Change Management Best Practices Guide

Five (5 ) key factors common to success in managing organisational change.

. . . . . Table of Contents . . . 1. Scope and .Purpose..........................................................................................................1
2. Change Management.......................................................................................................1
2.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................. 1 2.2 Why is Managing Change Important? ................................................................................2

3. Factors Common to Successful Change Management .................................................2 4. Planning............................................................................................................................3
.1 P!anning Conte"t................................................................................................................# .2 C!ear $ision ........................................................................................................................ .# %ocument the Case &or Change and the $ision .................................................................' . %eve!op Change P!an and Measures...................................................................................'

5. Defined Go ernance.........................................................................................................!
'.1 Change Governance ...........................................................................................................( '.2 )teering Committee ............................................................................................................* '.# Change )ponsor ................................................................................................................ * '. Change +gent ..................................................................................................................... , '.' Wor- )tream Owners ........................................................................................................1.

!. Committed "eadership...................................................................................................1#
(.1 /o!e................................................................................................................................... 1. (.2 $isi0!e )upport 1 )etting the 2"amp!e...............................................................................1. (.# Continuous 2ngagement ..................................................................................................11

$. %nformed Sta&eholders ..................................................................................................11
3.1 Communication Conte"t....................................................................................................11 3.2 4he Purpose o& Change Communication..........................................................................12 3.# 5nderstanding the +udience 1 )ta-eho!der +na!ysis .......................................................1# 3. Change Communication 6undamenta!s............................................................................1#

'. (ligned )or&force .........................................................................................................15
*.1 Peop!e Impacts.................................................................................................................. 1'

...................... ................. %eve!opment....................................................... ...2 Organisationa! 7eeds +ssessment......1' ..............................................................1( ... ............................. .......................1 ...........................eferences ..... *.......... ..............# Wor-&orce .............(ppendi* +ne.............................................. *....................................................................... ....1 ............................

The characteristics of each change &t%pe# breadth# si"e# origin etc.s stakeholder groups to help them understand $hat the change means for them# helping them make and sustain the transition and $orking to overcome an% challenges involved. Popular . -rom a management perspective it involves the organisational and behavioural ad)ustments that need to be made to accommodate and sustain change. Change is an inherent characteristic of an% organisation and like it or not# all organisations $hether in the public or private sector must change to remain relevant. 2.1.1 Overview Change can be a time of exciting opportunit% for some and a time of loss# disruption or threat for others. +evertheless# all change $hether from internal or external sources# large or small# involves adopting ne$ mindsets# processes# policies# practices and behaviour. A one!si"e!fits!all approach to managing change is ineffective# as each public sector organisation is different# $ith its o$n structure# histor%# culture and needs# and each change event is different. Irrespective of the $a% the change originates# change management is the process of taking a planned and structured approach to help align an organisation $ith the change. Change Management 2. Scope and Purpose This Change Management Best Practices Guide is designed to give general guidance to public sector bodies undertaking change. It can affect one small area or the entire organisation. (espite the range of approaches to change management# some common factors for delivering successful change exist. *o$ such responses to change are managed can be the difference bet$een surviving and thriving in a $ork or business environment. There are numerous models and theories about change management# and it is a topic sub)ect to more than its fair share of management fads and fashions. Change can originate from external sources through technological advances# social# political or economic pressures# or it can come from inside the organisation as a management response to a range of issues such as changing client needs# costs or a human resource or a performance issue. This Guide is intended as a tool to disseminate ideas and best practice guidance on these common change success factors and the sorts of actions that public sector organisations can undertake to address them. In its most simple and effective form# change management involves $orking $ith an organisation. It is not intended to be prescriptive nor exhaustive. These factors appl% across all large and complex organisations# $hether public or private. It has been compiled based on research of change management literature and lessons learnt from change management pro)ects both in Australia and overseas.' also influence the $a% change is planned and effectivel% managed.

s: theories and change theories based on derivatives of the .approaches include the linear# step b% step methods exemplified b% .comEmethodsF45.anter 7osabeth Moss# 0A36 The Change Masters +e$ Bork 5imon D 5chuster < . http@EE$$$. -undamentall%# the basic goal of all change management is to secure bu%!in to the change# and to align individual behaviour and skills $ith the change.02manage.urt /e$in. 2. The rationale is that if people understand the benefits of change# the% are more likel% to participate in the change and see that it is successfull% carried out# $hich in turn means minimal disruption to the organisation.ubler!7oss s model describe the personal and emotional states that a person t%picall% encounters $hen dealing $ith loss.s 4!5 model 6# and the A(.inse%.html 8 Management research compan% Prosci first published the A(. (erivatives of her model applied in the $orkplace sho$ that similar emotional states are encountered as individuals are confronted $ith change.urt# 0A:0 -ield Theor% in 5ocial 5cience (or$in Cart$right +e$ Bork# *arperC 0A:3 Group Decisions and Social Change# 7eadings in 5ocial Ps%cholog%# +e$ Bork# *olt 7inehart D ?inston 2 . 2 .. In fact the best change approaches appear to use and adapt aspects of various models to suit the culture of the organisation and the context of the change. 3.4 Indeed it is not so much the actual model or theor% that is important# but more that the approach that is taken is relevant to the circumstances. 9ther approaches such as 7osabeth Moss . =ach approach has its pros and cons# ho$ever no one frame$ork is >best> in all situations.s0 classic three!phase model of change !! unfree"e# move or change# and refree"e# 1ohn . capacit% to adapt to and $ork effectivel% and efficientl% in the ne$ environment.s 2 popular 3 step change model# the Mc. 0 /e$in . 4 Andre$s 1ane# Cameron *elen# *arris Margaret# 2GG3 All change !anagers" e#perience of organi$ational change in theory and practice 8ourna! o& Organi9ationa! Change Management: Iolume@ 20 Issue@ 6. Their capacit% to adapt to change can shrink if the% misunderstand or resist the change# causing barriers and ongoing issues. 5uccessful change also involves ensuring emplo%ees. This model describes five reHuired building blocks for change to be reali"ed successfull%.A7 model in 0AA3 after researching more than 6GG companies undergoing ma)or change.A7 model8.2 Why is Managing Change Important? Meeting milestones is not the primar% determinant of the success of a change pro)ect.otter.otter 1ohn# 0AA3 /eading Change@ ?h% Transformation =fforts -ail# *arvard Business 7evie$ 6 (eveloped b% Tom Peters# 7obert ?aterman# 7ichard Pascale and Anthon% Athos for Mc. The underl%ing basis of change management is that people. actors Common to Success!u" Change Management ?hile each public sector organisation needs to consider the best $a% to approach change based on their particular cultural and stakeholder perspectives# factors common to successful change management &in both the private and public sector' involve@ • P"anning# developing and documenting the ob)ectives to be achieved b% the change and the means to achieve it.s capacit% to change can be influenced b% ho$ change is presented to them.ubler!7oss =li"abeth# 0A46 9n (eath and (%ing 7outledge. : .anter.bler!7oss< model focus on the cultural and people aspects of change.inse% D Co. The stages of .

Moreover change programs that are initiall% perceived as a success can later be declared problematic as commitment $anes and people revert to old practices. The formal procedure of appl%ing a planning process in preparation for change helps organisations to@ o Take stock of their current positionC 3 . In the final anal%sis# change is successful $hen it becomes institutionalised and part of >the $a% $e do things around here#> and like other processes# benefits from ongoing monitoring to ensure continuous improvement and relevance. Clearl% $here large $hole of government change is involved the complexities $ill be increased and each of the factors outlined $ill reHuire fuller consideration. encouraging stakeholder participation and commitment to the change# b% emplo%ing open and consultative communication approaches to create a$areness and understanding of the change throughout the organisation.1 P"anning Conte*t Critical to successful change is good planning. ("igned Wor'!orce# identif%ing the human impacts of the change# and In!ormed Sta'eho"ders# • developing plans to align the $orkforce to support the changing organisation.• $e!ined %overnance# establishing appropriate organisational structures# roles# and responsibilities for the change that engage stakeholders and support the change effort. -urther# $hile particular initiatives and pro)ects have a finite timeframe# change is an ongoing process# so it can be hard to identif% successful change. ). 5uccessfull% managing the complexit% of change is virtuall% impossible $ithout a robust plan that is supported b% strong pro)ect management. Committed &eadership# ongoing commitment at the top and across the • • organisation to guide organisational behaviour# and lead b% example. The extent to $hich each of these five factors is exhibited in successful change pro)ects $ill var% depending on the nature of the change involved. In the case of a small# more localised change# the need ma% be less significant. P"anning ).

s overall vision and mission# $ith the desired culture and values of the change reflecting the vision and mission statements.s vision and mission o (ocumenting the case for change# and o (eveloping the change plan. If the change vision is not clear or shared# commitment is unlikel%# and change efforts $ill be short!lived at best and $ill likel% fi""le out. -urther# $ithout a clear vision# change efforts can easil% dissolve into a list of confusing tasks# directives and sometimes incompatible pro)ects that can take the organisation in the $rong direction or no$here at all. A good change planning process involves@ 5etting a clear vision for the change $hich is aligned $ith the organisation. The change vision must also align $ith and be seen to align $ith the organisation.s and the government. The vision should provide the direction# $hich ties ever%thing together# sho$ing $here individual pro)ects and initiatives fit into the big picture. Articulating a direction and desired behavioursEvalues sets up a sense of the ideal culture the organisation is striving to achieve $ith the change. Change management ) . o ). 5takeholders must be clear about their contribution to the desired improvement. It can also be the point at $hich an assessment is made about $hether or not a proposed change should proceed. A vision that is misaligned $ill bring about earl% resistance and a lack of support for resources and for change. *o$ever# even in situations $here change results from a directive and is therefore not sub)ect to testing $hether or not it should proceed# planning is still an important $a% to scope out the likel% impacts of the change and the strategies that can be used to accommodate them.s business modelEstrateg% o -undamentall%# planning ensures that organisations are a$are of the implications of $hat the% $ant to do# and are prepared for all reasonable eventualities.2 C"ear +ision The starting point and focus of successful change planning is having a clear vision about $hat the scope and impacts of the future changed state $ill be.Identif% $hat is to be achieved# and $hat the future position follo$ing the change is expected to beC o (etail precisel% the $ho# $hat# $hen# $here# $h% and ho$ of achieving and implementing the change ob)ectivesC o Assess the impact of the change on the organisation and the people $ithin it# as $ell as other stakeholdersC and o =nsure alignment $ith the organisation.

research3 indicates that if a proposed change cannot be aligned $ith the core vision# mission or goals of an organisation then the collective commitment of organisation members to the change ma% be difficult to obtain.greenleaf! publishing. 5uccessful change pro)ects reHuire a full# realistic understanding of the upcoming challenges and complexities# follo$ed b% specific actions to address them. To ensure clarit% about the change &and to provide a clearer picture of the magnitude and complexit% of $hat is involved' it should be documented. ). revised business processesEpolicies# ne$ infrastructure &including technolog%' or skills reHuirements. This includes outlining@ ?h% the initiative is being undertaken ! ?hat are the business driversJ o ?hat outcomes and ob)ectives the change is seeking to achieve# and o *o$ the change $ill benefit stakeholders# the organisation and the government overall o A clear and strategic message is needed about ho$ stakeholders $ill be impacted# and ho$ the future of the organisation $ill be improved. 8< Issue 6# 1ournal of =ducational Administration# and Sustaina%ility& governance and organisational change# 2GG6#Greenleaf Publishing http@EE$$$. Importantl%# the opportunit% for people $ithin the organisation to provide input into the development of this message and to participate in overall planning is a ke% factor in enlisting their support. .) $eve"op Change P"an and Measures A significant part of establishing the change vision# outcome and ob)ectives is to identif% and agree on the anticipated organisational support reHuired for the change# e.comEcontentEpdfsElcch:.pdf . ?ithout a shared vision of the change# other competing ob)ectives ma% take priorit%# making it more difficult to align da%!to!da% operations $ith the change goals. 2GG3# Achieving organisational change through values alignment# Iol. This then 3 5ee Branson Christopher M. The act of adeHuatel% defining and scoping the change ensures more realistic and therefore more credible change management plans.3 $ocument the Case !or Change and the +ision Change initiatives often flounder because not enough strategic thought is given to communicating the rationale and the expected impact of the change. /ack of earl% insight leads to a high risk that complexit% $ill be underestimated or even overlooked. ). The more that the vision has been developed in an explicitl% inclusive $a%# the easier it $ill be to convince others to support it.g. Moreover the participation of organisational leaders in the development of the change vision $ill help determine $hat is strategicall% most important to the change effort.

ho$ the organisation $ill kno$ $hen it has achieved the desired change &Performance indicators and measures'. All change needs to be navigated and guided K setting the course once and defaulting to automatic pilot $ill not keep the organisation on course through the uncharted $aters of change. Change management governance involves establishing appropriate roles# responsibilities and a structure $ithin the organisation to ensure a successful change. *aving established a case for change and an agreed $a% for$ard to achieve this future state# progress should be measured to prove that at the end of the change process that planned outcomes have been achieved and benefits realised.o o o o o o provides the foundation for the development of specific actionable strategies to achieve the change.. This is particularl% the case if the change stretches across man% parts of the organisation and specific managers take on the temporar% role of providing the formal authorit% b% $hich changes are made. At its most basic level the Change Plan should state@ The ob)ectives to be achieved b% the changeC The agenc%.e. In change pro)ects separate roles andEor lines of responsibilit% for the change are often established# resulting in the normal hierarch% of control being broken or modified. Together these strategies form the Change Plan for the organisation.. It is important that these arrangements are $ell understood across the organisation.1 Change %overnance 5trong governance and associated reporting arrangements need to be established to drive and monitor change. This is true of ever% pro)ect no matter $hat its si"e or nature. $e!ined %overnance . . ?hile each change process $ill adopt a governance structure suitable to its specific - .s proposed ne$ direction# core business# structure and staffing arrangements to accommodate the changeC *o$ the change is to be implemented# including ho$ the change $ill be communicated to the $orkforce and other stakeholdersC The resources to be used# and the timelinesC The relevant human resources principles and policies to be applied# particularl% in relation to staffing issuesC and The means b% $hich performance in the changed environment $ill be assessed in relation to the stated ob)ectivesC i. It should be noted ho$ever that as the Change Plan is communicated# tested and executed it needs to be flexible enough to adapt to unforseen circumstances.

The Change (gent is responsi. • Change Sponsor. Wor' Stream Owners. • Steering Committee. It also ensures that the change process remains aligned $ith the organisation.e.s strategic vision and direction. The 5teering Committee provides overall oversight for the change process# setting the direction and providing leadership."e !or managing the overa"" day to day change management process and imp"ementation/ inc"uding coordination o! any di!!erent wor' streams that may . (epending on its complexit% a change initiative ma% • be broken do$n into $ork groups or streams# i. The Change 5ponsor has ultimate responsibilit% for the change and for building commitment for the change# particularl% from leaders across the organisation. 5teering Committee Change )ponsor Change Agent ?ork 5tream 9$ner ?ork 5tream 9$ner ?ork 5tream 9$ner 6IG5/2 1 Basic Governance )tructure &or Change 1 .e re0uired. sets of activities that lead to an outcome# and to $hich clearl% identifiable outputs can be associated.context and goals# the follo$ing represent basic change governance roles that can be used as a model for establishing a change governance structure. • Change (gent.

3 Change Sponsor The success of change $ill depend# to a large extent# on ho$ $ell the person $ith direct responsibilit% for the change manages it. . is also beneficial. (irect responsibilit% and accountabilit% for the change must be clearl% defined and accepted at an appropriatel% high!level $ithin an organisation. It ensures the achievement of change outcomesEbenefits. -or a large andEor complex pro)ect# it ma% be a member of the senior executive.. -or small pro)ects# a /ine Manager ma% fill this role. *igh per!orming change organisations emphasise that the Change 5ponsor must be readil% identifiable no matter ho$ small the change pro)ect# and the% link the sponsor to the change from the outset ensuring his or her accountabilit% through to completion. A 5teering Committee member from outside the organisation# or from a part of the organisation that is not undergoing the change# to provide a Lrealit% check. 2 . Its responsibilities include@ o o o o o o approving the budget# defining and realising outcomesEbenefits# ensuring appropriate risk management processes are applied# Hualit% and timelines# making an% polic% and resourcing decisions# and assessing reHuests for changes to scope. The Change 5ponsor is ultimatel% accountable for the change and is responsible for exhibiting visible sponsorship and advocac% for the change effort# assessing and mitigating an% resistance to the change# overseeing the business and pro)ect management issues that arise outside the formal business of the 5teering Committee. It is highl% recommended that the 5teering Committee consist of representatives from the business areas that are affected b% the change. -or the purposes of this Guide# this role is called the Change 5ponsor. The 5teering Committee should meet at regular intervals# act as a forum to discuss critical issues and make decisions to ensure that the change continues to move for$ard..2 Steering Committee The 5teering Committee is the ke% bod% $ithin the change governance structure that is responsible for the business issues associated $ith the change.. In most cases this $ill be the person $ho has discretionar% control over the bulk of the resources that $ill be expended in the change process.

The Change team is responsible for planning# organising and coordinating the activities associated $ith the change including ensuring that the change management process addresses business process# $orkforce and infrastructure changes# and monitors implementation progress and risks.) Change (gent 5uccessful change pro)ects also t%picall% appoint a dedicated Change Agent and team to provide da% to da% pro)ect management and support for the change effort. ?ith the support of the 5teering Committee# it is also the role of the Change sponsor to gain commitment from the organisation. ConseHuentl% the sponsor for a change effort should be someone $ho has sufficient authorit%# seniorit%# po$er# enthusiasm# and time to ensure that an% conflicts that impede the change are resolved in a timel% and appropriate fashion.The sponsor. In other situations it ma% )ust be the Change Agent alone or $ith one other resource.s internal politicsC to ensure that those $ho have a stake in the outcome continue to activel% support the change throughout the process# and to build coalitions $ith others across the organisation to make the change successful.. -or example a Change team comprised of representatives from each $ork unit across the organisation ma% be necessar% to manage a large organisational change.s active and visible support of the change from initiation to completion is important to deal $ith the organisation. Another ke% responsibilit% of the Change Agent and team is the coordination of communications relating to the change ! ensuring that information is shared $ith all relevant stakeholders.s structure# composition and overall pro)ect management responsibilities $ould be determined in the planning stage# based on the scope of the change effort and the skills reHuired to successfull% complete the tasks# prior to embarking on the change pro)ect. Clearl% the Change Team. 3 . In other change initiatives# there ma% be a need for representatives from specialt% business areas. T%picall% the Change sponsor is the chair of the 5teering Committee. *igh level pro)ect management skills are essential.s business o$ner&s' for an% additional resources &outside the pro)ect budget' that ma% be necessar% to achieve the reHuired level of organisational change. The composition of the team ma% also change as the pro)ect moves through its various phases# $ith different skills reHuired for different phases of the change. The Change Agent commonl% reports through the Change 5ponsor to the 5teering Committee to escalate issues for discussion and decision. . The number of resources that comprise a Change team $ill be largel% dependent on the si"e# scope and complexit% of the change effort.

-undamentall% the onus is on the organisation.s leaders create. ?ork stream o$ners are specialist $ork groups responsible for implementing their $ork# delivering on the outputs assigned to them# delivering responsibilities $ithin timelines and achieving the milestones. The% report to the Change Agent on the progress of the $ork stream against the Change Agent. This delegation of decision!making authorit% helps both to reduce blockages and increase bu%!in from individuals affected b% the change. -. Capturing the hearts and minds of ke% informal and formal leaders# having them commit to the change and empo$ering others to act is a critical success factor. -.s leaders# regardless of $hether the change is occurring in one section or across the $hole organisation. ?hether change comes easil% or proves difficult to achieve depends in part on the atmosphere K the organisational culture and climate K that an organisation.s leaders must be the visionaries# champions and role models for change. Change is inherentl% unsettling for people# and $hen it is happening all e%es turn to the organisation."e Support 5 Setting the 6*amp"e 5uccessful change management reHuires a large commitment from an organisation..s leaders to change first# motivate the rest of the organisation# set the example and model desired behaviour.1 4o"e The role of leadership in an% change management effort cannot be underestimated# and is repeatedl% cited as the number one contributor to change success.. This reHuires more than mere bu%!in or passive agreement that the direction of change is 17 .s plan. Committed &eadership -. Change efforts need to be MpushedN throughout the organisation# $ith leaders delegating both the responsibilit% and authorit% to make decisions about the change# grounded on a clear change vision# to managers at all levels.2 +isi. /eaders and managers throughout the organisation should be expected to support and communicate the benefits of change to their peers and emplo%ees ! change needs to be McascadedN through the organisation# $ith real change happening at each level. The earlier in the pro)ect life c%cle an organisation. Wor' Stream Owners ?ork stream o$ners ma% be organisational units# specific task forces or individuals# depending on the nature of the change.s leaders for support and direction. The% pla% a ke% role in promoting and sustaining the impetus for the change# &sometimes even coaching other executives' and in developing and communicating a shared sense of the $a% for$ard. Change starts at the top and an organisation.s leaders engage in the change# the more useful the% can be at building acceptance of the change b% those $ho are affected b% it.. *o$ever# it is not )ust support from senior leaders that is reHuired# support from leaders at all levels is critical to the acceptance of change $ithin an organisation.

This can be put together to form a highl% accurate picture of the $a% the organisation is progressing $ith the change# and $hat specificall% needs to be done to enhance the likelihood of change success. The% also need to have an opportunit% to express their vie$s 11 .s leaders to intervene and take decisive action /eaders must maintain their authorit% to decide on issues that ma% impact not onl% their teamEgroup but others $ithin the organisation# escalate issues# as appropriate# to more senior leadership and push for timel% resolution# or delegate this decision!making authorit% to others and support the final decision. The state of readiness for change $ill shift over time# and ma% differ in different parts of the organi"ation. Their engagement is necessar% throughout the full change pro)ect life c%cle# as acceptance of the change must be evident in each phase# from initiation# and planning through to implementation# $ith leaders exhibiting stamina and patience throughout the pro)ect to continuousl% engage $ith stakeholders.acceptable. 9rganisational leaders pla% an important role in monitoring# assessing and understanding different area s capacit% to take on and succeed in change.s leaders throughout the change process are to@ • (ssess readiness and ma'e ad8ustments. An organisation needs to engage its stakeholders# in order to implement changes effectivel%.e% responsibilities for an organisation.1 Communication Conte*t -undamentall% it is people $ho make change happen ! nothing moves for$ard $ithout engaged# motivated stakeholders. B% assessing change readiness across the organisation# potential roadblocks# areas that reHuire remedial actions and areas of best practice can be identified. It demands o$nership b% leaders $illing to accept responsibilit% for making change happen in all of the areas the% influence or control. . Throughout the change# issues $ill arise that $ill reHuire the organisation. 1. • 9a'e action to reso"ve issues.s $orkforce or those $hose interests ma% be positivel% or negativel% affected b% the change including other agencies $ith $hom the changing organisation partners# service providers# vendors# or the public.s leaders continue to be involved throughout the change. T%picall% the% are the organisation. To do that# stakeholders need to understand the reasons $h% the change is happening and its benefits. -. In!ormed Sta'eho"ders 1. 5takeholders are the people that are directl% involved in and affected b% the change pro)ect.3 Continuous 6ngagement A ke% role of the Change 5ponsor is to ensure that the organisation. It is d%namic and $ill reHuire ad)ustmentEcorrection to achieve desired outcomes.

In the absence of sufficient information and opportunities to digest it through t$o!$a% Lconversations. =ven if the change is non!negotiable# cooperation and collaboration to achieve the change is more likel% if stakeholders are involved and kept informed.com# http@EEhumanresources.comEtutorial! communications.N0G ?hen an% kind of change is announced# people are hungr% for information.change!management.htm 0G *eathfield 5usan M# Communication 's (ey in Change !anagement& 2GGA About. 1. Poor change communication is a common cause of complaint and change research emphasises that change can be derailed if the communication plan is ineffective. Accordingl%# it is important that ever%one in the organisation and those interacting $ith the organisation# both internal and external stakeholders# are kept informed and provided $ith messages and information that allo$ them to feel engaged# thus paving the $a% for involvement and adoption. People $ill continue to $ork as the% have done in the pastC or rather than risk doing the L$rong. A It has also been said that M%ou cannot over!communicate $hen %ou are asking %our organisation to change. -now!edge Onderstanding Grasp the concept Acceptance Interna!ised Commitment Buy in< ownership o& the change Communication 6IG5/2 2 Communication Continuum A Prosci# 2GG4 Change Management Best Practices Benchmarking 7eport# http@EE$$$.htm 12 . The rationale is that if %ou $ant people to change# the% need to invest in the changes %ou are asking them to make# and the% are more likel% to do that if the% understand the benefits of the change. =xperience sho$s that approaching change in an open and consultative manner assists in more effective implementation. =ffective communication engages the hearts and minds of all stakeholders b% facilitating movement along the continuum presented belo$@ A$areness Provided with &acts .# change can be stalled. =ffective communication is designed to create a$areness and understanding in order to get subseHuent supportive action. ?hile not ever%one has to be deepl% committed to the vision for change to succeed# the ma)orit% of stakeholders must accept the need for change and commit to the direction that the organisation is taking $ith it.and contribute their o$n ideas about ho$ it might be implemented. Communication is the ke% $a% that people are engaged in the change.2 9he Purpose o! Change Communication 9ne of the most challenging and demanding aspects of an% change pro)ect is communication.about. Introducing successful change relies heavil% on ho$ the participants in the change vie$ it. thing# the% do nothing.comEodEchangemanagementEaEchangeFlessons2.

If %ou understand the root of possible resistance to change then %ou can often plan for it before it becomes a significant obstacle. It should reflect the specific needs and complexit% of the change and therefore ma% be formal or informal# highl% detailed or broadl% structured. Good communication should never be an afterthought# but rather a significant part of the Change Plan. influence on the change.change blockerL out of that categor% and the% $ill continue to be confrontational and cause conflict throughout the change. The larger and more disruptive the change# the more vital it becomes to assess different participants. People can resist change for a number of reasons@ self!interest# denial# fear of the unkno$n or different perceptions. 1. 1. ?hether a change is large or small a stakeholder anal%sis is a useful $a% to@ o (etermine specific stakeholders or stakeholder groups# and their relationship to the change o Identif% their current attitudes to$ard the change and level of influence# o Identif% their communication needs# and an% risks associated $ith not meeting their needs# o (etermine the general means for delivering change messages that $ill meet the needs# as $ell as appropriate timing. ?ithout understanding their motivations# needs and expectations# it is difficult to move a . B% understanding the arra% of attitudes and feelings to$ards the change effort# the change team $ill be better able to define the appropriate communication for each audience. ?ithout a stakeholder anal%sis and evaluation of the risk involved# the change team risks communicating inappropriatel%# resulting in stakeholder conflicts and uncertaint%. 5takeholder anal%sis is an important means of uncovering potential resistance or other risks to the success of the change. As $ith all other planning documents prepared at the start of the change# the communication plan should also be a live document and sub)ect to regular revie$.3 :nderstanding the (udience 5 Sta'eho"der (na"ysis (esigning meaningful stakeholder involvement in the change initiative is not an insignificant task and a stakeholder anal%sis is t%picall% performed as a foundation for overall communications planning for change. The best time to map out $hat communication is reHuired to ensure people understand# accept and positivel% contribute to the change is in the earl% planning stage for the change.) Change Communication undamenta"s ?hile there is no one perfect $a% to communicate change# and each organisation should plan and determine the approach that best suits its culture and st%le# the follo$ing elements are common to successful communication approaches@ 13 .To achieve effective communication reHuires a deliberate plan for determining $ho needs to understand the $hat# $h%# $hen and ho$ of the change.

s leaders in communicating the change# sends a po$erful message to stakeholders about ho$ serious the organisation is in implementing the change. The message from an organisation. 5takeholders need to kno$ $ho $ill be affected and ho$# $h% it is happening and $hat the timelines for the change are. • Out"ine the <ene!its and Impacts o! the Change .2# b% clearl% communicating the change vision for ho$ the organisation $ill look and feel at the end of the change# the foundation for the change is established.s leaders need not )ust be about the progress of the change K important as that is K it is more about sho$ing that the organisation and its leaders remain committed to the change. People also need multiple opportunities to hear and 1) . As referred to in section 6. Communication is important to overcome the fears and concerns aroused b% change# to explain $h% the change is happening and $hat the $hole thing reall% means in the long run. People ma% $ork at cross purposes if the% are una$are that the% are pursuing dissimilar goals.s o$nership to doing business in a different $a% and encourages a greater degree of stakeholder acceptance. • Provide Opportunities !or $ia"ogue 5 The more dramatic the change the greater the need for t$o $a% communication $ith stakeholders. 9thers do better b% listening and responding to the spoken $ord. Active and visible management commitment gives credibilit% to communications# demonstrates management. This is the crux of the message for man%. The vision should be clear# compelling# able to be described in simple terms and capable of acting as a guide for change decisions and outcomes. People $onder $hat effect it $ill have on them ! $ill the% still have a )ob after the change# $ill the% maintain their position# $ill the% have an interesting role# $hat $ill their future beJ Because these Huestions $ill al$a%s be asked# and uncertaint% in a $orking environment reduces productivit%# it s important to communicate $hat is changing and $h%. This is not something that should be delegated. The earlier in the change process that the end goal is communicated# the easier it $ill be for people to adapt. 5ome people are visual learners best approached $ith $ritten material. • 6nsure the Organisation=s &eaders (ctive"y Communicate throughout the Change Process . • 4epeat Change Messages O!ten 5 9nce the case for change is communicated and it is clear that change is going to happen# regular communication is a priorit%. Providing opportunities to discuss and directl% respond to stakeholders helps to promote a sense of o$nership and tells stakeholders that their opinions are important and their comments and suggestions are valued. • :se Mu"tip"e channe"s to communicate the change message . The personal and visible involvement of the organisation.• C"ear"y Communicate the Change +ision and $o it 6ar"y .

It is rare that people hear exactl% $hat is intended in a message the first time# and monitoring provides an opportunit% to determine stakeholders. 9rganisations that successfull% manage change t%picall% develop a $orkforce plan specificall% designed to steer their organisation to$ard achieving its change vision. Through this assessment# organisations can determine the desired $orkforce si"e# skills and competencies needed in the future to support the changed environment and it can determine the staffing reHuired.Huestion information.1 Peop"e Impacts It is essential to identif% the human capital impacts of a change effort on the $orkforce. The follo$ing are examples of the t%pes of basic assessment Huestions that might be reHuired@ • uture resource ro"es and needs# o o o o o o • ?hat ne$ roles are neededJ ?hat are the responsibilities assigned to each roleJ *o$ man% people are reHuired in each of these rolesJ Are $ork location changes reHuiredJ ?ill a different $ork structure focus people on $hat is importantJ Is there an adeHuate suppl% of people for the ne$ rolesJ S'i""s and Competencies# 1. ?orkforce planning ensures the organisation has an adeHuatel% skilled $orkforce to support its post!change needs. • Monitor and measure the e!!ectiveness o! communications 5 The effort of monitoring and measuring results ma% seem time!intensive# but sampling ke% stakeholders. level of a$areness and attitudes# address instances of misinformation# identif% and address ongoing issues and ad)ust and tailor the information to suit the needs of the change participants. 2.2 Organisationa" >eeds (ssessment A first step in the $orkforce planning process is conducting an organisational needs assessment. . The plan should also address the issue of redirecting resources in situations $here the change creates a gap in the skills and needs of the organisation. 7epetition of clear and compelling change messages via multiple channels greatl% increases the probabilit% that it $ill get through to those $ho need to hear it. reactions to communications is vital. 2. ("igned Wor'!orce 2.

Gaps can include the number of resources reHuiredC or lack of skills.s current $orkforce# and identif% and address the gaps bet$een future needs and current $orkforce competencies. 1- . It is $orth bearing in mind that $hile an essential component of achieving change is appropriatel% skilled emplo%eesC change success depends on emplo%ee performance as much as it depends on emplo%ee Hualification and training. Accordingl% to reinforce the change and embed a culture that motivates and sustains the change it helps to@ o (evelop emplo%ee performance plans that align $ith the change goals o Assign Huantifiable and measurable ob)ectives for emplo%ee performance that support the changeC and o 7ecognise and re$ard positive approaches and performance in the change process.s $orkforce needs in the changed environment# it is then necessar% to determine the competencies of the organisation.o ?hat ne$ competencies $ill be reHuired for the rolesJ o ?hat skills# education# kno$ledge# or $ork experiences should the resources have for each identified competenc%J After determining the organisation.s change goals and to determine emplo%ee skills deficits that reHuire development and strengthening • ! identif%ing a combination of developmental activities to assist affected emplo%ees in developing designated competencies and kno$ledge creating individua! deve!opment p!ans training and education K some organisations implement on the )ob training# • mentoring and classroom or computer based training strategies to improve competencies# and encourage professional development b% setting aside part of the budget for training. 2. This ma% involve@ • per&ormance management K to reinforce and sustain the change# performance management assists the organisation to develop $orkers $ith skills that align $ith the organisation. There ma% be a decreased need for some competencies and an increased need for others# or ne$ specialist kno$ledge and learning ma% be reHuired. Based on these gaps# the organisation should then# as part of the development of a $orkforce transition plan# identif% $orkforce strategies to close the gap through recruiting# hiring# deplo%ment# retention# education and training# and other staffing and development initiatives.3 Wor'!orce $eve"opment Perhaps the most important ke% to mitigating the gaps bet$een organisational needs and current $orkforce competencies is $orkforce development.

To successfull% implement change# organisations need to align the performance of their $orkforce $ith the change K that is people must understand $hat the% need to do# be enabled to do it# and be supported in doing it b% appropriate incentives and re$ards. Aligning individual and organisational performance management s%stems drives ne$ behaviour and graduall% shifts the organisational culture in support of the change vision. 11 .

no$ %our stakeholders Communicate the vision# benefits and impacts Communicate freHuentl%# activel% and across multiple channels Monitor the responses +!igned Wor-&orce .nderstand the human impacts Conduct proper $orkforce planning# involving@ +eeds assessment based upon the change ?orkforce development that aligns $ith the change .(ppendi* One Committed =eadership Change starts at the top /eaders must visibl% support the change =nsure continuous engagement regarding the change Assess readiness for the change and make ad)ustments accordingl% Take action to resolve issues P!anning Planning is Critical 5et a clear vision Identif% the case for change (evelop a change plan and measures (ocument %our plan %e&ined Governance Strong go ernance promotes positi e change =stablish appropriate organisational structures# roles and responsibilities for the change# that encourage stakeholders and support the change effort =nsure these roles and structures are $ell understood Managing Change 1 4he >ey 6actors In&ormed )ta-eho!ders Poor Communication .Poor change Communication should be integral to the change plan K not an afterthought .

inse% D Co# The 4!5 model http@EE$$$.auEFFdataEassetsEpdfFfileEGG04E:2G32EBP-9rgChangeMgt04FAprilG 3.boo".comEtutorial!adkar!overvie$.asmanian Government Approach (epartment of Premier and Cabinet# Tasmania.oliver$%man.A7 model http@EE$$$.anter 7osabeth Moss# 0A36 The Change Masters +e$ Bork 5imon D 5chusterC . )rganisational Change.ransformation .greenleaf!publishing.businessperform.pdf Boo" Allen *amilton# 2GG4 *eady -illing and . 8< Issue 6# 1ournal of =ducational Administration Callan Iictor 1# D /atemore G# ?interE5pring 2GG8 .comEhtmlEchangeFprogramFroles.pdf and organisational change *eathfield 5usan M# 2GGA# Communication 's (ey in Change !anagement& http@EEhumanresources.02manage.htm .comEmethodsF45.pdf Branson Christopher M.comEo$EpdfFfilesE5trategicFCommunicationFP9I.ubler!7oss =li"abeth# 0A46 9n (eath and (%ing 7outledge /e$in .otter 1ohn and Cohen (an# 2GG2 The *eart of Change Boston *arvard# Business 5chool Press .html Greenleaf Publishing# 2GG6 Sustaina%ility& governance http@EE$$$.comEodEchangemanagementEaEchangeFlessons2.change!management.change!management.tas.comEcontentEpdfsElcch:. 2GG3# Achieving organisational change through values alignment# Iol.he 1est23aid 4lans/ 5ncertainty& Comple#ity and 3arge2Scale.comEtutorial!cm!basics! $ho. $$$.otter 1ohn# 0AA3 3eading Change/ -hy .he .htm Change Program 7oles http@EE$$$.urt# 0A:3 Group Decisions and Social Change# 7eadings in 5ocial Ps%cholog%# +e$ Bork# *olt 7inehart D ?inston Mc.fforts Fail& *arvard Business 7evie$ . Mt =li"a Business 7evie$ Change Management Basics K 7oles http@EE$$$.4e!erences Andre$s 1ane# Cameron *elen# *arris Margaret# 2GG3 All change !anagers" e#perience of organi$ational change in theory and practice& 8ourna! o& Organi9ationa! Change Management: Iolume@ 20 Issue@ 6 Bond Carol# 2GG3 )utcome *ealisation and )rganisational Change !anagement + .pdf 12 .anter 7osabeth Moss# 0AA0# Championing Change# *arvard Business 7evie$ .html Prosci# The A(.change! management.comEtutorial!communications.htmC Prosci# 2GG4# Change !anagement 1est 4ractices 1enchmarking *eport# http@EE$$$.egovernment.urt# 0A:0 -ield Theor% in 5ocial 5cience (or$in Cart$right +e$ Bork# *arperC /e$in .comEmediaEuploadsE7=A(B?I//I+GA+(=+GAG=(.about.ngaged + A practical guide for Change Sponsors http/00$$$.gov.htm ?%man 9liver# 2GG0 Strategic Communication 2 Creating 5nderstanding and Support for Change http@EE$$$.

Pu.mployees through )rganisational Change + 7o8 to Guide 0AAA# .doc Pueensland *ealth has developed a series of L*o$ to Guides.he 6ueensland Government Chief 'nformation )ffice Change !anagement 4lan -ork%ook and .Hld.gov. 13 .emplate Available at@ http@EE$$$.s in!house change guide@ • 2GG4# A .Hld.oolkit for Change Champions Pueensland (epartment of Main 7oads in!house change guide@ • 2GG6& Change and .ools and 4rocesses for 'mplementing )rganisational Change + 7o8 to Guide Available at@ http@EE$$$. A sample is provided here for general reference."ic Sector Change 4e!erences A number of Pueensland government organisations have developed guidelines# processes and checklists to help anal%se# document and plan for change.health.ransition 2 A !anager"s .auEpublicationsEchangeFmanagementE Pueensland Transport. Available b% contacting the department. in relation to 9rganisational Change including@ • • • 0AA3# !anaging )rganisational Change + 7o8 to Guide 0AAA# Supporting .Hgcio. The Pueensland (epartment of Public ?orks has developed a comprehensive Change Management $orkbook and templates@ • .oolkit Both provide useful insights about change management generall% as $ell as the roles and responsibilities of change participants.gov.auE5iteCollection(ocumentsEArchitectureQ2Gand Q2G5tandardsEInformationQ2G5tandardsEToolboxE5oft$areQ2G/icence Q2GManagementETemplatesEslmFchangeFmanagementFplanFtemplate.

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