
their of law
sun
:
had
to
be
known made
a
about series the the
ments move
Tycho
of in the
Brahe Mars
an
had
;
careful
observations
Kepler
stated with
Every
at
one
planet moves
focus, and
orbit elliptical
vector
radius
generates
was
equal
areas was
in
equal
times.
When
the motion
understood, it
NATURE
OF
MATHEMATICAL
REASONING.
215 Gravitation
When the ulary" vocabattracts
expressed
waited
statement
:
in the for
language
a
of mathematics.
to state
long
Newton
was
its law.
came,
it
in terms
matter
a
of "the ultimate in the universe
of Every particle with particle
every
masses,
other and
any
force the
say
as varying directly
the
inversely as
other science
"
square
of
the
"
distances. becomes
as
When definite
psychology
in its
results,those
results After
will be
stated
in
as
mathematical determine sensations and the of
language.
measure
many
experiments
of the stimulus
to
of
the
increase when
successive creases, inthe T.
the
same
kind
after tireless effort in the
as
a
applicationof
unit, Prof.
G.
"just perceptible increment"
Fechner of that
Leipsic announced
the
4
in varies
1860, in his Psychoas
physik,
the
sensation
the been
logarithm
the
of
stimulus.
Fechner's
law
has
not
established
by subsequent investigations ; but
of definiteness
or
it
was
expression
was
in
thinking,whether
it illustrates
that
thinking
as
correct
not,
of
and
mathematics
the
language
of
precision.
the science of the
Mathematics,
means
ideal, becomes
and
the
understanding investigating,
world of of the the real. The From
making
is
pressed ex
known
the
complex
one
in terms mathematics substitutions
a
simple.
as
point of
view
may
be defined
the science for
more
of successive
of
simpler concepts
or
complex
to
"
problem
in arithmetic and
algebra
to
shown
depend
mental fundashown
on
previous problems operations, the depend
of
a
require only
of
the
theorems and
geometry
to
on
the
definitions
axioms, the unknown
from the
parts
triangle computed
It is true of that
known,
the the
and simplifications
farreaching generalizationsof
we
calculus, etc.
substitutions
often in
have other
successive sciences
simpler concepts
'2l6
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
(e.g.,
to
the
reduction the
type
forms;
of
reasoning logical simplifications culminating in the
we
of the
forms
of
formulas the
chemistry; etc.) but
to
naturally apply
of any ence sciIn this view
adjective mathematical
in which this method
those
phases
predominates. rigor of
for
also it is is itself
was
seen
why
Greeks
mathematical standard.
demonstration
an
advancing
a
"Archimedean
proof"
to
the
synonym
unquestionable
is stated in A
onstration. dem
If
a
relation
between
variables is
a a
matical matheformula ative indic
symbols, the
translated mode Mathematics into words is
statement
formula.
becomes
a
principleif imperative
the
the mode.
used,
rule
if the in
is "ultimate" the aid of
generalityof
it transcends mind.
its
perience ex
reasoning. By
and for the
symbols
power number
imaging
the
to
of the of
It determines, of
a
example,
sides
diagonals
substitution
polygon
the
never
of
1000
be
498500
by
in
one a
easily deduced
has occasion and could
formula
to not
n(n3)/2,
a a
although
mental
draw make
representation
distinct
of
1000gon
of If there all differ
picture
"these
and
?r
its 498500
are
diagonals.
other
one can
inhabited
another
not
planets,doubtless
in
from
one
language,
a
customs
laws."
is not
But
imagine
or e
world
in which
to
equal
to
3.14159+, symbols
few
not
equal
2.71828+,
though
very In
all the
for
number
might
easily be
prise enter
different.
recent
years
a
"astronomers," with
on
an
that would have discussed with could those be which the
reflect credit in the
an
advertisingbureau, plans
for cating communi
newspapers of
inhabitants for be such
common
Mars.
What
symbols Obviously
used
must
communication?
to
rational
beings
every
NATURE
OF
MATHEMATICAL
REASONING.
2.1J
equilateral
where.
triangle
many
kilometers
was arc
on
a
side
out
and
an
Accordingly
it with should
on
it
proposed
to
lay
our
illuminate
powerful reply
with
lights.
triangle,
If
we
Martian could then
sies courte
neighbors
test
a
them
other would
polygons.
for of
some
Apparently
time have
the
to
exchanged
to
be
fined con
the
amenities is
geometry.
response the earth
to
Civilization
the its it."
humanity's
means
the
"
first
"
not
last,
or
by
any
greatest
and have
command dominion is is
over
of
Maker,
And of
"Subdue
the the aim world
the of
applied
mathematics
"the
mastery
quantitatively."
Hence
"Science
only
an
quantitative
index The chief and the of the
knowledge."
advance of the of
mathematics
is
civilization. have of furnished pure ics mathematof it ; yet in
even
applications
incentive the best
to
mathematics
the
investigation
in the the
illustrations
must
teaching
abstract and
no
mathematician
of his the need in
keep
its
science
must
advance
for
application,
that both and
as
push
of view any
inquiry
practical
directions
offer from from
prospect
application,
truth's
sake
the
a
point truly
of far
of
truth
for
sighted
"If the
utilitarian
viewpoint
not
well.
conic
Whewell
said,
Greeks
not
had
cultivated
sections,
Behind
a
ler Kepthe
could
artisan behind is the
have
superseded
"behind
a
Ptolemy."
the chemist It
so
a
chemist,
physicist,
Michael
physicist
who
mathematician."
"There is
was
Faraday
utilities
as
said,
nothing
prolific
in
abstractions."
ALICE
IN
THE
WONDERLAND
OF
MATICS. MATHE
Years and
after
Alice
had
her the
"Adventures
in
land" Wonderdescribed
"Through
Carroll/'
of she
Lookingglass,"
to
by
young
"Lewis
woman
went
college.
convictions.
she in
was
She
was
a
strong
and her
religious
As often
she plexed perto
studied
science
to
philosophy,
conclusions
to
reduce
or
different which
lines would
a
system,
the faith
at
least
find of
more
some
analogy
fundamental
make of
coexistence of science
many
more a
the
conceptions
These mind
and
thinkable. learned
questions
than
have
but
puzzled
never one
more
hers,
earnest.
a
Alice
elected
developed
courses
fondness The
for
mathematics in
space,
and
in
it.
on
professor
that and
ment departAlice
had had
a
lectured
E. A.
^dimensional
read Romance been The
Abbott's
charming
Dimensions,
to
little
book,
Flatland;
which
of Many
recommended
by by
to
was
an
a
Square,
had
her
was
instructor. be
a a
big daisychain
which
feature
of
the
approaching
of in conversation her
a
classday
among
one
warm
exercises the students.
as
frequent
was
topic
It
went
uppermost
to
mind
day
and
she settled
her in
an
room
after chair
hearty
rest
luncheon and think.
down
easy
to
"Why
a
!"
she
said, half
that hot and
aloud,
"I I
was
about
to
on
make the
daisychain
of the
day
went
218
when
to
fell
asleep
"
bank
brook
Wonderland
so
long
ALICE
IN
WONDERLAND.
219
ago. be fun
That
to
was
when
such up
a
I
was
a
little girl. Wouldn't now?
If I and
were a
it
have curl
dream this
child
again,
this So
upon
I'd
in
big
"
chair
go
to
sleep
phrase
roundings surwas
minute.
'Let's
pretend.'
the
a
saying, and
faded
with
magic
of this favorite
her, she fell into
out
pleasant revery.
consciousness, and
Present Alice
of
in Wonderland.
"What
"I wonder
a
long daisychainthis
if I'll
ever come
is!" end
thought Alice.
of it.
to
the
Maybe
know.
it hasn't
any
end.
Circles
haven't
end the of
a
ends, you
rainbow.
Perhaps
I'm
it's like off
finding the
one
Maybe
of
a
going
then
along
of
infinite branches
curve."
Just
to
a
she
saw
an
arborcovered into for
path leading off
it led her into
one room
"
side.
a
She
turned
it; and
a
throneroom,
Alice of
there this
fairy or
must
goddess
be did
one
sat
in the
state.
thought
classical
being
of know
divinities which
one.
mythology,
the throne
"
but she
not
Approaching
simply said,
not
bowed that
very
low
and
Goddess"
and
to
; whereat
personage Alice."
turned It did
graciously
seem
said,
Alice
"Welcome,
that such
a
strange
name.
being
"Oh "You
court at
should
you
know
her
"Would
!
like to answered go with will
go
through Wonderland?" eagerly.
I will send said the the attendant.
as a
yes,"
should
Alice
an
who jester,
same
act
guide,"
Alice
fairy,
tell
the
time
waving
dressed
wand.
"
Immediately
how
"
there
appeared
in the He
could of the
one
not courts
a
courtier
fashion
on
of
the old the
English kings.
her "Your
dropped
knee
to
before
fairy; then, rising quickly, bowed
as,
dressing Alice, ad
Majesty."
220
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
It seemed but Miss Here
name
pleasant to
be treated "You
with
such
deference,
; I
am
she
"
promptly answered,
"
mistake
only
The
the
means
fairy interrupted: "Call
her
'Alice.'
'princess/
may
"
"And
you
call
me
'Phool.' with I
am
a
"
said
the
courtier
;
"only
"How
she
you
will
can
please spellit spell it
when
ph"
only speaking it?"
I
asked. the
''Think
ph"
answered of Alice rather with
"Very well,"
who
ever
doubtfully,"but ph?"
"I
am an
heard he
spelling 'fool' broadly
I
as
Then
smiled
he
replied:
to
antispellingreformer.
in words in
desire that
one
preserve
the
ph
place
and said
of
f
so
may
recognize phool always
their
foreign origin
"Yes,"
from?"
derivation."
what does
come
Alice, "but
Again
"You So
he had the
the
fairy interrupted. Though
to
cious, gra
she
seemed the
prefer brevity
wand." it to the
and
directness.
will need
magic
saying, she
the
handed the
jester. The
And the
moment
wand,
were
fairyvanished.
in the
girl and
other wand.
to
courtier
were
alone
wonderful
were
world, and
they
not
strangers.
"Phool."
of that
They
And he
callingeach
the
"Alice"
and
held and
magic
seemed
were or
One
in
a
flourish
wand,
they
There
be
wholly
different
country.
but
no
many
;
beings, having length,
or,
breadth in
were
thickness
two
rather, they
and line. "Oh ! I know about
were
very
so.
thin
these
sions, dimen
uniformly
They
moving
only
in
one
!" exclaimed
Alice, "This
is Lineland.
I read
it."
ALICE
IN
WONDERLAND.
221
"Yes," thought
Alice "It show
said
Phool
;
"if you
hadn't
shown the
read
about
it
or
about looked
it,I couldn't
have
it to
you."
"To
questioningly at
power, what you
wand
in his hand. said.
has you
marvelous in this
; to
indeed," he
you have you had
way
that is
magic
could wand
show
what
thought about, never thought
A little twitch
of, would
Alice of the
be""
not set
catch them could
the
last word.
at
a a
down
different view
point
of of
in the
line, where
Alice the He had thrust
they
her
get
across
better the
lineland.
one
hand
line in front
of it.
inhabitants.
was
He
at
stopped
the
in his
short.
She
withdrew
amazed
apparition: a body
world
to
(or point)
as
suddenly appeared
Alice could
never
was
and
see
suddenly
a
vanished. lander "He she
interested
how
line
be
imprisoned
to
between
one
two
points. obstacles,"
thinks
go
around
of the
said. line of is his
out
"The thinks
world,"
of the
said world
Phool.
to
"One
never
an
going
get around
obstacle." "If him I could
a
communicate second dimension?"
with
him, could
I teach
about has
"He
no
apperceiving mass,"
said he
said
Phool
ically. lacon
"Very
no mass.
good,"
Then
Alice, laughing; "surely he
can
has
get
out
of
his
narrow
world
only by accident?"
"Accident!"
repeated Phool, affecting surprise, "I
were a
thought "But,"
Isn't
you
philosopher."
"I
am
"No," replied Alice,
said what
only
are
a
a
college girl."
lover You of
Phool,
"you
wisdom.
see
that for
'philosopher'means?
I'm
a
stickler
etymologies."
222
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
"All
But
right/'said Alice,
me
"I
can
am
a ever
philosopher then.
appreciate space
tell
how
that
being
few for
a
outside
of his world."
"He Alice
that into
might
stood
was
evolve
a
dimensions."
puzzled
he
minute, though she knew
a
Phool his
jesting. beings
act
us
Then
serious
look
came
face, and
continued:
can
"Onedimensional
learn of another
sion dimentheir
only by
world. So
But
the let
of
some
being
of
from
a
without
see
something
the
broader
world."
were
saying,he
where
no
waved
wand,
had
and
they
and
in
a
country
but
the
inhabitants
length
breadth,
appreciable thickness.
was
Alice
out.
delighted. "This
after
were a
is
Flatland," she
said, "I
cried the
Then
Flatlanders Phool Alice about Phool
thought regular geometric figures."
at
minute
she
laughed
it.
this with
so saw
much
enjoyment
very
that
laughed
too,
though she
"You
are
nothing
funny
explained :
all
are
thinking of
and
classes while
the
Flatland
acuteness
where is
is
a a
lawyers
of
square,
where
characteristic mark
we a
of the lower That
a
obtuseness
very
nobility. spell that
would,
indeed, be
This
flat; but
land with
with
capitalF.
is flat
small
Alice
fell to and
f" studying the
how
life of the
must
twodimension
seem
people
She
thinking
that
the world
to
them.
reasoned
polygons,
seen
an
circles and
as
all other
plane
that
figuresare they
may
can
always
not
see
by
them
linesegments ;
infer it ; that
any
angle, but
within
a
can
they
other
be
imprisoned
; and
a
or quadrilateral
plane figure if
may
were
it has
closed if
a
perimeter
which
they being
ap
not to
cross cross
that
threedimensional
their
world
(surface) they
could
ALICE
IN
WONDERLAND.
223 made
to
preciateonly
so
the
section appear
of him
to
by
that
surface,
that he
would
them powers curious
be twodimensional of motion.
more.
but
possessing
was
miraculous
Alice
see
pleased, but
dimensional the
to
see
"Let's
other
worlds,"
at
she
said.
"Well,
the wand
threedimensional
world,
same
you're
now
in
all the
time," said
a
Phool,
the the
time "and
moving
little and
me
changing
to
wave
scene,
if you
will show
a
how
this wand be in that
around
through
fourth
dimension,
we'll
world
way." straight
"Oh
! I
can't,"said
can
Alice.
"Neither "Can
I," said he.
anybody?"
say
"They
see
a a
that of
a
in
fourdimensional box you
space into the into
one'
can
the fourth
inside
closed
by looking
could
see
it from inside of
dimension in
a
just as
not
our
rectangle
; that
a
flatland knot
can
by looking
be tied world
down in that from
as
it from
; and
above that
space
a we
being coming
seem
to
such all
our
world could and
would
see
to
us
threedimensional,
be be
us a
of him section
to
would would
us
"
section what say
"
made call
a
by
space, He he
more
that
appear
we
as
solid. And
would would
so
let
human.
less
be
not
less human
than
we,
nor
real,but
The
;
if 'real' has who the
crosses
degrees
the be
of
comparison.
world onedimensional powers. of
a
flatlander appears
to
linelander's like the
(line)
So also
native
to
beings, but
the solid
a
possessed
flatland: lander his three
or
of the
miraculous crosssection that The
to
in
him
is all that
a
flatof
is,and
self. dimensions
a room
is
only
section, only
a
phase
to
real
of ability appear all and
being
were
of
more
than
enter
disappear, as
leave
when
doors
shut, might
224
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
make
more
him
seem
to
us
like
a
ghost,
we
but
he
would
be
real and He
substantial and Alice
than took
are."
to
paused,
occasion
reason
remark
to
: see a
"That
is all obtained
by
; I
want
fourdimensional
world."
that it
Then,
her "But show
would
us
fearing
to
might
known
not
seem
courteous
to
guide
I
appear
to
disappointed, she
have that the
added: wand
ought
couldn't
anything
be
no
we
limit
to
"Would
as
unlimited infinite
to
me
might wish to see ; for then there our intelligence." the same mean thing intelligence
?" intelligence like
a
absolutely
"That
sounds it
Phool
asked. said Alice.
conundrum/'
"Is
a
play
goes
on
words?"
"There Hello!
Alice with
was
Calculus," said
and
Phool.
"Fll ask
him.
"
Cal."
looked
saw
a
dignified
He turned
old when
gentleman
his
name
flowing white
called.
beard.
While
in
a
Calculus
tone
to
was
approaching them,
"He'll
a
Phool
an
said eager
low
Alice: This
enjoy having
carnival and for
was
pupil
When
like you. that
will be
Calculus."
made turned
quainted ac
worthy
the
joined
of
them
with Alice
and
topic
conversation, he
so
to
began
of Handle
instruction
caution: with
vigorously that
Phool
said, by way
"Lass! Alice
not
care."
did
as
not
like the
implication that
as
a
girl could
But she then seemed fore. be
stand
much
mathematics
is
any
one.
she
thought, "That
to
only
a
joke," and
heard
vaguely
"If variable
remember
having
said
it somewhere
you
mean,"
Calculus, "to
without
ask
whether
same
a
that
increases
limit is the
thing
ALICE
IN
WONDERLAND.
225
is is
as
absolute
the infinity, without
answer
clearly always
No.
A
to
variable
zero
increasing
to
limit For
.
nearer
than
absolute
it with
infinity
the
of simplicity of uniform
we are
tration, illus
compare
the variable variable
change, long
it
time, and
doubles
may
zero
suppose
considering
how
every been
second.
Then,
no
matter
have than
increasing at
"
this rate, it is still nearer
infinity. explain/' said
continued It is Alice. its value
one
"Please
"Well,"
any
moment.
Calculus, "consider
at
only
half what what
it will be be
second seconds it is is finite in
hence,
and
only quarter
it will
nearer
it will
two
hence, when
is
nozv
still be
zero
increasing.
under every, than
Therefore what
much
than
infinity. But
moment. to
true true
of its value of is
any,
at
the
moment
consideration An
and
therefore
nearer
of
zero
always
the
to
infinity."
one
"Is
say
that
reason," asked
without
Alice, "why
of
must
'increases
a
limit' instead
'approaches
not to
as infinity
limit'?" Calculus
a
"Certainly," said
as infinity
;
"a
variable often
can
proach apbe
limit.
Students
have
reminded Alice
of this." had
was
an
uncomfortable
too
feeling
that
the
versation con
growing
personal, and
increase in
gladly
turned
it into "I
see
more
speculative channels
that
one
seems
by remarking:
wisdom
could
forever,
though
"What
that do
"
"
miraculous."
mean
you
by miraculous?"
and hesitated. with
asked
Phool.
"Wiry "People
able "I
to
began Alice, begin
not
a
an
who
an
answer
'Why'
Alice.
are
rarely
give
answer," said Phool.
be
fear
I shall
able," said
look
at
"An
mologist" etysay
(this with
sly
Phool) "might
226
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
it
means
'wonderful'
about
; and
that But
an
is what
I meant
one
when call law."
curve
speaking
that
infinites. which is
usually
would natural
see
miraculous
must
exception lady
Phool.
over
to to
"We
take
the young
to
the
tracing,"said
"Do
you
Calculus he
"Yes, indeed!"
replied. Then, turning
said
to
Alice,
enjoy fireworks?"
"Yes, thank
dark." "No?" we'll have "Fireworks
But
at
you,"
Alice, "but
I can't
stav
till
said them
Phool, with
very in
an
interrogation. "Well,
asked.
a
soon."
she made clear for
was
daytime?"
Phool
that it
moment
was
flourish with
with
no moon
the
wand,
or
and
night
"
a
night
the
not
star.
It seemed
so
natural Alice
magic
very asked
wand
to
prised sur
accomplish things
at
even
that
much
:
this transformation.
say
She
me curve
"Did
you
you Phool. may
were
to
show
tracing?"
attend the
"Yes,"
races,
said you this
"Perhaps enjoy seeing
the
to
enormous was a came
you
don't traces/' had where
but
the three
During
and what A
conversation
now
been there
ing, walkwas
they
place
in
appeared
to
be
an
electric switchboard.
beautiful As
young
woman
charge.
said
to
they approached, Lytic.
You
are
Calculus
Alice, "That
her,
I presume."
is Ana
acquainted
with
"The remember
meet
name
sounds
to
familiar," said Alice, "but
ever
seen
I don't like
to
have
her.
I
should
her."
On
being presented,Alice greeted
as
her
new
ance acquainta
'Miss
manner:
Lytic';
but
that
person
said, in
I
very
gracious
"Nobody
ever
addresses
me
in that
way.
am
al
ALICE
IN
WONDERLAND.
227
ways
called
'Ana call
Lytic/ except
me
by college
I know
presume
me
students.
They
shorten In clause cheeks
usually
my
name
'Ana because
Lyt.' they
self
was
they
so
thus the Alice
warm.
well.', last Her
at
spite of
made felt very
speaker's winning
somewhat She
:

manner,
the
conscious.
relieved
when,
that
moment,
"This
Calculus young
said
lady
would
like
to
see
some
of
your
work/'
"Some talkative Calculus
curve
pyrotechnic
Phool. continued:
a
curve
tracing," interrupted
let have
the
"Please
us
an
algebraic
the world
a
with
conjugate point."
touched
a
Ana of
Lytic
of
button, and
to
across
darkness
(as
it seemed
Alice) by
rays
a
there luminous of
flashed
sheet It
light, dividing
but each
are
space
two
plane.
dicular perpen
quickly faded,
to
left faint of
light
other,
the
axes
but
apparently permanent.
"These
coordinates," explained Ana
Lytic.
Then what
a
she looked
pressed
like
a
another She
ray
button,
watched of
and it
Alice
come
saw
meteor.
cross
from been side
great
distance,
one
the and
light that
on
had
called
as
of
as
the it had the
axes, come,
go
off
the* other in the She
a
rapidly
always moving
sheet of of
plane
indicated of
a
by
vanished instead
a
light. path
the
thought
luminous
comet
; but
having merely
of
tail,it left in its wake
permanent
light. Ana girls stood
away
Lytic
had
come
close
to
Alice, and
curve
as
two
looking
across
at
the darkness
brilliant
as
that the
eye
stretched could reach.
the
far
"Isn't
it beautiful
!" exclaimed
Alice. paper what she
saw
Any
attempt
to
represent
on
228
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
must
be
poor
and
inadequate. Figure 58
exclaimed:
is such
an
attempt.
Suddenly
she
"What
a
.
is that ooint
point
of
?" indicating by gesture light in the figure by P. shown as
bright
situated
a
0
r
Fig. 58.
''That "But Alice.
is
a
point
of the from
curve," said Ana
all the
rest
Lytic. it,"objected
it is away
of
Going
Alice
on
over
to not
her
see
apparatus
what
"
and
taking something
to
"
could in
Ana
Lytic began surely
be
write
a
what,
the
darkness, might
called
ALICE
IN
WONDERLAND.
229 of the
were
blackboard. of of
The
on
characters
were
usual
size
writing light and
sne
school could
wrote:
boards, but
they
characters
be
plainly read
in the
night.
This
is what
r"=(.r2)2(.r3).
Stepping back,
the she said: "That is the
equation
of
curve."
Alice
expressed
her in line of
her
admiration
its
at
seeing the
across
tion equa
before world
a
and
graph
stretching
geometry
the
the
light.
coordinate could be
so
"I
never
imagined
said. is
beautiful,"she
"This
throwing
about
light
on
subject
for
you," Lytic
said Phool.
"The
to
point
which
you
asked," said Ana
see
Alice, "is the point (2,0). You
that
it satisfies
the
equation.
now
It is
a
point
that
axes
of
the of
graph."
length
were
Alice off
on
noticed
units
marked brilliant
the of
dimly light.
she
seen
more by slightly
points
of the
Thus
she
easily read
that ; but from had
to
the
coordinates
point.
said, "I
be
see
"Yes,"
that
it
seems
strange
it should
off away
the been be
rest."
"Yes," said Calculus, who
time.
listeningall
the
"One
expects the
message
to
curve
continuous. scientific
tinuity Con
is the This
as
of
modern that law
a
"
thought.
If all
point
you
seems
break
term
to
be
'miraculous,'
ago. visible
defined
the
few have
minutes
some
observed
we
instances
are
but
one
nection, con
inclined As
to
call that that
one
seems
miraculous wonderful would
and
the is
rest
natural.
only
which be
unusual, the miraculous
an
in mathematics
only
"I
isolated case."
thank
you,"
said
Alice
warmly.
"That
is the
23O
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
way
I
should
case a
like is
to
have
to
been
me.
able
to
say
it.
An that
isolated there is
perplexing reign
said there the
I like to
think
universal
of
law."
is
an
"Evidently"
is obvious for the that
Phool, "here
are
exception.
the
It
as,
several is not
alternatives, such
on
example, graph
Alice's
has
that
an
point
and
graph,
at
that
isolated
point, and
Phool
so
forth"
this.
Calculus, Ana
To
Lytic
all
laughed
inquiry, Phool
say
reason,
we
"We
can't
so
often
explained: when or 'evidently' 'obviously'
and
we
we
give
a
conclude of have
a
list with
'and
forth' Alice
when felt the
not
can't think
another been
item."
aimed
at
remark used
might
had
her. this in
a
Still she had
either of these made
expressions in
the remark foibles
conversation, and
Phool
were
general
entire
resent
way
as
if he
race.
the satirizing if she
of the
to
human
Moreover,
felt inclined from it
an a
it
as
an
impertinent
treated the
criticism that
as
stituted selfcon
teacher, she
remembered it
was
only
said
the
jestof
"Tell
a
and jester
me
merely
interruption.
she
to
about
isolated
point,"
way,
Calculus.
He
proceeded
For of
x
in
a
teacherlike
which
seemed
appropriate
Calculus. other value An
in him. x2m less than this
equation, y
would
=
0.
For
any
3, what
y be?
Alice.
imaginary.
And what is the
Calculus.
of Alice.
or
an
geometric representation given by
and the
imaginary
A line whose value
number?
length
that
is
absolute,
tion direc
arithmetic,
is
of the
imaginary
which
whose
perpendicular to
Good.
represents positives
and
negatives.
Then
"
Calculus.
ALICE
IN
WONDERLAND.
231 the
Alice I
see
(bounding with delightat
see
Oh! discovery).
the
! I
! There
must
be
points of
graph
side out
of the Calculus.
plane.
Yes, there
are
imaginary branches, good enough
to
and you
perhaps
now.
Ana
Lytic
will be
show
Y
v
\
\
\
\s
\
%
w
X1
"y
,\
TfcO
I
lc
I
Q'w
Fig.
59
The be the The
on
dotted
900 about XX' QPQ, if revolved in position plane perpendicular to "imaginary part" of the graph.
in that dotanddash line
paper
line
as
maining axis, re
paper,
would
SRPRS of the the the the
two
represents
the
projection
At R
one
the
plane
of
the
"complex
at
parts."
point
paper,
P S
each branch each
branch branch
is in the
plane
of
paper,
each of the
is about
0.7 from is 1.5 from
plane each plane, etc.
side
at
232
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
That
young
lady
and
touched
something
brilliant
on
her
magic
it
switchboard,
across
another The the
curve
stretched
the
heavens.
to
plane
determined
by
was
perpendicular
dotted what line Alice I in
plane previously
represents
in
shown.
a
(The
way
Fig. 59
exclaimed
prosaic point
the
saw.)
Alice. in
"O,
isolated.
see!" It which axes." is
"That
this
is not
the
as
point
real
as
which
'imaginary' plane
of
branch,
the
two
is
any,
pierces
of
"Now,"
real
were
said
for
x
Calculus,
and real
"if
instead
substituting
for y, you for y of
x,
values
to
solving the equation
numbers obtain numbers for for y and each
as
substitute in
solve of
you real The
would,
and
curve
general, complex
in
value
one
two
the
values
x.
through
all the the
to
points with
of you the But shall
complex
axes nor
scissas abin
a
is neither
plane
in
plane perpendicular (The
When
it. line
see."
these
dotanddash
Fig.
59
represents
branches.)
Ana
Lytic
these
made
the proper
of the
connection
curve
at
the
switchboard,
out
branches
also
stood
in lines of Alice
was more
light.
deeply
moved in her
me
than
ever. as
There she said
was :
a
note
of
deep satisfaction
troubled
to
voice
"The is
a
point that
common
because branches natural
of of
its isolation the
point
several is
more
curve."
"The
supernatural
Phool.
than
anything special things
is out of
else," said
"The
case
miraculous," thought Alice,
a
"is
only
a
of
higher
are
law.
We
fail to with
understand which
because
our
they
connected
that
plane."
ALICE
IN
WONDERLAND.
233
She curve."
"Yet said
added
aloud:
"This
I
should
call
the
miracle
there
is
nothing "Any
exceptional
curve
about with
this
a
curve,"
Calculus. has similar Calculus
not
algebraic
conjugate
point
Then could
properties."
said
something
and Ana
to
Ana
was
Lytic
Alice
"
hear
on
what
"
Lytic
when
just touching
was
a
something
of thunder. in the her
the Alice
own
switchboard gave
room
a
there awoke and
to
crash self herthat the
start
and
to
find
at
midday,
in her the
realize had been
slamming
that
sat
of
a
door
corridor
thunder
terminated in the
dream.
She
that "that had
up been
big
chair of her
and,
her
as
with
a
the
motion
characteristic little
toss
little
girl, gave
back her the
queer
of zvould
head,
to
keep
into
wandering
and said "There
at to
hair
that
always
get
eyes,"
herself: aren't
any
curves
of
or
light
two
across
the
sky
exist
all ! in
are
And the
worlds mind.
of
one
dimensions But dream. life will
at
only they
They
I'm wand.
are
abstractions. I had The the
least
thinkable.
glad
"
ination Imagbe
a
is
real
a
magic
and
future
wonderland,
the
to start
"
"
Then time
some
ringing
for
an
of
a
bell
reminded
her and
that she
it
was
afternoon in the
lecture,
corridor
heard
to
of
her
classmates
calling
her,
"Come,
Alice."
BIBLIOGRAPHIC
NOTES.
Mathematical
work
as one
recreations. in
The has
a
Ahmes
papyrus,
oldest
ematical mathprets intermarks re
existence,
for
problem
At
are
which which correct,
in
Cantor
proposed
the above
amusement.
Cajori
it looks
:*
if
"If
interpretations
were
as
'mathematical centuries collection thinks
was
recreations'
indulged
by
scholars
forty
The
ago."
of "Problems Alcuin has been for
Quickening
the
Mind"
tor Can
by
"It
(735804).
remarked is that
Cajori's
the
interesting
proneness
to
commentf
is
:
propound
Alcuin the the that title Mind.'
even was
jocular
questions
noted
truly
in this
:
AngloSaxon,
respect. Of
for
and interest
that is
particularly
the Do in
power
not
which
collection
these darkness of mathematics of
bears words of the
'Problems
Quickening
to
bear
testimony
Ages
the
fact mind
the
Middle
was
the
developing
Later
many
recognized?"
recreations
some
collections
many
mathematical contained in
were
tions. recrea
published,
and
arithmetics
of
the
Their
in A the
popularity
and
is noticeable
England
and
Germany
seventeenth
eighteenth
of 16
centuries.J
recreations the sixteenth and is
good
Lucas. the
bibliography "
There
are
mathematical titles from the
given
33
by
from the
century,
100
seventeenth,
century,
of
Elem.
38
from,
the
eighteenth,
date
from
nineteenth
latest
being
f Id.,
1890.
Young
*
Hist,
Math.,
Rara
p.
24.
p.
1
134.
t A
is It
to
book be
entitled
Arithmetica,
" Co. the
pages most
by
Prof.
David
summer
Eugene
or
Smith,
published
six
or
by
Ginn
seven
coming
and
fall hundred in the the
(1907).
trations, illus
will
contain
hundred the
have
three facts
presenting
of
an
graphically
author's
among
interesting
in of this field mathematical it is
history
book
arithmetic. immediate
Its
reputation
the
as
insures
place
classics his list
history.
restricted in
" 1:237248.
scope.
Extensive Nous
is,
professedly
l'ordre de
sur
He
l'indication
qui
aux
ont
ete
ciapres, extraits livres, memoires, principaux de et l'Arithmetique position publies sur
says.
donnons
suivant
chronologique,
des
correspondence,
la
Geometrie
se
de
situation.
Nous
que
nous
'
avons avons
surtout
choisi
ou
les
que
documents
nous
qui
rapportent
sujets
traites
traiterons
ulterieurement.
234
BIBLIOGRAPHIC
NOTES.
235
(p
l73~4)
gives
those
a
list of
of
20
titles,
list
mostly
recent,
where
two
in
no
case
duplicating
later
Lucas's
(except
of and
over
mentioning
hundred the list titles.
a
edition).
turn to two
This other
gives
a
total
Now
extended.
a
collections,
we
find
greatly
has
Ahrens' of
Mathcmatische
330
Unterhaltungen including nearly
all
(1900)
those has
bibliography
Lucas.
recent
titles,
Curiositccs
It
given
the
by
most
Fourrey's
Geometriques
is extensive and in Ahrens.
(1907)
itself and
bibliography.
to vast
mostly
supplementary
In all the the the
the
lists
by
of does
Lucas
number writer
published
not
mathematical of
a
tions, recrea
present
in We
know
book
covering
in ously seri
subject
general
seem
which have the
was
written
our
and
published
very
America.
to
taken Atlantic. sections have been in
mathematics
on
this
side
of
Publications of
as
of
book The and
foregoing
which
in
periodicals.
in
are
The
tions sec
this
printed
each of
case
magazines
those
at
are
follows.
month the
page
and is
year
of
the the
magazine,
section The
the
page
this
book
which
begins.
Open
p. p.
Court,
73,
January April,
p. p.
1907, 109;
p.
218;
p.
February,
143,
p.
212; 122;
March,
June,
The New
76;
May,
154,
196,
81,
83;
July,
January
168,
1907,
170.
p.
11,
Monist,
York
p.
210.
15.
Education
(now
American
Education),
January
1899,
American
p.
Education,
September
1906,
p.
59;
March
1907,
51.
Some of the in articles have form. been altered
slightly
since
their
publication
periodical
BIBLIOGRAPHIC
INDEX.
List mentioned. entry. A
In
of
the
The
publications
pages
mentioned this
are
in
are
this
book,
after the
in
with the
the
pages in
where each
of
book
not
given
imprint
index.
These date
many
use or a
references
included
general
*
in
( )
cases
is
a
the
date
of
copyright.
mentioned.
in
work of the taken
is
barely
from the
indicates 'direct
either
more
extended
made
book
this book.
case,
or
(though
brief)
quotation,
figure
[Abbott, by
Ahrens.
E.
a
A.] Square.
Flatland; [London,
a
Romance
of
Many 1899.
und
Dimensions,
*2i8.
1884]
Boston,
Mathematische
1900.
Unterhaltnngen
Spiele.
zig, Leip
235.
American 235. Annali di
Education
(monthly).
Albany,
N.
Y.
145,
*2io,
Matematica.
Milan.
38.
1806. Recreations 94 and both
Argand,
Ball,
W.
J. R.
W. R.
Essai.
Geneva,
Mathematical
Essays. fascinating
any taste
Ed.
4. and for
Macmillan, scholarly,
mathematical
123,
London,
attractive
1905.
to
(A
every
book
one
with
studies.) *i4i,
Short
*35,*38,
*4i, *83,
III,
117,
*I22,
*I27,
W.
3.
*i7i,
Account
186, 187, *200
of the
Ball,
W. Ed.
R.
History
*34,
of
Mathematics.
Macmillan,
London,
1901.
*35,
^37,
*i23,
*203
Beman and Smith.
New
Plane
Geometry.
Ginn
(1895,
'99).
164
Bledsoe,
A. T.
Philosophy
150.
of
Mathematics.
Lippincott,
1891
(1867).
Brooks,
Edward.
Philosophy (1876.) (An
of admirable
Arithmetic.
.
.Sower,
delphia Phila
popular
of
presentation
;
of
torical his
some
of
the
elementary
25,
31,
theory *5o, 66.
numbers
also
notes). Bruce,
W. and H. its Some Circles.
Noteworthy
Heath,
1903.
Properties
(One
10
of of
cents
the the
Triangle
series
of
135
Heath's
Mathematical
Monographs,
236
each).
BIBLIOGRAPHIC
INDEX.
237 Society (monthly).
212.
Bulletin
of
the
American
Mathematical New of York
Lancaster,
Pa., and History
Methods
City. *I03, *204,
Mathematics,
1905
Cajori,
Florian.
on
Elementary
should be
193,
with
Hints
of Teaching. book
Macmillan,
read 195,
(1896).
(This suggestive *52, *67, *gi, Cajori,
Cantor,
Florian. 135,
by
every
teacher.)
148, *i65,
of
*234.
Macmillan, 1894.
History
193.
Mathematics.
37,
148,
Moritz.
3
Vorlesungen
vol.
iiber
die
Geschichte
der
49,
Mathe
matik.
234.
Teubner,
Leipzig, 188092.
Books. of Paradoxes. *i8i. und
40.
67, 148.,
De De
Morgan, Morgan,
London,
Augustus.
Augustus.
Arithmetical
68.
Budget
Longmans,
1872. *35, *4i, 86, *i26,
O.
Dietrichkeit,
rithmen.
Siebenstellige Logarithmen Julius Springer, Berlin,
1903.
Antiloga1865.
Dodgson,
201,
C.
L.
Alice's
Adventures
in
Wonderland.
*2l8. C. L.
Dodgson,
Found
Through
the
Lookingglass
and
What
Alice
There.
1872.
Solutio
*2i8.
9. 39,
Encyclopaedia
Euler, Leonhard.
Britannica.
Ed.
*yi, ^176, *i83, 186.
ad Geometriam Situs
Problematis
Pertinentis.
St. Petersburg, Evolutional
119.
1736.
and
170. Animal
Evans,
E.
P.
Ethics
Psychology.
Appleton, 1898.
Fechner, Fink,
G. T. Brief Karl. Smith. Fourier.
Psychophysik. History
Court des of
i860.
215.
tr.
Mathematics,
by Beman
49, 93,
and
Open
Publishing Co.,
Determinees.
1900. 23.
148.
Analyse
E.
Equations
Fourrey,
Curiositees
235.
Geometriques.
Nouvelle
Vuibert
et
Nony,
Paris, 1907. Girard, Albert. 1629.
92.
Invention
en
l'Algebre. Amsterdam,
of
Gray,
Peter.
Tables
for
to
the
24
or
Formation
any
Logarithms
of
and
Antilogarithms
C.
less
Number
Places.
Layton, London,
G. B.
1876.
of
104,
40.
Halsted,
Bibliography 1878.
Art of for j888.
Hyperspace
107. and
and
ean NonEuclid
Geometry.
Harkness,
William.
Weighing ^43.
Measuring.
sonian Smith
Report
238
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
Hooper,
W.
Rational and
Recreations,
Natural
..
in which
the Are
Principles Clearly
1774.
of
Numbers
Philosophy
.4
1
and
Copiously
the
Elucidated.
pages
vol.
treat
London,
of
(Only
26, *27,
first 166
of
vol.
numbers.)
*38
.
Journal
Kempe,
of A.
the
B.
American How
to
Medical Draw
a
Association.
Chicago.
; a
158.
on
Straight
Line
Lecture
Linkages.
Klein, F.
Beman Famous and
Macmillan,
Problems Smith.
London,
of
1877.
*I32, ^136, ^139. Geometry;
tr.
Elementary 1897.
I23
by
Ginn,
Knowledge. Lagrange, by Lebesgue,
Leonardo
1202.
187.
J.
T.
L.
Lectures McCormack.
on
Elementary
Ed.
2.
Mathematics Court
;
tr.
J.
1901
Open
des
Publishing
Co.,
(1898).
A. Table
61. des
40.
et
V.
Diviseurs
Nombres.
Gau
thierVillars, Paris.
Fibonacci.
66. des
Algebra
Almuchabala
(Liber Abaci).
LTntermediaire
Mathematiciens.
zur
*20, *2i, 36.
Listing, J.
B.
Vorstudien
Topologie Gottingen,
Geometrical G.
(Abgedruckt 1848.
B. 117, 170, Researches, Halsted.
aus
den
Gottinger Lobatschewsky, Theory
Texas,
Lucas Edouard. of
Studien).
Nicholaus. Parallels
173.
on
the
;
tr.
by
Austin,
1892
(date of dedication).
104. 4 vol.
1
Recreations
Mathematiques. *iy, *7o,
Nombres. of
141,
*
Gauthier
Villars, Paris, 18916. Lucas,
McLellan Edouard. and Theorie
7
1
,
186, *i97, ^234.
"
des
17,
22.
Dewey.
154. A.
Psychology
Method in
Number.
Appleton,
Macmillan,
1895McMurry,
1905. C.
Special
Arithmetic.
*207.
P. NonEuclidean
1503.
Manning, Margarita
Mathematical
H.
Geometry. 67
and
Ginn,
1901.
107.
Philosophica.
Gazette.
frontispiece.
London.
41.
Mathematical
Magazine.
of Mathematics.
Washington. Cambridge,
Court
*20,
40.
Messenger
Monist
36, 127.
Co.
(quarterly).
235
Open
Publishing
*I9,
186,
Napier, John.
Rabdologia.
1617.
49,
61, 69, 71.
BIBLIOGRAPHIC
INDEX.
239
Mathematica.
Newton,
Isaac.
Philosophise Naturalis
Principia
1687. *I49.
New York Court Education
(now
American
Education).
*2io, 235.
Co. ill,
Open
(monthly).
Open
Court
Publishing
.Venice,
*68.
168, 235. Pacioli, Lucas.
Summa di Arithmetica.
.
1494.
59,
67.
Pathway
to
Knowledge.
of the
London,
1743.
1596.
119.
Philosophical Transactions, Proceedings Proceedings
Public Rebiere.
Central
Association
of
Science
and
matics Mathe
Teachers.
206.
of the
Royal
Society
*2o6.
et
of London,
vol.
21.
,124.
School
Journal.
Grounde
Mathematique
Robert. W. S. H.
Mathematiciens. of Artes. 1540.
196.
68
Recorde, Richards, Row,
T.
Military Topography.
Exercises ed.
2
London,
1883.
200.
Geometric
in
Paper
Beman
144.
Folding.
and
Ed.
1,
Madras, Open Rupert,
W. with W. their
1893;
Famous
(edited by
1901.
Smith).
Court
Publishing Co.,
Geometrical
Theorems
1901. 124.
and
Problems,
History.
fur
and
Heath,
Schlomilch.
School
Zeitschrift
Mathematik
und
Physik. Chicago.
ill.
Science
90,
Mathematics
(monthly) Essays
*5o,
125,
159, 206. Mathematical and
Schubert,
tr.
Hermann.
Recreations, Co.,
by
E. E.
T.
J. McCormack.
95,
124,
Open
154
Court
Publishing
1903
(1899).
Rara
Smith, Smith,
D. D.
Arithmetica. of
Ginn,
1907.
234. Mac
Teaching
(1900).
Old The
Elementary ^56.
the New for of
a
Mathematics.
millan, 1905 Smith,
D. from E.
and
Arithmetic. Feb.
1905.
Reprinted
Ginn. *68.
TextBook La Disme
Bulletin
Stevin, Simon.
(part
of of the
larger work). Allyn (1900).
and
1585. ^'96.
59
Taylor, J. Taylor, J.
#
M. M.
Elements Elements Rev. ed.
Algebra.
1898.
Differential 151,
Integral
Cal
cuius.
Ginn,
*2i$.
and
Taylor,
Teachers'
J.
M.
Fiveplace
Ginn Book The
Logarithmic
40.
Trigonometric
Tables. Note David. Beasts.
(1905). (an
Number 181.
occasional and
publication). *i89.
Names of the
Thorn,
Apocalyptic
1848.
240
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
Thorndike,
Social
E.
L.
Introduction
to
the
Theory
Press,
New
of
Mental
and
Measurements.
Science
York,
1904.
"156158.
Tonstall,
Treviso
Cuthbert. Arithmetic. Edward.
Arithmetic.
1522. 59,
67.
1478.
Meditationes Arithmetic.
67. Algebraical Leipsic, 1489.
the
Waring, Widmann, Willmon,
36.
162.
John. J.
edition. C.
Secret
Los
of
the
Circle
and
Square.
Author's
Angeles,
Euclid's
1905. Parallel in
125. Postulate: Its
Withers,
J. Validity,
Court
W.
and
Nature,
Place
Geometrical
Systems. *io5io6,
in the 107.
Open
Publishing
W. A.
Co.,
1905. of
*I04,
Young.
and
J.
Teaching
School.
Mathematics
Elementary *34, 98, 206,
Secondary
Longmans,
1907.
235.
GENERAL
INDEX.
Note:
i49n
^i
means
means
page
note at
43
and
the of
page page
or
pages
immediately given
in
ing. followin
rare
bottom
149.
are
References
not
the
Index (preceding Bibliographic here. repeated
pages)
(except
stances) in
Abel,
N,
H.,
of
to
a
103.
measures,
Arithmetics
of
the
Renaissance,
Accuracy
Advice
201.
43L
committee,
6668.
building
Arrangements
Art and
of
the
digits,
213.
21.
mathematics, 164.
44,
Agesilaus,
Ahmes
Al
55.
Assyria,
164,
234.
papyrus,
Astronomers,
165,
37.
216217.
Battani,
234.
148.
Asymptotic Autographs teaching
90, 95;
laws,
of
Alcuin,
mathematicians,
Algebra, Algebraic
73103;
of, 205f.
cies, falla
168.
balance, 83.
Avicenna,
Axioms in
to
66.
elementary
algebra,
76.
73;
Alice
in
the
218.
wonderland
of
matics, mathe
apply
equations?
American
197.
game
of
seven
and
eight,
Babbage,
geometry,
72. 54,
Analytic
233
156157,
226
Babylonia,
Balance,
164.
90,
algebraic,
number
in
95.
Anaxagoras, Antiquity,
of,
122.
122.
Beast,
famous
of,
180. 208.
three
problems
Beauty
Bee's
mathematics,
1181
19.
cell,
Apollo, Apparatus
of
122, to
128.
Beginnings
line
values
of
mathematics
on
the
illustrate
Nile,
164.
180.
trigonometric
women,
functions,
194.
146.
Benary,
Berkeley,
Apple
Arabic Arabic for
George,
88,
166. 168.
150.
camel
puzzle,
52,
193.
Bernoulli,
word
notation, sine, 148.
6668;
Berthelot,
Bibliographic
216.
notes,
234;
index,
Archimedean
proof,
i49n.
236. Billion,
9.
Archimedes,
Argand,
Ariadne,
J.
R.
37,
94.
Binomial
159.
theorem
and
statistics,
178. 83.
972;
Aristotle, Arithmetic,
Bocher,
in
the
M.,
10311,
21211.
sance, Renais
Bolingbroke,
Bolyai, Bonola,
241
10411.
Lord,
51.
66;
present
trends
in, 51;
teaching,
5458;
2osf.
Roberto,
10711.
242
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
Bookkeeper's
numbers,
25.
clue
to
inverted
Complex
of
numbers,
231232.
75,
92;
branch
graph,
167.
Bookkeeping,
on,
first
English
book
Compound Compte,
Concrete,
interest, 47.
mathematics
68.
40.
Boorman, Brahe,
teaching,
Tycho,
and
50, 126.
214.
205, 170.
217.
Bridges Briggs,
Buffon,
isles,
165.
Concrete Constants
necessarily complex,
and
152153.
214.
variables
trated, illus
Building
201.
Committee,
advice
to,
Converse, Counters, Crelle,
Crescents
135.
fallacy of, 83
games,
191,
f. 197.
of
Mohammed, 178.
175176.
Caesar
Neron,
180.
59, 124.
Cretan Criterion
labyrinth,
for
Cajori, Florian,
Calculus,
Calculus
prime
numbers,
19.
36.
Calculation, mechanical
149153,
aids, 69.
213, 124,
Curiosities, numerical,
206,
2241".
126
of
probability,
of,
168.
128, Camels, Cantor, Cardan, Carroll,
156. puzzle Moritz,
66. 193.
Daedalus,
Days work
DeKalb Decimal
201,
178. problem,
normal 213. 207.
school,
49.
separatrixes,
of
Lewis, Paul,
218.
Decimalization Decimals
as
arithmetic,
of
51 f.
Carus,
Catch
173.
indexes
44.
degree
of
questions,
149m
196.
accuracy,
Cavalieri, Cayley,
Centers of
Decimals Declaration
invented of of
late, 165.
175.
140.
Independence, multiplication,
101;
triangle,
102.
133.
Definition
of
98;
Chainletters, Checking
Chinese
exponents,
212217.
of
matics, mathe
solution criterion
of for
equation,
81.
bers, num
prime
Degree
De la
of
accuracy
of
ments, measure
36.
4344.
Chirography
168. Christians
of
mathematicians,
Turks
Loubere, problem,
181,
182. 37,
183.
122L
140.
Delian and
at sea,
195.
De
Morgan,
175,
85, 126129,
166,
Circlesquarer's paradox,
126.
Circlesquaring, 122129.
Circles of
Descartes,
11
94,
166.
triangle,
133.
Circulating
202.
decimals,
16,
40,
Descriptive geometry, 206. of Diagonals a polygon,
216.
174175,
Cistern
problem,
and
212213.
Digits
217.
in
powers, 20;
20;
in
square
Civilization
mathematics,
numbers,
21.
arrangements
of,
Clifford, 168. Coinage, decimal,
52.
Dimension,
of
fourth,
in
37.
143,
223224; 194.
Collinearity of
133.
centers
triangle,
only
Direction
199.
one
Wall
street,
Diophantus,
in
map
Colors
drawing,
and
140.
determined
by
a
watch,
Combinations
37,
permutations,
88,
156. law,
watch
as,
Dirichlet,
154.
37. 95.
Commutative
Discriminant,
D'Israeli,
128.
Compass,
199.
GENERAL
INDEX.
243
Distribution
curve
for
measures,
Factors,
more
than
two
one
set
common,
of
156159. Divisibility, Division,
first
tests
prime,
of,
30.
37;
highest
89.
23;
Fourier's
method,
in of
Fallacies, algebraic, 83; 196.
Familiar tricks
27. 217.
catch
tions, ques
printed
63,
of
arithmetic, 65.
into
67;
decimals,
Division
based
on
literal
plane
118.
regular
arithmetic,
polygons, Divisor,
194.
Faraday,
with
166,
G.
i49n,
greatest,
remainder,
Fechner, Fermat,
T., 215.
186.
Do
the
axioms
apply
L., 168,
of in
to
equations?
218.
Fermat's
35;
theorem,
on
36;
last
powers,
rem, theo41.
76.
binary
Dodgson,
Dominoes,
C.
201, ways
Feuerbach's
ranging, ar
theorem,
170.
135.
number
of
Figure
Fine
tracing,
art
38; 187. Donecker,
F. of
magic
squares,
and
mathematics, of,
213. 142.
Forces, C,
oon.
parallelogram principle and
for
Formula,
Formulas
rule,
216.
Duplication
c,ube, i22f.
prime
numbers, of,
36.
19.
Fortyone,
Fourcolors
e,
curious
property
140.
theorem,
206.
40,
216. 54,
Fourier, 164.
of Fourier's
Egypt,
Eleven,
3i33.
method
of
division,
23,
tests
divisibility
by,
4m.
Fourth
dimension,
143,
223224.
English Equation,
numeration,
50.
9;
decimal
Fox,
Captain,
54,
127m
202.
separatrix, solvability
103.
Fractions,
102;
exponential,
of
in
Franklin, Freeman,
French
Benjamin,
E.
186.
general
higher,
to?
A.,
51. 9;
numeration,
50.
decimal
Equations,
axioms
7779;
apply
solved in
76;
lution so
separatrix,
Frierson, Fiitzsche,
L.
180.
equivalency, of, 81; Egypt, Equations
length 164.
of and
checking
S., 186.
ancient
U.
mass,
S.
standards
155.
of
Gamepuzzle,
Games Gath with
191.
counters,
52. 37, 94, 95,
191,
197.
Eratosthenes, Error, Escott,
32n,
123,
14911.
giant,
34,
theory
E.
of, 46.
78,
4m, 13, in, 14,
Gauss,
1911,
103,
166, 203.
B.,
40,
Gellibrand,
General General Geometric form
test
165.
of of law of
36,
116,
130,
187. 166,
signs,
99.
Euclid,
202.
103108, 118,
123,
divisibility, 30. of complex illustration
92;
Euclidean
and
nonEuclidean
ometry, ge
numbers,
in
of
law 97. squares, 154;
of
signs
186;
104108.
Euclid's
multiplication, magic
postulate,
19,
103108.
41,
Geometric
135,
Euler, 165,
Exact Exercise
36,
171,
37, 177,
212.
94,
multiplication, 88,
109.
puzzles,
168,
178.
science,
in
Geometry,
103145; 206.
teaching, 205f
decimal
;
public
speaking
96.
102.
210.
descriptive,
German
Exponent,
imaginary, equation,
10
numeration,
50.
9;
Exponential Exponents,
separatrix,
Giant with
1,
165.
twelve
fingers,
52.
244
Girard,
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
Albert,
39, age
37,
92.
Infinite,
151203.
87,
224f;
symbols
for,
Glaisher,
Golden
7111,
167.
of
mathematics, of, 189.
159.
Inhabited
planets,
Roman that
216.
Gotham,
square
Inheritance,
Instruments
227130.
problem,
are
193.
Grading Graph
233
of of
students,
postulated, simple,
equation,
156157,
Interest, compound
215.
and
47.
Gravitation,
Greatest
194.
Involution with
not
1
commutative,
154.
divisor
remainder,
Irenaeus,
Isles
80181. 170. 9;
and
bridges,
numeration,
50.
Greeks, 148,
Growth Growth
37, i49n,
54,
56,
66,
72,
123,
Italian
decimal
167, 186, 216, 217.
concept of
separatrix,
37.
of of
number,
of the
philosophy
culus, cal
Jefferson, Thomas,
175.
149.
Gunter,
165. Kant, 167.
Hall,
W.
S., 158.
G. W. Court of
Kegsofwine
Kempe,
94, A. 50, 217. 155. 57.
puzzle,
B.,
107, 132, i49n,
194. 139.
Halsted, Hamilton, Hampton
B.,
104.
136,
R.,
168.
Kepler, 178.
214,
167,
203,
labyrinth,
Handwriting
168.
mathematicians,
Kilogram, Knilling,
Knowlton,
Heron
of
Alexandria,
division of
212.
197. 170 171, 93, 94. 174.
Hexagons,
118;
plane
into,
Konigsberg,
Kiihn, Kulik, H.,
40.
magic,
149m
172173,
187188.
Hiberg, Higher
Highest
Hindu
equations,
common
103.
factors,
on
two, and
89.
Labyrinths,
Laisant, Laplace, Lathrop,
Law
154166.
170,
176179.
168.
check
division
25;
tiplication, mulLagrange,
36,
illustration
91, 92;
of
real
numbers,
52,
numerals word
for
126,
H.
168.
(Arabic), sine,
6668;
J.,
145m of
148.
of of
of
signs,
36,
D.
97;
commuation,
Hippias History Hitzig,
Homemade
Elis, 123. mathematics, facts, 165. 167;
prising sur
Legendre,
Lehmer, Leibnitz,
37,
40.
168.
N.,
180.
149150,
166.
leveling device,
science
120.
Length,
Lennes,
Leonardo
standard N. of
of,
90m 66.
155.
J.,
Ideal, mathematics
215.
of, 214,
the
Pisa,
120.
Leveling
Indians hadn't spent Limits
device,
If
the the
illustrated,
'
152.
$24,
of
47.
Lindemann,
the
law 144;
123,
124.
Illustrations
97;
of
of of
signs, nometric trigoits, lim
Line
values
of
trigonometric
tions, func
symmetry,
146.
functions,
152.
146;
of
Linkages
136.
Literature
and
straightline motion,
mathematics,
Imaginary,
branch Indians of
94;
exponent,
230232.
96;
of
203,
graph,
the
208209.
spent
$24,
47.
Lobachevsky,
104108.
GENERAL
INDEX.
245
A.
Logarithms,
102,
45,
47, also
52,
e.
69,
87,
Mobius, Mohammed, Morehead,
F., 140. 175176.
165.
and de
common
See
London
Wise,
176.
J. C.,
186.
to
41.
Loubere,
Lowest
la, 183.
Moscopulus,
two,
multiples,
18711.
Movement concrete,
make
teaching sight,
62, 64;
more
89.
205.
at
Loyd,
Lunn, Luther,
S., 116, J. R.,
181.
Multiplication
in
15;
proximate, ap
40. 59;
45,
of
mals, decimetic, arithtrated, illusas a
first printed
law
67; Maclaurin,
119. 25; 97;
of
signs
98;
definition,
100; 100;
Magic
173;
number,
pentagon,
172173,
172
proportion, of,
154
gradual
ization general88,
hexagors,
squares, value
now,
187Myers,
G.
geometric,
188;
183.
of
Manhattan,
1626
reality
in
W.,
9on.
and makers'
4748.
140.
11
Map
proposition,
159.
dimensions,
dimension.
104.
See
also Fourth
Marking
Mars, Mass,
students,
signaling, 216217. standard of, 155.
advice
201.
Napier, Napier, building Napier's
John.
Mark, rods, 167.
of
212.
See
Logariths.
165. 69.
Mathematical
to
a
committee,
Mathematical Mathematical
212.
Napoleon,
191.
gamepuzzle, reasoning,
recitation
nature
Nature
mathematical
ing, reason
of,
Negative
as
and
positive numbers,
in
90.
tury, cen
Mathematical
in
an
210.
ercise ex
Negative
Neptune,
conclusions
103.
19th
public speaking,
recreations,
Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical
234.
distance
from
sun,
44.
symbols,
treatment
162,
of
165.
tics, statis
Nero,
New 15
180.
trick
with
an
old
principle,
156. Mathematics,
nature
more
definitions,
212217; 205,
2i2n;
New and
York,
now,
value
of
realty in 1626
of,
concrete,
teaching
217;
4748.
149150, 123. 215.
Alice
Newton,
49,
in
the
wonderland
of, 218.
Nicomedes,
Nile, 164.
curious
Mazes,
176179.
numbers
;
beginnings
of
mathematics
Measurement, from,
43
arising
accuracy
on,
degree
of
Nine,
properties of,
134135.
25.
of, 4344Measurements
1
Ninepoint
treated ally, statisticNineteenth
circle,
century,
negative
103.
clusions con
56 161,
207208.
155.
reached,
NonEuclidean Normal
Measures,
standard,
68.
geometry,
104108.
157.
on, notes
Mellis, John,
Methods Metric in
probability
miscellaneous
integral,
concept
arithmetic, 5458.
43, 50. 53, 155.
Number,
3442;
system, G.
growth
may 41;
a
of
of, 37;
Miller,
A.,
use
How
term
particular number
the
Million, first
67. Minotaur,
Miscellaneous
34
of
in
print,
arise? Numbers
of
beast,
from
180.
ment, measure
arising
43;
178.
notes
on
differing from
in
their decimal
number,
log. only
position of
point,
19;
theory
of, 34L
246
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
Numeration,
Numerical
two
systems,
19.
9.
Psychology,
Ptolemy,
Publication
103,
54,
57,
215. 217.
curiosity,
167,
of
foregoing
235.
sections
Oldtimers, Oratory,
as
194.
in
periodicals,
game,
mathematical
210.
recitation
Puzzle,
193
191;
of
the
camels,
exercise,
of
10
Orbits
planets,
1.
214.
Puzzles,
geometric,
109.
121,
Oresme,
Pythagorean
94.
proposition,
164.
Orthotomic,
See
also
inary. Imag
Quadratrix,
Oughtred,
49.
123.
Quadrature Quaternions,
216;
of
the
circle,
154.
122129.
88, 94,
fourth
143
7T,
40,
123129,
expressed
23.
Question
analogy,
of
dimension
by
with
the
59,
ten
100.
digits,
Pacioli, Paper
Questions,
144.
catch,
on
196.
166.
folding,
Quotations
mathematics,
Paradox,
Paradromic Parallel
circlesquarer's, 126. rings,
of
at
117.
Real
numbers,
90,
232.
212.
postulates, 103108.
forces,
142.
107. meet
Reasoning,
Recitation
mathematical,
as an
210.
Parallelogram
Parallels
exercise
in
lic pub
infinity,
speaking,
Recreations,
Rectilinear
Peaucellier, Pentagon, Periodicals,
136139.
mathematical, motion, decimals, 1361391116,
234.
magic,
sections
172173.
publication
in, 235. 156.
of
going fore
Recurring Regular
into, Reiss,
40.
polygons,
118.
division
of
plane
Permutations, Petzval,
40.
122.
37,
38.
arithmetic of
Philoponus, Philosophy Pierpont,
Pitiscus, Plane,
Renaissance,
the
in,
66.
203. 40;
of
calculus,
203.
149.
Renaissance
mathematics, 1116,
James,
49,
Repeating products, regular gons, poly
decimals,
1116; of
50.
table, 17. complex
bers, num
division
118.
into
Representation
92,
231232.
Planetary
Planets,
orbits,
214.
Reuss,
Riemann's
180.
inhabited,
in
216.
postulate, 105108. paradromic,
117.
Planting
Plato,
Plato
122,
hexagonal
123,
130,
forms, 166,
211,
119. 214.
Rings, Rods,
Napier's, 69.
Adrian,
inheritance of 6of.
Tiburtinus,
and
148.
90.
20.
Rornain,
Roman Roots of
Positive Powers Present Prime than
negative numbers,
same
problem,
73, 103.
193
having
trends factors
one
digits,
number,
equal
numbers,
75;
in of
arithmetic,
a
51.
more
higher
equations,
121.
Rope Royal
stretchers,
set, 37.
Society's catalog,
162.
203.
Primes,
formulas
for, 36;
tables
Chinese
Rudolff, Rule,
Ruler
criterion
for, 36;
rule
124,
of,
40.
principle and
unlimited and
formula,
216.
Principle,
Problems
and
formula, 156.
122; 234.
216.
ungraduatcd,
Probability,
of
126128,
130132.
antiquity,
the
for
quickening
Products,
mind,
11
Scalar,
Scheutz,
94.
See
also
Real
bers. num
repeating,
16.
as,
100.
Proportion,
multiplication
72.
GENERAL
INDEX.
247
J. M.,
made
135. 7.
Separatrixes, decimal,
Sevencounters
game,
49.
Taylor, Teaching
31
197.
concrete,
205f,
217.
Seven,
33
tests
of
divisibilityby,
Terquem,
Tests of
divisibility, 30.
of error,
Shanks,
William,
of
40,
124.
Theory
168
46;
of
numbers,
Signatures
169;
mathematicians,
170,
34*.
Theseus, 178.
test
unicursal,
illustrations
175176.
law
Signs, Smith, Smith,
Smith,
Social
of
of,
148.
97.
Thirteen,
32.
of
divisibility by, September,
property
68.
Sine, history of the Ambrose,
D.
M.
word,
127.
Thirtie
daies
hath
E., K.,
56, 59,
159.
168, 234n.
ically, mathemat
Thirtyseven,
19.
curious
of
sciences
treated
Three
.
famous
122.
problems postulates of,
of
anti
156, 207208.
Societies'
quity,
initials, 38.
55.
Three
parallel
105.
trated, illus
Sparta,
Speaking,
in,
recitation
210.
as
an
cise exer
Timepieces, Trapp,
Trends
57.
accuracy
43.
Speidell, 165. Square digits Square Squares, magic, 187. Squaring
Standards the numbers
not
in
arithmetic,
51.
containing
20.
the
Triangle
Trick,
15new
and
repeated,
Gotham, 183;
its circles, 133. with old principle, an
of
189.
magic,
186;
geometrical
domino,
Tricks
27.
based
on
literal
arithmetic,
146148,
coin, 187; circle,
Trigonometry,
122129.
mass, treatment
96,
107,
165.
155.
of length
and
Trisection Turks Two H. and C.
of
angle,
i22f,
at
130132.
sea,
Statistics, mathematical
of, 156, 207208.
Christians
195.
F., 89.
conclusions century, of
103. 9.
Stevin, Simon, Stifel, 91. Straightedge,
Student
59f,
10
1.
Two in
negative
the
reached
19th
130132,
136. 136.
Two
systems
numeration,
Straightline motion,
records,
40, 159.
41.
Tycho
Brahe,
214.
Shuffield, G.,
Surface Surface of with
Undistributed
Unicursal
170.
middle,
83f.
and
frequencey, 156159.
one
signatures
States standards
155.
figures,
of
face,
in the
117.
Surprising
Swan
pan,
facts
history of
United and
length
mathematics,
72.
165.
mass,
Sylvester, J. J., Symbols,
for
139,
168.
Variables
illustrated,
88,
94,
152153.
mathematical, infinite, 151.
illustrated
144.
162,
165;
Vectors,
Vienna Visual
154.
40.
academy,
Symmetry folding,
by
paper
representation
92.
of
complex
numbers,
Vlacq,
Von
165.
57.
Busse,
Tables,
Tait,
39;
repeating,
17,
19. 57.
Wall
street,
93,
as
194.
101, 151. 199.
Tanck,
Tax
Wallis,
rate,
46.
Watch
compass,
248
A
SCRAPBOOK
OF
ELEMENTARY
MATHEMATICS.
Weights
Wessel, Whewell, Wilson,
Wilson's
and
measures,
43,
53,
155.
Wonderland
of
mathematics,
218.
37,
94.
167,
217.
Young,
note,
35m
J
.W.
A.,
205.
John,
biographic
35.
theorem, J. Richard, W.,
49. 107.
Zero
in
fallacies,
1
87,
51;
meaning
first
use
of of
Withers,
symbol,
word in
501
Witt,
print,
67.
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