Software Project Management 4th Edition

Chapter 6

Activity planning


©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005

‘Time is nature’s way of stopping everything happening at once’ Having
– worked out a method of doing the project – identified the tasks to be carried – assessed the time needed to do each task

need to allocate dates/times for the start and end of each activity
©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005

Activity networks These help us to: • Assess the feasibility of the planned project completion date • Identify when resources will need to be deployed to activities • Calculate when costs will be incurred This helps the co-ordination and motivation of the project team 3 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2005 .

Identifying activities • Work-based: draw-up a Work Breakdown Structure listing the work items needed • Product-based approach – list the deliverable and intermediate products of project – product breakdown structure (PBS) – Identify the order in which products have to be created – work out the activities needed to create the products 4 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2005 .

2005 .Hybrid approach A Work Breakdown Structure based on deliverables 5 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

The final outcome of the planning process A project plan as a bar chart 6 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2005 .

PERT vs CPM PERT Do A Do B Do D Do C CPM Do A Do D Do C 7 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2005 Do B .

which indicate transition points. 2005 . They have zero duration.Drawing up a PERT diagram • No looping back is allowed – deal with iterations by hiding them within single activities • milestones – ‘activities’. 8 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. such as the start and end of the project.

g. seven days notice has to be given to users that a new release has been signed off and is to be installed 7days Acceptance testing 20 days Install new release 1day 9 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2005 .Lagged activities Where there is a fixed delay between activities e.

2005 .Types of links between activities Finish to start Software development Acceptance testing Start to start/ Finish to finish Test prototype 2 days 1 day Document Amendments 10 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Types of links between activities • Start to finish Operate temporary system Acceptance test of new system Cutover to new system 11 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2005 .

duration 12 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2005 .Start and finish times Earliest start activity Latest finish Latest start Earliest finish • • • • Activity ‘write report software’ Earliest start (ES) Earliest finish (EF) = ES + duration Latest finish (LF) = latest task can be completed without affecting project end Latest start = LF .

duration What is it in this case? 13 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.ES .Example • earliest start = day 5 • latest finish = day 30 • duration = 10 days • earliest finish = ? • latest start = ? Float = LF . 2005 .

2005 .Notation Activity label Duration ES Activity description EF LF Float LS Activity span 14 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

2005 .Complete for previous example SPM Activity planning 15 11 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Earliest start date • Earliest start date for the current activity = earliest finish date for the previous • When there is more than one previous activity. 2005 . take the latest earliest finish • Note ‘day 7’ = end of work on day 7 EF = day 7 ES = day10 EF = day10 16 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Example of an activity network 17 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2005 .

2005 .18 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

19 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2005 .

2005 .20 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

2005 .21 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Complete the table Activity ES A B C D E F G H duration EF 22 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2005 .

take the earliest LS • Latest start (LS) = LF for activity .duration 23 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.Latest start dates • Start from the last activity • Latest finish (LF) for last activity = earliest finish (EF) • work backwards • Latest finish for current activity = Latest start for the following • More than one following activity . 2005 .

Example: LS for all activities? 24 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2005 .

2005 .Complete the table Activity ES A B C D E F G H Dur EF LS LF 25 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Float Float = Latest finish Earliest start Duration FLOAT ES activity Latest start 26 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2005 LF .

2005 .Complete the table Act.ES ivity A B C D E F G Dur EF LS LF Float 27 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

2005 .Critical path • Note the path through network with zero floats • Critical path: any delay in an activity on this path will delay whole project • Can there be more than one critical path? • Can there be no critical path? • Sub-critical paths 28 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Free and interfering float A 0 2 7w 7 9 2 B can be up to 3 days late and not affect any other activity = free float D 7 9 1w 8 10 E 10 10 2w 12 12 B 0 5 4w 4 9 5 C 0 0 10w 10 10 0 2 0 B can be a further 2 days late – affects D but not the project end date = interfering float 29 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2005 .

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