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Damini Bhattacharya a student of class 12th A of Kendriya Vidyalaya AFS rajokri Roll no. under the guidance of Mr. Signature (Subject Teacher) Signature (Examiner) Date . 08 .Rakesh Sharma.This is to certify that Miss.has completed his Physics Investigatory Project on the topic Horizontal component of earth’s magnetic field.

parents and friends that I was able to complete my Investigatory Project in the best way possible. which have to obtain the observations and conclude the reports on a meaningful note. An investigatory project involves various difficult lab experiments.It is through tremendous efforts of my teachers. I hope this project will help us all to look for the best alternative (renewable and pollution free) fuel – the biodiesel. I would like to thanks Mr.Rakesh Sharma sir for guiding me on a systematic basis and ensuring that in completed all my research with ease. helping me in the lab work by providing all the necessary materials and apparatus. Thereby. .

way Key Connecting Wires . Materials Required Tangent Galvanometer Ammeter Rheostat Spirit Level Battery Eliminator Reversing Key One .AIM To find out the horizontal component of earth’s magnetic field (H).

It is used for measuring very small currents. This box has a small magnetic needle pivoted at its centre with a long thin aluminum pointer fixed at 90o to the needle. Setting Adjust the leveling screws so that turn table is horizontal and the circular coil frame is vertical. It consists of a circular frame of a non-magnetic material. A small plane mirror is fixed at the base under the pointer. on which three coils having 2. This sets the frame in magnetic meridian. . Turn the compass box so that ends of the aluminum pointer lie on 0-0 line.Construction A Tangent Galvanometer is a moving type galvanometer. 50 and 500 turns of fine insulated copper wire are wound. Ends of each coil are connected to screws at the horizontal turn table in which the frame is mounted vertically. This would remove error due to parallax in reading the position of the pointer on the scale. The turn table is provided with leveling screws. A circular compass box of non-magnetic material is held at the center of the circular frame. Both are free to move on a horizontal circular scale graduated in degrees and divided into four quadrants of 0o and 90o each. Turn the frame so that the plane of the frame becomes parallel to the magnetic needle. Its working is based on the Tangent Law in magnetism.

Thus the magnetic needle of the compass box is under the combined effect of two perpendicular magnetic field F and H. given by where r is the radius of the coil (in m) and n is the number of turns in it. This angle is read from the end of the aluminum pointer. F = µ° . 2πnI = H tan θ …. It means F and H are perpendicular to each other.When a current 1 ampere is passed through the coil. 2πnI 4π r Since the plane of the coil is in magnetic meridian.(1) 4π r . acts in the plane of coil. According to the tangent law – F = H tan θ Or µ° . the horizontal component of the earth’s magnetic field H.. a magnetic field F (in tesla) is produced at the centre and along a direction perpendicular to the plane of the coil. The needle gets deflected and comes to rest making an angle (θ) with the direction of H.

From (1).Or I = 2πnI tan θ = K tan θ µ° n Where K = 2πnI = Reduction Factor of the TG µ° n Therefore. H = µ° . the Reduction Factor of the Tangent Galvanometer is defined as the current in amperes which when passed through the tangent galvanometer produces a deflection of 45°. 2πnI X 1 4π r tan θ .

F = H tanθ S A For the tangent galvanometer we have the relation I = K tanθ ….(i) mH .TANGENT LAW When a magnet is suspended under the combined actions of two uniform magnetic fields of intensities F and H.. the magnet rest making an angle θ with H.e. A torque acts on the magnet due to each field. therefore clockwise torque due to field H. acting at 90° to each other. magnetic length 2l suspended under the combined action of two perpendicular magnetic fields F and H. or mF x NA = mH x SA or F = H . As the magnet is in equilibrium..SA/NA = tanθ mF H mH N θ θ mF F i. the magnet comes to rest making an angle θ with the direction of H such that – F = H tan θ PROOF Consider a bar magnet of pole strength m.

I would be a straight line with a slope = µ° 2πn / 4πr H.Putting the value of K we get.Hence Proved From the above equation it is also clear that the graph of tanθ vs. H = µ°2πnI 4πr tan θ . .

Note the least count and the zero error of the ammeter.K.60°). Now mark the positions of the leveling screws on the working table with a piece of chalk. Switch on the current through the galvanometer by closing the key K. before and after reversing the current) differ by more then 1°.). Read both ends of the pointer after gently trapping the compass box. then turn slightly the vertical coil until the two value agree. Make the initial setting in the tangent galvanometer. This will set the plane of the coil exactly in the magnetic meridian. Using the reversing key (R. .Make the circuit connections in accordance with the diagram connecting the positive terminal of the ammeter to the higher potential terminal of the battery and using 50 turns in the coil of the tangent galvanometer. reverse the direction of the current through the coil and again read the values of the deflection shown by the pointer in the to cases (i.e. Measure the inner and the outer diameter of the coil of the tangent galvanometer three times with a meter scale. Bring the deflection in the galvanometer reading around 45° by adjusting rheostat suitably & in on case the deflection should be outside range (30° ..

Change the current through the coil of the tangent galvanometer by shifting the position of rheostat in such a way that the deflection lies within (30° . Measure the inner and outer diameters of the coil with a meter scale at least two times. take fore more sets of observations keeping the deflection within 30° . Now reverse the current through the coil of the tangent galvanometer by turning the reversing key & record the values of current & deflection of the compass needle as shown in above step. By changing the value of current through the coil.60°) range and record the readings as explained in above two steps. .Record the readings of the ammeter and the deflection of the compass needle shown by the two ends of the aluminum pointer on the scale.60° range.

No.Range of the ammeter = Zero error of ammeter = Least count of the ammeter = Number of turns used = Radius (r) of the Tangent Galvanometer = S. Mean Direct Current Reverse Current Deflection ( θ° ) θ1 θ2 θ3 θ4 Value of Deflection (θ°) tanθ Ammeter Reading I (ampere) Observed Corrected .

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substituting the value of m in the equation m = µ° 2πn / 4πr H Therefore. Now.Take two points A and B wide apart on the straight line graph. Slope of graph = BC / AC = = tanθ / I =m = Now. Draw perpendiculars from B on the x-axis and from A on y-axis intersecting each other at point C. H = µ° 2πn / 4πr m H= H= .

. All values of deflection should be adjusted between 30° and 60° as the measurement of the instrument is maximum when the deflection is around 45°. Leveling and other setting for this purpose should be done carefully. error due to parallax should be avoided and the compass box should be gently tapped before taking each reading. The battery or accumulator used should be freshly charged. All the magnetic materials and current carrying wires should be carefully set in the magnetic meridian. This is the most essential requirement of this experiment.The value of the horizontal component of Earth’s magnetic field is Make sure that the connections are neat and tight and the plugs are not loose. The reversing key should be switched off when the readings are not being taken. Both the ends of the pointer should be read for direct as well as reverse current and the mean of the four readings should be used. While noting down the deflection of the pointer ends. The magnetic needle should swing freely in the horizontal plane.