# Open Channel Flow

Open Channel flow Open channel flow may be defined as the flow of water in a conduit with a free surface. It is subjected to atmospheric pressure. So, Open channel flow is known as free surface flow.

Open Channel Flow

Kinds of open channel flow  Natural and Artificial channels Natural open channels include all channels that exist naturally on the earth, i.e. rivers and tidal estuaries.  Prismatic and Non-prismatic channels A channel unvarying cross section and constant bottom slope is called prismatic channel; otherwise, it is non-prismatic. The artificial channels are usually prismatic and the natural channels are generally non-prismatic.  Rigid and Mobile Boundary Channels A channel with immovable bed and sides is knows as rigid boundary channel, i.e. lined canal, sewer and non-erodible unlined canals. If the channel boundary is composed of loose sedimentary particles moving under the action of lowing water, the channel is called a mobile boundary channel. An alluvial channel is a mobile boundary channel transporting the same type of material as that comparing the channel perimeter.  Small and Large Slope Channels An open channel having a bottom slope greeter than 1 in 10 is called a channel of large slope; otherwise, it is a channel of small slope. The slope of ordinary channels, natural or artificial is far less than 1 in 10. Some artificial channels like drops and chutes have slopes far more than 1 in 10.

Triangle √ . Hydraulic radius (R): The ratio of the flow area to the wetted perimeter. Rectangle 2. Hydraulic depth (D): The ratio of the flow area to the top width. Flow area (A) : The flow area is the cross-sectional area of the flow normal to the direction of flow. The depth of flow section is the depth of flow normal to the direction of flow.Channels Geometry The most common section of prismatic or regular or uniform channels are      Rectangular Trapezoidal Triangular Parabola Circular       Depth of flow: The vertical distance between the lowest points to the water surface. Calculation of Geometric elements of Open Channel Flow 1. Trapezoidal √ 3. The relation between and is Stage: The elevation of the water surface relative to a horizontal datum and may be positive or negative. Wetted Perimeter: The length of the interface between water and channel boundary.

Circle [ ( ⁄ )] ( ⁄ ) Wide Channel When the width of a rectangular channel is very large compare to the depth i.e. Such a channel is known as a wide channel. For a wide channel . b>>h. (generally if b≥10h). Parabola (Perimeter equation √ *√ √ ( ) ( √ ( ) )+ 5.h S 1 h S 1 h b Rectangle b Trapezoid Rectangle Z d0 h z = cy² h Parabola Circle 4. the sides of the channel have practically no influence on the velocity distribution in the central region.