6L

Contrast

despite, while, whereas, however
we can

: although, even though, though' in spite of'

a contrast. After although anduse although and. even thoughto introduce and a verb' even thoughwe use a clause, with a subject

AIthoughshed.oesn,tenjoylrcrjob,sheworkshard. She passed. the exam, although she hadn't studied for
Ev en though they w er e late, theg didn' t hurry'

it'

Even thoughis more emphalic Lhan although'

We

informal styie' can use thoughi¡stead of.although,especially in a more
didn' t

Though they were late, theg

hurry

at the end of a sentence' We also use though,to mean 'however' (see 5 below) The room is very small' It's quite comfortable though'

After in spite of ldespite we we can use in spite of or d.espiteto talk about confrast. can use a noun, or an -ing form. In spite of tlrc bad weather, we went out for a walk' D esp ite being late, theY üdn' t hurrY' We also say in spite of ldespite the t'act (that) ' ' " waTk' In spite of the fact that the weather was bad', we w-ent out for a I' late' were fney atan t hurry d.espite the fact that they
Compare in spíte of ld'esprte and'although:

In spite of the rainlDespite tLte rqin, we started. to play tennis.

Although itwas I pLuy tenrus'

rainirug' we startedto

i

4

while and' whereas' We can introd.uce a contrast between two id'eas using lively and talkative' He is quiet and' shy, whilelwhereas his sister is howeverwith two sentences' We can also express a contrast by using the adverb job. However, she may change lur mind' she said. sL.Le didn,t want to change her

E)GRCISE 161A Rephrase the sentences beginning with ihe words in brachets. Example:
She has plenty of money, but she is very mean'
a

They have a car, but they rareiy use

it'

He was innocent, but he was sent to prison'

(though)

(although)
J

(although) Although she has plenty

oJ

money, she is very mean'

but he never visits them. (even though) but she 4 She never takes any kind of exercise, though) (even healthy' is quite fii and

ü" hut a number of relatives living

nearby'

245

in spite of and desPite 'W'e use in spite ofbefore a noun phrase or the ing-form of a verb: ' Tomfett perfectly calm in sptite of the danger ' W. Debbie utasn. thouglt' (= though Bot I didn't buy it') Even though is stronger.118 We can but. eaen thoug. in ryite oJ (ov-in spñte of working way as although: W'e can use in spite of the fact (that) in the same pills ' the I'm no better in spite of thefact that I'ue taken that it was extremely cold. but wefound a table ' Sadieias passed her test. sor@ Nor@ (on ir sqtite of taking the Pilk) ' progress Mark is making little his hard work hard). although I'ue taken the pills ' Mark is makinglittle progress. more emphatic than although: he'd just run a marathon' lef.inatiy surceeded in sTtite of all the dfficulties I canied in working in sqtite of not feeling well ' of hauing no money They always seeflL-to be enjoying thernselues in sytite ' . although and in sPite of but and although join frvo clauses with but: fAira¡t was crowded . It means the same as although: Tíough/Atthougb I tiked the su)eater) I didn't buy it' Thoigh/Attltougtx it was extremely cold ' Debbie wasn't -We can use I at the end of a sentence: liked the sweatet. slte neuer driues ' main clause: The clause with although can also come after the We the café was crowded found a table . wefound a table' althorrth Sadii has passed her test. although ' tÍlough and even though weating a coat ' Though is informal.tookld quítefresi.h -íren to be nice to him ' try shall I though I hate Gary. But compare in spite of and although: in spite of I'm no better in sptite of the PiIk although I'm io better. I didn't buy it.t wearinf a coit ilesTite theJact 282 . althoughhe works hard. but she never diues ' We can also use although: Atthough the café was crowded.WeusedespiteinexactlythesamewayaSinspiteofandwiththesamemeaning: I worked desTtite notfeeling well' He was calru despite th'e danger.

..laugneo' No one laughed' i.r& i 778 Exercises 118...*.3 although or in sPite soite of' Put in although or in bad weather' ú The match * "" ^'..ousl''o"' t was dred' (desPite) foffií-'..qtú.t (A-C) in spite of and despite though' even although.1"r1.gr-r) t ñ¿i¿n't 2 3 4 Karenever learnt Joe is a ti"" tt tt*' t*Tt money' (despite) millionai"Ef'Áspending There was a s' A few trains were running' d eariY' (in sPite oQ 5 ..-1:rl.1 but (A) .'.-rro.4 d"ltt""a The goods were .qttt ousL' thiiil' d¡an'tu"'p' 2 J 4 -C) of? (A' 118."'t The chairman resigned .' dish.*_-t'"t .ll i f "á I it didn'tbreak.. uI tt realiY quite modem' It's 2 J 4 The house looks old' The ioke was funnY' Mike has some skjs' Phil exPlained the system' 118.ld 4 s 6 118."rt ..i i :'L sentencc w¡Lrr nplete each sentenct complete Y1'h ú 7 i'' |il".''á""'na IHe uses them' ru never 'v I "..... the words in brackets' ' '*li)"ii ".---.---ww nght notice the sign' lt was ''.'t"tP n 'l"rlutfn'lt ! strE despíte btíns tLred' -.."á-totgt"+the caught the train' _:TTjlijfte l3 e.Ñ.j.usinga1though..*j::'*:T#'#: sffIl" 1 years . ..'-inbt'¡"soodh'olth' sp"nrs!'irtt rt*¿ t" ---.i hi' l'f* *" on mrn-1ster 'the camed nromlle-we had' as normal' you Put Be carefui where Ioin each pair of sentences' t i" g"ta health' (although) it Dave smoke'' H"t"'t"*í" f .trtt. it t a"pp'a ú 1 ..:.2 although (A) RewritethesentencesinExercise118.."". .1.. but it didn' t break' t l-"+ one of these clauses: ott.f.

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