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AIM- To study the presence of pesticides in fruits.

REQUIREMENT- Different fruits sodium metal, ferric chloride, alcohol, ferrous sulphate crystal,dil. H2So4,pestle & mortar, glass rod, beakers, funnel, china dish, tripod stand, water bath ,test tubes distilled water . HYPOTHESIS- Pesticides are chemicals which are used to save the fruits from pests. The pesticides can be detected by the presence of nitrogen. PROCEDURE- 1. Crush a part of a fruit in pestle and mortar. 2. Add 10 ml of alcohol in the crushed fruit and filter. 3. Leave the filtrate in a china dish over a water bath. 4. Melt a small piece of a sodium metal in a fusion tube and add the Residue from china dish to the fusion tube again heat till red hot. 5. Put the red hot fusion tube into a beaker containing 10ml of distilled water. 6. Break the fusion tube and boil the solution, cool and filter. 7. To 2ml of filtrate add a pinch of ferrous sulphate and warm it to get a Precipitate of ferrous cyanide. 8. Add dilute HCl to the test tube put 2-3 drops of ferric chloride Solution. 9. Bluish or green colour indicates presence of pesticide. 10. Repeat the procedure with the other fruits. OBSERVATION TABLES.No Name of the fruit Colour of the precipitate Conclusion 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 PRECAUTION- 1. Use water bath for heating alcohol. 2. Handle sodium metal with care. INFERENCE- Most of the fruits contain pesticides, so they should be either washed Properly or peeled before use. DNA Extractions Dental Hygiene Study of percentage of pollengrains germination To study the flora and fauna of a locality and conclude Biome in which the locality falls. To study ethno botany & Phyto diversity of local flora of Vidyalaya Organic recycling by using Vermiculture Biotechnology Study of population structure and methods of birth control on given locality DNA Extractions Dental Hygiene Study of percentage of pollengrains germination To study the flora and fauna of a locality and conclude Biome in which the locality falls. To study ethno botany & Phyto diversity of local flora of Vidyalaya Organic recycling by using Vermiculture Biotechnology Study of population structure and methods of birth control on given locality

DNA Extractions Dental Hygiene Study of percentage of pollengrains germination To study the flora and fauna of a locality and conclude Biome in which the locality falls. To study ethno botany & Phyto diversity of local flora of Vidyalaya Organic recycling by using Vermiculture Biotechnology Study of population structure and methods of birth control on given locality DNA Extractions Dental Hygiene Study of percentage of pollengrains germination To study the flora and fauna of a locality and conclude Biome in which the locality falls. To study ethno botany & Phyto diversity of local flora of Vidyalaya Organic recycling by using Vermiculture Biotechnology Study of population structure and methods of birth control on given locality DNA Extractions Dental Hygiene Study of percentage of pollengrains germination To study the flora and fauna of a locality and conclude Biome in which the locality falls. To study ethno botany & Phyto diversity of local flora of Vidyalaya


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O Investigatory Project: TOPIC: Study of biodiversity in plants of your school campus Collection of data / Observation This project includes group work. Total school area can be divided into some region/ parts and every member of the group will be allotted with a specific part. Careful observation of the plants and record the characteristics. If possible take photographs of each plant. Collect a twig of plant having 3-4 leaves, flower and fruit. Analysis Tabulation of data according to plant classification. Analyze majority of plant-groups that dominates in your school campus. Co-relate your observation with environmental conditions like humidity, temperature, water level, soil type, photoperiod etc. Conclusion and inference 1. Area-specific biodiversity with example 2. Richness of species in the particular area 3. Productivity will increase with increasing biodiversity 4. Species richness is very important for stable community and eco-balance.

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Areas of Assessment 1. Inquisitiveness: Sincerity and regularity, creativeness, curiosity and willingness to participate. 2. Observation Skills: Data record on various parameters.

3. Thinking Skill: Co- relation of observation with plant- classification 4. Analytical skills: Systemic analysis of data, correctness. 5. Application of knowledge: Plant classification and morphology (class XI) biodiversity (Class XII). 6. Comprehension and understanding: Viva-voce, understanding 7. Computing Skills: Neatness and presentation of the project Drawing conclusion: Correctness of the conclusion Investigatory project

AIM- To study the presence of pesticides in fruits. REQUIREMENT- Different fruits sodium metal, ferric chloride, alcohol, ferrous sulphate crystal,dil. H2So4,pestle & mortar, glass rod, beakers, funnel, china dish, tripod stand, water bath ,test tubes distilled water . HYPOTHESIS- Pesticides are chemicals which are used to save the fruits from pests. The pesticides can be detected by the presence of nitrogen. PROCEDURE- 1. Crush a part of a fruit in pestle and mortar. 2. Add 10 ml of alcohol in the crushed fruit and filter. 3. Leave the filtrate in a china dish over a water bath. 4. Melt a small piece of a sodium metal in a fusion tube and add the Residue from china dish to the fusion tube again heat till red hot. 5. Put the red hot fusion tube into a beaker containing 10ml of distilled water. 6. Break the fusion tube and boil the solution, cool and filter. 7. To 2ml of filtrate add a pinch of ferrous sulphate and warm it to get a Precipitate of ferrous cyanide. 8. Add dilute HCl to the test tube put 2-3 drops of ferric chloride Solution. 9. Bluish or green colour indicates presence of pesticide. 10. Repeat the procedure with the other fruits. OBSERVATION TABLES.No Name of the fruit Colour of the precipitate Conclusion 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 PRECAUTION- 1. Use water bath for heating alcohol. 2. Handle sodium metal with care. INFERENCE- Most of the fruits contain pesticides, so they should be either washed Investigatory project Topic : To compare percentage of water present in a hydrophyte ,mesophyte and xerophyte.

Material required: leaves of any two hydrophytes ,mesophytes and xerophytes weighing machine, oven, note boo, pencil ,polythene bags etc. Theory: Mesophytes are plants which grow in areas with moderate temperature and moisture Conditions e.g. money plant ,mango etc. Hydrophytes are aquatic plants e.g. lotus, water hyacinth. Xerophytes grow in hot and dry conditions.e.g.cactus acacia etc. Procedure: 1. Weigh equal amounts of plant material leaves of one mesophyte ,hydrophyte and xerophyte . Take its fresh weight, say 10 g. 2. Put these materials in anoven at 60c temperature for two hours and weigh again. 3. Repeat the above process till the weight becomes constant.this dry weight of materials. 4. Calculate percentage of water in each case. Observation Percentage of water == final weight initial weight /initial weight x100